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The Institute, 


May 26, 1884. 

















Dqntty Superintends** 0/ <&• MeUorologioal Service 0/ Canada. 

The application of an approximately correct reduction to baro- 
metric readings, taken at various levels, in order to reduce them to 
what they would have been at one specified level, is absolutely 
necessary for their intercomparison. In the following paper several 
formulae which have been employed for this purpose are examined ; 
and tables are appended by means of which, with very little calcu- 
lation, a sufficiently correct reduction may be obtained, and which 
are, moreover, peculiarly adapted to the computation of tables of 
reduction for individual stations. 

Guyot's Tables* D, XVI. and XIX'., are commonly employed, on 
this continent, for the purpose of effecting the reduction. These give 
the height, in English feet, of a column of air corresponding to a tenth 
of an inch in the barometer at various temperatures, the barometric 
pressure at the base of the column being from 22 inches to 30*4 

A formula is given for use with Table XVI., which may be 

where R represents the required reduction in inches, Z the differ- 
ence of height between the two stations, or the height above the sea 
(expressed in feet), iVthe number in the table, fi the observed reading 
of the barometer reduced to 32° Fahr., and b the pressure on which 
the tabular number iV is based, t that is, 30 inches. 

•Meteorological and Physical Tables. Third edition. Washington, 1859. By Arnold Guyot, 
P.D., LL.D., Professor of Geology and Physical Geography, College of New Jersey. 

t Guyot defines what is here represented by b, as " the normal height of barometer at the sea- 
level,'' and in an example which he gives, he employs 80 in. Jt is, however, only because the 
table is based on a barometric reading of 80 in. , that this value of & is to be employed. 

(IVMMd.aaw.JML V*L Fart*.} 


No formula is given for use with Table XIX.', bat it is stated 
that the table may be employed " for reducing barometrical observa- 
tions to the level of the sea, and also to any other level by a similar 
process," An example is, however, given, applying tables in French 
measure, corresponding to XIX.', the method of which example may 
be represented by the formula 

where N is the number in the table corresponding to the baro- 
metric reading* and temperature at the upper station, and D iV m that 

corresponding to those at the lower station ; an approximate reduced 
barometric reading and temperature being employed in taking out 
the latter quantity. 

Formula (L) may also be employed with Table XIX.', b being any 
height and N the number in the table corresponding to 6. No advan- 
tage is, however, gained, by using this table instead of Table XVL 
with formula (L), unless 6 be taken nearly equal to fi f so that we 
may have, nearly 


Laplace's formula for computing differences of elevation from baro- 
metrical observations, from which each of the above is deduced, may 
be written 

Z=^log-^, (iii) 

where A is a constant, depending on the mean between the tem- 
peratures at the upper and lower stations. Strictly, it also depends 
upon the latitude of the station, and on the height above the sea ; 
but the variations due to these may be neglected, unless the height 
is very considerable. 

Now the number N , in the above mentioned tables, for baro- 
b t 

meter reading 6, and temperature 6, is the difference of elevation 

•Throughout this paper, when a barometric reading ii spoken ot, the reading reduced to 
tempi M* Fahr. ii to be understood. 

fe&B0K3E& TO ftai UVU,. ft 

*f two Btation% the temperature being f» the barometer reading at 
lower station b, and at the upper station 6 - A« Hence, by (iiL), 

^ = 4 log * . 
ft t *< "* j _ ^ • 

Also & being the reduction, (iiL) may be written 

Combining these,, we get 



10ft -1 

»-* >*HtoM *->-£)"?: 

^ J. _i_ JL JL i I 

= *+ jr, % iob + 1.2 • .jr • ir + * ' loft + ••" 

ft » ft f ft t I 

by the binomial theorem. 

— __ — — 2 

(21 \ Z Z % ~1 I V. 

Formula (i.) is deduced from (ir.), by neglecting all terms beyond 
the first; and making b = 30 inches, if used with Table XVI. ; but, 
if used with Table XIX.', b may be any reading within the range of 
the table, and N the corresponding number from the table. 

Although (L) is sufficiently accurate for small heights, it is evident, 
on comparing it with the full formula (iv.), that it becomes more and 
more inaccurate as the height increases. 

If, in (L), the reduced height B, were substituted for the observed 
height p> the error would be relatively lew; for Laplace's formula 
may also be expanded in the form 

, 2 .. 

7 z l l z z i x L_ 1 , , 


In this formula each term, after the first, is relatively smaller 

than the corresponding term in (iv.); and if -^r- is large, the terms 

b t 
having sensible magnitude, are alternately positive and negative. 
Therefore the error, introduced by neglecting all terms beyond the 
first, is relatively less in (v.) than in (iv.) ; but, since B is not 
known until R has been determined, this formula could only be 
employed by successive approximation, and is therefore inconvenient. 

It may be seen by inspection that, in Table XIX.', N is very 

nearly equal to— . N . That this should be so, may be proved 

thus: — 

As already explained 

XT A 1 l0B 

Xt At WH 

i l0B , /. Ml 

f r > 

10/3- 1 

-*- + *. -±- 
10 £ T 2 10 £ 

1 1 1 

10/1 + 2' 10/31 + < 

« — nearly, 



D 1T = •=- • 2T nearly, as above stated. 
is t if 8 t 


From (it.) and (v.), together with (vi), we may deduce (ii), thus : 
In (iv.), let o = fi 9 we obtain 

p l 
Similarly from (v.) making b = B, 

* r £ J- 1 JL i 1 , 

B t ' M 10 " 1.2 * 10 ' Jt ' 10£ * '•'• 

/ 2T+ n\r-& J—-£ I Z Z _L -L.V 

-~- \fi t B t) J6 "lO + 1.2 *10* llOjS.^'lOj?. N + 10j3 + 10£l + ••• 

But ficom (vi) JB. _jr = 0. Q F S nearly. 

Jo t p t 

r.\p*t + B**l * = " + -&•£• (i^ + i^) nearl * 
or, neglecting the second term on the right, 

Here % is the mean between the temperatures at the upper and 
lower stations; whilst in (ii.) these two temperatures are respec- 
tively employed, in taking out the two numbers. The difference 
thus introduced is very, trifling; as may easily be seen, if the value 
given below for J. , be substituted in the expression for N 

Formula (ii), like (v.), is objectionable, in that it assumes a know- 
ledge of the reduced reading, which it is the object to ascertain. 


The 'foregoing f ormulse being all either inconvenient, or not sunT- 
ciently accurate except for small elevations, I have formed the accom- 
panying tables (A and B), to facilitate the calculation of the reduction. 

It will be noticed from the form of (iii.) that, at any place, the- 
temperature being constant, the reduced reading, and therefore also 
the reduction, varies as 0. It is, therefore, sufficient to calculate the- 
reduction N ' , for one barometer reading (b) only; from which thai 

for any other reading may be obtained by a simple proportion. It 
is immaterial whether the value adopted for b be one which could be 
attained, or not ; it may therefore be chosen with reference to con- 
venience alone. In Table A, b is taken equal to 100 inches, so that 
the reduction for any reading (0) of the barometer, may be obtained 
by the formula 

Table A was calculated by means ofibrmula '(vol), the value of 4* 
being taken as* 60345.51 (l + t -^-) • In this table ia given th* 
quantity N , for values of Z equal to 100, 200, &00, *c. 4feet> 

for every second degree of temperature from - 40° to 100° Fahr., 
and also, the difference for the next 100 feet at each height. It ia 
sufficient to employ first differences only, in using the table. 

Table B is intended to diminish the labour in applying formula 
(iii), as will be explained in the sequel. 

Since calculating these tables, my attention has been called to a 
paper by Iieut. H. H. O. Dunwoody, U. S. Army, in the Report of 
the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, 1876. In this paper tables are 
given, based in part on observations taken by direction of the Chief 
Signal Officer, U. S. A., on Mount Washington, Mount Mitchell, and 
Pikes Peak. 

In the first table is given the decrease of temperature for each 
100 feet of elevation at each hour in the day. In the second table 
is given the "weight of a column of air 100 feet 'high, at different 
barometric pressures and temperatures, expressed in decimals of m 
inch, calculated for north latitude 40°." The third table "shows a. 

* See Qujotfa Paper D, pp. t and 88L 


small empirical correction, determined from accurate comparison of 
reduced readings and actual observations, to be applied to Table II." 
A formula is also given, which may be written R = (i\T+ N') Z, in 
which N is the number from Table II., and N' that from Table III. 

If we compare this formula with (iv.), it is evident that some cor- 
rection to if is necessary, since R does not vary as Z. Hie correction 
should, however, depend on the reading of the barometer (/S) as well 
as on Z and t; but the empirical correction N' is given without 
regard to £. 

The constants and formula* on which Table II. is based, are not 
given; and the rate of variation of the numbers, with the pressure, 
seems to deviate more than it should, from Boyle's Law. 

Lieut. Dunwoody's Tables have not, so far as I am aware, been 
anywhere brought into use. The results given by his Tables II. and 
ILL do not, however, differ much at moderate altitudes from those 
given by Table A, as will be seen from the following examples : 


Example (1). — At a station 815 ft. above the sea, the reading of 

the barometer being 29.112 in., the temperature of the air 46° Eahr., 

to find the reduced reading. 

From Table A we find or JT Att = 3.0047, and the difference for 
800 46 

100 ft. = 0.3819. 
Hence the reduction, 

R = ( 3.0047 + -^- x 0.3819 ) x 0.29112 = 3.0620 x 0.29112 
= 0.891, 

and the reduced reading is 30.003. 

Guyot's tables D, XVI. and XIX.' used with formula (L), each 
give, for this reduction, 0.876 in. Lieut. Dunwoody's tables (ii.) and 
(iii.) give 0.890. 

Example (2).-^— At a station 1100 ft. above the sea, the reading of 
the barometer being 28 in., the temperature of the air 30° Fahr., to 
find the reduction to sea level. 

Here 1AnA iT = 3.9071, and the difference for 100 ft. is 0.3990, 

10U0 30 

hence i? = (3.9071 + 0.3990) x 0*28 = 49061 x 0.28 

= L206. 


Guyot's Tables D, XVI. and XIX.', if extended, used with for- 
mula (L), would give in this case 1.179, and Lieut. Dunwoody's 
give 1.204. 

The value of Table A does not, however, consist so much in sup- 
plying a basis for working out isolated examples, as in furnishing 
data, in a convenient form, for the calculation of tables of reduction 
to sea level, for individual stations. To construct these all that is 
necessary is, first, to obtain the numbers N for every second 

degree of temperature, the value assigned to Z being the height of 
the cistern of the barometer above the sea ; and then, to multiply 

these numbers by -j^r-, and tabulate the values of the reduction so 

obtained for values of 6, between convenient limits, and at larger or 
smaller intervals, according as the station is at a slight or consider- 
able elevation above the sea. The products for any given tempera- 
ture need not be obtained separately, but may be found, one from 
another, by continued addition, and the whole process may be very 
quickly performed with the aid of the Arithmometer of Thomas de 
Colmar, for use with which the table is specially adapted. 

The time occupied in forming a table in this way, is less than one 
•half of what is required if the formula of Laplace (iii. of this paper) 
be employed. 

For stations more than 1100 ft above the sea, Table B (from which 
Table A was deduced) may be employed. In this table the values 

100 000 
of — fj — are given ; so that if i\T is the number in the table for 

*t t 

temperature t, formula iii becomes 

i B - z v 
log J~ 100,000 ^V 

For isolated examples this form is sufficiently convenient; but, in 
constructing a table for any station, it is better to make £ = 100. 
The formula then becomes 


and the table may be calculated from the value of N in the same 

z t 

way as when Table A is employed. 

A table for reducing the barometer to sea level is furnished from 
the Central Office, Toronto, to each station in connection with the 
Meteorological Service of the Dominion. 

Formerly these were computed directly from formula iii. (using 
a slightly different constant from that given above.) The accom- 
panying tables were recently calculated to diminish the labour of 

In Canada, no reduction for height is applied to the observed 
temperature of the air; as, although some correction might be of 
advantage, it is by no means certain that a correction, obtained from 
observations on a mountain, would be suited to a station on an 
elevated table-land. The correction, if it were applied, would, how- 
ever, be very small at nearly all our stations. 

I hope to discuss, more fully, on some future occasion the question 
of the necessity for a correction to the observed temperature of the 
air in reducing barometric readings. 




Giving the value of N for various temperatures sad elevations, and the difference 
z % 
for an additional 100 feet at each height. 

100 Fur. 

z t, 



100 ft 

200 Fdt. 

Z % 



100 ft: 

800 Fur. 

Z t 


100 ft. 


Z t 



100 ft 


z t 



100 ft 







— 8 

— 6 

— 4 

— 2 






0.4505 .4525 
0.4482 .4501 
0.4458 .4478 








0.4097 .4113 
















0.8249 .4151 
0.8132 4091 

0.8056 .4052 
0.7907 .3978 

0.7871 .3959 
0.7835' 3941 
0.7764,. 3905 



1.3365 .4494 
1.3296 .4471 

1.3027 .4380 
1.2768 .4293 



1.2281 .4128 

























4515 2.2374 


















2.0553 .4160 
2.0358 .4121 









— ie 



— g 

— & 

— 4 

— 2 









TABLE A.— Coritimud. 

WO Few. 

2 I 



100 ft 


Z t 



100 ft 


Z t 



100 ft 

Z t 



100 ft 


Z t 



100 ft 
















6 2.4596 



10 2.4563 
12 2.4248 
14 2.4135 
16 2.4022 
18 2.3911 

























a 6614 


























































— 8 

— 6 

— 4 

— 2 







TABLE A.— Continued. 


100 Feu. 


800 Feet. 

400 Fm. 

600 Few. 








Z t 

100 ft 

Z t 

100 ft. 

Z t 

100 ft 

Z t 

100 ft 


Z t 

100 ft 




















































































































































































































































































































































































































1.3452 .3391 






























TABLE A.— Continued. 


600 Feet. 

700 Few. 

800 Fmt. 

900 Fur. 

1000 Few. 




















Z t 

100 ft. 

Z t 

100 ft 

Z t 

100 ft 

Z t 

100 ft. 

Z t 

100 ft 















. 32 
















































































































2 9786 





















































































































































































































































































































_ . , 100,600^ . L . 

CHring tht value of — -, — for tanou values of t, 

too vaino of a| beiim 














L 573219 










































L 528086 


























L 854990 























— 8 






— 6 






— 4 






— 2 





























Prqftssor 0/ Church History, Presbyterian Cottsge, Montnal 

One of the modern schools of philologists has not heeded the 
scholastic maxim concerning mtia, but has shown itself ready to 
multiply origin* indefinitely without cause. Catlin, the artist, -who, 
however, was very for from being a philologist, saw no necessity for 
showing how the Americans came to America, or that they ever came 
there at all. And at a conference on American subjects, held some 
three years ago, the President of the Anthropological Society of Paris 
found a warm reception for the statement, that the true solution of 
the question concerning the peopling of America is that the Americans 
are neither Hindoos, nor Phoenicians, nor Chinese, nor Europeans — 
they are Americans. An exception has been almost universally made 
in favour of the Esquimaux families of the far north, whose relations, 
physical and linguistic, with the Aleutan islanders and the Asiatic 
Tchuktchi are too striking to permit denial. In order to maintain 
the independent origin of the American tribes, it has been found 
necessary to deny the existence of any true likeness between the 
languages of the Old World and those of the New. The peculiar 
agglutination or synthetical character of American grammar, which* 
from the Athabascan area of the north to the Fuegian in the south, 
presents innumerable shades and broad lines of difference, has been 
represented as without parallel an the Eastern continent. Yet there 
are synthetic languages in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the 
Islands of the Sea. At one time the Indo-European and Semitic 
grammars were the only systems compared with those of other families 
of speech. To these the Ural-Altaic, comprising the Ugrian of 
Europe and the Tartar*Mongolian of Asia, and the Monosyllabic, rspre* 


Bented by the Chinese, have been added. But these do not exhaust 
tjie systems of the Eastern hemisphere. Wild as have been the 
statements made regarding the construction of languages, they have 
not equalled in folly the hasty utterances on the subject of their 
vocabularies. Messrs. Rivero and Tschudi, in their work on Peruvian 
Antiquities, write as follows : "The analogy so much relied on between 
the words of the American languages and those of the ancient con- 
tinent have induced us to make an approximate estimate, as far am 
owr means would permit, of the numerical value of the idioms of both 
hemispheres ; and the result was that, from between eight and nine 
thousand American words, one only could be found analogous in sense 
and sound to a word of any idiom of the ancient continent." It is 
evident that these gentlemen, who deserve well for their services to 
ethnological science, never consulted even the imperfect lists of the 
Mithridates, and pursued their researches within such a narrow field 
as to falsify the doctrine of chances itself. Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft, 
to whom we owe a work of great value, " The Native Races of the 
Pacific States, 1 ' allows himself to be led away to somewhat similar 
conclusions ; but as he furnishes us with a list of so-called Darien 
numerals which are almost pure Gaelic, without noticing the pheno- 
menon, it is to be presumed that, while a diligent and successful 
collector, Mr. Bancroft is no philologist. 

Turning from philological to physical ethnology, we find that all 
the American families have been called Mongolian, and that nearly 
all attempts to affiliate the tribes of the Northern Continent have led 
inquirers to the Mongolian area in Eastern Asia. Even Dr. Latham, 
than whom there is no better authority on this subject, terms his 
large American class, American Mongolidee. Yet, after stating that 
the Esquimaux are essentially Mongols, he adds : " On the other 
hand, in his most typical form, the American Indian is not Mongol 
in physiognomy. With the same black straight hair, he has an 
aquiline nose, a prominent profile, and a skin more red or copper- 
coloured than either yellow or brown. Putting this along with other 
marked characteristics, moral as well as physical, it is not surprising 
that the American should have been taken as the type and sample of 
a variety in contrast with the Mongolian." 

It is not my intention in this paper to deal in a loose and general 
manner with the subject of American ethnology, but to confine myself 
to the connections of a single but large family of the aborigines of 


the Northern Continent with the Old World. This is the extensive 
Algonquin family, reaching from Newfoundland to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and from the Labrador Esquimaux and Hudson's Bay Atha- 
bascans to the Choctaw area in the Carolinas. Their collective name 
was Wapanachki, or men of the east, a term which still designates the 
Abenaki tribe of Maine. Their traditions universally refer to a 
migration from the far west, and the Great Spirit whom they wor- 
shipped had his home in no forest, prairie or lake, but on an island 
in the distant ocean. The principal tribe of this large family from 
the earliest period to which traditions refer was that of the Lenni 
Lenape, or Delawares. Closely allied to them in language are the 
Illinois, including the Miami, Piankashaws and other clans. The 
word Illinois, like the Lenni of Lenni Lenape, signifies men. The 
Shawnoes, who have been removed from Kentucky to the Western 
Reservation, speak a somewhat similar tongue, also using the word 
ilenm to designate man, but favouring the lisping th in place of the 8, 
and cognate letters of other tribes. The Missisaguas, who originally, 
held the site of Toronto and the coast of Lake Ontario down to its 
outlet in the St. Lawrence, were likewise linneeh. North of these 
we find the Ojibbeway or Chippewa tribe, with whose name, appear- 
ance and language, Canadians are most familiar. They make a 
sparing use of the letter I, and term man eneneh, replacing that letter 
by n. The Crees, who call themselves Nehethovmck, and border on 
the Ojibbeways to the west of Lake Superior, thence spreading to the 
Esquimaux in the east and the Athabascans in the west, differ much 
among themselves in their pronunciation of certain liquids. The 
Athabascan* Crees in the west turn the Lenape I into r; the Wood 
Crees, into th; the Hudson's Bay Crees, into y; the Plain Crees 
into n; while those of Labrador retain the Lenape form. At the 
same time the Cree has a tendency towards a species of alliteration 
in the same word, repeating the characteristic letter in place of the 
consonant which follows it. Thus the ilenni of the Illinois and 
Shawnoes becomes indeed inenew among the Plain Crees, ithinew 
among the Wood Crees, and eyinew among those of Hudson's Bay; 
but at Moose Factory it is ililew, and eyiyew on the East Main coast. 
Passing over the Nipissings, Ottawas and Algonquins proper, whose 
languages are closely allied and resemble more or less the Ojibbeway, 
we meet with the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, <fcc., whose 
speech connects with the Lenape through the Abenaki, Etchemin, 


Passaiaaquoddy and Penobscot, of Maine* They also use. the foon 
ahcto for man. Many extinct tribes, suck aa the, Mnhirana, Nanar 
gansets, Massachusetts, Ac., once inhabited the Few TBngknd Sfratam 
Other tribes, like the Menomenies and Potawatoniea, dwell aonak of 
Lakes. Superior and Michigan in the Western States. Eour tribes 
have lately been added to the Algonquin family. One. o£ these, the 
Bethucks of Newfoundland, is extinct. The others are the Maddboti 
on the Saskatchewan, extending westto the Booky Mountains; and 
the Arrapahoes and Qhyennea farther to the south. Be* Taahaai hat 
amggested a connection of the BiacMbot with the Haitoain the neighr 
bourhoodof Vancouver's Island j thus linking the Algonquin witk the 
N.o8 langnages of the Pacific coast It is. but a suggestion, however, 
and I have not been, able to verify the connection. But there seem 
good reasons for finding Algonquin, resemblances among the Sahaptin 
or NetPeroe tribes, whose habitat lies farther soutk on the same side 
of the Rocky Mountains, over against the Blackfbot and Shyenne 
country. Let this be established, and the Algonquin area extends 
across, tha whole continent from the east to the extreme west To 
the Sahaptin relationship I make for the present no reference. 

The Old World family of languages with which I have affiliated the 
Algonquin dialects is the Malay-Polynesian, a vast group extending 
fifom the Malayan peninsula to New Zealand, and from Madagascar 
to Easter Island; My vocabularies, while sufficiently extensive to 
indicate the relationship of the two families, are not sufficiently so. to 
permit me to point out the particular divisions, Malay or Polynesian, 
Micronesian or Polynesian proper, with which the Algonquins coincide* 
Nor do I imagine for a moment that the Algonquins are the only 
American tribes whose course of migration, is to be found, in the line 
of Malay-Polynesian langnages and influence. In the tables which 
accompany tikis paper I have taken a selection of words, thirty in, all* 
representing nouns, adjectives and verbs, the. most simple and characr 
teristic, and thus least liable to suffer from foreign influences; and) 
grouping them according to their varying Algonquin forms, have 
compared them with analogous forma occurring within the Malajfr 
Polynesian languages. They will be found to present suck close and 
widespread resemblances as, I think, to tender difficult the task of 
the objector. At the same time, the very partial repres ent ation of 
the M^alay-Polynesian languages, which my material* have enabled 
ma to give, leads to the belief that) with a mot* extensive- stock, of 

19901*910* Or TH» ALGONQUIN LANGUAGES. 19 

vocabulfcraes^ stm< more-striking and definite results might have been 
obtained* To the thirty words above mentioned I have added the 
mmeials-of the AJgcnquin- languages up to ten, similarly comparing 
them, but with* results not- quite so favourable Stilly even in this 
difficult field of 'comparison, important analogies appear. To exhibit) 
the negative side of the argument, I 1 have placed' over against the 
Ariyn quin and Malay-Polynesian words the corresponding terms in 
the A aatifrand? allied: languages from which the American forms of 
speech might naturally be expected 1 to take their derivation. Such 
awe the- TTgrian, Mongol, Tartar and Mantchu tongues, forming the 
Ural-Altaic class ; the Samoied, Yenisei 1 and Yukagir, conveniently 
termed Asiatio-Hyperborean ; and the Japanese, Aino, Tchuktchi 
and Kamtschatdale, which are grouped as Peninsular. While a few 
analogies appear among some of these, their dissimilarity from the 
femjlieft under consideration is well worthy of attention. Here also 
£ must confess thai the imperfection of my lists, which are not selec- 
tions* bukcontain all the material at- present in my possession, hinder* 
n%e from drawing too strict a line of' demarcation. Lest it might be 
supposed that the analogy of the Algonquin with the Malay-Poly- 
nesian languages to which I have compared them is shared by other 
American families of speech, I have set forth the prevailing forms of 
the- terms obosen for comparison in the Athabascan or Tinneh, the 
Wyandot-Iroquois, the Dacotah or Sioux, and the Choctaw classes* 
with ^U of which the Algonquin tongues are in geographical relation* 
Aa far as my knowledge of the Malay-Polynesian languages ex- 
tend*, and it is very limited; I must admit that the striking lexical 
affinities are not borne out by equally dose resemblances in the 
structure of language, as we compare for instance the grammar of the 
Algonquin with that of- the Malays or of the Tonga islandersv There 
are, however, many widely differing grammatical 1 forms among the 
large Oceanio class to which these belong. The Tagala spoken in the 
Philippine islands is, according to Br. Latham, "essentially agglu- 
tinate in respect to itSb inflection f and' I' must leave to those who 
ave better versed in these tongues the task of oomparing their agglu- 
tination with that of the Algonquin languages. While fair from 
disparaging the value of grammatical forms in such connections as 
that undo* consideration, I am as far from believing in their perma- 
nence* Words ^re the bones of language, and we might as well take 
tto*wnaleai^ J the bat-out of the Mantmatift as to separate tongues 


using identical common terms on account of minor differences m 
grammatical combination. The resemblances between the Algonquin 
and the Malay-Polynesian vocabularies are the rule, not the exception; 
and on this ground I believe that an exhaustive analysis of the 
grammatical forms of the latter will yet exhibit at least a near 
approach to Algonquin structure. 

In addition to the agglutination of the Tagalaand kindred languages, 
a feature that appears more or less in all the Polynesian tongues, there 
are many points of resemblance as well as of difference between the 
Malay-Polynesian and the Algonquin. They agree in the absence of 
anything like true gender, and in the substitution for it of a distinction 
of nouns into animate and inanimate. The Algonquin languages, 
however, have a termination for the plural, while, as far as I am 
aware, the Malay-Polynesian mark plurality by a prefixed article or 
particle, or by the suffix of a numeral adjective. The Algonquin 
nouns have properly speaking no declension, and this is true of the 
Malay-Polynesian. But when case is marked in the latter, it is by 
forms of the article or by prefixed prepositions which frequently 
coalesce, while in the former the locative is denoted by a suffix. The 
genitive also precedes the nominative in Algonquin, but follows it in 
the Malay-Polynesian. The Malay-Polynesian languages have pre- 
positions, and such are many of the Algonquin particles ; but others 
are postpositions. This would seem, with other points of a similar 
character, to indicate the position of the Algonquin languages as one 
midway between the postponing Turanians of Asia and the prepoeing 
Malay-Polynesians. The Athabascans, Iroquois, Dacotahs and Choc- 
taws, who surround the Algonquins on every side, all use postpositions, 
and their influence in this and other directions may have tended 
largely to render the Algonquin grammar somewhat Turanian. The 
substantive and the verb are but feebly distinguished in the two 
families under consideration, and in many cases not at all. In the 
formation of derivative nouns the Malay employs a prefix as well as 
an affix, and has been contrasted with the Algonquin, which makes 
use of the suffix only. Thus from Malay tidor, to sleep, comes per- 
tidwMm, a bed ; while from Oree nipow, to sleep, is derived nipawin, 
a bed. The Polynesians do not follow the Malays in this respect, 
for the Tonga mohe, to sleep, gives us mohenga, a bed, in a form that 
is thoroughly Algonquin. In both families the adjective is invariable, 
but in the Malay-Polynesian its place is generally after the noun, 


•while in the Algonquin it generally precedes it. There are, however, 
suffix particles that take the place of adjectives in the latter class, and 
in most cases they are represented by verbs. The Malay-Polynesian 
adjectives are often hard to distinguish from substantives and verbs. 
The sign of comparison precedes the adjective in Algonquin, but 
follows in Tonga. But the accusative or object of the verb follows it 
in both Algonquin and Polynesian, and this separates them from the 
Turanian languages. Tense is designated by special marks in each 
case. These are Algonquin perfect ki, gi, future ka, ga; in Tonga 
present gooa, perfect na, future te. A larger acquaintance with 
Algonquin and Malay-Polynesian forms might reduce the differences 
between these. . In the Tonga the index of tense is placed before the 
personal pronoun which precedes the verbal root, e.g., makee, give; 
na-oo-makee, / gave; na-ger-makee, thou gavest; te-oo-makee, / shall 
give; te-ger-makee, thou wilt give. In Algonquin the temporal 
indices come between the pronoun and the verbal root, e.g., makew, 
give; ni-ki-makew, / gave; ki-ki-makew, thou gavest; ni-ki-makew, 
/ shall give; ki-ka-makew, thou wilt give. In spite of the difference 
in the order of pronoun and temporal index, the two classes agree in 
placing both these before the verbal root, thus entirely disagreeing 
with the Turanian languages in their Ural-Altaic and Dravidian 
divisions. The possessive pronoun or its equivalent precedes in the 
Algonquin, and either precedes or follows in the Malay-Polynesian 
languages. These languages also agree in dispensing with the relative 
pronoun. The forms of the demonstrative in Cree and Tonga are not 
unlike ; Tonga, this aheni, that ahena ; Cree, this anah, that naha. 
The same is true of the interrogative ; Tonga ahai, coeha who, which; 
Cree awewe, kekway. The Polynesian languages have an article, 
and have on account of it been affiliated with the Bantu or Caffre 
languages of Southern Africa. Duponceau and other writers have 
insisted that the initial M of many Algonquin nouns, which generally 
precedes those that are not in a construct state, is the article. Others 
as firmly deny the statement, but have not accounted for the frequent 
dropping of this letter, e.g., mistik, a tree; meyw-atik, a good tree; 
much-atik, a bad tree; face, mikwakun; my face, ni-kwakun. Un- 
doubtedly there is some analogy here with the common Bantu prefixes 
mo, ma, me, and the Tagala article ang. The Caffre analogies, apart 
from language, with the Algonquins are striking. One important 
point of resemblance between the Algonquins and the Malay-Poly- 


nesian is that both employ the pronoun of the first person plural in 

an inclusive and in an exclusive form : 


Aigympti* iiiimwint, they and 'I. 
kin*wint, yo» antf L 
T<mffa~~mow t gimowoa, Aey amd I. 
tow, gitowoa, you amd L 

I may also add that both families of language have special terms to 
denote elder and younger brother, sister, Ac Booh are the main 
points of agreement and diversity that have occurred to me, agree- 
ments which I think no more extended research can invalidate, and 
differences which, if not due to purely American influences derived 
from Northern Asia in the manner already indicated, may dis ap pear 
in the progress of investigation. In any case the difficulties in the 
way of oonnecting the Malay-Polynesian and the Algonquin system s 
are far from insuperable. One important feature which* the two 
•lasses, possess in common, and by which they are distinguished from 
other families, Asiatic and American, is the absence of harsh sounds— 
the softness, which has been called the distinguishing characteristic 
of the Polynesian tongues, and which has attracted the attention of 
all who are in any way familiar with Algonquin speech. 

I have not had time to investigate the relations subsisting between 
the manners, customs, superstitions, Ac,, of the Algonquins on the 
one hand and of the Malay-Polynesians on the other. Borne of these, 
as tree worship, the use of totems and similar points, have been 
indicated by Sir John Lubbock. Dr. Pickering makes, I know not 
on what grounds, but doubtless for very satisfactory reasons, the 
following statement: "If any actual remnant of the Malay race exists 
in the eastern part of North America, it is probably to be looked for 
among the Chippewa* and the Gherokees." The Chippewas or 0}ib- 
bewayB are the Algonquins with whom it is likely the distinguished 
ethnologist was most familiar. Hie long black straight hair, the 
prominent features, the practice of depilation, and oven the copper 
colour of the American Indian in general, are found in Polynesia ; 
and the moral traits of the Algonquins find many analogies in the 
same region. The stage of culture attained by both peoples coincides. 
The maritime habits of the Malay-Polynesians have simply changed 
to the fluviatile and lacustrine in the Algonquin, while they serve to 
indicate the means by which the islander became the inhabitant of a 
continent Br. Pickering testifies with others to the long sea voyages 


of many Polynesians, and thus designates the point at wkieh saeh 
voyages might end on the American coast : " The Polynesian groups 
are everywhere separated from South America by a vast expanse of 
ocean, where rough waves and perpetually adverse winds and currents 
oppose access from the west In attempting from any part of Poly- 
nesia to Teach America, a canoe would naturally and almost neces- 
sarily be conveyed to the northern extreme of California ; and this m 
the precise limit where the second physical race of men makes its 
appearance. So well understood is this course of navigation, that San 
Francisco, I am informed, is commonly regarded in Mexico as being 
en the route to Manilla." 

Dr. Edkins, of Pekm, in "China's Place im Philology," says: "On 
the American continent, Turanian and Polynesian linguistic prin- 
ciples meet in the various Indian languages." And elsewhere he 
affirms that " we are warranted by linguistic data in concluding that 
there was a Polynesian immigration from the Ocean, and a Turanian 
tmi&igration by the Aiautan Islands, and by Iceland and Greenland, 
which united to form the population of the American continent." 
Yet, Mke many other writers, Dr. Edkins seeks his Polynesians in 
Mexico and Peru, and would relegate the Algonquin engines to a 
Mongolian source. 

Mr. Wallace, in his "Malay Archipelago," thus describes the 
peculiarities of Malay feature and character: " The colour of all these 
varied tribes is a light reddish brown, with more or less of an olive 
tmge,4iot varying in any important degree over an extent of country 
as large as all Southern Europe. The hair is equally constant, being 
invariably black and straight, and of a rather coarse texture, so that 
any lighter tint, or any wave or curl in it, is an almost certain proof 
of the admixture of some foreign blood. The nice is nearly destitute 
of bearo\ and limbs are free from hair. The stature is tolerably equal, 
and is always considerably below that of the average European; the 
b«4y is robust, the breast well developed, the feet small, thick and 
abort, the hands small and rather delicate. The face is a little broad 
and inclined to be flat; the forehead is rather rounded, the brows 
low, the eyes black and very slightly oblique; the nose is rather 
small, not prominent, but straight and well shaped, the apex a little 
rounded, the nostrils broad and slightly exposed ; the oheek bones 
are rather prominent, the mouth large, the lips broad and weH cut, 
but not protruding, the ohin round and well formed; 


" In this description there seems little to object to on the score of 
beauty, and jet, on the whole, the Malays are certainly not handsome. 
In youth, however, they are often very good-looking, and many of the 
boys and girls up to twelve or fifteen years of age are very pleasing, 
and some have countenances which are in their way almost perfect 
I am inclined to think they lose much of their good looks by bad 
habits and irregular living. At a very early age they chew betel 
and tobacco almost incessantly ; they suffer much want and exposure 
in their fishing and other excursions ; their lives are often passed in 
alternate starvation and feasting, idleness and excessive labour ; and 
this naturally produces premature old age and harshness of features. 

"In character the Malay is impassive. He exhibits a reserve, 
diffidence, and even bashfulness, which is in some degree attractive, 
and leads the observer to think that the ferocious and bloodthirsty 
character imputed to the race must be grossly exaggerated. He is 
not demonstrative. His feelings of surprise, admiration or fear are 
never openly manifested, and are probably not strongly felt. He is 
slow and deliberate in speech, and circuitous in introducing the sub- 
ject he has come expressly to discuss. These are the main features 
of his moral nature, and exhibit themselves in every action of his 

" Children and women are timid, and scream and run at the unex- 
pected sight of a European. In the company of men they are silent, 
and are generally quiet and obedient. When alone the Malay is 
taciturn ; he neither talks nor sings to himself. When several are 
paddling in a canoe, they occasionally chant a monotonous and plain- 
tive song. He is cautious of giving offence to his equals. Practical 
joking is utterly repugnant to his disposition) for he is particularly 
sensitive to breaches of etiquette, or any interference with the personal 
liberty of himself or another. As an example, I may mention that I 
have often found it very difficult to get one Malay servant to waken 
another. He will call as loud as he can, but will hardly touch, much 
less shake, his comrade. 

" The intellect of the Malay race seems rather deficient. They are 
incapable of anything beyond the simplest combination of ideas, and 
have little taste or energy for the acquirement of knowledge. Their 
civilization, such as it is, does not seem to be indigenous, as it is. 
entirely confined to those nations who have been con verted to the 
Mahometan or Brahminical religions." 


There is hardly a single particular in all the above description 
which is not equally applicable to the Ojibbeway or any other mem- 
ber of the Algonquin family. 

Hie precise form Lenni Lenape I have not yet met with in any 
Malay or Polynesian locality as a national or tribal designation, but 
the analogous forms Oran Benua, Oran Malaya, Oran Akkye, suffi- 
ciently shew whence the Delawares derived their title. The Javanese 
and Malagasy forms lemon and ulun, which take the place of the 
Malay onm, help to make the coincidence all but complete. As 
confirmatory evidence of the connection which I have established, I 
add comparisons of the personal pronouns and of a number of mis- 
cellaneous words in the two families related, comparisons which might 
be indefinitely extended. 

The preparation of this paper having been made somewhat hurriedly 
in the midst of many other engagements, in order to bring the facts 
discovered as soon as possible before the Institute, I crave the 
indulgence of itB members for unavoidable imperfections, trusting 
that the results obtained may not be without value to students of 
American antiquities and the science of comparative philology. 


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Comparison of Pronouns. 




neya, Cree 

naak, Pelew 


keya, " 

kow, Pelew ; kowe, Ponape 

ki f Delaware ; kee, Shawno 

koe, Xnc Zealand; coy, Tonga 

ki. Ojibbetoay 

kotd, Malay 


noh, Natick; neha, Delaware 

n *» - " 

weya, Crse 
oo, shawno 

iya, Tagala, Malay 
aia, Ton^a 


keyanow, Cree 

cami, Tagala ; kami, Malay 

kenawnn, Xatick 

gimowooa, Tonya 

mow, Micmac 

mow, Ton^a 

kistahnon, Blaekjbot 

lata, Ponape ; keeta, Jfotaf 

neyunow, Cree 

naie, Malagasy 


keyuwow, Cree 

koe-ee-oo, Malay 

kamo, Tagala; kamn, Malay 

gimooa, Tonya 

kenaau, Natick 

Irinawa, Ojibbeway 


nabob, Natick 

now, '• 

winawa, Ojibbeway 

ginowooa, Tonga 

Prepositions and Adverbs. 


amooya, Cree 

mua, Tahiti; gi-mooa, Tonga 
dee-mooea, Malay 


ntamik, Cree 


ehupuses, Cree; tabassiah, Ojibbeway da-baoua. " 


ooUk, " 

tooa, Tonga 


tcik, Algonquin; cheke, Cree 
kekek, Cree 

dekit, Malay 

against, about ) 
concerning. ) 

ooche, Cree 

gi, Tonga 

Algonquin and Malay-Polynesian. 



mlsewa, mamo, Cree 
plkoo, Cree 



ayik, " 


kanouins, anwi, Algonquin 

wepema, Miami 

ntoos, attoache, Cree 


pekootao, Cree; pingwi, Ojibbeway 


pakoonao, Cree 


toqkank, A Igonquin 
koksakin, Blackjoot 

agucwet, Ojibbeway 


wutupewnt, Cree 

to be 

ttow, Cree 


wachtey, Delaware 
mntai, Cree 


ochknnne, Shawno 

boat, canoe 

wuskiwoose, Cree 

cot, Cree 

missole, Miami 


eeio, Ottawa ; yoa, Ojibbeway 

iniwia, Blackfoot 


ncbape, Cree 

bread, food 

mechim, •* 

ayukoonow Cree 

pummeh, Mohican 


totosh, Ojibbetoay 


penasew, Cree 

pethesew, " 

beaa»ew t Ojibbeway; pto*Mj, Algonquin 

vobxl Tahiti 
be. Tonga 

kakai, Amblaw; osea, CeUbet 
gnahow, Tonga 
pana, Malay, Java 
dota. Ombay 

aptaL Bourn; aftnha, 9ula 
kapok, (kUela 

peekeeis, Pelew; bangon, Malay 
togi, Tonga 
kisseein, Pelew 
ikiti, Batamerah 
tampat, Malay 
ada, Malay 

watan, Java; butah, Ifctfit 
motni, Myeol 
koknatea, Amblaw 
wog, Oani; raka, Jfar fcwuw, Tonya 
mallayae, Pefoo 
aoh, Menado ; awah, /ova 
inawallah, Sapartfa ; nanaa, Amblaw 
jobi-jobi, Tidore; djnb, SiOa 
macunnan, Malay 
kannon, Bismyan 
fafanga, Tonya 
tetai, Malay; toot, Pete* 
namo-bangon, Tidore 
pitek. /am (fowl) 
manok, Java, eta. 


































thetha, Shawno 
netahcan, Mohican 
aayin, Ottawa 
ounis, Ojibbeway 
kasqutch, Cree 
chepatuk, " 

pekoowayo, Cree; pikocko, Algonquin 
elapao, Cree 
nkoop, " 
kwakwapisew, Cree 
ootip, " 

pacheweyao, " 
wapuhikun, " 
siniku tukuhikun, Cree 
equichtit,D«Ja«wr«; weyachikana,Cree 
ten, " 

teki, Abenaki; tegake, Micmao 
misemao, mamakwamao, Cree 
nkoosew, Cree 
munitooakin, Cree 
eekoohoon, " 
wakieew, •• 

hipasto, Blockfoot 
nlpew, Cree 
ayun, Narraganset 
anum, Natick; ahnera, Ojibbtway 
ameeteh, Blockfoot 
wnyutsehewawin, Orte 
kukuyawisew " 
puaka, " 

powamewin, Cree; kebahwahnon, Ojib. 
pasoo, Cree 
pockki, Delaware 
lawapewyoo. klsepao, Crte 
Bissegnk, Abenaki 
milcwakun, Cree 
keelingeh, Miami 
och, Delaware 
ootawemow, Cree 

meetungus, Penobeoei; nootha^Sftowno 
ninnah, Blockfoot 
koostachew, Cree 
nnnechewin, " 
wiauthee, Shawno 
wonunya, Arrapaho 
ojooa, Delaware 
gigo, Ojibbtway 
kinoosas, Cree 
hakulu, Pennsylvania 
alaakoosew, One 
muakoose, Crte 
pinipooyao, Cree 
Haste, Ojibbtway 
milach, Delaware 
neleethe, Shavmo 

weehanknum, Mohican 

entabhee, Miami 

nteh, Mohiean 

heyring, Shavmo [quoddy 

epekit, Micmac; kesipetai, Paseama- 

kiflifloo, Crte 

opee, Shavmo 

muyal, Blockfoot 

pukwatao, Cree 

muakowisew, " 

mljack, Algonquin 

taeae, Tahiti 
tuakana^ N ew Zealand 
tehina, Tonga 
fonao, * r 
kotteetow, Pelew 
ma-bida, Menado 
fachi, Tonga; pata, Malay 
lomboo, Malay 
cafoo, Tonga 

kupukupu, M alay; kokop, Tear 
ooto, Tonga; eutac, Malay 
baoua, Malay 
aappoo, " 
seecat, " 

caguee, Malay ; kakahu, New Zealand 
toetoe, Tahiti 
tijok, diguin, Malay 
mamah, Malay ; mamma, Tonga 
caca, Tonga 
gnatoo, * r 
cisH&r, Malay 
bico, Tonga 
paiow, Baju 
pohi, Tahiti 
yem, My sol 
anjing, Malay 
niuntoa, Bouton 
wahahee, Sandwich 
kaka, Tonga 
vahe, •• 
menimbee, Malay 
pan. Tahiti 

buchit, Malay; pihta, Rejang 
abio, Malay; nopea, Tahiti 
hihika, Liang 

muka, Malay; uwaka, MoreUa 
lugi, SuJa 
nah, Baju 
tamai, Tonga 

moduah. Sandwich; medua, Tahiti 
naraa, Wahai 
coquet, Malay 
manuvache, Tonga 
waouti, Awaiya 
wamut, Mysot 

gusi, Sanguir; tei, Baju, &c 
Jugo, Salayer; iko, Tonga 
kena, 5tt2a; ikan, Malay, &c 
aUa, Jf aZay 
lessoo, Afatoy 

bushook, Pefew; bulu, if aiay 
boona, Ton#a 
kakowana, 5ttto 
kantake, Myeol 
toohoo, Tonga 

bunga, Malay; kembang, Java 
aweebuk. Pelew 
mokamat, " 
moochie, Tonga 
tumboe, Malay 
low, Tonga 
uwoleihamo, Awaiym 
wurtafun, Tear 
yolundoha. Malagasy 
wooko, Bolanghitam 
yanton, Malay 
harani, Sandwich 
aputu, Batamerah x 4a 
sasahu, Tidore 
abi, Tonga 
umah, Java 
benkee. Malay 
niaketihy^CeieOea.te. j 










load (a otnoe) 








pewapisk, ©we 
keepln, Cree 
munickoos, Cree 

ministik, Cree; minnis, Qjibbeway 
pupamatisewin, One 
kwakootao, Ores 
mokoraan, Qflbbeway 
sapapistaeis, BlackjXtot 
ooaikeyas, Cree 

busi, Malay, Ac 
capow, Tonga 
monga-monga, Tonga 
nosa, Bourn, Amboyna, Ac. 
fononga, Tonga 

nail (linger) 





partake (portion) 



















wapum, Cree 
sojumao, Cree 
lnikawe, " 
ningah, Miami 
nana, Potawatomi 
niwa, Shavmo 
wahchiwi, Shavmo 
apikooses, Ores 
ayewak, " 

kwegan,<4 Igonquin; ohkokin, Blaokfoot 
oquiow, Cree 
isienikasoowin, Cne 
weloowin, Cree 
weroowin. '* 
miUse, " 
okanj, Algonquin 
miskuse, One 
pukan, *' 
meyamao, " 
memaye, Micmac 
pemmee, Abenaki; pime t Cree 
pasketa, Crte 
chestipatao, Cree 
pasich, Cree 
puke, " 
upwoi, " 
mechatew, Cree 
meyooayawin, Cree 
ayao, " 

mitoone, " 

petoopitao, " 
kelamisew, " 
sibi, Oiioberoay 
ncbonis, Cree 
woniskow, Cree 
seskuhoon, " 
sisoonao, " 
itayetum, " 
pewtpichekon, Cree 
mikana, Ojibbewoy 
wutupe, Cree 
oonopew, " 
kenabeg, OHbbeway 
wusukai, Cree 

wian, Algonquin 
ahnungoon, OHbbtway 
wataweso, Abenaki 

alangoa, Miami 

alank, Qjibbeway; alaqoa, Shawno 

attack, Cree 

anang, Algonquin 

wudju, Ojtbbeway 

penapse, Abenaki 

simakon, Cree 

nikumoo, " 

okwapatao, Cree 

nebat, Miemae 

wechaktsew, Cree 

•OQBOopemao, " 

maeooosim, Alfyroe 

plsau, Malay 

kihia, " 

fowagi, Tonga 

okuta, Bouton 

eonkn, Malay 

janguto, Oalela 

popongt Raratonga 

sugett, Bourn; gumoma, Galela 

mako, Baju 

inungi, Sanguir 

inana, Bouton 

nafa, Tonga 

vohits, Malagaey 

bokott Bouton (rat) 

peepack, Pelew 

kakM^ Zealand 

guya, Tonga 

hingoa, Tonga 

gnalan, Tagala 

pouranama, M alay 

Wto, Tonga 

kanuko, Celebes 

koku, Malay 

pooo, Pelew; peeqnee, Malay 

namoo, Tonga 

mineae, Malay 

tango, Tonga 

buca, Malay 

tchoubat. Malay 

plko, Malay 

baguee, Malay 

fohe, Tonga ; pagayo, Malay 

mataud, Malay 

maka, ^cto Z«olon4 

mooona, Tonga 

tonoo. " 

fohifohi, " 

lolongo, " 

eawau, Sanguir; uve, Bouto* 

tnhintohm, Jfatay 




neko, Galela 

teflto, Tempo 

nofo, " 

nife, .4mMatc; pok, Jfy#oJ 

pUi, Menado; usa, LanfcC 

kutai, &M>an«a 

onin, fFaW 

kingkong, 2Hmoora 

fetoo, Tonga; tahwetta, Tahiti 

alanmatana, Batamerah 

lintang, Java; meleno, TetuU 

abbthduk, Pelew 



papa, Tahiti 

songai, Batta 

mlgnlaguee, Malay 

acep, " 

moopat, Pelew 

booasooc, Malay 

tioup, " 



kaehenahoo, Cree 















wapuwao, •■ 

nsunaknn, " 

takuchikun, " 

munookow, " 

Bewisew, " 

sewetakun,0««; dwitagan^fyoaouin 

achak, Cm 

ntttapew, Or* 

sepisew, " 

ootamuwao, Cree [quoddy 

abasel, Abenaki; span, Pateama- 

wapuke, Cree 

pimooaiiiao, Cree 

oosoo, " 

mamitoonayetom, Cree 



bi, Delaware ; bij, 
ohkeah, Blackfoot 
orenpeoe. Souriqnoit 
notin, Algonquin 
awaunwee, Miami 
meyoo, Cree 
tanewa, " 
ootutooakao, Cree 
ojtbiige, Ojibbeway 
ootntukoon, Cree 
aputisew, " 
•coonne, Blaekftet 
walipayan, Cree 

songoo, Malay 
•onmpan, " 
sappou, •• 
aanoko, Camariom 
tawaki, Anblato 
mtuikomi, Sanguir 
wwram, Malay 
simnto, Bolanghitam 
aho, Tahiti 
tepa, Tonga 
fereca, " 
ta, toog), Ton^a 
pohoo, Malay; bongo, Tottga 
bats, Malay; bongi-bongi, Tonga 
bomgeetee, Pelew 
igoo, Tonya 
manatoo-natoo, Tonga 
plgnoo, Jfalay 
malaia, Tonga 

boi, Bctfu; val, ifete Zealand 
pape, Tahiti; evi, ifcuter 
akei, Jf cnado 
rano, Malagaey 
matangin, ztajpa 
angnin, JtfoZoy 

deemana, JkfoZoy 

toucan. *' 

papal, TaAitf 

ihotd, ^meoyna, Ac 

petcbiol, JfaZ.; fkatnba, Ttmytt 

haaani, ToJitti 

lepa, Tonya 



Professor in University College, Toronto. 

