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PROCEEDINGS 



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'§aBtan S^amt]^ ai |tatural Jistorg. 



VOL. XVIII. 



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BOSTON: 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 



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PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



S. H. SCUDDER, 

A. Hyatt, 



S. L. Abbot, M.D., 
Edward Burokss, 



Thomas Pwioht, M. D. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. XVIII. 



Annual Meeting, May 5, 1876 1 

Prof. A. Htatt. Chi8todian*B Report 1 

Edw. Pickerino. Treasurer's Report 14 

Officers of the Societv for 1875-« 16 

F. W. Putnam. . On the Habits of the Blind Crawfish, and the Repro- 
duction of Lost Parts 16 

(ji. H. A. Haoen, M.D. Synopsis of the Odonata of America 20 

General Meeting, May 19 96 

Prof. William B. Rooers. On the Newport Conglomerates .... 97 
On the Gravel and Cobble-stone Deposits of 

Virginia and the Middle States .... 101 

General Meeting, June 2 106 

T. Sterrt Hunt, LL.D. The Decayed Gneiss of Hoosao Mountain . .106 

Prof. J. D'. Dana on the Alteration of Rocks . 108 

General Meeting, June 16 118 

S. H. Soudder. On Fossil Insects from Cape Breton . 118 

H. K. Morrison. Notes on the Noctuidn 114 

Prof. N. S. Shaler. On the Motion of Continental Glaciers .... 126 

General Meeting, October 6 188 

C. R. OsTBN Saoken. Diptera from the Inland Guadalupe 188 

Oi^ On the North American Species of Syrphus . . 185 
Capt Charles Bendirb. Notes on the Birds observed near Camp Har- 
ney, Oregon 168 

W. J. Hoffman, M.D. List of Birds observed at Grand River Agency, 

Dakotah 169 

Prof. N. S. Shaler. On the Cause and Geological Value of Variation 

in Rainfall 176 

S. H. Soudder. Post-Pliocene Fossils from Sankotv Head, Nantucket . 182 
William Denton. On an Asphalt Bed near Los Angeles, Cal., and its 

contained Fossils 186 

General Meeting, October 20 187 

Dr. T. D wight, Jr. Report on the Wyman Anatomical Collection . . 187 

Section of Entomology, October 27 188 

S. H. Scupi>ER. On the Butterflies of Cape Breton Island 18S 

General Meeting, November 8 190 

Prof. C. H. Hitchcock. Remarks on the Cambrian and Cambro-Silurian 

Rocks of Western Vermont 191 

General Meeting, November 17 193 

W. K. Brooks, Ph.D. Embryology of Salpa (with Plate I) .... 198 

Prof. J. D. Dana. On Metam'orphisra and Pseudomorphism 200 

Section of Entomology, November 24 201 

B. p. Mann. Monstrosities in Anisopteryx vemata 201 



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General MeeHna^ December 1 201 

S. W. Garman. Fishes and Reptiles from the Western Coast of South 

America 202 

Section of Microscopy^ December 8 206 

Charles Stodder. On the Diatoms of the Miocene Deposit at Rich- 
mond, Va 206 

General Meeting^ December 16 209 

W. J. Hoffman, M.D. Ancient Hearths and Modem Indian Remains 

in the Missouri Valley 209 

L. S. BuRBANK. Land-locked Ponds as Natural Meteorological Registers 212 

General Meeting, January 5, 1876 214 

L. S. BuRBAKR. Remarks on the River Birch and Hackberry .... 214 

General Meeting, January 19 " 217 

Pres. T. T. Bouve. The Origin of Porphyry 217 

Prof. A. Hyatt. Remarks on the Porphyries of Marblehead .... 220 

L. S. BuRBANK. On the Conglomerate of Hnrvard, Mass 224 

General Meeting, Febi'uary 2 ' . . . . 226 

W. K. Brooks, Ph.D. Affimties of the Mollusca and Molluscoida . . 226 

General Meeting, Februai'y 16 286 

General Meeting, March 1 237 

H.K.Morrison. Descriptions of new North American Noctuida . . 287 

General Meeting, March 16 ' 242 

Pres. T. T. Bouvt;'. Reminiscences of the early days of the Society . . 242 

Section of Entomology^ March 22 251 

S. H. ScuDDER. A Century of Orthoptera. Decade V 251 

Decade VI 267 

Description of three species of Labia from the U. S. . 266 

Orthoptera from the Island of Guadalupe 268 

General Meeting, April 6 272 

Prof. W. H. NiLES. Geological Agency of Lateral Pressure exhibited 

by certain Rock Movements 272 

General Meeting, April 19 284 

Prof. Edward S. Morse. A Diminutive Form of ^uccinum wkfa^ttw — 

a case of Natural Selection 284 

S. H. ScuDDER. Notes on the Forficularia, with a List of the Described 

Species * 287 

Annual Meeting, May 8, '[$76 382 

Prof. A. Hyatt. Custo<lian's Report 332 

Edward Pickering Treasurer's Report 847 

Officers for 1876-77 348 

Constitutional Amendments 849 

Section of Botany, May 4 868 

Section of Botany, May 10 864 

Section of Botany, May 16 866 

General' Meeting. Mny 17 856 

G. W. Bond. Origin of the Domestic Sheep 866 

Section of Botany, June 6 869 

General Meeting, June 7 860 

Prof. A. Hyatt. Genetic Relations of Stej»hanooeras 360 

Section of Botany. June 12 400 

Section of Botany, June IQ 401 

General Meeting, June 21 402 

S. W. Garman. Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Allen Lesley, Esq., 

on the Isthmus of Panama 402 

Section of Botnny, .Tune 26 413 

General Meeting, July 6 418 

A. R. Grotb. Notes on Noctnae from Florida 414 

Errata 417 

Index 419 



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PROCEEDINGS 

or THE 

BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

TAKEN FBOM THE SOCIETY'S RECORDS. 



Annual Meeting, May 5, 1875. 

Vice-President Mr. S. H. Scadder in the chair. Thirty- 
two persons present. 

Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, Custodian, presented the following 
report : — 

The changes in the furniture of the building, described in 
the last Annual Report, have been completed. More than 
half of the cases are now secured against the entrance of 
dust and insects, and the most valuable preparations can be 
safely trusted to their protection. If any member of the 
Society will take the trouble to walk through our rooms, 
he will easily satisfy himself of the necessity of these 
changes. The condition of the collections which still re- 
main in the old cases, whose loose doors cannot be secured 
either against dust or insects, show this very plainly. 
The tablets in the Paleontological and Conchological col- 
lections, though but recently completed, are more or less 
disfigured by dust, and where more perishable specimens 
exist, as among birds and mammals, the amount of damage 
done will, in a few years, be irretrievable. . The alterations 
were completed last July, and the work of removing the 
collections was carried on as fast as each room or gallery was 
made ready for occupation. 

PB00EXDING8 B. 0. V. H. — TOL. XYIII. 1 AUGUST, 1875. 



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Annaal Beport.] 2 [May 5, 

Mr. Emerton was occupied dnring the summer in remov- 
ing the Geological collections and the collections of sponges, 
corals and echinoderms. 

The minerals displayed have been rearranged by the Pres- 
ident, Mr. Bouy6, many specimens, formerly stored in trays 
for want of space, having been added. They now make a 
most attractive display in the newly furnished room on the 
right of the main entrance. The gallery of this room is oc- 
cupied by a special collection of the minerals of New Eng- 
land, arranged by Mr. Bouv6. In the next room the same 
gentleman is at present engaged in revising and completely 
rearranging the Geological collection. This work is ad- 
vancing very rapidly, and is already more than half done. 

The Eser Paleontological Collection, presented to the 
Society by Vice President Mr. John CHimmings, was re- 
moved by Mr. Rathbun, during last June, into the northeast 
comer room of the main hall. It is now being thoroughly 
revised by Mr. Crosby, and rapidly mounted for exhibition 
by Miss Carter, for whose efficient services we are indebted 
to the generosity of Mr. Cummings. This revision also in- 
cludes the incorporation of all the European specimens 
formerly included in the general Paleontological collection, 
and the completion of a catalogue. 

Mr. Crosby is also engaged in the revision of the Ameri- 
can collection, and this is now being mounted by Miss Wash- 
burn, for whose desirable assistance we have also to thank Mr. 
Cummings. This work includes the naming and mounting 
of the Henry D. and Wm. B. Rogers collections, principally 
of fossils from Pennsylvania, the Cleveland collection of 
Devonian specimens, and the formation of an educational 
collection from the duplicates. The latter is progressing 
rapidly, and will soon be as complete as the Society can 
afford to make it. 

The Rogers Collections have suffered much damage from 
the loss of labels; this is particularly the case with the 
Henry D. Rogers collection, which was packed with the 



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1875.] 3 [Animal Beport. 

greatest carelessness by the parties entrusted with its trans- 
mission to America, after the death of Prof. Rogers in Glas- 
gow. The sudden illness of Mr. Wm. B. Rogers in the midst 
of his labors^ unfortunately left his own collection also in 
great disorder. But it is a matter of sincere congratulation 
that this honored member of our Society has so fiur recov- 
ered from his illness as to be again able to work with us. 
He has already reviewed the labels of a portion of his own 
collection, and expects to be able to continue his effoits 
until the whole of his own and hi& brother's collections 
have been revised. The southeast comer room in the 
basement was fitted up partly with the old cases which 
were removed from the former botanical room, and partly 
with the cabinets of the Rogers collections, and now serves 
as a general work room, as a lecture room and laboratory 
for the students of the Institute of Technology, and als^^ 
as a storage room for the Rogers collections and the Edu- 
cational collection. It makes a valuable addition to the 
working ^ilities of the Museum, and, in fact, is indispensa- 
ble, since there is no other room in the building suitable for 
the general purposes of a laboratory. 

During the summer the Custodian, assisted by Mr. Rath- 
bun, worked for the U. S. Fish Commission, under the 
charge of Prof. S. F. Baird, to whom we are indebted for the 
ample opportunities for collecting which were given to us. 
The department of Marine Zoology and the Laboratory 
were under the immediate charge of Prof. A. E. Verrill, 
whose kindness and readiness to assist us we also desire to 
acknowledge with many thanks. 

The service heretofore rendered by Prof Baird to zoologi- 
cal science has been of general usefulness, but none, it seems 
to me has been of such wide-spread and growing importance 
as this one. He has been able by careful management not 
only to promote the main object of the Commission in the 
most economical manner, but at the same time to place within 
the reach of naturalists complete facilities for the exploration 



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Ajmiial Beport.] 4 [May 6, 

and study of the Marine Fauna of New England. Mr. Rath- 
bun assiduously attended to the general dredging and shore 
collecting, accurately labelling every specimen. The valu- 
able additions thus made to our New England collection have 
been since revised and placed in the most complete order. 

The New England collection of shells has also been re- 
mounted and greatly enlarged by the same assistant, who 
has accompanied this work with complete lists, which will 
enable him to perfect this department as fast as opportunities 
for collections will permit. Unfortunately, there are at 
present no cases in which these beautifully mounted speci- 
mens can be exhibited. 

The collection of New England Sponges, to which the 
Custodian paid special attention, has been much enlarged, 
and colored figures were made of every species, which will 
be used in the illustration of the collection. 

A small donation from our former Vice President, Mr. R. C. 
Greenlea^ enabled us to begin a very important and long con- 
templated improvement in the illustration of our collection by 
means of anatomical models. Drawings were made of several 
of the living animal forms of the Mollusca by Mr. Rathbun, 
which have since been used in the manufacture of models. 
Several of these, showing the animal as it actually appeal's 
when living, have been completed. When this series is 
finished there will be another begun, representing the in- 
ternal parts as they appear when the shell is removed. 
The experiment has shown the practicability of rendering our 
collections useful as a means of conveying accurate knowl- 
edge to general students, teachers, and the public. These 
models also will be appreciated by no one more highly than 
by the strictly professional naturalist, who must be a special- 
ist of exceptional ability if he cannot gather new information 
from collections illustrated in this comprehensive way. It 
must be remembered, however, that the accurate study of all 
the species of a group unavoidably precedes the selection of 
the types and the moulding of the models. Miss Pratt's be- 



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1870.] 5 [Annoftl Report. 

quest has enabled as to do this with considerable rapidity 
among the Mollusca, but the insufficiency of the funds in 
every other department of the Museum will postpone in- 
definitely the com]^tion of all other collections. 

We have a fine building admirably adapted for its purpose, 
excellent collections, all those things which are most costly 
and most difficult to obtain. There is nothing, in fact, to 
prevent us from speedily possessing the most perfect Museum 
of our own class now in existence, except the want of funds 
to employ a sufficient number of competent assistants to 
work up the collections. 

The Teachers' School of Science was resumed in the au- 
tumn of the past year, and has been successfully continued 
and liberally supported by donations from Mr. Cummings. A 
course of about thirty lessons upon Mineralogy has been 
given by Mr. L. S. Burbank, of Lowell, and the usual plan 
of giving away the specimens used at the lectures has been 
followed. Nearly a hundred sets of minerals have been dis- 
tributed among the teachers of the public schools of Boston. 
In order to test the practical results of these gifts, Mr. Bur- 
bank was requested to collect statistics of the extent to 
which the materials had been used. The returns showed 
that in as many as fifty instances the collections were being 
intelligently employed in the instruction of students. The 
Society can therefore congratulate itself upon being the 
birthplace of the first really practicable movement for intro- 
ducing the study of the Natural Sciences into the public 
schools of Boston. 

The Botanical Collection has received daily attention from 
Mr. Cummings, and has been much improved by his own 
work and that of his assistant, Miss Carter. The general 
collection of .plants has been rearranged by Miss Carter, 
and also the collection of specimens of wood, fruit, etc. ; and 
the latter have been placed in the new show-cases, immedi- 
ately over the closed cases containing the general botanical 
collection. 



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Annual Beport] . 6 [May 5 

The Lowell Collection was found to be in very poor con- 
dition, many plants having been destroyed by insect?. It 
has, however, all been rearranged, the duplicates have been 
picked out, and it now remains only to poison the specimens 
in order to place the collections in perfect order. Mr. Cura- 
mings and Miss Carter have also about half completed a New 
England collection out of the duplicates of the general col- 
lection, which will be entirely finished and catalogued during 
the coming year. 

A beautiful as well as valuable addition to this depart- 
ment has been made by Mr. Edward T. Bouv6. It consists 
of preparations of the leaves and stems of New England 
trees and shinibs, pressed between panes of glass, so that they 
can be readily studied without injury to the specimens. 
These will be accompanied by other specimens of the wood 
and bark, and will occupy a prominent place in the collec- 
tion of New England plants. About one hundred species 
have been so prepared, and the whole list will probably be 
completed and exhibited during the coming year. 

Among the donations which may be considered worthy of 
mention is one of birds, shells and insects, received as a be- 
quest from the family of a deceased fellow member, Mr. F. 
P. Atkinson. Although very young, Mr. Atkinson had al- 
ready shown much interest in the study of Natural History, 
and had attracted the friendly attention of many of the 
membei-s of this Society, who deeply regret his early death. 

The most important acquisition of the year, and also the 
last which it is my duty to record, came to us by the bequest 
of our former President, Prof. Jeffiies Wyman. This distin- 
guished Comparative Anatomist, deeply lamented by the 
membei-s of the Society, was accorded the exceptional honor 
of a Memorial Meeting. The ceremonies of this meeting 
were made impressive by a respectful solemnity and a depth 
of feeling which will long be remembered by the Society. 
By his will the entire collection of anatomical specimens 
formerly exhibited in Boylston Hall, Cambridge, was left 



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1875.] 7 [Anniua Report. 

to the Society, conditionally, upon the payment of three 
thousand dollars. After much deliberation the Council de- 
cided to give a larger sum, out of consideration for his mem- 
ory and the intrinsic value of the collection. They accord- 
ingly voted five thousand dollars, which has been paid to 
the heii-s, and the collection is now being incorporated with 
our own, and undergoing a thorough rearrangement under 
the charge of the Chairman of the Committee on Anatomy, 
Dr. Thomas Dwight. A more detailed report will therefore 
be necessarily postponed until this work has been finished. 

The Secretary reports as follows : — 

The evening lectures, endowed from the Lowell fund by 
Mr. John A. Lowell, have somewhat changed their character 
on account of the increased price which it is now necessary 
to pay for lecturers. They have been reduced in number 
from foity to twenty. This year the courses have been as 
follows: — Six upon "The Chemistry of the Waters," by 
Dr. T. SteiTy Hunt ; six upon " Injurious Fungi," by Dr. W. 
G. Farlow; six upon "American ArchaBology," by Mr. F. W. 
Putnam ; and two upon the " Village Indians of New Mex- 
ico," by Mr. Ernest IngersoU. 

HBETINOS. 

There have been eighteen general meetings, with an aver- 
age attendance of fifty-four pei-sons ; five meetings of the 
Section of Microscopy, with an average attendance of eight 
persons ; six meetings of the Section of Entomology, with 
an average of seven persons. On two occasions one hundred 
and fourteen persons have been present at the general meet- 
ings. One Honorary, four Corresponding and thirty-seven 
Resident Members have been elected. Seventy-five com- 
munications have been presented. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

Since the last Annual Meeting, two quarterly parts, each 
of Volumes XVI and XVII of the Proceedings, have been 



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AnTinal Iteport.] 8 [Hay 5, 

issned, and Part HI of Volume XVII is also neariy ready for 
(iistribution. Each part of Volume XVII has one-third more 
than the usual amount of matter. Four articles have been 
published in the Memoirs, making one hundred and thirty- 
two pages, with three plates. Three others (with two plates) 
are already in press. The articles that have already ap- 
peared are, "Recent Changes of Level on the Coast of 
Maine," by Prof N. S. Shaler; "The Species of the Lepi- 
dopterous Genus Pamphila," by Mr. S. H. Scudder ; "An- 
tiquity of the Caverns and Cavern Life of Ohio Valley,** by 
Prof N. S. Shaler; "Prodrome of a Monograph of the Tab- 
anidaB," by Baron C. R. Osten Sacken. 

LIBBABY. 

The additions during the last year number 1397, and may 
be classified as follows : — 

6vo. 4(0. Fd. 

Volumes ... 282 .... 66 297 

Parts .... 676 .... 242 .... 8 ... 820 

PamphletB .. 284 .... 28 .... 4 ... 261 

Maps and Charts 19 

Total 1897 

The Society has opened exchanges with the following- 
named Societies and Journals : — 

Belfast Nataralisfs Field Club. 

Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas existente en ]a XJniversidad de 
Cordova. 

Cincinnati Quarterly Joamal of Science. 

Soci^t^ d'Etudes Scientifiqaes de Lyon. 
' " The Academy," London. 

Feaille des Jeanes Naturalistes, Paris. 

Societli Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste. 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. 

The American Sportsman (now The Bod and the Gun). 

Cambridge Entomological Club. 

During the year the Societies mentioned below have sent 

extensive series of their earlier publications. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society Liverpool. 

Katurforschende Gesellschaft Emden. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society Manchester. 

Kongelige Danske Videnskabemes Selskab ^jobenhavn. 



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1876.] 9 [Ammal Report. 

Number of persons taking books, 109; number of books 
taken out, 836 ; a large increase on previous years. 

KEPORTS ON SPECIAL COLLECTIONS. 

HOLLUSCA. 

The work of revising the general collection has been com- 
menced, and quite largely carried out. The plan is essen- 
tially this : to retain in the display cases only the more typi- 
cal forms of each genus and subgenus, and to attempt to 
illustrate no differences lower than those of generic vialue. 
The character of the animal of each family is represented, 
wherever possible, by a model of one of the typical forms. 
So far, eleven families, one of Gasteropods, Naticidae, and ten 
of Lamellibranchs, commencing with the Pholadidae, have 
been worked over in this manner, and eight models have been 
made. To more fully explain the plan, I give here an analy- 
sis of the work done upon the Naticidea. Nine genera and 
three subgenei*a are admitted in this family by Dr. P. P. 
Carpenter, and also by H. & A. Adams, in their " Genera of 
Recent Mollusca." The genera are Natica, Lunatia, Ne- 
rita, AmpuUina, Naticella, Poiinices, Naticina, Cryptostoma, 
Amaura ; the subgenera, Stigmaulax, Acrybia, Sigaretus. 
To illustrate the genus Natica we have selected eight 
species, representing the more marked differences in form 
and in color which occur within the genus ; but this num- 
ber might be .much reduced. The species chosen are 
canrenOy IdbreUay lineata, maroccana^ miUepunctata^ atercuB- 
muscarum^ spadicea and vitellus. For the subgenus Stig- 
maulax the species aidcata is used. For the genus Lunatia, 
monili/eroy caatanea^ meiaatomaj Maynavldiana and soUda^ 
and so on through the remaining genera and subgenera. 
The genus Amaura and the subgenus Acrybia are not rep- 
resented in the general collection, but are contained in the 
New England collection. A note in the catalogue indicates 
this fact, and states where they may be found. It is in- 



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▲nimalfieport.] 10 [May 6, 

tended to fllostrate all the genera of each &mily in this 
manner. The models are made in the ordinary way of con- 
structing plastic models. The animal is first built up in clay 
fix)m drawirgs, and then transferred to plaster by means of a 
gelatine mould. It has been found most satisfactory to work 
the model up only roughly in the clay, and finish all the 
details in the plaster cast. In many cases it has been possi- 
ble to imitate the appeHiv«nce of the surface of the body of 
the animal by covering the plaster with a thin coating of 
wax before putting on the paint. 

For representing the animal of the NaticidsB, one of the 
more common New England foiius, Xunatia Jieros was 
chosen. The animal is represented crawling on the sand, 
with the operculum lobe covering about half the shell, and 
with the mentum thrown up well in front. The body is 
shown as if much distended with water so as to have a length 
equal to about three times that of the shell. 

Of the models of Laniellibranchs made, those forms pos- 
sessing open mantles are represented as lying on the side 
with one valve imbedded in the sand, and with the siphons, 
foot and mantle lobes quite fully extended. Of those with 
closed mantles some lie on the side, but others are inclined 
backward, so as to show a portion of both valves. In 
some groups, as the CorbulidsB, where no large shells exist, 
no attempt has yet been made to model the animal. Each 
model is placed in the case with the family in which it be- 
longs, and, where possible. New England forms have been 
chosen for modelling. 

The families of Lamellibranchs represented by models, are 
as follows: — Pholadidse by Dactylina cUzctyltM^ of natu- 
ral size ; Teredinid® by Teredo navcUiSj enlarged over four 
times, and represented as if lying in its buiTow in a section 
of wood ; Solenid® by JEnsateUa americandy the American 
razor shell ; Myadad by Mi/a arenaria, the common clam of 
New England, with the united siphons extended one and 
one-half times the length of the shell ; Mactridae by Mactra 



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1875.J 11 [Anrnud Report 

solidissimckf a common New England clam ; Tellinidad by 
ScrobiGularia piperita ; the only i*eason for taking this fonn 
to illustrate the family TellinidcB was that figures of no 
other good forms were accessible; VeneridsB by CaUiata 
Chione^ a very common European mollusk — it is proposed to 
make soon a model of our Venus mercenariOy to fuither 
illustrate the femily ; CyprinideB by Cyprina islandicOy the 
only species at present recognized in the family. 

The collection of New England shells has been entirely 
revised and remounted, the color of the tablets having been 
changed from black to dark blue, and the labels rewritten. 

Most of the general collection has been received from 
Dr. Carpenter; but he still retains, and is at work upon, 
several groups, including the Neritid» and Cerithiadse. He 
has not yet completed hie work upon the duplicate collec- 
tions, and they also remain in his possession. 

Besides the catalogue of the general collection in course 
of preparation by Dr. Carpenter, there has been made out 
the past year for the use of the Society, a general catalogue 
of the New England collection, and a catalogue of the testa- 
ceous mollusca known to have been found on the New Eng- 
land coast. The latter was compiled from the several works 
on New England Zoology. 

The principal additions to the collection of Mollusca, re- 
corded for the past year, are : — A lot of about one hundred 
species of dried specimens of lameliibranchs and gasteropods, 
collected in Florida and the Bahamas, by Dr. E. Palmer, and 
obtained for the Society by purchase ; a number of foreign 
manne shells from the relatives of the late Mr. F. P. Atkin- 
son ; and many marine or fresh water shells, mostly from the 
Southern States, contained in the collection of the Messrs. 
H. B. and W. D. Rogers ; besides the large collection made 
by the Custodian and Mr. Rathbun, while with the U. S. Fish 
Commission, at Noank, Conn., during the summer of 1874. 



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Annuia Beport.] 12 [Haj 5* 

INSECTS. 

All Harris's North American insects, except the Neuroptera 
and part of the Diptera, are now in the two black walnut 
cases built for them. Twenty of the drawers were fitted, 
three years ago, with sliding covers, and are as safe as any 
boxes in the Museum, but the remaining forty drawers are 
loosely covered, and the specimens in them are more or less 
injured every summer by moths and Anthreni. The Neu- 
roptera were revised by Dr. Hagen, and remain in the four 
glazed boxes where they were put by him. 

Mr. Sprague began a revision of the Coleoptera, and fin- 
ished it through the StaphylinidsB, six hundred and fifty-five 
species. The HisteridsB, named by Dr. Horn, were returned 
after Mr. Sprague's death. The succeeding families, as far 
as the TenebrionidsB, about one thousand species in all, were 
removed from the drawers, and a new an^angement of them 
begun by Mr. Sprague. These have all been returned to 
the drawers, and Mr. Sprague's arrangement followed as far 
as possible, but no change of labels has been made. The 
rest of the Coleoptera remain as they were arranged by 
Mr. Scudder, with Harris's family and general labels, and 
Mr. Scudder's catalogue numbers. The European Coleoptera 
and Lepidoptera from Harris's collection are in three boxes 
covered with paper, among the foreign insects. 

Mr. Sprague began several collections of beetles, described 
in the Society's publications, of which the t3rpes are lost. 
The collection of Randall's species, described in Vol. H of 
the Journal, contains sixty-three species out of the eighty- 
two described, A list of these with notes was found among 
Mr. Sprague's papers, and has been revised by Mr. Austin for 
publication in the Proceedings. 

There are also unfinished collections of the species of 
Cicindela of Massachusetts, described by A. A. Gould in Vol. 
I of the Journal, of the species of Hispa, described by Harris 
in Vol. I, and of the Coleoptera, described by Say in the 
game volume. A collection of Carabidaa, described by Kirby 



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1875.] 13 [Annual Report. 

in Fauna Boreali-Americana, was made by Mr. Spirgue, and 
compared with the types m the British Museum by Mr. E. C, 
Rye. This collection was returned just before Mr. Sprague's 
sickness, and was not rearranged by him. It has been trans- 
ferred to a glazed box with the labels of Mr. Sprague and 
Mr. Rye. 

Another work begun by Mr. Sprague was a revision of the 
New England collection of Coleoptera, but he only carried 
it through the Cicindelidae and CarabidsB. The former are 
now on exhibition, illustrated by a drawing of C. viUgaris ; 
the latter occupy three glazed boxes in the work room. The 
rest of the New England Coleoptera remain as arranged 
and labelled by Mr. Sanborn. The collection of beetles left 
the Society by Mr. Dale, was examined by Mr. Sprague, and 
such specimens as were needed in the Museum placed in 
other boxes, leaving a large number of duplicates in the 
book-shaped boxes used by Mr. Dale, where they are liable 
to be destroyed by Anthreni. 

During the last year all the New England Hymenoptera 
and Neuroptera have been put on exhibition. Part of the 
GeometridaB have been taken to Salem by Dr. Packard, and 
returned named. The Noctuidae, about two hundred and 
fifty species, have been named and airanged by Mr. Morrison. 

The duplicate and unarranged New England insects, occu- 
pying thirty boxes and five hundred bottles, are all arranged 
by families in the workroom, the boxes containing pinned 
specimens covered with paper for safety. 

Nearly all the foreign Coleoptera are now in glazed boxes, 
where they are comparatively safe ; the remainder of the 
collection, consisting principally of Lepidoptera from South 
and Central America, is in small boxes, whiqh }iave to be 
covered with paper every summer to avoid injury. Some 
three hundred bottles of foreign insects in alcohol are in the 
workroom, besides a few on exhibition in the Museum. 

The collection of native spiders in alcohol, begun by Mr. 
Sanborn, npw contains one hundred and thirty species, in- 



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Treasurer's Report.] 



14 



[3Uy6, 



eluding all the eommon species in the neighborhood of 
Boston. During the last year a collection of dried spiders 
for exhibition was begun by Mr. Emerton, and now contains 
specimens of thirty-eight of the larger species. Eighty niicro- 
scopic specimens of palpal organs and other parts of spiders, 
described by Hentz, have been prepared. 

The foreign spiders are all in the exhibition case in the 
northeast roQpi, none of them named. The Scorpions and 
Phry nidae are in the same case. The number of specimens is 
large, but of few species, and none are named. 

The Treasurer presented the following report. 

Report of E. Pickerings Treasurer, on the Financial Affairs of the 
Society, for the year ending April 30th, 1876. 



Heceipta. 






Dividends, Interest and Rents 




•4,988.31 


Courtis Fund Income 




692.00 


I*ratt Fund Income 




840.00 


H. F. Wolcott Fund Income 




464.00 


Walker Fund Income 




2,788.40 


" Prize I'und Income 




278.00 


" Grand Prize Fund Income ... * 




60.00 


Entomological Fund Income 

Bulfinch Btreet Estate Fund Income .... 




30.00 




2,122.00 


Annual AssessmMlts 




1,290.00 


Admission Fees . .* 




170.00 


Donation, R. C. Greenleaf 




60.00 


" J. Cunmiings 




260.00 


Lowell Institute Subsidy for Lectures .... 




1,103.63 


Publications 




634.07 


Total / . . . 


fl5,660.31 


Ordinary Expenditures. 






Publications 


•2,853.81 




Repairs of Museum . 

Cabinet 


633.01 




1,806.60 
623.78 




Library . . 




Fuel 


899.00 




Gas ... . 


132.75 




X^ectures 


1,868.63 
6,296.67 




Salaries 




General Expenses 


1,410.46 


$16,411.60 


Excess of Receipts 


■ 


$248.81 






Extraordinary Expenditures. 




Museum and Furniture, additions and improvements 




$10,689.01 


Wypaan Collection 




6,000.00 




$16,689.01 



Boston^ May 1, 1875. 



E. Pickering, Treasurer, 
Boston Society of Natural History. 



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1875.] 



15 



[OiBoen. 



The Society then proceeded to the election of officers for 
the ensuing year. Messrs. L. L. Thaxter and A. E. Boav^ 
being appointed to collect and connt the votes, announced 
the result as follows : — 

PBESIDEHT, 

THOMAS T. BOUVfi. 

VICB-PBEflDEKTSy 

SAMUEL H. SCUDDSR, JOHN OUMMINGS. 

OOSftESPONBlNO SBORBTABT, 

S. L. ABBOT, M.D. 

BBCOBDINa 8ECBETABT, 

EDWABD BUBGBSS. 

TBBASUBBRy 

BDWABD PICKBBING. 

LIBBABIA17, 

EDWARD BURGESS. 

CUSTODIAN, 

ALPHEUS HYATT * 

00HMITTBE8 ON DEPABTXBNTS. 

Radiates, Cnutaceans and Worms, 
H. A. Haobn, M.D., 
Alsxandbb E. Aqassiz. 



MinenUs, 
Thomas T. Boxrv*, 

L. S. BCRBANK, 

. R. H. Richards. 
Geology. 
Wm. H. Nilbs, 
T. Sterrt Hunt, 
l. 8. bcrbank. 

PcUcBonMogy. 
Thos. T. Bocy^ 
N. S. Shalbb. 

JBotanp, 
John Cuxminos, 
Ghablbs J. Spbagxtb, 
J. AxoBT Lowell. 

Microsoopv. 
Edwin Bicxnbll, 
R. C. Gbeenleap, 
B. Joy Jeffbixs, M J>. 

ComparoHve Anatomy, 
Thomas Dwight, Jb., M.D., 
J. a White, M.D. 



MoUusks, 
Edwabd S. Mobse, 
J. Hbnbt Blake, 
Levi L. Thazteb. 

Insects. 
8. h. souddeb, 
Edwabd Bubgess, 
A. 8. Packabd, Jb., M.D. 

Fishes and Reptiles. 
P. W. Putnam, 
8. Kneeland, M.D., 
Richabd BLisSt Jb. 

Birds. 
Thomas M. Bbeweb, M.D., 
Samuel Cabot, M.D., 
J. A. Allen. 

Mammals. 
J. A. Allen, 
J. B. S. Jaobbon, M J>. 



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Patnam.] 16 [May 6, 

The foUowiug papers were read : — 
On some of the Habits of the Blind Crawfish, Cambarus 

FELLUCIDUS, AND THE EePRODUCTION OF LoST PaRTS. By 

F. W. Putnam. 

During the first half of the month of November last, I collected a 
number of the blind crawfish, Cambarus pellucidus, in the Mammoth 
Cave. Many of the specimens were brought aliye to Massachusetts, 
and several still contii^ue in good condition though they have eaten 
very little since their capture. I have several times offered them 
food in the shape of small bits of cooked meat and raw liver, crumbs 
of bread, etc., but, though they have generally carried the morsels to 
their jaws after long deliberation, they have, apparently, taken but a 
few mouthfuls, and, discarding the substances, have not touched them 
again. 

The specimens of Cambarus Bartonii^ the eyed crawfish, collected 
in the cave at the same time, on the contrary, are quite ready to eat 
and at once seize any fo^ offered to them. The diff*erence in the 
actions of the two species at such times is quite striking. The mo- 
ment the water in its jar is disturbed the eyed species rears itself 
upon its tail, throws out its large claws, seizes the piece of meat, or 
bread, and hastily conveying it to its mouth, generally holds on to 
the morsel until it is all eaten, though sometimes this species wjUl take 
but a bite or two and then drop the food, and I do not think it will 
touch the same piece again. 

The blind species, o;i the contrary, darts backward as soon as the 
food is dropped into the water and then extends its antennae and 
stands as if on the alert for danger. After a long while, sometimes 
firom fifteen to thirty minutes, it will cautiously crawl about the jat 
with its antennae extended as if using them for the purpose of de- 
tecting danger ahead. On approaching the piece ' of meat, and 
before touching it, the animal gives a powerful backward jump and 
remains quiet for a while; It then cautiously approaches again, and 
sometimes will go through this performance three or £our times 
before it concludes to touch the article, and when it does touch it the 
result is another backward jump. After another quiet time it again 
approaches, perhaps only to jump back once more, but when it 
finally concludes that it is safe to continue in the vicinity of the 



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1875.] 17 [Patnam. 

meat, it feels with its antenne for a while, and then takes the morsel 
in its claws and conveys it to its mouth. I have twice seen the meat 
dropped as it was passed along the base of the antennae, as if the 
sense of smell, or more delicate organs of touch seated at that point, 
were again the cause of alarming the animal. When the jaws once 
begin to work, the piece of meat, or bread, if yery small, is devoured, 
but if a little too large only a few bites are taken and the food is 
dropped and not again touched though the animal then crawls over 
it and rests upon it without being in the least concerned. These 
actions are best noticed by feeding with raw liver, and by not dis- 
turbing the crawfish for some days before. When bread is offei'ed, the 
crawfish hardly has time to go through all his manoeuvres before the 
bread becomes saturated and mixed with the water in small particles, 
some of which are eaten, but the most of them are left. If food is 
often presented, the crawfish, becoming accustomed to the disturbance, 
and probably to the smell, pays no attention to it. 

The smallest of my living C BartonU cast its skin about February 
20, but I had not noticed it for several days, and when observed it 
was engaged in eating its old skin, and had devoured about one half 
of it. The only observation made in this case was on the color of 
the animal. This little specimen was, when collected, of a light 
brown color, mottled with a darker shade; these markings are the 
same in its new skin, and, apparently, the animal has not increased 
in size. On January 29, it was noticed that one of the medium sized 
blind crawfish had left its old skin and seemed to be better provided 
with legs than before, as it had formerly suffered severely from being 
confined in the same jar with others. Indeed, about one half of my 
specimens were mutilated to a great extent by the terrible battles 
which they had with each other during the journey, when I was 
compelled to keep several in one jar, though they were in part pro- 
tected from each other's fury by hiding under the moss placed in the 
jar for this purpose. This specimen was carefully observed, and a 
comparison made between its old and new skins. This individual 
was milk white when captured, and on coming out of its old skin it 
was of the same color, so that the theory that the grayish specimens 
are those that have recently shed their skins will not hold good. 

The question now is, is color once attained by these animals ever 
lost or changed by their future growth? I have now, April 23, a 
living gray speciq^en with white tips to several of its claws, but as yet 

PBOOEEDINGS B. 8. K, H. — VOL. XVIH. 2 AUGUST, 1876. 



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Patnam.] 18 [May 6) 

it has not fayored me with a change of skin. As before mentioned, 
the young specimen of C. Bcartonii has the same colors after shedding 
its shell as before, and this milk white C. peUucidus has not changed 
color after shedding its shell twice, and after living in ftdl light of 
day, and often for hours in the snnriune, for over five months. On 
April 20, this same specimen cast its shell for the second time, and 
within three months of the time it last moulted. During this period 
it has not fed more than three or four times, and then only upon a 
small quantity of food. 

The following gives the condition of the animal at the various 
periods of its existence since it has been in my possession. 

November 18, captured the specimen, a female, in the waters of 
Mammoth Cave. It was perfect in all respects except the rights 
large claw, which was represented by a rudimentary one, entirely 
useless to the animal, and so small as to be almost imperceptible. 
Total length of the animal, when extended, along a rule, and meas* 
uring from tip of large claw to end of tail, not quite two and one-half 
inches. 

November 14 to 24. During this period the crawfish had several 
battles with the others in the same jar, and lost the larger part of 
her antennas, the third, fourth and fifth legs from the left side, the 
fifth firom the right side and the two end joints of the third leg on the 
light side. 

January 28 and 29. On one of these days she cast her shell and 
eame forth with a soft white covering, which was nearly two weeks 
iin hardening. Then all the legs, or claws, that were perfect before 
were of the same size, but in addition the great claw of the right 
side was developed to about one-half or two*thirds the size of its 
fellow, and was apparently of as much use. The two missing joints 
«if the third leg on the right side were also developed, though not 
quite to their full proportions. The fifth leg on the right side and 
tiie third, fourth and fifth of the left side, were now reproduced, but 
in a very small and rudimentary manner; all the joints were present, 
but every part was reduced in size. The antennae were reproduced 
about two-thirds their ftdl size. During the month of February the 
tips of the antennae were accidentally broken, so as to reduce their 
length about one-third. 

April 20. The old shell is cast whole, as before, and with her 
new dress the crawfish has also all iier legs and elaws nearly perfect 



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1875.] 19 [PntBMn. 

The great claw of the right side is now very nearl^r as large as that 
of the left. The tip of the third leg of the same side is ihlly per- 
fected, and all the legs that were rudimentar^r before are now deyel- 
oped, apparently to their full proportionate size, with the exception 
of the last on the right side, which is not quite perfect, the two 
terminal joints being somewhat rudimentary. The antennae are 
i:eproduced, well formed, and of about their fhll length, though the 
one on the left side is not quite as long as the other. 
: From these observations it will be seen that the parts, such as the 
legs and antennae, are not reproduced in perfection on one shedding 
of the shell, but that each time the shell is cast they are more nearly 
perfect than before, and that in this instance it has taken three 
moultings, one before the animal was captured, to bring the great 
claw nearly to its full size, and one more moulting, at least, will be 
necessary, in order to perfect this important member. The posterior 
legs, on the contrary, are perfected in two moultings, and in this case 
in about five months from the time they were lost The antennae are 
redeveloped more rapidly, and approach their full size in one moult- 
ing, and reproduce lost portions in less than three months. Since 
its capture the animal has not increased perceptibly in size, and on 
measurement to-day is still not quite two and one-half inches in 
length, measured as before. 

. It is also interesting to record that extremes of temperature do not 
affect these crawfish from the cave, as my several specimens have 
been a number of times retained for days in a heated room, and 
again have been exposed for weeks to such intense cold as to freeze 
the water in their jars. 

KoTB. At the date of going to press, Aug. 7, 1875, all but two of the above 
mentioned specimens retained in my possession have died from various canses, 
principally due to neglect in changing the water in their jars. The female, 
C peUuciduSf mentioned as having shed her shell twice, died June 10, without 
doing anything worthy of further note. Another specimen of the blind species, 
of about the same size, is still alive, and has been exposed to the fall light 
of day since last November, has eaten but very little, and has not shed its 
shell. The small specimen of C. BartotUi^ mentioned above as having moulted, 
has not increased in size nor changed in color since February, and is appar- 
ently in good condition. 



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Hagen.] 20 [May 5, 



Synopsis op the Odonata 6f America. By Dr. H. A. Hagen. 

Since tlie publication of my Synopsis by tbe Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, in July, 1861, 1 have endeavored to prepare a new and more 
complete edition. The material contained in American coUectiomC 
has been carefhUy studied and compared with that in my collection, 
as a preparation for a complete monograph with detailed descrip- 
tions and plates. At present its publication is impossible, but I think 
that a complete list of all species hitherto deslcribed or known to me 
may help (Students considerably, as a few works contain nearly all the 
descriptions, and are in the hands of everyone interested in the study 
of the Odonata. There are a few species given only by names, but 
the descriptions of these are ready, some even have been so for 
years, and will be published at an early date. The list of localities 
will be found augmented very considerably, chiefly for North Ameri- 
can species. As in my former work, I give South American species 
in a separate list, and all others, including those from Central Amer- 
ica, Mexico and the West Indian Archipelago, together in the list of 
the species of North America. This is done, of course, for conveni- 
ence, and because that tbe larger part of the species of Central 
America, Mexico, and the West Indian Islands are to be found in 
TexaiB and in the southern parts of the United States, chiefly in 
Florida, some as far north as Georgia. 

The synonomy is given as completely as possible. The opportunity 
to study several types of Thomas Say in Harris's collection, and the 
types of S. H. Scudder and Ph. R. Uhler, has been granted to me, 
and has much assisted my work. 
^ Four hundred and eighty species are now enumerated, instead of 
three hundred and sixty-seven in the former work. The subfamily of 
the Agrionina has been omitted^ as the Synopsis of the subfamily by 
Baron De Selys Longchamps is in the way of publication. 

Subfamily CALOPTERYGINA. 
Calopteryx. 

1. Calopteryx angustipennis, cf, $. 

Sylphis angustipennis Selys! Monogr., 21, 2; Syn., 9, 2. — Walk. Cat., 

590, 2 Hag.! Syn., 56, 1; Stett. Z., xxiv, 372, 24; Proc. Bost. 

Soc. Nat Hist., 363, 51. 



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187&] 21 [Hagen. 

Sylphis elegans Selys! Monogr., 20, 1, pi. 2, f. 1 ; Syn, 9, 1.— Wfdk. 
Cat, 590, 1. 

Hab. Briar Creek, Georgia, April 18; Bee Spring, Kentucky, 
Jane. 

Of this rare species only three specimens are known ; the male 
(C angmdpennis) from Abbot, in the British Museum, figured by 
Abbot; an iminature and imperfect female specimen (C elegans) t 
locality not known, and an adult female from Kentucky in my collec- 
tion. The difference quoted in Selys* Monogr., p. 21, in the direction 
of the principal sector, was found, after a repeated examination of 
the male type in the British Museum, not to exist 

2. Calopteryx apicalis, d", $. 

Calopteryx apicalis Burm.I Handb., n, 827,8. — Selys! Monogr,, 

23, 3; Syn., 9, 3.— Walk. Cat, 591, 3. — Hag.! Syn., 56, 2. 
Hab. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

The locality Massachusetts in my Synopsis, p. 57, was given by Mr. 
Uhler. I have seen two females, Waltham, Jidy 21, but each of 
them possesses a very small white pterostigma; one male, partly 
broken, from the same locality ; probably they belong to this species. 

3. Calopteryx dimidiata, cf, ?. 

Calopteryx dimidiata Burm.I Handb., ii, 826, 16. — Selys I Monogr., 

24, 4; Syn., 10, 4.— Walk. Cat, 591,4. — Hag.! Syn., 57, 8 ; Stett 
Z., XXIV, 872, 25; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 864, 52. 

Calopteryx cognata Rbr. ! Neur., 222, 6. 
Calopteryx Syriaca Rbr.! Neur,, 223, 9. (In part; male.) 
Hab. Kentucky; Greorgia; Palatka, St. Johns Biver, Florida, 
March. 

4. Calopteryx eoquabiliSt d*, ?. 

Calopteryx ceqaahUis Say I Joum. Acad. Phila^-* vin, 83, 2. — Hag. ! 
Proc. Bost Soc, Nat. Hist, xv, 274, 40. 

Agrion fugiliva Harris! Cat. Hitchcock Rep., Edit, ii, 581. 

Agrion asquabilis Harris! Cat Hitchcock Rep., Edit, ii, 581. 

Hab. Norway, Maine; Brookline, Tyngsboro, Mass.; probably 
Rock Island, m.; probably Greorgia; the males in the British Museum 
quoted as C. virginica in Selys' Monogr., 31. 

With the C. virginica Selys, Mon<^., 29, 6, Syn., U, 6, Walk. 
Cat, 592, 6, Hag. Syn., 58, 5, probably are mixed together three 
different species, viz. : C maculata^ C. cequahUis^ and a new one 
firom Hudson's Bay. 

C virginica Drury, i, 118, 2, pi. 48, 2, a female from Virginia, 



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Hagen.] 22 [May 5; 

surely belongs neither to C, aqudbilis nor to the species from Hud- 
son's Bay. The large dimensions of Drury's figure, which prevented 
De Selys from recognizing it as C. mactdata, are equalled by some 
females from Texas and Kentucky; the length of the wings only 36 
millim., instead of 87 millim. in Drury's figure. Drury's coloration 
and description makes it doubtless that his species is C maculata. 

The msdes from Georgia, described as C virginica in Selys* 
Monogr., belong probably to C cequahilis. The female from Hud- 
son's Bay, C. virginica Selys' Monogr., belongs to C. hudsanica. In 
the Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 274, 1 considered both species 
to be identical, but I had not seen at that time females of C. csquabi'' 
lis, and only a female and two imperfect young males of C hud' 
sonica. 

6. Calopteryx hudsonicat cf, 9. 

Calopteryx virginica Selys, Monogr., 29, 6 (in part ; the female) ; 
Syn., 11, 6. — Hag. Syn., 68, 5 (in part; female) ; Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XV, 274, 40. 

Hab. Hudson's Bay Territory; Micfaipicoten, Lake Superior, 
British America. 

6. Calopteryx maculata, cf, 9. 
Agrion maculata Beauv., 85, pi. 7, f. 8. 

Calopteryx maculata Burm I Handb., ii, 828, 17. — Selys! Monogr., 
27, 5; Syn., 10, 5.— Walk.! Cat., 692, 6.— Hag.! Syn., 67, 4; Stett., 
Z., XXIV, 372, 26; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist., xv, 274, 40; ibid., 
XVI, 864, 68. 

Calopteryx holosericta Burm.! Handb., ii, 828, 18. — Ramb., Neur., 
226, 14. 

Calopteryx papilionacea Rbr. F Neur., 222, 6. 

Calopteryx opaca Say! Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 82, 2. 

Calopteryx matema Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 82, 1. 

Calopteryx virginica Drury, i, 118, 8, pi. 42, f. 2, fem. 

Hab. Massachusetts; Maine, in June; New York; Pennsylvania; 
Maryland; Washington, D. C. ; S. Carolina; Georgia; Florida; 
Kentucky, in May, June; Texas; Kansas; Ohio; Illinois; Upper 
Wisconsin River ; Ontario, Canada. 

C hdosericea Burm. I is a male, labelled Java, and fi*om the Leiden 
Museum I possess a female labelled Java. Both labels are probably 
erroneous. 

7. Calopteryx splendens, 

Calopteryx splendens Hag. Syn., 58, 6. — Selys, Monogr., 274. 



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1876.] 28 [Hagen. 

Hab. A male in the Znerich Museum is labelled Ge<Nr^ Abbott; 
probably erroneous. 

Cdopteryx virgo Fab , Faun. 6n»nl., 196, 152, probably erroneous; 
according to Scbioedte, BerL Zeit, ui, 142, it has not been redisoov- 
ered there. 

HsTiBRINA. 

1. Het89rina septentrionalis, <f. 

Hetcerina septerUrianalis Selysl Monogr., 119,43, pi. 11, £ 6 ; Syn., 
il9, 43.— Walk. Cat., 622, 16. — Hag. Syn., 59, 1 ; Stett Z., xxiv 
872, 29. 

Hab. Georgia. Only the typical male is known. 

2. Hetserina Californioa» c^, 9. 

Hetcerina Calif arnica Selys I Syn. Addit, i, 6, 49 bis ; Addit., in, 
16, 49 bis.— Hag. Syn., 59, 2. 

Hab. River Slawianka, Northern California; Yellowstone, Mon- 
tana. Thtee males identical. Is it a race of H. basalis Hag.? 

8. Hetserina oruentata, d*, 9. 

Calopteryx cruentata Ramb. ! Neur., 228, 19, male. 

Hetcerina cruentata Selys 1 Monogr., 127, 48, pi. 12, f. 1 ; Syn., 39, 

48. —Walk. Cat., 625, 31. — Hag.l Syn., 69, S. 
Calopteryx luteola Rbr., Neur., 223, 8, fem. 

Hab. Mexico; Martinique; Venezuela; Surinam; Brazil. 

4. Hetserina vulnerata, c^, 9. 

Hetasrina vulnerata Selys I Monogr., 130, 49, pL 12, f. 2 ; Syn., 40, 

49. — Walk. Cat, 626, 22. — Hag. I Syn., 60, 4. 
Hab. Mexico; Columbia; Brazil. 

5. Het»rina amerioana, a*, 9. 

Agrion americana Fabr.! Ent Syst. Suppl., 287, 3-4. 

Calopteryx americana Burm.! Handb., ii, 826, 4. — Ramb., Neur., 
227, 18. 

Hetcerina americana Selys! Monogr., 131, 50, pi. 12, f. 3; Syn., 41, 
50.— Walk. Cat., 627, 23. — Hag.! Syn., 60, 6; Proc. Bost Soc. 
Nat Hist, XV, 274,41. 

Lestes basalis Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 35, 2. 

Agrion basalis B,nd insipietis Harris! Cat. Hitchcock Rep., Ed. n, 
581. 

Hetcerina pseudamericana Walsh ! Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad., i, 223. 

Hab. Weston, Mass., September 8 ; Norway, Maine ; Maryland ; 
Washington, D. C; Missouri; Indiana; Rock Island, Illinois, July- 
August ; Upper Wisconsin River. 



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HagenO 24 [May 5 

6. Hetserina scelerata, e. 

Hetcerina scelerata Walsh, Proc. Ent Soc. Philad., i, 267. 
Hab. Rock Island, Illinois, July. Unknown to me. 
Referred by Selys, Syn. Addit., iii, 49, to H. basalts and H, coZt- 
fomica. 

7. HetsBrina tezana, cf, ?. 

Hetcerina texana Walsh 1 Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad., i, 227. 

Hetcerina bascdis Hag. ! Sjm., 60, 6. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, June- August ; Waco, Texas, 
September; Cordova, Atlihnazen, Portrero, Mexico. 

In Selys* Syn. Addit., iii, 49, this species is referred to H. ameri- 
cana, but Walsh's t^'pe was from just the same lot as mine, and there 
is no doubt about the identity. 

8. HetsBrina tricolor, cf, ?. 
Calopteryx tricolor Burm.I Handb., ii, 827, 7. 

Hetcerina tricolor Selys ! Monogr., 136, 52, pi. 12, f. 6; Syn., 42, 
62.— Walk. Cat., 629, 25. — Hag. Syn.! 61, 7 ; Stett. Ent. Z., xxiv, 
872, 80 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 864, 55. 

Hab. Philadelphia, Pa. ; Georgia. 

9. HetsBrina limbata, c^, ?. 

Hetcerina limbata Selys, Syn., 43, 52; Monogr. 137; Syn. Addit., 
ni, 49. 
Hetcerina rupamnensis Walsh ! Proc. Ent. Soc. PEilad., i, 230. 
Hetcerina rupinsulensis t Walsh, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 383. 
Hab. Greorgia ; Rock Island, SI., July ; Waco, Texas, September. 

10. HetSBrina Titia» c^, $. 
Libellula Titia Drury, ii, 83, pi. 45, f. 3. 

Calopteryx Titia Burm., HaBdb.,ii, 826, 3.— Ramb., Neur., 227. 17. 
Hetasrina Titia Selys ! Monogr., 188, 53 ; Syn., 43, 53 ; Walk. Cat, 
43, 63. — Hag. 1 Syn., 61, 8. 
Hab. Honduras ; Mexico ; Waco, Texas, September 9. 

11. HetsBrina bipartita, ^, 

Hetcerina Titia, race bipartita Selys, Syn. Addit. iii, 17, 63. 
Hab. Chon tales, Nicaragua ; St. Antonio, Texas. 

12. Het»rina sempronia, <^, $. 

Hetcerina sempronia Selys! Monogr., 147, 56, pi. 12, f. 7; Syn., 
45, 66 ; Addit., iii, 18, 66.— Walk. Cat., 632, 29.— Hag. Syn.! 62, 10. 

Hab. Mexico, Putla, Vera Cruz ; Bogota; probably St. Antonio, 
Texas. 



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1875.] 25 tHagen. 

13. HetsBrina maoropus, cf, 9. 

Hetcerina macropus Selys! Monogr., 141, 54; Syn., 44, 54; Addit, 
ni, 1 7, 44. — Walk. Cat., 631, 27. — Hag. 8)11. 1 62, 9. 

Hab. Acapulco, Mexico. 

In Selys' Syn. Addit., iii, 49, H, macropus is considered a variety 
of H, occisa. I believe them distinct 

CpRA. 

1. Cora marina, e. 

Cora marina Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent^ Belg., xi, Plroc., 69, 7; Syn. 
Addit., II, 84, 100 ter. 

Hab. Orizaba, Mexico. Unknown to me. 

Calopterygina of South America, 

Lais. 

1. Lais globifer, d*, 9. 

Laisglobifer Selys! Monogr., 88, 28, pi. 10, £ 1 ; Syn., 27, 28. — 
Walk. Cat., 613, 1. — Hag. Syn. I 306. 
Hab. New Fribourg, Brazil. 

2. Lais guttifera, d*, 9. 

Lais guttifera Selys 1 Syn. Addit., iii, 12, 33 bis. 
Hab. S. Joao del Rey, Brazil, November. 
8. Lais smaragdina, d*, 9. 
Lais smaragdina Selys, Syn. Addit., n, 8, 29 bis. 
Hab. Santarem, Amazon. Unknown to me. 

4. Lais SBnea, e, 9. 

Lais cenea Selys! Monogr., 91, 29, pi. 10, f. 2; Syn., 28, 29; Addit., 
n, 8, 29. — Hag. Syn.! '306. 

Hab. Fara, Santarem, Amazon and Tapajos Rivers, Brazil. 

5. Lais cuprea, cf, 9. 

Lais cuprea Selys! Monogr., 92, 30 ; Syn., 28, 30; Addit, n, 9, 30. — 
Walk. Cat, 613, 3. — Hag. Syn.! 305. 
Hab. Fara, S. Faulo and Fonte Bon, Feba, Upper Amazon. 

6. Lais Hauxwelli, d*, 9. 

Lais HauxweUi Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 10, 30 bis; Addit, iii, 12, 
30 bis. 
Hab. Feba, Upper Amazon. Unknown to me. 

7. Lais metallioa, c^, 9. 

Lais metaUica Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 10, 31 bis. 
Hab. Bahia or Guyana, probably. Unknown to me. 



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Hagen.] 26 [BCayS, 

8. Lais hyalina. 

Lais hyalina Sel/s! Monogr., 92, ai; Syn., 28, 31; Addit, lU, 
18, 30. 
Hab. Teresopolis, S. Jose de Pica, Brazil, November. 

9. Lais pruinosa, d*, 9. 

Lais pruinosa Selysl Monogr., 93, 82, pi. 10, f. 3; Syn., 28, 82.— 
Walk. Cat., 615, 5. — Hag. Syn.! 305. 
Hab. Brazil. ^ 

10. Lais pudica, d*, ?. 

Lais pudica Selysl Monogr., 95, 88, pi. 10, f. 4; Sjm., 29, 83. — 
Walk. Cat., 615, 6.— Hag. Syn. I 805. 
Hab. Ypanema, Brazil. 

HETiERINA. 

1. Hetserina duplex, d*,?. 

ffetcerina duplex Selys! 12, 34 ter. — Hag. ! Stett. Z., xxx, 256, 1. 
Hab. Bogota, New Grenada. 

2. HetsBrina simplex, cf, ?. 

Hetasrina simplex Selys! Monogr., 98, 34, pL 10, f. 5; Syn.jSO, 84. — 
Walk. Cat., 616, 7.— Hag. Syn., 805. ^ ' 

Hetasrina perplex Selys, Syn. Addit., ii, 11, 34 bis. 

Hab. Minas Jeraes; Para, Brazil. 

8. Hetserina sanguinea» cf, ?. 

Hetcerina sanguinea Selys! Monogr., 100, 85, pi. 10, f. 6; Syn. 31, 
85; Addit., iii, 14, 85. — Walk. Cat, 617, 8. — Hag. Syn., 305. ^ 

Hab. Para; Capari, £ga, S. Paulo, Upper Amazon. 

4. Het»rina rosea, c^, ?• 

Hetasrina rosea Selysl Monogr., 102, 86, pi. 10, f. 7 ; Syn., 31, 86.— 
Walk. Cat, 617, 9 — Hag. Syn.! 305. 
Hab. Minas Jeraes, Brazil. 

5. Hetsrina Caja, d*, ?. 
Libellula Caja Drury, ii, 82, pi. 44, f. 2. 
Calopteryx Caja Burm.I Handb., ii, 826, 5 (in part). ' 
Hetasrina Caja Selys 1 Monogr., 104, 87, pi. 10, f. 8 ; Syn., 32, 87'.— 

Walk. Cat., 618, 10. — Hag. Syn. ! 305. . 
Hab. Columbia ; Porto Cabello, Venezuela. 

6. HetsBrina Dominula, s, ?. 

Calopteryx Caja Enchsl Schomburgh Beise, in. — Eamb.Neiir. ! 
226, 16 (in part). ' 



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1876.] 27 [Hnen. 

Hetcerina Dominula Selysl Monogr., 197, 88, pL 11, f. 1; Syn. 83, 
88.— Walk. Cat, 619, 11. — Hag. Syn. I 805. 
Hab. Guiana; Surinam; Brazil. 

7. HetsBrina Donna, c^, 9. 

Hetcerina Donna Selys, Sjm. Addit, in, 14, 86 ter. 

Hab. St. Teresa, Enterios, September ; Juiz de Fora, November, 
Brazil. Unknown to me. 

Perhaps H, Caja, Donna and rosea, are bat races of the same 
species. 

8. Hdissrina anripennis, <f, 9. 

Calopteryx auripennU Burm. ! Handb., n, 827, 10. — Ramb. Near., 
225, 13. 

Calopteryx Cajd Ramb. ! Neur., 226, 16 (in part). 

Hetcerina auripennis Selys ! Monogr., 109, 89, pi. 11, f. 2 ; Syn., 83; 
89.— Walk. Cat., 619, 12. — Hag. Syn.! 805. 

Hab. Bahia, Rio, Brazil. 

9. Hetaarina Hebe» d*, 9. 

Hetcerina Hebe Selysl Monogr., 112, 40, pi. 11, f. 8; Syn., 84, 40.— 
Walk. Cat., 620, 18. — Hag. SynJ. 806. 
Calopteryx Caja Burm. I Handb., ii, 826, 5 (in part). 
Hab. Brazil. 

10. HetsBrina sanguineolenta, (^,9. 

Hetcerina sanguineolenta Selys! Monogr., 115, 41, pi. 11, f. 4; Syn., 
85, 41. — Walk. Cat., 621, 14.— Hag. Syn.! 621, 14. 
. Hab. Bahia, Brazil. 

11. HetsBrina mortua, <^. 

Hetcerina mortua Selys I Mcmogr., 117, 42, pi. 11, f. 5 ; Syn., 85, 
42. —Walk. Cat., 621 , 15. — Hag. Syn. ! 806. 
Hab. Guiana. 

12. Hetserina Isdsa, cf, 9. 

Hetcerina la^a Selys 1 Monogr., 119, 44; Syn., 86, 44.— Walk. Cat, 
622, 17. —Hag. Syn. I 806. 
Hab. Surinam. 

13. Het»rina camifex, cf, 9. 

Hetcerina camifex Selys! Monogr., 128, 46, pi. 11, f. 8 ; Syn., 87, 
46 ; Addit, in, 15, 46. —Walk. Cat., 624, 19.— Hag. Syn. ! 806. ' 
Hab. New Friburg, Minas Geraes, Brazil ; Quito, Ecuador. 
Race, H.fulgens Selys!; ibid., Hab., Minas Greraes. 

14. HetsBrina longipoB, <f, 9. 

Hetcetina longipes S^\ys\ Moxi0^.i \2\, 45, pi. 11, f. 7; Syn., 87, 
45; Addit., m, 15, 46; Walk. Cat., 623, 18. — Hag. Syn.! 306. 



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Hagen.] 28 tM#y6, 

Hab. Brazil. Supposed to be a race of H, camifex by Selys, 
Syn. Addit., iii, 15, 46. 

15. Het»rina proxiina» cf, 9. 

HetcBrina proxima Selys! Monogr., 125, 47, pi. 11, f. 9; Syn. 88, 
47; Addit., in, 15, 46.-^ Walk. Cat., 624, 20. — Hag* Syn.! 806. 

Calopteryx Caja Ramb. ! Neur., 226, 16 (in part). 

Hab. Ypanema, Brazil. 

Supposed to be a race of H, camifex by Selys, Syn., Addit., lu, 
15, 46. 

16. Hetserina cruentata, cf, 9. (cf. N. America.) 
Hetcerina cruerUata Hag. ! Stett. Z., xxx, 256, 2. 

Race H* Brasiliensis Selys ! Monogr., 129. 

Hab. Paranas de St. Urban; Venezuela; Surinam; Bogota, N. 
Granada; Columbia; N. America. 

17. HetsBrina vulnerata, cf, ?. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Brazil ; Columbia ; N. America. 

18. HetSBrina Americana, cf, ?. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Brazil; perhaps erroneously labelled. 

19. HetsBrina moribunda, cf, ?. 

HetcBrina moribunda Selys! Monogr , 134, 54, pL 12, f. 4; Syn., 42, 
51.— Walk. Cat., 628, 24. — Hag. Syn. 1 306. 
Hab. Cayenne; Para, Brazil. 

20. HetsBrina occisa, cf, ?« 

Hetcerina occisa Selys! Monogr., 143, 65, pi. 12, f. 6 ; Syn., 44, 65; 
Addit., Ill, 17, 55. —Walk. Cat., 631, 28.— Hag. Syn. ! 806 ; Stett. Z., 
257, 8. 

Race, H. albisdgmaf female, Selys! Monogr., 146. 

Hab. Columbia ; Porto Cabello, Laguayra, Paranas de St. Urban, 
Bogota. 

B. macropus and H. asticta are believed to be a race in Selys' Syn. 
Addit, III, 1 7. 

21. HetsBrina Brightwelli, cf, $. 

Agrion Brtghtwelli Kirby, Trans. Linn. Soc., xiv, 107, pi. 3, £ 5. 
Calopteryx BrightweUi Burm., Handb., ii, 826, 5. 
Calopteryx Caja Ramb.! Neur., 226, 16 (in part). 
Hetcerina BrightweUi Selys! Monogr., 148, 57, pi. 12, f. 8 ; Syn., 46, 
57. — Walk. Cat, 683, 30. —Hag. Syn.! 306. 
Hab. New Fribourg, Rio, Irisanga, Brazil 

22. HetsBrina majuscula, cf, ?. 

Hetcerina majuscula Selys ! Monogr., 151, 58, pi. 13, f. 1 ; Syn., 47, 



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I875.r 29 [HageQ. 

58 • Addit, III* 18, 60. — Walk. Cat., 634, 81. — Hag. Syn.I 806; 
Stett. Z., XXX, 257, 4. 

Heicerina capiialis Selys, Syn., Addit, iii, 18, 58 bis. 

Hab. Surinam; Columbia; Bogota, N. Granada. 

H. capiialis is perhaps a race of H, majusctUa, 

23. Hetsorlna Borchgravii, d,.9. 

Hetoerina Borchgravii Selys 1 Syn. Addit, u, 14, 47 bis. 

Hab. Tijuca, near Rio, Brazil. 

Heliocharis. 

1. Heliooliiuris Amazona, e, 

Heliocharis Amazona Selys! Monogr., 188, 1, pi. 5, f. 5; pi. 14, f. 5; 
Syn., 65, 71; Addit., ii, 17, 71.-^ Walk. Cat, 642, 1. — Hag. Syn.I 
806. 

Hab. Ega, Amazon; Fara. 

?Race, Heliocharis libera, cf, ?, Selys, Syn., Addit, ii, 17, 70 ter; 
Hab., Para. 

2. Heliocharis Brasiliensis Selysl Syn. Addit., i, 9, 71 bis. 
— Etag. Syn.I 306. 

Hab. Babia. 

DiCTERIAS. 

1., Dicterias atrosaaguinea, cf, ?. 

Dicier ias atrosanguinea Selys I Monogr., 191, 72, pi. 5, f. 6 ; pi. 8, f. 
12; pi. 14, f. 6 ; Syn., 66, 72; Addit, u, 18, 72 — Walk. Cat, 643, 
2.— Hag. Syn.! 307. 

Hab. Santarem, Amazon. 

Dicterias procera Hag. 1 Syn., 307; Selys, Syn. Addit, i, 10, 72 bis.; 
Addit, III, 51; is supposed to be a r&ce of Heliocharis Amazona. 
Hab., Santarem. 

Amphipteryx. 

1. Amphipteryx agrioides, ?. 

Amphipteryx agrioides Selys I Monogr., 241, 92, pi. 6, f. 6 ; pi. 8, 
f. 15; Syn., 66, 1; Addit, i, 16.— Walk. Cat, 654, 1. — Hag. Syn.I 
807. 

Hab. Columbia. 

Chalco?teryx. 

' 1. Chalcopteryx rutilans, d*, ?. 

Rhinocypha ruiilans Ramb.I Neur., 233, 1. 

Chalcopteryx ruiilans Selysl Monogr., 251, 94, pi. 7, f. 1, 2 ; pi. 9, 



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Hacen.] 80 [May 5, 

f. 7; Syn. 68, 94 ; Addit, n, 25, 94; Addit^ ni, 82.— Walk. Cat., 
655, ]. — Hag. Syn.!307. 

Hab. Para, Santarem, Brazil. 

2. Chaloopteryx sointillans, e. 

Chdtcopteryx scirUiUans Selys, S/d., Addit, ni, 82, 94 ter. 

Hab. S. Paulo, Upper Amazon. Unknown to me. 

Thorr. 

1 . Thore Victoria, cf , 9 . 

Thore Victoria M*Lachl., Entom. monthl. Mag., vi, 28. — Selya, 
Syn., Addit., n, 25, 94 bis; Addit, iii, 88, 94 bis. 
Hab. Bdivia. Unknown to me. 

2. Thore gigantea, <f, 9. 

Thore gigantea Selys! Monogr., 254, 1, pi. 7, f. 8; Syn., 69, 95 ; 
Addit., II, 26, 95; Addit, iii, 84, 95. —Walk. Cat, 656, 2.— Hag. 
Syn.!807. 
. Thore picta Hag. ! Stett Z., 257, 5. 

Hab. Bogota, Columbia; Chimborazo; Rio Negro and Rio 
Grande, Upper Amazon, Ecuador. . 

Race, Thore procera Selys! Syn., Addit, ii, 27, 95 bis. Hab.; 
Bogota. 

? Race, Thore picturata Selys, Syn. Addit, m, 85, 97 bis. Hab., 
Cayenne. Th. picturata is regarded Addit, iii, 85, as a race of Th, 
Saundersiif and ibid., p. 54, as probably ia race of Th. gigantea, 

8. Thore Saundersii, cf, 9. 

Thore Saunderm Selysl Monogr., 256, 96; Syn., 70, 96; Addit, 
11,27,97; Addit, m, 86, 97.— Walk. Cat, 657, 4. — Hag. Syn. I 
807. 

Hab. Para ; Peba, Upper Amazon ; Ecuador. 

4. Thore picta, d*, ?. 

Euphaea picta Ramb. I Neur., 281, 4. 

Thore picta Selys! Monogr., 256, 96; Syn., 70, 96 ; Addit, ii, 28, 
96 ; Addit, iii, 86, 97 sext 

Hab. Cayenne; Para; Ega, Upper Amazon; Ecuador; Bogota, 
New Granada. 

Race, Th. vittata SelySj Syn. Addit, ii, 29, 96 bis. Hab., Ega. 

Race. Th» cequatorialis Selys, Syn. Addit., ui, 86, 87 sext Hab., 

Ecuador- 



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1875.1 81 [Hagen. 

5. Thore Batesi, <f,9, 

ThoreBatesi Selysl Syn., Addit., ii, 29, 96 ter. 
Race, Th. incsqwdis Selys, Syn. Addit^ ii, 80, 96 bis. 
Hab. S. Paulo, Fonte Boa, Upper Amazon. 

6. Thore beata, e^ 9. 

Thore heata M'Lachl.1 £nt. monthl. Mag., vi, 28. — Selys, Syn. 
Addit, II, 30, 96 quint 
Hab. Peba, Upper Amazon. 

7. Thore fasoiata, d*, ?. 

Thore fasciata Selys! Monogr., 259, 98, pi. 8, f. 16 ; pi. 9, f. 8 ; 
Syn., 70, 98 ; Addit, ii, 32, 98. ^ Walk. Cat., 687, 5. — Hag. Syn. ! 
807 ; Stctt. Z., XXX, 259, 6. 

Race, TLplagiata Selys, Syn. Addit, iii, 87, 98 bis. 

Hab. Columbia; Porto Cabello, Venezuela ; Rio Negro, Amazon ; 
Bogota, N. Granada. 

8. Thore fastigiata, d*. 

Thore fastigiata Selysl Syn. Addit, i, 99 bis ; Addit, ii, 38, 99 bis. 
— Hag. I Stett Z., xxx, 259, 8. 
Hab. Bogota, Columbia. 

9. Thore hsralina, d*, 9. 

Thore hyalina Selysl Monogr., 261, 99, pi. 7, f.4; Syn., 71,99; 
Addit, II, 33, 99 ; Addit, iii, 38, 99. — Walk. Cat., 658, 8. —Hag. 
Syn. I 307 ; Stett Z., xxx, 259, 7. 

Hab. Bahia, Brazil ; Bogota, Columbia. 

€OKA. 

!• Ck>ra cyane, cf. 

Coracyane Selysl Monogr., 263, 100, pL 7, f. 5; Syn., 71, 100; 
Addit, II, 35, 100. 
Hab. Porto Cabello, Venezuela. 

Race? Cora incana Selysl Syn. Addit, ii, 35, 100, quart 
2. Cora brasiUensis, cf, ?. 
Cora brasiliensis Selys ! Syn. Addit, ii, 34, 100 bis. 
Hab. Brazil. 
8. Cora Alcyone, cf. 

Cora Alcyone Selys, Syn. Addit., in, 89, 100 sext* 
Hab. Bogota. Unknown to me. 
4. Cora Inoa, cf, 9. 
Cora Inca Selys, Syn. Addit, in, 39, 100, sept 
Hab. Quito, Ecuador. Probably C ItrasUiensis, 



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^<: 



Hagen.] 82 [May 6, 

5. Cora modesta, d*, ?. 

Cora modesta Selys, Syn. Addit., H) d6| 100 quint; Addit., ui, 40, 
100 quint. 
Hab. Bogota. 

Subfamily ^SCHNINA. 
Anax. 

1. Anax Junius, d*, ?. 

Libellula- Junta Druiy, Ins., i, 112, pi. 47, f. 5. 

JEschna Junta Barm.! Handb., ii, 841, 18. — Say, Journ. Acad. 
Philad., VIII, 10, 2. — Ramb. Neur., 196, 6. 

Anax spiniferus Ramb. I Neur., 186, 4, pi. 1, f. 14. 

AnaxJuniiu^^ljs ! Revue des Odon., 828; Sagralns., Cuba, 458. — 
Hag. I Syn., 118, 1; Verhdl. Wien Z. B. G., xvii, »«; Stett Z., 
XXIV, 373, Sl.— Proc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 291 ; xv, 271, 28 ; 
XVI, 860, l.-^Walabi Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 897.— Brauer, 
Voy. Novara, 61, lO.i^ 

Hab. Massachusetts; N. York; N. Jersey; Maryland; Kentucky; 
S. Carolina; Greorgia, March, April; Florida; Louisiana; Missouri; 
Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Dallas, Waco, Texas, May; Pecos River, 
Texas, July, Augus|; Matamoras, Mexico; S. Franeisoo, California; 
Cuba; Eamschatka; Petcheli Bay, China, Apiii; Oahu, Sandwich 
Islands. 

2. Anax longipes, 9. 

Anax longipes Hag.l Syn., 118, 2; Stett. Z., xxiv, 373, 62; Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 860, 2 ; Verhdl. Wien Z. B. G., xvn, 36. — 
Brauer, Voy. Novara, 60, 8. 

Hab. Georgia. 

I have only seen one female in the Museum in Zuerich; Mr. 
M'Lachlan assured me, 1878, that the male was discovered, proving 
that A . longipes is a good species. 

8. Anax validus, d*, 9: 

Anax validus Hag.! (No description.) 

Hab. San Diego, California, April. 

4. Anax Amazili, (5*, $. 

jEschna Amazali Burm. ! Handb., ii, 841, 19* 

Anax macvlatus Ramb.! Neur., 188, 7, 

Anax Amazili Hag.! Syn., 119, 3; Verhdl. Wien. Z. B. G., XVII, 
88. — Brauer, Voy. Novara, 61,9. 



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1876.] <88 [HtfW. 

; ^'Baki. OnateDialsi €iiba; BJEurbades ; Fdrtor CibeUo, VenezueU ; 
Amasoii,iFttr% Penuuiibiico, Bio, Brmiil. 

GOMPHiESCHNA. 

' • 1. Gtomphttoiofafta fnroillata, cf, 9. 

j£$chna /uhTtOetto Say^l Jirarti. Acad. Fl^ad., vm, 15» 7.— Hag. 1 
Syn., 181, 25. 

Gynacantha qiiadrijtda Banib.l Kenr., 209, 1. 

GfompAcMcAfia furciUata Hag. I Tpoc. Bost. 'Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 
272,88*, XVI, 851, 7. 

Hab. MasBaclmsettt, Sutton, June 15; Hilton,' Brookitne, Ma«., 
Jiine-8^ Mancbestci^, M Ms., Jul j 4 ; D^trott, Michigan; Geoigia. 
- ^2.'* tk>mt>h»Mhiia Antilope, <f, ?. 
' \&c1iiiM AnHhpei Hag.! Ardcj. Best Soc.* Nat. Hist, XTi, 854, 8. 

Hab. Druid Hill^ Baltimore, Md. 

JESCHNA. 

"^^1.^ .SiA^lma Janata^ e, 9. 

' ^Mnchna Jotmto' Saj! Jbtim. Acad. Fhilad., viil,' 18, 6. — Hag., 
Syn., 125, 11 j'Stett Z., xxiir, 878, 54.^Pit)c. Best. Soc. Nat Hist, 
kf , 27i; 82-, Ibid, xVi, 856, 9. 

JEschna minor Rbr., Near., 207, 20. 

Hab. Milton, Mass., May 10, tfune; Boxbnry, Mass.; Canrer 
Woods, Mass., May 28 ; White Mountains, N. Hampshhre. Yer/ 
rare. 

2'. Asohiia sitohensis, e. 

JEsehna sitckemittliAgA Syn., 119, 1. 

Hab. Sitka, Alaska. 

I have only seen one male ; this species differs' ftom ^. horeaUs, 
* ^4''JB80ima septentrtonalis, <f, 9. 

' 't^nekim'fepteranofUdif'hvtTmll Handb., rr; 889, 11.-^ Bag.! Syn., 
120, 2. 

Hab. 'Noira Sddtia^ Hopedide, Labrador^ Fort Resolution, Great 
Slave Lake ; Saskatchewan, British Amc^ca; White Mountains, N. 
Hampshire. 

4. JSfeK^liifa oaltfomiea, <f, 9. (Hag., no desctiption.) 
- Hab. '^ttlf'tyf Geoigia, S. Mafteo; Cal.; British Columbia. 

5. JBsohna multioolor, <f, 9. 

J"i<&t?*fkr mti&ico^'Hag. I'l^i, 121, 4; Hayden, Re^., 1872, 72T; 
1878, 591. 
vaociSDiiros b. b. h. h.— yol. xnn. 8 sxftbmbxb, 1875. 



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.1 84 IM»J6, 

Hab. Pecos River, West Texas, July, August ; Cordova, Mexico ; 
Upper Missouri River ; Yellowstone; Victoria, Vancouver's Island, 
July. 

6. JBsohna oonstriota, <f, 9/ 

.^chna con^trtcta Say, Joum. Acad. Fhilad., Yin, 11, 3. — Hag. ! 
Syn., 128, 8 ; Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 271, 81; 876, 2; Hay- 
den, Rep., 1872, 727 ; Rep., 1878, 591.— Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 
1862, 897. — Scudderl Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 212. 

JEschna contorta Hag. I Syn., 126, 14. 

^^chna palmata Hag.! Stett. Z., xvu, 869. — Selys, Ann. Soc. 
Ent, XTU, 84, male. 

JEschna arundinacea Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent., xvii, 86, female? 

Hab. Nova Scotia ; Maine ; New Hampshire, White Mountains, 
August ; Massachusetts ; Connecticut ; New York, September ; Penn- 
sylvania; Maryland; Missouri; Indiana; Illinois; Yellowstone, 
Colorado ; British Columbia ; Labrador; Kamtschatka, Irkutsk, Wilui 
Eiver, Asia. 

JEschna palmata was formerly described as a different species; but 
now I know American specimens with similar small numbers of anti- 
cubitals. The bands on the thorax have been present, perhaps nar- 
rower. The legs, at least tbe anterior^ are above rufous on tbe femur. 

7. JBsohna armata, cf, 9. 
JEichna aumata Hag.! Syn., 124, 9. 
Hab. Troj^s del Oro, Mexico. 

. 8. JEschna eremitica, d*, 9. 

JEschna eremitica Scudder! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 218. — 
Hag. I Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 294; xv, 876, 8. 

JSschna crenata Hag.! Stett. Z., xvu, 869; xix, 97. — Selys, Ann. 
Soc. Ent, XYU, 185. 

Hab. White Mountains, New Hampshire, August; Fort Resolu- 
tion, Great Slave Lake, Saskatchewan, British America; Labrador; 
Irkutsk; Wilui River. 

The black anterior line on tke ^nt is sometimes wanting. 

9. JEschna verticalis, d*, 9. 

JEschna veHicalU Hag.! Syn., 122, 6. 

JSschna clepsydra Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad^, 1862, 897. 

Mschna propinqua Scudd.! Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, x, 214. 
(Male, in part) 

> Hab. New York; Washii^n, D. C; Maine; N. EEampdiire; 
Illinois; Canada; Massachusetts, August 



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1876.] t6 [Hhm. 

10. JBaohna olepsydra, <f, 9. 

.^chna clepsydra Say 1 Journ. Acad. FliiUcU Tm, 12, 4. — Hag.! 
Syn., 122, 5 ; P^roc. Boat. Soc. Nat. HUt, xv, 971, 80. 

Hab. Massachusetts, July, August ; New York ; Maryland ; lUi- 
nois; Detroit, Mich., June; White Mountains, New Hampshire, 
Augivt 

11. JBaohna junoea, cf, 9. 

^schnajuncea Linne! Selys, Bevue des Odonat.! 116, 8 (with the 
synonyms). — Hag. I Syn., 120, 8. 

^schna propinqua Scudd.! Proc. Boet Soc. Nat Hist, x, 215 (in 
part). — Hag., ibid, xv, 876. 

JEschna Hudsonica Hag. Syn., 128, 7; Selys, Ent Monthly Mag., 
No. 181, 242. 

Hab. Kenai Island; Norton Sound, Alaska; Fort Resolution, 
Great Slave Lake, British America ; White Mountains, New Hamp- 
shire, August ; North Europe, North Asia. 

The male type of Mr. Scudder belongs to JS.junceOf the female to 
^. clepsydra ; another male to JS. verlicaUs. 

12. JEsolma interna, cf, 9. 
JEschna interna Hag. (No description.) 
Hab. Dakota ; Yellowstone ; Ogden, Utah. 
18. JBflohna mutata, ?. 

JEschna mutata Hag. I Syn., 124, 10. 
Hab. N. America. 

14. IBsohna florida, 9. 
JEschna florida Hag. I Syn., 125, 12. 
Hab. Mexico. 

15. JBsohna Dominicana. 

^schna Dominicana Hag., Syn., 126, 18« (No description.) 
Hab. St. Domingo. Not known to me. 

16. JBsohna adneza, cf, 9. 
JEschna adnexa Hag. I Syn., 127, 17. 
Hab. Cuba. 

17. JBaohna osranifrons. 

JEschna cyanifrons Hag., Syn., 126, 15. (No description.) 
Hab. Jamaica. Perhaps JS. adnexoj but not known to me. 

18. JBsohna grandis, <f. 
^schna grandis Hag. I Syn., 126, 16. 
Hab. Bergen Hill, New Jersey ; Europe. 



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The rin^ male I receired-titenty^yevtagoiboB Mr. GneSyto* 
• l^ftfaer^iritb A ccnidflraldrJbitBilMr^i^'OdaiMito, all'talMD im tii^Mine 
I^oe near NearvXoik, aad all tmetff^t^gnmtHicammbn Nottk Amer- 
•^ea»ipecte,1nd«eed ia»4o:bell9v^ tikai praiiabfytltti.iiialeof ^. 
pw it fit ijfai iDtrod a a e d liy a^Ewcpean Jdpi. lUsia tlMiiiafeprabi- 
Ue, as Tei7 near Bergen HQl are the immense whanres for th^tnoM- 
allantic steamers. At least, thus fiur no- oUwr specimeB b known to 
^h» Mmi in Ameriea. In a letter tio Mr. Haldemon, still in my hands, 
Mr. Goex states, that he is perfectly sure J» has not made* mistake 
tatlie locality. 

19. JBiichnft TirenSy <f, 9. 

*"^9ehna ttrens. Bamb^Neor., 199, >8.<— Hag^I Sjrn^ 127, 18.— 
Scodder! P^roc. Host Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 190.— Hag., ibid, xi, 39S ; 
s^, »74; xyf^ 85V^Uhler, Fkxic. Bosl.4Soc.Kat. Hist., Xi, J95. 

Hab^^ Cuba, Isle of Fines} HaytivPanamk; St. CruxdeBoliTia; 
Yenezuela; Georgia, if mj interpreftataoii of Mn AU^ot^s figure is 
oorrect. 

20. .fisofana ingens, d*, 9. 

.£schna mgens Bbr., Neur., 19f, 1, — Hag. I Syn.^ 188« 19. .... 

.£$eJma Ahboti Hag., StfeH. Zeit., xxiV, 871, i^fPhic. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XVI, 850, 8. i ,,...... . 

Hab. Georgia; St Johns Birer, j3t Augostin,. Florida; Cubm 

New specimens from Florida )iaTeeonirincedme.that JB«;il((oft, 
described from the figure by Abbot, is identical with ^. ingen$iJh» 
appendages of the figured specimen wtr^ipKhMy Upken. 

21. JBsohna Heros, <f , ^ . ^ (Subgeni^ Bpi^ssoh^a Sj^lyd.) 
JEschna Heros Fab., Ent Syst., SuppL, 285.— Bamb.! Neur.^ ^94, 

4. — Hag.l Syn., 128, 20; Froc. Bost^&c* Nat. Hist, xT, 271,^29; 
XYi, ^51y 4«-*"WabhJ Froc.Acad. Philad4,/1862, 897. 

jEschna multicincta Say, Joiim.'.Aoad..fliilad., vjui, 9, 1. 

Hab. Massachusetts, July, commfw atNahant ; Manchester; New 
York ; New Jersey ; Illinois ; MiU7land f Georgia f Virginia ; . Ten- 
nessee; Alabama; Louisiana; Florida; Mexico (Bambur). * 

22. JBsohna brevifirons, <f., 9. 

./EfoftfMP&Ttfvi/i'^nsHagJ Syn;,,1^9, 2V ,.,. 

Hab* Acapufeo, Mexiqo^ Yai^umuso, Peru. 

23. Jiiohna basalis, 9. 

.^Sgehna bagalii Selys, Mss,, Hag. Syn.,- 180^23.* X^^^''^!^^*) 
Babk Canada. Not. known to dub. 



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ufn,j 87 niig«ii' 

24. JBaohna pentaoftuihA, cf , 9\ (Subgemis Bracbytron.) 
.^sckna pentacantha Ramb.! Neur^ 2<M, 22. — Hag.l Syn^ 12t> 
22. —Walsh I Proc. Acad. PbUad., 1862, 897. 
Hab. Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; Dallas, Texas. 

Neubjbschna. 

1. KeurflMOhna Yinosa, cf, 9. 

JEschna vinosa Say! Joum. Ac^ Fhilad., Ti|i, 19, Q. ^ 

Neurasschna vinosa Hag.l Proc. Bost Soc. Nat IXist., xy«. 272, 34. 

^seJina quadrigtUtata Bnrm.! Handb.,.11, 83 7« 22, — Sely^I Bevne 
Odonat. Europ., 898. — Hag.l Syn^ 180, 24; SteU, Z*, xxiv, 873; 
Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 851, 6. 

Hab. Ontario, Canada; Maine; Massacbusetts ; Pennsylrania ; 
Maryland ; Washington, D. C. ; C8ii>lina ; Georgia ; Kentucky t 
Tennessee. 

GtNAOAI^HA. ; . 

1. Osmaoantha triflda, cf, 9. ^ 
(xjfnat^ntha'tnJiiaBtaahA NeUK, 210}<8.->-8elysl43agraInsH Coba, 

459.— Hag.l Syn., 131, 1. ' ^ * 

Hab. Cuba; Jamaica; BnudL 
Migrating in flocks, in December, in Ctaba, firom^ tlie nort^ to. the 

80ltUI« f\^ : . ■■ i ' 

2. Osmaoantha septima, <f; 9. 

GynacatUha septma Selys! Sagra Ins.» Cnba, 460. ^- HagrJ Syii., 
132, 2. 
Hab. Jamaica; Cuba; Braril. 
8. Osrnaoanthap^^raollia, xf, 9., L. 
JEsehna ffraeiUs Burm.f Handb.^ ii, Jl3i7y CL^-r-BagJ Syn^ 9Uh:\ 
Chfnacanltha nervosa Bbr. 1 Neur., 218, 7. 
Hab. Cuba, South Amedca. J; 

4. QynaciaiUiha Al^^-^Si 0^octeicripliim»>rnd ' 
Oynacaniha faleo %Ay%\'iA%%, ^ . 

Gynacanik^.fikmtixi^^mmittlip^l ^^^^ 
Hab. Panama, South America^' i -f. - > 

6. Osmaoantha mexioaiia, 9. - ^ 
.G^ffi^ssaxUJka ^eric<^ii«.Sefyi,,AaB^jSoe#J:o4«iBelg4,X£^Pn>B4 39|.6. 
Hab. Mexico. Not known to me. 



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Hagen.] 88 tMafS, 

South America. 

SubfamUy ^SCHNINA. 
Anax« 

1. Anaz Amaiili, cf, 9. (cf. N. America.) 
Anax AtnazUi Hag.! Syn., 814. 

,Hab. Venezuela; Brazil, Amazon, Para, Femambaco, Rio. 

2. Anaz oonoolor, d*. 

Anax concohr Brauer, Novara Voyage, 66, pi. i, f. 15. 
Hab. Brazil, Rio Negro. Not known to mei 

^SCHXA. 

1. JBsohna virens, cf, 9. (cf. North America.) 
ASschna virens Hag., Sjm., 814. 

Hab. St. Cmz de Bolivia ; Venezuela ; Brazil, Amazon. 

2. iBsohna variegata. 

JEschna variegata Fabr., Sjst. Ent., 425, 8; Spec. Ins., i, 526, 8; 
Mant Ins., i, 889, 8; Ent Syst, ii, 884, 2. — Hag., Syn., 814* 

Hab. Terra del Fuego. Not known to me. 

8. JBsohna ruflna» d*. 

JEschna rufina Hag. I Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Foerbdl., 1855, 125. 
— Hag.! Syn., 814, (No description.) 

JEschna erythroneura Selysl Mss. 

Hab. Brazil, Minas Greraes. 

4. JBsohna depravata, e. 

jEschna depravata Hag. ! Syn., 814. (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil, New Fribourg. (Group of JE, armala,) 

5. JBsohna lobata, cf. 

ASschna lobaia Hag.! S^^n., 814. (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil, New Fribourg. (Group of ^. armata.) 

6. JBsohna Marohali cf. 

^schna Marchali Ramb., Neur., 208, 14 ; Hag. ! Syn., 814. 
Hab. Columbia, St. Fe de Bogota. 

7. JBsohna diffinis, cf, 9. 

jEschna diffinis Ramb. ! Neur., 208, 15; Gay, Chili, vi, 116, pL 2, 
f. 6.— Hag. Syn., 814. 



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1875.] 89 tBMttA. 

JBschna configurata Hag. ! Syn., 814 ; Oeyen. Dansk. Selsk. Vld. 
Foerhdl., 1855, 121. 
Hab. Chili, Quillota ; Valparaiso ; Penii lAauu 

8. JBsohna bonariensiSy cf, 9. 

JEschna banariensii BhtA Neur^ 204, 16. — Hag. ! Syn., 814. 
Hab. Buenos Ayres; Brazil, Montevideo; St. Mathias Bay, Pat- 
agonia. 

9. JBsohna oonfasa, <f, 9. 

JEschna confusa Rbr., Neur., 205, 17. — Hag.! Sjn., 814. 

Hab. Buenos Ayres; Cordova; Bradl, Montevideo, Febr. ; Cu- 
rico. Chili, May* 

Perhaps a new species, if Bambur's jE, confusa belongs to JS:. 
banariensis, 

10. JBsohna latioeps, <f, nov. sp. (Hag.; no descriptkMi.) 
Hab. Cordova, Argentine Republic. 

11. JBsohna oomigera, d*, 9. 

^schna comigera Brauer, Novara Voyage, 70, pi. i, fig. 16. — Hkg. X 
Verhdl. Wien Z. B., xvii, 49. 

jEschna jucunda Hag.! Syn., 814. 

^schna chlarophana Burm.! Mgs. 

Hab. Columbia; Porto Cabello, Venezuela; Brazil, New Frir 
bourg, Montevideo, S. Leopoldo. 

12. iBsohna maoromia, e. 

JEschna macramia Brauer, Voyage Novara, 68, pL i, fig^ 18. — ^Hag.! 
Verhdl. Wien, Z. B., xvii, 49. 

JEschna prasina Hag. I Syn., 814. 

Hab. Brazil, Pernambuco. 

18. JBsohna luteipennis, d*, 9. 

JEschna ItUeipennis Burm. I Handb., ii, 887, 4. — Hag.! Syn., 8t4. 

jEschna excisa Brauer, Voyage Novara, 69, pi. i, f. 19. — Hag.^ 
Verhdl. Wien, Z. B. G^ xvn, 50. 

Hab. Brazil, S. Leopoldo. 

14. JBsohna brevifrons, <f, 9. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Chili, Valparaiso. 

15. iBsohna obsouripennis* 

^schna obscuripennis Voyage d'Orbigny, Neur., pi. 28, £ 8. 
Hab. Bolivia. Not known to me; perhaps JS. &revi/roii«? 

16. JBsohna oastor, <f, 9. 

^schna castor Brauer, Voyage Novara, 72, pi. i, i\ 17. — Hag.! 
VerhdL Wien, Z. B. G., xvu, 50. 



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40. iMftfS, 

JSichnahmuieUaStAytiyiBB*' ;..... 
Hab. Brazil, Rio. 

17. JBsohna Jaixaavim, <f^?u. .■.,-■- / 

jSschna Januaria Hag.l Oren. Dansk. YicL JSelskt Foiliifi., 18^6, 
125; Syn., »15; Yerkdl. Wien, Z. B.;CL; xvn^ 61* u, < - . 
Hab. Brasil,Bio. 

18. JBsohna oyanifoomi. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to.me. <. ^ . 

19. JBsohna «coipiter^r. 

^scAmi acc^Nfer Sdya, Msff*. (Noc deacriptknu) » , r< , i 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. 

Staukophlbbia. 

1. Staurophlebia retioulata»'^,.f^^ 

JSwhna reticulata Burm. I Handb., ii, 887, i5. -w. Hftg.4 B^^ 814. 

JSschna'ffiffds BhrA 19Sj 2. ^ • 

Staurophlebia magnifica Braner, Voyage NoTara, 74, pL n, tl.-^ 
Hag.l Yerhdl. Wien, Z. B. G., XYii, 58. 

Hab. Venezuela, Porto Cabello; Surkiam ; '€Uuma) Bnofl, Am- 
azon, Para. . 

2. Staurophlebia giganttda. 

Megalasschna gigantvla Selys, MsB. (No desoiiptioBv}^ -^^ 
Hab. Amazon! : Not kno^rn to mefc - ' • 

Neuilaschka. 

1. Neur888ohna oostalis, <f, ^. 

^schna cosiaUs BikinJ Handb.^ H, 887, 8.^^-^ Hag.^^yB.i 814 ; 
Verhdl. Wien, Z. B. G., xviij 55, i 

Gynacantka/erox Erichs. ! Schomburgk Voyage ^niann^ hi, 585; 
Hab. Guiana; Brazil, Bahia, Amazon. 

2. Neur8B8€ima^ gtOBSBr Selys, Mm. ^ (No deiforiptioB.) - 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. 

8. Neur8880lma suboostaiis Selys^ Msa^ (No^esraripdoa.) 
. Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not kntfwtt to met ^^ 
4. Neur808olma€k>iiiiis Sely^ MfiS.-<^(N<3^de«eir^ ^ 

Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. 

1^ Neurflosohna Havp3Fia Selys^MsVi^ (No detfariptioob) 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. ~^ • . 



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Gtnacantha. 

1. Gynaoaixfha faloo, cf, 9. (cf. N. America^) ' 
G^acantha/aleo Selys I Mas. - {Ko detdilpliom) '■■'.^-■^ , ^ . 

Hab. Columbia, St F^ de Bogota ; Venezuela ; Surinam ; Bvacil, 
Amazon, Panama. 

2. Oynaoanfha bifida, e, 9. 
Gynacantha bifida Rbr.I Neur., 218, 6. 
Hab. Brazil 

8* Oynaoantha auriotilaria Selys,- Maa. , (No deaeription*) 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. . , . 

4. Oynaoantha longipennis Selya, Mfs. (Nadeacripiion^) 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon^ < Not known to me. . ^ 

5. Oynaoantha belliooaa Selys, Mbs. (No description.) . 
- Hab. • Brazil, Amazon. Net known to me^ 

e. Osmaoantha lanoeolata, cf . 

Crynacantka lanceckUa Hag* 1- Syik, 815. - (No deaor^tion*):: t. 

Hab. PemambuQO.. 
■ 7. Oynaoantha graoilip,. xf , g > (c£N.r America^ . 

j^schna gracilis Buna. I Handb., ii, 887, 6. -^ Hag. I Syn*, ^1&. 

Oynaeantha nervosa Rbr. ! Neur., 218^ 7. . . 

JS«oAnaro&ttf^£iiehB.IM98.3eroL j , 

Hab. Cuba; Surinam; St. Cruz de BoliTila; Guiana; Bcazilt 
Femambuco, Rio, Para. 

8. Osmaoantha tarifida, <f, ?.. 

Gynacantha trifida Rbr.I Hag., Syn., 815. (of. N. America.). 

Hab. Brazil, Amazon; Cuba. 

8. Oynaoantha septtana, d. 9^ . *^ 

Gynacantha septima Selya.1 (c£ N. America), Hag.1 Byu., 815.. 

Hab. Brazil, Amazon; 'Cuba; Jamaica.. . .^ . 

10. Oynaoantha oonioa, cf^ ?., 

Gynacantha conica Hag. I Syn., 81&. (No description.) ,. . 
Hab. Venezuela; Surinam.. . Perhaps identical with G, SBptima, 

11. Oynaoantha prsBdatriz Selys, Mas. (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil, Amazon. Not known to me. 

12. Oynaoantha angoatay.cf^.. 

^schna angus^ HsLgA Sp^ 3li, (Nod^^cripdon,) , ... . 
I Hab. B(»ziL ,!...,,• r 



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18. Oynacantha elata, e. 

OynacarUha ekUa Hag. f Sjn., 815. (No descriptioxi.) 

Hab. Brazil, New Fribotirg. 

14. Oynacantha tenuis, d*. 

GynacanOia tenuis Hag.! Syn., 815. (No description.) 

Hab. Brazil 

Subfamily 60MFHINA. 
Hbrpetogomphus. 

1. Herpetogomphus designatus, cf, ?. 
Erpetogomphus designatus Selys 1 Monogr., 401, 16 ter., pi. 20, f. 1; 

Syn. Addit, i, 10, 21 bis. — Hag. Syn. 1 99, 2. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July 6-16; Waco, Texas, 
July 14-26. 

Nympha raised at Poles' Creek, Texas, Cabot, 4, 6, pi. 2, f. 6. 
(Gomphu8 spec. No. 6.) 

2. Herpetogomphus compositus, cf, 9. 
Erpetogomphus compositus Selys I Monogr., 400, 16 bis, pi. 20, f. 2; 

Syn. Addit., i, 10, 21 ter; Addit., iii, 12, 21 ter.— Hag. Syn.I 99, 1 ; 
Hayden's Rep., 1873, 697. 

Herpetogomphus viperinus Hag. ; Hayden's Rep., 1872, 727. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, Aug. 15 ; Dallas, N. Texas ; 
Yellowstone; Oregon. 

8. Herpetogomphus viperinus, d*, 9. 

Erpetogomphus viperinus Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi ; Proc., 68; 
Syn. Addit., ii, 13, 21 sept 

Hab. Orizaba, Mexico. 

4. Herpetogomphus elaps, d*, 9. 

Erpetogomphus elaps Selys! Monogr., 70, 16, pi. 4,f. 4; Syn. Addit., 
I, 12, 21 sext.; Addit., ii, 12, 21 sext — Hag. Syn.I 100, 5. 
Hab. Orizaba, Atlihuazan, Cuemavaca, Mexico. 

5. Herpetogomphus boa, <f, 9. 

Erpetogomphus boa Selys 1 Syn. Addit., i, 11, 21 quart.— Hag. Sj-n.! 
100, 3. 
Hab. Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

6. Herpetogomphus oophias, (f, 9. 

Erpetogomphus cophias Selys 1 Monogr., 72, 17, pi. 4, f. 6; Syn. 
Addit., I, 11, 21 quint. ; Addit., ii, 18, 21 quint — Hag. Syn I 100, 4. 
Hab. Trojes del Oro, Mexico. 



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1875.] 4S [HhW. 

7. Herpetogomphus orotaUnuSy <f, 9. 

Erpetogomphus crotalinus Selys I Monogr., 72, 18, pi. 4, £ 6 ; Syn., 
21, 21; Addit, ii, 11, 21. — Hag. Syn.I 101, 6. 
Erpetogomphus Menetrien Selys I Syn., 20, 20. 
Hab. Mexico; Brazil. 

Ophiooomphus. 

1. Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis, c^, 9. 
Herpetogomphus rupinsuUnsis Walsh I Froc. Acad. Pbilad., 1862, 

888; Proc. Ent Soc. Philad., i, 254. 

Erpetogomphus rupinsulensis Selys, Syn. Addit., u, 44, 21 octo. 

Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis Selys, Syn. Addit., in, 13, 21 octo. 
(partim; only the male). — Hag., Hayden's Rep., 1878, 594. 

Hab. Bock Island, Illinois; Upper Wisconsin; Maine; Ontario, 
* Canada. 

In the female the lefl spine behind the occiput was of different 
form in four specimens. 

2. Ophiogomphus mainensis, c^, 9. 

Ophiogomphus mainensis Walsh I Froc. Ent. Soc. Fhilad., i, 255 
nota. — Selys, Syn. Addit., ii, 45, 22 bis. 

Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis Selys I Syn. Addit., in, 18, 22 bis* 
(partim ; only the female). 

Ophiogomphus mainensis Hag. I Hayden's Bep., 1878, 595. 

Hab. Maine. Only one male and the typical female are known, 
both from the £ame locality and the same collector. Dr. A. S. Fackard, 

8. Ophiogomphus Bison, cf. 

Ophiogomphus Bison Selys, Syn. Addit., ni; Append., 51, 22 ter. 

Hab. California. Not known to me. 

4. Ophiogomphus oolubrinus, d*, ?. 

Ophiogomphus colubrinus Selys! Monogr., 76, 19, pi. 5, f. 1; Syn., 
21, 22. — Hag. Syn 1 101, 7. — Hayden's Bep., 1878, 592. 

Hab. Hudson's Bay Territory; Fortneuf, near Quebec, Canada; 
N. Hampshire. 

5* Ophiogomphus severus, cf, 9. 

Ophiogomphus severus Hag. I Hayden's Bep., 1878, 591. 

Hab. Colorado, foothills and plains, end of September; Fort 
Garland, Col., June 27 ; South Montana and Yellowstone, N. Mexico. 

Given doubtfully in Hayden's Bep., 1872, 727, as 6. colubrinus 
by me. 



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Oc lOOMU AUft. * - 

1. OdogomptoM 9eeiiliirii» cf, 9. 

iV€09«i9idhi«f tpee^arU Seljil Sja. Add^ i, IS, €4 bis. ^ Hag. 
8jni.Ilia,27. 
Oetogtm^pkm ipee^arU Stfy9\ Sjn. AddiL, m, S2, €4 bis. 
Hsb. Ft. TigoB, GsL; Su Ifsteo and dyital Spri^i, CaL 

DBOMOQOMKHUa. . 

1. Bromogomphiis spinosns, <f, 9. 

Dr0Mo^(HiipA«c iptnottif Seljs ! lfoiiogr.y 120» S5, |^ 7, £ 2; Sjn., 
40,51.~H^. Sjm.! 102, 8; Siett. Z., xxir, S73, 43; ^FtocBobL 
8oc Kai. Hic^ xvi, 859, 16. 

Gamjikui tpiaanu Hag.! FoeilidL Bansk. Y. &» 185$, 125. — 
Walsh I Proc Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 391. 

Hab. Georgia, June 6 ; Bee Spring, Kentucky, June; Des Plaines 
Biyer, near Giicago, BL; Dallas, Texas. 

2. Dromogomphiui spoliatns, <f . 

. GampkuM, sp^Iiattti Selys! Monogr., 409, 36 Ihs, pL 21, £ 1; Syn. 
Adait.,i,17,32bi8. — H^r.Sjrn.1 103,10. 

Hab. Pecos Biyer, Western Texas. One male known. 

8. BromogomphiiB armatos, cf. 

Gtmpkui ormolus Selysl Monogr., 122, 36; Sjn., 40, 50; Addit, 
m, 54, 52. -* Hag. Sjm. I 102, 9. 

Hab. K. America. One male in the British Moseom known. 
After a repeated and detailed exi^nination of the typical nuile, 
Baron De Seljs Longchamps is snre of the difference finom Z>. spoHa* 
tm. I noted down in 1861, after mj examination (^ the same male, 
that D. wpoUaiui is only the. te^era^.stage of />. armatui,^ , 

GOMPHVS. . . , 

i. Gkmiplmi paiHidiis, 9.' 

Gomphus poUidus Bamb.! Nenr., 163, 12. — Selys! Monogr., 145, 

> The disgnuii «f tiie •ppemOMgm tad goaltal iMurte of Di^riMifaty ands»bj jay- 
Mlfia Loiid<tai,lf,«ORect, tfer^lifl^ireitt fro^thoip, of rZX «N>lia4M^ and wdold 
jiVtUyUieiloteiiientof Voron.Pe Seijt LoagfdisQipB* The jroperlof i^pendsgei. 
of A armatus are, viewed from the aide, longer fuid sharply pointed; the inferior 
ihorter, resdiinff oiMMit the aiiflet of the snperletA. -Thi» haoMiw 4a longer than 
im D, tipottatms. 



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.47vpl^ By t% <paitliiiO ; S^n.^ 881 Aii.^ 6^.-8711. MOS^, IS; Stett. 
Z, XXIV, 873, 45; Froc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist, xvi, 85$, 14. 
fiab. 'Georgia, May ]5.> PHibably belonging to G.pUipes. 
^d» OomphUs pil^liM, <f, 9. 

Gomphuspilipes Selja I Monogi^ 148,^, pi. 8^^^ 7f S)nw' Addit., i, 
15, 40 biii — ^Hag. Syn.l 108, 17; 8tett. Z., xxiv, 878, 46; Ptoc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 859, 15. 
Hab. Greorgia; New Orleans. 
8. Oomphtui villosipesy <f , 9. 
^ Gtm^us. viUoHpes^ Belys I Syn., 84, 44r. -^ Hag. Sya. f 105» 15; 
• Gomphtu p€diidU8 8tfyBiMonogt,f 145, 47 (partini ; only the male). 
Hab. Natick, Mass^, Jane 4 «, ^ Detroit, Mich., June. 

4. 'Oomphus; liYidUs, (f , 9. 

Gomphus Uvidug Sdyal Monog«, 150, 49, pi. 11^ £ 1. ; Syn., 84, 42. 
— Hag. Syn. I 106, 18. 
- ' GmnpikHs sordidus Belys ! Syn^, 85, 48 (male). 

Hab« Si Carolina; Washington, D. C; Natick, Mass. 

5. Oomi^ma militaris, <^, 9. 

Gomphus milUarit Selysl Monogis 4l6,>51 biasi^ 91if.:8;.Syn. 
Addit, I, 16, 44 bis. — Hag. Syn.! 107, 20. 

V Habr Feoos Riyer, Western Teoauii July 5^Ang. 14{ a. female, 
Waco, Texas, May 22, differs slightly. 

6. Gk>mphiui intvioatus, <f. > . . 
Gomphus intricatus Selyst Monogri,' 419, 51 ter.,<pL 21,'f. 8; Syn. 

Additj 1, 16, 44 ter.-:-Hag. Syn. I 108, 21. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, June 2;* Ifiseoorf^ July 1. ' 
•I 7« ^CNmiplnuiiiiittutiiB, <f, 9. 

Gomphus minutus Ramb. 1 • f^eur^^ 161) 9««^Selys I Monogr., 155, 
51, pL U, f. S^ Syn., 86y 45:^^Hll^ I Syn;, lOa, 82; Stett. Z., 
XXIV, 873, 47; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. ffist., xvi- 859, IS. 
I Hab^ Georgia, Miarch 29. 

8. OomphiiB ezilis, <f, 9. 

Gomphus exUis Selysl Monogr., 196, '52} Syte., 86, 46; Addit, in, 
21,46.— Hag. Syii,! 108, 28; Pitic; Bost; Soc; Nat. flirt;, XTy 278,^86. 

Hab. Maffylaiid>; Suttoo, MassaohOB^Its, Jmie; Natidt, May '81- 
June 80. 

9-^ OomphoB notatuBy cT, 9« 
^ Gmnpkus^ notatus Rialb.1 NiBUr., 16^, 10^ — Selys^^l MonogA,.159, 
55; Syn., 39, 49 (male). — Hag.l Syn., 110, 26. 

G<mphus elongoMsi^yt I Syn;, 89^ 50 (female). 



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Hab. N. America. The male in the Paris Moiemn, the female in 
the British Museum. 

In the Syn. Addit, m, p. 77, Baron De Selys separates the two spe- 
cies again, perhaps inadvertently, as there is no ftirther account giren. 

10. GomphoB amnioolay <f, 9. 

Qcmphus amnieola WalshI Froc. Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 896.-*Sely«, 
Syn. Add., u, 21, 48 bis. 
Hab. Bock Island, lU. 

11. Oomphus spinioeps, 9. 

Maerogomphus spinireps Walsh, Proe. Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 889; 
Froc. Ent Soc. Fhilad., i, 256 nota. — Selys, Syn. Addit., ii, 42, 8 bis. 
Gomphus spiniceps Selys, Syn. Addit., iii, 28, 48 quint. 
Nympha raised. Cabot 1 5, 8, pi. 2, f. 1, male (rudimentary). 
Hab. Bock Island, HI. ; Lawrence, Mass., July 4-24. 

12. GomphoB fluvialis, <f, 9. 

Gimphus AwnalisWaXBhl Froc. Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 894; Froc. 
£nt. Soc. Fhilad., i, 252. — Selysl Syn. Addit, ii, 22, 48 ter. 

Bock Island, Bl., and Southern Blinois; Detrmt, Michigan. 

Nympha (raised) from Detroit. 

18. Gomphus plagiatos, d, 9. 

Gomphus plagiatus Selys I Monogr., 159, 54; Syn., 88, 48. — Hag. I 
Syn., 109, 25. 

Hab. Maryland; Fort Boyal, S. Carolina. 

14. Gomphus olivaoeus, 9. 

Gomphus olivaceus Selys, Syn. Addit., in, 21, 48 quart. — Hag. 1 
Hayden's Bep., 1878, 597. 
Hab. Humboldt Biver, Nebraska; CaUfomia; (perhaps Oregon). 

15. Gomphus parrulus, <f, 9. 

Gomphus parvulus Selys ! Monogr., 157, 58, pi. 22, f. 1; Syn., 87, 
47. — Hag. I Syn., 109, 24. 

Hab. Nova Scotia; White Mountains, N. Hampdiire, June 17; 
Maine ; Berks Co. and York Co., Pennsylvania. 

16. Gomphus Scudderi, 9. 

Gomphus Scudderi Selys, Syn. Addit, iii, 24, 52 ter. 
Hab. N. America. Unknown to me; only one female. 

17. Gomphus dilatatus, d*, 9. 

Gomphus dilatatus Bamb.I Neur., 155, 2. — Selys I Monogr., 128, 
87, pi. 7^ £ 8; Syn., 28, 81. — Hag. ! Syn., 108, 11; Stett Z., xxiv, 
878, 44 ; Froc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist., XYi, 859, 17. 

Hab. Georgia, May 24; Florida; Lansing, Mich. 



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1875.] 47 IHi^wi. 

18. Gk>mphu8 vaatus, d*, 9. 

Gomphus vastus Walsh I Proc. Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 891. — Selys I 
Syn. Addit., n, 13, 81 ter. 

Hab. Rock Island, Bl.; Maryland (?); N. Ycwk; Tyngsboro, 
Mass. (?); Washington, D. C. 

19. Gk>mphu8 ventrioosiUy d*, 9. 

Gomphus ventricosusWelsh, Proc. £nt. Soc. Philad., i, 249. — Selys, 
Syn. Addit, n, 14, 81 quart. 

Hab. Rock Island, Bl., one male ; Dalton, Virginia. 

The female from Virginia in my collection, formerly my G.ignavus, 
belongs yery probably to G. verUricosus. 

20. Gk>mphu8 extemusy (^, ?. 

Gomphus extemus Selysl Monogr., 411, 87 bis; pi. 21, f. 2; Syn. 
Addit, I, 14, 81 bis. — Hag. ! Syn., 104, 12. 
Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July 5 ; Nebraska. 

21. Oomphus oonsobrinus, c^, 9. 

Gomphus consobrinus Walsh 1 Proc. £nt Soc. Philad., i, 242; Selysl 
Syn. Addit, n, 15, 82 bis. 
Hab. Rock Island, Bl. ; Bee Spring, Kentucky. 

22. Gomphus quadrioolor, d*. 

Gomphus quadricolor Walsh, Proc. Ent Soc. Philad., i, 246. — 
Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 19, 88 ter. 

Hab. Rock Island, 111., one male ; two males from Mt Tom, Mass., 
and Lansing, Mich., probably belong to this species. 

28. Gk>mphu8 graslinellus, <f, 9. 

Gomphus graslinellus Walsh I Rroc. Acad. Phil., 1862, 894 ; Proc. 
Ent Soc. Philad., i, 242. — Selys 1 Syn. Addit, i, 16, 82 ter. 

Hab. Rock Island, Bl. 

24. Oomphus spioatuSy cf, 9. 

Gomphus spicatus Selys 1 Monogr., 158, 50; 415, 50, pL 9, f. 2; Syn., 
84, 44; Addit, u, 20, 44. — Hag. Syn. 1 107, IB. 
Hab. Ontario, Canada ; Natick, Mass, June 4 ; New York. 

25. Oomphtui fratemus, <f , 9. 
JEschnafrcUemus Say, Joum. Acad. Philad., vni, 16, 9. 
Gomphus fratemus Selys I Monogr., 125, 88, pi. 7, f. 4; Syn., 28, 

82. — Hag. Syn., 104, 14. — Walsh, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 898; 
Ph)C. Ent Soc. Philad., i, 288. 

Hab. New York, Rock Isl., 111.; Dallas, Texas (probably) ; New 
Hampshire (probably). 



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26. Gk>mphu8 oonfratemiis, <fi 9. 
f fQompktuk'don/raiernm'SelyMi Syn. Addit^ iii,<16, 8d bis. 

Hab. California. Unknown to me. 

87. < Gtomphos adelphus, <^. 

Gomphus adelphus Selys 1 Monogr., 416, 88 bit ;^ Syn. Ad£^ i, 16y 
84 ter. 

flab. . New York. 

28* Gk>mphii8 aobriniu, <f. 

Oomphus sobrinusi Selj«y Sjun. Addit , lUy 18, 82 ter. 

Hab. .\Cmliforsku i ^Unknown to me. 

Fbogomphus. / , 

. vl. . tProgompinis bbsourasy 9. 

DtWa/omnta oftscurum Rbr. I NeuK., 170, &. 

Progamphmscbieunu Sefyft M^mogt*.^ 2^, 70 ; '$jrn., M; 69. — Hag. 
Syn., 110, 1. 

Hteb. ■ - N. America. 

A female from Boston, Mass., July; may beloAg to P. oktcnrus. 
Perhaps the nympkai^ron Wafeliatt,>Mass^, bebiigs to Ibis species. 
Cabot, 6, 9, pi. 2, f. 8. i - . 

- Uyv Progon^koB boreaUs^ cf, 9. 

Progomphus bareoHs Selys, Syn. Addit^, iir, 86, 68 bis. — Hag. t 
.Brm. Bost. Soe. Nat. fiisC, xvi, 856, 18. 

Hab. Oregon; <Seorgla{ Dallas, Texas. 

I have seen two males fk>m Geergki^^and Texitt^ and tbe figure of 
male aAd female by Abbeti -Ma *licL«Mni states that the two small 
teeth befinreu the ' tip of the inH&iot ai^ndag^ (ef. Proc^ Bost. Soe. 
Nat. Hist., XYi. 858) are present; there is no fbrther doubt about 
the identity of the males from Oregon and Oeorgia. 
,. 8. Brogciniphiui sonatusi 9. 

Progomphus zonatm^ Selys I Monogr., 268| 71, ^. lly iu f > Syn., 58, 
70. — fiag.lSyn., Ill, 2. 

Hab. Mexico. . .« 

4. FroffoiQPbivi integer, <f, 9. 
^ Pi^»fompk%u tnie^wr Hag. odL*^ Selys/ Bfn^ Addit, n, 45. (No 
'descnption.) • t .<u 

Hab. Cuba. 
• 5.. Brogomi^iie aerenus, e. 

Progomphus serenus Hhg. coM. (No description.) 

Gomphoides spec. Uhlerl Proc. Bost Soe. Nat B^t, xi, 295. 

Hab. Hayti; J^r^mie. 



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\^^ 



1875.] 49 [Hagen. 

GOMPHOIDES. 

1. Gomphoides suasa, cf, ?. 

Gomphoides suasa Selys! Syn. Addit., i, 19, 72 bis.; Addit., ii, 28, 
72 bis; Addit, iii, 69, 72 bis. — Hag. Syn.l 112, 2. 

Gomphoides perfida Hag. I Syn. 112, 3, male. 

Race, Gomphoides pacijica Selys, Syn. Addit., in, App. 60, 72 ter. 
and 81. 

Hab. Vera Cruz, Tampico, Putla, Mexico. 

2. Gomphoides ambigua, ?. 

Gomphoides ambigua Selys, Syn, Addit., in, App. 61,. 75 quart. 
Hab. Guatemala. 

3^ d^omphoides stigmata, cf, ?. 
^schna stigmata f Say, Journ. Acad. Fhilad., viii, 1 7, 10. 
Progomphus siigmatus Selys! Monogr., 205, 72; Syn., 53, 71. 
Gomphoides stigmata Selys! Monogr., 423, 72, pL 21, f. 5; Syn. 
Addit, II, 28, 71. 
Hab. Pecos River, Texas. 

APHYI4Jk. 

1. Aphylla producta, <f, 9. 

Aphylla producta Selys! Monogr., 230, 83, pi. 12, f. 6; Syn., 60, 81. 
Aphylla Caraiba Selys! Sagra, Ins. Cuba, 466. 
Gomphoides producta Hag.! Syn., 113, 6. 
Hab.' Cuba; British Guiana; Babia, Brazil. 