No. 1. 

The observations recorded in the following pages were made for the 
most part during the months of September and October of the present 
year. Teaching duties have, however, prevented the completion of 
many of them ; and it is only in consideration of the difficulty of pro- 
curing, during the winter, fresh material with which these might be 
supplemented, and of the fact that certain other interesting forms 
(which I hope shortly to describe to the Institute) have recently 
engaged my attention, that I publish these notes in their present 
fragmentary condition. 

The work was undertaken with the desire of contributing towards 
a wider knowledge of the anatomy of Trematodes. In the attempt, 
however, to diagnose the forms that presented themselves for examina- 
tion, it became apparent that in spite of the extensive contributions 
of Dr. Joseph Leidy, much work of a faunistic character remains to 
be done in this department on this continent. 

The present paper has assumed in this way more of a systematic 
character than was originally intended; although there are, it is 
hoped, some points of interest to the general zoologist. 

Certain important memoirs are not accessible to me here ; owing 
to which there are, no doubt, misstatements or omissions which might 
otherwise have been rectified. 

1st Sub-Order — Digenea. Van Ben. 
1. — Dktomum heterostomom. Bud. 

I refer provisionally to this species certain worms which I have 
found on two occasions firmly adhering to the mucous membrane 

Fig.10. X 166 


Fi^ 13. xisa. 

Fig. 12. x 30. — 

Copp,Qark& Co.Lith.Toronto. 


of the mouth of the American Bittern (Botaurus minor, Gm.) at the 
sides of and below the tongue. 

The following species, according to V. Linstow's excellent " Com- 
pendium/' have been found in the cavity of the mouth or in the 
oesophagus of Ciconiae : 

1. D. complantaum cesoph Ardea cinerea. 

2. D. heterostomum sab lingua A. purpurea. 

3» D. hians cesoph Cio. alba. 

4» B. dimorphum " A. cocoi. 

These forms are closely related ; indeed, Dujardin 1 regards the first 
two as identical with the third, and Diesing* seems to suggest that 
the first and fourth are also related. The separation by Diesing of 
D. hians from these congeners, on account of the relative size of the 
suckers, may possibly be grounded on a mistake. The anterior end 
of the worm which I possess resembles closely that of D. dimorphum 
(see Dieedng's figure), 8 and it is more than probable that the promi- 
nent border which surrounds the mouth in these forms has been 
taken for the anterior sucker. This it seems to replace functionally 
in part in my specimens; for during life it undergoes rapid changes in 
shape, sometimes having a circular sometimes a triangular aperture, 
and plays an active part in the locomotion of the animal; while the 
anterior sucker is quite distinct, although small, and is immersed in 
the papilla which springs from the anterior depression. (See Fig. 1). 

The following points in the description of D. heterostomum induce 
me to refer my specimens to it until a comparison can be made : 
the habitat, size, two lateral lines, form of anterior end of body, of 
neck and of ventral sucker, position of genital organs and apertures. 

The details which follow are for the most part taken from dead 

The form of the body is subject to much variation. Fig. 1 repre- 
sents it at rest. Length, 6.85 mm.; greatest breadth, 1.5 mm. It 
may, however, lengthen into a much more linear form. The anterior 
sucker is 0.3 mm. in diameter, its aperture transversely elliptical. 
The pharynx has thin walls, is still smaller, and gives off the intes- 
tinal coeca immediately, which are very conspicuous from the deep 
brown pigment in their walls. They have the further peculiarity of 

l Holminthes, p. 809. 'System. Helm. I. 854. 

*Neon»hn Arten Tremat X. B» Denksohr. d. k. Akad. In Wien., Tat III., 2 A 3. 


being provided on each Bide, at any rate in the trunk, with short, 
sometimes branched, diverticula (Fig. 2), which, however, project 
much less in the most extended condition of the animaL This 
character seems to be Bhared by D. dimorphum, 4 and although pre- 
sent in many Polystome» (Epibdella, Diploaoon, Onchocotyle, dec.), 
is by no means common in Distomeae. 6 

The ventral sucker is situated 0.8 mm. behind the anterior, and is 
0.8 mm. in diameter. Its cavity is deep and gaping daring life ; 
frequently its orifice is circular from strong contraction of the radial 
fibres, usually shield-shaped or triangular. 

The excretory system has a large caudal pore, and two much convo- 
luted lateral stems, which run along the sides to the neck. During 
life I observed that the granules contained in these also circulated 
through the vacuolated parenchyma of the body, although they did 
not seem to enter the plexus of fine canals which could be seen 
immediately under the outermost investment. The parenchyma 
reminded me of that which I have myself observed, and which has 
been described by Fol and others, in the foot of embryonic Gastro- 
pods. This connection between water-vascular system and paren- 
chyma spaces has been insisted on by Sedgwick Minot. 8 

I have not been able to follow satisfactorily all of the genital 
organs. The vitellogens (see Fig. 1) are in the form of racemose 
glands grouped round the intestinal coeca, and occupying the inter- 
val between these at the hinder end of the body. The testes (t) are 
two in number, and between them are the ovary, first convolutions 
of the oviduct, and a retort-shaped reoeptaculum seminis, from which 
I am inclined to believe a canal (vagina 1) passes upwards towards 
the back, although I have failed to detect this in my preserved 
specimens. Towards the right side of the anterior testis is a struc- 
ture whose function I have not been able to determine. It is pos- 
sibly the thickened end of the oviduct at its junction with the uterus ; 
at any rate the thickened tube projects into the bottom of the thin 
walled uterus, and is subject to a regular and slow evagination of 
the anterior part of its inner surface, recalling the gradual eversion 
of the peristome in a YorticeDa. This is followed by a rapid retrao 


• Schmarda, Zoologie, attributes tola character to D. cygnoidee and claTigeram of the Frog ; 
Pigenatecher's figure* (Trematodrnkrven and Trematoden) do not corroborate this. 

• OnDtrtomnmccasaioQU*. ifeafc.Soit flocU. H., VoLUL,p.«, 


turn. It may be similar to the " ScUuck-oeffhung " observed by 
Vogt in certain marine Trematodes.* 

The genital orifice, as in D. dimorphum, is situated behind the 
ventral sucker about 1 mm. No cirrus was detected. The oval 
eggs have a thickish yellow shell, with a lid at the narrow end, and 
measure 0.099 mm. by 0.066 mm. 


One of the two examples of Botaurus minor above referred to- 
yielded ten specimens of a Distome occupying two varicose dilata- 
tions of the bile-duct, recalling the swollen bile-ducts described by 
Cobbold 8 in a Porpoise. The worms proved to belong to Dujardin's 
sub-genus Echinostoma; and I at first believed that they might be 
D. ferox, Zeder, first detected by Goeze in dilated intestinal follicle* 
of Ardea stellaris. I was more inclined to do so from discrepancies 
in the various descriptions of this form. 9 Certain peculiarities, how- 
ever, seem to me to mark it off from that species, of which it is 
undoubtedly a near relative, and I accordingly propose the specific 
name " asperum " for my specimens. 

Description (Figs. 3, 4, 5).— Body yellowish white, 8.19 mm. long, 
1.8 mm. broad in middle, tapering gradually to each end; the head 
and anterior part of neck narrower than tail; covered entirely with 
persistent spines 0.054 mm. long, somewhat sparse posteriorly ; head 
renif orm, with a coronet of 27 obtusely-pointed spines, four of which 
on each side of a median ventral notch are larger (0.155 — 0.16 mm.) 
than the others (0.117 mm.), and radiate from nearly a common point 
of origin; anterior sucker terminal, with projecting circular lip 0. 14 
mm. in diam. ; ventral large (0. 75 mm. ), situated at junction of anterior 
and middle thirds of body. Vitelligenous glands chiefly in neck, but 
accompanying intestinal coeca to posterior end. 

The orbicular neck of D. ferox, its deciduous spines only present 
anteriorly, the position of its ventral sucker, and the constriction of 
the body there, together with the arrangement of the coronal spines, 
seem to distinguish it effectually from D. asperum. 10 The genital 

t Zeit t WiM. ZooL, B. XXX., BuppL, p. 807, f. 

• Jour. linn. Sac. X1H-, p. 89. 

• For lit m Dies. Syst I. t p. 887 ; Molin. Denksohr. d. k. Akad in Wien XIX., p. 219;. 
OlMon, Kongl Svenak. Vetenak. Akad. Handllngar. XIV., p. 22. I have not access to Van 
taedsn's P*pw> "Bnr la clcogne blanche et tee paraattaa." Bull. Aoad. Belg. XXV. 

» CI Fig. 4 with Olsaon'a Fig. 60 toe. ctt. ; also V. LiaatoWa descr. Troach. ArchiT., 18'^ 
p. 10*, and Dnjardin's. 


organs answer well to Olsson's description of D. ferox ; the eggs, 
however, measure 0.096 mm. x 0.069 mm., while the following are 
measurements given for D. ferox : 

0.092 -0.102 mm. x .049 mm. (Dujardin). 
0.06 mm. x 0.04 mm. (Olsson). 

The penis, exserted in all my specimens, is smooth, and measures 
about 2 mm. in length. 

The pharynx is pistilliform ; the intestine bifurcates 2.08 mm. 
from the anterior end, and is very easily distinguishable from its 
dark brown contents (probably broken down epithelium and blood 


The Assistant Curator of the University Museum, while preparing 
a specimen of the Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, Boie) in April, 
found two Trematode worms " on the surface of the lung," which 
present in many respects a remarkable resemblance to D. hepaticum, 
L. I believe them to be hitherto undescribed, and I propose for them 
the specific name " reticulatum," referring to the beautiful network 
formed by the branching and anastomosing testicular tubes shining 
through the translucent testicular area. 

Description (Fig. 6).— Body ovate, flat, or slightly concave ven- 
trally, separated by a constriction and by a large and projecting 
acetabulum from the upturned neck Total length, 14 mm. ; greatest 
breadth, 8 mm. Entirely covered with recurved rounded 0.026 mm. 
long spines, which are closer and smaller on anterior part of neck. 
Anterior sucker bowl-shaped, 0.9 mm. wide. Acetabulum 1.3 mm. 
diameter, orifice circular. Pharynx oval, thick- walled, 0.48 mm. 
wide. Intestinal coeca unbranched (?). Bifurcation shortly behind 
pharynx. Genital orifice immediately in front of acetabulum. Penis (?). 
Uterine gyri overlying and extending behind the acetabulum. Testes, 
in the form of branched tubes, occupying a translucent oval area, 
with black borders narrower posteriorly, formed by the vitelligenous 
glands, which are disposed in a racemose manner round a dorsal and 
a ventral longitudinal stem on each side. Eggs average 0.11 mm. 
x 0.066 mm. ^ 

The above description contains most of the points which can be 
observed by studying this worm entire by the aid of a compressorium. 
Probably slicing will give better results as to the disposition of the 
genital apparatus and intestinal coeca. The ease with which the 



intestine can be made oat in D. hepaticum depends entirely on the 
dark contents : the bifurcation was here observed from the dorsal 
surface, but the branches were empty. The longitudinal muscular 
fibres are strongly developed on the ventral surface, and the ventral 
surface of the neck has two sets of oblique decussating fibres, as in 
D. hepaticum. 11 The transverse vitello-duct can be easily seen with 
the naked eye. The right half is longer than the left, and the com- 
mon duct, leading obliquely upwards (towards an Ootype ?), is nar- 
rower than either. 


In looking for Polystomum-eggs from a specimen of Rana halecina, 
Kalm, in the way recommended by Zeller, u I found that a worm 
had been voided by the frog, which turned out to be D. variegatum, 
Had. It had been partly macerated from exposure to the water ; 
the acetabulum was consequently even more than ordinarily difficult 
to make out, and the characteristic coloration was destroyed. The 
application of picrocarminate, however, is particularly successful in 
rendering distinct the different organs in Trematodes, and probably 
more so in such a case as this from the previous bleaching. u 

The intestinal coeca were entirely destitute of contents, and their 
epithelial lining (average individual cells of which [Fig. 7] measured 
superficially 0.03 mm. x 0.021 mm.) was well seen. 

The left lung of the same animal yielded only one well-coloured 
example of the worm. 

My examples agree well with Pagenstecher's description and 
measurements, 14 except that the ventral sucker was easily discover- 
able in the fresh worm, and that the testes, three in number, which 
seemed to be composed of flask-shaped cells empty of their contents, 
and with the neck of the flasks converging to the vas deferens, could 
hardly be called small. The vitelligenous glands, as Blanchard has 
already figured, 15 are in the form of six or seven scattered racemose 
clumps on each side, with a connecting longitudinal stem. 

"Leuck. Menscb. Par., I., 587. 
uzeit for. wise. ZooL XXVI L, p. 266, t n. 

» After writing the above, I notice that the use of picrocarminate haa been already recom- 
mended by Dr. O. Dnchanip (Journal de Mlcrographie, July, 1878). 
m Trematodenlarven and Trematoden, p. 41. 
WAmudesSciNat 8 a VIII., PL 18, 1 1. 


5.— Distomum gractls. Dieting. 
Olikostomum gracilis. Leidy. 

This worm was first described by Br. Leidy, 1 ' who regarded it as 
genetically different from Distomum. He records it from the in- 
testines of a Pike, and from cysts in the gills, fins and muscles of 
Pomotis vulgaris (auritus), Gfinther. I have found the same worm 
in cysts on the branchiostegal membrane and anterior fins of Peroa 
flavescens, Guv. This species appears to me to belong to the same 
group as D. heterostomum and D. dimorphum, from the structure of 
the anterior end, and of the ventral sucker. In a specimen of 6.45 
mm. in length, with a greatest breadth of 1.8 mm. across, the mouth 
sucker measures 0.338 mm. across, and the prominent border which 
surrounds it 0.975 mm. The large ventral sucker (0.91 mm.) is situ- 
ated in the middle of a constriction dividing the neck from the 
body, and has a triangular aperture. Its cavity is lessened by three 
triangular tongues, which project into it so as nearly to meet each 
other. The anterior of these points with its apex backwards ; all 
are formed chiefly of radial fibres, and they must undoubtedly 
increase the efficiency of the sucking apparatus very considerably. 

The species of Distomum which have been found included in cysts 
are either fully mature (D. agamos, V. Iinst., 17 D. Okenii, Koll., 
D. crassicolle, R. [Pontalli6]), or have only one part of the sexual 
apparatus ripe (D. hystrix., Dujard., the testes 18 ), or are finally quite 
immature. In the last category fall D. annuligerum, Nordm., D. 
difiusocalciferum, Gastaldi, D. dimorphum, Diesing, and, as I believe, 
D. gracile. No mention of generative organs is made in Leid/s 
description, and I have failed to detect any trace of such. The Sun- 
fish and Perch can consequently hardly be regarded as the definitive 
hosts of this worm. Probably the sexually mature worm is to be 
sought for in the intestine of some larger fish (Pike?) or piscivorous 
bird. In the latter case, the relationship between the immature 
and mature form would resemble the two forms of D. dimorphum 
described by Diesing. 

The intestinal coeca are large, and extend nearly to the posterior 
end; the contents are yellowish-brown, and include some lozenge- 
shaped concretions. 

M Proc. Ac Set Phfl. VIIL, p. 4fe 

" Trotoh. Arch. XXXVIIL* B. L, p. 1, t 

w 01»on, Land's Unton. Axukr. IV., p. 61 






C^.Tarir* Co.LiOi Toronto. 


The water-vascular system has a wide median stem, which con- 
tinues from the caudal pore half way to the ventral sucker, giving 
off in its course lateral branches, which communicate with the finer 
canals of the system. One of my specimens, which had been preserved 
in alcohol, was placed in a diluted carmine solution resembling 
Beale's, but the fluid, instead of staining the tissues to any extent, 
entered the water-vascular stem and injected the subcuticular mesh- 
work, resulting in a beautiful preparation resembling the actual 
injections from which Blanchard's figures of the water-vascular system 
in various Trematodes are taken. 19 Rounded calcareous corpuscles oc- 
curred in great numbers in the median stem and its primary branches; 
these seem to be especially abundant in immature Trematodes. 

On the ventral surface behind the acetabulum were several series 
of dark granular spots — perhaps the optieal expression of cutaneous 

2ro Sus-OmniB — Monoobnsa. Van Ben. 


Plaooplsqtaxtjm saohtatuic Dieting. 

I possess several specimens of a worm from the gills of one of our 
fresh water fishes here, probably Catostomus teres, Le S., which were, 
unfortunately, preserved without any label, and as to the habitat of 
which I am consequently uncertain. 

A comparison of Fig. 19, PI. IL, with Leuekart's figure of Octo- 
bothrium sagittatnm," will show the great similarity between the 
appearance of the worms. I cannot reconcile certain points in his 
description with what I have ascertained from these specimens ; but 
I propose to refer to these provisionally under this heading until I 
have access to a more satisfactory description of the worm living on 
the gills «f the European brook trout, and until I secure fresh speci- 
mens ef the form taken here. 

The body is arrow-shaped, 6 mm, in length, with a greatest breadth 
of 1.6 mm. The body is separated by a marked constriction from 
the caudal disc, whioh is notched posteriorly, and has four suckers 
on each side of its ventral face. 

The structure of these suckers is at variance with Leuckartfs de- 
scription. It is with great diimoulty that one can succeed in getting 
jk satisfactory view of the chitinous framework, under a cover glass, 

» Loc dt, Pta. IX. and X 
"Zodby, Bracbftttcki, UL, TW. V. 


without distorting some part of it The only way to obtain a correct 
view of the structure of the suckers, is to examine them in the first 
place with incident light before they have been subjected to pressure. 
I believe that Fig. 8 conveys a correct interpretation of the disposition 
of the parts of the framework. 

The suckers have short muscular pedicels and an oval aperture, 
the long axis of which is directed transversely to the caudal disc, and 
which has a nearly continuous chitinous ring. This ring is interrupted 
by hinges at four points in its course, viz., the middle points of the 
outer and inner borders, from each of which a hook arches over the 
aperture of the sucker, and the middle points of the anterior and 
posterior borders, where it meets with a mesial piece which traverses 
the concave floor of the sucker. I have never been able to establish 
the continuity of this with the anterior border of the ring, and am 
inclined to believe that they do not meet. 

- The aperture of the sucker may be narrowed so as only to leave a 
chink between its approximated anterior and posterior borders. This 
is effected by the outer and inner hinges, and the appearance of the 
framework is changed by the greater curvature thus given to the 
mesial piece, and by the free hooks being pressed backwards toward 
the posterior border. I believe that Leuckart's figure is drawn 
from the framework in this position ; in which case it is possible to 
identify the pieces shown in both figures. # 

The aperture of the sucker may also be narrowed in a direction at 
right angles to the above, in which case the hinges from which the 
free hooks project become more apparent. This seems to agree better 
with Olsson's figures (loo. cit) of the suckers in various species of 

The mouth-suckers are somewhat peculiarly formed, the muscular 
tissue being interrupted at the inner margin of each (Fig. 20, PI. II.). 

The intestinal coeca are invested throughout by a thick layer of 
vitelligenous glands, forming two dark-coloured stripes in the body, 
on each side of and between which a somewhat more translucent area 
is to be seen. 

The abundance and opacity of these glands render the examination 
of the genital organs difficult ; the following points were, however, 
made out. 

The only genital orifice detected is situated 0.78 mm. from the 
anterior end It is a circular sucker of CL135 mm diameter, which* 


-when viewed superficially, shows radial fibres and an irregular quad- 
rangular orifice ; but when the glass is pushed deeper, shows a doubly 
contoured ring 0.0135 mm. diameter, surrounded by circular fibres. 
(Kg. 21.) The ovary is somewhat bilobed, the ovarian eggs are 
polygonal from mutual pressure, and measure 0.009 mm. The fully 
formed egg differs much from Leuckart's figure, and approaches those 
described by Olsson for various species of Octobothrium. Its oval 
body measures 0.195 mm. in length, while the whole egg is 1.04 mm. 
long. (Pig. 22.) 

The testis lies behind the ovary, and its vas deferens, surrounded 
by strong circular fibres, is continued forwards near the dorsal surface 
of the body. It probably opens by the same aperture as the oviduct ; 
at any rate, I have not been able to detect any trace of a second genital 


In September I had the opportunity of dissecting a single specimen 
of the Musk Turtle (Aromochelys [Sternothaerus] odoratus, Gray) : 
the only parasites obtained from it were four examples of an unde- 
8cribed species of Polystomum found in the urinary bladder. No 
Helminths, as far as I am aware, have been hitherto obtained from 
this organ in Chelonia; the fact, however, that P. ocellatum is 
described from the cavity of the mouth in two Old World Turtles, 
suggested to me that I had perhaps in these a bladder stage of that 
worm, and that the two known species of Polystomum had in this 
way a precisely parallel history. 21 A closer examination and com- 
parison with the characters of the two described species, showed that 
the worms presented peculiarities of specific value. I hope shortly 
to have the opportunity of examining the other turtles (Chrysemys 
picta, Chelydra serpentina) which are common in this neighbourhood, 
and have no doubt that Polystomes will be found in the oral cavity 
as well. An examination of the urinary bladder of Emys Europaea 
might not be without results in this respect. 

Description (Figs. 9, 10. 11). — Body oblong, month on the ventral 
surface of the rounded anterior end. Pharynx bowl-shaped. Intes- 
tinal coeca without anastomoses or branches. Generative outlets in 
front of the line of the lateral vaginae. Cirrus-coronet of sixteen alter- 
nately small and large sabre-shaped pieces. Viviparous. Length up 
to 2.5 mm., breadth to 1.5 mm. Egg, greenish, 0.235 mm. x 0.195 
mm. Larva ocellate 0.5 mm. in length, 

* For life-history of P. integerrimum, v. Zeller. Zeit wis*. ZooL XXVTL, p. 288 f. 


The general outline of the body is somewhat oblong when the worm 
is at rest ; in motion, however, its form is capable of considerable 
variation, and it is especially then that the constriction corresponding 
to the position of Zeller's " Seitenwulste " is noticeable. tne caudal 
lamina is somewhat narrower than the greatest width of the body, 
and is shorter than it is broad. The body narrows considerably at 
its junction with the caudal lamina. 

The hooks and suckers are disposed very much as in P. integerri- 
mum. The suckers (0.2 mm. in diameter) seem to project rather 
more than in that species, and their prominent rim bears a series of 
rounded apertures similar to those spoken of above in describing the 
suckers of Octobothrium sagittatum. The smaller hooks (Fig. 11) 
measure 0.015 mm. in length. The six anterior of these are situated 
in pairs between the two anterior suckers. They have a knobbed 
attached end, with an arm (longer than represented in the figure) pro- 
jecting at right angles not far from the middle of the hook. The four 
posterior (situated between the larger hooks) are capable of more 
independent action than the others. This was evident when the 
worm endeavoured to free itself from the piece of thin glass by which 
it was covered. The two large hooks measure 0.15 mm., and have a 
proportionately deeper notch than those of P. mtegemmum.* 

No eye-spots were observed in the adult worm. The longitudinal 
system of muscular fibres seemed to be most developed. 

The mouth is transversely oval, and is surrounded by a well-marked 
sucker, in which radial and vertical fibres preponderate. It leads 
immediately into a bowl-shaped pharynx, the walls of which possess 
merely weak circular fibres, and from this the simple intestinal ooeca 
arch backwards directly. The ooeca of all the observed specimens 
were empty. 

Only the convoluted lateral stems of the water-vascular system 
were observed near the anterior end. 

The lobes of the vitellogen are more scattered than in P. integerri- 
mum, and do not extend into the caudal lamina. The transverse 
duct seemed to pass inwards dorsally from the intestinal coeca ; but I 
have been unable to determine the relationship of the internal genera- 
tive organs, partly from the fact that my specimens were taken from 
the turtle the day after it was killed, and consequently had very little 

MCf.Zelkr,k>c.dt > TȣXm p. VL 

Contributions to americak helminthology. 6*5 

Hie testis is a solid gland situated in the posterior third of the body. 
The course of the vas deferens is shown in the figure. No internal 
vas deferens was observed. The male outlet lies immediately behind 
the bifurcation of the intestine, and is armed with sixteen alternately 
large and small hooks, which differ considerably in form from those 
of P. integerrimum. The free end of each piece is sharply curved ; 
the attached end is shaped like a cross, the transverse piece of which 
is longer on one side than the other. The longer pieces measure 0.02 
mm., and the shorter ones 0.015 mm. Whether there is any connec- 
tion between the attached ends, I am unable to say. 

The comparative transparency of the body would render the examin- 
ation of the internal organs of this species of Polystomum particularly 
easy. I failed, however, to satisfy myself as to their disposition, from 
the cause noted above. 

As in P. integerrimum, there are two lateral cushions, in this case 
each situated in a depression, which communicate with canals (vaginse) 
leading towards the middle of the body. The inner ends of these I 
could not follow. A third canal, originating from an oval body with 
brown contents (shell-gland ?), situated on the left side of the middle 
line (ov, Fig. 9), likewise was observed to take the same direction. 
The ovary (not represented in the figure) is situated in front of the 
testis on the right side of the body. The short oviduct terminates 
in a wide uterus, in which only a single egg can be accommodated at 
one time. The egg-shell is somewhat thin, is destitute of the short 
stump present in that of P. integerrimum, but has a rather large 

In each of the two most active specimens of the worm which I 
secured, a Gyrodactylus-like larva, similar to that of P. integerrimum, 
and with eye-spots disposed in the same fashion, had already escaped 
from the shell, and was moving actively within the uterine chamber. 38 
The motions seemed to depend entirely on the muscles and the hooks 
of the caudal disc. This had a rounded outline, except posteriorly, 
where there was a square projection bearing the four posterior small 
hooks. The disc measured 0.1 14 mm. across, and the twelve anterior 

* According to Zeller (loc. ell, p. 269, note), " die Eier bel den jiingsten fortpflan imnggf&hlgen 
Harnblasenporrstomen durchmachen ihre Entwickelong noch innerhalb des Eierletters." I am 
not sore whether to conclude from this that, as in the present instance, larva and egg-shell are 
extruded separately from the uterus. I am inclined to believe, however, taking into considera- 
tion the size and advanced state of development of the larva, the absence of cilia, and the thin- 
ness of the egg-shell, that this viviparous method is the normal in P. oblongom. 



small hooks were disposed at regular intervals on the margin of the 
rounded part of the disc. There was no trace of suckers. The small 
hooks had already attained their definitive size and form ; the two 
large ones, on the other hand, situated considerably further in from 
the margin than in the adult, measured only 0.024 mm. instead 
of 0.15 mm. This difference in length is owing to the shortness 
of the immersed portion, in which, however, the notch is already 

It will be seen that in respect of the state of development of the 
large caudal hooks, this larva differs considerably from that of 
P. integerrimum. It is also larger, measuring 0*5 mm. in length! 
instead of 0.3 mm. 

Sfhvrakuba Oslbri, nov. gen, et spec. 

I have lately received from my friend Professor Osier, of Mon- 
treal, several specimens of a worm taken from the gills and cavity 
of the mouth of our common Lake-Lizard (Necturus [Menobranchus] 
lateralis, Ra£) These had been preserved for eight years in Goad- 
by's fluid, and proved comparatively useless for further examination, 
having become quite opaque and black in colour. From some speci- 
mens, in a good state of preservation, mounted by Dr. Osier for 
microscopical examination, and also from his notes and sketches made 
on observation of the fresh specimens, I am able to communicate the 
following. The only specimen of Necturus which I have had the 
opportunity of examining since receiving these did not yield any of 
the worms. 

According to Diesing's conspectus (Revision der Myzhelminthen), 
the worms ought to fall into his genus Diplectanum. I have not 
access to Wagoner's later descriptions of the two species of this genus. 
It is evident, however, from a study of Van Beneden's* and VogtV 
figures and descriptions of D. taquans, that this form cannot be re- 
ferred to Diplectanum. It resembles Polystomum, and differs from 
Dactylogyrus and Diplectanum in the following points : (1) The size 
and shape of the egg ; (2) the structure of the suckers ; (3) the dis- 
position and number of the caudal hoots. It differs from Polystomum 
in the general form, the number of suckers, and the structure of the 

** Bech. but let Tremat marina, p. 182, PI XIII. 

»Wt . Ittr wiM.Zooi, BappL XXX, Tat XIV. 2, XVL 1. 


genital apparatus, and I propose for its reception the generic name 
" Sphyranura," with the following characters : 

Body depressed, somewhat elongate, expanded posteriorly into a 
caudal lamina, considerably wider than the body, bearing two im- 
mersed acetabnla, two large hooks behind these, and sixteen small 
hooks (seven along each side of the lamina, and one in the centre of 
each acetabulum). Mouth ventral anterior, somewhat funnel-shaped, 
intestine with two branches anastomosing posteriorly. Excretory 
pore between the acetabnla, two contractile bladders anteriorly. 
Oviparous. Parasitic on the gills and in the mouth of perenni- 
branchiate Amphibia. 

The specific characters in the allied genera are derived chiefly from 
the size, the caudal and genital armature, and the size and shape of 
the eggs. I accordingly note the following as characteristic of this 
species, which I propose to associate with the name of Dr. Osier as 
S. Osleri, n. sp. (Figs. 12, 13, 14.) 

Body 2.6 mm. in length by- 0.7 mm. in breadth, narrowed at 
each end, especially where it joins the caudal lamina, which measures 
1 mm. across, and about 0.45 mm. in length. Large hooks 0.2 mm. 
long. Oviduct occupying the interval between the intestinal coeca, 
with numerous eggs ; uterus with single mature egg, oval, with 
brownish-yellow shell, 0.364 mm. x 0.247 mm 

I am not aware that any monogeneous Trematode, with the ex- 
ception of Polystomum integerrimum, has been hitherto found in 
any amphibian; and this seems to be restricted to the tailless forms. 
A careful examination of the gills, mouth-cavity, and urinary bladder 
of both perennibranchiate and caducibranchiate Urodela would pro- 
bably yield interesting results with regard to this family of Trema- 

I regard the form under consideration as of great interest in view 
of the frequently asserted 26 relationship between Dactylogyrus and 
Gyrodactylus on the one hand, and Polystomum on the other, and I 
propose to recur to this after detailing the facts which I have been 
able to elucidate with the material at my disposal. 

* Van 8ie bold, Untersuchnngen liber Gyrodactylus. Van Beneden, Animal Parasites, Eng. 
Ed, p, 281. Willemoetf-Suhni, Zeft. f. wiss. ZooL XXI. I have not seen this paper. The 
following is from Hofmann und Schwalbe's Jahresberichte for 1872, p. 274 : " Hat ZeUer den 
LebenBlanf der Thiere yorzuglioh aufgeklart so gebohrt Wfllemoes-Suhm die Priorttit der 
Pablidning der Beschreibung der Larve, aowie die Andeutong, dass die Aehnlichkeit derselben 
mlt einem Gyrodactylus eine phylogenetische Entwickelnng Ton Polystomum and Gyrodactylus 
«as emer Stammform wahrscheinlich mache." 


The measurements on Fig. 12 are taken from a specimen in which 
the eggs are nearly ripe. The worm somewhat resembles a hammer 
in shape, the body forming the shaft of the hammer and the tail- 
piece the head. This resemblance is greater in the hardly-mature 
specimens, where the oviduct is not dilated with eggs, and the body 
consequently more linear in outline. 

The caudal lamina is considerably wider than the body. It is 
longest at each side, and somewhat shorter in the middle through the 
presence of a posterior notch, which may become considerably deeper, 
dividing the disc into two very well marked halves when the large 
caudal hooks are in vigorous action, owing to the course of the 
muscular bands which are attached especially to the innermost forks 
of these. The suckers resemble in all respects those of Polystomum ; 
the prominent rims do not present the rounded apertures which I 
have noticed above in P. oblongum. The diameter of the suckers 
is 0.27 mm. The large hooks (Fig. 13) differ in form from those of 
Polystomum or of any species of Dactylogyrus; and, in fact, except 
for the impair trabecula present in the latter genus, the hooks of some 
forms of Dactylogyrus and of Polystomum resemble each other more 
closely than they do those under consideration. The attached end of 
the hook is divided into two pieces : one — the longer — a thin, flat, 
somewhat linear splint in the continuation of the axis of the rounded 
body of the hook; the other, thicker, shorter and rounder, standing 
at an angle of 45° from that axis, with two prominences for muscular 
attachment. I observe that the splint-like portion is bent in some 
specimens; this is perhaps due to pressure in mounting. The free 
portion of the hook, just in front of the bend, bears two little curved 
teeth, one rising from the surface of the other, which probably assist 
in securing the attachment of the animal. Similar teeth seem to be 
present on the hooks of Dactylogyrus monenteron, Wagener. w 

I have not been able to elucidate very successfully the structure of 
the smaller hooks. I have only attempted to indicate their position 
in Fig. 12. Even their number remains somewhat doubtful; only 
in one small specimen have I succeeded in making out sixteen. 
They are much less easy to observe in the larger worms; perhaps 
their functional importance diminishes with age, as I am inclined to 
believe of the corresponding structures in Polystomum. Especially 
those lying behind the large hooks seem to be important in the small 

*Bdtrggo s. Eatwick. d. Eingeweidewtinne, PL xm., Fig. 8. 


worms, as I find in two specimens the substance of the lamina pro- 
jecting beyond the level of the rest with the base of the hook lodged 
in it 

Of the marginal hooks, most seem to have a trifurcate base, as 
represented in Fig. 14 (b) ; in others (a and c), there would seem to be 
a chitinous ring at the point of attachment similar to those noticed in 
the large hooks of Dactylogyrus by Wagener and V. Linstow." The 
hooks situated in the centre of the suckers (a) appear to be slightly 
different from the others, additional chitinous rings of smaller size 
being present. The hooks measure about 0.025 mm. in length. 

The mouth is situated in the middle of a somewhat funnel-shaped 
sucker upon the ventral surface of the head. From Dr. Osier's 
sketch I make out that the pharynx is situated shortly behind the 
mouth, and that the intestinal coeca diverge immediately from this 
to arch into each other (as in some forms of Monostomum) in the 
posterior fourth of the body. 

The following is extracted from Dr. Osier's notes: 

"The water-vascular system is well developed, beginning as a ramification 
of vessels about the anterior disc, and uniting to form two vessels, which run 
the whole length of the body, joining below, and opening somewhere between 
the posterior discs. Oilia are to be distinctly seen in the water- vascular sys- 
tem, especially at the junction of the tubes below. At the upper third of the 
body, on a level with the generative orifice, are seen on each side curious 
pulsating organs, which are undoubtedly connected with the water-vascular 
system, the pulsation occurring about once every minute and a halt" 

From the sketch accompanying this, these contractile bladders 
would seem to resemble in form, position and relative size, those 
represented in Epibdella Hippoglossi, by Van Beneden." 

The lobes of the vitellogen oceupy the sides of the body, but do 
not extend into ihe caudal lamina, nor further forward than the 
generative aperture. 

This is situated immediately behind the bifurcation of the intes- 
tine. I haro only been able to determine its position from the 
cirrus-coronet in the mounted specimens. Dr. Osier, however, saw 
the female aperture quite close to this, leading into a " narrow, 
slightly-curved vagina." This I have represented in Fig. 13 ; it is 
probably the unexpanded uterus. 

n v. Lhufeur, Troach. Arehiv., 1878. These teem also to be indicated in Zellert figure, loc, 
dfc, Tal xva, Fig. 8. 
•Itaoire am lea Yea Inteattnaox, PL IL, Fig, 2. 


The structure of the cirrus-coronet is difficult to ascertain on ac- 
count of the semi-opacity of my mounted specimens. The pieces do 
not seem to be more than eight in number; they converge anteriorly 
where they are narrow and pointed; posteriorly they are wider, 
with somewhat arrow-bead shaped ends, which fit into the terminal 
bulbous portion of the vas deferens. I have been unable to follow 
the rest of this tube, or to find any trace of the testes. 

Sphyranura resembles P. oblongum and the precocious gill-cavity 
stage of P. integerrimum, in possessing only one complete shell- 
invested egg in the uterus at one time. This is very^ large (v. 
supra) in relation to the size of the worm, being considerably larger 
than the eggs of either P. integerrimum or P. oblongum. It con- 
sequently forms a noticeable feature in the worms possessing it, and 
is readily detectable with the naked eye. Numerous other eggs 
may be seen in the oviduct formed of the ovarian ova with the in- 
vesting foodyolk-balls, and by mutual compression assuming various 
forms. What I suppose to be the ovary is represented in the figure 
to the right hand of tfye base of the muscular tube. I cannot find 
any trace of shell-gland, transverse vitello-duct, or of a vagina. All 
of these would undoubtedly be easily seen in fresh or well preserved 

I regard the genera Gyrodactvlus, Dactylogyrus, Sphyranura and 
Polystomum, as forming a very natural assemblage. All probably 
live on the blood of their hosts, being found in positions where there 
is a more or less close superficial vascular plexus; all possess a caudal 
disc armed with fourteen to sixteen small and two (rarely more) 
large hooks, which enable the fish-parasites to secure themselves 
firmly to the gill-filaments of their hosts. Those which possess 
suckers formed around the smaller hooks are found attached to 
smoother surfaces (mucous membrane of mouth and urinary bladder), 
where the small hooks alone would have little purchase; even these 
forms, however, pass through a suckerless stage in which they inhabit 
the anterior respiratory part of the intestinal tract. 80 The resem- 
blance of the Polystomum-larva to Gyrodactylus is very striking, so 
that if any phylogenetic speculations may be made from the obser- 
vation of the ontogeny of an animal, the assumption is surely justi- 

*> It must be remembered that the muooufl membrane covering the hyoid arches of many 
Chelonia has still a high respiratory significance. Vide AgMSii: Oontrih, Nat Hist, U. &. 
VoL I, Pt iL, pp« 871-881 


fied that Porystomum is descended from a Gyrodaety Ins-like ancestral 
form. The suckers of Polystomum are not developed simultaneously, 
and Sphyranura is a. transition form, where the formation of these is 
restricted to one pair. 

Hie consideration of the probable relationships of the hosts of 
these forms lends additional authority to such a conclusion. If the 
piscine ancestors of Amphibia had Gyrodactylus-like gill-parasites, 
these 'would probably be transmitted to their descendants, and we 
should not be surprised that among the oldest representatives of 
these, two (the Frog-larva and Neoturus) should possess sueh. The 
texture of the gills in Neoturus might account for the change in the 
caudal armature. The loss of the gill* in the Frog is necessarily 
accompanied by a change of habitaculum on the part of the parasite; 
and it is not surprising that the emigrating worms should have pros- 
pered so well in a locality where so many favourable conditions 
obtain as in, the urinary bladder of the same host, That some 
Ohelonia are the only reptiles in which parasites belonging to the 
8am e series have been, found is probably to be accounted for by their 
aquatic habits. 

Dactylogyrus may be regarded as a. divergent form marked by it* 
peculiar genital armature, the shape of the eggs, and the arrange- 
ment of the caudal hooks. In all of these points the three other 
genera approach each other more closely, and as Gyrodactylus is 
evidently nearer the stem-form than the others, all might be received 
into Van Beneden's family " Gyrodactylida,"* 1 

Tamxtll dihpajl Gotze. 

I have to record another habitaculum for this worm. The speci- 
men of Bana halecuia above referred to (p. 6), expelled several ripe 
proglottides which seem to be much smaller than usual, as will be 
seen from the measurements given below. In the intestine of the 
frog were found several chains about an inch and a half in length, 
and ako many scolices and immature chains of different lengths. 
Many more worans in the two latter conditions were also found in 
the body cavity between the viscera ; whether these become mature 
in this position I am unable to say — they certainly frequently occur 

a Becberchwg rar lea Trematodet marina, Van Bon. and Hesse, p. 121. 


The head does not measure more than 0.5 mm. across in any of 
my preserved specimens, nor in fact does any part of the chain. In 
life it is very variable in form, and bears a distinct unarmed rostellum, 
which is frequently completed retracted, so as to escape notice, but 
acts much like a fifth sucker. This is merely indicated in Van 
Beneden's figure, 83 and its existence is negatived in Diesing's and 
Dnjardin's descriptions. 

The only ripe proglottides observed were mostly of the form repre- 
sented in Fig. 15, and measured 0. 4 x 0. 1 6 mm. Instead of containing 
a series of capsules in pairs with their contained embryos, two or 
three capsules at most were observed, with six or seven embryos 
altogether. These measured 0.027 x 0.018 mm. 



A statement occurred in the "American Naturalist " in the course 
of last year, as to the prevalence of an Ascaris in the intestine of the 
American Shad — Alosa sapidissima, Storer. This was probably A. 
adunca, R. I have several specimens taken in last winter from 
Portland fish, which undoubtedly belong to this species. 

The only other reference to a round worm from the American 
Shad of which I am aware is by Dr. Leidy, who records 88 Agamonema 
capsularia (?), Diesing, as free in the intestines. This, in spite of the 
" undivided lip," is probably the young of A. adunca, the " obtusely 
conical, minutely mucronate tail," arguing for this. Molin 84 describes 
" Nematoideum Alaus® " also with mucronate tail, but with a four- 
papillate mouth from the European Shad, but considers that the 
absence of lips forbids its reference to A. adunca. The metamorphoses 
of the mouth-parts in Ascaris are still insufficiently known, but what 
has been already established * does not exclude the possibility of both 
of the above larval forms belonging to A. adunca. 


A single female specimen of a worm belonging to the genus Filaria 
was found in the upper part of the proventriculus of each of the 

*> Mem. sur lea Vers In test., PL XXII., Fig. 4. 
« Proc. Ac. ScL Phil, VIII, p. 55. 
MSitx. d. k. Akad. Wien., XXXVIII., p. 81. 
tt Schneider Monog. der If emak, p. 2M. 


Bitterns above referred to, along with a single male of Ascaris 
microcephala, Bud. (?) in one of these; and although closely related to 
two species (F. latioepe, R, and F. tridentata, V. Ldnstow*) which 
have been described from Falco lagopus on the one hand, and from 
Colymbus arcticus and Larus ridibundus on the other, it does not 
appear to resemble any of the numerous Filarise described from 
Ciconite, except perhaps F. alata. 

I hope I may shortly have an opportunity of examining the dis- 
position of the pro- and post- anal papillae in the male, a character 
of essential systematic value in this genus ; in the meantime, however, 
I record the following points which seem to distinguish it from the 
above mentioned forms : 

Densely striated. Length 10 mm. ; greatest breadth, 0.43 mm. A 
cervical fascia or frill, the tops of the lateral loops of which are 
0.18 mm. from the anterior end, and which extends 0.405 mm. back- 
wards on the neck. The root of the cervical papilla (or trifurcate 
spine) is 0.06 mm. from the end of the frill. The trident measures 
from the root to the end of the median fork 0.06 mm. The eggs 
measure 0.027 mm. x 0.018 mm. The tail is terminated by a short 
rounded conical projection. 

A comparison of Fig. 16 with the figures of Schneider 87 and V. 
Iinstow, will show how it differs from the similar structures repre- 
sented there, the teeth of the trident being much longer and narrower 
in proportion to the body. The uterus was packed full of eggs, so 
that its walls were extended in every direction, occupying almost the 
whole of the body cavity. 


I find this worm very commonly present in considerable numbers 
in the swim-bladder of Salmo siscowet, Ag. The males are, how- 
ever, usually about twice (19-22 mm.) the length recorded by 
Schneider, while the females measure 30-33 mm. The two teeth 
(Fig. 17) which are doubtfully ascribed to the head by Schneider are 
quite evident in my specimens, and are continuous with two longi- 
tudinal ridges in the oesophagus. It is somewhat difficult, on account 
of the coiled up tail, to get a satisfactory view of the papillae in the 
male, but there seemed to be five pairs of these behind the anus. 
The eggs measure 0.04 x 0.02 mm. 

M Trosch. Archiv., 1877, pp. 10 and 175. 
* Loc. cil. Tat VL, Fig. S. 


Avctbacaxthtts 8EBBATUS, ». Q>. 

A single female specimen of a worm closely allied to the above 
was obtained from the auricle of the heart of Odregonus albus, Le S. 
It only measures 11 mm., and differs from A. cystidicola in the mouth- 
armature. Instead of haying only the two'teeth of that species, there 
are a series of smaller ones disposed, as represented in fig. 18, round 
the anterior end. The eggs in this specimen were not mature, but 
the genital organs were observed to be arranged as in the above 
species. The structure of the oesophagus is sufficient to place the 
worm in this genus, and I propose provisionally for it the specific 
name " serratus." 

Toronto, December, 1878. 



Fig. 1.— Distomum heterostomum, Rud. (?); vi, vitellogen; sch, "schluck- 
cefrhung ;" if, testes. 

Fig. 2. — End of an intestinal coecnm of the same. 

Fio. 3. — D. asperum, n. sp. ; ga, genital aperture; vo, the ovary; tv, 
transverse vitello-duct. 

Fio. 4. — Head of same ; the characteristic disposition of the hooks is best 
represented on the right side. 

Fio. 5 — An isolated body-spine of the same. 

Fio. 6. — D. reticulatum, n. sp.; the ventral sucker (w) is flattened ; it, the 
uterus; Iv, the ventral; Ivd, the dorsal longitudinal vitello- 
duct ; tt, the testicular tubes. 

Fio. 7. — Surface view of intestinal epithelium of D. variegatum, Rud. 

Fio. 8. — Caudal sucker of Octobothrium sagittatum, F. S. Leuck. (?). 

Fio. 9. — Polystomum oblongum, n. sp.; l y larva; ek, cirrus-coronet; va, 
vaginae ; ov f shell-gland (?). 

Fio. 10. — Large caudal hook of the same. 

Fio. 11. — Small caudal hook of the same. 

Fio. 12. — Sphyranura Osleri, n. sp. ; ov, eggs. 

Fio. 13. — Large caudal hook of same. 

Fio. 14. — Small caudal hook of same. 

Fio. 15. — Proglottis of Taenia dispar, Goeze. 

Fio. 16. — Cervical papilla of Filaria triaenucha, n. sp. 

Fio. 17. — Head of Ancyracanthus cystidicola, Schn. 

Fio. 18. — Head of A. serratus, n. sp. 

Fio. 19. — Octobothrium sagittatum, F. S. Leuck. (?) ; ga, genital aperture; 

o, a mature ovum ; ov, the ovary ; vd, vas deferens. 
Fio. 20. — Anterior end of same to show shape of mouth, anterior suckera 

and pharynx, 
lfro. 21. — Genital sucker of same ; a, superficial ; 6, deeper view. 
Fio. 22. — Mature ovum. 




Pruident of UnivertUy CoUtfft, Toronto. 

1. In Cicero, Phil. II., c. xxxi, are the following words, of which I 
have never seen any interpretation that I believe to be correct : 

" hominem neqnam ! quid enim aliud dicam ? magis proprie nihil possum 

The ordinary acceptation of nihil possum dicere is, " I can give no 
name magi* proprie than nequam." I am inclined to think that it 
should be — " I can call thee magis proprie i thou nothing.' " Cicero, 
when he said nequam, had not reached the limit of revilement, for he 
might have said nequissimum. I would translate the whole passage 
thus : " good for nothing man ! for what else am I to call thee ? Yes ! 
I can give thee a name more peculiarly thy own — ' thou nothing.' " It 
is remarkable that we have in Horace (Sat. II., vii, 100) these words — 
nequam and nil — in juxtaposition, in a similar sense : 

Nequam et cessator Davus; at ipse 
Subtilis veterum judex ei callidusaudis: 
Nil ego, si ducor libo/umarUe. 

We find other examples of this use of the word nil (or the equiva- 
lent nihil) in Cicero — e. gr. 9 Epist. Famil. viL 27, te nihil esse cognos- 
ceres, and in Divin. Verr. 14, nihil fueris and 15, nihil est, nihil 
potest. Similarly obdkv is used in Greek, e. gr., Eurip., Orest. 718) 
<J nXijv yvvatxds oovexa arparyXaTetv T&XX ohdh, x. t. X. 

2. In the Ephemeris Epigraphica, 1877, Vol. HE., pp. 113-155, are 
the Additamenta by Prof. Hiibner to the Inscriptions of Britain as 
given by him in the 7th volume of the "Corpus Inscriptionum 
Latinarum" They have been chiefly supplied by Mr. W. Thompson 
Watkin. Among the remarks given there is the following : " Ad n. 
906. In C. A. latere custodem armorum Buechelerus coniecit pro- 
babiliter. Titulus igitur ita legendus videtur esse : d(is) M(anibus, 


GemeUi c{ustodi8) a(rmorum) Fl(aviuB) HUario 8(ecundus) h(ere$) 
/(aciendum) c{wravU). 

The stone is figured in Lapidarium Septentrionale, n. 446. It is 
expanded thus, and the following remarks are given : 

"DM Diis Manibus 

GEMELLI • • A * Gemelli carissimo amioo (?) 

FL • HILARIO • 3 * H * FO • Flavius ffilario seeundus heres faciendum 

"This inscription has been variously expanded. For the reading here given 
the editor is indebted to Professor Henzen, who in a private communication 
says : ' Second heirs occur very frequently in military inscriptions ; and though 
our inscription does not belong to a soldier, it must have belonged to a person 
attached to the camp. Therefore I have little doubt about my explanation. ' 
The only remaining difficulty belonging to the inscription is the expansion of 
C. A. at the end of the second line. Professor Htibner thinks that the letters 
' indicate a military charge. ' Dr. MoCaul proposes to read the line ' GemeUi 
custodis armorum, 1 " 

In the Canadian Journal, Vol XII., p. 122 (to which the learned 
editor of the Lapidarium Septentrionale refers), the following are the 
terms of the article on this inscription, in the Review of Dr. Brace's 
Roman Wall, 3rd Edition : 

* Id conaequenoe of the incorrect representations of the inscription that have hitherto been 
given, the last two letters of the word Gemellioa being separated from the rest, and a full stop 
after each, great has been the perplexity of those who have attempted to read it, and various 
the interpretations that have been given of it Gemellica, it must be confessed, is a name 
which we have not previously met with.- Diis Manibus. OtmeUica Flavio HUario sepulchrum 
hot jUri cuntviL To the divine manes. Gemellica to Flavins Hilarius caused this sepulchre to* 
be erected.' 

"If the reading GemelUca be assumed as correct, I would read the inscrip. 
tion thus : ' Diis Manibus. Gemellica, Flavius HUario seeundus heres faciendum 
curavU.* Gemellica may be in the nominative, or may stand for Gemellicce, 
HUario is a name that occurs more frequently than Hilarius, and secundum 
heres is not uncommon. See Orelli, nn. 3416, 3481. The head, however, 
which is carved below the inscription seems to be rather that of a man with a 
beard, than of a woman with a head-dress. Hence I would suggest, instead 
of Gemellica, GEMELLI • • A., i.e., GemeUi custodis armorum; and this I 
regard as the most probable rendering." 

It appears, then, that the interpretation of C. A. was originally 
given in the Canadian Journal in 1868. 

3. The remark immediately following this in the Ephemeris Epigra 
phica, 1877, is: "Ad n. 914. V. 6 ad Solvam Norici oppidum 
rettnlit Buechelerus in censura, recte puto. Itaque solvendum 
Uar(H) Coc(idio) m{UUe8) leg(iant8) II Aug(u8tce) c(enturia) Sane- 
tiana c(enturia) Secundini d(orrw) SoUyemes) e. q. s. 


The stone is figured in the Lapidarium Septentrionale. It is 
expanded thus, and the following remarks are given : 

LEG • n AVG 


RA • MUAm (?) 



Marti Cocidio milites 

iegionis secuncta August© 

Oenturia Sanctdana 

centuria Seoundini 

Deo (?) Solverunt (?) sub cu 

ra iEliani centurionis (?) 

curavit Oppiufl 

Felix optio 

' ' The inscription presents some difficulties. The meaning seems to be this — 

the altar was dedicated to Mars Cocidius ; the dedicators were some soldiers 

belonging to two centuries of the second legion, the century Sanctiana, and the 

century of Seoundinus ; the party being at the time under the command of the 

centurion iElianus ; Oppius Felix, the optio, took charge of its erection. 

" The editor has in vain sought for some authority for the expansion of the 
letters D * SOL * in the fifth line. None is to be found. The Rev. John Hodgson 
reads de solo ; such an expression is often used as to a building, but is inappli- 
cable to an altar. Professor Hiibner suggests, though Tory doubtfully, dato 
solo. Mr. Clayton proposes deo or deis solverunt." 

The letters D • SOL, doubtless, present very considerable difficulty. I 
have never met with them before. Various expansions have suggested 
themselves to my mind, the best of which I regard the following : — 
D[evoti] SOL[i]. With this view we may compare the inscription 
in Lersch, C. Museum, n. 14, Bonn, or Steiner, Cod, Insorip. Rom. 
Danubii 4t Rheni, n. 1268 : 

IN • H • D • D • PRO 
XXX • V • V • P • F • SVB • CVRA 
COMMODIAN • e • q • s • 

i. *., In honorem domus Dwvnas, pro salute Imperatoris Severi Alex 
andri Augusti, Deo Apollini, Die propUUs Lunce Soliqw devoti milites 


kffiomU tricerimcz Ulpice Vietricis, tub cura agenUum TitiFlavi Apri 

4. In the Ephemeris Epigraphica, 1877, Vol. III., pp. 132, 133, the 
following account is given of two inscriptions, on which I offered 
some observations in the Canadian Journal, Vol XIV., p, 544 : 

" Legendum igitur Victoria Augg. Alfeno Seneeionje] oo(n) s(ulari) felix als 
(prima] . As(turum). Senedeni pro oasu sexto fortasse positum est barbare. 
Manifestum est, alam ipeam felicem diotam lapidem dedicavisse (ut infra 
in n. 100 hujus additamenti) ; sed quid M et PRA littero significant, quae iam 
non possunt ooninngi cum reliquis, ignoro; nisi fait M(arciano) pra(efecto). 
Expectamus oognomina alaa imperatoria, veluti AntemniaruB. Oeterum in altero 
textns exemplo omnino desxint. ObserVa Genioe, non Victorias, in lateribns. 
Haec meonm coinmunicavit W. Th. Watkin. 

In the Journal of the Archatological Institute, 1878, Vol. XXXTV, 
p. 1 44, Mr. W. Thomson Watkin writes thus, having giren an ac- 
count of the copy of the inscription in the Ashmolean Museum : 

" In any case the correct reading of the stone is established, showing that the 
Word Felix, instead of being a proper name, is used in the same sense as in the 
inscription lately found at Ctlurnum" 

The inscription lately found at Oilurnum is thus given by Hubner, in n. 160 
of the Additamenta : 


Bruce lapid. append., p» 472, n. 943, qui annotat alteram G in vocabulo AVGG 
utroque loco eradi captain esse. Idem acoidit vocabulo [Antoninian]a. Brucius 
non sine probabilitate propter titulum, n. 585, in quo Antoninianae cognomen 
item erasum est, cogitavit de Elagabalo et Alexandre Augustis. Alam II. 
Asturum Oilurni in oastris fuisse ad quintum usque. s&oulum notum est. 

The stone is figured in the Lapidarium Septentrionale, n. 943, and 
the following expansions and remarks are there given : 

"Salvia Augustis 

felix ala seounda Asturum 

Antoniniana (?) 

"The inscription is different from any that we have previously met with, 
The evident meaning of it is, ' So long as the Emperors are safe the second ala 
trf Asturians will be happy/ A reference to the inscription, n. 121, leads us 
4o suppose that the Emperors to whom this flattering compliment was paid were 
Elagabalus and Severus Alexander. Very soon after this inscription was carved 


Elagabalus was slain by the infuriated soldiery at Rome, and the second ala of 
Asturians, at Cilurnum, sympathizing with them, erased, though not entirely, 
the second G at the end of the first line, and that at the end of the inscription 
( VIRTVS AVGG) in the hands of the standard-bearer, as well as the whole of 
the third line of the principal inscription, which was probably an epithet which 
the ala had been permitted to assumd, by favour of the unfortunate Emperor 
when he was a popular idol." 

I now subjoin the remarks which appeared in the Journal in 1873 : 

"The inscription, given by Orelli,* n. 864, confirms Dr. Bruce's view of the 
meaning:— SAABQ KQMMOAQ tfHAIE *AT2TEINA, $. «., Salvo Commodo 
feUx Faustina, but his reference of AVGG to Elagabalus and Severus Alexander 
is certainly incorrect. So far as we are aware, there is no example of the 
application of the term August* to those two Emperors. Nor is there any 
evidence that they were united under that name. To us it seems highly pro- 
bable that the two Augusti were Caracalla and Geta, that the date is A.D. 211, 
after the death of SeVerus, and that the second G was erased after the murder 
of Geta, in A. D. 21 2. But the nlost interesting result of this discovery is, that 
the inscription throws light on another which unfortunately is lost. It is given 
from Horsley, in the Lapidarium Septentrionak, n. 27, and in Britanno-Roman 
Inscriptions, p. 133 1 






"Of the true reading of the main part of the inscription there can be but 
little doubt. It is — Victoria Augustorum Alfenus Senecio Vir Glarissimus 
Consularis Felix Ala prima Astorum. ALA has been regarded as standing for 
ALAE, the letters RVM as the final three of Astorum for Asturum, and PRA 
as the first three of Prafectus. Thus Felix was regarded as Prefect of the first 
Ala of Asturians. With others we have accepted this view, but it has always 
appeared strange to us that Felix had neither prccnomen nor nomen. Now it 
seems most probable that FtUx is used as it is in n. 943, and Baxter's reading, 
ALFENO SENECIONE, is not so unlikely. What the letters at the side were 
that were orowded out can scarcely be conjectured with probability ; they may 
have been something like Ouram Agente, or Curante Prcefecto." t 

I believe the AVGG of the two inscriptions to be the same — Severus 
and Caracalla (or Caracalla and Geta) — and that the date of these in- 
scriptions was A.D. 209 — before Geta was declared Augustus, on the 
news reaching the army in Britain, that although the expedition into 

* See also Eckhel, viii. 11. 

t There is a* strange mistake relative to this Prefect in Dr. Brace's General Index to the 
Lapidarium Septentrionale : " Alfenlns Senicio, Prefect of the Ala Prima Asturum, 81 ; his titles 
on other inscriptions, 81. " 


Caledonia was attended with great difficulties, yet the Emperors were 
«afe— or A.D. 211. 

5. In the Ephemeris Epigraphica, 1877, Vol. HI., pp. 161-163 
and 203, 204, there are Additamenta to Prof. Mommsen's article on 
Tessercs Gladiatorial, in Vol. I. of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 
From these it appears that there are now* known to exist six examples 
of the word spectavit in full, viz. : 



A • D • V • K • FEBR. 





C • VAL • M • HER. 

i.e., (1) Diodes, Vecili (servus), spectavit, a(nte) d(iem) q(uintum) 
E(alendas) F(ebrvarias). (2) PhUorrvusus Pereli (servus), spectavit. 
(3) Protemus Faleri (servus), spectavit, N(onis) S(extUibus) or 
S(eptembribus). (4) Genti(us) Paconi T(it\) ^(ervus), spectavit. 
(5) MenopiUxxa) Abi Z(ucii) #(ervus) spectavit C(aio) Val(erio) 
Jf(arco) J2er(ennio) (Consulibus) i.e., A.V.C. 661 = 92 B.C. (6) 
PamphU(us) Sociorum (servus) spectavit. In 1863, the most ancient 
then known was of the date 85 B.C. The only real difficulty is in 
SP, which has been expanded by spectatus, spectator or spectavit, to 
which we should now, perhaps, add spectat, or we may regard spectat 
as an abbreviation of spectator — spectator [juit] being believed to be 
= spectavit. In the volume of the Canadian Journal for that year, 
there is an article by me on the subject. From that article I subjoin 
extracts, as I cannot but regard the suggestion given there as more 
probable than any other explanation that I have seen, even including 
that offered by Prof. Mommsen, and stated at the close of the article 
in the Ephemeris Epigraphica, Vol. III., p. 163 : 

" In mentem venit Momseno (mshique visum est probari posse) gladiatores 
rode donatos f ortasse transiisse ex arena in carcerem, spectandiqae ins adeptos 
esse ibi, ubi antea spectabantur. Eins inris initium memoriae tradi potuit 
veluti honesta missio quaedam in tesseris gladiatoriis, Horatii versus sane 
non obstat huic opinioni." 

* In 1868 there were only two (doabtfal) spedrntna of Unarm giving the word tpectaviL 


The extracts from my article are : 

"The sense in which this expansion (speetatus) was generally* undentood, 
was, that the gladiator to whom the tes&ra was given was ' tried,' ' approved, 1 
and allowed to retire on the specified day of the month in the year indicated 
by the specified consuls. In support of tins interpretation the well-known 
verses were cited : 

' Spectatom satis, et donahmfam rude qucsris 
Mceeenas, iterum antique me inckudere ludo.* 

MorceUi, De Stilo, L p. 412, suggested, instead of spectattu, spectavit, t on the 
authority of an inscription given by Tomasini and Fabretti, in which that word 
appeared on a tessera, in extenso, scU. PILOMVSVS • PERELI • SPECTAVIT. 
The sense in which he understood the word, was, ' Was a spectator, 1 ' took his 
seat amongst the citizens and looked on.' He believed that these tessetce were 
given to gladiators who had received not only the rudis, but liberty, and that 
they entitled those who had received them to sit amongst the citizens. The 
inscriptions would thus be regarded as stating the date of the first occasion on 
which such gladiators availed themselves of the privilege conferred by the pre- 
sentation of the tesserce. Another expansion, spectaculum, has been proposed 
by Gori, Inscrip. i. 74, but I am unable to conjecture in what sense? he under- 
stood it. MorceUi, who notices this expansion, dismisses the reading with the 
expressive phrase — quod mhror. . . . We may now assume that the first 
two syllables of the word are SPEOTAT, on the authority of the following 
inscription, on an unquestionably genuine tessera, published for the first time 
by Mommsen, II p. 201 : 

• Thtu Beinesius, Syntag. p. 372, remarks : " FuUrius Ursinus putabat tignificari videH, 
quo anno sen eonsulatu, mense ac die gladiator spectattu, diu muUumque in arte versatus, rude tit 
ac tessera eburnea donatus, quibus solutum se palcestrce atque arena legibus aihlctam oetendereV 
Amatl, Oiornale Arcad. 1826, explains speetatus thus : "Lepiociole taglie quadrilatere di averts 
or di osso erano vitiblli documents, di morte pe rem gladiatori ad altri recata, e aimeno di sang**' 
nosa vUtoria ottenuta eon aUerrar Vavversario." Tomasini, De tesseris, makes the astonishing 
statement : " Brat autem rudis tessera quasdam ebwrnea, cui nomen gladiatoris cetate emeriti 
inscribebatur quam qui accipiebat, is ab omni pugnaneli neces si tate eximebatur." It is scacoely 
necessary to remark relative to this view, that there is bo authority for the notion that the rudis 
was a tessera. 

f Ursatos, De Notts Romanorum, remarks : " SP. 8pectstus, Pignorius, qui, De Servia, seribit f 
banc not/am qua dodos viros hucusque torsit, nihil aliud * Significars, quam, spsctamt, ut detur 
inteUigers, conductos Juisse aliquot, veluti ab editors, gladiatores insignes, rude olim donates, 
speetandi gratia, non pugnandi.'" Pitiscus, Lexicon, in tessera, Pacciolati, Lexicon, in Spetto, 
and OreUi, i*. 3561, adopt the view of Moroelli. Henxen, n, 6162, seems to pre ex speetatus. ZeM, 
Delectus, p. 60, reads spsctandus. 

% Muratori, Nov. Thes. p. dcxi. n. 2, explains SP. as meaning that the person named informed 
the people that he had given or intended giving a spectaeulmm. 

| The account of this is so interesting that I give the words: "Sero reperi in lUbro ms. 
Lanthelmi Romieu Arelatensis scripto a. 1574, servatoque hodie Lugduni Bat inter Vom Germ, 
Gall. Q. 1. Legitur ibi/.SSsic: Ores ie commence icy a fere mention des Epitaphes d'Arles — 
— et en premier lieu ie veux reciter l'escrit memorable, qui se list clairement en une piece 
d'ivoire ou plustot de oorne de cerf, que fay, qui a este nouvellement trouvee icy a la poincte 
sax bord du Rosne, la quelle est si menue et estroicte, qu'elle n' est pas plus longne, ne pins luge, 
que la moytie du petit doigt de ma main, etaat percee a Tan des bouts : ou est fitite mention dt 
Otoeron, etde Cains An t antas," 


MENSE • PEBR • M • TVL • O • ANT • COS • ANOHTAL • 8IRTI • L • S • 

From this it appears that of the two expansions spectatus is the more probable ; 
bat even it is not satisfactory, and Mommsen with good reason calls it in ques- 
tion. He objects that the words of Horace by no means prove that spectator 
was the proper or ordinary term for expressing the fact that a gladiator had 
fought.* Pugnavit, he believes, would be much more clear and suitable than 
spectatus est. He also notices the inconsistency of the days named on the 
tesseroj with the days which we know were fixed for the ludi gladkUorii at Rome, 
viz., a.d. xiii xii. xL x. k. Apr. To these objections I would add, that there is 
no notice, so far as I am aware, in any ancient author, of tesserae gladiatorice. f 
The designation is a modern invention, accepted and used by those archaeolo- 
gists who read SP as spectatus, with reference to gladiators. . . . When I 
first examined the inscriptions on the tessera consulares, I had seen only those 
containing the names of slaves, and was inclined to conjecture that they might 
have been given to persons of that class as testimonials of approved character. 
Thus Terence, Adelphi, v. 6, 5, is mihi profecto est servos spectatus satis. On 
re-examination of the subject two or three years ago, I found the names of 
freemen also ; and observing the frequent mention of the Calends, Nones and 
Ides, I was led to think that the tesserce were in some way -connected with 
money. Hence I conjectured that the word was SPECTATOR, in the sense 
"examiner of money;" and now, perceiving that this conjecture derives sup- 
port from SPECTAT ' NVM * (t. e., as I read it, spectator numorum or numu- 
larius) X in the recently published Aries inscription, I submit this reading as 
more probable than any of which I am aware. 

" Of the use of specto and its derivatives in this sense, the following passage 
affords sufficient evidence : Ex omni pecunia certis nomimbus deduction** fieri 
sokbant, primum pro spectatione, &o. Cicero, Verr. v. 78 ; Cape hoc, sis. Qum 
das? Nwni sexcenti heic erunt Probi, numerati; fac sit mulier libera, Atque 
hue continuo adduce. Jam faxo heic erit. Non, hercle, quoi nunc hoc dem 
spectandum, sdo. Plautus, Persas, iii. 3 ; Quum me ipsum noris, guam elegant 

* The sense in which the word was understood by the greater number of those who received 
it, conveyed more than this, as I have elsewhere stated Mommsen's objection, however, as to 
the application of speetatou to gladiators is valid in whatever sense the term was taken. Indeed 
I do not recollect any passage in a Latin author, besides that cited from Horace, in which qpts- 
fgjiu is used with a reference, direct or indirect, to gladiators. 

f This designation is used by Ifaffei, Fabretti, Qrsato, Marini, Ac. And yet the phrase is, as 
I have remarked, unsanctioned by ancient authority. There is no passage with which I am 
acquainted that mentions any such object as a tetsera given as a reward, unless the words 
tabutan. iOico mUit in Suetonius, Claudius, c. 21, be taken in this sense, as Morcelli interprets 
ttsm. Bis explanation, however, is, in my judgment, very unsatisfactory. He seems to have 
forgotten the statement in Dk> Cassias, lz. 13, relative to the usage of Claudius at these shows: 
mipvZi plr lka\uxTa i%pr)ro, ra dk dft vXcie* fc oavtiag yp&fwv duSrjXov ; <• «•> 
froooiutnu rariatmu utus est ac fteroque tabulis inscripta tigMficaviL 

% The %%wulani did more than teU whether coin was good or base. They seem to have been 
tike our money brokers. Their occupation and position were below those of argentarii. In the 
Theodoalan Code, xvi 4, 5, ttvri and numularii are classed together. 


jormarwm spectator siem. Terence, Eunuch, iii 6, on which Donatns remarks : 
' Spectator, probator, utpecunics spectators dicuntur;' Adcipe : heic sunt quinquc 
argenti lectce numerate mince. Plautus, Pseudol, iv. 7, 50 ; LectwnCsti conveniet 
numerus quantum debut. Terence, Phormio, i. 2, 3, on which Donatns remarks : 
' Spectatione ledum est / Veri speciem calles, ne qua subarato mendosum Hnniat 
auro ? Persius, v. 105, on which Koenig remarks : ' Sumptum hoc ab Wo hominum 
genere, quorum erat probare numos, quique spectators vel docimastce vocabantur. 1 
In later times, the provers of gold were called spectators, as we know from 
Symmachus, Epist. iv. 56: Nullo jam provincialis auri incremento truiinam 
Spectator inclinat. In none of our English works on archaeology is there any 
explanation of either of these terms — spectaiio or spectator — bnt the necessity 
for employing persons skilled in difltingniahing base from good coin, and the 
origin of this spectatio, are well pointed out in an article by Dr. Schmitz, on 
Moneta, in Smith's ' Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities :' 

" ' As long as tbe Republic herself used pure silver and gold, bad money does not seem to 
have been coined by any one; but when, in 90 B.C., the tribune Livius Drusus suggested the 
expediency of mixing the silver which was to be coined with one-eighth of copper, a temptation 
to forgery was given to the people, and it appears henceforth to have occurred frequently. As 
early as the year 86 B.C. forgery of money was carried on to such an extent that no one was 
sure whether the money he possessed was genuine or false, and the praetor M. Marius Grati- 
dianus saw the necessity of interfering. (Cic De Off. iii. 20.) He is said to have discovered a 
means of testing money and of distinguishing the good from the bad denarii. (Plin. H. K. 
xxiiii. 46.) In what this means consisted is not clear ; but some method of examining silver 
coins must have been known to the Romans long before this time. (Lir. xxxli 2).' 

"Dr. Schmitz's interpretation of the passage in Pliny's Natural History 
seems to me very doubtful The words are — ' Miscuit denario triumvir Antonhu 
ferrum. Miscentur cera falsa moneta. Alii e pondere subtrahunt, quum sit 
justum bnadv e libris signari. Igitur ars facta denarios probare, tarn jucunda 
lege plebi, ut Mario Oratidiano vicatim iotas statuas dicaverit. 9 Ars facta dena- 
rios probare do not appear to me to signify * a means of testing money and of 
distinguishing the good from the bad denarii was discovered, 1 for that cannot 
hare been done lege, 'by a law; 1 but rather 'the testing of denarii was made 
an art, became a recognized occupation,' i. e., the law of Gratidianus provided 
for the appointment or recognition of a certain class, whose business it was to 
distinguish good and base denarii 

" It seems not improbable, then, that these tessera were carried, or, it may 
be, hung round the neck, by those who acted as spectatores, as badges indicative 
of their occupation, and that the inscription showed that they were authorized 
to act as such, having been approved on the stated days, or in the stated months. 
Thus the frequency of the occurrence of the Calends, Nones and Ides seems to 
be satisfactorily accounted for ; for these were, as is well known, the settling 
days, the principal times for money transactions. But a question presents 
itself —which may also be asked if we accept the old reading spectatus with 
reference to gladiators— why the days are stated on those tesserawhich. were found 
at or near the city, whilst the three examples of the month alone are on those 
found in other places, viz. , Parma, Modena and Aries ? Mommsen is of opinion 
that perhaps we should take in these instances the month as used for the Calends 
of the month— '/ortawe intelligenda sunt ipsa kalenda in tesseris his nescio quo- 


modo prcecipuce.' Another explanation of this distinction may be given by sup- 
posing that these badges or certificates were issued in Rome on any day of the 
month on which they were applied for, especially the Calends, Nones and Ides, 
being those on which the services of the spectators would be most required ; 
whilst in the country parts they were issued only once in the month, the day 
for such issue not being fixed, but left to the discretion of the issuing officers. 
" Still another view may be taken, that these tessera indicated the time, not 
from which the persons holding them might act as spectatores, but for or during 
which they were empowered to discharge that duty — in the city for a specified 
day — in the country for a specified month." 

6. About a year ago I was asked to explain an inscription that was 
stated to hare been found on a stone in Syria. It was " ANN * 
XTT ' P * 0." I suggested that there was a letter left out between 
P • C, and that the letter was V. f i.e.,I read the inscription " Ann(o) 
Duodecimo post urbem conditam" and gave as instances Grater, 1 13, 2, 
and Orelli, 3694, 3697. It appears, however, that the reading, Anno 
duodecimo post Christum 9 was preferred. In this article I propose 
examining the subject, so that there may be no reason for doubt. If 
the reading which was preferred be correct, I am compelled to infer 
that the inscription was spurious, for the era — A.D., anno Domini, 
P.C., post Christum, or A.C., ante Christum — was introduced by the 
monk, Dionysius Exiguus, in the sixth century after the birth of 
our Lord — some say in 525, others in 527, and others again in 532. 
Dionysius placed the Nativity in A.V.C. 753, and recommended the 
substitution of this mode of computation for the others that were then 
used, specially for the era of Diocletian. The following extract from 
" Hales 1 Chronology" may be useful *. 

" Unfortunately for ancient chronology, there was no one fixed or universally 
established era. Different countries reckoned by different eras, whose number 
is embarrassing, and their commencements not always easily to be adjusted or 
reconciled to each other; and it was not until AD. 532 that the Christian Era 
was invented by Dionysius fixiguus, a Scythian by birth, and a Roman abbot, 
who flourished in the reign of Justinian. 

" The motive which led him to introduce it, and the time of its introduction, 
are best explained by himself, in a letter to Petronius, a bishop : 

" ' Because St. Cyril began the first year of his cycle [of 95 years] from the 
153rd of Diocletian, and ended the last in the 247 th ; we, beginning from the 
next year, the 248th, of that same tyrant, rather than prince, were unwilling 
to connect with our cycles the memory of an impious [prince] and persecutor ; 
but chose rather to antedate the times of the years, from the incarnation of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, to the end that the commencement of our hope might 
be better known to us, and that the cause of man's restoration, namely, our 
.Redeemer's passion, might appear with clearer evidence/ 


" The era of Diocletian, which was chiefly used at that time, began with his 
reign, A.D. 284; and therefore the new era of the incarnation, A.D. 284+248 
=AD. 532. Strauchius, and other chronologers, I know not upon what 
grounds, date it A. D. 527, five years earlier. 

"How justly Dionysius abhorred Diocletian's memory, may appear from 
Eusebius, who relates, that in the first year of his reign, when Diodorns the 
bishop was celebrating the holy communion with many other Christians in a 
cave, they were all immured in the earth, and buried alive ! Hence, his era 
was otherwise called the Era of the Martyrs ; and not from the tenth, last and 
bloodiest of the Christian persecutions by the Roman emperors, in the 19th 
year of his reign. 

1 ' Dionysius began his era with the year of our Lord's incarnation and nativity, 
in U.C. 753, of the Varronian Computation, or the 45th of the Julian Era. And 
at an earlier period, Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who flourished under the 
Emperor Arcadius, A.D. 395, had dated the incarnation in the same year. 

"But by some mistake, or misconception of his meaning, Bede, who lived 
in the next century after Dionysius, adopted his year of the Nativity, U.C. 768, 
yet began the Vulgar Era, which he first introduced, the year after, and made 
it commenoe Jan, 1, U.C. 754, which was an alteration for the worse, as making 
the Christian Era recede a year further from the true year of the Nativity." 

As the foregoing extract sufficiently explains the motive that in- 
fluenced Dionysius, and the manner in which he introduced the new 
mode of computation, it remains for me to discuss the date of the 
Nativity, so as to indicate the errors of the date of the Vulgar 
Christian Era. 

The date of our Lord's birth includes the year, the month, and the 
day. We shall first consider the year, and then proceed to the 
month and the day. First, it k evident that our Lord's birth-day 
must have preceded the death of Herod, for we are told by St. 
Matthew that the return from Egypt took place " when Herod was 
dead." If, then, we can find out the year of Herod's death, we may 
be sure that, as "Jesus was born in the days of Herod the King," 
the year of the birth of Jesus Christ must have been before that. 
From Josephus, Antiq. xviL 8, § 1, it appears that Herod died, 
having reigned thirty-four years from the murder of Antigonus, 
and thirty-seven years from the date of his appointment as king. 
The latter event (on the same authority, Antiq. xiv. 14, §5,) was in 
the consulship of Dornitius Calvinus and Asirnas Pallia. Now we 
know that they were consuls in A.TT.C. 714. But we also know 
(Josephus, Antiq. xiv. 16, § 4,) that the death of Antigonus took place 
in the consulship of Vipeamus Agrippa and C animus G alius, i.e., in 
A. U.C. 717 ; and further, there ia evidence that proves that in the 


calculations of time by Josephus, he counts from the Jewish month, 
Nisan to Niwm, and that he reckons the portion of a year, either at 
the beginning or at the end, as one complete year. Hence it follows 
that the birth of Christ preceded the date of 754 A.U.C., which is the 
Vulgar Christian Era, by at least four years, for the death of Herod 
should be placed in 750 A.TJ.C. But we can ascertain not merely 
the year but the month of Herod's death, for it was between an 
eclipse of the Moon (Mareh 13th), and (Josephus, Aittiq. xvii. 6, 4,) 
shortly before the feast of the Passover, so that it was in the month 
of March. The year of our Lord's birth must then hare preceded 
March, B.C; 4. But from St. Matthew ii. 16, it appears that the 
year of the birth of our Lord should be placed about two years or 
under before the death of Herod, or, if we accept the inclusive method 
of counting years, between one year and five or six months before 
that event. This will give us B.C. 5 or 6. But there are other 
data from which calculations of the year of the Nativity have been 
made, viz.: (6) the appearance of the star; (c) the census by 
Augustus ; (d) the age at the baptism ; (e) the date of the first 
Passover after the baptism ; (/) the succession of the courses of the 
priests. Of these it is sufficient here to observe that there is not one 
of them that yields a certain result. 

As I have now proved that the date of the Nativity, commonly 
received since the time of Dionydvs Exiguxus, is inaccurate, I shall 
subjoin a precis, from "Hales* Chronology, 1 ' of the different dates 
that have been accepted : 


Tillemont, Mann, Priestly 747 7 

Kepler, Capellus, DodweU, Pagi 748 6 

Chrysostom, Petavius, Prideaux, Playfair, Hales 749 5 

Sulpitins Sevenw, Usher 750 4 

tremens, Tertullian, Clemens Alex., Eusebins, Syncellus, Baronius, ) 751 « 

Calvisias, Vossius ) 

Bptphanina, Jerom, Orosius, Bade, Salian, Sigonins, Scaliger 752 2 

ChronicoD Alexand., Dionysios, Luther, Labbsaus 753 1 


Herwart 754 1 

Paul of Middfeburgh 755 2 

Lydiat 756 3 

[Clinton adepts 5 B.C. as the year of the Nativity.] 

At present, in the West, December 25th is regarded as the day set 
apart for the commemoration of the birth of Christ, but for the first 


three hundred years it was celebrated on the day of the Epiphany 
From the authorities cited by Gieseler, L, p. 292, it appears that it 
was first appointed by Julius, Bishop of Home, A.D. 337-352. See 
Mommsen, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum f V6L I., p. 410, who cites 
the words of scriptor Syrus (apud Assemannum bibl. Oriente, Y. IL, 
p. 164) : " Causa ob quam mutarunt patres solemnitatem die 6 Jan. 
[i. e., Epiphania* die] et ad diem 25 Becembris transtulerunt, hoc fait: 
solemne erat Ethnicis hoc ipso 25 Becembris die nataUcia solis celebrare, 
in quibus accenderunt lumina festivitatis causa, Horum soGefnmum 
et festivitatum etiam Christians participes erant. Cum ergo animad- 
verterent doctores ad hoc festum propendere Christianos, consilio inito 
statuerunt hoc die vera natalicia esse celebranda, die vera 6 Jan. 
festum Epiphaniorum. Hie itaque una cum hoc instituto ad diem 
usque sextum invaluit mos ignium accendendorum." 

In the Fasti Philocali, the day VUl • K • IAN • (i.e. Dec 25) is 
marked N*- INVICTI • CM"- XXX i.e., N(atalis) invicti; c(ircenses> 
m(issus) zxx. Invictus is a common epithet of Mithras, or Sol, of 
whom, it is well known, Constantine the Great (Emperor from 306 
to 327 A.D.) was a worshipper. 


Ctatdeal Tutor and Dean of Residence in University College* Toronto* 

7. Plato, PhilebuSf 30 B. itcurav xal xavroiav *o<p(t& hztzaleiadat. 

The passage in which these words occur presents many difficulties, 
owing partly to the want of sequence in the grammatical structure 
of the sentences, partly to the obscurity of meaning. Professor 
Jowett somewhat freely renders, or rather paraphrases, this passage 
as follows : " For surely we cannot imagine that of the four classes, 
the finite, the infinite, the composition of the two, and the cause or 
fourth class, which enters into all things, giving to our bodies souls 
and the art of self-management, and of healing disease, and operating 
in other ways to heal and organize ; we cannot, I say, imagine that 
this last should have all the attributes of wisdom, and that whereas 
the elements exist, both in the entire heaven and in great provinces 
of the heaven, only fairer and purer, this should not also in that higher 


sphere have designed the nofllest and fairest of natures V 9 The italics 
are mine. In this rendering, which appears to present the opinions 
expressed in the notes of the commentators, there are several points 
to which I would direct attention. In the first place, it seems some- 
what awkward that htuaXeicdat should be given a passive meaning 
(appeUari), while p&inixavTjGOai, which is co-ordinate with it, is taken 
as active (effecisse). In the next place, I cannot help feeling that, 
thus taken, the sentence bt idv toTc nap rj/itv x. r. A., is but a poor 
antithesis to iv tootok; dk x. r. X. I think that it should be translated 
somewhat in the following manner : " And operating in other ways 
to heal and organize, summons to its aid every varied device of science" 
This would give intxaAetadac its more usual meaning of " calling in as 
helper, <fcc." Again, if the words xara /xsrdXa fiipij are to be rendered 
" in great provinces of the heaven" (too oupavou being understood), we 
are told that the elements exist both in the entire heaven and in great 
provinces of the heaven. Such pleonasms are certainly idiomatic 
among the Greeks ; but, one would think, should not be unnecessarily 
attributed to them. It would seem more in accordance with the con- 
text to render xard fieydXa fiipy "in large quantities" i.e., these elements 
not only exist in the entire heaven but also in great abundance there. 
They are moreover as superior in quality as in quantity to ours. 

8. Ibid., 42 C. robrwv zolvuv l£9js 6<fr6fisda, &&v Tifide aitavrwfiev, ijdovaq 
tat Auiras tpeudelq ert fiakXov ^ -zaxnwz <patvof±lva<; re xai ooaai iv tois 

Commentators usually put a comma after airarrwixev, to avoid mak- 
ing the accusative ydovas depend upon it, and supply a dative after 
ai:avTW[±£v. Stallbaum, however, shows that there is no need for 
resorting to this artifice, as there are numerous examples of similar 
verbs with an accusative instead of the dative. But it has occurred 
to me that this passage is susceptible of a very different explanation. 
From a comparison with a passage immediately preceding this (41 B), 
where Socrates says, " Let us stand up, then, like wrestlers to this 
new argument," I am inclined to think that here, too, we have one 
of those metaphors from the training, school, which one not unfre- 
quently meets with in the dialogues of Plato (cp. Phileb. 1 3 D, and 
Stallbaum's note on that passage). Instead, then, of rendering this 
passage, with Professor Jowett, " Next let us see whether in another 
direction we may not find pleasures and pains existing and appearing 
in living beings, which are still more false than these," I would render, 



" Next, then, we shall see, if we join issue in this way, pleasures and 
pains," &c. The surprised and indignant notat; dij xai 7r5c A^eef ; with 
which the defender of pleasure greets this home thrust, shows that 
the dialogue has not yet reached that easy didactic stage at which 
any suggestion unfavourable to his client will be suffered to pass 

9. Sophocles, Ajax, v. 416. roar 6 rts tppov&v larta. 

These words are generally supposed to be equivalent to " hoc sciai 
qui sapit" "Let him who is wise know this." In this case, they 
serve as a cue to the spectators. In order to see their force, it is 
necessary to bear in mind the stage at which they are uttered. Ajax 
has just recovered consciousness, and, after an outburst of despair, in 
which, like Shakespeare's Duchess of Gloster (Henry VL, pt ii, 
act iv., sc. iv.), he declares that henceforth "dark shall be his light 
and night his day," and accuses all nature of being in league with his 
foes — " long has it kept him about Troy, where he has won nothing 
but dishonour, but no longer shall it keep him in life " — he exclaims, 
rorrro r«r <ppov<ov lerw — " This let me while in my right mind resolve." 
As I take it, Ajax fears that he may again relapse into frenzy, and 
work yet more " sorrow for his friends and laughter for his foes ;" 
he will therefore make up his mind, while yet free from madness, to 
die. With regard to this interpretation, I would observe that ypov&v 
is repeatedly used with this signification in the Ajax, e. g., w. 82 and 
342 ; and r«c is often used, like our " one," not only for the second 
and third, but also for the first person (cp. v. 245 of this play), espe- 
cially where there is a hint of something unpleasant which is likely 
to happen to the person indicated — as, for instance, in the ludicrous 
scene between Dionysus and Xanthias, in the Frogs of Aristophanes 
(vv. 606, 628 and 664). 

10. Cicero, De Legibus, II. xxv. 62. "Gaudeo nostra iura ad 
naturam accommodari maiorumque sapientia admodum delector; Bed 
re[cedo] quiro, ut ceteri sumptus, sic etiam sepulchrorum modum. 
Marcus. Recte requiris." 

In this passage, which I have given according to Vahlen's text (as 
being that which adheres most closely to the MSS.), the chief diffi- 
culty lies in the words sed reeedo quiro, which are said to be thus 
given in those MSS. which are generally considered to be of highest 
authority. Vahlen's remedy would appear to be the least violent of 
those proposed; he would read sed requiro. Halm, Klotz, and Feld- 


kiigel, assign to Marcos those words which follow detector. Thus they 
read: "Marcus. Sed credo, Quvntie, ut c. s., sic etiam s. m. recte 
requiri." Either of these readings fails to account for the presence 
of several letters in the MSS. The following reading appears to me 
to be free from objection on this score: detector ; sed recte, credo, 
requiro .... modum. M. Recte requiris. With regard to the 
emendation here proposed, it is necessary to remark that recte credo 
would degenerate into recedo through one of the most frequent 
sources of corruption in MSS., viz., the confusion of the letters t and 
c ; it would be superfluous to adduce examples of this well known 
fact. Another step in this progress of error would be the omission, 
almost regular in MSS., of recurrent letters, which would account for 
the disappearance of ct and e; and, finally, the letter r being indicated, 
rather than written, by a dash, would readily escape notice. Thus 
the word progressa, which immediately follows, is said to be given as 
pcessa or processa in the best MSS. 