Cyclophylla. 

1. Cyclophylla elongata, cf. 

Cyclophylla elongata Selys! Monogr., 224, 84, pi. 12, f. 6; Syn. 
Addit, I, 20, 79 ter. 

Gomphoides elongata Hag.! Syn., 113, 4. 
Hab. Mexico. One male. 

2. Cyclophylla protracta, c^, 9. 
Cyclophylla protracta Selys! Syn. Addit, 20, 79 ter. 
Gomphoides protracta Hag.! Syn., 113, 5. 

Hab. Matamoras, Mexico. 

Hagenius. 

1. Hagenius brevistylus, (f, 9. 

Hagenius hrevistylus Selys! Monogr., 241, 86, pi. 13, f. 2; Syn., 
63, 84.— Hag. Syn-.! 114, 1; Proc. Bo»t Soc. Nat Hist., xv, 272, 36. 

PBOOBEDINOS B. B. S, H. — VOL. XTUI. 4 SEPTEMBEB, 1875. 



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Hagen.] 60 [Ilftf6» 

Nympba raised. Cabot, Cat Mas. Comp. Zool., v, 9, 12, pi. 8, f. 4. 

Hab. New York; Sutton, Mass.; Upper Wisconsin River; Ot- 
tawa, Canada; Osage, Kansas; San Antonio, Texas; Jdaryland; Co- 
lombia, S. America. 

Tachoptertx. 

1. Taohopteryx Thoreyi, <f, 9. 

Uropetala Thoreyi Selys! Monogr., 878, 122, pi. 19, £ 8; Syn. 
Addit., I, 25, 116 bis. 

Petalura Thoreyi Hag.l Syn., 117, 1. 

Hab. Massachusetts (Uhler Coll.); New York; Maryland; Fort 
Towson, S. Bed Biver; Bee Spring, Kentucky, May. 

The nympha (supposed) from Kentucky. 

Subfamily COBDULEGASTEBINA. 

CORBULEO ASTER. 

1. Oordulegafter Sayi, d*, 9. 

Cardulegaster Sayi Selys! Monogr., 881, 19; Syn., 85, 106; Addit, 
n, 40, 106.— Hag. Syn.1 115, 1; Stett Z., xxiv, 878, 48; xxvra, 
99; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hipt., xv, 278, 87; 876, 1; xvi, 856, 10. 

Cordvlegaster lateralis Scudder ! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 211 ; 
XI, 800. 

Hab. Port Neuf, Canada; White Mountains, N. Hampshire, July 
15; Portland, Me. ; Stow, Cambridge, July, Massachusetts; Maryland; 
Ogechee Biver, Greorgia, March 80. 

Nympha (supposed), Cabot, 1. c, 18, 15, pi. 8, f. 2. 

2. Cordulegaster maoulatusy d*, 9. 

JEschna Miqua Say, yar. A.! Joum. Acad. Philad., yni, 16, 8. 

Cordulegaster mactdatus Selys! Monogr., 887, 111; Syn., 86, 108. — 
Hag. Syn.1 115, 2; Stett Z., xxiy, 878, 49; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat 
Hist, XV, 278, 88; xvi, 852, 11. 

Hab. Wobum, Mass.; Connecticut; Maryland; Georgia, March 
20; Ontario, Canada. 

8. Cordulegafter dorsalis, <f, 9. 

Cordulegaster dorsalis Selys I Monogr., 847, 115; Syn. Addit, i, 
SB, 118 bis; Addit, lu, 44, 118 bis.— Hag. Syn.! 116, 8. 

Hab. Sitka, Alaska; Oregon. 

4. Cordulegafter obliquus, <f, ^. 

JEschna obliqua Say^ Joum. Acad. Philad., Yi|i, 15, 8. 

Cordulegaster /asciatus Bamb.! Neur«, 178, 1. 



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ItnL] 61 iOMgm. 

Corduiefftuter dbUquus Sdjs! Monogv., 849, 116, pi. 18, f. 5; S^n., 
89, 113. — Hag. SynJ 116, 4; Stett. Z., xxiv, 878, 50; Proe. Bost 
Soc. Nat. Hist, xvi, 856, 12. — Walsh, Froc. Adad. Fhilad., 1863, 
897. 

Hab. Brookline, Mass.; Orono, Maine; Ck>imecticat; Georgia; 
Indiana; Illinois; Kentucky, June. 

5. Oordolegaster Diadema» <f, ?. 

Cordtdegaster Diadema Selys, Ann. Soe. Belg., xi; Pmc., 68; Syn. 
Addit, II, 40, 108 bis. 

Hab. Orizaba, Cuemayaca, Mexico. Unknown tb me. 

Gomphina from South Atnerica. 
Hrrprtooomphus. 

1. Herpetogomphufl Menetriesii, 9. 

Opkiogomphiu Menetriesii Selys, Syn., 20, 20. -^ Syn. Ad(fit., ni, 
App., 75. 

Ophiogomphus crotalinus SelyslMonogr., 75 nota. — Hag. Syn., 812. 

Hab. Brazil. 

The short description of the male was taken from a diagnosis made 
long before the publication of the Monograph; the only female at 
hand slightly differed from H, crotalinus. Other specimens are needed 
to confirm the identity or nonidentity with H, crotalinus. 

Neooomphus. 

1. Neogomphus molBBtoMt <ri 9. 

Progomphus molestus Hag. I Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 121. 

Neogomphus molestus Selys! Monogr., 188, 65, pi. 10, f. 4; Syn., 
48, 64. — Hag. Syn. I 812. 

Hab. Salto Grande and Quillota, ChUi. 

Hemigomphus elegans Selys, Syn., 48, 68, was based on a male 
from the interior of Brazil, no longer accessible when the Monograph 
was published, and then umted with N. molestus. In the list, Syn. 
Addit, in, Append.* 80, it is given again as a different species, bat 
no description added. 

Ctakogomphus. 

1. Oyanogomplvus Walt^eri, cf. 

Cyanogomphus Waltheri Selys, Syn. Addit, m, 27, 58 ter, 
Hab. Rio Janerio, Brazil, November. 
One male; unknown to me. 



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fla«en.] 52 [May 6, 

Epioomphus. 

1. Epigomphus paludosus, cf, ?. 

Epigomphus paludosus Selys! Monogr., 85, 22, pi. 5, f. 4; Syn., 
41, 53; Addit., iii, 28, 58. — Hag. Syn., 812. 
Hab. Minas Geraes, Brazil 

2. Epigomphus obtusus, cf, 9. 

Epigomphus obtusw Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 24, 53 bis; Addit., iii, 
29, 53 bis. 

Hab. St. Paulo, Upper Amazon; Peba, Brazil; Bogota, New 
Granada. Unknown to me. 

Agriogomphus. 

1. Agriogomphus sylvioola, ?. 

Agrigamphus sylvicola Selys, Syn. Addit, in, 27, 58 bis. 

Hab. St Paulo and £ga, Upper Amazon. Unknown to me. 

Progcmphus. 

1. Frogomphus paucinervis, 9. 

Progomphw paucinervis Selys, Syn. Addit, in, 54, 66 bis. 
Hab. Quito, Ecuador. One female; unknown to me. 

2. Frogomphus pygm»us, d, 

Progamphus pygmceus Selys, Syn. Addit., iii. Append., 58, 66 ter. 
Hab. Bogota, New Granada. Unknown to me. 

3. Frogomphus gracilis, cf, ?. 

Progomphus gracilis Selys I Menogr., 196, 67, pi. 10, f. 6; Syn., 

51, 66. — Hag. Syn. I 312. 
Hab. New Fribourg, Brazil. 

4. Frogomphus oomplicatus, c^, ?. 

Progomphus complicatus Selys! Monogr., 198, 68, pi. 11, f. 1; Syn., 
.51, 67; Addit, ii, 27, 67; Addit, iii, 35, 67. — Hag. Syn.I 312. 
. Hab. Tijuca and Carrancas, Minas, Brazil, November. 

6. FrogoQiphus intricatus, d* , ?. 
. Progomphus intricate Selys! Monogr., 421, 68 bis., pi. 22, £ 8; 
Syn. Addit, i, 19, 67 bis. — Hag. Syn.! 318. 

Hab. Bara, Amazon, Brazil. 

6. Frogomphus oostalis, <f. 

Progomphus costalis Selys! Monogr., 200, 96, pL ii, f. 2; Syn., 

52, 68. — Hag. Syn., 312. 
Hab. BraziL 



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im.} 63 [Hi^en. 

GOMPHOIDES. 

1. Gomphoides infmnata, <^. 

Diasfatomma in/umatum Rbr.! Neur., 170, 4. 
Gomphoides infumata Selysl Monogr., 210, 73, pL 11, f. 4; Syn., 
55, 72. — Hag.ISyn., 313. 
Hab. Brazil. One male. 

2. Gomphoides ftiligino8a» 9. 

Gomphoides fuliginosa Selys! Monogr., 211, 74, pi. 11, f. 5; S/n., 
65, 78. — Hag.I Syn., 313; Foerhdl, Dansk. V. S., 1855, 125. 

Hab. Essequibo, Guiana. One female. 

8. Gomphoides audax, ?. 

Gomphoides audax Selys! Monogr., 213, 75, pi. 11, f. 6; Syn., 56, 
74.— Hag.! Syn., 313. 

Hab. Brazil. One female. 

4. Gomphoides semicircularis, d*. 

Gomphoides semicircularis Selys! Monogr., 215, 76, pi. 12, f. 1; 
Syn., 57, 75. 

Hab. South America probably. The single male had the label 
Guinea, perhaps erroneously. 

5. Gomphoides regularis, cf, ?. 
Gomphoides regularis Selys, Syn. Addit., in, 37, 85 ter. 
Hab. Carrancas, Brazil, November. Unknown to me. 

6. Gomphoides annectens, <^. 

Gomphoides f anneetens Selys, Syn. Addit., ii, 29, 75 bis. 
Hab. New Fribourg, Brazil. Unknown to me. 

Aphtlla. 

1. Aphylla edentata, (f , ?. 

AphyUa edentata Selys, Syn. Addit,, it, 33, 80 ter. 
Hab. Ega, Upper Amazon. Unknown to me. 

2. Aphylla brevipes, d", 9. 

Aphylla brevipes Selys! Monogr., 227, 82; Syn., 59, 80. 
Hab. Para, Brazil. 
8. Aphylla tenuis, d*. 

Aphylla tenuis Selys I Monogr., S^-n. Addit., i, 21, 80 bis. — Hag.! 
Syn., 117, 4. 
Hab. New Granada. 
4. Aphylla dentata, cf, ?. 
AphyUa dentcUa Selys! Syn. Add., i, 21, 81 bis. 
Hab. Amazon. 



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.1 j54 [M«y 5, 

5. Aphylla Molossusy d*. 

AphyUa Molossus Seljs, Syn. Addit., n, 83, 81 ter. 
Hab. Santarem, Amazon; perhaps a race of :^. derUata\ unknown 
to me. 

6. Aphylla prodaota. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab.' British Guiana; Bahia, Brazil. 

ZONOPHOBA. 

1. Zonophora angostipexmis, cf, ?* 

Diaphlebia angustipennis Selys! Monogr., 237, 85; Syn.,. 62, 83.— 
Hag.! Syn., 313. 
Hab. Para, Brazil. 

2. Zonophora semiliberay cf. 

Diaphlebia semilibera Selys, Syn. Addit, u, 84, 83 bis. 

Hab. Amazon. Unknown to me. 

8. Zonophora Batesi, cf. 

Zonophora Batesi Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 35, 82 bis. 

Hab. Fonte Boa, Upper Amazon. Unknown to me. 

4. Zonophora campanulatay cf . 
Diastatamma campantdata Burm.! Handb., n, 833, 4. 
Zonophora campantdata Selys! Monogr., 234, 84, pi. 13, f. 1; Syn., 

61, 82.--Hag.!Syn., 313. 
Hab. Brazil. 

5. Zonophora Oalippus, cf, ?. 

Zonophora Calippus Selys, Syn. Addit, ii, 36, 82 ter. 
Hab. Santarem, Amazon. Unknown to me. 

Ctclophtlla. 

1. OyclophyUa diphylla, cf . 

CyclophyUa diphyUa Selys! Monogr., 217, 77, pi. 12, f. 1; Syn., 

57, 76. — Hag.! Syn., 313. 
Hab. Brazil. 

8. Cyclophylla gladiata, d* . 

CyclophyUa gladiata Selys! Monogr., 219, 78, pi. 12, f. 3; Syn., 

58, 77; Addit, in, 38, 77. — Hag.! Syn., 313. 
Hab. Pemambuco, Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

8. CyclophyUa signata, cf, 9. 

CyclophyUa signala Selys! Monogr., 220, 79, pi. 12, f. 4; Syn., 58, 
78. — Hag.! Syn., 313. 
Hab. Brazil; Venezuela. 



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4. Cyolophylla sordida, cf. 

CydophyUa sordida Seljtl MoDOgr., 228, 80; Syn., 59, 57. — Hag. I 
Sjn., 318. 

Hab. Brazil. 

6. Cyolophylla Ophis, cf. 

CydophyUa Ophi$ Seljs, Syn. Addit., ii, 80, 77 bb. 

Hab. Bio Tapajos, Amazon. Perhaps a race of C. sordida\ un- 
known to me. 

6. Cyolophylla Andromeda, ?• 

CydophyUa Andromeda Selys, Syn. Addit, u, 81, 78 bis. 
Hab. Caripi, Amazon. One female; unknown to me. 

7. Cyolophylla PegasuSy.d', ?• 
CydophyUa Pegasus Selys, Syn. Addit, 82, 78 quart. 
Hab. Bio Tapiyos, Amazon. Unknown to me, 

I possess two species of this genus from Cordova, Argentine Be- 
public, but the smgie specimens of each are imperfect. 

Haobnius. 

1. Hagenios breyistyliis. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Columbia. 

ICTINUS. 

1. . lotinus LatrOy cf , 9. 

IcHnus Latro Erichson! Schomburgh Beise, ni. 

Cacus Latro Selysl Monogr., 294, 102, pi. 16, £ 1; Syn., 78,. IfOO*. 

Hab. Britbh Guiana and Manilla. 

CORDULBOASTSR. 

1« Cordule^^aster diastatops, d*, ?. 
Thecaphora diastatops Selys! Monogr., 320, 105, pL 16, f. 4; Syn., 
82, 102. — Hag. Syn., 818. 
Hab. Columbia. 

PSTALIA. 

1. PetaUa ponotata, cf, ?. 

POalia punetaia Selysl Monogr., 858, 117, pi. 18, f. 8; Syn., 9<^. 
114; Addit., ii, 41, 114. — Hag.! Syn., 818. 
Hab. Ouchacay, Chili. 



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Hagen.] 56 [May 6, 

2. Fetalis stictioa, e. 

PliyUopetalia sticHca Selys! Monogr., 857, 118, pi. 18, f. 6; Syn. 
Addit., I, 24, 114 bis. — Hag. I Syn., 313. 

Hab. Valdivia, ChUi. 

8. Petalia apicalis, cf. 

Phyllopeialia apicalis Selysl M<mogr., 859, 119, pi. 18, f. 7; Syn. 
Addit., I, 24, 114 ter. — Hag. Syn., 818. 

Hab. Valdivia, Chili. 

4. Fetalla pestilens, cf . 

Hypopetclia pestUens M'Lachl., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1870, 171. — 
Selys, Syn. Addit., iii, 45, 114 quart. 
Hab. Chili. Unknown to me. . 

5. Petalia P pustulosa, 9. 

AUopetalia pustulosa Selys, Syn. Addit., iii, App. 67, 114 quint. 
Hab. Bogota, New Granada. Unknown to me. 
Allopetcdia reticuhsa SelyB, described as a race of P. pusttUosa, is 
an ^schna; the type is in my collection. 

Phenes. 

1. Phenes raptor » <f, ?. 

Phenes raptor Bamb.I 176, 1. — Gay Chili, vi, 115, pi. l,f. 6. — 
Selys I Monogr., 377, 123, pi. 19, f. 4; Syn., 93, 117. — Hag. Syn., 
313. 

Hab. Chili. 

Subfamily CORDULINA. 

M^CROMIA. 

1. Macromia cingulata, $. 

Ramb., Neuropt.! 137, 1. — Hag. Syn., 133, 2. — Selys, Syn. 
Cordul., 104, 66. 
Hab. N. America. Rambur's type is the only known specimen. 

2. Macromia pacifLca, cf, ?. 

Hag. Syn! 133, 4.— Selys, Syn. Cordul., 106, 67. 
Hab. N. America; Pacific Survey, Lat. 38**; Waco, Texas, May 
25; Dallas, N. Texas. 

3. Macromia annalata, cf, $. 

Hag. Syn.! 132, 2. — Selys, Syn. Cordul., 107, 68. 
Macromia flavipennis Walsh, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 398, 
variety. 



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187S.] 57 [Hagen. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas; Des Flaines River, near 
Chicago, HI. (the variety). 

4. Macromia illitioensiSy d*, 9. 

Wakh, Proc. Acad. Philad.I 1862, S97.--Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 
109, 69. " 

Hab. N. Hampshire; Wood's Hole, Mass., August; Pennsylvania; 
Enozville, Tennessee; Illinois. 

5. Macromia magnifica, d*, ?. 
Selys, Syn. Cordul., Addit., 11, 70 bis. 
Hab. California. Not known to me. 

6. Macromia transversa, <f, ?. 

Libellitla transversa Say I Journ. Acad., viii, 19, 8. 

Epophthalmia cinnamomea Burm. 1 Handb., n, 846, 2. 

Didymops Servillii Ramb.I Neur., 142, 1. 

Didymops transversa Hag. Syn., 185, 1; Stett. Z., xxiv, 874, 58. 

Macromia transversa Selys, Syn. Cordul.! in, 70. — Hag., Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 268, 22; xvi, 859, 20. 

Hab. Vermont; Milton and Stow, Mass., Aug. 80; Cambridge, 
July; New York; Pennsylvania; Washington, D. C; South Carolina; 
Georgia; Kentucky; Detroit River, Michigan. 

Nympha described by A. S. Packard, First Ann. Rep. Ins. Mass., 
1871, p. 819, pi. I, f. 11, and in the third edition of his Guide. 

7. Macromia tsdniolata, d*, ?. 

Mjacromia tceniolata Ramb.I Neur., 189, 8. — Hag. Syn., 132, 1; 
Stett. Z., XXIV, 374, 56; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 859, 19. 
Epophthalmia tceniolata Selys, Syn. Cordul.! 90, 57. 
Hab. Philadelphia, Pa.; Maryland; Georgia, June 20. 

Epitheca. 

1. Epitheca obsoleta, d*, 9. 

Libellula obsoleta Say ! Journ. Acad. Philad., vni, 28, 17. 

Ltbellula polysticta Burm. I Handb., ii, 856, 58. 

Cordidia molesta Walsh! Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., i, 254. 

Epilherat obsoleta Selys, Syn. Cordul,! 45, 25. — Hag., Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat Hist., xv, 269, 24. 

Didymops obsoleta Hag. Syn., 136, 2. 

Hab. Milton, Mass.; Indiana; Rock Island, HI.; New Orleans. 

Only three specimens, the types of Say, Burmeister and Walsh, 
are known ; that of the latter was burned in the Chicago fire. 



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Hl^eIl.] 58 [Mftyft, 

2. Epitheoa prooera, cf? 9. 

Epiiheea procera Selys, Syn. Cordul., 51, 29. 

CordtUia procera Hag. Syn., 138, 6. (No descriptioiL) 

Hab. N. America. 

I have seen only the female t3rpe in Selys' collection ; perhaps the 
male, Collection British Museum, does not belong to this species. 

8. Epitheoa lineariB, cf, 9. 

CordtUia linearis Hag.! Syn., 137, 2. 

Epitheca linearis Selys, Syn. Cordul.! 52, SO. — Hag.| Vtqc, Bost. 
Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 360, 23. 

Hab. N. Illinois; St Louis, Mo.; Pennsylyania. 

4. Epitheoa fllosa, cf, 9. 
CordtUia filosa Hag. I Syn., 136, 1. 

Epitheca filosa Selys, Syn. CorduLI 53, 21.— Hag., Fh)C. Bost 
Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 360, 22. 
Hab. Charles Co., Maryland; Georgia. 

5. Epitheoa tenebrosa, cf, 9. 

LibeUula tenebrosa Say, Joum. Acad., Fhilad., Tin, 19,4. 

CorduUa tenebrata Hag. Syn., 137, 3. (From the description of 
Say.) 

CordtUia tenebrica Hag. Syn., 138, 11. (No description.) 

Epiiheea tenebrosa Selys, Syn. Cordul. ! 55, 34. 

Hab. Nova Scotia; N. Jersey, June; Maryland, August; Indi- 
ana; N. Illinois (Kennicott), quoted with a ? firom Rock Island, Bl., 
by Walsh, Proc. Acad. Fhilad., 1862, 402. 

6. Epitheoa elongata, cf, 9. 

CordtUia elangata Scudder! Froc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, x, 218. — 
Hag., ibid, xv, 377, 9. 

CordtUia saturaia Hag. Syn., 138, 12. (No description.) 

Epiiheea elongata Selys, Syn. Cordul. ! 58, 55. 

Hab. Hermit Lake, White Mountains, N. H., end of August; 
Plymouth, N. H., July 16; Nova Scotia; Upper Wisconsin River. 

7. Epitheoa Walshii, cf. 

CordtUia Walshii Scudder I Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, x, 217.— 
Hag., ibid, xv, 377, 8. 
Epitheca Walshii Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 59, 36. 
Hab. The Glen, White Mountains, N. H., August 20-28. 
Only two males, the types of Mr. Scudder, are known. 

8. Epitheoa semioiroiilaris, cf, ?. 

EpUheca semidrctUaris Selys, Syn. Cordul.! 61, 37. — Hag., Hay- 
den's Rep., 1873, 590. 



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1875.) 69 [Hagen. 

Hab. Gulf of Geoi^gia; Victoria, Vancouver Island, Jvly; Col- 
orado, on Twin Lake and Arcade River, August 1-16; Pacific slope, 
August 16-September 10; Ogden, Utah. 

9. Epitheoa foroipata, (f, 9. 

Cordulia forcipata Scudderl Proc. Best Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 216; 
XI, 800. — Hag., ibid, xi, 294; ibid, xv, 376, 6. 

Cordulia chalyhea Hag. Syn., 188, 7. (No description.) 

EpUheca forcipata Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 61, 38. — Hag., Proc. Bost- 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 268, 28. 

Hab. The Glen, White Mountains, N. H., July 26; Maine; Nova 
Scotia; Fort Resolution, Hudson's Bay Territory. 

10. Epitheca septentrionalii, d*, 9. 
Cordulia septentrionalis Hag. Syn., 139, 14. 

Cordulia RichardMorU Hag. I Syn., 138, 9. (No descripition.) 
EpUheca septentrionalis Selys, Syn. Cordul.! 64, 40. 
Hab. Labrador; Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River, Hudson's Bay 
Territory. 

11. Epitheoa Frankliniy 9. 
Cordulia FrankUni Hag. I Syn., 188, 8. 

Epitheca septentrionalis Selys, Syn. Cordul., 64, 40; Addit., 9, 40. 
(partim.) 
Hab. Fort Resolution, Hudson's Bay Terr.; Saskatchewan River. 

12. Epitheoa Hudsonioay <^, 9. 
Epitheca Hudsonioa Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 67, 42. 
Hab. Fort Resolution, Hudson's Bay Territory. 
18. Epitheoa oingulata, cf, ?. 

Cordulia cinguUUa Hag. 1 Syn., 188, 10. (No description.) 

Epitheca dnguUxta Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 68, 43; Addit., 10, 43. 

Hab. Hopedal, Labrador; New Fonndlaaid; White Mountains, 
N. Hampshire. 

The male is not yet described; according to a communication from 
Baron De Selys Longchamps, it is related to the male of J^. tenebrosa 
by the inferior appendage, which is ftircate and recurved. 

14. Epitheoa albioinota, cf, 9. 

Epophihalmia aUnoincta'ExxrmA Handb., 11, 847, 8. 

Cordulia aOncincta Hag. I Syn., 188, 13. 

Cordulia eremita Scudd.I Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 216; xi, 
800. — Hag., ibid, XI, 294; ibid, xv,.876, 5. 

Epitheca alhicincta Selys, Syn. Cordul. ! 69, 44. 

Hab. Labrador; Hermit Lake, N. H., August 11-25; Mount 



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Hagen.] 60 [May 6, 

Washington, N. H., July 11; Watenrille, N. H., July 15; Fort Yu- 
kon, Alaska, June 25. 

16. Epitheca nasalis, 9. 

Epitheca nasalis Selys, Syn. Cordul., Addit, 10, 44 bis. 

Hab. N. America. Unknown to me. 

CORDULIA. 

1. Cordnlia libera, (f, 9. 

Cordulia libera Hag. Syn., 137, 5 (no description). — Selys, Syn. 
CorduL 1 29, 18. 
Hab. Canada; Detroit, Mich., June 7. 

2. Cordnlia lepida, (^,9. 

Cordulia lepida Selys, Syn. Cordul. ! SO, 14. — Hag., Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 270, 27. 

Hab. Brookline, Natick, Stow, Cambridge, July, Mass.; Ham- 
mond's Pond, Conn., June ll-July 8; Albany, New York; New Jer- 
sey; Portland, Maine; Maryland. 

I possess the nympba raised by Mr. K. T. Jones. 

8. Cordulia Shurtleffii, <^, 9. 

Cordulia Shurtleffii Scudd.l Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 217.— 
Hag., ibid, xv, 877, 7.— Selys, Syn. Cordul.! 31, 15. 

Cordulia bifurcata Hag. I Syn., 137, 4. (No description.) 

Hab. Fort Resolution and Saskatchewan, Hudson's Bay Terri- 
tory; Canada; Nova Scotia; Hermit Lake, White Mountains, N. H., 
August 11-25. 

The specimen from Ft. Yukon, Alaska, quoted as C. Shurtleffii 
Dall, belongs to a different species. 

4L Cordulia spinigera, cf, ?. 

Cordulia spinigera Selys, Syn. Cordul., 85, 19; Addit., 9, 19. 

Hab. Canada; Victoria, Vancouver's Island, July; Detroit, 
Ifich., June 7; (jeorgia. 

5. Cordulia csmosura, cf, ?. 

LibeUula cynosura Say I Journ. Acad. Philad., vni, 80, 19. 

Cordulia cynosura Selys, Syn. Cordul. I 36, 20. — Hag., Bost. Soc 
Nat. Hist, XV, 270, 26; xvi, 360, 25. 

Epopkthalmia lateralis Burm. ! Handb., 11, 847, 7. 

Cordulia lateralis Hag. 1 Syn., 139, 15. — Hag., Stett Z., xxiv, 
874, 61 ; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 860, 25. — Walsh, Proc. 
Acad. Philad. t 1862, 400, 402. 



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1875.] 61 LHi«en. 

Hab. Brookline, Mass.; Maine, August; Detroit Mich., June 7; 
Rock Island, III.; Ohio; Philadelphia, Pa.; Georgia; Louisiana; 
Florida, March. 

Variety Cordulia basiguttata Selys, Syn. Cordul.I 87, 20. 

Hab. Canton, Mass., June 21; Maine; Florida. 

The nympha, raised by Dr. A. S. Packard, is described, 18th Rep. 
Board of Agric, Mass., 1871, p. 379, pi. i, f. 10, and again in his 
Guide, 3d Edit. 

6. Cordulia semiaqaea, d*, ?. 
Libellulia semiaquea Burm.I Handb., ii, 849, 61. 
Tetragoneuria semiaquea Hag. I Syn., 140, 1. — Hag., Stett. Z., 

XXIV, 374, 62. 

Cordulia semiaquea Selys, Syn. Cordul.I 38, 21. — Hag., Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 270, 26; xvi, 360, 26. 

Tetragoneuria diffinis Hag. I Syn., 141, 3. (No description.) 

Hab. Nova Scotia (Selys); Massachusetts; Savannah, Georgia; 
South Carolina; Washington, D. C; Florida. 

Variety Cordulia complanata Ramb. I Neur., 145, 2. — Selys, Syn. 
CorduL, 39, 21. 

Hab. Probably Florida. 

C cynosura and C semiaquea belong probably to the same species 
as varieties. 

7. Cordulia costalis, d", 9. 

Cordulia cosialis Selys, Syn. Cordul., 39, 22; Addit, 9, 22. 

Tetragoneuria costalis Hag., Syn., 141, 4 (no description). — Stett. 
Z., xxtv, 374, 63; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 860, 27. 

Cordulia nov. spec. Hag., Stett. Z., xxiv, 374, 60. — Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 360, 24. (After the figures in Abbot's Mas.) 

Hab. Georgia. Unknown to me. 

8. Cordulia Uhleri, a, 9. 

Cordulia Uhleri Selys, Syn. Cordul. ! 40, 23. — Hag., Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 269, 25. 
Hab. Stow, Mass.; New Jersey; Orono, Maine. 
Only four specimens are known. 

9. Cordulia princeps, a, 9. 

Epitheca princeps Hag. 1 Syn., 134, 1. — Hag., Stett Z., xxiv, 874, 
57; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 359, 21. — Walsh I Proc. Acad. 
Philad., 1862, 400. 

Cordulia princeps Selys, Syn. Cordul.I 41, 24. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July 15- Aug. 7; Georgia, 



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Hi«en.J 62 [M^r6, 

May 7; Des Plaines lUver, HI.; Maryland; Detroit, Mich., trans- 
forming July 3 ; New Haven, Conn. 

The variety C regina Selys ! Syn. Cordul., 43, 24, I have seen 
firom Georgia, Connecticut, Michigan. 

I have two species, probably new, a male from Maine, related to 
E. elongata, and a female from Fort Yukon, Alaska, related to C 
albicincta, represented only by a single specimen, and not yet de- 
scribed. 

Cordulina frtnn South America, 
CORDULIA. 

1. Cordolia serioea, cf, 9 (?) 
Cordulia sericea Selys, Syn. Cordul., 28, 12. 
Hab. Para, Brazil, November. Unknown to me. 

2. Cordulia tomentosa, d. 

Libellula tomerUosa Fabr., Ent. Syst, ii, 381, 34. 

Cordulia tomentosa Hag. Syn., 316. — Selys, Syn. Cordul, 84, 17. 

Hab. America. 

Only the typical specimen (Banks' collection), in bad condition, is 
known. May not Z. tomentosa be identical with C, viUosa ? 

d. Cordulia villosay 9 . 

Cordulia villosa Kamb., Neur., 144, 1.— Hag. Syn., 815. — Selys, 
Syn. Cordul. I 34, 18. ■— Gay, Faun. Chili, vi, 113, pi. 2, f. 6. 

Hab. Chili, San Jago, Valparaiso. 

GOMPHOMACROMIA. 

1. Gomphomaoromia androgsmiSy d, 9. 
Oomphomacromia androgynis Selys, Syn. Cordul., 76, 48. 
Hab. Minas Geraes, Brazil. Not known to me. 

2. Gk>mphomacromia setifera, d . 
Cordulia setifera Hag. 1 Syn., 815. (No description.) 
Cordulia valga Hag. I Syn., 315. (No description.) 
Gompkomacromia seH/era Selys, Syn. Cordul., 77, 49. 
Hab. Rio Janeiro, New Fribourg* Brazil. 

3. Gomphomacromia Batesi, d. 
Gompkomacromia Batesi Selys, Syn. Cordul., 78, 50. 
Hab. St. Paulo, Upper Amazon, Brazil. 



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1876.] 63 plageil. 

4. Gk>mphomaoromia paradoxa, 8,9. 

Cordulia ChUemis Hag.! Syn., 816. — Foerhdl., Dansk. V. S., 
1855, 121. (No description.) 

CMorophysa Putzeysii Selys, Mss. 

GompJumacromia paradoxa Braner, Verhdl. Bot ZooL Ver. Wien., 
XIV, 103. — Reise d. Novara. Neur., 81, pi. 2, f. 5. 

Hab. Chili; Qnillota; Salto-Grande, Brazil. Male. 

5. Gk>mphomacromia Volxemi, 9. 
Gomphomacromia Voixemi Selys, Syn. Cordul. Addit., 10, 49 bis. 
Hab. Carrancas, Minas, Brazil, NoTember. Unknown to me. 

^SCHNOSOMA. 

1. iBschnosoma elegans, 9. 

JEschnosoma degans Selys, Syn. Cordul., 85, 54. 
Hab. Amazon, Altar do Chao, October 80. One specimen; un- 
known to me. ^ 

2. iEsohnosoma foroipula, ^ , 9 . 

Cordulia forciptda Hag. 1 Syn. 815. (No description.) 
JEschnosoma forciptda Selys, Syn. C!ordnl., 86, 55. 
Hab. Brazil, Para ; Upper Amazon, £ga and St. Paulo, Norem- 
ber; Bahia (?) 
8. iEschnosoma rustioa, i . 
Cordulia rusiica Hag. ! Syn., 315. (No description.) 
JEschnosuma rustifa Selys, Syn. Cordul, 87, 56. 
Hab. Bahia, Brazil. 

Subfamily LIBELLULINA. 

Pant ALA. 

1. Fantala flaVesoenSy 6, 9*. 

Libellula ftavMcent Fabr. 1 Ent. Syst. Suppl., 285, 18, 19, inale 
young. — Selys \ Sagra. Ins. Cub., 448. — Hag. I Foerfadl. Dansk. Y. 
S., 1855, 124. 

LibeUida viridula Palisot de Beaur., Ins. Afr. Neur., 69, pi. 8, f. 4. 
— Savigny, Descript. de I'Egypte Neur., pi. 1, f. 4. — Ramb., Neur., 
88,10. 

Libellula analis Burm. t Handb., ii, 852, 28, young male. 

Libellula terminalis Burm. 1 Handb., ii, 852, 24, male. 

Libellula SparshalHi Curtis, Guide, 162, 5. — Selys, Monogr. 'Lib., 
86. — Revue des Odon., 822. 



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Hagen.] 64 [May 6, 

Pantala Jlavescent Hag.l Sjn., 142» 1. — Stett Z., xxviii, i; 
ibid, XXIV, 374, 64. — Overs., Dansk. Vid. S. Forhdl., 1866, 122; 
Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 291 ; xvi, 860, 28. 

Hab. Georgia, July 8 ; Maryland ; St. Louis, Missouri ; Dallas, 
Texas; Matamoras, Matzatlan, Mex., October; Cardenas, Cuba, 
August-October; Martinique; St. Thomas; Barbados; Hayti; South 
America; in Asia, Africa, Oceanica; perhaps in Europe. 

2. Pantala Hymen8ea» cf , $ . 

Libellula Hymencea Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 18, 1. 

Pantala Hymencea Hag.l Syn., 142, 2; Stett. Z., xxviii, 217, 2 ; 
I'roc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 291. — Walsh I Proc. Acad. Philad.» 
1862, 400. 

Hab. Indiana; Illinois; Pecos River, Western Texas, June 4- 
August 14; Matamoras, Matzatlan, Mex., October; Cardenas, Cuba, 
October. 

Tholtmis. 

1. Tholjrmis citrina, d*, 9. 

Tholymis citrina Hag. ! Stett. Z., xxviii, 218, 1 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat Hist., XI, 291. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, July ; Panama ; Para, Brazil. 

Formerly this species was united with Z. TiUarga Fabr. ; now I 
possess both sexes of the three related species. Th, citrina I believe 
to be a different species ; of the two others I am not so sure ; per- 
haps they may be only races. 

Tramea. 

1. Tramea Carolina, cf, ?. 

Libellula Carolina L., Centur.'Ins., 28, 86 ; Am. Acad., vr, 441, 86. 

— Syst Nat., ed. xii, I, 904, 17; Gmelin, ed. xiii, V, 2624, 17.— 
Drury, Ins., i, 118, pi. 48. f. 1. — Fabr., Syst. Ent., 424, 28 ; Spec. 
Ins., I, 624, SO; Mant. Ins., i, 338, 33 ; Entom. Syst., Ii, 382, 41.— 
Burm. I Handb., ii, 862, 26. — Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 19, 2. 

— Ramb. INeur., 32, 1. 

Tramea Carolina Hag.! Syn., 143, 1; Stett. Z., xxiv, 374, 66; 
ibid, XXVIII, 222, 1 ; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 291 ; xv, 268, 
1; ibid, xvi, 361, 29. 

Hab. Natick, Mass., June 4 ; New York ; Bergen Hill, N. Jersey ; 
Georgia; Florida; Knoxville, Tennessee. 



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1875.] 65 [Hagen. 

The specimens quoted in my synopsis from Cuba, Guadeloupe, and 
St. Thomas, belong to T, onusta, 

2. Tramea onusta, d*, ?. 

Tramea onusta Hag. 1 Syn., 144, 2 ; Stett Z., xxviii, 22^ 2 ; Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 292. 

Libellula Carolina Selys 1 Sagra Ins. Cuba, 440. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, Jan. 4- August 13, Dallas, 
N. Texas; Matamoras, Matzatlan, Mexico, October; Key West, 
Florida, January-March; Cuba; St. Thomas; Guadeloupe; Pan- 
ama. In Cuba, only one female has yet been found by Mr. Poey, 

3. Tramea chinensis, ?, d*. 

Libellula chinensis De Geer, Mem., in, 556, pi. 25, 1. — Burnu, 
Handb., ii, 852, 27. — Hag. 1 Syn., 144, 2. 

LibeUula Virginia Rbr. ! 33, 2. 

Hab. Carolina (Vienna Museum) ; North America (Paris Mu- 
seum; Serville collection). 

This species, from China and Madras, is to be considered as very 
doubtfully belonging to N. America. 

4. Tramea lacerata, cf, ?. 

Tramea laceraia Hag. I Syn., 145, 4. — Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 
1862, 400. 

Hab. Chicago, North and South Illinois; Pecos River, Western 
Texas, July 10 ; Waco, Texas, July 7 ; Maryland ; Matamoras, Mex- 
ico; Detroit, Michigan, June. 

5. Tramea abdominalis, d*, ?. 
Libellula abdominalis Ramb., Neur., 37, 8. 
Libellula hasalis Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 441. 

Tramea abdominalis Hag. 1 Syn., 145, 5; Stett. Z., xxviii, 223, 3; 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 292. 

Tramea insularis Scudd. 1 Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 191. (In 
part, female.) 

Hab. Nantucket Island, Mass., August 30; Key West, Florida, 
March ; Mexico ; Cardenas, Cuba, April and October ; Hay ti. 

This species migrates in large flocks in March, in Cuba. 

6. Tramea insularis, cf, $. 

Tramea insularis Hag.l S}ti., 146, 6; Stett. Z., xxviii, 98 and 
224, 4 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 292 ; ibid., xv, 374, 5.— Scudd. 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 191; xi, 299 (in part, male). — 
Uhler I ibid., xi, 295. 

PSOCEEOINQS B. 8. N. H. — YOL. XYIU. 6 OOTOBEB, 1875. 



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BMgfio,} 66 [Mayl, 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, in July-October; Key West, Florida, 
February ; Hayti, May. 

T, insularis and T, abdominalis are yery nearly related, and united 
by Messrs. Poey, Gundlach, Scndder and Ubler. I have pointed out 
the differences, Stett Z., xxviii, 224. 

7. Tramea australis, cf, V. 

Tramea australis Hag. 1 Stett. Z., xxvm, 229, 7; Proc. Bost- Soc. 
Nat. Hist, XI, 292. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, July. 

I have seen only the female; the male is described firom a note 
by Mr. Gundlach. I suppose my TV. Iphigenia from Venezuela, 
New Granada, to be a different species. T, australis is an aber- 
rant species, perhaps belonging to Lepthemis, near £. cardinaUs, 
New specimens will decide the question. 

8. Tramea liaroellay d*, 9. 

Libellula MarceUa Selys 1 Sagra Ins. Cuba, 452. (No description.) 

Tramea simplex Hag. I Syn., 146, 7. 

Tramea MarceUa Hag. I Stett. Z., xxvin, 227, 6 ; Proc. Bost Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XI, 292. 

Hab. Cardenas ; Cuba, Norember ; Brazil, New Grenada^ Turbo ; 
Tampico, Mazatlan, Mexico, October. 

9. Tramea simplex, e, $. 

LibeUula simplex Bamb. ! Neur., 121, 128. — Selys I Sagra Ins. Cuba, 
452. 

Tramea simplex Hag. 1 Stett. Z., xxvin, 228, 6; Proc. Bost, Soc. 
Nat. Hist., xi,,292. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba. 

10. Tramea? balteata, d*, 9. 
Tetragoneuria halteata Hag. I Syn., 140, 1. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, August ; Key West, Florida, 
February; Cuba. 
An aberrant species ; perhaps not belonging to Tramea. 

Celithemis. 

1. Celithemis Eponina, cf, 9. 

LibeUula Eponina Drury, ii, 86, pi. 47, f. 2. — Fabr., Ent Syst, n, 
882, 39. — Coquebert, Icon., 27, pi. 7, f. 1.— -Burm., Handb., ii, 853, 
30. — Ramb., Neur., 46, 20.— Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 442. — Oliy., 
Enc. meth., vn, 572, 19.— Say, Joum. Acad. Philad., viu, 24, 11. 



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iwfi.] 67 ' [hnpm. 

Lxbdluta CamUa Kamb.! Neor^ 46, 21. 

Libellula Lucilla Ramb., Neur., 46, 22. 

Celithemis Eponina Hag.! Syn., 147, 1; Stett. Z., xxvin, 281, 1; 
ibid., XXIV, 374, 66; Proc. Boat. Soc* Nat. Hi8t.,xii 292; xv, 268, 
2; XVI, 861, 30. — Walsh! Pr6c. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. United States, east of Rocky Moantains ; Sangos, Natick, 
; Massachusetts, July, around Boston August 1-15; N. Jersey; Penn- 
sylvania; Virginia; Carolina; Maryland; Georgia, August) St. Au- 
gustine and Key West, Florida; New Orleans, La.; Kentucky; St. 
Louis, Mo.; Rock Island, HI.; Cuba. 

2. Celithemis Elisa, d*, 9. 

Diplax Elisa Hag.! Syn., 182, 15 ; Stett Z., xxrv, 875, 80; ibid., 
XXVIII, 232; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 266, 13 ; xvi, 868, 44. 

Celithemis Elisa Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. Natick, Massachusetts, July 17 -August 1<9, Cambridge, 
May; New Jersey; Detroit, Mich., June; Chicago, HI.; Georgia, 
June 9, rare; Canada. 

I cannot yet decide if Mr. Walsh is right in referring this species 
to Celithemis. C superba Syn., 148, 2 belongs to 

Ebtthbodiplax Braoer.' 

1. Erythrodiplax superba, d*, ?. 

Celithemis superba Hag.! Siyn., 148, 2. 

Hab. Oaxaca, Tampico, Matzatlan, Meidco, October. 

Plathemis. 

1. Plathemis trimaculata, <f, ?. 

Libellula trimaculdta DeGeer, M^m., iii, 666, 2, pi. 24, f. 23. — Fabr., 
TSfit. "Syst., II, 374, 6. — Burm.! Handb., ii, 861, 78. — Ramb.! Neur., 
52, 228. 

Libellula Lydia Drury, Ins., i, 112, pi. 47, f. 4. — Say, Joum. Acad. 
Philad., VIII, 20, 5 (male). 

Plathemis trimaculata Hag.! Syn. 149, 1; Stett. Z., xxvi, 374, 67; 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 263, 3; ibid., xvi, 361, 31.— Walsh! 
!troc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. Everywhere east of Rocky Mountains; Ontario, Canada; 
Maine; Massachusetts; N. York; N. Jersey; Pennsylvania; Mary- 
land; Washington, D. C. ; Georgia, July 18; Kentucky, June; Ohio; 



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Hi«eii.] 68 [Blayfi, 

niinots, May to September; Michigan, Jane 17; Dallas and Waco, 
Texas, May 25 - October 2 ; New Orleans. 

In my Synopsis North California is quoted ; probably the speci- 
men, no longer in my hands, belonged to P. subomata. 

2. Flathemis subomata^ cf, 9. 

PlathemxB subomata Hag.! Syn., 149, 2. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July 7; N. Mexico, June 80 ; 
S. Diego, California, April. 

LiBELLULA. 

1. Libellula forensis, cf, 9. 

L^llula forensis Hag.l Syn., 154, 9; Hayden's Rep., 1878, 585; 
ibid., Rep., 1872, 728. 

Hab. California; Victoria, Vancouver's Island, July; British 
Columbia; Yellowstope; Montana; Leave Spring, Arizona. 

2. Libellula nodisticta, cf, 9. 

Libellula nodisticia Hag.! Syn., 151, 8; Hayden's Rep., 1872, 727; 
Rep., 1878, 688. 
Hab. Mexico; Yellowstone; Montana. 

3. Libellula quadrimaoulata, cf, 9. 

Libellula quadrimaculata Linn^, S. N., xii, I, 901,1. — Fabr. — 
Burm. — Ramb. — Selys, Revue Odon., 72 (with synonymy complete). 
— Hag., Syn. ! 150, 1 ; Hayden's Rep., 1873, 683; Proc. Bost Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XV, 264, 6. — Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Libellula quadripunctata Fabr.! £nt. Syst., ii, 876, 5. 

Libellula temaria Say! Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 21, 7 (in part 
male). 

Hab. Massachusetts, July; Detroit, Michigan, June 7; Rock 
Island, m.; Wisconsin; Snake River, Idaho; Ogden, Utah; Bridger 
Basin, Wyoming ; Ontario, Canada; Saskatchewan River, Hudson's 
Bay Territory. Migrates in immense flocks. Common in Europe, 
N. Asia to Kamschatka. 

Race Z. prasnubHay in Massachusetts and Michigan. 

4. LibeUula semifasciata, cf, 9. 

Libellula semifasciata Burm.! Handb., ii, 862, 20. — Hag.! Syn., 
151, 2; Stett. Z., xxiv, 374, 68; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 
264, 6; ibid., xvi, 861, 82* —Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Libellula maculata Rbr.! Neur., 66, 81. 

Libellula temaria Say! Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 21, 7, 



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1875.] 69 [Hagen. 

Hab. Mancliester, Massachusetts, June SO-July 6, Cambridge, 
Stow; New York, June; New Jersey; Maryland; Carolina; Geor- 
gia, April 2-June 29, not very common; Dallas, Texas; Florida; 
Detroit, Mich., July 1 7 ; Des Plaines River, 111. 

6. Iiibellula exusta, cf, 9. 

Ltbellula exusta Say! Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 29, 18; Hag., 
Syn., 155; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 265, 7. 

LibelMa Julia Uhler, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1857, 88, 6; Hag., Syn., 
153, 7; Stett. Z., xxviir, 92. 

Hab. Sutton, Worcester, Yaughan's Pond, Massachusetts, July 9, 
Hammond Pond, Cambridge, June 11; Norway, Maine; Racine, 
Wisconsin ; Lake Winnipeg ; Fort Steilacoom, Puget Sound ; Victo- 
ria, Vancouver's Island, July ; Ontario, Canada. 

The existence of the type of Say, and its identity with the type 
of L. Julia ^ stated by Mr. Uhler, secures this species. The typical 
L, exusta has two pale bands on the thorax, which are not bluish in 
the adult ; but I am unable to discover specific characters, and con- 
sider both forms as belonging to the same species. Even L, de- 
planata seemed to be a dwarfish southern form, but there are diff- 
erences in the genital parts, probably important enough to separate 
the two species. A full description of L. Julia, cf , ?, by Mr. Uhler, 
is given, Stett. Z., xxviii, 92. 

6. Iiibellula deplanata, cf, 9. 

LibeUula deplanata Ramb.! Neur., 76, 61. — Hag., Syp., 154, 10; 
Stett. Z., XXIV, 874, 70 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat., xv, 265, 6 ; xvi, 
361, 84. 

Hab. Pennsylvania; Georgia. 

7. Iiibellula puichella, d*, 9. 

LibeUula pulcheUa Drury, Ins., i, 115, pi. 48, f. 5. — Ramb.! Neur., 
54, 80. — Duncan Introd., 292, pi. 29, f. 2. — Hag.I Syn., 153,8; 
Stett Z, XXIV, 874,69; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 264, 4; 
ibid., XVI, 361, 33 ; Hayden's Rep., 1873, 585.— -Walsh! Proc. Acad. 
Philad, 1862, 400. 

LibeUula versicolor Fabr.! Syst. Ent., 423, 17; Sp. Ins., i, 523, 22. 
— Mant. Ins., i, 337, 23 ; Ent Syst,, ii, 880, 29 (male). 

LibeUula bifasciata Fabr.! Syst Ent; 421, 3; Sp. Ins., i, 520, 3 ; 
Mant Ins., i,336, 3 ; Ent Syst ii, 374,4 (female).— Burm.! Handb., 
II, 862, 81.— Blanch., Hbt Ins., 58, 9. — Say, Journ. Acad. Phil., 
vin, 20, 6. 



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mgat.) 70 Ptoy«. 

Ltbdltda crmfusa Uhler! Froc. Acad. Fhilad., 1867, 87, 8 (teueral); 
Stett. Z., xxvni, 91. 

There are numeroua woodcuts and descriptions of this species in 
American popiilar papers. 

Hab. Ontario, Canada; Andover, Maine, July 6, Brunswick; 
New Hampshire; Massachusetts, common, July; New York; New 
Jersey; Pennsylyania ; Maryland; Kentucky, May; Mississippi f 
Greorgia, very tote ; DaUas, Waco, Texas, September 4-80 ; Detroit, 
Michigan, June 17; Chicago and S. Illinois; Fort Ha3res, Kansas, 
May 6. Only one specimen west of the Bocky Mts., from Ogden, 
Utah. 

8. Idbellola saturata, cf , 9 . 

Libellula saturcUa Uhler! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1857, 88, 4. — Hag.! 
Syn;, 152, 4 (in part); Hayden's Rep., 1878, 586 ; Stett Z., xxvili, 
92. 

Hab. Yellowstone; Montana; Arizona, Aug. 5. 

Formerly erroneously united by me with X. eroceipennis. 

9. Libellula orooeipennis, cf, 9. 

LibeJhda croceipermis Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi ; Proc., 67, 1. 
Hag. ! Hayden's Rep., 1873, 586. 

Hab. Cape San Lucas, Lower California; Tampico, Cordoya, 
Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Tehuantepec, Mexico ; Guatemala, and perhapt' 
Columbia. 

10. Xiil)^Ilula basalis, cf, 9. 

LibeUula basalis Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 28, 10. 

Libellula luctuosa I Burm., Handb., ii, 861, 76. — Hag., Syn., 152^ 
5.— Walsh, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. New York; New Jersey, June) Pennsylvania; Mafyladd; 
Washington^ D. C; Virginia; Detroit, Mich., June 17; Uliiiois; 
Fort Hayes, Kansas ; Ontario, Canada. 

11. Libellula odiosa, cf, ?. 
Libellula odiosa Hag.! Syn., 152, 6. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July 10-Aug. 80; S. Antonio^ 
Dallas, Waco, Texas, July 14. 

Probably a race of i. basalis, 
; 12. Libellula auripdnnis, cf, 9. 

LibeUula attripennis Burm.f Handb., ii, 861, 67. — Hag. I Syn., 155, 
11 ; Stett Z., XXIV, 875, 71 ; xxviii, 08 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., XI, 292; xv, 266, 9; xvi, 860, 85; xvi, 874, 6. — Scudder! 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 191. 



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1W5.J 71 [HHIWI. 

Hab. New York; New Jeraey; Maryland; Virginia; Georgia, 
April 20> common; Ohio; New Orleans, Louisiana; Dallas, Texas; 
Florida ; Cardenas, October, Cienfuegos, ApriWuly, Cuba ; Isle of 
Pines. 

13. liibellala incesta, e. 
LibeUula incesta Hag. ! Syn., 155, 12. 

Hab. New Hampshire, June 28; iSaugus, Mansachusetts, July; 
Carolina; Dallas, Texas. 
A rare species ; I have never seen the female, and only six males. 

14. Iiibellula Lydia, cf, 9. 

LibeUula Lydia Drury, Ins., ii, 85, pi. 47, f. 1. — Bamb.I Neur., 55, 
82. — Oliv., Enc. Meth., vii, 570, 8. — Hag.! Syn., 155, 18; Stett. 
Z., XXIV, 875, 72; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 861, 36. 

LibeUula Leda Say, Joum. Acad. Philad., Yin, 21, 8, yar.^. (in 
part). 

Hab. Virginia; S. Carolina; Georgia^ April 20, rare; New Or- 
leans, Louisiana ; Florida ; Dallas, Texas. 

15. Iiibellula Axillena» c^, $; 

LibeUula AxiUena Westwood! Duncan Intr., 292, pL 29, f. 1. — Hng.l' 
Syn., 156, 14; Stett. Z., xxiv, 875, 78; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist., 
XVI, 861, 87. 

LibeUula Lydia Ramb. ! Neur., 55, 82 (in part). 

LibeUula Leda Say, Joum. Acad. Philad., Tin, 22, 8 (in part). 

Hab. Georgia ; Louisiana ; Florida. 

Probably a race of L. Lydia. 

16. Iiibellula flavida, cf, 9. 

LibeUula flavida Ramb.! Neur., 58, 85.-— Hag.! Syn., 156, 15;: 
Hayden's Rep., 1872, 728 ; 1878, 587. 

Hab. Pecos Ri^er, West Texas, July 9 -Aug. 11 ; Dallas, Waco, 
Texas, September 9 ; Yellowstone ; Montana. 

17. Idbellula composita, 9. 

LibeUula compodUi Hag.! Hayden's Rep., 1878, 587. 
Mesothemis composita Hag. ! Hayden*s Rep., 1872, 728. 
Hab. Yellowstone. One female. 

18. Iiibellula quadrupla, d*, 9. 

LibeUula quadrupla Say ! Joum. Acad. Philad., vm, 28, 9. — Hag. 
Syn.! 157, 16; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 266, 10; Stett Z., 
xxviii, 91. 

LibeUula bisHgma Uhlerl Proc. Acad. Philad., 1857, 87, 1 (male 
adult). 



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Hi«eii.] 72 [May 6, 

Ltbelltda cyanea Fabr., Ent Syst., 881, 86. 

Hab. Milton, Cambridge, Beverly, Natick, Woburn, Massaclm- 
setts, June, July; New Jersey; Maryland. 

I have no doubt that L, cyanea F., is this species; the only objec- 
tion would be the " abdomine cylindrico " in his description ; but I 
possess males agreeing with this character. 

19. Libellula plumbea, cf, ?. 

LibelMa plumhea Uhler! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1867, 87, 2.— Hag. I 
Syn., 157, 17; Stett. Z., xxiv, 375, 74; xxviii, 91; Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 862, 89. 

Hab. New Jersey; Baltimore, Maryland, July; Georgia, April 
27, common. 

Perhaps this species is Cordvlia costalis Selys from Georgia. I 
i^ould be nearly sure of it, had not Baron De Selys stated that he 
had again examined the female type in the British Museum. 

20. Iiibellula fonerea, cf, ?. 
Libellula funerea Hag. ! Syn., 158, 18. 
Hab. Acapulco, Mexico ; Panama. 

21. Libellula mnbrata, d*, ?. 

Libellula wmbraia Linn^, Syst N., xii, I, 903, 18. — Fabr., Syst 
Ent, 422, 14; Spec. Ins., i, 522, 18; Mant Ins., i, 337, 18; Ent 
Syst, II, 378, 21. — Burm., Hand., ii, 856, 48. — Ramb. ! Neur., 78, 
58. — Selys! Sagra Ins. Cat, 448. — Hag. 1 Syn., 158, 19; Proc. 
Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xi, 252; Stett Z., xxiv, 875, 75; xxix, 274; 
XXX, 263; Uhler! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, xi, 297. 

Libellula unifasciata De Geer, Mem. iii, 557, 3, pi. 26, f. 4. 

Libellula fallax Burm. ! Handb., ii, 855, 46 (teneral). 

Libellula subfasciata Burm. ! Hand., ii, 855, 46 (male teneral). 

Libellula tripartita Burm. ! Handb., ii, 856, 47 (male adult). 

Libellula ruralis Burm. I Handb., ii, 856, 49 (female). 

Libellula flavicans Ramb. ! Neur., 87, 79 (female). 

Libellula fuscofasciata Blanch., Voy. D'Orbigny, 217, 751, pi. 28, 
f.5. 

Hab. Georgia? (a male from Abbot's collection; locality still 
doubtful) ; Matamoras, Mexico (oae male) ; Cuba, migrates in June 
and November ; Hayti, April, May in Jeremie; St Thomas; Barba- 
dos ; common in S. America. 

The female with the band of the wings as in the male is very rare ; 
I have seen three specimens from Ouba. 

The race Z. tripartita belongs to the West India Islands. There 



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1876.] 73 [Hagen. 

18, perhaps, a very similar but different species. Two very small 
females, the wings with black bands, are from Waco, Texas, July 14, 
and Panama ; but the male from Panama has the wings colored as 
in L, funerea. 

22. Libellula angustipennis, e^ ?. 

Libellula angustipennis Ramb.I Neur., 68,42. — Selysl Sagra Ins. 
Cuba, 446.— Hag. ! Syn., 169, 20; Stett. Z., xxviii, 98; Proc. Bost 
Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 874, 7. — Scudder I Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
X, 192.— Uhler I ibid., xi, 297. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, July ; Isle of Pines ; Hayti, May. 

23. Libellula yibex, c^. 
Libellula vibex Hag. I Syn., 159, 21. 

Libellula merida Selys, Ann. Soc. £nt. Belg., xi, Proc., 67? 
Hab. Cordova, Mexico. 

^ have not seen L, merida^ but the identity is probable. Hab. 
Orizaba, Mexico ; Merida, Venezuela. 

Subgenus ORTHEMIS. 

24. Libellula discolor, d*, ?. 

Libellula ferruginea Fabr., Syst. Ent., 423, 19 ; Spec. Ins., i, 528, 
25 (not of Entom. syst.). 

Libellula discolor Burm. I Handb., ii, 856, 51. — Uhler ! Proc. Bost 
Soc. Nat Hbt, XI, 297. — Hag. 1 Syn., 160, 22; Proc. Bost Soc. 
Nat Hist, XI, 292; Stett. Z., xxix, 279, 1 ; xxx, 268, 18. 

LibeUula macrostigma Rbr.I Neur., 50, 26. — Selysl Sagra Ins. 
Cuba, 443. 

Hab. Key West, Florida; Dallas, Waco, Texas, September- 
October ; Tampico, Matainoras, Matzatlan, Mexico, October ; Central 
America; Cuba, July-October; Hayti, April, May; Porto Rico; 
St Thomas; Barbados^ Martinique; Guadeloupe; St. Croix; Ja- 
maica ; common in S. America. 

Lepthemis. 

1. Lepthemis yesioulosa, c^, 9. 

LibeUula vesiculosa Fabr., Syst. Ent., 421, 7; Spec. Ins., i, 521, 9 ; 
Mant Ins., i, 836, 9; Ent Syst, ii, 877, 12. — Burm., Handb. 1 ii, 
857, 64.— Ramb.I Neur., 50, 26.— -Uhler! Proc. Bost Soc. Nat 
Hist, XI, 297.— Selys ! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 448. — Hag. ! Syn., 161, 1 ; 
Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 292. 



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Higen.] . 74 » IMv5, 

LUbtllxda acuta Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., xiii, 24, 12. 

Hab. Matamoras, Mazatlan, Mexico, October; Cardenas, Caba, 
April; Hayti, April, May; trt Thomas; Barbados; Panama, May; 
St. Thomas; migrates in Cuba in June. 

2. Lepthemis hsdmatogastra, cf, 9. 

Libellvla hasmalogasira Burm,! Uandb., ii, 837,55. — Hag.! Syn., 
161,2; Stett. Z., xxiv, 375, 76; Proo. Bost Soc. Nat Hist., xv, 
362, 40. 

Hab. Georgia (one male by Abbot ; locality still donbtfid) ; South 
America. 

3. Lepthemis Attala, d, 9. 

Lepthemis Attala Hag.! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 292. 

LibelhUa Attala Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 445. 

Libellula Mithra Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 445. 

Mesothemis Attala Hag., Syn., 172, 5. 

Mesothemis Mithra Hag., Syn., 172, 6.— Uhler! Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist, XI, 298. 

Libellula annulata Ramb., Neur., 78, 65 (m part). 

Lepthemis verbenata Hag.! Syn., 162, 3. 

Hab. Cuba; Hayti, May; Matzatian, Mexico, October; South 
America. 

4. Lepthemis herbida, c^, 9. 

Lepthemis herbida Hag., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, xi, 292. (No 
description.) 
Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, October, November. 
An aberrant species ; I have seen one pair. 

5. Lepthemis cardinalis, c^, ?. 

Libellula cardinalis Erichs! Schomb. Voy., iii, 583. — Hag.! Syn., 
316. 
Hab. Panama; Guiana; Para, Brazil. 

Dtthemis. 

1. Dythemis rafinerviSy cf, 9. 

LibeUula rujinervis Burm.! Handb., ii, 815, 15. 

Libellula conjuncta Bbr. ! Neur., 91, 84. — Selys t Sagra Jna, 
Cuba, 444. 

LibeUula vinoia Scudddrl Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, x, 192; xi» 
292. 

Dythemis rufinerm Hag.l Syn., i62« 1; Stett Z, xxviii, 98; Proc* 
Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xv, 374, & — Uhlerl Ph)c. Bost Soc. Nal. 
Hist, XI, 297. 



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1875.] 75 VSUgm, 

Hib. Cuba; Hajrti, May. 

2. Dythemis yelox, cf, 9. 
Dythemis veLox Hag.! Syn., 168, 2. 

Hab. Pecos River, Texas, July- August; Waco, July 14- Au- 
gust 20. 

3. Dythemis Aigax, cf, 9. 
Dythemis fugax Hag. I Syn., 163, 8. 

Hab. Pecos Biver, Western Texas, July-August ; Waco, Texas, 
August 1. 

4. Dythemis mendax, d*, 9. 
Dythemis mendax Hag. I Syn., 164, 4. 

Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July; St. Antonio, Texas. 

5. Dythemis praBOoa:» Hag.! Syn., 164, 5. 
Hab. Mexico. 

6. Dsrthemis pertinaz» c^, 9. 
Dythemis pertinax Hag.! Syn., 166, 10, male. 

Dythemis Sallei Selys, Ann. Soc. £nt. Belg., xi; Proc., 67? female. 
Hab. Orizaba, Mexico. I have not seen D* Sallei \ probably it 
belongs here. 

7. 8, 0. Three new species from Waco, Texas, and Mexico; re- 
lated to the foregoing ones. 

10. Dythemis frontalis^ cf, 9. 

Libellula frontalis Burm.l Handb., ii, 857, 56. — Selys! Sagra Ins. 
Cuba, 458.--Scudder! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist., x, 193. 

Dythemis frontalis Hag. ! Syn., 165, 6 ; Stett. Z., xxvm, 98 ; Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, xi, 292; xv, 875, 9«— Uhler! Proc. Bost Soc. 
Nat. Hist, XI, 298. 
. Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, May-^une^ Isk of Pines; Hayti, May. 

11. Dythemis dierota» cf, 9. 

Dythemis didyma Hag.l Syn., 165, 8 (not Selys); Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist, XI, 292. 

Hab. Cuba ; Matamoras, Tampico, Mexico. 

As my D, dicrota proved to be Lib. didyma Selys, I have given the 
name D. dicrota to this species. 

12. Dsrthemis didyma, c^, 9« 
Libellula didyma Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 458. 
LibeUtUa Phryne Ramb. ! Neur., 121, 127. 

Dythemis dicrota Hajg.I Syn.,. 166, 9; Proc Bost Soc. Nat Hist, 
XI, 292. 
Mesothemis Poeyi Scnddor! Proe. Bo^t Soc. Nat Hist^ x, 194; 



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Hagen.] . 76 [May 6, 

XI, 300. — Hag. I Stett Z., xxviii, 98 ; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XI, 292; XV, 375; 11. 
Hab. Cuba; Isle of Pines. 

13. Dythemis »quali8» <^, 9. 

Dy therms aiqualis Hag.! Syn., 167, 11 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XI, 293. 
Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, July, October; Matamoras, Mex. 

14. Dythemis incrassata, ?. Hagen (no description). 
Hab. Cuba. 

16. Dythemis nsBvay cf, ?. 

Dythemis nceva Hag. I Syn., 167, 12; Proc. Boet. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XI, 293. 
Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, August, September. 

16. Dythemis debilis, cf, 9. 

Dythemis debilis Hag.! Syn., 168, 13 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, 
XI, 293. 
Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, August-October. 

17. Dythemis exhausta, c^, ?. 

Dythemis exhausta Hag. ! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, Xi, 293. (No 
description.) 
Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, August- September. 

Macrothemis. 

1. Macrothemis Celeno, cf, 9. 

LibelMa Celeno Selys ! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 454. 

Macrothemis Celeno Hag. ! Stett. Z., xxix, 281, 1. 

Dythemis pleurosticta HugA Syn., 165, 7 (in part); Stett Z.,xxviii, 
98; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, Xi, 292; xv, 375. — Scudder ! Proc. 
Bost Soc. Nat Hist, x, 194. — Uhler! Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist., 
XI, 298. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, July, October, November; Isle of Pines; 
St. Thomas ; Hayti, April, May. 

Erythemis. 

1. Erythemis Aircata, cf, 9. 

Erythemis Jurcata Hag.! Syn., 169, 1; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist, XI, 293. 
Hab. Cuba; Tampico, Mex. ; Bahia, Brazil. 



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1875.] 77 [HftfWl. 

2. Erythemis bicolor, s^ V. 

Libellula Ucolor £richs 1 Yoy. Schomburgk, in ; Stett Z., xxx, 
263, 28. 
Erythemis bicolor Hag.! Syn., 169, 2. 
Hab. Cboco, New Grenada ; S. America. 

3. Er3rthemi8 oubensis, d, 9. 
Erythemis longipes Hag. I Syn., 169, 8 (in part). 

Erythemis specularis Hag. I Stett. Z., xxviii, 98 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XI, 293; xv, 874, 4. 

Macvomia ct^nsis Scudd.l Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, x, 190; 
XI, 299. — Hag. I Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 874, 4. 

Hab. Cardenas, Cuba, April, Jaly, October ; Isle of Pines. 

Mesothemib. 

1. Mesothemis simplicicoUis, cf, 9. 

Libellula simplicicollis Say ! Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 28, 16. 

Libellula ccerulans Ramb.I Neur., 64, 44 (male). — Selys! Sagra 
Ins. Cuba, 448. 

Libellula maculiventris Ramb.I Neur., 87, 78 (female). 

Mesothemis simplicicollis Hag. I Syn., 170, 1 ; Stett. Z., xxiv, 875, 
77 ; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xi, 293 ; xv, 266, 12; xvi, 862, 41 ; 
Hayden's Rep., 1872, 728 ; 1878, 687. —Walsh! Proc. Acad. PhUad., 
1862, 400. 

Mesothemis Gundlachii Scudder ! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 195, 
XI, 299. — Hag., Stett Z., xxviii, 96; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, 
XVI, 375, 12. 

Hab. Natick, Massachusetts, August ; N. York; N. Jersey ; Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. ; Dalton, Savannah, Georgia, May ; Florida; Louisiana; 
Indiana; Rock Isl., Illinois, June; Detroit, Mich., July; Montana; 
Ogdert, Utah (?) ; Pecos River, Western Texas, July; Dallas, Waco, 
Texas, July-September; Matamoras, Huastec, Mexico; Cardenas; 
Cuba, May, June ; Isle of Pines. 

A very common species. 

2. Mesothemis coUooata, cf, 9. 

Mesothemis collocata Hag.! Syn., 171, 2 ; Hayden's Rep., 1873, 587. 
Hab. Pecos River, Western Texas, July; Yellowstone; San 
Diego, California, April. 

3. Mesothemis corrupta, d*, 9. 

Mesothemis corrupta Hag.! Syn., 171, 8; Hayden's Rep., 1872, 
728 ; 1878, 687.— Wabh ! Proc. Acad. PhUad., 1862, 400. 



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Hagei.] 78 [MajS, 

Hab. Rock Island, N. and S. lilinois; Kansas ; Pecos River, West 
Texas, May, June; Dallas, Waco, Texas, October; Matamoras, 
Mexico; Foot Hills, Colorado; Montana, San Jos^, California, No- 
vember. Also in Ajan, Asia, Sea of Ochotdc. 

4. Mesothemis illota, d*, 9. 

Mesothemis illota Hag. I Syn., 172, 4; Hayden's Rep., 1873, 687. 

Hab. San Diego, California, April; San Matteo, Mendocino, 
• Gulf of Georgia ; San Jos^, March ; Victoria, Vancouver's Island, 
July; Mexico; Yellowstone. Also in Ajan, Asia. 

Perhaps M. gilva from Columbia is the same species. 

6. Mesothemis longipennis, <f, 9. 

Libelltda longipennis Burm.! Handb., ii, 850^ 12. 

Libellula soda Rbr.! Neur., 96, 94. 

LibeUtda truncaitUa Rbr.? Neur., 96, 92. 

Mesothemis longipennis Hag. I Syn., 178, 7; Stett Z., xxiv, 376, 
78; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 266, 11 ; xvi, 866, 42; Hayden's 
Rep., 1872, 728; 1873, 588.— Walshl Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. Natick, Massachusetts, August; New York; Maryland; 
Dalton, Savannah, Georgia, May 28; Kentucky, Maj; Louisiana; 
Chicago, Rock Island, Illinois; Florida, March; Montana; Yellow- 
stone; Pecos River, Western Texas; Dallas, Waco, Texas, July; 
Matamoras, Mexico; California; Victoria, Vancouver's Island.: 

Dr. Brauer forms for this species a new genus, Pachydiplax. 

Leucorhinia. 

1. LeucorMnia intaota, cT, $. 

Diplax intacta Hag.l Syn., 179, 10.— Walshl Proc. Aciwi. Philad., 
1862, 400. 

Hab. Massachusetts; Ohio; Rock Island, Chicago, HUnois; Wi3- 
consin ; Ontario, Canada. 

2. Leucorhinia hudsonica, c^, 9. 
Libellula hudsonica Selys 1 Revue des Qdonates, li$. 
Diplax hudsonica Hag.! Syn., 180, 11. 

Hab. New Brunswick; Winnipeg Lake; Ft. Resolution, Great 
Slave Lake, Hudson's Bay Territory; Saskatchewan. 

Diplax dubia Hag., Syn., 180, 12, from Europe was only described 
for comparison, and by error of the printer numbered. 

8. Leucorhinia boirealiSy <f, ?. (No description.) 

Hab. Saskatchewan; Ft.. Resolution, Hudson's Bay Territory. • 



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1875.1 79 [Hagon. 

4. Leucorhinia glacialiSy cf . (No descriptimi.) 
Hab. Michipicoten, Lake Superior; Mafleachusetts; White Mts., 
N.H. 
6. Iieuoorhinia prozima, e, (No description.) 
Hab. British America; Victoria, YancouYer's Idand ; Massachu- 
setts; White Mis., N. H. 

6. Leucorhinia frigida, e. (No description.) 

Hab. Northern Red River ; Massachusetts ; Ontario, Canada. 

DiPLAX. 

1. Diplax assimilatay d*, 9. 

Lxbelltda assimilata Uhler? Proc. Acad. Fbilad., 1857, 88, &. 

Diplax assimilata Hagl Syn. 174, 1 ; Stett. Z., xxvui, 98. — Walsh, 
Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. Chicago, Rook Island, Illinois ; Washington ; St Louis. 

The localities Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, are added by 
Mr. Uhler ; I have not seen specimens. I have not examined Mr. 
Uhler's types from Fort Union, Nebraska ; perhaps they belong to 
the following species. Therefore I retain the name D. assimilata for 
the species described in my Sjniopsis. 

2. Diplax interna, d*, $. (No description.) 

Hab. Saskatchewan, Southern Lake Winnipeg, British America ; 
Wisconsin; Minnesota; N. Dakota; White Mts., N. H. 
Perhaps this s{(ecies is D, assimilata from Nebraska. 

3. Diplax rubicundnlay <f, ?. 

LibeUula rubicundula Say, Joum. Acad. Philad., viii, 26, 14. 

Diplax rubicundula Hag. ! Syn., 1 76, 6 ; Proc. Bost. Soc Nat. Hist. 
XV, 267, 17 ; 377, 10 ;— -Scudder! Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, x, 219. 

Hab. Massachusetts, October ; Maine ; Mt Washington, N. Hamp- 
shire, August, September; New York; New Jersey; Pennsylvania* 
Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Michipicoten, Lake Superior and 
British America; Indiana (Say). 

A careful examination of a large number of specimens induces me 
to separate again the species described by me as D, assitnUaia and 
D. rubicundula^ united in an elaborate paper by Messrs. Scudder, 
Uhler and Walsh. 

4. Diplax obtrusa, cf. 

HagenI Syn., 177, nota after D. rubicundula ; Stett Z.,xxviii, 95. 
Hab. Mass.; Chicago, Illinois; Ontario, Canada, perhaps not 
different from D. dectscu 



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Hftgen.] 80 [May 5. 

5. Diplax vioina, cf, ?* 

Diplax vicina Hag.! Syn., 175, 4 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 
267, 16. — Walsh! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, 400. 

Hab. Brunswick, Maine ; Massachusetts ; New Jersey ; Pennsyl- 
vania; Washington; Rock Island, Illinois; Ontario, Canada. 

6. Diplax albifrons, d", 9. 

LiheUula cdbifrotis Charp.! Libell. Europ., 14, pi. 11, f. 3 (male). 

Lihellula amUgua Ramb.! 106, 105; Selys! Revue Odon., 825 (fe- 
male). 

Diplax albifrons Hag.! Syn., 177, 7 ; Stett. Z., xxiv, 875, 79; Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 267, 18; ibid., xvi, 868, 48. 

Hab. Georgia; St. Louis, Mo.; perhaps Massachusetts; Dallas, 
Waco, Texas. 

The locality Europe, given by Charpentier is erroneous, his type 
is in my collection. In Syn., 176, 6, I erroneously quoted L. am" 
higua as D. rubicundula. 

7. Diplax pallipes, cf. 

Diplax pallipes Hag. I Hayden Rep., 1873, 689. 
Hab. Foot Hills, Colorado ; Dallas, Texas; but the specimens 
from Texas were not carefully examined. 

8. Diplax decisa, cf, ?. 

Diplax decisa Hag. I Hayden Rep., 1878, 588. 
Diplax assimUata Hag.! Hayden Rep., 1872, 728. 
Hab. Foot Hills, Colorado; Colorado Mountains, Pacific slope; 
August 16-September 6 ; Yellowstone; Dakota. 

9. Diplax atripes, d, 9, 

Diplax cUripes Hag.! Hayden Rep., 1878, 588. 
Hab. Yellowstone. 

10. Diplax semicinota, d, 9, 

Lihellula semicincta Say ! Joum. Acad. Philad., viii, 27, 15. 

Diplax semicincia Hag.! Syn., 176, 5; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XV, 267, 19; Hayden Rep., 1873, 590. 

Hab. Maine ; Massachusetts ; White Mts., N. H. ; Pennsylvania ; 
Maryland. 

I possess a pair in bad condition, from California, and a female 
from Yellowstone, quoted in Report, 1873. [Perhaps they belong 
to a different species. 

11. Diplax madida, cf, 9. 
Diplax madida Hag.F Syn., 174, 2. 

Hab. Upper Missouri River; Yellowstone ; Gulf of Georgia^ Cal.; 
Victoria, Vancouver's Island. 



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U76.] 81 • [H«f«l* 

12* Diplax oostifera, d*, 9. 

Diplax costifera Hag.! Syn., 175, 8. 

Hab. Maine ; Massachusetts; New York; N. Red River. 

13. Diplax flavicosta, cf, 9. (No description.) 
Hab. San Diego, California. 

14. Diplax Berenioe» cf, 9. 

LiheUtda Berenice Drury, Ins., i, 114, pi. 48, f, 8 (female).— OH v., 
Enc. Method. — Say! Journ. Acad. Philad., Tin, 25, 13.— Ramb.! 
Neur., 88, 80. 

Libellula histrio Burm.! Handb., ii, 849, 7 (female). 

Diplax Berenice Hag. ! Syn., 1 78, 8 ; Proc Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, 
XV, 266, 15. 

Hab. Massachusetts; New York; N. Jersey; Maryland; Vir- 
ginia. 

16. Diplax scotdca, cf, $. 

LtbeUuki scatica Donov., xv, 528. — Selys! Revue des Odonate8,48. 
22 (with the synonyms). 

Diplax scotica Hag.! Syn., 179, 9; Hayden Rep,, 1872, 728. 

Hab. N. Red River; Ontario, Canada; perhs^ Yellowstone. 
Common in Europe and N. Asia. Guatemala? (coll. de Selys). 

16* Diplax ochracea, cf , 9. 

Libellvda ochracea Burm.! Handb., xi, 854, 38. 

Libellula fervida Erichs. ! Voy. Schomburgk, ii, 584. 

Libellula justina Selys ! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 450. 

Diplax ochracea Hag.) Syn., 181, 13. 

Hab. Tampico, Mexico; 'Cuba; Choco, N. Grenada and South 
America. 

17. Diplax ambusta, d;, 9. 

Libellula minuscula Ramb.! Neuropt., 115, 118 (in part). 
Diplax justiniana Hag.! Syn., 181, 14; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XI, 293; XV, 375, 14.— Scudder! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 197. 
Hab. Cuba ; Isle of Pines. 
I suppose Z. justiniana Selys, is a different species. 

18. Diplax justiniana, cf , 9. 

Libellula justiniana Selys ! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 450. 
Hab. Cuba. 

19. Diplax fratema, cf, 9. 

Diplax fraterna Hag.! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 375, 13. 
Diplax ochracea Scudder! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 196 (fe» 
male). 

PBOCEEDINOS B. S. N. H. — VOL. XVIH. 6 OCTOBBB, 1875. 



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Hagen.] • 82 * (May 5, 

Diplax ahjecta Scudder! Proc. Bost S©c. Nat. Hist, x, 197 (male). 
Hab. Cuba ; Isle of Pines. 

20. Diplax credula, d", ?. 
Diplax credula Hag.! Syn., 184, 19, 
Hab. St. Thomas, Brazil. 

21. Diplax abjecta, cf, ?. 
Libellula ahjecta Ramb. ! Neuropt., 88, 73. 
Diplax ahjecta Hag. ! Syn., 184, 20. 
Hab. Cuba ; S. America. 

22. Diplax imbuta, d", ?. 

Libellula imbuta Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 82. 

Diplax imbuta Hag., Syn., 185. 21. 

Hab. Island of Sanipuxten, Maryland. Unknown to me. 

23. Diplax ornata, cf, ?. 
Libellula omata Ramb. ! Neuropt, 96, 93. 

Diplax omata Hag.! Syn., 182, 16; Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 
266, 14; XVI, 863, 46. 
Hab. Pennsylvania; Florida; Georgia. 

24. Diplax amanda, cf, ?. 
Libellula pulchella Burra.! Handb., ii, 849, 2, 

Diplax amanda Hag.! Syn., 183, 17; Stett Z., xxiv, 875, 81; 
Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xvi, 368, 45. 

Hab. Georgia; New Jersey. 

26. Diplax minuscula, <f, ?. 

Libellula minuscula Rbr.I Neuropt., 115, 118 (in part). 

Diplax minuscula Hag.! Syn., 183, 18; Stett. Z., xxiv, 375, 82 ; 
Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 268, 20; xvi, 363, 47. 

Hab. Kentucky; Georgia; Florida; Brazil. 

Nannodiplax Brauen 

1. 19'annodiplax vacua, $. 

Diplax vacua Hag. ! Stett Z., xxviii, 91, 
Hab. Saskatchewan, British America. 

Perithemis. 

1. Perithemis Domitia, cf, 9. 

Libellula Domitia Drury, Ins., ii, 83, pi. 45, f. 4. — Burm.! Handb., 
II, 855, 40, — Ramb. I Neuropt, 124, 132. 

Peiithemis Domitia Hag. I Syn., 185, 1^ Stett Z., xxvi, 875,88; 



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1876.1 83 [Hagen. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 875, 15 ; ibid., xvi, 863, 48.— Scud- 
der! Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 198.— Walsh! Proc. Acad. 
Philad., 1862, 400. 

Lihellula tenuicincta Say, Journ. Acad. Philad., viii, 81, 21 (male). 

Libellula tenera Say! Journ., Acad. Philad,, viii, 31, 20 (female). — 
Hag., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 268, 21. 

Libellula Mora Ramb.! Neuropt., 125, 133. 

Libellula Metella Selys! Sagra Ins. Cuba, 451. 

Libellula Iris Hag. ! Syn., 1 85, var. 

Hab. Massachusetts; New York ; New Jersey ; Pennsylvania ; 
Maryland; Indiana; Illinois; Georgia; Louisiana; Texas; Mexico; 
Cuba ; So«itJi America. 

Nannothemis Brauer. 

1. Nannothemis bella, cf, ?. 

Nannophya bella Uhler ! Proc. Acad. Philad., 1857, 87, 1.— Hag.l 
Syn., 186, 1; Stett. Z., xxiv, 375, 84; xxviii, 90; Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., XVI, 363, 49. 

Hab. Maine; Massachusetts; Connecticut; N. Jersey; Mary- 
land ; Georgia ; Ontario, Canada. 

2. ]9'annothemis maoulosay Hag.! Syn., 187, 2; Stett. Z., 
XXIV, 375, 85; xxviii, 90; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xvi, 863, 
60. 

Hab. Georgia. 

South America. 
Subfamily LIBELLULINA. 

Pantala. 

1. Pantala flavescens, d", 9. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Venezuela; Surinam; Para; Brazil. 

Tholymis. 

1, Tholymis citrina, d", 9. (cf, N. America.) 
Hab. Para, Brazil. 

Tramea. 

1. Tramea basalis, cf, 9. 

Libellula basalis Burm. ! Handb., ii, 852, 25. 



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Hagen.] 84 0^7 ^» 

LibsUyla fiavia Selys! Mss. 

Tfamea hasalis Hag.! Syo., 316. 

Hab. Brazil; Surinam. 

2. Tramea binotata, d*, ?. 

Uibellvia binotata Ramb.l JJeur., 36, 7, 

Tramea binotata Hag. I Syn., 316. 

Hab. Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

8. Tramea Cophysai cf. 

Tramea Cophysa Hag.! Syn., 316 ; Stett Z,, xxviii, 226. 

LibeUula Cophysa Selys! Sagra Ina. Cuba, 441. (No descriptian.) 

Hab* Brazil. 

4. Tramea Marcella, d", ?. (cf. N. America.) 

Hab. Brazil; Turbo, New Grenada. 

6. Tramea Iphigenia, cf, 9 (?) 

Tramea Iphigenia Hag.! Stett Z., xxvni, 230; ibid., xxx, 362, 
17. 

Hab, Bpgota, New Grenada. An aberrant species. Perhaps tl^e 
female from Turbo, New Grenada, does not belong here, 

e. Tramea Argo, d*. 

Tramea Argo Hag., Stett. Z., xxx, 263. 

Hab. 1^0 Janeiro. 

7. Tramea subbinoti^ta, d*. 

Tramea subbinotata Brauer, Verhdl. Wien. Z. B. G., xvii, 811. 
Hab. Brazil. 

8. Tramea longicauday d*. 

Tramea longkauda Brauer, Verhdl. Wien, Z. B. G., xvn, 812. 
Hab. Brazil. 

0. Tramea braziliana, d*. 

Tramea braziliana Brauer, Verhdl. Wien Z. B. G., xvii, 812. 

Hab. Brazil. 

The three species are not known to me. 

LiBELLULA. 

1. Libellula umbrata, d", 9. (cf. N. America.) 

LibeUula urnbrata Hag.! Syn., 316; Stett. Z., xxx, 268, 18; 
FoerhdL, Dansk. V. S., 1855, 122. 

Hab. St. F^ de Bogota, Turbo, New Grenada ; Porto Cabello, 
Venezuela; Surinam; Essequibo ; Bahia, Rio, Buenos Ayres, Brazil ; 
Corrientes. Very common. 



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IBY&J 85 [Hafteii. 

2. Iiibellula eff^enatay ?. 

LiheUula tffrenata Hag. I Foerhdl. Dansk. Y. S., 1855, 125. (No 
description.) 
Diplax effrenata Hag. I Syn., 310. 
Hab. Lagoa Santa, Brazil. 

Subgenus OfttHlSAaS. 

8. Libellula discolor, cf , ?. (cf. K. America.) 

LiheUula discolor Hag. I Byn., 816; Stett. Z., xxx, 268, 19. — 
Foerhd. Dansk. V. S., 1865, 121, 122. 

Hab. St. F^ de Bogota, New Grenada; Porto Cabella, yene- 
zuela; Guiana; Surinam; Cbili; Ecuador, Guayaquil; Peru; Bahia, 
Pernambuco, Minas Geraes, Rio, Brazil. 

Very common. 

Lepthbmis. 

1. Lepthemis vesiculosa, d*, ?. 

Lepthemis vesiculosa Hag.! Syn., 316. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Guiana ; BaHia, Pernambuco, Rio, Brazil. 

2. Lepthemis hsBmatogastra, d*, 9. 

Lepthemis hoemalogastra Hag. I Syn., 816. (cf. N. America.) 

Hab. St. F^ de Bogota, New Grenada ; Surinam ; Pernambuco, 
Brazil. 

8. Lepthemis Attala, cf, ?. 

Lepthemis verbenata Hag.; Syn., 316. — Foerhdl., Dansk. V. S., 
1855, 125. (cf. N. America.) 

Libelltda Isis Selys. (No description.) 

fiab. Porto Cabello, Venezuela; Surinam; Brazil. 

4. Lepthemis appendioulata, d. 

Libellula appendiculata Hag. ! Syn., 316. (No description.) 

Hab. Marida, Venezuela. 

6. Lepthemis oultriformis, d*. 

Lepthemis cuUriformis Hag. ! Syn., 316. (No description.) 

Hab. Brazil. Probably not different from L. appendiculata, 

6. Lepthemis piota, cf, 9. 

Lepthemvt picta Hag. ! Syn., 316. (No description.) 

Hab. BraziL The locality perhaps erroneous; probably an Afri- 
can species. 



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Hagon.] 86 [M»76, 

7. Lepthemis cardinaliSy cf, ?. 

Lepthemis cardinalis Hag. I S711., 316. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Guiana, Essequibo ; Para, Brazil. 

8. Lepthemis attenuata, cf, 9. 

Lepthemis attenuata Hag.! Syn., 316; Stett. Z., xxx, 263, 21. 
LiheUula attenuata Erichs ! Voy. Schomburgk, iii, 588. 
Hab. Guiana ; Surinam ; Brazil *, St. F^ de Bogota, New Grenada. 
I have seen specimens labelled Cape of Good Hope, probably 
erroneously. 

0. Lepthemis extensa, d*. 

Lepthemis extensa Hag., Syn., 316. (No description.) 
Hab. Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Dythemis. 

1. Dythemis nubecula, d*, 9. 
LtbelMa nubecula Ramb.l Neur., 122, 129. 
Dythemis nubecula Hag.! Syn., 817. 

Hab. New Friburg, Brazil. 

2. Dythemis constricta, d*. 
Dythemis constricta Selys 1 (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil. 

8. Dythemis inermis. 
Dythemis inermis Selys. (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil. 

4. Dythemis rapax, d*. 
Dythemis rapax Hag. ! Syn., 317. 
Hab. Venezuela. 

6. Dythemis hemichlora, d*, 9. 

Libellula hemichlora Burm.! Handb., 11, 849, 4. — Hag. ! Foerbdl. 
Dansk. V. S., 1855, 122. 
Dythemis hemichlora Hag. ! Syn., 317. 
Hab. Venezuela ; Bahia, Brazil. 

6. Dythemis tsrpographa, d*. 

Dythemis typographa Hag.! Syn., 317. (No description.) 
Hab. Chili. 

7. Dythemis Cydippe, d*. 

Dythemis Cydippe Hag.l Syn., 317. (No description.) 
Hab. Rio, Brazil. 



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1875.] 87 [Hagon. 

8. Dythemis Liriope, d. 
Dythemis Liriope Hag. I Syn., 317. (No description-^) 
Hab. Brazil. 

0. Dythemis catenata, d. 

Dythemis catenata Hag. I Foerhdl. Bansk. V. S., 1865, 125;; Syn.,. 
31 7. (No description.) 
Hab. Minas Geraes, BraziL 

10. Dythemis tessellata, 9. 
Libellula tessellata Burm. 1 Handb., ii,.849, 5. 
Dythemis tesseUata Hag.! Syn., 317. 

Hab. Brazil. 

11. Dythemis icterica, d*, 9. 

Dythemis icterica Hag. 1 Syn., 317. (No description. )t 
Hab. Brazil. 

12. Dythemis sterilis, d*, 9. 

Libellula tessellata Ramb. 1 Neuropt., 89, 8 2w— Hag.! Foerdl. Daask^ 
V. S., 1855, 121, 122. 

Dythemis stenlis Hag. ! Syn., 317. 

Hab. Venezuela; Surinam; Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio, Brazil;: 
Buenos Ayres ; Lima, Peru ; Panama ; Quillota. 

13. Dythemis columba, d, 

Dythemis columba Hag. I Syn., 31 7» (No description.) 
Hab. Venezuela. 

14. Dythemis infamis, d, 

Dythemis infamis Hag.! Syn., 317^ (No description.). 
Hab. Pernambuco, Brazil. 

15. Dythemis musiva^ 9. 

Dythemis musiva Hag. I Syn., 317. (No description.^ 
Hab. Rio, Mini as Geraes, BraziL 

16. Dythemis apiealis,, d. 

Dythemis apicalis Hag.! Stett. Z., xxviii, 90. (No description.) 
Hab. Surinam. 

17. Dythemis gerula, d. 

Dythemis gerula Hag. ! Syn., 317. (No description.) 
Hab. New Friburg, Brazil. 

18. Dythemis lepida, d. 

Dythemis lepida Hag.! Syn., 317; Stett. Z., xxx, 263, 21. (No 
description.) 
Hab. • New Friburg, Brazil; St. F^ de Bogota, New Grenada.. 



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HAgen.] B8 [M176, 

10. Dythemis tabida, d*, 9. 

Dythemis tabida Hag. ! Syn., 817. (No description.) 

Hab. Bahia, Brazil. 

Macrothemis. 

1. Macrothemis pleurosticta, d*. 

Ltbellula pleurosticta Burm. I Handb., 11, 849, 8. 
Dythemis pleurosticta Hag. I Syn., 317. 
Macrothemis pleurosticta Hag. I Stett. Z., xxix, 285, 2. 
Hab. Brazil. 

2. Macrothemis tenuis, d*. 
Dythemis tenuis Hag. 1 Syn., 817. 
Macrothemis tenuis Hag. I Stett Z., xxix, 286, 2. 
Hab. New Fribui^, Brazil. 

8. Macrothemis marmorata, d*, 9. 
Dythemis marmorata Hag.! Syn., 317. 
Macrothemis marmorata Hag. I Stett. Z., xxix, 286, 8. 
Hab. New Friburg, Brazil. 
4. Macrothemis columbiana. 

Macrothemis columbiana Selys, Stett. Z., xxix, 285. (No de- 
scription.) 
Hab. Columbia. Unknown to me. 
6. Macrothemis Zephyra. 

Macrothemis Zephyra Selys, Stett. Z.,xxix, 285. (No description.) 
Hab. Brazil. Uiiknown to me. 

Erythemis. 

!• Erythemis furcata, d", ?. 

Erythemis furcata Hag. 1 Syn., 317. {of. N. America.) 

Hslb. Bahia, Brazil. 

2. Erythemis bicolor, d", 9. 

Erythemis bicolor Hag.! Syn., 818; Stett. Z., xxx, 268, 28* (cf. 
N. America.) 

Hab. St. Fe de Bogota, Choco, N. Grenada; Surinam; Quiana; 
Brazil. 

8. Erythemis peruviana. 

Ltbellula peruviana Rbr., Neuropt., 81, 69. 

Erythemis peruviana Hag.! Syn., 818. 

Hab. Peru; perhaps not different from E, bicolor. 



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1875.] 89 [TO^ai. 

4. Erythemis lavata. 

Erythemis lavata Hag. ! Syn., SIB. (No detciiptioii.) 
Hab. Venezuela. 
6. Erythemis longipes, cf, ?. 

Libellula tenuipes Hag.! Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 125. (No 
description.) 
Erythemis longipes Hag.! Sjn., 818 (in part). 
Hab. Rio, Minas Geraes, Brazil. 
6. Erythemis P rubriv^ntris. 

LibeUula rubriventris Blanche, Voy. d'Orbigiiy, 217, pi. 28, f. 4. 
Erythemis f rubriventris Hag., Syn., 818. 
Hab. Corrientes; unknown to me, probaUy S. perumana, 

Mbsothemis. 

1. Mesothemis gilva, cf , 9. 

Mesoihemvt gilva Hag. 1 Syn., 818; Stett. Z., xxx, 263, 23. ^o 
description.) 

Hab. New Grenada ; Venezuela ; Columbia ; perhaps not differ- 
ent from M. iUota. 

2. Mesothemis annulata. 

LibeUula annulata Palisot de Beauy.,Ins. Neuropt., 68, pi. 8, f. 8. 
— Ramb.! Neuropt., 78, 65 (in part). 
Mesothemis annulata Hag.! Syn., 81 8. 
Hab. Brazil. 

8. Mesothemis annulosa. 
Mesothemis annulosa Selys 1 (No description.) 
Hab. Rio, Brazil; Pai^maribo. 

Subgenus ERYTHRODn»LAX. 

4. Mesothemis plebeja, d*, 9. 

LibeUula plebeja Ramb.! Neuropt., 107, 106. — Blancbard, Gay 
Ins. Chili, vi. 111.— Hag. ! Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 121. 

Mesothemis plebeja Hag.! Syn., 318. 

Erythemis corallina Brauer, Voy. Novara, 84. 

Hab. Chili; Quillota. 

6. Mesothemis connatay <^t 9. 

LibeUula connata Burm. I Handb., ii, 85^, 14. — Hag. ! Foerhdl. 
Dansk. V. S., 1855, 121. 

Mesothemis connata Hag.! Syn., 818. 

Hab. Valparaiso; Quillota. 



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Hagen.] 90 [Hay 5, 

6. Mesothemis P communis, cf, ?. 

Lihellula communis Rbr. ! Neuropt., 93, 88. — Blanchard, Gay, 
Ins. Chili, VI, 111, pi. 2, f. 4. 

Mesothemis f communis Hag. I Syn., 818. 
Hab. Chili. 

7. Mesothemis? chloropleura, d*, 9. 
Diplax f chloropleura Brauer, Voy. Novara, 88. 
Hab. Chili. Unknown to me. 

8. Mesothemis ? leontina, d*. 
Libellula leontina Brauer, Voy. Novara, 93. 
Hab. Chili. Unknown to me. 

0. Mesothemis distinguenda, d*, 9. 
Lihellula distinguenda Ramb.! Neuropt., 81, 68. 
Libellula incompta Kamb. 1 Neuropt., 119, 124 (fern.). 
Mesothemis distinguenda Hag.! Syn., 318. 

Hab. Cayenne. 

10. Mesothemis? abbreviata. 
Libellula abbreviata Ramb., Neurop., 119, 123. 
Mesothemis 1 abbreviata Hag.! Syn., 318. 
Hab. Cayenne. 

11. Mesothemis? anomala. 
Libellula anomala Brauer, Voy. Novara, 90. 
Hab. Rio, Brazil. Unknown to me. 

Diplax. 

1. Diplax oohracea, d*, ?. 

Diplax ochracea Hag. 1 Syn., 318. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Porto Cabello, Venezuela; Guiana; Surinam; Bahia, 
Brazil. 

2. Diplax minuscula, cf, ?. 

Diplax minuscula Hag. 1 Syn., 318. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Brazil. 

8. Diplax credula, cf, 9. 
Diplax credula Hag.! Syn., 318. (cf. N. America.) 
Diplax apoUina Hag.! Syn., 819, female. (No description.) 
Hab. Minas Geraes, Brazil. 
4. Diplax abjecta, cf, ?. 

Diplax abjecta Hag.! Syn., 318; Stett. Z., xxx, 263, 24. (cf. N. 
America.) 
Hab. Venezuela; Brazil; St. F^ de Bogota, New Grenada. 



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1875.] 91 [Hagen. 

6. Diplax obesa, cf, 9. 

Diplax ohesa Hag. 1 Syn., 818. (No description.) 

6. Diplax unimaoulatay d*, ?. 

LibelltUa unimactUata De Geer, Mem„ iii, 558, 4, pi. 26, f. 5. — 
Burm., Handb., ii, 855, 43. 
Diplax unimaculata Hag. I Syn., 818. 
Hab. Surinam; Guiana; Pernambuco, Brazil. 

7. Diplax famula, <^, 9. 

LibelltUa famtUa Erichsl Voy. Schomborgk, ni, 584. 
Diplax famula Hag. 1 Syn., 818. 
Hab. Guiana. 

8. Diplax fusca, d*, 9. (Erythrodiplax Braner.) 
LibelltUa ftisca Rbr.I Neuropt., 78, 64. 

Diplax fusca Hag. ! Syn., 318. 

Diplax Catharina Hag. I Syn., 319. (No description.) 

Hab. Cayenne; Bahia, MInas Geraes, New Friburg, Brazil. 

0. Diplax indigna, d*, 9. 

Diplax indigna Hag. 1 Syn., 819. (No description.) 

Hab. New Friburg, Brazil. 

10. Diplax Juliana, d*. 

Diplax Juliana Hag.I Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 125; Syn., 819. 
(No description.) 
Hab. Brazil ; Lagoa Santa. 

11. Diplax postica, d*. 

Diplax postica Hag.I Syn., 319. (No description.) 
Hab. New Friburg,^ Brazil. 

12. Diplax Fausta, d*, 9. 

Diplax Fausta Hag. I Syn., 319. (No description.) 

Hab. New Friburg, Brazil. 

18. Diplax Faustina, <^, 9. 

Diplax Faustina Hag.I Syn., 319. (No description.) 

Hab. Bahia, New Friburg, BraziL 

14. Diplax contusa, d*, 9. 

Diplax contusa Hag.I Syn., 319. (No description.) 
Hab. New Friburg, Venezuela, Bahia, Brazil. 

15. Diplax latimaculata, d*. > 

Diplax Unimaculata Ebig.l Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 125; Syn., 
819. (No description.) 
Hab. Bahia, Minas Geraes, BraziL 



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Hagen.] 62 [liay6, 

16. Diplax sobrina. 

LtbeUvla sobrina R^b.] N^uropt, 114, 116. 

Diplax sobrina Hag. 1 Syn., 819; Fo«rfidl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 115. 

U&b. RiO) Minds Geraes, Br^iL 

17. Diplax ezusta, a*, 9. 

Diplax exusta Hag. I Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S*, 1855, 122. (No de- 
scription.) 

Hab. Rio, Brazil. 

18. Diplax familiarid, cf, ?. 

Diplax familiaris Hag.! Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1855, 122; Syn., 
819. (No description.) 
Hab. Babia, Brazil. 
10. Diplax agricola, cf, ?. 
Diplax agricola Hag. I Syn., 819. {No descriptiob^) 
Hab. Babia, Brazil. 

20. Dil>lax LHoiana, cf, 9. 

Diplax Luciana Hag. ! Syn., 819. (No dflioription.) 
Hab. New Fribiirg, Brazil. 

21. Diplax flavilatera, cf, ?. 

Diplax flavilatera Hag.! Syn., 319; Foerhdl. Dansk. V.S., 1855, 
1'82. (No deteriptibn.) 
Hab. Rio, Brazil. 

22. Diplax bilineata, <f, 9. 

Diplax bUineata Hag.! Syn., 819. (No description.) 

Hab. New Friburg, BraziL 

28. Diplax castanea, cf, 9. 

LibelliUa castanea Burm. ! Handb., u, 854, 89. 

Hab. Babia, BraziL 

24. Diplax venosa, 9. 

Libellula venosa Burm.! Handb., ti, 848, 1. 

Diplax venosa Hag. ! S^n^, 819. 

Hab. Babia, Brazil. 

26. Diplax osciilaris, <f . 

Diplax oscxdatis Hag. ! Syn., ^9. (No d^itefriptioni) 

Hab. Brazil. 

26. Diplax cyanifronsy cf. 

Diplax cyanifnms Hag. I Syn., 819. (No descr^ition.) 
Hab. Brazil. 

27. Diplax puUa, 9. 

Libellula pxdla Burm. ! Handb., ii, 855, 41. 



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18760 98 CHw»t 

Diplax puUa Hag.t Syn., 319. 

Hab, Suriniim; probably D, minuacttku 

28. Diplax nigricans. 

LtbeUvda nigricans Ramb.! Neurop^, 97, 9$. 

Diplax nigricans Hag., Syn., 819. 

Hab. Buenos Ayres. 

20. Diplax yilis. 

LibelMa vilis Ramb.! Neuropt, 98, 96, 

Diplax vilis Hag., Syn., 319. 

Hab. Buenos Ayres. 

80. Diplax inversa, 9. 

LibeUula inversa Hag., Foerhdl. Dansk, V» S., 18W, 128. 

Hab. Bio, Brazil. 

PERITHEiaS. 

1. Ferithemis Domitia, d*, 9. 

Perithemis Domitia Hag.l Syn., 319. (cf. N. America.) 
Hab. Venezuela; Minas Geraes, Bc^ia, St. Leopoldo, Brazil 
Cordova, Argentine Republic. 

2. Perithemis Lais, cf, 9. 
LibeUula Lais Perty ! Delect., 125, pi. 26. 
Perithemis Lais Hag. 1 Syn., 319. 

Hab. Pernambuco, Bracil. 

8. Ferithemis Thais^ ?. 

Perithemis Thais Hag. 1 Syn,, 320. (No description.) 

Hab. Japazos, Amazon. 

4. Ferithemis Cloe. 

Perithemis Cloe H^g.I Syn., 820. (No description.) 

Hab. Brazil. 

6. Ferithemis bella, d*. 

Perithemis hella Hag. I Syn., 320. (No description.) 

Hab. Para, Brazil. 

Nannothemi8 Brauer. 

1. Nannothemis semiaurea. 

Nannophya semiaurea Hag., Syn., 320; Stett. Z., xxvin, 90. (No 
description.) 
Hab. Para, Brazil. 



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Hagen.] 94 [May 6, 

2. Nannothemis prodita, <f,9. 

Nannophya prodiia Hag.! Syn., 820; Stett. Z., xxviii, 90. (No 
description.) 

Nannophya inermis Selys 1 (no description). — Hag., Stett. Z^. 
XXVIII, 90. • 

Hab. Fernambuco, Brazil. 

8. Nannothemis Fhrsme, cf. 

LiheUula Phryne Perty 1 Delect., 125, pi. 25, f, 8. 

Dythemis Phryne Hag. ! Syn., 81 7; Stett. Z., xxvin, 90. 

Dythemis apicalis Hb.^. I Syn., 817. 

Hab. Rio, Piauhy, Brazil; Surinam. 

4. Nannothemis sp. 

Nannothemis sp. Hag., Stett. Z., xxviii, 90. (No description.) 

Hab. Peru. 

K 
Uracis. 

1. TJracis imbuta, d*, ?. 

Libellula imbuta Burm. 1 Habdb., ii, 850, 9. 
Uracis quadra Kamb.! Neuropt., 31, pi. 2, f. 5. 
Uracis imbuta Hag. 1 Syn., 820. 

Hab. Surinam ; Babia, Paramaribo, Minas Geraes, Brazil ; Guiana; 
Columbia; Panama. 

2. TJracis fastigiata, cf. 

Libellula fastigiata Burm. ! Handb.^ ii, 860, 10. 

Uracis fastigiata Hag. 1 Syn., 820. 

Hab. Babia, Brazil. 

8. TJracis irrorata, d", 9. 

Uracis irrorata Hag. I Syn., 820. (No description.) 

Hab. Babia, Brazil. 

4. TJracis ovata, d*, ?. 

Uracis ovata Hag. 1 Syn., 820. (No description.) 

Hab. Babia, Brazil. 

Urothkmis. 

1. TJrothemis guttata, d*, ?. 

Uracis guttata Hag.! Syn., 820. 

Libellula guttata Erichs 1 Scbomburgk Voy., ni, 584. 

Hab. Guiana; Brazil. 



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1875.] 95 [Hagen. 

2.. TJrothemis infumata, e. 

Lihellula infumata Rainb.! Neuropt., 74, 59. 

Uracis infumata Hag. 1 Syn., 320. 

Hab. Bahia, Brazil. 

8. TJrothemis Amphithea, cf. 

Uracis Amphithea Hag.! Syn., 820. (No description.) 

Hab. Para, Brazil. 

4. TJrothemis Clymene, d*. 

Uracis Clymene Hag. 1 Syn., 820. (No description.) 

Hab. Femambuco, Brazil. 

Palpopleura. 

1 . Palpopleura fasciata, cf . 

Libellula fasciata Linn^, Syst. Nat., n, 903, 12. — Fabr., Ent, 
Syst., n, 378, 20 (in part). — Burm., Handb., ii, 854, 87. 

Palpopleura fasciata Hamb. 1 Neuropt, 134, 8 (in part). — Hag. 
Syn., 820. 

Hab. Surinam, Brazil. 

2. Palpopleura americana, d*, 9. 

Libellula americana Linn^, Syst. Nat., ii, 904, 16.— Fabr., Ent. 
Syst., II, 378 (in part).— • DeGeer, M^m., iii, 559, 7, pi. 24, f. 7. — 
Seba, Thes., pi. 78, f. 11, 12. 

Palpopleura fasciata Ramb. I Neuropt., 134, 8 (in part). 

Palpopleura americana Hag. ! Syn., 820. 

Hab. Brazil. 

8. Palpopleura circumoincta. 

Palpopleura circumcincta Hag., Syn., 329. 

Hab. Brazil, 

DiASTATOPS. 

1. Diastatops dimidiata, cf, 9. 

Libellula dimidiata Linn^! Syst. Nat., ii, 908, 14. — DeGeer, M^m 
III, 558, pi. 26, f. 6.— Burm. 1 Handb., ii, 854, 36. 

Diastatops dimidiata Ramb.! Neur., 129, 1. — Erichs! Voy. Schom- 
burgk, III, 584. — Hag., Syn., 32 U 

Diastatops fenestrata Hag. 1 Foerhdl., Dansk. V. S., 1855, 125. 

Hab. Surinam; Essequibo, Guiana. 

2. Diastatops tlncta, cf. 

Diastatops tincta Ramb. ! Neuropt., 435, 1. — Erichs 1 Voy. Schom- 
burgk, III, 584. Hag.! Syn., 821 ; Foerhdl. Dansk. V. S., 1355, 125. 
Hab. Guiana; St Louis de Maranhon, Minas Geraes, Brazil 

1"^ 



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8. Diastatops pullata, s. 

LibelMa puUata Bunii.l H»n(Jb., ii, 854, 84. 

Diastatops pvllata Hamb. 1 Neurppt., 186, 2, pi, 8^ f. 4*-^ Hag. I 
Syn., 821. 

Hab. Femambuco, Brazil; Moxos, Fdni« 

4. Diast^topfi obsomray cf, 9. 

LibeUiUa obscura Fabr., Ent Syst, ii, 877, 15, — BmrmJ Han^b., 
II, 584, 35. 

Diastatops fuligmea RambJ Neuropt., 187, 8. 
* Diastatops obscura Hag.*! Syn., 821. 

Hab. Bahia, Brazil. 

Prof. W. H. Niles remarked on the comparative whiteness 
of the SQQw at different seasons of the year. He thought 
that the snow was observably whiter in the spring than in 
the earlier parts of the winter, and attributed the difference 
to the character of the snow-crystals as those seasons. 

Prof. R. H. Richards described some peculiar forms of iqe- 
crystals, formed at a very low temperature in a baiTel con- 
taining salt water. 



May 19, 1875. 

The President in the chair. Thirty-eight persons present. 

After the usual preliminary business, the President, intro- 
ducing Prof. Rogers, said : — 

I know that you all have obsej'ved with great pleasure the 
presence with us this afternoon, after long absence from ill- 
ness, of our distinguished, highly valued, and I may add 
much beloved, brother member Wm. B. Rogers ; and as it 
seems to me m,eet on this occasion that the feelings that 
move every heart should be openly expressed, I venture in 
your behalf to tender him your congratulations upon that 
restoration to health which permits him once again to take 
pait in our proceedings ; and to express the hope that he 



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1875.] 97 (Imogen. 

may oflen in future, as he was wont to do in former years, 
grace our meetings by bis presence and instruct us by bis 
wise and eloquent contributions. 

Geological Notes. By Prof. William B. Rogers. 
Art, I, On (he Newport Conglomerate. 

It will be remembered that in a communication to the Amei'ican 
Association in 1860, and in fuller detail in a paper on *' The Aleta- 
morphism of Conglomerates/' published in Silliman's Journal the 
following year, the late distinguished Geologist, Prof. Edward 
Hitchcock, endeavored to hhow that the generally elongated form and 
closely fitting arrangement of the pebbles in the Newport conglom- 
erate were due to the influence of heat or other agencies softening 
the rock, combined with a continued pressure and tension, by which 
the pebbles were squeezed and drawn out in their semi-plastic con- 
dition. 

To this view I objected, on the ground that such an action applied 
on a large scale must have had the effect not only of flattening 
the pebbles in a uniform direction, but of developing a cleavage 
or lamination of them, all parallel to their flat sections as they lie in 
the mass. For this and other reasons set forth in the Proceedings of 
the Society, in a paper communicated the same year, I main- 
tained that the forms and arrangement of the pebbles were those 
which had resulted from tlie wearing action of the tides and cur- 
rents, by which they had been originally moulded in the process of 
their deposition and accumulation; not doubting, however, that in 
some metamorphic districts conglomerate rocks are to be found, 
which have sustained great internal changes through the eflfects of 
heat, chemical action and violent pressure. 

At a subsequent meeting of the American Association (18G9), the 
plastic theory was again brought forward, and an argument in its favor 
was drawn from the then recent experiments of Prof. Tres<!a of the 
Conservatoire des Arts et Metieres, on what he calls the ** flow of 
solids,'* and this argument seems hitherto to have passed unchallenge<l. 
When, however, we refer to the results of these experiments, we find 
the fact that in all cases the solid sul jected to the mouhling force 
exhibited a striking alteration of its structure ; a bar of metal, for 
example, thus forced through a contracted opening, being reduced in 

PROCEEDINGS B. 8, K. H. — VOIi. XVIU. 7 OCTOBEB, 1875. 



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98 [May 19, 

diameter^ and presenting after its changes a series of concentric, loop- 
like curves, marking surfaces of lamination or partial separation, 
caused by the relative motions of the different parts. It would seem, 
therefore, that any flattening and elongation of the pebbles in the 
conglomerate could not fail to be followed by some analogous altera- 
tion of structure, and as the pressures or tensions must be conceived 
to have pervaded the rocks generally, it was to be expected that 
such induced lamination, or other structure, would be found common 
to all the pebbles making up the mass. But on. carefiil examination 
of the principal exposures of the Newport conglomerate, I have met 
with no evidence of such superinduced structure, although from the 
fact that the pebbles are for the most part rolled fragments of quartz, 
quartzite, sandstones and silicious slates, having a more or less jointed 
or laminated character, an opportunity is frequently presented on the 
smooth face of the rock for studying their internal structure. 

As an illustration of how independent the lamination and joints of 
the several fragments are of such hypothetical moulding forces^ I 
have made a tracing of the conglomerate surface, at a particular 
locality of the Purgatory Rocks, on transparent cloth, which enables 
me to lay down the actual outlines of the several pebbles with the 
direction of the laminae in each. In this diagram it may be seen 
that the lamination has very various directions, and that it extends 
entirely across the pebbles, leaving no room for supposing even a 
superficial moulding effect from pressure. The predominant direc- 
tion of the laminss, as might be expected, conforms to the general 
direction of the oblong pebbles, but even in cases where the con- 
formity is most striking, and the appearance of flattening by pressure 
most marked, pebbles are interspersed in which the lamination has 
various transverse directions, sometimes even at right angles to the 
' strike. 

It would seem, therefore, in view of these facts, that there is noth- 
ing in the structure of the Newport conglomerate to sustain the 
hypothesis referred to, or to call for further mechanical agency than 
the transporting and wearing actions under which it is believed such 
'materials have been generally moulded and accumulated, together 
with the tangential or other pressures, which have been concerned 
in determining their stratigraphical position. Of the operation of 
these latter forces there can of course be no question, as the rocky 
masses of the conglomerate have been forced into steep and alter- 
nating dips. Moreover, the cracked and fissured condition, so fre- 
quent in the larger masses of quartz and quartzite, suggests the 



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1876.] 99 [Rofw*. 

action of a crushing force. Nor can it be doubted that chemical 
changes have been wrought in the material in which tlie pebbles are 
embedded, and even occasionally in the surfaces of the pebbles them- 
selves, giving rise to the crystalline grains of magnetite scattered 
through the former, to the mica-like scales which are found adhering 
to the pebbles, as well as the cavities left by their removal, and to 
the slight pitting or striation with which the pebbles are son^etimea^ 
marked. 

In regard to the generally elongated form of the pebbles in these- 
rocks, my observation of the breakers at various points on our coast 
has led me to the conclusion that there is a marked difference in 
the action of the impinging waves, due to differences in the slope 
and smoothness, and the greater or less irregularity and contraction 
laterally of the shores, so that while in some oaf^es the movement is 
chiefly a vertical whirling in the direction of the advancing wave, 
in others it includes also various jryration* transverse to this. In 
the former of these conditions the movement imparted to the peb- 
bles at the shore would, it might be expected, grind them by mutual 
attrition, and the wearing action of the sand, into oblong forms, 
while in the latter conditions it would tend to bring them into 
lenticular, or into more or less ppherical shapes.. The former of 
these modes of action seems to prevail at many localities along the 
Newport shores, and the latter is well exemplified by the lenticular 
forms so abundant in the pebbles brought from the coast of New-^ 
foundland. 

The flattened shape of many of the large masses may, to some 
extent, be ascribed to the attrition operating upon them while partly, 
embedded and at rest, but chiefly to the laminated structure of many, 
of the fragments, causing them to break by concussion into flat masses^ 
and to yield to erosive forces more rapidly in the planes of the lam- 
inae than in transverse directions.. 

There is often a difficulty in determining the dip of these con- 
glomerate beds, from the fact that in some of them the pebbles, in- 
stead of lying with their longer sections parallel to the planes of 
bedding, are placed partly edgewise to these planes, but by tracing 
the separating beds or layers of sandstone it is usually possible tO' 
discern the inclination of the strata.. This oblique arrangement of the ^ 
pebbles resembles what is to be seen in similar accumulations of large- 
pebbles along the upper part of steep sea beaches of the present 
day, or it may possibly have been, caused, as has been asserted ia 



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Kogers.] lOO (May 19, 

some cases, by an actual turning of the pebble* from their originally 
flat posi'ion by the oblique action of the upheaving force. 

A striking feature in the general structure of these rocks, is the 
system of vertical joints by which they are traversed, and which 
have often been alluded to by former observers. ITiese joints, rang- 
ing nearly east and we^t, or at right angles to tl^e strike of the beds, 
are ujmally at distances of twelve to fifteen feet apart, but in some 
cases they divide this interval by parallel clefts only a few inches 
asunder. Where this is the case the wearing action of the waves 
finds comparatively little opposition, and the cliff in process of time 
is cut back, so as to form a chasm of greater or less length, whose 
vertical parallel sides extend from the top of the cliff to its base. 
Of these effects of erosion, one of the most striking is the well-known 
chasm at Purgatory, near Newport, wliieh has been erroneously re- 
garded as due to tlie decay of a dyk<3 of trap, supposed to have 
occupied the cavity. 

As already stated, the above objections to the plastic theory are 
meant to apply simply to the mass known as the Newport conglom- 
erate, having its typical locality in the Purgatory rocks, and are not 
intended to throw doubt on the evidences of metamorphic action, 
mechanical and chemical, with which, in other cases, geologists are 
familiar. Of the reahty of former movements within the substance 
of rocky strata we have abundant illustration in the actions by which 
slaty cleavage has been induced, and by which, in connection with 
this structure, the lengthening, shortening, and other distortions of 
the enclosed fossils have been brought about. These distortions, 
however, in most cases, are to be explained not so much by a direct 
compressing or extending force, as by the effect of the sliding of th« 
laminae upon each other in definite directions, carrying with them the 
corresponding linear elements of the fo.-sil, or its impression ; so that 
without any necessary condensation or stretching of the mass, the 
distorted foims may be regardt-d as so many geometrical projections 
of the fossil on differently inclined [danes. 

In recent explorations of the conglomerate, I have obtained im- 
pressions which, allhough indistinct, are suggestive of the " I Jngula,** 
foun I many years ago in the conglomerate rock in the neighborhood 
of Fall Uiver, a de])osit probiibly on the same, or nearly the same, 
geological horizon with the Newport congli»merate. Besides these 
6])ecimens, which were broken from the rock in place, 1 have found 
numerous large pebbles on the ailjoining beach crowded with well- 
preserved impressions of thii same fossiL These pebbles, both in 



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1875.] 101 [Rogers, 

place and scattered, consist of a gr»/ silicious rock or quartzite, 
seejnin;^!}' referable to soma member of the primordial group, of 
which a remnant is exposed in southeastern Massachusetts, and per- 
haps a larger extent is concealed by drift, and which probably at 
one period spread northeastward over extensive areas now cavercd 
by the sea. 