11. Ibid., U. xxv. 63. Here Vahlen gives the reading of the best 
MSS. as " Nam et Athenis iam illo mores a Cecrope, ut criunt, per- 
mansit hoc his terra humandi." He proposes nam et Athenis, (nostis) 
iam illos mores, &c. The reading given in the text of Nobbe, Klotz, 
and Halm — nam, et Athenis tile mos a Cecrope, <kc. — is said to be 
found as an interlinear correction of the MSS. Halm, however, in a 
foot note, speaks of the passage as a locus nondum sonatas. A state- 
ment which Madvig makes in his Adversaria (Vol. I., p. 40), that 
the words mores and maiores are occasionally interchanged in MSS., 
suggested what I conjecture to have been the original reading, 
namely : Nam et Athenis iam illo a Cecrope, maiores ut aiunt, <tc. 
" For at Athens too, even from the time of the famous Cecrops, as the 
ancients say, &c." The confusion of maiores with mores would lead 
naturally to this transposition of the words. The age of Cecrops 
would appear to have passed into a proverbial expression for the 
remotest antiquity, the words ut aiunt being regularly used in quot- 
ing a proverb. 

12. Virgil, Georgics, B. III., v. 348. 

"Omnia secnm 
Armentarios Afer agit, tectumque Laremque 
Annaque Amyclraumque canem Oresaamque pharetram : 
Non secus ac patriis aoer Romanus in armis 
Injusto sub fasce viam quum carpit, et hosti 
Ante expectatum positis atat in agmine castria." 


On this passage Conington remarks that " Keightley seems right 
in saying that in agmine ought to have been strictly in acie. There 
may be some rhetorical point in the catachresis to show the rapidity 
with which the line of march is exchanged for line of battle." I think 
that it is possible to give agmine its proper meaning, without assuming 
any catachresis. The heavy burden of stakes under which the Roman 
soldier is described, in the preceding line, as toiling along, would enable 
him, as Conington says, to exchange with rapidity the line of march 
for line of battle. As I take it, the idea conveyed is, that an enemy 
surprises the Romans while on the march ; instantly each man plants 
his stakes, and, to the amazement of the enemy, there is a stockade 
to storm instead of a column with unprotected flanks. This may be 
brought out, I think, without difficulty, by laying stress on agmine. 
I would render thus : " Not otherwise than when the brave Roman 
in the arms of his fathers, beneath an unequal burden wends his 
way, and unexpectedly, with pitched camp confronts the foe, though 
on the march." Perhaps, however, it is better to make hosti depend 
upon expectatum ; in which case the force of et will be more apparent ; 
thus, " when, beneath an unequal burden, he wends his way ; and 
suddenly, all unexpected by the foe, stands with pitched camp though 
on the march" 

13. Juvenal, Satire XIII., v. 197. 

" Poena autem veheinena ac multo saevior illis, 
Quas et Cctdicius gravis invenit aut Rhadamanthua, 
Nocte dieque suum gestare in pectore tea tern." 

Who the Ceedicius here mentioned was, the commentators are unable 
to discover. The scholiast, as usual, makes a guess, and gravely states 
that Caedicius was either a cruel judge, or something else, in the reign 
of Nero. It strikes me that the name is one coined from the verb 
ccedo, in which case it would be pretty nearly equivalent to " strike - 
'em." Thus it would do duty either for the " Jack Ketch " of the 
day, or for the cruel Draco of antiquity. 

14. Propertius, V. ix. 5. 

"Qua Velabra suo stagnabant flumine, quaque 
Nauta per nrbanas velincabat aquas." 

We have here one of those amusing attempts at derivation, in which 
the ancients were fond of indulging. Mr. Paley has the following 
note on this passage : " Velabra. — The low part of the city called the 
Velabrum is hero derived from vela, on the theory that it was once, 


like the place called Xfavat, at Athens, stagnant water. See on V., 
2, 8. Varro, L.L., V., § 43-44 : ' Olim paludibus mons (Aventinus) 
erat ab reliquis disclusus, itaque ex urbe advehebantur ratibus, quoius 
vestigia, quod ea, qua turn vehebantur, etiam nunc dicitur Velabrum. , — 
' Velabrum a vehendo. Velaturatn facere etiam nunc dicuntur, qui 
id mercede faciunt.' " 

There seems to be no doubt, from the above and similar passages 
(e. g., Ovid, F* 9 VI., 505), that the Velabrum was originally a marshy 
spot. It has occurred to me that a more satisfactory derivation than 
either of those given above, would be to suppose it connected, by the 
medium of the digamma, with the Greek ikoq, " a marsh ;" and if, 
as philologists suppose, the Latin vallis is of cognate origin with iXo?, 
this example would greatly add to the probability of the derivation 
which I propose. With regard to the termination of Velabrum, 
possibly, as in volutabrum, it is a mere suffix ; possibly, as in candela- 
brum, the termination, brum, retains the meaning of the root BHAR 
(found in <pip<», fero, <fec.), " bear," with which it is generally supposed 
to be connected. In this case, Velabrum would be, " The ferry of 
the marsh ;" and the old derivation from veho would not be so far 
wrong after all. 

15. Luscinia. This word is variously derived in the Lexica : 

(1) luscus and cano, "the bird singing at night." 

(2) lux and cano, " the bird singing at dawn." 

(3) Xvat and cano, " the liquid songstress." 

Of these derivations the first is commonly rejected, on the ground 
that lu8cus and cano would properly signify "the one-eyed songstress;" 
the second, because the bird does not sing merely at daybreak but 
all the night long, and frequently in the daytime too. 

With regard to the third, which has been received with more 
favour, I would object that, in almost every passage where the night- 
ingale is mentioned by the ancients, it is not the sweetness but the 
sadness of her song which appears to have impressed them. Why 
did this bird redouble her plaints during the night, when other birds 
of song were still and silent? The myth of Philomela, Procne, and 
Tereus (Ovid, Metam. VI. 424 foil.) furnished an answer to this 
question. Everywhere the nightingale, whether called Procne, Philo- 
mela, or otjSwv, is used as a symbol of ceaseless mourning. Sophocles 
speaks of her as the frantic mourner, whose unending plaint of " Itys 
ever Itys," best accords with the melancholy fancy of the forlorn 


Electra. *AXX &/U ■/ & arovdea^ Upapev <ppivaq } a A 'Itw, dt&v *Iwv 
dXopbperat, *opvts drutofUva. (Sophocles, Electra, v. 147.) 

iEschylus (Agamemnon, w. 1110 foil.) puts similar language into 
the mouth of the Chorus with regard to Cassandra's dirge. The name 
Itys is, of course, an onomatopoeia. It is superfluous to multiply 
examples; a few of the more striking ones will serve our purpose. In 
addition to those mentioned above, we may take Homer, Odyssey, B. 
XIX., v. 522; Catullus, Ode LXV., v. 14; Virgil, Georgia*, B. IT., 
v. 514. 

In all these passages it is the in/elix avis, the "hapless bird, 11 
which is present to their thoughts. From these considerations I 
have been tempted to propose do? and cano as a probable derivation. 
Bus is the prefix which we find in the compounds dtftfpjrfc, doedpoos 
and other words, with the notion of " hard, bad, unlucky, <fcc." The 
letters d and I are, as is well known, interchangeable, cp. e.g. ddxpvpa 
and lacrvma "a tear." Thus luscinia would be the "plaintive 
songstress. " 




Profttsor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, University CoUeffe, Toronto. 

1. A rigid body fixed at has at time t rotations a> x w t w 9 round 
the principal axes OA, OB, OC : to determine the changes per unit 
time in these rotations. 

The positions OA', OB, OC of the axes at time t + dt will be known 
from the displacements in time dt, due to these rotations, of the points 
A (a> lf o, o), B(o, at* o), C(o, o, o» 3 ). The components of these displace- 
ments in the directions OA, OB, OC, respectively, are evidently 
o, w i^3^, - <0 x a>Jlt, for A ; 

-to^Ugdt, o, a^at^t, for B; 

<0tft>}dt, - <o^a x dt, o, for . 

The component rotations at time t + dt are ^ + -77 1 ^> &*•* which 


may be represented by OA', OB, OC 1 . The changes of the rotations 

in time dt are therefore AA', BB f , CC. Resolving these changes into 

the components (AF, FP, PA'), (BG, GQ, QB), (CH, HE, RC), in 

the directions of the axes at time t, we get (observing that FP, PA 1 

are the displacements in time dt of the point F (a> x + -jj-dt, o, o), Ac., 


and neglecting infinitesimals above the first order) the following as 

the resultant changes in time dt : 

AF + GQ + HR =* (— P - ey*, + wm) dt=-£dt along OA ; 
dt dt 

dw+ do)a ^ 

FP + BG + RV= (a> x w 9 + Zp- - <o^ x ) dt = -j±dt along OB; 

dt dt 

PA' + QB + C7fl r =(-» 1 w 2 + w 8 oi l - ^) dt^^dt along OC . 

dt dt 

dw x d(o 2 d(o z . 
The changes per unit time are therefore -nr-> ~~JT> ~dT' m 

directions OA, OB, OC, respectively. 


2. To determine the component changes of the body's moment of 

At time t the components of the moment of momentum are Aa^ 
2fc>„ Ca>s in the directions of the principal axes, where A,B,C denote 
the principal moments of inertia. At time t + dt the components are 

A (a> x + -4r<ft)> &c.» i» the directions OA', OB, OC. Employing the 

figure in a new sense, the former components may be represented 
by OA, OB, OC, and the latter by OA', OB*, OC 1 . The changes 
of the moment of momentum in time dt are therefore AA f , BB, 
CO'. Resolving these changes into their components parallel to 
the axes at time t we get, as in the former case, (observing that 
FP, PA' are now the displacements in time dt of the point F 

(Att> x + A -~ dt, o, o), <fec.), the following as the resultant changes 

of the moment of momentum in time dt : 

(A --—- - Bwji> s + Cwj» t ) dt along OA ; 

(Att> x ti> z + B — —■ - Cwjttx) dt along OB ; 


( - Aw^ + Bu)^u) l + C —r-^) & along OC . 

The changes per unit time are therefore A —j- — (B - C) <^a»* Ac- 



in the directions OA, OB, OC, respectively. 

KovncBCB Slit, 1878. 



BY SANDFORD FLEMING, O.K.G., H. Imst. C.B., P.O. 8., F.R.Q.S., Lin M.C.I., Etc. 
BftgtneeHn^nicf Guudlaa Pftdfle BaOwmy. 

I propeee to direct the attention of the Institute to some pouts 
connected with the reckoning of time. I shall refer to the mine* 
inconveniences which in all parts of the world are daily experi- 
I shall likewise point out what strike me as the mere 
t difficulties arising from our present notation, and which the 
progressive character of the age is gradually developing. The im- 
portance of determining some means by which these inconveniences 
may be overcome, cannot fail to be admitted by all who recognize tike 
presenee of the difficulties of which I speak. 

The subject, by its character, cannot be limited in its bearing to 
Hamuli or indeed to any country. It is one which affects in different 
degrees every locality and individual on the face of the earth ; and it 
is of particular importance to all countries in which civilization ia 
making rapid strides, and of which the geographical features resemble 
those of Canada and the United States. 

I propose to consider the subject under the following aspects : 

1st The difficulties which arise from the present mode of reckoning 
time, owing to the extension of telegraph and steam communication* 
by land and water. 

2nd. The natural and conventional divisions of time. 

3rd. The systems of reckoning time, ancient and modern. 

4th. The necessity of meeting the defects caused by present usages, 
and the useful results which would be obtained from a uniform no** 
local system. 

5th. The practicability of securing all the advantages attainable 
from uniformity, without seriously interfering with existing local 


The division of the day into two halves, each containing 12 hoars, 
and each numbered from 1 to 12, is a fertile source of error and 

Travellers who have had occasion to consult railway guides and 
steamboat time-tables, will be familiar with the inconvenience result- 
ing from this cause ; none know better by experience how much the 
divisions ante meridian and post meridian have baffled their inquiries, 
•and how often these arbitrary divisions have led to mistakes. Were 
it necessary, innumerable instances could be given. The evil how- 
ever is one so familiar that it has come to be looked upon as 
unavoidable, and is, as a matter of course, silently endured. 

The halving of the day has doubtless long been in use, but beyond 
vits claim to antiquity, is a custom that confers not a single benefit, 
and is marked by nothing to recommend it. 

Another more serious difficulty, forced on the attention by the 
^science of the century, is mainly due to the agency of electricity, 
•employed as a means of telegraphy ; and to steam applied to locomo- 
tives. These extraordinary sister agencies having revolutionized the 
relations of distance and time, having bridged space, and drawn into 
closer affinity portions of the earth's surface previously separated by 
long and, in some cases, inaccessible distances. 

Let us take the case of a traveller in North America. He lands 
adb Halifax in Nova Scotia, and starts by a railway to Chicago 
'through the eastern portions of Canada. His route is over the 
Intercolonial, the Grand Trunk, and other lines. He stops at St. 
•John, Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton and Detroit. 
At the beginning of the journey he sets his watch by Halifax time. 
As he reaches each place in succession, he finds a considerable varia- 
tion in the clocks by which the trains are run, and he discovers that 
at no two places is the same time used. Between Halifax and 
Chicago he finds the railways observing no less than seven different 
standards of time. If the traveller remains at any one of the cities 
referred to, he must alter his watch to avoid inconvenience, and 
perhaps not a few disappointments and annoyances to himself and 
others. If, however, he should not alter his watch, he would 
discover on reaching Chicago that it was an hour and thirty-five 
minutes faster than the clocks and watches in that city. 

If his journey be made by one of the routes through the United 
States, the variation in time and its inconveniences will not be less. 


If he extends his journey west of Chicago, travelling from place to 
place until he reaches San Francisco, he will meet continual change, 
and finally discover a loss in time of nearly four hours (3h. 56m.). 
Between the extreme points there are many standards of time, each 
city or place of importance generally being governed by its own 
meridian. Hence the discrepancies which perplex the traveller in 
moving from place to place. 

On the continent of Europe, and indeed wherever lines of com- 
munication extend between points differing to any considerable extent 
in longitude, the same difficulty is experienced. On a journey from 
Paris to Vienna or to St. Petersburg, the standard time employed 
by the railways changes frequently, and the extreme difference in 
time between the first and last city is nearly two hours. As railways 
and telegraphs are extended in Russia, the inconveniences will become 
of serious importance in that country. Within the limits of Russia 
in Europe and Asia, the extreme variations of time is about twelve 

Suppose we take the case of a person travelling from London to 
India. He starts with Greenwich time, but he scarcely leaves the 
shores of England, when he finds his watch no longer right. Paris 
time is used for the journey, until that of Rome becomes the standard. 
At Brindisi there is another change. Up the Mediterranean, ships' 
time is used. At Alexandria, Egyptian time is the standard. At 
Suez, ships' time is resumed, and continues, with daily changes, until 
India is reached. Arriving at Bombay, the traveller will find two 
standards employed, local time and railway time, the latter being 
that of Madras. If he has not altered his watch since he left England, 
he will find it some five hours slow. Should he continue his journey 
to China, it will have fallen eight hours behind. 

In the United Kingdom the difficulties due to longitude are only 
felt in a modified form. The greater island, embracing England and 
Scotland, is comparatively limited in width ; one standard of time 
is therefore used. It is only in respect to the sister island, Ireland, 
that the difference in longitude calls for a difference in time. In the 
whole United Kingdom, consequently, there are practically only 
two standards, viz., Greenwich time and Irish time, the difference 
being twenty-five minutes. No one, therefore, whose experience has 
been confined to the United Kingdom, can form an adequate idea of 
the extent of the inconvenience arising from the causes alluded to, 


where geographical circumstances render necessary the use of a mul- 
tiplicity of standards. 

The railway system is the principal agent in the developing of 
the difficulties referred to, and the still further extension of steam 
communications in great continental lines is forcing the subject 
on public attention. Canada supplies a good illustration of what b 
occurring. The railways built and projected will extend from the 
eastern coast of Newfoundland on the Atlantic, to the western coast 
of British Columbia on the Pacific, embracing about seventy-five 
degrees of longitude. Every Canadian city has its own time. In- 
numerable settlements are now being formed throughout the country 
ultimately to be traversed by railways ; and in a few years, scores of 
populous towns and cities will spring up in the now uninhabited 
territories between the two oceans. Each of these places will have 
its own local time ; and the difference between the clocks at the two 
extremes of Canada will be fully five hours. The difficulties which 
will ultimately arise from this state of things are apparent They are 
already in some degree felt, they are year by year increasing, and 
will at no distant day become seriously inconvenient. This is the 
case not in Canada alone, but all the world over. 

Again, there is a difficulty with regard to the determination of not 
only the precise hour, but even the day, of any occurrence under our 
present system of reckoning. 

Persons who inhabit different sections of the earth, dMfer from 
each other in their reckoning of the day. At one place it is noon, at 
another it is midnight ; at a third it is sunrise, at a fourth it ib sun- 
set. In consequence we have the elements of confusion, which involve 
in some cases the mistake of a whole day. 

People even living in the same meridian may differ a day in their 
usual reckoning of time, according as the countries they inhabit have 
been colonized from the one side or the other of the globe. There 
are instances in the Pacific Ocean where islands almost adjacent 
reckon by different days of the month and week ; a circumstance 
calculated to produce much confusion when intercourse becomes 

In Alaska the days of the week and month were one day in 
advance of those in the adjacent colony of British Cbhimbia, indeed 
of the whole of America. On the advent of citizens of the United 
States a few years ago, when that territory was transferred by Russb, 


the Saturday was found to be the Sunday of the old residents. For 
ordinary business purposes a change became necessary, and a dispen- 
sation was granted in 1871 by the dignitaries of the Greek Church 
in Russia, authorizing their missionaries and adherents in Alaska to 
celebrate Sunday a day later, or on Monday, according to the old 

The reverse has been met in another quarter of the globe. The 
Philippine Islands, lying between Australia and Asia, and about 100 
degrees of longitude to the west of Alaska, were discovered in 1521 
by the illustrious Magellan in his memorable first circumnavigation 
of the globe. That navigator followed the sun in his path around 
the world. Leg&api succeeded him and took possession of these 
important Islands in the name of Philip IL, king of Spain. The 
Philippine Islands extend for a thousand miles from north to south, 
they embrace Manilla, one of the oldest cities of the Indies, and they 
contain a population of 5,000,000. They were colonized, as well as 
discovered, by Spaniards coming from the east ; and as a consequence 
the reckoning of the inhabitants has for more than three centuries 
remained a day behind the day in British India and the neighbouring 
countries in Asia. 

Travellers who arrive at New Zealand or the Australian colonies, 
by the San Francisco route, meet the same difference, owing to the 
fact that the countries in the South Pacific were colonized from the 
west The day of the week and of the month carried from San 
Francisco, never agrees with the day and date reckoned by the in- 
habitants at the destination of the steamer. 

All travellers who have made the voyage between America and 
Ana have experienced the difficulty in reckoning referred to. Those 
who have proceeded westward have lost, while those who have 
travelled eastward have gained a day. In Mrs. Brassey's " Around 
the World in the Yacht 'Sunbeam,'" this experience is recorded. 
The journal of that lady passes from Wednesday, January 10th, 
directly to Friday, January 12 th — Thursday, January 11th, having 
no existence with the travellers. 

In sailing across the Pacific from west to east, one day has to be 
repeated before landing on the American coast If, for example, the 
correction be made on Wednesday, 1st July, there* will be two 
Wednesdays in the one week, and two days of the month dated 
July 1st. 


A journey round the world is now an everyday undertaking, and 
is accomplished with comparative ease. Suppose two travellers set 
out from a given place, one going eastwardly, the other westwardly. 
A singular circumstance will result when they both return to the 
common starting point, and the reason is obvious. One mva. will 
arrive, according to his reckoning, say on Tuesday, 31st December, 
when in fact at that locality it is Wednesday, January 1st. The 
other traveller, assuming that he has kept accurately a daily journal, 
will enter in his diary on precisely the same day, Thursday, January 
2nd. This consequence has been brought out by Edgar Allan Poe, 
in his amusing story of " Three Sundays in one Week," but it no 
longer can be held to be an imaginary contingency, since steam com- 
munication by land and water is now affording extraordinary facilities 
for making the tour of the globe. 

To illustrate the difficulty more particularly. First, let us select 
points in four quarters of the globe, each about ninety degrees apart — 
say in Japan, Arabia, Newfoundland and Alaska. If we assume it 
to be Sunday midnight at the first mentioned place, it must be noon 
at the opposite point, Newfoundland, but on what day is it noonf 
Arabia being to the west of Japan, the local time there will be 6 p.m. 
on Sunday ; and Alaska, lying to the east of Japan, the time there 
will be 6 a.m. on Monday. Again, when the clock indicates 6 p.m. 
on Sunday in Arabia, it must be Sunday noon at a point ninety 
degrees further west, or at Newfoundland; when it is 6 a.m. on 
Monday at Alaska, it must be noon on Monday ninety degrees further 
east, also at Newfoundland. Thus, by tracing local time east and 
west from a given point to its antipodes, the clock on the one hand 
becomes twelve hours slower, on the other hand twelve hours faster. 
In the case in point, while it is midnight on Sunday in Japan, at 
precisely the same moment it is noon at Newfoundland on two dis- 
tinct days, viz., on Sunday and on Monday. 

Secondly, let us trace local time only in one direction around the 
earth. The day does not begin everywhere at the same moment. 
Its commencement travels from east to west with the sun, as the earth 
revolves in the opposite direction, and it takes an entire revolution 
of the globe on its axis for the day everywhere to be entered on. 
Immediately on the completion of one revolution the inception of 
any one day ends, and at this moment the end of the day begins ; 
and the globe must make another complete revolution before the end 


of the day entirely finishes. The globe mast in fact make two entire 
revolutions before any one week day runs out, consequently each and 
every day of the week runs over 48 hours ; and, taking the whole 
globe into account, two civil days always co-exist. The first 24 
hours of one day co-exist with the last 24 hours of its predecessor, 
while the remaining 24 hours co-exist with the first 24 hours of the 
day which follows. 

It is difficult to accept the fact that any one day lasts more than 
24 hours ; but it can be demonstrated that it is the case. Let us 
place together several maps of the world on Mercator's " Projection," 
so as to represent, in consecutive order, each part of the earth's sur- 
face as it passes the sun during several diurnal revolutions. (See 

AA\ A l A\ and A % A % t are intended to represent each a complete 
map of the world. Within each of these limits every place on the 
earth's surface is brought under the sun during a daily revolution. 

The vertical lines E I N R V represent meridians, for the sake of 
simplicity selected 60° degrees apart, and the stars or dots at their 
intersection denote the beginning and end of a day on each of the 
six meridians. As the earth revolves, the sun passes successively 
the meridians of those localities, with an interval of four hours 
elapsing between each. 

Let us assume it to be 12 o'clock midnight on Thursday at meridian 
A. At that moment and at that place Friday begins and runs for 
24 hours, or on the diagram from A to A 1 . 

Four hours later Friday begins on meridian E> and runs four hours 
on the second map, or into the 2nd revolution of the earth. Four 
hours still later Friday begins on meridian / and runs eight on the 
second map or into the 2nd revolution. This goes on from spot to 
spot, until at last the commencement of Friday reaches the last 
meridian, and at that point Friday runs entirely across the second 
map to A*. Thus Friday begins at A, runs during two complete 
revolutions of the earth, as shown on the map from A to A 1 . 

The diagram will thus illustrate tbe duration of every day in the 
week, and it becomes obvious, when we take a general view of the 
whole globe on any given day, say Saturday, that day begins in the 
middle of Friday and does not end until the middle of Sunday. 
Friday, on the other hand, beginning in the middle of Thursday, 
runs into the middle of Saturday, while Sunday commences at the 
moment Friday ends. To state the case differently : the same moment 


of absolute time which is part of Saturday in cone place, is equally 
part of Friday and of Sunday in some other places east and west 

It is a preconceived idea with many that there is a simultaneous 
Sunday over the earth, and that Christians in every meridian keep 
the Lord's day at one and the same time. Facts, however, establish 
that this is a mistake. From its first commencement to its final 
-ending, the Sunday extends over 48 hours. Indeed, if we take into 
account the remarkable circumstance mentioned with regard to 
Alaska and the Philippine Islands, Sunday has been discovered to 
run over some 55 hours. The same may be said of any day in the 
week ; and as a consequence we have, taking the whole globe into 
view, Saturday and Monday running over the intervening Sunday to 
overlap each other about seven hours. We have in fact as a constant 
occurrence, portions of three consecutive days co-existent. 

From the fact that not only are the hours of the day different in 
every meridian, but that different days are constantly in progress on 
the face of the globe, it is a difficult matter under our present system 
of reckoning to assign relatively the hour and day when events take 
place. We may learn of an occurrence, and the time assign**! will 
be correct in the meridian of the locality. Everywhere else it will 
be inaccurate. Indeed, if the fact of the occurrence be transmitted 
over the world by telegraph, it may, in some places, be recorded on 
different days.* If the incident occurs at the dose of a month, or a 
year, it may actually take plaoe in two different months, or two 
distinct years. 

Under our present system it is quite possible for two events to 
take place several hours apart, the first and older occurring in the 
new year in one locality ; the second, although the more recent in 
absolute time, falling, in another locality, within the old year. The 
same may be said of events that occur during the period which 
elspsos when one century merges into another. In one part of the 
globe the same event may transpire in the nineteenth century, while 
in another it falls within the twentieth century. 

These explanations set forth the inconveniences and the ambiguity 
inseparable from the ordinary mode of reckoning. The system, 
besides being unscientific and inconvenient, must, as time rolls on, 
inevitably lead to countless mistakes. In fact, unless the geographical 

• Time and m Tbleoraph.— A message dated 8imla, 1.55 a.m. Wednesday, was received la 
London at 11.47 p.m. on Tuesday. As the clerk said, with pardonable ooohwioa, « Why, tail 
i was seat off to-morrow. "—Timu. 

Fourth Map. 
R N 


position be specified as an important dement of the date, there can 
be no absolute certainty with regard to time, as we at present note 
it in ordinary civil afiairs. 

The day ia * purely local phenomenon. It begins and ends at 
every spot on the cireumferonee of the globe at different instants in 
absolute time, from its very nature, there are as many different 
local days as there are points differing in longitude ; and in order to 
make any comparison of the dates of different countries with each 
other, it is necessary, as in astronomical calculations, to make addi- 
tions or deductions for the longitude of the places of observation. 
It need scarcely be argued that this process must become an exceed- 
ingly troublesome matter in the ordinary business of the world, 
especially when rapid and frequent intercourse between remote 
sections becomes general 

I seed not further refer to the objections urged against the modes 
ef keeping time, handed down to us from bygone centuries. It is 
clear from all experience that the customs which we still cling to, are 
indifferently adapted to the circnmstanoes of the age, and that some 
better means of reckoning and verifying dates will soon be, if they 
are net already, urgently demanded. 

A remedy for the evils to which yomr attention is directed may 
net generally be felt to be a pressing necessity; but the problem is 
obviously of no limited importance to the generation which is to 
snsoeed us, and it is not now too soon to seek far its solution. The 
minor inconveniences alluded to may be overcome in independent 
localities, as necessity dictates some arbitrary compromise; but if 
saeh country spontaneously adopted its own remedy, a want of uni- 
formity of system, it is to be feared, will result, and increase the 

The major difficulties to which I have referred are more general 
in their character, and in seeking for a remedy, uniformity of system 
is held so be of first importance, and consequently the broadest cos- 
mopolitan view should be taken. 

It is to be feared that no immediate solution to the problem may be 
possible ; but a general inquiry into the science of ohronometry may 
suggest means by which the difficulties may in some degree be met. 


Time is determined in nature by the motions of the heavenly 
bodies. The great natural divisions are three in number : the year, 


the lunar month, and the day. All other divisions of time, as the 
civil month, the week, the hour, the minute, and the second, although 
long in general use, are arbitrary, conventional and artificial. 

The employment of the lunar month for reckoning time is not 
general, although some nations, such as the Turks, Jews and Chinese, 
have preferred a lunar chronology. In China the age of the moon 
and the day of the month are identical. 

The period measured by the diurnal movement of the earth on its 
own axis constituted the first space of time reckoned by the human 
race, and is undoubtedly the most important to man in all stages of 
civilization. It involves the most familiar phenomena of light and 
darkness, and embraces the constantly recurring periods of wakeful- 
ness and sleep, of activity and rest. 

A day is the shortest measure of time afforded by nature. It is 
denoted by the revolution of the earth, and although the motion of 
the earth is uniform, we have three kinds of natural days all varying 
in length — the solar, lunar, and sidereal. 

A solar day is the period occupied by a single revolution of too 
earth on its axis in relation to the sun. 

A lunar day is the interval of time occupied by a revolution of the 
earth on its axis in relation to the moon. 

A sidereal day is the period required for a complete revolution of 
the earth on its axis in relation to any one fixed star. 

Of these three natural days, the sidereal day is the only one uniform 
in longth. The lunar day, on account of the irregular and complicated 
motion of the moon in the heavens, is never employed as a measure of 
time. The solar day is variable in length on account of the ellipticity 
of the earth '8 orbit Solar time is that shown by a sun-dial. 

Although the sidereal day is uniform in length, inasmuch as it 
has no relation to the daily return of light and darkness, it is not 
employed for civil purposes. The commencement of the sidereal day 
is constantly changing throughout the year ; at one period it comes 
at midnight, at another period at high noon. 

It has been found convenient, therefore, to establish an artificial 
day, uniform in length, designated the mean solar day. 

The mean solar day, as its name implies, is the average length of 
all the natural solar days in a year, and is the time intended to be 
indicated by ordinary clocks and watches. 


The natural solar day is at one season of the year 14 minutes 32 
seconds shorter, and at another 16 minutes 1 7 seconds longer than the 
mean. Thus the extreme variation is half an hour and 49 seconds. 

The earth revolves in its orbit in about 365^ days. To avoid 
fractions of days, it has been found convenient to establish three 
years in succession of 365 days, and each fourth year 366 days. The 
latter are designated leap years. 

While an ordinary solar year has but 365 days, it has 366 sidereal 

A solar day, therefore, exceeds the length of a sidereal by about 
j£?th part of a day, or nearly four minutes (3 minutes 55.9094 

The mean solar day, according as it is employed for civil or astro- 
nomical purposes, is designated the civil day, or the astronomical day. 
The former begins and ends at midnight ; the latter commences and 
ends at noon. The astronomical day is understood to commence 
twelve hours before the civil day, but its date does not appear until 
its completion, twelve hours after the corresponding civil date. The 
two dates, therefore, coincide only during the later half of the civil 
and the earlier half of the astronomical day. 


It has been stated that all shorter periods of time than a day are 
conventional and arbitrary, there being no measure less than a day 
denoted by nature. The only exception is the interval marked by 
the rising and setting of the sun ; a period of time varying with the 
latitude and changing from d*y to diy with the seasons. 

The sub-division of the day into parts has prevailed from the 
remotest ages ; though different nations have not agreed, either with 
respect to the epoch of its commencement, the number of the sub- 
divisions, or the distribution of the several parts. 

The division of the day with which we are most familiar is that 
which separates the whole space of time occupied by a diurnal revo- 
lution of the earth into two equal parts ; one part extending from 
midnight to noon, the other part from noon to midnight. These 
half days are sub-divided into twelve portions or hours, and these 
again into minutes and seconds. 

Astronomers do not divide the day into two sets of twelve hours. 
The astronomical day, extending from noon to noon, is reckoned by 
hours running from one to twenty-four. 


In China and same other parts of the world, no half days are used. 
The Italians, the Bohemians and the Poles have a division of the 
day into twenty-four parts, numbered from the first to the twenty- 
fourth, from one o'clock to twenty-four o'clock. The Chinese divide 
the day into twelve parts, each being equal to two hours of our 
time ; these they again divide into eight parts, thus sub-dividing the 
whole day into ninety-six equal parts. The Chinese astronomers, 
according to some authorities, divide the day into 100 parts, and 
each of these into 100 minutes, so that the whole contains 10,000 
minutes. The inhabitants of Malabar have divided the day into six 
parts, each of these again into 60 parts. The ancient Tartars, Indians 
and Persians divided the day into eight parts, they' had also a 
division of sixty parts. 

In Japan there are four principal points of division — at noon, mid- 
night, sunset and sunrise, dividing the natural day into four variable 
parts. These four parts are divided each into three equal portions, 
together making twelve hours. Each hour is again divided into 
twelve parts, thus making in all one hundred and forty-four sub- 
divisions of the day. The six hours between sunrise and sunset 
differ in length, day by day, from the six hours between, sunset and 
sunrise. During the summer the hours of the day are much longer 
than those of the night, and shorter, on the contrary, in the winter. 

The division of that portion of the day during which the sun is 
above the horizon, into parts, belongs to the remotest ages of antiquity. 
The division of the other portion, which embraces the period of dark- 
ness, is of more recent date. It was not introduced at Rome until 
the time of the Punic Wars. 

In early times the only divisions recognized were aunrise and sun- 
set. Afterwards the division of the interval of daylight into two 
parts was made to denote mid-day. For many ages the Romans 
took no public notice of any point in the diurnal revolution of the 
earth, excepting mid -day. The precise time was manifested when 
the line of the sun's shadow foil along the forum in a particular 
direction, and the fact was duly announced by sound of trumpet. 

Before mechanical means were adopted for the division of the day, 
only die vague, natural divisions of forenoon, afternoon, morning, 
evening and night could be used. Mention is made of the erection 
of the first sun dial at Rome by Papiritts Cursor, 293 B.C., and the 
division of time into hours. The employment of sun dials led to a 

mnMrocKONiirG. 109 

singular consequence, the number of hours were made constant 
between sunrise and sunset, and instead of being equal in length, the 
hour varied with the length of daylight Whatever the moments of 
sunrise and sunset, the interval of light was divided into 12 parts. 
If the sun rose at 4 a.m» and set at 8 p.m., according to our notation, 
each hour would be equal in length to 80 of our minutes. Old habits 
are so strong that this constantly varying system was adhered to long 
after mechanical time-keepers were introduced, and attempts were 
made to regulate clocks to tell the unequal hours. like the Romans; 
the Greeks divided the intervals of light between sunrise and sunset, 
whatever its length, into 12 equal parts, subject to change from day 
to day. The custom of making the hours variable is still followed 
by some eastern nations. 

The system of dividing the day by the rising and setting of the 
sun makes the hours indefinite periods, as they continuously change 
with the seasons. Except at the equinoxes, the hours of the night 
and day can never be of equal length. Near the equator the varJs>- 
tions are least ; they increase with every degree of latitude until the 
arctic and antarctic circles are reached, within which a maximum is 
attained. Even in the latitude of Rome, the length of the hours of 
daylight and darkness under this system have an extreme difference 
of 75 minutes. In Spitsbergen the sun sets about the beginning ef 
November, and remains below the horizon for more than three 
months. It does not set for an equal period after the middle of May. 

Sun dials had two great defects, they were unserviceable at night 
and during cloudy weather. The clepsydra or water clock was 
accordingly introduced at Rome about 158 B.C., by Scipio Nasie* 
Oorculum. It measured time by allowing water to escape through 
an orifice in a vessel, as sand flows through a modern sand gfass. 
Subsequently some sort of toothed-wheel work was applied to the 
clepsydra by Oteabius (A. D. 120). Diurnal and nocturnal tana 
was measured in this* or some other rude manner for many centuries. 
Besides sun dials, gnomons and clepsydrae, all of which appear to 
have been known to the Egyptians; Indians, Chaldeans, Babylonians 
and Persians long before their Introduction at Rome, mention is 
made of a contrivance by which a mechanical figure dropped a stone 
into a braaen basin every hour, producing a loud sound which for a 
great distance announced the divisions of time. King Alfred ens- 
ployed as a time-keeper six wax candles, each 12 inches long. Three 


inches burned in about an hour, and thus the six candles lasted 
24 hours, each being lighted in succession by an attendant. The 
system of measuring time by the burning of candles was subsequently 
used in monasteries. About the time of the eleventh century clocks 
moved by weights and wheels were first introduced. The pendulum, 
clock was invented in the 17th century. 

The Babylonians, Persians, Indians, Syrians, Greeks and other 
ancient nations, began their day at sunrise, and had divisions cor- 
responding to morning, forenoon, mid-day, afternoon, evening and 
night. The Jews had four divisions, viz., evening, morning, noon 
and midnight, the two first being much longer than noon and mid- 
night. The civil day of the Jews began at sunrise, their sacred day 
at suuset. The latter mode was followed by the Athenians and 
ancient Gauls. 

The ancient, like the modern, Arabians began their day at noon. 

The Chaldean astronomers divided the day into sixty parts ; like 
the modern Chinese, they also had a division of the day into twelve 

The ancient Egyptians (probably B.C. 1000) divided the day 
equally into day and night, and again sub-divided each half into 
twelve hours, numbered from 1 to 12; the night with them com- 
menced six hours before and terminated six hours after midnight ; 
the day began six hours before noon and lasted twelve hours, or 
until six hours after noon. It is probable that the Egyptians had 
different modes of computing the day in different provinces. Accord- 
ing to Pliny, they reckoned it from one midnight to another. The 
astronomers of Cathay and the East Indies reckoned it in the same 
manner. The Mohammedans from one twilight to another. 

The day is reckoned to begin in China before midnight, the first 
hour extending from 11 p.m. to 1 a.m. of our mode of reckoning. 
The Jews, Turks, Austrians and others, with some of the Italians, 
have begun their day at sunset. The Arabians begin their day at 
noon, and in this respect they resemble the astronomers and navi- 
gators of modern nations. In Japan it has been customary to adhere 
to the practice of the ancient Babylonians in beginning their day at ' 

The above are some of the customs, gleaned from history, which have 
prevailed at various times in different countries with respect to the 
day and its sub-division. To these may be added the custom prac- 
tised at sea by navigators. Mariners of different nations have had 


different customs, but the most common practice on shipboard is to 
divide the 24 hours into six equal portions called " watches," and 
these again into eight equal parts known as " bells/ 1 and numbered 
from I to 8. Thus, the whole day is sub-divided into 48 equal parts. 
The period of time called a " watch " is four hours in length, the 
reckoning being as follows : 

From noon to 4 p.m., the afternoon watch. 

" 4 p.m. to 8 p.m , the dog watches (from 4 to 6 being the 

first dog watch ; from 6 to 8 being the second dog watch). 
" 8 p.m. to midnight, the first (night) watch. 
" midnight to 4 a.m., the middle (or second night) watch. 
" 4 a. m. to 8 a.m., the morning watch. 
" 8 a.m., to noon, the forenoon watch. 

This division into watches has a remarkable similarity to the prac- 
tice followed by the Jews before the captivity. They divided the 
night into three watches, the first lasting till midnight, the middle 
watch lasting till cock-crow, the morning watch lasting until sunrise. 

From what has been set forth, it would appear that the sub- 
divisions of the day have not been less varied than the computations 
of the day itself. Man has reckoned the day to begin at sunrise, at 
sunset, at noon, at midnight, at twilight, at one hour before mid- 
night, at six hours before midnight, and at six hours before noon. 
He has divided it in a great variety of ways, viz. : First, into two, 
four, twelve, twenty-four and one hundred and forty-four unequal 
parts ; second, into two, four, six, eight, twelve, twenty-four, forty- 
eight, sixty, ninety-six and into one hundred equal parts, without 
including the small sub-divisions of minutes and seconds. The com- 
mon practice at present with most civilized nations is to divide the 
day into two series of twelve hours each, a custom which corresponds 
very closely with that followed by the ancient Egyptians long before 
the Christian era. Thus, while we have made extraordinary advances 
in all the arts and sciences, and in their application to everyday life, 
we find ourselves clinging to a conventional and inconvenient mode 
of computing time ; one not materially different from* that practised 
by the Egyptians perhaps thirty centuries ago — a custom which an- 
swered every purpose when the world was young and its inhabited 
portion of narrow limit, but now indefensible in theory and incon- 
venient in practice. 

112 TME-BBCKormwr. 

The Chinese system would, without a doubt, rait the requ i re m e n ts 
of this age much better than that which we now follow. The halving 
of the day is one source of difficulty which ought not to exist, and it 
would be an important step to imitate the custom of computing tune 
which is followed by that old oriental civilization. The adoption of 
the Chinese system, by which half days would be thrown out of uae, 
would not, however, obviate the other very serious objections which 
have been raised. To overcome at onoe ail the difficulties is the 
problem which presents itself for solution. 


It has been stated that the period occupied by a diurnal revolution 
of the earth, is the shortest measure of time which we find in nature. 
As a consequence, man is left to reckon and sub-divide this measure 
in the way best calculated to promote his own convenience. There 
can be no doubt whatever that all smaller divisions, except tint 
produced by the rising and setting of the sun, must be artificial 
and arbitrary. 

When the decimal system was adopted by the French, it was pro- 
posed to divide the day into ten and a hundred parts; a scheme whiea 
would probably be the best at this age of the world, had the whole 
system of horology to be established de novo. In view of generally 
prevailing customs, however, it will doubtless be felt that any attempt 
to introduce the decimal division of the day would be unwise; that it 
would be futile to propose a change which could only succeed by 
seriously interfering with the present notations. 

The progress of the world may indeed before long demand • 
radical change in our ehronometry ; but the present method of com- 
puting time in the more civilized parts of the earth is so interwoven 
with every day life, that it cannot in the meantime be disregarded. 
It will be evident that the consideration of any change should be 
based on the full recognition ot established customs. Instead of 
attempting to uproot and supersede the present system, it is con- 
sidered that any new scheme to meet the requirements of the age 
should rather be engrafted on and be in as complete harmony m 
possible with the old one. 

In this view the following sugges tio ns are offered : 

Our first effort should be to find a suitable unit measure of tnm, 
uniform in length, and fl for obvious reasons, the shortest to be 
in nature. 



The sidereal day fulfils these conditions; and therefore suggests 1 
itself as being suited for the standard required; 

Th» sidereal day is not, however, sufficiently marked for the orcfr 
nary purposes of life. The generality of mankind could not easily 
note the culmination of a star. On the other hand, the diurnal 
return of the sun in the heavens is a more striking and easier 
observed phenomenon. Accordingly, there is everything to suggest 
the adoption for the unit measure, not the solar day on account of 
its variable length, but the mean period occupied by a revolution of 
the earth on its axis, in relation to the sun. 

That period would be precisely equal in length to the artificial 
day, known as the mean solar day. The unit measure proposed 
should not, however, be considered in the light of an ordinary day> 
but rather as a known period of abstract time — "day" being the 
name given to denote certain local phenomena successively and 
continuously occurring at the earth's surface. 

It is proposed to divide the unit measure into twenty-four equal 
parts, and these again into minutes and seconds, by a standard time- 
keeper or chronometer, hypothetioally stationed: at the centre of the 

PlO. 1. 

It is proposed that, in relation to the whole globe, the dial plate 
of the central chronometer shall be a fixture, as in Fig. 1 ; that each 


of the twenty-four divisions into which the unit of time is divided, 
shall be assumed to correspond with certain known meridians of 
longitude, and that the machinery of the instrument shall be arranged 
and regulated so that the index or hour hand shall point in succession 
to each of the twenty-four divisions as it became noon at the corres- 
ponding meridian. In fact, the hour hand shall revolve from east to 
west with precisely the same speed as the earth on its axis, and shall 
therefore point directly and constantly towards the sun, while the 
earth moves round from west to east. 

Each of the twenty-four parts into which the time-unit is proposed, 
as above, to be divided, would be exactly equal in length to an hour ; 
but they ought not to be considered hours in the ordinary sense, but 
simply twenty-fourth parts of the mean time occupied in the diurnal 
revolution of the earth. Hours, as we usually refer to them, have a 
distinct relation to noon or to midnight at some particular place on the 
earth's surface, while the time indicated by the standard chronometer 
would have no special relation to any particular locality or longitude. 
It would be common and equally related to all places, and the twenty- 
four sub-divisions of the unit-measure would be simply portions of 
abstract time. 

The standard time-keeper is referred to the centre of the earth, in 
order clearly to bring out the idea thatrit is equally related to every 
point on the surface of the globe. The standard might be stationed 
anywhere — at Yokohama, at Cairo, at St. Petersburg, at Greenwich, 
or at Washington. Indeed, the proposed system, if carried into force, 
would result in establishing many keepers of standard time, perhaps 
in every country, the electric telegraph affording the means of securing 
perfect synchronism all over the earth. 

In order properly to distinguish the new unit measure and its sub- 
divisions from ordinary days and ordinary hours, a new nomenclature 
might be advisable. The employment of the letters of the alphabet 
for the twenty-four divisions would in most civilized countries com- 
pletely distinguish them from local hours, and the twenty-four 
meridians, which on the surface of the globe would correspond with 
the sub-divisions, might also be so known. It would farther be 
expedient to distinguish the proposed new system from sidereal, 
astronomical, civil or local time. For this purpose either of the 
designations, "common," "univered,"" non-local," "uniform," "abso- 
lute," "all world," "terrestrial," or "cosmopolitan," might be employed. 
For the present it may be convenient to use the latter term. 


Besides the standard keepers of "cosmopolitan" time, established at 
many places possibly in every civilized country, it is suggested that 
every clock and watch should, as far as practicable, move synchro- 
nically, all indicating the same time. 

As a theory, it is proposed that when the hands of any one time- 
piece point to A or to G, the hands of each and every other horo- 
logical instrument in use throughout the globe should point to A or 
to Q at the same moment. 

It is proposed that, in establishing the zero of the sub-divisions 
and its corresponding meridian in relation to the surface of the earth, • 
regard be had to the general convenience, and that the views and 
interests of all nations should, as far as practicable, be equally 

Under the system of cosmopolitan time, the meridian which corres- 
ponds with zero would practically become the initial or prime meridian 
of the globe. The establishment of this meridian must necessarily 
be arbitrary. It affects all countries, more especially maritime 
countries, and in consequence of prejudice and national sentiment, 
it is possible that delicacy and tact and judgment may have to be 
exercised in the consideration of the subject. There ought not, how- 
ever, to be much difficulty in dealing with the question. Matters of 
scientific concern are not and should not be made subservient to 
national jealousy. Science is cosmopolitan, and no question can be 
more thoroughly so than that which we are attempting to investigate. 

In a separate paper, I have at some length discussed this branch of 
the subject, and I trust I have succeeded in pointing out a convenient 
and suitable position for a prime meridian, common to all the world, 
a selection which would offend no prejudice, and when carefully con- 
sidered would, I feel assured, commend itself as well calculated to 
meet all the purposes for which a common initial meridian has for a 
great many years back been proposed, and likewise those special 
objects for which it is now suggested. 


Assuming a common zero of longitude established by general 
concurrence, each rotation of the earth on its axis may be noted by 
all nations simultaneously. Under the system of cosmopolitan time, 
it would be everywhere practicable to keep an accurate chronological 
reckoning without complication or confusion. It is necessary, how- 


ever, to consider the points in whick all parts of ike earth have 
equally an interest; and it is important to inquire how the scheme 
of reckoning proposed can be generally adapted to the ordinary 
requirements of life. 

The diurnal return of the prime meridian to a point in the heavens 
opposite the sun, would mark the common unit-measure of time 
throughout the world Its beginning and ending, its twenty-four 
divisions and its sub-divisions, would each in turn prevail everywhere 
at the same moment of absolute time. This common measure would, 
however, completely coincide with the local day of only one meridian. 
The local days of countless other, longitudes would have as little coinci- 
dence with the unit-measure as with each other. At the same moment 
they would all differ ; while it would be noon with one, it would be 
midnight with another, sunrise with a third ; and so on. 

Men and nations may agree to establish for convenience a common 
unit-measure of time ; but dawn and dusk, light and darkness, will 
sweep round the globe, following each other in silent yet certain 
succession, as long as the world lasts — phenomena to prescribe in 
every land when men shall sleep, and when return to active Hfe. 
The position of the sun in every local sky will always control domestic 
usages and continue to govern social customs. Do what we may, the 
ever changing local day, as it continully progresses from longitude to 
longitude, will everywhere assert itself and exact recognition. 

How then are we to derive any practical good from the advantages 
which, as a theory, the system of cosmopolitan time appears to 

(1) All old customs may be retained for local purposes as-at present, 
the new system being introduced as the means of more accurately 
reckoning time in connection with telegraphs and steam communi- 
cation by land and water, *nd in describing events in which all 
mankind have a common interest* 

(2) On the other hand, the new system may to some extent 
supersede present customs, and be employed for reckoning local as 
well as general time. 

(3) A compromise may be suggested by which, we would have 
cosmopolitan time as a common measure for reckoning dates and 
periods of general interest, and a number of sub-standards, each 
equally related to the common standard, for distinct local time. 



It is obvious that to retain the old custom of reckoning hours, and 
at tie same time secure the advantages of the cosmopolitan or non- 
local system, dual time-keepers, but not necessarily two distinct sets 
of time-keepers, would be required. This object is attained by having 
two dials to the one time-keeper, placed, in the case of a watch, back 
to back, or in the case of a stationary dock, side by side, as in Fig. 2 ; 

Fio. s. 

Local Tim*. 

Cosmopolite Tim*. 

the instruments being constructed so that the same wheel-work would 
move the hands of both dials. The figure No. 2 is suggested for a 
stationary clock ; the night half of the dials are shaded. 

The dial with the Roman numerals is designed for local time, while 
the lettered dial is for cosmopolitan or non-local time, to be used in 
connection with railways, steamboats and telegraphs, and as a record 
of passing historical events. 

It is obvious that if clocks and watches were constructed on these 
principles, the difficulties and inconveniences which have been alluded 
to, and which seem inseparable from the present system, would be 
fully met Assuming the scheme to be in general use : while local 
time would be employed for all domestic and ordinary purposes, 
cosmopolitan time would be used for all purposes not local ; every 
telegraph, every steam line, indeed every communication on the face 
of the earth, would be worked by the same standard. Every traveller 
having a good watch, would carry with him the precise time that he 
would find observed elsewhere. Post meridian could never be mis- 
taken for ante meridian. Railway and steamboat time-tables would 
be simplified and rendered intelligible, and no one can claim that 
such now is the rule. 


As an illustration, I present condensed time-tables of the great 
railway route now being established from London to the Pacific 
through Canada. Table A is prepared in accordance with the present 
system. Tables B and C are two different modes of applying the 
system of cosmopolitan time, and illustrate the simplicity of that 
system for such purposes. (Vide Appendix, No. 1.) 

It has been said that the 24 sub-divisions of the unit-measure 
may be known by letters, in order to be distinguished from local 
hours. But why use numerals for local hours ? Numerals have no 
special advantage over letters ; habit has undoubtedly rendered the 
former familiar to the mind of this generation in connection with 
the hour of the day ; but if the 24 divisions had to be again named, 
and letters instead of numerals were adopted, the time of day could 
be as well expressed and as easily comprehended as at present. On 
the other hand, letters when arranged in a circle, as on the dial of 
a clock, have at least this advantage over numerals : they are all 
symbols of equal importance, and any one letter could be taken to 
represent the beginning of the series of the 24 which make up the 
day ; while in the case of numerals, the lowest number can only 
represent the first of the series. 

Let us take an illustration of the advantages of letters in connection 
with the scheme. Suppose G to be the noon letter at a particular 
place, how easy it would be for a resident to comprehend that it was 
always noon when the hour hands of the clock pointed to G ; that 
it was always midnight when they pointed to T, the letter on the 
dial plate opposite to G ; or, in speaking of any particular time of 
day, say four hours before mid-day, it would be as easy to comprehend 
the time referred to by the use of the letter C as by the numeral 8. 
Persons living in that locality would soon become familiar with the 
relation which the several letters had to the time of day. 

Again, if we pass to a locality where another letter becomes 
the meridian or noon letter, there could be no misunderstanding the 
meaning of the expression, Time P. 22. It could have but one 
meaning, viz., 1 hour and 22 minutes after mid-day, while 1.22 has 
a double meaning, undetermined without the addition of "ante 
meridian" or "post meridiem." 

Thus it may be shown, if we could entirely ignore old practices 
and begin de novo, the nomenclature proposed for cosmopolitan time 
might very readily be employed for local purposes. 


To render the dial plates of time-pieces perfectly intelligible in 
each place when used for local time, the expedient shown in Fig. 3 
might be adopted. 

Fio. 8. 

Local axd Cosmopolitan Tims. 

Here the noon and midnight letters are easily distinguished, and 
that portion of the day which includes the hours of darkness cannot 
be mistaken. These or similar expedients could be employed with 
the same effect in the clocks and watches used in every place on 
the surface of the earth. 

It would, however, be vain to assume that the present system could 
be at once abolished and disregarded. It becomes expedient, therefore, 
to consider how the advantages of the scheme of cosmopolitan time could 
be secured in everyday life. It is perfectly obvious that the present 
system cannot be overlooked ; and that, although it may not be always 
maintained, it must for some time be continued. We must therefore 
look for some means by which the new notation may be employed in 
conjunction with the old, until the latter would fall into disuse. 

It may be said that local time is almost always more or less 
arbitrarily established. Our clocks but rarely indicate true local 
time, and the most perfect time-pieces are for the greater portion 
of the year either faster or slower than the sun. In fact, correct 
ordinary time-keepers must necessarily at certain seasons be about 
15 minutes faster or slower than true solar time, and no inconveni- 
ence whatever is found to result The adoption of Irish time in 
England, or English time in Ireland, ooild not be felt in civil affairs. 
The difference between English and Irish time, as arbitrarily estab- 
lished, is twenty-five minutes; but in the west of Ireland local 
mean time is forty minutes, and solar time sometimes fifty-five 
minutes behind English time (Greenwich). Greenwich time is used 



throughout England and Scotland, although it is half an hour faster 
than local mean time, and sometimes forty-five minutes faster than 
solar time on the west coast of the latter country. 

In every country, local time is more or less arbitrarily established; 
it could not be otherwise, without causing great confusion, as no two 
places, unless in the same meridian, have the same true local time. 
In considering the whole subject, it is felt that if some simple rule 
could be agreed upon for denning local time everywhere, it would 
materially add to general convenience. 

It is suggested that each of the twenty-four lettered meridians 
(Fig. 1) should be taken as standards for establishing approximate 
local time, and that as a general rule all places should adopt the 
local time of the nearest of these meridians. This would divide the 
surface of the globe into twenty-four " lunes," forming distinct local 
sections. Although the twenty-four fixed meridians would be at one 
•bour's distance from each other, only in extreme cases would the 
difference between the true and approximate local time be as much 
as half an hour. In many cases there would be no difference, and 
in no case could the difference be of the slightest moment in the 
ordinary business of civil life. Whenever exact time was required 
for any purpose, cosmopolitan time, assuming it to be in general use, 
would be available, or a third hand, such as shown by the dotted line 
in the figure, might in certain cases be used. 

Fio. 4. 

Cosmopolitan Watoh Dial. 

Fig. No. 4 represents a compound dial designed to indicate non- 
local as well as local time, on the same face of a clock or watch, by 
means of one set of hands. In this arrangement it is proposed to 
have the Roman numerals for local time inscribed on a movable disc, 


adjustable for each separate hoar, and may thus be set for any one of 
the twenty-four fixed meridians referred to. The adjustment would 
be effected without in the least disturbing the machinery of the in- 
strument, or interfering with the index hands. 

Church clocks and other stationary time-pieces would have the 
local time disc permanently secured in the proper position. Only in 
the ease of parsons travelling beyond any particular local time section 
would the local time disc of their watch require to be changed. Its 
adjustment under such circumstances would be simple ; it would only 
be necessary to move the disc round until 12 o'clock noon coincided 
with the meridional letter of the new locality. Suppose, for example, 
the letter Q represented the longitude of the new position of the 
watch : 12 noon placed in conjunction with G would complete the 
adjustment of the instrument. For every other new position the 
same operation would be repeated. Notwithstanding every change 
that may be made for local time, the machinery of the watch need not 
be interfered with, and the hands would continue to indicate correct 
cosmopolitan time. The distinction between cosmopolitan time and 
local time would always be perfect ; the former would invariably be 
known by letters ; the latter, as at present, by the Roman numerals. 

As in the diagrams, it is proposed to denote that portion of the 
day which includes the hours of darkness by a black or dark ground, 
in order that the night hours could never be mistaken for the hours 
in the middle of the day, which have the same numerals. The 
several " watches " into which the day is divided on shipboard might 
be distinguished. The local time disc exhibits a light portion be- 
tween 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. ; this includes and represents the forenoon 
and afternoon watches, noon being the dividing point. The dark 
portion, extending four hours before and four hours after midnight, 
embraces the two night watches ; while the shaded portions, from 
4 p.m. to 8 p.m., and from 4 a.m. to 8 a.m., represent the dog watches 
and the morning watch. This arrangement would perhaps prove 
useful, in view of the hundreds of thousands who navigate the ocean, 
and the yearly increasing number of ships that adopt and constantly 
use this division of the day into "watches," finding it, as they appear 
to do, the most convenient scheme of division for daily routine at sea. 

Other modes of carrying into execution the principles of construc- 
tion proposed will readily suggest themselves to practical men. ( Vide 
Appendix No. 2.) It seems only here necessary to allude to one 
point It may be objected that the change of system would render 


the clocks and watches in use valueless. But the remedy is simple, 
as local time may be retained and indicated side by side with cosmo- 
politan time by altering the dial plates or substituting new ones. 

The establishment of twenty-four fixed meridians, as proposed, at 
one hour's distance from each other, as standards for local time, 
would secure complete uniformity in the indication of the minutes 
in all the clocks of the world ; the hours of local time only differing. 
Appendix No. 3 illustrates this feature ; it shows simultaneous time 
at each of the twenty-four standard meridians ; local time varying 
one hour in each case ; cosmopolitan time remaining constant. 

In this communication I have endeavoured to submit the incon- 
veniences and difficulties inseparable from our present mode of 
reckoning dates, and from our system of keeping and noting smaller 
divisions of time. I have referred to the various usages and customs 
which prevail, and I have drawn special attention to the fact that the 
application of steam to locomotion by land and sea, and of electricity 
to the telegraph, literally without limit, has rendered the present 
practice of reckoning time ill suited to modern life. 

It cannot be supposed that these agents of progress have com* 
pleted their mission. We may rather assume that these extraor- 
dinary powers have but commenced their wonderful career, and that 
they will achieve further triumphs in civilization. 

It is in America these agents have been introduced to the greatest 
relative extent, as the subjoined estimate of the length of railways 
constructed will show : 

Population. Miles or Railway. 

Aria 824,648,500 7,643 

Europe 309,178,300 88,748 

Africa 199,921,600 1,461 

N. and S. America 86,619,800 83,665 

Australasia 4,748,600 1,752 

Totals 1,423,917,800 183,248 

It has been suggested, that the difficulties already met in portions 
of America threaten to become increased as the railway system is 
extended. It may therefore be assumed, that any practicable scheme 
to effect a remedy would be favourably received. The importance of 
the subject is not confined to America, for the other quarters of the 
globe are now or will be similarly interested. Australia and Africa 
will before long be pierced, perhaps girdled, by railways. Asia, with 
more than half the population of the world, must in due time follow 
in the general progress. In North and South America, there is room 


for a great increase of railways ; but taking the present mileage and 
population of that continent as a basis, the proportion would give to 
Europe and Asia together more than one million miles of lines. 
These two great continents have as yet only 96,000 miles of railway, 
and it would probably be taking too sanguine a view to suppose that 
so great an increase will speedily be realized. No one, however, can 
doubt that the network of railways in Western and Central Europe 
will before long be greatly enlarged; that branches will extend to 
Asia ; and that off-shoots will ultimately be prolonged to the farthest 
shores of the Chinese and Russian Empires. A comparatively few 
years may indeed witness extraordinary progress in this direction, to 
bring into prominence the difficulties alluded to, and which cannot 
fail to make themselves felt. 

The subject which we are now considering, in different degrees clearly 
concerns all countries ; it is especially important to the United States, 
Brazil, Canada, indeed to the whole of America. It is important to 
France, Germany, Austria, and to every nation in Europe. It is of 
peculiar interest to the gigantic empire of Russia, extending over 
nearly 180 degrees of longitude, and with a total variation in local 
time of about twelve hours. It is of still greater importance to the 
Colonial Empire of Great Britain, with its settlements and stations 
in nearly every meridian around the entire globe, and with vast terri- 
tories to be occupied in both hemispheres. 

Before the introduction of railways in England, every town and 
village kept its own time. The traveller found his watch constantly 
at variance with the local clocks. On the establishment of the railway 
system this state of things could not be tolerated, as local time could 
only lead to complication and confusion. The railways demanded 
uniform time, and Greenwich time came to be used. This was looked 
upon as an innovation, and was for a considerable period vigorously 
opposed. At last the advantages of uniform time became so manifest, 
that Greenwich time came into general use throughout Great Britain. 

But for the employment of uniform time in England, Scotland and 
Ireland, it would be an extremely difficult task to regulate safely 
the great number of daily trains. The safe working of the railways 
in the United Kingdom is indeed a problem sufficiently difficult even 
with uniform time; and we can scarcely conceive how much the 
problem would be complicated if in Great Britain they were to revert 
to the system of local time as it prevailed in the days of stage 
coaches, when every town and hamlet kept its own time. 


Among the several objects which the scheme of cosmopolitan time 
has in view, not the least important is to extend to the world similar 
advantages to those which have been conferred on Great Britain by 
the general adoption of uniform time since the commencement of the 
railway era. 

Meteorologists have felt the necessity of some general scheme of 
reckoning by non-local time, such as that now proposed. The enor- 
mous number of meteorological observations recorded in every part 
of the world are of but little value until accurate allowances are 
made for the differences in local time. The immense labour involved 
will be understood when the number of stations and the number of 
daily and hourly observations are considered. Accordingly, it will 
be seen that meteorological science would derive great advantages 
from the general adoption of uniform time. 

Navigators are required to employ a standard time to enable them 
from day to day, when on long voyages, to compute their longitude. 
For this purpose it is a practice with ships to carry the local time of 
the national observatory of the country to which they respectively 
belong. For example : French ships reckon their longitude by Paris 
time ; British ships by Greenwich time. Cosmopolitan time would 
serve precisely the same purpose as a standard for geographical 
reckoning, and it would be some advantage to the marine of the 
world to have a uniform standard established — the common property 
of all nations, and in common use by land and water everywhere. 
It has already been said that the telegraph provides the means of 
securing perfect accuracy at all stations, however remote; indeed, 
through this agency, time-keepers may be made to beat time synchro- 
nously all over the globe. Already the length of telegraph lines in 
operation approaches 400,000 miles; and we are warranted in believ- 
ing that ultimately the means of instantaneous communication will 
ramify through every habitable country, and find its way to every 
port of commercial importance. 

I take the ground that we have entered upon a remarkable period 
in the history of the human race. Discoveries and inventions con- 
tinue to crowd upon each other in almost magical succession, and 
who can tell what progress will be made within the coming fifty 
years 1 Steam and electricity are really narrowing the limits of the 
world. Lines of telegraph and steam communications, the creations 
of but yesterday, are girdling the earth and bringing the most distant 
countries into close neighbourhood. In a few years the wire and the 

TIME-RECK0KI50. 125 

Tail will have brought men of all races face to face to intercommunicate 
knowledge and dispel prejudices. Sooner or later the barbarous 
custom of dividing the day into two sets of twelve hours, as if 12 was 
the limit of arithmetical knowledge, will be judged at its right value. 
The hands of time-keepers pointing in all conceivable directions at 
the same instant of absolute time will be held as an extraordinary 
anomaly, and steps will be taken to avoid the spectacle of men at the 
one moment nominally living in different hours, in different days, 
and in some extreme cases in different months and years. 

The system of chronometry which we have inherited may have 
been well suited to the purpose for which it was designed long 
centuries ago, when the known world was confined within the pillai-s 
of Hercules, or it may even have answered all the requirements of 
man a few generations back, before the great modern civilizers, steam 
and electricity, began their work. Now we realize the fact that the 
sjBtem is awkward and inconvenient. In a few years — and who 
can count them — may we not find a radical change imperatively 
demanded by the new conditions of the human race. 

It is probably not now unseasonable to discuss the subject. It 
would be a vain task to attempt at once to abolish a custom so 
hoary with age, and so generally practised as our system of com- 
puting time. But the necessity of change once admitted, the public 
mind will gradually become familiar with the idea, and will learn to 
welcome any modification in the system when its expediency is 

But it will be important first to determine the extent of the 
required modification. The scheme should be well considered so as 
to be free from the imperfections which result from haste. It should 
be rendered generally acceptable, so that whenever the necessity arises 
in any country or community for its introduction, it may be spontane- 
ously adopted ; the inhabitants feeling assured that they were selecting 
a syBtem eventually to become universal. 

The suggestions I have ventured to offer are presented with the 
view of drawing attention to the subject. They point to the establish- 
ment of a common prime meridian as the first important step, and as 
the key to any cosmopolitan scheme of reckoning. This step taken, 
the more progressive nations would probably promote the establish- 
ment of a comprehensive system of chronometry suitable to every 
condition of civilization, and advantageous to the inhabitants of the 
globe on every line of longitude and on every parallel of latitude. 




Condensed time-tables, illustrative of the application of the cosmo- 
politan system of time-reckoning, to railway and steamboat com- 
munications. The great mail and passenger route now being 
established through Canada is selected as an example. Table A is 
arranged according to the present system. Table B is arranged for 
cosmopolitan time. Table C is arranged for local time standards, 
established by lettered meridians 15° of longitude apart, each vary- 
ing one hour. The hours of the day are numbered from 1 to 24 
instead of two sets from 1 to 12. 

TABLE A. — Arranged according to the present system. 

Principal Statioss. 



[en route) 

W. Coast Ireland 

(at sea) 

(at sea) 

{at sea) 

{at sea) 

St. John, Newfoundland . 

(en route) 

St. Geo rqb, Newfoundland 

(en route) 

Rrv. du Loup 



(en route) 



L. Superior 

(en route) 

Fort William 



(en route) 





(en route) 


Yellow Head Pass . . 
Tete Jaunb Cache .... 

(en route) 

Pacific Ocean 

Local Tike. 

8.00 p.m. 

8.00 a.m 

1st noon 

1.00 p.m. 

. . 2nd noon 

3rd noon 

4th noon 

5th noon 
9.00 a.m 

6th noon 

6.00 p.m 

10.00 a. m. 

7th noon 

10.00 p.m. 

2.00 a.m. . 

8th noon 

1.00 p.m. 

8.30 p.m 

10.00 a.m. 

9th noon 

3.30 p.m 

1.30 a.m. 

6.00 a.m 

. . 10th noon 

3.00 p.m, 

9.30 p.m 

1.00 a.m. 

0.20 a.m. 

. . 11th noon 

2.15 p.m. 

7.00 p.m 

8.15 p.m. 

. . 12th noon 
11.30 p.m. 

Greenwich time 

Irish time 

Irish time 

Irish time ..... 

Ship's time 

Ship's time 

Ship's time 

Ship's time 

Newfoundland time 
Newfoundland time 
Newfoundland time 
New Brunswick 
New Brunswick 
Quebec time . . . 
Quebec time . . . 
Quebec time . . . 
Quebec time . . . 
Quebec time . . . 
Huron time . • . 
Superior time 
Superior time . 
Superior time . 
Manitobah time 
Mantiobah time 
Mantiobah time . . 
Saskatchewan time. 
Saskatchewan time 
Athabasca time. . 
Athabasca time. . 
Athabasca time. . 
Athabasca time. . . . 
Rocky Mounf n time 
Rocky Mounf n time 
Rocky Mounf n time 
B. Columbia time . . 





















Arranged for CotmopHian Tims. 


local Tine Standards, established 
one hour apart. 

Pmscipal Stations. 




P. 00 


C. 25 

1st Noon (en route). . . . 

G. 25 

W. Coast Ireland 

fl. 25 

2nd Noon (at sea) 

H. 00 

3rd Noon {at sea) 

H. 40 

4th Noon {at sea) .... 

I. 20 

5th Noon {at sea) .... 

K. 00 

St. John, Newfoundland . 

O. 30 

6th Noon [en route) .. 

K. 39 

St. George, Newfoundland 

R. 00 


I. 30 

7th Noon (en route) . . 

L. 30 

Riv. du Loup 



B. 00 


H. 00 

8th Noon (en route) . . 

M. 00 


N. 00 


V. 00 

L. Superior 

L. 00 

9th Noon (en route) . . 

N. 00 

Fast Wtt.t.tam ,...,,,,,. 

Q. 30 


G. 00 


G. 30 

10th Noon (en route) .. 

O. 00 


R. 00 


X. 30 

Battlejord , 

G. 30 


M. 00 

Uth Noon (en route) . . 

P. 00 


Q. 45 

Yellow Head Pass 


Tete Jaune Cache 

X. 15 

12th Noon (en route) . . 

P. 30 

Pacific Ocean 


Phincifal STAtiomu 

Local TtHfc. 






























































1st Noon (en route) . 
W. Coast Ireland . . 

2nd Noon (at sea) . . 

3rd Noon (at sea) . . 

4th Noon (at sea) . . 

5th Noon (at sea) . . 
St. John, Newf dland . 

6th Noon (en route) 
St. GEOROEyNewf dland 

7th Noon (en route) 

Riv. du Loup 



8th Noon (en route) 


L. Superior 

9th Noon (en route) 

Fort William 



10th Noon (en route) 


Battlepord .......... 


11th Noon (en route) 


Yellow Head Pass . . 

Tete Jaune Cache 

12th Noon (en route) 
Pacific Ocean 




The application of the proposed Scheme of Time-reckoning to the practice of 
Daily Life. 

Reference has been made to the means by which cosmopolitan time 
may be indicated by ordinary time-pieces. This may be accomplished 
by inscribing the proper letters on the dials of clocks and watches 
now in use. A still better expedient would be to substitute new 
dials, such as Fig. 5. In this, the letters which represent the night 
hours in any particular locality are on a dark ground. 

Fio. 5. 

By a simple expedient of this description it could be practicable, 
without superceding the old time-keepers, to secure the advantages 
of the new scheme, in any country of comparatively limited extant. 

Clocks and watches in use might thus be utilized and made to 
show cosmopolitan, in addition to local time. It would be only 
necessary to prepare railway and steam-boat time-tables in accordance 
with the new system, to bring its advantages into common use* 
But this would apply only to stationary clocks, or to watches in use 
in countries limited in extent. The improvement would not be 
general until time-keepers for ordinary purposes, and especially 
watches, were constructed on new principles. A general change 
could only be gradually effected; but as there are hundreds of 
thousands of watches and chronometers made every year, in the event 
of the subject being deemed worthy of attention, it would be well for 
manufacturers to consider the expediency of introducing some change 
in the construction of them. 

There are various methods by which the principles set forth 
may be applied, and these will readily suggest themselves to prao- 


tical men. Simply to illustrate one mode, Figures 6 and 7 are 

Fro. e. Fro. 7, 

The object is to indicate cosmopolitan and local time by the same 
watch. Fig. 6 shows the watch case open, with the dial for cosmo- 
politan time exposed. Fig. 7 shows the watch case closed, with the 
local time numerals engraved on the face of the case, the latter being 
pierced in order that the hands may be seen. The local time disc 
is designed to be adjustable for any one of the 24 lettered meridians. 
By this arrangement only the local houra would vary ; there would 
be a complete coincidence in the minutes of cosmopolitan and local 
time at every station. The application of double dials to a watch 
may be effected in another manner. The watch may have two faces 
back to back; one for for cosmopolitan time, the reverse for local 
time, the hands in both instances being moved by the same wheel- 
work, and those for local time supplied with the means of adjustment 
lor change of longitude. 

The latter plan has advantages peculiar to itself. Other methods 
of construction may be proposed, but it is unnecessary ; the present 
object is simply to show that there is no practical difficulty in the 
way of carrying the scheme of time reckoning set forth in the accom- 
panying paper into the practice of daily life. 




Illustrating Simultaneous Time at each of the twenty-four Uttered meridians pro- 
posed as Local Standards; Local Time differing *ne hour in each case; 
Cosmopolitan Time remaining constant. 


Local time • 6.45 p.m. i^lf^fo I % $f , 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 IMff^Mj^^^B : "Jt.\ 

Longitude (proposed new iWHv ./v/ 

reckoning) 15° \v^^<y^^f^S^ 

Longitude, old style l€5° East X J^^r 


Local time 5.45 p.m. fjb«// Cj/.-' ff +: \^ 

OoemopoKtan time G. 45 ||£3^-<k~™@ f p^j 

I -^ «• v^^ 

Longitude, old style 150° East- ^jfr^ 

J > 
MERIDIAN 0. fS/s^Gjtf* 

^^^■'*fr - ■ *£\ 
Localtime 4.45p.m. / 7/CjZ- // '' :: :V\1 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 |Hf -< L M 

Longitude 45° O&Ok, rfsV^ 

Longitude, old style 135° East. 




Load time 3.45 p.m. 

GoamopoKtan time 0.45 

Longitude 00° 

Longitude, old style 120° East. 


Local time 2.45 p.m. 

CoamopoKtan time G. 45 

Longitude 75° 

Longitude, old style 105° East. 


Local time 1.45 p.m. 

Cminopolitan til|Ifc G. 45 


Longitude . .\. >* < 90" 

LoDgitede^ old style 90° East 




Local time 12.46 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 46 

Longitude 106° 

Longitude, old style 75° East. 


Local time 11.46 a.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude , 120° 

Longitude, old style 60° East. 


Local time 10.45 a.m. * 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude 135° 

Longitude, old style 46° East. 




Loau time , 7.46 a.m 

CtfmopoHtan time ..,,,,..... G. 46 

Aogitade 180° 

Longitdde, old style s Greenwich 




Local time 6.45 &.m. 

Cosmopolitan time 6. 45 

Longitude 195* 

Longitude, old style 15° West. 


Local time 5\45 a.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 46 

Longitude 210* 

Longitude, old style .. ; 30° Wert. 


Local time 445 a.m. 

Cosmopolitan time GK 45 

Longitude * 325* 

Longitude, old style 45° West. 




Local time 3.45 a.m. 

OomopoUtan time €L 45 

Longitude 210° 

Longitude, old style WWeit 


Local time 2.45 a.m. 

CoamopoEtm time.... G. 45 

Lonptoce 256° 

Longittde, old sty le] 75° Weft 


time 1.45a.m. 

fccmopolitan time 0.45 

Longitude 270* 

Longitude, old style 90* West 




Local time 12.45 a»m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 46 

Longitude 286° 

Longitude, old style 106° West. 


Local time 11.45 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude 900* 

Longitude, old style 120° West. 


Local time 10.45 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude 315° 

Longitude, old style 135° West 




Local time 9.45 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude 390° 

Longitude, old style ISO 9 West. 


Local time 8.45 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G. 45 

Longitude 345° 

Longitude, old style 165° West. 


Local time 7.45 p.m. 

Cosmopolitan time G 45. 

The Common Zero of Longitude 0* 
Longitude, old style, 180° East & West. 





In another paper which I have submitted to the Institute, it has 
been stated that the only means of obviating the confusion insepa- 
rable from the present system of reckoning dates, is to measure time 
by the absolute diurnal revolutions of the earth. 

By the systeta now followed, we count days by the consecutive 
passage of the sua over the meridian of each spot on the earth's 
surfaee. The number of spots around the globe may be said to be 
infinite, and accordingly the duration of the day, as it is locally <£* 
tingaished, considered in relation to absolute time, is marked by an 
equally infinite variety. 

It has been argued that the earth should be considered as a whole, 
arid that its mean diurnal revolution should be the unit measure for 
reckoning dates ; and this theory points to the consideration of the 
necessity of establishing a common prime meridian. 

If we were placed in some neutral position, such as the earth's 
centre, or its poles, and were called upon to determine the time 
occupied by a diurnal revolution, we could fix on a point arbitrarily 
chosen in a circle inscribing the earth's axis, and note the time 
between two consecutive passages of the sun over that point. A 
plane passing through that point and the poles, extended to the 
surface of the globe, Would establish a first or prime meridian 
from which longitude may be reckoned. 

The establishment of an initial or prime meridian as the recognised 
tfifrting pouit of time-reckoning by all nations, affects the whole area 
of civilization, and conflicting opinions may arise concerning its posi- 
tion. Its consideration must therefore be approached in a broad, 
cosmopolitan spirit, so as to avoid offence to national feeling and 


As far aa practicable, the interests of all nations should be con- 
salted in its choice, and the principle should be recognized, that the 
first meridian should be determined in accordance with the views of 
the greatest possible number. 

Although the general acceptance of a common meridian for reckon- 
ing longitude has long been desired, unanimity has in no way been 

The meridians passing through the following points are more or 
less in use at the present time, viz. : Cadi*, Christiania, Copenhagen, 
Farro, Greenwich, Lisbon, Naples, Paris, Pulkova, Bio de Janeiro, 
Stockholm, and Washington. 

Several other meridians have at different times been used, or pro- 
posed to be used, for the computation of longitude. Ptolemy, to 
whom we are indebted, along with Marinus, for introducing the terms 
'longitude* and 'latitude/ drew the first meridian through the Insula) 
Fortunate, or Canary Islands, as the western limit of the earth's 
boundaries of his time; the exact position is not known with 

According to Malte Brtm, Louis XTTT. of Prance, in order to 
render the manner of expressing longitude in French geography uni- 
form, ordered, by an express declaration, that the first meridian should 
be placed in the Isle of Ferro, the most western of the Canaries. 
Delisle, one of the first who endeavoured to give precision to geo- 
graphical determinations, fixed the longitude of Paris 20 degrees east 
of that meridian. When, by more rigorous observations, it was known 
that the difference of longitude between Paris and the principal town* 
of the Isle of Ferro was 20° 5' 5(f t it was necessary to advance the 
first meridian 5' 50" to the east of that point, so that it is now a circle 
of mere convention, which passes through no remarkable point 

Geographers at one time established the first meridian at the 
island of St Nicholas, near Cape Verd; others at the isle of St 
James. Gerard Mercator, who lived in the sixteenth century, 
selected the meridian passing through the Island del Corvo, one of 
the Azores, on account, it is said, of the magnetic needle pointing 
due north at that time. It was not then known that the needle 
itself wag subject to variations. The Dutch placed their first 
meridian at the Peak of Teneriffe. The Spaniards have chosen 
Cadiz. The British formerly used Cape lizard, but subsequently 
selected Greenwich Observatory, near London, The Russians, Pol- 


kova, near St. Petersburg. Washington was adopted by the United 
States, and the charts of that country are still constructed with 
Washington as a first meridian, although Greenwich is now used 
for reckoning longitude by all sea-going ships carrying the United 
States flag. The Italians selected Naples ; and ships of the empire 
of Brazil reckon in part from Rio de Janeiro. 

An earnest desire has frequently been expressed for the determi- 
nation of one prime meridian common to all nations, but all attempts 
for its establishment have failed. On all sides there has been an 
adherence, with more or less tenacity, to the arbitrary zeros adopted 
or suggested by the national navigators. Recommendations have 
however from time to time been made in the general interests of 
science, which is unconfined by national boundaries and unprejudiced 
by natiqpal vanity. Some astronomers have proposed Alexandria, 
from its being the place to which Ptolemy's observations and compu- 
tations were reduced. The Great Pyramid has also been proposed as 
the point through which the world's prime merid ian should be drawn; 
it has found an earnest advocate in Professor Piazzi Smyth, Astro- 
nomer Royal for Scotland. 

Other astronomers have proposed that a meridian should be 
established from celestial phenomena, so that national sensitiveness 
shall in no way be hurt. Laplace recommended the adoption of a 
universal first meridian, upon which it was 12 o'clock when the sun 
entered the point of the vernal equinox in the year 1250, in which 
the apogee of the earth's orbit coincided with the solsticial point in 
Cancer. According to Maury, such a universal meridian would pass 
about 8 miles west of Cape Mesurada, on the coast of Africa. 

This initial meridian was favoured by HerecheL It is certainly 
suggested by no local circumstances such as noon or midnight, or by 
the observatory or metropolis of any nation. Its determination is 
made solely by the motion of the sun among the stars, in which all 
the nations of the earth have a common interest. Herschel designated 
the time reckoned by this meridian " Equinoctial time." But this 
meridian possesses no one advantage not common to all other 
meridians, beyond being perfectly free from national relationships. 

The initial meridian for the world should be chosen for other 
reasons than any of those Which, as far as I know, have yet been 
advanced. In another place I have shown that it would be the 
separating line on the surface of the earth, between two consecutive 


diurnal revolutions; that is to say, between one cosmopolitan date (or 
day) and another. It would be, therefore, inexpedient to have it 
posing through London or Washington, or Paris, or St. Petersburg, 
or indeed through the heart of any populous or even inhabited 
country. We must seek for a position free from this characteristic. 

We should look for a meridian, if possible, to pass through no 
great extent of habitable land, so that hereafter the whole population 
of the world would follow a common time-reckoning; and simul- 
taneous human events would be chronicled by concurrent dates. If 
we examine the terrestrial globe, we shall find that two, and only 
two, limited sections of the sphere present themselves with these 

A meridian may be drawn through the Atlantic Ocean, so as to 
pass Africa on the one side and South America on the other without 
touching any portion of either continent, avoiding all islands and 
all land except a portion of eastern Greenland. 

The configuration of the continents will also admit of a meridian 
being similarly drawn in the opposite hemisphere so as to pass 
through Behring's Strait, and through the whole extent of the 
Pacific Ocean without touching dry land. 

Either of these meridians would serve the desired purpose, but a 
meridian in close proximity to Bearing's Strait suggests itself as the 
most eligible. 

It must be admitted that the establishment of a common prime 
meridian should be so determined that, if at all practicable, one of 
the several systems of the divisions of longitude now employed might 
be maintained. It would be a still greater advantage if the new initial 
meridian could harmonize with the longitudinal divisions most in use 
in the navigation of the high seas. 

If we refer to the map of the world, we find that the dnti or 
nether meridians of some of the capitals of Europe pass at no great 
distance from Behring's Strait, and the addition or subtraction of 180° 
would, in any one case, be a ready means of harmonizing the pro- 
posed new zero with the old reckoning of longitude. Six of these 
places are at present employed as prime meridians, viz. : 

1. Christiania. 4. Naples. 

2. Copenhagen. 5. Paris. 

3. Greenwich. 6. Stockholm. 

The following table, prepared from the latest authorities within 
reach, gives an estimate of the number and tonnage of steamers and 



sailing ships belonging to the several nations of the world ; likewise 
the first meridians which they use in ascertaining their longitude : 

Ships of all Sorts. 

Wnm Ifcn—mrs Uam 



Cheat Britain ) 

and the > 

British Colonies) 

United States .. 

























M 42,&tf) 















Christiania and Greenwich. 

Naples and Greenwich. 

Ferro, Qroamwieh and Park. 





Spain . . , , , r , t t » 



Pnlkora, Qnmwidk and Fan*. 
Stockholm, Greenwich and Paris. 



Greece. ......... 





Brazil, &c, S. ) 
America .... f 


Japan, Ac., Asia. 

Greenwich and Ferro. 
Copenhagen, Paris and Greenwich. 

Bio de Janeiro and Greenwich. 




Taking these returns as a basis, it is roughly estimated that the 
shipping of the world reckon their longitude from the meridian of 
the several points mentioned in the following proportions, viz. : 


Ships of all Kuan. 

F*m Cut. 


















































Stockholm ............ , . 



Copenhagen * T T 


Rio de Janeiro 


Miscellaneous .......... 






It ftas 4ppeNB thai cf the fatal toMoatvoe of the <world which in 
a greater or less degree bases its system of navigation on «lenen 
dBhremt feat meridians for the reckoning of longitude, 65 per -cent. 
ef the number of ahips, and 72 per oant. of the total tonnage, compute 
Aeir kmgitude-eeBt and west of <jkeenwich. 

The United States of America at one time used the meridian of 
Washington. But the importance of having a common zero of 
measurement has been felt to be so great, that practical effect has 
been given to the idea, on the part of the United States, by all sea- 
going ships of the Republic, giving up Washington, and adopting 
&e meridian of Ctaenwich. Russia, Norway, Holland, Belgium and 
Japan nave taken the same course, and Germany, Sweden, Austria 
and Denmark have partially done so. 

It is accordingly clear that of the sfe places mentioned, the nether 
meridians of which are convenient to Bearing's Strait, Greenwich 
takes the first position with respect to the number and tonnage of 
ships navigating by it. The six several places, as far as known, seem, 
to stand in the following order, viz. : 


Greenwich 37,663 14,600,972 

Para 5,914 1,736,083 

Naples 2,263 715,448 

Ohristiania ... 2,128 695,988 

Stockholm 717 154,180 

Copenhagen 435 81,888 

The meridian drawn 180° east and west of Greenwich crosses a 
small angle of Kamtschatka, immediately on the western side of 
Behring's Strait; with this exception, it passes over no land between 
the Arctic and Antarctic eireles. The foregoing shows clearly that 
it is, of oil the meridians, the one which would best Accommodate 
the greatest number and tonnage of the world's shipping. By the 
adoption of this as a common prime meridian, there would be no 
disarrangement in the .charts, the nautical tables, or the desenptm 
wmenelature of nearly three-fourths of the ahips navigating the 
high seas. The same lines of longitude would be traced on the maps, 
although differently rotated. 33he necessity wcnld simply arise «of 
sitting back on the famtfar phrases of 'new style' and 'old style,* 
first applied an connection with chronological dates in England m 



1752 — the year when popular prejudice was met and the calendar 

The following table will show all the change that would be callep 
for in notating the degrees of longitude. It will be observed thai 
the table is limited to the twenty-four lettered meridians elsewhere 
alluded to: 




New Style. 

Old Style. 

Prime Meridian 


180° & & W. of Greenwich 



165° £. of Greenwich. 



160° B. 



135° £. 




120* E. 




105° & 



90 p 

90° £. 




75° E. 




60° E. 




45° E. 




30° E. 




15° E. 




0° Greenwich 



15° W. 

of Greenwich. 


30° W. 




45° W. 




60° W. 




75° W. 




90° W. 




105° W. 




120° W. 




135° W. 








166° W. 


Prime Meridian 

300 or Zero 

180* W. 


But a proposal of this character cannot be effected without much 
discussion. Such a change must be the work of time, for it is to be 
feared that much passive if not active opposition would have to be 
overcome before general concurrence be obtained. Whatever benefits 
a measure may promise, there will always be those who fail to recog- 
nize the anticipated advantages ; and there are generally not a few 
who consider it a duty to combat the least innovation on existing 
practices. The object of these remarks, however, is to show that 
there is no impediment to the establishment of a prime meridian for 
the world unmarked by national pre-eminence, a meridian in itself 
admirably adapted for the important purposes referred to m connection 


with the notation of time, and tjie accurate reckoning of chronological 
dates in every country on the surface of the earth. 

The advantages to be derived, with the complications and confusion 
to be avoided, have been elsewhere set forth. Suffice it to say here, 
the object to be attained is the establishment of a more accurate and 
more convenient system of time-reckoning than now obtains. It 
is not proposed to interfere in the least with the local divisions — 
the weeks and the days of the week. The week is an arbitrary 
division, but it. has been recognized by man from remote antiquity, 
and it is a period recorded in the earliest teachings of religion and 

Amongst the many changes which were violently enforced by the 
French Revolution, there was perhaps none that more shocked public 
sentiment than the alteration of the ancient calendar by the substi- 
tution of a ten-day period for a seven -day period. The week, as well 
as the week day, has become an integral part of our civilization, and 
we must accept both as unalterable. As regards the earth as a 
whole, both are governed by local and superficial phenomena occur- 
ring in perpetual succession around the circumference of the sphere ; 
yet this is no barrier to the establishment of a mode of scientific 
reckoning determined in harmony with them, and cosmopolitan in its 
character. The aim is to introduce a scheme whereby years and 
months, hours, minutes and seconds, at all the meridians of the globe, 
shall be practically as well as theoretically concurrent ; for the divi- 
sion will be based on the one unit measure, an established period in 
absolute time. However variable may be the ordinary weeks and 
week days as they occur in different localities around the globe, the 
effort is to secure to mankind, by a simple uniform system of uni- 
versal application, the means of truly notating dates, and recording 
events as they transpire. 

To accomplish this end, the first requisite is that each revolution 
of the globe on its axis be defined by a line of demarcation on the 
earth's surface acceptable to all nations. The interval of time be- 
tween two consecutive passages of the sun over this line would denote 
the unit measure. By whatever name they may be known, the 
number of these units, from the commencement of a month or of a 
year, would indicate any particular date, common to all. The unit 
measure would be divided into twenty-four. These divisions repre- 



sented on the surface of the globe by twenty-four fixed meridional 
lines, at one hour's distance from each other, would establish the 
standards for local time everywhere. Perfect uniformity would thus 
be secured in all the clocks in the world. The minutes, and indeed 
all the sub-divisions of time, would be concurrent ; the local numbers 
of the hours only would differ.* 

The position of the twenty-four secondary meridians is governed 
by the selection of a primary meridian ; and hence the first step to 
the consummation of the scheme is the establishment of an initial 
meridian as a common starting point. 

Is it too much to affirm that the meridian suggested will fully meet 
every requirement ? To the writer it seems, that with the concurrence 
of those nations acknowledged as the fountain heads of civilization, 
it might at once take the place of all other initial meridians which 
have hitherto been employed. It could be established without any 
clashing with existing customs, or any violent departure from the 
rules and practices and traditions of the great majority of mariners. 
By its adoption the expression so familiar to us, " the longitude of 
Greenwich," would simply pass out of usage, and some other name take 
its place. There would be no favoured nation, no gratification of any 
geographical vanity. A new prime meridian so established would be 
essentially cosmopolitan, and would tend towards the general benefit 
of humanity. As the line of demarcation between one date and 
another it would be of universal interest, and a property common to 
the hundreds of millions who live on the land, and the hundreds of 
thousands who sail on the sea. 