Art, II. On the Gravel and ColMe-stone Deposits of Virginia and the 
Middle States. 

The surface deposits here referred to are extensively exposed in 
many parts of the belt which marks the junction of the older rocks 
with the tertiary and upper secondary formations in the Middle 
States. Tliese deposits, especially in the great river valleys and 
adjoining slopes, as at Richmond and Washington, consist chiefly of 
layers of quartz gravel, like the surface gravel of the adjoining pri- 
mary region, and of larger smoothly rolled masses derived from the 
silicious slates, quartzites and sandstones of remoter tracts lying to 
the west and northwest, mingled and interstrattfied with ferruginous 
sands and clays, which impart ta the mass a more or less reddish 
color. 

In most localities, the larger pebbles are found in the upper part of 
the deposit, often strewing the surface thickly where the finer matter 
has been removed either by natural erosion or in the progress of 
improvement, as may be seen at numerous exposures in and around 
Washington. In other cases, as at Alexandria and at Richmond, the 
cobble stone deposit is usually overlaid by stratified sand and jiravel 
of considerable thickness. It is from these sources that the cities of 
Richmond, Washington, Baltimore and Philadelphia, have been sup- 
plied with the paving materials at one time so generally in use. 

In a pile of such paving stones in Richmond, Virginia, many 
years ago, I found a large pebble of compact vitreous sandstone, 
containing distinct impressions of Scolithus linearis, the well-known 
characteristic fossil of the Primal or Potsdam formation, having its 
nearest outcrop on the w^estern side^ of the Blue Ridge. In subset 
quent observations, especially those recently made in and around 
Richmond, Washington and Georgetown, I have found that a con- 
siderable proportion of this pebbly or cobblestone deposit consists of 
fragments of the harder silicious Paleozoic rocks, and has therefore 
been derived from the Appalachian belt. Indeed, so common are 
the fossiliferous fragments, that an observer can hardly fail to dis- 



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Rogers.] 102 [May 19, 

cover them at any of the excavations where tbe coarser materials are 
exposed, as well as in the piles of cobblestones in the neighborhood. 

In the specimens exhibited to illustrate this paper, collected chiefly 
at Washington and Richmond, it will be seen that the casts of Scoli- 
thus are very distinct and abundant. These masses are horn two to 
six inches in diameter, but in some of the localities much larger spec- 
imens may be seen crowded with the fossil. Along with them are 
occasionally found rounded masses or cobbles of fossiliferous sandstone 
and of conglomerate, referable to higher positions in the Appalachian 
series, ranging probably to the carboniferous rocks. The absence from 
these deposits of fragments derived from the limestones, shales and 
argillaceous slates of the Appalachian belt, is readily accounted for 
by the comparative ease with which such materials would be disinte- 
grated by the mechanical and chemical actions concerned in their 
transportation and deposition, and the same explanation accounts for 
the fact that so few fragments of the granites, schists and gneissoid 
and homblendic rocks of the wide intervening belt have been pre- 
served in this formation, and that it retains little distinctly represent- 
ing these rocks, except an abundance of quartz gravel and cobbles, 
derived from them. 

The deposit in question extends at Washington over the entire 
plain on which the city is built, having an average of seventy-five 
feet, and rising on the north to about one hundred feet above mean 
tide. Thence it spreads over the adjoining slopes, covering the high 
ground on which Columbian College is situated, and the still higher 
hill of the Soldier's Home, which is more than two hundred feet above 
tide. At the latter locality the rolled fragments have a less average 
size than at the lower level, though still often several inches in diam- 
eter. In the neighborhood of the Capitol, and in the railroad cutting 
near the Navy Yard, they are often as much as a foot in diameter, 
and a recent excavation near Georgetown, some forty feet above the 
creek, has brought to light masses of these transported rounded rocks 
of still greater dimensions, some of them large enough to be called 
boulders. 

Although the surface formation in question shows itself in, and 
adjoining, the valleys of all the principal streams in the Middle 
States, the fragments of paleozoic rocks have thus far been observed 
only in the deposit as exposed in those river valleys which penetrate 
westward and northwestward as far as, or into, the Appalachian belt. 
It is reserved for further observation to ascertain whether they are 



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l«7».l 103 ptogei*. 

wholly absent from tbe shorter yalleys, and also to determine to what 
extent the general deposit is continoed from valley to valley over the , 
intermediate higher grounds. 

Although from the facts thus far observed, it would seem that the 
transporting agency by which these deposits were accumulated was 
chiefly or wholly operative in the lines of the river valleys, the great 
height to which, as before stated, the deposit reaches, shows that the 
relative level of the water, or probably ice, concerned in the trans- 
portation, must have been much above the water level as it ndw 
exists, and that the then actual river valleys were of correspondingly 
greater width. The distances over which the fragments of Appala- 
chian rocks found in these surface deposits have been carried, may 
be judged from the following facts. 

The distance from Richmond, in a straight line to the nearest out- 
crop of the Primal or Potsdam sandstone west of the Blue Bidge, is 
about eighty miles; that following the course of the James Biver is 
one hundred and sixty miles; the distance from Washington to the 
western side of the Blue Ridge in a straight line is about forty miles; 
that along the Potomac River between fifty and sixty miles. 

What relation this deposit bears to the drift of the more northern 
regions as to the manner and time of its production, is a question of 
great interest. The materials of the deposit are distinctly stratified, 
and the fragments, instead of being angular, as so common in the 
drift proper, are well rounded and smooth. Nor has there been thus 
far pbserved, any case of that striation of surface which is so fre- 
quently met wiUi in the larger fragments of the northern drift* 
Tracing the formation, however, as it shows itself successively at 
Richmond, Washington, and other localities still further northward, 
the stratification becomes less perfect, and the coarser materials are 
more scattered through the mass, and after crossing the Delaware the 
whole deposit cannot be distinguished from the material considered 
in that region as a modified drift. 

Speculating on the causes by which these deposits have been 
formed, it may, on the one hand, be imagined that during the glacial 
period the icy covering of the north and west prolonged itself in the 
valleys of the great rivers, as far south as the James, and even the 
Roanoke River, bringing down to the belt of land now marking the 
limit of tide water, debris from the Appalachian rocks, mingled with 
materials derived from the intervening region, and that the grinding 
and sorting action of the waters subsequently obliterated glacial 



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Bogen.'} 104 [May 19, 

markinrr, and gave to the whole deposit the distribution and strati- 
fication which it now presents; or, on the other hand, it may be con- 
ceived that the transporting force of the rivers themselves, swollen 
and rapid as they must have been in the closing ages of the glacial 
period, brought about the same results. But even, in this case, it is 
highly probable that glacial action ha<l much to do with the original 
accumulation of the rocky debris en the flanks of the Blue Ridge, 
and in the Appalachian valleys beyond. 

Jn the belt partially occupied by the surface deposit here referred 
to, there is exposed another group of strata, with which, at first view, 
the sandy and argillaceous layers of this formation might re?idily be 
confounded. These are the silicious, argillaceous and pebbly beds, 
which, underlying the tertiary in Virginia, and the well marked cre- 
taceous formation further north, have, in the latter region, been 
regarded as belonging to the base of the cretaceous series of the 
Atlantic States. In Virginia the formation consists typically of a 
rather coarse, and sometimes pebbly sandstone, in which the grains 
of quartz and felspar are feebly cemented by kaolin, derived from the 
decomposition of the latter, and of argillaceous and silicious clays 
variously colored, and more or less charged with vegetable remains, 
either silicified, or in the condition of lignite. These constitute the 
group of beds designated in the Virginia geological reports as the 
Upper Secondary Sandstone, and referred by me long since (1842) 
to the upper part of the Jurassic series, corresponding probably to 
the Purbeck beds of British geologists. From the Potomac north- 
ward, this group of deposits, as exposed in the deep railroad cust 
between Washington and Baltimore, and on to Wilmington, is made 
up of variegated, sofl, argillaceous and silicious beds, which, from 
the preponderance of ferruginous coloring towards the Delaware, has 
been called by Prof. Booth the red clay formation. At a few points 
only towards the bottom of the deposit, it brings to view a bed of 
the fclspathic sand, or crumbling sandstone, above referred to. 
Traced transversely, it is seen to dip beneath the cretaceous green- 
sand at various points in New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, 
but in Virginia disappears in its eastward dip beneath the Eocene 
tertiary. 

How far we may consider this group of sediments in Maryland, 
Delaware and New Jersey, as merely a continuation of the Virginia 
formation above described, can be determined oply by further inves- 
tigation. But the discovery in them at Baltimore, by Prof. Tj'son, of 



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1875.] 105 [RogeM. 

stumps of cycads, would seem to brino; them into near relation with 
the formation at Fredericksburg containinf^ similar remains, and to 
favor their being referred, at least in part, to the horizon of the 
upper Jurassic rocks. Possibly we may find here a passage-group 
analogous to the Wealden of British geology. Whatever may be the 
result of farther discovery, it would seem to be premature at this 
time to assume the whole of these deposits from the Potomac north- 
ward, as belonging to the cretaceous series. 

Where the tertiary or the cretaceous rocks are present in this belt, 
there is, of course, no danger of confounding the superficial gravel 
and cobblestpne deposit with the formation just described, but in 
their absence, which is usual in the river valleys, this deposit rests 
immediately on the broken and denuded surface of the secondary, 
and by the intermixture of materials makes it more difficult to dis- 
criminate between them. 

Excellent opportunities for observing the contact of the superficial 
deposit with the denuded and much older formation below, are pre- 
sented in the neighborhood of Washington, among which may be 
specially mentioned the vertical cut at the extremity of ICth Street, 
at the base of the hill occupied by Columbian College, and also the 
continuation of 14th Street, ascending the same hill. At the former 
locality the crumbling felspathic sandstone, or slightly adhering sand, 
is exposeci to a height of about thirty-five feet, with a very gentle 
eastern dip, and having the color, composition and diagonal bedding 
characteristic of the Fredericksburg and Aquia Creek sandstone. 
The gravel and cobblestone deposit lying upon it descends with thei 
slope of the hill to the general plain below, resting at a somewhat 
steep angle against the denuded edges of the underlying beds.^ 
From this and other localities, it becomes obvious that the latter 
formation has been deeply and extensively denuded before and dur- 
ing the deposition of the surface strata, which form the chief subject 
of this communication. 

At Richmond this gravel and cobblestone deposit presents itself at 
, various heights from the river bank to the tops of the hills, mantling 
the irregularly denuded surface of the underlying formations; resting 
at one place on the Upper Miocene, at others, on the infusorial 
stratum, which lies at the base of the Miocene, or on the Eocene, 
or on the yet older deposit, referable probably to an upper secondary 

1 Since this was written (April, 1875), the excavation and grading have greatly 
changed the exposure by covering ap much of the lower deposit. 



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Hunt.] 106 [Junes, 

period. The well smoothed pebbles are chiefly of quartzite and sili- 
cious slates, including not a few which are marked with Scolithus. 
In the Rappahannock valley, and between it and the Potomac, the 
formation may be seen resting directly either on the massive second- 
ary sandstone, or on the looser deposit situated next above, or on 
the Eocene tertiary, which at some points occupies hollows in the 
denuded surface of the sandstone. 

The President announced the gift of a large quartz crystal 
from Japan, of the kind used in the formation of the well- 
known Japanese crystal balls, from Capt. Rufus Crowell, 
to whom the thanks of the Society were voted. 



June 2, 1875. 
The President in chair. Twenty-five persons present. 

Dr. W. G. Farlow gave an interesting account, illustrated 
by diagram and black-board sketches, of the most recent 
investigations on the fertilization of Fungi. 

The following papers were then read:— 

The Decayed Gneiss of Hoosac Mountain. 
By T. Sterry Hunt. 

In a communication to this Society, published in its Proceedings 
for Oct. 15, 1878, 1 noticed the' chemical decomposition and decay of 
the feldspathic and hornblendic rocks of the great Atlantic belt. 
This, in the Southern States, is seen to have penetrated to a depth 
of one hundred feet or more, but as we proceed northward becomes 
less and less evident; until in the hills of New England we find the • 
same rocks, hard, and with glaciated surfaces. It was argued that 
this decay was a process which had been in operation from remote 
antiquity, and that the products resulting from it had been the source 
of the various argillaceous deposits from the earliest paleozoic to the 
post-pliocene clays, since the removal and deposition of which latter, 
the process of decay seems to have been insignificant in amount. 



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1676.1 lOT [Hunt. 

Very recently Prof. Pumpelly has called attention to the evidence 
that the similar decomposition of the stratified orthoclase-porphyries 
of Eozoic age, with which are associated the iron ores of southeast- 
ern Missouri, had already begun in early paleozoic time. 

It 18 known that in various- parts in the northeast of the Atlantic 
belt portions of decayed crystalline rocks are still found in sitv, hav- 
ing, from the accidents of position, been preserved from denudation. 
I have to call the attention of the Society to a remarkable example 
of this, which is seen at the Hoosac Tunnel, at North Adams, in this 
State, where a good opportunity was afforded for studying the depth 
of the decay. I have already given some account of it in my report 
to the Corporators of the Hoosac Tunnel, in October, 1874, which 
will be found published by the State, in House Document, Ko. 9, 
January, 1875. 

The locality is at the western base of the Hoosac Mountain, the 
crest of which here rises rapidly to a height of thirteen hundred feet 
above the town of Korth Adams, which is itself seven hundred feet 
above the sea. The mountain, a part of the north and south Hoosac 
range, is traversed from east to west by a tunnel 25,081 feet in length, 
the examination of which shows the rock to be chiefly micaceous 
gneiss and mica-schist, including in its western half much hard fel- 
spathic and quartzose rock, in part a granitoid gneiss. The strata 
have a prevailing eastern dip, generally at high angles, but with local 
western dips, apparently due to inversion. Similar rocks are, in 
many places, exposed on the sides and the crest of the hill, present- 
ing no appearance of decay, but hard, and ofVen with smoothed and 
striated surfaces. Near its western base, however, the rocks are de- 
composed to considerable depths, as was well shown in the tunnel. 
This, for a distance of many hundred feet, was driven in gneissic 
strata, which, while they preserved their highly inclined attitude, 
were so much decayed that they were excavated like earth, by means 
of pick and spade. The brick arch, which has been constructed for 
a distance of twenty-two hundred feet within the west end of the 
tunnel and the stone-work of the portal, conceals, for the most part, 
these decayed strata, but it was easy to procure specimens of them 
just outside, where excavations were then being made in the bank, 
exposing sections of several feet of these highly inclined beds. The 
feldspar had been converted into an unctuous clay, which was well 
shown in the case of coarsely granitoid layers here inter stratified 
with the more micaceous gneiss. The mica was also very much soft- 



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Hunt.] 108 IJane 2, 

ened and disinteji^ated, while th3 qaartz was of course unchanged. 
I have not yet been able to submit these materials to a chemical 
examination. 

By the courtesy of the State Engineer, Mr. B. D. Frost, I was 
enabled to get some data with regard to the extent of the decayed, 
or as it was called by those in charge, the *' demoralized ** rock. The 
soflening and disintegration of tlie gneiss were found to be complete 
for a distance of six hundred feet from the west portal, where the 
floor of the tunnel is two hundred feet from the surface of the hill, 
and were partial at one thousand feet from the entrance, where it is 
two hundre<l and eighty feet below. 

Prof. James Hall, who examined this tunnel immediately after me, 
and has detailed Ids observations in the Document already cited, 
learned that at a distance of twelve hundred feet or more from the 
western entrance, a bed of brown hematite was traversed in the tun- 
nel, and he afterwards discovered the outcrop of this ore-bed on the 
hillside above, where it is from four to six feet in thickness. This 
would indicate that a partial decomposition of the strata extends 
still deeper than mentioned above, inasmuch as this bed is probably, 
like the similar ones mined farther southward, in Kent and Salis- 
bury, Connecticut (where they occur in decomposed gneiss rock), the 
result of an epigenie change of pyrites beds, as was long since pointed 
out by Prof. C. U. Shepard. The evidence before us seems to justify 
the conclusion that tlie whole of the feldspathic rocks of Uoosac 
Mountain were at one time to a considerable depth from the surface 
in a decayed and softened condition. The agencies which removed 
this decomposed rock from the other parts of the mountain, however, 
spared this portion at its western base, where it still remains, an 
evidence of a process which has not since affected the exposed and 
still undecayed portions of the similar rocks which form the surface 
of the whole Mountain. 

Prof. J. D. Dana on the Alteration of Rocks. 
By T. Sterry Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S. 

A note from Prof. Dana was read at the meeting of this Society in 
November last, commenting on my remarks on the history of pseudo- 
morphism, and its connection with the alteration of rocks. He has, 
moreover, seen fit to reproduce his statements with some little varia- 
tions, on two other occasions within the past year, in the American 
Journal of Science, the last time in the month of February, in a 



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1875.] 109 [Hunt. 

notice of my lately published volume of " Chemical and Geolopjical 
Essays," in which I have reprinted, with some additions (p:ij?cs 317- 
822) from the same Journal far July, 1872, my reply to his earlier 
attack upon me, called out by my Presidential address before the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science in August, 
1871 (ibid., pages 283-312). Under these circumstances I deem it 
due alike to myself and to the cause of truth, to make a brief reply 
to his repeated assaults. As I bave, in the pages just cited, discussed 
at some length the views of Naumann and of Delesse, to whom Dana 
refers, 1 now simply call attention to the fact that I have there shown 
that the views of the latter in the course of his studies in metamor- 
phism and pseudomorphism underwent a complete change, as shown 
by his successive puldications in 1858,1859 and 1861. He at first 
taught the epigenic derivation of serpentine, steatite and chlorite from 
granite and trappean rocks, a notion which he abandoned in 1861 for 
that previously taught by myself, according to which these magnesian 
rocks have originated from the diagenesis of sedimentary hydrous 
magnesian silicates of aqueous formation. 

For miny yeirs pist my studies have been directed to the origin 
of mineral species, a q:iestion hardly less important for geology than 
is the origin of spjcies of plants and animals for botany and zoology 
and the views which I have amved at, though treated as worthless 
by Prof. Dana, seem to have met with approval and acceptance from 
Delesse, Credner, Giimbel and Favre (ibid., pages 297, 817,304, 
305, 347, 348). 

Ill discussing in 1871, in the above mentioned address, the ques. 
tlons which arise in this connection, 1 took occasion to notice the very 
generally received hypothes^is of derivation by epigenesis or pseudo- 
morpliisMi, which, as interpreted by its various expounders, admits of 
many remarkable transformations of one mineral species into another, 
and to point out some objections to this view. In this discussion I 
mentioned Prof. Dana's name in connection with some seven or eight 
othei-s, as having taught the doctrine of pseudomorphism by altera- 
tion, and then proceeded to give numerous examples of the supposed 
change of one crystalline rock into another, as maintained by various 
authors of this school. I, moreover, stated that Prof Dana had, in 
1858, resumed his own teachings on this subject by declaring that 
*' metamorphism is pseudomorphism on a grand (broad) scale." 

To these statements Prof. Dana replied in 1872, that a part of the 
supposed rock-transformations mentioned by me had never been con- 



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Hunt.] 110 [Jiiii©2, 

ceived by him, and that he did not doubt the other writers of the 
school would repudiate them as strongly as he did. He, moreover, 
reproached rae with having falsely attributed to him the doctrine that 
*^ metamorphism is pseudomorphism on a grand scale/' and declared 
that he had neither made the remark nor expressed the sentiment in 
his Mineralogy of 1854. (Amer. Jour. Science, February, 1872.) 

Two questions were here involved, namely, the personal views of 
Mr. Dana, and those of the school in question; but he began by 
denying, alike for himself and for others, their well known and 
avowed teachings. To all this I replied by showing that each one of 
the alleged cases of rock-alteration had been expressly maintained 
by one or more writers of the school. 1 showed, moreover, as re- 
gards Prof. Dana, that he had repeatedly, from 1845 to 1858, asserted 
that the various pseudomorphic chanp^es maintained by Blum, Rose, 
and others, were true, not only of individual crystals, but of great 
rock masses ; that in his Mineralogy of 1854, he described the epi- 
genic production of serpentine and other magnesian rocks as *'a 
process of pseudomorphism, or in more general language, of meta- 
morphism,'' and added, that the ^'subject of metamorphism, as it bears 
on all crystalline rocks., and of pseudomorphism, are but branches of 
one system of phenomena.'* I farther showed that his assertion 
made in 1858, that ^^metamorphism is pseudomorphism on a broad 
scale," was but a summing up and a reiteration of his teachings of 
1845 and 1854. Prof. Dana now admits this language to be his own, 
but pleads, in excuse, that the expression was a hasty one, which he 
had so far forgotten as to be unwilling to believe himself to have 
m\de use of it To this point I shall return. 

In his Manual of Geology, which appeared in 1862, we find but 
few traces of this doctrine; the origin of serpentine and steatite from 
the alteration of pyroxene rocks is taught, but, with this exception, 
the author is silent with regard to hb late tear:hings on pseudomorph- 
ism, and I am now blamed because I did not interpret this silence as 
an evidence that he no longer held his former views. They were, 
however^ nowhere repudiated nor retracted, and students of his 
Mineralogy might well be pardoned if, under these circumstances, 
they continued to accept the former repeated and emphatic utterances 
of Prof. D.ina as his creed on the subject of rock- metamorphism. 
I confess that I had never been led to suspect any change in his views 
until after the publication of my address in 1871. Could I have de- 
duced as much from the negative evidence afibrded by his Manual of 



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1875*] 111 [Hnnt. 

Geology, I would gladly have stricken Prof. Dana's name from the 
list of the defenders of the doctrine of which he had so long been 
known as the champion, but which I have for the last twenty years 
opposed. 

With regard to the numerous rock^transformations mentioned in 
my address, I nowhere charged Prof. Dana with explicitly maintain- 
ing them, although in view of his late earnest repudiation, alike for 
himself and for others, of supposed alterations of rock masses, I re- 
minded him that by the principles which he had formerly laid down 
and defined, he was *' logically committed to all the deductions as to 
the changes of rocks which the transmutationist school has drawn 
from the alterations of minerals,'' by following out the principles laid 
down by him in 1845, and later in his Mineralogy of 1854, to their 
legitimate conclusions. 

Prof. Dana proceeds, in the American Journal of Science for Feb- 
ruary, 1875, to discuss the supposed conversion of granite or gneiss 
into limestone, a notion which he says never came into his head, and 
be accuses me (1) of stating that his '* Mineralogy contains the fact 
that calcite is sometimes pseudomorphous after quartz," and (2) of 
charging him with maintaining the metamorphosis of granite or gneiss 
into limestone. Now / have never anywhere asserted the one or the 
other, I made no reference to bis Mineralogy for the statement that 
calcite is pseudomorphous after quartz, for which my authority is 
the complete and elaborate memoir on Pseudomorphs, prepared by 
Delesse, and published in the Annales des Mines in 1859 [(5) xvi], 
to which 1 so frequently referred in my reply. We are there in- 
formed that calcite is pseudomorphous after quartz, pyroxene, feld- 
spar, garnet, etc. As a deduction from this, I cite the conclusions, 
not of Prof Dana, but among others, of Messrs. King and Rowney. 
These gentlemen, in the Annals of Natural History for 1874 ^ (Vol. 
XIII, p. 390), go so far as to say that, " the Tyree, Aker, and other 
crystalline marbles, were originally silacid masses, and possibly much 
of the so-called limestones occurring in the Lauren tian of Canada 
were in Archaean periods silacid members of true gneisses, diorites, 
and other related rocks " — changed by a process of pseudomorphism. 
In writing the above paragraph, 1 have before me Prof. Dana's 
remarks in the American Journal of Science for February, 1875. In 
the Proceedings of this Society for last October, the statement is 

1 This, in my volume of Essays, is by mistake printed ** 1869." 



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Hunt.] 112 [Jane 2, 

slightly varied, and he only charges me with asserting that he had 
•* virtually believed ** in the transformation of jrranite or gneiw into 
lin[iL'>tonc, as maintained by Messrs. Kinjj and Kowney. He, however, 
adds the remark, which serves to show his unfaiiiiliarify with the 
literature of the subject, that as regards this supposed change of 
rocks, he "nerer knew thai any man was ignorant enoufjh, or awJac^ous 
enoufjh to have suf/gested'* it. 

Prof. Dana then procee<ls to deny in all emphatic manner, ybr him- 
seff^ certain opinions which he says I attribute to him and to others: 
1. •* The conversion of almost any silicate into any other"; for proof 
of which I refer to tlie table of pscudomorphs given in his Mineral- 
ogy for 1854, as well as the more complete one cited above; 2, 3, 4. 
The possibility of converting granite, gneiss or diorite, into limestone; 
5, 6, 7, 8. The possibility of converting granite, granulite, gneiss and 
diorite, into serpentine; 9, 10. The po>sil)ility of converting lime- 
stone into granite and gneiss. Now these statements of his, in the 
American Journal for February last, are intended to convey only one 
impression, namely, that I have falsely charged both himself and 
others with holding these various transformations. Yet every reader 
of my address and of my reply to Dana's criticisms thereon knows: 
1, that 1 never maintained that Prof. Dana has taught explicitly any 
one of these rock-transformations, and, 2, that I have shown by nu- 
merous citations that each and every one of them has been explicitly 
taught by eminent writers of the school in question, to which Prof. 
Dana belonged from 1845 to 1858, and to which, till his late declara- 
tion to the contrary, I still supposed him to belong. 

As regards Prof. Dana's final assertion, in his notice of my Essays 
in the American Journal for February last, that, " with tlie exception 
of the year 1858, 1 have never held nor taught that metamorphism 
is pseudomorphism on a broad scale," he will permit me to refcF to 
the teachings of his Mineralogy in 1854, cited above, and, moreover, 
to quote his own language in 1858 (Amer. Jour. Science (2) xxv, 
445), where in discussing the tiuestion of metamorphism, Prof. Dana 
refers to his paper on Pseudomorphism, published in 1845 (ibid., (1) 
XLViii), and says .... ** on page 92 of the same paper nieta- 
phism is spoken of as pseudomorphism on a broad scale.** It is clear, 
by his own showing, that this now forgotten and objectionable doc- 
trine was not taught by him, as he now seems to say, for the fii*st time 
in 1858, but was then cited by him with approval, as his teaching 
thirteen years before. 



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1876.] 113 [Scudder. 

The President exhibited two specimens of poi-phyritic 
rock, evidently of a conglomerate character. He had been 
the first, as long ago as 1862,^ to refer to evidences of meta- 
morphic action in conglomerate rocks, which he had ob- 
served near Hingham, Mass., but was then unable to procure 
hand specimens. He believed the subject worthy of farther 
study. 

Prof Niles remarked that he had noticed similar cases in 
Wakefield and elsewhere in Massachusetts, and believed the 
phenomena to be general, and not local in character. 



Wednesday, June 16, 1875. 

President in chair. Eleven persons present. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited to the Society some remains 
of insects occurring in carboniferous shale at Cape Breton. 

They were all found upon a single small fragment of stone, and 
consist of wings of cockroaches (not very uncommon in carbon- 
iferous strata) and the well preserved remains of the abdomen of a 
larval dragon-fly. 

Heretofore the earliest indubitable remains of dragon-flies have 
come from the Lias, several fragments of wings, as well as perfect 
wings, a head and part of an abdomen having been figured by Rev. 
Mr. Brodie in his work on the fossil insects of the secondary rocks 
of England. Goldenberg, however, figures * an obscure insect (of 
which he only says it is possibly a Termes, but to which, in a subse- 
quent work he gives the name Termes Hagenii), which also is per- 
haps the larva of a dragon-fly ; this was found in the carboniferous 
beds of the neighborhood of . Saarbriicken in the valley of the Rhine. 
Further I exhibited to this Society some years ago, from the Carbon- 
iferous of Cape Breton, a photograph of a curious insect's wing 
which I called Haplophlebium Barnesii, and which had the general 
aspect of a dragon-fly's wing, but differed from it in several essential 
features ; it is not impossible that the body now exhibited may prove 

1 'Hiese Proceedings, IX, p. 57. 

* Danker and Meyer's Palseontogr., IV, pL vi, fig. 8. 

PBOOEEDINGS B. B. N. H. — VOL. XVUI. 8 OCTOBEB, 1875. 



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Morrison.J 114 [June 16, 

the larva of that very insect, so much does it differ from the ordinary 
type of dragon-fly larvae. The wing of Haplophlebium came from 
Little Glace Bay, Cape Breton, and was found by Mr. James Barnes. 
The abdomen now under consideration comes from Cossett's Pit, Sid- 
ney, Cape Breton, and from near the horizon of the Millstone Grit, 
as I am informed by Principal Dawson, to whom I owe the opportu- 
nity of studying this interesting fossil. The specimen was found by 
Mr. A. J. Hill. In both instances the insects are accompanied by 
fronds of Alethopteris, but of distinct species. 

The following paper was read : — 

Notes on the NocTuiDiE. By H. K. Morrison. 

In the following paper we describe a few new North American 
forms belonging to this family, and make some changes in the synon- 
omy of the species. Several of the new species are remarkable addi- 
tions to our fauna, especially the Cucullia luna, which is, perhaps, the 
most beautiful species of this handsome genus ; the Agrotit manifesta 
is also a well marked insect, very different from our few species 
which have pectinate antennae in the male. We are indebted for our 
material to the kindness of several well known collectors, to whom 
due credit is given after each species. 

Mr. Herman Strecker, particularly, has given us free access to his 
enormous collection, and in this paper and succeeding ones, we give 
the results of our study of a portion of his Noctuidas. Most of the 
species we describe from his collection will be figured by himself, in 
a short time, in his work on the Lepidoptera. 

Dicopis electilis nov. sp. 

Expanse, 37 mm. Length of body, 14 mm. 

Palpi short, scarcely exceeding the front. Antennae of the male 
" pyramidal toothed " (this is a term used by Lederer). Anterior tibiae 
with a long slender claw, otherwise unarmed. Thorax heavy, and 
with coarse villosity ; a distinct white band on each side of the teg- 
ulae, which are black next to the wings. Abdomen short, dark and 
not untufted. Anterior wings cinereous gray, with the markings well 
defined; a very heavy black basal streak, including and extending 
beyond the claviform spot to the exterior line; ordinary spots con- 
colorous, obsoletely encircled with black; interior line obsolete; ex- 
terior line distinct, black and narrow, with an indentation opposite 
the reniform spot, below which it is drawn in; subterminal line 



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1876.] 115 [Morrison. 

blackish, subobsolete. Posterior wings light gray; beneath gray, the 
posterior wings lighter, with discal dots. 

Hab. Easton, Penn. From Mr. W. H. Stultz. 

Distantly allied to Dlcopis muralls Gr.; it differs in the shape of the 
wings, which are narrow and CucuUia-like, the presence of the basal 
streak extending to the exterior line, and the absence of the distinct 
subanal streak of muralis. 

Agrotis digna nov. sp. 

Expanse, 32 mm. Length of body, 14 mm. 

All the tibiae armed. Eyes naked. Palpi dark. Collar white 
above, the lower half gray. Thorax and abdomen white, anal tuft 
with a faint brown shade above. Anterior wings white, covered with 
very fine gray atoms, which, becoming thickened towards the outer 
margin, give it a dusky appearance; the markings are nearly ob- 
solete, the interior and exterior lines are faintly seen, and two 
black dots mark the reniform spot; a black line at the base of the 
fringe. Posterior wings and fringes pellucid white. Beneath, the 
anterior wings are yellowish white, the posteriors without the yellow 
tinge, except on the costal margin. 

Hab. Texas, 

One specimen in the collection of the Peabody Academy of Sci- 
ence, and one in our own possession. 

The white color of this species is different from that of A. murcc-* 
nula, simplaria, and their allies. 

Agrotis infracta nov. sp. 

Expanse, 26 mm. Length of body, 13 mm. 

All the tibiae armed. Ovipositor of the female slightly protruding. 

This species we have had in our collection for some time, but have 
considered it a small variety of Agrotis messoria Harris; it is ex- 
tremely close to this species certainly, but we have seen a number of 
specimens, male and female, all showing the same characters, and 
some even smaller than the type; none approaching in size to messo- 
ria^ which expands from 33 to 40 mm. The following are the differ- 
ences of marking which it presents: basal dash distinct, ground color 
of the basal and subterminal spaces lighter carneous gray, exterior 
line more strongly projected outward, posterior wings nearly uniform 
dusky gray. 

Hab. Colorado (T. L. Moid); Texas (Belfrage). 

Agrotis claviformis Morr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., VoL 
XVII, p. 162, 1874, 



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Morrison:] 116 [Jmiel6, 

Our type of this species was a female; a short time ago we re- 
ceived the male from Prof, C. H. Fernald of Maine, and we are 
thereby enabled to give descriptions of both sexes. 

Anterior tibias spinose. Antennse of the male strongly pectinate. 
Collar and prothorax whitish, metathorax brown. Second joint of 
the palpi brown on the sides, above white; third joint brown. Anr 
terior wings brown ; the subterminal and basal, and the anterior por- 
tion of the median space, overspread with light gray; claviform spot 
brown, and very noticeable; median shade distinct brown, and angu- 
late in the middle ; orbicular spot concolorous, the reniform crossed 
by a red stain ;, exterior line dentate, not very strongly marked; 
terminal space dark. Posterior wings brownish gray, with whitish 
fringes, having discal dots and two indistinct median lines. Beneath 
gray, sprinkled with brown ; a common median line and discal dots. 

Hab. Massachusetts, Maine. 

Agrotis manifesta nov. sp. 

Expanse, 38 mm. Length of body, 18 mm. 

Anterior tibiaa spinose. Antennse of the male strongly pectinate, 
of the female simple. Anterior wings gray, with very simple and 
evident ornamentation; half line obsolete; interior line simple, black, 
perpendicular, and slightly irregular; the ordinary spots are reduced 
to black dots, the orbicular is sometimes absent, the reniform is pres- 
ent in the five specimens we have seen ; the exterior line is of the 
usual form, distinct, simple and finely dentate; subterminal line 
nearly obsolete; fringe slightly darker than the ground. Posterior 
wings fuscous gray, with distinct discal dots. Beneath gray, with 
discal dots and common median lines. 

Hab. New York. In May. 

Described from specimens in the collection of Mr. Fred. Tepper. 

This species has some resemblance to Agrotis manifestUabes Morr., 
and has, like it, pectinate antennse in the male sex. Its color varies 
considerably, in some specimens being mingled with brown. The 
orbicular spot is sometimes absent,, and very possibly specimens will 
.be found in which both spots are obsolete; in this case the species 
would resemble in simplicity of ornamentation, Agrotis monochro- 
matea Morr., although the ordinary lines in the latter are thick, 
suffused and subparallel, as in the species of Ufeus. 

Agrotis oblata nov. sp. 

Expanse, 34 mm. Length of body, 13 mm. 

Anterior tibiae apparently non-spinose, but as the thorax and legs 



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1875.] 117 [Morrison. 

are somewhat rubbed, it is possible that the spines have been lost. 
Anterior wings above with a fine, black, basal streak; interior line* 
brown-black, preceded by a light line which bounds the purple-gray 
basal space ; <jlavifbrm spot small, black encircled and concolorous ; 
median space brown, much darker between the ordinary spots; the 
latter are light brown, contrasting, and with black annuli, the reni- 
form spot with a central light line ; the exterior line of the usual 
shape, dentate and indistinct; the purple-brown subterminal space 
contrasts strongly with the yellowish terminal space; the subterminal 
line is shown only by the contrast of the two colors. Posterior wings 
with faint discal dots and a scarcely perceptible median line; their 
color is yellow, deepening into brown towards the outer margin. 
Beneath almost immaculate, yellowish, tinged with reddish brown 
towards the outer margin. Anal tufts yellow, brown above. 

Hab. Anticosti Island. From the collection of Mr. Herman 
Strecker. 

We have compared this insect with Drs. Moschler and Staudin- 
ger's descriptions of Labradorian Agrotids, and it appears to be a 
distinct species. 

Agrotis cliardiii3ri Bdv. 

Agrotis gilvipennis Grote. Sixth Ann. Rep. Peab. Ac. Sc, p. 28. 

Mr. Strecker, in his work on exotic and native Lepidoptera, cor- 
rectly determines this species from Anticosti, and about the same 
time Mr. Grote described it under the name above mentioned. We 
have seen in Mr. Strecker's collection, and also have in our own, per- 
fect specimens of our insect, as well as the Siberian A, chardinyi, and 
there can not be any doubt that they are the same; there is not even 
the usual slight geographical difference in color noticed by Dr. 
Speyer in insects common to Europe and America. 

Prof. C. H. Fernald has sent us a fine specimen from Maine, 
which still further extends the range of the species. 

Agrotis praefixa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 42 mm. Length of body, 22 mm. 

Tibiae spinose. Eyes naked. Habitus and markings of Agrotis 
occulta Linn., but the wings are wider, and not so elongate. Thorax 
gray, mingled with white. Abdomen not tufted. Anterior wings light 
cinereous gray; half-line present; a distinct basal longitudinal dash ; 
interior line dark, geminate, and nearly straight; the claviform spot 
large, black, and distinct ; the space between the ordinary spots black- 



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Morrinm.] 118 [Jnnelft, 

isb ; the spots are verr large, snbqaadrate, white and contrasting, 
and with continnons black annnli; median shade indistinct: the 
exterior line dentate, and not very well marked: snbterminal line 
whitish, conspicDoufi, with two Hadena-Iike teeth, and preceded by a 
Tery black, conspicuous shade band; terminal space lifrht; a series of 
black dots at the base of the fringe. Posterior wings whitish, some- 
what iridescent, with a broad, black border. Beneath cinereons 
gray, with indistinct markings. 

Hab. Rocky Mountains. From the collection of Prof. Julias £• 
Meyer. This species belongs to the Eurois group of Agrotis. 

Mamestra repentiiia nov. sp. 

Expanse, 32 mm. Length of body, 15 mm. 

Eyes hairy. Abdomen with a single middle dorsal tuft. Thorax 
gray, mottled with black. Collar with a transverse black line. An- 
terior winors light gray, with all the lines and spots present ; half-line 
distinct; the interior line black, lobate and geminate, the median 
shade very wide, black and dentate, running between the (vdinary 
spots; claviform spot small, black and linear; the ordinary spots 
light and contrasting, the orbicular round, the reniform larger, 
kidney-shaped ; the median space is oliyaceous green ; the exterior 
line is dentate, of the usual shape ; a dark shade on the costa before 
the subterminal line; the latter is but little distinct, preceded by a 
few isolated black spots; the geminate lines all enclose yellowish 
shade lines; the fringe bicolorous, yellow and white, and with the 
outer white portion checked with black. Posterior wings gray, 
lighter at the base. Beneath gray, nearly unicolorous. 

Hab. West Hoboken, N. J. From the collection of Prof. Julias 
E. Meyer, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Allied to Afamestra palilis Harvey, but the better defined markings 
and the different colors of the ground will separate it 

Mamestra ectypa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 30 mm. Length of body, 14 mm. 

Eyes hairy. Abdomen of the male short, with only a small dorsal 
tufl on the basal segment. Palpi well clothed, of the ordinary form 
in this genus. Thorax dark, concolorous with the anterior wings; 
the collar with a black, transverse line above. Anterior wings dark 
olivaceous gray, with all the markings very distinct and conspicuous; 
half-line present; interior line geminate, black and well-lobed, en- 
closing a bluish shade line; the ordinary spots of usual size, lighter 



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1876.] 119 [Morrison. 

than the ground, and. therefore distinct; the reniform with a blue 
central shade; the claviform spot present, large and black; the exte- 
rior line simple, distinct and dentate, followed by a bluish subtermi- 
nal space; the subterminal line evident, yellowish and irregular, 
preceded by black cuneiform markings partially united together, and 
followed by the fine lobate black line at the base of the concolorous 
fringe. Posterior wings uniform dark gray. Beneath uniform gray, 
with discal dots on the posterior wings. 

Hab. West Virginia. From the collection of Prof Julius E. 
Meyer. 

Quite distinct from the numerous known species of the genus, and 
looking like a large species of the subgenus Miana, common in 
Europe. 

Mamestra lubens Grote. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 1875. 

Mamesira rufula Morr. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil., 1875. 

Mamestra brassiccR Grote. List of N. A. Noctuidae, 1875. 

Mr. Grote's paper has priority over ours by a few days, and there- 
fore his name should stand for the species. 

Mamestra rugosa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 34 mm. Length of body, 1ft mm. 

Eyes hairy. Antennae of the male pubescent. Collar with a black 
transverse line. Abdomen yellowish, with the anal tuft reddish. 
Color of the thorax and anterior wings clear bluish cinereous gray ; 
a black basal dash ; interior line oblique, even, bearing the black 
edged claviform spot and a quadrate dark brown spot, which precedes 
the orbicular ; upper part of the basal and subterminal, and the en- 
tire median and terminal, spaces shaded with brown; the veins in the 
median space are whitish and distinct ; ordinary spots whitish and 
contrasting, the reniform with a central brown shade, the space be- 
tween them deep brown; a series of brown dots before the subtermi- 
nal line, which is only apparent by the great difference in color 
between the terminal and subterminal spaces, the subterminal teeth 
barely perceptible. Posterior wings clear yellow, with discal dots 
and a broad black border. Beneath yellow, shaded with brown; dis- 
cal dots, and a subterminal common brown shade, becoming black 
near the anal angle of posterior wings. 

Hab. Maine. From Prof. C. H. Fernald, of Orono. 

Allied to Mamestra chenopodii Albin. 



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Morrison.] 120 [June 16> 

Segetia mersa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 38 mm. Length of body, 16 mm. 

Eyes naked. Abdomen with only a small tufb at the base. An- 
terior wings gray, mottled with whitish, with all the lines and spots 
vague and ill-defined, as usual in this genus; the claviform spot black 
and distinct, the reniform spot white, of the usual shape ; a yellow- 
ish spot on the subterminal line, just before the inner margin; a 
scalloped line at the base of the fringe. Posterior wings whitish, 
sprinkled with gray. Beneath gray, with a common median line and 
discal dots. 

Hab. California. Collection of Mr. Herman Strecker. 

This is a Californian species, allied to our common Segetia luxa 
Grote; it differs in the absence of the middle dorsal abdominal tuft, 
the more purely gray color, and the color of posterior wings, which 
are whitish gray, instead of black. No Californian Segetiee have yet 
been described ; it is possible that this insect has been described 
under some other generic name, although it is undoubtedly a true 
Segetia. 

Nonagria laeta nov. sp. 

Expanse, 37 mm. Length of body, 23 mm. 

Eyes naked. Front with a sharp, horny projection, covered with 
hair. Abdomen extremely long, with a pointed anal tuft, which con- 
ceals the long curved ovipositor of the female. All the head and 
body parts concolorous with the wings. Anterior wings brown, with 
a few longitudinal yellowish shades ; all the veins dark purple-brown, 
contrasting; a blackish diffuse discal spot; fringe concolorous, having 
a slight darker shading at the base. Posterior wings gray-brown, 
lighter and yellowish at the base ; fringe yellow. Beneath brownish 
yellow, the central portion of the anterior wings blackish ; discal 
dots present. 

Hab. Hoboken, N. J. From the collection of Mr. Herman Sachs. 

This fine species is very well marked for this dull and inconspicu- 
ous genus. It differs in important particulars from M. Guenee's 
description of Nonagria enervata, cf, from Florida; the sexes are so 
different in this genus that it is impossible to be certain, until this 
latter species has been rediscovered. 

Heliophila pertracta nov. sp. 

Expanse, 34 mm. Length of body, 16 mm. 

Eyes hairy. Head and thorax concolorous with the anterior wings 
The latter are uniform yellowish salmon color, interrupted only by 



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1875.] 121 [Morrison. 

the median Tein, -which is white, as well as its second and third 
branches; the apical costal branches are also whitish. Posterior 
wings and under surface white, immaculate. 

Hab. Philadelphia, Penn. Collection of Mr. Herman Strecker. 

The description of this species is necessarily short, on account of 
the uniform tint, and entire lack of ornamentation. The remarkaUe 
color of the anterior wings, as well as the absence of all black mark- 
ings, will at once separate it from Heliophila phragmaiidicola Guen., 
to which it is allied. 

Caradrina tarda Guen. 

We have identified in the collection of Prof. Julius E. Meyer, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., this species, which has hitherto remained unknown? 
it is a very well marked insect, and can not possibly be mistaken ; 
however, we give the following short description, as none has yet been- 
published in English. 

Eyes naked. Thorax smooth, and closely haired. Abdomen short 
and untufted. Second joint of palpi black, the third white and con- 
trasting. Ground color of the anterior wings dull gray-brown, as in 
Pseudothodes vecors Guen^e 'y the ordinary spots apparently obsolete; 
the median lines distinct, simple and black, the interior line well- 
lobed, the exterior even and continued; the median shade subpar- 
allel with the exterior line, thick, black, and strongly curved in the 
middle (in this respect the species differs from M. Guen^'s descrip- 
tion, but it is a character liable to vary) ; the subterminal line yellow 
and conspicuous, preceded by dark shades; fringe concolorous. 
Posterior wings uniform fuscous gray. Beneath the wings are dark 
gray, and have the usual common median line, the posterior wings 
are slightly lighter, and have the discal dots. 

Hab. West Virginia. 

Caradrina derosa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 33 mm. Length of body, 14 mm. 

Eyes nsJced. Form stout. Thorax not tufled, it* clothing short, 
but coarse and mingled with scales. Palpi short. Abdomen smooth^ 
stout, not tufted. Tibiae unarmed. Collar with an inten'upted black 
line, otherwise concolorous with the thorax and anterior wings. 
The latter are gray, the color of Agrotis messoria Harris, the mark- 
ings are black and indistinct ; the half- line present; the interior line 
geminate, lobate and interrupted ; the median shade present, running 
between the nei«4y obsolete ordinary spots, where it is thickened, 
forming a black spot ; a series of light and dark dots on the costa ; 



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MorriMm.] 122 [Jmie 16, 

gnbtenninal line faint, but preceded just below the costa hj sereral 
conspicaoos, partially united, black cuneiform markings ; a series of 
dots at the base of the concolorous fringe. Posterior wings white at 
the base, with a diffuse, broad, blackish border. Beneath the anterior 
wings are blackish gray, with discal dots and a double exterior line ; 
the ]K)sterior wings are lighter gray, with small distinct discal dots, 
a well marked median line and a large black spot at the costal angle. 
Second joint of the palpi black and contrasting. 

Hab. New Jersey. Receiyed firom Mr. W. V. Andrews, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

This species has the size, markings, palpal and abdominal struc- 
ture and general appearance of the larger and stouter species of 
Caradrina, as C cdsines and C taraxaci ; it differs irom them, how- 
ever, in the villosity of the thorax and front, which in our species is 
mingled with scales, and therefore coarser. Perhaps this is ground 
enough for a generic separation, and if so, it can be made when other 
and better specimens hare been discovered. At present the species 
appears to be very rare. 

Cncallia lona nov. sp. 

Expanse, 46 mm. Length of body, 21 mm. 

The entire upper and under surface of the wings, the thorax, head, 
front, palpi and abdomen, of this lovely species, are glancing silvery 
white, as in the longitudinal space on the anterior wings of the 
Siberian Cucullia argentina Fabr. 

The only traces to be seen of any other color appear as follows: 
on the inner margin of the anterior wings there are two small, dis- 
tinct, black spots about seven millimeters apart; on the middle of the 
wings, a little further up, there are two similar but smaller dots, one 
above the junction of the median vein and fourth median veinlet; 
there is also another black spot on the costa at the base. The femora 
and tibiae are white, but the tarsi are darker, and become nearly 
black at their termination. The usual hood is to be seen, but not 
quite so prominent as in many species. 

Hab. Banks of the Yellowstone River, Dakota. 

This superb species is from the collection of Mr. Herman Strecker. 

Chariclea pretiosa nov. sp. 

Expanse, 30 mm. Length of body, 13 mm. 

Eyes naked. The anterior tibiae in this specimen are absent, so 
that we can not observe whether they are armed or not. Front with 
a projecting tubercle, as in Chariclea delphinii Linn. Head and tho- 



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1873.] 128 [Morrison. 

rax yellow, an orange spot at the base of tlie antennae; tegulae and 
collar with orange bands. Anterior wings bright light yellow, with 
orange yellow markings ; all the veins are strongly marked with 
orange yellow, and there are, likewbe, several longitudinal lines of 
the same color between them; the ordinary spots are absent; the 
interior line and median shade are partially obsolete, and are princi- 
pally represented by orange yellow shades on the costa; the latter 
however, is seen below it, following parallel with, and a short dis- 
tance before, the exterior line; the latter is orange yellow, very 
distinct and even, it is strongly outwardly projected in the middle, 
and there nearly reaches the outer margin, reducing the subterminal 
and terminal spaces ; the subterminal line is almost obsolete, the only 
trace of it is a slight shade near the apex ; an orange yellow line at 
the base of the yellow fringe. Posterior wings lighter, glossy yellow, 
the veins are faintly streaked with darker yellow. Beneath glossy 
yellow, almost immaculate ; there are very faint traces of a common 
median line, and there is a dark yellow line at the base of the con- 
colorous fringe. 

Hab. Leavenworth, Kansas. From the collection of Mr. Herman 
Strecker. 

This fine Chariclea is entirely different from all the known species 
with which we have compared it in Mr.^Strecker's collection. 

AnthoDcia arcifera Guen., Species Gdn^ral, Vol. ii, p. 184. 

Anthcecia spraguei G. and R. Proc. Am. Ent. Soc. 

We have seen at various times a number of specimens of this rare 
and pretty little species. From the examination of this material, as 
well as that in our collection, we are satisfied that arcifera is simply 
a female melanotic variety of the ordinary form spraguei. They are 
the same in every particular except the color of the posterior wings ; 
in the first they are entirely black, in the second their base is yellow. 
The males all belong to the latter form, and we have seen at least one 
female of it; arcifera is, on the contrary, always female. AnthcBcia 
hrevis Grote, presents an analogous female variety, in which the pos- 
terior wings are black, although the usual form has them yellow at 
the hase. 

Schinia media nov. sp. 

Expanse, 35 mm. Length of body, 13 mm. 

Eyes naked. Front with a cup-like depression. Anterior tibiae 
with a stout claw. Head and thorax concolorous with the anterior 
wings. Ground color of the latter olivaceous gray; interior lino 



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Hortin*.] 124 [Jnelf, 

wbite, CTcn and diftinct, bent in the middle, and pr eceded br a diglit 
brrjoze fhade ; in two of the specimens before ns, there is in the mid- 
dle of the me'lian «p^ce a lanre, obliqne, somewhat kiilner-shaped, 
intense black spot ; in the other two there is no trace of this spot ; 
exterior line the same as the interior, acntelr an^iiUte abore. as in 
Polenta tepp€n\inTT^znd preceded below br a distinct bronze shade; 
a blackish triangniar space before the apex ; the whitish subterminal 
Kne is here distinct, bat below it becomes obsolete. Posteric«' wing« 
an i form oliraceoas grar. Beneath graj, on the posterior wings 
lighter, partkrolaHr at the base. 

Hab. Berks Co^ Penn., knd Learenwordi, Kansas. Collection of 
Mr. Herman Strecker. 

This, as well as the other species of Schinia, is so stronglj marked 
that it win be qoickljr recognized if captnred. 

Polenta nor. genos. 

We separate this genns from the trpical Schinis, to contain the 
species described bj us as Sekinia tepperi. Oar type of this species 
had lost the anterior tibiae ; we supposed that thejr were armed, as 
are those of other similar species, bat the discorer^r of fi-esh speci- 
mens show that they are plain. This is the principal character on 
which we separate it genericaDy, as in other structaral points there 
is bat little difference, althoagfa the markings and general appear- 
ance are quite different, as will be seen frt)m oar original description. 

Tarache obatra nor. sp. 

Expanse, 17 mm. Length of body, 7 mm. 

Closely allied to Tarache candefacta and tenuicula. The thorax 
and basal space of the anterior wings dark yellow, unmarked. With 
the exception of the brown terminal space, and a broad yellow costal 
band, extending from the apex (where it connects with the terminal 
space) to the middle of the median space, the other portions of the 
wings are dead black ; the exterior line is strongly projected outward 
in the costal light space; below it runs across the black region, and 
then, as well as above, it is preceded by a more or less distinct brown 
shade. Posterior wings blackish. Beneath the anterior wings are 
black, having the base and costal apical portions yellowish ; posterior 
wings yellowish gray, with traces of a median line and of a terminal 
gray band. 

Hab. Louisiana. 

The peculiar markings of this insect will at once distinguish it, 
although its close relation to the species mentioned above is very 
evident. 



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1875.] 125 [Morriaon. 

Syneda graphioa Hiibn., var. media nov. var. 

Of the variety to which we give the name of media, we know but 
two specimens; one in our own collection, taken by Mr. T. L. Mead, 
and one in that of Prof. Julius E. Meyer ; both of these insects were 
caught in Florida. 

The markings of the anterior wings of these specimens are so con- 
stant, and they differ so much from the typical Syneda graphica, that 
we would think they formed a species apart, were not the posterior 
wings and under surface precisely the same in both forms. The fol- 
lowing are the differences between them, the material consisting of 
two media and about twenty graphica: In the former the anterior 
wings are uniform cinereous gray ; the interior line simple, without a 
black accompanying shade ; the median and subterminal spaces con- 
colorous; the subterminal line only represented by a series of white 
dots; the black line at the base of the fringe obliterated. 

Homophoberia nov. gen. 

AntennsB of the male clothed with fine hair. Front flat. Palpi 
ascending, the third joint well marked. Thorax slender, clothed 
with mingled scales and hair. Abdomen long and somewhat flat- 
tened at the end; the last four segments have each a low, but dis- 
tinct dorsal tufl, the one on the anal segment the largest. Legs long, 
unarmed. Wings broad and large in proportion to the size of the 
body, the anteriors with a well marked angle at the termination of 
the third median branch. 

Homophoberia cristata nov. sp. 

Expanse, 31 mm. Length of body, 15 mm. 

Thorax concolorous with the anterior wings ; the latter are glossy 
olivaceous gray, gradually deepening in color to the exterior line; 
this line extends obliquely from just before the apex to the inner 
margin; beyond, the subterminal and terminal spaces are light oliva- 
ceous gray, and strongly contrast; ordinary spots present, the orbic- 
ular obscured by, the ground color, the reniform concolorous with the 
terminal space, and therefore contrasting; a series of eight costal 
subapical dots ; an interrupted deep black line at the base of the 
dark fringe. Posterior wings uniform dark gray. Beneath yellowish 
gray, distinct di^cal dots on the posterior wings. 

Hab. Hoboken, N. J. One specimen kindly presented to us by 
Mr. Herman Sachs. 

We think this remarkable species allied to Phoberia, but it differs 
80 much from all the Drasteroid genera that we are forced to separate 



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Sluder.] 126 [June 16, 

it It has also quite a strong superficial resemblance to the common 
Azelina Hubneraria Guen., a geometer. 

Dr. T. M. Brewer exhibited a fine specimen of the Tringa 
comutus^ a species formerly common on the N. E. coast, but 
at present supposed to be of very rare occurrence, Mr. F. 
L, Tileston had, however, found it on Cape Cod, about May 
20, in abundance, and had kindly procured the specimen on 
the table for the Society's collection. The th^iks of the So- 
ciety were voted to Mr. Tileston for the gift. 



The following paper was presented in substance at the 
meeting of April 7, but received too late for insertion in the 
records of that meeting. 

Pbopositions concerning the Motion of Continentax 
Glaciers. By Prof. N. S. Shaler. 

Ever since I have become convinced that the surface of North 
America, north of the parallel of 40°, was covered to a great depth 
by a mass of ice during the last glacial period, I have been constantly 
endeavoring to form a conception as to the nature of its movements 
This problem, which has doubtless led many naturalists into similar 
difficulties, has, it seems to me, some light thrown upon it by the 
considerations I shall summarize in this paper. It is evident that the 
angle pf decUvity of the slopes over which the ice movement of the 
glacial period extended cannot account for the motion. There is, for 
instance, indubitable evidence that during the last glacial period the 
country between Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Lauren tian Mountains, 
was deeply ice wrapped, and that at the same time we had a great 
amount of material from the Canadian section transported to the 
Ohio valley. 

We also have evidence that the ice sheet furrowed the surface as if 
it had moved as a continuous, or tolerably continuous mass, and it has 
therefore been assumed, it seems to me hastily, that the behavior of a 
continental glacier must have been essentially the same as that of a 
valley glacier, i. e., that it had a continuous movement from the inner- 
most point to the border. 

In the following considerations I hope to make it evident that this 
supposition of the continuous movement which should bring any par- 
ticle of ice over a distance of say eight hundred miles from the Lau- 



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1875.] 127 [Shaler. 

rentian Mountains to the Ohio, is not necessary to the explanation of 
the facts. 

Mr. James Thompson has already shown from theoretical consid- 
erations, that the influence of pressure in causing water to melt at 
lower temperatures than 32° Fahr., is considerable; his paper, too 
elaborate to be considered in detail here, leads to the conclusion that 
for each atmosphere of pressure the freezing point would be lowered 
by the amount of 0.0075 of a degree Centigrade. Now if we sup- 
pose the surface of any country to be buried beneath an ice sheet, it 
is clear that insomuch as a glacial mass of great thickness is gener- 
ally nearly level on its surface, however irregular the earth beneath it 
may be, it follows that the pressure at different points on the floor 
of the glacier must vary more or less, according to the difference in 
depth between th^ highest and lowest points of the earth surface. 
Now assuming that the glacial sheet has a uniform temperature 
throughout its lower portion, the gradually increasing pressure as the 
ice continues to heap up, will bring about melting from the pressure 
alone at the base of the glacier. The amount of pressure necessary 
to bring about this melting will depend upon the normal temperature 
of the ice at the point of contact with the earth; if the temperature 
be assumed as 30° Fahr., then the ice must be about two miles thick 
in order to cause melting by the pressure alone. The probabilities 
are, however, that the temperature is generally nearer 82° than 30° 
Fahr., so that the mass of ice would have to be much less thick in 
order to bring about this melting action. It is hardly worth while to 
undertake calculations as to the precise thickness of required ice on 
this basis of reckoning; for the data are not sufficiently clear to ad- 
mit of certainty as to the precise amount Of pressure necessary to 
lower the melting point of ice of a given temperature. It is evident, 
however, that a thickness of ice may be readily attained wliich will 
cause ice having a normal temperature of 28° to 30° Fahr., to melt 
by pressure. Let us now consider what would be the effect of melt- 
ing under these conditions. It is evident that inasmuch as the fluid- 
ity of any water melted by pressure depends upon that pressure 
being continued, the passage of this melted water upwards through 
the erevices of the ice would not be possible; water mounting through 
the crevices of the ice would at once have its pressure removed, and 
would freeze again. The movement would evidently have to be in the 
direction of the least resistance, or towards the section where the ice 
was thinner than at the point of melting. The actual amount of the 



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Shaler.] 128 [June 16, 

moyement possible to water under these conditions would be very 
small ; but in the continual recurrence and cessation of strains these 
slight moTements would integrate themselves into a steady transfer of 
water towards the border of the glacier. The occurrence of these 
meltings, and the accompanying change of volume in different parts 
of the ice sheet, would necessarily have the effect of continually alter- 
ing the tensions in all parts of the mass; this change would be ex- 
ceedingly favorable to the creation of a constant succession of ten- 
sions, and the consequent frequent melting and freezing of the water. 
One of the first consequences will be to reduce the aggregate friction 
of the base of the ice upon the earth, on account of the ice being 
essentially afloat whenever this melting occurs beneath it, the solder- 
ing of every crevice in the superincumbent ice being assured by the 
freezing of the water as soon as released from the superincumbent 
pressure. Another important effect would arise from the penetration 
of the earth to great depths by the glacial water injected by a pres- 
sure equal to the weight of the whole thickness of the ice sheet. If 
a reservoir of water was formed beneath the ice in any depression 
the result would be, in case of the long retention of the watel* that 
its temperature would become considerably elevated above the point 
at which it was made molten by pressure. If, now, the barrier sep- 
arating this mass of water from a region of less pressure even be 
taken away, there would be a rush of water in that direction which 
might assume great importance as an erosive and transporting agent 
I have long remarked in the study of our American moraines 
that by far the larger part of the pebbles were water worn, and that 
scratched specimens even in regions high above the sea, where ma- 
rine action was quite out of the question, and did not form more 
than one per cent., often not one tenth of one per cent, of the whole 
mass. It is well nigh impossible to account for this great abundance 
of rounded pebbles without supposing there were powerful currents of 
water beneath the glacial mass. It seems to me that the melting of 
the water by pressure, and the elevation of the temperature of this 
water by the heat generated by friction, or taken from the earth, 
would probably give us sufficient movement of water to produce con- 
tinued or interrupted currents beneath a large part of the ice sheet. 
This will abo help us to account for the formation of glacial basins, 
and for the deep valleys of the Fjord Zone, inasmuch as melting oc- 
curs on account of the pressure ; the points where the ice is deepest 
will be the places where melting occurs most easily. Let us consider 



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ms.] 129 [shfti«r. 

the condition of any rock lake-baein during the time when it wai 
deeply covered with ice, and melting from pressure was taking place 
therein. This basin would be the seat of much more movement than 
the other parts of the glacier's base; the change in the condition of 
the water from solid to fluid would inevitably lead to a certain waste 
of the ice at this point, to a continued tumbling in of the ice from 
above, and to an incessant sliding of ice from the sides; these 
changes would, on account of the frequent alterations of the strains 
arising from the formation and bresJcing of arches over the area of 
melting, occur with a certain paroxysmal force. These frequent 
accidents in the glaf ial mass, together with the movement of the 
water driving before it sand and pebbles, would necessarily add to 
the erosion of the point where they occurred. For every increase in 
the depth of the excavation, there would be a proportional increase 
in the intensity of the melting, arising mainly from the deepening of 
the ice-section; but also, though in a comparatively small degree, 
from the greater heat in the bottom of the deepened pit, caused by 
its approach to the central heat. To this we may safely attribute 
the singular depth of many of the lake-basins within the- Fjord Zone, 
the deeper they become the greater the forces leading to- their deep- 
ening. The limit to this increase of the intensity of ihe deepening 
forces would be found in the formation of a pit on the surface of the 
ice just above the basin. The independence of movement in the 
bottom and upper parts of the glacier sheet would prevent the forma- 
tion of a depression on the surface of the lee, until the area of the 
basin grew quite large. The important fact that all glacial lake- 
basins excavated in solid rock have their greatest length in- the direc- 
tion in which the ice stream moved, shows us that there was some 
necessary connection between the movement and the fonhation of 
the basin ; this can be accounted for from the fact that the stream of 
water made fluid by the action of pressure, would necessarily flow off 
in the direction of the border of the ice sheet, while the principal 
supply of fce must come from the direction m which it was thickest. 
These two actions, arising from the entrance of the ice and its exit 
from the basin, may well account for the elongation of these lake-ba- 
sins in the direction of the Ice movement. 

The advantage of this view over that which seeks to explain the 
erosion of those basins by the grinding of the Ice alone. Is, I think, 
manifest. The difficulty wfth the latter view Is to account for the 
rise of the Ice from the basin after Its descent Into it. ^e shearing 

rBOCIEBDKMOll B. 8. N. H. — VOL^ XVni. 9 KOVUMBXR, 1876. 



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ShMler.] 130 [June 16, 

action would necessarily load to the flow of the upper level of ice 
over the part which was within the basin, leaving it locked within its 
walls. I do not mean to deny the value of this sort of excavating 
process, «s shown in the theory so long and ably presented by Ram- 
sey, Mortillet and others; I am inclined to thimk that it may have 
done much at certain stages of the ice action to dig out basins, but 
in many cases it is manifestly inapplicable. The lake-basins of cen- 
tral New York, for instance, cannot possibly be explained on this 
basis. We must bring in some agent tending to cause melting at the 
base of the glacial mass, in order to effect the excavation of such 
basins. I am inclined to think that the other class of ex<;avations of 
the Fjord Zone, the valleys which do not sink kito the pit-like de- 
pressions which form the lake«, may also be, in fact, accounted for by 
jthe operations resulting from melting under pressure, for the coursing 
•of floods of water, released by pressure from its solid state, would 
prove a powerful aid to the excavating action of the ice. 

By supposing that the principal transporting action of a conti- 
nental glacier >vas aocomplished by the water flowing beneath the 
glaciers, we readily account for the water- worn look which is so prom- 
inent a feature in the drift pebbles of the greater part of iNorth 
America; even when their position mak-es it clear that they have 
never been worked over by water since they were left by the glacier. 

By this theory we can account for the excavation of such great 
lake-basins as those occupied by the fresh water «eas of North 
America. These basins, by their trend, and by their distribution 
over a region where they cannot be explained by simple ice-erosion, 
present an insuperable difficulty to any view which does not admit 
that running water was largely concerned in their production. On 
the hypofliesis here brought forward, we can, it seems to me, account 
for their formation. The sheet of ice which had its southern border 
.on the Ohio, at Cincinnati, doubtless leveled over the great trough 
which separates the central part of that State from the Laurentian 
Mountains- This valley of the great lakes has a depth of at least 
six hundred feet below the table-land which separates the Ohio val- 
ley from Lake £rie. In this great depression we may have had 
melting occurring on a scale so vast as practically to arrest the south- 
ward movement of the ice, the sheet only overlapping in an unimport- 
ant way, and for a short part of the glacial period, the soutJbward 
boundary of the valley. The southern discharge of these waters anay 
have been in part throu^ the river beds of the -State of Ohio, but 
I am inclined to tlunk that the larger part of the waste went to the 



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1876.J 131 [Shaler. 

eastward down to the vallej of the St Lawrence. This view I am, 
in a measure, compelled to take, on account of the relatively small 
amount of drift along the southern border of the glacial sheet in the 
State of Ohio. I do not believe that the excavated matter from the 
basins of the great lakes is represented in the delta of the Mississippi, 
nor in the surface-deposits of the country to the south of their south- 
ern border. When we look for this waste we possibly find it in the 
, vast mass of the Newfoundland Banks, which seem to be a huge sub- 
merged moraine, or delta, which never could have been formed by 
the transporting power of the St. Lawrence acting as a river. In this 
fashion we may possibly account for the production of basins extend* 
ing east and west, like the great lakes. 

The question will be fairly asked, how it is possible for an ice- 
sheet to have produced striae across the whole continent, from the 
Arctic Circle to the Ohio, unless it moved continuously over the 
whole of this long path? This may be answered as follows: li we 
suppose the retreat of the glaciers to have been accompanied by a 
true forward glacial movement of the region near the edge of the 
sheet, we would have every part of the glaciated area in turn sub- 
jected to the scratching, without the difficulty of supposing that 
there was a continuous motion over thousands of miles. J do not 
deny that the ordinary form of glacial motion took place along all 
parts of the border of the gL'i^ial sheet for many miles, but to as- 
sume that this movement took place in the basin of Lake Erie, while 
the glacial front was at Cincinnati, seems quite unnecessary. I do 
deny that there is any such terminal moraine along the southern 
border as is required if we suppose the movement to have been con- 
tinuous from the centre of the sheet to the border. The whole of 
the facts may be accounted for by supposing that there was a motion 
near the border of the ice, possibly for many miles therefrom; but 
we are not required to suppose more than this. Local movements of 
considerable strength there would undoubtedly be within the mass of 
the glacier, and as long as these occurred near enough to the border 
to make the relief easier in that direction, they would doubtless tend 
that way, but we must always remember that scratches alone give 
very insufficient evidence of the nature and extent of glacial move- 
ment; at best, they show us the direction of the very last movements 
that took place before the ice disappeared. Other erosion marks, 
like "crag and tail," doubtless tell more; but these features are proba- 
bly the product of many successive glacial periods, and not of the last 



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ShAler.] 132 [June 16, 

alone. The eTidence to my mind is irrefragable that this region had 
its essential topographical featm^s, all its Talleys and Qords, before 
the last ice time. Undoubtedly, in many successive periods we may 
have had enough wearing applied to the hills to give them their form. 

Some years ago I endeavored to account for the erosion of lake-ba- 
cdns of the glacial period by the melting of the ice beneath the glacier 
irom the outflow of internal heat. This clearly is an insufficient cause 
to explain all the action, but I still believe it to have been a true cause. 
Taking J. D. Meyer's computation, and supposing that the waste of 
heat from the earth's interior is two hundred cubic miles per diem, 
one-half from volcanoes, there will be about one foot of ice melted 
beneath the continental glacier each year; as this heat will escape 
principally in the bottom of the valleys, it will directly cooperate 
with the pressure melting. As long as the water remained in the 
•hape of ice, the escape of heat from below would be in a measure 
retarded; the instant a part of this ice was melted into water the 
escape of heat frcan the earth would be greatly aid^d, and would 
become very rapid, and in this way the continued fluidity of ice ren- 
dered liquid by pressure, would be secured. 

These propositions may be briefly summed up as follows: — 

1. That the melting caused by pressure would put a limit to the 
accumulation of ice at a depth of probably not exceeding two miles; 
probably much less. 

2. That while the ice resisted the passage of heat from the earth, 
the water would favor this action, and so enable the water, fluid from 
pressure, to move to regions having a considerable less pressure. 

3. Some melting would take place beneath the ice from the heat 
of the earth alone; this would, in itself, be sufficient to produce con- 
siderable effects. 

4. The melting from pressure would give the ice-sheet a chance 
to move freely in the direction of least resistance. The water would 
not be able to rise through the unmelted ice on account of the re- 
moval of the pressure, to which it owes its melting. 

5. The flow of water, more or less spasmodic and flood-like, to- 
wards the border of the ice, would suffice to carry away the rain-fall 
<£ the region, and to push forward pebbles to great distances ; it 
would account for the stratification of moraine matter far above the 
.aea, add for the rounding of pebbles. 

4. The scoring of the rocks, which gives evidence of movement 
and of the direction whence it came, are necessarily the work of the 



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187&] 133 (Often Sa^keB. 

retreating ice aheet, tmd giTe no proof of the condition during the 
time of its widest extension. 

I should say that I hare attentirely considered the theory go My 
presented by Mr. James CroU, wherein he seeks to exphun the move* 
ment of glaciers by the successive melting of molecides of water in 
the passage of heat through the ice. I am not prepared to deny that 
it may account for the motion of local glaciers, but deem it quite in^ 
sufficient to show us how the ice movement could carry the snow 
formed a thousand miles north of the Ohio down to that river. 
Moreover, as I b^ore stated, I am satisfied from the paucity of ^e 
moraine matter in southern Ohio and the neighboring region, thai 
the movement had no such continuity as leads to the formation of a 
terminal moraine of a local glacier. 

When the Humboldt glacier, and the other ice sheets of GreeOf- 
land, come to be studied with care, I am inclined to believe that the 
great streams of water which issue from beneath them will be found 
to owe their origin not alone to surface-^melting, but also to the action 
of pressure-melting, and the melting from the passage of heat from 
the earth's interior into the ice mass. 



October 6, 1875. 

Vice-President, Mr. S. H. Scudder, in the chair. Thirty- 
two persons present. 

The following papers were read : — 

Note on some Dipteba fbom the Island Guadalupe (Pa- 
cific Ocean), collected by Mb. E. Palmeb. By C. R. 
OsTEN Sacken. 

I deem it my duty to place on scientiic record a notice of 
some Diptera from a very unfrequented locality, the Mand Guada- 
lupe, situated in the Pacific Ocean, two hundred and twenty^ve 
miles southwest of San Diego. They were collected by Mr. E. 
Palmer, who spent there some thne in the spring of 1^75, on scien- 
tific duty. These specimens were not pinned, but preserved dry in 
pill boxes. J pasted them on slips of cardboard, stuck upon pins 



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(Men SMkea.] 134 [October B, 

and deposited the collection, for fatore reference, among the ezoUc 
Diptera of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Most of these 
specimens are forms which are ahnost identical in all parts of the 
world. Some of them, however, are characteristic enough to indi< 
cate at some future time the affinities of the fauna. Such are, for 
instance, Tipula (No. 1 of the list) ; Syrphus (No. 4); Lispe (No. 5); 
perhaps also the fly No. 9. Unfortunately, our meagre collections 
of Diptera from the Pacific coast prevent me from attempting a 
comparison at present. Among the few insects of other orders, 
however, in the same collection, there was a Ilemerobius, which Dr. 
Hagen was able to identify as Micromuf {Beroiha) flavieomis Walker, 
a species also received from Pennsylvania, Georgia and Kentucky. 

The collection was divided in two lots, dated March 20 and April 
22. Many of the species occurred in both lots. 

List of the Specimens, 

1. Tipnla, <^, of the ordinary type of the Tipulce lunatce, and 
with peculiar brush-like appendages of the hypopygium ; two females, 
although somewhat darker in color, probably belong to the same spe- 
cies. (One specimen, March 20, another, and the females, April 22.) 

2. Bibio, <f , small, black, with whitish pile ; a single specimen 
(March 20). 

3. TachytrechoSy ?. A single specimen (April 22), appar- 
ently belonging to this genus. 

4. S3rrphu8, of the group of 5. affinis Say, or S. lapponicus Z^tt. 
Five specimens of very different sizes, but apparently of the same 
species (April 22). 

5. Idspe, one specimen (April 22). 

6. Musca domestica, several specimens (both dates). 

7. Lucilia sp., several specimens (id.). 

8. Sarcophaga, two specimens (March 20). 

9. ^ another species (March 20). 

10. AnthomsriSBy several specimens (March 20). 

11. Drosophila (?), antennae broken (March 20). 

12. Scatelia, numerous specimens (MaK*h 20). 

Of other orders, I found in the lot the above-mentioned Hemero- 
bius, Psocus, Aphis (Lachnus?), Psylla (Trioza?), Ophion. 



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1875.] 185 tOften Sft^env 

On thk North American Specibs ©f the Genus Syrphus 
(in the narrowest Sense). Bt C. R. Osten Sacken. 

Among the preliminary work to be gone through before the publi- 
cation of my intended new Catalogue of the North American Dip- 
tera, I met with the necessity of settling the nomenclature of some 
of the native species of the genns Syrphus, the most common of 
which, until now, remained unnamed or badly named in collections. 
I take this genus in the sense of Schiner, that is, excludinpr with him 
Melanostoraa, Platychirus, Xanthogramma, Pyrophiena, Didea, and 
Mesograpta (Lw.). Of the genus thus restricted, I discuss the te» 
species hitherto found in the United States, all of which oceur in 
New England. 

The Syrphid© are^ among those families of EKptera in which a 
large number of species, common to Europe and to North Ameriea, 
occurs. Of the ten species which forn* the subject of the present 
paper, six* are identical, or very nearly so, with European species^ 
Two of these have been described under new names for Americai 
(5. geniculcUus Macq. = umbellatantm Lin. ?, and S. diversipes Macqi. 
= cinctellus Zett. ?J ; two others I have described under new names^ 
for reasons to be given hereafter (5. torvus =r topiarius Zett.; 5. 
rectus = ribesii Lin. ?); two again I consklered sufficiently identified 
to retain them under their European names, (5. dthreviatus Zett, 
and 5. lapponicus Zett.). Of the four^ remaining^ species which, s» 
far as I know, are peculiar to the American continent, two have been 
described before (5. Lesttewrii Macq. and 5. americanus WiedL) and 
the two others I have not beeir able to identify and therefore describe 
them as new (^S. contumax and S, amalopis). 

This comparatively small number will probably soon be increased 
by new discoveries. Still, considering the extent to which the coun- 
try has been ransacked already, the increase cannot be expected to 
be very large. Dr. Schiner enumerates forty-five species of Syrphus 
for Austria, and some twenty more for the rest of Europe. The 
numerical difference in this respect between the two faunas is very 

^More probably seven; S. Letueurii seems to occur in eastern Europe; I saw a 
specimen, labelled "Silesia," among some Syrphi fh>m Dr.Zeller's collection, now 
in Boston, which, apparently, belongs to that species (compare belowX. 

* Or three ; about S. Letueurii see the note above.. 



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Oaten Saoken.] 136 [Octolmre» 

remarkable, and there are not many groups of Diptera in which a 
similar difference exists. America possesses, it is tarue, in the allied 
genus Mesograpta, a peculiar form of its own, which seems to flourish 
especially in the tropics; still the number of species of this genus is 
by far not sufficient to balance the large number of European Syrphi. 
The most troublesome problem I had to deal with in preparing the 
present paper, consisted in the discrimination of the species repre^ 
senting in America the European S, ribesii and 5. topiarius. After 
carefully examining about three hundred specimens (most of which 
recently taken, and therefore in good condition for a delicate exarni- 
nation of this kind), I have succeeded in distinguishing two fonus, 
which may be defined as follows: — > 

cf,, 9 . Eyes pubescent ; hind femora black, except at the tip. 

S, ioTvus (Syn. topiarius Zett) 
(?, ?. Eyes glabrous; 

cf, all the femora black at the base; hind femora blacky 

except the tip. 

$, all the femora yellow from the very base (the coxss 

being black) ; hind femora usually with a brown ring 

before the tip. ... 5. rectus (Syn. ribem Lin. ?) 

iS. rectus is very variable in size, in both sexes, while 5. torvus 

Tfuies much less. The Bumber of minor differences, taken from all 

parts of the body, sufficiently establish the distinctness of these two 

forms. In all other respects these forms are most remarkably alike^ 

and an unpractised eye would probably fail to detect any difference* 

(For the details, see below, the description of S^ reotus.) 

As S, torvm and S, rectus occur in the same localities, for instance^ 
in the White Mountains, from the early summer tiU late in autumn^ 
the question arises whether they occur promiscuously, or at different 
seasons? Unfortunately, the specimens which I examined were not 
all dated,^ but, from the dates in my possession, it seems to result^ 

> Mr. B. P. Mann collected about sixty apecfanens on the 7tkof Jnly, 1874, in 
the subalpine region of Mt. Washington; they were all S, torvxis, ei^cept two or 
three females of the other form. Mr. Morrison, who collected in the White Mts. 
for two months, brought home about fifty torvvs and one hundred and sixty rec- 
tus ; his specimens were not dated ; he remembers, however, that fiies of this Icind 
afler haying been very abundant, became scarce for a time, after which they be- 
came abandant again. The specimens of 8. rectus of my own collecting are 
mostly dated fhrom August and S^tember. 



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um.] 187 [Ovten Sacken. 

that S. torvus principally occurs earlier, and S. rectus later, in tlie 
season. Thus the idea naturally suggests itself to my mind that we 
hare here a case of so-called seasonal dimorphisniy and that S, torvus 
and rectus are but two forms of the same species. 

More than ten years ago, Mr. A, W. Malm (in his Anteckningar 
of^er Syrpbici, Goteborg, 1863) expressed the opinion that the three 
European species, *S*. tapiarius Zett., ribesii and vitripennis, are but 
yarieties of the same species, each occurring more abundantly at a 
particular season, topioHus in the spring, ribesii in midsummer, vitri" 
pennis in autumn. But Mr. Malm finds passages between these 
European forms, which prevent their separation as species (for in- 
stance, an occasional presence of hairs on the eyes of both S. ribesii 
and vitripennis) ^ while my researches have resulted in the definition 
of two absolutely distinct forms, which, but for the hypothesis of 
seasonal dimorphism, might be considered as separate species. 

The intermediate form, S, vitripennis^ which exists in Europe, has, 
in most cases' at least, glabrous eyes, but, at the same time, in the 
female, dark hind femora, yellow only at the tip. I have not met 
with a corresponding form in America. In a careful scrutiny of more 
than one hundred and fifty North American female specimens, I have 
not found a single one combining glabrous eyes with dark hind fe- 
mora. My Hiaterial, however, was principally derived from New 
England, and especially the White Mountains. It remains to be seen 
whether collections made in more southern or western localities will 
not modify in certain respects the results thus far reached by me. 

The European species of S. ribesii, which I have been able to com- 
pare with specimens of S. rectus, are indistinguishable from them« 
But whether the smaller varieties of the latter, for instance, the 
female specimens with a brown ring on the hind femora, also occur 
in Europe, I do not know. 

The interest attached, in the recent devek^ments of natural sci- 
ence, to varieties, in connection with the doctrine of evolution, gives 
the further investigation of the history of S. ribesii and its North 
American forms, an importance reaching beyond the scope of de- 
scriptive entomology. Without pretending to have brought that in- 
vestigation to a final conclusion, I hope that the hints thrown out by 
me will not be lost to coUeetors. 



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Osten Sacken.] l88 [October 6, 

Analytical table of the species of Syrphus described in the present paper, 

A. Abdomen oval, with three principal crossbands, the second and 

third of which never interrupted. 
I. First crossband broadly and distinctly interrupted in 
both sexes. 

a. Femora black at the base. 

eta. Antennae brown, with more or less reddish 
on the underside o£ the third joint; ab- 
dominal crossbands distinctly attenuated 
on both sides. 
Eyes pubescent^ 

1. 8. torvus n. sp. 
Eyes bare. 

2. 8. rectus n. sp. male. 

hb. Antennae uniformly black; abdominal cross- 
bands straight, not attenuated at both ends. 

3. 8. Le^ueurii. 

b. Femora yellow at the base. 

2: 8. rectus n. sp., female. 
II. First crossband narrowly interrupted in the male; not 
interrupted in the female, 
o. Face yellow. 

4. 8. abbreviatus. 
b. Face with a brown stripe. 

5. 8. americanus. 

B. Abdomen oval, the three priikcipal crossbands broadly inter- 

rupted. 
I. Eyes distinctly pubescent. 

a. Abdominal spots straight; face without any large, 
conspicuous black spot in the middle. 

6. 8. contumax n. sp. 

1 The pubescence of the eyes is easily perceptible in male specimens ; in the fe- 
males it is generally much rubbed off, and often almost imperceptible. Still, a 
careful examination in an oblique light, especially of the lower half of the eye, 
does not fail to reveal some traces of hairs, if there ever were any. Fortunately, 
the females of S. torvus and rectus offer, in the coloring of their femora, a distinc- 
tive character, which is much easier to perceive. Specimens subjected to such 
investigations must not be too old ; those kept for years in a collection become 
covered with a fine dust, whicli makes it very difficult to perceive whether the eyes 
are hairy or glabrous. 



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875.] 139 [Osten Sacken. 

b. Abdominal spots coarctate in the middle, some- 
times broken in two; a large, conspicuous black 
spot in the middle of the face. 

7. 8. amalopis n. sp. 
II. Eyes bare; abdominal spots lunate. 

8. 8. lapponicus. 
C. Abdomen elongated, narrow, linear. 

I. First crossband interrupted, the others entire. 

9. 8. diversipes. 
II. All crossbands interrupted. 

10. 8. genioulatus. 

1. 8. torvus n. sp. 

Syrphus topiarius Zetterstedt, Scbiner, Bonsdorf, Malm, etc. (non 
Meigen). 

Female, Face and cheeks yellow, with a very slight blubh reflec- 
tion ; a faint grayish spot on the cheeks, under the eyes; oral edge, 
in the middle of the notch, usually slightly brown. Front and ver- 
tex greenish black ; the former, on both sides along the eyes, with a 
broad border of yellowish pollen, almost meeting the similar border 
of the opposite side. Eyes pubescent (in many specimens the pu- 
bescence is very much rubbed off, and very difficult to perceive). 
Antennae inserted on brownish yellow ground; the dark color of the 
front begins immediately al)ove their root, forming a blackish brown 
arch, with a projecting angle in the middle. Antennae dark brown; 
third antennal joint more or less reddish below, sometimes altogether 
dark brown. Thorax greenish, with but little lustre; in well pre- 
served specimens a faint tinge of a geminate, grayish, middle stripe 
is perceptible anteriorly; scutellum dull yellowish, with a slight blu- 
ish reflection and black pile. Yellow spots on the second abdominal 
segment elliptical, prolonged usually as a narrow neck, which reaches 
forward and touches the margin ; the yellow crossbands on the third 
and fourth segments have a very gently biconvex hind margin, with 
a very shallow, often indistinct, sinus in its middle; on each side the 
crossbands are attenuated and curved forward, so as to reach the 
anterior margin of the segment; the black interval between the 
stripes is twice as broad as the stripes. Fourth and fiflh segments 
with yellow posterior margins, the fifth usually with two yellow spots 
on each side, at the base. Coxae and basal third of femora black ; 
on the hind pair the black reaches beyond the middle of the femora ; 



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Otton Sackan.] 140 [October 9, 

hind tibiae often with a brownish ring ; four anterior tarsi brown, the 
root of the first joint often reddish; hind tarsi dark brown. Root of 
the wings, as far as the humeral crossTein, slightly brownish or yel- 
lowish; costal cell almost hyaline; stigma brown. 

Male. Similar to the female, but abdominal crossbands broader, 
the biconvexity on their hind side stronger, and the sinus in its mid- 
dle deeper; the gray spot on the cheeks, under the eye, often larger, 
sometimes pccupying a considerable portion of the cheek; the brown 
ring on the hind tibis usually expanded, so as to reach the tip of the 
tibiae. The eyes are more distinctly pubescent, the front is beset 
with yellow pollen, except a narrow black space above the antennae. 

Length, cf 9, 10-12.5 mm. 

In drawing up the description, I had a large number of specimens 
before me. Among them was a lot of twenty-three males and thirty- 
five females, caught by Mr B. P. Mann, on the 7th of July, 1874, 
almost on the same spot, in the subalpine region of Mt. Washington. 
Another lot, of twenty -seven males and twenty females, was collected 
by Mr. Morrison, also in the White Mountains. Other specimens 
were from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Canada, the Rocky Moun- 
tains in Colorado, etc. 

This is the American representative of the European species, 
called 5. topiarius by Zetterstedt, and after him by most of European 
writers. But it seems very doubtful lo me whether these authors 
are justified in quoting Meigen as the authority for this species. 
Meigen's description of his topiarius does not agree with the species 
usually understood under that name. In order to keep clear from 
this uncertainty, I prefer to give a new name to the American spe- 
cies. Stager (Greenland's Antliater, p. 860, 26) quotes S. topiarius 
among the insects of Greenland. 

2. 8. rectus n. sp. 

.* Syrphm ribesii Ijinn^ (et auctores). 

9. Eyes glabrous; hind femora yellow, often with a brown ring 
before the tip. 

<f . Eyes glabrous; h'nd femora black, except the tip. 

Female, Very like the female of 5. torvus\ the differences, as 
given above, consist in the entirely glabrous eyes and the femora, 
which are yellow from the very base (cox89 black) ; in most speci- 
mi*ns the hind femora have a brown ring before the tip. 

The size, as well as the shape, of the yellow abdominal stripes are 
very variable (the female of S. torous shows, in both respects, nuich 



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1875.] 141 [Osten Sacken. 

less variation). Between the following two extremes, all intermedi- 
ate stages occur. 

1. The smallest specimens, from 7 mm. upwards, in length, 
have the yellow siripeti on the third and fourth segments quite 
straight, not attenuated before coming in contact with the lateral 
margin; their hind borders show no perceptible concavity or con- 
vexity ; such specimens usually have a distinct brown ring on the 
hind femora, a little before the tip. 

2. Larger specimens, up to 11-12 mm. long, have the stripes on 
the third and fourth segments with a distinctly bitonvex hind mar- 
gin, with a sinus in the middle; these stripes are distinctly atten- 
uated on each side, before reaching the lateral margin. Such large 
specimens often have no brown ring on the hind femora. 

Male, Differs from the female in the femora being black at base; 
the four anterior ones for about one third of their length; the hind 
ones altogether black or brown, except at the tip. Tlie majority of 
the specimens before me are of medium size (about 8-10 mm.); but 
some larger ones also occur. The shape of the yellow bands does 
not vary as much as in the female; they always are attenuated at 
both ends and biconvex posteriorly, with a sinus In the middle. The 
altogether glabrous eyes easily distinguish S. rectus cf , from 5. tar- 
vus cf ; in other respects they look very much alike. The average 
size of S, rectus cf , is a little smaller. 

Minor differences between S, torvus and S, rectus, available for 
both sexes, are: — 

1. The face under the eyes is altogether yellow here; there is no 
grayish spot, as is always visible in S. toj'vus. 

2. The sides of the face in 5. torous is beset with very distinct 
blackish pile; in 5. rectus this pile is of a pale color, and almost 
imperceptible; hence the face looks smoother. 

3. The antennae are less dark, more reddish in 5. rectus. 

4. The scutellum is of a slightly purer yellow. 

6. The four anterior tarsi are less brown, more reddish, especially 
on the first joint. 

6. The contact of the abdominal yellow spots and bands with the 
lateral margins, is slightly broader in S. rectus', hence, the yellow 
prolongation or neck of the spots on the second segment is broader, 
and, consequently, seems to be shorter. 

7. The stigma of the wings is much paler, yellow rather than 
brown. 



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OiteiiSMken.] 142 [OetolierS* 

8. The metallic green thorax is somewhat more diining, less doll 
than in 5. tanms; in many specimens, howeyer, this difference is 
fcarcely perceptible. The brown ring on the bind tibiae, sometimes 
expanded so as to reach the tip, occurs in this species as often as in 
S, tor PUS. 

I had about seventy males and ninety females for comparison, prin- 
cipally from the White Moantaiiis; (a large lot was collected there 
by Mr. H. K. Morrison); also from West Point, CatskiU, N. Y., 
Manilas, Western New York, etc. 

Some rare sp^imens occur with a distinct brown stripe in the 
middle of the £m^; I found four such specimens, two males and two 
females, among my lot. Mr. Malm mentions a yariefy of the Euro- 
pean S. ribesii, with all the crossbands interrupted. I have two such 
specimens from Fort Resolution, Mackenzie River, and from the 
Yukon River (both collected by R. Kennicott). As these specimens 
disagree in some minor characters also, I am not sure whetlier they 
can be taken for iS. rectus. 

I may mention here that the sexual difference in the coloring of the 
legs is not an exceptional character in this species; in <S. abbrevia- 
tus, as will be shown below, the same difference exists. 

Observation I. This is the representative of the European 5. ri- 
hesii. No European author mentions the difference in the color 
of the hind femora of male and female as it exists in American speci- 
mens; this silence would authorize the belief that such a difference 
does not exist.* And yet, the few fem:de specimens of S, ribesH 
which the Museum of Comparative Zoology possesses, among them a 
specimen labelled by Mr. Loew himself, all have yellow hind femora, 
while in the males they are dark. The most common species are the 
very ones which are often the least known and worst described, and 
this may have been the case with S, ribesii. In comparing the state- 
ments of different authors about this species and S. topiarius, a great 
want of agreement, as well as of precision, becomes apparent. And 
it may very well have occurred that the dark legged females of topi- 
coins passed for females of ribesii, whenever the pubescence on their 
eyes was sufficiently rubbed off to render the mistake possible. 

1 Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scand., n, is the onlj one ^i^o has a statement bearinf^ «b 
this point. He says about 5. ril}e8ii'. " femoribos basi in (f latins, in $ angastis- 
■ime atris." But in the American specimens, as well as in the European speci- 
mens which 1 luure seen, the coxs are black, b«t these is hardly any vestige «t 
blaek at the base «f the femora im the female. 



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1875.] 148 [Osten Sacken. 

Observation II, It is the place here to mention two American spe- 
cies, described by previous authors, and compared by them to the 
European 5. ribesii. 

In comparing his Scctva concava with that species, Say must have 
had a female of the former, and a male of the latter, before him. 
Thus the distinction he establishes, "crossbands concave" in the 
American species, and " acutely notched " in the European, is a 
merely sexual difference, and not conclusive. The words **feet whit- 
ish, dull rufous at base," **liead whitish cinereous, antennae pale 
testaceous," do not agree with any Syrphus known to me. 

Alacquart's S, philadelphicus (Dipt. Exot., ii, p. 93, a male) must 
be either S. rectus or S, torous^ it is difficult to decide which, as Mac- 
quart does not say whether the eyes are pubescent or not. It will 
perhaps be better to cancel for the present these two insufficient 
descriptions. 

3. S. Lesueurii. 

Syrphus LesueuriiMa.cc{\\2Lvi^ Dipt. Exot., ii, 2, p. 93'^ female. 

Epistrophe conjunfens Walker, Dipt. Saunders., p. 242, Tab. vi, 
f. 5; male. 

Will be easily recognized by Westwood's excellent figure of the 
male in the Diptera Saundersiana. Larger than S. topiarius, and 
with a much narrower abdomen ; in the female the abdomen is a little 
broader, still less broad than iji the allied species. The yellow face 
has a brown, abbrenated stripe in the middle (sometimes wanting); 
the antennae are unifonnly black. Eyes bare. The yellow spots and 
crossbands on the abdomen are straight, and reach the sides of the 
abdomen with their full breadth; the yellow has a bluish reflection 
(seldom indistinct) ; in the male the baud on third segment has a 
sharp triangular notch in the middle of the hind margin, which does 
not exist in the female; the fourth and fifth segments oflen have a 
greenish reflection, and are margined with yellow posteriorly. The 
femora are black at the base, the hind tibiae have a distinct brown 
ring. The wings usually have a distinct yellowish tinge. 

Length 12-13.05 mm.; some rare specimens of both sexes are only 
8 mm. long. 

I compared about ninety male and female specimens, principally 
from the White Mountains (collected chiefly by Mr. Morrison) ; also 
from Maine, Massachusetts, Saratoga, N. Y., etc. 

Macquart calls ihe thorax blacky but so he does the thorax of his 



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Osten Sacten.l 144 [October 6, 

S. phUadelphicus] he evidently had soiled specimens. The thoracic 
dorsum here is more bronze color, less gi'een than in S, iorvUs, 

Among some Syrphi from the European collection of Dr. Zeller in 
Stettin, now belonging to Mr. E. Burgess in Boston, there is a speci- 
men labelled " Silesia/* which seems to agree in every respect with 
S. LesueurlL 

4. S. abbreviatus. 

(Zetterstedt) Schiner, Fauna Austr., i, p. 311. 

Mate, Face yellow; cheeks black, which color coalesces with the 
brown oral border, and is connected, under the oral opening, with 
the black on the opposite side ; in some specimens the facial tubercle 
is also brownish ; third antennal joint brown sh, more or less reddish 
on the nnderside, sometimes altogether reddish; front yellow; no 
brown spots above the antennae; vertex blackish bronze-color. Eyes 
bare. Thoracic dorsum rather bright brassy green. Yellow spots on 
second abdominal segment rather large, obliquely triangular, touch- 
ing the margin with the apex only; the interval between them mod- 
erately broad, equal to about one-third or one-fonrth of the breadth 
of the spot; yellow bands on segments three and four rather broad, 
much broader than the black band between them ; the posterior mar- 
gin in both is sinuate in the middle, more markedly in the band of the 
third, than on that of the following segment; the bands do not reach 
the abdominal margin^ and are cut off obliquely on the sides; the 
distance of their anterior corner from the margin is very small, how- 
ever; fourth segment with a narrow yellow border posteriorly; fifth 
segment yellow, with a small transverse black spot in the middle, 
near the base. Legs yellow, btU base of all the femora black] on the 
hind femora the black occupies one-third or one-half of the femur. 

Female, Resembles the male, but with the following differences: 
lower part of the front, above the antennse, yellow; upper part and 
vertex brownish green; oral border less ihfuscated, the infuscation 
being usually distinct in the middle of the excision only; the yellow 
spots on the second abdominal segment are larger, the interval be- 
tween them narrower, often linear, sometimes obsolete; the bands on 
the third and fourth segments are comparatively narrower than in 
the male, and but little broader than the interval between them; 
their hind margins are gently concave-sinuate in the middle, and 
convex-sinuate each side; both bands distinctly reach the abdominal 
margin] fifth segment yellow, with a triangular black spot in the 
middle; coxae black, but femora altogether yellow; (the four anterior 



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1876.] • 145 [Oaten Sacken. 

femora in some specimens are black at the extreme base only; the 
hind femora are altogether yellow, thus widely differing from those 
of the male). * 

Length, cf, 9, about 8 mm. 

Three male and six female specimens, all from Massachusetts. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology, in Cambridge, Mass., pos- 
sesses a pair (d", ?) of European specimens obtained from Dr. 
Schiner, exactly similar to the American specimens; they also show 
all the sexual differences, as explained above. Zetterstedt's descrip- 
tion (Dipt. Scand., viii, p. S136, 13-14, ?) agrees very well with 
my female specimens. Schiner is certainly wrong in uniting ahhre- 
viata Zett. ? with excisa Zett. d" ; (Loew makes the same criticism in 
the Jahrb. d. K. K. Gel. Ges. in Krakau, Vol. 41, p. 16; only excisa 
should be read there, instead of emarginata). 

Observation, In my Report on the Diptera of Colorado Territory 
(U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Survey, etc., by F. V. Hayden, for 1873, 
p. 564), I mention S. coroUce as occurring there. I was mistaken in 
this determination ; the specimen is more like S. ahbreviatus, although 
I would not, without further proof, identify it even with this species. 

6. S. americanus. 

Syrphus americanus Wiedemann, Auss. Zw., ii, p. 129, 22. 

Female, Face yellow, oflen brownish, tcilh a brown stripe in the 
middle, which begins at the oral margin, but does not reach the 
antennae; the latter brown, reddish on the underside of the third 
joint. Cheeks blackish, but separated from the mouth by a narrow 
yellow border, which, on the underside of the mouth, completely cuts 
off the connection between the black color on both sides. Front 
brownish bronze color^ powdered with yellow on each side; the 
lower part of the front is more or less yellow, but immediately above 
each antenna there is a brownish spot, which sometimes coalesces 
with the bronze color of the upper front ; vertex bronze color. Eyes 
bare. The first ab Jomiaal crossband is not interrupted, but coarctate 
in the middle; its ends do not touch the margin of the abdomen, but 
are separated from it by a narrow black border; (sometimes a brown- 
ish mark in the middle of this band gives it the appearance of bein<v 
subinterrupted). The second crossband is nearly as broad as the 
black crossband between it and the next yellow band; it is usually 
perfectly straight; (in some specimens the hind margin is gently sin- 
uate) \ its ends do not touch the lateral margin of the abdomen ; they 
are cut obliquely, forming a sharp angle anteriorly, and a rounded 

PB0CEEDING9 B. 8.,X. H. — VOL. XVIII. 10 NOVEKDER, 1875. 



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Oaten Sacken.] 146 * [October 6, 

one posteriorly; the former almost touches the margin of the abdo- 
men. The third band is similar to the second, only its hind margin 
is more perceptibly arcuated. The posterior margin of the fourth 
segment has, as usual, a narrow yellow border, the fifth likewise, 
and two yellow spots at the base besides. Femora yellow; the four 
anterior ones in some specimens brownish at the extreme base only; 
the hind pair with a more or less distinct brown ring on the distal 
half; four anterior tibiae and tarsi yellow; the hind tibiaB sometimes 
with a brownish ring, hind tarsi brownish. 

Length, 9-10 mm. 

Alale. Front yellow, with a more or less distinct brown spot 
above each antenna ; crossbands on the abdomen broader than in the 
female, and distinctly broader than the black interval between them ; 
posteriorly, they are often nearly straight, sometimes distinctly arcu- 
ate, especially the third band. The yellow spots on the second seg- 
ment are not coalescent, but separated by a narrow black interval 
(in some species subcoalescent) ; the fifth segment is yeUow, with a 
black spot in the middle. The four anterior femora are black at the 
base ; the hind femora are usually black, with a yellow tip ; some- 
times there is a trace of yellow at the base; hind tibiaB usually with 
a brown ring in the middle. 

Length, about 9 mm. 

Hah. British Possessions, New England, New York, Delaware, 
Virginia. In Detroit, Mich., in August, I found this to be the most 
common species. It seems also to be common in Texas (Waco, 
Texas; Belfrage). Sixteen males and eight females. 

S, americanus 9, differs from S. ahhremaius^ 9, besides being larger, 
in the presence of a brown stripe in the face, and of brown spots 
above the antennae; in the spots of the second segment being alto- 
gether coalescent (instead of narrowly interrupted); in the cross- 
bands not touching (or hardly touching) the abdominal margin, 
while in 5. abbreuiatus the contact is broad and distinct; in the 
crossbands being (in most specimens) more straight, less sinuate 
posteriorly. 

S. americanus cf, differs from S. ahbreviatus cf, besides being 
larger, by the brown stripe on the face, the more straight second 
crossband (less sinuate posteriorly) and by the coloring of the hind 
femora. In those specimens of S. americanns which have the hind 
femora altogether blackish, the yellow space at the tip is narrower 
than the yellow space in ordinary specimems of ^S^. abbreviatuSy cf. 



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1876.] 147 LOtten Saoken. 

The yellow spots on the second segment (in all my cf americanus) do 
not touch the lateral margin; the black interval, although small, is 
distinct; in all my cf abbreviaius these spots distinctly come in con- 
tact with the lateral margin. The oral margin is not infuscated 
here (except, of course, at the point of contact with the facial brown 
stripe). Attention should also be paid, in both sexes, to the differ- 
ence in the extent of the black coloring of the cheeks, as described 
above. 

I hardly doubt that this is the S, americanus of Wiedemann. A 
doubt might arise on account of the allusion to this species which 
Wiedemann makes in his short description of S. concavus (1. c, p. 
130, 24), from which it would appear that the crossbands of the 
present species are notched. I suspect that Wiedemann had Say's 
comparison of S. concavus and ribesii in mind, and inadvertently 
applied it to 5. americanus, 

6. S. contumax n. sp. 

Male and female. Eyes distinctly pubescent ; face with a bluish 
reflection, sometimes almost concealing the dull brownish yellow 
ground color; cheeks and oral border broadly black; front very 
broad in the female, black, clothed with grayish pollen ; in the male 
with a bluish reflection ; vertex greenish black, metallic. Antennas 
black, inserted on brownish yellow ground; thorax greenish bronze 
color, with indistinct longitudinal stripes of . an opaque brownish ; 
dorsum beset with brownish, pleurae with brownish fulvous erect pile; 
scutellum dull yellowish, with a bluish reflection. Abdomen black, 
very hairy, with three pairs of oblong, transverse, straight, brownish 
yellow spots, which, as a rule, do not reach the margin, but some- 
times emit an indistinct prolongation anteriorly, which touches it; 
the last two segments are bordered with yellow; the pile on the abdo- 
men, yellow and black, is, especially in the male, long, erect, and 
rather conspicuous. Femora (of the male) black on their proximal 
half, often beyond, hind femora up to four-fifths of their length; 
tibiae brownish yellow; tarsi black. In the female the femora are 
black at their bases only. Wings hyaline, sometimes tinged with 
brownish; stigma brownish; third longitudinal vein nearly straight. 

Length about 9.5 mm. 

Hab, White Mountains, N. H.; I brought home three males; Mr. 
G. Dimmock gave me two females, labelled Mt. Washington, Alpine 
region. 

The facisd tubercle in this species is very salient, the whole lower 



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Osten Sacken.] 148 [October 6, 

part of the face somewhat projecting, the front of the female com- 
paratively broad, the first joint of the hind tarsi of the male dis- 
tinctly swollen. The general appearance of thi? species is different 
from an ordinary Syrphus; nevertheless the absence of any striking 
characters to take hold of renders the species difficult to describe; 

7. S. amalopis n. sp. 

Male. Eyes pubescent; face of a dingy brownish yellow, with a 
broad brown stripe in the middle (its breadth is equal to one-half of 
its length, or more) ; cheeks black, with a greenish reflection ; a 
black, broad, oral border ; antennae black, front and vertex likewise ; 
facial tubercle salient. Thorax dark metallic green, clothed with 
black pile, mixed with fulvous on the sides and near the scutellum; 
the latter dull yellowish brown, with metallic reflections, beset with 
black pile, and with a blackish border and corners. Abdomen black, 
very little shining, on the second segment two oblong yellow spots; 
on the third and fourth segments a pair of lunate spots, club-shaped 
on the inner end, truncate on the outer, and considerably excised in 
the middle; the fourth and fifth segments with a narrow, yellow, pos-^ 
terior margin; all the yellow parts are straw-colored. Legs black, 
tip of femora and base of tibifie yellowish brown ; the extent of this 
brown being much less on the last pair. Wings distinctly infuscated. 

Female, Front and vertex metallic greenish black; spots on sec- 
ond segment coarctate in the middle, those on segments three and 
four dissolved in two, so that these two segments show each a trans- 
verse row of yellow spots, nearly of the same size and equidistant ; 
the fifth segment has two spots at the base; the wings are hyaline. 
In all other respects like the male. 

Length, cT, 9, 10-10.5 mm. 

Hab. AVhite Mountains (Gorham, N. H.). Two males and one 
female, taken by Mr. E. P. Austin and Mr. G. Dim mock. 

I have not the slightest doubt that these males and females belong 
together; the difference in the coloring of the wings has no import- 
ance; as to that in the coloring of the abdomen, I should not wonder 
if this species proved to be very variable in this respect, and if in- 
termediate stages occurred between that where the lunate spots are 
entire, and where they are dissolved in two. The abdomen in this 
species is more convex, broader and somewhat shorter than that of 
5. lapponicus. 

In the specimens described above, the yellow abdominal markings 
do not come in contact with the lateral margin. But I have a pair of 
specimens (c?, ?) from the same locality in which this contact occurs. 



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1875.] 149 [Osten Sacken. 

In the female the lunate spots are also cat in two, as they are in the 
typical specimens. 

8. S. lapponicus. "^ 
S. lapponicus Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scand., ii, p. 701, 3. 

f Scceva affinis Say, Joum. Acad. Phil., iii, 93, 9. 

I compared ten specimens from the north-western regions of the 
British Possessions (R. Kennicott), from the White Mountains, N. H. 
(E. P. Austin, H. K. Morrison, and myself), and from British Colum- 
bia, which agree with Mr. Zetterstedt's description. A North 
American specimen of the same kind, sent to Mr. Loew, was ident- 
ified by him as S. lapponicus. 

A number of other specimens, nearly from the same localities, 
White Mts. (tl. K. Morrison), British Possessions (Scudder), Que- 
beck (Belanger) and Yukon River (Kennicott), have the third 
longitudinal vein less strongly sinuate, and show some other minor 
differences. The European S. aicuatus Fallen differs from S, lap- 
ponicus in hardly anything but this very character, and is neverthe- 
less considered a different species. 

Scceva affinis Say (from Arkansas) does not seem to differ from 
S, lapponicus in any important character, and specimens from Dela- 
ware, Illinois, etc., which I have seen, may be identified with it. 
Thus the uncertainty whether I have one or several species before 
me, prevents me from giving a description. 

Should it be proved that SccBva affinis Say, is a synonym of S, 
lapponicus, then Say's name, as by far the oldest, would have the 
priority. 

Syrphus Agnon and S. arcucinclus Walker are either S. lapponi-' 
cus, or some allied species; the descriptions are altogether un- 
meaning. 

9. S. diversipes. 

S. diversipes Macquart, Dipt. Exot. 4* Suppl., p. 155, 54 (New- 
foundland). 

? S. cinctellus Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scand., ii, p. 742, 45. 

Male and female. Abdomen narrow, with nearly parallel sides; 
first segment (cf ) greenish black, with more or less yellow anteriorly, 
or on the sides; in the ? the yellow prevails, leaving only a metallic 
green spot on each side, which often is subobsolete; the following 
four segments have each a yellow crossband on their anterior half; 
the first crossband is broadly interru ted; in the male the interrup- 
tion takes the sha^>e of an inverted black triangle, expanding ante- 



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Oaten Sacken.J 150 [October 6, 

riorly so as to occupy nearly the whole anterior margin of the 
segment; in the female this triangle is narrow, and occupies but a 
small portion of the anterior margin ; thus in the female the yellow 
of the crossband coalesces with that upon the first segment; the fol- 
lowing crossbands are entire, the second and third nearly of the 
same breadth, and not attenuated on the sides; the fourth band, in 
the male, occupies nearly the whole segment, except a black semi- 
circle posteriorly; in the female it occupies the anterior half of the 
segment, and is gently arched and distinctly notched posteriorly. 
Face yellowish, with a bluish reflection, sometimes brownish in the 
middle; above the antennae a conspicuous black spot is surroimded 
by the yellowish pollen, which covers the rest of the front; antennas 
reddish, upper half of the third joint, as well as of the preceding 
ones, brown. Eyes bare. Thorax metallic green ; scutellum yellow- 
ish, with a metallic green reflection; humeri, and a part of the 
pleursB, clothed with yellowish pollen. Legs yellow; outer half of 
the hind femora (sometimes nearly the whole hind femora, except the 
base), hind tibiae and tarsi, brown ; knees yellowish. Wings with a 
brownish shade on the apex, usually distinct in the female, often 
nearly obsolete in the male. 

Hah, White Mountains (foot of Mt. Washington, end of June) ; 
Catskill Mountain House, in July ; North Conway, N. H., in August; 
Lake Superior (A. Agassiz). Ten male and thirty female speci- 
mens. Two male specimens have the foiur anterior femora distinctly 
infuscated at the base. 1 entertain no doubt that this is the S. 
diversipes Macq., only in his description " pieds postdrieurs noirs, k 
hanches noires,''^ must read, " k hanches jaunes." , 

S. cinciellus Zetterstedt, is very like this species, and probably 
identical with it. His description agrees with the North American 
specimens . A Eupcpean specimen in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, named by Dr. Loew, does not show any difference worth 
noticing. 

10. Ssrrphus geniculatus. 

Syrphus geniculatus Macquart, Dipt. Exot., ii, 2, p. 101, 24. 

** Thorace obscure aeneo, nitido; scutello flavido. Abdomine lin- 
eari nigro, fasciis tribus flavis, interruptis. An tennis pedibusque 
nigris; genioulis anticis flavis. 

"Long. 3^ lines ; male. (7.5 mm.) 

Translation. "Face and front black, with blue and green reflections 
and gray pollen; face with a glaibrous, very salient prominence. 



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1875.1 151 [Oaten Sacken. 

Front with black pile. Antennas black. Thorax with black pile; 
pleuraB with a slight gray pollen ; scutellum yellowish, with yellow 
pile. Abdomen of an almost opaque black, with black pile on the 
sides, yellow at the base; second, third and fourth segments with 
interrupted yellow crossbands near the anterior margin, forming oval, 
transverse spots, bearing yellow pile on the sides; those of the 
second segment are oblique and smaller; fourth segment with a nar- 
row yellow hind border; venter colored like the dorsum. Legs black, 
anterior knees fulvous. Wings grayish; stigma (cellule medias- 
tine?) yellowish. 

** Hab. Newfoundland. (Mr. L^guillon.) Type in the Mu- 
seum." 

** This species represents in America the S. umbellatarum Fab., 
Meig., w h ich it resembles. ' ' 

There are two conflicting species, to which this description of 
Macquart's may refer: one of these I take to be the true representa- 
tive of S, umbellatarum of Europe ; I have unfortunately no Euro- 
pean specimens for comparison and assume the identity provisionally, 
upon comparison of Dr. Schiner's description ; the other is probably 
Macquart's species. An objection, equally applicable to both spe- 
cies is, that Marquart describes the pile on the scutellum as yellow, 
while it is black ; he may have meant a fringe of yellowish hairs 
which exists on the underside of the scutellum. 

Syrphus umbellatarum (? Syn. Schiner, Fauna Austr. i, p. ^07). 

I will add a few details to complete Macquart's description, which 
is applicable, in the main, to both species. 

Female. Eyes glabrous. Face yellow, with a whitish pollen al- 
most concealing the ground color; in the middle, a brown stripe, 
crossing the facial prominence, but abruptly stopping before the base 
of the antennae ; this stripe does not run down on both sides along 
the oral margin . (it does so for a short distance in a very few speci- 
mens); oral margin yellow, as well as the cheeks ; front and vertex 
bluish green, (not brownish green); the yellowish gray pollen on the 
front forms a well-marked arch, sub-interrupted in the middle, leav- 
ing bare on one side, the vertex, on the other, a well defined triangle 
above the antennae ; the sides of this arch run down along the eyes 
and coalesce with the facial pollen ; antennae inserted on brownish 
yellow ground; thorax bluish green; scutellum dull yellow, brown 
at the extreme ends on each side ; it seldom shows any trace of a 
bluish metallic reflection; the four front legs are reddish yellow^ 



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Osten Sacken.J 162 [October 6, 

femora black at base; tibias with a trace of a brownish ring; tarsi 
brownish. The abdominal crossbands usually reach the lateral mar- 
gins of the segments, but quite often they stop a little distance be- 
fore, leaving a narrow black border between ; their color is reddish, 
or pure yellow, with a more or less distinct whitish pollen, which 
often gives them a whitish appearance. Length, 8-9 mm. 

Male, The face often, not always, has a more distinct metallic 
bluish reflection ; the oral border is more often bordered with brown 
here than in the female; the ground color of the abdomen is more 
opaque. 

I compared twenty-five males and sixty-five females, mostly taken 
by Mr. Morrison in the White Mountains, N. H. 

S. f/eniculalus Macquart, 1. c.^ 

Differs from my .S^. umhellalarum in being a little smaller (about 
7.5 mm.); the face, in the profile, is much more projecting; the fa- 
cial tubercle is metallic blackish green, which color extends on both 
sides along the oral border; in the other species the facial tubercle 
bears a distinct stripe; in the female the sides of the face, powdered 
with yellow pollen, have a brownish yellow ground, color; in the 
male, the ground color seems to be blackish green throughout, al- 
though mostly concealed under a thick covering of brownish yellow 
pollen ; the antennae are inserted on black ground; the front, in the 
female, is brownish green (not bluish green), it is much broader 
than in the other species ; the pollen on the front is much less thick; 
it follows on both sides the orbit of the eye to about half the dis- 
tance between the ocelli and the antennae, and does not reach as 
much towards the vertex as in tiie other species; it does not form a 
well defined arch ; the glabrous space above the antennae is smaller. 
The thorax is brownish green (not bluish green); the scutellum has 
a stronger bluish metallic reflection; the yellow markings on the 
abdomen are somewhat narrower, and paler yellow; in other respects 
they are exactly the same; the four anterior legs are of a darker red- 
dish brown, sometimes almost black, with paler knees; when the 
legs are paler, the base of the fenwra does not appear abruptly 
tinged with black, as in the other species; hind legs black. 

The easiest character for the distinction of the two species at first 

1 1 became aware of the existence of this second species only after the beginning 
of the present paper had been already put in type; hence it is not mentioned in 
my Introduction, where 8. umbellatarum and S.ffeniculattLS are treated as prob- 
able synonyms. 



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1875.] 163 [Bendire. 

sight and in both sexes is the insertion of the antennas on black, or on 
yellow ground. In S. geniculatus the dark color of the front reaches 
down to th3 very root of the antennse ; a very small brownish yellow 
space is only perceptible between the antennte. In my S» umhellata- 
rum the brownish yellow forms a little arch above the antennse, 
which thus are inserted on yellow ground. 

I have compared five females and two males, all taken in the White 
Mountains. The first specimens I received from Mr. Dimmock ; la- 
ter I found two females among sixty females of S, umhellatarumy col- 
lected by Mr. Morrison. This species thus seems to be rarer than 
the other. 

My reason for referring Macquart's description (of the male) to 
this species, is his mention of the face being black, and of the four 
anterior legs being dark colored. This seems to me conclusive ; the 
measurement he gives, also agrees bet er with this species than with 
the other. 

Notes on seventy-nine species of Birds observed in the 

NEIGHBORHOOD OF CaMP HaRNEY, OrEGON, COMPILED FROM 
THE CORRESPONDENCE OF CaPT. ChARLES BeNDIRE, IST CAV- 
ALRY U. S. A. 

(The following notes have been taken, with his permission, from 
letters of Capt. Bendire, addressed to the writer. They were^ 
originally written without any reference to their publication, and 
do not attempt to give a complete catalogue of the birds of that 
region. The observations were made in the period between Novem- 
ber 1874 and May 1875, in south-eastern Oregon, and embody new 
and interesting additions to our knowledge relative to a region hith- 
erto unexplored. " Camp Harney is situated on the verge of a sage 
brush, or rather a desert, country at the base of the Blue Mountains. 
The country to the south of it, for two hundred and sixty miles, or 
until you reach the railroad, is fully as desolate, if not more so, than 
the worst part of Arizona. Numerous species of water-fowl are said 
to breed about Lakes Harney and Malheur, about twenty-five miles 
from the post." T. M. Brewer.) 

1. Turdus migratorius Linn. « Feb. 23d, 1875. For the first 
time this season I heard the song of this thrush. — March 13 th. The 
robins are now in full song." 

2. Cinclus mexicanus Baird. " On the 18th of February, 
while up Rattle-snake Creek in search of deer, I shot the first speci- 



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B«ndire.] 164 [Octobers, 

men (a female) of this speciei I have seen about here. Length to 
end of tail, 6.75 in.; to end of claws, 7.05 in.;' wing, 3.43 in.; 
tail, 2.10 in.; bill brown, paler towards the base of the lower mandi- 
ble; feet and tarsi pinkish; iris light blue; contents of stomach, 
remains of black water beetles and larvsB of dragon-flies, also fine 
gravel." 

3. Sialia mexicana Sw. This species is referred to, April 
Sd, as having just made its appearance for the first time. May 19th 
it is said to have entirely disappeared and its place taken by the 
S, arctica. 

4. Sialia arctica Sw. This blue-bird is not referred to until 
May 19th, when Capt. Bendire writes: " This is the only blue-bird 
I see here now. S. mexicana has entirely disappeared. I found a nest 
of arctica on Monday in a hollow juniper tree. It had only a .single 
egg and I left it." 

6. Beg^ulus calendula Licht. A single specimen was pro- 
cured about Nov. 14 th. 

6. Parus montanus Gambel. Specimens were taken about 
Dec. 5th, and prior. 

7. Parus occidentalis Baird. Specimens taken between 
Nov. 14th, and the 5th of December, 1874. 

8. Psaltriparus plumbeus Baird. This species, taken No- 
vember 14th, has not previously been known to occur in this region. 
*< I have seen an old nest, pouch-like in shape, and about six inches 
long, fastened to a service-berry bush, undoubtedly built by a pair of 
this species." 

8. Sitta aculeata Cassin. Specimens were taken between 
November 14th and December 6th, 1874. 

10. Sitta pygmsda Vigors. Specimens taken prior to Decem- 
ber 5th. 

11. Cistothorus palustris Cab. << On the 18th of January, 
1875, 1 shot a specimen of this wren (variety paludicola). I saw 
another at the same time. There are no swamps or rushes within 
fifteen miles of this place. They were hopping about the willows on 
the creek, searching for insects." 

12. Salpinctes obsoletus Cab. *< May 9th. The nest and 
eggs of the rock wren were found accidentally by two of my men, 
who were getting building-stone yesterday. In moving a fiat rock 
lying on the side of a hill close to my quarters, they found a nest 
and four fresh eggs under it. Unfortunately a small bit of stone fell 



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1875.] 155 [Bendlre. 

into the oest and broke two of the eggs. The nest is not such a 
bulky affair as wrens' nests usually are, no doubt on account of want 
of room under the rock. It was about a foot and a half from the 
opening under the rock, on a steep hillside covered with boulders. 
The nest was composed externally of sticks and bark, and lined with 
fine rootlets and a little hair. The inner diameter of the nest was 
two and one-half inches, and the cavity not more than one inch deep. 
— May 19th. I find the Kock Wren rather common on looking closer 
for it ; have seen more than a dozen in an afternoon's tramp, but not 
more than two in any one place. Their nests, however, can only be 
found by accident, they find so many nice places to hide them in." 

13. Oreoscoptes montanus Baird. " May 29th. On the way 
to the lake I took a fine set of the mountain mocking-bird's eggs." 

14. Myiadestes Townsendi Cab. "December 5th, 1874. 
Since I wrote you last (November 14th), I have seen a number of 
individuals of this species, and have taken several. In their habits 
they remind me very much of Phawopepla nitens. Like that species, 
they prefer to perch on dry limbs, and as high as they can get on the 
juniper trees, which they seem to frequent exclusively. At this sea- 
son of the year they seem to feed on juniper berries entirely. I can 
bear witness to the excellence of their song. I find it very varied, 
sofl and flute-like at times, strong and powerful at others, and it re- 
minds me, in many re8{^ct8, of that of the European sky-lark. I 
most certainly consider it fully equal, if not superior, to the song of 
our mocking-bird. Its usual call note is peculiar, and hard to de- 
scribe. I took it down at the time of hearing it, and do not give it 
from memory. It comes as near as possible to the occasional sound 
produced by an axle of a wagon just about commencing to need 
greasing — > like hit-ity and sometimes like wa-ipf with quite an interval 
between each syllable. Generally the bird is seen singly, rarely in 
flocks. It prefers isolated patches of juniper to the dense timber, 
and so I have only noticed it in junipers, or on rocks on the edges of 
bluffs. — May 19th. This bird does not breed about here. I have 
not seen one for a month." 

15. Collurio excubitoroides Baird. This species is referred 
to as having first made its appearance a little prior to April 3d. 

10. Carpodacus Cassini Baird. This species is referred to 
as having been taken between November 14th and December 6th, 
1874. 



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Bcndire.] 156 [October 6, 

17. Loxia americana Wilson. This species is first referred 
to as having been taken early in December. " February I8th. I shot 
a female of this species; a very small specimen, but an adult. As 
these birds were then still in flocks, flying around, and occasionally 
settling for a minute or two in the extreme tops of tbe tallest pines, it 
does not appear probable that they breed so very early in the season. 
I found its ovaries well developed, but in a normal condition." 

18. JEgiothus linaria Cab. " December 5th. I have just ob- 
tained three specimens of this species. — January 24th. On the 20th 
I had an opportunity to observe quite a large flock. They allowed 
me to come within four feet of them. A number were hopping 
about the ground, while others were searching the alders through 
for insects. They seem to hang as easily on a small twig, head 
downward, as any other way, and are very active and quick in their 
movements, and also very quarrelsome. A number were constantly 
driving others from some favorite twig, and, scarcely settled there, 
commenced the same performance over again." 

19. Chrysomitris pinus Bonap. A specimen is referred to 
as having been taken December 14th. 

20. Leucosticte tephrocotis Sw. Mention is made, Janu- 
ary 1 7th, of obtaining a single specimen of this species in tbe plum- 
age of this form. 

21. Leucosticte littoralis Baird. "Dec. 28th. On the 19th 
inst., I procured ten specimens of this species. They were feeding 
on a hillside, where the ground was covered in places with a little 
snow. The flock I shot them out of must have numbered about three 
hundred. It appeared to me that there must have been more than 
one species in this flock, but all of those I killed proved to belong to 
the same kind, but no two specimens were colored exactly alike. I 
killed them with two discharges, one while they were sitting on the 
ground, the other as they rose. The survivors flew three or four 
times over my head while I was picking up the dead birds, and kept 
up quite a twittering, as if they were calling for their lost corapjin- 
ions, and finally left for the hills. They were very fat, and had their 
crops filled to such an extent that the skin of the neck was dis- 
tended. They were filled with grass seeds and very minute green 
leaves of some wild plant that had just come above the ground dur- 
ing the few previous days of warm weather. 

"January 24th. Yesterday evening, while at the company's stables, 
a beautiful male of this species alighted within three feet of me, and 



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1875.] 157 [Bendire. 

commenced picking up grass seeds scattered about on the ground. 
The wind was blowing a gale at the time, and it had apparently been 
lost from a flock, probably not very far off. Every few minutes it 
would utter the following call-note, detch detch. It was so unsuspic- 
cious, tame and confiding, that I had not the heart to molest it. 

" February 12th. These birds appear to be fond of rocky hillsides, 
where the sun has exposed the ground a little; they seldom pass 
down into the valley, and if they do, their stay is short. They are 
very restless, alighting in one place only for a few seconds, and then 
flying off fifty or a hundred yards before coming down again. When 
flying in flocks they have a note somewhat resembling that of Eremo^ 
phila alpestrisy or Plectrophanes lapponicus. Their flight is undulat- 
ing, at times somewhat resembling that of a woodpecker. It is 
almost strictly terrestrial. Indeed, as yet I have seen none alight on 
trees or bushes. Occasionally they settle on a roof for a few seconds 
before flying to the ground. 

" February 26th. While returning from the mountains I shot a 
single specimen of this species. It was by itself, a fine male. Tlie 
chestnut on its breast was not so bright and lustrous as in the winter 
specimens, but rather paler. On the 19th of March I procured two 
more specimens of this species. These are the first I have ever no- 
ticed sitting anywhere else than on the ground, or on rocks. They 
were perched in company with two others, on a willow bush, in close 
proximity to some red -shouldered blackbirds. In the spring and 
summer plumage of these birds the colors are not so bright as in 
winter, and the pinkish tints are paler, and nearly white. I notice a 
perceptible difference between these two specimens and those taken 
in December and January." 

22. Plectrophanes lapponicus Selby. A specimen of this 
is mentioned as having been obtained December 14th. 

23. Juuco oregonus Sclat. Mention is made, in a letter 
dated November 14th, of procuring two specimens of this species. 
" February 23d. On this day I heard a lot of the Oregon snow-birds 
sing. They are not, by any means, bad singers. March 13th. This 
little bird is now in full song. May 19th. The Oregon snow-birds 
have all left, nor are there any on the mountains." 

24. Poospiza nevadensis Ridgway. "March 11th. This is 
the first specimen of this species that I have seen about here. It 
probably winters farther south. Length 6.37 in.; wing 3.20 in.; 
tail 3 in. May 29th. On my way back from the lake I found a 



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Bendlre.] 168 [October 6, 

nest of this bird with three eggs nearly hatched. The nest was on 
a sage bush, about a foot from the ground.** 

25. Spizella monticola Baird. Mention is made of speci- 
mens of this species having been taken between November 14th and 
December 5th. 

26. Spizella Breweri Casein. " May 29th. On my way to 
the lake I obtained three nests of Brewer's sparrow, containing four, 
three, and two eggs. The majority of (he birds are building yet. 
These nests were constructed out of rotten fibres of wild flax, which 
grows abundantly about there, and are lined with fine grasses and a 
few hail's. The nests were placed in the forks of low sage bushes, 
about eighteen inches firom the ground." 

27. Melospiza guttata Baird. A single specimen shot No- 
vember 14th. 

'* January 24th. Since I wrote you, on the 17th, I have procured 
several specimens of what I take to be this species. I have always 
found them singly, and they are by no means plenty. 

'* February 20th. I shot another specimen of this bird in the tall 
grass bordering the creek. 

** May 29th. On my way to the lake I took a set of this Melospiza. 
It differs from the M. fallax in being much larger and darker, and 
has very different eggs, being much larger.*' 

28. FoCBcetes gramineus Baird. "On my way to the lake, 
May 27th, I took a nest of this species.** 

29. Pipilo arcticus Sw. "March 1st, 1875. While looking 
along the creek, I was astonished to see two specimens of this Pipilo. 
They were both males, and made their appearance much earlier than 
I expected. They actually came in the midst of a snow storm. 
Others were noticed between March Ist and April 3d.** 

30. Eremophila alpestris Boi^. Mention is made, Janu- 
ary 1 7th, of having procured a single specimen of this bird. " Febru- 
ary 12th. Since the close of January I have shot several more 
specimens of this bird. They were all of them males.** 

31. Agelaius phceniceus Vieill. "On the 23(1 of February, 
a flock of these birds made their first appearance here.** 

32. Agelaius gubernator Bonap. "May 19th. Thb bird 
has begun to breed. I took two nests of it this week.** 

33. Sturnella neglecta And. The arrival of this bird is 
noted as having taken place prior to April 3d. 



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1876.] 159 IBcndire. 

34. Soolecophagus cyanocephalus Sw. <* May lath. This 
species is now breeding. I have recently taken several nests." 

35. Corvus carnivorus Bartram. The presence of the ra- 
ven, in the vicinity of Camp Harney, throughout the winter, is occa- 
sionally referred to. Apr. 3d, Capt. Bendire writes: "I do not think 
that any of the ravens have commenced breeding yet, as I f^till see 
them in pairp about the garrison." In a letter dated April 18th, he 
writes that at Lake Malheur he " succeeded in obtaining two ravens' 
nests on the 16th, both with five eggs; one set quite fresh, the other 
probably not over four days sat on. They were hard to get at in each 
case, and I only succeeded, after several trials, in reaching them. 
One nest was built on a side of a cliff, about twenty feet from the 
ground, and thirty from the top. The other, in a large dead willow 
tree." 

36. Corvus oaurinus Babrd. "March 9th. I saw three of 
this species feeding among the ravens. It was afterwards found 
breeding." 

37. Ficicorvus columbianus Bonap. " December 5th. My 
supposed whitish woodpecker, of which I wrote you in my last, turns 
out to be Clarke's crow. It is a consolation to me, however, to know 
that I am not the first one who has made this mistake. It is not to 
be wondered at that any one who has not seen them before, seeing 
them for the first time on the wing, should take them for wood- 
peckers. I am inclined to believe that this bird breeds here in hol- 
low trees, and very early in the season. In an adult female that I 
shot the other day, some of the eggs in the ovaries were already 
considerably enlarged. 

" December 14th. In the mountains I have found an old nest in 
the hollow of a pine stump, constructed of sticks and mud, which is a 
new structure to me, and I have but little doubt but that it is the 
nest of this species. It corresponds in size to what it should be. 

*^ May 9th. I have at last found a nest, occupied this year, of 
Clarke's crows, and now know that in some instances they breed in 
hollow trees, and nest exceedingly early. I found a brood of hix 
young ones well able to fly, on the 6th of this month. They must 
have left the nest about the 1st of May. The old ones almost flew in 
my face to attract my attention from the young, and kept up a terri- 
ble screeching. They must have commenced laying between the 
16th and 25th of March, at least when the snow was over two feet 
deep in that locality. 



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Bendire.l 160 [October 6, 

"May. 19th. I found another nest of Clarke's crow about ten or 
twelve (lays ago, with the young not quite ready to fly. It was on 
the t« p of a pine stump/* 

38. Cyanura Stelleri Sw. « On the 25th of February I ob- 
taimd a fJemale, the first I have seen here. They are said to be 
more plenty farther into the mountains.** 

39. Sayornis Sayus Baird. Referred to as present on, and a 
little prior to, April 3d. 

40. Tyrannus verticalis Say. " Strange to say, the habits of 
this flycatcher are entirely diff*erent from what I found them to be 
about Fort Lapwai, Idaho, and also in Arizona. There I always 
found them about the streams, building their nests on cottonwood 
trees. Here, although they hive the same opportunities, they are 
only found among the junipers and lone pines. I found one of the 
latter, in which at least five pairs of this species was building. The 
same tree also contained a nest of Swainson*s buzzard, with eggs in 
it. These birds have only arrived within the past week. I have not 
noticed a single individual within the post, while in Idaho several 
pairs had nests within the officers* quarters, and 1 find them here 
three or fofir miles from water.** 

41. Myiarchus mexicanus Baird. **May 26 th. Both yes- 
terday and the day before I noticed a specimen of either M, crinitus, 
or of this species. There is no possible doubt about it at all. I 
know both birds very well, and recognized the birds at once by the 
crest and the chestnut underneath. I saw them each time among 
the junipers.** 

42. Hylotomus pileatus Baird. Mentioned as resident in 
the pine woods about Camp Harney. 

43. Colaptes mexicanus Swain. Observed in the neighbor- 
hood of Camp Harney about April 8d. **May 27th. I have taken 
several sets within the past two days. The number of eggs in 
their nest was from six to nine.** 

44. Melanerpes torquatus. ** May 27th. Several sets of eggs 
of this species, taken since the 20th, number from six to nine each.** 

45. Picus albolarvatus. "May 27th. I noticed one of this 
species excavating a hole in a dead pine tree some twelve days since, 
and concluded to try the tree yesterday. The hole was dug about 
half way up the tree, twenty-five feet from the ground. At the en- 
trance it was about two inches wide, and entered the tree about three 
inches before turning down. It was about eighteen inches deep, the 



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1876.] 161 [Bendlre. 

bottom covered with small chips, on which I found two eggs. These 
resemble the eggs of other woodpeckers in color, a clear wbite, but 
the white is a dull opaque, and not so polished as those of C. mexi- 
canuf. One end of the egg is considerably larger than the other. 
They measure^ one 1.02 in. by .75 in., the other 1.02 in. by .73 in." 

46. Braohyotus Cassini Brewer. << March 5th. This species 
was met with for the first time to-day. I saw more here during the 
winter." 

47. S3miium ? " On the 26th of February I examined 

a dead pine stump, in which a pair of owls are building their nest. 
I did not succeed in seeing them, but by the description given to me 
by the wood-chopper, who told me of them, I am inclined to think 
they are of this species. They are too small for S. cinerenm^ though 
I have not the least doubt that the latter breeds here also." 

48. Nyctale acadioa Bon. " On the 20th of January, I ob- 
tained a fine adult female specimen of this species alive. One of 
my men had caught it sitting on a low bush, about twenty feet behind 
the company's quarters. I had a cage made for it, hoping to be able 
to keep it alive, for the purpose of watching its habits. It killed 
itself, however, during the first night, by flying violently against the 
sides of its cage* Its iris was a bright lemon-yellow. It appeared to 
be darker and more spotted below than those described, the breast 
being uniformly marked with large, rusty, fulvous blotches. This 
color predominates throughout, over the white of the under parts; 
upper tail coverts like the back, lower ones immaculate white. The 
tibiae and tarsi are of a delicate and uniform fawn-color, not spotted, 
this tint becoming paler, almost white, near the toes. My men tell 
me that a small owl resembling this one is common during the 
summer about the basaltic cliffs in the neighborhood. On the 25th 
of January, one of my men caught another specimen of this bird 
alive; this time a male. He saw it flying out from the willows on 
the creek ruunii^ through the garrison, and alighting on a pro- 
jection of a chimney at the quarters. He walked right up to the 
bird and caught it in his hands. It was in good condition, and its 
stomach contained the remains of a small bird hardly digested. This 
one is still darker about the lower parts than the other one. I put it 
in the cage also, and found it likewise dead the next morning. I 
cannot account for it. This one certainly did not die of hunger. It 
is considerably smaller than the female, and colored differently." 

FROCEEDINOS B. 8. N. H. — VOL. XVIII. U KOVEMBKS, 1875. 



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Bendire.] 162 [October 6, 

49. Nyctea nivea Gray. ** January 25th. One of this spe- 
cies was seen to-day on one of the cliffs back of the garrison. Sergt. 
Smith was attracted to it by some ravens which were after the owl. 
He could not get near enough to shoot it. The ravens chased it out 
of sijrht." 

60. Glaucidium californicum. « December 14th. This is 
the first of this species that I have ever seen. It is a female, and 
very dark colored, the lower part of the breast and abdomen streaked 
with pure black. In fact, the black predominates, and, judging from 
the description in the History of North American Birds, I would call 
this one considerably darker than any of the specimens Mr. Ridgway 
described. On examination of the ovaries with a lens magnifying 
about six times, I counted two hundred and thirty undeveloped eggs, 
which would justify the conclusion that these birds live to a good old 
age. It was exceedingly fat. Sergt. Smith shot it to-day, while he 
was out hunting on the mountains north of the camp. He caught it 
in the act of trying to get away with a large sized wood-mouse, or 
gopher. The mouse was on the end of a pine log, when the little 
owl suddenly dropped down on it, out of a pine tree standing close 
to the log, in which it had been sitting, about twenty feet from the 
ground, and fastened its claws in its back. The mouse ran nearly 
the length of the log, about twenty-five feet, carrying the owl on its 
back, the latter appearing perfectly unconscious about where the 
.mouse was going with her, keeping her head turned in the opposite 
direction. The time occupied in getting to the other end of the log 
itook nearly two minutes, when he shot them both. When killed, 
the owl had but a few hairs and small bones in its stomach. During 
the winter it must live on mice and small birds, and get plenty of 
both, as the condition of this specimen fully attested. The uncon- 
cerned, business-like manner in which the owl allowed itself to be 
carried by the mouse till the latter should be pretty well exhausted, 
before killing it outright, shows that this was by no means the first 
it had caught. That it is not strictly nocturnal, is shown by the fact 
that it was shot about noon." 

61. Athene cunicularia Bon. "I saw one of this species 
on the 13th of March, but did not secure it." 

62. Falco anatum Bon. '* I saw a specimen on the 11th of 
March, but could not procure it." 

63. Tinunculus sparverius Vieill. "May 26th. Yester- 
day I commenced war on the sparrow-hawks, and took no less than 



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M75.] 163 [Bendire. 

thirty of their eggs. I had previously taken memoranda as to where 
I had generally noticed them, and 1 obtained them all in little more 
than two hours. I am greatly surprised at the extreme variations in 
their eggs, both in size and color. I have them from nearly a pure 
white to the color of the eggs of Lagopus albus. Their eggs are five 
in number. Excepting one taken in a hollow pine stump, with the 
entrance on the top, they were all in old woodpecker's holes." 

64. Astur atricapillus Bon. *' May 26th. I took a nest of 
this species, but was a little too late. It contained two young ones 
and one egg out of which the young had already broken a piece." 

65. Buteo calurus Cassln. "May 26th. I have just found 
a nest of this species, the first one I have seen here. Both this one 
and that of Astur atricapillus^ were in th^ pine timber on the moun- 
tains." 

56. Buteo Swainsoni Bon. Mention is made of having 
found quite a number of sets of eggs of this species. It appears to 
have been found quite common. 

57. Circus hudsonius Vieill. " February 15th. To-day I 
saw the first specimen of this species." 

58. Archibuteo lagopus Gray. " December 5th. Except- 
ing this species, I find hawks very rare, and so shy that it is impossi- 
ble to get near them. — December 14th. I have just obtained two 
specimens of this species, both males, and in light plumage. On the 
18th of February, I also obtained a fine male. Of the four speci- 
mens so far taken, all have been males. — March 6th. I obtained a 
very fine dark male in the plumage of Sancti-Johannis" 

59. Aquila canadensis Cassin. This species is said to breed 
in close proximity to Camp Harney. 

60. HaliSBtus leucocephalus Savigny. This eagle is also 
said to be common, and to breed near the post. " February 16th. 
One of the men found a specimen of this species nearly starved to 
death." 

61. Canace fuliginosus Ridgway. December 5th. Mention 
is made of finding this species and C Richardsoni both common, and 
shooting a female of this species. — " December 28th. Our express 
messenger tells me he saw at least two hundred of this bird hopping 
about on the snow, close to the road — rather an unusual proceeding 
for this season of the year." 

62. Canace Bichardsonl Baird. " December 5th. A few 
days ago I shot four grouse, and find that we have two varieties here, 



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Bendire.] 164 [October 6, 

C fuliginoaus, and certainly the present species, C, Richardsonu Of 
the latter I procured a cock and two hens. They keep most of the 
time in the tops of the highest pines and spruces, only coming to the 
ground when the weather is pleasant. No shot gun can reach them, 
and the rifle destroys their value as specimens. — December 14th. I 
have just obtained a fine specimen of this species, a male of large 
size." 

63. Centrocerous urophasianus Sw. *< November 14th. 
A few days ago I saw a pack of at least seventy sage-fowl within half 
a mile of the post. I cannot agree with Mr. Kidgway in his state- 
ment that this bird rises with great effort, and that its flight is heavy 
and lumberinjg. Those I saw started up as quickly and as gracefully 
as either the sharp-tailed or the dusky grouse, and if it were not 
for the great difference in size one could not tell them apart while 
flying." 

64. Bonasa Sabini Baird. <* December 5th. I have just fin- 
ished making a skin of what must be this species. It measures only 
fourteen and one-half inches in length. One of the sergeants shot 
it and brought it to me this evening. It is the first I have seen here, 
and they are said to be quite scarce. Its stomach contained the seed- 
vessels of the wild rose, willow buds and leaves of a plant resem- 
bling the water-cress." 

65. JBgialitis vocifenis Cassin. Mention is made, in his 
first visit to Lake Malheur, twenty-five miles south of Camp Harney, 
April 16th, of meeting with this species. 

66. Becurvirostra americana Gm. This species was ob- 
served in the first visit to Lake Malheur. 

67. Qallinago Wilsoni Bon. *' On the 15th of February I 
obtained my first specimen of this bird — a female, but I have seen 
none since." 

68. Grus canadensis Temm. Two eggs of a crane obtained 
near Camp Harney some time since, led Capt. Bendire to infer, from 
their size, that they might belong to G, americanus. In his letter of 
December 28th he writes: " From what I can learn, I think G, amer' 
icanus does not occur about here, but that G, canadensis is very com- 
mon and breeds here abundantly." 

69. Ardea herodias Linn. ** Thb heron was found breeding 
at Lake Malheur. Each nest contained four or five eggs. I brought 
a few sets along with me, and found a great deal of difference in 
both the color and size in eggs firom the same nest." 



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1876.] 166 [Bendlre. 

70. Herodias calif ornica Baird. " December 14th. About 
fifteen miles south of here I have found a large heronry, said to be 
of this species. There must be at least three hundred nests or 
more." 

71. Botaurus lentlginosus Steph. Two individuals of this 
species were noted at Lake Malheur, April 16th. 

72. Forzana jamaioensis Cassin. A single specimen of the 
black rail was noticed April 1 6th, near Lake Malheur. » 

73. Cygnus americanus Sharpless. "November 14th. I 
took the measurement of two swans yesterday, which one of the 
officers shot on Lake Harney a few days ago, where they are very 
numerous at present. Both I take to be of this species. One, an 
adult female, measured, length to the end of the tail, 52 inches; to 
the end of the feet, 55 in.; stretch of wings, 76 in.; tarsus to end of 
claws, 10.5 in.; bill, 4.5 in.; a pale orange spot in front of eyes; bill 
and feet entirely black; eyes blue. The stomach of this speci- 
men contained about twenty small shells, perhaps half an inch in 
length — 1 have found large numbers of this same shell on the beach 
near Los Angeles, California — quite a quantity of gravel and a few 
black seeds. The smaller specimen measured as follows: length to end 
of tail, 50 inches; stretch of wings, 70 in.; a small patch of brown on 
the top of the head; no orange in front of the eyes; bill reddish except 
the tip and base; feet black; contents of the stomach nearly the 
same as in the other. This one is evidently an immature specimen. 
Both were exceedingly fat. I ate a piece of the younger, and found 
the meat very good, much better than that of the wild goose. 

"April 18th. I saw, on the 16th, large flocks of swans, but all that 
were killed were of this species. There was not a single buccinator 
among them." 

74. Bernicla canadensis Boie. *' April 29th. I found at 
Lake Malheur several Canada geese breeding, with from four to six 
eggs in each nest. I have several of their eggs under a hen now." 

76. Peleoanus erythrorhynchus Gm. April I6th and April 
28th, visits were made to Lake Malheur. The following extracts are 
from letters dated April 18th and 29th: " I have just returned this 
evening from my first cruise in Malheur Lake, which has been sailed 
over for the first time. As an egg hunting expedition it has proved 
a perfect success. I obtained about a hundred eggs of the white 
pelican on one of the islands in the lake, the only one they use, 



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Bendire.] 166 [October «, 

apparently. I had no idea that these birds nested «o early, as on the 
first of the month the lake was completely covered with ice, and I 
found some snow on this very island on the 16th, when I took the 
eggs. I add the measurements of nine specimens of the eggs, giving 
the extremes, namely, the largest, roundest, and smallest: 3.72 by 
2.40 inches; 3.86 by 2.55 in.; 3.87 by 2.82 in.; 3.62 by 2.40 in.; 3.60 
by 2.40 in.; 3.57 by 2.35 in.; 3.20 by 2.51 in. (this egg, in shape, 
resembles a Urge egg of the bald eagle); 3.17 by 2.23 in.; 3.20 by 
2.21 in. The eggs were all fresh when taken, none had been laid 
more than four days, which would make the 12th of April their 
first deposition. All the nests were made to contain certainly twp 
eggs, if not more ; but about one-half as yet contained only a single 
egg' Several of the party cooked some of them, but 1 do not believe 
they hanker after any more. We brought back five unblown ones, 
and have an old hen sitting on them. 

" I returned from my second trip to Malheur Lake yesterday morn- 
ing (28th). The occipital crest in the specimens procured is, at least 
at tlib season, not yellow, and none of the feathers on the breast show 
this color. The crests of five specimens I shot show scarcely any 
difference in tint from the balance of the body, excepting that the 
elongated feathers have more a soiled than a pure white appearance. 
I should, however, call none yellow. 

*^A11 the birds that I saw, both male and female, and whether on 
, or off the nest, had ' centre-boards * on the bill, and the statement 
that the male alone has this singular appendage, according to my ob- 
servations, is not correct. I had a number of opportunities to observe 
the birds when not over fifty yards from them, and a strong field 
glass to assist me besides. They appear very sensitive about having 
their nesting places disturbed. On my second visit I found they had 
all left the island on which I took my first eggs, and had buried in 
the sands the few we had left. They occupy an island now about 
half a mile from the first one, and when I visited it there must have 
been on it more than a thousand eggs. Many of the nests contained 
three and four eggs each, all evidently laid by the same bird. The 
majority of the nests, however, contained only two, and I believe 
that many do not lay more than two eggs at a sitting. 

*^ These birds are by no means ungraceful in their movements and 
show a great deal of tact and good sense in their fishing expeditions. 
West of the island where they breed, is their favorite fishing ground. 



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1876.) 167 ^ [Bendlre. 

Here is a lai^ spring coming right out from the hills, having a 
gravelly bed. It is the only place on the lake where the water is 
sweet anil palatable. The shore here swarms with a species of sucker 
about eighteen inches long, and red on the sides. I camped a night 
there, and this kept the birds away in the day-time. At sun-down 
they began to collect, first by tens, then by fifties, and in a short 
while there was a string of them one hundred and fifty yards long, at 
least, and from four to six deep. The leader, evidently much bolder 
than the rest, moved up several times to within thirty yards of our 
boat, followed by a few, but something about the look of the boat did 
not please them, and the larger portion moved back again, the main 
body keeping about a hundred yards in the rear. Finally they all 
came nearer, and the boat losing its terroro, they moved all round it. 
For so many birds they kept singularly quiet; an occasional grunt 
from one, resembling tlie word doUCy was about all I could hear. 
They appeared to divide themselves into parties of about thirty, who 
acted in concert, forming a semicircle, gradually closing in towards 
the shore and driving the fish with them, and as soon as they had 
them in the shallow water about one and one-half feet deep and less, 
they all went for them, and such a splashing I have seldom heard. I 
watched them for several houi*s, and often had them within fifteen 
feet of me. The fish they catch are all from twelve to eighteen 
inches in length, and the dexterity with which they handle them is 
surprising. Very few get away from them. Dead fish they do not 
care for, and will not touch. They are not quarrelsome, and I have 
seldom seen a more interesting sight than I did the night I watched 
these birds. The color of their bills varies a good deal, some being 
of a very dark orange-red color, others nearly straw -yellow. The 
centre-boards also vary in length, height, and general shape. The 
nest is a mere hollow scratched in the sand. Their nesting place was 
perfectly alive with fleas, and the aroma by no means a well flavored 
one." 

May 27th the lake was again visited: *' The pelicans are thicker 
than ever. I could have gathered a wagon load of their eggs on the 
island where I first found them, April 16th. Quite a number of the 
the eggs were quite fresh. Two of the largest measured 8.99 by 2.20 
in., and 4.01 by 2.19 in. I find that the usual number of eggs 
laid by the pelican is two. I saw but few nests with three or four 
eggs this time. I also noticed a few birds without any centre-board, 



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Bendire.] 168 [October 6, 

possibly one in fifteen. I think that all have it excepting birds only 
a year old. This ridge is not always firm and regular, but in some is 
quite rough. The majority of the feathers of the occipital crest in a 
specimen now before me, are 8.50 in. long, and a few 4 in. These 
feathers are pure white. 1 can find no ' dusky patch ' on this speci- 
men. The feet are black. One of the eggs set under a hen hatched 
out in twenty-nine days. The young bird lived only a few 
hours.*' 

76. Graoulus clilophus? Gray. In the first visit to Lake 
Malheur, what was taken to be a large heronry was observed. It 
was afterwards ascertained to be the breeding place of a species of 
Graculus. Most of the nests were on the ground, about a third only 
being on bushes not over three feet high, the balance on rubbish, or 
sticks, not more than six inches from the ground. On the 26th 
Capt. Bendire found them occupied with cormorants. The nests con- 
tained five eggs each. In a third visit to the lake other colonies of 
the cormorants were met with. 

** The young of this species (judged from their size to be about two 
weeks old), are still perfectly devoid of down or feathers; the skin is a 
deep glossy blacik, and altogether they present a curious appearance. 
The Gg^, four or five in number, are of an elongated oval shape, pale 
green in color, covered partly by a chalky matter. Their average size 
is about 2.42 by 1.48 inches; some specimens measure more both ways. 
One set of four measure 2 86 by 1.60 in.; 2.70 by 1.65 in.; 2.66 by 
1.64 in.; and 2.70 by 1.60 in. The nest is composed of coawe 
sticks, and is about one and one-fourth feet in diameter, is shallow 
and lined with a few strips of bark and pieces of tule, is raised a few 
inches from the ground and placed generally very close to the water. 
In one instance I found it occupying the nest of Ardea herodias^ 
which was placed on a grease- wood bush about three and one-half 
feet from the ground;" 

77. Iiarus occidentalis Aud. 

78. Chroicocephaltis Philadelphia Lawr. 

79. Sterna Forsteri Nuttall. 

Capt. Bendire, in his visit to Lake Malheur, found these birds 
present about the islands in large numbers, and apparently preparing 
to remain and breed. 



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1875.] 169 [UoAnui. 

List of Birds observed at Grand River Agency, Dakota 
Ter., from October 7th, 1872, to June 7tii, 1873. By W. 
J. Hoffman, M.D., late Act. Asst. Surgeon, U. S. Army. 

My observations extend over a period of only eight months, and 
the list is therefore incomplete. At the time of my arrival at the 
Agency, in October, many species had already gone southward, and 
others were just beginning to appear when I was ordered farther 
north, to join the Yellowstone Expedition. Many other species 
might undoubtedly have been noted, but for the danger of ipeeting 
with hostile Sioux, in venturing too far away from the settlement. 

Grand River Agency (and Military Post) is situated about midway 
between Fort Rice and Fort Sully, the distance to either place being 
about eighty miles, by land. Situated upon the western bank of the 
Missouri River, and half a mile above the mouth of Oak Creek, it is 
consequently on one of the mud flats, or river bottoms. Opposite 
the Agency there is also an island, covered with an undergrowth of 
willows and cottonwoods. The eastern banks of the river are des- 
titute of vegetation on account of the barren bluifs, and it is only 
upon the western side that we find a variety of trees and shrubs. 
Here we find the cotton wood (^Populus monilifera) y several varieties 
of Salix, the buUberry (Shepherdia argefitea), wild plum (Prunus 
virginianus), grape and Clematis, forming a dense undergrowth of 
vegetation, and a safe retreat for many of the feathered tribe. As 
the prairie is nearly destitute of shrubbery few birds are found away 
from the bottom lands, excepting the raptores. 

Mr. J. A. Allen, in his ** Notes on the Natural History of por- 
tions of Montana and Dakota," p. 15-16, mentions quite a number 
of birds as common at Fort Rice which I did not meet with at Grand 
River up to June 7th. His observations at the former locality were 
made from the 10th to the 20th of June, and I am inclined to believe 
that several of these species made their appearance there during the 
second week of June. I also saw quite a number of species procured 
and preserved at Fort Rice, which I failed to notice at Grand River 
two weeks before. 

Oak Creek is so called from the great numbers of oak trees grow- 
ing along its banks as far as ten miles inland. Few nests were found 
during my stay, and the scarcity no doubt depends upon the rascality 
of the young Sioux. These boys can be found at nearly all hours 
of the day, scouring the underbrush in all directions in search of eggs 



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HoiBnan.] 170 [October6, 

and birds. They are always armed with blunt anx)W8 and bows, and 
know, too, how to use them very effectually. 

In the following list I have added notes respecting each species, 
stating whether common or abundant or rare, as will be seen upon 
reference. 

1. Turdus migratorius Linn. Robin. 

Rather scarce. But one pair was found breeding in the vicinity of 
the Agency. 

2. Turdus Pallassi Cab. Hermit Thrush. 
Saw very few specimens. Obtained but two skins. 

3. Turdus fuscescens Stephens. Wilson's Thrush. 
Several pairs were observed near the hospital for several days, and 

finally disappeared. I saw the species again at Fort Rice. 

4. Galeoscoptes carolinensis Cab. Cat Bird. 
Common ; and is found amongst the thickets nearly everywhere. 

6. Harporhjmchus rufus (Linn.) Cab. Brown Thrush. 
Not as abundant as the last species. Found two pairs breeding on 

the island, opposite the Post. 

6« Sialia arctica Sw. Rocky Mountain Bluebird. 

Not very common. Saw several pairs near the truck garden, in May. 

7. Folioptila ccerulea (Linn.).Scl. Blue-gray Gnat-catcher. 
Very rare; procured but one specimen. 

8. Farus atricapillus var. septentrionsdis (Harris) Allen. 
The only specimens I found were moving up the timbered bottom 

along Oak Creek. 

9. Sitta carolinensis var. aouleata Allen. Slender-billed 
Nuthatch. 

The only spei'imen I saw was a mutilated skin obtained near the 
head waters of Grand River, by a young Indian, and by him worn as 
an ornament in a raccoon -skin cap. 

10. Troglodytes aedon var. Parkmanii (Aud.) Coues. 
Western House Wren. 

Rather common. 

11. Anthus ludovicianus (Gm.) Licht. Titlark. 

Found migrating southward late in September, and very abundant 

12. Neooorys Spraguei Scl. Missouri Sky Lark. 

Saw no specimens near the Post, but was informed that they bred 
at the head waters of Oak Creek. This species prefers marshy soil, 
or where the grass is longer and denser than it usually occurs on the 
prairies. 



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1876.] 171 [QofOBUUi. 

13. Mniotilta varia Vieill. Black-and-white Creeper. 

Saw several specimens at Oak Creek, and on the island, on June 2d. 

14. Helminthophaga rufLcapilla (Wils.) Bd. Nashville 
Warbler. 

Quite common in the bottoms, where well timbered. 
16. DendrCBca »stiya Baird. Yellow Warbler. 
Common along the river. 

16. Geothlypis tri^has Cab. Maryland Yellow throat. 
Rather common; appeared to be migrating northward when de- 
served. 

17. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say) Cab. Cliff Swallow. 
One small colony built their nest under a bridge crossing Oak 

Creek, half a mile southwest of the Agency. No eggs could be ob- 
tained at my time of departure — June 7 th. 

18. Vireo olivaceus Vieill. Red-eyed Vireo. 
Saw several specimens, but received only one. 

19. Collurio sp. 

Saw but one specimen of this genus, and could not get near that. 
Had no gun at the moment. 

20. Chrysomitris tristis Bon. Yellow Bird. 

Saw but few specimens, and they remained near the Agency for 
only one day. 

21. Flectrophanes ornatus Towns. Chestnut-collared Bunt- 
ing. 

Apparently very rare. Saw but four specimens. Oak Creek. 

22. Flectrophanes Maecowni Bd. McCown's Bunting. 
Found less frequently than the preceding species ; but generally 

associating with it when found. 

23. Jonco hyemalis var. Aikeni (L.) Ridgw. 
Procured several specimens late in October ; associates with the 

following species. 

24. Junoo oinereus var. canioeps (Wood.) Coues. Gray- 
headed Snowbird. 

This species was also common until the approach of the extremely 
cold weather (in November), when the thermometer usually stood 
below zero. 

25. Spizella sooialis Bon. Chipping Sparrow. 
Rather common among all the thickets. 

26. Spizella pallida Bon. Clay-colored Sparrow. 
Common. Found breeding. 



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Hoflknan.] 172 [October 6, 

27. Chondestes grammaca Bon. Lark Finch. 

Not as common as the two preceding species. Found farther 
away from the Agency. 

28. MolothruB pecoris Swain. Cow Bird. 

Not of frequent occurrence. Several pairs found associating with 
a flock of Xanthocephalus icterocephalus in the vicinity of the corral 
and stahles; also found miles north of the A^rency, at the herders' 
camp and corral. Found it again on Rose Bud Creek, west of Fort 
Rice, where I also found an egg, in nest of Calamo^piza hicolor, 

29. Agetous phodniceus Vieill. Red-winged Blackbird. 
Very rarely seen. 

30. Xanthocephalus icterocephalus Baird. Yellow- 
headed Blackbird. 

Very common. Immediately after their appearance at the Agency 
and vicinity, I collected quite a number of skins of males, of which 
some had the yellow of dark orange, and others nearly a cream white 
(except the head). 

31. Stumella ludoviciana var. neglecta All. Meadow 
Lark. 

Common. Found several times in the surrounding prairie, but I 
think accidental. The note of this variety is exactly similar to that 
of the same species, as it occurs m Nevada. 

32. Icterus spurius Bon. Orchard Oriole. 
Scarce. Saw but two pairs. 

33. Icterus Baltimore Daud. Baltimore Oriole. 
Occasionally observed amongst the willows and cottonwoods on 

the island. 

34. Icterus Bidlockii Bon. Bullock's Oriole. 

Rather common all along the timbered river bottoms. (Rare above 
Fort Pierre, Hat/den), More or less frequent all along the river, to 
Fort Rice, Heart River, Yellowstone River, etc., see also Allen 
**Nat. Hist. Montana and Dakota (Yellowstone Expedition), ISTS." 

36. Quiscalus purpureus Licht. Crow Blackbird. 

Frequently seen, though rare. 

36. Corvus corax Linn. Raven. 
Not often seen in this vicinity. 

37. Corvus americauus And. Common Crow. 
Rather common. 



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1876.J 173 [Hoflftnan. 

38. Pica melanoleuoa var. hudsonioa All. Magpie. 
Saw none near the Agency. Occur occasionally on the Buttes, 

two miles northward, and eight miles up Oak Creek. 

39. Tsrrannus carolinensis Bd. Bee Martin. 
Saw but tew on the island. 

40. Tyrannus verticalis Say. Arkansas Flycatcher. 
Not common. Shot but two near Oak Creek. 

41. Sayornis sayus Bd. Say's Flycatcher. 

Saw but few. These birds no doubt appear later in the spring 
than other summer birds. 

42. Ceryle alcyon Boie. Eingfi^ber. 
Saw several specimens, but always on the wing. 

43. Ficiis pubescens var. Gairdneri Coues. Downy Wood- 
pecker. 

Occasionally found in the groves of oak trees along Oak Creek. 

44. Melanerpes erythrocephalus Swain. Red-headed 
Woodpecker. 

Rather common in the timbered portions of the valleys. 

46. Colaptes auratus Sw. Golden-winged Woodpecker. 

Occasionally seen, though difficult to approach. 

46. Bubo Yirginianus Bon. Great Horned Owl. 
Rather rare. 

47. BrachyotuB palustris Bon. Short-eared Owl. 
Occasionally found on Oak Creek. 

48. Syrnium nebulosum Gray. Barred Owl. 

Met with occasionally in the timbered bottoms along Oak Creek ^ 
and on the island. 

49. Nyctea scandiaca (^inn.) Newt. Snowy Owl. 
Seen but twice. The Indians report it as not uncommon. 

50. Speotyto cmiicularia var. hypogsea Coues. Burrow- 
ing Owl. 

Abundant eight miles north of the Agency, at the prairie dog 
towns. 

51. Falco fliparveriiis Linn. Sparrow Hawk. 
Common farther away from the Agency. 

62. Buteo borealis Vieill. Red-tailed Hawk. 
Only occasionally seen. 

63. Buteo Swainsoni Bon. Swainson's Hawk. 
Shot but two specimens, which I take to be mates. 



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Hofflnan.] 174 (October 6, 

64, Archibuteo ferrugineus Gray. Western Rough-legged 
Hawk. 

Not seen near the Agency. Indians procured specimens on Oak 
Creek, ten miles inland. 

55. Fandion haliaStus (Linn.) Cuv. Fish Hawk. 

Saw this species along the Missouri River at various times during 
autumn and spring. Found no nests. 

56. Aqiilla chrysaetos Linn. Golden Eagle. 

The only specimens seen were brought to the Agency from the 
head waters of Grand River, near the Black Hills. 

57. Haliaetus leucocephalus Savig. Bald Eagle. 

Saw several in May. The Indians frequently shot specimens along 
the Missouri, between Grand River and Standing Rock (forty miles 
farther north), also at the head waters of Grand River. The feathers 
are highly prized by the natives for a variety of purposes, chiefly in 
head decollations. 

68. Gathartes aura (Linn.) 111. Turkey Buzzard. 

Of frequent occurrence at the Agency Corral, ten miles south of 
the settlement. 

69. Zensedura carolinensis Bon. Carolina Dove. 
Very common. 

60. Ectopistes migratoria (Linn.) Sw. Wild Pigeon. 
Saw but one small flock throughout my whole stay at the Post. 

One male bird was procured. 

61. Centroeercus urophasianus Sw. Sage Cock. 

Not often found near the Agency, though considerable numbers 
are brought in by the Indians, who shoot them on the plains, where 
artemisia occurs. 

62. Cupidonia cupido Bd. Prairie Hen. 

Rather abundant ; and during the extremely cold weather has been 
ound near the stables and corral. 

63. JBgialitia vociferus Bp. Killdeer Plover. 
Rather common. 

64. Becurvirostra americana Gm. Avoeet. 

Saw several specimens in June. Reported as common in some 
localities. 

65. Gallinago Wilsoni Bp. Wilson's Snipe. ^ 

Never saw any specimens near Grand River, although it occurs at 
Cheyenne River, and near Fort Rice. 

66. Tringa minutilla Vieili. Least Sandpiper. 
Rather common along the water courses. 



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1874.] 175 [Rofflnan. 

67. Numeniiis longirostris Wils. Long-billed Curlew. 
Occasionally found along Oak Creek, in the vicinity of grassy and 

moist soil, although no nest has been found, neither do the Indians 
know of its breeding here. 

68. Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 

Occasional flocks observed migrating in May. The Indians ob- 
tained several specimens. The tarsi are highly prized for making 
riding-whip handles. 

69. Nyctiardea grisea var. neevia Allen. American Night 
Heron. 

Not resident, and of seldom occurrence. 

70. Grus canadensis Temm. Sandhill Crane. 

Migrant. The Indians sometimes secure specimens; they use the 
skins for making ornamental pouches. 

71. Fulica amerioana Gm. Mud Hen. 
Common along the banks of the Missouri River. 

72. Gygnus buccinator Rich. Trumpeter Swan. 

Saw skins only. The Indians sometimes preserve these for orna- 
menting various articles. This species occurs occasionally on the 
small inland lakes, formed in early spring by the melting snow. 

73. Gygniis americanus Sharp. American Swan. 
Rare, though more frequent than the preceding species. 

74. Anser hyperboreus Pall. Snow Goose. 

Great numbers passed northward during the middle of April. 
Stragglers are occasionally found on the Missouri River, or on some 
of the smaller tributaries. 

76i Branta canadensis Gray. Wild Goose. 

Numerous during April. They are reported as breeding on many 
of the inland lakes north and northeast of this settlement. Young 
birds have also been found at the head-waters of Oak Creek. 

76. Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. 
Migrant. 

77. Spatula clypeata (Linn.) Boie. Shoveller. 
Migrant; sometimes found during the summer. 

78. Bucephala albeola Bd. Dipper. 

Saw several specimens ten miles below the Agency ; one or two 
were shot from the steamboat. 

79. Felecanus trachyrhynohua Lath. White Pelican. 
Said to occur frequently. Saw quite a number of skulls in various 

Indian tents. 



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Shaler.] 176 [October 6, 

Notes on the Cause and Geological Value of Variation 
IN Rainfall. By Prof. N. S. Shaler. 

The rainfall of the earth's surface is the most variable of all its 
conditions. Great as are the variations of temperature, they are rel- 
atively less considerable than the variation in the amount of moisture 
deposited. In the range from less than ten to over eight hundred 
inches, which can be found in one region within a few hundred miles, 
and in the considerable, though less striking, variation at many points 
on the earth's surface, we have a ra£e of difference many times greater 
than that which occurs in the range of temperature between the equa- 
tor and the poles. There are two kinds of variation, both of geologi- 
cal interest,, but belonging to different categories of facts. The first 
of these classes includes the variation due to change in the distribu- 
tion of the rainfall of the earth, the quantity of that rainfall being 
the same; the second class includes the variations which arise from 
the differences in the amount of the total evaporation. The exbtence 
of such variations may be regarded by some as a questionable matter ; 
the evidence, however, is great in quantity, and of the most distinct 
kind, going to show that in the immediate past the rainfall of the 
earth's surface was greater than now. On every continent, save 
Europe and South America, we find closed basins, which show dis- 
tinctly that there has been a gradual and progressive shrinkage of 
the waters within the time that has elapsed since the end of the 
glacial period. I do not mean to maintain that the shrinkage of a 
salt lake afler its separation from the sea, is a necessary consequence 
of a diminution of the rainfall. There are, at the present time, 
many regions of the ocean where the supply from the clouds is not 
sufficient to balance the evaporation. Many parts of the Mediter- 
ranean, if closed by some barrier from the general ocean, would 
begin rapidly to shrink into tlie state and dimensions of the Dead 
Sea; but a lake separated from the ocean by a barrier, and shrinking 
from a gradual abstraction of its water through evaporation, the 
climate remaining the same, would probably retire flowly, and with 
a certain steadiness from the time of its formation until it found 
itself, so to say, balanced, the evaporation area just equaling the rain- 
fall. But many, if not most, of these areas of excessive evaporations 
cut off from the general supply, show us a series of terraces which 
probably represent a succession of stages in the shrinkage whei^ for 



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1876.] 177 (Shaler. 

a time, a balance was attained. These terraces are said, among 
other cases, to be prominent on the basin of the Great Salt Lake. 

Considering, for a moment, the case of this particular basin, we 
notice that the shrinkage is marked by terraces, said to be so distinct 
that I find it difficult to believe that they were formed before the 
glacial period. If we accept, then, the opinion that they were 
formed since the last ice time, we are driven to either of two conclu- 
sions: that the basin was below the sea at the close of the glacial 
period, or that it has had its water supply greatly diminished since 
that time. It is manifest that the basin could not have been lowered 
into the sea during, or since, the last glacial period ; so, granting the 
shrinkage phenomena to be recent, we are driven to accept the 
conclusion that terrace levels are due to a recent diminution of 
rainfall. Much the same considerations will convince us that many 
other of the closed lake-basins of the earth represent a shrinkage of 
rainfall in their regions, a shrinkage going on to the present day. 
Evidences of diminished rainfall are not wanting in many regions 
which have not been made into closed basins. The western shore of 
South America seems to have felt the effect of this shrinkage since 
the period of man. There are in Peru, for instance, evidences of 
extensive cultivation in the shape of artificial terraces, where irriga- 
tion is impossible, and where no crops could be grown with the 
present rainfall. Similar and even stronger arguments could be 
drawn from the well known facts given by the Caspian Sea and its 
neighborhood. 

Without endeavoring, at present, to assemble all the evi<lence 
which points to the diminution of rainfall, I propose now to consider 
what are the forces which could bring about a change in the amount 
of rainfall in any country. There are evidently two wajns in which 
the rainfall of a country may be modified: 1st, by the change in the 
distribution of the total rainfall of the earth ; 2d, by the change in 
the actual amount of that rainfall through the reduction or increase 
of evaporation. It is evident that these two sets of causes may, and 
doubtless do, cooperate and interact to a greater or less extent, but 
this is a matter I do not intend to discuss. 

Considering the first of these categories of causes, we see abundant 
evidence to show us that in the successive changes of level of the 
land, bringing every point of its surface at various times at different 
heights, we must have a most efficient cause of variation of rainfall. 
It may be safely said that a change of level of one hundred feet in 

PBOOEEDINGB B. 8. N. H. — VOL. XVIU. 12 JANUABY, 1876. 



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Shaler.] 178 [October 6, 

any country would be necesBarily attended by a perceptible yariatioii 
jn its rainfall, while by a change of five hundred feet the effects 
might be of great importance in the distribution of animals and 
plants. The change of the height of other regions may have as 
important an influence as the elevation or depression of the given 
district. In fact, the interaction of these causes leads to very com- 
plicated phenomena, which it is fiir beyond my purpose to consider. 
It is evident that they may be grouped together under the general 
term of the influence of height. This is probably by fiur the greatest 
^determining influence of a local kind. 

Along with this cause comes the position of areas <^ evaporation; 
the height and conditions of a country being unaltered in every re- 
gard, a variation in the evaporation region which supplies it may have 
a great effect upon its rainfall. If a considerable part of the evapo- 
ration areas supplying North America became dry land, the effect 
must be great without any cooperating action occurring on the conti- 
nent itself. 

Change in the direction or force of ocean currents would also 
have great effects. When the Japan current entered the Arctic 
Ocean, giving that region the warmth it had when its vegetation 
resembled that existing in the Mississippi Valley at the present 
time, there probably was a material increase of the rainfall there, 
and probably a diminution of the deposition in the faropical region, 
caused by the considerable loweiring of heat in that region, while a 
large part of its temperature was being dissipated in the Arctic Ocean. 
These considerations seem to confirm us in our belief in the very 
great variability of the conditions which affect the distribution of 
Uie rainfall, assuming it to remain constant ov^ the world at lai^ 
Enough has been written concerning the influence of forests, etc., to 
make it unnecessary to advert to these influences in this paper. 

Turning now to the conditions which may affect the total amount 
of water lifted fi^m the earth's sur&ce during the year, we come 
to a class of questions which have been veary little considered by 
meteorologists, and possibly with good reasons^ since the main aim 
of the real advancers of that science is to keep out of the field of 
pure conjecture. It will, I trust, be evident, however, that some- 
thing can be gained from a glance at this question without becoming 
too speculative in our considerations. 

The most material influence which can come firom the elevations 



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J876.1 179 [Shaler. 

$nd depressions of the land on the total rainfaU, will, in the main, 
arise from the following causes: — 

1. The narrowing or widening of the evaporation area. 

2. The restrictions put upon the passage of marine currents hy 
the form of the land. 

I am inclined to think that the first of these actions may have con- 
siderable Talue. For insjbance, if the lands of the tropical regions 
have been steadily increasing in area ever since an early geological 
period, a proposition which could find a good deal of support, 
then the total evaporation area and the consequent rainfall must have 
be«n diminishing. Even supposing the Lyellian hypothesis to be 
true, and the amount of land and water to remain the same, the total 
evi^>oration would be greatly effected by changes which should ac- 
cumulate the water area about the poles, or about the equator. 

The effects of the obstruction of oceanic currents are not less import- 
ant than those just suggested. If, by any cause, as, for instance, from 
the barring of the currents in their northward course, as the Japan 
current is now barred, only on a more extensive scale, the oceanic 
streams were kept more within the equatorial belt than at present, 
the result would probably be a sUght diminution of the total amount of 
rainfidL 

These causes, though greatly affecting the distributioii of rain, must 
on the whole, have comparatively litUe effect upon the aggregate rain- 
faU. I am inclined to think that the main cause must be fought in the 
alterations in the heat which comes to the earth from the sun. Al- 
though some importance has been attached to the a^icession of heat 
from extensive and prolonged volcanic eruption, it does not appear 
that, this can be a great cause, for Mayer's computation shows that, at 
{nresent, the quantity of heat received from the earth's interior cannot 
amount to more than one sixtieth of the total heat that comes to its sur- 
face. But the variation in the supply from the sun is a possible cause 
that has been but little considered. The fact that the limited time 
that has elapsed since star maps have been made has shown us very 
many variable stars of exceedingly different periods of variation, 
some passing regularly through a cycle of change, and some varying 
in what seems to be a paroxysmal manner, may well make us ques- 
tion whether it is not in the nature of stars to be variable, and 
whether this variability does not belong to our sun as well. It should 
be noticed that slight variations are probably more likely to occur 
than great changes, and that to bring about great alterations in the 



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Shider.] 180 [October 6, 

earth's conditions, we need only changes which would not materialljr 
alter the brilliancy of our sun, as seen from the distance at which we 
behold the fixed stars. The heat of the sun could be increased hy 
twenty-five per cent, without materially changing the magnitude of 
the sun as a star. 

In a previous communication to this Society,^ I have called atten- 
tion to this cause as a possible source of the climatic changes of the 
glacial period, the inyasion of ice being brought about by the sudden 
increase of the precipitation of water in high latitudes, due to an 
increase of heat and a consequent increase of rainfall. If we take 
this view of the cause of the glacial conditions, then the existence of 
evidence of the diminution of rainfall during the time since the close 
of the glacial period, becomes a matter of the greatest interest. 
While the whole question is inyolved in the greatest doubt, as I have 
tried to show in the first part of these notes, I am inclined to think 
that there is some eyidence to be drawn from the physical record left 
in our salt lake basins to indicate the great probability of a diminu- 
tion of rainfall since the last ice time. 

Besides this physical evidence of the change in rainfall, the palae- 
ontological record supplies us with some evidence of a valuable kind, 
looking in the same direction. Whenever we trace back the history 
of any of our land mammals, we generally find the variety of repre- 
sentative species which was in existence during, or just at the close 
of the glacial period, showing by its size or by its distribution that the 
conditions of environment were those which gave a very abundant 
supply of food. These conditions could not have been those brought 
about by greater mean annual cold, but must have been the result of 
climatic conditions, such as would be caused by greater rainfall, and 
less range of temperature between winter and summer. As I pro- 
pose to extend these considerations in a special paper on the subject, 
I will not cite the Instances which support this opinion. 

In various discussions of this subject, I have attributed the great 
transportation of water from the equatorial to the polar regions, as- 
sumed to have occurred during that period, to the increased difference 
of temperature between these regions during, at least, the first stages 
of a glacial period, and the consequent increase in the activity of the 
trade winds; it being assumed that, owing to the formation of a 
cloud-wrap about each pole, the equator would gain more in heat 
from an increase in the heat of the sun, than the circumpolar regions. 

I See Memoirs of the Boston Society of Katoral History, Vol. U, Ft. iii, No. 8. 



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1876.J 181 [Shaler. 

The winter of 1874-75 haying been unusually severe throughout 
the northern part of the northern hemisphere, it seemed likely that 
we should, if the foregoing hypothesis were true, find some trace of 
the effects arising from this temporary increase of the difference 
between the polar and equatorial conditions, corresponding to that 
greater change which was assumed to have taken place during the 
glacial time. In a word, if the average of rainfall is the result of 
the trade and counter-trade winds, and their products the sea cur- 
rents, and if these winds are measured m their force by the difference 
of temperature between the equatorial and polar districts, then the 
period of very low temperature which, in the winter of 1874-5, pre- 
vailed throughout the northern hemisphere, should have brought a 
season of great rainfall in its train. Allowing six months for the 
completion of the trade wind circuit, we would expect the return of 
this rush of counter-trades, with their load of water, in the midsum- 
mer of 1875. It may have been only a coincidence, but it is a note- 
worthy fact that this season was one of the rainiest ever known in the 
northern hemisphere. It will at least make it desirable to compare 
the winter and summer temperatures and the rainfall over a conside- 
rable time. Following this same line of conjecture one step farther, 
I may notice that the annual rainfall during the winter seasons imme- 
diately preceding the extremely cold season of 1874-5 had been much 
less than usual. This gives a basis for the h^-pothesis that one of the 
cycles of change in climate maybe something like this: a progressive 
diminution of rainfall in the circumpolar region, a consequent de- 
crease of the cloud envelop of that region, and increased loss of heat 
by radiation leading to an intensification of cold, and that in turn 
bringing about an increase in trade winds and consequent greater 
rainfall. This rainfall will bring up the polar temperature, diminish 
the difference in heat between that region and the equatorial belt, 
whence the trade winds will slacken, and the circumpolar rainfall 
again diminish, bringing again increase of radiation and lowering of 
temperature. 

This is, I acknowledge, highly conjectural, but in the present 
state of the question of climate, while too much value must not be 
given to conjecture, it may yet have some value. As regards the geo- 
logical effect of rainfall, there is one point of considerable importance 
to which attention has not yet been directed. I refer to the great dif- 
ference in the rate of wearing at different points, due to the action o 
the different rates of rainfall. In our own country, for instance, the 



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Scndder.] 182 [October 6, 

region west of the MiaBissippi is, as a whole, wearing at only about 
one half the rate of the region east of that belt. If this is continaed 
ior only ten millions years, the effect will be to make a great differ^ 
ence of the hei^ <^ the two regions. 

Mr. S. H. Scadder exhibited a series of post-pliocene fossils 
from the bluff at Sankotj Head, Nantacket, with samples of 
the sands in which they were found, and of the underlying 
gravels, sands and clays. 

The sands and grayels rest at base upon a thick bed of light brown 
sandy clay of uncertain thickness, but extending upward to about 
twenty feet aboTC the sea-leveL As the beds which rest upon it dip 
to the southwest, and as the anchor brings up clay from Sankoty 
Head eastward for half a mile, this clay bed is probably of great 
thickness. Messrs. Desor and Cabot, who gave the first account of 
this deposit,^ speak of it as ^< nearly twenty feet" in thickness, but 
as that, by their estimate of die height of ibe bluff and the strata of 
which it is composed, brings the bottom of the bed exactly to the 
level of the sea, they apparently do not intend to limit its lower level 
to that point. In my excavations I penetrated it fcnr over seventeen 
feet; it was very compact and difficult to dig through, and varied 
only, and that irregularly, in the amount of sand intermixed with 
the clay. 

This brown clay is overlaid by four feet of gravel and coarse sand, 
the coarser parts mostly confined to three or four Inches of the upper- 
most levels; the upper bed is more or less ferruginous, and hardens 
on exposure into a rather compact conglomerate. To this stratum 
must doubtless be referred a single specimen of a bivalve (probably 
a Mactra), wiUi valves half open, picked up on the bluff, imbedded 
in a lump of gravel conglomerate, and, like it, strongly oxydized. 
The gravel is followed by about four feet of sands, subdivisible into 
separate beds, viz.: at base, an inch or two of a very fine loose white 
sand; followed by nearly two feet and a half of a little less fine» 
closely packed, white sand, with irregular ferruginous streaks through 
its mass; this is covered by nine inches of a coarse beach sand, with 
a still coarser sand in pockets; and this again by nine inches of a 
very fine white sand. Above this comes a foot of ferruginous sand, 

1 See Quart. Jonm. Geol. Soc. Loud., v, 340-44; also these Proceedings, m, 70- 
80; and the Memoirs of this Society, i, 252-3. 



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1875.] 188 [Scudder. 

closely packed with masses of tough blue clay, much exceeding the 
sand in bulk, and forming the floor of the fossiliferous beds. 

These consist first, at base, of twenty*two inches of coarse sand, in 
which the oyster, quahog, and common clam are the prevailing 
f<N?ms, the first predominating to such a degree as to make the name 
of ojTBter^bed the most appropriate. This merges into a serpula*bed, 
about twenty-eight inches in thickness, made up almost altogether of 
large masses of Serpula, packed in sand and almost wholly devoid of 
other £)ssils. The bed of worn shells superimposed on this is about 
twenty*two indies in thickness and closely resembles coquina, except 
in the entire want of adhesion between the fragments. 

This bed is £>llowed by about ten feet of fine, white, thinly bedded 
sand, and this by the stratified drift of the island, to a depth, as esti- 
mated by Desor and Cabot, of forty-two feet; the foot of peat men- 
tioned by them is wanting at this exact locality (though present a 
few hundred feet farther south), leaving the drift covered by five or 
six feet of dune-sand, mere or less intermixed beneath with loam. 

On following the bed of broken shells along the face of the cliff, it 
was found to thin out to about a foot in thickness twenty-five feet on 
eidier side of the most prominent point, where the section was made, 
and which has doubtless been longer protected than the other parts 
of the bluff by the former presence of a great mass of clay next the 
water's edge, called "Antony's Nose "; beyond these twenty-five feet, 
the bed of broken shells becomes nM>re or less obscured by an admix- 
ture of sand, gravel and serpula, and is entirely lost at forty feet 
distance on either side. 

The general dip of the strata, from the lowermost clay to the bed of 
worn shells, is to the southwest. The uppermost beds incline along 
the face of the cliff three degrees to the south, while the inclination 
to the west {along the section dug out of the cliff) is eleven degrees, 
making a dip of nine degrees to the southwest. All the beds below 
this also incline eleven degrees to the west, but the inclination of 
their face toward the south increases gradually in passing downward, 
that of the upper edge of the lower clay reaching eleven degrees, 
and making the southwesterly dip of this bed seventeen degrees. 
There is no evidence of any thinning out of the gravel-bed, as stated 
by Desor and Cabot, nor of any unconformability between this bed 
and the underlying clays ; but, on the contrary, every appearance 
that the latter belong to the same continuous series as the former. 



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Sendder.j 184 [Octobers, 

It is worthy of note that the fossilB of this locality lie ahove the 
clays, instead of in them, as in most of the New England localities 
of post-pliocene marine shells. 

Prof. A. E. Yerrill, of Yale College, has studied the fossils ob- 
tained by yarious parties from these strata, and comes to interesting 
conclusions, differing from those of Messrs. Desor and Cabot, which 
were based on much more meagre collections. The latter gentlemen 
enumerate but seventeen species, and state that they are common to 
the two beds, while Prof. Yerrill finds sixty species, most of them Mol- 
lusca, of which only thirteen, or less than twenty-two per cent., are 
common to the two strata; thirty-seven species are found in the lower, 
and thirty-six in the upper bed. He also finds the fauna of the two 
beds very different in character, the condition of the shells in the lower 
bed, and their southern character, showing that they were deposited 
** in the very quiet waters of a sandy sheltered bay, entirely protected 
from the action of the oceanic waves **\ he compares the assemblage 
of species to thoie " now living in the protected bays of southern 
New England, at the depth of from three to five fathoms. *' On the 
other hand, the abundance of northern forms in the upper bed of 
broken shells, shows that it " was deposited by the cold waters of the 
outer coast, and their water worn condition proves that the deposit 
was made in very shallow water near the shore, or near sand shoals 
swept by the waves." 

All the species of both the beds still inhabit the waters of southern 
New England, excepting one, which has not yet been found further 
south than Massachusetts Bay. Prof. Verrill does not find any dif- 
ference between any of these fossils and their recent representatives 
living in the same region, with the exception of the quahog ( Venus 
mercenana), the fossil specimens of which are usually very heavy; 
but as he has found considerable variation, both among fossil and 
living examples, he does not believe the distinctions noticed to be 
** anything more than a local variation, such as often occurs in many 
species at the present time." Tet he proposes for this form the varie- 
tal designation antiqua, 

I have not had an opportunity of comparing the fossil quahog 
with any specimens coming from a depth of from three to five fath- 
oms (at which he believes the beds containing these fossils to have 
been deposited), but last year I compared from twenty to thirty per- 
fect fossils, with as many recent ordinary Nantucket specimens of 



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18760 186 IDenton. 

the same size, taken from a heap of refuse, and noted between them 
the following differences, which seemed to be pretty constant through- 
out: the fossil shells are much heavier and thicker, especially near 
the margin, and at the back ; the concentric sculpture is coarser, 
broader and more prominent; there is a less perceptible tendency 
toward the formation of two rounded ridges on the anterior end, 
passing from the beak toward the yentral region; the hinge-teeth are 
coarser, and separated by wider intervals; the lateral teeth are much 
stouter; the muscular impressions deeper; and notwithstanding the 
greater general coarseness of the shells, the beading along the inner 
edge of the margin is generally finer. 

A letter was also read from Mr. William Denton, calling 
attention to an asphalt bed near Los Angeles, California. 

The locality is known as Major Hancock's Brea Ranch, and is 
about eight miles west of Los Angeles, in the valley of the Santa 
Anna. The bed of asphaltum here covers sixty to eighty acres, and 
at a depth of thirty feet no bottom has been reached. Thousands of 
tons have been removed for roofing, paving and combustion, but the 
supply is almost inexhaustible. 

Major Hancock had about twenty-five Chinamen employed in dig- 
ing out the best of the asphaltum, which is soft enough to agglutinate 
in the heat of the sun. The material was conveyed to large, open 
iron boilers, in which it was boiled for twenty-four hours, and then 
run into sand moulds ; subsequently it was broken up, for it is quite 
brittle afler being thus boiled, carted for nine miles and shipped to 
San Francisco, where it was sold for twenty dollars a ton for making 
asphalt pavement. The bed is about three miles south of the Santa 
Monica range of mountains, and it appears to lie parallel with them. 

Beds of petroleum shale of tertiary age, having in many places a 
thickness of about two thousand feet, are to be found along the Cal- 
ifornia coast, and at some distance in the interior ; they are said, by 
Prof. Whitney, to extend from Cape Mendocino to Los Angeles, a 
distance of about four hundred and fifty miles. They are exposed 
in cliffs on the coast near Santa Barbara and Carpinteria, and other 
places. This shale, there is good reason to believe, is the deposit 
from which all the asphaltum of California has been derived. 



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Denton. 186 [Oetobertf, 

Althougli this shale is not exposed in the ticinity of the Brea 
Banch, it is exposed in Tarious localities at bnt a short distance, and 
doubtless underlies the asphaltnm deposit, for hundreds of <*tar 
springs " exist in the vicinity, from which the material is still flowing 
over the surrounding locality, the springs being in some cases ele- 
vated, by its deposition around them, several feet above the sur- 
rounding level. 

Major Hancock presented me with what I found to be a ca- 
nine tooth of a Machairodus, a great sabre-toothed fbline. It was 
found at the depth of fiileen feet in the asphaltum. The tooth is 
nine and a half inches in length j measured along the curve, and the 
breadth of the crown at the base is an inch and three-quarters, being 
larger than any tooth of the European Machairodus, whose measure- 
ment I have been able to find. The crown of the tooth is broken, 
and its entire length could not have been less, I think, than eleven 
inches. The tooth from the Val d'Amo, in Italy, referred to by 
Falconer in his Palsontological memoirs, measures eight and one- 
half inches in length, and the breadth of the crown at the base is one 
and one-half inches, while the tooth found by McEnery in Kent's 
Hole, England, is six inches in length, and one and one-fifth inches 
in breadth. The Californian tooth is closely serrulated on both the 
concave and the convex sides. It seems to have been exposed to the 
action of the elements for a long time, and contains a number of 
fractures, some of which have been united by the asphaltum in which 
it was imbedded. 

I obtained a number of teeth of the fossil horse, and bones of the 
deer, a large bovine animal, the otter, seal, albatross, and other ani- 
mals. I found near the pit a portion of the right upper jaw of the 
fossil horse, containing four molar teeth, or three premolars and one 
true molar. The first premolar is smaller in proportion to the size of 
the other teeth than those of the recent horse, judging by several 
with which I have compared it, and smaller than those of the fossil 
horse of India. It is but one inch in length, and three-quarters of 
an inch in breadth; but the other three teeth are larger than the 
average of the recent horse. The Machairodus tooth, with several 
from the fossil horse, were exhibited. 

Prof. N. S. Shaler presented for publication in the "Me- 
moirs," a paper on the Geology of Martha's Vineyard. 



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1876.J 187 fDwlftrt. 

October 20, 1875. 

The Pi'esident, Mr. T. T. Bouve, in the chair. Thirty-one 
persons present. 

Prof. Edw. S. Morse gave an account of farther investiga- 
tions on the structure of the carpus and tarsus of birds, 
which he had studied in many species of marine birds at 
Grand Menan Island, during the past summer. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder presented to the Society a supplement- 
ary note to his paper on the Fossil Myris^ods of Nova Sco- 
tia, which will appear in the " Memoirs." 

Dr. Thos. Dwight, Jr., made a brief report on the present 
condition of the collection of Dr. Jeffries Wyman, exhibiting 
a number of the more remarkable specimens in illustration. 

The Wyman Collection consisted of something over two thousand 
specimens; from these were io be deducted a few pathological ones 
left to the Boston Society for Medical Improvement. Some two 
hundred and fifty invertebrates having been taken for other depart- 
ments of our Museum, there came to the Department of Compara- 
tive Anatomy probably about seventeen hundred and fifty specimens. 
Many of these are of great value. Every specimen bears a distinct- 
ive label, do that it may be separated from those previously belonging 
to the Society. Among the more remarkable specimens should be 
mentioned the nearly complete skeleton (No. 1213, Wyman Cata- 
logue) of a male gorilla, supposed to be the largest in any museum. 
The skeletons of gorillas and chimpanzees added to those already 
belonging to the Society, make our collection of anthropoid apes 
probably one of the finest in the world. 

There are many very valuable series of specimens in tlus bequest, 
as of hearts, digestive organs, etc., but two of them are preeminent, 
namely, that of the nervous system and that of embryology. The 
former of these contains dissections of the central nervous system, 
which bear witness to the great skill of Dr. Wyman as a dissector. 
The cranial nerves of a torpedo are beautifully shown. There is also 
a collection of sections of bones, showing that they are constructed 
on architectural principles, an account of which Dr. Wyman pub- 
lished nearly thirty years ago. 



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Scudder.] 188 [October 27, 

The President announced the bequest, by Mrs. C. S. Hale, 
of Burlington, N. J^ of her husband's scientific collection and 
library, the former containing tbe fine series of Zeuglodon 
vertebi'SB long since deposited in the Society's Museum. 
Also the gift of a fine painting of Prof. Louis Agassiz, by 
Mrs. C. V. Hamilton, purchased by the subscription of sev- 
eral members ; and, finally, the gift fi*om Geo. B. Emerson, 
Esq., of a complete series of the plates illustrating the new 
edition of the ** Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts," nicely 
framed and mounted for exhibition in the Museum. The 
thanks of the Society were voted for this valuable gift. 



Section of Entomology. October 27, 1875. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder in the chair. Eight persons present. 

The following paper was read : — 

Notice of a small collection op Butterflies made by 
Mb. Roland Thaxteb, on Cape Bbeton Island. By Sam- 
uel H. Scudder. 

The species are but fourteen in number, and were all taken on 
Cape Breton Island. The two Urbicolae and Eurymus PhUodice 
were also taken at Shediac. The species are the following: — 

Basilarchia Arthemis. Chrysophanus Epixantbe. 

Aglais Milberti. Heodes americana. 

Argynnis Cybele. Eurymus Philodice. 

Argynnis Atlantis. Pieris rapse. 

Brenthis Myrina. Pieris oleracea. 

Phyciodes Tharos. Limochores Taumas. 

Rusticus Scudderii. Polites Peckius. 

The following are the only ones worthy of special notice: 

Arg^ynnis Cybele. A single specimen was taken, whose fore- 
wing measures 37 mm. in length. It has the unmistakeable markings 
of A. Cyhele^ which has never before been taken so far north. 

Busticus Scudderii. Two males and two females were taken. 
The males do not differ from the usual form, except in having the 



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1875.] 189 [Soadder. 

markings of the under surface rather heavier. But the two females 
are undersized, measuring but 21 mm. in expanse ; one of them has 
but few, and the other no, blue scales on the disk above; neither of 
them has a trace of any orange spots upon the outer border of the 
hind wings above, and very little, or no tinge of orange upon the 
outer border of the fore wings beneath. In all these respects, speci- 
mens from the southern coast of Labrador agree better with those 
from Canada and New York than with those from Cape Breton. 

Chrysophanus Epixanthe. Whether Dorcas is distinct or 
not, I do not now venture to assert, but the specimens from Cape 
Breton belong to Epixanthey and not, as we should expect, to the 
Dorcas type. 

Eurymus Philodioe. The most interesting insect brought 
home by Mr. Thaxter is unquestionably our common J^. PhUodice, 
The males hardly differ at all from the normal type, as found in New 
England, excepting in possessing a less conspicuous spot at the ex- 
tremity of the cell in the fore wings above, although there, as here 
it varies to a considerable extent In both sexes it is usually a very 
pale orange transverse spot, edged narrowly with dusky scales. The 
female, too, is dimorphic in both places, but whether yellow or pallid. 
Cape Breton specimens invariably show a uniform and considerable 
departure from the normal type. New England individuals have a 
very broad, dark border to the upper surface of the fore wings, ex- 
tending down to the inner border, almost or quite as conspicuously 
as in the male, although not extending along this border toward the 
base; this marginal band encloses a curving submarginal series of 
ill-defined yellow (or pallid) spots; it is only occasionally so narrow 
that the spots are situated at its very edge; so, too, there is a 
marginal band upon the hind wings, like that of the males, though 
narrower, often broken, and with an ill-defined interior edge ; this, 
however, is occasionaUy reduced to a few scattered grimy scales be- 
tween the upper subcostal and middle median nervules, very much 
as appears in the female of Eujymus Pelidne, when they are present 
at all. Now in the females before me, from Cape Breton, the mar- 
ginal band of the hind wing is either totally absent, or is reduced to 
a few scales clustered about the extremity of the subcostal nervules, 
and is, in only a single instance, continuous along the border between 
these nervules; while the border of the fore wing, broad indeed next 
the costal margin, narrows rapidly, and terminates usually at the 
lower median nervule, or, if it reaches to the submedian nervure, it 



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Scadd«r.] 190 [NoTember3 

f 

is only by a few scattered grlniy scales Iq tbe ipter¥eiung interspace ^ 
the row of submarginal yellow (or pallid) spots would seldom be no- 
ticed, at least below the subcostal interspaces,, but for a comparison 
with the normal type, or its continuance in the broader part of ih^ 
band above. This is precisely what we find in Eurymus Pdidne^ 
and so far as the upper surface of the pallid femsUe is concjerned^ 
his species could scarcely be distinguished from the monomorphio 
E, Pelidne, The under surface of the Cape Breton insect, however, 
is dotted but lightly with griseous, and can be compared only to that 
of the true E. PhUodice; although the submarginal spots of the hind 
wings, which are usually y^y conspicuous in New England speci- 
mens, never occur along the outer border in either sex of the Cape 
Breton type. ' The dimorphic pallid female, then, of the Cape Bre- 
ton form ofEvrymus PhUodice approaches noore closely the uniformly 
pallid female of the Labradorian E. Pelidne, than it does the nor- 
mal dimorphic pallid female of its own species from New England. 
The gynandromorphic female of E. PhUodiee^ whether of Cape Bre- 
ton or of New England, finds, however^ no par^lel in Labrador, and 
the Cape Breton male agrees only with the Philodice-type. It should 
be added in this cpnnection that the butterfly collected by Prof. 
Hamlin at Waterville, Me., on the strengtli of which I have once or 
twice in my list referred Eurymus Pelidne to northern New England, 
is nothing but the pallid female of this Cape Breton, type, to which 
I would give the varietal name laureniina* Thirty-nine specimens 
were collected, of which ten were gynandromorphic females, eight 
pallid females, and the rest males. 

Iiimochores Taumas. Specimens from this region, as shown 
both by Mr. Thaxter's collections, and others sent me several years 
ago by Mr. J. M. Jones, of Halifax, are remarkable £ot their smaller 
size, and the almost total absence of dull fulvous dusting upon the 
under surface of the hind wings, the upper and under surface being 
almost precisely alike in general tint. . 



November 3, 187^. 

Vice President, Mr. S. H. Scudder, in tbe chair. Thirty 
persons present. 

Pi-of. Morse remarked on the differences of some species of 
MoUusca as found in the aboriginal shell heaps, and at the 



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1875.) 191 [Hitchcock, 

present day, and which had been discussed at a previoos 
meeting. . He exhibited specimens of Ilyanasaa obaoleta 
from shell heaps at Marblehead, which, in the drawn-out 
spire and thickened shell, showed important differences from 
the specimens of the species now living in the same locality. 

Prof. C. H. Hitchcock briefly stated some conclusions he 
had recently reached concerning the stratigraphical structure 
of the Cambrian and Cambro-Silurian rocks of Western 
Vermont. 

His ohservations led him to believe that Emmons understood the 
stratigraphical relations of these rocks (many of them called Taconic 
by him) better than most of his contemporaries, while the recent 
discoveries of fossils do not confirm the disposition of the great mass 
of the Taconic system as Cambrian. 

Emmons believed these rocks were deposited successively against 
the western base of the Green Mountains; first the granular quartz, 
then the Stockbridge limestone, and lastly, the various slates which 
were capped by the black slates holding Olenellus, which is really 
the oldest member of the series. Prof. Hitchcock suggested as a 
better theory of structure, that sediments were formed contempora- 
neously, both upon the Green Mountains and the Adirondack side 
of the valley, thus making the granular quartz on the east side of 
the valley of the same age with the Potsdam sandstone at White- 
hall, N. Y., and elsewhere west of Lake Champlain. Next, the 
Calciferous sandstone, Levis, Chazy and Trenton limestones, were 
deposited entirely across the valley, and by means of their fossils are 
now identified adjacent to both the quartz rock and the typical Pots- 
dam sandstone. Thirdly, the limestones are succeeded by slates. 
This theory of original deposition difiers from that of Emmons, in 
supposing that sedimentation was being effected both on the Green 
Mountain and Adirondack borders, instead of on the former only. 

The origin of the present arrangement of the strata, with a usual 
easterly dip and numerous faults, may be understood by recalling the 
character of the folds in Ferrisburg, Monkton and Starksboro. The 
Potsdam sandstone occupies most of the country along this section, 
and there are at least six folds between Lake Champlain and the 
Green Mountains. First, the Chazy and other limestones in the 



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Hitchcock.] 192 [Novembers, 

Ferrisburg yalley; then after rising a few hundred feet, there is an 
undulating plateau through the east part of Ferrisburg and Monkton, 
consisting chiefly of the sandstone disposed in gentle folds. Between 
the last of the unmistakeable Potsdam rock and the quartz of Starks- 
bdro* is a development of the Calciferous sandrock. It would seem as 
if the quartz range is separated from the Calciferous by a fault. 
Next, east of this great quartz or Potsdam mountain, is a valley 
showing the Calciferous again, followed by the Potsdam quartz abut- 
ting against the Green Mountain schists, or with an overturn dip 
beneath them. The structure along this line is very plain, and con- 
sists of a series of folds. 

Now we can follow these rocks southerly, and with their relative 
positions established in the north, can understand what the succes- 
sive variations are. First we will examine the order in the next tier 
of towns south of Monkton. There is the anticlinal of Chazy, etc., 
with the fault west of Buck Mountain, in Waltham, bringing up the 
red Potsdam. This is overlaid by the Calciferous, Chazy and Tren- 
ton, with their natural easterly dips in New Haven, followed by the 
same formations in reverse order, with usually high overturn easterly 
dips and the Potsdam also. Continuing easterly, there are two more 
folds in the Potsddm covered by limestone, and then a broad band of 
Calciferous before reaching the high Bristol range of i*otsdam quartz. 
This latter rock sinks down again, holding the Calciferous just as in 
Starksboro. The Potsdam quartz stands vertically against greenish 
schists in the- town of Lincoln, which may possibly be of about the 
same age. 

The following is the order, about twenty miles southerly of the 
last section, from Larrabee's Point in Shoreham to Goshen. Chazy. 
Trenton and Utica, occur in their natural order separated by a small 
fault from a Calciferous synclinal uplifl. Then the Potsdam, proba- 
bly the Buck Mountain range, follows on the east, overlaid by the 
Calciferous, Chazy and Trenton, reaching into Whiting. Probably 
the slate here overlies the Trenton. East of it the Chazy and Cal- 
ciferous appear more than once, with high overturn easterly dips. 
The latter band is immediately adjacent to the Potsdam quartz. 
This latter range has certainly two anticlinal folds in it, covered by 
ranges of Calciferous. But on this section almost every dip is east- 
erly, while the rocks can be traced directly to the north, where the 
westerly dips are as common as the easterly. The conclusion seems 
plain, that a greater pressure has inverted most of the folds, and 



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1875.] 193 tBrookf. 

caused fractures in many of them. Sections still further south illus- 
trate the greater pressure and consequent larger irregularities in posi- 
tion with similar overturns. Prof. Hitchcock thought this theory of 
origin and method of disturbance, though involving numerous frac- 
tures, would enable geologists to understand perfectly the structure of 
the whole ground covered in the Taconic controversy. 

In conclusion, the speaker remarked that these views would confirm 
the sections he had drawn across the Green Mountains, giving to 
that range an anticlinal form, whether exhibited naturally or in- 
verted. 

The Vice President announced that Prof. James Orton 
proposed to make a third South American exploration, and 
had selected the Rio Beni, as promising results of the great- 
est importance. It was voted that the chair appoint a com- 
mittee of three to prepare a proper expression of the Socie- 
ty's interest in the proposed survey; and Messrs. Niles, 
Kneeland and Burgess were accordingly appointed. 



November 17, 1375, 

The President, Mr. T.T. Bouv6, in the chair. Pifty-mne 
persons present. 

The following paper was read : — 

Embryologt op Salfa. By W. K. Brooks, Ph.D. 

Students of the embryology of the various forms of Tunicata are 
80 numerous and active at present, that the naturalist who refirains 
firom publishing any new facts which he may acquire until the fig- 
ures necessary for their illustration can be prepared, is very apt 
to find that they are no longer new. The following brief abstract 
of the more important points in the history of the development of 
Salpa has therefore been drawn up and presented to the Society, as 
the precursor of a more extended description which is now in prep- 
aration. 

At the time when the Salpa-chain escapes from the body of the 
solitary form, each individual of the chain contains one ovum, which 

FBOOEI&DINOS B. 8. K. H. — VOL. XVni. 13 FEBBUABT, 1876. 



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Broolcf.] 194 [NoTember 17, 

is inclosed within a capsule of epithelial cells, and is suspended in 
the sinus system of the *^ zooid " on the neural side, between the 
stomach and theat^al orifice, by means of a gubemaqulum, by which 
it is attached to the wall of the branchial sac. (See Figure I.) 

The ovum shows no trace of a vitelline membrane; the yolk is 
composed of transparent protoplasm without granules, and the germ- 
inal vesicle contains no dot, but seems to be homogeneous* 

Impregnation takes place through the action of the spermatic fila- 
ments which are discharged into the water by the " zooids " of other 
fuUgrowtt chains, are drawn into the branchial sacs of the immature 
** zooids " which contain the eggs, and penetrate into the interior of 
.the gubemaculum. 

■ Upon impregnation the germinative vesicle disappears; the guber- 
naculum becomes irregularly swollen and shortened, thus drawing 
the egg down into the brood-sac, which is formed by. an involution of 
the branchical sac of the nurse (Figure H) . The egg, nourished by 
the blood which bathes it, rapidly increases in size, and undergoes a 
process of total segmentation, as the result of which two portions are 
formed; a finely s^mented "germ yolk," and a less completely 
segmented " food yolk." (Figure V.) 

The latter becomes enveloped by the former through a process of 
invagination, forming a true " gastrula " or " invaginate planula," the 
opening of which, the *' orifice of Rusconi," persists and forms the 
orifice of the placenta. (Figures VI,.VII, VIIl,/) 

The embryo, still growing rapidly, becomes divided into two por- 
tions by a constriction (Figure VII) ; the portion nearest the point of 
attachment to the brood sac forms the embryo proper, and the re- 
maining portion that part of the placenta which is to be in communi- 
cation with the sinus system of the foetus. (Figure VII.) 

Within this portion there is a cup-shaped cavity, part of the origi- 
nal "cavity of Rusconi," which is in direct communication with the 
sinus system of the nurse, and thus forms the second or inner cham- 
ber of the placenta. This soon becomes divided up into a great 
number of irregular intercommunicating lacunae, which are produced 
by the growth of a structure resembling a stump with its roots, and 
which seems to be formed directly from the blood of the nurse, by 
ihe aggregation and fusion of the blood corpuscles. 

The subsequent development of the foetus, which is the young of 
ihe solitary saipa, is substantially as it has been described by Sars, 



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Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. XVIII. 



Plate I. 




W. K. BROOKS. EMBRYOLOGY OF SA 



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1875.) 195 [Broota. 

Krohn, Yogt, Haxlej, Lenckart and others, and I have been able to 
add little to what is known upon the subject. 

The atrium of Salpa has been supposed to lack those lateral por- 
tions which, in most Tunicates, lie upon the sides of the branchial 
sac and are called the lateral atria; but at an early stage these seem 
to be present, as well as the mid-atrium, but the cavities of the lat- 
eral atria never become connected with that of the branchial sac hj 
the formation of branchial slits ; and at a very early period of devel- 
opment the walls of each lateral atrium unite, thus obliterating the 
cavity, and giving rise to a broad layer of tissue upon each side of 
the body, between the branchial sac and the so-called " muscular 
tunic," the "outer tunic " of Huxley .^ Rows of transverse splits 
soon appear in these layers, which thus become divided to form 
the muscular bands, which latter subsequently become united to the 
inner surface of the outer tunic. (Fig. VIII, m.) 

The sides of the mid-atrium become united at two points, one on 
each side, with the posterior surface of the branchial sac, and as the 
atrial and branchial tunics are free from each other between these 
regions of union, a median longitudinal sinus is thus formed which is 
the " gill " or ** hypopharyngeal band." The central portions of the 
two regions where the tunics are united, are soon absorbed, and a 
single branchial slit is thus formed on each side of the " gill." 

The earliest stages in the formation of the atrial chamber were 
not observed, but nothing was seen which seemed to indicate that it 
is formed, as in most Tunicates, by tubular invaginations of the outer 
wall of the embryo. 

The cavity of the oesophagus is a prolongation of that of the 
branchial sac, and was in direct communication with this at the 
mouth when first observed. The stomach is formed as a diverticulum 
from the side of the oesophagus, and the cavities of the two were 
connected at all the periods observed, but the cavity of the intestine 
originates independently, and at first is closed at both ends; the par- 
tition between it and the stomach disappears first ; that at the anal 
or atrial end persists some time longer. 

The few facts which I have been able to add to what is known of 
the development of the salpa chain relate, for the most part, to the 
earliest stages in the development of this, which has always been 
considered the sexual generation ; and seem to prove that the solitary 

^Thls '<oater tanic" miut not be confounded with the ''oelloloie test" o 
Hiixlej, which covers it. 



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Brooks.] 196 (KoTember 17, 

•alpa is the female, and the chain salpa simplj the male, which does 
not reproduce, but simplj serves to fertilize and nourish the egg, so 
that we have, not an alternation of generations, but a very remarka- 
ble difference in the form and mode of origin of the two sexes. 

The tube or stolon which is to form the chain first appears as a 
protrusion or diverticulum from the outer or muscular tunic of the 
solitary salpa, directly opposite the heart; this protrusion rapidly 
increases in length, and soon presents the form of a long tube closed 
at its distal end, projecting into the test, and with its cavity in direct 
connection with the cavity of the sinus system (the body cavity) of 
the solitary salpa, so that the blood of the latter enters and circu- 
lates freely within it. (Figure X.) 

A second tube with very thick walls and a very narrow cavity 
now grows out from the pericardium, crosses the sinus and penetrates 
the cavity of the outer tube almost to its tip or blind end, and soon 
becomes flattened and its edges unite with the walls of the outer 
tube, which thus becomes divided into two chambers, which are en- 
tirely separate from each other except at the tip. The blood now 
passes into one of these chambers at its base, and is driven up to the 
blind end where it passes arbund the partition, back through the other 
chamber to the sinus of the parent. It is of course unnecessary to 
state that when the circulation of the parent b reversed that of the 
stolon changes also. 

By the formation of the partition above described the tube is di- 
vided longitudinally into halves, and each half is destined to be con- 
verted into the series of " zooids" on one side of the chain. The outer 
wall of the tube, which has been shown to be part of the muscular 
tunic of the parent, becomes the muscular tunics of the "zooids**; the 
chambers, which are continuous with the sinus system of the parent, 
form the body cavities or sinus systems of the ^^zooids," and the central 
tube, which is a prolongation of the pericardium of the parent, forms 
the nervous, digestive and branchial organs of the " zooids '* of the 
chain. It is probable that the cavity of this inner tube gives rise to 
lateral diverticula, which form the cavities of the digestive organs and 
branchial sac of the young, but this point could not be determined 
with certainty, nor could any connection between the cavity of this 
inner tube and any of the cavities of the parent be discovered. 

Before the tube becomes differentiated into the organs of the " zo- 
oids," in fact, before there are any indications that the tube is to give 
rise to the chain, two new organs are formed, one in each of the sinus 



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1876.J 197 [Broola. 

chambers of the stolon. These new organs are long club-shaped 
masses of protoplasm, which are not at first attached to the tube, but 
are free within the chambers, and do not seem to be derived frpm any 
of the pre-existing parts of the solitary salpa, but are formed directly 
from the blood. As the tube grows these organs lengthen as well, 
and soon a row of germinative vesicles is seen extending along each 
of them; they are the ovaries. (Figure X, x,) At the time that the 
constrictions, which are the first indications of the *< zooids," make 
their appearance on the outer wall of the tube, each ovary is seen to 
be made up of a single row of eggs, equal in number to the constric- 
tions which indicate the number of the future '^ zooids," and as these 
latter are developed, and their sinus systems become separated from 
the common cavity of the tube, the chain of ova divides, so that 
a single egg passes into the sinus system of each " zooid," and be- 
comes suspended there by a gubernaculum, by means of which it is 
attached to the wall of the branchial sac, as already described. 

Since the chain salpa at birth always contains an unimpregnated 
ovum, organically connected with its body, and since this egg and 
the resulting embryo are nourished by the blood of the chain salpa 
by means of a placenta, and since no reproductive organs have ever 
been observed within the body of the solitary salpa, it seems most 
reasonable to accept the belief that the solitary salpa is the asexual, 
and the chain salpa the hermaphrodite sexual generation, and that 
the developmental history of the genus presents a true example of 
** alternation of generations.** When, however, we have traced back- 
ward the history of one of the ** zooids " which compose a chain, and 
find that the egg is present at all stages of growth, and is of exactly 
the same size and appearance as at the time of its impregnation; 
when we find one organ afrer another disappearing, until at last we 
have nothing but a faint trace of a constriction indicating upon the 
wall of the stolon the position of the future ^^zooid," the conclusion 
seems to be irresistible that the animal, which has as yet no exist- 
ence, cannot be the parent of the egg which is already fully formed. 

The life history of Salpa may then be stated in outline as follows : 
The solitary salpa is the female, and produces a chain of males by 
budding, and discharges an egg into the body of each of these before 
birth. These eggs are impregnated while the " zooids ** of the chain 
are very small and sexually immature, and develop into females which 
give rise to other males in the same way. 

After the foetus has been discharged from the body of the male 



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Brook^.] 198 [NoTember 17, 

the latter attains its full size, becomes sexually mature, and dis- 
charges its spermatic fluid into the water to gain access to the eggs 
carried hy other immature chains. 

The fact that impregnation takes place, not, as we might expect, 
within the body of the solitary, but within that of the chiun salpa, is 
no objection to this view, for the number of animals whose eggs are 
fertilized within the body of the female is quite small, and in at least 
one genus, Hippocampus, the eggs are received into a specialized 
brood sack in the male, and are there impregnated. 

We can also find analogy for the singular fact that the eggs always 
develop females, while the males are formed by budding. The fer- 
tilized eggs of the bee always give rise to females, while the males 
are developed by the virgin bee, through what seems, as pointed out 
by Prof. McCrady, to be most properly regarded as a process of in- 
ternal gemmation; and we cannot fail to mark the very striking par- 
allelism between the process of reproduction as manifested in Salpa 
and the bee. 

The fertilization of the eggs within the bodies of "zooids" produced 
by budding from the body of that whose ovary gave rise to the eggs 
is not unusual among the Tunicata. The "zooids" of most of the Tu- 
nicata are hermaphrodite, and develop eggs of their own, but, at 
least in the case of Pyrosoma, Perophora, Didemnium and Amauric- 
ium, the ^g which undergoes impregnation and development within 
the body of the "zooid " is derived, not from its own ovary, but from 
that of the generation before, and the eggs produced in the body of 
the second generation must pass into the bodies of the ^^zooids" of the 
third generation before they can be fertilized. The essential differ- 
ence between this process and that presented by Salpa, is that in 
Salpa the sexes are distinct, and as the chain salpa has no ovary the 
process of budding stops with the second generation; while as the 
'' zooids " of the other Tunicata are hermaphrodite the process may 
go on indefinitely. 

The history of Salpa is of especial interest, as it throws a great 
deal of light upon the manner in which separation of the sexes may 
be brought about in forms which were originally hermaphrodite, and 
it is also interesting to note that the elseoblast, the history of the de- 
velopment of which shows it to be the homologue in the female of 
the testicle of the male, is concerned in reproduction, although it has 
lost all the characterstics of a sexual organ, and is simply a supply of 
food. 



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1875.] 199 [BroolM. 

We cannot fail to notice the connection between the manner in 
which the male f alpa is produced, and the numerous cases, through 
the various groups of the animal kingdom, in which the male is, to 
some extent, parasitic upon, or supplemental to, the female. 

The Cirrhipeds, Arachnids and the Argonaut, will at once suggest 
themselves, as familiar instances of the occurrence of such a relation 
between the sexes. 

These interesting theoretical points are simply mentioned here, as a 
more exhaustive discussion of them is reserved for another place. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE L 

The small letters have the same signification throughout. 

a. Wall of branchial sac. 

b. Wall of outer tunic. 

c. Sinus cavity. 

d. Branchial cavity. 

e. Egg. 

/. Opening of inner chamber of placenta. 

g. Cavity of inner chamber of placenta. 

h. Cavity of outer chamber of placenta. 

I. Branchial aperture. 

k. Atrial aperture. 

I. Cavity of atrial chamber. 

m. Moscles. 

n. Ganglion. 

o. Nucleus. 

p. CBsophagUB. 

«. Stomach. 

t. Intestine. 

tt. Elaeoblast. 

V. Pericardium. 

to. Inner tube of stolon. 

X. Ovary. 

Figure L Egg within the sinus system, and attached by a gubemaculum to 
wall of branchial sac, within the cavity of which a few spermatic filaments are 
seen. 

Figures n, III, IV and V. Successive stages of segmentation. 

Figure VI. Oastrula within the brood-sac. 

Figure YII. Embryo, soon after the primitive digestive cavity has become di- 
vided into the branchial and placental chambers. 

Figure VIII. Embryo considerably advanced, showing the mid-atrium, /, and 
one of the lateral atria, m, which has already begun to split and form the muscles. 

Figure IX. Embryo at about the time that the stolon appears. 

Figure X. Stolon, at a very early stage, showing the ovaries, x, x ; [in this figure 
the letters a and b were accidentally transposed, so that b represents the outer 
tunic, and a, the branchial sac]. 



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* Dana.] 200 [Koyember 17, 

The President, with a few warm words of welcome, then 
introduced Professor James D. Dana, who, after some gen- 
eral remarks on the subject, read a paper on the relations of 
Pseudomorphism to Metamorphism, in reply to Prof. T, 
Steny Hunt's criticisms published in the Proceedings of the 
Society for June 2, 1875. 

Professor Dana stated his objections to various statements 
in Professor Hunt's article, gave his reasons for denying that 
he held, or had held, the views which Professor Hunt had 
attributed to him, and stated that if Mr. Hunt had admitted 
in 1871 that Prof Dana's Manual of Geology contained a 
fair exposition of its author's views on Metamorphism, the 
controvei-sy would never have had a beginning. 

Dr. Sterry Hunt responded that, as Prof Dana had de- 
clared that his earlier expressions as to the relations of Pseu- 
domorphism to Metamorphism had been misinterpreted, and 
that he had never, to his knowledge, held the views attrib- 
uted to him, although he did not complain that under the 
circumstances a misapprehension had in the first place oc- 
curred, he (Dr. Hunt) was free to say that he regretted the 
misapprehension on his part, and that it is now evident that 
Prof Dana's Manual of Geology of 1863 correctly expresses 
the author's views. 

The Secretary presented l)y title, "A Prodrome of the 
Tabanidffi of the United States," Part II, by C. R. Osten 
Siicken, which will appear in the Society's Memoirs. 

The Custodian announced the gift, by Capt. Charles Bry- 
ant, of a fine skeleton and a skull of the Sea-lion, and skele- 
tons of two Fur-seals, for which the thanks of the Society 
were voted. 



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1878.] 201 [MMm. 

Section of Entomology. November 24, 1875, 
Mr. George Dimmock in the chair. Nine persons present. 

Mr. B. P. Mann exhibited male and female specimens of 
Anisopteryx vemata^ one of the males having undeveloped 
wings, and male and female specimens of A, pometaria^ in- 
cluding three males with undeveloped wings and one female 
with wings partially developed. 

The latter specimen is a much more striking example of the pos- 
session of wings by a female than the one described in these Pro- 
ceedings, XVI, 163-165. The right hind wing is nearly as much 
developed as the corresponding wing in the normal males, the other 
wings are more developed than in the specimen formerly described; 
the antennae are pectinated, but the female showed no signs of herm- 
aphroditism. 

In connection with the exhibition of these specimens, Mr. Mann 
called attention to an article just published by Mr. Riley in the 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. ScL, in which Mr. Riley gives in detail the 
characters drawn from every stage of life of these two species, 
showing that the differences in character of each stage would be of 
specific value, independently of the characters in the other stages, if 
no intermediate forms were found, which thus far has been the case 



December 1, 1876. 

Vice President, Mr. S. H. Scudder, in the chair. Twelve 
persons present. 

Mr. Scudder gave a short account of the geographical 
distribution of Vanessa cardui and V. atalanta^ the two most 
widely ranging species among the butterflies. The former 
had been hitherto supposed by entomologists to be of Euro- 
pean origin, but the speaker showed that the group of 
Vanessa to which it belonged was confined to the American 



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Guman.] 202 [December 1, 

continent, where he believed therefore that V. cardui was 
really indigenous. 

Dr. Chas. Pickering observed that V. cardui was not 
found in the Hawaiian Islands at the time of his visit in 
1840, and probably not in Tahiti. 

Dr. J. B. S. Jackson exhibited, and presented, a portion of 
a tree trunk from the submarine forest at Provincetown. 

The following paper was read : — 

Notes ok some Fishes and Reptiles from the Western 
Coast of South America. By S. W. Garman. 

The specimens from which the following notes are taken were col- 
lected at different points along the coast from Peru to New Grenada. 

The collection was made for Mr. Alex. Agassiz, and by him given 
to the Museum of Comparative Zoology. It is especially interesting 
on account of the representatives of recently described and new 
species it contains. 

Fishes. 

Gobius transandeanus GUnther. 

Eighteen specimens were obtained at San Jose, one of the Pearl 
Islands. They were found to bo numerous in the pools left by the 
tide on the shores. 

Batrachus pacifiei GUnther. 

One specimen from the island San Miguel. When removed from 
its hiding-place, under a rock on the beach some distance above low 
tide, the animal grunted so lustily as to be heard at a distance of a 
couple of rods. 

Thalassophryne reticulatus GUnther. 

From the Bay of Panama. Presented by the well known natura- 
list, Capt. J. M. Dow. 

Atherinichthys microlepidota GUnther. 

Coast of Peru. 

Mugil Rammelsbergii Tschudi. 

The two preceding are very common species on the Peruvian 
coast. They were the most abundant fishes in the market during the 
months of December and January. 



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1875.] 203 [GannaD. 

Sicyases Fetersii sp. nov. 

Dorsal fin with six rays ; anal six. Incisors tricuspid, eight nearly 
vertical upper, six oblique lower; at each end of the series, above 
and below, are two curved canines, of which the posterior is the 
longer. Head as broad as long, prominent in front of the eyes. 
Subopercular spine medium. Body wedge-shaped. Skin tough, 
naked. One third of the base of the dorsal anterior to that of the 
anal. Color olivaceous brown, with a series of six or seven dark 
brown spots on the back, and twice as many triangular ones on the 
lower half of the sides. From the eye there are three white bands, 
two over the opercle, and one, to the end of the muzzle, on the lip. 
Belly whitish, uniform. A band of brown crosses the caudal fin. In 
some specimens the markings are very obscure. Length 1.3 inches 
(33 mm.). 

Sixteen specimens, from San Jose, San Miguel and Saboga. These 
fishes were numerous in the little pools among the rocks on the 
shores of these islands. On being hard pressed by attempts at cap- 
ture they would run to the water's edge, and by jumps of considera- 
ble length, throw themselves into the water again at some distance 
from the point of attack. A wet surface on which there was no 
appreciable depth of water connected two small basins which were 
about two feet apart; this was traversed several times by some of 
the fishes before they could be taken. After the water had all es- 
caped fix)m the pool they were to be found hidden under the coarse 
sand in the bottom. 

This species is brought into notice in the name^of the very emi- 
nent zoologist, Dr. Wilhelm Peters of Berlin. 

The known species of the genus are 

S, sanguineus Miill. u. Trosch. Chili. 

S, chUensis (Bamev.) Giinth. Chili. 

S,fasciatus Peters. Caribbean Sea. 

S, Petersii sp. nov. Bay of Panama. 

Sternopygus carapus Giinth. 

The scales on these fishes are invisible until the mucus which cov- 
ers them is removed. They were very abundant in the Guayaquil 
River. Great numbers were taken by the natives with large dip-nets, 
at the mouths of little cceeks and inlets as they came in with the 
tide. 

Muredna melanotis Giinth. 

Numerous amongst the Pearl Islands. 



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GArman.J 204 [December 1, 

Batrachiakb. 

Bufo agua Latr. 

Specimens which were rough with small spines, and others quite 
smooth, were taken from a pond on the island Saboga. 

Heptileb. 

Fhyllodactylus taberculosus Wiegmann. 

Fourteen rows of tubercles. A band of brown from behind the 
eye over the ear, and traces of six transyerse bands on the back be- 
tween the occiput and hips; these are probably more distinct in the 
young. Two specimens from the Daule River, Ecuador. 

Anolis sp. 

Small, form slender. Head narrow; muzzle long. Tail very 
slender, more than twice as long as the head and body, with larger 
scales on its upper surface. Scales keeled on body, head and tail; 
those of the abdomen larger, of the sides granular. On the back 
the hexangular scales of the median series are larger than those of 
the sides. Goitre small. Back and nape simple. Posterior limb 
and foot as long as the head and body; anterior as long as the body 
from shoulder to hip. Expansions on the toes very slight. Supra- 
orbital series of eight scales, separated from each other by two series, 
and from the small oval occipital by four. Upper labials eleven. 
Colors reddish brown and green, bronzed ; with a series of elongate, 
more or less confluent brown spots on each side of the dorsum frt)m 
the ear to the tail. Indistinct bands of brown on legs and tail. 
Head darker than body; ventral surface lighter. Total length, 5.5 
inches. Body, 1.7 inches. From Saboga, two specimens. 

Microlophus peruvianus Gray. 

Dark colors in transverse bands. Just above and in frt>nt of the 
thigh there is a brick-red band reaching forward to the middle of 
the flank. The large occipital is surrounded by a series of medium 
sized plates; a diminishing series of four or more extends laterally 
fit>m its sides. A young specimen and an adult with eggs were 
obtained at Lima, Peru. 

Liophis bioinctiis Dum. et Bibr. Var.? 

Body stout. Head little larger than the neck. Tail short, 
strong. Cephalic plates normal; rostral medium, wider than high; 
frontals and prefrontals wider than long; vertical hexangular, broad; 
loral small, quadrangular; one preocular; two postoculars; temporals 



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1875.] 205 [GwnnMi. 

one and two; upper labials eigbt, fourth and fiflh in contact with the 
eye; lower nine, fifth pair largest; anterior pair of inframaxillaries 
twice the size of the posterior. Eye moderate, lateral; pupil round. 
Posterior maxillary teeth larger, smooth, separated from the others 
by an interspace. Dorsal scales nearly as wide as long, smooth, in 
twenty three rows. Abdominal scutellae two hundred and eight. 
Anal entire. Subcaudals thirty-nine pairs. 

Colors red, black and white, in transverse rings. Body encircled 
by sixteen rings of red, from six to fifteen scales in width, separated 
by fifteen pairs of black rings, from two to three scales wide, each pair 
enclosing a single white ring firom three to five scales in width. Each 
scale in the white has an oval spot of black in its centre. These 
rings extend quite around the body; the black grow narrower on the 
abdomen. All the shields of the head are marked with black; the 
rostral has a spot in its centre ; a large spot covers the junction of the 
first pair of lower labials with the inframaxillaries, and a wide band 
passes over vertical and supraorbitals through the eye on the fourth 
and fifth labials. A narrow band of black, two scales wide, passes 
around the head behind the occipitals, and in front of the first band 
of red fifteen scales in width. Total length, 30.5 inches ; tail, 3.4 inches. 

From the Daule River, Ecuador, one specimen. 

Brachyryton olOBlia Dum. et Bibr. 

Daule River, Ecuador. 

Leptognathus nebulatus Giinth. 

In both specimens the dark bands are margined with white; one 
has a rudimentary anteorbital below the loral on each side. Length 
of one example, 16.5 inches; tail, 4 in. This specimen has one hun- 
dred and ninety-three abdominals and eight pairs of subcaudals. 
Daule River, Ecuador. 

Eteirodipsas annulata Jan. 

One of these specimens is quite young, and has the brown of the 
back and sides in continuous longitudinal bands; excepting slight 
sinuations in the anterior portion of the dorsal band, there is no in- 
dication of the spots. Daule River, Ecuador. Seven specimens. 

Elaps Dumerili Jan. 

Its common name, *< Culebra coral,'' or Coral snake, is applied to 
all red banded snakes, of whatever genus or family. No band of 
lighter color on the head in front of the eyes. The black of the head 
extends upon the lower labials. 

Bothrops pictiis Jan. 

One specimen from Lima, Pertt, 



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Stodder.] 206 [Decembers, 

Section of Microscopy. December 8, 1875, 
Mr. E. Bicknell in the chair. 
The following paper was read : — 
A Contribution to Microgeology. By Charles Stodder. 

The " infusorial deposit " of Hichmond and other Virginian locali- 
ties was discovered hy Prof. W. B. Rogers about 1842 (Am. Joum 
Sci., vol. XLiii). 

Prof. J. W. Bailey gave (in Am. Joum. Sci., 1844, 6) descriptions 
and lists of various organic forms found by himself and by Ehren- 
berg in this deposit. Ehrenberg also published from time to time, 
and especially in his great work, Microgeologie 1852, accounts of his 
discoveries. Since then the Richmond earth has been a subject of 
interest to geologists and micographers throughout the scientific 
world. At various times eminent microscopists both in Europe and 
America have discovered, and added to the lists, a new species that 
had escaped the searching of Bailey and Ehrenberg. But from all 
that has been published by either of those renowned micographers 
and all their successors, there has been an important omission. The 
stratum containing the fossils in Richmond is stated generally to be 
twenty feet thick. In all the published accounts that I have seen 
there has been no mention of the depth in the stratum from which 
the specimens were taken. A deposit of microscopic vegetable and 
animal remains of twenty feet in thickness, from twenty to eighty 
per cent, only being mineral, would require a long period of time — 
ages probably — for its accumulation. During all that time were 
the conditions of life such as to maintain the existence of the same 
species and genera ? or were there changes of climate or physical 
conditions sufficient to induce changes in the species and genera ? 
Nothing that I have been able to find in the literature of the subject 
throws any light on the question. 

For some years I have been endeavoring to obtain authentic speci- 
mens of the deposit that might give some information on the ques- 
tion, but without success until the last year, 1874, when Mr. R. B. 
ToUes visited Richmond, and with considerable trouble and annoy- 
ance procured from Shockoe Hill (one of the well known localities) 
seven specimens from as many different layers of the deposit. 

The locality is a ravine on the westerly side of the hill. The spec- 
imens were taken from the southerly side of the ravine at five feet. 



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1876.1 207 [Stodder. 

seven feet, seyen and one-half feet, ten feet, eleven feet and four- 
teen feet below the top of the bank ; besides one from the north side 
forty feet below the top, from a bed apparently the continuation of 
the fourteen feet bed on the opposite side, the hill being higher on the 
north side. The first specimen, at five feet depth, was surrounded 
by the roots of a large tree standing on* the summit of the bank, and 
contains numerous vegetable fibres. 

All the specimens are similar in appearance (except that fixHn 
fourteen feet in depth, which is much darker) of a light drab color 
very like clay, very low specific gravity, a little heavier than water, 
and more or less stained, apparently by iron, which seems to act as 
a cement. Now they are dry they are hard, but not so hard that 
they cannot be crushed in the fingers. The forty feet specimen from 
the northerly side has the darker color of the fourteen feet sample. 

I have cleaned and prepared for microscopic study portions of the 
five feet, eleven feet, fourteen feet and forty feet samples. Some are 
more difficult to clean than others, the iron cement adhering very 
tenaciously, and being very difficult to remove. 

The upper layers present, as might be anticipated, more differences 
from the others than they do from each other, viz., there is a smaller 
proportion of organism, and larger of mineral, I estimate about 
twenty per cent, organic and eighty per cent, sand, with many vege- 
table fibres and roots. The diatoms are in a more perfect condition, 
a larger proportion being whole and uninjured, while in the deeper 
layers they are more broken, the fine fragments of the siliceous 
valves exceeding in bulk the entire or whole frustules. The lower 
layers contain from fifty per cent to eighty per cent, of organic forms 
of which the Diatomaceae constitute by far the greatest part. 

The deeper we go, the larger is the proportion of debris or broken 
fimstules. There was so little variation in the contents of the speci- 
mens examined that I have not undertaken the great labor of clean- 
ing the other specimens. 

I annex in a tabular form a list of the species identified in the 
difierent layers. From this it will be seen that there is no essential 
change of forms from the lowest until we come to the upper or five 
feet layer, indicating that during all the time required for the gather- 
ing of this great accumulation of these minute remains there were 
no great changes of physical conditions to influence the life and 
growth of these forms. The five feet layer then gives indications 
that some changes were taking place, by the disappearance of genera 
or species that flourished in earlier periods. 



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Stodder.] 208 [December 8, 

Miocene Richmond Infusorial Deposit 



DIATOMACKflE. 



ActinoptychuB senariuB ........ 

" biternarius 

Omphalopelta punctatus 

«» versicolor 

Actinocyclua Ehrenbergli 

Coscinodiscus radiolatua . . ^ • ^ • / ,• ,^ • 

** punctatus, oval and spherical varieties. 

«* Tineatus 

" velatus 

<* mai^natus ...... 

** radiatus ....... 

" gigas 

« oculis-iridis 

«• perforatus 

** centralis 

«« subtilis 

Bystephania corona 

Aulacodiscus crux 

Craspedodiscus coscinodiscus 

Asterolampra Brebissonii Greg 

Eupodiscus Rogersii 

Endictya oceamca 

Pyxidicula aculeata 

Stephanopyxls diadema 

« apendiculata 

Xanthiopyxis globosa 

«« nirsuta 

<* oblonga 

Kizosolenia americana 

Gouiothecum odontidium 

" Rogersii 

Dicladla capreolua 

Chatoceros 'sp 

Biddulphia Toumeyii . ' 

Triceratium reticulum 

« undulatum ....... 

** condeconum. 

<* obtusum ...'.... 

" marylandicum 

Mastogonia actinoptychus 

Bhaphoneis amphicerus 

Grammatophora marina 

** africana 

Navicula (Pinnularia) perigrina 

«< viridis 

« viridula . 

Pleurosigma = Nov. sigma Eh.— very like P. angulatum. 

Qrt^osira marina W. S. = Galioneila sulcata Eh. 
Fragilaria pinnata ........ 

EHIZOPODS. 

Actinisoeae — Actiniscus pentasteriaa . . 

Dictyocha crux 

<« . fibula 

Mesocenia diodon 

Phv^Utharla Eh.— Spongolithis acclcuiaris. S. caputser- 
pentia; spines of Polycistlnae, Acanthometra and 
others 



5 ft. 



lift. 



14 ft. 



40 ft. 



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1875.] 209 (Hofflnaa. 

• 

It has not been thongbt advisable to attempt to identify all of 
Ehrenberg's species, as his plan was to found a species upon any 
variation in the number of rays in the circular forms of the Diatom- 
aceae, a principle now generally rejected. 

One striking fact is the great abundance in all the layers of 
Galionella sulcata Eh. = Orthosira marina W. Smith, which is more 
numerous in some slides than all the other forms to<;ether. 



December 15, 1875. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Sixteen 
persons present. 

The following papers were read : — 

Ancient Hearths and Modern Indian Remains in the 
Missouri Valley. By W. J. Hoffman, M. D. 

ANCIENT HEARTHS. 

The Military Station at Grand River, D. T., is situated upon the 
western bank of the Missouri River about midway between Fort 
Sully and Fort Rice: approximate location, long. 100® 12' W., 
lat. 45*^ 31' N. About three hundred yards from the river the 
bottom-land is walled in by a range of bluffs, about one hundred 
and twenty feet in height, the upper surface of which corresponds to 
the level of the surrounding prairie. Three quarters of a mile below 
the station, Oak Creek empties into the Missouri River, thus forming 
a low head-land or spur, the ridge of which still bears evidence of 
aboriginal occupancy. Grand River empties into the Missouri from 
the west also, three miles below the station, where the Mound Build- 
ers once threw up earthworks, traces of which are still visible. 

During the spring flood of 1873 about twelve feet of the embank- 
ment at the station was washed away, exposing to view two distinct 
river beds. The height of the embankment is twenty-two feet. The- 
upper stratum, which was composed chiefly of sand and gravel, was 
ten feet thick, resting upon the fine sand of the upper surface of the 
second stratum. Throughout the bottom of the upper stratum was 
deposited an> indiscriminate mixture of branches, trunks and stumps 
of trees, consfeting chiefly of cottonwood, oak and cedar. The second- 
stratum was six feet thick, also consisting of coarse sand and gravel, 

PSOCfCEDlNOS B. S. K. H. — VOL. XVHI. 14 FXBSUABY, 1876. 



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Hofflnan.] 210 [December 15, 

• 
terminating upon the upper surface of a third layer of sand, upon 
which rested a thin layer of fine charcoal, and larger fragments of 
charred wood. The sand upon which the fire had been built was red- 
dened by the heat to the depth of an inch and a quarter ; the overlying 
layer retaining the natural tint, appearing as if the fire had been sud- 
denly extinguished. The extent of the layer of ashes (or fine char- 
coal) was about five feet in diameter, around which, at irregular 
intervals, lay a number of dark blue silicious stones, also reddened 
by oxidation on those sides facing the fire. Quite a number of frag- 
ments of chipped quartzite lay scattered above and below this hearth, 
in the same seam. About eighty yards up the river, another seam of 
charred wood and ashes was exposed, also showing the red and burnt 
condition of the gravel underlying it. It is a diflScult matter to 
advance any theory as to the age of these hearths. When the station 
was established seven or eight years ago, the whole valley was cov- 
ered with heavy timber. Stumps of cottonwood, sycamore and oak, 
found standing nearly over the hearths, measured over four feet in 
•diameter, and trees of equal size are still flourishing both above and 
below the station. 