Since the foregoing was written, I have seen the weekly edition 
of the Times of the 1 7th ultimo. (Jan. 79). The following extract 

* One of the unavoidable, results might be held to be objectionable, bat, it may prove 
less disadvantageous than anticipated. Only on one meridian would the ordinary local day 
correspond with the unit of time. 15° west of that meridian it would be one hour later, 
30° west it would be two hours later ; and for each 16° degrees of westing one hour later stUL 
Thus the epoch of change from one cosmopolitan date to another would occur at midnight in 
one locality, at noon in another, at six a.m. at a third, and at every hour of the 24, as the 
longitude would determine. This peculiarity would doubtless be felt to be an inconvenience 
during a brief interval of transition from the present to the new system. The accompanying 
plate Illustrates the variation of changes, and shows that, while cosmopolitan time would be 
absolutely identical in every locality, local time would vary one hour at each fixed local 
standard around the circumference of the globe. 



which it contains shows that the subject we have been considering is 
engaging the attention of eminent geographers in Europe : 

44 A New Fibst Meridian. — It is admitted by geographers that the present 
variety of 4 first meridians ' is extremely embarrassing and not conducive to 
accuracy. A good many proposals have been made recently for the establish- 
ment of a common first meridian for all countries, but, as one might expect, 
there is a want of agreement as to what line should be chosen. The question 
was taken up at the last International Congress of Geography at Paris, and 
among the contributions to the subject was a paper by M. Bouthillier de 
Beaumont, President of the Geographical Society of Geneva. The subject was 
brought on a former occasion before the Antwerp Geographical Congress, 
where it was very thoroughly discussed by competent geographers. The 
proposal, however, did not receive more than expressions of sympathy and 
encouragement. To propose, as M. de Beaumont sayB, to Jpke the meridian 
of Greenwich or any other national meridian as the initial one, is not to advance 
the question; rather, it leaves it in statu quo. Nor would it be a happy 
solution to take the old meridian of Ferro, abandoned by the chief maritime 
nations and presenting peculiar difficulties in its actual position. At the 
Congress of Paris of 1875 Jerusalem was proposed, a proposal more creditable 
to the heart than the head of the professor. Now M. de Beaumont asks: 
4 Does there exist and can we find a meridian which, by its position on the 
earth, is sufficiently determined to be taken as the initial meridian, solely on 
account of its natural and individual character ?' In reply he draws attention 
to the meridian passing through Behring's Strait, as satisfying beyond any 
other this demand. It is now the 150th meridian west of the island of Ferro, 
or 90 deg. £., or 10 deg. E. of Paris. This meridian, M. de Beaumont main- 
tains, can be very easily connected with works based on the principal meridians 
of Ferro, Paris, Greenwich, &c. It touches the extremity of the American 
continent at Cape Prince of Wales; traverses, on the one hand, the whole 
length of the Pacific without touching any land, and, on the other, all Europe, 
through its centre, from the top of Spitsbergen, passing Copenhagen, Leipaic, 
Venice and Rome; then cuts the African continent from Tripoli to Cape Frio, 
about 18 deg. S. lat. M. de Beaumont urges several advantages on behalf of 
this new meridian. It would cut Europe into east and west, thus giving em- 
phasis to a division which haB been tacitly recognized for ages; it presents 
about the largest possible terrestrial arc, from 79 deg. N. to 18 deg. S. lat., 
97 degrees altogether, thus giving to science the longest continuous line of 
land as a basis for astronomical, geodetic, and meteorological observations, and 
other important scientific researches. Passing as it would through a great 
number of States, it would become a really international meridian, as each 
nation might establish a station or observatory on the line of its circumference. 
Such a meridian M. de Beaumont proposes to call mediator, on the analogy of 
equator. This proposal of M. de Beaumont is strongly approved by the 
eminent French geographer, M. E. Cortambert, and has received considerable 
support from other continental geographers. Whether . M. de Beaumont's 
particular proposal be generally accepted or not, there can be no doubt of the 


advantage of having some common international arrangement as to a common 
meridian for geographical purposes at least." 

It is somewhat remarkable that the important query of M. de 
Beaumont is one which, without the slightest idea that it had been 
asked by him, I have anticipated by my reply. The coincidence, how- 
ever, is less strange, that we have arrived substantially at the same 
conclusions. A Behring f s Strait meridian is almost the only one 
which, by its position, may be taken as the initial meridian, on 
account of its natural and individual character. 

It is not a little satisfactory to discover that the views which I 
have expressed are confirmed in the main by so distinguished an 
authority. What difference exists is in matters of detail. M. de 
Beaumont proposes that the common meridian should be established 
150° west of Ferro, or nearly 180° from a meridian passing through 
or at no great distance from Copenhagen, Leipsic, Venice and Rome. 
This would throw the initial meridian a little to the east of Behring's 
Strait ; while the one suggested by the writer is to the west in the 
same locality. Either would perfectly serve the desired purpose. 
The only question remaining is, which of the two would least interfere 
with present practices; least disarrange charts, tables and nautical 
nomenclature ; which would most accommodate and best satisfy the 
greatest number of those who use and are governed by the maps 
and forms and astronomical almanacs now in use ; — in fact, which of 
the two lines would most readily meet with general concurrence 1 I 
think the answer is conclusive. The anti-meridian of the one pro- 
posed by M. de Beaumont, passes through Copenhagen — a meridian 
recognized probably by less than one per cent, of ocean-going vessels ; 
while the anti-meridian of the line advocated in this paper is in use 
for reckoning longitude by at least 72 per cent, of the floating 
tonnage of the world. 

The proposal of the President of the Geographical Society of 
Geneva, supported as it is by M. E. Cortambert and other con- 
tinental geographers, advances the settlement of an extremely em- 
barrassing question, and encourages the hope that at no distant day 
there may be an international arrangement, through which mankind 
may secure the advantages of a common first meridian for geographical, 
chronometrical and all other general purposes ; one that in its actual 
and in its astronomical sense will be indeed cosmopolitan. 


Two communications on the subject have lately appeared in the "Bulletin 
de la Societe" Geographic, Paris, 6th Series, Vol. 9." 

The first, originally submitted to the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia 
by M. Otto Strove, Director of the Pulkova Observatory, was subsequently read 
before the Geographical Society, Paris, by M. le Comte Guidoboni Visconte. 
The second, was communicated to the same society by M. A. Germain, Ing4- 
nieur Hydrographie. 

The recommendation of M. Germain is that the meridian of Paris should be 
maintained. He takes an essentially national and non-cosmopolitan view of 
the subject. The line of argument adopted by him does not call for refutation, 
even if controversy in this instance fell within the province of the writer. 

M. Germain seems to think, for his opinions are not positively expressed,, 
that if England would 1 adopt the metrical measurement of France, it woulft be 
a gracious act for France to accept the prime meridian of England. 

The communication of M. Otto Strove is of a different character. He argues 
for the necessity of a common first meridian, in the general interests of navi- 
gation, of geography and of astronomy. He points out that national vanity 
seems to have been the sole cause that up to the present time, to the great 
detriment of scientific advancement, different first meridians are in use. He 
very correctly writes: " La question de l'unification des meridiens ne depend 
d'aucune consideration d'economie politique, elle interesse uniquement le 
monde savant. Sa realisation n 'exige pas certains sacrifices de la part du 
public ; elle demande settlement quelques concessions d'habitudes et de 
preiuges nationaux, et cela, de la part de ceux-la memes qui, apres une courte 
penode de transition, en tireront les plus grands profits. Cela est exclusive- 
ment 1' affaire du monde scientifique, et nous espe>ons qu 'aucun de ses membres 
ne refusera de faire les insignifiantes concessions dont nous parlions pour par- 
venir a cette entente d'une utility g4n£rale." 

M. Struve's paper will well repay perusal. His remarks are totally free 
from national bias ; he favours the adoption of the Greenwich meridi a n in 
preference to any other, mainly on account of the fact that the exac. and 
the most useful ephemerides published, known under the name of the "Na utical 
Almanac," are calculated to correspond with it. He admits, however, that it 
is impossible to disregard the influence of national jealousies, and he points 
out how much they stand in the way of obtaining a general recognition of any 
first meridian established on national grounds. 

The conclusions to be drawn from the valuable paper of M. Otto Strove are, 
that although he gives the preference to Greenwicn as a common first meridian, 
that a meridian passing through the ocean, away from every country, and an 
exact multiple of 15° from Greenwich, would be a simple and desirable 

The Pacific meridian advocated in the present paper meets these conditions, 
and in itself offers many positive advantages. It passes through the ocean 
without meeting any continent, except uninhabited land on the Arctic circle. 
The Nautical Almanac, recognized by M. Strove, and by the leading astrono- 
mers of the world, to be the most complete work of the kind published, and 
in consequence the most generally used, would apply to it without interpolation. 
And as no national jealousy would be awakened, all national objections to the 
initial meridian proposed would entirely disappear, and its general acceptance 
be considered a ready and harmonious solution to an embarrassing difficulty in 
a matter of the greatest scientific importance. 

~fort "bt^tX* /C^tmUa) 


FitOM Observations made during Explorations iv 187a, 1875, and 1879. 

The region to which the following remarks will mainly apply is 
bounded on the south by parallel of Lat. 49°; on the north by parallel 
of Lat. 60°; on the east by meridian 95°; on the west by the line 
of the Rocky Mountains. An area, in round numbers, of 667,600 
square miles. 

For many years this vast region was almost *a blank on otir maps 
—little was known of it, either by Englishmen or Canadians, beyond 
the fact that furs were* obtained therefrom. It was not so, however, 
with the Americans. More than twenty years ago they recognized 
its value, foretold its great future, and even described it as the pro- 
spective granary of the world. 

In 1857, Capt. Palliser was commissioned by the British Govern- 
ment to examine the country south of the 54th parallel. Commencing 
his examination at the international boundary, in the vicinity of the 
Red River, he made a few traverses and reached Fort Ellioe late in 
season. Proceeding up the right bank of the Qu' Appelle to its head, 
he crossed the South Saskatchewan and proceeded northward to 
Carlton, where he wintered. In June, 1858, he turned to the south- 
west and spent the summer on the Great Plains, wintering that year 
at Edmonton. In the following spring he again proceeded south to 
the boundary, but afterwards passed to the west into British Columbia. 

He reported in very favorable terms of the northern portion of the 
country that he had traversed, but of the southern portion he spoke 
much less favorably — alleging that running water was very scarce ; 
that no wood was to be seen except in the river valleys ; and, that 
owing to the enormous herds of buffalo which covered the plains at 
that time, feed in many places was poor. 

As far as public opinion was concerned the only immediate result 
of this exploration was that a certain district in the north became 


known as the " Fertile Belt " and that the southern part about which 
so little was said, was set down, or assumed, to be arid and of slight 
value ; an opinion still generally prevalent and mainly fostered by 
writers whose views have been based on a misinterpretation of Capt. 
Palliser's remarks. 

The survey of the International Boundary and the establishment 
of the Mounted Police Force in 1874, tended in some degree to 
dispel the cloud which hung over the south. Their frequent journeys 
have done much since then in the same direction, yet in the minds 
of the general public, and even of many others who should be better 
informed, the old prejudice, in a measure, exists against it. 

In this position of the question the past only repeated itee!£ 
How many are the instances of wealth unknown having passed for 
centuries under the eye of the dwellers on the spot unappreciated 
and untouched 1 

In our day &e growth of the Dominion, demanding a through 
communication from east to*west, and the exigencies of the over- 
populated countries of the old world, have brought it about, that we 
should be the means of enlightening the world as to the extent of the 
resources of the " Great North-West," and in so doing, possibly of 
acting as special agents, fulfilling the beneficent intentions of the 
all-wise Creator. 

Explorers have traversed its length, and settlers have here and 
there dotted the new land and the reports of one and the other only 
stimulate us to further research. 

Amongst those sent out to explore, I was first commissioned by 
Mr. Fleming, in 1872, to examine the flora of the prairies between 
Winnipeg and Edmonton. The same year I was despatched in com- 
pany with Mr. Charles Horetzki to explore the Peace River and 
examine the country on its banks. The results were the discovery 
of the low passes through tile Rocky Mountains and of an extensive 
tract of fertile country, since known as the Peace River District. 

Li 1875, 1 accompanied Mr. Selwyn, Director of the Geological 
Survey, in the capacity of botanist, to British Columbia and from 
thence by the Peace River Pass to the east of the Rocky Mountains. 
Oircumstances compelled me to descend the Peace River from the 
Rocky Mountains to Lake Arthabaska and I was thus enabled to 
see the country as far north as lat. 59°. Turning eastward at this 
point a journey of 1,200 miles brought me to Winnipeg. 


The general conclusions which I arrived at from my explorations, 
of 1872 and 1875 were : 1st, That as there was but one flora com- 
mon to the region extending through from eight to twelve degrees of 
latitude, or as far north as 60°, and as that flora required a high 
summer temperature for its existence, the thermometer would be 
found to show a correspondingly even distribution of heat through- 
out the whole region. 

2nd. That exceptional or special conditions must exist to produce 
that high and even distribution of heat discovered as ranging over so 
great an area. 

These conclusions have since been established as facts by the 
recorded observations sent in from the Meteorological Stations at 
Winnipeg, Fort McLeod, and Fort Calgany in the southland Fort 
Rae and Fort Simpson in the north. (See Meteorological Report 
for 1878.) 

In 1879 my attention was mainly directed to an investigation of 
the causes of the supposed aridity of the district lying to the south. 
I found a parched surface, dried and withered grasses, and in short, 
every appearance of the existence of such aridity ; but closer ex- 
amination showed that these indications were illusory. At the point, 
" Blackfoot Crossing " lat. 50° 43' where the consequences of aridity 
appeared the strongest, I came upon ground, broken tip in the spring, 
bearing excellent crops of all kinds — oats being four feet high, while 
on the land outside the fence the grass was burnt up and all other 
vegetation withered. From this I argued that the rainfall in the 
district was evidently ample for the requirements of vegetation, but 
that, until the baked crust was broken, it could not percolate the 
ground as rapidly as it fell and so a great portion was evaporated by 
the dry atmosphere and lost. Thus the apparent aridity vanishes 
before the first efforts of husbandry. Next to the question of ari- 
dity was that of the high and even temperature of climate. On this 
point I simply accumulated data bearing on the observations of 
former years, all of which tended to prove that the great plain to 
the north-westward, and north of lat. 49 c , extending along the Sas- 
katchewan and other rivers between the 100th and 115tb meridians, 
and the narrow strip of coast north of Montery, California, present 
decided features of difference from other districts of the American 
continent These differences and peculiarities I shall now deal with 


It was long ago asserted as a principle by Geologists that, " land 
in quantity situated to the southward of lat. 40° north very ma- 
terially raises the temperature of lands lying so the north of such 
parallel." (Sir C. Lyell.) To the expression " land in quantity," 
I would add when its character is that of a desert or arid nature. 
Another maxim has been laid down by a well known writer on 
American Climatology (Blodgett) " that high arid plains are indica- 
tive of great summer heat, of an arid atmosphere, and of little rain 
or snowfall. Now the conditions required to test the accuracy of 
both these propositions are presented in the position occupied by the 
North-West Territory. South of our boundary within the United 
States lies a vast tract of land, generally arid or desert, of which at 
least 500,000 square miles are embraced in a plateau which has a 
general level of 6,000 feet. At Laramie City, in lat 42° it is about 
7,000 feet above sea level, from thence northward it rapidly Mis off 
so that when it reaches our boundary in lat. 49° at Pembina, it is 
considerably under 1,000 feet At the base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains it is under 4,000 feet. From the boundary the plain extends 
far to the north and only terminates at the Arctic Sea. In such a . 
wide range of latitude it might well be expected that a considerable 
difference of temperature would be found. The following Table, 
however, shows the temperature as being wonderfully uniform : — 
(See Metereological Report, 1878.) 


Winnipeg .... 
Fort McLeod.. 
Norway House. 
Fort Simpson. . 


Long. W. 




Au * 1! 





















Mean of 
Summer Months. 


In the same parallels of lat. in Europe the temperature is recorded 
as follows : (See Blodgett.) 







Mean of 
Summer Months. 

Penzance, 8.W. England 
Cracow, in Poland .... 
Konigsberg, in Prussia. . 
St. Petersburg, in Russia 







We therefore see that the summer temperature of the North-West 
Territories is exceptional, and may be taken as confirmatory of the 
views . quoted. Believing, however, that in addition to the quoted 
causes, there are others which contribute to this result of exceptional 
temperature, I purpose, for the present, to treat it simply as a fact 
to be noted for further comment, and pass on to the subject of 
isothermals. The recorded lines of equal temperature show that the 
various lines of heat, as they make westing from the eastern coast of 
the continent, tend in summer to curve upwards from the Gulf of 
Mexico in a north-westerly direction to a point in lat. 50° long. 110° 
west. At this point the mean summer temperature is 70° F., while 
at Winnipeg, on the same parallel of lat., but 15° farther east, the 
temperature is but 65°. Tracing these isothermals still further 
north, the line of greatest heat passes near Fort Vermillion in lat. 
58° 24' and long. 116° 30' W. . I may mention that at this point I 
found barley cut on August 6th, 1875, and wheat almost ripe. Still 
farther north and west, the table shows that Fort Simpson has a 
mean summer temperature of 61°. 8 F. Turning to the west boast, 
the isothermal lines commence to turn northward from the Gulf of 
California, and for a time skirt the western side of the Rocky 
Mountains. On reaching the low point of the chain between lat. 
41° and 45° they turn to the east, cross the mountains, and strike 
the Dominion boundary on the 115th meridian. These westerly 
currents, named the " Chinooks," have been known to cause a rise in 
the temperature of 60° in *a few hours. When in that country I 
enquired from a half breed about their effect on the snow. His 
reply was, " the Chinook licks up snow, water and all." 

After crossing the Rocky Mountains the thermometric current of 
the west meets that of the east at or about Hand Hills in lat. 51.20°, 
long. 112°. There, in 1879, I found that for days together, during 
August, the thermometer in the shade registered from 87 3 to 92° F. 
From the Hand Hills the united currents following their resultant 
direction carry the temperature (of latitude extending almost to New 
Orleans) over the plains of the North- West, and confer on it the 
blessing of a climate, not only exceptional as regards character, but 
productive of results to the agriculturist, which, I believe, are unsur- 
passed in any other part of the world. 

Returning, however, to the course taken by the east and west 
currents before their union at the Hand Hills, it is a matter for con- 


sideration, why that from the east should depart, not only, from ike 
natural law which would give to it an eastward, in place of a west- 
ward, bend as it rises northward from the Gulf of Mexico, but also 
from that of the western current which follows the natural law and 
bends to the eastward. 

The answer to this question is the key and the solution qf almost 
every climatohgical peculiarity of the North- West. 

The data which we have for the investigation of the question : 
Why does the eastern current of heat proceeding north-westward 
from the Gulf of Mexico bend to the west % are : 

1st. Recorded observations which show that land of a desert 
character is heated to a greater degree than that without its bounds. 

2nd. Recorded observations which show that currents of air are 
constantly on the move to the spots where the land is most heated. 

3rd. The fact that to the westward of the tract running northward 
from the Gulf of Mexico lies the " Great American Desert," which, 
from the preceding statements, must exercise an influence on the air 
around it. 

To my mind, no argument is needed to show that the cause of the 
divergence of the eastern thermometric current to the westward is 
solely due to the position and effect produced by the American 
Desert. A confirmation of this inference is offered in the eastern 
hemisphere where the south-east trade winds are drawn out of their 
course by the heated atmosphere of Western Indies, and result in the 
South- West Monsoon, and further by the north-eastern trend of the 
i8othermals in Northern Asia. In the transition from summer to 
winter we find the Pesert losing its temperature (terrestrial and 
atmospheric), and consequent attractive influence on air currents 
warmer than its own, the first effect of which is that the isothermal* 
pass away from their northern altitude and sink southward next, 
when freed from the desert influences, they no longer trend to the 
westward, but to the eastward. On the withdrawal of the southern 
warm currents, other currents from the north and from the west 
follow them up, particularly on the east side of the Rockies, and 
establish the prevailing north-west winter winds, which, being 
affected by the temperature of the Arctic Regions on the one hand* 
and by the Mountains on the other, bring the minimum line of cold 
so far to the south. Were the American Desert an inland sea, the 
summers of our plains would lose their exceptional character, and 
our winters would be like those of Eastern Europe. 



Ib a paper like the present* however, it would be out of plaos to 
dkwas the climate of the eastern henwsphere j but it could be shawa 
that precisely similar oavses to those which. I have specified can be 
traced ai existing there, and as being productive of the same results. 


The rainfall of the North- West offers as favorable a contrast to 
that of other districts as the temperature has shown. Bains come 
just when they are wanted and cease when vegetation not only no 
longer requires them, but when their continuance* would be injurious 
and detrimental to harvesting. Formerly the rainfall of a country 
was judged by the average for the whole year. Such a comparison, 
however, is misleading. What we want to know is the quantity 
that may be expected to fall : 

(a) During the period of vegetation and its distribution month by 
month, (b) During the harvest months. 

The period of vegetation in the North- West embraces May, June, 
July and August. The harvest months are September and 
October. To show how favorably these two conditions are determined 
for the North- West I append the following tabularly arranged 
statement* of rainfall : 




JUrarALL ik Incacs. 

Total von 







4 Momm*. 

Winnipeg, N. W. T. 

Toronto, Ontario 

Fort Riley, Kansas . . 
Rochester, New York 





7 40 












Rainfall id Inobbb. 

Total job 






Winnipeg, N. W. T. 
Toronto, Ontario. . . . 
Port Riley, Kansas . 
Rochester, New York 








4 20 
6 41 


Haying stated what the recorded facts as to rainfall are, I will 
give my reasons for asserting that these facts are but the necessary 
consequences of the physical conditions existing in the West of the 
North American Continent 

In the early part of this paper I referred to the position of the 
Great American Desert and pointed out one of its* effects on the air 
currents rising northward from the Gulf of Mexico — viz,, its power 
to attract and draw them to itself, and to the westward of their 
natural course. Another effect, now first mentioned, is that arising 
from the heat given off from the surface by radiation during the 
summer months. The Gulf air currents, laden with moisture, when 
drawn over the desert are met by the rarified and heated air ascend- 
ing from its surface, and that rainfall which in the ordinary course 
they would shower down (being prevented from falling) passes on 
and is wafted by the prevailing winds in the direction of our North- 
West, where, being removed from the effects of the desert heat, they 
give forth their long borne and priceless load in the form of our 
summer rains. 

Having shown cause for the summer rains, I may, now, state that 
the simple "suspension of those desert effects which gave the summer 
rains " is the cause of the almost total absence of rain in the autumn 
and winter periods. 

It was shown when writing on the winter temperature that as 
the desert cooled down the main air currents from the Gulf of 
Mexico no longer pursued a westward course but passed to the east- 
ward. This change of direction takes them over the region of the 
Canadian Lakes where they deposit that rainfall which in summer 
fell on the plains of the North-West. 


The progress of the seasons and the labours of. the husbandman 
may be summarized as follows : 

Early in April the hot and unclouded sun clears from the lands the 
last of its light snow-covering — thaws, and at the same time dries 
the ground sufficiently to fit it for the plough — and almost simul- 
taneously for seeding. Germination quickly follows and the young 
roots, moistened by the thawing of the subsoil, follow the pores 
opened out by the disintegrating power of the winter frosts, and 
penetrate to a depth inconceivable to those who have not put the 


matter to the test. By the time that the rains of May and June 
come the roots have a firm hold of the ground, and gix>wth is 
extraordinary. The July and early August rains nourish and swell 
the ear of the now ripening crops, and complete the promise of the 
early spring. Towards the end of August the winds change and the 
almost rainless period sets in and continues all winter. The Fanner 
harvests his crop without loss and in the highest possible condition ; 
stacking it in the open without even the necessity of thatching it, far 
the winter. • 

The advantages are equally great. Storms of sleet or wet snow are 
unknown on the Western Plains. Such snow as does fall is always 
dry and light, hence cattle and horses may be left out the whole 
winter without the possibility of suffering from wet. Intense cold 
they may experience, but stock-raisers know that where such cold ia 
dry their cattle take no harm. Hence cattle can be, and are raised, 
on the North-West Plains without the necessity for buildings for 
wintering them. 




BY W. D. PEAftMAN, H. A- 
Classical Tutor and Dean qf Residence in University CoUqp, Toronto, 

Euripides, Iphigenia vn Aul. v. 808. In this line, Dindorf and 
others have taken exception to the word faatdte— for which some 
read with Bothe eunatda-, while others adopt Musgrave's conjecture 
xdl ndidas. Properly understood, Xitatdes seems to me preferable, 
not only as being the MSS. reading, but also in point of sense. 

Achilles states that the men of the expedition, chafing at their 
detention at Aulis, are not all similarly situated : Some, like him- 
self, a£uyes ydfitov OIxouz ipjfjuous IxXuzdvres, others e^ovrec euvtdas 
"Anatdes. Here he pauses in his enumeration — robftbv fdv dbv x.t.X., 
" others may speak for themselves, he will state his own case." As 
I take it, e/ovrec euvidas x.t.X. should be rendered " others, although 
they have wives, have no children," These, then, would belong to 
the class specially exempt from military service, under the Mosaic 
dispensation (cp. Deuteronomy, ch. XX. v. 7; XXIV. v. 5). Hence 
the force of the following parenthesis — oSrw $e«/<fc ipxincant e/oaic x.tX, 
" so constraining a desire for this service hath, befallen Hellas." 

Ibid. v. 1143. 

Those who have adopted Porson's alteration of xdfnngs into «xa«?c, 
seem to have overlooked the fact that the imperative force is neither 
absolutely necessary nor, as I think, desirable. Agamemnon, dumb- 
foundered at finding his designs discovered, lets falls the exclamation, 
" I am lost ! my secret is betrayed !" While he is hesitating and 
thinking what to say next, Clytemnestra sarcastically resumes, "I 
know all ! your very silence amounts to a confession, so that you need 
not weary yowrself with a long and idle story." Of course, if we 
retain x&nvyq, the period after izoXXd must be removed. 


Home?, Iliad, B. XVIH. v. 119. &pyaX£o<; %6Xos suggests itself 
to me as the original of Horace's " splendida bills " (Sat II. iii. 141)! 
I have never been able to persuade myself that such a master of 
epithets, as Horace undoubtedly was, would have allowed himself to 
use such an apparently meaningless epithet as splendida, without 
some special reason* Now this Terse of Homer's would seem to 
have passed into a proverb (the description of jglAoc, in the "verses 
immediately preceding it, is quoted by Plato, PhiUb. 47 E.); and it 
is probable that Horace, with this phrase of Homer's floating idly in 
his memory, wrote splendida as a translation of dpyotXios, not stopping 
to reflect that this word was from a different root than the similar 
sounding derivatives of &pr6$ " bright and glistening." Horace him- 
self tells us, in more than one passage, that he repeatedly conned the 
Homeric poems ; and we frequently And swaps from the Iliad and 
Odyssey, literally rendered and introduced, apparently, quite as 
much for the purpose of displaying Horace's archaeological lore, as 
from the appositeness of the quotation. If this assumption of mine 
be correct, it curiously illustrates Pindar, Pyth* TV. v, 109. Xeuxdi* 
xtftfaayra typzalv — where it has been suggested (Donaldson's note ad 
locum) that Pindar has miscopied Homer's <f>ps<r\ Xevyaktyirt ?n(ty<rac. 
Apropos of derivations, I find, in the Lexica, the word ajwdpds 
variously derived from dfmopSq and from an Indo-European madra. 
A, much simpler derivation would be from the Homeric tywdic "all 
together," t\e., confusus as opposed to distinctus. 

Xenophon, Anab. Y. vii. 25. xal bcvfysro 8<rctq v$lv pijirvrxavsv 
IxHTTdpuvos. This passage illustrates, in the most striking manner, 
the necessity for attention to the distinctions of tense in the Greek 
verb. I have .never seen it correctly translated. Xenophon is 
deploring a tumultuous spirit which had developed itself among the 
soldiers. He says that, owing to their menacing behaviour on a 
certain occasion, many people had been so much alarmed that they 
had cast themselves into the sea in their efforts to escape, "and who- 
ever did not happen to know how to swim was in a fair way for 
being drowned" If imfyero had signified " was drowned" as it is 
usually rendered, Xenophon would not have failed to dwell upon the 
loss of life occasioned by this outrage. 

Livy, B. IX. cp. 16, furnishes an example of a far more amusing, 
but perhaps more excusable, mistranslation than the above. Writers 
of Roman history gravely tell us that Papirius Cursor was sueh a 


martinet that, according to Livy, when his troopers applied to him 
for some relaxation of their discipline, he replied : " Yes, I will 
relieve you from the obligation of giving a pat to your horse's back 
when you dismount." The words are "ne nihil remissum dicatis, 
remitto, 'inquit, 9 ne utique dorsum demulcea&is, quum ex equis 
descendetis" If any one, who has ever ridden without a saddle, will 
recall his first instinctive movement on dismounting, equo lassus ab 
indomito, he will have no doubt either as to the nature of the action 
or the owner of the dorsum. 

Plato, Repub. B. X. 615. D. I cannot see why &v ijfet should be 
retained (as one of the exceptions to the rule against &v with Fut. 
Indie), when the sense plainly requires avy$si — i.e. u neque adest 
neque adfuturus est ex inferis" The speakers have ascended, Ardueas 
is still below, cp. 615. E. 

Plato, Philebus, 17. B. xai obdkv Mptp ye rourtoy x.r.X. It has 
been objected to this reading, that the sense requires odderipip. I 
am inclined to think that the original was oudevl iriptp, and that the 
letter i has suffered elision at the hands of the copyist. 

Ibid. 18. B. fiij M rd & edtoc dXX y ht dpiSfldv o5 rtvd nXffio^ 
ixa<TTov igorcd Tt xaravoeTv, reXeurav re ix irdvra>v efc ly. Stallbaum 
says that all the MSS. agree in exhibiting this reading ; however, as 
he finds it unintelligible, he concludes that there is a mistake some- 
where. He would read fxaarore, in which sense some commentators 
have wished to explain txaarov. If it does not savour too much of 
presumption, I should say that the error arose from their not per- 
ceiving that 2xa<rcov was in construction with dptd/xdv — not with 
itXrjOos. I consider izX9jQ6s n as the object of e/ovra, and the sentence 
.hXtjOos ixaerov fyovrd n as a parenthesis ; Ixaarov then would mean 
each of the subordinate genera — ("each " of the " two or three, &c.," 
16. D.). The rest of the construction might be explained thus: 
del pXlitovra . . . xaravoelv avrbv (rdv dptQp.6v soil. 6iz6aa). 

Ibid. 19. C. dXXd xaXdv pkv rd ^ufircayra x.rX I am surprised that 
Stallbaum has not noticed a manifest reference to the old proverb, 
" primus qui ipse consulU, <kc." Cp. Hdt. VII. 16; Sophocles, Antig. 
v. 720; Livy, XXII. 29. 

Ibid. 20. D. dyayxatSTaToy. The meaning of this word is obviously 
" the least one could say" This sense of dvayxaidTaros is frequently 
lost sight of, e.q., in the Gorgias 505. B., where (as I pointed out, in 
the Journal of the Canadian Institute for 1872) the idea conveyed 


is that the dialogue, if carried on by Socrates alone, would be a very 
poor affair, cp. Repub. 369. D. 

Ibid. 30. E. vobs i<n\ reyouffrys too izdyrwy ahioo Xe^Bivro': Twy 
Ttrxdpwy wv ^y Jjfiiy iy rduro. This is indeed a much vexed passage; 
Stallbaum defends yevouerris, which is evidently a play upon the 
jingle you* and riyous, on the ground that Hesychius and Suidas 
both mention it as a word used by Plato, as a synonym for reyTJTys 
or corytv^<;, but gives up the latter part of this passage as a " locus 
manifesto corruptus." For my own part, I cannot see the necessity 
for despair. In 30. B. the four ylrn are enumerated: nipaq xai 
fastpoy xal.xoiyby xai rd r^c atria? yiyos, iy fikaat rixapxovMv; and, 
as far as I can see, the two statements are exactly parallel. 

Ibid. 40. E. rl di; itovypds do£aq xai xpyards &Ua><; tj feudet? 
ytyyofiiyaz eloper einely. For the omission of xai dX^$el<;, in addition 
to other parallels, one might compare the customary ellipse with h 
fUcnp, e.g., Aristophanes, Av. v. 187. £v /day dyitoudty djjp l<ni y9js, 
and Euripides, Phomiss. v. 583. 

Ibid. 44. D. Hocxepdauara. This word, which Pollux mentions 
with disapproval and Lobeck condemns, although manifestly a read- 
ing of the highest antiquity, is, I am tempted to believe, a corruption 
arising from the confusion of dtxrxepetas with the fierd of the following 
sentence. The bastard bwrppdapjaTa would, I think, be the natural 
offspring of tftwr^ec'ac fierd. The union of the two words being 
brought about by the feeling that a neuter plural, agreeing with 
rcLUo, would suit the construction much better than the somewhat 
awkward duoxepeias. 

Ibid. 46. E. Stallbaum reads dfajxdyous ijdovds, tStc dk robyaytioy 
Totq eyros npds rckc t&v 2$<*> Xuita? %dov&<; ^uyxepatrdsttraq x.r.X. ; but 
says " izpotrcdrrwy Bodl. Ven. II. Dein Ubri omnes ydovats, quod de 
coniectura Schiitzii in -fydovds mufavimus" 

I am inclined to think that npocrdrroty is really itpfc rd raty, it 
being a frequent practice in MSS. to represent double letters by a 
letter of larger type. Hence recurrent letters are often omitted, and 
vice versa, according as the eye of the copyist was attracted by a 
difference in the size of the letter. Here I believe that the original 
reading was — rooyayrioy rots evros npds rd xmv efoi, kvnas ijdovdis 
SoyxepaaBdaas x.xX I consider xobyayxiov — £?«* as a parenthesis, 
and would translate thus : " Sometimes inconceivable pleasures, 
and at others (the contrast between the internal and the external 



sensations) pains mingled with pleasures." With regard to the con- 
struction, tovtok; npb<; Ixdvoos is the ordinary mode of expressing 
enmity or opposition between two parties. 

Ibid. 47. C. nepi to r&v &v <po%jj &6ftart r&varrfa ZufifidXlttat. 
flere, as Stallbaum says, "deest aUquid ad loci integrUatem." Butt- 
mann conjectured £v <po%ip xal <j6fiaxi y Srav (porf v^iiaxt rdyayrk 
ZufipdXXyTai) which suits the sense admirably, but is too violent a 
remedy. Ast imagines that f\ has fallen out after <po^ ; but, as 
Stallbaum says, this would hardly suit the sense. I am inclined to 
think that the most natural remedy would be to supply jj, which 
would readily be absorbed in the final syllable of $w/jf (see note on 
46. E.), and would suit the sense equally with Buttmann's reading. 
I would render — " But concerning those in the soul, where it con- 
tributes (to the mixture) opposite sensations to those of the body, 
vie., pain in immediate contrast with the body's pleasure, <fcc. w 
The Trireme. 

In a series of papers, which have appeared, from time to time, in 
the Revue Des Deux Mondes, entitled *' La Marine De L* Avenir 
Et La Marine Des Anciens," M. le Vice-Amiral Jurien de la Graviere, 
well known as a naval officer holding high command in the Crimean 
and Mexican campaigns, has examined historically die naval expe- 
ditions of the Ancients, with a view to their bearing on the tactics 
likely to be adopted by modern navies. In the course of his remarks, 
he finds it necessary to refer to the much vexed question of the 
Trireme. Was the Triremis or Tpi^<: 9 of the Ancient Greeks and 
Romans, a vessel with three banks of oars, one above the other, as 
the Dictionaries tell us 1 The answer, which he gives to this question, 
is that which has been given by every practical seaman, from tie 
old Sieur Barras de la Penne, Oapitaine des galeres du Roi, down to 
the present time. All seem to agree that, even if a vessel so con- 
structed might manage to move in smooth water, it would be almost 
impossible for it to manoeuvre in a rough sea, or in the rapid 
alternations of a naval combat. How then can we credit die exist- 
ence of such monstrosities as quinqueremes and naves sededm ordinum, 
not to speak of the TeffffapaxovnjpTjs of Ptolemy Philopatort 

Plainly some other solution must be found ; for the fact that there 
were vessels so named is too well attested to admit of dispute. He 
first idea, which would naturally occur to one, is that these vessels 
received their names, not from the number of their oars, but from 

PHllEBtJB OF PLATO, fcW. 105 

the number of men at each oar ; and thk is the view taken by most 
of the opponents of the theory of three or more tiers of oars: A 
very strong argument in its favour is derived from the practice on 
board the war-galleys of tin 16th and 17th centuries, in which each 
oar was worked by five rowers : qirinquerwnes they are called by the 
advocates of this view of the question. But, reply the others, in 
this ease, how do you account for the terms fyayfaqs, Curfoy? and 
(tatapcrtyc, which, say they, were unmistakably applied to the upper, 
middle and lower tiers of rowers respectively, and to the oars used 
by them? Barras de la Penne (following the Scholiast on Aristo- 
phanes, Rcmae), thinks that they received these names from their 
position, fore, aft or amidships. The fyaylnpc, who sat nearest to 
the stern, was placed higher than the daXmftkris, used a longer oar 
and received higher pay. In his opinion, the confusion has arisen 
from a failure to realise tfee weU known fact that temus is often used 
itith the signification of refltefc; jast as we say "a good oar" for "a 
good oarsman." <>rtataty many passages, m the Ancient Classics, 
admit of this explanation ; but there are others, in which the supra- 
peaitaon of the One class of rowers seems to be toe clearly indicated 
to be disposed of thus easily. Lastly, the great difficulty has always 
been the fact that, aHheagh, in the great majority of pictures repre- 
senting war-ships, only one tier of oars is to be seen ; still in a few 
cams and some monuments, notably in the figures on Trajan's column, 
vessels are depicted, in which we apparently distinguish two tiers of 

Sere, I think, lies the Way oat of this last difficulty. Why only 
two f " Because there was not room for more on the coins," say the 
apologists; bat thfe does not apply to tihe marbles. It has been 
remarked that, where there are two tiers visible, the oars in the 
lower tier do not exactly resemble those in the upper tier; and it has 
been suggested that one of these tiers consists of dummies — possibly, 
guards to prevent one t>ar from i nterfe ring with the other. It may 
be objected that such dummies would have materially impeded the 
, vessel's p r og ress, against a wind or through rough water. After read- 
ing M. de la Graviere's vigorous protest against tiie admission of what 
he has stated to be a practioad impossibility — whatever history or 
the monuments might say to the contrary— I was led to the con- 
clusion that there mtost be some mode of reconciling fact with 
tradition; and tbofbllowmg -suggested itself tome as not improbable. 


One has often noticed in old wood cuts, and in most pictures drawn 
by children, an attempt to exhibit two opposite sides of an object, 
without regard for the perspective. Now one way of doing this — 
one sometimes sees it done intentionally in drawings of machinery — 
is to raise the outer side above the other. As I take it, in the few 
instances in which we find a second tier of oars, the artist, knowing 
that a spectator would see the oars only of the rowers nearest to 
him, the rowers themselves being partly hidden by the bulwarks, 
while the rowers on the other side, being further from the inter- 
vening bulwarks, would be more conspicuous, wished to bring their 
oars also into view. No doubt this error in the perspective, once 
introduced by the original artist, would be carried still further by 
the copyist, who possibly never saw such a vessel in his life ; and 
this too would explain some of the strange comments which are to 
be found in later writers. With regard to the suprapoeition of the 
rowers, I cannot but think that, especially in very large vessels, 
where each oar wad manned by ten or sixteen rowers, it would be 
necessary for the men at the upper extremity of the oar to be placed 
higher than those nearer to the thole pin; otherwise they would 
hardly have been able to reach the end of the oar when it was dipped 
in the water. As the upper part of the oar would necessarily 
describe a greater curve than the lower, it would be natural that 
the pay of the TkraniU should be higher than that of the Thalamite. 
In the case of Ptolemy's ship, it is probable that the rowers relieved 
one another, and did not all row at the same time. When I had 
arrived at the above conclusion, it occurred to me that the term 
OaXafUTTjs admitted of a very significant derivation (it is ordinarily 
supposed to be connected with 0dAafi&: y t.e. " the man who sits in 
the hold 11 ). The aperture through which the oar projected was 
called i) QaXafiia scil. dmj ; and, as I take it, both these words are 
derived from cxaXfib^ "the thole pin" to which £he oar was fastened; 
cxaXfi6<; naturally passes into exaXaftos. On calculating the probabili- 
ties in favour of this derivation, I came across one or two other words 
for which it seemed to me more natural to assume a parallel phonetic 
change, than to assign them to the roots to which they are ordinarily 
referred : e.g., Qdncrut is suggestive of cxdtnrw, Odirrat of trxdnrat (cp. 
rdfpos). Accordingly 6 BaXafiir^^ would be the rower who sat nearest 
to the thole pin. As I thought that the probabilities were in favour 
of this view, I ventured to communicate it to the Admiral, who had 


expressed his anxiety to obtain some solution of the difficulty ; and 
he, in acknowledging my letter very politely, has condescended to 
express his satisfaction with my explanation. About a fortnight 
after the despatch of my letter, I received a very curious confirmation 
of this derivation, at least in part, from some remarks, which appeared 
in a following number of the Revue, by M. le Contre-Amiral Luigi 
Fincati, of the Italian navy, who has criticised M. de la Graviere's 
statements. M. Fincati, speaking of the Venetian navy, says that 
the rowers were protected by vertical shields placed above the "arma- 
tures (outriggers) on which the oars worked. These shields, he 
says, were successively called talamii, talari, ali and morti; and the 
daXafitTTjs was so called, because he sat nearest to the talamii. M. 
Fincati's view, although pronounced impracticable by the French 
Admiral, is remarkable. He maintains that, until the latter half of 
the 16th century, the war-ships of the Mediterranean were always, par 
excellence, triremes. The crew was composed of two hundred men; of 
whom one hundred and fifty were rowers, seated three and three on the 
twenty-five benches placed on either side of the vessel ; he thinks that 
these benches ' were arranged obliquely, and that each man had a 
separate oar ; so that the oars reached the water in groups of three, at 
intervals corresponding with the distance between the benches: but 
he adds that, about the middle of the 16th century, this arrangement 
was altered, and the three men rowed with one oar. He cites as his 
authorities the Historie del mio tempo of Natal Conti, the Armata 
Navale of Pantero Pantera, Cristoforo da Canale, and other writers 
to which I have not access. However, the probabilities seem to be 
decidedly in favour of M. de la Graviere, who is even less disposed 
to allow the possibility of this arrangement than of the old one. 
Just imagine what would happen, with three men on a bench, each 
having a good long oar in his hand, if one of them chanced to "catch 
a crab/' or was knocked over at a critical moment ! his swinging oar 
would throw the whole equipage into a state of disastrous confusion. 
In one of the early numbers of the Revue, M. de la Graviere mentions 
the fact that the Maritime Statutes, of the 14th century, speak of the 
galleys as armatae ad tree remos ad banchum " equipped for three oars 
to a bench f and such passages as this are, in all probability, the 
source of what I cannot help calling the error of M. Fincati and his 
authorities. Barras de la Penne has warned us that we must not 
suffer ourselves to be misled by the word remus. And, besides, a 
passage from Zosimus (Jlor. A.D. 420) which has often beeu cited 


on the opposite side, expressly tells us that, although Polybius had 
described the Eomans and Carthaginians as using vessels with six 
banks of oars, they had ceased to construct even triremes long before 
his time. 

Doletus, indeed, the virulent adversary of Erasmus of Rotterdam, 
tells us (A.D. 1537) that he saw such a quinquereme, at Venice, 
" prima adolescentia ;" but, unfortunately, he tells us also that the 
rowers were placed in tiers, one above the other : an arrangement of 
which M. Fincati himself admits the impossibility. Now Doletus 
may be easily disposed of : he is defending himself against a charge 
of ignorant appropriation from a work by the learned Bayfius ; and 
it is absolutely necessary for him to bring out something original. 
Bayfius has ended by declaring his doubts as to the possibility of 
three or more tiers of oars : Doletus finds no difficulty in saying that 
he has* seen. No one, who has waded through the foul torrent of 
invective in which Doletus indulges, would take his word for any- 
thing. Moreover, he says " prima adolescentia :" let us trust that 
he had forgotten. After examining with some care the numerous 
passages cited by Bayfius, Meibomius, Opellius, Scheffer and Voss, I 
have come to the conclusion that most of them may be satisfactorily 
explained. Considerable latitude must, of course, be allowed in the 
case of quotations from the poets — although there is one passage, in 
particular (Arrianf Eocped. Alexand. VI. 5), which can only be 
accounted for on the theory that some interpolator has been at work. 
Finally, we must not lose sight of the fact that Ancient war-ships 
were not constructed on such rigidly scientific principles or with such 
exact workmanship, that barely possible positions and intricate com- 
binations may be assumed for seating the men and adjusting their 
oars : on the contrary, the doubt must be given against such ; and 
no arrangement but the simplest and most feasible can be accepted, 
if we are to believe that, in the First Punic war, the fleet of Duillius 
was ready to sail within sixty days of the felling of the timber, or 
that, in the Second, Scipio's was built in still less time. Moreover, 
we must bear in mind that intricate combinations require absolute 
order; and however much this might have been observed (and 
Xenophon tells us that it was observed, adding that the trireme was 
crowded with men eeeay/xivr} avOptonwy) on ordinary occasions ; yet, 
with a shower of darts falling on the men and the waves leaping up 
against the oars, it must occasionally have baen impossible to avoid 
confusion, and that too at the critical moment. 


In conclusion, I will examine one or two of the most notable 
passages, which present considerable difficulty at first sight. 

Xenophon, H. G. II. 'i. 28, where Conon is surprised at ^Bgos 
Potamos : the crews, which had dispersed on shore, rush hurriedly 
to their ships ; but the enemy is upon them, before the vessels can 
be manned ; and they have to push off in the following condition : 
al fdv rmv' vewy dtxporoi %<rav, al dk fiovdxporoi, al dk itavreXax; xeyai 
(we find elsewhere dixporos and $rfpr)<; used as synonyms). It has 
generally been assumed that this must mean that some of the vessels 
had only one or two of their three banks of oars manned. But we 
know, from other sources, that each rower had his proper station at 
a particular oar; and it is much more likely, in my opinion, that 
instinct would be supreme in the confusion ; so that, as each man 
hurried up, he would rush to his particular oar (whether his station 
was fore or aft, below or above), and proceed to cast it loose, without 
waiting for his comrades of the same bench or (for the sake of 
argument) " tier" I would explain thus : " Some of the ships had 
but two men to an oar, others but one, <fcc." 