The bluffs, which belong to the cretaceous formation, are filled with 
fossil bivalves, and in several localities we find beds of dark blue 
plastic clay, containing fossils, prominent amongst which are the Nau» 
tUus Dekayi and Ammonites Placenta,, which are found mixed with the 
drift detritus from the plains ; these are found in the upper sti'atum 
only, as the second stratum, at the bottom of which the hearths lay, 
was probably deposited when the river's course lay near the opposite 
banks, where the cretaceous rocks do not protrude; it is well known 
that rivers continually tend to shift their courses. For a distance of 
&WQ miles on either side of the station the valley is comparatively 
straight, but within it the river winds considerably. Lyell ^ says of 
the Somme, when, in one of its curves, the current crosses ** its gen- 
eral line of descent, it eats out a curve on the opposite bank, or in the 
side of the hills bounding the valley, from which curve it is turned 
back again at an equal angle, so that it recrosses the line of descent, 
and gradually hollows out anoUier curve lower down in the opposite 
ibank," till the whole sides of the valley ^^ present a succession of 
salient and retiring angles." 

The river is also working a deeper bed whicl^ is apparent; but 
what length of time was consumed in depositing these strata of sand 

iLyeU^s Princlplefl, p. 206. 



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1875.> 211 (Hoffinan. 

and gravel, and the changing of its course from the western to the 
eastern side of the valley is difficult of determination. During the 
season of floods, ice gorges have been formed in the main channel, 
which caused the water to take a, new course, which in a short period 
became the navigable current, thus leaving an island as it were, be- 
tween the old and new courses, as appears to have been the case 
at Grand River. Mounds and other primitive earthworks occur from 
Bonhomme Island to the mouth of the Yellowstone, and up that river 
for a distance of over three hundred miles. There are no mounds or 
ancient earthworks in the immediate vicinity of the settlement, 
except the one at Grand Hiver, which has been described by Mr. A. 
Barrandt, in the Smithsonian Report for 1870, p. 406. 

MODBRN REMAIMB. 

Modern remains exist showing that the blufls and prairie were 
once the home of a powerful tribe. Many of the Sioux are still liv- 
ing, who, with their tribe, in moving up the Missouri River reached 
that point where the military station is now located, and found a 
tribe with whom they engaged in battle. After an engagement lasting 
four days, the Sioux were victorious and drove the conquered people 
up the river as far as the present sites of Forts Berthold and Ste- 
venson. This occurred in the year 1818. 

All that remains of the Ree villages, — for this was the tribe, — Are 
immense numbers of low mounds, scattered, or in groups, and extend- 
ing along the bluffs over an area of several miles either way. The 
most southern point occupied, was the spur formed by the union of 
Oak Creek and the Missouri River. This group covers an area of 
nearly an acre, and is surrounded by a ditch, which was originally six 
feet wide, and two or three feet deep. Portions of the ditch have 
become indistinct by filling up with the drift material from the sur- 
rounding prairie.* The mounds are usually from three to six feet 
in diameter, and sometimes reach from twelve to fifteen feet in height, 
although the majority of them are nearly leveled and would be over^ 
looked by a casual observer. 

They are composed of hard mud — no doubt at one time adobe, 
sand, fragments of quartzite, jasper, agate and chalcedony, pieces of 
broken pottery, but more especially of bones, amongst which I found 
those of the buffalo in excess; also elk, antelope, bear, and smaller 
bones, especially those of the Rodents and aquatic birds, with scales of 



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Burbank.] 212 [December 16, 

the sturgeon. After digging down to the depth of about two feet, 
the splinters of bone were more numerous than on the surface, and 
in not a single instance have I found any bones that had been sub- 
jected to the effects of fire, but the marrow had been removed hy 
splitting the bones with a stone or maul, as no indentations, such as 
would be caused hy an edged tool, were visible. 

None of the fragments of pottery indicated that any large vessels 
had been used, but some of the designs corresponded precisely with 
specimens obtained near the Kio Verde, Arizona. The latter are 
usually glazed, an art which seems to have been unknown to the Rees 
at that time. The texture of these specimens is rather fine, and 
the color usually dark; the indentations have been made with a 
small piece of wood, although in some of the ornamentation the fin- 
gers were employed, as the five impressions show. The pottery does 
not seem to have been baked, but sun-dried; this, however, is merely a 
matter of conjecture, as the condition of the specimens, after long 
exposure has become considerably changed. Arrow-heads and 
kindred flints were abundant. The smallest arrow points measured 
but A of an inch in length, the typical form being triangular. The 
finest point was one made of black silicious rock, three inches long, 
and three quarters of an inch wide. It was knife-shape, t.e., rounded 
at the one end like the blade of a common table knife, and elegantly 
notched at the base. 

Bone implements were not rare; the finest piece of workmanship 
being a fish-hook only an inch in length, and finely notched for 
attachment to the line. These specimens were no doubt preserved 
from decomposition by the dryness of the sandy soil covering many 
of these refuse heaps, and the dry atmosphere common over the 
country between the Missouri Kiver and the Rocky Mountains. 

On certain land-locked Ponds as natural ' Meteorologi- 
cal Registers. By L. S. Burbank. 

It is well known that among the small lakes or ponds so numerous 
throughout New England, there are many which are entirely land- 
locked, no water flowing from them at any season of the year. 

Some phenomena observed in a small pond of this kind in Lan- 
• caster, Mass., have suggested that valuable results might be attained 
by more accurate and extended observations upon similar bodies of 
wr&ter throughout the State. 



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1876.] 213 [Burbimk. 

The pond referred to is known on the town And county maps as 
Cranberry Pond. On a recent map of Worcester County, it is incor- 
rectly represented as the source of one of the branches of the Nashua 
River. In fact, no water flows from it at any season, nor does any 
stream flow into it Although its area is small, — only about thirteen 
acres, its depth in some parts is sixty or seventy feet It occupies 
one of the deepest valleys in a mass of glacial drift which covers an 
area of two or three square miles, and which is very remarkable for 
its uneven surface, steep slopes, deep hollows and long and narrow 
ridges. 

The height of the water in the pond varies through a vertical 
range of about six feet. It is a common saying among the inhabi- 
tants of the vicinity, that the wcUer is highest in a dry time, and also 
that it rises and falls regularly once in seven years. These sayings are 
not altogether without foundation in facts. The water is often higher 
in dry weather in mid-summer than during the copious rains of the 
Autumnal Equinox. That there are, also, fluctuations ranging through 
several years, is illustrated by the following facts, observed about the 
year 1852. 

For several years the water had been quite low, and a dense 
growth of Pitch Pine (Pinus rigidd) had grown up along the margin, 
near the water. After these pines had attained about seven years' 
growth, the water rose several feet, and stood above their roots dur- 
ing at least one whole season, and until the trees were all killed by 
the moisture. 

It is not necessary to seek an explanation of these facts in the pop- 
ular notion that the pond is fed entirely by springs at its bottom, or 
has a hidden outlet by which its waters are discharged at intervals. 
The height of the water b undoubtedly regulated by the combined 
effects of the rainfall and evaporation. 

The inference is obvious that careful measurements and records of 
the varying height of the water in such ponds throughout the State, 
continued for a series of years, would aid in the solution of several 
important questions relating to our climate. 

1. The ratio of evaporation to rain-fall may be determined. 

2. The question whether our climate is gradually growing dryer 
may be solved. 

3. The effects of forests upon precipitation and evaporation may be 
studied by the aid of observations made upon such ponds when sur- 
rounded by woodland^ and, afterwards, when the forests have been 
cleared away. 



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Burbank.] 214 [Janoaiy 5, 

January 5, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. B0uv6, in the chair. , Thirty- 
eight prisons present. 

The following gentlemen were elected Resident Members : 
Messrs. A. Graham Bell, Lucien Carr, Charles B. Cory, Sam- 
uel D. Crafts, John A. Jeffries, William A. Jeffiies, and Clif- 
ford R Weld. 

Prof. W. H, Niles read a paper entitled "The Evidences 
of a widely spread Geological Force, exhibited by certain 
Rock movements.'* 

Mr. L. S. Burbank exhibited specimens of the wood, 
leaves, and fruit of two species of native forest trees, the 
River Birch (BettUa nigra) and the Hackberry or Nettle 
Tree (Celtis occiderUalis)^ 

These trees are both very rare in New England. The River 
Birch, which is well described in Emerson's Report on the Trees and 
Shrubs of Massachusetts, is not known to occur anywhere in l^ew 
England, except on the banks of the Merrimack and some of its 
smaller branches. The only locality mentioned by Emerson is on 
and near the Spicket River, in Methuen (now the City of Lawrence), 
ft few miles below Lowell. It is found, however, in great abundance 
in Lowell, and along the banks of the Merrimack for several miles 
above and below that city. It attracts attention at once by the 
peculiarity of the bark, which is of a reddish brown color, and has a 
ragged appearance, due to the fact that the outer layers separate and 
hang from the branches and smaller trunks in loose, curled masses. 
The bark on the larger trunks is dark colored and very rough, hav- 
ing little resemblance to that of the branches, or of any other spe- 
cies of birch. The trees of this species appear to grow naturally 
only on the immediate banks of the streams, where they are gener- 
ally much injured by floating ice and driftwood, and seldom show the 
vigorous growth and graceful forms that cKaracterize the species in 
specially, favorable locations. 

A group of these trees that stood on the bank of the Merrimack 
just above the mills of the Lawrence Corporation in Lowell, con- 



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1876.] 215 [BnrbftDk. 

tained several individuals of remarkable size and beauty. One of 
these was undoubtedly the largest of its kind in New England. Its 
graceful form and long, drooping branches gave it, when seen from a 
distance, much the aspect of an elm. This noble tree has recently 
been destroyed to make room for a new building. Fortunately, a rec- 
ord of its dimensions (as measured, in 1871, by Mr. Russell, of Provi- 
dence, and myself) has been preserved. Its circumference at the 
ground was 9 fl. 7 in., at four feet above, 8 ft. 6 in. The spread of 
the branches was seventy-five feet. Several large trees of the group 
are still standing. One of these now measures 7 ft. 6 in. in circum- 
ference at four feet from the ground. Its branches extend in one 
direction forty-one feet from the centre of the trunk, and in a direc- 
tion nearly opposite, thirty feet Several other trees of the group 
measure from five to seven feet in circumference. Micheaux^ states, 
rather indefinitely, that this species never exceeds two or three feet 
in diameter. He also gives the northern part of New Jersey as the 
northern limit of its growth. 

The facts given above indicate that it does not sufier from the 
effects of our colder climate, but attains quite as large a growth in 
the valley of the Merrimack as in the southern States. It flourishes 
well in cultivation, and is well worthy of a place among ornamental 
trees for public and private grounds. 

The Hackberry, Celtis cras^ifolia^ is regarded as identical with 
CeUis occidentalis by Dr. Gray, who describes only one species of Cel- 
tis as occurring east of the Mississippi. Micheaux and Emerson 
make them two distinct species. 

From observations that I have made on the western variety, as well 
as that which occurs in this State, I have no doubt that both belong 
to the same specie!, and that the very marked differences which they 
present are due entirely to differences of climate and soil. The Celtis 
of Indiana is a tali, handsome tree of regular form and rapid growth, 
having long and slender branches. The dark purple fruit ripens and 
falls in August.^ As it occurs on the banks of the Merrimack, it is a 
low tree, with dense bushy top and stout trunk, oflen spreading at 
the base in an extraordinary manner, as if to anchor itself more 

» Trees of North America, Vol. I., p. 367. 

s August 18th, 1871, 1 examined some very fine trees of this species at Indianapo- 
lis, in the grounds of Mr. Ingram Fletcher. These were lofty trees, the first 
branches being at a great height from the ground. The fruit had at that time 
nearly all ripened and fallen. 



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Borbank.] 216 [Januarys, 

firmly. The branches are flattened, distorted and covered with irreg- 
ular knobs. The fruit does not ripen till late in autumn, and often 
remains on the trees till April or May of the next year.^ 

In fact the tree as it grows in Massachusetts differs from the wes- 
tern variety very much as the Beech and Yellow Birch of high 
mountain tops in New England, differ from the same species in fertile 
and sheltered valleys. The dense, bushy character of the top is pro- 
duced by an annual " heading in " through the frosts of every winter, 
by which the buds on the ends of the slender twigs of the previous 
summer's growth are generally killed. 

In nearly all descriptions of this tree which I have seen, the color 
of the wood is incorrectly stated. When properly seasoned and 
again cut and smoothed after seasoning^ it is of a bright straw color, 
and very handsome. If cut while green, the surface, on drying, 
assumes a dark, greenish brown color, from some chemical change 
that takes place in the sap. Nuttall says of the European species, 
'^ Next to ebony and box it surpasses all others in durability, strength 
and beauty. It is esteemed for works of sculpture, for it never con- 
tracts nor cracks." This description will apply equally well to the 
American species as it grows in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Russell of Providence, who was present, read from his 
his note-book some further illustrations of this subject. He 
also gave the following measurements of a remarkable sassa- 
fras tree at Cranston, R. I.: circumference at ground, 14 ft. 
2 in. ; at 2 ft. from the ground, lift. 10^ in., from which 
point the circumference hardly diminishes to the height of 
the branches, 11 ft. fr-om the ground. The height of the tree 
is 49^ ft. 

The following article was added to Section IV of the By- 
Laws. 

Article 3. Members who are absent from New England during 
the whole year, commencing on the first day of October, shall be 
exempt from the annual assessment for such year, provided that they 
givenotice of their intended absence to the Secretary. 

1 A very minute and accurate description of the species as it occurs in this State, 
with a plate representing a fine specimen now standing in Lowell, may he found in 
the new edition of the work of Mr. Emerson referred to above. 



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1876.] 217 [Bouv^. 

January 19, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Fifty per- 
sons present. 

The President exhibited a fine series of cut and polished 
Porphyries from the vicinity of Boston, and read the follow- 
ing paper : — 

On the Origin op Porphyry. By Thomas T. Bouv^. 

My object in obtaining and in bringing together the specimens 
before me, has not been alone to show how rich our neighborhood is 
in rocks that may prove to be of great economic value in the indus- 
tries of the future, but also to express some views upon their origin, 
which I have reason to believe will not receive the assent of 
all the geologists who have made them a study. My remarks will 
apply not only to the true Felsite Porphyries, such as have a compact 
feldspar base with included crystals of feldspar, but also to such as 
are generally of like composition -and character, but do not contain 
imbedded crystals, or, if they do, the crystals are very obscure. All 
these rocks, the true porphyries and the other felsites, vary consid- 
erably in composition as well as in appearance, some containing a 
much larger per centage of silex than others; but essentially they 
are of the same general character, and all or nearly all found in our 
vicinity have undoubtedly the same origin. 

Until within a comparatively recent period, all porphyries and all 
such rocks as I have referred to were regarded as of igneous eruptive 
character, and some of the text books .now in use, as for instance Van 
Cotta's " Rocks Classified and Described " in the translated edition 
of 1866, include them among the Igneous Plutonic rocks, and no 
idea is expressed that any of them may be of metamorphic character. 
Hitchcock, however, in treating of the lithological character of the 
felsites of our State, in his great work on the Geology of Massachu- 
setts, published more than thirty years ago, says, *' It seems to me 
that in the present state of geological science, one may take it for 
■ granted that compact feldspar has been once melted, but what was 
the original rock from which it was produped? " *In saying this he 
clearly did not mean that like lava, it was melted far beneath the 
present surface and brought to it by eruptive action, but that it waa 
a rock derived from another by metamorphic action on the surface, 



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BouT^.} 218 [Jannanr 10, 

changed by heat and other agencies from its original character to 
such as it now presents. In referring to Hitchcock's work I will 
say that there are now no more instructive views presented upon 
the porphyries and sienites of Massachusetts than can be found in 
its pages, notwithstanding the lapse of a third of a century since it 
was written, and the attention that has been given to these classes of 
rocks by eminent geologist s. 

I may be pardoned now if I refer to my own conclusions of many 
years past. I had been in the habit of examining as closely as pos- 
sible the specimens of the red compact feldspar, the Felsite of Hing- 
ham, and though this presented itself to me of quite homogeneous 
structure, I came to regard it as derived from a source, the announce- 
ment of which seemed to me at the time too absurd to make. At a 
meeting however, of the Boston Society of Natural History, on April 
2, 1862, 1 ventured to ask Dr. Jackson if he had observed evidence of 
metamorphic action in the conglomerate rocks of our neighborhood, 
stating that I had noticed by the waysides of Hingham, a blood red 
rock resembling red jasper, which I had suspected to be altered con- 
glomerate, though I had not until then discovered anything of a 
pebbly or slaty characte in it, but had just found a locality where 
its derivation from the conglomerate could be traced. 

This view of the origin of our fel^te rocks was not, I think, 
regarded with much favor, and the subject was not apparently con- 
sidered by observers until sofiie years ^er. In 1870 Dr. Hunt pre- 
sented a paper before the Boston Society of Natural History, in 
which he considered the rocks found in the vicinity of Boston, as 
embraced in three classes, viz : — 

1. Crystalline stratified rocks. 

2. Eruptive granites. 

8. Unaltered slates, sandstones and conglomerates. 

The first class, the crystalline stratified rocks, he ag^n subdivided 
lithologically, making one division to consist of the felsite porphy- 
ries with the associated non-porphyritic jasper-like varieties, and 
the other of the epidotic, chloritic rocks, including the serpentines 
and amygdaloidd. These two divisions he regarded as forming parts 
of one great, ancient, crystalline series of rocks which could be 
traced firom Newport to the Bay of Fundy. In the discussion that 
followed the reading of Dr. Hunt*s paper. Professor Niles distinctly 
stated that he had traced in Dedham the conglomerate until it passed 
into porphyry. He had noticed the effects of metamorphism where 



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1876.3 219 [Bonv*. 

dikefl occurred, and he beUeved that many of our porphyritic rocks 
were formed from the conglomerate. These views I sustained by 
referring to my own observations, expressing myself as satisfied that 
the porphyries of our vicinity, as well as the amygdaloids, were 
altered conglomerates. 

Dr. Hunt closed the discussion by saying he was confident that at 
Marblehead these rocks were not altered conglomerates. They were 
derived rocks, but from the primitive parent rock on which they 
rested. 

As Dr. Hunt has recently said that he should take issue with me 
upon the point, that the porphyries of Marblehead were derived from 
the conglomerate, I presume he has not altered his opinions in respect 
to any of the felsites of our neighborhood. I refer particularly to 
Dr. Hunt's expressions because of the very great respect that I have 
for his views, based as they are upon extended observation and a 
more thorough knowledge of the chemistry of rocks, and of rock 
formations than many can attain. They could not but have some 
influence in leading me to distrust my own conclusions without fur- 
ther examination. But such examination having only confirmed 
my original thoughts, I have sought to bring before you such evi- 
dence as hand specimens may exhibit I have therefore brought 
here, not only specimens illustrating the variety and beauty of our 
porphyries, but such as may be serviceable in showing their origin. 
[A fine series of specimens wns then exhibited.] 

In conclusion, I wish not only to re-express my belief in the deriva- 
tion of these felsites from conglomerates, but to go one step further, 
and include among the rocks having the same origin, some at least of 
the underlying sienites. I know that chemical questions can be asked 
that may not be easily answered, discountenancing this view, such 
as were ask^d by Dr. C. T. Jackson, at a meeting of the ^Society in 
December, 1869, who inquired, when Professor Shaler expressed 
the opinion that the sienites of our vicinity were of sediment- 
ary origin, how the sienite was made, what sediments were so 
strangely metamorphosed into a crystalline salt like feldspar, and 
where did the rock get its potash and soda ? Possibly if we knew 
more of the aqueous menstruum that permeated all these rocks 
when they were metamorphosed, these questions might be satisfac- 
torily answered. That some of our sienitic rocks* exhibit conglom- 
erate structure, will not be denied afler the very instructive instances 
cited by Hitchcock. But I refrain from expressing more on this 



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Hyatt.] 220 [Janaary 19, 

point, simply because my own observations in the field have been so 
limited, but will ask if the reputed succession of our rock deposits is 
not itself very suggestive. 

Conglomerate. 

Compact Feldspar, gradually passing into Porphyry. 
Porphyry, gradually passing into a rock intermediate between 
Porphyry and Sienite. 
Rock intermediate between Porphyry and Sienite. 
Sienite. 

Now if this gives the true succession of our rocks, and I believe it 
does from the observations of others and not from my own, I ask if it 
be not a fair inference, that the causes that led to the changes in the 
higher portions of the series, affected all, only to a much greater 
degree the lower ; that the heat and aqueous menstruum that soft- 
ened and partly changed some of the conglomerates of the upper 
portion forming the felsite conglomerate, as it may be called, repre- 
sented by the large specimen exhibited, and whieh melted the suc- 
ceeding strata so as to produce first felsites without crystals, and 
below these the true porphyries, may not also by its greater in- 
tensity so thoroughly have melted down still lower strata of sedi- 
mentary rocks, (conglomerates and slates perhaps), as to entirely 
resolve them into their original elements, recrystallize them and thus 
have formed sienites, some of which may have even subsequently 
played the role of eruptive rocks; for it by no means follows that 
because a rock has been sedimentary that it may not also have 
become likewise eruptive by being forced upward when in a semi- 
fluid state. 

Prof. A. Hyatt made some remarks in support of the theory 
advanced by Mr. Bouv6, and exhibited a map of Marblehead 
Neck, made some years back by the aid of the Plane Table 
Map of the United States Coast Survey, and also largely 
from observations made by the class of 1871, of the Mass. 
Institute of Technology. 

The outlines of the porphyritic, granitoid, and micaceous rocks 
were pointed out, and the first named rocks more particularly de- 
scribed. The porphyries are the underlying rocks and occupy the 



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1876. 221 [Hyatt. 

greater part of the Neck, the southern shore only and an area to the 
north, of a few acres, being occupied by the micaceous rocks referred 
to above. Both these and the porphyritic rocks are overlaid by patches 
of coarse granite containing flesh-colored feldspar. The precise deri- 
vation of the granites could not be determined. When the map was 
made I supposed them to be volcanic products, and thought they had 
been derived from the same source as the vein rocks penetrating the 
Salem syenites. This conclusion, however, is untenable. The Salem 
syenites, which are so well known from their peculiar lithological 
characteristics, occupy a space of about fifteen square miles in the 
townships of Marblehead, Salem, and Swampscot. The whole of this 
series of ^pcks has been completely shattered by extensive eruptions 
from below. This is not only the most remarkable characteristic of 
the surface, as long since noticed by Professor Hitchcock, but is par- 
ticularly observable along the cliff exposures of the shore lines ; some 
of these, where the walls are perpendicular, show the original 
rocky mass split up into angular fragments from the size of a man's 
hat to those which are many yards in diameter. The fragments 
have not been injured by their violent separation, and if the vein- 
stone could be withdrawn they would fit together with the most per- 
fect accuracy. The veins are filled -with rock, which in some places, 
is a compact red feldspar, and in others of a syenitic or granitic char- 
acter, varying greatly in color and aspect. 

The Salem syenites are crystalline throughout. There, are, how- 
ever, indications that they may have been originally stratified de- 
posits, though this conclusion must at present be considered very 
doubtful, and is merely mentioned in order to attract attention to this 
point. It has become evident to me that these Salem syenites are 
older than the adjacent porphyries and mica slates, and therefore that 
their veinstones have no relation in point of age and cannot have 
been the source from which the somewhat similar overlying gran- 
ites of Marblehead and Beverly were derived. In fact, so far as my 
observations go, the conclusion appears to be unavoidable that the 
Salem syenites are remnants of a much older series of rocks than 
those to which the porphyries belong. Their characteristics are in 
every way distinct from the adjoining granites of Beverly, Gloucester, 
and Peabody, and the veinstones bf which they are literally reticu- 
lated, do not extend upward through any of these or of the interme- 
diate rocks, the porphyries and the mica schists of Marblehead. 
These last have been described as Huronian by Dr. Hunt, and so 



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Hyatt.] 222 [JanaarylS, 

mapped by Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, but whetber tbe Salem syenites 
belong properly to the next oldest system of Hunt's series or to tbe 
Laurentian, seems at present doubtful. This matter, however, as 
well as the 8ab|ect of the chemical changes of the porphyries, wiD, 
I hope, be fully investigated by one of the Assistants in the Society's 
Museum, Mr. W. O. Crosby, and fully reported npon at some future 
time. 

The porphyries appear to overlie th.Q Salem syenites unconform- 
ably, and together with them are cut by at least two series of dioritic 
dykes, one running nearly north and south, and the other in a north- 
westerly and south-easterly direction, if indeed any system can be 
eliminated from the confused lines, which intersect each other in 
every direction on the surface. The porphyries, thougff varying 
greatly in aspect and in composition, are nevertheless but one forma- 
tion, and derived from a vast conglomerate which appears in Lynn, 
Saugus, and Marblehead, and is reported to occur under the granites 
on the Beverly shore. The originally conglomerate nature of the 
entire deposit is inferred by extensive observations made by myself 
at Marblehead Neck, and by my assistant, Mr. W. O. Crosby, in 
Saugus, and the general identity of the purely crystalline porphyries 
of Lynn with those of Marblehead Neck, which are undoubtedly 
merely altered conglomerates. In some localities it is possible to 
study the various phases of the changes which may take place in the 
original conglomerate within the circuit of a few yards. Thus at one 
point on the ocean side of Marblehead Neck, the variegated conglom- 
erate is altered to compact light colored felsite in one direction, in 
another becomes a dark colored porphyry with crystals of feldspar. 

The change into the felsite is the most instructive, since here it is 
possible to trace the included pebble of dark colored, banded por- 
phyry through all stages until it becomes a mere spot in the light 
colored matrix. During this change the pebble disappears by some 
process by which the structure is altered from without, the centre 
being the last point to lose its distinctive coloring or structure. This, 
and the unaltered form of the pebbles or masses, would appear to 
militate against the supposition that such a series of changes could 
only take place in a plastic or semi-fluid mass. But whether this was 
the case or not, and whatever theicondition may have been, the fact 
seems to me unquestionable, after a review of this locality, that both 
a felsite and a true porphyry were formed out of a conglomerate, 
without any perceptible change having been made in the form of the 



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1876.] • 223 [Hyatt. 

contained pebbles. This is shown by some of the masses of the truly 
crystalline porphyry in which the pebbles have entirely dis a pp ea red 
in fractured surfaces, but show the outlines of their uncompressed 
forms upon the external weathered faces. 

That the conglomerate porphyries cannot have been derived from 
the adjacent masses of banded and crystalline porphyries is inferred 
from the fact that the materials of the conglomerate are not identi- 
cal. The pebbles contained in them are evidently derived from some 
older porphyries, and are quite distinct. Besides this, the traces of 
pebbles may be seen upon the weathered surfaces of the crystalline 
porphyries and felsites, and their transformations traced back to their, 
original condition in the conglomerate in many localities. 

The change of the pebbles into more or less lenticular masses, 
streaks, or bands, in the formation of the banded porphyries, is 
also very interesting. In this case the re-arrangement of the 
conglomerate, itself recomposed from older banded porphyries, takes 
place in a similar manner, but with certain distinctive character- 
istics. The material of the pebble is seen to be re-arranged, as 
it were, by the action of the matrix, into alternate bands of dark 
colored porphyry and white feldspar, marked here and there with 
imperfect crystals, (he remnants of the centres of pebbles which 
have otherwise entirely disappeared. This re-arrangement pro- 
ceeds from without, so that the pebble eventually becomes a lentic- 
ular mass arranged in alternate lamine. This would seem to be the 
direct product of pressure upon the mass, which would naturally 
produce the lenticular form, and lead, especially if a moderate 
amount of heat were applied, to the production of bands of feldspar. 

But if we examine the form which the laminae of the coarse, peb- 
ply matrix assume 'during deposition, we find that this lenticular 
form can be explained without bringing in the aid of pressure. 
These layers can be traced in many specimens. They are concave 
around the bases of the larger pebbles, straight or horizontal only at 
the middle part or zone around the centre, and become decidedly 
convex as they are heaped up on the upper half of the inclosed 
mass. The changes which take place first afiect the lowermost and 
uppermost layers of the matrix, converting them into bands of feld- 
spar and dark amorphous porphyry. These form a lenticular figure 
surrounding the pebble and the zone of intermediate horizontal lay- 
ers, exactly as the lines of the eyelids surround the ball of the eye, 
supposing the comers of that organ to be filled with solid matter 



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flyatt.l 224 fJanuary 19, 

representing the horizontal layers. The changes in the majority of 
cases follow this pattern, so that the included pebble becomes re- 
duced much faster in its vertical than its horizontal diameter:, thus 
assuming a more elliptical and flatter form. The whole series of 
bands, which are thus seen to arise from above and below simulta- 
neously, approximate more and more to a horizontal line in ap- 
proaching the centre of each pebble until they actually do meet on 
one common level. 

An infinite number of pebbles arranged with the longer axes in the 
planes of stratification, and undergoing such changes as these just 
described, would, by the intersection of their laminae, form the more 
or less concentric or continuous and irregular bands which are to be 
found in what are called banded porphyries. 

Another form of porphyry is also found on the Neck in which the 
pebbles seem to be absolutely flattened out, and then to fuse or run 
together at their extremities, forming dark continuous streaks or 
bands. The precise mode of the formation of this kind I did not 
succeed in following out, and in fact attempted, with regard to the 
others, nothing more than what could be accomplished by the most 
direct visual observations unassisted by chemical analyses. Never- 
theless some curious facts can be observed in the merely mechanical 
phenomena attending these changes. It is exceadingly interesting to 
note that so great changes, as those described, could take place, and 
in a. mass which must have been sufficiently plastic to permit of a 
continuous chemical reaction between the elements of the pebbles and 
those of the surrounding matrix, and yet not so plastic as to alter 
the contour of the pebbles. Also, that different kinds of rock, 
felsites, crystalline and banded porphyries, were produced essentially 
from the same conglomerate, but that in all of these, while the chemi- 
cal and physical changes in the pebbles differed, the general facts 
remained, that in all cases the loose materials of the matrix exhibi- 
ted the metamorphosis first, and the pebbles more slowly, the 
changes in the latter proceeding concentrically always 'from without 
inward. This would seem to indicate that the plasticity of the Ma- 
trix, if it was plastic, communicated itself very slowly, if at all, to the 
contained pebbles. 

Mr. L. S. Burbank «iade some remarks on the Conglom- 
erate of Harvard, Mass. 

This formation is of very limited extent, covering an area of about 
two ^niles in length by four or five hundred feet in width. The 



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1876.] 225 [BortMUik. 

conglomerate m associated wkh a soft argiUaeeotis and cUoritic slate, 
which was fcnnnerly quarried and asedfor gravestones. 

The beds of slate and conglomerate are interstratified, and coincide 
in strike and dip with nearly vertical strata of crystalline gneiss in 
which they are enclosed. The pebbles of the unaltered portion of 
the conglomerate consist almost entirely oi a gray quartzite. None 
of these pebbles can have been derived from the rocks now existing 
in the immediate vicinity. These conglomerates and slates appear 
to form part of a continuous series with the enclosing strata of gsao- 
itoid gneiss.. 

The series of specimens here exhibited shows a gradual transitioa 
from a nearly unaltered conglomerate to a crystalline gneissoid rock« 
Remarkable examples of flattened and curved pebbles are found i» 
the conglomerate. In some cases the pebbles are so much elongated 
and carved as to give an agate like appearance to the surface q£ the 
rock, as seen in the specimens shown. In many of the larger pel>- 
bles there appears a laminated structure which was doubtless pro- 
duced by the same force which changed their external forms. 

The relation of these mechanicaUy formed sediments to the adja- 
cent cr)'stalline rocks will be discussed more at length in a future 
papers- 
Article rV* of the Constitution was amended to read aft 
follows: — 

<* Resident Members only shall be entitled to vote, to hold office, 
or to transact business ; Corresponding and Honorary Members and 
Patrons may attend the meetings and take part in the scientific 
discussions of the Society ; they may, however, on application, be 
transferred to the list of Resident Members, by a majority vote of the 
Council." 

February 2, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the diair- Fourteen 
persons present. 
The following paper was read : — 

Thk Affinity of the Mollusc a and- M<>lli?sc<h]>a. 
By W. K. Brooks, Ph.D. 

During last August and September I enjoyed, through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Agassiz, an opportimfty of studying the dlevelopment of 

PBOOKKDINOS. B. 8. N. H.^VOL. XVHL 15 APBIL, 1876. 



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Brookf.] 226 [FebrnaryS, 

feveralof oar more common marine Gra6ter(^x>da; and the results 
reached seem to point to the conclusion, which I believe has never 
been pointed out, that although the Gasteropoda are much more 
specialized and highly evolved than the Lamellibranchs, nearly ttXl 
their organs, excepting those of locomotion and relation, conform 
much more closely to the embryonic t3rpe than do the same organs in 
an adult Lamellibranch. The latter group must therefore be re- 
garded as a side branch from the main stem, of which the Grastero^ 
poda are a much more direct continuation^ 

I have already shown (Proc. Amer. Association, 1875) that the 
embryonic shell of Anodonta is, at first, a cup covering what is to 
become the dorsal surface of the embryo, and is therefore homologons 
with the shell of a Gasteropod. This cup or hood soon folds down on 
to the sides of the embryo, precisely as described in Dentalium by 
Lacaze-Duthiers, and at a very early period splits along the dorsal 
median line and becomes separated into the two halves of a bivalve 
shell, which are thus shown to be together the homologue of the shell 
of a Gasteropod exclusive of the operculum, which, as Selenka hat 
shown in his '* Entwickelnng von Tei^gipes claviger," is formed by a 
split which extends across the long axis of the body, and therefore at 
right angles to that which, in Anodonta, gives rise to the two valves. 
The valves of an adult lamellibranchiate shell are a specializa- 
tion of the embryonic shell; are bilateral in origin, and together 
represent the dorsal or haemal cup or shell of a Gasteropod, a Poly- 
zoon, or a Brachiopod ; while the ventral or neural operculum of a 
Gasteropod corresponds to the neural valve of a Brachiopod or the 
lid of a cheilostomatous Polyzoon, and is wanting in the Lamelli- 
branchs. 

The digestive organs of an adult Lamellibranch, although they are 
very much less specialized than those of a Gasteropod, seem to be 
much more widely removed from the embryonic type. The stomach 
of the Veliger of Astyris, like that of a Polyzoon, is divided by a 
constriction into two chambers. (Compare also the figure of the 
embryo of the Pteropod, Carolinia tridentatahy K. Fol, and that of 
I^imnsea by Rabl.) In the embryo of Mytilus we have, according 
to Lacaze-Duthiers, a similar stomach, and in the adult of Yoldia 
we have the same a little modified; here the anterior portion of the 
stomach receives the bile-tubes, and the posterior portion is pro- 
longed so as to form a conical, somewhat twisted, intestine-like 
pouch, from the bottom of which the small intestine originates. In 



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1876.] 227 [BiooU. 

Venus this peculiarity is much more marked ; the posterior chamber 
is DOW tubular, and sharply separated from the true stomach, which', 
represents the anterior half of the embryonic stomach. The tube is 
somewhat convoluted, and is imperfectly divided by a longitudinal 
fold of the inner wall into two parallel chambers, of which the ante- 
rior is the true intestinal cavity, while the posterior contains the 
crystaline style. In Cardium we find the process of dififerentiation 
carried a step farther. The partition, which in Venus is imperfect, 
here extends entirely across the tube, so that the cavity of the sheath 
of the style is completely shut off from that of the large intestine, 
although the two are still in contact, and are contained within the 
same outer wall. Solen will answer as an illustration of the next 
step in the process of differentiation. Here the large intestine is not 
united to the sheath of the style, although the former is nearly straight, 
and parallel to, as well as near the latter. In such forms as My a the 
large intestine is entirely independent of the sheath of the style, and 
its large semicircular convolutions begin at the point wihere it joins 
the stomach. This series seems to show that the stomach of a Lamel- 
libranch is homologous with only the anterior half of that of the em^ 
bryo, or of a Gasteropod, while the large intestine and «heath of the 
style are together a very peculiar modification of the posterior 
portion. 

In the prosobrahchiate Gasteropoda, as in the Lamellibranchs, the 
gill is formed as a series of tentacular prolongations into the mantle 
chamber; these increase in number, and at last form a broad sheet, 
which is well shown beneath the transparent «hell of Crepidula dur- 
ing the later " Veliger " and the early " .Gasteropod '* stages. In the 
Gasteropoda these tentacles remain free from each other during the 
whole life, and the water circulates over and around them ; while in 
the Lamellibranchs they become so bent upon themselves and united 
to each other that the gill-tubes are formed, and the water is driven 
into and through these, to be discharged into the cloaca, which is a 
special chamber, peculiar to the Lamellibranchs. In such a form as 
Mytilus, where the union between the tentacles is somewhat imper- 
fect, we have what appears to be ah intermediate stage between the 
perfect lamella of Mya or tJnio and the separate tentacles of a Gas- 
teropod. The gills of a Lamellibranch are therefore, like the shell 
and the digestive organs, a specialized form of the embryonic type, 
which is pretty closely adhered to in the adult Gasteropod. 

These facts must oot be regarded as showing that the Lamelli- 



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Brooks.] 228 [Febnury 2, 

branclis are higher tlian or derived directly from the Gasteropoda, 
for any such conclusion is rendered impossible by the lack in the 
latter group of such peculiarities as the lingual ribbon, a centralized 
and highly evolved nervous system, and accessory organs of repro- 
duction. Although it is true that these features might have been lost 
through adaptation to a sedentary life, their entire absence at all 
stages of growth, throughout the whole class, would seem to indicate 
that they never existed ; so we cannot derive these animals directly 
from the Gasteropoda, but must regard them a» an offshoot from a 
form of which the Gasteropods are the highly developed linear or 
nearly linear descendants. If this conclusion is accepted it is plain 
that all attempts to trace the phylogeny of the higher MoUusca 
through the Lamellibranchs to the Molluscoida, must be erroneous 
and useless. 

The history of the discussion of the affinities of the MoUusca is an 
almost unbroken record of generalizations based upon imperfect 
knowledge and erroneous conceptions, and so many arrangements of 
the group have been proposed, accepted for a time, and then shown 
to be unnatural, that it is not at all strange that many naturalists 
should now call in question the existence of any real affinity between 
the higher and the lower classes. As long as the attention of the 
investigator was confined to the study of shells, there seemed to be 
no difficulty in connecting the Lamellibranchs with the Brachiopods 
through such forms as Anomia; and although the slightest anatomical 
knowledge is sufficient to show that the resemblance between these 
forms is entirely superficial and without scientific value, this concep- 
tion had been so generally accepted and so firmly established that the 
confirmation by embryology of the results reached through anatom- 
ical research, has scarcely been able to thoroughly exterminate it. 

This view has been replaced by another which is not open to the 
charge of superficiality, since it is based upon a thorough knowledge 
of adult structure, and its weakness is shown only when it is tested 
by embryology. The clearest and most forcible statement of this 
view is that given by Allman in his " Fresh- water Polyzoa." Accord- 
ing to Allman the Tunicata are intermediate between the Polyzoa 
below and the Lamellibranchs above. The branchial sac of a Tuni- 
cate represents the permanently retracted tentacular crown of a 
hippocrepian Polyzoon; the tentacles form the horizontal bars of 
the sac, and uniting to each other at intervals inclose the branchial 
slits. Although Allman's figures are necessarily diagrams, no organ 



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1876.] 229 [Brooki. 

IB exaggerated or toppressed for the purpose of making the likeness 
more forcible; they are very accurate and faithful representations of 
the animals, and show the closest similarity between these two forms; 
the position, structure and connections of almost every organ of the 
one being duplicated in the other. An almost equally perfect com- 
parison may be made between a Tunicate and a Lamellibranch, but 
the recent great additions to our knowledge of the embryology of 
the Tunicata seem to show, with absolute conclusiveness, that we here 
have nothing but a very perfect and striking adult resemblance, 
reached in each of the groups in a different way and therefore with- 
out homological signification. Whatever view of the vertebrate 
affinity of the Tunicata we may incline to, we must recognize the 
fact that the branchial sac is morphologically part of the digestive 
tract, and in no sense whatever a lophophore or a tentacular giU. 
Moreover we should expect, according to all analogy, to find the 
affinity to other groups most ^^learly shown in the low or embryonic 
forms, but Appendicularia presents none of the peculiarities upon 
which the comparison is based. As Ray Lankaster has lately referred 
to Allman's homology in a way which seems to imply that he still 
accepts it, I will repeat more briefly my reasons for rejecting it. 
These are : first, that the development of the Tunicate shows that 
the resemblance is not due to community of origin, but is reached in 
difierent ways : and secondly, that the adult Lamellibranchs are a 
specialization of the embryonic type and therefore cannot lie in the 
direct line connecting the MoUuscoida with the MoUusca. Allman 
himself seems to have seen the force of the 'first objection, for in a 
much later paper (1869), he advances the view that the Polyzoa are 
connected, through Rhabdopleura, with the Lamellibranchs. His 
studies of this genus were made upon alcoholic specimens; and Sars, 
who enjoyed the superior advantages afforded by an abundance ot 
living specimens, has shown that Allman was mistaken in regard to 
almost every one of the points upon which he attempted to establish 
the supposed relationship. 

These are only a few of the arrangements of the Mollusca which 
have been proposed, and the fact that, of the three selected, two are 
by Allman must not be regarded as the result of a wish to unfavor- 
ably criticize the work of this author. On the contrary the anatomi- 
cal resemblances which he points out so clearly are worthy of the 
most thoughtful attention, and although they are not homological and 
do not indicate descent they are excellent illustrations of the inde- 



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lltpok8.;[ 280 [Fefani%Z7 2, 

pendent origin of similar stractnret; a class of relatipns wlucb haa 
not yet been sufficient!/ allowed for in the speculations of the modem 
school of zoology, but which seems destined to form, at some future 
time, an important element in the theory of the evolution of lifei 
The superiority of the conceptions of Allman becomes evident as 
soon as we contrast them with many which have been advanced; for 
example, the comparison advocated by a very distinguished natura-* . 
list and embryologist between the foot of a Lamallibranch, the tail of 
Appendicularia, and the placenta of Salpa. 

We come now to the question : if our present knpwledge of the 
embryology of the Mollusca and MoUuscoida disproves all the old 
ideas of their affinity, does it present any thing to replace them? 

Most of the Gasteropoda are known to pass through a free, locomo- 
tive ** Veliger '* stage. The veligers of different Gasteropods differ 
considerably in form; and in some the embryo, at this stage, is much 
less specialized than in others; but, omitting the complications intro- 
duced as adaptations to a spiral shell, the veliger, of such a . marine 
Gasteropod as Astyris may be regarded as presenting the typical 
form. A veliger may be described as a free-swimming, bilaterally 
symmetrical embryo, without a true heart or vascular system, or 
branchiae, with the mouth and anus nelCr each other on the median 
line. The digestive organs are suspended in the body, cavity, and 
attached to the body-wall at the two external apertures, and by the 
various muscles. The foot is situated between these two openings; 
and the pedal ganglia, which are in most veligers the first ganglia to 
appear, are developed in the region of the foot; that is, between the 
mouth and the anus. The foot is generally supplied with a bunch of 
setse, which are apparently sensory in function. The animal is 
inclosed in a shell composed of two portions ; a large ventral cup^ 
and a neural or pedal operculum, which is united to the anal margin 
of the cup at the earliest stages, and subsequently becomes separated 
from it This shell and lid are found in the embryos of those forms 
where the adult is without an operculum, as Crepidula, as well as in 
those where the adult is destitute of a shell, as the Nudibranchs. 

The most characteristic peculiarity of the veliger is the velum. 
This is a large, bilaterally symmetrical circlet of cilia, developed 
from the cephalic region of the embryo, and supported, at some dis- 
tance from the body, by a transparent double-walled veil, the cavity 
of which is irregularly divided into large sinuses, in free communica- 
tion wit^ the body-cavity. The animal swims, usually near the snr^ 



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18760 281 CBrooki. 

face of the ocean, hf means of the long cilia of the Telum» which 
would seem to perform the function of a respiratory organ as well, 
for the fluid which fills the hody-cavity is driven into and out of the 
sinuses of the velum by the retraction and expansion of this struc* 
ture; in most veligers this circulation seems to be aided by the 
rythmical contraction of the muscular fibres which bind the foot to 
the (esophagus. The mouth is not within the circlet of large locomo- 
tive cilia, but immediately behind it, and a, ring or band of smaller 
cilia passes from the anterior margin of the mouth entirely around 
the velum, on its lower surface, and therefore outside the circlet of 
locomotive cilia* This second circlet seems adapted to convey food 
to the mouth, but there are no direct observations upon this point 
The velum and the foot are retracted into the shell by the action of 
a pair of long muscles which pass from the sides of the oesophagus 
and region of the foot to the bottom of the ventral shell, and subse- 
quently become the columellar muscle of the adult. 

The veliger stage seems to be represented very perfectly in most of 
the marine Gasteropods, except some of those whose eggs are pro- 
tected by strong cases, within which the early stages of development 
are passed. In some of these, as Purpura, there is a well marked but 
somewhat rudimentary veliger stage, and it is probably represented 
more or less £untly in all, although the emlu-yo does not pass this pe- 
riod in free locomotive life, and accordingly has no need of swimming 
organs. 

Although the marine Opisthobranchs pass through a perfect veliger 
stage, and are locomotive at this period, the fresh water Pulmonates 
undergo their embryonic development withii^ the egg, and with them 
the velum is only faintly indicated, and it appears to be entirely 
wanting in the land Pulmonates whose young are not aquatic. 

As regards the remaining clasps of the MoUusca; the Scaphopods 
pass through an embryonic form which is easily recognized as a veli- 
ger, although it is not very highly developed. It would seem as if 
the Lamellibranchs, from their fixed or nearly fixed mode of life, had 
an especial need for a locomotive larval stage, but the veliger stage 
can hardly be detected in this group. Embryos of several of the 
marine Lamellibranchs have been described and figured as furnished 
with a circlet of cilia, and thus fitted for locomotion, but these em- 
bryos are so rudimentary in other respects, and so different from the 
highly specialized veligers of the Gasteropoda, that we cannot, with 
any safety, say that they represent this stage of development at all, 



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Brooki.] 232 prebniArj 8, 

altkoogli iSke fact that Anodonta -baa an tinmistakable Yelum would 
eeem to mdicale that the Lamellibranchs, like the Gasteropods, are 
the descendants of a free-swimming yeligor, and that the circlet of 
ciMa described in the embryos of such forms as Cardium is also to be 
regarded as a rudiment of the same stage. It may be that the devel- 
opment of the young within the brandiisB or the mantle chamber in 
this dass does away with the necessity for a locomotive embryo, but 
at present we know so little «f the life history of the marine forms 
that we have very little ground for generalization. The imperfection 
of our present knowledge cannot, however, be fairly urged to re- 
strain us from making as much use as possible of what knowledge we 
do possess, although we must constantly bear in mind that it intro- 
duces an element of uncertainty into all of our conclusions. This, 
of course, is true of all biological speculation at present, but no one 
would advocate the abandonment of all speculation and comparison 
until all of the facts of our science have been recorded and verified. 

Tlie embryo of Anodonta, at a very early stage, has, at the ante- 
rior end of the worm-like body, a simple band of cilia; as develop- 
ment progresses this is carried, by the formation of the mantle lobes, 
into the mantle cavity, and there increases in length, and the free 
ends bend towards each other and finally unite, thus forming a closed, 
bilaterally lobed circlet like that of the "Gasteropods, except that it 
is not raised from the surface of the body, and its cilia are very short 
and are not used for locomotion. It is interesting to notice also that 
It is attached to the dorsal surface of the shell by two muscles like 
those of the veliger of a Gasteropod. In Anodonta these subsequently 
become the retractor muscles of the foot. 

The thecosomatous Pteropoda present the veliger stage of develop- 
ment in a form as highly specialized as that of the marine Gastero- 
poda, and the embryos of the two do not difi*er at this time in any 
essential particular. The development of the gymnosomatous Pter- 
opods on the contrary is entirely anomalous, and at present appears to 
be inexplicable on any theory of descent. 

In the Cephalopoda, as so oflen happens in the higher representa- 
tives of a group, the indirect course of development has given place 
to the direct; the larval stages are usually entirely wanting, and the 
embryo shapes itself, from the beginning, into the form of the adult. 
In most Cephalopods there is no trace of a veliger stage, but its ab- 
sence is what we should expect from the analogy of the higher forms 
of other groups. 



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1876.] 238 [Brookf. 

The conclusion to be drawn from our present knowledge of the 
Mollusca, will appear, from this review, to be that all of them are to 
be traced back to a free-swimming ancestral form, of which the veli- 
ger embryo is the representative; this seems to be the only way in 
which we can account for its appearance in at least certain represen- 
tatives of so many widely separated groups; and the presence of 
rudiments of it in such forms as Anodonta and the Pulmonates seems 
to indicate the same conclusion. We have seen that in many of the 
cases where it is wanting its absence can be reconciled with this the- 
ory, even with our present knowledge, and we may therefore hope 
that a more complete acquaintance with the embr^'ology of the naked 
Pteropods will show that they are not an exception. 

We come now to the interesting question : what are the affinities 
of this " Veliger *' from which the true Mollusca are descended? 

It is only necessary to glance at the side view of any fully devel- 
oped veliger, such as Selenka*s figure of Tergipes, in order to notice 
the resemblance to a Polyzoon, and more careful examination shows 
that the resemblance holds not only in the general plan but in detaiL 
The vdum corresponds to the lophophore in position and structure, 
and subserves, like this, the function of respiration, and probably 
that of ingestion as well. The heart is absent in both, and the fluid 
which fills the body cavity and bathes the digestive organs is kept 
in motion by the contraction of the various muscles of the body. 
The digestive organs are similar In form and also in their connections. 
Hie epistome with its ganglion answers to the foot and pedal gang- 
lia, and in Rhabdopleura the epistome is functionally as well as mor- 
phologically a creeping disc. The shell and •^operculum answer to 
the cell and lid of a cheilostomatous Polyzoon, and the retractor 
muscles are clearly homologous. The most important differences 
seem to be that among the Polyzoa, the animals are fixed and mul- 
tiply by budding; and that in all, the mouth, as well as the epistome, 
is within the circlet of the lophophore. (Rhabdopleura was described 
by AUman as an exception in this respect : 6ars however has shown 
that although the tentacle-bearing portion comes to an end upon the 
ndes of the foot, the line of cilia is continued entirely around it) 
The lack of agreement between the positions occupied by the 
mouth and foot in the two forms seems to be the most serious ob- 
jection which can be urged against the view here advocated. In 
answer to it we can only point out that in Dentalium the mouth is 
formed within the circlet, although the foot is outside it. It is not to 



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Brooks.] 284 [February 8; 

be sapposed, bowe^r, ikat *tibe Teller can be traced back to any 
existing form of Polyzoon, or even to any Order of tbia Class. In 
some respects its affinities are with tbe Hippocrepia, in otbers they 
are with the Cheilostomatay and in still otbers they are with Rhab- 
doplenra, and they therefore indieate that the common ancestral type 
of the MoUusca was, not a true Polyzoon, bnt simply a pc^yzoon-like 
form. A lack of agreement in points of detail is therefore no more 
than we should anticipate. In answer to the second objection, thai 
the Polyzoanknltiply by budding, we may refer to the well known 
law, that agamic vegetative multiplication is antagonistic to high 
evolution, and is accordingly replaced by true sexual reproduction in 
the higher forms ^ all classes of animals; as its presence, if it oc- 
cnrred in any of the true Mollusca, could not be regarded as proof 
of an affinity to the Polyzoa, its absence does not disprove such 
affinity* No one will attach much importance to the remaining ob- 
jection, that the Polyzoa are fixed; in ^t those which are developed 
from statoblasti are at first firee and swim by means of the cilia of the 
lophophore. 

Tho similarity between the Polyzoa and true Mollusoa, in general 
plan of structure, has long been recognized, bnt the attempts to con« 
nect the two groups through the Lamellibranchs are so evidently 
incorrect that^ led by the unquestionable affinity of the Polyzoa and 
Braohiopods to the Vermes, many zoologists are now inclined to sep- 
arate these lower forms from the MoUusca proper. As soon as 
we recognize that the Lamellibranchs are not to be regarded as 
typical Mollusca, and that all of the latter «re to be traced back 
to a ^^Veliger'' all ^difficulty seems to disappear^ and it becomes 
plain, not only that the Mollusca and MoUuscoida are related, but 
that they are connected so closely, that the advisability of such a 
division is very doubtful. We also obtain, at the same time, an ex- 
planation of the worm-like early stages of the embryo, exhibited by so 
many of the true Mollusca. The belief, so firmly supported by nearly 
all zoologists a few years since, that the various branches of the ani- 
mal kingdom are absolutely independent of each other, has been al- 
most entirely overthrown by the accumulation of new facts, and the 
constantly increasing tendency to examine them in their bearing upon 
the theory of the evolution of life; and the union or junction of the 
Vermes add the MoUusca, in some manner, has already found a num- 
ber of advocates. 

Prof^ Morse, by hislnTestigations upon the anatomy and embryol- 



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187«.] 285 [Brooki. 

ogy of the Bractiiopods, has shown that, if we consider this group bj 
Itself, it must be placed with Uie Annelids. His investigations also 
show, with equal clearness, that the Brachiopoda are closely related 
to the Polyzoa, and we must therefore regard them as united by the 
" Veliger " to the true MoUusca. If we accept the view that the mol- 
luscan and vermian stems igre thus united, the question,^ — *'Are the 
Brachiopods Worms or Molluscs?" — will be regarded as nothing 
but a verbal discussion; for this class forms the connecting link be- 
tween the two groups, and any sharp line of demarcation does not 
exist. 

We are now prepared to form a provisional phylogeny of the Mol- 
lusca, which may be stated as follows : 

The Brachiopods are derived from the Vermes; and from the 
brachiopod stem, but from something very different frx>m any known 
Brachiopod, the Polyzoa originated. From the polyzoon stem, but 
not from any known Polyxoon, we have the Veliger. The true mol- 
luscs have originated as several offshoots from this veliger stem. Of 
these the Scaphopods seem to be the least specialized, and in most 
respects nearest to the original proto-mollusc. The Pteropods are 
the representatives of another offshoot, to which the Cephalopods 
also seem to belong. The Grasteropods seem to represent several 
distinct branches. The Prosobranchiata and perhaps the Heteropods 
being the descendants of one ; the Opisthobranehs and Pulmonates 
of another ; and the Chitons of a tiiird. From one of these, or per- 
haps from the branch now represented by Dentalium, the Iiamelli- 
branchs seem to have been derived at a very early period, and to 
have diverged considerably from the ancestral form, becoming de- 
graded in certain respects and at the same time specialized in others. 

In this scheme all reference to the Tunicata is omitted, since it 
will be conceded by all embryologists that, whatever the affinities of 
this group may be, they are certainly not with the molluscs. 

I have already referred to ouq serious objection to the view here 
advocated ; that is, that it fails to account for the remarkable embry- 
onic forms of certain Pteropods. Huxley has advocated the view 
that the Pteropoda and Dentalium have an annelidian ancestry dis- 
tinct from that of the remaining MoUusca. This view would help us 
to understand the remarkable larval form of such genera as Pneu- 
modermon, and at first sight would seem to present a way of escape 
from our difficulty. It fails to account for the perfect agreement be- 
tFeeu the veligers of the thecosooMLtous Pteroppds and the Gastero- 



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Brooks.] 236 CFefamaryie, 

pods, however, and thus introdaceB a difficulty at least as great as 
that which it removes. At present the safest plan seems to be that 
of waiting for more knowledge, bearing in mind the existence of this 
at present insoluble difficulty. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder gave an account of the mode in which 
the hind wings of Orthoptera, and especially of Cockroaches 
and Earwigs, are folded in repose, showing the gradual steps 
from a simple to a very complex duplicature, which these 
insects present. 

Mr. Bouv6 exhibited three specimens of rock, lately ob- 
tained from a ledge at Hyde Park within eight feet of each 
other, and pointed out the gradation from true conglomerate 
to true porphyritic structure, which they exhibited. 

Dr. W. K. Brooks exhibited a cast of a viviparous fish 
(Embiotica) from California, showing the young in 8%t%^ and 
also a cast of the monstrous form of the human uterus, 
known as " Uterus bicomisP Both casts were the work of 
Dr. Nardyz of Cleveland, in whose name Dr. Brooks pre- 
sented them to the Society^s Museum. The thanks of the 
Society were voted for these gifts, and also to Messrs. Brooks 
& Torrey, gf Boston, for grinding a number of porphyries 
for the collection. 



February 16, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Forty- 
three persons present. 

Dr. W. G. Parlow made some remarks on the nature and 
mode of growth of the black knot which attacks plum and 
cherry trees. 

The knot is not of insect origin, as some have supposed, but is due 
to a fungus described by Schweinitz under the name of Sphcsria mor- 



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1876.] 237 [Farlow. 

bosa. The spores of this fungus ripen in mid-winter. The disease 
is confined to America, and was communicated to cultivated cherries 
and plums from our wild species of Prunus, viz., P. virginiana, the 
choke cherry, P. pennsylvanica, the bird cheny , and P. americana, 
the wild plum. The remedy consists in cutting o^ the branches two 
or three inches below the knots. The branches removed should be 
burned, and it is also desirable to prevent the increase of the disease 
by destroying the wild choke cherries which, in the region of Boston, 
are covered with black knots. 



March 1, 1876, 

Vice President, Mr. John Cummings, in the chair. Forty 
persons present. 

The following paper was read : — 

Descriptions of New North American Noctuid2B. 
By H. K. Morrison. 

Agrotis perpolita nov. sp. 

Closely allied to A, velleripennis Grote, but at once distinguished 
by the shorter serrations of the antennse of the male. 

Anterior wings black, with a fine purple brown reflection; the color 
is uniform and the ordinary markings are obsolete, except the con* 
colorous reniform and orbicular spots, which are surrounded by five 
black annuli. Posterior wings blackish fuscous, with an ill defined 
terminal black line; fringe lighter, divided by a central dark line. 
Beneath blackish, base and central portion of both wings lighter; 
discal dot distinct, but the usual median line absent Expanse, 39 mm* 

Hab. Orono, Maine. Received from Prof. C. H. Fernald. 

Agrotis Fauna nov. sp. 

Allied to A, messorva Harris, but can be separated by the struc- 
ture of the antennae in the male; they are pubescent instead of ser- 
rate. Color grayish brown, not purely gray, all the lines and spots 
present, the orbicular spot elongate, hatchet-shaped, the space be- 
tween it and the reniform spot blackish; median shade distinct; trans- 
verse lines as in ^. messoria. Posterior wings uniformly gray, with 
discal dots. Beneath gray. Expanse, S7 mm. 



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Morrison.] 288 [March 1, 

Hab. Graudaloup Island (250 miles off the coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia). Collected by Dr. Edw. Palmer; received through Mr. S. H; 
Scudder. 

Agrotis Olivia nov. sp. 

Allied to A. spffcicdvt Grote, separated by the slightly longer ser- 
rations of tlie male antennse, the white instead of dark gray poste- 
rior wings, the whltii^h, disconcolorous, costal shade, and the gray 
instead of bright reddish brown ground color of the anterior wings; 
the ordinary spots open above into the costal shade; they are pre- 
ceded and followed by black marks; claviform spot distinct, followed 
by alight oblique shade; subterminal line irregular; terminal space 
dark. Expanse, 36 mm. 

Hab. Utah (T. L. Mead). 

Agrotis comosa nov. sp. 
•. Related to A, fumalis Grote, diffenng in the structure of the 
antennae in the male; in famalis the antennse are distinctly serrate^ 
each serration furnished with a tufb of short bristles; in comosa^ the 
serrations are reduced to short knobs, each with a larger bunch of 
much longer bristles. Anterior wings yellowl^-gray instead of 
gray; transverse lines as in fumalis^ but the interior line is less 
strongly lobate; median shade distinct; reniform reduced spot to a 
black dot, orbicular apparently absent; subterminal line dentate and 
quite distinct Posterior wings uniform gray. Expanse 38 mm. 

Hab. Colorado (T. L. Mead). 

Agrotis hero nov. sp. 

Related to collaris and baclinodu, but separated from them by the 
unarmed fore tibiee. 

Collar black and disconcolorous above. Thorax concolorous with 
the anterior wings. Anterior wings crossed by two even, simple, 
dark brown lines, the first preceded, the second followed by a pale 
accompanying line ; ordinary spots not very well defined, shaped as 
in coUariSy the orbicular preceded by a black spot; median shade 
distinct, passing between the spots; subterminal space darker brown, 
subterminal line indefinite. Posterior wings uniform dark brownish 
gray, discal dots present. Beneath brownish gray, with discal dots 
and a common diffuse median line. Expanse, 32 mm. 

Hab. Beverly, Mass. Mr. Edward Burgess. 

Agrotis personata nov. sp. 

9. Related to pitychrous Grote. This species I have had in my 
collection for a long time, but I can not consider it a variety of its 



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1876.1 . 239 [Kond^oa. 

ally, of wbick I hare « series ci twenty to twentyrfive specimeifs 
from Long Island (Israel Tepper) Chelsea Beach, Boston, Cape Cod, 
Hampton Beach, K. H., Owl's Head, Maine, etc., and it is found, so 
far*as I know, only near the ocean ; while personata comes from Cen^ 
tral Illinois. The discovery of the male will settle the question of 
its identity. 

Anterior wings dark gray, with all the markings present, but 
c<mfused, irregular and puWerulent ; costal, subterminal and anterior 
half of median space lighter than the ground; ordinary spots small, 
the space between them dark; median shade distinct; subterminal 
line very close to the exterior margin. Posterior wings dark gray, 
with white contrasting fringes. Beneath, the anterior wings are 
black with the costal light; the posterior wings white, with distinct 
discal dots and a regular conspicuous subterminal line. Espansei 
80 mm. 

Hab. Illinois (Mr. G. M. Dodge). 

Agrotis orthogonia nov. sp. 

All the tibise spinose. Antennas of the male strongly serrate. 
Middle of the second joint of palpi black, its outer edge and tip, as 
well as the third joint, light Head and thwax gray. Anterior 
wings dark gray; all the markings well expressed ; half-line followed 
by a white shade line ; basal space lighter than the other portions of 
the wing ; interior line forming a very long outward projection below 
the submedian vein^ and another shorter one on the costa, the line is 
white and distinct, bordered with black on each side, between the 
submedian Mid subcostal veins it is straight, except one lobe below 
the median vein, to which the concolorous, black edged claviform spot 
is attached; subcostal median and. submedian veins white, and con- 
trasting; orbicular spot elliptical, with an outer black ring, within 
which appears a white annulus, enclosing the gray centre; reniform 
spot large and of the usual shape, the portion of its black annulus, 
beneath the median vein, separated and very distinct; exterior 
line rounded, formed of interspaced luniform marks, followed by a 
white shade line ; subterminal space rather lighter than the median 
space, terminal space again dark ; a series of partially effaced cunei* 
form marks, before the white subterminal line, which forms two short 
teeth on the second and third median branches. Posterior wings 
whitish at the base, with a black terminal band imd contrasting white 
fringes. Beneath whitish, the centre of the median space dark, and 



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Monrison.] 240 [Mwfoh 1, 

the neighborhood of the median vein, on the anterior wings, clothed 
with long soft hair. Expanse, 34 mm. 

Hab. Glencoe, Nebraska. Received from Mr. G. M. Dodge. 
(No. 66.) 

The nearest ally of this fine species is the European Agrotis westig- 
ialis Rott. 

Segetia proxima nov. sp. 

Eyes naked. Clothing of the head, collar, thorax and palpi 
coarse and mixed with scales; second joint of the palpi black. Ab- 
domen wanting in the single specimen I have of the species. An- 
terior wings gray, with the lines all faint, confused and rivulous; 
interior line geminate, oblique, exterior very widely geminate, regu- 
larly rounded ; orbicular spot reduced to a black dot, reniform dark 
gray, indistinct, surrounded by several white points ; median shade 
present before the spot ; subterminal line distinct, irregular, with a 
brown tinge, followed by a light line ; a series of black dots, followed 
by a light line at the base of the fringe. Posterior wings whitbh, 
translucent, with an irregular black border, extending up along the 
veinlets. Beneath, the median space of anterior wings is blackish; 
both the wings with yellowish costal borders, tinged with brown; 
the rest of the wings white; fringes yellow at the base. Expanse, 
32 mm. 

Hab. Texas. 

Homoglaea nov. gen. 

Eyes naked, with long lashes. Falpi short and weak. Head drawn 
in. Front smooth and thickly clothed. Antennse in the male, with 
a double row of short, blunt serrations, each provided with a long 
yellow terminal tuft. Thorax stout, with the collar not separated, 
and indeed hardly distinguishable, smoothly but thickly clothed, and 
without tuft». Abdomen short and untufted. Wings shaped as in 
Scopelosoma, All the tibisB smooth and unarmed, the femora clothed 
beneath with unusually long hair. 

This genus is allied to Scopeloaoma, from which it is separated by 
the formation of the antennae. 

Homoglaea hircina nov. sp. 

Head, collar and thorax, dark purple gray. Anterior wings pur- 
ple black; a light dot in the basal space; median lines light gray, 
simple, broad, even and distinct; ordinary spots concolorous, with 
brown annuli ; veins light gray, particularly in the outer half of the 
median space; claviform spot absent; subterminal line tinged with 



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1876.1 241 [M<«rtooii. 

brown, faint; the terminal and subterminal spaces concolorous. 
Posterior wings uniform, grayish fuscous, fringed with white; discal 
dots present Beneath, the anterior wings are dark gray, with con- 
trasting white and black atoms in the costal and apical spaces ; pos- 
terior wings gray, with numerous black atoms and discal dots. 
Expanse, 35 mm. 

Hab. Galena, Illinois. This fine species was received from Mr. 
Thomas E. Bean. (No. 187.) 

Tseniocampa reviota nov. sp. 

Eyes hairy. Palpi brown and disconcolorous. Head and thorax 
uniform, very light gray. Anterior wings of a slightly darker gray; 
the median lines dentate and very faint, the subterminal line clear 
black, very conspicuous, divided into short lines by the veins, obso- 
lete before the costa and inner margin ; ordinary spots large and 
concclorous, the orbicular open above and below, the reniform also 
imperfect, with a black spot in its base; both are surrounded by clear 
brown annuli, the tip of the claviibrm spot also of the same color. 
Posterior wings gray, with white fringes and black discal dots. 
Beneath, with discal dots and an interrupted common median line. 
Expanse, 35 mm. 

Hab. Galena, Illinois. A single specimen taken by Mrr Thomas 
E. Bean. (No. 197.) The black subterminal line is the most im- 
portant character of this insect 

Homoptera penna nov. sp. 

This species is allied to Homnptera gnlbanata lAovr^ yrWinYi Mr. 
Bean has captured in the same locality; it is separated from it by the 
partial obsolesence of the median undulate lines and by the presence 
on both wings of a very heavy continued black band following the 
exterior line, at a little distance* 

This character will also separate it from all the species of the 
genus known to me; several of them have a more or less distinct 
black line in this position, but in none of them is it so broad, heavy, 
so evenly continued over both wings, and so strongly contrasting^ 
with the ground color which, in the new species, is light gray. Ex- 
panse, 40 mm. 

Hab. Galena, Illinois. Received from Mr. T. E. Bean. (No 147.) 

PBOOEKDI^TGS C. S. K» H..— VOL. XVm. 16 MAT, 1876. 



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Bony^.} 242 [March 16, 

Mr. Alex. Agassiz gave an acooant of bia recent studies pn 
the affinities and homologies of the various groups of Echini- 
oderms, and pointed out the relationship of these with the 
Coelenterates. 

Dr. H. Hagen read a paper calling attention to the dangers 
with which the presence of white ants in New England 
threatens us. The importance of a full recognition of this 
source of danger was strongly urged, and measures for les- 
sening and removing it were suggested. 



March 15, 1876. 

The President, Mr, T. T. Bouv6 in the chair. Forty-nine 
persons present. 

The President read the following address : — 

When, five years since, I became President of this Society, I did 
so with much misgiying, haying great (k)ubt of my ability to meet 
the reasonable expectations of those who had urged me to accept the 
exalted position that bad been occupied and graced by such men as 
had preceded me, more especially as I was called upon to immedi- 
ately succeed one so universally loved for his modest worth, so highly 
respected for his rare attainments, so distinguished for his devotion 
to, and his great accomplishments in, science, as was Dr. Jefiries 
Wyman. I could not but feel at the time that it might be far wiser 
for the Society to elect some one better known than myself in the 
scientific world, some one that would bring to it the prestige of a 

I name renowned for successful labor in some of the branches of sci- 
ence, whose cultivation it is the object of our Society to ^ter ; or at 
least some one who, iree from business engagements and devoted 
to > scientific work, might give a large portion of his time and 

rthought to the interests of the Society. I myself proposed the names 
of one or two whom I thought might prove, acceptable, but being 
over-ruled by others finally consented to allow my own to be used in 

. nomination, the result of which has been my service in the high ofiice 

\ to which I was elected for rather more than five years ; whether to 
the gr6at advantage of the Society or not, it becomes me to be silent. 

U have done the best I could for your interests, and shall be content 



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-with, the judgment af t1u>6e with whom I have beea dosely MM^iated; 
aad whose opportuaities . have enabled lihem to see and, to properly 
estimate what, with the kindly support and hearty co-operation of 
others, I have been able to accomplish for 1;he benefit of the Society* 
I now propose to give some reasons why I felt not only willing but 
glad to assufme the duties of the office of Presidenty notwithstanding, 
l^e misgivings before referred to, and why, too, I now as willingly- 
and as gladly resign the position, and ask to be freed from its duties 
and its responsibilities. Before doing this, however, I will briefly 
review my connection with the Society^ both because in n^y experi- 
ence some reasons^ may be found for* my action, and because some, 
reminiscences of earlier days in the history of the Society may not, 
be uninteresting to you. 

I first became a member of the Society in 1834. At that time. Dr.. 
$ei:\j. D. Qreene was President of the Society, and among the actiyjB! 
members whom I call to mind, that is.(tho^ who generally attended 
the meetings and took part in the proceedings), were Dr. Augustus A. 
Gould, Mr. Geo. B. Emerson, Dr. D. Humphreys Storer, Dr. A|artia 
Gay, Dr. Amos Binney, Dr.. Chas. T. Jackson, Dr. J. B. S. Jackson, 
Mr. Chas. K. DilUiyay,. Mr. Ppes S. Dixwell, Dr. Walter Channing, 
Dr. A. A. Hayes, Dr. Jeffries Wyman, Mr. Thos. Bulfinch, Mr. Thoa. 
A. Greene, Mr. C. C. Emerson, Dr. . Samuel Cabot, Mr. Francis A)-» 
ger, Mr. J. E. Teschemacher and myself. The meetings were held 
as now, twice each month, but always in the aflernoon. . 

Dr. Gould was, perhaps, our best general naturalist, his acquaint^ 
ance with the Invertebrata of our Coast being recognized as superior 
tp that of aj^ other observer; and he was a very good botanist. Of 
all the departments of natural history he knew something, and was 
interested in all. Dr. C T. Jackson, Mr. Alger, I)r. Hayes and 
Mr. Teschemacher were mineralogists, find of t^ese Dr. Jackson and 
Dr. Hayes were also good chemists. .Dr. Jackson was likewise a 
geologist, but his knowledge of this science did not embrace much 
acquaintance with fossil remains. In truth, there was but little 
palseontological knowledge among us, and it is now almost ludtciouft 
to recall the proceedings of those days when some unknown fbs^ik- 
were presented to the Society. The first object was to get, if possi* 
ble, some clue to their character. To accomplish this tlie fijssilsi 
in question were referral to some willing member, and as there 
was not great pre-eminence of knowledge on the part of any one re- 
specting them, it made but little difference who was selected. I recol* 
lect well the instancy of a ^ries of the smaller forms of fossil corals 



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BouT^O 244 [March 15, 

being presented to the Society, and the interest excited thereby. One 
of our number, distinguished for his classical culture and excellent 
literary taste, was appointed to elucidate their character and enlighten 
our minds respecting theni# When I mention that Parkinson's *' Organic 
Bemains of a Former World" was owr principle source of palssontolog- 
ical knowledge, and that this was a work not owned by the Society, 
you may judge a£ the task imposed on one who certainly claimed no 
kno^edge of fossils, however eminent he might be in Greek and 
Latin lore, in asking from him a report upon their character. For- 
tunately n recent article in the Am. Journal of Science, by Hildreth, 
enabled our classical brother to present quite an instructive report 
upon. the forms referred to him. 

From this some idea may be formed not only of our lack of knowl* 
edge in this department, but of our lack of means to obtain it. 
£verytbing except the will to learn, was wand ng — books, teachers 
and collections^ from all of which we now derive so much help. 

One effect of our want of experience was the placing of specimens, 
sent to us from abroad, in drawers without proper regard to the im- 
portance of attaching to them any labels that had accompanied 
them, and the consequent mixing together of every thing we re- 
ceived, which led eventually to a considerable portion becoming scien- 
tifically worthless for lack of proper identification. Much that I have 
said of the want of knowledge and experience respecting palaeontolog- 
ical specimens, might be said as well of those of other departments; or 
we should not have suffered one of the most valuable entomological 
collections in the United States to be utterly destroyed under our 
eyes by Anthreni, and the only fine specimen of a cougar ever 
received by us, and now much wanted for our New England col- 
lection, to be scattered to dust by moths. I speak more particularly 
of the pala'ontological collection because it is one with which I sub- 
sequently had the most to do. 

At the time to which I refer, the Society occupied a laige room in 
Tremont Street, over the Savings Bank, and as the building stood 
next north of the King's Chapel burying ground, the whole south 
side received light and made our room a very desirable one for 
the exhibition of our collection. We entered the room, which was 
long {knd narrow, by an end door next to Tremont Street, and at the 
farther part from the entrance, i. «., at the east end, was placed a 
table about which we gathered at our meetings, a number of settees 
being there placed for our aocomimedation. 



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18W.J . 246 [B0UT4- 

The moetingt, aa before stated, were in the afternoon, and were 
conducted, as now, with duo formality; but, as now, the social ele- 
ment was not laeking, and perhaps manifested itself die more readily 
because of our fewer number, and of our xiose contiguitj about the 
ahair> 

An instanee of jocoseness may be not Improperly mentioned^ 
which may recall pleasantly the scene to some of the eldest among 
you. 

One of our number, and one of Uie best of men, Dr. Martin Gay^ 
a near and dear personal friend of mine, had, among numberless 
good traits, one not so /commendable, that of being often tardy. 
One aft;ernoon, just as we had ^ot well into the proceedings, the door 
of our hall, .quite distant from where we were sitting, was opened, 
upon which Dr* Storer, partially riding and looking back, that he 
might see the reason of the disturbance, turned to tiie President and 
quietly announced the arrival of the late Dr. Gay. The latter thui 
acquired the /cognomen of the ^ late " Dr. Gay with many of us, long 
before the phrase became significant of a sad and great loss to our 
number. 

On the left side of the hall, as you 4afitered it, were upright •cases^ 
all, or nearly all, filled with the fine minerak>gieal cabinet .of Dr« 
Jackson, and on the floor were table cases, two rows running length^ 
wise with the room, some containing fossils, but the larger portion 
devoted to the conchological collection belonging to the Soci- 
ety, which was then quite a good one, and under the care of Dr. 
Grould, who took great interest in it. It wias then the custom of 
some of the Curators to be present on days of exhibition and to 
interest Tisitors by their explanations. This was eq>ecially Uie case 
with Dr. C. T. Jackson, who jeldom failed to meet yisitors and to 
gratify them by bis talk upon minerals, and his interesting anecdote 
concerning them. Dc iGould, too, passed much time in Abie way, t^ 
tlie great advantage of his hearers and to the JSociet^. Jdy own 
studies at this period had been mainly in Mineralogy, but as I was 
somewhat interested in geological inquiries, I was asked to become 
a Curator; and the department of Geology was accordingly separated 
irom that of Mineralogy, the fossils at the same Ume<coming under 
my charge, as there was no separate department of Palseontology. 
I state all tlus to giy.e some idea to many of jou not acquainted 
with our early history, of the gradual development of our knowledge 
and of our modes of action in the immature youth of the great Soci- 



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Bdnf^.j 246 * [March 15; 

t/ty that now exerts stich widcslpread influence' in the commnnity, 
and which is- destined to still ' greater usefulness j if those who shai) 
cx)me after us w% be faithful to the great responsibilities soon to be 
transmitted to them. Few of you, now having books at your com- 
mand treating fully of every branch of Natural History; intercourse 
with men fully able to instruct in ' every department of science; 
collections' o^' every character systematically arranged, that may be 
consulted; can have any idea of the great want felt by those of nk 
in the days referred to, lacking all these, and also the means to ac- 
quire them; It seemed in my own department sometimes almost a 
hopeless task to undertake to make out tt fossil species. I have 
worked days over one fossil only to find that no accessible work or 
collection would help me make out its specific character, and I have 
laibored'for years over our early collection of fossils in order to verify 
them, when- weeks would have sufficed If the present means had 
existed for their studyl 

I will' not weary you widi- tk' too full retrospect of the past. The 
records of the early days are full of encouragement for the laborers 
of the future. The influence of the Society was not by any m^ans 
limited to the advantage of those who were members, or even to 
tikiose who could visit its collections and listen to its speakers. Ai 
die period I have referred to, already some of its active members 
were io the field engaged in the great work suggested by the Society 
of making a 'Botanical and Zoological survey of the State, which* 
resulted In the very able reports of Mr. Geo. B. Emerson, Dr. Thad-^ 
di^us' W. Harris, Dr. D. Humphreys Storer and Dr. Augustus Ai 
Gould. . 

' But a new eva was to dawn upon science in otn* country by the' 
adi^^ent of Agassis and the estabHshmentof the Museum of Compar- 
ative Zoology in Cambridge. ' Of the influence of' the latter upon' 
Aie well4>eing of our Society, there may at first have been some' 
reasonable question, though not concerning the great value of thati 
institution to science in general. Experience has, however, abund- 
antly sliown, and every day adds further testimony to the fact, tliat' 
not only has the cause of science throughout our whole country been 
advanced by the establishmient of that great Museum, but that this* 
Society in particular has been, and is now, being benefitted by the 
culture winch has tiiere been given, to a degree beyond what can be 
i^eadily estimated. 



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1876.] 247 [BouTtf. 

One of the most important' events in the Mstwy of the Society, 
and one which led directly to its great development, was the interest 
excited in the mind of our great benefactor, Dr. Wm. J. Walker, in 
our work, mainly through the interest he first felt in Dr. Jeffries 
Wyman, whom he much loved and respected. When moved to take 
some action, he asked Dr. Wyman to bring some business man of 
the Society to him, and I was introduced as such, and as Treasurer. 
From that time Dr. Wyman and myself were frequently called in 
consultation with Dr. WaHter, sometimes at Newport, sometimes in 
Boston: or Cambridge, the ^result of all being the great donations 
which enabled us to buiH this' Museum, and th6 magnificent endow- 
ment bequeathed to us, by which we have chiefly been able to do 
what we have since done as 'a Society to advance science and to. fur- 
ther its cnkure in the communi^. Of course the Society had itself 
g;reat need of experience in order to do its work in the best manner, 
and for want of this ritany mistakes were unavoidably made, greatly 
to our cost afterwards. I shall refer to but two, and to these only 
because oi their great subseqtient effects. One relates to the con- 
struction (rf our new btdlding, the other to the arrangement of our 
collections. The first was in permitting the making of cases in all 
our principal rooms of -a very defective character, costing many 
thousands of dollars, which we have recently been obM^d to rebuild 
at nearly as mtich more cost in order to prevent the destruction of 
our collections, and the other was^ the placing of the collections of 
the several departments without regard to their relations with each 
other, from a lack of prbper appreciation of the importance of ar- 
ranging them in natural sequence, this being now recognized as of 
very great service from an educational point of view. I think I may 
truly say that in^ taking possession c^ our new apartments, the ofiicers 
bt the several departments only thought of securing good accommo- 
dations for the display of the particular collection of each without at 
Ml considering the relation which it might have to others adjoining. 
The riesult was, that however scientifically arranged may have been 
eaeh department, there was no general arrangement oi the whole. 
To Prof. Hyatt was due the suggestion of the importance oi this, first 
expressed in his proposed plan of organization which was adopted 
iof ihe guidance of the oflicers of the Society hy a vote of the Coun- 
cil in July, 1^70. He therein expressed his view in the following 
language: "The Museum of this Society is intended especially for 
the instruetio^ of teachers, general students, and the public f there- 



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Jkmf4.} 248 [Haroh 1ft, 

fore its collecdons should be arranged according to some easily un- 
derstood and comprehensive plan, illustrating the general laws of 
natural science unencumbered by details. All the different depart- 
ments should be connected as closely as possible, and form together 
a series of lessons in the structuro of the earth and its constituent 
parts, and in the organization of the jJants and animals living upon 
its surface." 

The adoption of the plan then proposed by no means implied the 
belief that the Society could rearrange the collections of the differ- 
ent departments so as to bring them into the desired natural 
sequence, but only committed it to be governed by such general 
views whenever found practicable. In truth no one saw how it would 
be possiUe to do it Even President Wyman, though fully recog- 
nizing the great importance of such general arrangement, ezpnessed 
to me that he did not think such rearrangement practicable. 

I now come to the time when by your suffrage I was elected Presi- 
dent. After the brief review I have given of some of the events 
preceding, and a recqgnition on your part of my long experience la 
the Society, you will perhaps be the better able to appreciate the 
reasons which I will give why I felt willing and glad, as before ex- 
pressed, to assume the duties of the office, and why I have been glad 
to retain it until the present time. I fdt greatly indebted to the 
Society for the personal good it had been to me, enabling me through 
its means to acquine knowledge not otherwise wiithin my reach, and 
1 thought that I perhaps might be better able to serve its interests by 
aoeepting the Presidency than I otherwise could. I had to a certain 
extent been made the confidimt of our great benefactor. Dr. Walker, 
and knew undoubtedly better than any one else, excepting Dr. Jeffries 
Wyman, all his wishes coneeming the Society, wishes that I felt it to 
be my duty to have respected and fcdlowed as they deserved to be; 
none of them being otherwise than such as experience has since 
demonstrated to have been wise. His great interest in true scientific 
progress, his earnest desire that the great mass of the people should 
participate in the advantages of a higher culture impressed me 
strongly, and would have alone inclined me to take any position in 
the Society where I could exert an inffuenee in leading it to action in 
harmony with his views. Furthermore, I had a strong and abiding 
belief that die Society might be made one of the most popular char- 
acter, available for the instruction of all who should seek its aid, and 
even be a temptation to thousands of wayfarers, leading them to fol- 



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1876.] 249 \JBouYi. 

low paths of pro^ss they might not otherwise enter; and at the 
same time become one whose thoroughly scientific character and 
action should be recognized the world over. Scientific, I mean, in 
accordance with its aims; for I have always recognized that these 
should be very different from those of such institutions as the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology. Add to these reasons the assurance 
that was given me by all the active members, that my acceptance 
would certainly promote the good of the Society and further my wishes 
regarding its action, and you have my reasons for taking the position. 

Since then all, or most of you know, the great changes that have 
been brought about, and the m.uch that has been done towards 
accomplishing the ends then in view. By as economical management 
as possible, most of the cases througbout the building have been 
altered, so as now to be of the best character for the jn*e6ervation 
of their contents, and this wc»rk will now go on to completion. 
Through much study on the part of the Custodian and other offi- 
cers, and by great labor of many members of the Society extending 
through the years of my service as President, the great change so 
much desired and so necessary for our well being, has been, not with- 
out opposition, accomplished, and thus the strong wishes of all desir- 
ing the highest good of the Society have been realized, or soon will 
be. The collections of the several departments present now, ** begin- 
ning with the minerals, a series of lessons in the structure of the 
earth and its constituent parts, ^nd in the organization of the plants 
and animals living upon its surface." Moreover, there is, or will be 
soon, a separate New England collection for each, which fulfils a 
strong desire long entertained and advocated by me. 

During my term of office there has been consummated, greatly to 
my satisfaction, a hearty co-operation with the Institute of Technol- 
ogy, by means of which we have both been able to accomplish more 
than we otherwise could have done for the advancement of the pur- 
poses for which we were instituted; the increase of science and of 
general knowledge among men. 

Rejoicing that the objects referred to, and many others dear to my 
wishes, have been accomplished, or are in the fair way of being so, 
and with the full recognition on my part that no interest will now sufTer 
by a change, but that, on the contrary, benefit may result, — thanking 
you gratefully that <^portunity has been given me by your support, 
to further projects that I felt important for the welfare of the Society, 
I now cheerfully tender my resignation of the office of Fresidenti 



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Boay^.] 250 [Mwofa 16, 

meaning, neyertheless, ta serve yonr interests «a8 devotedly in the 
future as I have endeavored to in the past. 

There is oHe strong wish of my heart nngratified, one that I hoped 
might in some way be met whilst yet I remained an active member. 
That wish is, that each department might possess a fund for the 
care, proper use and preservation of its objects. With such fnndsl 
there would always be a corps of workers in the Society whose ser- 
vices would be available for instruction, and thus the general objects 
of the Society be the beftter promoted. The great service rendered 
to the Society by the special funds now available for the Library, 
Prizes and the Molluscan Department, are suggestive of the much 
that might be accomplished by the like endowment of other depart-t 
ments.^ 

I must also express the great gratification that has been afforded me 
by the yearly allowance made by Mr. John Amory Lowell, Trustee, 
whereby the Society has been enabled to have lectures upon the sev- 
eral branches of science given in this room, of great value to the 
public; — and by the great generosity of Mr. John Cummings, by 
which the Society has been able to give courses of lectures to tejichers, 
and to do much that it could not otherwise have done in employing 
labor on its collections. 

In Conclusion, allow me to express the hope that the same pleasant 
association that has drawn towards us and kept with us, officers and 
members of the Institutions in our neighborhood, may continue; for 
with them we should have no antagonism. Whatever is for their 
good is for ours, and the greater their success the more, I am sure, 
will our welfare be advanced. 

At the close of the President's address Mr. George B. 
Emerson spoke warmly of the Society's progress during Mr. 
Bouv6's admistration, and of the great regret all would feel 
if he insisted on the acceptance of his resignation, which the 
speaker begged him to reconsider. 

Prof. Wm. B. Rogers pleaded that, as the President hini- 
self admitted unfulfilled plans, be should consent to remain 
in office for the present, at least. He knew of no one who 
had served .the Society so long and zealously, and believed 
that his resignation' would be an irreparable loi^ Both 
Bpeakers^ wer6 wArmly applauded. 



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IBT^.I 261 IScttttder, 

Mt. Bouvfi coi'dially thanked the mefiibets for this ex^ 
pression of kind feeling towards him ; he had, he said, fiilly 
purposed to insist on resigning, but he would now leave the 
question in the hands of the Nominating Committee. Oii 
motion of Messrs. Pickering and Shaler, it was unanimously- 
voted to request the President to withdraw his resignation. 
Mr^ £oiiv4 accoi^ingly conseated to it$ withdraw^ 



Section of Entomology. March 22, 1876. 

Mr. S. Henshaw in the chair. 

The following papere were read : — 

A Century of Orthoptbra. Decade V. — ForfictjlariuB 
(Exotic). By Samuel H. Scudder. 

~ 41'. C^indrogaster nigra. Head Uacky^iinntely punctate, 
somewhat tumid, thinly- covered posteriorly with short <;a8taneoaB 
bristles; in front, opposite the upper base of the antennas, a pair of 
tau-fihaped smooth suloations, thoir> eonvexities inward^ approach^ 
ing nearest each other above, and l]^tween them, and a little -above, a 
slightly transverse impression; mouth-partfr reddish fuscous; 'antennas 
dark reddieh brown, the basal jokit blackish. R^thorax laud meso^ 
thorax ' Uack, punctate, covered^ espemally next the borders, wiih 
recumbent castaneoos bristly hairs; the prolhorax with a slight 
median impression on its anterior half, and on either side two short 
similar kmgHudiaat impressions from the front edge baokwardi 
Femora blackish, the distal extremity and the extreme base of tibin 
luteous; rest of legs castaneous, darkest in middle of tibiss. Abdo- 
men; black, covered beneath profusely, above scantily, with casta- 
neous hairs, golden in a certain light; last segment angtilarly 
produced a little above the base of each of the forceps^ these ate 
short, conical, curved inward throughout,* rather sharply pointed, 
unarmed. Length of body, cxcl. forceps, 11 mm.; length of forceps, 
18 mm. Described from a single feAiale from Para. 

Neither Stal nor Dohrn, the only writers who have treated x>f the 
species of this genus, appeai^ to have seen the Jemale. In the one 
above described, and another which I refer with some doubt to C 



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Seadder.J 252 [Mam^hsa, 

graeilM St&I, the structure of the abdomen ii very different from that 
of the male. The ultimate, penultimate, and to some extent the 
antepenultimate dorsal segments are extremely short ; and the forceps 
also being short, it has the appearance of being partially withdrawn 
within the body; the extremity of the abdomen is thus suddenly, 
bluntly rounded, and the last segment, instead of being conspicuous, 
as in the male, is scarcely visible at all above^ beneath it is rather 
shorter than the others, its extremity broadly and regularly convex. 
As the tegmina and wings of both the females are wanting they 
may be immature, but they are otherwise so perfectly formed, and 
the metathorax resembles so closely that of the wingless genera, that 
I take them for perfectly developed insects, and conclude that the 
females of this genus are apterous. 

42. Labidura auditor. This species differs from L. riparia 
principally in the character of the forceps. In the male these are 
more strongly and regularly arcuate than in L, riparia, not in the 
least curved upward, but lying in a horizontal plane, the middle 
tooth small, and scarcely affecting the curve of the interior edge of 
the forceps. In the female they emrve downward rather than up- 
ward, and curve inward toward the tip more strongly than usual in 
Z. riparia. The wings in both sexes are altogether wanting. In 
size, color, markings and sculpture, it altogether resembles Z. riparia. 
1 cf, 1 ?. Natal. 

48. Chelisoohes oomprimens. Head piceous, smooth, the 
middle of the front a little tumid; mouth-parts dark i«ddi^ brown; 
basal joint of antennae blackish, joints two to thirteen gradually 
growing paler, the three following pale yellow, and the remain- 
ing (eight or more) pale brownish fiiscous. Prothorax blackish cm« 
taneous, the sides slightly marginate, a distinct sharp median sulca- 
tion and a dull semicircular sulcation uniting the front outer angles. 
Tegmina and exposed part of wings dark oastaneous, the latter less 
than half as long as the former, together twice as long as the pro- 
thorax; tegmina docked with a sinuous curve, much as in C. mono 
(Fabr.). Legs dark castaneous, the tarsi luteous. Abdomen dark 
castaneous, profusely punctate, the posterior edges of the segments 
indistinctly beaded; lateral plications of second and third segments 
more distinct than in C. morio, and the whole abdomen not so slender 
as in that species. Forceps almost precisely as in C. morio, rather 
longer, and of the color of the abdomen. Length of body, 12 mm.; 



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1876.1 253 CSendder. 

of antcnnsB, 13 mm.; oftegmina and wings, 5.75 mm.; of hind femora, 
8.3 mm.; of forceps, 5.75 mm. 1 9. Africa. 

I propose the above generic name (derived from xM *ox^^) as a 
substitute for Lobophora Serv., which is preoccupied in Lepidoptera 
(Curtis, 1825). Forficula morio Fabr. is the type. 

44. Anoistrogaster artliritica. Head, antenna, thorax, 
tegmina, wings and legs, covered uniformly and sparsely with short, 
fine erect hairs. Head and pronotum shining blackish brown, the 
head with a reddish tinge; antennie very dark chestnut brown, the 
mouth parts a little lighter ; between the base of the antennae the 
front has a pair of triangular, rather deep impressions. Pronotum 
slightly longer than broad, the sides parallel, the posterior angles 
distinct, the hind border gently convex ; there is a distinct median 
impression half as long as the pronotum, a little in advance of the 
middle. Tegmina and wings very dark chocolate brown, the latter 
with a small luteous spot almost concealed by the tegmina^ tip of the 
tegmina squarely docked. Femora dari^ brown, the rest of the legs 
dirty luteous, the tarsi slightly paler. Abdomen dark testaceous 
above, dark castaneous below, darkest at the sides, on both sur- 
faces profusely and uniformly punctuiate; the abdomen broadens in 
the middle, and besides, the edges of the fourth to the sixth seg- 
ments expand into lateral depressed teeth of eonsiderable size, curved 
backward and shaped somewhat as in ^4 . luctuosa St41. They are 
first directed outward and a little backward, the hinder two with 
their anterior edges sliglitly and roundly excised, but otherwise suf- 
fering but little diminution in width; and then they bend suddenly 
backward and taper to a point, each with a greater or less angulation 
at the bend, most marked in the hinder two; the outer portion of 
the upper is nearly twice as long as that of the lower, and hence 
slenderer, and the middle one stands midway in character between 
the other two. The forceps have the general shape of those of A, 
luctuosa; the basal tooth, in the same place, is very slight and blunt, 
and is followed posteriorly by two or three granulations; the apex, 
which is finely pointed, is armed a little before the tip by a slightly 
recurved small triangular lamellate tooth, before which the edge is 
sparsely, beyond which it is densely pilose. Length of body, 10 mm.; 
of tegmina and wings, 5 mm«; of hind femora, 3.5 mm. ; of front 
lateral abdominal tooth, 1.5 mm.f of forceps, 4.75 mm. 1 d. Brazil. 

45. Forficula variana. Head and pronotum luteo-castaneous, 
the sides of the latter paler. Head smooth, with an ot^kfue^ bioad, 



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and rather . shallow ptraight solcation, c^^ctending from; the middle ^ 
the inner side of the eye backward and inward, nearly followiag tl^o 
suture ; mouth parte dirty luteous, the palpi darker at base ; antennas 
Id-jointed, brownish luteous, slightly duskier at the tips of the joints, 
very minutely pilose. Fronotum smooth, a little depressed in the 
middle, especially at the sides, with a slight median impresse4 line; 
it is a little longer than broad, with the sides very nearly paralleli 
but diverging sUghtly; posterior edge a little convex, the posterior 
angles pretty distinct* Tegmina nearly twice as long as the prono- 
turn, squarely docked at the apex, smooth, brownish fuscous on the 
inner, pale luteous on the outer half; closed wings extending beyond 
the tegmina by a distance nearly equal to the width of the pronotum, 
luteous, the inner edge blackish fuscous, more broadly in front than 
behind. Legs luteous, the tarsi paler, the femora tinged with cas^ 
taneous. Abdomen piceous, the last joint or two dark castaneous, 
the whole sparsely punctate. Fygidium squarely and smoothly 
docked at the tip. Forceps luteous at base, blackish in the middlci 
dark castaneous at the tip. They are rather simple, flattened cylin* 
drical, directed toward each other at the extreme base so as to 
•become attingent, beyond straight, curving inward at the pointe4 
tip; within ihey have a basal triangular expansion, beyond which the 
inner edge is straight to the curved tip, and finely crenulato-dentic- 
nlate. Length of body, 8.75 mm.; of antcnnso, 6 mm. ; of tegmina 
and wings, 8.25 mm.; of hind femora, 2 mm.; of forceps, 2.75 mm. 
1 9. Liberia. 

46. Forficula vellioans. Head luteo-castaneous, smooth, 
slightly tumid; labrum dusky; palpi dull luteous; antennae dark 
brown at base, growing paler beyond, 1 2-jointed, sparsely pilose, 
Fronotum quadrate, longer than broad,, luteo-castaneous, uniformly 
and slightly tumid, the sides parallel, a little marginate, the middle 
with a faintly impressed longitudinal line, the hind margin slightly 
convex, all the angles square. Tegmina about half as long as the 
pronotum, squarely docked at the extremity, smooth, dull luteous, 
the inner edge sometimes a little dusky; wings wanting. Legs 
luteous; the femora, especially the hind femora, a little infus- 
cated. Abdomen rather dark castaneous, profusely and rather finely 
punctate throughout, above and below; pygidium small, squarely 
docked, minutely trifid. Forceps simple, about two-thirds as long as 
the abdomen, flattened cylindrico-conical, attingent, nearly straight, 
but a little upcurved, the pointed tips incurved; inner edge slightly 



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16760 255 [Scudilei* 

rugulose. Length of body, 11.75 mm.,; of -antenney 8^5 mm.; of, 
tegmina, 2.75 mm.; of hind femora, 8.25 mm., of forceps, 4 mm* 
2 ?. Brazil 

47. Forficula luteipes. Dark castaneous, smooth, slightly 
tamid; palpi luteo-fuscous, the tips dusky; antennae (broken) very 
dark fuscous brown at base, paler brown beyond, sparsely pilose. 
Pronotum quadrate, scarcely longer than broad, dark castaneous, 
slightly tumid, the sides straight, flattened, scarcely margined, 
much lighter colored than the middle, a very faintly impressed 
median line; the posterior border gently convex. Tegmina fully 
half as long again as pronotum, dull luteous, broadly margined 
interiorly with fuscous, the tip squarely docked; wings projecting 
but little beyond the tegmina, the projecting portion about half 
as long as the pronotum, colored like the tegmina. Legs uni- 
form luteous. Abdopien very dark castaneous, not punctate, but 
transversely wrinkled with exceedingly fine short wavy lines, occa- 
sionally reduced to punctae. Pygidium small, trifid, the middle tooth 
larger than the others. Forceps simple, scarcely more than half as 
long as the abdomen, slightly depressed cylindrico-conical, attingent, 
nearly straight, but scarcely upcurved ; the pointed tips incurved, 
the inner edge minutely denticulate. Length of body, 10.25 mm.; of 
tegmina and wings, 3,25 mm.; of hind femora, 2.5 mm.; of forceps, 
8 mm. 2 9. Brazil. 

This species is closely allied to F. vellicans Scudd., differing from 
it principally in the presence of wings, the non-punctate abdomen 
and the shorter forceps. 

48. ForfLcula variicornis. Head black, with a reddish 
tinge, with a pair of puckered impressions dividing pretty equally 
the space between the upper bases of the antennae; palpi brownish 
luteous; antennae 10-11 jointed, the basal three or four joints 
brownish luteous, the penultimate joint pale luteous, all the others 
dark brown, verging toward black, all sparsely pilose. Pronotum 
quadrate, scarcely longer than broad, equal, the sides straight, the 
hind border gently convex; the middle of the anterior half a little 
tumid, with an impressed median line, which beyond the intumescence 
changes to a slight carina ; blackish brown, the sides broadly, and the 
hind border narrowly dull luteous. Tegmina about twice as long as 
the pronotum, of a rich dark brown, the tip squarely docked. Pro- 
jecting part of wings of same color, tipped interiorly and minutely 
with luteous, extending beyond the tegmina to a distance nearly 



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Sciidder.] 256 tMiiwh22, 

equal to the width of the pronotum. Legs dull luteous, more or less 
obscui*ed with fuscous, especially just before the tip of the femora. 
Abdomen very dark mahogany brown, the lateral plications of second 
and third segments very prominent, forming blunt conical tubercles; 
surface of abdomen nearly smooth ; last dorsal segment in both sexes 
with a minute circular central depression. Forceps of male nearly 
three-quarters as long as the abdomen, flattened beneath, directed at 
first, for a short distance, horizontally and slightly outward, then, at 
a superior constriction, bent slightly upward and slightly inward to 
the incurved tip, which by a sudden constriction at its base resembles 
a claw; the lower inner edge of the upturned portion is distantly 
and very delicately denticulate, and the middle of the upper surface 
bears a large, laminate, compressed, triangular pointed tooth ; forceps 
of female simple, slender, approximated at the base, and beyond 
attingent and straight to the finely pointed incurved tip ; they are 
nearly horizontal but regularly curved, first downward and then 
upward, minutely denticulate along inner edge. Length of body, 
9 mm. ; of antennae, 7 mm. ; of wings and tegmina, 3.5 mm. ; of hind 
femora, 2.5 mm.; of forceps, 3.5 mm. 3 d*, 4 ?. Brazil. 

49. Forflcula hirsuta. Head dark mahogany brown, the 
front tumid, with a pair of short longitudinal furrows dividing the 
space between the antennae ; palpi dull luteous ; antennae (broken 
beyond fifth joint) uniformly dark mahogany brown. Pronotum 
as in F, variicornis, but uniformly reddish black, the sides slightly 
elevated. Tegmina dark reddish brown, twice as long as the 
pronotum, squarely docked at tip; wings of same color, scarcely 
tipped with dirty luteous. Femora uniform dark reddish brown ; 
rest of legs dull luteous. Abdomen dark reddish brown, the poste- 
rior edges of tiie segments blackish, the lateral plications of the sec- 
ond and third segments prominent, the surface profusely, minutely 
and transversely punctato-striate with abbreviated striae, the last 
segment with a short median longitudinal impression. Head, an- 
tennse, prothorax, base and lower edge of tegmina, exposed part of 
wings, legs and abdomen rather sparsely covered with moderately 
long pile. Forceps nearly as long as the abdomen, very slender, 
cylindrical, approximated at base, beyond attingent, straight to the 
incurved pointed tip. Length of body, 9.75 mm. ; of tegmina and 
wings, 4.5 mm.; of hind femora, 2.9 mm.; of forceps, 4 mm. 1 ?. 
Brazil. 

This species is closely alKed to F. variic&mis Scudd., differing 



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1876.] 257 [Sondder. 

from it principally in the uniform and dark coloring of the antenna 
and femora^ the hirsuteness of the whole body, the punctate abdo- 
men and the slender forceps. 

60. Labia arcuata. Head black, slightly tumid, very mi- 
nutely rugulose, covered with very short pile, palpi dark brown ; an- 
tennae with eleven joints, pilose, blackish brown, the terminal half of 
the apical joint pale. Fronotum black, the sides scarcely tinged with 
testaceous, quadrate, scarcely longer than broad, scarcely narrowing 
posteriorly, the sides straight, the posterior angle well marked, hind 
edge gently convex ; the front half slightly tumid, with a median 
impressed line, the rest flat. Tegmina glistening black, covered with 
short pile, more than twice as long as the pronotum, each as broad 
as the pronotum, the apex roundly excised ; exposed part of wings 
slender, almost pointed, black, nearly as long as the pronotum. Legs 
dark brown, the apical half of tibise and tarsi growing lighter. Ab« 
domen dark mahogany brown above, blackish at the sides, castaneous 
below, covered wholly with short pile. Pygidium very broad, bifid, 
with large teeth. Forceps about a third as long as the abdomen, 
strongly arcuate, trigono-arcuate on basal, straighter half; beyond 
flattened cylindrical, bent inward, nearly straight,, and the apex 
pointed and not incurved; the inner surface is nearly flat, with an 
upper and lower edge ; the upper edge is smooth, with a minute 
tooth near the base ; the lower edge has a larger triangular laminate 
tooth slightly further from the base, and directed a little downward. 
Length of body, 6.4 mm.; of antennae, 4.1 mm.; of tegmina and 
wings, 3 mm. ; of hind femora, 1.3 mm.; of forceps, 1.6 mm. 1 cf. 
Yassouras, one hundred milea north of Rio^ Brazil, taken March 5. 
(B. P. Mann.) 

A Century op Orthopteba. Decade VI. — Forficularla 
(N. American). Bt Samuel H. Scudder. 

61. Neolobophora rolsella. Head smooth, glistening, 
vinous red, the eyes piceous, and the front strongly obscured with 
blackish, sutures of the head deeply impressed, and either hemis- 
phere of the occiput intumescent; antennae blackish fuscous, gradu- 
ally growing a little paler toward the tip, the basal joint often tinged 
with reddish ; thorax and abdomen piceous,. the sides of the protho- 
rax dull luteous. Plrothorax smooth, with very delicate and faint 
infrequent transverse furrows, and a very slight median sulcation. 

FBOOBSDIHOS B. 8. N. H. — VOL. XVIII. 17 MAT, 1876. 



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Scadder.] 258 [March 22, 

Tegmiua slightly longer than broad, the hinder edge cut obliquely in 
a gentle curve, so that when at rest the combined hinder edges form a 
slight concave curve. Wings wanting. Legs luteous, the apical half of 
the fore and middle femora and the apical third of the hind femora 
black, or blackish fuscous. Abdomen very distantly and very 
minutely punctulate, each pit giving rise to a minute short hair. 
Forceps long and very slender, those of the female nearly as long as 
the abdomen, attingent, subquadrate, straight until close to the tip 
and then curved slightly inward, unarmed, vinous red, slightly ob- 
scured at the tip ; those of the male nearly twice as long as the abdo- 
men, the basal half subquadrate, very slightly bowed in opposite 
directions, the inner edges delicately toothed or granulate, with a 
slight but distinct tooth in the middle, beyond which the arms of the 
forceps are subcylindrical, subattingent, and have the curve of the 
female; the basal half is mostly vinous red, more or less obscured, 
especially toward the tip, the apical half blackish. Length of body 
excluding forceps, 12-13 mm.; of antennae, 8.6 mm.; of tegmina, 
2.6 mm.; of hind femora, 3.5 mm.; of forceps, cf, 10.6 mm., $, 6.26 
mm. Described from 4 cf , 3 9, taken by Sumichrast (No. 6) in the 
mountains about Orizaba, Mexico, under bark in the month of Jan^ 
uary. Smithsonian Institution. 

In describing this genus I stated that the terminal segment of the 
abdomen was alike in both sexes; this is not strictly true, that of the 
female narrowing much more rapidly than that of the male. I also 
compared it with the old world Lobopbora, but failed at the time, for 
want of proper material, to see its much closer affinity to Nannopygia. 

62. Thermastris Chontalia. Head black, the mouth parts 
luteo-fuscous, obscured with blackish. Antennae with more than thirty- 
four joints, the first and third joints stouter and shorter than in T. 
&rci«i7iensw, the first twelve and thirteen joints blackish fuscous, be- 
yond growing paler fuscous. Prothorax and tegmina blackish brown, 
with very distant, short, stout, tapering hairs; pronotum nearly flat, 
with a very obscure median longitudinal depression; tegmina sinu- 
ously and obliquely docked at tip, twice as long as the prothorax ; the 
projecting portion of the wings, as in the other species of the genus, 
is covered with hairs like those on the tegmina, and squarely docked 
at extreme tip, but unlike the other species is of the same color as 
the tegmina, with very slightly paler inner edge. Legs dirty yellowish 
brown, the femora covered sparsely with spinous .hairs, the tibiae and 
tarsi blackish above. Abdomen dull -eastaneous, rugulose, the last 



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1876.] 259 [Bendder. 

dorsal segment with a broad median depression, and ihe binder edge 
scarcely produced angularly orer each of the arms of the forceps. 
Forceps flattened triquetral, moderately stout, as long as the teg- 
mina, straight nearly to the tip, then rather sharply incurved to a 
bluntly pointed tip; inner double edge irregularly but rather fre- 
quently toothed, larger at base than beyond, but fbmished with a not 
very conspicuous broad triangular laminate tooth just beyond the 
middle. Length of body, 18.6 mm.; of antennae, 16 mm.; of teg- 
mina and folded wings, 7.76 mm.; of hind femora, 4 mm.; of forceps, 
6.26 mm. 1?. Chontales, Nicaragua. * 

This species differs distincUy from T, brasiliensis and T, Saus&urei 
in having longer forceps and nearly uniformly dark wings, of the 
color of the tegmina. 

63. Spongophora forfex. Dark castaneous brown, the 
mouth parts scarcely paler, the antennae castaneous, becoming infus- 
cated beyond the base. Legs luteo-castaneous, the front of the 
femora blackish fuscous; exposed part of wings pale mahogany brown; 
tip of the tegmina obliquely docked, slightly and roundly excised, 
and next the inner edge strongly produced; posterior edge of the 
abdominal segments with a series of closely <;rowded minute notches; 
terminal segment rugulose, with granulations, which are absent from 
the two stripes down the middle, grow larger and more abundant 
posteriorly, and bead the posterior edge. Forceps reddish, nearly as 
long as the body, depressed cylindrical, very slender, nearly straight, 
slightly incurved on the basal half, beyond straight and then incurved 
at the tip, the extremity of which is pointed; the inner edge is 
slightly rugulose, and just before the middle has a slight tooth. 
Length of body, 22 mm.; of tegmina and wings, 9.6 mm.; of hind 
femora, 4.26 mm.; of forceps, 19 mm. 1 cf from the collection of 
Dr. Schaum; the locality is unknown, but is doubtless some part of 
tropical or subtropical America. It belongs to the group of S. par^ 
allela (Westw.) and S. prolixa (Pscdid. paraUela Dohm nee Westw.), 
but differs from them in coloration, and in the structure of the forceps. 

64. Ancistrogaster gulosa. Head very dark castaneous 
brown with very thin short pile on the occiput; antennae 12-jointed, 
pale, brown, the basal joint darker; palpi pale brown. Pronotum 
dark brown, the sides dull luteous, slightly broader than long (cf ), or 
of equal length apd breadth (9), the sides slightly convex, slightly 
narrowii^ , posteriorly, the posterior margin well rounded; broadly 
depressed just behind the centre with a faintly impressed median line 



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S«add«r.] 260 [HMrcb22, 

and two short longitudinal lines on either side in front; covered 
throughout with thin pile, as also are the tegmina and wings; tegmina 
uniform dark brown, squarely docked at the tip, about twice as long 
as the pronotum, the wings dull luteous. Femora rather light brown, 
covered sparsely with short pile, the tip paler; tibies dirty luteous, 
tarsi pale yellowish. Abdomen dark brown, finely and sparsely 
punctulate, the puilctulations giving rise to short, fine golden hairs, 
which also cover the fdrceps; sides of the fourth and fiflh abdominal 
segments produced posteriorly to sharp angles, but inconspicuous; 
the abdomen itself broadens and thickens regularly on the first three 
or four segments, and then narrows more rapidly, and the sides of 
the last segment are parallel. Forceps of female straight, simple, 
attingent, curving inward at tip and pointed, unarmed excepting a 
slight denticulation on the inner edge. Those of the male resemble in 
their general direction those of A, arthritica Scudd., but are more 
strongly bent near the base; at the extreme base the inner edge 
bears a prominent, rather stout pointed triangular tooth, and the 
lower inner edge beyond it is rudely denticulate; the forceps are not 
depressed as in ^. arthritica, but trigono-cylindrical, the inner 
surface flat; but at the tip, which does not diminish in size, they 
become flattened, and terminate in a nearly straight edge, those of 
the opposite arms meeting ; either end of the blade developing a 
pointed tooth, the preapical one small and bifid, the apical rather 
long and incurved. Length of body, 10.5-18 mm; of antennae, 11 
mm.; of tegmina and wings, 4.5 mm.; of hind femora, 4 mm.; of 
forceps, d*, 4.5 mm., ?, 3.1 mm. Described from 5 d*, 1 V, taken by 
Sumichrast (No. 4) in Puebla, Mexico (terra firigida) in January. 
Smithsonian Institution. 

66. Forfioilla vara. Head dark mahogany brown, palpi and 
antennae dark luteous, the latter 11-12 jointed; head smooth, full, 
devoid of impressions. Pronotum subquadrate, scarcely as long as 
broad, dark reddish brown, the sides lutescent, the front border 
straight, the sides straight and parallel, the posterior angles broadly 
rounded; the surface smooth, with a*scarcely apparent median sulca- 
tion. Tegmina dark brown with areddish tinge, a little longer than 
the pronotum, docked with a slight obliquity ; wings wanting. Legs 
luteous, the outer edge of the tibiae dusky. Abdomen dark mahog- 
any brown, stout and plump, very slightly larger in the middle than 
at either extremity in the male, enlarging slightly to the fiflh dorsal 
segment, and then suddenly tapering in the female; surface nearly 



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1878.] 261 [Sendder. 

smooth beneath, thinly pilose ; last dorsal segment squarely docked 
in the d*, the forceps strongly bowed and widely distant; at base 
these are flattened, directed outward and upward; then, a little before 
the end of the basal third, they are turned inward and curre down- 
ward and again upward, becoming flattened trigonate, and tapering 
to a blunt point ; the inner edge is rather rudely but minutely den- 
ticulate near the base, beyond more or less crenulate ; the forceps of 
the 9 are simple cylindrico-trigonate, attingent, straight, slightly 
incurved next the pointed tip, minutely denticulate along the inner 
edge. Length of body, cf, 8-9.75 mm., 9, 7-8 mm.; of antennae, 6 
mm. ; of tegmina, 1.5-2 mm. ; of hind femora, 2.1-2.8 mm. ; of for- 
ceps, d*, 2.9-3.4 mm.; ?, 2-2.6 mm. Described from 9 cf, 8 9, col- 
lected by Sumichrast (No. 2) at Puebla, Mexico (terra fiigida), in 
January. Smithsonian Institution. 

This species approaches more closely to the European Forf, lipunc' 
lata Fabr. than any known to me, but it still preserves the character- 
istic features of the true Forficuls and not of the genus Anechura, 
which I shall propose in another paper for the European species 
mentioned. 

66. Forfioula tolteoa. Head dull castaneous, smooth, but 
sparsely pilose, slightly tumid, with a transverse brace-shaped slight 
sulcation between the antennas; palpi dirty luteous; antennae with 
the basal joint dirty luteous, beyond light brown, the tenth pale, 
excepting at the extremities (beyond broken). Prpnotum rufo- 
luteous, dull luteous at the sides, scarcely broader than long, well 
rounded posteriorly, with a slightly impressed median line on the 
anterior, and a slight carina on the posterior half, the whole flat, 
sparsely pilose. Tegmina dark brown, twice as long as the prono- 
tum, squarely docked at the extremity, sparsely pilose; the exposed 
part of the wings dull luteous, more or less infuscated on the bor- 
ders, sparsely pilose, as long as the pronotum. Legs luteous, sparsely 
pilose, the femora slightly and broadly fuscous toward the tip, the 
tibiae still less so toward the base. Abdomen rather short and full, 
with convex sides, dark castaneous, more or less blackish toward the 
sides, very delicately and transversely striate, more or less pilose, the 
lateral tubercles rather prominent. Forceps more than half as long 
as the abdomen, depressed cylindrical, simple, straight, attingent, 
incurved at the tip, and very sharply pointed, sparsely pilose through- 
out, the inner edge very finely denticulate. Length of body, 8 mm.; 
of tegmina and wings, 8 mm.; of hind femora, 2.75 mm.; of forceps, 
2.4 mm. 2 9. Mexico, Sumichrast (Smithsonian Institution.) 



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262 \MxMiSa, 

57. Forficula ezilis/ Head mahogany brown, smooth, the 
middle of it slightly tumid, with a pair of broad shallow oblique sul- 
cations between the antennse, meeting each other above and forming 
a ^; labrum dusky; palpi brownish luteous, paler toward tip; basal 
joint of antennsB mahogany brown; remaining joints (at least as far 
as the ninth) reddish brown. Fronotum luteous, rufous in the mid- 
dle, quadrate, slightly longer than broad, scarcely broader posteriorly, 
the sides straight, the posterior bwder gently convex, the surface 
smooth, flat, a little depressed excepting down the middle, which 
bears an impressed line, fading posteriorly. Tegmina nearly twice 
as long as the pronotum, luteous, duskily bordered on the inner side; 
wings scarcely extending beyond the tegmina, similarly colored; legs 
luteous, the femora slightly tinged with brown. Abdomen very slen- 
der, the sides scarcely convex, very dark mahogany brown, the sur- 
face minutely and sparsely punctulate; last segment quadrate, the 
posterior area deeply transversely depressed in the middle, with a 
slight short longitudinal impressed median line at the anterior limit 
of the same, preceded by a pair of submedian, almost equally short, 
very faintly impressed lines; the depression is bordered laterally 
next base of either arm of foreeps by a blunt tubercle. Forceps 
rather simple, a& long as the last four or five dorsal segments, rather 
broad at base, narrowing suddenly beyond, and then depressed 
cylindrical, slender and tapering, gently incurved and finely pointed; 
inner edge slightly tuberculato-denticulate, especially on the basal 
half, a slightly larger tubercle at the middle of the apical half. 
Pygidium a pointed flattened triangular lamina. Length of body, 
, 10.5 mm.; of tegmina and wings, 2.5 mm.; of hind femora, 2.1 mm.; 
of forceps, 3.75 mm. 1 cf. Texas; received from Mr. P. B. Uhlen 

68. Forfioula aculeata. Head uniform rather dark casta- 
neous, smooth, gently tumid, with a pair of oblique, slightly bent 
impressions between the antennae; palpi luteous; antennas 12-jointed, 
dark brown, becoming paler away from the base, the extreme tips of 
some of the basid joints marked with Uackish. Pronotum rather 
dark castaneous, the sides transparent and nearly colorless, quadrate, 
noticeably longer than broad, the sides parallel and straight, the 
hind border a little convex with rounded posterior angles, the sur- 
face smooth, nearly flat, with a broad and very shallow transverse 
postmedian impression, and a slight impressed longitudinal line about 
half as long as the pronotum, starting from a little behind the firont 
edge. Tegmina nearly twice as long as the pronotum, squarely 



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1876.] 263 [Scndder. 

docked at the tip, smooth, luteous, with the inner half, or nearly as 
much, obscured more or less heavily with fuseous. Wings wanting. 
Legs uniform luteous. Abdomen dark mahogany brown, sometimes 
varying to black, with the sides of the second and third segments 
blackish, the lateral plications of the third segment rather prominent, 
all the segments but the last finely punctate, the last as F. ccdifornica 
is described by Dohrn. Forceps of female rather more than half as 
long as the abdomen, simple, slender, attingent, straight to the in- 
curved tip, the inner edge qoite straight to the tip, minutely dentic- 
ulate; those of male about three-quarters as long as the abdomen, 
the basal fourth moderately stout, triquetral, distant, directed slightly 
outward and bent at the very base downward, the remainder bent 
inward, but continuing the downward direction until near the hori- 
zontal tip, cylindrical, slender, nearly equal, until a little beyond the 
middle of the outer half, where at the emission of an inner rather 
stout tooth, it tapers to a fine point, begins an inward curve and 
takes on the horizontal . direction ; the inner side is edged, at base 
laminate, and rather finely denticulato-tuberculate. Pygidium of 9 
stout, bluntly trifid, of S very slender, acicular, half as long as the 
last segment. Length of body, 10.75 mm.; of antennae, 7.5 mm.; of 
tegmina, 3.1 mm.; of hind femora, 2.8 mm.; of forceps, <?, 5 mm., 
9, 3.5 mm. 3 cT, 5 ? from N. York (Coll. Uhler), Northern Illinois 
(Kennicott), Southern Michigan (Prof. M. Miles, No. 124). A single 
specimen is marked Cuba ? 

This species is closely allied to F» caKfornica Dohrn, judging from 
the description, but differs from it in the total want of wings, and the 
structure of the male forceps. It appears also to be nearly allied to 
F. pulchella Serv., a species I do not know, but the absence of wings 
in our species prevents its reference to it. F, pulchella is possibly a 
Labia. 

59. Labia rotundata. Head dark mahogany brown, darkest 
below, but the labrum lighter, uniformly and slightly tumid ; palpi 
reddish brown, darkest on the apical half; antennas more than 10- 
jointed, the basal joint reddish brown, beyond a little duskier, the 
whole briefly pilose. Pronotum nearly as broad as the head, reddish 
luteous, paler at the sides, scarcely longer than broad, the posterior 
angles very broadly rounded, but the hind margin otherwise straight; 
it is depressed excepting in the middle of the front half, on which is 
a finely impressed median line; lateral edges almost marginate. 
Tegmina about half as long again as the pronotum, dull brownish 



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flendder.] 264 [MaiohZS, 

luteous, sqaarely docked at tip ; wings extending but a little beyond 
the tegmina^ blackish. Legs luteous. Abdomen very broadly ex- 
panded) the sides unusually convex, blackish brown above, the apical 
joints and whole under surface mahogany brown ; surface very finely 
longitudinally striate. Pygidium large, truncate, conical; forceps 
scarcely one-third the length of the abdomen, simple, widely sepa- 
rated, cylindrical, straight, incurved at tip, finely pointed, briefly 
pilose, wholly unarmed. Length of body, 6 mm.; of (ten joints of 
the) antennsB, 2.75 mm. ; of t^mina and wings, 2 mm.; of hind 
femora, 1.6 mm. ; of forceps, 1.5 mm. 1 9. Mexico. 

60* Labia brunnoa. Head rather dark castaneous, smooth, 
slightly tumid, with two faint, broad^ short, shallow, nearly longitudi- 
nal impressions between the antennsB ; mouth parts luteo-castancous. 
Antennae 11 -jointed, luteo-castaneous. Pronotum nearly as broad as 
the head, scarcely broader posteriorly than anteriorly, of equal length 
and breadth, quadrate, the posterior angles rounded, and the hind 
border otherwise straight, slightly tumid anteriorly, with a slight 
median impressed line, which posteriorly is supplanted by a pair of 
closely approximated similar lines, rather dark castaneous, broadly 
bordered on the sides and hind margin with luteous, which is sepa- 
rated from the castaneous by a blackish fuscous belt Tegmina 
castaneo-fuscous, darkest next the base, fully half as long again as 
the pronotum, squarely docked at the tip; wings rudimentary, use- 
less. Legs castaneo-luteous, the femora slightly infuscated. Abdo- 
men dark castaneous, the posterior borders of the segments marked 
with blackish, the sides of the abdomen somewhat convex, the lateral 
plications of second and third segments rather slight, the surface very 
finely and faintly punctulate. Pygidium of male very coarse and 
•tout, bluntly conical and truncate. Forceps of male more than half 
as long as the abdomen, simple, trigono-cylindrical, a little depressed, 
rather stout, horizontal, gently incurved, with a basal and preapical 
slight triangular depressed pointed tooth on the inner edge; the 
apex bluntly pointed, depressed. Forceps of female (pupa) about 
one-third as long as the abdomen, simple, straight on the middle 
half, but as a whole slightly sinuate, horizontal, depressed, but 
broadly ridged above, the inner edge delicately toothed, fading out 
toward tip. Length of body, 6.5 mm. ; of antennas, 2.8 mm. ; of 
tegmina, 1.5 mm.; of hind femora, 1.5 mm. ; of forceps, d*, 2.25 mm., 
9 (pupa), 1.6 mm. 1 <f, 1 9. Cuba (P. B. Uhler). 



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1876.] 265 [Scnddtf. 

Description of Threb Species of Labia from the South- 
ern United States. By Samuel H. Scudder. 

Labia guttata. Head castaneous black, the labrum dark luteous 
and the parts above luteo-castaneous; surface smooth, shining, a lit- 
tle tumid, with two pair of inconspicuous puncta, one above the 
other, between the antennae; palpi luteous; antennse 12-ld'jointed, 
luteous at base, growing infuscated beyond, the apical half brownish 
fuscous, the whole sparsely pilose. Pronotum slightly narrower than 
the head in front, of equal width with it behind, of the color of the 
head, with sides narrowly, but distinctly, and hind border very 
broadly, but inconspicuously, dull luteous; surface smooth, nearly flat, 
with a slight median impressed line; sides slightly marginate ; hind 
border scarcely convex. Tegmina very dark castaneous brown, half 
as long again as the pronotum, tip squarely docked; exposed part of 
wings half as long as the tegmina, brownish fuscous, with a large, 
slightly longitudinal, clear luteous spot in the middle of the base, and 
the entire edge inconspicuously and narrowly margined with dull 
luteous. Legs uniform bright luteous. Abdomen with the three 
or four basal joints blackish, beyond blackish castaneous, the termi- 
nal joints rich dark castaneous; sides nearly parallel in the cf, some- 
what convex in the ? , the lateral plications of the second and third 
segments slight, the surface minutely punctured, but the last segment 
nearly smooth; this segment is quadrate above in the male, with 
straight hind border, scarcely depressed posteriorly in the middle, with 
a short median impressed line not quarter the length of the segment, 
near the hind border; in the ? the dorsal segment is tapering, and 
has a distinct longitudinal impressed line on the whole apical half of 
the Segment. Pygidium of d" as in Z. Burgessii, Forceps of 9 of 
the color of the abdomen, but growing darker toward the tip, mod- 
erately stout, more than half the length of the abdomen, depressed 
trigonate, with a superior ridge, slightly upturned, slightly incurved 
on apical half, which is almost laminate and bluntly pointed, the 
inner edge rugose, with a slight blunt extreme basal tooth; forceps 
of d* rather slender, rather more than half as long as the abdomen, 
shaped as in L, Burgessii, Length of body, 6 mm.; of antennse, 3.5 
mm.; of tegmina and wings, 3.1 mm.; of hind femora, 1.6 mm.; of 
forceps, cf, 2.5 mm., ?, 2.25 mm. 1 cf, 2 ?. Texas (G. W. Belfrage). 

This species agrees better than any I have seen with For/, pulchella 
Serv., judging from the imperfect descriptions of Serville; but it is 



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Scndder.J 266 [March 23, 

iQuch smaller tlian that species, does not agree with it in the propor- 
tion of its parts, and has no such disparity in the length of the for- 
ceps in the two sexes. The forceps of the male of L, guttata pos- 
sessses a postmedian tooth, which could hardly have been overlooked 
by Seryille, and the parti-colored abdomen, if a constant character 
would distinguisli it from Senrille's species. It curiously resembles 
Spongophora brunneipennis Serv. 

Labia Burgessii. Head rather dark castaneous, tumid, with 
two slight depressions between the antennae, lower part of front, 
labrum and palpi pale luteous. Antennse 13-jointed, the basal two 
or three joints pale luteous, beyond brownish luteous becoming dusk- 
ier toward the tip, the joints sparsely pilose. Pronotum as broad 
anteriorly as the head, broadening posteriorly a very little, sides 
straight, posterior border gently convex, the front portion very 
slightly tumid, a slightly impressed median line, sides slightly mar- 
ginate and a little paler than the slightly infuscated luteous disc. 
Tegmina fusco-luteous, but little longer than the pronotum, squarely 
docked at the apex; wings nearly obsolete, useless. Legs very pale 
luteous, with a few scattered hairs. Abdomen rather long, with 
nearly parallel sides, especially in the male, dark rich castaneous 
with dusky incisures, the last joint generally a little paler; lateral 
plications of second and third segments slight; last segment of male 
quadrate, twice as broad as long, of female subquadrate, tapering, 
about two-thirds as long as broad, of both depressed in the middle 
posteriorly, with a very short longitudinal impressed line in the ante- 
rior half of the depression, and next the inner base of the forceps, 
especially in the male, a minute blunt roughened tubercle. Pygidium 
of female small quadrate, scarcely longer than broad, minutely trifid, 
or rather armed apically with three minute teeth ; of male large, 
quadrate, more than twice as broad as long, the outer angles pro- 
duced to a minute point, the posterior border sinuato-convex with a 
slight point, more or less distinct, near the middle of either lateral 
half. Forceps of 9 not more than one-third the length of the abdo- 
men, simple, trigonate and straight on basal half, flattened and 
incurved on apical half, the inferior inner edge roundly and slightly 
excised at base, and beyond minutely and bluntly denticulate as far 
as the middle, the superior edge similarly denticulate on the basal 
half with a slightly more prominent tooth at the base. Forceps of d* 
about one-half the length of the abdomen, slender, horizontal, 
gently arcuate, longitudinally channeled on basal third above, de- 



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1876.] 267 [Scnddor. 

pressed on apical half, scarcely ti4>eriDg and bluntly pointed, the infe- 
rior inner edge with a basal depressed distinct laminate pcnnted tooth, 
the laminate^ more gently sloped, anterior edge of which is minutely 
denticulate, the inner surface with a simOar but not laminate and 
blunter tooth a little farther from the apex than the basal tooth is 
from the base, the apical tooth occasionally subobsolete. Length of 
body, cT, 6.75-8.25 mm., 9, 7.9-9.35 mm*; of antennae, 2.6-4.75 mm.; 
of tegmina, 1.5^1.9 mm.; of hind femora, 1.4-1.7 mm.; of forceps, d*, 
2.5-8.5 mm., $, 2.15-3 mm. 7 <f, 7 ?, and 7 immature specimens. 
Pilatka, Florida, Feb., 1868 (E. Burgess). 

The pygidium of the immature ? is bifid, and the forcepa resemble 
those of the mature animal, but are simpler, irregularly denticulate 
almost to the tip and lack the regular basal excision. The pygidium 
of the young cf is also bifid, 4ind as long as broad, and the forceps 
closely resemble those of the immature female, but are slenderer, 
more cylindrical, and not so closely attingent. It is apparently a 
female of this species, but with inaccurate coloring, which is figured 
in Glover's Illustrations of N. Aiji. Entomology, Orth., pi. vi, fig. 19, 
and credited to New York. 

Labia melancholica. Head reddish black, the lower part of 
the front and labrum reddish luteous, blotched with blackish, the rest 
tumid, smooth, shining. Palpi rather bright luteous. Antennse 13- 
jointed, bright luteous on basal third, beyond growing more and more 
fuscous to the completely dusky tip, the joints longer than usual, but 
distinctly moniliform, very sparsely pilose. Pronotum slightly broad- 
est ■ postmorly, and here as broad as the head, tumid in a large 
semicircular area in front, and here reddish black, the remainder flat, 
rather dark luteous; it is a little longer than broad, the sides slightly 
margin ate, the posterior angles broadly rounded, the hind border 
Otherwise scarcely convex; median impressed line very slight. Teg- 
mina reddish black, nearly twice as long as the pronotnm, the 
extremity squarely docked with a slight obliquity; exposed part of 
wings nearly two-thirds as long as the tegmina, slender, blackish 
castaneous. Legs luteous, the middle and hind femora slightly cas- 
taneous. Abdomen long and slender, the sides nearly parallel, dark 
mahogany brown, blackish toward the base, lighter beneath, shining, 
the surface distantly and very finely and slightly wrinkled or sub- 
rugulose; lateral plications inconspicuous; last segment slightly taper- 
ing, two-thirds as long as broad, smooth on either side of the middle, 
slightly tumid and rugulose next base of forceps, and between de- 



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Sendder.] 268 |lffuoh22, 

pressed with a short median longitudinal impressed line. Forceps of 
female less than half the length of the abdomen, moderately stout, 
simple, nearly horizontal but slightly curved, the convexity down- 
ward, depressed trigonate with a superior ridge, tapering regularly, 
straight on the basal two-thirds and then gently and regularly in- 
curved, the tip bluntly pointed; inner edge with a superior small 
basal bifid tooth, and on the inferior edge slight denticulate sinuations 
on the basal half. Length of body, 8.25 mm.; of antennse, 4 mm.; 
of tegmina and wings, 3.6 mm.; of hind femora, 1.75 mm.; of forceps, 
2.1 mm. 1 9. Waco, Texas; collected by G. W. Belfrage on Feb- 
ruary 24th. 

A slender, gracefid and very dark colored species, nearly related 
to the almost apterous X. BurgesaiL Probably the male forceps of 
the two species will prove to be somewhat similar. 



Obthoptbra from the Island of Guadalupe. 
By Samuel H. Scudder.] 

The four Orthoptera described below comprise all the species that 
were collected by Dr. E. Palmer during a recent visit to the Island 
of Guadalupe, off the coast of Lower California. Two of the spe- 
cies, as will be seen, also occur in the southern part of California, 
and one of them also in Mexico; the third Acridian will very proba- 
bly be discovered there, but the Gryllus, which appears to be more 
nearly related to G, peruvianus Sauss., than to any other species, will 
not improbably prove indigenous, and is remarkable for the brevity 
of its tegmina and wings. None of them appear to have been de- 
scribed. 

Gryllus insularis. Of medium size. Head shining black, 
tumid, with a broad shallow depression between the lateral ocelli and 
just above the median ocellus; antennas nearly twice as long as the 
body, black, growing a little testaceous from end of the basal third 
toward the tip; middle of mandibles and galea more or less tinged 
with reddish; palpi blackish brown. Pronotum black, shining, nearly 
twice as broad as long, with a slight median impressed line more 
distinct in front; front border straight, or scarcely angulate in front, 
the angle opening forward; hind border straight, or slightly full in 
the middle, very delicately marginate, laterally with a few curved 



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1W6.1 269 [Scudder, 

black bristies. Tegmina rather dark testaceous, slightly more (cf ) 
or slightly less (9) Uian half as long as the abdomen, rather broad, 
the reticulation prominent. Wings scarcely as long as the tegmina* 
Fore and middle legs, as well as the sternum, blackish; the sides 
of tbe femora, under surface of the tibise and all but the upper edge 
of the tarsi, suffused more or less with dark red. Hind femora ex- 
tending beyond the end of the abdomen, large and tumid, reddish, 
excepting the blackish tip; hind tibiae and tarsi dark fusco-castaneous. 
Abdomen black; cerci nearly as long as the abdomen, dark brown, 
and clothed with black hairs; ovipositor as long as the body, reddish 
testaceous, with a black base and blackish tip, and a couple of late- 
ral black lines. Length of body, cf, 18 mm., ?, 20 mm.; width of 
pronotum, c^, 6.25 mm., 9, 6.5 mm.; of antennas, 9, 39 mm. ; of teg- 
mina, d", 7 mm., V, 6-7 mm.; of hind femora, cf, 12.5 mm., ?y 13.5 
mm.; of cerci, 9, 13 mm.; of ovipositor, 19 mm. 

1 cT, 2 9. Guadalupe Isl., off Lower California (E. Palmer), 
specimens dried afler immersion in alcohol. 

Acridium vaguin. Size of A, americanum (Drury). Head 
Tarying from livid to light clay-brown, marked with black ; the whole 
lower half of the head and the region behind the eyes, is heavily 
blotched with it, in the latter case, mostly arranged in oblique specks, 
while the rest of the face is serially punctate with black, especially 
on either side of the carinae; on either edge of the frontal costa 
the black dots are c]ustei*ed into a straight black stripe, which 
continues past the eyes over the vertex to the back of the head; a 
black stripe also runs from the lower edge of the eyes to the lower 
hinder edge of the head (these colours become partially or wholly 
obliterated after immersion in alcohol) ; the vertex is slightly concave, 
the lateral foveolaB flat, equal, punctate, the frontal scarcely contracted 
between the antennae, slightly widening below, a little channelled at 
and a short distance below the ocellus; palpi livid, flecked with fus- 
cous ; antennae pale cinereous, a little lighter at the tip. Dorsum and 
whole posterior lobe of pronotum grayish cinereous, or clay-brown, 
obscurely flecked with longitudinal dashes of blackish fuscous, espe- 
cially upon the anterior lobe; lower third of lateral lobes fusco-luteous, 
surmounted by a very broad blackish belt which fades on entering 
the posterior lobe; anterior lobe faintly rugulose, posterior coarsely 
punctate, both with an equal, blunt, not greatly elevated median 
ridge, cut by transverse furrows in the middle, in the middle of the 
anterior half and in the middle of the second quarter; front msrgin 



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Scttdder.] 270 [March 22, 

slightly full ; bind margin bent at a right angle, the angle broadly 
rounded. Tegmina with the basal three-fifths pale clay-brown, the 
apical portion nearly vitreous, the whole very heavily flecked with 
blackish fuscous, rather lighter apieally; these markings are present 
on the upper area of the closed tegmina only as minute spots or dots, 
but along the median area, commencing at the very base, they form 
longitudinal quadrate patches, broadening, becoming less compact 
and less intense away from the base; the apical half is filled with 
small, not very unequal, squarish patches, irregularly and profusely 
distributed. Wings pellucid, scarcely fuliginous, with a faint yellow- 
ish tinge at the base, all the nervures black, eiccepting at the extreme 
costal border, where just beyond the middle some of them are ferru- 
ginous. Hind femora pale hoary blue, with very pale yellowish 
brown oblique rays on the sides, faintly and distantly punctate with 
black, with faint ferruginous outer and superior carinae, the upper 
surface broadly banded with black in four broken bands; hind tibiae 
dusky plumbeous, the upper surface blackish, excepting at the tip, 
the spines white, with the apical third black. Length of body 45- 
52 mm.; of antennae (18 est.)-I5 mm.; of pronotum, 9-10.5 mm. ; of 
tegmina, 48-53.5 mm.; of hind femora, 25-28 mm: 

8 ?. Island Guadalupe, off Lower California (E. Palmer); San 
Diego, California (J. Behrens); California (H. Edwards). 
This insect belongs to the division Schistocerca of St41. 
Trimerotropis vinculata. Ash* gray, blotched with dark fus- 
cous; foveolae of the head distinct, the costas being prominent through- 
out ; tip of fastigium with a rather deep circular or posteriorly angu- 
lated pit having abrupt sides, reaching the margins of the lateral 
foveolae; antennae dark brown, very obscurely annulate with darker 
and lighter colors. Median carina of pronotiim distinct only on front 
lobe, and cut behind the middle by the transverse sulcus, the hinder 
portion of the anterior lobe somewhat corrugate; hind border of pro- 
notum forming a right angle. Tegmina as long as the hind legs, the 
basal third testaceous, with a fuscous cloud on its apical third, and 
fuscous dots sprinkled over the rest; middle third ashen, with a fus- 
cous cloud traversing the entire breadth of the wing in the middle, 
broadest centrally; apical third pellucid, sprinkled with small fuscous 
spots, fainter than the previous ones, closely clustered basally, distant 
and fainter apieally. Wings very faint lemon-yellow at base, pellucid 
with black nervules 2A apex, and near the middle a broad band of 
blackish fuliginous ; it oommences on the middle of the costal margin, 



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1876.] 271 [Scndder. 

half as broad as the tegmina, suddenly broadens by a narrow interior 
shoot to double or more than double its former width, and then 
passes nearly at right angles to the costal border, but directed a little 
obliquely outward, slightly broadening as it ^oes, to the outer mar- 
gin, which it turns toward the anal angle, narrowing and fading 
until it has traversed nearly or quite three-quarters of the anal area; 
its margins are ill defined and slightly irregular, but its general 
form is a sickle-like curve, which greatly resembles that of most spe- 
cies of Spharagemon. Hind femora ash-gray, with two or three 
faint, ill defined, slightly oblique fuscous bands. Hind tibiae yellow, 
the spines black tipped. Length (of an average specimen), cf, 19 
mm., ?, 28 mm.; of antennte, d", 8 mm., ?, 9.75 mm.; of tegnnna, 
<?, 24mm., ?, 30 mm.; of hind femora, cf, 11 mm., 9, 13.5 mm. 

6 cf, 9 ?. Guadalupe Island, off Lower California (E. Palmer); 
San Diego, Cal. (H. Edwards, No. 9). Mexico, (Coll. Schaum). 

Trimerotropis lauta. Head Uvid gray, completely sprinkled 
with fuscous dots, giving a fuscous appearance to the upper surface; 
antennae dirty dull luteous, annulate, with dark fuscous on basal 
half. Pronotum flat above, the front lobe dirty yellow, its posterior 
half tuberculate ; posterior lobe livid, heavily dotted with reddish 
brown on the little rugosities; upper half of lateral lobes reddish 
brown, lower half like the head. Tegmina scarcely shorter than the 
hind legs, obscure pellucid on basal half, heavily flecked with light 
brownish fuscous blotches, mostly concentrated into a large broken 
patch, occupying most of the basal third of the wing, and a triangular 
patch in the middle of the wing, its apex next the costa; outer half 
of wing pellucid, sprinkled almost uniforaaly with small moderately 
distant subequal faint fuscous spots. Wings pellucid, with no trace 
of any band, a few of the apical cells filled with a fuscous cloud. 
Hind femora reaching the tip of the abdomen, ash gray, with a pre- 
median and postmedian narrow lateral oblique brownish fuscous 
stripe. Hind femora livid, flecked with fuscous, with a faint pale 
prebasal annulus, the apex infuscated and the spine-tips black* 
Length of body, 15.5 mm.; of antennse, 8.5 mm. ; of tegmina, 18 
mm. ; of hind femora, 8^ mm; 

1 cf . Guadalupe Island, off Lower Cidifornia (E. Palmer). Dried 
afler immersion in alcohol. 

Remarkable for the entire absence of a band, which in the other 
Guadalupe species, T, vinctdata, reaches the extremest dimensions. 



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KU«0.] 272 [i^nrflS, 

April 6, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Thirty-one 
persons present. * 

The following paper was read : — 

The Geological Agency of Lateral Pressure exhibited 

BT CERTAIN MOVEMENTS OF RoCKS. Bt W. H. NiLES. 

Probably no form of geological power has been more efficient in 
the formation of the fundamental features of the earth than the 
lateral pressure occasioned by the contraction of the globe. That 
the strata, yielding to this force, have been flexed and folded, and 
that by its action mountain chains and continents have received 
their elevation, is now a commonly entertained belief. While nu- 
merous well observed facts corroborate the opinion, that lateral 
pressure must have been one of the most constant and efficient geo- 
logical agencies of the past, few have enjoyed opportunities for calmly 
witnessing its operations, or for quietly studying the processes of its 
action. 

It is the object of this article to consider the evidences of the 
present activity of this power which are disclosed at certain local- 
ities by movements of rock and associated phenomena. For a 
partial description of these evidences the reader is referred to a 
preliminary paper upon ** Some interesting Phenomena observed in 
Quarrying/' published in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Katurid History, Vol. XIV. A further explanation of the charac- 
teristics of the force manifested has been given in a paper *^ On some 
Expansions, Movements and Fractures of Rocks, observed at Mon- 
son, Mass.," and published in the Proceedings of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. XXII, Part 2. 

The observations recorded in these papers were considered as 
establishing the following conclusions respecting the rock at Monson: 
1. That it has been brought into a compressed condition, by a pow- 
erful lateral pressure acting only in a northerly and southerly 
direction ; 2. That when opportunity is presented, the compressed 
rock expands with great energy, often bending, folding and fracturing 
the beds, and sometimes producing sudden and violent explosions, 
rending and displacing the rock, and occasionally throwing stones 
and other debris into the air. Whether these phenomena were to be 



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1876.] 273 CNiles. 

considered as local peculiarities or as manifestations of a widely dis- 
tributed power was left an undecided question, with the hope that 
observations at other localities might determine the restriction or the 
distribution of this force. Some additional and important facts have 
been obtained at this and at some other localities, which are here pre- 
sented for the purpose of considering them in connection with those 
already published, as evidences of the existence of a widely distrib- 
uted lateral pressure now acting as a powerful geological agent. 

OBSERVATIONS AT BEREA, OHIO. 

. Soon after the appearance of the last mentioned article in the 
Proceedings of the American Association, I was informed that ^* very 
similar or identical movements '' were known to occur in the sand- 
stone quarries at Berea, Ohio. Subsequently my correspondent, who 
modestly requests not to be quoted by name, visited the locality in 
search of facts, and has kindly furnished me a comprehensive de- 
scription of the quarries and the phenomena. I have since visited 
the locality, and although the season was unfavorable for observation, 
enough was seen to prove the correctness of the statements I had 
received, and to enable me to determine some additional charac- 
teristics of the force manifested. 

The fractured condition of the rock, in several places where it had 
been disturbed by the processes of quarrying, furnished convincing 
evidence of the action of some powerful agency. The peculiar 
characteristics of these fractures showed that they had been produced 
by the exercise of a force in a nearly horizontal and not in a vertical 
direction. At the time of my visit there was considerable ice in the 
quarries, and it is hence evident that the rock was not expanded at 
that time by the agency of heat, while the concurrent testimony of 
the proprietors and operators represents the movements under consid- 
eration as occurring in all states of temperature and weather. When- 
ever the processes of quarrying have established certain known 
conditions, affecting the form and extent of the undisturbed rock, as 
in the quarries at Monson, Mass., the force manifests itself in the 
phenomena produced. For an adequate representation of these con- 
ditions, some description of the locajity and of the method of quarry- 
ing is necessary. 

The quarries at Berea are about thirteen miles southwest of Cleve- 
land. The rock is the Berea Grit, of* the Waverley Group. Its 

PBOOUXDINaS B. 8. H, H. — VOL. XVni. 18 JULY, 1876^ 



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mies.] 274 [Aprils, 

cbaracteristicS) its geological relations and its economic value, are 
ably presented in the Reports of the Geological Survey of the State 
by Dr. J. S. Newberry, with additional descriptions of its appearance 
at some other localities, by his assistant, Mr. M. C. Read. The stone 
at Berea has a fine, homogeneous texture, and its prevailing color is 
gray. It is well known as a flagging and building stone, and still 
further by the grindstones which are extensively manufactured from 
it. The beds are of different thicknesses, and are nearly horizontal 
in position. An important part of the work of quarrying is the cut- 
ting of trenches in the beds, which are just wide enough for the 
men to work in. Where the quarries are well opened, these are 
usually cut perpendicularly into the working face. There are quar- 
ries at Berea which have an easterly and westerly working face, btit 
I was not able to make any satisfactory observations there at the 
time of my visit. In the quarries here described, the course of their 
working faces is northerly and southerly, hence the trenches referred 
to in this description had an easterly and westerly course. 

In contracting for this work it is necessary to stipulate that the 
trenches shall not be begun or deepened throughout their entire 
lengths at the same time. When this has been attempted, it has 
been found that on approaching the lower surface of a bed with a 
long cutting, the stone remaining at the bottom of the channel has 
been broken or crushed, and portions of the stone desired for use 
have been so fractured as to be rendered worthless. Such a method 
would lessen the work of the trenchers, as they are called, for they 
would have some of the stone broken for them without labor. But 
desirable as such a utilization of a geological force might be to the 
contracting workmen, it would be disastrous to the proprietors. It is, 
therefore, necessary to stipulate that the trenches shall be cut in short 
horizontal sections, and that each section shall be cut through to the 
bottom of the bed before extending the length of the channel by 
deepening another section. Even then the pressure is apparent and 
oflen materially assists the workmen in excavating that part of the 
«tone in the channels which forms the lower portion of the bed. 
But this method prevents the laterally acting force from being greatly 
concentrated along any considerable portion of the lower edge of the 
bed, and the desirable stone is in this way saved from destruction. 
I give a more detailed account of the method of quarrying, for the 
purpose of illustrating how somewhat confficting interests lead both 
workmen and proprietors to a careful and constant recognition of the 



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1876.] 275 [NllM. 

existence of a natural force affecting the material with which their 
gains are associated, and how the nature of the force determines the 
method of work. 

Even with this care sudden lateral slippings of the stone have 
frequently taken place, especially when the channels are nearly com- 
pleted. These have usually been attended by cracking and explosive 
sounds, and sometimes the movements have been of such violence as 
to throw pieces of stone from the surface, or to crush portions of the 
rock into small fragments. In these instances it has been found that 
the portion of the bed which has moved has also expanded. The 
evidences of this expansion are decisive, for the stone permanently 
retains its enlarged dimensions, and the channel remains very per- 
ceptibly narrower than it was before. I am informed that there have 
been instances in which the expanding rock has not only closed the 
channel, but has also pressed against the stone which was upon the 
opposite side of the trench with such force that it has been broken. 
On one occasion the edge of the expanded portion of a bed was ob- 
served thrust over the other edge, so as to bring one portion vertically 
above another part of the same bed, which was originally some fifteen 
inches or more from it horizontally, thus producing, upon a small 
scale, a reversed fault. Of the lateral movements and expansions of 
the rock there can be no doubt, and the fact that such phenomena 
occur whenever like opportunities are presented must be accepted as 
evidence that the Berea sandstone, like the Monson gneiss, is in a 
state of lateral compression. 

I found it to be a popular belief at the quarries that the pressure 
was produced by the weight of the adjacent overlying rock and loose 
materials, but a careful study of the facts and phenomena will con- 
vince the intelligent inquirer that the lateral compressions here 
exhibited could not have been caused by vertical pressure upon ad- 
jacent parts of the beds. 

It being very desirable to determine whether the lateral pressure is 
limited in its action to a certain line of direction or not, I have taken 
special interest in fiearching for facts bearing upon this question.* 
That the force does act in a northerly and southerly course there can 
be no doubt, for it is in excavating the east and west trenches, with 
the northern and southern ends of the beds left undisturbed, that 
the movements are greatest and most energetic. For an illustrative 
example, let us consider the conditions of a bed of rock which re- 
mains undisturbed at the eastern side of the quarry, but which has 



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HUflf.] 276 [April 6v 

been removed from the western side, leaving a north and south work- 
ing face upon the western edge of this bed. The work now to be 
done is to quarry the stone of that part of this bed which remains 
in place at the eastern side of the quany. If an easterly trending 
channel is now cut in this bed at the northern side of the quarry, for 
example, the part of the bed south of it expands, causing a north- 
ward movement of the edge of the rock forming the southern 
boundary of the channeL If now another channel be cut in the 
same bed parallel with the first but at some distance south of it, there 
will be either no apparent movement of the rock north of it, or it 
will be much less than that which followed the cutting of the first 
channel, showing that the force has been partly or whoUy expended. 
But it may be asked, why should there ever be any movement at- 
tending the formation of such a second channel? This occurs when 
the bed so adheres to the one below it as to prevent its complete 
expansion upon the formation of the first channel, hence another 
becomes the occasion of an additional expansion. It makes no dif- 
ference in the amount of movement whether the first channel in the 
bed is made at the northern or southern side of the quarry; whenever 
the stone is freed firom the adjacent rock, the force expends its energy 
in a northerly or southerly direction. It is also a significant fact 
that when the beds are traversed by excavations which trend north- 
erly and southerly, the force does not expend itself in an easterly or 
westerly direction. It is only when the stone has opportunity for 
expansion north or south, that the compressing power to which it is 
subjected is fully exhibited. 

It is true that when a north and south channel has been cut in the 
bottom bed of a quarry, firactures or movements have attended or 
followed the operation. Such phenomena are observed at Monson, 
where they are undoubtedly produced by the north and south pres- 
sure only. In these instances the lateral cast and west movements 
of comparatively small portions of the rock are caused by the stone 
yielding to the pressure in such a way that portions of it are bent or 
thrown outward firom the main bed in either an easterly or a west- 
erly direction. 

I have not yet been able to continue my observations at Berea to 
the extent to be desired, but at the present time I do not know of 
any evidences of an easterly and westerly acting pressure. 

Such convincing evidence of the lateral compression of the rocks 
of Bei^, Ohio, by a fierce exhibiting the same characteristics, even 



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1376.] 277 [Nitoi. 

to the direction of its action, as the force operating upon the gneiss 
at Monson, Mass., is certainly highly interesting and instructiye. 

Before considering the geological significance and importance of 
these evidences, I desire to present the results of some ohservations 
made at another locality, which extend the interest attached to these. 

OBSERVATIONS AT LEMONT, ILLINOIS. 

At Lemont, Illinois, ahout twenty-six miles south-west of Chicago, 
there are a large number of quarries in the Niagara limestone of that 
region. When I visited this locality in the summer of 1864, 1 was 
informed that a curious unconformability in the position of the upper 
and lower parts of certain pot-holes in the rock was occasionally ob- 
served. These statements have since been recorded by Dr. Henry 
M. Bannister, in his report upon the Geology of Cook Co., contained 
in the third volume of the Reports of the Geological Survey of 
Illinois. So far as I know, this is the only published notice of these 
appearances, therefore I quote Dr. Bannister's account in full. 

*' It is stated that the pot-holes, which have been already mentioned 
as occurring in the water-worn surfaces of the upper layers in the 
Athens* quarries, when of sufficient depth to penetrate one layer and 
enter another, are occasionally found to be dislocated — that is, one 
layer has slipped upon the other, so that the upper and lower portions 
of the pot-hole are, in some cases, entirely separated from each 
other. I was not myself so fortunate as to observe a case of this 
kind, but the fact of their occurrence seems to be well attested. It 
would appear to indicate a slight disturbance of the strata, at a com- 
paratively very recent period, subsequent even to the Terrace epoch, 
during which these holes were probably formed. The dip is hardly 
perceptible, not more than one or two degrees to the south-east, in 
Singer and Talcott's quarries, where these appearances have been 
most observed — the disturbance is, therefore, very slight, and it is 
quite probable that it was also very gradual." 

On a recent visit to this locality, I found some interesting evi- 
dences that such a geological action is still in progress. In a quarry 
of the Illinois Stone Co., at Lemont, there was, Nov. 27th, 1876, an 
elevation of a part of the bed forming the floor of the quarry. It 
was an anticlinal axis of more than eight hundred feet in length, and 
its trend was nearly east and west. In its most conspicuous part the 

s The stone is known as Athens marble. 



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HUM.] 278 [Aprils, 

elevation was from six to eight inches, and the arch measured from 
tnxteen to eighteen feet from base to base oyer the crest. It was 
formed along the line of a vertical joint, which extends beyond the 
limits of the qaany. The contiguous edges of the bed were bent 
upward, making an elevation which was a little more upon the north 
•ide of the joint than upon the south, and a slight fault was in this 
way produced. 

A study of the characteristics and conditions of the displacement 
convinced me that it was of recent origin. I subsequently had my 
conclusion confirmed by the testimony of a foreman in the quarry, 
who had been an eye-witness of the progressive formation of the in- 
teresting feature. The movement of the rock had been attended at 
times, he said, by explosive sounds, and sometimes fragments of the 
rock had been thrown into the air. 

The eastern end of thb little axis of elevation was where it 
reached the wall of rock, which forms one of the limits of the quarry. 
The joint extends into this rock, as above stated, but the elevation 
and faulting of the bed was scarcely perceptible at the base of the 
artificial cliff. These facts indicate that the dislocation was not 
caused by the weight of the adjacent overlying rock, but that the 
removal of the upper layers in the quarry had permitted this lower 
bed to yield to the pressure to which it was subjected. As the force 
must have acted perpendicularly to the axis of the fold, so here also 
we have evidence of an active lateral compression in a northerly and 
southerly direction. 

There are other close joints running east and west in the floor of 
the quarry, which are likewise lines of slight displacements in the 
form of small faults, but the evidences of their recent origin are not 
so conclusive. 

In one comer a channel has been excavated in the rock for the 
drainage of the quarry. The cutting was made by drilling two lines 
of nearly contiguous holes for the margins of the channel, and then 
removing the intervening stone. Here, also, were clear evidences of 
a lateral sliding, for the parts of the drill-holes remaining upon the 
edge of the upper layer were not vertically above the lower parts of 
the same holes shown upon the edge of the under bed ; there was an 
unconformability of position like that reported of the pot-holes. 
Here again the facts evince the existence of a force acting in the 
direction of the meridian. 

There can be no doubt that in quarries like those at Lemont, where 



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1876.] 279 [imeB. 

large areas of unbroken rock are exposed to the sun, an expansion 
attends the increase of temperature. Probably certain movements, 
not mentioned here, are precipitated, and perhaps caused by the 
heating of the surface, but the origin of the phenomena designated 
cannot be ascribed, consistently, to changes of temperature so long 
as the features produced do not perceptibly vary with such changes. 



OBSERVATIONS AT OTHEB LOCALITIES. 

I am informed by one of the proprietors of the quarry of Warren 
Gates' Sons at Waterford, Conn., that slight movements of the rock 
have been there observed under the following conditions. In using 
the steam drill for cutting out blocks of stone from the rock in place, 
if the holes are made very near each other the small portions of stone 
thus left between them are oflen crushed, and the drill so pinched 
that it cannot be worked. They also observe that the pressure is 
limited in its action to a northeasterly and southwesterly direction. 
The quarry is located a little east of south from Monson, at a distance 
of nearly sixty miles in a direct course. The stone quarried there, 
commercially known as Millstone Point Granite, is a gneiss, which 
although differing somewhat in external appearance from the Monson 
stone, is of similar constitution and texture, and occurs under similar 
geological conditions. 

In the town of Groton, Conn., which is situated upon the left bank 
of the Thames River, opposite Waterford and New London, I ob- 
served evidences of pressure upon some thin sheets at the bottom of 
one of the small quarries, but the conditions did not admit of further 
determination. Although I have not as yet been able to give that 
study to this district which the importance of the subject demands, 
I have thought it best to present the information because it so 
perfectly accords with the better observed phenomena at other 
localities. 

I would also refer again to the observations of Professor Johnston,* 
at the sandstone quarries of Portland, Conn., which led him to con- 
clude that the " sliding of one stratum upon another " there observed, 
was "apparently in consequence of an immense lateral pressure," 
and that this pressure was in a northerly and southerly direction. 

1 Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. Vm, p. 285. 



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inies.] 280 [April 5, 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

These manifestations of geological power under such different 
geographical and geological conditions lead to a further considera- 
tion of the distribution, importance and origin of this force. 

The disclosure of a power at five different localities, having a 
geographical range of five and a half degrees of longitude, shows 
that it is not a local but a widely dbtributed force. The exact cor- 
respondence in the characteristics of the phenomena at each locality 
demonstrates its identity, while the fi:actures and displacements of 
rock reveal the energy of its action. A physical force so efficient and 
extensive in its operations must be regarded as a geological agency 
of great importance. While the study of flexed and dislocated strata 
has led to correct conceptions of the " characteristics of the force 
engaged," it is at least a gratification to witness its operations, espe- 
cially as they so forcibly confirm the results which others have so 
studiously obtained. While Prof. Dana and others have already un- 
folded so much of the past history of this power, these phenomena 
demonstrate its continued activity, exhibit its agency, and enlarge 
our opportunities for interpreting the records of the past through 
the light of present events. But the geological significance of these 
phenomena becomes most apparent when we seek for the origin of 
the force. 

We have already seen that the occurrence of the phenomena does 
not depend upon conditions of temperature or moisture, for they are 
observed at all seasons of the year, and during all kinds of weather. 
Nor can it be supposed that such changes would produce a force 
which should exert itself in only one line of direction. As previously 
indicated, no doubt such changes often cooperate with the primary 
power, and by assisting it to overcome resistances, precipitate the 
explosive movements before they might otherwise have taken place; 
but that there is a power, which, at times at least, is independent of 
all such changes, is even more distinctly observable. Nor can the 
existence of this power be attributed to any peculiarity in the consti- 
tution of the rocks, for it works in the same way in gneiss and 
sandstone, in grit and limestone. Nor can chemical or metamorphic 
changes be considered as the origin, for at the localities mentioned 
the rocks are less affected by such action than at many other places. 
Neither can peculiarities of geological structure or of geographical 
position be assigned as the determining cause; for steeply inclined 



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1876.] 281 [NUes. 

and horizontal strata, the border and the interior of the continent, 
hill, valley and plain, furnish alike examples of its activity. 

The uninterrupted existence of this force under such varying and 
diverse conditions shows that its cause is neither a fluctuating nor a 
narrowly limited one, and we therefore seek an explanation in some 
of the grander changes in the earth's progress. 

The modern view of mountain-making by lateral movements is 
based upon facts which are regarded as evidences that just such 
events as these have occurred in the past. It will be observed that 
the dislocations shown in the broken, faulted, inclined and folded 
strata, and which enter into the fundamental features of the earth, 
are reproduced in miniature by this geological force of the present 
time, and thus it may be regarded as an exhibition of what is con- 
ceded to have been the agent of like events in the past. 1 am there- 
fore convinced that the lateral compression exhibited at Monson, 
Berea, and other localities, is the continued action of the same geo- 
logical power which has been the chief agency in the elevation of 
continents and mountain systems. If this conclusion is correct, and 
if we accept the common belief that the contraction of the globe h^is 
been the cause of the ancient movements, we may regard the present 
energies of the force as proceeding from the same general cause. 

It does not follow, however, that the contraction of the earth must 
be simultaneous with the latest manifestations of the force, for the 
observed facts demonstrate the compressibility and elasticity of the 
rock, hence the compression may considerably precede the expansive 
movements. 

But it will be observed that, at this time, the force is not exerted 
perpendicularly to the great mountain axes of the continent, hence 
the direction has been changed. But if we recall the physical his- 
tory of the North American Continent we shall remember that just 
this change in the direction of the force was established at the 
close of the Tertiary, and it has determined the character and posi- 
tion of the subsequent elevations and subsidences. To have caused 
the changes of level in the northern part of the continent during the 
Quarternary Age, the power must have been exercised in nearly or 
precisely the same direction as at present, that is, parallel with the 
meridian. It is reasonable to expect the present operations of geo- 
logical power to correspond in direction with those of the later, 
rather than those of the earlier periods. We may therefore reason- 
able claim the direction of the present actions as one of the evidences 
of the identity of the power. 



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Niles.] 282 [Aprils, 

Furthermore, although we may not at this time be able to trace a 
direct connection with them, yet the recent changes of level of the 
Atlantic Coast seem to depend upon an activity in the same north 
and south direction. From northern Greenland to Florida we find 
extents of rising coast alternating with others that are subsiding. 
We can better understand how these alternate areas of movement 
could be produced by the slight foldings, resulting fi:om this north 
and south compression, than from any lateral pressure acting per- 
pendicularly to the trend of the coast line. 

It will be noticed that the more violent rendings and displacements 
of rock at Monson and Berea are similar to small earthquakes in 
their general characteristics. Many well known facts have led us to 
suppose that at least some of the slight earthquake shocks of this 
and other non-volcanic regions are caused by sudden and oft<jn loca 
displacements of the rock-masses which are near the surface. My 
observations at the quarries above mentioned teach me to look for 
like phenomena where the rocks are in distinct and continuous lay- 
ers which are not firmly united together. Where the rocks are much 
divided by open joints, or are otherwise broken, the force would have 
little or no opportunity for manifestation. We have seen that at the 
localities studied the beds of rock appear to be compressed to nearly 
the extent of their strength for resistance, and that if the power 
becomes concentrated, or is slightly assisted, the layers are flexed or 
broken, and the more violent actions are sometimes produced. These 
and other associated facts demonstrate, I believe, the continual 
existence of a force fully adequate for the production of certain 
earthquake phenomena. If we accept this deduction, we may then 
conclude that such movements as are referred to here may often be 
caused, not by the sudden introduction or by the awakening of some 
subterranean power, but by the yielding of the rock-masses to that 
lateral compression to which they are continually subjected. 

If this be true, the cause of a certain class of earthquake phenom- 
ena is an ever present one, only requiring favorable occasions for the 
manifestation of its power. It having been found that the artificial 
removal of comparatively small amounts of stone has caused such 
concentrations of this power that the, adjoining rocks have been 
shaken and rent, we may reasonably expect that the much more 
extensive excavation of the strata by the natural processes of de- 
nudation would cause a still greater concentration of this force, 
and would thus give rise to similar but more extensive yieldings 



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1876.] 283 [NUes. 

and displacements of rock, attended by more violent movements, 
assuming the form of genuine but local earthquakes. Thus the ero- 
sive action of streams, deepening valleys and forming gorges,^ may in 
part account for the frequency of minor earthquakes in valley regions. 
So also the increased amount of moisture in the rocks in wet seasons 
and the expanding energy of the frosts of winter, may furnish suffi- 
cient assistance to enable the power to overcome the strength of the 
rock material, and so precipitate the violent movements as to be the 
occasion of the increased number of earthquakes observed in winter 
and during wet seasons. 

In excavating hills and mountains for railroad and other construc- 
tions, explosions have sometimes occurred which could not be ac- 
counted for as the results of any artificial power. I would call 
attention to the evidences of a lateral compression as a probable 
explanation of such phenomena. I would also suggest that some of 
those explosions which some have supposed might have been caused 
by the oxydation of pyrites or other changes, may have been pro- 
duced by the yielding of the rock to the force under consideration. 
Also strange sounds in the earth have frequently been so candidly 
and intelligently reported as not to be satisfactorily rejected on the 
supposition of fear, superstition or imagination. I would therefore 
suggest the possibility of some of these noises being the result of the 
the more gradual movements of rock, such as have been observed 
at the quarries abave described. 

Last September I was assisted by Mr. Silas W. Holman in making 
some careful measurements of a portion of a bed at Monson, which 
by expansion had formed an anticlinal arch without being broken at 
any point. From base to base the arch measured fifly-nine feet and 
nine inches. The thickness of the bed varied from ten to sixteen 
inches. Although after our measurements were taken the stone ex- 
panded still more before breaking, yet the amount of expansion 
at that time was more than one thousandth of the original length 
of the stone. If a thousand miles of rock were subjected to the same 
compression throughout, and then permitted to expand as this did, 
there would be an increase of one mile in its lateral extent. Mr. Hol- 
man has calculated that if one thousand miles of rock were to expand 
throughout its length in this proportion, causing thereby an eleva- 
tion of the mass in the form of an arc of a circle, the original one 
thousand miles being the chord, the elevation of the centre of the 

1 G. H. Otto Yolger. Petermann^t Oeogr, MUtheilungen, 1856, Heft HI. 



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284 [Apifltf, 



arch would then he ahoat nineteen miles and four-tenths. I giye 
this estimate for the purpose of showing still more conclusivelj that 
there exists in our country to-day a geological power, which, were it 
not confined hy the rigidity of the rocks, would have sufficient energy 
to form hills and mountains upon as grand a scale as those which 
we now hehold. 



April 19, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Forty-six 
persons present. 

The following papers were presented : — 

On a Diminutive Form op Buccinum undatum d" : — Case of 
Natural Selection. By Edward S. Morse. 

The law of sexual selection as illustrated hy Darwin, has explained 
the many varied features of secondary sexual characters, and.'the 
reasons for their origin and persistence. Among these features are 
the prehensile organs of the male, the weapons of offence and de- 
fence, ornaments of various kinds, organs for call-notes, glands for 
emitting odors, etc. A leading character and with few unexplained 
exceptions, is the frequent difference in size between the sexes. 

In the struggles between males for possession, or in the struggles 
which often happen between males and reluctant females, the largest 
and more powerful males would more often win, and would more 
frequently perpetuate their characters as secondary sexual features. 
Darwin, in his "Descent of Man," has traced these marked differ- 
ences in size between the sexes in crustaceans, insects, and in all 
classes of vertebrates. 

Among certain lamellibranchiates, as Dr. Kirtland long ago ob- 
served in the Unionidae, the difference in size and form between the 
male and female is oftentimes well marked, so much so, indeed, as to 
have led to their separation as distinct species in some cases ; the 
female having the shell larger and more bulging posteriorly to accom- 
modate the swollen gills when filled with eggs. 

Certain gasteropods are ovoviviparous, but few, if any, observa- 
tions have been made on the relative size of the sexes. Jeffreys 
observes that the male of Littarina liUorea has a smoother and more 



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1876.1 285 tMone. 

slender shell, and among the Kissoas calls attention to the often 
marked difference in size between the sexes, the male being smaller.^ 

The usual causes for the origin and increase of secondary sexual 
characters could not obtain among the gasteropods. The males do 
not struggle among themselves for possession, and their low mental 
powers preclude the idea of preference and voluntary selection, by 
which marked features of size and of color would arise. 

Among the pectinibranchiate gasteropods the male in copulation 
clings to that portion of the shell of the female directly above, and 
to one side o£ the genital organs, and in this position inserts the in- 
tromittant organ, having to thrust it below the margin of the shell to 
accomplish the act. 

In Buccinum and allied forms, the female retains her hold to the 
rock, and from many positions assumed by the female, the sexual act 
can only be accomplished with an intromittant organ of extraor- 
dinary shape and size, and the curved shape and length of this organ 
in Buccinum bears some relation to the difficulty of approach. 

The object in making this communication is to point out some 
curious results of natural selection on Buccinum undatum, within 
limited areas, in which the male scarcely equalled half tiie length of 
the female. 

On a ledge in the harbor of Eastport, just east of the town, a 
small variety of Buccinum undatum occurs in great profusion. At 
the time of collecting them the sexes were pairing, and in every case 
(and hundreds were observed) the male was much smaller, sometimes 
not exceeding half the length of the female. It seemed impossible 
that the males could be mature, and yet they were not only found in 
actual connection, but an examination of the shell revealed the full 
number of whorls, and from other well known characters indicated 
the fact that they were full grown, though of diminutive size. 

A glance at the condition of things at once revealed the mystery 
of these dwarfed males. The ledge on which these specimens were 
found is partly exposed at low tide, and is at all times washed by im- 
petuous currents, so that it is quite difficult to land. 

A study of the surface features of the ledge indicated the force of 
the tidal currents. There were no loose fragments of rock upon it, 
save those which were so tightly wedged in the crevices of the ledge 
that they could not be worked out with the hands. The specimens 

lA more slender form of LUtorinella (Bissoa) minuta was recognized bj the 
lamented Prof. W. C. Cleveland as a distinct species under the name of J?, pigmenta. 
He never published it, as he considered the possibility of the differences being only 
sexual. 



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MOfM.] 



286 



[AptU 19, 



€»£ Bocciniim in every case were found hid away in nooks, and con- 
cealed in the cracks and crevices marking the ledge. It was clearly 
obvious that only the smallest males could work their way in to such 
constricted quarters for the purpose of uniting with the females, and 
that the smaller males had the advantage over the larger males in 
this respect, there could be no question. The true state of the case 
was so instantly seen, that though hundreds of specimens were col- 
lected with the object of determining whether in any case a large 
male occurred, not a single exception was met with in which the 
female was not being fertilized by a diminutive male. 




Shells of Buccinum undcUtinif male, 





Shells of Buccinum undatum, female. 

The constrained position in which these were found precluded the 
possibility of a large male with his cumbrous shell getting close 
enough to the female in her narrow quarters to perform the sexual 
act. The smaller males having this advantage, have from generation 
to generation perpetuated their dwarfed characters. 

It would seem from these facts that natural selection has worked 
in an unusual way in producing secondary sexual characters, rarely, 
if ever, seen in gasteropods. 



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1876.] 287 [Scndder. 

Both males and females presented a wide range of variation in the 
characters of the shell, some of them showing very distinctly the 
oblique folds so characteristic of the species, while in others these 
folds were scarcely visible. The shell of the male is smoodier dian 
that of the female, and is also more slender and more delicate. The 
figures represent normal males and females from this peculiar 
colony. 

Critical and Historical Notes on Forpicularijc; includ- 
ing Descriptions op new Generic Forms and an Alpha- 
betical Synonymic List of the Described Species. By 
Samuel H. Scudder. 

In the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, Linn€ placed the two 
common species of European earwigs (auricularia and minor) in the 
genus Forficula, among the Coleoptera. Fabricius, in all his works, 
placed this genus at the head of his Ulonata (= Dermaptera DeGeer, 
Orthoptera auct.) following close upon the Coleoptera. LatreiUe, in 
1796, was the first to recognize the wider separation of the earwigs 
firom the other Dermaptera, and divided the whole order into three 
(unnamed) sections; of which the earwigs formed the first, Blatta 
the second, and the remaining Dermaptera the third. Dumeril, in 
his Zoologie analytique f 1806), recognizing the family value of the 
group, called it Labidoures — a name which, from its gallic dress, has 
no more claim upon our attention than perce-oreille. Kirby ^ subse- 
quently maintained the ordinal character of the group, and gave it 
the name Dermaptera, in which he was followed in 1815 by Leach. 
But neither can this name be retained, since it was given by DeGeer 
in 1773 to the whole suborder afterward called Ulonata by Fabricius 
(1775), and — excluding the earwigs — Orthopteres by Olivier (1789).^ 
Moreover, Latreille, recognizing it in its true character as a family 
of Dermaptera, had already * given the group the name of Forfic- 
ULARLE, and this name must be retained. After tabulating the 

1 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xi, 87 note (1813). 

s By a strange oversight or neglect, the work of the distinguished Swedish nata- 
ralist, who first separated these insects from the Hemiptera of his fellow country- 
man Linn^, has been very generally overlooked, and the term Orthoptera has been 
usually applied to the suborder— a name which, in its Latin form, was not proposed 
until 1806 by Latreille (in Sonnini's Buffon). 

Considerations g6n6raXea siur Torder naturel des Crustac^s, etc. (1810). 



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Scudder.] 288 [April 19, 

synonjiny of this group, we will examine in alphabetical sequence 
each of the generic names which have been given to the different 
members of the family, setting forth in detail its first usage, and so 
far as necessary its subsequent treatment; and including in the list a 
few generic names now first proposed. Generic names which cannot 
be used are followed by an asterisk. 

FORFICULARI^. 

Lahidoures ou Forficules Dum^ril, ZooL anal., 257 (1806). 

Lahidoures Serres, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., xiv, 65 (1809). 

Lahidura Burm., Germ. Zeitschr. f. Ent., ii, 20 (1840). 

Lahidouroidce Agass., Nomencl. Zool. Index, 199 (1846). 

Forficularice Latr., Cons. Gen., 244 (1810). 

Forficulcedes Billb., Enum. Ins., 63 (1820). 

For/iculidce Steph., Syst. Cat. Br. Ins., 299 (1829). 

Forficulina Newm., Ent. Mag., ii, 424 (1834). 

Forficulites « « "• « « " 

Dermaptera Kirb. (nee DeG.), Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xi, 87 
(1813). 

Dermatoptera Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 743 (1838). 

Placoda Billb., Enum. Ins. 63 (1820). 

Euplekoptera Westw., Zool. Journ., v, 327 (1831). 

Euplexoptera Westw., Introd. Class. Ins., i, 398 (1839). (Scr. Eu- 
plectoptera Fisch., Orth. Eur, 58, note — (1858). 

Harmoptera Fieb., Kelch, Orth. Obeschl., 3 (1852). 

ANCISTROGASTER. 

1855. Stal, Ofv. k. Vet. Ak. Fdrh., 349: describes a single species, 
luctuosus (from Brazil), which is therefore the type. Ih 1865, 
Dohrn, in his monograph, describes other American species 
allied to this, placing them all in a new world section of a larger 
group, which contains many species from both hemispheres. 
To this enlarged group he gives a new name. But even if his 
view of the generic affinities were correct, the name Ancistro- 
gaster would have to be given to the whole group. (See Opis- 
thocosmia.) The genus is confined to the tropics of the New 
World. 



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1876.] 289 [Scuddfir. 



ANECHURA. 

This generic name (dvi^^w, ohpa) is proposed for the single Fa- 
brician species, bipunctata. It approaches the gerontogeic Opistho- 
cosmia, and is remarkable for the great breadth of its thoracic sterna, 
and especially of the metastemum, which is broader than long. The 
antennae are 11-12 jointed. The legs are long, the middle pair 
especially approaching the hind legs in length, at least in the female ; 
these legs are also inserted almost, or quite as near the hind legs as 
the fore legs, as in certain species of Forficula proper. The abdomen 
is plump and dilated, and has a small tubercle on the sides of the 
fourth and fifth ventral segments of the male; the forceps are simple 
in the female, but strangely contorted in the male, bearing a superior 
basal tooth or angulated shoulder, beyond which the arms are curved 
strongly downward, and then bent backward. It belongs to Europe. 

ANISOLABIS. 

1858. Fieber, Lotos, ni, 257: proposes this name for two European 

species — maritima and moesla, which are strictly congeneric. 

Maritima may be considered as the type, since it it the best 

known and older of these two, and on account of its being 

absolutely apterous, like most of the other species which must 

be added to the group. 

No reference is made to this name in MarschalPs Nomenclator 

Zoologicus. The genus is widespread, occurring in both hemispheres, 

and in Australasia. See also Forcinella and firachylabis. 

APACHYS. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 35 [Apachyus]: depressus Pal.- 

Beauv. (sp.) is the only species, and therefore type. 
1839. Serv., Orth., 54 [Apachya]: the same. 
1846. Agass., Nom. Zool. Ind., 27: corrects the spelling as above. 

Two species have since been added by Dohm. The genus belongs 
to the tropics of the Old World. 

APTERYGIDA.* 

1839. Westw., Class. Ins., i, 406: proposes this name for G^n^'s 
section b, of Division ii of Forficula,^ including the species 

^ Saggio dl una Monografla delle Forficule indigene. Padova, 1832. 

PBOOEEDIiraS B. 8. N. H. — VOL. XVUI. 19 JLVQUBT, 1876. 



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Scadder.] 290 [April 19, 

with perfect tegmina but rudimentary wings, viz., pedesiris Bon. 
and decipiens Gen^^; the former is albipennis Meg., and neither 
of them can be generically separated from Forficula Linn- 
That genus, it is true, is very large, and contains species differ, 
ing to a much greater extent than usual from one another, some 
species having, for instance, the middle pair of legs much closer 
to the front legs than others ; but there are no grounds for sep- 
arating albipennis from decipiens ; and the latter species is alto- 
gether similar to auricularia (the type of Forficula) except in the 
brevity of the wings, a feature of great variability even within 
species in Dermaptera generally. Apterygida, then, having no 
raison d'etre, must fall before Forficula. There is also an earlier 
generic name, Apterygia (Latr. Moll., 1825). 

BRACHYLABIS.* 

1864. Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit.. xxv, 292, proposes this name for the 
following species; mauritanica Luc, maritima Bon., angulifera 
(from Guinea), chilensis Blanch., and modesta Gen^. 

The only character given common to both sexes, by which to dis- ' 
tinguish this genus from his Forcinella (== Anisolabis) is the lateral 
plication of the second and third segments of the abdomen, which is 
wanting in the species grouped by him under Forcinella. In other 
respects, as the author acknowledges, it altogether agrees (volkom- 
men Ubereinstimmend) with that group; and he further adds, that 
this plication is sometimes very indistinct in the species of Brachy- 
labis, especially on the second segment. The males of Brachylabis 
are also stated to be peculiar in having the posterior borders of the 
fourth and following abdominal segments angular at the sides, and 
produced to a point; the females possess it to a less degree, so that 
when the plications are absent it is not always possible to determine 
into which genus a species should fall. 

There is scarcely a genus of Forficulariae in which the lateral plica- 
tions of the second and third abdominal segments are not either dis- 
tinctly present in all the species, or else totally absent ; it is this fea- 
ture, doubtless, which has led Dohrn to separate, as he has done, his 
two groups, Brachylabis and Forcinella; but in man/tTna, the type of 
his Forcinella (afterwards placed by him in Brachylabis!), we find 
some individuals in which the plications are tolerably distinct, while 

* Weatwood says, ** three species are described," but the above are the only two. 



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1876.1 291 [Scudder. 

there are others in which no trace of them whatever can be found. 
The species of Forcinella also (that is, those presenting no abdominal 
plications) vary to a considerable degree in the angular production 
of the sides of the abdominal segments, some in my possession sur- 
passing in this particular the species maritima ; so that it becomes 
certain that these distinclions are valueless ; and as no others have 
been found we must group these apterous forms in a single genus 
whose facies is then homogeneous. Forcinella, as the older name, 
would then absorb Brachylabis, were it not in its turn preoccupied, 
as we shall see, by Anisolabis. It is possible, however, that angulifera 
or chilensisy or both, may be generically distinct from the other spe- 
cies placed in the same group by Dohm, and in that case Brachyla- 
bis could be retained. I have seen neither of them. 

CARCINOPHORA. 

This name(za/>xj'i/oc, (pipai) is^roposed for the Peruvian species 
which I described a few years ago under the name of Chelidura rO' 
busta. The genus is allied to Anisolabis, but has fewer joints in the 
antennsB, and the first joint of the same very long, besides perfectly 
formed tegmina. The head is subtriangular, much longer than broad, 
somewhat broader than the pronotum, tumid, the posterior angles 
broadly rounded; eyes pretty large; antennas 13-jointed, the first 
joint as long as the space between the antennae, slender, increasing 
but little in size apically, second joint no longer than broad, globular, 
third three times as long as broad, fourth and fiflh equal, together as 
long as the second and third combined, the others submoniliform, 
subequal, about as long as the third.. Pronotum flat, a little longer 
than broad, tapering slightly, produced apically with well rounded 
hind border. Tegmina as long as the pronotum, squarely docked, the 
sides forming an acute angle with the dorsal area; wings wanting. 
Legs long, compressed, the middle nearly as long as the hind pair, 
the middle joint of tarsi minute, but produced beneath the apical 
joint, not lobed. Abdomen stout, the last segment of 9 very lai^ge, 
above subquadrate, below almost as long as the rest of the abdomen 
and triangularly produced ; sides of second and third dorsal segments 
with but slight plication. Forceps stout, short and simple in the 9. 
The female only is known to me, and the single species comes from 
the Peruvian Andes. 



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Scndder.] 292 [April 19, 

CHELIDURA. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 36: uses this name for the first 
time in a Latin form for the single species aptera Charp. Pre- 
viously to this the name has been used in a Gallic form (Cheli- 
doure) by Latreille, in 1825, in his Families naturelles (410), 
where neither descriptions of any sort is given, nor mention 
made of any species ; in 1829, in the 2d Edition of Cuvier's 
R^gne Animal (V. 173), he again uses it without species or 
description, excepting to make it include ^ ceux qui sont 
apt^res"; the described apterous species at that time were ap* 
ieray simplex and sinuata — - all congeneric. Serville therefore 
used the name in the same sense as Latreille did in its Gallic 
form, and aptera must be considered the type. 
It has always been used since in the same way, whenever the 

species have been generically separated from Forficula. The group 

is confined to Europe and Madeira. 

CHELISOCHES. See LOBOPHORA. 
CONDYLOPALAMA. 

,1847. Sund., Forh. Skand. Naturf., iv, 255: proposed for a species 

called agilis found in timber brought to Stockholm from Bahia; 

this is therefore the type. 

The "provisional" description (the only one yet given) is very 

meagre and unsatisfactory; but in the possession of double-jointed? 

(tv&ledade), blunt edged forceps it is certainly most peculiar. It is 

said to be extremely slender, destitute of both tegmina and wings, 

and to be probably a larval form; to have 8-jointed tarsi, 14-jointed 

antennae, and the first joint of the hind tarsi large and oval. It 

is further described as greyish, with a black, smooth and highly 

polished mesothorax, and as 5 mm. long. It is not mentioned by 

Dohrn. 

COPISCELIS.* 

1853. Fieber, Lotos, iii, 257: proposes this name for the Linnean 
minor; but it falls before the earlier Labia (q. v.). MarschalFs 
Nomenclator contains no reference to this name. 



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1876.] 293 [Scudder. 

CYLINDROG ASTER. 

1855. St&l, Ofv. K. Vet AL Forh., 350: establishes this genus 

upon the new species gracilis (from Brazil). 
1858. StM, Eug. Resa, 306: places this genus under Diplatys Serv. 
This, as pointed out by Dohm, in his Monograph, is certainly 
a mistake, Diplatys differing from Cylindrogaster in important par- 
ticulars; Dohrn describes other species, and I have called atten- 
tion in a previous paper to the characters of the female, hitherto 
unknown. The genus has never been found outside the limits of 
Brazil. This generic name has since been used in other groups of 
animals. 



DIPLATYS. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sc. [Nat,, xxii, 33: proposes this name for 
macrocephala Pal.-Beauv., which is therefore the type. 
It has not since been used except for the same species by Serville 
in his later work (Orthopteres) and by Stal, erroneously (see Cylin- 
drogaster). Dohrn mentions it only to say that he believes he has 
seen a very poor specimen of the species, and promises further paiv 
ticulars which are not given. The species comes from W. Africa. ' 



ECHINOSOMA. 

1839. Serv., Orth., 34: founded upon the single species afra Pal.- 
Beauv. 
Dohrn has since added several species. They all come from 
the tropics of the Old World, including northern Australia. Sem- 
per has since used this name for a group of Echinoderms. 

FORCINELLA.* 

1862. Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxiii, 226: establishes this genus in 
describing the species azteca (from Mexico), but directly speci- 
fies For/, maritima Gdn^ as the type. Notwithstanding this, 
while retaining Forcinella in his later Monograph, he transfers 
maritima to a new genus Brachylabis I Both of these names, 
however, fall before the earlier Anisolabis (q. v.). Forcinella 
is not included by Marschall in his Nomenclator Zoologicus. 



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Scndder.] 294 [April 19, 

FORFICESILA.* 

1881. Serv. (ex Latr.), Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 82: gigantea Latr. 

Under the Gallic name Forfic^sile this genus was proposed without 
mention of species and without further description than " ailes " by 
Latreille in his Families du R^gne Animal, 410(1825). Later, in 
Cuvier's Regne Animal, 2e ^d., v, 173 (1829), still using the French 
name, he refers to it the winged species with more than 14 joints 
to their antennae ; gigantea alone is specified. Serville therefore 
uses it wholly in the Latreillean sense. Since then (Serville, Dohrn) 
it has always been used in the same sense, but as gigantea was the 
type of Labidura as early as 1815, this generic name must fall 
before it. 

FORFICULA. 

1758. Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. x, i, 428: founds the earliest of the 
genera of Forficulariae upon the species described as auricularia 
and minor. 
1810. Latr., Consid., 488, specifies aurictUaria as the type. 

In this sense, whether used in a more or less restricted manner, 
the name has always been employed. Dohrn divides it into three 
sections, according to peculiarities of the male forceps; perhaps bet- 
ter characters would be found in the pygidium or in the relative po- 
sition of the middle legs. The genus is by far the richest in species 
of any of the Forficulari©, and is more widely spread than any, be- 
ing found in almost every place where Forficulariae occur, and on 
every continent. The genus happily retains the oldest name in the 
group, and has given its name to the family. Several species have 
been found in the European Tertiaries. 

LABIA. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encyc, ix, 118: founds this genus upon minor 
Linn., which therefore becomes the type. 

Whenever since used it has always been in this sense. Serville 
does not refer to it in any way either in 1831 or 1889. 

The genus should be placed in juxtaposition to Forficula and not 
be separated from it, as Dohrn has done, by the interposition of Spa- 
ratta, Chelisoches, Ancistrogaster and Opisthocosmia. It difiers from 
Forficula principally in the simple character of its middle tarsal joint 
and in the shorter moniliform joints of the antennae. It is numerous 



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1876.] 295 [Scndder. 

in species, and only less widely spread than Forficula, occurring 
probably over the entire extent of the torrid and temperate part of 
every continent, excepting Australia. Though abundant in all the 
East Indies, it has also not been brought from Oceanica. See Cop- 
iscells. Oken proposed the generic name Labio for a group of mol- 
lusks in 1815. 

LABIDOPHORA (see PLATYLABIA). 

LABIDURA. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encyl., ix, 118: bases this name upon the spe- 
cies riparia (jgiganted)^ which, therefore, is the type. 
Whenever since employed, it has always been in the same sense. 
Serville does not even refer to it, either in 1831 or 1839. Although 
this word in a Gallic form was proposed as early as 1806, for the 
whole group of earwigs, it did not receive a Latin dress (with the 
same scope) until 1840,^ and therefore the present use of this word 
is not affected. The genus is one of the richest in species and is 
widely spread in the Old World, especially in the East Indies and 
in Europe. It has*not been found in Australia. But a single species 
has been described as indigenous to America (Jamaica) and this 
may prove to be wrongly placed here, as it is an apterous species 
Fossil species have been found in the tertiaries of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, but these, too, should perhaps be separated from this group. 
See also Forficesila and Psalis.] 

LOBOPHORA.* 

1839. Serv., Orth., 82 : proposes this name for rufitarsis (from 

Java), a species since determined to be identical with the older 

morio, which is therefore the type. 

The name has since been employed by several authors (St&l, 

Dohm, etc.) but is preoccupied in Lepidoptera (Curtis, 1825). Che- 

lisoches (x'^Xyj^ d^iio) may be used in its place. The genus is mainly, 

if not exclusively, confined to Australasia, including all the islands 

of the Indian Ocean and the neighboring main and Oceanica. 

^ See oar synonymy of the fiunily name. 



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Scudder.] 296 [April 19> 

MECOMERA. 

1839. Serv., Orth., 53: founded upon the single species brunnea 
(from Cayenne), which is therefore the type. It has not been 
used since, and was unknown to Dohm. 

NANNOPYGIA. 

1863. Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 60: established for a new 
species, Gerstceckeri (from Ceylon). 

NEOLOBOPHORA. 

1875. Scudd., Proc. Bost. See. Nat. Hist., xvii, 281 : established 
upon a species called hogotensis (from Bogota). Another has 
since been added from Mexico. 

OPISTHOCOSMIA. 

1865. Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 76: founded upon the follow- 
ing species: (1) maculifera (from Venezuela), spinax Dohrn, 
luctuosus St4l, variegata (from Venezuela) ; (IT) devians (from 
Brazil), centurio (from Luzon), armata (from Sumatra), for- 
cipata de Haan, longipes de Haan, insignis de Haan, vigilans 
St41, tenella de Haan, and ceylonica Motsch. The first section 
is considered the equivalent of Stal's genus Ancbtrogaster, 
which is thus sunk beneath a new name. 
If the group as given by Dohrn is homogeneous, the name Ancis- 
trogaster should be preserved for it; otherwise (and we believe this 
to be the case) Ancistrogaster (q. v.) should be retained for the spe- 
cies of the first section, and Opisthocosmia for those of the second. 
O, devians, however, would appear to belong rather to Ancistrogaster, 
and this would leave the Old World species alone to Opisthocosmia, 
of which O. centurio may be taken as the type. 

PLATYLABIA.* 

1867. Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxviii; 847: founded upon the fol- 
lowing species described as new: major (from Celebes), thorac^ 
tea (from Penang and Ceylon), dimidiata (from Luzon), and 
Guineensis (from Prince Island) — all from the tropics of the 
Old World. 



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1876.] 297 [Scndder. 

The species are all unknown to me, and therefore no type will he 
designated. The generic name is too close to Platylabus (Wesmael, 
Hym., 1S45) to stand, and may be supplanted by Labidophora 

PSALIDOPHORA* 

1839. Serv., Orth., 29 : proposed by Serville to supplant his earlier 

name Spongiphora ; the species enumerated are Lherminieri 

(from Guadaloupe), croceipennis Serv. and brunneipennis (from 

N. America). 

The type of Spongiphora was croceipennis, and Serville proposes 

to change the name because (vid. Orth., p. 1 7) many entomologists 

had observed to him that the pad was extremely small, and could 

oflen not be seen in dried specimens. Since, however, it exists, the 

first name, involving no inaccuracy, should be retained. The other 

species added to the group in 1889, are strictly congeneric with the 

original species, and hence the name must be dropped. See Sphon- 

gophora. 

PSALIS. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sci. Nat., xxii, 34: founded upon americana 
Pal.- Beau v., and riparia (morhida) from an unknown locality. 
As Serville afterwards (Orth., 20-21) points out, the generic de- 
scription of the abdomen is taken from individuals which had 
been broken and repaired by gluing the abdomen on again belly 
upward I Many of the peculiarities of the genus are taken 
from features dependant upon this accident. Serville con- 
sequently believes that the name should be suppressed, and 
places the two species in Forficesila, between which genus and 
Psalis he had, in 1831, interposed two genera. 

1838. Burm., Handb. d. Ent., ii, 753 : uses it doubtfully for one of 
the sections into which he divides the single genus, Forficula, 
accepted by him, and places in it americana (procera) and gO' 
gatina ; riparia (gigantea) is placed under the section Forfices- 
ila. Both on this account and because when the generic name 
Psalis was proposed, riparia was the type of Labidura (Syn. 
Forficesila), Psalis, if used at all, must take amen'can a as its 
type. Dohm places both species in the genus Labidura, and 
indeed at no great distance from each other. But they present 
so many points of structural dissimilarity that they should be 
generically separated. 



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Bcudder.] 298 [April 19^ 

Fsalis, as represented hy its type americancty has the following 
characters to contrast with those of Labidura. The short head, as 
pointed out by Serville, is more convex above ; the antennw are com- 
posed of fewer joints ; the basal joint of the antennas is longer and 
slenderer, and increases more gradually in size toward the apex; the 
pronotum is nearly as wide as the head ; the prostemum broadens 
greatly and regularly in front of the legs; the legs are scarcely so 
slender nor so compressed; especially the fore femora are stouter; 
the abdomen of the female does not taper at the extremity, the last 
dorsal segment being quadrate, nearly as long as broad, and scarcely 
narrower behind than in front ; while in Labidura it is transverse, 
nearly twice as broad in front as long, but scarcely broader behind 
than its length ; besides, the penultimate ventral segment of Psalis 9 
leaves the sides of the last segment largely exposed ; and the last 
segment itself is parted widely in the middle, while that of Labidura 
is entire. The forceps of the 9 are much stouter in Psalis than in 
Labidura. Since writing the above, I find that Burmeister (Grerm. 
Zeitschrifl Ent., ii^ 82) has already remarked that if genera are to 
be separated modo ServiUeanOy americana and riparia (giganted) must 
be placed apart. 

The species of Psalis occur in the tropics of both worlds. 

PYGIDICRANA. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sci. Nat., xxii, 30 : proposes this name for the 
single species v-nigrum (from Brazil) which thereby becomes 
the type. 
It has since been used by Serville, Burmeister, St41 [Pydicrana] 
and Dohrn in the same sense, each adding other species. Agassiz 
(Nom. Zool.) proposes Pygodicrana as a more correct form of the 
word (noy^y dUpavov)* Burmeister (Germar Zeitschr. f. Ent, ii, 
79) suggests that Dicranopygia would have been better. The ge- 
nus is moderately rich in species, most of which are found in the 
tropics of the Old World, including Australia; but two or three spe- 
cies are found in northern S. America. 

PYRAGRA. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 34: founds this genus upon the 
single species fuscata (from Cayenne), which is therefore the 
type. It is again employed by the author in his later work 



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1876.] 299 [Scadder. 

(1839) for the same species, but does not seem to have been 
used since, Dohrn refers to neither genus nor species. 

SPARATTA. 

1839. Serv., Orth., 51: the genus is founded on pelvimetra (from 
Brazil). Other species have been added by St4l and Dohrn, 
all from tropical S. America. 

SPONGOPHORA. 

1831. Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 31 [Spongiphora] : proposes the 

name for croceipennis from Brazil 
1839. Serv., Orth., 29: supplants the name by that of Psalidophora, 
but, as we have remarked under that caption, for insufficient 
reasons. Guerin (Iconogr. K^gne Anim., Ins. 826) referring to 
the very page where Serville explains his change, remarks that 
Serville altered the name because all ForficularisB bore a pad 
between the claws ! See Psalidophora. 
1846. Agassiz, Nom. Zool., 849: proposes the more correct spelling 
Spongophora, adopted by me in 1862. 
This group, under the name Psalidophora, has been used by nearly 
every author that has treated of the Forficularians and in the same 
sense. All the known species, with a single exception, come from 
the temperate and tropical parts of America; S, quofJrimaculata from 
temperate S. Africa. I can find , no points of generic distinction be- 
tween a fragmentary specimen of this species and the common S, 
brunneipennis of the U. States. 

TAGALINA. 

1863. Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 44: proposes this name for 
two species, Semperi (from Luzon) and grandiventris Blanch. 
Grandiventrisy as the older species, may be taken as the type. The 
genus is confined to the Australasian islands. The name is unfortu- 
nately chosen from its close resemblance to Tagalis (St41, Hem., 
1860.) 

THERMASTRIS. 

1863. Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 61: proposed for brasiliensis 
Gray and Saussurei Dohrn, both formerly placed under Pygidi- 
crana; two other species have since been added by myself. Bra- 



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Scadder.] 300 [April 19, 

sUiensis may be chosen as the type. All the species are from 
the tropics of America. 

TYPHLOLABIA. 

This name (ru^Xo^^ XaBt^ is proposed for the remarkable form 
described by Philippi from Chili under the name of ForficiUa f larva. 
According to Philippi the head is as broad as long, tapering anteri- 
orly, the angles rounded; it is altogether eyeless] the antennsB are op- 
proximate at the base, as long as the head and thorax, 30-^ jointed, 
the first joint short, thick, cylindrical ; the second of equal length, ob- 
conical, the third to the twelfth short cylindrical, the rest moniliform. 
Prothorax much narrower than the head, and hardly half so long; 
mesothorax a little broader, but narrower than the head, quadrate 
with rounded angles ; the metathorax similar, but slightly larger. 
Neither tegmina nor wings are present. The legs are very short, the 
femora scarcely longer than the coxae and trochanters together, the 
tibiae of similar length, compressed; tarsi one-jointed, somewhat 
shorter than the tibiae. Abdomen long and slender, the joints of 
about equal length, broadening up to the sixth, previous to which 
they are longer than broad ; the forceps resemble those of Anisolabis, 
which it seems most to resemble ; it is, however, exceedingly pecu- 
liar in many points of its structure, and especially in the particulars 
I have italicized above, in which it resembles no known Forficula- 
rians. 



An Alphabetical Catalogue op Described FoRFicuLARiiE; 

WITH OCCASIONAL BRIEF NOTES. 

Ancistrogaster arthritica. 

Ancistrogaster arthritica Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist., xviii, 
263 (1876). Brazil. 

Ancistrogaster devians. 

Opisthocosmia deoians Dohrn, Stett. Eut. Zeit., xxvi, 79 (1866). 

Brazil. 
Ancistrogaster gulosa. 

Ancistrogaster gtdosa Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvin, 
263-64 (1876). Mexico. 



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1876.] 301 [Scndder. 

Aneistrogaster luctuosa. 

Ancistrogaster luctuosus Stil, Ofv. K. Vet. Acad. Forh., xii, 849 
(1855); lb., Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 806, pi. 5, fig. 1 (1858). 

Opisthocosmia luctuosa Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit^xxvi, 78 (1865). 

Brazil. 
Aneistrogaster maeulif era. 

Opisthocosmia maculifera Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 77 (1865). 

Forficula Petropolis Wood, Ins. Abroad, 279, fig. 188 (1874). 

Venezuela. 
Aneistrogaster spinax. 

Aneistrogaster spinax Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiii, 229-30, PI. 
I, fig. 1, lb (1862). 

Opisthocosmia spinax Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 78 (1865). 

Mexico. 
Aneistrogaster variegata. 

Opisthocosmia vUriegata Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 78 (1865). 

Forficula appendiculata Charp., ms. [cf. Gerst., Bericht. Ent., 1855, 
90-91]. Venezuela. 

Aneehura bipunetata. 

Forjicula hipunctata Fahr,, Spec. Ins., i, 840 (1781); lb., Mant. 
Ins., I, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst., ii, 2 (1798) ; Gmel., Linn. Syst. 
Nat., I, iv, 2039 (1788); Vill., Linn. Ent., i, 427; iv, 873 (1789); 
Oliv., Encycl. m^th., vi, ii, 467 (1792); Panz., Deutschl. Ins., H. 87, 
10, fig. 10 (1802?); Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 754 (1888); Kitt., Bull. 
Soc. imp. nat. Mosc., xxii, 441-2, pi. 7, figs. 5-6 (1849). 

Forficula biguttata Fabr., Ent. Syst, ii, 2 (1798); Latr., Hist. nat. 
Crust. Ins., xii, 91 (1804); lb., Gen. Crust. Ins., in, 82 (1807); lb., 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xii, 8, pi. ly, figs. 17, 17 (1817); Charp., 
Horse Ent., 68 (1825); Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 82 (1881); lb.. 
Rev. m^th. Orth., 5-6 (1881) ; lb., Orth., 48 (1839) ; G^n^, Monog. 
Forf., 12 (1882); Fisch. Wald., Ent. Russ., iv, 40-41, pi. 1, fig. 1 
(1848); Kitt., Bull. Soc. imp. nat. Mosc, xxii, 439-40, pi. 7, figs. 
8-4 (1849); Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 72-8, pi. 6, figs. 9, 9a-6 (1858); 
Friv., Orth. Hung., 47-8 (1867). 

Chelidura anthracina Kolen., Melet., v, 78, pi. 17, fig. 5 (1846). 

Forficula anthracina Fieb., Lotos, iii, 256 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 78 (1858). 

Forficula Fabriciiy Fieb., Lotos, iii, 258-4 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 70-1 (1858). Europe. 



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Scndder.] 802 [April 19, 

Anisolabis angulifera. 

Brachylabis anguli/era Dohm, Stett Ent. 2^it, xxv, 294 (1864). 

Guinea. 
Anisolabis annulioornis. 

Forficula annulicornis Blanch., Gay, Hist. fis. Chile, ZooL, vi, 10- 

11 (1853); Phil., Zeitsch. ges. Naturw., xxi, 217 (1863). 
ForcineUa anniUicomis Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 290-1. 

<:;hili. 

Blancbard says this species has rudimentary t^mina. Dohm says 
it has not. Philippi says that one Chilian species is winged and he 
mentions this species, making some objections to Blanchard's descrip- 
tion, but none to the statement that it has tegmina. 
Anisolabis annulipes. 

Forficesila annulipes Luc, Ann. So(\ Ent Fr., Bull., 84-5 (1847). 

ForcineUa annulipes Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 290 (1864). 

Forficula {Ldbidura) annulipes Fisch. Fr., Orth.'Eur., 69-70, pi. 6, 
fig. 6a-c (1863). * S. Europe; Madeira. 

Anisolabis Antoni. 

ForcineUa Anioni Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 289-90 (1864). 

Venezuela. 
Anisolabis azteea. 

ForcineUa azleca Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiii, 226-7 (1862); 
lb., ib., xxv, 291 (1864). Mexico. 

Anisolabis Blanchardi. 

Forficula Blanchardi Le Guil!., Rev. Zool., 1841, 292 (1841.) 

Oceanica. 
Anisolabis Brunneri. 

ForcineUa Brunneri Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxv, 291 (1864). 

Australia. 
Anisolabis ohilensis. 

Forficula chUensis Blanch., Gay, Hist. fis. Chile., Zool. vi, 10, pi. 
Orth. 1, fig. 1 (1851). 

Brachylahis chilensis Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxv, 295-6 (1864). 

Forficula tesiaceicomis Blanch., Gay, Hist. fis. Chile, Zool., vi, 11- 

12 (1851). Chili. 
Anisolabis oolossea. 

ForcineUa colossea Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxv, 286-7 (1864). 

A specimen in my collection fix)m N. Caledonia (H. Dohm) has no 
middle joint to the tarsi of one of the hind legs, though present on 
its mate. Australia and neighboring islands. 



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1876.] 803 [Scudder. 

Anisolabis genieulata. 

Chelidura genictdata Montr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon [n. s.] xi, 222- 
23 (1864). Woodlark Isl. 

This species is more closely allied to Anisolabis than to Chelidura, 
but apparently should be placed in a distinct genus. 
Anisolabis hottentotta. 

Forcinella hottentotta Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxviii, 844-6 
(1867). Caffraria. 

Anisolabis janeirensis. 

Forcinella Janeirensis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 285-6 (1864). 

Brazil. 

I have not seen this species, but judging from the description, it 
may belong to Carcinophora. 
Anisolabis laeta. 

Brachylabis laeta Gent.y Arch. f. Naturg., xxxv, i, 221 (1869); 
lb., Glied.-Fauna Sans., 49, pi. 3, fig. 8 (1873). Zanzibar. 

Anisolabis lativentris. 

Forjicula lativentris Phil., Zeitschr. ges. Naturwiss., xxi, 217-18 
(1863). ChUi. 

Anisolabis littorea. 

Forjicula littorea White, Zool. Erebus and Terror, Insects, 24, pi. 
6, figs. 4-5 (1846). 

Forcinella littorea Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 287-88. 

N. Zealand. 
Anisolabis major. 

Forjicula (ForJicesUa) major BruU^, Webb, Hist. nat. Canaries, n, 
ii, Ent. 74-75 (1835-42). Canary Isl. 

Is it distinct from A, maxima'^ 
Anisolabis marginalis. 

Forcinella marginalis Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zfeit., xxv, 288-9 (1864). 

Japan. 
Anisolabis maritima. 

Forjicula maritima Bon., MS.; G^nd, Monogr. Forf., 9-10 (1832); 
Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal., ii, 8-9 (1838). 

ForJicesUa maritima Serv.., Orth., 27-8 (1839); Luc, Expl. Alg., 
m, 5 (1846). 

Forjicula (ForficesUa) maritima De Haan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt., Orth., 240 (1842). 

Anisolabis maritima Fieb., Lotos, iii, 257 (1853) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 74 (1853). 



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Sendder.] 804 | April 19, 

Forficrda (Ldbidura) markima Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 68, pL 6, 
figs 4, 4a-rf (1858). 

Forcinella maritima Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiii, 226 (1862). 

Brachylabis maritima Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 298-4 (1864). 

Forjicula oMpes Mus. Berol. [nee Fabr.?] teste Fieber, Lotos, iii. 

? Hodotermes japonicus Hag., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 399- 
400, fig.; XII, 189 (1868). 

Savign., Descr. .de TEgypte, Planches Orth., 

pi. 1, fig. 61 (1809-13). 

Europe ; and thence nearly the whole world. 

Dohrn says he has seen no great amount of variation in this species, 
although now so widely spread ; I have, however, two males firom S. 
Carolina in which the forceps entirely resemble those of the females, 
instead of being strongly bent inward in the middle and notice- 
ably asymmetrical ; in some specimens, too, the Idth or 14th anten- 
nal joints are bicolored, while in others they are similar to the rest; 
in some specimens again the posterior edge of the terminal dorsal 
segment of the abdomen is perfectly smooth, while in others it is 
puckered, as it were, being marked with short sinuous longitudinal 
striations; in one specimen from Nicaragua it is almost rugose. 
Anisolabis mauritanica. 

Forficesila maurUanica Luc, Expl. Alg., iii, 4-6, pi. 1, figs. 1,- 
la-d (1846). 

Brachylabis mauriianica Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxv, 292 (1864). 

Mauritania. 
Anisolabis maxima. 

Forjicula (Forficesila) maxima BrulU, Webb, Hist. Nat. Canaries, 
II, ii. Ent. 74 (1835-42). 

Forcinella maxima Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit., xxv, 288 (1864). 

Canary Isl. 
Anisolabis moesta. 

Forficida moesta G^nd, MS. 

FarficesUa moesta Serv., Orth., 28 (1839). 

Anisolabis moesta Fieb., Lotos, iii, 257 (1858); lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 74 (1858). 

Forficrda (Labidura) moesta Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 68-9, pi. 6, 
figs. 5, ba-d (1858). 

Forfi4:ula hispanica Herr.-Scb., Norn. Ent., Orth., 29-80 (1840). 

S. Europe. 



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1878.] 805 [Scadder. 

Anisolabis paciflea. 

Forficula pacifica Erichs., Arch. f. Naturg., viii, i, 247 (1842). 

Van Dieman's Land. 
Anisolabis pectoralis. 

Forficula pectoralis Eschsch., Entom., 82-3 (1822) ; lb., (Euvr. Ent., 
I, 85-6 (1835). Kamtschatka. 

Anisolabis speetabilis. 

Forficula speetabilis Phil., Zeitschr. ges. Naturw., xxi, 218-19 
(1863). ^ Chili. 

Anisolabis Stali. 

ForcineUa Stali Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxv, 286 (1864). Java. 
Anisolabis taurica. 

Forficula taurica Motsch., MS. 

ForficesUa taurica Fisch. de W., Ent. Ross., iv, 47 (1846). 

Chelidura f taurica Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 70 (1853). Tauria. 

Belongs next A, moesta unless it is a pupa. 
Anisolabis varicornis. 

Forficula {Brachylabis) varicornis Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
[4] XVII, 450-51 (1876). Kerguelen Island. 

Apaohys chartacea. 

Forficula (Apachya) chartacea de Haan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. 
Bezitt., ZooL, 239, pi. xxiii, fig. 7 (1842). 

Apachya chartacea Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 43-4 (1863). 

Malay Archipelago. 
Apaehys depressa. 

Forficula depressa Pal.-Beauv., Ins. Afr. Am^r., ii, 86-7, PI. i, fig. 
6, 5a (1805). 

Apachyus depressus Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 85 (1831); lb.. Rev. 
m^th. Orth., 9 (1831). 

Apachya depressa Serv., Orth., 55 (1889) ; Dohrn, Stett. Ent, 
Zeit., XXIV, 43 (1863). W. Afiica. 

Apaehys Murrasri. 

Apachya Murrayi Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 44 (1863). 

W. Africa. 
Carcinophora robnsta. 

Chelidura rohusta^xidi^,^ Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xii, 344 
(1869) ; lb., Ent Notes, n, 29 (1869). Peru. 

Chelidura aeanthopygia, 

Forficula acaniliopygia G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 13-14 (1832); Fieb., 
Lotos, III, 256 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 73 (1853). 

PSOOESDiyOS D. 8. X. H. — YOL. XVni. ' 20 8EPTEMBEB, 1876. 



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Sendder.] 806 [April 19, 

Forficula (Chelidura) acanthopygia Fisch. Fr., Orth., Eur., 88-4, 
pi. 6, figs. 20-20a-rf (1868). 

Chelidura acanthopygia Friv., Orth. Hung., 60-51 (1867); Dohm, 
Stett Ent. Zeit., xxviii, 842-48 <1847). 

Forficula xanthopygia Schmidt, Verz. Krain Orth.,^ 78 (186-). 

Forficula aptera Schmidt (nee Muehlf.), Verz. Krain Orth., 78 
(186-). 

Savign., Descr. Egypte, Orth., pi. 1; figs. 7i-i' 

(18—). Europe. 

Chelidura analis. 

Forficula analis Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal., ii, 10-11 (1888); 
Fieb., Lotos, in, 255 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 72 (1854). 

Forficula (Apterygida) analis Fisch., Orth. Eur., 79 (1853). 

Europe. 
Chelidura aptera. 

Forficula aptera Muehlf. MS.; Charp., Hor» Ent 69 (1825); Aud.- 
Brull^, Hist. nat. Ins., ix, 29, pi. 1, fig. 2 (1835). 

Chelidura aptera Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 36 (1831); lb.. Rev. 
mdth. Orth., 9 (1881); Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxviii, 342 (1867) 

Forficula (Chelidoura) aptera Serv., Orth., 47-8 (1889). 

Forficula (^Chelidura) simplex Lafir. MS. ; Germ. Faun. Ins. Eur., 
xi, pi. 17, figs, a-c (1824-37); Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 756 (1838); 
Serv., Orth., 48-9 (1889) ; Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 82-8, pi. 6, figs. 
19, 19a-6 (1858). 

Forficula simplex Fieb., Lotos, in, 256 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 78 (1864). 

Forficula (^Chelidura) dilatata Lafir., MS. ; Burm., Handb. Ent., n, 
756 (1888); Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 80-1, pi. 6, figs. 16, 16a-c 
(1868). 

Forficula dilatata Fieb., Lotos, ni, 256 (1868) ; lb., Syn. Eur. Orth. 
78 (1854). 

Forficula alpina G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 15 (1882) ; Fisch. Fr., Orth. 
Eur., 81-2 (1868) ; Fieb., Lotos, m, 256 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 78 (1854). 

Forficula montana G^nd, Monogr. Forf., 14-15 (1882). 

Forficula pyrenaica G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 15-16 fl882); Ipyre^ 
naea'] Herr. Schaeff*., Nom. Ent. Orth., 80-1 (1840). Europe. 

Chelidura Dufouri. 

Forficula (Chelidoura) Dufouri Serr., Orth., 49-50, pi. 1, fig. 5, 5a 
(1889). 

1 The reference is to an extr&ct from some work, with original pagination. 



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1876.] 807 [Sendder. 

Forficula (Chelidura) Dufouri Fisch. Fr., Orth. Ear., 81, pi. 6, 
figs. 17,17a-^ (1868). 

Chelidura Dufouri Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvin, 842 (1867)^ 

LaUdura vittigera Motsch., MS. 

Chelidura vittigera Fisch. de W., Ent. Russ., iv, 48-49 (1846). 

Europe. 
Chelidura edentula. 

Forficula edentula WolL, Ann. Mag. Nat Hist., [8] i, 20 (1858). 

Madeira. 
Chelidura paupercula. 

Forficula paupercula G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 14 (1882) ; Fieb., Lo- 
tos, III, 257 (1853) ; lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 73 (1854). 

Forficula {Chelidura) paupercula Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 88 (1853). 
Chelidura paupercula Dohrn., Stett Ent. Zeit., xxvni, 842 (1847). 

Europe. 
Chelidura setulosa. 

Forficula setulosa Fieb., Lotos, iii, 256-57 (1853) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 78 (1854). Europe. 

Chelidura sinuata* 

Forficula sinuata Lafresn., MS.; Germ., Faun. Ins. Eur. xi, pi. 16, 
figs, a-b (1824-37) ; Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 755-56 (1838); Serv., 
Orth., 49 (1889) ; Fieb., Lotos, iii, 256 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 72-78 (1854). 

Chelidura sinuata Fisch. de W., Ent. Russ., iv, 48 (1846). 

Forficula (Chelidura) sinuata Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 82, pi. 6, figs. 
18, 18a (1858). 

Forficula sinuata var. macrolabia Fieb., Lotos, in, 256 (1853); lb., 
Syn. Eur. Orth., 72 (1854). 

Forficula sinuata var. cyclolahia Fieb., Lotos, in, 256 (1853) ; lb., 
Syn. Eur. Orth., 78 (1854). Europe.' 

Chelidura thoracica. 

Chelidura thoracica Fisch. de W., Ent. Russ., iv, 50 (1846). 

Forficula (Chelidura) thoracica Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 84 (1853). 

Europe (?) 

This species, said by Fischer to be found in Finland (!) cannot 
possibly be referred to Forficula auricularia or Labia minor, the only 
species known from Finland. 
Chelisoches albomarginatus. 

Forficula (Psalidophora)albomarginata de Haan, Yerh. Nat. Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt., Orth., 241 (1842). 

Lobophora albomarginata Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 75 (1865). 

Sumatra. 



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Sondder.] 808 [April 19, 

Chelisoohes australious. 

ForficesUa austrcUica Le Guill., Rev. Zool., 1841, 292 (1841). 

Forficula australica Blanch., Voy. Pole Sud., ZooL iv, 851, Orth., 
pi, 1, fig. a (1868). 

Lobophora australica Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 72-8 (1865). 

New Holland. 
Chelisoohes oomprimens. 

Ckelisockes comprimens Scudd., Free. Boat. Soc. Nat Hist., xvni, 
252-58 (1876). Africa. 

Chelisoohes fusoipennis. 

Forficula {Psalidophora) fuscipennis de Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt., Orth., 241 (1842). 

Lobophora fuscipennis Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 75 (1865). 

Sumatra. 
Chelisoohes laetior. 

Lobophora laetior Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 78 (1865). 

Batchian. 
Chelisoohes Ludekingi. 

Lobophora Ludekingi Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxyi, 78-4 (1865). 

Sumatra. 
Chelisoohes melanooephalus. 

Lobophora melanocephala Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 75-6 
(1865). India. 

Chelisoohes modestus. 

Forfcula modesta SUd, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 802 (1858). 

Lobophora modesta Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxvi, 74 (1865). 

China. 
Chelisoohes morio. 

ForJiculamorio'Fa.hr.y Syst Ent., 270 (1775); lb.. Spec. Ins., i, 

.841 (1 781) ; lb., Mant Ins., i, 225 (1 787) ; lb., Ent. Syst, ii, 5 (1 793) ; 

Goeze, Ent. Beytr., i, 736 (1777) ; Gmel., Linn. Syst Nat, i, iv, 

2040 (1788) ; Oliv., Encycl. meth., vi, ii, 468 (1792) ; Burm., Handb. 

Ent, II, 752 (1888). 

Lobophora morio Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 71-2 (1865). 

Forficula (Psalidophord) rufitarsis de Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt Orth., 241 (1842). 

Lobophora rufitarsis Serv., Orth., 88 (1839). 

Lobophora nigronitens St&l, Eug. Besa, Zool., Ins., 305 (1858). 

Lobophora tartarea St&l, Eug. Kesa, Zool., Ins., 305 (1858). 

Lobophora cincticomis St&l, Eug. Besa, Zool., Ins., 305 (1858). 

Islands of Pacific and Indian Oceans and neighboring main. 



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1876.] 809 [Sondder. 

Chelisoohes simidans. 

Forficvda simtUans St41, Eug. Resa, Zool., Ins., 802 (1858). 

Lohophora simulans Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 74 (1866). 

Malay Archipelago. 
Chelisoohes superbus. 

Lohophora superba Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 71, (1865). 

Malay Archipelago. 
Chelisoohes tasmanious. 

Forficula tasmanica Blanch., Voyage Pole Sud, Zool., iv, 350-51; 
Orth., pi. 1, fig. 2 (1858). Tasmania. 

Condylopalaiiia agilis. 

Condylopalama agilis Sund., Forh. Skand. Naturf., iv, 255 (1847). 

Brazil. 
Cylindrogaster graoilis. 

Cylindrogaster gracilis SUd, Ofv. k. Vet. Akad., Forh., xii, 850 
(1855) ; Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxiv, 58-9 (1868). 

Diplatys gracilis St&l, Eug. Resa, Zool., Ins., 806 (1858). Brazil. 
Cylindrogaster nigra. 

Cylindrogaster nigra Scudd., Proc. Bost Soc, Nat Hist, xviii, 
251-52 (1876). Brazil. 

Cylindrogaster Sahlbergi. 

Cylindrogaster Sahlbergi Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 59 
(1868). Brazil 

Cylindrogaster thoracioa. 

Cylindrogaster thoracicus Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 59 (1868). 

Brazil. 
Diplatys macrooephala. 

Forficula macrocephala Pal.-Beauv., Ins. Afir. Amdr., ii, 86, pi. 
Ortli. I, fig. 8 (1805). 

Diplatys macrocephala Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat, xxii, 88 (1831) ; lb.. 
Rev. m^th. Orth., 7 (1881) ; lb., Orth., 51 (1839), W. Afirica. 

Echinosoma afrum. 

Forficula afra Pal.-Beauv., Ins. Afir. Am^r., ii, 85, pi. Orth. 1, 
fig, 1 (1805). 

Echinosoma afrum Serv., Orth., 84-6 (1889) ; Dohrn, Stett Ent 
Zeit, XXIV, 68-4 (1863). W. Africa. * 

Echinosoma horridnm. 

Echinosoma horridum Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 66 (1863). 

Java. 
Echinosoma parvnlnm. 

Echinosoma parvulum Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 66 (1868). 

Ceylon. 



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Sctidder.] 810 [April 19, 

Eohinosoma sumatrantun. 

Forficvla (Echinosowia) sumcUrana de Haan, Yerh. Nat Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt., Orth., 241 (1842). 

Echinosoma 9umatranum Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxiy, 65 (1863). 

E. Indies. 
Eohinosoma Wallbergi. 

Echinosoma Wallbergi Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit.,xxiy, 64-5 (1863). 

Cafiraria. 
Echinosoma Westermanni. 

Echinosoma Westermanni Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiy, 65-6 
(1863). E. Indies. 

Echinosoma Yorkense. 

Echinosoma Yorkense Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxx, 234 (1869). 

N. Australia. 
Forflcnla aeuleata. 

Forjicula aeuleata Sondd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, xvni, 262- 
63 (1876). Northern United Stages, east of the Mississippi. 

Forficula africana. 

Forjicula africana Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxvi, 86-7 (1865). 

Africa. 
Forflcnla albipennis. 

For/iculaalbipentasMuMf.MS.; Charp., Hon Ent, 68 (1825); 
Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 755 (1838) ; Friv., Orth. Hung., 49-50 
(1867) ; Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 99 (1865). 

Chelidura albipennis Steph., 111. Brit. Ent, Mand., vi, 7, pi. 28, fig. 
5 (1885). 

Forjicula (Apterygida) albipennis Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 77-8, 
pi. 6, figs. 14, 14a-6(1853). 

Forjicula media Hagenb. [nee Marsh.], Symb. Faun. Ins. Helv., 16, 
%s. 7-8. 

Forficula pedestris Bon, MS.; G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 13 (1832); 
Serv., Orth., 46 (1839) ; Fieb., Lotos, iii, 256 (1863) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 72 (1854). 

Labidura curta Motsch. MS. 

Chelidura cwta Fisch. de W., Ent Russ., nr, 49 (1846). 

Forjicula Freyi Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xx, 106 (1859) ; Mejer- 
Diir, Neue Denkschr. allg. Schweiz. Gesellsch., xvn, 28(1860). 

Europe. 
Forflcnla albipes. 

Forjicula albipes Fabr., Mant Ins., i,-224 (1787) ; lb., Ent Syst., 
II, 8 (1793); Gmel., Linn. Syst Nat, i, iv, 2039 (1738); Oliv., 
Encyl. m^th., vi, 467 (1792). W. Indies. 



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1876.] 811 [Soudder. 

This species appears to be nearly allied to F. Umaculata PaL- 
BeauY., if it be not identical with it. 
Forflcula ancylura. 

Forficula ancylura Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 91-2 (1865). 

Phillipines. 
Forficula arachidis. 

Forficula arachidis Yers., Ann. Soc. Ent. France [S], viii, 509-11, 
pi. 10, figs. 33-5 (1860). S. Europe. 

Forficula aiiricularia. 

Forficula auricularia Linn., Syst. Nat, ed. x, i, 428 (1 758) ; Fabr., 
Syst. Ent., 269 (1775); lb.. Spec. Ins., i, 340 (1781); lb., Mant. 
Ins., I, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst., ii, 1 (1793); Goeze, Ent. 
Beytr., i, 734 (1777); Herbst., Fuessl. Arch. Ins., vii-viii, 
183 (1786); Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat., i, iv, 2038-89 (1788); Vill., 
Linn. Ent., i, 425r.26 (1789); Oliv., Encyl. mdth., vi, ii, 466, pi. 
246, fig. Forf., la-c (1792); Rossi, Fauna Etrusca, i, 816 (1795); 
Schrank, Faun. Boica, i, ii^ 720 (1798) ; Marsh., Col. Brit., ii, 
629, pi. 30 (1802); lb., Ent. Brit., i, 529 (1802); Panz., Deutschl. 
Ins., pi. 87, 8, fig. 8 (1802?); Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., xii, 
190 (1804) ; lb.. Gen. Crust. Ins., in, 82 (1807) ; lb., Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. Nat., xii, 8 (1817); Leach, Edinb. EncycL, Amer. 
ed., VIII, 707 (1816); lb., Zool. Misc., in, 99 (1817); lb., Sam. 
Comp., 216 (1819); Zett., Orth. Suec, 36-8 (1821); lb., Faun. 
Ins. Lapp., 443-44 (1828); lb., Ins. Lapp, descr., 246 (1838); 
Charp., Horae Ent., 67 (1825) ; Dufour, Ann. Sc. Nat., xiii, 346-47, 
pi. 19, figs. 4-8 (1828); Phil., Orth. BeroL, 56 (1830); Serv., Ann. 
Sc. Nat., xxii, 82 (1881); lb.. Rev. mdth. Orth., 5 (1831); lb., 
Orth., 36-8 (1889); Gdn^, Monogr. Forf., 10-12 (1832); Stevens, 
HI. Brit. Ent., Mand., VI, 4-5, pi. 28, fig. 1 (1835); Aud.-BruU^, 
Hist. Nat. Ins., ix, 29-30, pi. 1, figs. 3, 3a (1835) ; Curt., Brit. Ent., 
pi. 560, No. 1, lower figures (1885-40); Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal., 
n, 6 (1838) ; Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 753 (1838) ; Guer., Iconogr. 
Rfegne An., 326, pi. 52, fig. 2 (1840-44); Fisch. Wald., Ent. Buss., 
IV, 38-40 (1846); Luc., Expl. Alg., iii, 6 (1846); Borck, Skand. 
Ratv., Ins. Nat. Hist., 6-11, pi. 1, fig. 1 (1848) ; Fisch. Fr., Orth. 
Eur., 74-5, pi. 6, figs. 11, 11 a-t (1858); Fieb., Lotos, iii, 254-55 
(1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 71-2 (1854); His., Finl. Orth., 9-10 
(1861) ; Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxvi, 98-9 (1866) ; Friv., Orth. 
Hung., 48-9 (1867). 

Forficula auricularia var. cyclolabia Fiebw, Lotos, in, 254 (1853); 
lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 71 (1854). 



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Sondder.] 812 [April 19, 

Forficvla cychlabia Schmidt, Verz. Krain Orth., 77 (186-). 

Forficula aurictdaria var. macrolabia Fieb^ Lotos, iii, 254 (1868) ; 
Ib^ Syn. Eur. Orth., 71 (1854). 

Forficula macrolabia Schmidt, Verz. Erain Orth., 78 (186-). 

ForJicuLa major De Geer, M^m., in, 645-52, pi. 25, figs. 16-25 
(1778); lb., Ed. Goeze, in, 858-57, pi. xxv, figs. 16-25 (1780); 
Retz., Gen. Sp. Ins., 101 (1788). 

Forjictda parallela Fabr. Syst. Ent., 270 (1776); lb.. Spec. Ins., i, 
841 (1781); lb., Mant. Ins., i, 225 (1787) ; lb., Ent. Syst, ii, 4-5 
(1793); Goeze, Ent Beytr., i, 786 (1777) ; GmeL, Linn. Syst. Nat., 
I, iv, 2039 (1788); Oliv. Encycl. m^th., vi, ii, 468 (1792). 

Forficula media Marsh., Col. Brit., 580 (1802); lb., Ent. Brit., i, 
630 (1802) ; Steph., HI. Brit. Ent, Mand., vi, 5, pi. 28, fig. 2 
(1885). 

Forficula neglecta Marsh., Col. Brit., ii, 529-80 (1802) ; lb., Ent 
Brit, I, 529-80 (1802). 

Forficula infumataMmhll^'MB.] Charp,, Horae Ent, 70 (1825); 
[strigata siclj Schmidt 

Forficula borealis Leach, MS. ; Steph., 111. Brit. Ent., Mand., vi, 
6-6, pi. 28, fig. 8 (1836); Curt, Brit Ent, pi. 560, No. 2, upper fig- 
ure (1835-40). 

Forficula forcipata Steph., 111. Brit. Ent., Mand., vi, 6, pi. 28, fig. 
4 (1835); Curt, Brit Ent, pi. 560, No. 8 (1835-40). 

Forficula lurida Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 75-6, pi. 6, figs. 12 a-6 
(1853). 

Savign., Descr., de I'Egypte, Planches Orth., pi. 1, 

figs. 41, 4}\ 51, 5I', 5% 5^ (1809-18). 

Europe, Eastern United States. 
Forficula bimaculata. 

Forficula bimaculata Pal. Beauv., Ins. Afr. Am^r., x, 165, pL 
Orth. 14, fig. 1 (1817); Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat, xxii, 82 (1831); lb., 
Rev. m^th. Orth., 6 (1831); lb., Orth., 39 (1889). St Domingo. 

Serville says " antennes de dix-sept articles, selon M. de Bauvois." 
Beauvois himself says *< dix articles aux antennes.'^ 
Forficula bolcensis. 

Forficula bolcensis Mass., Stud. Pal., 15-16, pi. 1, figs. 6-7 (1856). 

Italy [fossil]. 
Forficula brachynota. 

Forficula brachynota de Haan, Verh. Nat Gresch. Ned. Bezitt., 
Orth., 248, pi. 28, ^g. 10 (1842); Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 
94 (1865). E. Indies. 



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1876.] 818 [Scndder. 

Forfloiila oalif omioa. 

Forficula califomica Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxvi, 86-6 (1866). 

California. 
Forfloiila capensis. 

Forficula capensis Thanb., Act. Soc. Reg. Sclent. Ups., ix, 62 
(1827). Cape of Good Hope, 

The generic position of this Insect cannot even be conjectured 
until the species is recovered. 
Forficiila oingalensis. 

Forficula cingalensis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 89 (1866). 

Ceylon. 
Forficula oiroulata. 

Forficula circulata Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 96-6 (1866). 

India. 
Forficula deoipiens. 

Forficula decipiens G4n4y Monogr. Forf., 18 (1882) ; Serv., Orth., 
46 (1889) ; Fieb., Lotos, iii, 256 (1858) ; lb., Syn. Eur. Orth, 72 
(1864); Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxvi, 99 (1866). 

Forficula (Apterygidd) decipiens Fisch. Fr., Orth., Eur., 76-7, pi. 6, 
figs. 13a-6 (1858). 

Forficula decipiens var. cyclolahia Fieb., Lotos, in, 265 (1863); lb., 
Syn. Eur., Orth., 72 (1854). 

Forficula decipiens var. macrolabia Fieb., Lotos, m, 266 (1853) ; 
lb., Syn. Eur., Orth., 72 (1854). 

Forficula paUidicomis BruU^, Exp. Sclent Mor^e,in, 11, 81 [pi. 29, 
^g. 2] (1832); Fleber, Lotos, iii, 254 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 
71 (1864). Europe. 

Forficula brevis Bamb., Faun. Ent. Andal., ii, 9-10 (1838); Fieb., 
Lotos, m, 255 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 72 (1854). 
Forficula Doumerci. 

Forficula Doumerci Serv., Orth., 41 (1839). Cayenne. 

Forficula elongata. 

Forficula elongata Fabr., Ent Syst., ii, 4 (1793). W. Indies. 

It Is possible that this may be a Spongophora. 
Forficula Erichsoni. 

Forficula ruficeps Erlchs. [nee Burm.], Archly, f. Nat, vm, ii, 
246-47 (1842). 

Apterygida Erichsoni Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxni, 231 (1862). 

Tasmania. 



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Soodder.] 814 [AprUW, 

Forficula erythrooephala. 

Forficvki eryihtocephala Oliv. [nee Fabr.], Encycl. mdth., vi, 468 
(1792). 

'i Forficula natalensis StM, OfV. k. VetensL Akad. forh., xn, 
848 (1855). S. Africa. 

Forfloula exilis. 

Forfieida esilw Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, 262 
(1876). Texas. 

Forficula fasoiata. 

Forficula fasckUa Thunb., Act. Soc, Reg. Scient Ups., ix, 52 
(1827) . Cape of Good Hope. 

The genus to which this species should be referred is indetermin- 
able from the description. 
Forficula Fedtschenkoi. 

Forficula Fedtschenkoi Sauss., Fedtsch. Turkestan, 6, pi. 1, ^g. 2 
(1874). Sarafschan and Ferghana. 

f Forficula flavipeiinis. 

Forficula flavipennis Fabr., Ent. Syst, ii, 5 (1798). Senegal. 

Forficula fiexuosa. 

Forficula fiexuosa Fabr. Syst. Ent., 269 (1775); lb., Spec. Ins., i, 
841 (1781); lb., Mant Ins., i, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst., ii, 3 
(1793); Goeze, Beitr., i, 735 (1777) ; Gmel.y Linn. Syst. Nat., i, iv, 
2039 (1788) ; Oliv., EncycL, m^., vi, 468 (1792). Cayenne. 

Perhaps this is F. Percheroni Gu^r. 
Forficula gracilis. 

Forficula gracilis BuTm., Handb. Ent, ii, 755 (1838). Brazil. 

Forficula herculeana. 

Forficula herculeana Fabr., Ent. Syst.. Suppl., 185 (1798). 

St. Helena. 

It is impossible to tell from the description to what genus this 
should be referred, but the species will doubtless be recovered. Per- 
haps it is an Opisthoscosmia. 
Forficula hirsuta. 

Forficula hirsuta Soudd., Proc. Bost Soo. Nat Hist, xvin, 256- 
67 (1876). Brazil. 

Forficula Huegeli. 

Forficula Huegeli Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 92-3 (1865). , 

Eastern India. 



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18T6.] 815 [Scadder. 

Forfloula Jackeryensis. 

Forjictda Jatkeryensis PaL-Beanv., Ins. Afr. Am^., ii, 86, pi. 
Orth., 1, ^. 4 (1805); Serv., Orth., 42 (1889). W. Africa. 

Forficula Jagori. 

Farficxda Jagori Dofarn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 94-^5 (1865). 

Luzon.. 
Forficula linearis. 

Forfiaula linearis Escfasch., Entom., 81 (1822); lb., (Euvr. Ent., i, 
84 (1835). St. Catherina, BrazU. 

Forficula lobophoroides. 

. Forfictda lobophoroides Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxti, 96 (1865). 

Phillippines. 
Forficula Lucasi. 

Forficula Lucasi Dohm, Stett. Ent 25eit., xxvi, 98 (1865). 

Syria, Egypt. 
Forflcula lugubris. 

Forficula.lugubris Bohnky Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 230-81 (1862). 

Mexico. 

Dohm does not mention this species in his Monograph. 
Forflcula luteipennis. 

Forficula luteipennis Serv., Orth., 46 (1889) [cf. Burm., in Germ., 
Zeitschr. f. Ent., ii, 81] ; Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 87-8 (1865). 

Forficula dichroa St41, Eug. Besa, ZooL Ins., 301 (1858). 

Brazil, Columbia. 
Forficula luteipes. 

Forficula luteipes Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xvin, 255 
(1876). Brazil 

Forficula macropyga. 

Forficula macropyga Westw., Boyle's Himalaya, pi. 9, fig. 12 (teste 
Dohm) ; Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit., xxvi, 93 (1865). N. India. 

Forficula metallioa. 

Forficula metaUica Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 90-1 (1865), 

E. India. 
Forficula minuta. 
Forficula minuta Heer, Urw. d. Schweiz, 367 (1865) ined. 

(Eningen [fossil]. 
Forficula nigripennis. 

Forfiscelia (sic!) nigripennis Motsch,, Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Mosc., 
XXXVI, iii, 1-2 (1863). 
Forficula nigripennis Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxvi, 89-90 (1865). 

Ceylon. 



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Scndder.] 816 r^piU19, 

Forfloiila ooeanioa. 

Forficesila oceanica Le Guill., Rev. Zool., 1841, 292 (1841). 

Forficula oceanica Blanch., Voy. Pole Sud, Orth., pL 1, fig. 4 
(1868). Oceanica. 

This belongs to a yet uncharacterized genus, and is not morio as 
suggested by Erichson. 
Forfioida Orsinii. 

Forficula Orsinii G^n^ MS.; Fieb., Lotos, iii, 254 (1858); lb., Syn. 
Eur. Orth., 71 (1854) ; Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xx, 107 (1859); lb., 
ib., XXVI, 96 (1865). 

Forjicvla (Apterygida) Orsinii Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 79-80 (1858). 

Europe. 
Forfloida parvicollis. 

Forficula parvicoUis St41, Eug. Besa, Zool. Ins., 804 (1858). 

BraziL 
Forficula Feroheroni. 

Forficula Percheron Gu^r., Gudr. Perch., Gren. Ins., vi, iv, pi. 7 
(1885-8). 

Forficula Percheroni Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 85 (1865). 

Forficula elegans Elug MS., Burm., Handb. Ent, ii, 758 (1838). 

Sphongophora bipunctata Scudd., Bost Joum. Nat. Hist., Yii, 415 
(1862). 

Psalidophora bipunctata Dohrn., Stett Ent Zeit., xxY, 419-20 
(1864). Brazil. 

The figure given by Percheron differs from the type of my bipunc' 
tola only in having the hind border of the prothoraz more rounded, 
and is very probably an error of the engraver. 

The specimen in the Harris Collection (presumably from Massa- 
chusetts, but, if so, very probably imported) is marked in his manu- 
script catelogue, " May 20, 1827, From Z. Cook, Esq." 
Forficula plagiata. 

Forficula plagiata Fairm., Arch. Ent, ii, 257, pi. 9, ^%, 8 (1858). 

W. Afinca. 

Judging firom a transcript of the description and figure kindly 
made for me by Dr. LeConte, this seems to be a true Forficula. 
Forficula primigenia. 

Forficula primigenia Heer, Urw. d. Schweiz, 867, fig. 227 (1865). 

(Eningen [fossil]. 
Forficula pubesoens. 

Forficula pubescens G^n^ MS.; Serv. Orth., 46-7 (1889); Fieb., 



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1876.] 317 [Scudder. 

Lotos, III, 255 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 72 (1854); Dohrn, 
Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 99 (1865). 

Forficula (Apterygidd) pubescens Fisch. Fr., Orth., Eur., 77, pi. 6, 
figs. 15a-/ (1853). Europe. 

Forficula pulchella. 

Forficula pulchella Serv., Orth., 42 (1839). New York. 

Forficula recta. 