Lucan, Pharsal. III. v. 536, foil.: 

"Validasqae triremes, 
Quasque quater surgens exstructi remigis ordo 
Commovet, et plures quae mergunt aequore pinna, 
Multiplices cinxere rates : hoc robur aperto 
Oppositum pelago. Lunata fronte recedunt . 
Ordine contentae gemino crevisse liburnae. 
Celsior at cunctis B*uti praetoria pugpis 
Verberibus senis agitur, molemque profundo 
Invehit et eummis longe petit aequora remia. " 

Here we have biremes, triremes, quadriremes, quinqueremes, and 
the hexeris of Brutus. — Exstructi remigis: — As I have said before, in 
these huge vessels, the men nearer the upper extremity of the oar 
must have been placed higher than those, nearer to the thole pin ; 
but, if each man had a separate oar, how long and awkward the 
highest must have been ! The Liburnae, which were light, swift 
sailing vessels, are said to have been content " ordine gemino " — 
naturally, as the Liburnae did not stand so high out of the water, 
their oars would be shorter and more easily managed. Whereas the 
praetoria puppis, which towered above all the others (celsior, <£c), 
" would, necessarily, have longer and heavier oars ; hence each was 
plied by six men. Scaliger's objection, that the words " summis 
remis " suggest that this vessel had other oars nearer to the water. 


may be met, I think, with the answer that these oars are not summi 
as compared with others in the same ship, but in comparison with 
those of the other vessels. Again Bayfius cites passages in which 
we are told, incidentally, that the quinqueremes breasted a rough sea 
better than the triremes ; and this could hardly have been the case if 
their oars, necessarily longer and heavier, had been manned by a 
single rower. 

JSschylus, Agam. v. 1618. 

<rb Tourca <pwveX<; yspripa irpoarjfievos 
xto-ny xparooyrwp rmy M Ctfjy &op&S \ 
Here, ol M toyy are supposed to be ol Zoyirai — and Paley renders 
" those on the upper benches." But it is more natural to understand 
here, the officers and fighting men ; who occupied a higher position, 
in both senses, than those who " sat at the oar below." The haughty 
taunt of u35gisthus is shorn of half its sarcasm, if he merely contrasts 
himself with fellow workers, who occupied a position but one grade 
lower than his own. 

Aristophanes, Equites, v. 545. Atpsaff abr$ noti> rd K p6Biov, 
xapaTzip.<p<n! £<f> iydexa xtbnaaq x.t.A. 

Although this passage does not bear directly upon the subject 
of my remarks, I cannot help noticing, as I have not seen it else- 
where, a curious explanation which Isaac "Voss gives of the phrase 
ty' Msxa xcottolis ; he says that the speed at which a galley was going, 
was roughly calculated by the number of benches which were passed 
at a stroke ; fast travelling, in his day, was a stroke which drove the 
galley a distance of seven benches. According to his view, " with 
an eleven oar stroke," would mean that the distance between eleven 
benches was passed at each stroke. Scheffer quotes Silius, where a 
light Liburnian galley is said to have passed more than its own 
length at each stroke. Pun. XIII. v. 240. 

" Quanta est vis agili per caerula summa Liburnae, 
Quae, pariter quoties revocatae ad pectora tonsae 
Percusaere fretum, ventia fugit ocior, et se, 
Quam longa est, uno remorum praeterit iotu." 

Of course, the actual speed would depend upon the time of the 
stroke. Yoss tells us that twelve hundred stadia (about 140 miles) 
a day, was considered very fast sailing for a Liburnian, whereas the 
modern galleys went much faster-— often covering a distance of 1,400 
stadia in that time. 



Ptofeuor in Uu PrtsbyUrian CUUfft, Montreal. 

In a former paper on the Algonquins I directed attention to the 
difference between the grammatical forms of that people and those 
of the nations by' which they are surrounded, or whose territory 
borders on the Algonquin area. I also indicated that the Algonquin 
dialects exhibit traces of Turanian influence, which I referred to 
the proximity of tribes speaking languages whose structure is largely 
Turanian. This Asiatic influence appears, even more strikingly, in 
the arts and exercises, dress, manners and customs of the Algon- 
quins. The birch-bark canoe and wigwam, the modes of warfare 
and hunting, the skin dress and lodge, the snowshoe, ornamentation 
with porcupine quills, the calumet, are not in any sense Polynesian* 
Neither are they aboriginal, or adaptations made first upon this con- 
tinent to the necessities of the country. They existed, as in a 
measure they still exist, in northern Europe and Asia, before the 
time of Herodotus, when the Scythian took the scalp of his slain 
enemy. The Malay Algonquin adopted the implements, dress and 
customs of the people who occupied the country at the period of his 
immigration ; but retained his soft, liquid speech, with much of his 
oceanic construction of language, and most of the traits of the 
Polynesian character. His quiet reserve is as unlike the manners of 
the rude, boisterous and fun-loving Athabascan as is the silent dig- 
nity of the Malay compared with the noisy childish ways of the 
Papuan. By nature indolent and caring little for power obtained by 
bloodshed, he fell before the restless and warlike Iroquois. That the 
Algonquins held their own, and did not become incorporated with 
tribes of Asiatic origin, is doubtless owing to the large numbers 
that at one period must have established themselves upon this con- 
tinent. This adaptation of an oceanic population to continental 
modes of life, with all the differences of climate and productions, 
and the preservation of their identity for many ages, is one of the 
most remarkable phenomena known to ethnological science. 


Although I must apologize for the scantiness of my materials, I 
feel that I am in a position to indicate the origin of three important 
Indian families, with which the Algonquins have long been in con- 
tact ; these are the Tinneh or Athabascans, the Iroquois, and the 
Choctaws. The first named are the neighbours of the Algonquins. 
on the north, but appear also as an intrusive people as far south as 
Mexico. The Iroquois are scattered among the Algonquins ; and 
the Choctaws and Cherokees, who are simply disguised Iroquois, 
were originally situated to the south of the Algonquin area. The 
Tinneh family I associate with the Tungusians of . Siberia and 
Northern China ; and the Iroquois and Choctaws, with the popula- 
tions of north-eastern Asia, classed by Dr. Latham as Peninsular 
Mongolidae. It is to these immigrants that we owe the peculiar 
features of American Indian life. 

The Tinneh are the Chipweyans of Mackenzie, Carver and the 
older travellers, the Athabascans of many writers, the Montagnais 
of Father Petitot and others who have copied his statements. In 
the number of their tribes they exceed those even of the large Al- 
gonquin family, and they occupy a similarly extensive area, but one 
upon which civilization has little encroached. Among the more im- 
portant tribes may be mentioned the Chipweyans or Athabascans 
proper, the Coppermines, Beavers, Dogribs, Tacullies, Tlatskana^ 
Koltshane, Atnah or Nehanni, Sursees, Nagailer, Tenan-Kutchin, 
Kutcha-Kutchin, Yukon or Ko- Yukon, Digothe or Loucheux, 
Sicanni, Unakhotana, Kenai or Tehanin-Kutchin, Inkulit, Ugalenzes, 
Umpquas, Hoopas, Wilacki, Tolewah, Apaches, Navajos, Mescaleros, 
Pinalenos, Xicarillas. In reference to their habitat I cannot do 
better or more briefly than by quoting the words of Mr. W. H. 
Dall in his " Report on the distribution and nomenclature of the Na- 
tive Tribes of Alaska and the Adjacent Territory." This great family 
includes a large number of American tribes, extending from near the 
mouth of the Mackenzie south to the borders of Mexico. The Apaches 
and Navajos belong to it, and the family seems to intersect the continent 
of North America in a northerly and southerly direction, principally 
along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains. The northern tribes of 
this stock extend nearly to the delta of the Yukon, and reach the 
sea-coast at Cook's Inlet and the mouth of the Copper River. Cast- 
ward they extend to the divide between the watershed of Hudson's 
Bay and that of Athabasca and the Mackenzie River. The designa- 


tion (Tinneb) proposed by Messrs. Boss and Gibbs, has been accepted 
by most modern ethnologists. The northern Tinneh form their tribal 
names by affixing to an adjective word or phrase, the word tinneJi 
meaning " people," in its modifications of tinneh, tina or tena, or in 
one group the word kutchin, having the same meaning. The last are 
known as the Kutchin tribes, but so far as our knowledge yet ex- 
tends are not sufficiently differentiated from the others to require 
special classification by themselves." Mr. Dall gives in the Appendix 
to this report a vocabulary of the Yakutats about Mount St. Elias, 
whom he classifies as Koljush or Thlihkeets, but whose language is 
plainly Tinneh. They differ also from the Thlinkeets by the absence 
of the lip-ornament and the totemic system, and by eating the blub- 
ber and flesh of the whale, which the Thlinkeets regard as unclean. 
The word "Tinneh" in its various forms dinnie, dene, dinar/, toene, 
tana, Uyannij, tine, tineze, tingi, tenghie, tinday, tinlay, &c., answers 
to the lenni, ilenni, renoes, ililew, vrirew, inini, eyinew of the Algon- 
quin, and should be a guide more or less to the affiliation of the 
j>eople so designated. Such a form is not very rare, nor is it, on the 
other hand, very common. Of similar forms in America, as among 
the Nootkans, Algonquins and some non-Tinneh Mexican tribes, I 
need not speak. The Celtic dyn, duine are nearer than any other 
known to me, and the Celtic languages in their non-Aryan features, 
which are few and evidently ingrafted, belong to the Ural-Altaic 
class. In Africa we find such forms as tna, tkohn, among Bushmen 
and Hottentots, with iden, dim, <fec, in the Niger region. The 
Hebrew adam appears not only in the Semitic area, but also among 
non-Semitic Africans, in the Caucasus, and further east, as a monu- 
ment, perhaps, of Mahomedan Semitic influence. In Polynesia 
forms like tangata, tamata present some resemblance, but I am not 
aware that those who employ these terms, any more than the people 
above mentioned, designate themselves by any such name. It is 
different with the Altaic family with which I have associated the 
Tinneh. The Tungusians call themselves Tungus, Donhi, and are 
termed Tung-chu by their Chinese neighbours, the former being also 
in several tribes the words for man. Inasmuch as the Mantchu 
dynasty in China is Tungusian, there is every reason to respect the 
Chinese appellation. The Loucheux tenghie, and the Tenan-Kutchin 
tingi, like the Beaver tineze, are our Tungusian tungus and donki. 
Similarly the Tungus akee and the Mantchu cheche are the Urnpqua 


ekhe, and the Tacully chaca, woman. The Tungus tirgani, day, is 
the Koltchane tiljcan ; tog, fire, the XJgalenze takak ; dzsho, house, 
the Kutchin zeh ; okat, river, the Tacully okox ; chukito, belly, the 
, XJgalenze kagott ; gal, hand, the Tlatskanai kholaa ; ogot, nose, the 
Navajo hutchih ; amai, father, the Tlatskanai mama ; and anya, 
mother, the Kenai anna. In the accompanying vocabulary a com- 
parison is instituted between a collection of Tinneh words derived 
from various sources and part of the material of the Tungusic lan- 
guages furnished by Klaproth. 

The Tinneh languages exhibit their Northern Turanian character 
in the absence of time gender, and the substitution for it of a distinc- 
tion between nouns as intelligent or unintelligent, noble or ignoble, 
animate or inanimate. This it has in common with the Tungu*. 
The formation of the plural by affixing an adverb of quantity marks 
equally the Tinneh languages and the Mantchu. The adverb of 
quantity thus employed, which is lau in certain tribes, is like the 
Turkish plural in ler. There is the closest affinity between the 
Tungus and the Tinneh languages in regard to the innumerable 
modifications of the verb to express variety and quality of action 
found in each. Both groups agree in prefixing the pronoun to the 
verb, thus differing from the Ugrian and Turkish order of pronominal 
affixes. Occasionally, however, the temporal index is infixed 
between the pronoun and the verbal root in Tinneh, while, as far as 
known to me, it is final in the Tungusian languages, as it is in 
several tenses of the Tinneh. In Tungus and Tinneh, equally, the 
accusatives precede the verb. The formation of the genitive by 
proposing the noun possessor, followed by the third personal pronoun, 
to the object possessed, characterizes both families. They agree, also, 
in employing post positions only instead of prepositions. The 
Mautchu adjective is generally prefixed to its noun, but in some, 
at least, of the Tinneh dialects it follows. Yet the possessive adjective 
precedes as in Matchu. The above mentioned grammatical relation- 
ships of the Tinneh and Tungus, although far from exhaustive, are 
sufficiently important to give weight to any other evidence linguistic 
or ethnological that may be adduced. 

Various writers, generally, however, in seeking to account for the 
origin of the Esquimaux, have referred to the pressure northwards 
and eastwards of Tartar tribes in the fourteenth and previous 
centuries ; and, among the nations whom they supposed the Yakuts 


and other Tartars to have displaced, enumerate the Tungus. This 
is exceedingly probable, and so far agrees with the Tinneh traditions 
reported by Maokenzie and Father Petitot. These state that the 
enemies of the Tinneh, who were very wicked men, dwelt to the west 
of their nation ; that, fleeing from them, they crossed a shallow sea, 
passing from island to island in a bitterly cold climate, and at last 
found the sea to the west of them and their enemies to the east. 
Such traditions plainly indicate the northern Asiatic origin of the 
Tinneh, and, together with their vocabulary and grammar, limit 
them to an original home in the neighborhood of Siberia. Mr. Dall 
and other observers bear testimony to their love of a gipsy, vagabond 
life, which Martin Sauer, in his account of Billing's expedition, has 
similarly remarked upon in speaking of the Tungus. The latter 
stated in reference to this customary moving continually from place 
to place that the Tungus did so to avoid the contraction of dis- 
agreeable odours ; and the traveller Hearne, in his " Voyage to 
Hudson's Bay," mentions a similar dislike to bad smells among the 
Tinneh tribes. In regard to personal appearance nothing can be said 
of stature, for, while some writers describe the Tungus as tall, 
athletic and straight, others speak of them as generally below the 
middle size. The same apparently contradictory statements are 
made regarding the Tinneh, showing that both Tungus and Tinneh 
present much variety in this physical characteristic, although the 
writers on both sides are agreed that neither in the one family nor in 
the other is there any tendency to corpulence. The small eyes, 
high cheekbones, low forehead and coarse black hair of the Tungus 
are alluded to by Santini and Sauer, and identical features are 
ascribed to the Tinneh by Hearne, Mackenzie and later writers. 
Although both peoples are generally in the habit of depilation, it is 
not universal among either the Tungus or the Tinneh. Some of the 
Tungus tribes, suck as the Tshapojirs, tat- too their faces after the 
prevailing Siberian fashion with bars or straight lines on the cheeks 
and forehead, and so, according to many authorities, do the 
Chipweyans and other Tinneh tribes. 

The Tungus is inclined to be demonstrative, mirth-loving, com- 
municative, and the contrast in this respect between the undignified, 
fun-making and talkative Athabascan and the reserved, grave and 
silent Cree, his neighbour, has escaped few travellers in the North. 
West. The docility of the Tinneh is a frequent subject of favorable 


comment ; and Martin Sauer in this respect accords the palm to the 
Tungus over all the Siberian peoples he met with in his journeyings. 
By this feature the Tinneh are separated from the Tartar Yakuts, in 
spite of the Yakutats being Tinneh, and from the" Peninsular 
tribes represented by the Koriaks and Ainos. The latter, especially, 
are fierce, intractable warriors, which the Tinneh are not, for, 
although cruel enough in their conduct towards the feeble 
Esquimaux, they stand in wholesome dread of the Algonquin Cree, 
who, though of a widely different race, reminds them of their ancient 
foe, the Yakut. Mongolian craft and cunning mark the Athabascan, 
who, with all his docility, is wanting in the savage nobility, the 
regard for truth and honor, that characterize equally the Algonquin 
and the Iroquois. He is in no sense the typical red-man of history 
and romance, but affords an opportunity for novel portraiture of 
Indian character to the Coopers and Mayne Reids of the North-West 
In domestic and social relations there is absolute identity of custom 
among Tungus and Tinneh. Government and' laws they have 
virtually none, and are thus incapable of auy combination for purposes 
of conquest. In this respect, however, the Mantchus, a Tungusic 
people, present a notable exception. The understanding among them 
relative to property in game, berries and personal effects coincides on 
both continents. The marriage ceremony is a simple act of purchase in 
either case, the only difference being that the modern Tungus having 
domesticated the reindeer, barters that animal for his wife, while the 
Athabascan must needs offer some other equivalent. Polygamy 
characterizes the two peoples, who are equally jealous in regard to 
their wives. But they agree, also, in the absence of chastity among 
the unmarried, and in the un-American custom of lending their 
daughters, sisters and female slaves to those whom they honor with 
their hospitality. The first wife occupies the highest position among 
Tungus and Tinneh, and, although the place of the married woman 
is as in most barbarious nations, one of subjection, a larger share in 
domestic and even in public counsels is granted her in both nations 
than is generally accorded to American Indian matrons. In matters 
of religion there is much resemblance, both families being demon- 
olators and sacrificing to evil spirits, the dog being an object of 
reverence, and their festivals and religious dances partaking of the 
same character. They agree in consulting young men who have 
previously prepared themselves by a process of fasting in the inter- 


pretation of dreams, and in a species of divination by means of the 
shoulder-blades of the deer, a practice common to the Tinneh and 
Tungus with the Lapps and other northern nations of the eastern 
hemisphere, but unknown, so far as I am aware, among other 
American tribes. 

One of the most remarkable resemblances between the customs of 
the two peoples appears in their funeral rites. The Tungus, as 
reported by Santini and Sauer, place their dead in wooden boxes, 
which they leave above ground and sometimes suspend to the 
branches of trees. Mr. Dall, in treating of the Unakhotana and 
Tehanin Kutchin, uses almost the same language as the Asiatic 
travellers in referring to the mode of sepulture of these tribes. 
Abernethy, with Santini and Sauer, inform us that the Tungus bury 
with their dead all their arms and implements, and that their 
mourning, which is at first violent, lasts generally for a whole year. 
Mackenzie, Hearne and Father Petitot bear witness to the similar 
violence and long duration of mourning for the dead among the 
Tinneh, and to the burying of all the personal effects of the deceased. 

The Tungus live in tents made sometimes of skins, at others of 
birch-bark, as do the Tinneh, who have separate words to denote an 
ordinary house of the latter character and a skin-lodge. Both. peoples 
are great fishers, hunters and berry-gatherers, while the Algonquins 
and other Indian tribes confine their attention largely to hunting. 
The use of the bow is characteristic of Tungus and Tinneh. More 
remarkable is the presence in the Tinneh area, as attested in 
Washington Irving's "Astoria," Pickering's " Races of Man," and 
Dr. Gibbs' " Report on the Tribes of Western Washington and 
North-western Oregon," of -the corslet of pliable sticks interwoven 
with grass and sinews, which Abernethy found among the Tungus. 
It is supposed to be the only kind of defensive armour known in 
America. The Tungus, in common with other Ural Altaic tribes, 
use the snowshoe ; but I am not able to compare its formation with 
that of the Tinneh tribes which Mackenzie and Hearne characterize 
as being of superior workmanship. The birch canoe, generally 
regarded as peculiarly American, is Tungusian in its origin. " The 
Tongusi," says an author quoted by Mr. Mackintosh, whose book on 
11 The Discovery of America and the Origin of the North American 
Indians" was published at Toronto in 1836, "use canoes made of 
birch-bark, distended over ribs of wood and nicely sewed together. 


The Canadian and many other American nations use no other sort of 
boats. The paddles of the Tongusi are broad at each end ; those of 
the people near Cook's River and of Onalaska are of the same form." 
Sauer and Mackenzie refer to the insensibility to cold of the 
Tungus and Tinneh respectively. The former, referring to the drees of 
the Tungus, says : " Their winter dress is the skin of the deer or wild 
sheep, dressed with the hair on; & breast-piece of the same which 
ties round the neck and reaches down to the waist, widening 
towards the bottom, and neatly ornamented with embroidery and 
beads; pantaloons of the same materials, which 'also furnish them 
with short stockings, and boots of the legs of rein-deer, with the hair 
outward ; a fur cap and gloves. Their summer dress only differs in 
being simple leather without the hair" Referring to the Chipweyans 
or Athabascans, Mackenzie writes: "There are no people more 
attentive to the comforts of their dress, or less anxious respecting its 
exterior appearance. In the winter it is composed of the skins of 
deer and their fawns, and dressed as fine as any chamois-leather, in 
the hair. . In the summer their apparel is the same, except that it is 
prepared without the hair. Their shoes and leggings are sewed 
together, the latter reaching upwards to the middle, and being sup- 
ported by a belt. The shirt or coat, when girded round the waist, 
reaches to the middle of the thigh, and the mittens are sewed to the 
sleeves or are suspended by strings from the shoulders. A ruff or 
tippet surrounds the neck, and the skin of the head of the deer forms 
a curious kind of cap. A robe made of several deer or fawn skins 
sewed together covers the whole.' 1 The same author, speaking of the 
Dogribs, refers to the elaborate ornamentation of the breast-piece and 
other parts of their dress ; and other travellers have described it in 
like terms. Santini dwells upon the fanciful and tasteful designs 
wrought with coloured percupine quills in which the Tungus indulged, 
and their coronet or head-band of leather, ornamented with em- 
broidery and feathers. To the latter, Mackenzie makes reference also 
in connection with the Dogribs ; and many writers have celebrated 
the ingenuity in quill-work of the whole Tinneh family, who were 
probably the teachers of this art to the populations of North America. 
Finally, although this is a matter not of dress, but of food, both the 
Tungus and the Tinneh are in the habit of eating the undigested 
food, principally lichen, in the stomach of the deer, which they mix 
with berries and other ingredients, as Sauer and Hearne respectively 


testify. Such a collection of parallel facts has rarely been presented 
for the connection of one or more peoples of unknown derivation, and 
would be impossible as mere coincidences. The only characteristics 
in which the Tungus may be said to differ from the Tinneh are the 
truthfulness of the former and the complaining ways of the latter. 
But the evidence of Sauer to the first of these is not conclusive as to 
its characterizing the whole Tungus family,* nor can it be said that all 
the Tinneh tribes are equally unreliable. In docility the two families 
agree. The Tungus of Sauer were cheerful, and so are the Tinneh in 
general, although inveterate grumblers, at least in certain tribes, as 
may be the case with some of the Tungus were more known con- 
cerning them. Certainly, no two families representing the old world 
and the new present closer affinities in name, vocabulary, grammar, 
physical appearance, dress, arts, manners and customs than do the 
Tungus of Asia and the Tinneh of America. 

Before dealing with the Iroquois, who should in geographical order 
next claim our attention, I prefer to take* up the origin of the 
Choctaw-Cherokee family, which shows its Asiatic connections more 
clearly, and which will tend to illustrate and confirm the Iroquois 
relationships. The original area of the Cherokee-Choctaw confede- 
racy extended from Tennessee southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The Cherokees and Choctaws are generally regarded as distinct 
peoples, although their languages have much in common. The tribes 
included under the generic name Choctaw, are the ChoctawB proper, 
the Chickasaws, Creeks or Muskogees, Hitchitees and Seminoles, all 
of whom are famous in history. They were originally a warlike, 
encroaching population, of a proud, fierce spirit, differing alike from 
the reserve of the Algonquin and the childishness and docility of the 
Athabascan. The character of the Iroquois is that of the Choctaw, 
and these are the great warrior tribes of North America who brought 
into the continent its peculiar arts of warfare as the Tinneh family 
gave to it its peculiar arts of peace. The Choctaws, we are told by 
Dr. Latham, Catlin, and others, used to flatten the head, and may 
thus be supposed to connect with the Salish or Flathead family of 
Oregon. But for the present we seek to discover their old world 
relationships rather than those of the new. The northern Asiatic 
people who flatten the head are the Koriaks, who inhabit the extreme 

( Wood, in hit " Uncivilised Baeee," characterises the Tongue as good-natured, bat fall of 


west of Siberia to the north of the peninsula of Kamtscbatka, to 
the centre of which certain tribes extend, Their languages are allied 
with the Kamtchatdale, Corean, Aino, Japanese, and Loochoo, and 
partake more or less of a Mongolian character, being, however, well 
differentiated from any Ural-Altaic division such as the Ugrian, 
Tartar, Mongol or Tungus. It is with these Koriaks that I find good 
evidence for associating the Cherokee-Choctaw confederacy. 

In the first place identity of name, although in itself apt to be 
fallacious, may, as in the case of the Tungus-Tinneh connection, lead 
to truth. The Koriaks exist in two great divisions, a northern, 
known as the Tchuktchi, and a southern, the Koriaks proper or 
Koraeki. The former call themselves Tshekto, men or people, and 
they are the original Choctaws; the latter, who bear the name 
Koraeki, are the parent stock of the Cherokees. This looks so 
exceedingly plain that the question may be asked why was it not 
discovered before. The answer seems to be, that investigators have 
been so long theorizing and refining that they managed to overlook 
plain facts lying upon the surface. Koriaks in Alaska have been 
looked for, but Tchuktchis in Tennesee and Mississippi would have 
been regarded as very much out of place. The Koriaks are of good 
stature, with features more pleasing and prominent than the Mongol. 
Dr. Latham mentions "their general resemblance in respect to 
physical conformation to the American Indians." They are warlike 
and independent, and have encroached upon the Yukagirs and 
Kamtchatdales, as the Choctaws and Cherokees did upon the southern 
tribes of the United States. Abernethy states that among the 
Koriaks the mothers give, as they imagine, a decorous form to their 
children when infants by applying three boards, one on the top to 
give them a flat head, and one on each side to give them a sharp 
forehead. 11 This is the Choctaw process of which Catlin speaks. 
Sauer relates that the Tchuktchis had a game resembling " prisoner's 
bars," and at the same time mentions the facility with which they 
threw stones from a kind of sling. The game popularly known as 
Lacrosse, common to the Choctaws and Iroquois, must, I think, be 
referred to, and I regret that I have no work treating fully of Koriak 
manners and customs by which this may be confirmed.* The 
Tchuktchis and the Choctaws are alike fond of such athletic sports as 

* A game identical with our American Lacrosse is played in Japan. See Wood's 
Uncivilised Races. 


mnning and wrestling, and in this respect present a marked contrast 
to neighbouring Asiatic and American tribes. They are equally 
noted for manual dexterity and mechanical skill, with capabilities 
for self improvement, as the present civilization of the Oherokees 
and Choctaw8 attests, and as is evident from the fact that the highly 
civilized Japanese are nearly related to the Koriaks. A Choctaw 
tradition, reported by Catlin, states # that, a long time ago, the 
Choctaws " commenced moving from the country where they then 
lived, which was a great distance to the west of the great river and 
the mountains of snow, and they were a great many years on their 
way." It is worthy of note that the Tuhuktukis ( ? Tchuktchi) are 
mentioned as members of the Cherokee confederacy. 

In treating of the Choctaw language I find it necessary to compare 
ts dialects with those of the Peninsular family in general, owing to 
the paucity of my collection of Koriak and Tchuktchi terms, and to 
the fact stated by Dr. Latham, that of the Peninsular languages the 
grammatical structure of only one of them, the Japanese, is known. 
The same writer adds that "the Peninsular .languages have a general 
glossarial connection with each other," and " in the opinion of the 
present writer, the Peninsular languages agree in the general fact of 
being more closely akin to those of America than any other." The 
Choctaw word for man hatak is the Japanese otoko, and the Muskogee 
chauheh is the Loo Choo chu. The Choctaw tike, tekchi woman is 
the Loo Choo tackki. Boat is pent in Choctaw, and June in Japanese ; 
and bone is foni in Choctaw and /one in Japanese. The two 
Tchuktchi terms for father, annaka and attaka, are represented by 
the Choctaw unke and the Cherokee chatokta. The Cherokee agaula 
and the Choctaw kullo, fish, are equally derived from the Tchuktchi 
ikhaUk. The Tchuktchi name for god is istla and the Choctaw 
hoshiahli, while the Muskogee god, efeekeesa, is not unlike the 
Japanese jebisu. The Tchuktchi aganak woman is the Cherokee 
ageyung ; the Tchuktchi unako to-morrow, the Choctaw onaha ; the 
Tchuktchi nouna, water, the Cherokee omma. But I must refer to 
the accompanying vocabulary for the lexical evidence thus introduced. 

In regard to grammatical forms, absence of gender characterizes 
the Choctaw and Peninsular languages, and the same may almost be 
said in regard to number. Case is marked in both groups by post 
positions. The form of the genitive is worthy of special note. In 
the case of each the possessor, with an affix originally representing 


the third personal pronoun, precedes the object possessed ; in other 
words the Choctaw and Peninsular languages practice, the post-posi- 
tion of the nominative. Thus in Japanese " the bone of the man" 
is rendered 

. otoko no fone, 
and in Choctaw hatak in foni. 

Similarly, "the finger of the woman" is in Loo-Choo — 

tackki noo eebee, 
and in Choctaw tekchi in ibbak-ushi. 

These forms, which give us the English, maris bone, woman's finger, 
and in which in, no, noo represent the possessive inflection '*, together 
with the close resemblance in the actual words employed, illustrate 
the nearness of the Choctaw to the Peninsular idiom, and render a 
reference to Tchuktchi grammar unnecessary. The personal pro- 
nouns precede the verbal root in Loo-Choo and Japanese as well as 
in Choctaw, and the temporal index of the verb is finaL For the 
past tense to, is the Japanese and tee the Loo-Choo index, while in 
Choctaw it is tuk, tok. The Choctaw futures in ching, he and aehld 
are like the Mongol in ya> ho and sogai. In the formation of the 
passive the Choctaw sometimes inserts an I like the Turkish, but in 
other cases simply changes the final vowel, as in Japanese. The 
Choctaw negative, k or ik, combined with the initial pronoun, is the 
prefixed Mantchu ako. In Choctaw, Japanese and Loo-Choo the 
accusative precedes the governing verb, and the place of the adjective 
seems in either case to be sometimes before, at others after the noun 
it qualifies. According to Santini, the Koriak verb, like the Tungus, 
is susceptible of all the modifications denoting variety and quality of 
action which characterize the American families of language. The 
Choctaws are undoubtedly the Tshekto, and the Cherokees the 

A family more important in many respects, at any rate to the 
Canadian student of American ethnology, is that known as the 
Wyandot, which, in general terms, includes the Hurons and Iroquois. 
These fall into two divisions, a northern and a southern, the latter 
being, in the historical period, natives of North Carolina, and thus 
in proximity to the Choctaws. The most important of the southern 
tribes were the Tuscaroras and Nottoways. The northern tribes 
were, and are still in part, in the neighborhood of the great lakes — 
Huron, Ontario and Erie. The Huron, or Wyandot confederacy, 


embracing many tribes comparatively unknown to fame, occupied the 
more northern, and the Iroquois or Five Nations, the southern part 
of the area. In the latter confederacy, said to be from three to five 
centuries old, were included the Mohawks, whose' real name, according 
to Dr. Oronhyatekha, himself a distinguished Mohawk, is Kanyen- 
kehaka, " the flint people, 17 .the Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and 
Senecas. The Tuscaroras, migrating northward, united with them 
at a comparatively recent period to form the Six Nations, now found 
on the Bay of Quinte and on the Grand River. An Iroquois tribe 
originally inhabited the site of Montreal, and were known as the 
Hochelagas ; and another still exists at Oaughnawaga on the opposite 
side of the St. Lawrence. The Caughnawagas, St. Regis Indians and 
other scattered tribes, are generally known by the generic name 
Iroquois. A body of Hurons or Wyandots still exists in the 
neighbourhood of Quebec, where, in the days of warfare between 
them and the Iroquois, they sought French protection. Of the great 
nation that once occupied th'e extensive Lake Huron country, scattered 
fragments only remain. Some, with their ancient foes and relatives, 
the Iroquois, are found in the Western States, but the most important 
band is that found at Amherstburg on the Detroit River, whose 
history has been written in a somewhat rambling but amusing 
fashion by one of their number, Peter Dooyentate Clarke. 

A peculiarity of the Wyandot-Iroquois dialects is the absence of 
labials, w being the nearest approach to the sound of these letters. 
In this they differ not only from the Algonquin tongues but from 
their related forms of speech, the Choctaw-Cherokee. The Mohawk 
makes a free use of the letter r, which in many cases possesses a 
certain virile force. This is sometimes replaced by I in Oneida, and 
in Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca, by a breathing. Thus boy is 
raxha in Mohawk, laxha in Oneida, haksaah in Onondaga. The 
Tuscarora forms though differing from those of the five nations, 
agree with the Mohawk in presenting a recurrence of the harsh r, 
so little known to Algonquin speech. As far as I am able to judge, 
the affinities of the Wyandot proper or Huron are with the Tusca- 
rora, which, from it$ resemblance to the Cherokee, I am disposed to 
regard as the oldest and purest form of the Wyandot-Iroquois lan- 
guage. The resemblance that exists between many words of the 
Tuscarora and Cherokee has been noted in the Mithridates, and is 
capable of large illustration. For instance, arrow is kcmah in Tus- 


carora, gahnee in Cherokee ; dog cheeth Tuscarora, cheer Nottoway, 
keeihlah, kevra Cherokee ; Fire ocheeleh Mohawk, otcheere Tuscarora, 
cheela, cheer a Cherokee ; man itaatsin Minekussar, atseeai Cherokee; 
woman ekening Tuscarora, ageyung Cherokee ; boy doyato Huron, 
ateatsa Cherokee ; child yetyatsoyuh Tuscarora, oostekuh Cherokee ; 
death guiheya Iroquois, choosa Cherokee; face ookahsa Tuscarora, 
issokuh Cherokee; father aihtaa Huron, tawta Cherokee; mother 
nekete Tuscarora, akatchee Cherokee; good ayawaste Huron, seoh- 
staqua Cherokee; girl yaweetseutho Wyandot, ayayutsa Cherokee; 
mountain ononde* Seneca, dec., naune Cherokee; tongue honacha 
Iroquois, yahnohgah Cherokee ; water aouin Huron, ohneka Iroquois, 
ommah Cherokee. The following are a few instances of the agree- 
ment of Choctaw and Wyandot-Iroquois words. The Iroquois 
entiekeh and the Choctaw neetak, day ; the Mohawk ojistok and the 
Choctaw phitchek, star ; the Iroquois onotchia and the Choctaw notch, 
tooth ; the Cayuga hakmah and the Choctaw ushi, boy ; the Seneca 
hanec and Iroquois johnika and the Choctaw chinkeh, unky, father ; 
the Iroquois nenekin and the Choctaw nockene, man; the Iroquois 
kninonk and the Choctaw kemchi, to buy, are not accidental coin- 
cidences, but indications of that relationship which a similarity of 
character and modes of life l-ender probable. 

A curious instance of the transference of a word from one meaning 
to another is afforded in the Choctaw numeral three, tukchina. Now, 
there can be no doubt that this is the Mohawk techini, the Caughna- 
waga tekeni, the Cayuga and Onondaga dekenih, which howerer 
denote two, instead of three. That tukchina and techini are the 
same word is evident from the fact that eight, which in Choctaw is 
untuchina, is in Mohawk $a*dekonh, in Caughnawaga &a-tekon and 
in Onondaga dekenh. I am disposed to think that the Choctaw form 
is the true one, at the relation of eight to three gives five, the unit 
generally employed in compositions under ten. The Choctaw ten, 
pocole, is the Oneida oyelih, the absence of the initial labial being a 
necessity of Iroquois language. 

What the Cherokee- Chootaws are, such in a great measure must 
be the Wyandot-Iroquois judging from the specimen of lexical or 
glossarial connection already given. What their relation is to the 
Peninsular family of Asia may easily be shown by comparison, 
although in philology it is not always true that languages which 
resemble the same language resemble one another. There may also 


be several degrees of resemblance. In some languages the words are 
so feeble, consisting largely of vowels, that the comparison of any 
two such languages in different parts of the world gives but unsatis- 
factory results, unless some law governing the variation of vowel- 
sounds could be discovered. In Iroquois, Choctaw, and in the Penin- 
sular tongues words are generally strong, with a good deal of the 
bold Koriak-Cherokee character and Tchuktchi-Choctaw independ- 
ence, so that the framer of a comparative vocabulary, into which 
one of these languages enters, will find little difficulty in deciding 
questions of likeness. There are, however, two things which render 
comparison less simple in the case of the Iroquois languages than in 
that of the Choctaw. The first of these has already been alluded to-* 
it is the absence of labials, and, in this connection the uncertain 
power of to in English and French renderings of Iroquois words. If 
it were always the equivalent of a labial, as it sometimes undoubtedly 
is, much of the difficulty would be removed. At times it seems to 
represent the liquid m, which is also a labial. The second hindrance 
is foimd in the additions to the original root which appear in the 
Iroquois as we compare it with the Choctaw and Peninsular 
languages, and which is evident even in comparing the older with the 
newer Wyandot forms. The Iroquois word has grown uncomfortably 
by means of prefix, affix and reduplication of syllables, sometimes 
apparently for purposes of euphony, at others, it would seem in a 
retrogade direction to evolve by synthesis a concrete out of a com- 
paratively abstract term. Were I better acquainted with the less 
known members of the Peninsular family of languages with which 
the Iroquois stands in the closest relation, I might have to modify this 

I am not at present aware of any Asiatic names with which to 
associate those of the Wyandot family. The word Wyandot, like 
Oneida, Onondaga, Nottoway, may relate to the Esquimaux term 
mmUi and the Samoied ennete, meaning man. In Arrapaho, one of 
the Algonquin dialects, man is encmitah. The Wyandot forms for 
man are oonquich, ungouh, aingahon, ungue, nenekin, (r)onkwe, 
(l)onque, hajinah, hauj-eenoh, onnonhoue, aneehhah, nehah, eniha, 
aineehau, (r)aniha — etschinak, ita-atsin, entequos, agint, (r)atsin, 
(r)atzin, <fcc. Still, Esquimaux and Samoied forms appear — the 
Esquimaux enuk and Samoied nienec. But the Aino aino and 
the Japanese hito, otoko, may be found in the second and third groups. 


The Wyandot family has undoubtedly miscellaneous Asiatic affinities 
in point of language. The remarkable term kanadra, denoting bread, 
is the Magyar kunyer, just as wish (five) is the Esthonian wiis. 
Rain in Mohawk is ayokeanore, . a peculiar form, and this is the 
Turkish yaghmur ; and the Turkish besh (five) is also the Cayuga wish 
and the Mohawk wisk. The Magyar kutya is the Tuscarora cheeth 
(dog) and the Lapp oadze is the Huron auoitsa (flesh). The Mohawk 
negative yagh is the Turkish yok, and waktxre, an Iroquois word 
meaning "to speak," is the Yakut Utare. Stone is odasqua in 
Iroquois and tosh in Turk, and tooth is otoatseh in Tuscarora, dish 
in Turk. To hide is kasetha in Iroquois and kistya in Yakut, and 
field is kaheta in Iroquois and chodu in Yakut. The Onondaga 
word jolacharota (light) is the Lapp jalaJcas, with an increment 
Two is ohs Mohawk, ausuh Tuscarora, and uch Turk, ews Yakut, 
while seven isjadah in Mohawk, Oneida and Onondaga, and yeddi 
in Turk. 

It may be asked why, when the Ugrian and Tartar languages 
relate so closely to the Iroquois by unmistakable roots, I turn aside 
to the Peninsular. I do so for various reasons : First, because 
certain peculiarities of Turkish and Ugrian grammar, such as personal 
and possessive pronominal affixes to verbs and nouns, are wanting 
in Iroquois. Second — Because the Peninsular languages are at least 
as near in lexical affinity to the Iroquois as are the Ural-Altaic : 
and, thirdly, because the Choctaw-Cherokee dialects, which are 
undoubtedly of Peninsular origin, are too like the Iroquois to admit 
of separation. 

The Koriak origin of the Iroquois is given in the identity of the 
Koriak war-god, Arioski, with the Iroquois Areskoui The 
resemblance of these names has often been noted, but it has been 
regarded as a coincidence similar to that which exists between them 
and the Greek Ares, curious, but of no scientific value. Mr. 
Mackintosh, in the little book to which I have already alluded, draws 
many parallels between the manners and customs of the Koriaks and 
the American Indians, several of the latter being Iroquois customs. 
Unfortunately this industrious author regarded the American 
aborigines en masse, and mixed up Koriaks and Tungus in his 
comparisons. Still, his facts, to which I cannot now refer, are 
valuable. Arioski is not the only Iroquois word in Koriak. The 
Koriak or Tchuktchi hhatkin, guetkin are the Iroquois hetken, bad ; 


agukU is oohuwa, boat; rinaka and iegnika are ronwaye and 
aqudanha, boy; aghynak is eghnisera, day; nutenut, nuna, are 
ononerdda, Tieujah, earth ; afto, annak and iUiguin are ato, Aanec and 
lahkeni, father ; annak is yoneks, fire; gitkat is at chit a, foot ; kaaguk 
. is fcwa, great ; nujak is oyiuchquira, hair; khigan, kihiguin are 
kiunyage, heaven, sky ; gailigen is kelanquaw, moon ; ana£ is aneheh, 
mother; ekigin is agwaghsene, mouth; chynga is yuungah, nose; 
jfeivife is joke, kaihyoehakouk, river ; anighu is ouniyeghte, snow ; #Mft*& 
is otoaUeh, tooth; t*<uf is ohotee, tree ; mo£ and nottna are ohneka and 
nekahnoos, water ; aganak is ekening, woman ; aci'& is o*ae, young ; 
at7iAan£a is eniage, entnya, finger ; unako is eniorhene y to-morrow ; 
kanujak is kanadzia, copper; and £iJfc is oyelih, ten. In some of 
these words, the increment of which I have spoken, will be observed. 
Thus, aghynak becomes eghnis-era ; nujak is lengthened to onuchqui- 
ra, anighu to ouniyegh-te / unako, the Choctaw onaha, to-morrow, 
takes an interpolated r, which is probably a mere strengthening of 
the vowel a, and adds ne, eniorhe-ne. The strength of the Iroquois 
words comes out well in the Japanese and Loo-Choo. Thus we have 
hiru, Japanese, karo Mohawk, come ; kurrazzee, Loo-Choo, arochia, 
Huron, hair; kokurro, Jap., hahweriacha, Iroquois, heart; atcheeroo, 
Loo-Choo, otorahawte } Huron, hot ; korostu, Jap., kerios, Iroquois, 
kill ; sheeroosa, Loo-Choo, kearagaa, Mohawk, white ; teeroo, Loo- 
Choo, atere, Iroquois, basket. Terms for man, woman and child are 
fairly represented in this group :—Hito, otoko, Jap., give it a at sin, 
etsckinakj hatgina, man; tackki and iimago, Loo-Choo, give 
otaikai and yonkwc, woman ; kodoma, Jap., is kotonia, and wocka, 
Loo-Choo, tooccanoune, child. The Aino, which furnishes in its 
ethnic term for man, an equivalent to aineehau, eniha, in zia sister 
adds the original of the Iroquois tsiha, akzia. Its oondee, arm, is the 
Iroquois aonuntsa ; cahani, boat, is gahonhwa ; kounetsou, moon, 
kanoughquaw and eghinda; wakha, water, auweah ; askippi, finger, 
oosookway ; and o, yes, to. The Kamtcbatdale is also fairly repre- 
sented in Iroquois. Its form for axe, koisqva, is the nearest I know 
to the Iroquois askwechia ; adkang, bad, is the Iroquois hetken ; 
ktohidzshi, brother, finds its analogues in yatsi, atsiha ; koquasitch, 
come, in kats; kossa, dog, in cheeth ; kwatshquikoteh, see, in atkahtos; 
quaagh, face, in ookahsah; chtshitshoo, girl, inyaweetseutho, caidaizni; 
settoo, hand, in chotta ; kUut, house, in gana&ote ; konchoo, sister, in 
akchiha, &c. The Iroquois third personal pronoun ra, re is the 


Japanese are, and the Loo-Choo aree. The Iroquois numerals are 
more Ugrian and Tartar than Peninsular, so far, at least, as my 
vocabularies enable me to judge. The presence of many Ugrian and 
Tartar words in common Iroquois speech is a phenomenon for which 
I cannot at present account. The same phenomenon appears in the 
Quichua of Peru. 

The Iroquois grammar might be Mongol or Tungus as well as 
Japanese or Peninsular. It is neither Ugrian nor Tartar. It marks 
a distinction between nouns as virile and non-virile, similar to that 
of the Koriak. It possesses a plural in final ke, like the Magyar in 
k and the Mantchu in sa. It has also a dual like some of the Ugrian 
languages. It forms the genitive in the same way as the Ural 
Altaic and Peninsular languages in general, by preposing the geni- 
tive, followed by the third personal pronoun, to the nominative. The 
pronoun in the accusative, or regimen of the verb, precedes it as in 
Japanese, Mongol, (fee., but this does not seem to be always the case 
with the accusatives of nouns. Another peculiarity of Iroquois 
grammar is that the small number of proper adjectives in the 
language follow the noun they qualify, while, in the Ural-Altaic 
languages, and sometimes in the Peninsular, they precede. Still the 
possessive adjectives are proposed as well as the word aktoekon, all, 
and similar terms. The personal pronouns precede the verbal root, 
and the temporal signs follow it, as in Mongol, Tungus and Japanese. 
The Iroquois also agrees with the Ural-Altaic and Peninsular 
languages in employing post-positions only. Like the Mantchu, 
Northern Chinese and Choctaw, the Iroquois possesses the exclusive 
and inclusive plural of the first personal pronoun. It also has 
separate terms for elder and younger brother and sister, in common 
with all the Turanian languages. The Iroquois grammar is thus in 
its main features Choctaw and Peninsular. 