Forficula recta Heer, Urw. d. Schweiz, 367, fig. 226 (1865). 

(Eningen [fossU]. 
Forficula ruficeps. 

Forficula ruficeps Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 755 (1838); Dohrn, 
Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 88 (1865). 

Apterygida ruficeps Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxin, 231-2 (1862). 

Mexico. 
Forficula ruficollis. 

Forficula ruficollis Fabr., Ent. Syst, Suppl., 185 (1798); Charp., 
Hor. Ent., 69 (1825); Burm. Handb. Ent., ii, 754 (1838); Fieb., 
Lotos, III, 254 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur., Orth., 71 (1854); Fisch. 
Fr., Orth. Eur., 73-^, pi. 6, figs. 10, 10a, a* h (1853) ; Dohrn, Stett. 
Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 97 (1865). 

Forficula bcetica Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal., ii, 6-7, pi. 1, figs. 6-8 
(1838). Europe. 

Forficula scabriuscula. 

Forficula scahnuscula Serv., Orth., 38-9 (1839). S. America. 

Forficula senegalensis. 

Forficula senegalensis Lefebvr. MS.; Serv. Orth., 39-40 (1839). 

Senegal. 
Forficula serrata. 

Forficula serrata Serv., Orth., 40 (1839) ; Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 
XXVI, 97-8 (1865). Africa. 

Forficula smymensis. 

Forficula smyrnensis Serv., Orth., 38 (1839); Fieb., Lotos, in, 
254 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. Orth., 71 (1854); Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 
71-2, pi. 6, figs. 8, 8a (1853); Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 96- 
97 (1865). Asia Minor. 

Forficula speculigera. 

Forficula speculigera StM, Ofv. k. Vetensk. Akad. Fdrh., xii, 349 
(1855). N. Grenada. 

Forficula suturalis. 

Forficula suturalis Serv. [nee Burm.] Orth., 40-1 (1839). Brazil. 



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Sondder] 318 [April id, 

Forfloiila taeniata.. 

Forficxda taeniata Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxin, 230 (1862); Ib^ 
ib., XXVI, 85 (1865). Southern U. S. to Brazil. 

Specimens (cT, ?) taken by Mr. B. P. Mann, at Sao Sebastiao, 
Brazil, agree with specimens from Mexico, except, in being of a 
lighter color, so that the vittas of the tegmina are not so conspicuous; 
they are also slightly smaller. 
Forficula tolteca. 

Forficula tolteca Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, 261 
(1876). Mexico. 

Forficula vara. 

Forficula vara Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvm, 260- 
61 (1876). Mexico. 

Forficula variana. 

Forficula variana Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist,xvni, 253- 
64(1876). Liberia. 

Forficula variicomis. 

Forficula variicomis Scudd., Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, 
255-56 (1876). Brazil. 

Forficula velllcans. 

Forficula vellicans Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, 254- 
56 (1876). Brazil. 

Forficula Wallacei. 

Forficula Wallacei Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 88 (1865). 

N. Guinea. 
Forficularia problematioa. 

Forficularia problematica Wey., Arch. Mus. Teyl., ii, 28, pi. 8, 
figs. 25, 26, 26a (1869) ; lb., Ins. Foss. Bav., 28, pi. 3, figs. 25, 26, 26a 
(1869). Solenbofen [fossil]. 

Labia amoena. 

Forficula amoena St&l, Ofv. k. Vet Akad. Forh., xn, 850 (1855); 
lb., Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 308-4 (1858). 

Labia amoena Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxv, 425-26 (1864). 

E. Indies. 
Labia annulata. 

Forficula annulata Fabr., Ent. Syst., ii, 4 (1793). W. Indies. 

Labia arcuata. 

Labia arcuata Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xvili, 257 (1876). 

Brazil. 
Labia bilineata. 

Labia bilineata Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xii, 345 (1869); 
lb., Ent Notes, ii, 30 (1869). Peru. 



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1876.] 819 [Scudder. 

Labia brunnea. 

Laim brunnea Scudd^ Froc. Bost. Soo. Nat Bisty xym, 264 
(1876). Cuba. 

Labia Burgessi. 

Labia Burgessi Scudd., Froc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvni, 266- 
67 (1876). 

Forficula sp., Glov., 111. N. Am. Ent. Orth., pi. vi, fig. 19 (1872). 

Florida. 
Labia ohalybea. 

Labia chalybea Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxv, 429 (1864). 

Venezuela. 
Labia curvicauda. 

Forjiscelia (sic !) curvicauda Motschl., Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Mosc., 
XXXVI, iii, 2-3, pi. 2, fig. 1 (1863). 

Labia curvicauda Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, 428-29 (1864). Ceylon. 
Labia dilaticauda. 

Forjiscelia (sic !) dilaticauda Motsch., Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Mosc, 
XXXVI, lii, 3-4 (1863). Ceylon. 

Labia dorsalis. 

Forficula dorsalis Burm., Handb. Ent., il, 754 (1838). Columbia. 
Labia Ghilianii. 

Labia Ghilianii Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit, :txv, 424-26 (1864). 

S. America. 
Labia gravidula. 

Forficula {Apterygidd) gravidula Grerst., Arch. f. Naturg., xxxv, 
i, 221 (1869) ; lb., Glied.-Fauna Sans., 50 pi. 8, fig. 9 (1878). 

Zanzibar. 
Labia guttata. 

Labia guttata Scudd., Froc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xviii, 265-66 
(1876). Texas. 

Labia luzonioa. 

Labia luzonica Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxv, 427 (1864), 

E. Indies. 
Labia Maeklini. 

Labia Maeklini Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit., xxv, 428 (1864). Brazil. 
P Labia marginalis. 

Forficula marginalis Thunb., Act. Soc. Keg. Scient Ups., ix, 62 
(1827). 

.♦ Forficula ochropus StM, OfV. K. Vetensk. Akad. Forh., xii, 848 
(1856). 

Labia ochropus Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvm, 846 (1867). 

S. Africa. 



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Scndder.] 820 [April 19, 

Labia melancholica. 

Labia melancholica Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xviii, 267- 
68 (1876). Texas. 

Labia minor. 

Forficula minor Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, 423 (1758); De Geer, 
M^m., Ill, 553-54, pi. 25, figs. 26-7 (1773); Ib.,ed. Goeze, iii, 358, 
pi. XXV, fig. 26-27 (1780); Fabr., Syst. Ent., 269 (1775); lb.. Spec. 
Ins., I, 340-41 (1781); lb., Mant. Ins., i, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. 
Syst., II, 3 (1793); Goeze, Ent. Beytr., i, 785 (1777); Retz., Gen. 
Sp. Ins., 101 (1783); Herbst, Fuessl. Arch. Ins., vii-viii, 183 
(1786); Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat., i, iv, 2039 (1788); VilL, Linn. 
Ent. I, 426-27 (1789); Oliv., Encycl. m^tb., vi, ii, 467-68, pi. 246, 
fig. Forf. 2, 22 (1792); Rossi, Fauna Etrusca, i, 316-17 (1795); 
Scbrank, Fauna Boica, i, ii, 720 (1798); Marsh, Col. Brit., ii, 530 
(1802); lb., Ent. Brit., i, 530 (1802); Panz., Deutschl. Ins., H. 
87.9, fig. 9 (1802?); Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., xii, 91 (1804); 
lb., Gen. Crust. Ins., iii, 82 (1807); lb., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
XII, 8 (1817) ; Zett., Orth. Suec., 38-9 (1821); Cbarp., Horae Ent, 
70(1825), Phil., Orth. BeroL, 6-7 (1830); Sery., Ann. Sc. Nat., 
XXII, 32 (1831); lb., Rev. m^th., Orth., 6 (1831); lb., Orth., 44 
(1839); G^n^, Monogr. Forf., 12 (1832); Aud.-Br., Hist. Nat. Ins., 
IX., 30-81, pi. 1, fig. 4 (1835) ; Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 754 (1838); 
Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal., ii, 7-8 (1838) ; Fisch. Wald., Ent. Russ., 
IV, 42-4 (1846) ; Borck, Skand. Ratv. Ins. Nat. Hist., 11-13 (1848) ; 
Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 70-71, pi. 6, figs, la-d (1853); His., Finl. 
Orth., 10 (1861). 

LaUa minor Leach, Edinb. Encycl. Am. Ed., viii, 707 (1816); lb., 
Zool. Misc., Ill, 99 (1817); lb., Sam. Ent Comp., 216-17, pi. 4, fig. 
16 (1819); Steph., 111. Brit. Ent, Mand., vi, 8 (1835); Dohrn, Stett. 
Ent Zeit., XXV, 426 (1864); Glov., 111. N. A. Ent Orth., pi. x. fig. 
8 (1872). 

Copiscelis minor Fieb., Lotos, iii, 257-68 (1853) ; lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 74-5 (1853). 

ForficesUa minor Friv., Orth. Hung., 46-7 (1867). 

f Forficula livida Zschach, Mus. Lesk., 46 (1788); Gmel., Linn. 
Syst Nat, i, iv, 2040 (1788). 

Labia minuta Scudd., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, vii, 415-16 (1862); 
lb., Hitchc. Geol. N. H., i, 380 (1874); Glov., 111., N. Am. Ent, 
Orth., pi. I, figs. 10, 10 (1872); Prov., Nat Can., viii, 18-9 (1876). 

Europe, N. America. 



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1876.] 821 [Soudder. 

Iiabia mucronata. 

Forficula mucronata St&l, Eug. Besa, ZooL Ins., 303 (1858). 

Labia mucronata Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 423-24 (1864). 

E. Indies. 
Labia pallidicomis; 

ForfictUa pallidicomis Brails, pi. 29, fig. 2. 

Among the MSS. on Orthoptera of the late Mr. Gk R. Gray (now 
in my possession), is a figure of this insect with the brief reference 
given above, which I have been unable to extend. The insect hardly 
appears to difier firom L, minor. 
Labia pilicornis. 

Forjiscelia (sic!) pUicomia Motschl., Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Mosc, 
XXXVI, iii, 2 (1863). 

Labia pilicornis Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxv, 427 (1864). 

Ceylon. 
? Labia pygmssa. 

Forjicula pygmoea Fabr., Ent. Syst, ii, 3 (1793). Guinea. 

Labia quadrilobata. 

Labia quadrilobata Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxviii, 346 (1867). 

Guinea. 
Labia rotundata. 

Labia rotundata Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xviii, 263- 
64 (1876). Mexico. 

Labia iinidentata. 

Forjicula unidentata Pal.-Beauv., Ins. Afr. Am^r., X, 165, pi. Orth. 
14, fig. 3 (1817); Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 32 (1831); lb., Rev. 
m^th. Orth., 6 (1831); lb., Orth. 41-2 (1839). St. Domingo. 

Labia Wallacei. 

Labia Wallacei Dohm, St«tt. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 427-28 (1864). 

N. Guinea. 
Labidophora dimidiata. 

Platylahia dimidiata Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvm, 848 (1867). 

Luzon. 
Labidophora guineensis. 

Platylabia guineensis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvm, 348-49 
(1867). Guinea. 

Labidophora major. ^ 

Platylabia major Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxvm, 347-48 (1867). 

Celebes. 

FBOOEXDrSTGS D. 8. K. H. ~ VOL. XVIII. 21 OOTOBBB, 1876. 



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Scadder.] 322 [Ai>rU10, 

Labidophora thoracica. 

Platylabia thoracica Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zcit, xxviii, 848 (1867). 

E. Indies. 
? Labidura advena. 

Labidura advena Mein., Nat. Tidsskr., [3] T, 279-80, pi. 12, figs. 
6-8, 15 (1863). Jamaica. 

It is an apterous species, and appears to belong to a distinct group. 
Labidura auditor. 

Labidura auditor Scudd., Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, xviii, 252 
(1876). Formosa. 

Labidura castanea. 

Forficesila castanea Serv., Orth., 26 (1839). Loc. ? 

Labidura Dufourii. 

Forfcula Dufourii Desm., Faun. Fran^. Orth., pi. 1, fig. 7 (1820). 

Forjicula pallipes Dufour (nee Fabr.), Ann. Gen. Sc. Phys., vi, 
316-17, pi. 96, figs. 7, a-b (1820); Ramb., Faun. Ent Andal., ii, 4-6 
(1838). 

Labidura pallipes Dobm, Stett Ent Zeit, XXiv, 317 (1863). 

Forjicula lividipes Dufour, Anif. Sc. Nat., xiii, 840 (1828). 

Forjicesila meridionalis Serv., Orth., 26-7, (1839). 

Forjicula {Labidura) meridionalis Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 67-8, pL 
6, figs. 8, 3a-^ (1853). 

Forjicula meridionalis Fieb., Lotos, iii, 265 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 72 (1854). Europe. 

Labidura femoralis. 

Labidura Jemoralis Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 321-22 (1863). 

Ceylon. 
Labidura icterica. 

Forjicesila icterica Serv., Orth., 25-6 (1839). Ceylon. 

Labidura indica. 

Forfcula (Pygidicrana) indica Hagenb. MS.; Burm., Handb. Ent, 
II, 751 (1838). 

Forjicula (Forjicesila) indica DeHaan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Ned. 
Bezitt, Orth., 240 (1842). 

Forjicula indica St&l, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 300 (1868). 

Labidura indica Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit., xxiv, 320-21 (1868). 

Forjicula geniculata St41, OIV. k. Vet Akad. Forh., xu, 349 (1855). 

Java. 
Labidura lithophila. 

Labidura lithophila Scudd., Bull. U. S. Geo!. Surv. Terr., it, 259-60. 

Colorado [fossil]. 



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1876.] 323 [Soudder, 

Labidura marginella. 

Forficula marginella Cost., Att. R. Accad. Sc. Napoli, iv, ZqqI., 
50-1 pi., figs. 1, 2 (1839). 

Forficula (Labidura) marginella Fisch. Fr., QrUi. Eur., 66-7, pi. 6, 
figs. 2, 2a (1853). Europe. 

Labidura plebeja. 

Labidura plebeja Dohrn, Stett. Eut Zeit., xxiv, 284 (1863). 

Java. 
Labidura quadrispinosa. 

Labidura quadrispinosa Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 811 (1863). 

E. Indies. 
Labidura riparia. 

Forficula riparia Pall., Reis., ii, Anh. 30 (1778); lb., Voyages, 
Nouv. ed. VIII, 156-66 (1794); Goeze, Ent. Beytr., i, 736 (1777). 

Forficesila riparia Fisch. Wald., Ent. Russ., iv, 46 (1846). 

Labidura riparia Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 318-16 (1868). 

Forficula paUipes Fabr., Syst. Ent., 270 (1776); lb., Spec. Ins., i, 
S41 (1781); lb., Mant. Ins., i, 226 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst, ii, 6 
(1793); Goeze, Ent. Beytr., i, 736 (1777); Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat., 
1, iv, 2040 (1788); Oliv., Encycl. mdth., vi, ii, 468 (1792). 

f Forficula dentata Fabr., Syst. Ent., 270 (1775); lb., Sp. Ins., i, 
841 (1781); lb., Mant. Ins., i, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst., ii, 3 
(1793); Goeze, Ent. Beytr., i, 736 (1777); Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat., 

I, iv, 2039 (1788); Oliv., Encycl. mdth., vi, ii, 468 (1792); Thunb., 
Act. Soc. Reg. Scient. Ups., ix, 62 (1827). 

Forficula gigantea Fabr., Mant. Ins., i, 224 (1787); lb., Ent. Syst., 

II, 1-2 (1793); Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat., i, iv, 2089 (1788); VilL, 
Linn. Ent., iv, 373 (1789); Oliv., Encycl. meth., vi, ii, 466 (1792); 
Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust Ins., xii, 90 (1804) ; lb.. Gen. Crust. Ins*, 

III, 82 (1807) ; lb., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xii, 8 (1817) ; Charp., 
Horae Ent., 67 (1826); Dufour, Ann. Sc. Nat., xiii, 845-46, pi. 19, 
figs. 1-3 (1828); Phil., Orth. Berol., 5 (1830); Gdnd, Monogr. Forf., 
8-9 (1882); BruU^, Hist. Nat, Ins., ix, 28, pi. 1, Gg, 1, la-6 (1836); 
BruUe, Webb, Hist. Nat. Canar., ii, ii, 76 (1836-42); Ramb., Faun. 
Ent. Andal., ii, 8-4 (1S88) ; Schaum, Peters, Reise Mozamb., ii, 107 
(1863). 

Labidura gigantea Leach, Edinb. Encycl. Am. Ed., viii, 707 
(1816); lb., Zool. Misc., Ill, 99 (1817); lb., Sam. Ent. Comp., 217 
(1819); Steph., Brit. Ent. Mand., vi, 8-9 (1886). 

Forficula (Labidura) gigantea Fisch. Fr., Orth. Eur., 65-(k, pL 6, 
figs. 1, la-/ (1868). 



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Bondder.] 324 [April 19, 

Forficesila gigantea Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 88 (1831) ; lb., 
Rev. m^th. Orth., 6 (1831); lb., Orth., 23-4, pi. 1, figs. 2, 2a (1839); 
Fiscb. Wald., Ent Russ., iv, 44-5, pi. 1, figs. 1* 1** (1846) ; Luc, 
Expl. Alg., Ill, 3-4 (1846); Fieb., Lotos, m, 252-63 (1853); lb., 
Syn, Eur. Ortb., 69-70 (1854); Friv., Orth. Hung., 45-6 (1867); 
Glov., m. N. Am. Ent., Orth., pi. x, figs. 2, 2la (1872). 

Forficula (Forficesila) gigantea Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 751 (1838); 
DeHaan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Orth., 240 (1842). 

Forficula bilineata Herbst, Fuessl. Archiv. Ins., vii-viii, 183, pi. 
49, fig. 1 (1788); lb., Fuessl., Arch. Hist Ins. 170, pi. 49, fig. 1, 
(1794). 

Forficula maxima Vill., Linn. Ent., i, 427, pi. 2, fig. 53 (1789). 

Forficula Udens Oliv., Encycl. mdth., vi, ii, 466-67 (1792). 

Forficula crenaia Oliv., Encycl. m^th., vi, ii, 467 (1792). 

Forficula erythrocephala Fabr., (nee Oliv.) Ent. Sy8t.,ii, 4 (1793). 
f Forficula flavipes Fabr., Ent. Syst., u, 2-3 (1793). 

Psalis morbida Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxii, 35 (1831); lb.. Rev. 
m^th. Orth., 8 (1831). 

Forficula {Forficesila) hiviitata Klug. MS. ; Burm., Handb. Ent, 
n, 751-52 (1839). 

Forficula {Forficesila) suturalis Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 762 (1839). 
t Forficula hicdor Fiscb. Wald., Ent Russ., iv, 42 (1846). 
1 Forficula {Apterygida) bic olor F'lsch, Fr., Orth. Eur., 76 (1853). 

Forficula Fischeri Motsch. MS.; Fiscb. Wald., Ent. Russ., iv, 364 
(1846). 

Forficesila Fischeri Fiscb. Wald., Ent Russ., iv, 354-56, pi. 33, 
^g, 1 (1846). 

Forficula {Forficesila) affinis Gu^r., Sagra, Hist. Pbys. Cuba, An. 
Art, 330-82, pi. 12, figs. 2, 2a (1857). 

Forficesila xanthopus St&l, Ofv. k. Vet Akad. Fijrb., xii, 348-49 
(1855). 

Forficula xanthopus StAI, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 300-1 (1868). 

Forficula amurensis [ined.] Motsch., Bull. Sob. imp. Mosc, xxxii, 
ii, 499 (1859); lb.. Cat Ins. Amour., 13 (^1860). 

Savigny, Descr. de TEgypte, Planches Orth., pi. 1, 

figs. 11, 1*, 1\ V'y 10, 1«, 1% 2\ 21', 3', 31', 8i>, 3d, 8i (1809-13). 

There is a Labidura in the collection of the American Entomolog- 
ical Society (No. 64) which apparently belongs to this species, but 
with forceps, of a remarkable charactei;;. They are as long as the 



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1876.] 825 [Soudder. 

abdomen (8 mm.) depressed, laminate, perfectly straight, entirely 
simple and tapering apically to a blunt point 

The entire Old WoHd, 
whence it has spread into nearly all parts of the western hemisphere. 
Labidura rufescens. 

Forfictda rufescens PaL-Beauv., Ins. Afr. Am^r., ii, 85, pi. Orth. 1, 
^, 2 (1805). 

Forfcesila rufescens Serv., Orth., 24-5 (1889). W. Africa. 

Labidura Servillei. 

Labidura Servillei Dohm, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 316-17 (1868). 

£. India. 
Labidura tarsata. 

ForficuUt tarsata Westw., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., v, 129 (1837). 

Labidura tarsata Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 311-12 (1863). 

Manilla. 
Labidura terminalis. 

Forfcesila terminalis Serv., Orth., 25 (1839). Mauritius. 

Labidura tertiaria. 

Labidura tertiaria Scudd., Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 
Ser. 2, 447-49 (1876); lb., ib., ii, 259 (1876). Colorado [fossil]. 

Labidura Tomis. 

Chelidura TomisKoV, Melet. Ent, v, 74, pi. 17, fig. 6a-5 (1846). 

Forficula Tomis Fieb., Lotos, in, 254 (1853); lb., Syn. Eur. 
Orth., 71 (1854). 

Forfcula Helmanni Kitt, Bull. Soc. imp. ITat Mosc, xxii, iv, 
488^39, pi. 7, figs. 1-2 (1849). 

Forfcula elongata Eversm, (nee Fabr.), Bull Soc. imp. Nat. Mosc, 
XXXII, 123 (1859). Armenia. 

I place Kolenati's and Eittary's species together on the authority of 
Fieber. I have not been able to consult Eolenati*s plate or descrip- 
tion, and do not know the insect in nature. 
Labidura trispinosa. 

Labidura trispinosa Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, Zl^ll (1863). 

E. India. 
Labidura vicina. 

Forfcesila vicina Luc, Expl. Alg., iii, 5-6, pi. 1, figs. 2, 2a-4 
(1846). 

Labidura vicina Dohrn^ Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 818-19 (1868). 

N. Afiica, India, E. Indies. 



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Sondder.] 326 [ApiU 19, 

Mecomera bronnea. 

Mecomera brunnea Serr., Orth., 54 (1839). Cayenne. 

Nannopygia GerstsBckeri. 

Nannopygia OerstOBckeri Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiT, 60-^1 
(1863). Ceylon. 

Neolobophora bog^tensis. 

Neddbophora hogotensis Scudd., Proc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hiftt., xvii, 
282 (1875); lb., Ent. Notes, iv, 36 (1875). Bogota. 

Neolobophora volsella. 

Neolohophora voUeUa Scudd., Proc. Boet Soe. Nat Hist^, xvni, 
287-58 (1876). Mexico. 

Opisthocosmia armata. 

Opisthocosmia amujUa DeHaan, Ycrh. Nat. Geseh. Ned. Bezitt., 
Orth., 248, pi. 23, fig. 12 (1842). 

Opisthocosmia armata Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 80-1 (1865). 

Sumatra. 
? Opisthocosmia biouapis. 

Forficula bicuspis Stil, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 301 (1858). ^aya. 
Opisthocosmia oenturio. 

Opisthocosmia centurio Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxvi, 79-80 (1865). 

Luzon. 
Opisthocosmia oaylonica. 

Labia ceylonica Motsch., Bull. Soc. imp. Nat Mosc., xxxvi, iii, 4 
(1868). 

Opisthocosmia ceylonica Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 83 (1865). 

Ceylon. 
Opisthocosmia forcipata. 

Forficula forcipata DeHaan, Verli. Nat Gesch. Ned. Bezitt, 
Ortli., 242, pi. 23, fig. 11 (1842.) 

Opisthocosmia forcipata Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 81 (1865). 

Sumatra. 
Opisthocosmia insignis. 

Forficula insignis Hagenb. MS.; DeHaan, Verh. Nat Gesch. Ned. 
Bezitt, Orth., 243, pi. 23, fig. 14 (1842). 

Opisthocosmia insignis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 81-2 (1865). 

Java. 
Opisthocosmia longipes. 

Forficula longipes DeHaan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt, Orth., 
242, pi. 23, fig. 13 (1842). 

Opisthocosmia longipes Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvi, 81 (1865). 

Sumatra. 



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1876.} 827 [Seadder. 

Opisthocosmia tenella. 

Forfictda teneUa Hagenb. MS.; DeHaan, Verli. Nat. Gesch. Ned. 
Bezitt., Orth., 248 (1842). 

Opisthocosmia teneUa Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., XXYI, 82 (1865). 

Java. 
Opisthocosmia vigilans. 

Forficula vigilans Stil, Ofv. k. Vet Akad. Forh., xii, 350 (1855); 
lb., Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 302-3 (1858). 

Opisthocosmia vigilans Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 82 (1865). 

Java. 
Fsalis americana. 

Forficula americana Pal.-Beauv., Ins. Afr. Amdr., x, 165, pi. Orth. 
14, fig. 1 (1817). 

Psalis americana Serv., Ann. Sc. Nat, xxii, 35 (1831); lb., Rev. 
m^th. Orth., 8 (1831). 

Forficesila americana Serv., Orth., 22 (1839); Wood, Ins. Abroad, 
280-81, fig. 140 (1874). 

Labidura americana Dobm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 31 9-20 (1863). 
W. Indies, Central America and Northern S. America. 
Fsalis bengalensis. 

Labidura bengalensis Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit,xxiv, 312-13 (1863). 

Bengal. 
Fsalis gagatina. 

Forficula (^Psalis) gagathina King MS.; Bnrm., Handb. Ent, ii, 
763 (1838). 

Labidura gagatina Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit., xxiv, 320 (1863). 

Porto Rico. 
Fsalis procera. 

Forficula {Psalis f) procera Burm., Handb. Ent, ii, 753 (1838). 

Forficula (ForficesUa) distincta Gu^r., Sagra, Hist. Pbys. Cuba, 
An. Art., 329-80, pi. 12, figs. 1, \a-b (1857). 

Forficesila eUgans St&l, Ofv. k. Vet Akad. Forh., xii, 348 (1855). 
W. Indies, Central America and Northern S. America. 
Fsalis thoracica. 

Forficesila thoracica Serv., Orth., 22-8 (1889). Cayenne. 

Fygidicrana angustata. 

Pygidicrana angustata Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 56 (1863). 

Ceylon. 
Fygidicrana bivittata. 

Pygidicrana bivittata Ericha., Schomb. Reis. Guiana, 579-80 (1848); 
Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 48 (1863). Guiana. 



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BevAder.] 828 [April 19, 

Pygidicrana oafiVa. 

Pygidkrana cuffra Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxviir, 343-44 (1867). 

Cafiraria. 
Pygidicrana Cumingi. 

Pygidicrana Cumingi Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 54-5 (1868), 

Ceylon. 
Pygidicrana Dsmeli. 

Pygidicrana Dcemeli Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit,xlcz, 283-84 (1869). 

N. Australia. 
Pygidicrana ezimia. 

Pygidicrana eximia Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 49-50 (1863). 

N. India. . 
Pygidicrana Kallipygos. 

Pygidicrana Kallipygos Dohm, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 58 (1863). 

E. India. 
Pygidicrana litnrata. 

Forjicesila lilurata St41, Ofv. k. Vetensk. Akad. Forh., xii, 347- 
48 (1855). 

Pygidicrana lilurata Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiY, 57 (1863). 

Cafiraria. 
Pygidicrana marmoricrura. 

Pygidicrana marmoricrura Serv., Orth., 20 (1889); Dohm, Stett 
Ent Zeit, xxiv, 51 (1868). 

Forficula (^Pygidicrana) marmoricrura deHaan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. 
Ned. iBezitt, Orth., 239-40 (1842). Java. 

Pygidicrana Nietneri. 

Pygidicrana Nieineri Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit., xxiv, 53-4 (1862). 

Ceylon. 
Pygidicrana notigera. 

Pydicrana (sic I) notigera StM, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 299 (1858). 

Pygidicrana notigera Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 52 (1863). 

Brazil. 
Pygidicrana ophthalmica. 

Pygidicrana ophthalmica Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 55-6 
(1863); lb., ib. xxviii, 844 (1867). Australia. 

Pygidicrana pallidipennis. 

Forjicula {Pygidicrana) paUidipennis DeHaan, Yerh. Nat Gesch. 
Ned. Bezitt, Orth., 240, pi. 28, % 8 (1842). 

Pygidicrana paUidipennis Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 50-1 
(1868). Borneo. 



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1876.] 829 [Sondder. 

Pygidicrana picta. 

Pygidicrana picta Ga^r., Mag. Zool., vin, pi. 236, fig. 1 (1888); lb., 
Voy. Favorite, 70-71, pi. 286, fig. 1 (1888) ; Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 
XXIV, 60 (1863). India. 

Pygidicrana siamensis. 

Pygidicrana siamensis Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxiY, 51-2 (1863). 

Siam. 
Pygidicrana valida. 

Pygidicrana valida Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxvni, 344 (1867). 

Burmah. 
Pygidicrana vitticollis. 

Forjicula vitticollis St&l, 0£v. k. Vet. Akad. Forh., xii, 850 (1855). 

Pydicrana (sic!) vitticollis St&l, £ug. Besa, Zool. Ins., 299-800 
(1868). 

Pygidicrana vitticollis Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxiv, 56 (1863) 

China. 
Pygidicrana v-nigrum. 

Pygidicrana v-nigrum Serv., Ann. So. Nat., xxii, 81 (1831) ; lb.. 
Rev. m^th. Orth., 4 (1831); lb., Orth., 19-20, pi. 1, fig. 1, la-ft 
(1839); Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit, xxir, 47-8 (1863). 

Forjicula (Pygidicrana) v-nigrum Burm., Handb. Ent, ii, 761 
(1838). Brazil 

Pyragra fkiscata. 

Pyragra fuscata Serv., Ann. So. Nat, xxii, 84 (1881); lb.. Rev. 
mdth. Orth., 7 (1831); lb., Orth., 32, pi. 1, fig. 4, 4a-c (1839). 

Guiana. 
Sparatta nigrina. 

Sparatta nigrina St&l, Ofv. k. Vet. Akad. Forh., xn, 850 (1855) ; 
lb., Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 807 (1858); Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit, 
XXVI, 70 (1865). Brazil. 

Sparatta pelvimetra. 

Sparatta pelvimetra Serv., Orth., 52-8 (1839); Dohrn, Stett. Ent. 
Zeit., XXVI, 68-9 (1865). Brazil. 

Sparatta plana. 

Forjicula (Apachysf) plana HI. MS.; Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 752 
(1838). 

Sparatta plana Burm., Germ. Zeitschr. f. Ent., ii, 81 (1840); 
Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit., xxvi, 69 (1865). Brazil, N. Grenada. 



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8cadd«r.] 380 [April 19, 

Sparatta rufina. 

SparaOa rufitxa St&l, OfV. k. Vet AkaiL F5rh., xii, 850 (1855); 
lb., Bug. Besa^ Zool. Ins., d07 (1858); Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxyi, 
69 (1866). Brazil. 

Sparatta Schotti. 

Sparatta SchotU Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zett.,xxTi, 69-70 (1865). 

Brazil. 
Spongophora bnumeipexmis. 

Psalidophora brunneipennis Sery., Orth., 30-1 (1889) ; Dohrn, 
Stett Ent Zeit, xxv, 418-19 (1864). 

Eastern and Southern U. States, Arizona, Mexico. 
Spongophora croceipennis. 

Spangiphora croceipennia Serr., Ann. Sc. Nat., xxu, 81-2 (1831); 
lb., Rev. mdth., Orth., 5 (1881). 

Fxyrficula croceipennis Wils., Treat. Ins., pL 228, ^%^ 6 (1885). 

Forficula (Spongiphora') croceipennis Burm., Handb. Ent, ii, 752- 
53 (1888); Guerin, Icongn. Regne Anim., 826, pi. 52, fig. 1 (184-); 
Gray, Griff. An. King., pi. 104, figs. 1, lb (1882). 

Psalidophora croceipennis Serv., Orth., 80, pi. 1, figs. 8, 8a-d (1889); 
Dohm, Stett Ent Zeit, xxv, 418 (1864). 

. Forficvla fiavipennis Burm. [nee Fabr.], Handb. Ent, u, 752 
(1888). Brazil 

Spongophora forfex. 

. Spongophora forfex Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xvin, 
259 (1876). Loc? (probably Central America.) 

Spongophora frontalis. 

Psalidophora frontalis Dohm, Stett. Ent. Zeit, xxv, 422-28 
(1864). Venezuela. 

Spongophora insignis. 

Psalidophora insignis St41, Ofv. k. Yetensk. Akad. Forh., xii, 849 
(1855). N. Grenada. 

I^ongophora Lherminieri. 

Psalidophora Lherminieri Serv., Orth., 29-80 (1889). 

Burmeister believes this to be the same as his Jlavipennis x= S, cro- 
odpennis (c£ Germ; Zeitsch. Ent, ii, 80). Guadeloupe, Brazil. 

Spongophora nigripennis. 

Psalidophora nigripennis Scudd., Proc Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 
844-45 (1869); lb., Ent Notes, ii, 29-30 (1869). Peru. 



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1879.] S31 [Soudder, 

Spotigophora ;parallela. 

Ffyrficula paraUela Westw. {nee Falnr^), Gu^r. Mag. Zool., pi. 1 78 
(1838). 

ForJieesUa longissima Wood, Ins. Abroad, 279-80, fig. 189 (1874). 

Central America. 
Spongophora parvicollis. 

Forficuki parpiooliis St&l, £ug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 804 (1858). 

Psalidophora parvicollis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxviii, 345 
(1867). Braal. 

Spongophora prolixa. 

Psalidophora paraUela Dohm [nee Forficula paraUela Westw.Ji 
Stett. Ent. Zeit., XXIII, 227*^29, pL 1, figs. 8, 86 (1862); lb., ib., xxv, 
418 (1864). Mexico. 

Spongophora punctipennis. 

Forjhtda pUneUpemis St&l, Eug. Resa, Zool. Ins., 804 (1858). 

Psalidophora punctipennis Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 421 
(1864). S. America. 

Spongophora pygmaea. 

Psalidophora pygmaea Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxv, 421-22 
(1864). Brazil. 

Spongophora quadrimacnlata. 

Forficxda quadrimacuLata St41, Ofv. k. Vet. Akad. Forb., xn, 848 
(1855). 

Psalidophora quadrimacukUa Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxv, 420- 
21 (1864). S. Africa. 

Spongophora stigma. 

Psaiidophora stigma Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxviii, 846 (1867). 

Venezuela. 
Tagalina grandiventris. 

Forficxda grandiventris Blanch., Voy. Pole Sud, Zool., iv, 849-50, 
Orth., pi. 1, fig. 1 (1853). 

Tagalina grandiventris Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiv, 46 (1863). 

Isle St. George (Arch. Salom). 
Tagalina Semperi. 

Tagalina Semperi Dohrn, Stett. Ent Zeit, xxiv, 45 (1868). 

Luzon. 
Thermastris brasiliensis. 

Forficula brasUienais Gray, Griff. An. Kingd., xv, 184, pi. 78, fig. 
2 (1832). 

Thermastris brasUiensis Dohrn, Stett Ent Zeit., xxiv, 62 (1868). 



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Scadder.] 882 [April 19, 

Forficxda (Pygidicrand) opaca Burm., Handb. Ent., ii, 751 (1888). 

Forficula aspera St&l, Eug. Besa, ZooL Ins., 800 (1858). Brazil. 
Thermastris chontalia. 

Thermastris chontalia Scudd., Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., XTin, 
258-59 (1876). . Nicaragua. 

Thermastris Dohmii. 

Thermastris Dohmii Scudd., Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, 280- 
81 (1875); lb., Ent. Notes, iv, 84-6 (1875). Peru. 

Thermastris Saussurei. 

Pygidicrana Saussurei Dohrn, Stett Ent. Zeit., xxin, 225-26, pi. 
1, fig. 2 (1862). 

Thermastris Saussurei Bohnif Stett. Ent. Zeit., xxiy, 68 (1868). 

Mexico. 
Typhlolabia larra. 

Forficula 1 karva Phil., Zeitschr. Ges. Naturw.,xxi, 219-21 (1868). 

ChiU. 

Note, In the List of Genera the name 

FORnCULARIA. 
was overlooked. It was given to a fossil form by Weyenbergh in 1869 (foe. ctt.)> 
differing, as restored by Weyenbergh, in no respect from Forficnlaria. 

Dr. B. Joy Jeffries, by the aid of models and diagrams, 
illustrated " muscular action associated with vision." 

A letter from Prof. Oswald Heer, acknowledging his elec- 
tion as Honorary Member was read. 

The gift of Hooke's Micrographia from Miss E. P. Quincy, 
was announced, and the thanks of the Society voted to the 
donor. 

Annual Meeting, May 3, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Eighty-six 
persons present. 

Prof. Hyatt, Custodian, presented the following report on 
the condition and doings of the Society dming the past year. 

. The main object of an Annual Report is, of course, the 
exhibition of the progress made during the last official year. 
These reports are, in this respect, condensed summaries of 



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1870] 833 [Axmnal Report. 

events as they happen, and are practically useful as historical 
records. The inexperienced or hopeful author, however, too 
often regards this annual essay as his only effectual means of 
appealing to the outside world for the relief of pressing 
necessities, or, perhaps, for pecuniary assistance in carrying 
out new plans, until years of repeated failure gradually pro- 
duce the conviction, that all such appeals are worthless ; and 
that they neither awaken sympathy, nor bring aid of any 
kind. 

The utter inutility of printed matter is quite remarkable. 
The repeated assurances conveyed in our reports, and in 
various published statements of the Treasurer and other offi- 
cers which have from time to time appeared, have not shaken 
in the least degi-ee the general belief of the community that 
we are a rich society. This impression continues to be held, 
even by those perfectly well aware of the fact that our in- 
come would barely maintain a private family in respectable 
comfort in this neighborhood. We are not only expected 
to make progress as if our income were fifty thousand in- 
stead of ten, but this same impression is nursed and kept 
alive in some quarters, by a spirit of criticism which is 
utterly regardless of the facts in the case. I am sorry to 
say, also, that this is not always done by inexperienced men, 
but often by those of greater or less scientific knowledge and 
acquirements, \fho are supposed to know something of the 
means at the command of the Society, and to be able to 
judge of the propriety or impropriety of the expenditures. 
It is strange that those who have so much to lose by the 
weakening of the influence and importance of scientific in- 
stitutions should not be more cautious and considerate in 
what they say about them. 

A very marked instance of this has occun*ed since this was 
written, but fortunately in so public a manner that the want 
of truthfulness and honesty in the whole criticism was easily 
exposed. 



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Ammal Report.] 834 [VmjB, 

I will now pass on to the proper subject of my Report^ the 
history of the last official year. 

An event, which, in its results, was very satisfactory to the 
officers of this Society, occurred at the meeting when the 
present President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, offered his resignation. 
I allude to the approbation of the policy which had gov- 
erned the Society during his presidency, expressed by tnany 
of our most influential members. The officrs of the Society 
felt themselves to be identified with the President in this 
matter ; and, consequently, the ovation which he received, 
and the absolutely unanimous vote of a large and select 
meeting of the Society, requesting him to withdraw his res- 
ignation, were peculiarly grateful to them. 

Mr. Bouv6, in what were intended as his valedictory re- 
marks, most generously attributed to me the authorship of 
the plan of operations by which the Society had been gov- 
erned during his administration, but did not do himself fiill 
justice in this and subsequent statements. If he, as Presi- 
dent, had listened to the advice of several of the most expe- 
rienced members of this Society, naturally his most reliable 
and trusted advisers, we should to-day, as in former years, 
have had no settled policy, and no plan would have been in 
existence. Fortunately, he prefen*ed to judge of all matters 
presented to the Council upon their intrinsic merits; and the 
results have more than justified this course. It has been 
successfully demonstrated that the heterogeneous elements of 
a Society like ours can be united upon a common policy, and 
both move and act more effectually in consequence. I could 
readily dilate upon this theme^ but do not feel disposed to 
o>bscure the fact that a movement of great importance to the 
future interests of science in America has been successfully 
accomplished, by means of the infiuence and independent 
judgment of our chief administrative officer. 

Early in October the Council, in response to a communica- 
tion from the Agent of the Centennial Commissionera of the 



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1876. J 835 [AmmalBaport. 

State of Massachusetts, appointed a committee, consisting of 
the President, Mr. John Cummings, and the Custodian, to 
determine in what manner, if any, the Society should be repre- 
sented at the Centennial Exposition. This committee drew 
up a set of propositions, a copy of which is appended to this 
Report, and submitted them to the Commissioners. They 
were received by Mr. Leverett Saltonstall, Mr. Meigs, and 
Mr. Hill, the three members of the State Commission, with 
the most earnest approbation. Various causes, which it 
would now be a loss of time to discuss, prevented definite 
action until after the 1st of March. Then, although the 
whole amount of the appropriation at first asked for was 
offered by Grovernor Rice, it had become too late to attempt 
the formation of the necessary collections; This failure 
was much to be regretted, since the Society thereby lost an 
opportunity of showing to the whole country the kind of 
work a Museum of this class ought to do, and how its collec- 
tions could be made of use as part of the public educational 
system of the State. 

While negotiating with the Commissioners the Custodian 
agreed to prepare a Geological Map of New England, as a 
part of the New England department in the Society's ex- 
hibition. Finally, at the request of the Commission, this was 
undertaken independently, and a separate sum appropriated 
for its execution. This map was entrusted to Mr. Crosby, 
by whom it has been compiled. It is based upon Edward 
Hitchcock's wall-map of 1841, but differs considerably from 
that, and from that of C. H. Hitchcock in Walling's Atlas. 
Many of the outlines are very much changed, and a very 
different translation given to the lithological structure of 
several portions of the State. The object in view, namely, 
the representation of the changes made in our views of the 
structure of the State by more recent observations, has been 
fairly accomplished, notwithstanding the shortness of the time 
allowed for the work. A text will accompany the map, de- 
scribing the results in a brief foi*m, and acknowledging our 



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Annual BeiKHTt.] 836 [May 3, 

indebtedness to the various authors, from whose published or 
original works it has been constructed. 

CONDITION OP THE COLLECTIONS. 

Mr. Bouv6, as Chairman of the Committee on Mineralogy, 
reports that the collection remains in its former good condi- 
tion. It has received some accessions during the year by the 
purchase of some desirable specimens from the Jackson Col- 
lection. It now consists of 3,230 trays and single specimens, 
of which 347 are in the New England collection. These 
are lai-gely selected specimens, many of them of exceptional 
excellence and value. 

The Geological Collection has been nearly completed by 
the same gentleman, and will be opened to the public within 
a short time. A full account of the mode of arrangement 
will therefore be deferred until the next Annual Report. 

Mr. Crosby's time has been, of course, largely taken up by 
the preparation of the Geological Map, above described, and 
this has interrupted the progress of the mounting of the 
Paleontological Collection, which was going on under his 
direction. Miss Carter has, however, finished the fossils of 
the Tertiary foimation, in the European Collection, and Miss 
Washburn a considerable number of the American fossils; 
and this work will probably be speedily resumed. 

The work on the Botanical Collection, under the charge of 
Mr. Cummings, has been going on steadily, althougH this gen- 
tleman's increased public duties have prevented him from 
giving us so much of his own time as in former years. The 
New England Collection has been completed, poisoned, and 
catalogued by Miss Carter, and is now ready for exhibition. 
It contains nearly every species found within the .borders of 
the New England States and in most cases, two specimens of 
a species. There are 1984 species and 3227 specimens. The 
" Lowell Collection " is being poisoned and catalogued, one- 
third of It being already finished. Nearly one-half of the 



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1876.1 837 [Annual Report. 

"General Collection" has also been catalogued and ar- 
ranged. 

The preparations of the leaves and stems of New England 
trees and shrubs, described in the last Annual Report, have 
been placed on exhibition by the donor, Mr. Edward T. Bouv6. 
They fill, together with the accompanying specimens of wood- 
sections, one entire gallery. They are also accompanied by a 
series of the plates from the last edition of "The Trees and 
Shrubs of Massachusetts," presented by Mr. Greo. B. Emerson, 
showing the natural colors of the leaves, flowers, and fruit. 
Altogether this collection must be considered one of the most 
attractive and instructive in the Museum, and the Society 
owes its most earnest thanks to the donor. 

Miss Washburn has been employed during the greater part 
of the winter in cataloguing the Bailey Microscopical Col- 
lection. The labels, and entries on the labels, and loose 
manuscript slips accompanying the slides, have been, for the 
most part, entered by Miss Washburn in our running cata- 
logue, and the incomplete descriptive Bailey Catalogue car- 
ried out and completed. Dr. Henry Coleman has continued 
his work upon the Burnett Collection of mounted parasites. 
These have also, in common with our general collection of 
microscopical material, been catalogued by Miss Washburn. 

The arrangement of the Wyman Anatomical Collection, 
and its incorporation with our own, has been finished by 
Dr. Thomas Dwight, and reported upon by him to the So- 
ciety, in the Proceedings for October 20, of the present year. 
The Chairman of the Committee further reports that many 
sections showing the structure of bones have been prepared 
by him and added to the collection during the year, and also 
that the skeletons of a large sea-lion and of two fiir-seals 
have been acquired through the liberality of Capt. Charles 
Bryant, the Superintendent in charge of the Fur-Seal Islands. 

The Palmer collection of Florida sponges has been ac- 
quired by purchase, and now forms the beginning of our new 
collection of Protozoa. Very valuable, though small, col- 

PBOOJCEDINGS B. 8. IT. H. — VOL. ZYin. 22 2T0YXMBBB, 1876. 



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Animal Report.] 838 pCay 3, 

lections of Australian q)onges have also been received from 
Dr. W. G. Farlow and others^ so that the Society now pos- 
sesses the finest dried collection of these animals in this 
country. 

The Custodian spent the past summer with the Fish Com- 
mission, under the charge "of Prof. S. F. Baird, at Wood's 
Hole. Here he enjoyed the facilities previously described in 
these reports, and considerably enlarged the New England 
Collection, for which the Society is indebted to the kindness 
of Prof. Baird, the United States Commissioner, and Pro£ 
A. E. Verrill, Assistant in charge of the Zoological Department. 
The appointment of Mr. R. Rathbun as Assistant in the 
Royal Geological Commission of Brazil deprived the Society 
of his services at a time when they were most needed, and cut 
short the improvements which were so rapidly being made by 
him in the New England Collection. The Custodian was as- 
sisted in the summer work for a portion of the time by Mr. 
Simonds of Cornell ; but this gentleman, also, received before 
the close of the season the offer of a more desirable position, 
and returned to Ithaca as Assist. Prof in Paleontology. 
Several models of the Mollusca were begun by Mr. Rathbun 
and one was nearly finished by Mr. Simonds. These have 
been completed by Dr. W. K. Brooks, Assistant in the Mu- 
seum, and a number of new ones added. One of these, a very 
handsome model of Sycotypua cancUiculatus Gill (I^icsycon 
canalicidatum Stimpson), represents a donation by Mr. R. C. 
Greenlea^ whose gifts ei^abled me to initiate the making of 
these models. Dr. Brooks has also begun the preparation 
of an accompanying suite of anatomical preparations for each 
model. At his suggestion, also, an important addition has 
been made, consisting of suites of models showing the 
principal stages in the development of the characteristic 
types of the Mollusca. Several families have now each 
their model and anatomical preparations of the animal, and 
the type forms of the generic groups have been picked 
out and are shown as in the specimens exhibited in the case 



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1876.] OOV^ [Animal Report 

upon the table. Pr. P. P. Carpenter has continued the 

the work on the classification and labelling of the shells, and 

has completed all the larger genera of marine shells and the 

very difficult group of Melanians, and all the remaining fresh- f 

water genera, except the Pulmonates and the genera Cydos* 

toma and Helidna. 

All the Annelids have been reviewed, sorted, and the 
Entozoa named by the Custodian, and the work will be con- 
tinued until it is finished. 

The Insects have received considerable attention at the 
hands of Mr. S. Henshaw, who reports through the Chairman 
of the Committee, Mr. S. H. Scudder, that the entire col- 
lection, including the general collection, the Harris, Dale 
and Atkinson bequests, has been examined and is free from 
Anthreni, only two living larvas having been found. The 
North American specimens in the boxes covered with paper 
have been arranged in glass^overed drawers, and the boxes 
containing the foreign specimens re-covered and their con- 
tents noted. The North American Coleoptera have been 
arranged, by families, in glass^covered drawers. The New 
England collection of Coleoptera has been arranged as far 
as the BuprestidsB, but only placed on exhibition as far as 
the Trichopterygidffi, according to Crotch's Check-List. This 
includes six femilies, of which 457 species are known to oc* 
cur in New England, and of these 327 species are on exhibi- 
tion, all -p- with a few exceptions — New England specimens* 

Mr. Van Vleck has been employed two days in each week 
in the general work of the Museum, during the past winter. 
He has also been occupied with the Fishes. All the generic 
types have been picked out aind these will form the basis of 
our systematic collection, which it will probably not be very 
difficult to fill out. The Epitome collection of fishes has also 
been picked out by the same gentleman, and the duplicates 
and reserve collections sorted. Mr. Garman, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, has been kind enough to look over 
and name a portion of our reptiles, and it is hoped that he 



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Anniua Report.] 840 [Hay 8, 

will be able to complete this portion of our Musenm daring 
the coming year. 

Our collection of Mammalia may be said to have been 
begun by the presentation of a fine Polar Bear by Bbhop 
Williams, the skin of the famous greyhound "Brownie,'' by 
Mr. Addison Child, and a specimen of the celebrated breed 
of Ancon sheep by Mr. Geo. W. Bond. 

Considerable assistance has been received during the year 
from the voluntary labors of Mr. Edward G. Gardiner, whose 
services have enabled us to carry on some advantageous ex- 
changes and attend to a number of details which must other- 
wise have been neglected. 

The Omitholo^cal Collection remains in its usual good 
but dormant condition. 

IMPBOVEMENTS IN THS BUILDING. 

During the year one more room has been fitted up with 
the improved cases and brackets for the reception of the 
New England fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals. The 
building has been improved by the introduction of a larger 
service pipe, which now gives an ample supply of water, 
and every workroom is fitted with screw faucets. One large 
faucet with hose attached is always ready in the cellar, 
in case of fire, and three other sets of hose are distributed 
about the building for use, in case of necessity, in the work- 
rooms. On the roof there are two more faucets, one on 
either wing, to which hose can be attached in case it is re- 
quired in that quarter. Besides these precautions, buckets 
of water are kept in each workroom, accompanied by a 
Johnston pump, and three of the patent gas machines stand 
ready for use at three different points of the building. By 
these precautions three different means of extinguishing fire 
are placed within reach of any one who may first perceive it 

LABOBATOBT. 

The condition of the Laboratory, in which the Institute 
of Technology and the Society are mutually interested, con- 



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1876.] 341 [Annnal Report. 

tinues steadily to improve under the management of Mr. 
Crosby. The collections have been increased by the pur- 
chase of a few essential specimens by the Institute. The 
fossils have been rearranged so that things begin to assume 
a more permanent aspect. This Laboratory and the collec- 
tion have also been used more or less by four female stu- 
dents, in addition to the usual number of students from the 
Institute. In this way it has been made useful to a very 
important and earnest movement for the diffusion of knowl- 
edge among women through the means of study offered to 
one of these female pupils. 

TBAOHEBS' SCHOOL OF SOIENOB. 

The Teachers* School of Science has been carried on as 
before, by the liberality of Mr. Cummings. Fourteen lectures 
or practical lessons in Lithology have been given by Mr. L. 
S. Burbank, during the past winter ; the average attendance 
was about ninety out of one hundred members. This is a 
remarkable fact, when we consider that the class includes a 
large number of the busiest teachers, the Masters of the 
Public Schools of Boston and the vicinity. Each mem- 
ber of the class was provided with tools consisting of small 
hammer, magnet, file, streak stone of Arkansas quartzite, a 
bottle of dilute acid with rubber stopper and glass rod and 
the scale of hardness previously used in the Mineralogical 
course. All these were purchased by the members of the 
class, except the scale of hardness, which is retained for 
future use. One hundred sets of about seventy-five speci- 
mens each, were distributed. Most of these were large 
enough for cabinet specimens, and many of the sets have been 
placed in the collections of the city schools and used in the 
instruction of the pupils. The specimens were largely col- 
lected in this State, and the rocks of the Connecticut valley 
and the western part of the State were very fully repre- 
sented. The course is now being supplemented by a series 
of excursions for field work in the vicinity of Boston, volun- 
tarily conducted by Mr. Burbank. 



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Aimiial Report.] 842 [MajSl, 

• Seventy-five per cent, of the class this year were members 
of the last year's class in Mineralogy, and the great success 
of this year'd work has been a matter of sincere congratula- 
tion, and justifies the most sanguine anticipations on the part 
of the projectors of this eflfort to introduce the study of 
Natural History into the Common Schools. 



APPENDIX. 



The following propositions to the Massachusetts Centen- 
nial Commission, Department of Education and Science, 
were made by the Boston Society of Natural History : 

SiRs:-^A commtttee was app<Mnted by the council of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, at Uie meeting of Oct 23, 1$75, to make 
.definite propositiona to the commissioners with regard to the part, if 
any, whieh was to be taken by that Society in the Centennial Exhi- 
bition. 

In accordance with the suggestions of Mr. Fhilbrick, the commit- 
tee have divided their propositions into four heads. 

The committee also beg leave to state that they are not empowered 
to urge the acceptance of these propositions, nor would it be proper 
for them, in any case, to attempt to magnify the importance of the 
service rendered to the cause of education by the Society. 

They feel that the commissioners themselves are fully informed 
upon all these points,, and are the best judges of the amount of the 
appropriations which the State can afibrd to make for such purposes, 
and therefore most respectfully submit the following propositions 
without further remark: 

First — That the Society furnish a printed account of its past 
history and present condition and operations. This would include 
an explanation of the manner of arrangement of the Museum, and 
its uses in connection with the educational system of Massachusetts, 
as well as information with regard to the Lowell Lectures on Natural 
History, and the Teachers^ School of Science supported by Mr. John 
Cummings. 

This will cost the Society a certain outlay, but is in the direct line 
of their customary expenditures, and can therefore be done without 
cost to the commission. A certain amount of space would be essential 



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1876.] .^ 848 [Annnal Eeport. 

in order to show the implements used in the lectures, the character 
of the specimens distributed as illustrations of the lectures given to 
teachers, and for the reception of the publications of the Society; 
say, fourteen square feet of shelving. 

Second — That the Society endeavor to furnish plans of their 
building, of such a size as may be recommended by the commission- 
ers. The committee cannot bind themselves to do this, but have 
reasonable hopes of obtaining these plans free of eost. The building 
IB claimed to be one of the best, if not the best, of its class yet con- 
structed. Together with these plansj the committee would propose 
to show such drawings of the cases and furniture as might be deemed 
desirable. The cases are probably, though made in the plainest 
manner, unsurpassed in efficiency, and wiU compare favorably with 
the elegant structures of the New York, Smithsonian and British 
Museums. 

Third — That the Society furnish a synoptical collection exhibit- 
ing the extent and quality of the Museum and its mode of arrange- 
ment. 

The Museum contains a classified series of collections, showing the 
forms of all the natural products of the earth in the order of their 
affinities, beginning with the elements and ending with man. 

The natural order of these affinities is strictly preserved. 

The visitor is first introduced to minerals in the Mineral Room, 
then to the association of minerals in the form of rock masses in the 
Geological Room, then to the characteristic fossil plants and animals 
of each stratum of rock in the Paiseontological Rooms, then to the 
systematically arranged plants and animals of the present time, which 
occupy all the rooms of the remainder of the building. 

The same natural order is preserved in each room or department, 
the elementary forms being shown first, and the more complex in one 
or more series of ascending scales. The construction of the build- 
ing is such that this can be done without confusing the visitor, who 
can review either the whole or any part of the collections, and yet 
receive a similar impression with regard to the interdependence of 
natural products, and the logical sequence of their affinities. 

In other words, the Museum is a copiously illustrated natural his- 
tory of the earth, of its elements, constituent minerals and architec- 
ture — of its histor}' in past geological time, and its present condition 
80 far as that can be presented in the existing minerals, plants and 
animals. In order to show this plan fully and make an impression, 



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Axmual Hepozt.] 844 [Maj3» 

which would not fail to attract the attention of all persons interested 
in education and science^ it would be necessary to allow one or two 
cases to each department, this being in about the proportion of one- 
twentieth or one-thirtieth, according to the size of the department. 

The whole number of cases necessary would then be fifteen, and 
when set up would occupy one hundred and sixty-five feet of linear 
measure. Their other dimensions should be as foUows: Depth to 
wall eighteen inches, height from floor seven feet. 

The attractiveness and beauty of such a display would be very 
great independently of its value as an exponent of advanced views 
with regard to the proper uses of specimens in public museums, but 
the cost to the Society would be very considerable, not less than two 
thousand dollars. 

Fourth — That the Society also exhibit selected portions of its 
New England collection. This follows the preceding collections, the 
arrangement of which has just been described, and supplements them. 
It contains all the species of minerals, fossils, plants and animals 
found within the geographical limits of New England, and it is ar- 
ranged upon an entirely distinct plan from all the other collections. 
The specimens are means for the use of those seeking special infor- 
mation with regard to any particular form found in this vicinity, and 
the Society strives to bring together all the attainable facts with 
regard to even the minutest variation in structure or habit. Multi- 
plicity in the main body of the collections is avoided, types alone 
are selected; multiplicity of specimens is here the rule, exhibition of 
types impossible. The New England collections, in other words, 
serve as illustrated sources of reference for the correction or confirm- 
ation of facts observed in the field work of the teacher or general 
student, which last work can only be intelligently entered upon after 
the study of the general connections of things in the type collections. 
This department could be completely illustrated with selections occu- 
pjing twelve cases, extending eighty-four feet, and the cost to the 
Society of the preparation and care of the same would be at least 
one thousand dollars. 

Thomas T. Bouv^, President BosL Soc. NaU Hist. 

John Cummings, Vice President. 

Alphbus Hyatt, Custodian. 



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1870.] 845 [Annual Beport 

SECBETABY»S REPOBT. 
LECTUBES. 

Four courses of free Lectures, supported as usual by the 
generosity of John A. Lowell, Esq^ as Trustee of the Lowell 
Listitute, have been given during the winter, as follows : six 
by Prof. E. S. Morse, entitled " Six New Engand Animals 
and their nearest Allies ** ; six on "Botany," by Prof G. L, 
Goodale ; six on the "Ancient Rocks of North America," by 
Prof T. Sterry Hunt ; and two on "Mineral Veins and Ores," 
by Mr. L. S. Burbank. The botanical course had the largest 
attendance, averaging 192. 

LIBBABY. 

The additions during the past year number 1719, which 
may be classified as follows : — 





8vo. 


4to. 


foUo. 




Volumes 


276 . 


. 62 


. . • 


. 827 


Parts . 


807 


. 292 


9 


. 1108 


Pamphlets . 


108 


. 24 


. 


. 217 


Maps and Charts 








. 67 


Total 




• • • 


. 1719 



The more important additions include a nearly complete 
set of Siebold and KoUicker's "Zeitschrift fllr wissenschaft- 
lichen Zoologie," the completion of the Zoolo^cal portion 
of the "Annales des Sciences Naturelles" (from 1834), and 
Dresser and Sharpens " Birds of Europe." 

We are indebted especially to the following Societies for 
large series of their eailier publications. 

E. Leopold.-Carol. Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Dresden. 

Soci^t^ d*Hl8t. Nat du d^pt. de la Moselle. . . . Metz. 

Beale Accad. Lucchese di Scienze, Letters ed Arti . . Lucca. 

Feuille des jeunes Naturalistes Paris. 

During the year the following new exchanges have been 
arranged : — 

The Quarterly Journal of Gonchology .... Leeds. 
The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine .... London. 



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Axmnal Beport.] 846 [M^jS, 

Pougbkeepsie Society of Nataral Science. . . • Ponghkeepeie. 

Nat. Hist. Society of Kansas State University . . . Lawrence,Ean. 

Soci^t^ Linn^nne du Nord de la France .... Amiens. 

Watford Nat Hist. Society and Hertfordshire Field Club . Watford. 

Verein fur naturwissenschaftliche Unterhaltung . . Hamburg. 

Soci^t^ G^ologique de Belgiqne Li^ge. 

Verein flir Ekidkunke Leipzig. 

Society Toscana di Scienze Naturali Pisa. 

Nederlandsche Pierkundige Yereeniging .... Rotterdam. 

Asiatic Society pf Japan Yokohama. 

Society dei Natnralisti Hodena. 

Oommiss&o Geologica Brazil. 

The Scientific Monthly Toledo, 0. 

The following figures will show the present condition of 
the Society's Library : — Volumes, 11,944 ; Pamphlets, 4,145 ; 
Maps, Charts, Photographs, etc, 189 ; total, 16,278. 

During the year the numbering of the card catalogue has 
been completed. Owing to lack of means a few miscella^ 
neous works only haYC been bound ; to place our library in 
a satisfactory condition in this respect will require a Yery 
large expenditure. The plan of devoting the larger portion 
of the Wolcott Fund to the completion of fragmentary serial 
publications in our possession has been faithfully carried out, 
and I hope will be continued. 

The number of books borrowed fi*om the Library during 
the year is 987 ; they have been used by 130 persons. These 
figures show a rapidly increasing use of the Library. 

PUBUOATIONS. 

Our publications for the year embrace two parts each of 
Vols. XVII and XVIII of the ** Proceedings,'' and three 
numbers of the "Memoirs," viz. : — 

Beyision of North American Porifera, Part I. By A. Hyatt pp. 10. One 
Plate. 

Gynandromorphlsm in Lepidoptera. By A. S. Packard, Jr., M.D. Struc- 
tore and Transformations of finmseus Atala. By S. H. Scudder. pp. Ill 
One Plate. 

Monograph of the Tabanldss, Part n. By C. B. Osten Sacken. pp. 69. 



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1876.1 



84T 



[Annttal Bepoit. 



A second vblunie of the *< Occasional Papers" has also 
been publisked, which consists of a reprint of the Arach- 
nological writings of Prof N. M. Hents^ with notes and two 
new plates by Mr. J. H. Emerton, the whole forming a vol- 
ume of 171 pages, with 21 plates. 



TBEASTIRER»S REPORT. 



Repofrt of E. Pidcering, Treasurer, on ihe FiA^cial Affiurs of the 
^Society, for the year ending April SOth, 1876. 



Eeceipts, 
Courtis Fund Income ..«••*« 


$1,826.27 
558.99 

6,817.99 
618.78 
826.16 
112.26 
578.10 
243.75 

2,868.80 

1,274.79 
1,148.91 


S670.00 


Pratt Fund Income 

H. F. Wolcott Fund Income 

Walker Fund Income . 


810.00 

464.00 

2,796.82 

1,992.00 

15.00 


Bulfinch Street Estate Fund Income . 

ICntnmnlniriAfLl ITiitkI TnAnmo .... 


• • 


Walker Pnze Fund Income ....'•• 


329.00 


" Grand Prize Fund Income .... 

General Fund, Dividends, Rents, etc 

Annual Assessments .....••• 


60.00 
8,886.78 
1,306.00 


Admission Fees 


75.00 


J. Cummingif, Donation ..«••* t ' 


1,266.90 


R. C. Greenleaf. " .... r - - 


25.00 


C.S.Hale, « .... 
Lowell Institute Subsidy for Ldctuiea . 


• . 


50.00 
1,101.90 


Total. ...... 


$14i747.4b 


Cabinet 




library 




Salaries and Waires « 




Museum Building • • . • • - • 
T^^pftini of Mnifenm .•.*...• 




Gas- •..'..• 




Fuel 




TnHTirfl.nAA ... ^ ..... . 




I^ectures ....••.'-• 




Publications and Printing 

Less Receipts on this account . • 

General ExT>ensefi ..... 


. 1,567.56 
292.77 


$15,269.79 




• • • 




Excess of Expenditures . • 




$622.89 



E. Pickering, Treasurer, 
Boston Society of Natural History. 
Boston^ May 1, 1876, ■ 

We have examined the Tr^asur^'s account, and find the same 
correctly cast and properly Touched. 



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Anniua Meeting.] 848 [HjiyS, 

The Committee on " Walker Prizes " reported that no es- 
says on the prize question of the year had been offered. 

Prof Shaler called the attention of the meeting to two 
branches of the Society's work which struck him as particu- 
larly entitled to praise. The work of Dr. Brooks, in making 
the admirable models of molluscs, whose form cannot be 
preserved in their natural state, compares most favorably 
with all previous work of the kind, making a distinct advance 
in this branch of illustration. Another matter of the great- 
est importance is the practical teaching in Mineralogy and 
Lithology, referred to in the Custodian's report; this teaching 
is giving public opportunities which are probably unequalled 
in any other city, and its effect on the advancement of sci- 
ence cannot fail to be felt. 

Dr. T. Sterry Hunt also spoke warmly in praise of the 
work done by the Teachers' School of Science. 

A petition, signed by ten members, asking permission to 
form a Section of Botany, was read and accepted* 

The Society then proceeded to the election of officers for 
the coming year. Messrs. F. H. Brewer and A. G. Bouv6 
being appointed to collect and count the ballots, announced 
that the following gentlemen were elected officers for 1876- 

1877: — 

PBlCSIDfilfTi 

THOMAS T. BOUVfi. 



TI0B-PBE8n>BBT8y 

SAMUEL H. SCUBDEB, JOHN GX7MMIN6S. 

OUSTODlAir, 

ALPHEUS HYATT. 

HONOBABY 8B0BETABY, 

8. L. ABBOT, M.D. 



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1876.] 



849 



[Annual Meeting. 



8E0BETABY, 

EDWABD BUBGBSS. 

TBEASUBBB, 

EDWABD FICKEBING. 

IXBRABIAJX, 

EDWAKD BURGESS. 

00MMITTSB8 ON DEPABTME17TS. 

Minerals, BcuUates, Crwtaceans and Worms, 

Thohas T. BouvA, H. a. Hagsn, M.D., 

L. S. BURBAirC, ALEZAin>EB AOABBIZ, 

B. H. Richards. L. F. de Poubtales. 



Oeohgy, 

L. S. BURBAITK, 

T. Sterbt Homt, 
Wk. H. Nilbs. 

PalcBOiUology, 
Thob. T. Boxrvit, 

N. S. Shales, 
Jules Maboou. 

Botany, 
John CumaNos, 
Chablbb J. Sprague, 
J. Amort Lowell. 

Microscopy. 
Edwin Bioknell, 
R. C. Greenleav, 
B. Jot Jeffries, M.D. 

Comparative Anatomy, 
Thohas Dwiqht, Jr., M J>., 
J. C. White, M.D. 



MoUusks. 
Edward S. Morse, 
J. Henrt Blake, 
Levi L. Thazter. 

Insects, 
S. H. Som>DER, 
Edward Burgesb, 
A. S. Packard, Jr., M.D. 

Fishes and S^tHes, 
P. W. Putnam, 
S. Kneeland, M.D., 
Richard Bliss, Jr. 

Birds. 
Thomas M. Brewer, M.D., 
Samuel Cabot, MJ>., 
J. A. Allen. 

McmmcUs, 
J. A. Allen, 
J. B. S. Jackson, MJ>. 



The final consideration of the changes in the Constitution 
and By-Laws, discussed during the previous meetings, re- 
sulted in the adoption of the following amended articles: — 

CONSTITUTION. 

Art. II. It shall consist of Associate, Corporate, Corresponding 
and Honorary Memhers, and Patrons. 

Art. III. All members shall be chosen by ballot, afler having 
been nominated at a preceding meeting; the affirmative votes of 
three-fourths of the Corporate Members present shall be necessary to 
a choice. The nomination of Corporate, Corresponding and Honor- 



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Annual Meeting;] S50 [Hay ^ 

ary Members shall proceed from the Council. Any person who shall 
contribute, at one time, to the funds of the Society, a sum not less 
than three hundred dollars, shall be a Patron. 

Art. IV. Corporate Afembers only dudl be entitled to vote, to 
hold office, or to transact business; Corresponding and Honorary 
Members and Patrons may attend the meetings and take part in the 
scientific discussions of the Society; they may, however, on appli- 
cation, be transferred to the list of Corporate Members by a majority 
vote of the Council. Associate Members may attend such meetings 
as are designated by the Council, and take part in the scientific dis- 
cussions at the same. 

Art. v. The officers of the Society shall be a President; two 
Vice Presidents; a Custodian; an Honorary Secretary; a Secretary; 
a Treasurer; a Librarian; and a Committee of three on each depart- 
ment of the Museum; who, together, shall form a Board for the 
management of the concerns of the Society, and be called the Coun- 
cil, of which the Secretary shall be the clerk, ex officio. 

Article vi. Officers shall be chosen by ballot, after having been 
nominated at a preceding meeting, and a majority of votes of the 
Corporate Members present shall be sufficient for a choice. 

Article yiii. This Constitution may be altered or amended in 
any of the preceding Articles, by a vote to that effect, of three- 
fourths of the Corporate Members present at any two consecutive 
meetings of the Society; the members having been first duly notified 
of any proposed alteration: but the Article which immediately fol- 
lows this shall be unalterable. 

Bt-LAWS. 

Section i. Art. 1. Elections for membership shall be held at 
the first meeting in the months of January, March, May and Novem- 
ber. Any person of respectable character and attainments, residing 
in the City of Boston or its immediate neighborhood, shall be eligible 
as an Associate Member of this Society. Nominations must be made 
in writing, by three members, at least one month previous to the 
time of elections; such nominations shall be made to a Committee 
consisting of the President, Secretary and Treasurer, who ^lall report 
upon the same at the meeting previous to that upon which elections 
are to be held. Every person elected shall, within six months firom 
the date of election,«pay into the Treasury an admission fee of five 
dollars, and subscribe an obligation, promising to conform to the Con<- 



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1876.] 851 [AmuialMeetinir. 

stitution and By-Laws of the Society; and until these conditions are 
fulfilled, shall possess none of the rights of membership, nor be en- 
rolled upon the list of members. 

Art. 2. Corporate Members may be chosen only from Associate 
Members of a year's standing, who are either professionally engaged 
in science, or hay% aided its advancement. Corresponding and Hon- 
orary Members may be selected from persons eminent for their 
attainments in science, on whom the Society may wish to confer a 
compliment of respect. Neither Corresponding nor Honorary Mem- 
bers shall be required to pay an admission fee or other contribution. 

Art. 5. Members may be expelled firom the Society by a vote of 
three-fourths of the Corporate Members present, at a meeting spec- 
ially called to consider the question by a notice given at least one 
month previous. 

Sect. hi. Art. 3. The Custodian shall be a person of acknowl- 
edged scientific attainments. He shall have general charge of the 
building and its contents ; shall have free access to all the collections 
at all times; and shall act in concert with the Committees, to whom 
he shall bear the relation of adviser and assistant. In case of the 
absence or neglect of Committees, he shall act in their stead, and 
perform their duties. He shall prepare and read at the annual meet- 
ing a report of the state of the museum, compiled firom the special 
report made to him by the Committees. He shall acknowledge all 
donations and keep a book to be called a Donation Book, in which 
shall be recorded, under their respective departments, all donations 
to the museum, with the date and name of donor. And he shall per- 
form such other duties as may be prescribed by the Council and 
mutually assented to. 

Art. 4. The Honorary Secretary shall keep the common seal; no- 
tify Corresponding and Honorary Members of their election; and 
receive and read to the Society all communications which may be 
addressed to him. 

Art. 5. The Secretary shall take and preserve correct minutes of 
the proceedings of the Society and Council, in books to be kept for 
that purpose; shall have the charge of all records belonging to the 
Society; shall conduct the correspondence of the Society, and keep 
a record thereof; shall notify Corporate and Associate Members of 
their election, and committees of their appointment; shall call special 
meetings when directed by the President; and shall notify members 
residing in the vicinity of all meetings, and oflScers of all matters 
which shall occur at any meeting requiring their action. 



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Annixal Meeting.] 852 [May 3, 

Art. 8. The Committees shall be responsible for the care of the 
particular departments of the Museum assigned to them at the time 
of their election; they shall consist of not more than three members, 
of whom the first named shall act as chairman in each department; 
they shall, as soon as possible after a donation is made or specimens 
received, deposit them in their respective cabinets^ shall arrange the 
specimens in their appropriate departments according to some system 
approved by the Custodian; and, so far as is practicable, label them 
with the names they bear in such system. They shall also, so far as 
is practicable, keep a correct list of the articles in their care, and 
shall be authorized to select duplicate specimens from the cabinet, 
and, with the assent of the Custodian, effect exchanges therewith. 
The Committees shall make written reports to the Custodian, a month 
previous to the annual meeting, concerning the collection under their 
charge, the additions made during the year, and any important defi- 
ciencies which exist. 

Sect. iv. Art. 1. Every Corporate and Associate Member shall 
be subject to an annual assessment of five dollars, payable on the 
first day of October in each year; but no assessment shall be required 
of any Associate Member during the six months succeeding his elec- 
tion. Commutation may be purchased for &fty dollars. 

Sect. ix. Art. 1. A meeting shall be held on the first Wednes- 
day in May annually, for the choice of oflicers and other general 
purposes. At this meeting the Custodian shall present a report upon 
the condition and progress of the museum, the lectures which he su- 
perintends, and any other matters of general interest; the Secretary 
upon the library, publications, meetings, and the lectures which he 
superintends; the Treasurer upon the receipts and expenditures of 
the year; and the Trustees upon the financial condition of the 
Society. 

Art. 4. The order of proceeding at meetings shall be as follows: — 

1. Record of preceding meeting read. 

2. Candidates for membership proposed. 

3. Balloting for members. 

4. Scientific communications. 

5. Business called up by special resolution, or otherwise. 

6. Donations announced. 

7. Adjournment. 

Sect. x. Art. 1. Sections of the Society, holding separate 
meetings of their own, may be formed on the written application of 



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1876.] 853 [Meetings. 

ten Corporate Members, by the consent of the Corporate Members 
present at two consecutive meetings of the general Society. As in 
the general Society, Corporate Members alone shall be entitled to 
vote, to hold ofl5ce, or to transact business. 

Art. 2. The requirements of membership shall be: — 

1. Membership in the general Society. 

2. Written nomination by two members at a regular meeting 

of the Section. 

3. Election by a three fourths vote of the Corporate Members 

present at the subsequent meeting. 

4. Signature to the standing rules within six months from the 

date of election. 

Art. 4. Such notice of each meeting as shall be judged by the 
publishing committee suitable for publication in the Proceedings or 
Memoirs of the Society, may be announced by the Secretary at the 
next regular meeting of the Society. 

Sect. xi. Art. 1. The By-Laws of the Society may be altered 
or amended by a majority vote of the Corporate Members present at 
any meeting; provided that they shall have been duly notified, two 
weeks previous, of an intended change. 

It was further voted : that the above amendments go into 
effect after the next quarterly meeting (July 5, 1876). 



Section of Botany. May 4, 1876. 

Sixteen persons (including six ladies) present. 

The Secretary called the meeting to order, explaining that 
the Society had given its consent to the formation of a 
Botanical Section, and that he had, therefore, called the 
present meeting of those interested in Botany to take action 
for the organization of the Section. 

Mr. T. P. James was elected chairman. 

Drs. G. L. Goodale and J. C. White, and Mr. E. Burgess, 
made some remarks concerning the regulations of the new 
Section, and it was voted, on motion of Dr. White, that a 

PBOOBBDINGS B. B. K. H. — VOL. XVUI. 23 DSCEMBEB, 1876. 



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Meetings.] 354 [May 10, 

committee of three be appointed to prepare a plan of organ- 
ization and work. Messns. Goodale, Farlow and Dimmock 
were accordingly appointed. 

The meeting then adjourned to the following Wednesday. 



Section of Botany. May 10, 1876. 

Dr. J. C. White in the chair. Thirty-four persons present. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting to present a 
plan of organization for the Section reported, through Dr. 
Goodale, the following recommendations : — 

That the meetings be conducted as informally as possible, the or- 
der of business being: 

1. Communications, including the exhibition of specimens. 

2. Informal discussion of the topics thus brought up. 

3. Reports on the latest botanical researches. 

The Committee further recommend that the members should join 
in the preparation of a complete catalogue of the plants of the 
vvicinity. 

The report was accepted and adopted. 

Dr. G. L. Goodale exhibited some drawings prepared by 
"Mr. W. P. Wilson, of an interesting monsJ,rosity observed in 
some apple blossoms from New Jersey. In these flowers the 
stamens had been replaced by pistils, and a siugular two- 
storied ovary was formed ; the flowers then being wholly 
female, could only be fertilized from blossoms on adjoining 
trees. Dr. Goodale had not been informed whether the 
fruit showed any peculiarities. 

Dr. W. G. Farlow described the nature of the so-called 
" cedar-apple," which is produced by a fungus. 

Mr. R. W. Greenleaf exhibited some flowers of Posoque- 
ria longiflora^ a Brazilian plan^ and, by a set of drawings, 



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1876.] 865 [Meetingi. 

showed the peculiar contrivances to insure cross-fertiliza- 
tion. 

The anthers cohere by the interlacing of their marginal fibres, 
thus forming a sac which contains the pollen. 

One of the five stamens has a stout filament, which is in a state of 
tension, and which, when the anther sac is touched, flies forward 
and over the mouth of the corolla tube; the pollen at the same 
time being hurled from the flower. After some hours this filament 
relaxes and bends back, thus opening the orifice of the corolla tube. 

The style is but one half the length of the slender corolla tube, 
hence it is impossible for pollen from one flower to reach the stigma 
of the same flower. 

Mr. Charles Wright, who had studied the plant in the 
vicinity of Rio Janeiro, said that Fritz Mtiller had ascribed 
the task of fertilizing Posoqueria to small insects. Mr. 
Wright could not agree with this conclusion, and believed 
the duty was performed by some long-tongued hawk-moth. 
He observed that a few flowers were fertilized in the green- 
house at Cambridge, but probably by some accident. 

Mr. Sereno Watson suggested the possible explanation that 
pollen reached the stigmas of flowers from which the corollas 
had fallen. 

It was voted to meet for the present every Monday after- 
noon at 4 o'clock. 



Section of Botany. May 15, 1876. 
Dr. J. C. White in the chair. Forty-one persons present. 

Mr. Charles Wright made some remarks on the position of 
the stamens in the Golden Saxifrage (Chrysosplenium) which 
has been diflerently described by different authors. Careful 
study had shown him unmistakably that the stamens are in- 
serted on the calyx and not on the disk. 



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Bond.] 356 [May 17, 

Mr. W. P. Wilson exhibited a number of drawings of May- 
Flowers from Old Orchard, Me., showing the differences in 
development and relative lengths of stamens and pistils. 
Some flowers wanted the former entirely, and in these the 
stigmas always developed five prominent rays. 

Dr. Asa Gray read a paper on the same subject, showing 
that these flowers may be arranged in two groups, one with 
small stigmas and good stamens, * and one with large five- 
rayed stigmas and poor or no stamens. These groups may 
be subdivided into two sub-groups each, according as the 
styles are long or short ; the long-styled flowers, however, 
predominate in each group. Epigaea thus shows a tendency 
to become dioecious. 

Dr. W. G. Farlow said that he had just found the two 
species of Podisoma, whose occuiTence on the White Cedar 
he had j)redicted at the last meeting. Specimens of both 
species were exhibited. Dr. Farlow also exhibited a se- 
cies of Morel (Morchella) and recommended its edible qual- 
ities. 



May 17, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouve, in the chair. Forty-two 
persons present. 

Mr. G. W. Bond made some remarks on the result of his 
studies made during the preparation of a series of the wools 
of commerce for the Centennial Exhibition. 

In the first plaoe he had found indubitable confirmation of the cur- 
rent opinion that the sheep of Spanish America, both North and 
South (with possibly some other admixture in Chili), originated from 
the churro, or coarse sheep of Spain, and not from the Merino, as 
some writers have supposed. The most interesting observation, how- 
ever, was the discovery of a similarity of the wool of the Mauchamp 
race of France and that of the Arabian stump-tailed, fat-rumped 
race or Mecca sheep. Darwin, in the third chapter of his work on 



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1876.1 - 357 [Bond. 

the Domestication of Animals and Plants, speaking of sheep, says :— 
"In some few instances new breeds have suddenly originated; thus 
in 1791 a ram-lamb was born in Massachusetts having crooked legs 
and a long back like a turnspit dog. From this one lamb the Otter 
or Ancon breed was raised; as these sheep could not leap over the 
fences it was thought that they would be valuable, but they have 
been supplanted by Merinos and thus exterminated." 

Huxley, in his lectures on the Origin of Species, also speaks of 
this race, and expressed a regret that no skeleton had been pre- 
served. Mr. Bond had the good fortune, through the kindness of 
Mr. R. G. Hazard, of Rhode Island, to find a small flock of eight 
still living there, and obtained two, one, at the request of Prof H. P. 
Bowditch, for the Society. This deformed race has, therefore, been 
perpetuated through many generations during eighty-five years. 

Darwin also remarks, continued Mr. Bond.: — "A more interesting 
case has been recorded in the report of the Juries of the Great Ex- 
position (1857), namely, the introduction of a Merino ram-lamb on 
the Mauchamp farm in 1828, which was remarkable for its long, 
smooth, straight and silky wool. By the year 1833 Mr. Graux had 
raised rams enough to serve his whole flock ; and after a few more 
years he was able to sell stock of his new breed. So peculiar and 
valuable is the wool that it sells at twenty-five per cent, above the 
best Merino wool ; even the fleeces of half-bred animals are valuable, 
and are known in France as the Mauchamp Merino." 

This ram was born with hair, and when it dropped its first hair 
the fine, straight, silky wool appeared. Mr. Bond having heard of 
other lambs being born in pure Merino flocks with hair, long since 
believed that some common cause must be found, and that the Mau- 
champ was not, like the Otter, a freak of nature, but more likely a 
reversion which might help to discover the origin of the Merino 
race, a point which has never been settled. A short time ago a spec- 
imen of wool, which the speaker showed, was sent to him from New 
York to ascertain what it was. It was much longer, but in other 
respects like the wool of the Mecca sheep. Mr. Bond concluded 
it was what should be found on that race raised under circumstances 
favorable to the full development of its covering. 

Dr. L. Fitzinger, in an interesting paper on the Domestic sheep, 
published in the Sitzungsberichte of the Imperial Academy of Vi- 
enna, for 1859-60, says of the Stump-tailed sheep: " It is about the 
size of the smaller races of Merino sheep, and reminds one in its 



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Bond.] 858 [May 17, 

general form, with the exception of its peculiar shaped tail, of our 
common domestic sheep." 

Of the Mecca, or fat-rumped, stump-tailed sheep, he says: — " The 
whole body is thickly covered with short, smooth, close-lying, 
straight and stiff shining hairs, which are shorter on the face, ears 
and legs, and beneath these there is found a short, peculiarly fine 
wavy and elastic wool, which is finer than that of most known races 
of sheep." The speaker had obtained a skin of this last named race, 
and found that the covering exactly agrees with this description. A 
micro-photograph of the wool, magnified about two hundred times, 
shows that the fibre measures only about ^^^j^ of an inch in diam- 
eter, which is as fine as the finest Silcsian wool. 

On comparing the wool received from New York, before referred 
to, and separating the hair from the true wool, Mr. Bond found an 
exact correspondence with the last named wool, and also with that of 
the Mauchamp sheep. He suggested, therefore, that the Mauchamp 
sheep might be simply a case of atavism, or reversion to an ancient 
type. One of the legends respecting the origin of the Merino sheep 
was that the Arabs, when they went to Spain, found only black and 
colored sheep, and as they wanted white wool they imported white 
rams from the East to cross with them. Other accounts say that 
from time to time rams were imported from Morocco, which amounts 
to the same thing, as the sheep of Morocco were undoubtedly brought 
from Arabia. There is, however, more resemblance in the wool of 
the coarse sheep of Spain (churro) to those with which we are now 
familiar from Morocco, than in that of the Merino. 

The Merino sheep is undoubtedly an animal that either from mode 
of culture, or some accidental cause, has lost the hairy part of its 
covering, and the wool has been furnished with a liberal supply of 
**yolk" or grease to meet the exigencies resulting from this change. 
If descended from the Arabian sheep, may not the fat deposit of 
the tail have been diverted to produce the greater amount of "yolk" 
required to make this wool covering adequate for the protection of 
the sheep from the external influences to which it was subjected? 

Mr. S. H. Scudder called the attention of the Society to 
the close afiSliation of the insects of Europe and America in 
the Carboniferous epoch. 

Although but thirty or forty species were known on either side of 
the Atlantic, they were in many cases referable to identical genera, 



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1876.] 359 [Meeting. 

and every discovery of new forms seemed to make the resemblance 
more striking. Doubtless a critical study of the species independ- 
ently diescribed would reveal even a closer relationship than was now 
known to exist; for instance, the Acridites formosus Gold., of Saar- 
briick, is unquestionably a Megathentomum, closely allied to Meg, 
pustulatum Scudd., from Illinois. In conclusion, Mr. Scudder ex- 
pressed his belief that we are already warranted in saying that the 
insect faunas of Europe and America were as intimately related in 
Carboniferous times as now. 



Section of Botany. June 5, 1876. 

Mr. T. T. Bouv6 in the chair. Thirty-five persons present. 

In relation to the question of the fertilization of the dan- 
delion, which was brought up at the previous meeting, Mr. 
B. D. Halsted said that he had found the flowei*s to be visited 
by bees, and he explained the provision for cross-fertilization. 

Mr. W. P. Wilson made more extended remarks on the 
same subject, showing by drawings that the pollen ripens in 
each flower before the stigma matures, thus effectually pre- 
venting close fertilization. He had found that several species 
of wild bees, and also the honey-bees, visit the flowers fre- 
quently. 

Mr. Halsted showed a number of cluster-cups and other 
parasitic fungi ; also the sexual plants of Osmunda regalia^ 
whose prothalii are not hermaphroditic, but unisexual. 

Mr. R. W. Greenleaf showed a monstrous stalk of aspara- 
gus, produced by the union of two stems, and made some 
remarks on this kind of monstrosity. 

Dr. G. L. Goodale called attention to the hitherto unsus- 
pected parasitic or sapraphytic character of some of our 
common plants, and suggested that the members of the Sec- 
tion pay special attention to the detection of the habit in 
other plants, especially those which turn black in di-ying. 



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Hyatt.] 360 [June?, 

In relation to the preparation of a catalogue of local 
plants, Dr. J. C. White suggested the desirability of prepar- 
ing exhaustive lists of the plants of the richer localities, 
before these shall become picked out or otherwise changed. 



June 7, 1876. 

The President, Mr. T. T. Bouv6, in the chair. Eighteen 
persons present. 

Dr. W. K. Brooks gave a general sketch of the anatomy of 
the Tunicata, and showed how Salpa, with its separated 
sexes and other peculiarities, might be produced on the the- 
ory of Natural Selection. Dr. Brooks called especial atten- 
tion to the locomotive powers of Botryllus, a hitherto 
unknown fact. 

A paper on the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts, by Mr. 
W. O. Crosby, was presented by title. 

The following paper was read : — 

Genetic Belations op Stephanocebas. By A. Hyatt. 

The group which forms the subject of the present paper was first 
described by Waagen as part of his genus Stephanoceras, it being 
with Dactylioceras commune and its allies, united as the "sub-group a" 
und«r this name.* Coeloceras Pettos was left by the same author 
under the title of -^goceras, though the similarities of the latter to 
Steph. Humphriesianum were fully recognized by Waagen in his sub- 
sequent paper. 2 In this paper, also, he restricted the use of the 
name Stephanoceras; and two groups, which had appeared as sub- 
genera of Stephanoceras in his first paper, were elevated to the rank 
of full genera, under the names of Kosmoceras and Perisphinctes. 

The preservation of zoological nomenclature in an, available form 
demands above all things that names shall not be uselessly multiplied, 

1 Die Formenreihe d. Amm. subradiatus. Benecke's Geog. Pal. Beitriige, Vol. 2 ^ 
p. 248. 

* Ueb. d. Ansatzstelle d. Haftsmuakeln b. Naut. and Amm., Paleontographica, 
Vol. 17, 5, p. 216. 



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1876.] 361 [Hyatt 

and for that reason the law of priority has been universally recog- 
nized and mercilessly applied. Waagen, and all other German 
Paleontologists who have quoted his names, have disregarded this law 
in a wholesale manner. The only reason for this conduct, and the 
most charitable one which can be given, is, that they considered the 
new names proposed by Prof. Agassiz and myself as untenable, and 
unworthy of their adoption. This reason, although perhaps suffi- 
cient to themselves and their followers, is jio justification for a viola- 
tion of the rights of priority. The laws of nomenclature do not 
permit them to describe the same family groups as new genera with 
new names. New views of the relations of well known species can- 
not be represented by new generic names because the grouping 
happens to include a half dozen or more of the previously described 
genera. What a fearful maze of difficulties this process would lead 
to if generally adopted! Every man, or set of men, would of course 
have the same privilege. For example, let us suppose that in my 
own recent paper on the " Genetic Relations of the Angulatidse," in 
the Proceed, of the Bost. Soc. Nat. History, Vol. xvii, May, 1874, 
I had originated a new name for the genus iEgoceras of Waagen, 
because his generic characteristics are of no value for the distinction 
of groups of generic significance. The genus JEgoceras, according 
to Waagen, contains forms as widely separated as Psiloceras plan- 
orhis, belonging to the ArietidaB, jEgoceras angulatus, one of the 
Angulatidae, Androgynoceras Henleyi, one of the Liparoceratidse, and 
Cceloceras Pettos of the Dactyloidae. According to their development, 
mode of occurrence in time, and all their adult characteristics, 
except perhaps " the undivided, horny character of the Aptychus," 
these forms are perfectly distinct from each other. 

The Psiloceras becomes the parent form of the Arietidse in the 
Lias, the Mgoceras angulatum of another distinct series differing 
wholly in development and form in the same formation. Both of 
these are probably traceable to a common ancestor in the Trias, 
according to Waagen and Mojsisovics,i and therefore it may perhaps 
be considered that it is legitimate to join them, but what can be said 
with regard to the remaining forms? Androgynoceras Henleyi is di- 
rectly traceable to Deroceras Dudressieri, the affinities of which can- 
not be settled with our present knowledge conclusively; but what 
evidence there is, however, in the development of the young shows 

1 See also my paper on the *' Genetic Belations of the Angulatidse," in these 
Proceedings, Vol. xvii, p. 15. 



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Hy«tt.] 862 , [June?, 

most decidedly, as mi<vht be anticipated from the adult characteiis- 
tics, that the ancestral forms are to be sought in the Lytoceras and 
allied groups, not in Psiloceran forms of the Trias. Cceloceras Pettos 
is equally of uncertain derivation, though its affinities in every re- 
spect show also that it belongs to the Dudressieri series. 

All of these forms are included under the name Stephanoceras, 
and thus two great groups of Ammonites, the round abdomened and 
the keeled groups, with distinct systems of development and uncer- 
tain derivation are made to appear as one genetically connected 
series. This, however, would not justify the total suppression of the 
name iEgoceras and the substitution of another for the more limited 
group, to which it can be properly applied. Scientific courtesy, as 
well as the strict law of custom, forbids such a course, though here, 
as in the Arietidse, I must consider the name as used by Waagen 
utterly devoid of zoological meaning. The structure of the Aptychus 
has, no doubt, some meaning, but it alone certainly cannot unite PsU. 
planorbis, JEgoc, angulaius, Cceloceras Pettos, Microderoceras Birchii, 
etc., into one genus, because as Waagen himself points out,- it has the 
same structure in two other groups, Arietites and Amaltheus, de- 
scribed by him as distinct genera. If he had joined all these into one 
group and distinguished them by the Aptychus, it would have been 
more consistent and less objectionable; this characteristic would have 
at any rate applied to them all. 

I allude particularly to this fact because the other characteristics 
given by Waagen are not applicable to such large groups. Thus in 
the lower forms of the Arietidae (that is to say, my genera Psiloceras, 
Caloceras and Vermiceras, including the planorbvi, raricostctus and 
Conybeari series), the length of the living chamber, one of Waagen's 
distinctive characteristics, is generally over one volution. In the 
genus Arnioceras, the falcaries series, its length is generally less than 
one volution, from one half to nearly a full volution. In Coroniceras, 
' from one-half to one. In Asteroceras obtuswn the length is from one- 
half to five-eighths of a volution in large specimens, in Asteroceras 
Brookii about three-fourths. In Agassiceras Icevigatus, five-eighths 
to three-fourths of a volution, in Agassiceras Scipionianus, about 
three-fourths. Thus in all the higher genera of the same family it 
is less than one volution, and so variable that it cannot be very use- 
fully employed, even as a specific characteristic in some species, such 
Aster, obtusunu 

The outline of the mouth has been long used to designate sub- 
groups among the Ammonites. This characteristic, like all others, is 



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1876.] 363 [Hyatt. 

of different values in different groups, and the attempt to use it with 
the same naeaning in every group results, as in all other cases, in 
confusion. Thus in Waagen's diagnoses of the genera Stephanoce- 
ras, Perisphinctes and Kosmoceras, we find that they are all three 
described as having " simple (entire) mouth-openings or ears." In 
each genus the characteristics of the Aptychus are the same, as 
stated by Waagen, and each has the same variability in the outlines 
of the mouth. These surely will not suffice to distinguish them, 
since they are precisely the same in each genus, and we have to fall 
back on the length of the living chamber or the comparative length 
of the animal and shell. 

I do not mean to be understood as denying the existence of natu- 
ral sub-groups of generic value, for undoubtedly such do exist, and 
some of them must bear Waagen's names in nomenclature, but 
merely to point out the inapplicability of such characteristics as he 
has arbitrarily employed to distinguish them. In many other groups 
the outlines of the mouth are exceedingly constant, as in the Arie- 
tidae, and are very properly used to designate them in common with 
other characteristics. 

I allude principally to these three characteristics, the Aptychus, 
the length of the living chamber and the mouth outline, because it is 
only in the application of these that Waagen differs from other natu- 
ralists, especially in the former, since Suess applied the two latter 
to the distinction of his genera Lytoceras and Phylloceras. 

Such differences in the views of Paleontologists as are above alluded 
to, lie deeper, however, than any such contrasts in the translation and 
application of facts. They rest upon the different modes of study, 
which distinguish two schools of Naturalists. In one school the 
effort is being perpetually made to discover some set of characteristics 
by which animals may be distinguished one from another. Every new 
organ, or indication of such, when discovered, is applied at once to 
the definition of groups, as if this was the great object of all classifi- 
cation. The distinction of groups from each other doubtless repre- 
sents to a certain extent our knowledge of their organization, but 
only in proportion to the number of the parts or characteristics which 
may be employed in classification. Consequently arbitrary classifica- 
tions based on single characteristics are the most imperfect, since they 
necessarily leave out of consideration the numberless affinities of the 
groups, and all the minor points of difference which here and there 
appear. 



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Hyatt.] 364 [June 7, 

In the other school, a zoologist or paleontologist makes greater 
allowance for the variability of organic bodies, becomes distrustful of 
all single characteristics, or combination of single characteristics, and 
endeavors to combine all possible sources of information in his defi- 
nition of groups. 

The former naturally tends to the formation of large generic 
groups, those "which can be approximately distinguished by some 
salient structural characteristic, and the latter to the division of 
these large groups into many minor ones, in order to show the nat- 
ural affinities and derivation of animal forms. 

The former leads to the artificial method of classification which has 
always, without the slightest reason, been claimed to be the more 
useful, and the latter to the approximately natural method. The difier- 
ences are most prominently presented in one, and in the other these 
are considered of no more importance than any other class of charac- 
teristics. The first is certainly the most imperfect and conventional; 
and why its defects, which are openly confessed, should be regarded 
as recommendations for its adoption, or how it becomes by means 
of its confused imperfection more convenient, is equally incompre- 
hensible. Is it more convenient to consider under the same head 
the genus Antipathes, one of the Alcyonoid corals and the Aplysinse 
among the Eeratose Sponges, because their skeleton is identical 
Btructually? This would be considered absurd; but undoubtedly, if 
found fossil no purely Paleontological student could show an essential 
difference between them, and according to the demands of conven- 
ience, as understood by most of them, this absurdity ought to be 
committed. Innumerable instances might be quoted of a similar 
description, but it is unnecessary; practically the natural system of 
classification is always adopted after a certain lapse of time, and the 
different artificial and single character systems become obsolete. 

I do not mean to underrate the great service done to the Natural 
History of the Ammonoid and Nautiloid Groups by Dr. Waagen. 
Waagen's treatise on the Annular Muscle of the Nautilus and Am- 
monites, the characteristic position and probable homology of the 
Aptychus with the similarly situated coverings of the a heart in 
Nautilus Pompilius and observations on the length of the living 
chamber, are solid and permanent contributions, which cannot be 
too highly appreciated; but the mode of application of these to the 
classification of the Ammonoids is, according to my views, entirely 



f 



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1876.] 865 [Hyatt. 

faulty, and calculated only to mislead any naturalist who is desirous 
of understanding the affinities of these fossils. 

There is nothing to be dreaded in new names, except by those 
who strive to get the animal kingdom by heart, as if the principal 
business of life was not to understand things, but to be able to in- 
dulge in an unending string of parrot talk. New names, like new 
things of all kinds, are not necessarily bad, they become so only when 
they violate certain essential restrictions, or are used, to represent 
affinities which have no real existence. Used in a proper manner 
they are clearly a great advantage, since they force the unwilling or 
indifferent to pay some attention to the new views announced, and to 
represent or criticise them more or less in their collections and writ- 
ings, and in this way they really become one of the most essential 
instruments in forwarding the general progress of knowledge. 

For example, if Quenstedt had given a new generic name to every 
natural series of the Ammonites, which he has so admirably fol- 
lowed out in his grand work on the Jura, there would have been no 
occasion for the criticisms made above. Paleontologists would as 
long ago as the publication of Die Cephalopoden, in 1846, have 
begun to consider them in their natural relations, and now it would 
have been an act of scientific heresy to think of the Ammonites as 
anything but a large and important group divisible into many families 
and genera. Quenstedt*s researches failed in this one technical point 
of apparently no essential value, and one which even now he would 
probably treat with the contempt born of the habit of contemplating 
more important things. I consider this, however, to have been a 
very unfortunate mistake, since it is owing to this, and this alone, 
that Aug. Quenstedt's work has not been universally known as the 
only one in Paleontology which at that early period adopted the 
only true system of classification, and fearlessly recognized the varia- 
bility of forms and their passage into each other. He studied them 
in their development, adult cha racteristics, and even their diseases, 

Insert between the words " the " and '^ heart," page 364, fifth line 
from the bottom, these words — *^ nidamental glands above the " 

ncniigtsii v ciuiiivAv-n, «CA%* Ks^s,M^^^^^» 

gere." His collection and his published works exhibit a knowledge 
of this group and their true relations which has never been equalled, 
and which must form the basis of all future classifications, and as 



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ATHLETA'BSD 



S. snbleye 



Anoeps-bed 



8. macro- 
cephalum 



S. dimorphum 



Maobocephalus- 

B£D 



S. snmeve 



Laobna-bed 



S. planulam 
S.coronatam 



DiGONA-BBD 



S. plicatissimam 



Fabkiksoni-bed 



8. coronatum 



8. Deslongchampsii 



HUMPHBIESIAKVfr- 
B£D 



S. Henreyl 8. platysto- 
mum 



S. micros- 
tomum 



S.fiombu 



8. microsto- 
mum vor.Ymir 



S. contractum 



8. coronatum 



8. Blagdeni 



S.Brongn- 
ia rtif 

8. Gervilli 

8. Brochii 



8. liDgu- 
iferum 



8. Humphriesiannm 



8. Bayleanum | 8. subcoronatum 



8. contractum 



8. Sau26i 



[ 8. Braikenridgii 



8. nodosum 



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1876.] 367 [Hyatt. 

early as 1846 he adopted the mode of work which is fast hecoming 
universal, that of uniting in the same genetic series all forms, however 
dissimilar in aspect, which can be traced into each other, by means 
of the young and of the adult characteristics. 

Stephanoceras ^ Waagen (Pars). 

The earliest observed form of this genus is the Steph, nodosum = 
Humphriesianus nodosus Quenst., which occurs in the Humphriesianus- 
bed. This variety or species, whichever the taste of the reader 
prefers, has the ribs more prominent and more widely separated than 
in Humphriesianum, the umbilicus larger, and the whorls increasing 
more slowly in size by growth; this renders the shell altogether more 
discoidal in aspect. The varieties, however, show a shading of the 
characteristics in three different directions. One way leads to Steph. 
Bayleanum^ and another to Steph, Humphriesianum, and still another 
to subcoronatum. Towards Bayleanum a retrograde series of changes 
produces forms more and more discoidal, with whorls increasing more 
and more slowly in size by growth, until in the typical Bayleanum a 
very distinct species appears, as figured by D'Orbigny, and discussed 
by Oppel. It occurs contemporaneously with nodosum, and also later 
in the upper part of the Humphriesianus-bed. 

In a similar way, by following the indications of the gradually 
changing varieties we are led to the stoutest, most involute and 
narrow-umbilicated forms of the typical Steph, Humphriesianum, In 
these the abdomen is also more elevated and rounder, the ribs are finer 
and more numerous, and the sutures distinct. Steph. subcoronatum, 
as pointed out by Oppel and Quenstedt, is one of the transition forms 
of Humphriesianum, but it has a wider significance when carefully 
studied in all its varieties. It becomes identical with Amm, Deslong- 
champsii when the ribs are curved and prominently tuberculated, 
and the abdomen somewhat elevated, though still very broad. The 
abdomen becomes in some specimens still more elevated, the umbili- 
cus narrower than in the Deslongchampsii, the umbilical shoulder of 
the whorl more abrupt, the umbilicus deeper, the abdominal ribs par- 

1 This name, as has been pointed out to me by E. B. Tawney, Esq., of Bristol, 
has been already occupied by Ehrenberg for a genus of Rotatoria, but the termina- 
tion adopted was spelled with an *' o " instead of an *' a," Stephanoceros instead of 
Stephanoceras, and this seems to me quite sufficient under the circumstances to 
justify its retention. 



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Hyatt.] 368 [June 7, 

ticularly fine and numerous, the lateral ribs like those of Steph. lin" 
guiferum or those of Steph, Deslongchampsii. These are apparently 
identical with the pUcatissimum of Quenstedt. Both of these forms, 
Steph, pUcatissimum and Steph, Deslongchampsii, are found in the 
Parkinsoni-bed. 

Some of the varieties of Steph, suhcoronatum are nearly identical 
with Steph. nodosum^ and some of them resemble closely the smaller 
specimens of Steph. coronatum or Blagdeni, The forms from Dundry, 
and also those alluded to in Quenstedt's descriptions of Humphriesi- 
anus, as allied to Amm. Brocchii Sow., show a close series of transi- 
tions from the finer ribbed specimens with open umbilici and young 
like sub-coronatum to those with stouter whorls, no tubercles and 
forms and ribs like true Brocchii. The more open umbilicated forms, 
those like true nodosum in aspect, lead by a similar series of grada- 
tions apparently into Braikenridgii, though here, of course, some 
doubt must always intervene until the appearance of the ear-like 
expansions in the latter is fully understood. The connection with 
Steph. Herveyi and Steph. macrocephalum can also be traced quite 
satisfactorily through the series described by Quenstedt, and also 
studied by myself. 

Thus Steph, suhcoronatum appears theoretically as the typical form 
of the group, a result which was entirely unexpected, since, until this 
summary was written, I had always pictured Humphriesianum proper 
as the centre of affinities. Some of the specimens are inseparable 
from Humphriesianum proper until the young are consulted. These 
invariably show the typical Steph. suhcoronatum or nodosum form and 
characteristics very distinctly, and are also of a smaller size than the 
corresponding Humphriesianum varieties. The peculiar broad abdo- 
men which characterizes the adults of nodosum and the young of suh- 
coronatum and Humphriesianum, I shall have frequent occasion to 
epeak of, and as its resemblance is general rather than special, I shall 
speak of it usually as the Pettos-like form, in allusion to its ancestral 
derivation. 

S. Blagdeni may be briefly described as a huge form of a young 
suh'Coronatum of the broad abdomened variety in some of its forms; 
in others, however, the abdomen becomes elevated, and no line can be 
drawn between these and the succeeding, or true Steph. coronatum 
series. The peculiar broad abdomened forms which began to appear 
in varieties of Steph, suhcoronatum are in Blagdeni, the predominate 
ones, and represent the species. The young changes but slightly by 



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1876.J 369 [Hyatt. 

growth, except in size, and the Pettos-like form is retained through- 
out life, excapt in those varieties which approximate to coronatumt 
or more strictly speaking, except in the round abdomened varieties* 
which approximate to the predominant round abdomened forms of 
Steph, coronatum. These last do not alter the peculiar coarse charac- 
ter of the lateral ribs and tubercles of Blagdeni, but simply elevate 
the abdamen and increase in size faster by growth than the normal 
varieties, so that the umbilici become narrower, and the sides of the 
whorls more abrupt. These are often called Amm, Banksii Sow., but 
may be distinguished by the young which have the flat abdomen of 
the true Blagdeai until a late period of growth, while the true 
Bjtnksii has young with a more elevated abdomen and larger tuber- 
cles. Th3 Pettos-like form of Blagdeni and its peculiar ribs are 
more or less represented in all the young forms of the true Steph. coro' 
natum. Sometimes specimens retain this even to an exaggerated 
degree, growing up to the adult condition with the sides so sharp, 
umbilici so deep, and abdomens so flat, that they appear as new 
specific forms, until the connection is traced between them and the 
normil forms. These are, as in the case of the similar representative 
forms found in Steph. subcoronatum, generally rather small; such is 
the variety known as the anceps-ornati of Quenstedt, and other scat- 
tered varieties intermediate between this and the true broad abdo" 
mened coronatwn forms. Both Steph, subcoronatum and Blagdeni 
occur assosiite 1 in the Humphriesianus-bed, and Steph, coronatum 
later in the Parkinsoni-bed, with the exception, perhaps, of the 
Banksii variety, which may possibly occur in the Humphriesianus-bed. 
The tendency of some varieties of the preceding species to narrow 
the abdomen and depress the sides, is more strongly expressed in 
Steph, coronatum than in any other species of this group, it having 
become characteristic of all the adults of the normal form and of the 
young, though in many individuals not perceptible until a late stage 
of growth. Tais stronger expression of an evidently inherited tend- 
ency is accompanied by a correllative tendency to the suppression or 
absorption of the tubercles and ribs. These changes are retrograde 
in so far as they produce a form smaller and less ornate than the 
preceding, and because they may be directly compared with some of 
the retrograde changes first observed in the old age of ancestral spe- 
cies. The tendency of the old of Humphriesianum is to decrease the 
size of the whorl in every way, and according to D'Orbigny, very 
old specimens become smooth, losing tubercles and ribs. 

PB0CEEDIN3S D. S. K. H. — VOL. XVIH. 24 DECEHBEft, 1876. 



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Hyatt.l 370 [June 7, 

In Sleph. subcoronatum the contraction is also well marked as old 
age advances, though here, as in Ilujnphriestanum, tiie tin»c at which 
old age may begin varies greatly. In Blagdeni I was not able to 
observe any very marked old age changes, except perhaps a tendency 
to narrow the abdomen. 

In the Banksii variety of Sleph, coronatum the old age changes are 
well marked, the tubercles decreasing in size, and the ribs becoming 
depressed and finally obsolete. In the planulum variety of coronatum 
this retrograde tendency is carried out fully, appearing even in the 
adult shell, so that the abdomen becomes very narrow, and the ribs 
in some specimens have no tubercles, except in the earlier stages of 
growth. The extreme changes in the individual figured by D'Or- 
bigny, I have not observed, but his figures are doubtless correct, since 
the indications of the obsolescence of the ribs, and the depression of 
the angular sides in the normal variety, are very marked in much 
smaller shells than those which he describes as having only undula- 
tions on the side at the diameter of 230 mm., and that which he 
figures as entirely smooth at the diameter of 486 mm. None of these 
are found in his collection, but probably exist elsewhere, although 
he does not allude to them in this connection. Even at this enor- 
mous size, 486 mm., the shell of the normal variety, t.c, that which 
has the Blagdeni- or Pettos-like form until a late stage of growth (see 
D*Orbigny, Terr. Jurass., pi. 160, fig. 1-2, and pi. 168), retains the 
lateral tubercles, though these are so close to the umbilical edge as to 
give them an entirely distinct aspect. 

It will be observed that these old age metamorphiems of the indi- 
vidual are not only correllative with those occurring in the plamdum 
varieties of Steph. coronatum^ but they also resemble, in a measure, 
the changes which take place in the evolution of the Steph, Bayleanum 
out of the Steph, nodosum forms. Ihis consists simply of a decrease 
in size of the whorls. When it takes place in an old specimen of 
Steph, nodoaum it is an old age degradatjonal change. Whtn it takes 
place at an earlier stage it produces forms intermediate between 
nodosum and Bayleanuni ; and when at last it occurs at an early age, it 
changes the quick increase in the growth of the whorls to a slower 
rate, and produces the narrow whorls and discoidal form of Baylea- 
nuni. It differs from the old age changes in not going to the extreme 
extent of destroying the tubercles, ribs, etc. 

Quenstedt describes specimens, all of which must, I think, be re- 
ferred to Brochiif in which the tubercles are lost at an early age, but 



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1876.] 371 [Hyatt 

the growth, on the other hand, is not affected, the increase in size 
being even greater proportionally than in the normal Humphriesia- 
num forms leading into the macrocephalum group. Upon the whole, 
the old age or degradational changes which precede death in the 
individual, are found to be correllative with the products of degrada- 
tional changes in every direction, whether they result in producing 
a discoidal form, like Bayleanum, a flattened form, like StepL planu- 
Iwn, or a smooth form, like the last described variety of contractum,^ 
Above the Bath formation the history of this series is fragmentary; 
the few specimens I have seen present, for the most part, tlie broad 
abdomened coronaium form. The forms sometimes referred to this 
series from the White Jura I do not think can be properly designated 
as descendants. Quenstedt analyses this question very fully in his 
diagnosis of the convolutus group, p. 578 of Der Jura, and it. is also 
my impression, derived from careful examination of closely allied 
forms, that even such apparently coronatumAik^ forms as the Gracesi" 
anum, figured by D'Orbigny, pi. 219 of Terr. Jurassique, will be 
found to belong to the convolutwn or planutatum group, and that the 
true coronati have no representatives in the White Jura. 

The extraordinary form, Steph, sublceve, to which we now come, 
presents in its adult condition so close a resemblance to the Amm, 
Goliathus that Quenstedt is evidently in *' Der Jura" doubtful of its 
true affinities, though he had previously, in " Die Cephaloden," re- 
ferred it to the coronatum group. The development, however, shows 
none of the peculiar variations observable in the Amm. Goliathus 
group, and the young in some specimens retain the coro/icr/um form 
and characteristics until a late stage of growth. During old age the 
whorl contracts as it does in Humphriesianum. The form and char- 
acteristics of the young appear to indicate a derivation from some 
coronatum form, like that found in the Parkinsoni-bed, Museum of 
Stuttgart Collection. Another characteristic which seems to separate 
it from the Goliathus series is the general tendency of most of the 
forms to become smooth on the abdomen, at a stage when Goliathus 
is furnished with prominent ribs. Notwithstanding these facts, how- 
ever, whenever the adult forms come under observation, a similarity 
becomes apparent which it is at present impossible to explain. 

The series which can be followed from Steph. contractum to Brocchii, 
and its allied forms, is perhaps the most complete of all others, the 

' With this compare the old coronatum described by D'Orbigny, referred to 
above. 



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Hyatt.] 872 [June?, 

lines drawn between the different species being so slight that they 
vary with every locality. Contractum can only be separated from 
subcoronatum by the fineness of the ribs on the abdomen, and in the 
adult by the aspect of the sides. The connection with subcoronatum 
18 largely made through the young, which are indistinguishable from 
the young of that species in some specimens. 

The Herveyi-like, or macrocephalum-like forms of contractum occur- 
ring in the Parkinsoni-bed, have finer ribs than Herveyi^ but it is 
probable that they vary greatly in this respect. The young of Steph, 
Herveyi are in some varieties tuberculated, but acquire the aspect and 
characteristics of the adult of Sleph, contractum^ including the fine 
abdominal ribs, as soon as they lose their tubercles. Others which 
have no tubercles acquire this aspect at still earlier age, and these 
lead into Steph, macrocephalum, in which the young are invariably 
smooth, or not tuberculated. 

In Steph. macrocephalum we find a series of forms, which become 
gradually more and more compressed laterally, until they present a 
very narrow abdomen and whorls of extraordinary breadth. The 
abdomen, however, does not become sharp, even in extreme varieties. 

Throughout this series, as a rule, only the oldest specimens become 
smooth on the latter part of the living chamber, showing that this is 
an old age characteristic. The growth maintains the same ratio of 
increase in the size of the animal throughout life, and the whorl 
therefore never becomes contracted even in extreme old age. There 
is, however, here, as in the compressed forms of other series, a notic- 
able decrease in the size of the species or varieties as a whole. The 
laterally compressed forms are usually much smaller than the 
broad abdomened forms, a fact in direct accordance with the idea 
that they are the senile descendants of the broader forms. 

The mouths of this series, like those of all species previously de- 
scribed, present no lappets at any stage of growth, and are very uni- 
form in outline. 

Steph, Brocchii is a species with very peculiar characteristics, and 
its affinities lead in two directions; one towards Steph, platystomum, 
and the other towards Steph. Gervilii, and other senile forms. 

Some of the varieties do not appear to contract the living chamber 
at all, or only the very last portion near the mouth. These have the 
precise aspect of the young of the finer ribbed varieties of Herveyi, 
Others show this contraction in such a marked manner that the in- 



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1876.] 373 [Hyatt 

ference becomes unavoidable that the living chamber has a tendency 
to become like that of Gervilii, 

Starting from these Gervilii-like varieties of Broechiiy a series can 
be followed which leads imperceptibly into Gervilii proper with its 
coarse ribs even in the younger stages, and from thence into the 
smooth, globular, and more involute forms of Sleph, Brongniartii, 

The series from Gervilii to microstonium is not so complete, but I 
think no one can examine the forms in Prof. McBsch's collection, the 
Amm. Ymir of Oppel from the Parkinsoni-bed, without coming to 
the conclusion that they show characteristics intermediate between 
true Gervilii of the Humphriesianus-bed and the Steph. microstomum 
of the Macrocephalus-bed* The form, size, ribs, and the fact, that 
in many specimens microstomum, like Gervilii^ does not become smooth 
on the living chamber, except in old specimens, while in others the 
form is much more altered and smoother at comparatively early age, 
are all intermediate characteristics. Their meaning, however, was 
not perceptible to me until I had become assured that true microsto- 
mum had no lappets, and was found as the variety, Ymir^ geologi- 
cally lower than the typical form. 

The peculiarities of the larger Gervilii-like varieties o£ Brocchii arc 
exaggerated in the succeeding platystomum forms, in which the living 
chamber presents the irregular form at a very early age, and is 
usually smooth and much compressed laterally near the mouth. The 
evidence appears to show that there is a line of forms leading from 
the smaller Gervilii and Brongniartii through variety Ymir in the 
Parkinsoni-bed to microstomum in the Macrocephalus-bed, and also a 
line which connects the larger Brocchii through their Gervilii-like 
forms, with the true stout-formed platystomum of the same bed. The 
latter is more deficient than the former, since there are no intermediate 
forms in the Parkinsoni-bed, but this is largely made up for by the 
close resemblances of some of the adult forms, and of the young of 
this species to the adults of the normal or untuberculated variety of 
Brocchii. This view of the affinities also explains better than any 
other the very close similarity of the stout form of the shells through- 
out, and the peculiar aspect of the living chamber. 

Throughout the whole of these series we find similar phenomena to 
those occurring in the series which spring from subcoronatum. Where- 
ever growth is continuous throughout life, old age does not act very 
distinctly upon the shell in the obsolescence of the ribs or decrease 
in size of the whorl as a whorl, either in the individual or in the 



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Hyatt.] 874 [June?, 

series to which the individual belongs. This was shown particularly 
in the macrocephalum series, which continued the direct line of those 
yarieties which began with the true contractum forms in which the 
mouth showed little or no contraction. Other series, however, which 
were followed out from those varieties of Brocchii which did show 
this contraction, manifested a distinct tendency. It was found that 
in the same variety the living chamber varied not only in different 
individuals, but at different stages in the same individual. In the 
young it showed far less the tendency to contract and to become 
smooth than it did in the old age of individuals of the same varieties. 
The contraction and smoothness were also less apparent in the earlier 
or ancestr;^ forms than in the more mature or descendant forms, 
whether found in the same formation or in distinct formations. Thus 
following out from Brocchii to Brongniariii^ we find a series steadily 
decreasing in size, in the regularity of the growth of the shell, and 
jn the size and prominence of the ribs. The contraction and smooth- 
ness of the living chamber, at first a variable characteristic, only 
found in the senile stages of large specimens, become fixed as adult 
characteristics of all forms in the Gervilii-like varieties of Brocchii^ 
are inherited according to the law of acceleration in the living 
chambers of Gereilii at an earlier age, and finally constantly appear 
accompaniecl by all their attendant degradational or senile charac- 
teristics at a much earlier period in Steph . Brongniarlii, 

Tlie series from Brocchii to microstomum^ and also to plalystomum^ 
were not worked out in accordance with this theory from "a priori** 
conclusions, but were traced out in accordance with the evidence, and 
the true relationship not suspected until these remarks were written; 
nevertheless the same principles appear to hold in them, but not so 
well or distinctly marked. 

The microstomum series maintains more determinedly the ancestral 
Gervilii type so far as the aspect of the ribs is concerned, but obeys 
the same law in the lateral flattening of the living chamber and 
increasing smoothness of the species. 

Steph, platystomum is, however, a notable example of the action of 
the law of acceleration, since here the smoothness and distortion of 
the living chamber become constant at a very much earlier age than 
they ever appear in the large Gervilii-like varieties of * Brocchii, 
which, according to Quenstedt's and my own independent observa- 
tions, must be the immediate progenitor. 



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1876.] 375 [Hyatt- 

StepH, dlmorphum constitutes a series by itself, or rather it might be 
saM b3:;ins one of which it is the only known member. The evidence 
afforded by the earlier stages of growth indicates a close affinity with 
Brocckii, since the shell evidently continued to increase the size of 
the living chamber until the adult period. At this stage it began to 
exhibit very markedly the contraction previously described. The 
presence of the furrows also shows that this living chamber was 
never absorbed to any great extent; a very remarkable difference 
when we consider, that if the furrows were absent many English 
specimens would be inseparable from microsfomum in Dorsetshire, and 
others found in Calvados, undistinguishable from Brongniarlii of the 
same locality, and that both of these species habitually absorb the 
living chamber after every arrest of growth. Tlie mouth outlines 
agree with those of the preceding series. 

The next and last series with which we have to deal is also the 
most extraordinary. 

Step by step, in spite of preconceived notions, the evidence has 
forced me to refer the whole of these series, which spring from con- 
tractunij to Sleph, subcoronatum as the parent form, and this is the 
case here also. 

The connection of Steph, Braikenridgii with this species is equally 
plain, although the large lappets are so distinct that an independ- 
ent origin might have been reasonably anticipated. The resem- 
blances of the young of Steph. Braikenridgii^ to the young and adult 
of Steph, subcoronatum are too plain to admit of much doubt, and 
it is probable that the blank which still exists will be filled, as it 
has been in the genetic history of Amm, fuscus by Quenstedt, by the 
discovery of intermediate forms having the mouth lappets as a varia- 
ble or simply adult characteristic. The young of Steph. Braikenridgii 
resemble the adults of subcoronatum , with the exception of the con- 
traction of the living chamber. This takes place in young speci- 
mens, however, much more slightly when an inch or half an inch in 
diameter than it does in the full grown, and at no period does it equal 
the distortion common in the next member of the series, Steph. Sauzeu 
The mouths of both species not only have the lappets, but these are 
peculiar in arising from the abdomen and spreading out abdominally 
instead of laterally, in correlation with the abdominal flattening of 
the outline, which gives the shells a totally distinct aspect from those 
of any other series. Steph. Sauzei accelerates the inheritance o( the 
subcoronatum form so much that it is difficult to recognize the affinity 



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Hyatt.] 376 [June?, 

■with Stefh, Braikefiridgii in those varieties -which grow rapidly in size 
and have narrow umbilici. In others the svbcoronatum form is more 
plainly difcernible. This is precisely similar to the relationship 
"which exists between BrongniarHi and Gervilii, 

A review of the general relations of the different series exhibits 
some peculiarities worthy of our attention. If we start from Steph, 
nodosum and compare the different species of each genetic twig or 
branch, we are struck with the very distinct characteristics of each 
series of forms. 

Steph. Bayleanvm is decidedly retrogressive, the size and the invo- 
lution of the whorls is less than in the type of nodosum. Humphriefd- 
anum, on the other hand, acquires in succcessive forms finer ribs, 
rounds the whorls of the adult and increases the amount of the in- 
volution, and, in the highest forms, the elevation of the abdomen. 
Steph, subcoronaium holds more closely to the type of Steph. nodosum, 
and forms the centre of affinities for all the remaining groups. 

The comparison of these three main groups also reveals the very 
interesting fact that Bayleanum and Humphriesianum have no de- 
scendants; only the last of the three mentioned, subcoronatum, ap- 
pears to have been fruitful in this respect. Bayleanum, in the course 
of its growth, contracts the whorls at an early stage, thus replacing 
the Pettos-like form by a more flattened, discoidal whorl in the adult 
stage. Humphnesianum, on the contrary, increases in the relative size 
of the whorls for a considerable time, but sooner or later shows the 
effects of the contraction of the mouth parts, which appears at first as 
a transitory characteristic near the mouth of each newly formed liv- 
ing chamber. This contracted part is completely absorbed in the 
younger and adult stages, when growth is resumed afler each season 
of rest, but not in the old. Therefore after a period more or less 
prolonged, according to the size and growth force of the specimen^ 
the shell begins to diminish in the size of the whorl and the involu- 
tion to decrease. This eventually, becomes very marked, especially 
when it is accompanied, as it must be in extremely old specimens, 
'by the loss of the spines and ribs. The Pettos-like form is retained 
for a longer period in the young than in Bayleanum. 

Steph. subcoronatum, on the other hand, retains the Pettos-like form 
much longer than the other two, shows hardly any signs of decrease 
in the rate of increase in the size of the whorl by growth, and there- 
fore presents in many specimens no very marked old age changes in 
.the shells. It is altogether more like the parental nodosum or Pettos 



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1876.] 377 IHyatl. 

than any other form. This fact is very significant when we obserre 
how completely it appears to be the genetic source or origin from 
which spring all the other forms of the group. 

If thb were an isolated result I should be slow to attach much im- 
portance to it, but I am constantly confronted in these researches by 
the fact, not only that the simplest or most embryonic forms, those 
standing nearest to the source or roots of a group, are the most pro- 
lific; but often that those among their direct descendants which retain 
this simple structure are the longest lived, most enduring and least 
changeable of all others. Compare for instance, the slight differiences 
existing between Steph. subleue in the Athleta-bed, and Steph, subcor- 
onatum or Blagdeni in the Humphriesianus-bed, with those between 
the same species and macrocephalum or platystomum or Sauzei'^ also 
the longer existence of this series with that of the other and more 
changeable series. 

Not only are the changes observable in the whole series from sub' 
coronatum to subleve less marked, but this necessarily correllates with 
the changes in the course of individual development and growth 
which are also less marked ; there is less force used up in the produc 
tion of new characteristics in the ancestral forms, and therefore a 
greater capacity for propagation and resistance to the modifying 
effects of changing conditions of climate and habitat. The forms of 
subcoronatum, which exhibit no marks of senility even when very 
large, lead directly into the true Blagdeni forms. On the other hand, 
those which change much in old age exhibit intermediate stages, in 
which the abdomen becomes rounded and more elevated, and the 
ribs similar to those of DeslongchampsiL Though not able to trace 
this connection so fully as the others, there seems to be reasonable 
ground for joining plicatissimum with Deslongchampsii^ since both of 
these exhibit similar characteristics. 

In following the coronaium series from Blagdeni, we are struck by 
the gradations which gradually lead the observer from the immature 
form of Blagdeni to the flat-sided, untuberculated form of planxdum^ 
with its elevated abdomen. This, as I have previously pointed out, is 
a direct repetition of the retrogressive old age characteristics of the 
individual, as shown in Humphriesianum, and in some specimens of 
subcoronatum. 

The individuals of one series, the macrocephalum series, show old 
age only in the elevation and narrowing of the abdomen. There is 
here but a slight retrogression, so far as the individual is concerned. 



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Hyatt.] 378 [June 7. 

The size of the individual continues to increase during life, there is 
no distorti&n, and only a normal tendency to the suppression of the 
ribs. So far as the series, however, is concerned, the size of the later 
occurring species or normal senile forms is smaller than that of the 
average of the ancestral forms. 

The senile forms of this series and of the coronalnm series express 
in the continuous increase of the individual by growth throughout 
life, and in the absence of all decrease in the amount of involution, a 
certain power to resist the retrogressive changes which are so marked 
in other scries. The suppression of the tubercles, however, and the 
narrowing of the abdomen and decrease in absolute size of the term- 
inal species of the series are decisively senile. There is evidently a 
mingling of opposing tendencies in these forms not found in the senile 
forms of series, which are more completely changed. Thus in the 
series from Brocchii to Brongmarlii^ there is not only a retrogression 
in absolute size, but also in the increasing distortion of the living 
chamber. The period at which the living chamber begins to show 
a distorted form and smooth exterior, becomes earlier in each spe- 
cies. This is also true of the series leading into microstomum and 
platystomum^ which present similar characteristics. 

In dimorphum, however, which appears to be one of this group, a 
remarkable difference makes its appearance. The living chamber is 
no longer fully absorbed after each period of arrest in the growth, 
and an abdominal channel, which was only occasionally visible in 
some of the planulum forms, becomes quite constant. Noth withstand- 
ing these new characteristics, the form is evidently retrograde and 
senile, suffering in some individuals from a very rapid series of senile 
degradations. This is probably due to the declining force, which 
prevents the animal from resorbing the walls of the living chamber. 
A similar state of affairs occurs in the Sauzei series, where a new 
characteristic is added in the shape of mouth lappets, but the inher- 
itance of the distorted form of the living chamber takes place, as in 
the Brongniartiian series. 

Every one of these series presents three principal stages of 
growth and development, the young or Pettos-like, the adult, or that 
in which Humjihriesianum-like ribs and tubercles and a rounded ab- 
domen appear, and an old age or senile period, in which these orna- 
ments tend to disappear, the shell to decrease in size, and so on. 
These three stages are present in different proportions in different 
series. Thus the manifestations of a retrogressive tendency in Bay- 



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1876.] 379 (Hyatt. 

leanum are much more prominent than in Humphriesianvm and ma- 
crocepJialuni; and the changes introduced are very distinct in these 
from what they are in the distorted forms of Brongniartii and others; 
again, the Pettos-like form is retained in the full grown and even old 
specimens of the lower forms of the coronatum and subleve series, 
whereas it is only a characteristic of the development of the young 
in other series. 

In fact, the manifestations are exceedingly complicated, and pre- 
vent the application of the three stages to the solution of the affini- 
ties and to the classification of the genus as a whole, except in a very 
general way. Thus it may be said that all the lower members of the 
genus, StepTi. nodosum and suhcoronalum and contractum are similar 
to Pettos, and that the higher, such as planulum^ macrocephalum^ 
Brongniartii y etc., exhibit during the adult period senile charac- 
teristics corresponding to the senile characteristics of the individual.. 
But this can only be asserted as we have seen with considerable 
qualification until each genetic series is considered by itself, then in- 
deed an exact correspondence comes to light between the senility 
of an ancestor and the senility of the descendant or congeneric 
species. 

This statement exhibits completely the difference between geratol- 
ogy^ and embryology. With the former it is possible to indicate only 
what must have been the dying forms of the particular genetic series 
to which the individual belonged, whereas with the assistance of em- 
bryology and the history of the younger stages we can with equal 
probability point out an unknown ancestral form for all the series of 
a group. The right use of both the correspondences of embryol- 
ogy and of geratology gives the means of mapping out with considera- 
ble probability both the past and future of groups from the study of 
even a limited number of individuals. 

The laws of heredity secure the constant inheritance of the adult 
characteristics of the parents at earlier and earlier periods in succes- 
sive descendants, until the permanent characteristics of an adult an- 
cestor, or what remains of them, becomes embryological. This tend- 
ency to constantly reproduce similar characteristics in successive 

1 From Y^paf •aros, old age, and Aoyo^. I have adopted this new term with con- 
siderable hesitation and doubt, and have only done so under the pressure of neces« 
sity. In no other way can I better convey my conviction that there is a traceable 
correspondence between all manifestations of decline in the individual and in the 
group to which the individual belongs, which may, like embryology, be used Induct- 
ively in reasoning upon the probable affinities of animals. 



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Hyatt.] 880 [Jane 7, 

generations of individuals, has been heretofore supposed to be con- 
fined to the inheritance of adult characteristics, or to those character- 
istics which make their appearance in the parents previous to the 
period of reproduction. 

Heretofore it has also been generiUly assumed that only the active 
elements of the growth of the parts and their tendency to the more or 
less powerful performance of certain functions were necessarily inher- 
ited. It has not, so far as I know, been even hinted at that animals 
could also inherit a tendency to change in a way that was unfavora- 
ble to the continued existence of a race or group as a whole. This is, 
however, not an isolated but a very general fact among the Am- 
monites. The successive species in almost all large groups sooner or 
later inherit the old age tendencies of their ancestors so completely, 
that they manifest these even in their early stages. In other words, 
they never attain a stage which can be closely compared with the 
adult stages of the most common or characteristic of the ancestral 
forms. This is lefl out. The embryo passes into the young, and the 
young proceeds by growth to develop parts and organs entirely want- 
ing in those characteristics which distinguished the similar parts and 
organs of the adults of the ancestral forms. When we compare these 
accelerated forms, or forms which have thus skipped some of the 
previously existing stages of their ancestors, with the senile stages of 
those same ancestral forms, they present a correspondence of greater 
or less exactness, according to their affinities, sometimes very per- 
fect, sometimes very remote. Thus the old age stages of one of the 
ArietidsB do not at all closely resemble those of Humphriesianum'y 
the complete correspondences are limited to genetically connected 
series or groups, and sometimes only to organs or certain seUt of 
organs which alone show the efiects of senility in the individuals and 
in the group. The fact of the inheritance of old age characteristics, 
and of the extinction of types as shown in this way, is, however, of 
general application, and will probably be found in all departments of 
the animal kingdom. 

Of course it will be readily understood that these statements apply 
only to the most perfect groups, or those which complete their cycles 
of forms. It is not intended to assert that every group has an old 
age, or even that every individual has; on the contrary, there are 
some forms in nearly every large group among the earliest ancestors 
which manifest senility very slightly, though attaining a very large 
size, and there are some groups which show only a partial decline, or 



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1876.] 381 [Hyatt. 

none at all. All of these exceptions, however, can be accounted for 
by natural causes, and the comparison between the life of the group 
and the life of the individual is rendered even closer and more dis- 
tinct thereby. I have frequently, in former publications, referred 
to these facts, and am interested in them now only in their applica- 
tion to the present group. 

We find in looking at the table (p. 366) that all the series sprang 
from one ancestral form, and that as in many other cases among Am- 
monoids, the genesis of the forms must have proceeded with compara- 
tive rapidity. This of course means with reference not to the number 
of years, but to the portion of geological time occupied by a series. 
Thus the whole of the time during which the Oolites were being 
deposited, was not needed in order to produce the extreme forms of 
the Sauzei group by evolution out of nodosum\ on the contrary, one 
single bed contains the entire record of their existence, one minor 
period alone was amply sufficient for the evolution of the most 
aberrant form of the whole genus. 

If we assume that certain characteristics which show themselves 
for the first time in the organization of Steph, Humphriesianum^ 
suhcoronatum^ contractum, etc., were favorable to these forms, and 
particularly fitted them to sustain existence in these different local- 
ities and with distinct physical surroundings; and that these different 
characteristics were directly due to the necessity of the plastic 
organization to flow into and fill up certain vacancies, and fit itself 
to fill these vacancies more and more completely, we can under- 
stand how the differences which distinguish the forms have arisen. 
Thus the peculiar lappets of the rim of the mouth in Steph. Sauzei^ 
and the numerous local peculiarities of appearing here and there in 
the history of every fauna, which are merely varietal and not char- 
acteristic of the series or even of the species, could be accounted 
for. They are characteristics which suddenly appear without having 
had existence previously in ancestral forms. 

Besides these, however, there are numerous other characteristics, 
those which are derived from ancestral forms and are mostly con- 
fined to the young, such as the Pettos-form and characteristics. 
These are permanent and hereditary, and apparently independent 
of the surroundings in proportion to the antiquity of their source. 
Thus the extreme bag-like embryo is invariably present, and there is 
every intermediate grade from this to the full Pettos-like form and 
tubercles, etc., which last, on account of their recent origin, are, ac- 



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Hyatt.] 882 [June 7, 

cording to the law of acceleration, entirely omitted in the develop- 
ment of the individuals of some of the completely senile or later 
occurring species. The form of the embryo and the Nautiluid and 
Goniatitic stages which were variable characteristics during the Silu- 
rian and Devonian, have become more or less fixed and perma- 
nent by constant inheritance, and are at this period in the existence 
of the Ammonoids, either partially or entirely independent of the 
action of the physical surroundings, occurring in the embryonic or 
early stages of the development of the individual, however different 
its habitat. I do not mean, of course, to assert that even the most 
invariable of these hereditary characteristics did not arise primarily 
as the direct product of physical causes, but simply to point out their 
existing independence, ai'ter having become through continued he- 
redity a permanent part of the growth tendencies of the group. The 
proofs of this have been given in my paper on the " Embryology of 
the Cej)halopods," in which the gradual manner in which the char- 
acteristics become less and less subject to variability in the embryo 
is given in detail. 

The differences, tlien, or those characteristics distinguishing the 
different series from each other when they ffrst appear, must be 
largely confined to the adult period in the existence of the individual 
or to the later stages of the growth of the young, and this is a cor- 
ollary of the proposition that the differences between the forms are 
due to the direct action of different physical surroundings upon sim- 
ilar organisms. For if the differences were thus produced we should 
necessarily anticipate that they would make their first appearance, in 
most cases at least, after the permanent and hereditary character- 
istics had been fully developed. In common with Prof. Cope I have 
repeatedly explained these and other related phenomena, by what 
we have called the law of acceleration. |It is a universal law of 
heredity, that previously elaborated, ancestral characteristics tend 
to be inherited, if inherited at all, at earlier and earlier stages in 
successive descendants, until they either finally disappear like the 
Pettos-form in the young Sauzeiy or become fixed and more or less 
permanent in the embryo. 

Laying aside all of these, we can now turn our attention again to 
strictly senile characteristics. These are the representative forms 
which are produced in every series. That is to say, there is a certain 
parallelism produced by the perpetual reappearance or genesis of sim- 
ilar forms in distinct structural series, and as might be anticipated, 



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1876 .] 883 [Hyatt. 

these are due to similar causes, disease, either normal or abnormal, 
produced by the continued action of unfavorable surroundings on the 
individual. That old age is a normal disease, or that it at least should 
be classed with pathological phenomena, can hardly be questioned. If 
it were questioned, however, the similarities between distorted forms 
occurring in unfavorable situations and the normal retrogressive 
changes of old age in a well formed individual of the same series, 
would settle the dispute; the products of the direct action of disease 
produced by unfavorable surroundings, and often even by wounds and 
those due to senility have a wonderful similarif)'. These senile char- 
acteristics may appear, as in Steph, Bayleanum, as probably the result 
of the direct action of certain unknown, but unfavorable causes, upon 
the organization of nodosum, or only slightly, as in S/eph. Humphrie- 
sianvin or not at all, as in Steph, B/agdeni, which as a descendant of 
Steph, suhcoronatum ought, unless sustained by some exceptionally 
favorable surroundings, to show decisive marks of senility. This case, 
and that of Steph. macrocephalum previously cited, show that the nor- 
mal retrogressive tendency of old age may occasionally be to some ex- 
tent counteracted by the process of growth, as shown by the increase 
in growth of the shell, even in old age, of these two species. This, of 
course, can only be attributable to some exceptionally favorable cir- 
cumstances, which for a time give extraordinary power to the organ- 
ization. But this is only for a time, since in all series having a pro- 
longed exist«'nce, old age forms- eventually make their appearance 
just as senile characteristics do in the individual. 

Wherever the old age or diseased tendencies make their appear- 
ance thi*y tend to the production of similar forms. If mitigated by 
the very favorable circumstances under which the race is living, and 
the shell, in consequence of the unimpaired powers of assimilation of 
the animal, continues to increase proportionally in size and in the 
involution of the whorls throughout life, we find that a narrow- 
abdomened, convergent-sided and very involute whorl is evolved in 
the last or highest members of the series, whether it comes from the 
round abdoniened, or the keeled or channelled groups. If, however, 
the surroundings are not especially favorable, and the assimilative 
powers become impaired, as shown at first by the decrease in size of 
the whorl in the old age of the individual, then all degrees of irregu- 
larity in the whorl become manifest in the last or highest members 
of the series, tending to the production of Scaphitoid fornis. 

This, in many series, is probably due to the direct inheritance of the 



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Hyatt.] 384 [June 7, 

tendency to reproduce the old age characteristics of ancestors, ac- 
cording to the law of acceleration at earlier and earlier periods in 
successive descendants, and is the normal form of the decline of 
genetic series; but besides this there are in some species corres- 
ponding series of forms, evidently due to the unfavorable nature 
of their surroundings, which are so quickly produced as to have the . 
effect of simultaneity, as if they sprang at once from one brood. The 
former may be compared to the normal disease or senile period of a 
healthy individual, and the latter to the premature old age of an un- 
healthy or prematurely developed individual. 

In the embryo, therefore, we find permanency and exact heredi- 
tary similarity; in the later stages of the young and the adult, the 
novelties of adaptation to new or varied surroundings; and in the old 
or senile periods, a diseased condition, in which these adaptations or 
novelties tend to be absorbed or lost, and consequently greater uni- 
formity is noticeable between the old than between adults. 

This precisely corresponds to the relations of a group composed of 
several series derived from a common ancest<)r. At first, near the 
point of origin, the series are similar organically, then great struc- 
tural and morphological divergence takes place, and finally, though 
they remain structually just as remote, similar forms begin to make 
their appearance in the different series. 

I might go on endlessly with these comparisons, but it suffices to 
say that the conclusions which I published in 1866, in the Memoirs 
of this Society, — asserting that the life of an individual, and the life 
of the genetically connected series to which the indiviflual belonged, 
could be directly corrcllated, that a series, like an individual, had 
only a limited force available for growth, development and propaga- 
tion, that the three stages of existence in the individual corresponded 
respectively, the young to the past, the adult to the present, and the 
senile to the future of the group, whatever it might be to which the 
individual belonged, — have been confirmed by the minute analysis of 
the groups of Jurassic Ammonites, and the more minute the analysis 
the more complete the correspondence. 

Note. — Hiving used the word force in this essay with a very distinct 
meaning from that with which I first used it in 1866, it becomes necessary to 
define it. Or^^anic force or vital force is, in my view, simply an expression for 
the force resulting from the combination of chemical elements in an organic 
form. 



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1876.] 385 [Hyatt. 

FIRST SERIES. 

Stephanoceras Bayleanum. 

Amm, Bayleanus Oppel, Die Juraf., p. 497. 

Amm» Humpkriesianus D'Orb. (pars), Terr. Jurass., pi. 133. 

Oppel did not find the intermediate forms between this species 
and Humphriesianwrij and therefore considered it distinct. Although 
this view is untenable, I retain the specific name in accordance with 
previous custom, otherwise I should be obliged to use a trinomial 
designation for this form, and others of the same group. The tran- 
sition forms from this to the next described, are numerous, and can 
be observed in any large collection. The young were not observed. 
According to Oppel, it is found lower than Humphriesianum in 
Germany. 

Stephanoceras nodosum. 

Var. Humpkriesianus nodosus Quenst., Der Jura, pi. 54, f. 4. 

Amm. Humpkriesianus Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 500, fig. 3 (not 1-2). 

The typical form of this variety has more prominent tubercles and 
fewer lateral ribs than the typical variety of Humphriesianum, The 
young also resemble the adults of Blagdeni until a later period of 
growth than in the last mentioned. All these characteristics are 
subject to great vanation, and both by the adult characteristics and 
development these forms fade into the next described. It occurs in 
the Mus. Stuttgart Coll., associated with Sauzei in the Middle Brown 
Jura y. The originals in Sowerby's collection show that the large 
specimen figured on pi. 500, fig. 3, of his Min. Conch., must be in- 
cluded in this variety, while figs. 1 and 2 must be referred, as they 
have been, to subcoronaium. 

Stephanoceras Humphriesianum. 

Amm, Humpkriesianus Auct. 

Var. Humpkriesianus plicatus Quenst., Der Jura, p. 398. 

Amm. Humpkriesianus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 134-185. 

The typical forms are found in the Middle Brown Jura and in the 
Mus. Stutt. Coll., with the first of the true coronatum forms. The 
varieties appear to have two principal tendencies, one which leads 
into forms similar to Humpkriesianus plicalissimus Quenst., and occurs 
in the upper part of the same formation (oberer Delta) ^ and one which 
approximates to the Amm. suheoronattis Oppel. One fine specimen of 
this form showed an incomplete living chamber at the diameter of 
156 mm., about half a volution in length. This was smaller in 

PBOOEEDINGS B. S. N. H. — VOL. XVIII. 25 DEOEMBBB, 1876. 



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Hyatt.] 886 [June 7, 

every way than tlie adjoining whorls, but no signs of old age were 
visible. The finest suites of this species occur at the Bristol Mu- 
seum and in D'Orbigny's collection. 

One specimen in the- latter shows an extremely long and complete 
living chamber, occupying one and one quarter volutions. The 
entire diameter of the specimen was 210 mm. The involution of 
the whorls was noticeably decreasing at about SO mm., and continued 
steadily to decrease, accompanied by a corresponding diminution in 
the size of the whorl until the difference in size and form at the 
mouth became very marked. This specimen exhibited an extreme 
variation, and should be more exactly, perhaps, associated with 
nodosum. In other stouter and more normal forms the involution 
decreases at a slower rate, and begins later in the life of the individ- 
ual, and in some individuals it is not perceptible at all. It is evident 
that either no absorption of the living chamber takes place, or only 
a partial one took place during the growth, since the diminution in 
the size of the living chamber simply continues that which occurs in 
the body of the shells, where the sutures are well marked. This 
may be noticed in any large collection of this species. A fragment 
of the mouth of a specimen which must have attained a diameter of 
at least 300 mm., still possessed the tubercles and shewed no signs of 
oi(i age beyond this decrease in diameter. In Dr. Wright's collection 
a j&n£ specimen (size not noted) exhibited the living chamber and 
moutJi complete; the last whorl was smooth for almost the entire 
length, the tubercles and ribs small in the adult. 

SECOND SERIES. 

StephancMeeras subcoronatum. 

Amm, subcoronatus Oppel, Jahressch. Nat. Wurtt., VoL 12, p. 496. 

Amm. coronatus-oolUhicus Quenst., Die Ceph., pi. 14, f. 4. 

Amm. Humphriesianus Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 500, fig. 1-2 (not 3). 

Tliis species is distinguished from nodosum only by the greater 
proportionate breadth and flatness of the abdomen, and the abrupt- 
ness of the umbilical sides, continuous increase in the size of the 
whorls by growth, finer ribs, and so on. These characteristics may 
be summed up in a few words as precisely intermediate between 
nodosum and Blagdeni, The adults are smaller, but quite similar to 
the latter, and though larger tha& Jtlie young of Humphriesianum^ 
Almost identical with them in aspeet externally, though probably 



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1876.] 887 [Hymtt 

drflTermg in the characteristics of the Biitiires; Th6 similarity of iibii 
species to BraVcenridgii is delusive; its true affinities place it nearer 
to nodosum. The resemblance is due to the retention of the common 
ancestral Pettos-like form until a late stage of growth, or during the 
entire life of the individual. 

The various changes taking place by growth and development may 
be studied in any large collection. The contraction of the whorls in 
size, and the consequent assumption of rotundity, take place in 
some specimens very markedly, and make them look very lik« nodo* 
sum. This change is so great in some very old specimens that they 
resemble the adult of Bayleanum, though their own adult stage, or 
younger periods, have the normal form of the true subcoronatum. 
In many other specimens, however, though g£ equal size and appar- 
ently the same age, there are no perceptible marks of such changes 
either in the size, form of the whorls, or ornaments. 

Stephanooeras Deslongohampsii. 

Amm. DeslongcTiampsU D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 138. 

This is evidently a form of the broad abdomened variety of stdn 
coroncUwn with prominent spines, described by Quenstedt as a variety 
of Humphriesianum, and as a transition to the Ammi. mbcoronatus of 
Oppel. A remarkably fine specimen in Quenstedt's collection, from 
St. Vigor, enabled me to make this comparison. I did not find the 
original in D'Orbtgny's Collection. Quenstedt places it in the 
Braikenridgii series, to which it appears to be allied by the curvature 
and general aspect of the ribs, but this resemblance it shares in com* 
mon with forms of the suhcoronatum series, eBpeeiaWy plicatissimum. 
The abdomen becomes considerably elevated, and the sides converg* 
ent in the adults. 

Stephanooeras plioatissimum. 

Amm, Humph, pliccUissimus Quenst., Der Jura, pi. 54, f. 3. 

This variety has so close a resemblance to S. lingui/erum in some 
forms that broken specimens are frequently confounded under the 
same name. There is a very close resemblance in the sparseness of 
the lateral ribs, and comparative closeness and fineness of the ab- 
dominal ribs, the prominent tubercles and the form of the whorl. 
The mouth lappets, however, the intermediate forms and the young 
of lingui/erum show its affinity with Steph, Sauzei to be unquestion* 
ble, and separate it widely from this species. Further compari- 
sons show that the real affinities of plioatissimum lie with the stouter 
forms of sxibcoronatum^ which have been described as closely approx- 



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Hyatt.] 888 [JnneT, 

Imating to Humphriesianvm^ from which it is sometimes difficult to 
separate it. It is really a variety of Dedongchampsiij with more 
elevated abdomen and narrower umbilicus. 

THIRD SERIES. 

Stephanoceras Blagdeni. 

Amin, Blagdeni Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 201. 

Amm, coronatus Zieten, Verst. Wurtt., pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Amm. Blagdeni D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 182. 
' Amm. coronatus Quenst., Die Cepb., pi. 14, f. 1. 

This species, though attaining a large size with fewer whorls, has 
a most remarkably close resemblance to the ancestral form, Ccdoceras 
PettoSy so close indeed that they are very similar, not only in the 
form and characteristics of the adults, but in the sutures, and in the 
general history of the development of the yonng. This greater sim- 
ilarity is directly traceable to the very obvious fact that in this vari- 
ety of the species the immature Pettos-like form, characteristics and 
sutures, which are common also to the younger stages of all other 
forms of this genus, are here more strictly retained throughout the 
entire growth of the animal. This is so strictly carried out, that the 
shell in most specimens manifests none of the old age characteristics 
or retrograde metamorphoses previously described in other species, 
t. €., in the decrease of the amount of involution and size of the 
whorls. In other specimens great changes take place, but they are 
very distinct from those of the purely Humphriesianum forms. They 
are first manifested in the elevation of the abdomen, which becomes 
rounder and more elevated during growth, and the adults become 
similar to some forms of the next described species. The amount of 
the involution does not decrease, nor the relative size of the whorl, 
but the abdomen becomes more elevated and the sides rounder. 
These forms are similar to nodosum in general appearance, but their 
real affinity with coronatum alone stands the test of close analysis. 

Stephanoceras coronatum. 

Amm, coronatus Brug., Ency. Meth., p. 43. 

This species always has in the young, for periods of variable 
length, according to the variety, whorls which closely resemble in 
form and characteristics those of the adult of Blagdeni, 



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1076.] 889 [HyatL 

Variety Banksti, 

Amm, coronatus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 168 (not 169). 
• Amm. Banksti Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 200. 

Amm, anceps-omati Quenst., Die Ceph., pi. 14, fig. 5. 

l^is variety retains the Pettos-like form in some specimens until a 
very late period of growth, and in others a close approximation . to 
the next described variety occurs by the elevation of the abdomen 
in course of growth, and the gradual rounding of the sides and loss 
of the tubercles. In Sowerby's collection the original specimen 
exhibits these characteristics only on the last whorl for a limited 
space, although the specimen attains the large size of 250 mm. in 
diameter. In the Mus. C. Z. collection one specimen attains the diam- 
eter of 220 mm., but exhibits old age only in a slight rounding off* of 
the tubercular projections; in this the sutures are plainly visible 
throughout. In other specimens, also, the sutures are exhibited in 
similar relations to the metamorphosed tubercles and form, showing 
that complete absorption of the living chamber does not occur during 
growth, and that these changes are truly permanent and retrograde. 
A form intermediate between these broader and more Blagdeni-like 
forms and those of the Ornathenthon, or Brown Jura, C» occurs in 
the collection of the Museum of Stuttgart in the Parkinsoni-bed. 

The anceps-omati of Quenstedt is in no sense a true anceps. It is 
very similar to *' anceps" but a close inspection indicates, first, that 
there are no intermediate forms between the two, and second, tha^ 
the form in the Museum of Stuttgart, as above quoted, seems to show 
that it is genetically linked with the Banksii- and Blagdeni-like varie* 
ties of the earlier coronalum forms. It is found in the upper part of 
the Athleta-bed, in the Museum of Stuttgart collection, associated 
with Bel, hastalus. 

Stephanoceras planulmn. 

Amm, planula D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 144. 

This name is quoted by Oppel, as that of a new species, -4mm. 
Wagneri'^ but OppePs comparison shows that he supposed D'Orbig- 
ny's figure to represent a species closely allied to " arhustige* 
rus" whereas it very accurately shows the characteristics df a well 
known French form which passes insensibly into ^' coronatus " and is 
found associated with the latter at Chatillon sur Saone in the Bath-r 
formation of Oppel. The originals do not exist in D'Orbigny's col- 
lection, but young specimens show that their relations are probably 
correctly stated, as above. 



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Hjitt.] 890 (Jvmt, 

FOURTH SEBIES. 

Stephanooeras subleve* 

Amm, sublevis Sow., Mio. Concb., pi. 54. 

Amm. modiolaris D'Orb., Terr. Juras., pL 170. 

Amm. $Mems Qaenst., Die Ceph., pL 14, f. 6. 

Amm, sMevis Zieten, Verst Wurtl., pi. 28, &g, 5. 

The originals in Sowerby's coUeotion proTe the aociuracj of 
Quenstedt'fl oonolnsioDs with regard to the identity of the English, 
French and German forms. D'Orbignj's collection possesses only a 
east, but his figures are quite sufficient. 

Amm, $MemM Zieten, which Qnenstedt identifies with modiolaris^ 
is represented by seyeral specimens in the U|^r Brown Jura, Ma- 
chrochilus-bed, Museum oi Stuttgart One of these is much thinner 
than the others, and shows a more discc^dal young. The rest hay^ 
Tory abrupt sides from an early period, and deep mnbilicus, but not 
•o deep as in D'Orbigny's figure. These show that the form is not 
dcTeloped as in Quenstedioceras Leackii, and others of the GoliathuM 
group, to which the adult of the modiohre variety seems to be 
elosely aUied, but according to the method commonly observed in 
the earonatum group. 

A very fine suite of this species exists in Quenstedt's collection, 
firom which I obtained the following observations. One variety retains 
until a late stage of growth a very close resemblance in form and 
eharactcristies to the coroncUum as figured by D'Orbigny, and which 
has been cited from the Parkinsonl-bed in the collection of the Mu- 
seum of Stuttgart Whether the whorl ever becomes entirely smooth 
in tliis variety I cannot say; they attain a considerable size without 
any marks of such a retrograde metamorphosis. The umbilicus is quite 
open, and the young in form and characteristics appr(«imate to the 
adult of corono/um. A second variety may be distinguished, which is 
a true sMeve form, but still has quite an open umbilicus. This 
loses its ribs and becomes smooth at a late period cf£ growth on the 
abdomen, but retains heavy lateral ribs* A third variety has an 
open umbilicus, but is comparatively smooth at an early age, losing 
the lateral as well as the abdominal piles, and finally the whorl begins 
to show a retrograde metamorphosis, the size being affected by con* 
traction, as in large specimens of Steph* GervUii or Steph, Humphries 
sianttm, A fourth variety has the narrow funnel-shaped umbilici, and 
the individuals appear to continue to increase in size throughout lifis 



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1876.] 391 [Hyatt. 

without any contraction in the magnitude of the whorls. These are 
also smooth in the adult. 

The resemblance of the young of the first yarieties to coronatum^ 
and the mode of growth and subsequent retrograde metamorphosis 
by a decrease in size, shows that we are dealing with forms derived 
from the coronatum series, and which, notwithstanding the close resem- 
blance of the fourth, or modiolare variety, to Amm, LalandeanuSf do 
not seem to lead into this group. 

FIFTH SERIES. 

Stephanooeras contraotum. 

Amm, contractus Sow. (pars.), Min. Conch., pi. 500. 

Under this name I have, for convenience sake, assembled those 
forms which are intermediate between subcoronatum and the ma* 
crocephalum, Brocchii and Sauzei series. They are usually recog- 
nized in collections, either as varieties of st^oronatum, as Brocchii, 
as linguiferum, as HumphrUsianum, etc., and also as true contractum. 
From this they vary, however, in the fineness of the abdominal 
ribs and the immature aspect of the lateral ribs. This last char- 
acteristic is so marked that the umbilicus resembles that of Petios 
very closely in the smooth, abrupt aspect of the sides, and the 
prominence of the tubercles. The varieties lead from a very open 
discoidal whorl in one direction into the true Brocchii form, and in 
another into the Braikenridgii, 

Stephanooeras Hervesri. 

Amm, Herveyi Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 195. 
" « Ziet., Verst. Wurtt., pi. 14, f. 3. 

The young of this species varies considerably in aspect. Some 
specimens have a row of prominent tubercles on the side, closely 
appressed so as to form an almost continuous ridge. Others have 
them more scattered, and finally there are many without any, and 
wholly indistinguishable from the untuberculated young of Brocchii^ 
if found in the same formation. They are invariably stouter, rounder, 
and less Pettos-like than the young, or even adults of the subcoro- 
natum-like varieties of the contractum from Dundry, Eng. The pecu- 
liar abdominal ribs are in the young no coarser than in Brocchii, and 
it is evidently a lineal descendant of the tuberculated Brocchii-like 
forms of Steph, contractum. 



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Hyatt.] 392 [June 7, 

Stephanoceras macrooephalum. 

Amm, macrocephalus Schlot., Die Pet., p. 70. 

** " Ziet, Verst. Wurtt, pi. 6, fig. 1. 

No line can be drawn between this species and Herveyi, which 
has not many exceptions, but as a rule the forms of Stepk, macro' 
cephalutn may be distinguished by the flatness of the sides and the 
more elevated abdomen. The young also take on this peculiar form 
at an early age. Their earlier stages are precisely similar to those 
of the unluberculated young of certain varieties of Herveyi, 

The smoothness of the latter part of the living chamber is very 
perceptible in large specimens of Herveyi and of this form, but not 
in small specimens, though I have seen many small specimens with 
nearly complete living chambers. This shows that it is an old age 
characteristic. 

SIXTH SERIES. 

Stephanoceras Brocchii. 

Amm. Brocchii Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 202. 

This is a convenient designation for a number of forms which in the 
young are undistinguishable from the Brocchii-like forms of contract 
turn, or rather fade into them. They lose the tubercles of con^ 
tractum at an early period in their growth, and the form grows 
stouter and more involute, disguising in the adult the resemblance 
of the young to contractum. Series, however, exist, exhibiting all 
the stages between tbem, in the British and Bristol Museums, and 
a partial one in this Museum. The adults differ from Brongniartii 
so slightly that it is equally difficult to decide on that side, but 
some forms have a peculiarity of the growth which shows considera- 
ble distinctness. They continue to grow or increase in size regularly 
throughout the entire length of the living chamber during the adult 
period. A specimen in the Museum of Stuttgart, having the coarse 
ribs and open umbilicus of the forms which approximate most closely 
to the true contractum, has a 'nearly complete living chamber, but 
shows no signs of becoming smooth or contracting the aperture. 
Either it must have had a much longer living chamber than is usual 
in Brongniartii, or possessed these distinguishing characteristics. 
The true Brocchii forms are therefore simply larger and more invo- 
lute varieties of contractum, and ii\. extremely large old specimens 
when the whorl permanently contracts the shell, they become in- 



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1876.] 893 (Hyfttt 

distinguisliable from the typical GervUii^ except by the coarseness 
of the ribs and the size. There are several fine specimens in Quen- 
8tedt*s collection, also, which show this very plainly. 

There is a very remarkable series of specimens, undoubtedly be- 
longing to this species, which are described by Quenstedt as a fine 
ribbed variety of Humphriesianum. They have no tubercles except 
at an early age in Brown Jura " y." The forms in " ^ ** directly con- 
nected with these, show the tubercles even less prominently, while 
those in *' e ' are smooth, like the young of macrocephalum. All 
have the rapid increase by growth in the size of the shell, which is 
so characteristic of Brocchii, as well as the fine ribs and narrower 
umbilicus. They appear to show a direct connection with Steph, 
Herveyiy but are, in reality, only representative forms, which are 
direct descendants of Brocchii^ and resemble m<icrocephalum in the 
young because of their accelerated development of the ancestral 
characteristics, leading to the gradual suppression of the Pettos-like 
form and characteristics which they inherited in a modified form 
firom contractum. 

Some specimens in the British Museum have very coarse lateral 
ribs, and others the finer ribs of the specimens which resemble con* 
tractum in the young. The specimens in the Bristol Museum attain 
a very large size, and in the largest the last whorl or two becomes so 
contracted and flattened laterally, that it resembles the forms of the 
Perisphinctes group. 

Another magnificent suite of this species, labelled GervUii^ is to 
be found in the Museum of Stuttgart. They show the same con- 
traction of the mouth in large specimens, in some to such an extent 
that the actual opening is triangular. The only partially constant 
distinction which I can find between this species and the true Ger' 
vUiiy consists in the smoothness of the young of the latter, their 
usually smaller size, and the slower increase in magnitude of the 
whorls by growth. 

Stephanoceras Oervilii. 

Amm. GervUii Sow., Min. Conch., pL 184a, fig. 8. 

Amm, Brongniartii D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 137. 

The forms of this species are precisely intermediate in point of 
size, development, and so on, between Brochii and Brongntartii, 
Some of the specimens in the British Museum have finer ribs than 
the coarser ribbed Brochii of that collection, but the umbilicus is 



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Hyatt.] 894 [Jim6 7, 

quite as open, and it is possible that the young hare the same 
resemblance to the young and adults of contractum, but this could 
not be ascertained* The young of the typical English and German 
forms are precisely similar to the full grown Brocchii of the more 
contractum-like varieties, and appear neyer to have tubercles at any 
age, being remarkably gibbous even at the earliest stages. 

I do not pretend to draw a distinct and definite line on either side 
of this species, since the indications are numerous that it fades m 
one direction into true Brocchii^ and in the other into Brongniariii, 
The latter takes place through the smaller and more involute vari- 
eties with globular young and finer ribs. In the Palseontological 
Collection at Munich there are several species described by Waagen 
as belonging to Stephanoceras which belong to GervUii, or some of 
the forms intermediate between this and the true Brocchii forms, 
such as Amm, polyschides and Amm, polymerxts. Amm. evolvescena 
appears to be a form of Brongniartii, The species which occur in 
the Macrocephalus-bcd have been named Amm, Bombur Oppel, and 
it may perhaps be convenient to retain this name, since they seem 
to be constantly smaller than typical GervUiiy but retain the coarser 
ribs and more open umbilicus of that species in the young. 

Stephanoceras Brongniartii. 

ATTun. Brongniartii Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 184a, fig. 2. 

Amnu GervUii D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 140. 

The irregular growth of the living chamber, which resembles so 
closely that of Scaphites, becomes in this species a fixed character, 
and is found at an early age, though less marked than in the adults. 
The young are smooth until a late stage of growth, when compared 
with those of the preceding species, very globular in form, and the 
ribs when they begin to appear are very fine and untubcrculated. 

I find no mention of this species in my notes on D'Orbigny's col- 
lection, and doubt if it existed there, since he does not allude to any 
originals as belonging to his own collection. The lateral expansions 
figured by him in the early stages sure very distinct in position and 
form from those- of the Samei group. From tiie study of several 
specimens of about the same age, I should think they were very 
much exaggerated in D'Orbigny's drawing. The edge of the mouth 
Is generally bent inwards, but in some specimens it may be thrown 
outwards, forming a salient angle, but no wings or lappets were 
observed in the young. • 



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1876.] 895 [Hfatt. 

SEVENTH SEBIES. 

Stephanoceras microstomum. 

Amm, mkrostomus D'Orb., Terr« Jurass., pi* 142, fig. 3-4. 

This is A constant aad well marked yariety, which differs in the 
young from Steph. platystomum. Many specimens at an advanced age 
do not become smooth on the living chamber, but others do at a 
comparatively early stage* It never attains the large size or stout 
whorls of pUitystomMm^ KSidi the living chamber becomes remarkably 
flattened laterally. The living chamber is almost entirely absorbed 
at each renewal of the shell growth. 

I find in my notes no mention of any specimen exhibiting the 
abdominal lappets figured by D'Orbigny, and a strict examination, 
including the cleaning of several fine specimens, of D^Orbigny's col- 
lectiout was equally firuitless. Quenstedt also could not find them on 
the German specimens, and I am therefore forced to the conclusion 
that D*Orbigny's figure is erroneous in this respect. Several of 
these specimens had perfect mouth outlines. An examination of the 
young led me first to suspect that these lappets did not exist, and 
that the species must belong to the entire mouth series, and I could 
not understand their appearance in a form so evidently closely re- 
lated to platystomum, A very remarkable series exists in Prof. 
Moesch's collection at ZUrich. It is the Amm, Ymir Oppel, Amm, 
bullatus Kudernatsch, a variety intermediate between Gervilii and 
this species, apd found in the Parkiusoni-bed. The living chamber 
in one specimen is more than one volution in length, smooth for a 
half of its length, and not yet complete. 

EIGHTH SERIES. 

Stephanoceras platystomum. 

NatU. platyst&mus Rein., Kaut. et Argo., fig. 3. 

Amm. pUUystomus Quenst., Die Ceph., pi. 15, f. 3. 

Amm. huUatus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 142, f. 1-2. 

This species is most admirably described by Quenstedt, and the 
affinities traced to the coarse ril^d varieties of hia Brongniartii, 
which are identical here with GervUiu 1 have only to add that I 
have verified his, conclusions in several collections, but notably in 
th^ Stuttgart and British Museum collections. The resemblanee 
which he describes between tlieibrm at certain stages and the Amm, 
Oolialhw D'Orb., is certainly quite remarkable, but a close examina- 



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Hyitt] 396 [Jane?, 

tion shows that it is after all not sucli as to indicate a genedc con- 
nection between them. The angularity of the abdomen of Atnm, 
GoUathus is wanting, and the flat abdomen of the earlier stages in 
that group. The whole deyelopment is similar to that of Brocchii^ 
and it is only a stouter form of GermUiy with a tendency to form a 
smooth living chamber. 

The living chamber is evidently almost entirely absorbed during 
the growth, of the shell, as may be seen in all lai^ collections. In 
some specimens of considerable size the living chamber is smooth 
only for a very short space near the month; in others of the same or 
even smaller dimensions, nearly the whole is smooth. In very large 
specimens, however, the living chamber appears to be invariably 
smooth. The irregularity of the growth begins invariably in all 
specimens near the base of this chamber by the contraction of the 
whorl, and continues throughout. The increase in size, however, is 
regular at all preceding periods, whatever the aze of the shell. The 
conclusion is therefore unavoidable, that the living chamber must be 
almost wholly absorbed in the course of growth. The young are 
precisely similar to the adults of Brocchii, 

NINTH SERIES. 

Stephanoceras dimorphum. 

Amm. dimorphus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 141. 

The young of this remarkable species at first sight appear to be 
identical with those of Brongniartii or Gervilii, but the permanent 
mouth furrows marking the shell even at an early period, show it to 
be distinct in its mode of growtli. These appear to indicate that 
the growtii of the shell is constant, and that the walls of the living 
chamber are never absorbed. If so, we have a very remarkable 
change in the mode of growth. The young evidently retain tlie 
firocchiian living chamber until a late period of growth. That is, 
the living chamber did not exhibit contraction in the young, but like 
that of Brocchii, continued to increase in size towards the mouth 
except in old specimens. As the specimen reached the adult condi- 
tion, however, in this species the chamber assumed the usual propor- 
tion of that part in Brongniartii, and continued to decrease until the 
death of the animal. This appears to be the only way in which to 
account for the presence of the permanent mouth furrows. 

Comparisons of the young with those of Gervilii and Brongniartii, 
fieem to indicate a very close affinity; but this evidence, and the 



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1878.] 897 [Hyatt. 

adult characteristics appear to indicate a close relationship also to 
microstomum. find also in my notes that one specimen in D'Orbig- 
ny's collection had young resembling Humphriesianum, The only 
safe conclusion, therefore, is to provisionally trace it back to Brocchii 
as a direct derivative. 

There is one significant fact not mentioned by D'Orbigny, which 
his specimens show. The abdomen is furrowed in many specimens. 
The mouths, also, of the originals are more compressed than in his 
figures 2, 4, 8, pi. 141. There is one specimen of this species in 
the collection at Munich having a most remarkable resemblance to 
Atnm, globosus in the form and also in the outlines of the mouth. 

TENTH SERIES. 

Stephanoceras Braikenridgii. 

Amm. Braikenridgii Sow., Min. Conch., pi. 184. 

Amm, contractus Sow (pars), Min. Conch., pi. 500. 

Amm. Braikenridgii D*Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 185. 

This species has given great trouble to all who have undertaken to 
study the question of its affinity. Quenstedt long since pointed our 
its close relationship to Ilumphriesianus nodosus. The large ear-like 
expansions, however, which it possesses at an early age, cast more or 
less doubt upon this apparently unavoidable conclusion. The large 
and quite complete suite of specimens in this Museum and at Bristol 
leave, however, but slight room for doubt that Quenstedt was right. 

The young in nearly all cases are strictly similar to the young of 
8ul)coronatum, however much the adults may vary in form and char- 
acteristics; a small number of them, however, especially from Dun- 
dry, England, are very similar to contractum from the same locality 
though they upon close examination exhibit differences in the thinner 
forms and slower increase of the shell by growth and in the coarser 
ribs. 

Oppel identifies Brocchii with contractum^ and this appears to be 
true in most collections, but an examination of the young of such speci- 
mens from Dundry shows at once that Ihey in part are true Brocchii^ 
and part belong to this species. The contractum described and fig- 
ured by Sowerby I have seen, but my notes thereupon are not sat- 
isfactory. Whether any species is really intermediate between this 
and the subcoronatum in all its characteristics I cannot say, but any 
one who will consult the descriptions of Amm.fuscus by Quenstedt, 
Der Jura, p. 475, which may or may not have the peculiar broad 



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Hyatt] 398 [JimeT, 

lateral ear-like expansion of the mouth edge, according to the yarietj 
to which the shell helongs, will see that this is a prohable inference* 
These observations can be readily confirmed in any good collection 
of Amm, fitscus, and show that the presence and absence of the ear- 
like expansions may take place in forms as closely allied as the two 
alluded to above. Intermediate forms with the lappets as a variable 
characteristic, or as a characteristic of the adult stage of growth 
alone, ought to be eventually found in those varieties which approxi- 
mate closely to subcoronatuniy if this is a correct view. 

Quenstedt alludes to large forms which have no lappets, «uid these 
may have some bearing on Uie question, but I refrain from express- 
ing an opinion since, unfortunately, I have not seen such examples. 
1 would, however, mention that there are certain forms which about 
evenly divide the characteristics of the two species, but the absence 
of the mouth makes the reference of these to either Braikenridgii or 
subcoronatum doubtful. Some of the latter have the young until a 
late period, precisely similar to the flat abdomened form of subcorona- 
turn with the similar ribs and tubercles; and this is the general char- 
acter of the development in the larger specimens, but in smaller 
specimens, especially the English forms, a more contractum-like form 
becomes apparent at an early stage, and the development approxi- 
mates to what it eventually becomes in Sauzei.^ 

Stephanooeras linguiferum. 

Amm. linguiferus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 136. 

The varieties of this form fade into those of Braikenridgii by in- 
sensible degrees, though the extreme forms differ in the larger com- 
parative size of the whorls, the amount of envelopment, which is 
greater than in Braikenridgii^ the peculiar bent aspect of the lateral 
ribs and the more ornate aspect of the shell, due to this arrangement 
of the ribs, the fine abdominal ribs and the prominent tubercles. 
The increase in the size of the shell is constant in this, and also in 
Braikenridgii^ there being no regular contractions in the size of the 
whorls due to growth, as in Sauzei, Amm. Torricelli (sp. Oppel) 
is a form of this species, as it appears in Moesch's collection at 
ZUrich and in the Paleontological collection at the Munich Museum. 
Amm. Keppleri Oppel ought also, according to my views, to be in- 
cluded under this name. 

' ^ Subcoronatrtm is mevely an intennediato form between this speeles and the trae 
nodosunit and thei:ef ore I quote from Quenstedt's views as Meetly confirmatory of 
the above. 



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1878.] 899 [Hyatt 

Stephanoceras SauzeL 

Amm. Sauzei D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 1S9. 

The thick tumid aspect of the young of this shell has caused me 
repeatedly to place it in the same series with Gervilii^ but a renewed 
inspection has just as often brought me back to the same conclusion 
that this was due entirely to the purely coronatum-like form of the 
young, which at a very early stage is not round and smooth as in 
Gerviliif but more like subcaronatum or Blagdeni, This remarkable 
difference in the development confirms the contrast of structure 
between the mouth of the shell with its ear-like lappets, and the plain 
Humphriesianus-like outline of that of GervUiu The form also diiSers 
somewhat. The living chamber near the mouth becomes depressed 
from above, as in Braikenridgii, instead of contracting laterally, as in 
Gerviliif and all allied forms. There are several varieties, but the 
principal are those with open umbilici, in which the young retain the 
true coronatum form until a late stage of growth. These always seem 
to have prominent tubercles at an early age, and are altogether more 
similar to BraUcenridgii than those with narrower umbilici. The last 
are more involute, have the tubercles later developed, the ribs finer, 
and the young in form and markings so siinilar to the young and 
adults of GervUii or Brongniartii that they are often confounded. 

This is one of the few instances in which the history of the devel- 
opment and adult characteristics appears to be at variance with the 
geological record. Braikenridgii has only been found in the Hum- 
phriesianus-bed, whereas Sauzei is habitually found in the lower 
part of the Humphriesianus-bed, the " Sowerbyii-bed." This, how- 
ever, is only a slight discrepancy which may arise firom false identifi- 
cations, and I have therefore ventured to disregard it in the genea- 
logical table. 

DOUBTFUL SERIES. 

Stephanoceras refractum. 

NauL re/racttis Rein., Naut. et Argo, figs. 27-80. 

Amm, ref rectus D'Orb., Terr. Jurass., pi. 173. 
" " Quenst., Der Jura., p. 624, pi. 69. 

This bent and distorted form has young which can be compared 
only with the young of this series, and it is possible that a suffi- 
cient number of specimens would enable an observer to trace it 
directly to some one form. There is, perhaps, more resemblance to 



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Hystt.] 400 [June 12, 

tnicrostomum in the young of the specimens which I have exam- 
ined, but the large ear-like lappets are very dissimilar character- 
istics. The abdominal channels are present in some specimens of 
microstamum, and in some of the other species of the group as a rare 
yariation, so that their prominence in this species can not be consid- 
ered as absolutely conclusive against this view of the affinities. 

I have failed entirely in finding any species of the Parkmsoni 
group to which the young might be compared. The development 
of the ears seem to decide in favor of its association with the 
Sauzei group, but the large rostrum between them is an entirely 
new organ, not shown in either Braikenridgii, Sauzei or linguiferum. 
In fact it has the most curious and unaccountable mingling of the 
characteristics of several groups, with certain prominent character- 
istics entirely peculiar to itself. Quenstedt quotes one form as found 
in the Parkinsoni-bed, and speaks of this in *< Die Cephalopoden " as 
an undoubted " crippled ** Parkinsoni, I have failed to recognize this 
fact in his collection. My notes give me no hints on the subject, and 
I may have omitted seeing the specimens he refers to. 

Whether to connect this species with the Microstoma impressa 
Quenst. of the White Jura or not, I cannot say. There appears to 
be a close affinity between the development of the young, and the 
abdominal furrow is well developed ; but on the other hand such re- 
semblances might occur in simply representative species of distinct 
genetic series. The Amm. Schaphitoides Coynarti of the Oxford, 
fine specimens of which exist in the Prof. Moesch's collection at 
Zurich, has an irregular form and the same furrow in the abdomen 
of the living chamber, but the mouth was not shown. Amm, Chap- 
uisi and Collinii Oppel of the White Jura of the same collection, are 
evidently closely allied to Amm, scaphitoides, but like that species 
resemble refractum only very remotely, and I think will be traced 
eventually to some form in the White Jura. 



Section of Botany. June 12, 1876. 

Mr. W. P. Wilson in the chair. Twenty-seven persons 
present. 

Mr. Charles Wright made some remarks on the characters 
of Hubus viUo8U8 and canadensiSy calling attention to an in- 



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1876.] 401 [Farlow. 

termediate variety from a locality in the Connecticut Valley, 
which is often submerged for long periods. He suggested 
that the seeds might furnish good specific characters in these 
cases. Mr. Wright also showed a specimen of Carex^ prob- 
ably (7. granularis^ which had remarkably long flower stalks 
of last years' growth. 

Mr. G. Diinraock showed specimens of Syritta pipiens^ 
and a buttei-fly, Chrysophamis ajnericana, which he had 
found engaged in the cross fertilization of the dandelion. 
He had also noticed the common yellow and the cabbage 
butterflies on these flowers. 

Mr. E. H. Hitchings exhibited a specimen of Liparis lilli' 
folia in flower, a plant he thought as yet unrecorded from 
our vicinity. 

Mr. Wilson remarked that Mr. B. P. Mann had found that 
Mhodora exhibits a tendency to the separation oi' the sexes, 
and hoped that the members of the Section would turn their 
attention to the discovery of new cases of this kind. 



Section of Botany. June 19, 1876. 

Dr. J. C. Wliite in the chair. Twenty-one persons present. 

Dr. W. G. Farlow showed specimens of Wild Cherry 
{Prunus serotina)^ with the stamens, petals, and ovary ab- 
normally swollen. 

This disease is the same as is known in Germany as plnm pockets. 
It is a fungus Ascomycetes in its simplest form, named Exoascus 
prunL Specimens of May Apple, similarly distorted, were shown. 
These swellings have only recently been shown to be due to fungi, 
having been supposed to be caused by insects. 

In ans\ver to a question conceniing division of sexes, Al- 
Hunt trococcum was shown by Mr. G. F. Waters, who also 
stated that the female plants disappear in an asparagus bed. 

BBOCEEDIXGa B. S. N. H. — VOL. XVIIL 26- JANUARY,. 187T, 



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Garman.] 402 [June 21, 

A seedling grnpe (the lona vaiiety) was shown, where the 
plant hud only pistillate flowei*s. In all these the sexes 
were on different plants. 

Mr. W. P. Wilson read a letter addressed to Dr. Gray, 
from Prof. De Caisne of Paris, conceming Epigcea repens L. 
From specimens sent him he had determined a new species 
based on the comparatively large spreading lobes of the 
stigma. Flowers with such a stigma are fertile, but contain 
imperfectly formed pollen, or often none. Dr. Gray thinks 
this plant may possibly be progressing towards a dioecious 
condition. 

Mr. Charles Wright spoke of the unfitness of the name of 
Diervilla trifida, which almost never has a trifid peduncle. 



June 21, 1876. 

Vice-President, Mr. S. H. Scudder, in the chair. Eleven 
persons present. 

The following paper was read : — 

Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Allen Lesley, 
Esq., on the Isthmus of Panama. By S. W. Garman. 

The collection which serves as the basis for the following notes 
was made at a point about midway from Aspinwall to Panama, on 
the Chngrcs River. Though small it was well selected, and, what 
was especially satisfactory, it was unusually well preserved. When- 
ever piacticable these specimens have been compared with others 
from the north or south, with the view of determining as much as 
possible of the extent of territory occupied by each species, and of 
the amount of variation obtaining among its representatives in differ- 
ent parts of the habitat. Consequently such remarks as are placed 
under several names of the list are results of a somewhat general 
study of the species. The material for such study, in the Mus- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, is provided by the col- 
lections of Messrs. Agassiz, Albuquerque, Bourget, Linden, Maack, 



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1876.] 403 [Oamui. 

Sarkadjr, Sceva, Steindachner, the Thayer and Hassler Expeditions, 
and others, which contain representatives of local faunse from many 
points between Mexico and Patagonia inclusive. 

In the greater portion of tropical America the diversity of surface 
is not excessive, and since in the torrid zone the conditions of light 
and heat are least variable, we are naturally led to expect to find the 
species, compared with those of other latitudes, more widely dis- 
tributed and at the same time less affected by variations in <tolor or 
covering. The speciinens before me accord well with this idea. In 
a comprehensive view of the South American Reptilia and Batrachia 
the species seem to fall naturally into four groups, representing as 
many more or less distinct faunal areas. As indicated by these 
groups we have a northern section, comprising all of northern South 
America, including Ecuador and Brazil — except the southeastern 
part — and extending over the Isthmus to the table land of Mexico; 
an eastern, containmg that portion of Brazil included in Pernambuco 
and the provinces to the southward; a southern, made up of the 
pampas of the Argentine Confederation and Patagonia; and a west- 
ern, which includes the plateaus and western slopes of the Andes in 
Chili, Bolivia and Peru. For convenience they may be designated 
as the torrid^ eastern, pampan and andean sections. 

Physical features that are hardly noticed in the movements of the 
species of one class of animals, assume very imposing proportions in 
connection with those of species of another. An elevation or an 
arid region over which the majority of species of the first passes 
freely offers an insurmountable obstacle to those of the second. 

In a general way, speaking of Reptiles and Batrachians, the geo- 
graphical conformations present little or no hindrance to the spread 
of a species between the Amazon- Orinoco basin and the Isthmus or 
western Ecuador, while the existence of a tolerably effective separa- 
tion between the Amazon basin and the eastern section, needs no 
plainer demonstration than that afforded by the difference of their 
respective faunaj. As for the Surinam region, I know of no really 
distinct form belonging there. Pipa, or as it is commonly called, the 
Surinam Toad, is represented in the Museum from the Madeira, and 
Spix is authority for the statement that it occurs in the watere near 
Bahia. Southward from the Isthmus, on the west coast, a limit is 
reached in the sterility of northwest Peru. The separation of the 
North American species from those of the south is eff*ected by the 
table land of Mexico; it is not absolute, however, a few species 
beino: common to both sides. 



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Garroan.] 404 [JuneM, 

A consequence of the similarity of climatic conditions in all its 
parts and of the absence of obstructions is, that species have been 
able to spread themselves over enormous extents of territory in the 
torrid region, affected little by variation. 

Some idea of the condition of these orders in this and the eastern 
districts may be obtained from the following instances, in which each 
is represented by one of its most widely distributed and also by one 
of its more restricted species. 

One of the most common reptiles in the torrid and eastern sections 
is Iguana tubercuiata Laur. Its range extends from Mexico to south- 
ern Brazil, and — if we accept as valid the closely allied species 
/. rhinolopha Wiegm., which occurs with it in Central America — it 
nowhere, according to collections from upwards of twenty localities, 
acquires differences enough to characterize a variety or to enable 
the student, even approximately, to determine the locality from the 
specimen. 

We are able to indicate from the specimens a range for Teitis nu 
gropunctalus Spix over the torrid section from Cape St. Roquc and 
Villa Bella to the Darien extremity of the Isthmus, not including 
Ecuador. The variations shown by the most distant localities are 
comparatively slight. In squamation they are similar throughout. 
Specimens from the Gulf of Darien have the colors less mixed, the 
yellow brighter and the brown darker; from Ceari have less yellow, 
more olive, and greater confusion of markings; and from Villa Bella 
have lighter colors generally, and a reddish tint — as figured by Spix. 
In passing from one locality to another the changes are so gradual 
that the separation of the species into groups of any value to the 
student is next to impossible. In the eastern section this species is 
displaced by Teius teguixin Linnd. 

Among batrachians, Cyslignathxis ocellatus (L.) Tsch. has a range 
which covers and exceeds that of Iguana. Its representatives in the 
eastern section form a variety marked by colors and a * somewhat 
larger size. 

Bufo agua Latr. inhabits the entire torrid section ; on the head 
waters of the Tocantins a variety is characterized by smaller size 
and colors; in the eastern section it is displaced by another species, 
B, ictericus Spix. 

Other instances illustrating the community of species between^the 
Isthmus and the Amazon basin are enumerated below. It is not only 
the larger and stronger that arc common; the natural barriers seem 
to have proved equally ineffectual against £ome of the species most 



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1876.] 405 [GarmaiL 

poorly furnished with means of locomotion. As it is, the respects in 
which the fauna of the Isthmus differs are so few, comparatively, as to 
render very questionable any attempt to treat it as if it were distinct 
from that of the Amazon- Orinoco region. The study of its Reptiles 
and Batrachians can only be successfully pui*8ued with continual refer- 
ence to, and comparison with, those from the south and east. 

Of nineteen species in Mr. Lesley's collection, fourteen are known 
to be common to the eastern portion of the torrid section, and subse- 
quent investigations will undoubtedly increase this number. 

REPTILIA. 

Emys venusta Gray. 

Common. Represented in the collection by very young only. 

Ameiva preesignis B. et G. 

Three specimens. Longitudinal bands very distinct. Preanal 
plates unlike. Several cephalic plates subdivided in one example. 
Femoral pores 15, 16, 17. Compared with specimens of -<4 . 5u/-ma- 
mensis from Tabatinga, on the upper Amazon, these are stouter and 
darker in color — more olive and brown. The median dorsal band 
is not present on the southern specimens, and the upper bands of 
the sides disappear about the middle of the length of the body ; the 
spots are much smaller and more separated. Mr. Lesley's specimens, 
however, do not agree among themselves in regard to the length and 
distinctness of the dorsal band, and in younger examples it is proba- 
bly indistinct or absent. 

From the close correspondence in details of squamation and color- 
ation, it is not at all unlikely that intermediate forms will be found 
to connect the two as varieties under one species. 

Euprepes bistriatus (Spix) Wagler. 

Spots of brown in the bronze of the posterior half of the back ard 
plentiful. The upper white band on the flank becomes indistinct in 
the larger examples; that below the brown retains its brightness. 
Belly bluish white. A tinge of blue in the bronze on the back. 
Young specimens have fewer spots, less blue on belly and back, and 
the upper line on the flank is more distinct. 

Iguana tuberculata Laur. 

The green on the backs of the young is so dark that the bands are 
invisible, those on the tail are indistinct. Half-grown specimens show 
all the marks distinctly. All have from five to seven bands of black on 
the throat pouch; these are broken up or lost in the old. On small 



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Ganntn.] 406 [Jane 21, 

specimens tbe occiput is rounded; a few scales on each side enlarge 
and thicken so as to form angles as the animal approaches maturity* 
Adults have more of yellow or gamboge; frequently tbey are freckled 
with scales of yellow. The scales of the crest are very small in the 
young. This species retains its integrity from Acapuico Xo Ria 
Janeiro; the variations to be noted in the whole range are slight 
compared with those of individuals from a single locality. A collec- 
tion of twenty specimens from Santarem includes some mottled 
with yellow, as are very large ones from Panama and Turbo, others 
of the colors of Spix's figure of squamosa^ others of those of his 
viridis, others having the greyish blue of coeruleaj and yet others 
fciirly represented by his figures of emarginata and lopTiyroides, 

Individuals vary in respect to the number of tubercles on the neck, 
the amount of convexity and number pf prefrontal scales, and the 
number and arrangement of the row of large scales on the side of 
the head below the ear. 

Basiliscus mitratus Daud. 

Specimens from various places between Mexico and the east side 
of the Gulf of Darien. Males from the northern localities have the 
brown markings and the longitudinal lines more distinct; the females 
are more indistinctly marked, and usually more of a dingy rusty 
brown. Southern specimens are less bright, and the transverse bands 
are hardly to be observed. In the same locality there is much differ- 
ence noticeable in specimens of various ages in respect to shap^ and 
size of helmet and the scales covering it, also in regard to the height, 
number of rays, and the scaling in the crests. The rays of the dor- 
sal and caudal crests increase in length and number with age; a 
young adult male possesses from one to several less in number thaa 
an old one. The helmets and the scales on their sides increase in 
size with age; with little or no increase in number the scales expand 
as the crest enlarges, so that the old male has more large scales on 
the helmet than the young. Females do not develop- the helmet- 
When broken the tail is reproduced. The animal which served as 
the type of Corytheolus viticUus Kaup. was no doubt a young male of 
this species, taken at the time the helmet began to enlarge, before 
much change had occurred in the crests. Corythopbanes crisiatus 
(Merr.) Boie differs from the species of Basiliscus in the skull, 
in a crest along the back of the entire neck, a small circular nasal 
plate which does not rest upon the first labial, and a fiat head cov- 
ered with flat scales, which are similar over the entire surface. C. cm- 



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1876.] 407 * [Garrnan. 

tatw was well placed by Dumeril and Bibron with C chamceleopsis 
D. and B. (if named more in accordance with priority, C. Hernan- 
dezii Gray). It Is possible the author of Art. IV, in Jour. Ac. Nat. 
Sc. Phil., 1875, p. 125, intended to refer Corytheolus instead of Cory- 
thophaues to Basiliscus. 

Anolis Sohiedii Wiegm. 

An adult female with dorsal and lateral bands distinct; a brown 
spot on each side of the back of the neck ; the upper surface of the 
head anterior to and above the eyes dark. A malfe with the goitre 
well developed has distinct lateral bands, a light band along the dor- 
sum, and darker brown on the occiput. A second female is much 
darker, and has but a faint indication of the dorsal line. 

Stenorhina Degenhardtii (Berth.) Jan. 

a. Light brownish olive. Subabdominals 1 73 -|- 1 pairs ; sub- 
caudals 40 pairs. . 

b, Olive brown, much darker than the preceding. In the former 
the frontal is in contact with the second labial; in this the postnasal 
and anteorbital meet between labial and frontal. Anterior edges of 
dorsals and abdominals in each specimen darker colored. Abdomi- 
nals 166 4- 1 pairs; subcaudals 35 pairs. 

Liophis reginee (L.) Wagl. 

In diff'erent specimens there is considerable variation in the num- 
ber of white edged scales; on some they are so numerous as to 
form transverse bands. Those in this collection are probably to be 
placed in the variety albiventris Jan. As the smaller number of 
scuta seems quite constant, it is likely that this will prove a more 
stable foundation for a variety than the coloration, which varies so 
much in individuals. Of the five examples from this locaUt}'; the 
abdominals and subcaudals number as follows: 
1. Abdominals 135, subcaudals 61 pairs. 
" 62 *« 

« 61 « 

« 60 " 

« 63 " 

Xenodon Bertholdi Jan. 

Three specimens with three postorbitals on each side, one with 
two. Dorsal rows 19. 

a. Bands on head very distinct; belly with nebulous blotches of 
brown. Ventral scuta 149 -j- 1 -|- 44 pairs. 

b. Interiors of the crossbands on the body darker than on the 



2. 


(( 


138, 


3. 


it 


141, 


4. 


u 


140, 


6. 


t( 


135, 



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Garman.] 408 [Jane 21, 

preceding. Bands of forehead obsolete. Belly with small, ill-defined, 
scattered dots. Markings darker. Ventrals 148 4- 1 + 46 pairs. 

c. Back lighter colored; marks of head and body distinct ; band 
on forehead ; abdomen much flecked and spotted with brown. Ven- 
trals 149 -f 1 4- 42 pairs. 

d. Smallest specimen. Bands on head and body most distinct. 
The bands from the flanks, becoming more faint, extend across the 
abdomen. Ventrals 150 -|- 1 -}" 42 pairs. 

The smaller of these have more of dark on the lower surface, and 
the markings in general more distinct. Though the marks do not 
become indistinct, there is a fading out of the central portions of the 
bands which eventually gives the appearance of twice the number. 

Herpetodryas carinatus (L.) Schleg. 

Differing very little, if at all, from specimens from the Ucayale 
River. The two keels and the light colored dorsal band are present. 
Ventral scuta 158 + 2; subcaudals 126 pairs. 

Oxyrhopus petolarius (L.) D. and B. 

Var. Stba D. and B. 

One example is of medium size, the other very small. The first is 
marked by twenty-four half rings of black between the head and the 
vent; and the hinder abdominal scuta are sprinkled with brown. 
Subabdominals 205 -j- !• Twenty-six half-rings occupy the body of 
the smaller specimen ; among these there is rather more irregularity 
than in those of the first. Two upper labials are united on one side 
of the head. Subabdominals 223 -|- 1 » subcaudals 85 pairs. On 
the tails the black rings are complete. The half-rings arc wider 
than the red spaces. Both specimens are irregular in the markings 
of the middle of the body. 

Eteirodipsas annulata (L.) Jan. 

a. A single anteorbital on one side. Ground color a reddish 
brown; lateral series of spots reduced in size. Subabdominals 173 
-j- 1 pairs; subcaudals 74 pairs. 

h. Ground color greyish brown ; spots similar to those of preced- 
ing. Subabdominals 1 70 -f- 1 pairs ; subcaudals 78 pairs. 

Elaps semipartitus D. and B. 

This specimen agrees well with the figure and description given by 
Prof. Jan of E.muidfasciatus. There are fifty-seven black rings — 
two of them on the tail ; on the upper side of the tail, behind the 
last ring, there is a rounded spot and the tip is black ; the muzzle is 
black ; the throat spotted. A single irregular ring is seen on tlie 



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1876.] 409 [Garman. 

middle of the body. Between the inframaxillaries and the anterior 
abdominals there are five series of small scales. Abdominals 287 ; 
subcaudals 25 pairs. 

Elaps corallinus (L.) Neuw. 

Large and small, of the variety circinalis D. and B. Tips of 
tails and muzzles black '—color not extending on the inframaxillaries. 
Ends of the scales black in the red rings, not in the yellow. Adult 
with sixteen black rings on the body, three on the tail ; young with 
eighteen on body, and three on tail. Between inframaxillaries and 
anterior ventrals there are two small scales on the throat of the 
larger, three on that of the smaller. Abdominals and subcaudals of 
the former 221 -f- 89 pairs; of the latter 223 -|- 39 pairs. 

The transition from corallinus through circinalis and Fitzingeri to 
E.fulvius is so gradual as to make it necessary to consider them as 
varieties of a single species. If so considered, the range of this 
species from Virgmia to Brazil gives it a greater distribution than 
that of any other American reptile. 

BATRACHIA. 

Cystignathns ocellatus (L.) Tsch. 

In addition to the specimens belonging to this collection there are 
at hand others from various points between Central America and Uru- 
guay. Those from the Isthmus are more olive, those from the lower 
Amazon more b;*own, and those from the southern localities and 
Villa Bella more grey. The disposition of the spots is the same 
throughout, but the amount of variation in shapes is infinite in the 
same vicinage. Young examples are liglit in color and slender in 
form; the head is narrow, the snout pointed, and there are four or 
more longitudinal folds in the skin of the body ; later in life the 
ground color darkens, some of the folds disappear, the head widens 
and thickens at the shoulders, the vomerine teeth approach more 
closely and the figure becomes stout and heavy. Just above and 
behind the upper arm in large specimens traces of the glandular 
growth may be discovered ; from this it gradually extends over the 
side. On dissecting, the structure is found to be made up of numer- 
ous round-ended piles or cylinders set up on end close together upon 
the skin immediately within the epiderm. It does not appear until 
the adult stage is reached, and in all probability is superinduced by 
the excitement attendant upon coupling. In the season males are 



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Gannan.] 410 [June 21, 

common in which the anterior half of the body has undergone the 
transformation, the posterior remaining as in the young until included 
in the changed condition more gradually. Only the very large dis- 
cover the flank entirely covered by the gland. The ditferences be- 
tween the lighter colored from farther south and those of C laby^ 
rynthicus (Spix) D. and B. from Ceard are scarcely specific. The 
presence of the glandular structure on the flank in the older speci- 
mens of C. ocellatus^ necessitates the return to this genus of the spe- 
cies withdrawn to form the genus Pleurodema of Tschudi. 

Bufo agua Latr. 

Adult females and young of both sexes similarly marked with 
spots and having the warts smooth to the touch. Adult males — 
differing in this regard from what obtains amongst the birds, where 
the females are least marked — are more modestly colored, uniform 
olive or brown ; they are smaller, and the warts are usually rough 
with small spines. The numerous specimens in the Museum have 
been gathered from upwards of twenty widely separated localities, 
and represent an area including the entire Amazon basin, extending 
eastward to Ceard, southward to Goyaz and Villa Bella, and north- 
ward and westward to Acapulco, Mexico. The rhomboidal shape 
and the size of the paratoids serve to distinguish the species wher- 
ever found. Occasional large specimens have these glands somewhat 
rounded or blunt posteriorly, but as this is not common to the young 
it is to be regarded simply as the result of an unusual amount of 
development. Considering the extensive distribution of this animal 
and its means of locomotion, the amount of variation to be noticed 
in the most distant localities is surprisingly small. The plan of col- 
oration is quite the same throughout the entire region. A pair of 
dark spots between the hinder halves of the paratoids, and one or 
more pairs of smaller ones farther back, are to be discovered in all 
young examples. Acapulco and isthmus specimens are more olive; 
those from Ceard are more brown and the spots more spreading. 
On those from a small pond on one of the Pearl Islands, in the Gulf 
of Panama, the tendency toward uniform olive is so great as to ren- 
der the spots almost obsolete. On the uplands of Minas Geraes 
and the head waters of the Tocantins the species attains but little 
more than half the usual size, and is lighter colored. The spots on 
the back are ringed with white, and the creature is much more warty. 
When the epiderm is removed, the whole upper surface is black 
spotted, or reticulated with white, a narrow white line extends along 



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1876.1 . 411 [Gannan. 

the back, and the lower surface is punctate with black. Our speci- 
mens possess rudimentary cutaneous expansions; this is the only 
respect in which they differ from the description of B. ocellatus Gthr. 
Since the habits, shapes of paratoids and positions of spots and 
warts are similar, and the transition from the large to the small so 
gradual, it is not possible to consider them as representing more than 
a variety. 

The species B. ictencus Spix cartnot be retained as synonymous. 
A difference by which it can be distingubhed most readily is that of 
the shape of the paratoids. In this the glands are regular elongate 
oval, and twice as long as wide ; in B. agua Latr. they are rhomboi- 
dal, nearly as broad as long, and usually pointed at the hinder 
angle. Specimens of less than an inch in length show these differ- 
ences distinctly. 

O.h^r species found in various collections examined are distributed 
as follows: 

B. granulosus Spix. Valley of the Amazon. 

B. ornatus Spix. Bahia to Rio Janeiro. 

B. ictericus Spix. Espiritu Santo and Rio Janeiro. 

B, globulosus Spix. (description appended). Rio Grande do Sul. 

B. D'Orhignyi D. and B. Argentine Confederation. 

B, chilemis D. and B. Peru, Bolivia and Chili. 

B. valliceps Wiegm. Mexico and Texas. 

B. lenliginosus Holbr. Mexico and United States. Several varieties. 

Hyla Baudinii D. and B. 

a. A specimen on which the color of the back is a clouded dark 
brown. On the legs the brown is broken with white, and behind the 
thighs there are two large white spots. The brown becomes darker 
on the flanks near the borders which are quite irregular. Spots of 
brown are scattered in the white of the lower portions of the sides 
and the under surfaces of the legs. 

h, A half-grown specimen of a light brownish red, with reddish 
brown in a band from the nostril through the eye to the middle of 
the flank, in bands on the arms and legs, and in a few spots on the 
dorsum and sides of the legs. The pair of spots on the thigh is indi- 
cated by the border of dark, which is all that appears. 

Hyla maxima (Laur.) GUnth. • 

The medium sized are more uniform in coloration than the larger 
and the small; the latter have the markings in most distinct outline. 
All possess the black line on the dorsum and bands across the flanks. 



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Garman.] 412 [June 21. 

The younger ones bear an X-shaped mark across the shoulders. 
Seven specimens in Mr. I^csley's collection. 

Coecilia gracilis Shaw. 

On four perfect specimens the rings from head to anus number re- 
spectively 178, 184, 190 and 18C. The crowded rings of the tail 
vary from fourteen to thirty, larger examples having more than smalL 
Under the lens the skin appears reticulated by narrow brown lines 
forming small hexagons. Small specimens are light chestnut olive ; 
the large become dark oliye or brown. 

APPENDIX. 

Description of Bufo globulosus Spix. iv^va<kA ol c*xo vwi^^ d^^r^Ge^ 
Body medium. Head triangular, with sides nearly perpendicular. 
Bony ridges on the crown strong, but not high, and not diverging 
widely on the occiput; branches extend to the paratoids, in front of 
each eye, and in front of the tympanum. Snout blunt, not protrud- 
ing. Tongue widening a little backward. Tympanum medium, dis- 
tinct, higher than long, height equal to half the length of the orbit. 
Paratoids moderate, narrow, as long as the head, supplemented by a 
row of warts on the flanks. When viewed from above they appear 
exceedingly narrow and taper gi'adually. Warts flattened, smooth 
on females, rougher on males. Fingers free, first and third about 
equal, second longer, equaling the fourth. Tubercle at base of fin- 
ger half as large as that in centre of palm. Tubercles on the foot 
equal, inner shovel-shaped. Leg to extremities of toes as long as the 
body. Toes half webbed. Tarsus with a cutaneous fold. Back 
brown — light to dark — with broad rounded spots or bands of white; 
on the hinder two-thirds of the body the white spots — more or less 
irregular and confluent into bands — are disposed on each side of a 
broad band of brown along the dorsum ; in front of this a white band 
reaches the head. Some are more white than brown, others are of a 
light reddish brown, nearly uniform. Thighs, legs and flanks banded 
or spotted with brown and white. Below yellowish white, smooth 
as if glazed anteriorly, granulated and more yellow under the thighs. 
The brown spot covering the anus is surrounded by white. Small 
specimens are whiter. Length of body of largest four inches. Five 
specimens from Rio Grande do Sul. Differs from B. ornatus Spix in 
shape of head, low orbital ridges, coloration and shape of glands; 



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1876.] 418 [Wright. 

from agua and iciericus in size, shape and size of head and glands, 
and coloration; and from DWrhignyi in color, glands and orbital 
ridges. 

From near Goyaz, on the highlands of east Brazil, we have two 
specimens of a toad agreeing with this in size and outline which has 
been named B. rvfus on account of the red color on the hinder half 
of the body. It differs principally in the small points or granula- 
tions which cover the ventral surface, in the paratoids which taper 
less and are more widened posteriorly, and in the coloration, which is 
a light rusty brown with indistinct spots of darker on the back, nar- 
row bands and spots of brown on the thighs, and narrow transverse 
bands of the same on the legs, from the knee to the toes, and with 
the hinder parts, in life, tinted with red. The differences are cer- 
tainly sufficient to mark these specimens as belonging to a distinct 
variety, and most probably other collections from this region will 
establish them as of specific value. 



Section of Botany. June 26, 1876. 

Dr. "W. G. Farlow in the chair. Nineteen persons present. 

Mr. Chas. Wright said that he had paid some attention re- 
cently to Amelanchier canadensis^ but had been unable to 
find any satisfactory distinction between the varieties, oblon- 
gifolia and hotryapium\ the former, however, seems to 
bloom later and ripen earlier than the latter. 



July 6, 1876. 

• The President, Mr. T. T: Bouve, in the chair. Fifteen 
members present. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, of London, Lt. G. M. Wheeler, 
TJ. S. A., and Maj. J. W. Powell, of Washington, were 
elected Corresponding Members. 

Messrs. Woodbridge II. Birchmore, W. O. Crosby, Thos. 
J. Emery, J. W. Fevvkes, Bernard Whitman Flagg, Edw. G. 



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Grote.] 414 [July 5, 

Gardiner, D. S. Greenongh, Jr., Byron D. Halsted, Edward 
M. Haitwell, Win. J. Knowlton, Prof. R. Piimpelly, Rev. 
Edw. Stone, William Powell Wilson, were elected Resident 
Members. 

The following paper was pi-esented : — 

Notes on Nocture from Florida. By Aug. R. Grote. 

The following species are mentioned as being of interest ^mong a 
number of Noctuae collected by Mr. Roland Thaxter of Newtonville, 
Mass., during a short residence in Florida the past winter. 

Bryophila percara Morr., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. Hist., xvii, 213. 

A single fresh male expanding 20 mill. The specimen agrees with 
the description above cited, in the shallow indentation below the 
apices on external margin of fore wings, and, generally, in ornament- 
ation. The color is, however, not "ochreous," but pale olive green, 
a little brighter than that of Microcodla vinnula Grote. There is a 
*' large, triangular, blackish spot resting on the (?) margin"; this 
spot is situate beyond the t. p. line, and rests with its base on the 
internal margin. Tallahasee, Fla., April 10, No. 3174. 

Ferigea Icole sp. nov. 

cf . The color is that of xanthioides, but more intense, while it is 
one-fourth larger than that common species. The specimen is in fine 
condition, showing the tufl behind the collar. The color of the 
primaries is intense brownish red, Avith the median lines paler, some- 
what orange, and with the veins marked with black. The median 
lines are geminate, with included paler shading, the component lines 
separate, indistinct, not black nor jagged as in xanthioides, but nearly 
even, especially the t. p. line, which has a slightly rounded sweep 
opposite the cell. Orbicular concolorous; the constricted rcniform spot 
is marked by a large pure white spot on the median vein, and there 
are a few white scales on its indistinct blackish marginal ring. Sub- 
terminal line indistinct; fringes darker than the wing. Hind wings 
pale, silky, with smoky marginal shades deepening outwardly, and 
pale fringes. Beneath both wings Avhitish inferlorly, powdered with 
red superiorly ; fore wings shaded Avith black on the disc, and with 
two indistinct sinuate external shaded lines. Thorax and head Hke 
fore wings. Expanse 33 mill. Appalachicola, No. 2709. 

This species is of the size of Perigea luxa Grote, a specimen of 
which was taken by JUr. Thaxter in the same localily. 



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1876.] 416 [Grote, 

Eriopus granitosa Guen., Noct. ii, 295. 

Appalachicola, Dr. Chapman. This is the first specimen I have 
ever seen of this beautiful species, which has not been previously al- 
luded to by American writers. 

Scolecocampa liburna Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., ii, 20. 

Appalachicola, Mr. Thaxter. Southern specimens of this species 
show a red-brown shading along internal margin of primaries, and 
on the renifbrm spot, exaggeratedly given in Geyer's figure. 

Heliophila pilipalpis sp. nov. 

A male specimen having the facies and ornamentation of pseudar^ 
gyria Guen., but without the exaggerated tufting of abdomen and 
tibia3. Stout, with hairy eyes and smooth front, and with a curious 
fan-shaped tuft of spreading hair arising from the upper surface of 
the second joint of the unusually prominent palpi. Head, thorax 
and anterior wings concolorous, fawn gray, like pale specimens of its 
ally. Fore wings sparsely speckled with black. Median lines frag- 
mentary, composed of black marks; t. a. line outwardly oblique, 
subobsolete. Cell shaded with black. Orbicular spot wanting. Reni- 
form narrow, pale, S-shaped, intersecting inferiorly the black discal 
shade. T. p. line formed of double dots, connected as in pseudar- 
gyria, but the line is more oblique and inwardly removed. Fringes 
pinkish, as is the internal margin, the latter showing an accumulation 
of the black irrorations. llmd wings whitish, with a smoky cloud- 
ing outwardly above vein 2. Beneath whitish, without markings, 
with the fringes on fore wings pink, and the black transverse line 
visible on costa. Expanse 4.3 mill. Appalachicola, Mr. Thaxter, 
No. 31 GO. 

LygranthoBcia scissa sp.nov. 

A moderately sized species between lynx and arcifera, remarkable 
for the angulation of the exterior black band of primaries opposite 
the cell. Fore wings triangulate, without defined lines, brownish 
black, median space more rusty and paler, showing the large black 
reniform spot; median lines obscure, indicated by difference of shad- 
•ing. Hind wings Avith the central portion clear dark yellow, showing 
a large black discal spot. Marginal black band broad, sharply de- 
fined, angulated opposite the cell; base and internal margin black. 
Beneath the median fields of both wings yellow, secondaries darkest, 
defined by black discal spots ; basal and terminal fields blackish ; 
costal region of secondaries red, as are more slightly the apices of 
primaries. Thorax red-brown; abdomen black, with narrow yellow 



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Grote] 416 [Julys, 

segmental fringes and yellow anal hairs. Expanse 18 mill. Appala- 
chicola, Mr. Thaxter, No. 2782. 

The colors of this species are vivid, and the insect presents a cas- 
ual resemblance to the yellow winged species of Annaphila. 

Mr. Thaxter has collected also of the present group the species 
X. tuberculwrif Proihymia rosalba, Spragueia fasciatella and apicella^ 
Thalpochares patruelis {Tarache patruelis Grote). 

Ophideres materna (Linn.). 

A single specimen taken by Mr. Thaxter at Appalachicola, March 
24. The specimen agrees with Drury's figure (ii, Plate xiii, fig. 4), 
as with Guenee*s description (iii, 113). The discovery of this 
species in Florida is attended with unusual interest. The species is 
common in Java and the East Indies, according to authors. M. 
Guenee records an individual reared by Bescke at New Freiburg, 
Brazil, without mention of the food-plant of the larva. Recent in- 
vestigations by Kiinckel (re-published in the " Popular Science 
Monthly for June, 1876) have brought to light the peculiar structure 
of the tcrebrant trunk in this genus, so ri^id and peculiarly formed 
at the extremity as to be able to pierce the rinds of oranges and suck 
the juice. In the present specimen, so far as I can perceive under 
the microscope without detaching the trunk, the end of the maxillae 
exhibits a conformation like that figured by Kiinckel of OpJdderes ful- 
lonica. M. Gucn^e conj jturcs that the species has been accidentally 
introduced into Brazil by commerce, and adds of the specimen ex- 
amined by him received from Bescke: C*est la premiere qui^ 5, ma 
connaissance, ait etc trouvde en Amerique. The orange, upon which 
the moth of Ophideres is stated to feed, is Asiatic in origin, and it 
would be of interest to ascertain that it has been followed to Amer- 
ica by its parasitic insects. The attention of orange planters in 
Florida is drawn to these state nients in the hope that the complete 
history of the species be discove.ed. It is probable that the appear- 
ance of the fruit would be injured by the attacks of Ophideres, and 
if the insect multiplies in Florida it will not long escape more general 
notice. 

Phurys glans sp. nov. 

At first sight recalling Celiptera frustultim, but differing by the 
shorter third palpal article, and agreeing with vinculum and liina in 
this respect. Of the same uniform gray, with all the markings illeg- 
ible except a rather narrow deep brown stripe, which runs obliquely 
and ncai'ly evenly from apices to internal margin at outer third. 



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1876.] 417 (Grate. 

Inwardly this stripe is lined with ochreous. Faint terminal dots 
obsoletcly connected by a festooned thread-line. Hind wings gray- 
ish fuscous, without lines. Beneath only the terminal dots are 
noticeable. Expanse 35 mil. Appalachicola, Mr. Thaxter, No. 3120. 

The present collection is rich in species of Poaphila. I hare 
identified erasa, herbicola, and obsoleta Grote, the latter described by 
Guende as a variety of (juadri-Jilans, from which it seems to be di»^ 
tinct. With some hesitation I have affixed the names deleta Guen., 
and syloarum Guen., to two species which do not quite agree with the 
descriptions in the Species General under these names. 

For our existing knowledge of the Noctuae we are largely indebted 
to the patient observations of Mr. Roland Thaxter; and owing to his 
care in preparing material for the cabinet the work of determination 
is made easy. 



BRRITA. 



Paje 102, lait line bat ono, for Tinuneulus read Tmnuncului, 
Pa^e 163, ninth line, for cUlophus read dilophus. 

Pasa 331, fifth line from ttia bottom, insert between the words <'tho'' and 
>* heart" these words ~*< nidamental glands above the" 
Page 401, last line but one^ for trocoecum read iricoecum, 

FBOOSBDIKOS H. ft. K. ■. ~ VOL. XVUl. 27 FEBBITABT, 18l7. 



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INDEX TO VOL. XVIII. 



AcTidlien formosos, 350. 
Acridiam voffiim, 269. 
.^^ialitis vociferus. 164, 174. 
^s^olhus liiiaria, 156. 
iEschnogoma, S. A. species of, 63. 
Agassiz, Louiti, portrait of, 188. 
Agelaius frubemator, 158. 

plioeniceus, 158. 172. 
AgriogomphuA, American species of, 62. 
Agrotls Cliardinyi^ 117. 

elaal/itrmtit, 116. 

comona, 238^ 

digna, 115. 

Fauna, 237. 

Nero, 238. 

it{frficfa, 116. 

man{/\:»fa, lUk 

ohfata, 116. 

OUvUif 238. 

ortltngnnia^ 239, 

perpotUa, 237. 

personata, 238. 



prafixa, 117. 
I tricoccum, 401. 



Alliam t 

Alteration of Rocks, 108. 
Ameiva praesiguis, 405. 
Amelaiichier botryapiam, 413. 

canadensis, 413. 

oblongifolia, 413. 
Amphipteryx, American species of, 29. 
Anas l)09clia9, 175. 
Anax, American ftpecies of, 82, 88. 
Ancistrogaster, 283, 300. 

carthrUica, 233. 
ffulosa, 259. 
Ancon Sheep, 356. 
Aneclmra, 289, 301. 
Anisolabis, 289, 302. 
Aiiisopteryx pometaria. 201. 

vernata, 201. 
Anxual Mekting, 1875, 1; 1876, 832. 

Uepobts, 1, 14, 332, 347. 
Anolis np., 204. 

Schiedii, 407. 
Anser hyperboreus, 175. 
Antlioccia arcifera, 123. 
Autlms ludovicianus, 170. 



Apachys, 239, 305. 
Apliylla, / 



__^_ „, American species of, 49, 63. 
Apple, monstrosity in blossoms of, 354. 



Aptinrygida, 289. 
Aquila canadensis, 163, 
chrysaetos, 174. 
Archibuteo ferruginosns, 174. 

lagopus, 163. 
Ardea herodias. 164, 175. 
Argynnis Cybeie, 188. 
Asparagus, 359, 401. 
Astur atricapilius, 163. 
Athene cunicularia, 162. 
Atherinichthys microlepidota, 203. 

Basiliscus mitratus, 406. 

Batrachus picifici, 202. 

Bendirb, Capt. Chas. List of Birdf 
at Camp Harney, Oregon, 153. 

Berea, O., rock movements at, 273. 

Bernicla canadensis, 165. 

Black-knot. 236. 

Bonasa Sabini, 164. 

Bond, G. W. On the origin of the Do- 
mestic Sheep, 356. 

BoTAHY, ibrmation of a Sbotiov ofL 
353. 
Meetings of the Section of, 
35.*^, 354, 355, 359, 400, 401« 
413. 

Botaums lentiginosns, 165. 

Bothrops pictus, 205. 

Botryllus, locomotive power of, 360. 

BouvA, T. T. On the Origin of Por- 
phyry, 113, 217, 236; Keminiscencei 
of the early days of the Society, 242. 

Brachylabis, 290. 

Brachyotus Cassini, 161. 
palustris, 173. 

Brachyryton cloclia, 205. 

Branta canadeni^is, 175. 

Bbooks, Dr. W. K. Embryology of 
Salpa, 193; affinity of the Moilusca 
and Mollnscoida, 225; on the Tunl- 
cata and Botryllus, 360. 

Bryophila percara, 414. 

Bnbo virginianus, 173. 

Buccinum nndatum, diminutlTe ibrm 
of. 234. 

Buccphala albeola, 175. 

Bufo agua, 204, 410. 
globulosus, 412. 



The names of genera and species described as new are italiciied. 



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420 



BUBBAKK, L. S. On certain land- 
locked Ponds as natural Meteorolog- 
leal Keffisters, 212; on some native 
Forest Trees, 214; on the Conglomer- 
Bte at Harvard. Mass., 224. 
Buteo borealis, 173. 
calurus. 163. 
Swainsoni, 1«3, 173. 
Bt-Laws, amendments to, 216, 850. 

Calopteryx. American species of, 21. 

Cambarus Bartonii and pellucidus, hab- 
its of, 16. 

Canace fuHginosns, 163. 
HichardsonI, 103. 

Cape Breton, fossil insects of, 113. 

Cape Breton Island, butterflies of, 188. 

Caiadriua r/etm/ta, 121. 
tarda, 121. 

Carboniferous insects at C. Breton, 113. 

Carboniferous insecfs, 358. 

Carciuophora, 291, 305. 

Carex frrannlaris. 401. 

Carpodacns Cassini, 155. 

Catnartes aura, 174. 

Celithemis, American species of, 60. 

Celtis crasFifolia, 215. 
occidentali?. 214. 

Centrocercus nropbasianus, 164, 174. 

Cen le alcyon, 173. 

Chalcopteryx, American sp. of, 29. 

CtMricien.pretioaa, 122. 

Chelidura. 292, 305. 

Chelisocbes, 292, 307. 

comprimenn, 252. 

Chondestes grammaca, 172. 

Chroicocephalus I'hiladelphia, 168. 

Chiysomitris pinus, 156. 
triKtIs, 171. 

Chrj'sophanus Kpixanthe, 189. 

Chrysosplenium, position of stamens in, 
855. 

QdcIus mexicanns, 153. 

Orcus budsonius, 163. 

Cistothorus pnlustris, 154. 

Ccecilia gracilis. 412. 

Colaptes auratus, 173. 

mexicanus, 160. 

Collurio excubitoroides, 1S5. 
sp., 171. 

Condylnpalnma, 292, 309. 

Conglomerate, 217. 224. 

Conglomerates of Newport, 97. 

Cox8TiTiiTi02f, amendments to, 225, 
«9. 

Copiscelis, 292. 

Cora, American species of, 25, 31. 

Cordulega^ter, Aiherican species of, 60, 
66. 

Cordulia, American species of» 60. 

Corvos americanns, 172. 
. camivorns, 189. 
caurinu!*. 159. 
corax, 172. 

Corythroplianes cristatns, 406. 

Crawfish, habits of, blind, etc., 16. 

gucullia luna, 122. 
upidonia cnpido, 174. 
Custodian's Reports, 1, 832. 
C^nu^ogomphus, American species of, 61. 



Cyannra Stellerf, 160. 

Cyclophylhi, American species of, 49, 64. 

Cygnus amei icauns. 165, 175. 

buccinator, 175. 
Cylindrogaster, 293, 309. 

mz/ra, 251. 
Cystignathus ocellatus, 409. 

I>akotah, birds of. 160. 

Dana. l*rof. J. D. rsendomorphism 
and Metamorphism. 200. 

Dandelion, fertilization of, 859, 401. 

Dendroeca oe^tiva, 171. 

Dekton, William. On an Asphalt 
bed near Los Angeles, and its con- 
tained Fcssilo. 185. 

Diastalopc, S. A. species ofr 95. 

Dicopis electilitty 114. 

Dicteriap, American species of, 29. 

Diervilla triflda, 402. 

Diplatys, 293, 309. 

Diplax. American species of, 79^90* 

Dromogomphus, American species dt, 

Dwight, Dr. Thos. Report on the 

Wyman Anatotnical Collection,. 187. 

Dythemis, American species of, 74, 8ft. 

Echinosoma, 293, 309. 
Ectopistes migratoria, 174. 
Klaps coralliiins, 409. 

Dumerili. 205. 

semipartitus, 408. 
Emys venusta, 405. 
Epigaea repent, tendenct of to beoomo 

dioecious, 3£6, 402. 
Epigorophus, American f^ecies of,^ 68.. 
Epitheca, American species of, 67. 
Eremophila alpestris, 158. 
Eriopus granitosa, 415. 
Erythemis, American species of, 78. 
Eiythrodiplax, American species of, 6T» 

89. 
Eteirodipsas annulate, 208, 408. 
Enprepes bi^triatus, 405. 
Eurymus Fhilodice, 189. 
Exoascus pruni, 401. 

Falco anatum, 162. 

sparverius, 173. 
Farlow, Dr. W. <i. On the Black* 
Icnot, 236; on Fodisoma, 356; on Ex* 
oascus pruni, 401. 
Fcrcinella, 293. 
Forficerila, 294. 
Forficnla, 294, 810. 

acu/ea/<t, 262. 

exttia, 262. 

hirmta, 256. * 

luteipes, 255. 

Tolteca, 261. 

vara, 260. 

varianat 253. 

variicomin, 255. 

velfieana^ 254. 
Forficularia, 318, 332. 
Forflculariw, 251, 257, 265, 287. 
Fossil insects of Cape Breton, 113. 
Folica amerieana, 176. 



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421 



Galeo8copte9 carolioensis, 170. 

Gallinago Wil-oui, 164» 174. 

Gabman, 8. W. >ote8 on FMies and 
Reptileft from tlio Western Coast of 
8outh America, 202 ; Keptiles and Ba- 
trachlans from the Isthmus of rana> 
ma. 402. 

Geoililypis trichns, 171. 

Glaucidium califoruicum, 162. 

Glaciers, motion of continental, 120. 

Gneiss, of Uoosac Mt., 106. 

Gobius tran^andeanus, 202. 

Gomphsescliua. American species of, 33. 

Gomphoides, American species of, 49, 
63. 

Gomphomacromia, S. A. species of, 62. 

Gomphus, American species of, 44. 

GooDALE, l>r. G. L. On a monstrosity 
in apple blossoms, 354; on vegetable 
parasitit!ni,359. 

Graculus diloplm?, 168. 

Gray, Trof . Asa. On Epig«a repens, 
35G. 

Gbeenleak, R. W. On the fertiliza- 
tion of I'osoqueria loiigiflora, 364; on 
a monstrous asparagus stem, 369. 

Grus canadensis, 104, 176. 

Gryllus insularis, 26S. 

Guadalupe Island, Diptera of, 133. 

Gynacantha, American species of, 87, 

Uagen, Dr. H. A. Ssmopsis of the 
Odonata of America, 20. 

Hagenius, Amt^rican species of, iS, 55. 

Hale, C. S., bequest or, 188. 

lialisetus leucocephalus, 163, 174. 

Haplophebium, 113. 

Harporhynchus rufus, 170. 

Hearths, ancient Indian, in the Mis- 
souri Valley, 209. 

Heliocharis, Americtan species of, 29. 

Heliophila pertracta, 120. 
pUipalpiSi 416. 

Helminthophaga ruficapiUa, 171. 

Herodias californica, 165. 

Herpetodryas carinatus, 408. 

Herpt'togomphus, American species of, 
42, 61. 

Het^rina, American species of, 23, 26. 

Hitchcock, Frof. C. H. On the Cam- 
brian and Canibro-silurian Kocks of 
Western Vermont, 191. 

Hoffman, Dr. AV. J. List of birds 
obsei-ved at Grand River Agency, 
Dakotah Ter.,109; Ancient Hearths 
and modern Indian Remains in the 
Missouri Valley, 209. 

Homogtcea, 240. 

hircina, 240. 

Homophoberia crlstafaf 125. 

Homoptera j»«n9ta, 241. 

Hoosac, Mt., gneifS of, 106. 

H UNT, Dr. T. Sterry. On the decayed 
Gneiss of Hoof^ac Mt, 106 ; Trof . Dana 
on the Alteration of Rocks, 108, 200. 

Hyatt, Prof. A. Custodian 'h Reports, 
1, 332: on the Origin of Porpnyry, 
220 ; Genetic Rehitious of Stephauotie- 
ra8,360. 



Hyla Bandinil, 411. 
maxima, 412. 
Hylotomus pileatus. 160. 

Icterus Baltimore, 172^ 
BuUockii, 172. 
spurius, 172. 

Ictinus, American sptHsiea of, 55. 

Iguana tuberculata. 405. 

liyanassa obsolera, 191. 

Infusorial deposit of Richmond, va.. 



Junco Aikeni, 171. 
canicep!>, 171. 
cinereus,17l. 
hyemaliis 171. 
oregonus, 167. 

Labia, 294, 319. 

arcuatay 257. 

bruvnea^ 26 4« 

Burgevniiy 266. 

guttata, 265. 

melanchotica, 267. 

rotundata, 263. 
Labidophora, 296, 321. 
Labidura, 296, 322. 

amlitoct 262. 
Lams occidentalis, 168. 
Lais, American species of, 25. 
Lemont, III., rock movements at, 277. 
Leptheniis, American species of, 73, 8S. 
Leptognathus nebulatus, 206. 
Leucorhinia, American species of, 78, 
Leucosticte littoralis, 166. 

tephrucotis, 1£6. 
Libellula, American species «f, 68,84. 
Limochores Tauihas, 190. 
Liophis bicinctns. 204. 

reginae, 407. 
Liparis lilTifolia, 401. 
Labophora, 296. 
Los Angeles, Cal.. on an asphalt bed 

near, and its fossils, 185. 
Loxia americana, 166. 
Lygrauthcecia acissi^ 415. 

Machairodus, tooth of, from Los Aiif» 

geles, Cal., 186. 
Macromia, American species of, 56. 
Macrotheuus, American species of, 76» 

88. 
Mamestra ecfj/pa^ 118. 
lubens. 119. 
repentina^ 118. 
rugosa, 119. 
Manx, B. P. Monstrosities in Aniso^ 

teryx vemata and pometaria, 201. 
May-Apple, 401. 
May- 1« lowers, 356, 402. 
Meoomera, 296, 826. 
Megathentomum, 360. 
Melanerpes erjtlirocephalus, 173; 

torquatuii, leo. 
Melospiza guttata, 158. 

MEMMER8 C0RRKFP03CDIX0, CieCtCai 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F, R. 8., 413.. 
MajorJ. W.Powell, 413. 



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422 



Lient. G. M. Wlieeler.U. 8. A., 413. 
Hkmuers Ukaiuknt, elected: 

rrof. A. Gmhnm liell, 214. 

W. H. Bircliiiiore, 413. 

Charles B. Cory, 214. 

S. U. CraftH, 214. 

AV. O. Croiby, 413. 

Thomas J. Kiiiery, 413. 

J. W. Fewken, 413. 

B. W. Fliigg, 413. 

D. 8. Greeiiuiigh, Jr.. 413. 

liklw. U. (inrdiiier, 413. 

Byron D. UaUtnl, 413. 

Kdw. M. Hartwell, 413. 

John A. Jeffries. 214. 

Wm. A. JeiTriei<,214. 

Wm. J. Knowlton, 413. 

l*rof . Uaphat;] rumpelly, 413. 

Rev. Ktlw. S. 8t.»ne. 413. 

Clifford R Weld. 214. 

Wni.r. Wilson, 413. 
Meetings of the 8ucti<>n of Botany, 353, 

354, 355, 359, 400, 401, 413. 
Meetings of the Section of Entomol- 
ogy. 183, 2^1, 251. 
Meetings of thft General Society, 1, 90, 

106, 113, 13:3, 187, 193, 193,201, m, 214, 

217, 22», '£m, 237, 212, 272, 284, 332,358, 

363, 402, 413. 
Mnetiiig of the Section of Microscopy, 

206. 
Mesothemis, American species of, 77, 

89. 
Metamorphism of rocks, 200. 
Meteorology. Ortai 11 nonds as meteor- 

ological register:*, 212. 
Microlonhn.s pemvianus, 204. 
Missouri A'alfey, archaeology of, 209. 
Miiiotilta varia, 171. 
Mollusca and Molluscoida, affinities of, 

225. 
Molothrus pecoris, 172. 
Morchella, 356. 
MoKRi.soN', H. K. Notes on the Noc- 

tuid«, 114, 237. 
MoK^K, I'rof. E. 8. Differences be- 
tween recent and shell-heap Mollusca, 

190; on a Diminutive Form of Biicd' 

ntim wulafum, a case of Natural Se- 
lection, 284. 
, Mugil Uanimelsbergii, 202. 
Mur«na mel;inotis, 203. 
Myiadestes Townsendi, 155. 
Myiarchus niexicauus, 160. 

Nannodiplax, American species of, 82. 

Naniiopygiu, 296, 326. 

Mannotbemis, American species of, 83, 

93. 
Nantucket, post-pliocene fossils f^om, 

182. 
Neocorys Spraguei, 170. 
Neogunip)iu$«, Ameiican species of, 51. 
Neolobupbora, 296. 

volttellat 257. 
Neurteschna, American species of, 37, 

40. 
Newport conglomerates, 97. 



KiLSA, Prof. W. H. On whiteness of 
Snow at different peiisoi.s, €6; Geo- 
logical agency of I.ateral Pressure 
exliibited by certain Kock Move- 
ments, 272. 

Koctuidae, new American, 114, 237, 414. 

Nonagria laeta, 120. 

Kumeuius longirostris, 175. 

Nyctale acadica. 161. 

Nyctea nivea, 162. 

scandiaca, 173. 

Nyctiardea gri^a, 175. 
mevia, 175. 

Octogorophus, American species of, 44. 

Odonata, Synoiwis of American. 20. 

Opficeks for 1875-6, 15; for 1870-7, 348. 

Ophiogomphus, American species of, 43. 

Opistbocosmia, 296, £26. 

Oregon, Birds of, 153. 

Oreoscoptes montanu<>, 155. 

Ortbeniis, American species of, 73, 85. 

Oxvrhopus petolarius, 408. 

Ophideres materna, 416. 

OsTEN Sacken, C. K. Notes on Dip- 
tera from Guadalupe Isiand, 133; on 
the North American species of Syr^ 
pbus, 135; on N. A. Tabanids, 200. 

Palpopleura, 8. A. species of, 95. 
Panama, Keptiles and Batraicbians of, 

402. 
Pandion hali«tus, 174. 
I'antala, American species of, 63, 83. 
Parus atricapillus, I7O. 

montanus, 154. 

occidentalis, 154. 

septentrionalis, 170. 
Pelicanus erythrorliynchiis, 165. 

tracliyrhynchus, 175. 
Perigea Icotet 414. 

Peritliem is, American species of, 82,93. 
I'etalia, American species of, 55. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons, 171. 
Phenes, American species of, 56. 
Phiirys fflans, 416. 
Phyliodactylus tuberculosus, 204. 
I*ica budionica, 173. 

melanoleuca, 173. 
Picicorvus Columbian us, 159. 
Picus albolarvatus, 160. 

Gairdneri, 173. 

pubescens, 173. 
Pipilo arcticus, 158. 
rutliemi^, American species of, 67. 
Plat} labia, 296. 
Plectropbaues lapponicns, 157. 
Maccowni, 17U 
oruatu8,.171. 
Poaphila, 417. 
Podisoma. 356. 
Pokutaf 124. 

Tepperi, 124. 
Polioptila coerulea, 170. 
PooDcetes gramineus, 158. 
Poospiza nevadennis, 158. 
Porpliyiy, conglomerate character d, 

113. 
Porphyry, origin of, 217, 236. 



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Forzana jamaicendls, 105. 

Fosoqucria longiflura, fertilisation of, 

854. 
Frogomphus, American species of, 48, 

52. 
Frunus serotina, 401. 
Fsalidopiioni, 2t)7. 
F8ali«, 297, 327. 
Fsaltripariu pliimbeus, 154. 
Fseudomomliiiiiii, 108, 200. 
FuTXAM, F. W. Habits of the Blind 

Crawfijtli, aiul the R^jproductiou of 

Lost Parto, 16. 
Fygldicraii.i, 298, 327. 
Fyrajjra, 238, 32». 

Quiscalus piirpureiis, 172. 

Bainfall. cau;<e8 and geological vidne of 
variatiuiiH ill, 176. 

Becurviro.stra aniericana, 164, 174. 

KegnhiH cjiliMiiluia, 154. 

Hbodora, tendency to separation of 
sexes in. 401. 

Bichiuond, Va., infusorial deposit of, 
206. 

Boclc 3Iovements, some phenomena of, 
272. 

BooERS. Prof. Wm. B. On the New- 
port Conffloiiieratett, 97 ; Gravel and 
Cobblentoae depo:«its of Virginia, 101. 

Bubus caiiadeiisui:*, 400. 
Yilloi4U8, 400. 

Busticus Sundderii, 188. 

Salpa, einbryolnjry of, 193. 

8alpiiicted ubtH)ietus, 154. 

Sassafras, nieaxureiiients of a remark- 
al)le tree in K. I., 216. 

Saxifr>ige, position of stamens in Gold- 
en, 355. 

Bayoriiis fn^it?, 160. 
Sfiyu^, 173. 

Fchinia mttho, 123. 

BcolecocHiiipa lilmrna, 415. 

Scolecopluigus cyanoceplialns, 159. 

SouDDEK, .^>. H. Fossil Insects of Cape 
Breton, 113; on Post IMiocetie Fossils 
from banlcoty Head, Nantncket, 182; 
on Itnttorflies from C. Breton Island, 
188; Ft»ssil Myriapods from Nova 
Scotia, 187; geograpliioal distribution 
of yaiiesita cnrthii ami Alalanta, 201 ; 
century of Ortlioptera, V, 251 ; VI, 
257; now species of Labia, 265; Or- 
thoptera from tiie Island of Uiiada- 
lupt*, 268; Notes on Forliculariie, 
With I^ist «f Species, 287 ; on tlie Car- 
boniferous Insects of Europe and 
Americsi, 3t^8. 

Segetia mcrm, 120. 

pnirima. 240. 

Shat.kk. 1 rof. N. 8. Motion of Con- 
tinental tJacIors, 126; on tlie Cause 
and Geoio;; cal Value of Variations 
In Rainfall, 176. 

Fhef |i. MiM I of domestic, 360. 

Sialia arcticii, 154, 170. 
me.\icana, 154. 



Sicyases Peferaii, 203. 
Situ aculeata, 154, 170. 
carolinensis, 170. 
pysimea, 154. 
Snow, wuitenesi of at different seasons, 

96. 
Society, reminiscences of the early 

days of this, 242. 
South America, fishes and reptiles of 

the wostprn coast, 202. 
Sparatta, 299, 329. 
Spatula clypeata, 175. 
Speutyto cunicul ria, 173. 

hypogaea, 173. 
Sphaeria morbosti, 2S6. 
Spizella Breweri, 158. 
monticoln, 158. 
palli(bi, 171. 
socialis, 171. 
Spongophora, 299, 330. 

for/tx, 259. 
Stanrophlebia, Ainerictin species of, 40. 
Steiiorhina Degeiihiirdtii, 407. 
Stephauoceras, genetic rt lations of, 300. 
Stephanoceras BHylKinnni, 385. 
iUsigdeni, 38S. 
Braikeiiridgii, 387. 
Brocohii, 3u2. 
Brongniuitii, 394. 
contractu m, 391. 
coronatuni, 388. 
Desloiigcliamp^ii, 387. 
diinnri Ilium, 3S6. 
Gervilii, 393. 
H»*rveyi. 391. 
Huinphriesiannm, 385. 
liiiguiferuin. 398. 
niacrocephaluni, 392. 
niicrostiHiiuni, 395. 
nodosiiiii, 335. 
planuluni, :389. 
phitysroinuiii, 395. 
plIcati.Hsiiiiuni, 387. 
refracrnni, 399. 
SauKei, 399. 
snltcoioiintum, 380. 
subleve, 390. 
Sterna Forsteri, 163. 
Sternopygtis carapus, 203. 
Stoddeb, Chaulks. Contribution to 
Microgeology. The Infusurial D^ 
posit of Kichmoiid, Va , 206. 
Stnruelhi ludoviciana. 172. 
neglecta. 158, 172. 
Syneda graphica, var. wc</ta, 125. 
Symium nebulosum, 173. 

«/>., 161. 
Syrphos, Kortli Amprican species, 131. 
abbreviatiis, 144. 
amafopiit^ 148. 
ameri^nus. 145. 
coutiimn.rf HI. 
divorsines, 149. 

{;eiiiuulntu.<*, 150. 
appoiiicus, 149. 
Losenrii, 143. 
rectujt^ 140. 
tortiiit. 130. 
umbellatarum, 151. 



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424 



Tteboptennc, Am^riean spoolet of»60. 
Tcniocampa rerictd, 241. 
Tagalliia, 239, 331. 
Tumche obcUra, 124. 
Tbalaasophryiie reticul^tos, 202. 
Thcrmastris. 1299, 331. 

, atontaiia,25S. 
Tholymlfl, American speciea of, 9^ 83. 
Thore, American species oL 30. 
I^nnanculus ^parverius, 162. 
Treasurer's Rpports, 14, 347. 
TVamea, American hpecies of) 84) 83. 
Xrimerotropis /ait/a, 271. 

viHcnlataf 270. 
Trinsa oornntu^, 126. 
minutilli, 174. 
Trofflodyted aeiiou, 170. 

Parkmanii, 170. 
Tardus fosoescen;*, 170. 

mijrratorius, 153, 170. 
PalUs»i, 170. 
Typholabia. 300, 332. 
Tynumos caroliu^nsis, 173. 
verticaliS) 160, 173. 

Urads, S. A. species of, 94. 
UroUieoiis, S. A. species of, Oi. 



Tanessa, Keojp:tHihical distribution of 
V. cardui and Atalauta, 201. ' 

Venus atUiqwif 184. 

meroeuaria, 184. 

Vermont, Cauubrian aud Cambro-Siln- 
rian Roclcs of, 191. 

Vireo olivacea, 171. 

Virginia, gravel aud cobblestQoe depot* 
It* of, 101. 

Wilson , W. P. On Epigaea rppens, 350 ; 
fertilisation of the dandelion, 359. 

Wright, Chaulkh. On tlie fertiliza- 
tion of Posoqneria, 355; on the posi- 
tion of the stamens in ChryM>;»pIe- 
nium, 355 : on Rubus villo:<us and can- 
adensis, 400; on Amelaucbier can- 
adensis, 413. 

Wymau Anatomical Collection, 187. 

Xanthocephalus icterocephalus, 172. 
Xenodon B^holdi, 407. 

Zensdnra carolinensls, 174. 
2pouophora« Ameriican spocies of, 64. 



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