The ball-play or lacrosse of the Iroquois, like that of the Choctaws, 
must be traceable to an Asiatic region, and may relate to the * 
well-known game of the Basques in Western Europe. A large 
family of nations and languages has yet to be recognized, that, with 
the Ural-Altaic class, shall include the Basque in Europe, the 
Berber, Haussa and Kashna in Africa, the Tinneh, Iroquois, 
Choctaw, and, perhaps, the Dacotah and Aztec of North America, 

* Tba Basque game, as I learn from my colleague, Professor Coussirat, who has frequently 

witnessed it, is all but identical with that of the Iroquois. 


and the Aymara and Quichua of the Southern Continent ; and, 
intermediate between the Asiatic and American divisions, the 
Peninsular languages of Asia will occupy an important position. 
The Altaic languages least in sympathy with this family are the 
Mongol, whose affinities are largely Dravidian. At the base of this 
large family the Accad stands, whose relations are probably mora 
Peninsular than anything else ; and next to the Accad in point of 
antiquity and philological importance is the pre- Aryan Celtic, which 
lives in the Quichua of to-day, as I showed in a contribution to the 
Societe* Americaine de France, and in a list published by Dr. Hyde 
Clarke in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. Br. Hyde 
Clarke hadlong before connected the Accad and the Quichua- Aymara, 
and had linked the Houssa with the Basque. He has also directed 
attention to Basque similarities in Japanese and Loo-Choo. Most 
of the tribes composing this family were known to the ancients as 
Scythians, so that the ancestors of our modern Iroquois may have 
over-run Media and plundered the Temple of Yenus at Ascalon, 
'tantalized the army of Darius or talked with Herodotus in the 
Crimea. Types of mankind, in a savage state, do not greatly change, 
as may be seen by comparing the Tinneh or Algonquin tribes with the 
Iroquois and Choctaw. Languages long retain their earliest forms, as 
is apparent in the Japanese somols and Loo-Choo shimutzi, which 
are just the old Accadian sumu c, $amak, a book, that were spoken in 
ancient Babylonia perhaps four thousand years ago. This continent 
may yet furnish materials in philology and kindred departments to 
lay side by side with the literary and art treasures of the ancient 
seats of empire on the Euphrates and Tigris, by which to restore the 
page of long-forgotten history. At any rate there is a path from the 
Old World into the New by the Asiatic Continent, as well as by the 
islands of the sea. Discouragements enough have been placed in the 
scholar's way by one-sided minds And students of a single language or 
science. It is time to treat them with the contempt that all narrow- 
nesB deserves, and to aim at making ethnology more than a state- 
ment of unsolved problems. 

It would be well for all who hold the essential diversity of 
American from other grammatical forms, to ponder the statement of * 
one, who, himself no mean philologist,, has generally shown little 
favour to any attempts that have been made to reconcile the Old 
World and the New in point of language. I allude to M. Lucien 



Adam, who, after a comparison of Algonquin, Iroquois, Dacotafc, 
ChoctaW, Tinneh, Maya-Quiche, Aztec, Muysca, Carib, Guarani, 
Quichua and Kiriri grammars, adds this important note: "In fact 
the preceding languages are all more or less polysynthetic, but this 
polysynthesis, which essentially consists in suffixing subordinate 
personal pronouns to the noun, the postposition and the verb, equally 
characterizes the Semitic languages, the Basque, the Mordwin, the 
Vogul, and even the Magyar." As far as American philology is 
concerned the question of the unity of the human race remains where 
it has been fixed by Revelation. I close this paper with a sentence 
from Dr. Daniel Wilson's address before the American Association : 
"The same lines of research (as those which have demonstrated 
Aryan unity) point hopefully to future disclosures for ourselves, 
* helping us to bridge over the great gulf which separates America 
from that older historic and prehistoric world ; and so to reunite the 
modern history of this continent with an ancient past." 


The material of this and the following vocabularies baa been derived from English, French and German 
sources, with variant orthography. I have not thought fit to make any other alteration than that of replacing 
the German j with y, as such English vowel sounds as ah, ee sufficiently attest their origin. 






keki, kuti 















buja, bujadjui 

all, aljukan 






ola, T. (Tacolly) 
taih, K. (Kutchin) 
shaahill, T. 


tachoolta, Kn. J Renal) 
sua, T. : ya&s, C. (Chipweyan) 
tarra, D. (Dogrib) 
kaatsch, U. (Ugalenze) 




kagoCt, U. 
kakaahi, Kn. 


tsoje, Ko. (Koltshane) 


tkhlsune, Tit (Tlatskauai) 


8ko, T. • 

shtule, Urn. Umpqua) 


tui. T. 


kaha, B. (Beaver) 


kliuthchu, K. 




chasska, U. 
ahkik. K. . 


beye, T. 

qoelaquia, C. 

ischynake, Kn. 


thuth, 0. ; togaai, Kn. 



hungkox, T. 

oulecadze, B. 


chatchoo, L. (Loucheux) 


thetsra, K. 


tiljean, Ko. 




batahish, Ko. 


eadan, Mo. (Montagnals) 

chldetleh, L. 


xoaade, Kit. 

szulu, K. 






earth ne, Na. (Navajo); nanee, Urn. 

eat beha, L. 

eye eta, Mo. 

father mama, Ttl 

Are teuok, At. (Atnah) ; takak, U. 

fish nkliah, C. 

forehead tekata, Y. (Yukon) 

girl getsl. K. 

kernihl, Toi (Tolewah) 
give hamiltu, C. 

go antonger, T. 

good autchon, T. 

great onshaw, C. 

choh, K. 
green deliln, Mo. 

hand kholaa, Tit ; nullah, Na 

inla, Mo. 
head edai, IX 

heaven juian, Kn. 

Jouse aehTK. 

husband ahoteey, C. 

etaayon, B. 4 

deneyu. Mo. 
we ttatz, U. 

iron ahlestay. T. 

knife teish, T. 

tlay, L. 
leaf chitun, K. 

life anna, T. 

lightning nahtunkun, K. 
lip edanne, Mo. 

man tengi, K.; tingi,Tn. (Tenan-Kutchin); tenghie, L. 

sykka, U. 

payyahnay, P. (Pinaleno) 
mother anna, Kn. 

an, Mo. 
mountain achhell, T. 

tauri. Mo. 
no anme maw, B. 

nose neo*eh, At 

huntchu. H. (Hoopah) 
old aaiyidhelkai, K. 

pipe tekataki, T. 

rain naoton, T. ; tain, K. 

tchandellek Mo. 
red delicouae, C. 

river okox, T. 

salt tedhay, Mo. 

see eahi, Mo.; utschtachiflia, TJ. 

serpent nadudhi, Mo. 

sleep azut, U. 

small astekwoo, Tit 

nacoutza, Y. 
son taiah. K. 

spoon achitl, U. 

star kumanaet, L. 

klune, Y. ; ahlnm, T. 
stone tachayer, P. 

sun chokonoi, Na.; chignonakai, Co. Coppermine. 

ahoonnahaye, M. (Meacalero) 
thunder idi, Mo. 

thread mo, Mo. 

tongue taoola, T. 

tooth egho, X. (Xicarilla) ; ahti, ToL 

*ife aak, T. 

jarcooey, C. 
^ind atae, Y. 

w °lf yeaa, C. T. 

woman ekhe, Um.: chaca, T. 

*rite edeaklia, Mo. 






toua, tog 



















djuko, dachuche 








tungus, donki 












oodan, uddun 
























eghe, cheche 

The Tinneh numerals do not agree with the Tungus, but seem 
intimately related to those of the Koriaks, Tchuktchis and Kamtchat- 



dales. This must be the result of intercourse between the Tinneh 
and these peoples in an Asiatic home, as the general vocabulary of 
the Tinneh shows comparatively little likeness to those of the so- 
called Peninsular family. 


1. tahse, A (Apache); taahte, Co.: taahayay, M. 
etacha,T.;tit»koh ToL 

tihlagga, K.; aitachla. Urn.; tathlai, Na. 
kiMlekka, I. (Ingallk) 

2. natoke. Tit ; inteka, I.; nateakcha, At 
techa, Kn.;gatte, U. 

nach, H.; nekai. K.; nacheh, Tol.; nakhe, C. 
nahke, D. ; onghaty, B. 

3. tokchke, Kn.; toek, W. (WUackii; taak, Um. 
tahek, H.; tiik, K.; taakei, At.; tauh, Na. 
kahyay, M. 

4. teucheh, Tol.; tuntachik, Um.; teetutye, 81. (Sicanni) 
dine, D.i tin, Na.; tang, K. 

5. inla, lakken, D. 

bwoila, ToL; achwullak, Um.; chwola, H. 

•MUnlasii, Mo,; jskiixiliit, T. 
«. coo»lae H W,; iilkiUk**, T. 

7. tfuitiiMiuiklw, C. 
ftaedatMrnefcaJ, K t 
ooki»)itingkr«. Si 

hoitahw, Um.; tauntee, B.; taaytch, Tol. 

8. ewwUk, W. 

9. tahgeecihltflJL, C. 
ronateDtklii, W. 

dysak, KantekatdaU 
ataahek. Tekuktchi 
attajlik, T. . 

nitakaw, Koriak 
hyttaka, ytahgau, K. 
niochtah, K. 

tachok, taook, Ka. 

ginch, K. 
tschak, tschaak, 
ishtaina, T. 

tschaaka, Ka. 

moulon, myllygen. K. 
(sombula. tabljak, shumblia, 

aumula, Satiokdl 
sewinlak, T. (6) 
gylkoch, kylkoka, Ka. 
tacholudunug, Ka. (8) 
etaehtanu, Ka. 
ahdanuth, etuchtunuk, Ka. 
itatyk, Ka. 
tshookotuk, Ka. 
tacholudanog, Ka. 
tachnaktuk, Ka. 
tachaaktanak, Ka. 








boy, son 


gahlooyahate, Cherokee, 

ooyohee, " 

okpalo, Choctaw; hooloowako, 

yonung Ch. (Cherokee) 

ahhahnoolunghnnge, Ch. 

ikfoka C. (Choctaw) 

innhalkay M. (Muakogee) 

uakofachi, C. 

takchl, C. 

huahi, C. 

kungnahgeh, Ch. 

looaah, C. 

homma, C. 

chata, M. 





peni, C. 

ahyahlonge, Ch. 

foni, C. 

itchukkatoxy, M. 

pooakoos, C. 

ehahposhe, M. 

nokkene, 0. 


hoputha, C. 

taychokkaduy, If. 

chotchilchwauh, M. 

unggenele, Ch. 

nockaiah, C 

imunni, C. 

hukmi, C. 


hokoay, M. 

hopohvyah, H. 

pooakooa, C. 

kupuaaa, C. ; kuaaupe, M. 

galgate, Koriak; algatta, TchuktekL 
aahlki, Japanese. 
Muskogee achali, K. (Koriak) 

keingin, T. (Tchuktchi) • 
elun, Kamtschatdale rtschatdale 

fuku, J. (Japanese); piigi, Ka. (Kam- 
kaltkl, Ka. 
obee, Loo-Choo 
toji, J. 

hotu, L. (Loo-Choo) 
* kunni, Aino 
luulklek, K. 
kehm, A. (Aino) 
ketan, J. 
chi. L. 
fune. J. 
gylgtn, K. 
pone. A 
edzak, Ka. 

poo, A. ; patacha, Ka. 
tungpoka. Corean 


habba. L. 

otoko-kiyodai, J. ; tyga, Ka. 

djalatacha, Ka. 

eninelan, enlnelcha, ninelek, K. 

eninichae, ninichal, K. 

emtachanhi, K. 

Cku, J. 
a, J. 
chigtui, A 
boioo, A. 

wocka, L. (young) 
feeaa, L. ; tachapchunak, T. 




neetak, G. 

death, die 

illi,C.,ilzah, M. 


aakina, Ch. 


ophe, C. 
iahko, C. 



istehnchtsko, M. 

cheelane, Ch. 


pa. impa, C. 

ahleatahyunghungakaw, Ch. 


akang, C. 


oosunghe. Ch. 

yhofkoauy, M. 
toiMowah, M. 
mishkln, C. 




nnke, annkke, C. 

tawta, Ch. 

ffliky, M. 


tek, C. 




ibbak-ushi, C. 


atsatih, Ch. 

aganla, Cn.; kullo, C. 

nune, C. 


ahpisochah, M. 


choola, C. 


unL C. 

girl, daughter take, C. 

chnchhoostee, H. 


ahe, C; aguy, M. 



hoshtahli, C. 


chito, C.jheetla, M. 


ahilaklak, C. 


basook, C. 



chito, C. 


etaahe, Ch. 

pahuyhlammyomuy, If. 


gahnasookha, Ch. 


gitlung, Ch. 

pase, pache, C. 
nutakhish, C. (beard) 


akoboch, Chickasaw 

nishkubo, C. 

ecau, M. 


chankush, C. 

efl&ga, M. 

oonche, Ch. 

heaven, sky 

gullungluddee, Ch. 


nkanawung, Ch. 
chookka, 0. 



life, lire 

okchaya, C. 


egah, Ch.; hiyiagny, If. 
anahgahleske, Ch. 



immuyuyhluy, M. 


hottok, C. 

nockeite, C. 

chauheh, M. 


teenoenentoghe, Ch. 

halhaaie, If. 


onnihilOj C. ; snnahlae, Ch. 


iehskie, M.; akachee, Ch. 


nunichaha, C. 


tsiawii, Ch. 

chaknoh, M. 


innokewau, M. 


ninnok, C; nennak, M. 


kohyoungsahli, Ch. 


suppokne, C. 
miko, C. 


ema, C. 

omba, C. 

nitchi, L. 

wiillagyn. E.; haiiihva, A. 

akuma, J. 

stahpu, A. 

igu, A. 

tschiftuchk, T. 

welolongen, C. 

ippah, imbi, A. 

allotlonim, Ka. 

kuga, L. 

aigomkie, T. 

yube, J. 

Met, K. 

manako, J. 

yempo, J. 

chichi, J.; isch, K. 

una, A.; annaka, T. 


illigin, T. 

tackki, L. 

pilluak, T. ; buchi-ai, J. 

yubi, J.; eebee, L. 

etschuda, Ka. 

ikahluk, T. • 

ennen, K. 

tubiah, Ka. 

tchaaalhai, Kr.; gitgalgin, K. 

ewynak, K. 

Uckki, L. 

chtehitshoo, Ka. 

iku, yuka, J. 

apkas. A. 

istla, T. 

hota Corean ; kuwodai, J. 

lachlach, T. 

kuaa, J. ; ewuk, T. 

lukuklin, K. 

chytschin, Ka. 

ichtschitachi, K.; sjiu, A, 

aplela, K. 

kannik, T. 

kitigir, K. 

bode, Corean; feejee, L. (beard) 

nujak, T. 

schaba, A.; kobe, J. 

naskok, T. 

kasbko, T. 

shin, J. 

sampeh, A. - 

miniugu. Ka. 

keifik, if, 

kikang, Ka. 

ke, uchi, J. 

tachikutu, T. 

kakowa, Ka. 

choigychei, K. 

kumylgilat, K. 

okmukulingin, K. 

otoko, J. 

ningen, J. 

chu, L.; chnjattatsch, EL 

tankuk, T. 

jailgat, K. 

emukulas. Ka. (unhaiel, Yukagir) 

okkasan, J. 

najn, K.; naigak, T. 

zehylda, Ka. 

aeklangin, K. 


nigynok, K.; nnjuk, T. 

kajakan, Ka. 

gepinowli, K. 

miko, J. 

ame, J. 

apftu, A. 

















asld, M.; aguskah, Ch, 

keekahgeb, Ch. 

chahti, M, 

hacha, C. 

bok, C. 

equ-mih Ch. 

ehuffa, C. 

sitkuscha, H. 

hupi, C. 

amaquohe, Ch. 

wehuta, Hitchitee 

abeka, C. 

anggedo, Ch. 

nocksishtike, C. 

hakscbup, C. 

gahlehah, Ch. 

nasi, C. 

nogobuscha, M. • 

chotgoose. M. 

nngnawtsi, Ch. 

tilligue, M. 

owohchikea, Hitchitee 

phoutchik, C. 

miski, C. 

kohkee, Ch. 

tomepulleh, Chickasaw 

neetaVhasih, C. (Day-star) 

neetahuaa, H. 

kalesta, Ch. 

lahi, C. 

ahgelega, Ch. 

hiloha, C. 

Jyrajaa, C. 
onaha, C. 

soolish, C. ; istetolahswah, M. 

innotay, M. 

iti, C; itta, Chickasaw; uhduh, Ch. 

yahkahbuscha, M. 

uckah, C. 

ahraah, Ch. 

hatki, M. 

yahah, M. 

choyo, C. 

ageyang, Ch. 

tike, tekchi, C. 

humna, M. 

tuklo, C. ; toogalo, Chickasaw 

tsawi, Ch.; totcheh, M.; tukchina, C. 

uahta, C. 

nunggih, Ch, 

tahlapi, C. 

hannali, C. 

uutukJo, C. 

untuchina, C. 

oatabah, M. 

pooole, C. 

azgntsch, Ka. 
akai, J. 
kawachtak, T. 

Schi, Ka. ' 
a, A. 
gojem, K. 
shuppon, J. 
chikuten, J. 
schipoo, A. 

ami, J.; mok, imah, T. 
atui, A. 
blyokl, J. 

onna-kiyodai, J. ; tschagado, K. 
najahak, T. 
kawa, J. 
keilkat. K. 
netsnki, J. 

soibiishi, J. (sleep together) 
chiisai, J. 
anlghu, K. 
hlhlgwuh, K. 
hoshi, J. 
foshi, J. . 
naUu, J. 
ka, J.; kulga, T. 
adorn pi is, Ka. 

nichi, J. (day) hoshli J. (star) 
matscbak, T. 
knlleatsch, K. 
oku, A 
igliak, T. 

kyhal, kyigala, kihihelan, K. 
rai, J. urgirgerkln, T. 
unako, T. 
etschilla, K. 
wuttlnka, T. 

utut, K.; uttu, T.; uuda, Ka. 
hakobu. J. 
waku, A. 

emuk, T.; mlma, K. 
haku, J.; attych, Ka. 
haigugeh, K. 

aganak, T. 

Uckkl, L. 

onnon, K. 

taogelseh, Ka. (3) 

taook, Ka. 

iahtama. T. 

nijach. K. 

tachlima, T. 

nunmalaiL onnamyllangan, K. 

nitachmallangga, K. 

tschooktunuk, T. 

slammo, T. 

kulle, T. 


ebneken. Iroquois uyeni, Japanese 

onentcha, I. oondee, A ino 

askwechia, I. kvasqua, koahcho, Kamtohatdale 

nokeuh, Tuscarora inggako, Koriak 

ahdokenh, Mohawk adaganu, K. 

atere, I {Iromis) [M. (Mohawk) teeroo, Loo-Choo; xaru, J. (Japan***) 

oochereuh, T. (Tuscarora) ; ooquharlee, akliak, Tchvktchi 

hetken. I. chaitkin, K. (Koriak) 

washuh, T. waaa, Loo-Choo [egchka, T. (Tchnktch) 

kwichta, I. ksuch, Ka. (Kamtohatdale); akUcha- 

unagwenda, M. nanchiin. T. 

ehUke, I. jechtok, T. 

ontagwarinchta* I. rlrit, irit, T. 

liontst. I. nudchen, T. • 

tctUcalas, O. (Oneida) natchala, T. ; kytyhalu, K. 






cotnuh, T. ; gatkum, N. (Nottoway) 
hotkwtsnaa, I. ; otqnecbsa, On. (Chwnr 


gu-ierongue, oierouta, I. [daga. 


onna, H. (Huron) 

hecbtienda, I. ; akstiyeh, I. 


awraw, T. 

boy, son 

laxha, 0. 

ronwaye, M. 

hakaaah, On. ; eawook, S. (Seneea) 


ataquen, H. ; jattatege, On. 

haenyeha, H. 

teetoteken, S. 

teeahgattahnoonduclih, M. 

yatai, H. 


gatchatha, I. 
kotonia, I. 


cheahhah, H. 

woccanonne, T. 


wathorats, L ; turea, H. 


karo, M. 


quennies, M. ; kanadzia, I. 


entiekeh, I. 

ennisera, 1. ; eghniaera, M. 

yorhuhuh, T. 
konnis, I. 



ynnyenoh, H. 

cheeth, T. 

erhar, M.; cheer, N.; techierha, On, 

death, dead 

kenha, I. 


ichnillkeeuh, M. 


■oluck, M. 


ohuchta, On. 

suntunke, N. 


ohetta, I. 

onouentata, I. 

uenjah, 8.; ataunga, 0. 


higuech, I. 
tehatekahons, M. 


onhonchia, I. 

koktha, I. 


yougarlahsickhah, M. 

teteinret, H. 


acoina, fl. 

kaka, 8.; okaghha, C. (Cayuga) 


ionniha, I.; ibani, C. 

aihtaa, H.; ata, T. 

rakeni, M.; lahkeni, 0. 


onasa, I. 


kaheta, I. 


eyingia, H. 

sahhugnehlahgheh, M. 


ontchichta, I. • 

yoneks, T. 


otschionta. Oil 
yeentao, H. 
kenyuck, 8. 


aaseeke, N. 

ooaa, T. 

ochaita. On.; achita, H. 


akentstara, I. 

oyeutaa, 11. 

fox . 

iitsho, M. 


girl, daughte 

skwarak, I. 

r kaunuhwukh, T. 
kayung, 0. 
ikhehawog, C. ; keawook, 8. 


keyahwe, wahetky, L 


nigue, L 
yehateatyese, M. 



teahuskahan, H. 


oogenerle, M. ; loyanere, I. ' 


kowa, I. 

tatchanawihie, N. 

ketau, J. 

gilgin, K. ; karada, J. 

hone, J. 

kotsu, J. 

erit, K. 

laki, K. 

rinaka, T. 

akek, jakak, K. 

otoko-kiyodai, J. ; tyga, Ka 

eninichae, K. 

itachamitugin, T. 

tachaindakal, K. 

ktshidzahi, Ka. 

yatta, L. 

kodomo, J. 

chigazi, A. (Aino) 

wocka, Loo-Choo (young) 

kiyetaru, J. 

kuru, J. 

akagane, J. 

nitcbi, L. \lA>o-Cheo) 

nichi, J. ; aghynak, T. 

balui, K.; hallugg, Ka. 

okonai, J. 

tnu. J. 

getten, T. ; sheda, A. 

atar, chatalan, K. 

gang, L. 

igyletsch, Ka. 

galle, K ; galgagalach, T. 

tschiftucbk, T. 

tacbintak, T. 

ttati, Corean. 

nutenut, K. 

nuna, T. 

ku, J. 

tekitachgyn, T. 

nohk, nuku, A.; nyhach, Ka. 

hate, J. 

aigaweroe, K. 

aathin, Ka. 

gan, J. 

ahigi, A.; iik, T. 

una, A. 


illigin, T. 

hannee, L. 

tabata, hatake, J.; getochigyn, K, 

aihanka, T. 

tschilgit, K. 

undji, A. 

annak, eknok, T. 

etschuda, Ka. 

entachudu, Ka. 

annegui, T. 

shaku. J. 

assi, J. 

gitkat, T. 

kytahal, K. 

kuitschitsch, Ka\ 

iuchka, T. ; hitschkat, K. 

gayeru, J. 

ngewek, K. 

suwingh, Ka. 

Kfikuku, K. 
tchtL Ka. 
yuku, J. 
utashiah, Ka. ' 

duzdeachtschitsch, Ka. 

relewli, K. 
, okii, J. ; kaaguk, T. 
chytacbin, Ka. 






in •« r r 

Nenven, sky 

i I I j I II 

imt, heat 

lnmg»r 7 hungry 








i tin 









* [full I 

arochia, H. 

ahwerochia, I. 

onuchquira, On. 

ononkia, C. 

osnonsa, I. 

chotta, I. 

tahhoot-ahnayknh, M. 

ra, I. 

noaUbeera, H. 

nontsi, I. ; anoonjee, M. 

hahweriacha, I. 

quaker-wutika, N. 

kiunyage, [. 

garonhiague, I. 

kanagaa, I. 

otarahaute, H. 

yoonaurihun, T. 

kanosiod, 0. ; kanoughsode, M. 

anonchia, H. 

caataore, O. 

cadagcariax, O. 

kerioa, I. 

kainana, C. 

yonhe, M. 

konnhe, I. 

hechkwaa, I. 

enorongwa, M.; aindoorookwaw, H. 

hatgina, I. 

nenekin, I.; aingahon, H. 

itaatain, Mirukussar 

eniha, N. ; aneehah, T, 

oonquich, M. 

lookque, O. 

kanaughkwaw, C. 

kelanquaw, M. ; karakkwa, I. 

ena, N ; aneheh, H.; eanuh, T. 

ikillnoha, M. ; ahkenolha, O. 

kaunatanta, C. 

onontah, H.; onontea, On. 

chigue, I. 

yasook, O 

ai&hakaent, C. 

oosharunwah, T. 

agwaghaene, M. 

eso, L; avsoo, M. 

awquayakoo, M. 

ohetta, I. 

oocheelab, M, 

osenna, I. 

hotchetota, L 

oneaya, M. 

aonrekka, I. 

kavrwaasonneak, O. 

nehsoha, S. 

yaunga, H. 

oteuaag, N. 

oojyaaa, T. 

kakondah, S. 

geneuchsa, M. 

enuchsakkc, C. 

kiterons, I. 

iokennores, I. 

quechtaha, S. 

guwenta-rogon, I. 

tucotquaurauyuh, T. ; onlqnahtala, O 

kihade, C. ; gelhate, On. 

wtohera, I. 

onokqua, T. 

nwichtanoron, L 

tsiha, I. ; akxia, On. ; auchtchee, T. 

hoaerochia, I. 

hnonk, I. 

wakitaa, I. 

oatonha, I. 

lanchshach, K. ; rah, A. 

tacheracher, Ka. 

kytyhuir, kitigir, K. ; kar-nu, A. 

nnjak, T. 

soan, C. (Corean) 

ayttu, Ka. 

whl-huta, K. 

are, J. 

kaahira, J. 

naskok, T. 

kokoro, J. 

goku-raku. J. ; rikita, A. ; kocludJ, Ka. 

chain, Ka. ; khigau, K. 

cherwol, K. 

tacheonok, T. 

hoteru, J. 

nomling, K. 

kisd, kishit, Ka. 

ennit, T. 

kattrayeru, J. 

ahandageri, A. 

koroshi, J. 

ko-katana, J. 

inochi, J. 

kyjunuin. T. 

kkovan, Ka. 

(annrak, Yukagir) 

otoko, J. 

ningen, J. 

chojatachin, T.; hito, J. 

aiiiuh, A. 

kengitach, Ka. ; oikyo, A. ; ickkeega, L 

luka, T.; elku, Ka. 

(kininsha, Yukagtr); konnetaon, A 

gailigen, K. 

aingga, angnan, Ka. 

ella, elkijt ; Mia, Ka. 

kiraita, A. 

enshida, namud, Ka. ; neit, T. 


syeksye. aaaxxa, Ka. 

sekiangin, K. 

gikirgin, djekergcn, K. 

ekigin, T. 

osaosa, J 

oowhoko, L. 


wachelang, K. 

ninna, K 

hozo, J.; katkataobik, T. 

onnajan, K. 

nkuru, anzkari, A. ; unnjuk, T. 

kyunnuk, Ka, 


enku, K. ; nana, J. 

tatuk, T.; ahdum, ida, A. 

echaech, yachcbaya, T. 

kaakang, Ka, 

chyngak, T. 

enigytam, K. 

kakeru, J. 

(yagmur, Turk) 

kawachtuk. T. 

nitachel-racnen, K. 

tahatahalo, Ka. 

kiha, Ka. ; kuigutt, T. 

vodare, J. 

hnnginn, C. 

elnipel-wychtin, K. fK. 

ahtachitsch, kutchaan, Ka; tcbakyhetcb 

rua, A.' 

nakka, T. 

kangwitkis, K. 

uitecbenan, Ka. 



snow, to mow wakenns, I. 
ogera, On. 

onyeiak, S. ; ounfyeghte, M, 
atakea, H. 
kongweeteh, K 
ojechsoondan, 8. 
ojiahonda, C. 
utakwena, I. 
owrunnay, T. 
akenha, M. ; kayahneh, 8. 
kelanquaw, M. 
karakrwa, I. 
ladicha, H. 
onteka, I. 

beetay, T. ; aheeta, F. 
kachquaw, 8. ; kaaghkwa, OL 
cnnasa, L 

onouweelah, C. ; onawira, L 
otoatseh. T. 


spring (season) 1 




ynki, yakigafuro, J, 

korjel, Ka. 

anighn, T. 

idakuwa, A. 

anchtoha, T. 

agajin, Ka. 

ashangit, Ka. 

lknwan, J. 

whraugon, K. 

aakan, A. ; kegmu, T. 

galenkuletscli, Ka. 

kuUeatsch, Ka, ; tlrkiti. T. 

laatsch, T. 

mat&chak, T. 

tMa, L. ; tyketl, K. 

koatsch, Ka. 

entsel, Ka. 

wannalgn, K. 

gutuk, T. 

reguxy, A. 

kybal, kylgala, ikigigrihan, K. 

guina, K. 

hiroi, I. 

ita. J. ; atchooDg, L. 

wakha, A. 

toih, K. ; mok, emak, T. 

terugatirkin, T. 

sherooBa, L. ; stalrol, J. 

nilgaohen, K. ; rata-gannep, A. 

geuggatalan. Ka. 

kollealas, Ka. 

achsachaaan, K. 

aigugeb, chgahuwu, K. 

lnnago, L.; aganak, T. 

tackki, L, 

katchoong, L. 

gytecbanido, Ka. 

nuutelgrachen, T. 

duchl-karallo, Ka. 

atacbik, T. 

togaing, K. 

dyshak, Ka. 

nl-techaw, K. 

niechtsch, K. 

ytechgau, K. 

tsook, Ka.; giuch, T. 

sang, L. 

gyrach, K. 

taagelch, Ka. 

niyach, ngshaksw, K. 

asnekl, A. 

iUtyk, Ka. 

angrotkin, T. 

tehookotuk, Ka. 

tschachatonoh, tchauatana, Ka. 

tachnaktnk, Ka. 

kulle, T. 



It is only since writing the foregoing article that I have found the 
relations of this important family. The Dacotah languages differ so 
widely in their vocabulary, or rather in their vocables, from the 
Iroquois, that, in spite of grammatical construction, and the equally 
warlike character of the two people, it was hard to imagine a com- 
munity of origin. In the labials that are wanting in the Wyandot 


niarigue, I. 


kaweraa, I. 


kanata, I. 


end, H. 

ahteatyese, M. 
anweah, T. ; awwa, N. 


ohneka, I. ; oneegha, Minekuncvr 


garkentat, I. 
kearagea, M. 
kenrakeD, I. 

keaankea, a 


koashlakke, 0.; koaera, L 

ozhey. fl.; koosebhea, T. 


ahquohhoo, M. 


yonkwe, M. 0.; ekenlng, T. 

otaikai, H. 


kbiatons, I. 


osera. I. 
hotgikkwarogon, I. 

cheenagaarle, M. 
oeae, N. 



iraji, T.; anti, N. 
uakot, M. 


techini, M. 

nekty, T. 
teghfa, 0. 


shegh, 8.; segh, C; ahseh, M. 

ahsenh, 0.: auahank, H. 
kayerib, M. 


kayeltb, O. 

huntak, T. 
wiak, M., Ac. 



tchoatak, On.; teatak, M. 


nakruh, T. 


tagheto, 0. 

tntonh, H; tiohton, Caughnawaga. 

tiobto, C. 


oyellh, O. 


dialects, the Dacotah is peculiarly rich. So complete is the compen- 
sation made by the Dacotah dialects for Wyandot shortcomings in 
this respect, that labials utterly unknown to the original *oot 'start 
up everywhere, as terminal, medial, and even initial sounds. On 
the other hand, the strong Mohawk r is almost absent in Dacotah ; 
the Upsarokas, Minetarees and Mandans, who sometimes employ 
this letter, being very sparing in its use. Nor, can it be said, save 
as a rare exception, that there is an I in Dacotah to atone for the 
comparative absence of r, with which, in the Iroquois dialects, it is 
at times interchanged. The general vocabulary has miscellaneous 
Siberian affinities, largely with the Samoied, and many with the 
Ugrian languages. (I may say that I use the word Ugrian to denote 
the Finnic-Magyar family of languages as opposed to the Altaic, 
which includes the Tartar, Mongol and Tungus, since I cannot see the 
propriety of extending it, as has often been done, to the whole Ural- 
Altaic division). I was thus upon the point of making the Dacotahs 
a Samoied colony, and had, indeed, communicated the likelihood of 
such a relationship to correspondents interested in American philo- 
logy, when light broke upon the subject in connection with the 
terminations of verbal forms, which, being followed up by other 
coincidences, settled the matter in favour of a Peninsular origin for 
the Dacotahs, as well as for the Iroquois and Choctaws. The Hon. 
Lewis H. Morgan has shown that the Dacotah and Iroquois dialects 
are allied, and that the latter separated from the parent stock at a 
much earlier period than the former. 

The Dacotahs, better known as the Sioux, and the Nadowessies of 
Carver and other older writers, are a warlike, intrusive people, of 
good stature, and generally pleasing appearance, with capabilities of 
no mean order, and exhibiting, as in the case of the Mandans, a con- 
siderable advance in culture beyond the neighbouring tribes. They 
occupy a great portion of the centre of the continent, being essenti- 
ally an inland people like the Wyandots and Choctaws. Their 
hunting-grounds extend from the Bed River to the Saskatchewan 
southwards to the Arkansas, and are chiefly found between the Mis- 
sissippi on the east and the Rocky Mountains on the west. They 
are thus the neighbours of many Algonquin tribes, with which they 
are more or less intermixed. The principal tribes of this family are 
the Sioux or Dacotahs proper, the Yanktons, Winnebagoes, Assine- 
boins, whose name is Algonquin, Mandans, Upsarokas or Crows, 


Minetarees, Ioways, Osages, Ottoes, Omahas, Quappas, Konzas and 
Hidateas. Their warlike and independent character is well known, 
especially in connection with their recent encounter with the Ameri- 
can troops and the subsequent withdrawal of some of them to 
Canadian territory. 

The Dacotah word for man, male, is wika, wicasta, and this is the 
Tchuktchi uilca ; while other terms,. such as hihna and oeeteka, relate 
to the Aino aino and the Japanese otoko. Similarly, the words for 
woman, wingy, vrinnokejah, wakka-angka and tawiku, represent the 
'Iao Choo innago, the Tchuktchi aganak, and the Loo Choo tackki. 
The general lexical resemblances of the Dacotah and Peninsular, 
within the limits, at least, of my somewhat defective vocabularies, 
are not by any means so close as between the Choctaw and the 
Peninsular. Still, there are some striking forms. Such are the 
Dacotah echong, make, and the' Loo Choo oochoong ; dowang, sing, 
and the Loo Choo ootayoong; yazang, sick, and the Loo Choo 
yudong; cangte, heart, and the Japanese ring, <fec. The Kamtchat- 
dale connects intimately with some of the Dacotah dialects, particu- 
larly with the Assineboin. The Dacotah wahckeesh, child, is the 
Kamtchatdale pahatshitsh ; matri, knife, is wattsho ; to&a, sevant, is 
tthequatoh; itto, arm, is tettoo; ataki, white, is attagho, <fcc. The 
Tchuktchi necessarily is connected ; and we have the Dacotah eeneck, 
*fi*99<*h cingk$i % boy, in the Tchuktchi iegni&a; cang, day, is gau- 
nak; nijihah, hair, is nujak ; nahsso, head, is naskok ; ecat, small, is 
tkitachtu ; neah, mini, -water, is, nouna ; tehha, lake, is touga ; on- 
kahah, finger, is ainhanka, &c, Of the few Corean words known to 
me, several answer to the Dacotah equivalents ; thus the Dacotah 
akkui, ear, is the Corean qui ; uohta, good, is hot a; paykee, hair, is 
bode; cezi, tongue, is chay ; and pezi, grass, is phee. 

I have mentioned verbal terminations as my guides to the affilia- 
tion of the Dacotah languages. In Dacotah a common termination 
for verbs is that variously rendered <mg, ong, ung, as in ydtkang, eat, 
nahong, hear, pahmung, spin, tongwang, see, echong, make, manong, 
steal. Captain Clifford, in his vocabulary of the LooChoo language 
appended to Basil Hall's voyage, draws attention to a similar ter- 
mination of the verb. He says: "♦[ have, throughout the vocabu- 
lary considered the termination oong to denote the infinitive and have 
translated it as such, even when the sense points to another word, 
merely to preserve consistency; there are, however, a few excep- 


tions to this, and some of the verbs will be found to terminate in 
ang, ing, awng, ong and ung." The Japanese infinitive in mi, to 
which there are many exceptions, does not resemble this termination, 
but connects with the Turkish infinitive in mek and the Magyar in 
ni. Neither does the common LooChoo and Sioux form resemble 
the Mantchu in re, or the Mongol in hu. We are thus, I think, 
justified in holding that the Dacotah verbs eehong, make, dcncang, 
sing, and yazang, be sick, are the same words as the LooChoo 
oochoong, ootayoong and yadong, having meanings identical. But a 
confirmation of the Peninsular origin of the Dacotahs even more* 
interesting is afforded by a comparison of the Assiniboin infinitive, 
or at least verbal termination, with that of the Kamschatdale. The 
Assiniboin verbs in their simplest form end in <Uch, itch ; thus we 
have pasmitch, tumitch, to love, vninnaeatch, to go, eistvmmatch, to 
sleep, aatch, to speak, wauktaitch, to kill, waumnahgatch, to see, 
aingaich, to sit, mahnmtch, to walk, <fce. Similarly in Kamtchatdale 
we meet with kasichtshitch, to stand, koquasitch, to come, kashiatsh, 
to run, ktsheemgutsh, to sing, kassoagatsh, to laugh, koogaatsch, to cry 
<fcc. It is true that the Kamtchatdale kowisitch, to go, and kwatzh- 
quikotsh, to see, are unlike the Assiniboin wunnaeatch and tectum- 
nahgatch, except in their terminations ; but, as I have already indi- 
cated the connection of the Dacotah and Kamtchatka vocabularies, 
this is an objection that fuller knowledge of Kamchatdale would 
probably remove. It was the verbal terminations of Sioux in ng and 
of Assiniboin in tch that decided the question in my mind of the 
Old World relations of the Dacotah family of language and tribes. 
Those who are better acquainted with the Peninsular languages may 
be able to account for diversities in the Dacotah dialects by corres- 
ponding differences in them. That two such unusual forms as the 
LooChoo and Kamchatdale should occur in one American family is 
very strong presumptive evidence in favour of that family's Penin- 
sular derivation. 

The grammatical construction of the Dacotah languages may be 
said, at least, to interpose no obstacle in the way of a Peninsular 
origin. The absence of true gender, and a distinction between nouns 
as animates and inanimates ; the formation of the genitive by simple 
prefix to the nominative, with or without the third personal pro- 
noun ; the use of pronominal prefixes, and of post positions ; the 
place of the regimen before the governing verb, are all in favour of 


such an origin. The post position of the adjective, which my know- 
ledge of the Dacotah dialects does not enable me to say is universal, 
finds its analogue in some Japanese and Loo Choo forms. The in- 
clusive and exclusive plural belongs to the Siberian area, and is 
Turanian. The post position of the negative mi answers to the post 
position of nang and nashee in Loo Choo. And the use of two tenses 
only, a present-past and a future, reminding the philologist of the 
Semitic and Celtic languages, presents no barrier to the relationship, 
inasmuch as the temporal index follows the verbal root, while the 
pronoun precedes it. It is worthy of note that while there is a 
general agreement in grammatical forms among tne Iroquois, Choc- 
taw and Dacotah languages, they specially coincide in marking the 
difference between transitive and intransitive verbs by the use of dis- 
tinct pronominal particles. Judging from the identity in fcrm of the 
Sioox and Assiniboin verbs to the Loo Choo and Kamtchatdale res- 
pectively, I would be inclined to regard the Dacotah family as a far 
more recent off-shoot from the Peninsular stock than the Iroquois 
or the Cherokee- Choctaws, a view which is favoured by the geogra- 
phical position of the several tribes. 

The ball play or lacrosse of the Choctaws and Iroquois is practised 
by the Assiniboins, whose method of boiling by dropping heated 
stones into a skin substitute for a cauldron, has, according to Catlin, 
gained them their Cree name of " Stone Indians." Pottery was ex- 
tensively manufactured by the Mandans ; and the large, handsome 
skin lodges of the whole Dacotah family present a marked contrast 
to the wigwams of the Tinneh and Algonquin tribes. The Mandan 
lodges, excavated to a slight distance and covered with earth, with 
the exception of a hole in the centre, are the same as those of the 
Koriaks and Tchuktchis.* The lascivious dances of many Dacotah 
tribes resemble those of the Kamtschatdales. One physical peculia- 
rity of this family is the long hair of the warriors which often sweeps 
the ground. My limited knowledge of the inhabitants of the Pen- 
insular area does not enable me to say whether this feature character- 
izes any of its populations. The Sioux have a story of a maiden's 
leap from a precipice into the water, the " Lover's Leap " of Catlin, 
-which recalls the tradition of the Leucadian Rock and the Hyper- 
borean practice alluded to by many ancient writers. If this be a 

* According to Klaproth, the Koriaks call the Tchuktchis Mainetang, which may be the ori- 
ginal of the name Mandan. 


Koriak tradition, the Leucadian Corax, and Charaxus, the brother of 
Sappho, may be terms of ethnical significance. I have little doubt 
that the ancient Koriak habitat and centre of diffusion was the 
Caucasus, where the Coraxi and Cercetae dwelt. The Assyrian in- 
inscriptions should shed light upon this important family, which 
finds such large representation on the North American Continent. 

A few of the Dacotah numerals show their Peninsular connection 
by agreeing with those of the Iroquois and Choctaws. Thus the 
Dacotah onje, eyungkae, ymike, wonge, one, are the Iroquois anji and 
en ski ; while amutcat, another form of the same number, is like the 
Iroquois onskat. ' The Otto tekeni, two, is the Iroquois (echini. I 
can hardly think that it is a borrowed word, inasmuch as the Sioux 
sahdogang, eight, is the Iroquois sahdekonh, and the relation of two 
and eight was exhibited in the Choctaw tukchina and untuvhina. 
The Dacotah weekeechem, wikchemma, ten, are probably the same as 
the Iroquois watenh ; and cheehoh, kakhoo, five, agree with the 
Muskogee chfihgkie. While a more extensive comparison than the 
materials at my disposal have enabled me to make would be very 
desirable, it .will, I think, be confessed by competent judges, that, 
for the purposes for which the paper has been written, it is not neces- 
sary. It will be a simple matter for other students J» follow out 
the lines of research that I have indicated and in a measure illus- 
trated, and either confirm the conclusions arrived at, or otherwise 
account for the phenomena on which they are based. 


arm ada, Hiditea ; arda, Mandan ude, yeda, Japans* 

isto, Dacotah, Yankton [{Dacotah) settoo, Kamtchatdale 

arrow mahha, M. (Mandan) ; ma, mong f D. mechim, Ka. {Kamtchatdale) 

minja, Ob (Osage) machmiuche, K. (Koriak) 

axe ashpaw, D. ; ooeopa, A. (Auiniboin) kvasqua. Ka. ; kal-kapak, T. (Tehuktcki 

ahana, ongspe, D. ono. J. (Japanese) 

bad schicha, D. ; iahia, H. (Hidatsa) aahiki, J. 

beard iki, H. ; eahaesha, U. (Uptaroka) hlge, J. ; nika, T. [pitai, K. 

belly ikpi, D. faku, J. ;j>ai, Canon; kfucb, Ka. 

chesa, Os. akaheka, T. 

bare, U. hara, J. 

belt ipasaki, H. ; ipiyaka, D. obi, J., L. (Loo-Choo) ; tapahi, T. 

bind kaahka, 1>. kuku-ru, J. 

bird dikkappeJJ. tzkepf, A. (A*no) 

taakaka, H. tac. C. (Corean) 

black ihippuanaka, U. nu&unke, K. 

. *on); 
wamee, Ora. (Omaha) kehm. A. 

eeokhpaac, D. [Winnebago aehkuropeeh, A. 

blood uoai, Y. (Yankton) ; waheehah, W. auku. T. 

idi, H .: eda, U. kettni, J. 

boat wata, D. agwat, K. ; attuat, hetwott, Ka, 

mati, H. ; roaheihe, U. maachdyhm, Ka. 

bone hidu, H. kotsu, J. ; kutei, L.; kotham, Ka ; ha- 

bow eta*eepa, D. [hnopah, M. edzak. Ka. {Umfn, K ; atiUam, T. 

beerahhah, Min. (Minetaree); ware- faru, C. [uika, T. 



boy, aon 




death, die 






• nemy 

• veiling 










girl, daughtw 

eeneek. W. ; eejinggal, Mln. eetagaLOtoongua, L. ; yeg- 
chahinka, A. [vOtto} okaijeno-bompo, A. 


shekanja, Mln. 

weeshinga, Os. 

cingksi, D. : shinsoshlnga, Os. 

meetshingsnee, D. , 

sonkakoo, D. 

boocouppa, U. 

tahtungkah, D. 

aha, Os. 

biaha, U. 

adahahe, H. 

ghu, D. 

wahcheesh, D. 

bakkatte, U. 

shingarshinga, Om. 

sheena, D. 

oisnaitch, A. 

taaaka, D. 

ceereeai, Min. 

hootahere, U. [neehee, W. 

sinnee, D • snee, Y., Ot, Om., see- 

hi, kuwa, D. 

cang.D. ; hangwai, Ot 

tha, D. ; tehe, H. 

carrasha, U. 

hidi, H. [hah, W. 

ataoiig, A. ; shonka, D. Y. ; chonke- 


smimmlk, U. 

meeneatpauch, A. 

heeiatekaupeteka, D. [nanghta, Os. 

neetah, Om. ; nottah, Q. (Quappa) ; 

akuhi, H. 

lahockee, Min. 

mahnaji, W. [Om. ; mongka, Y. 

maka, D. ; maha, Ot., Os. ; moneeka, 

yuta, D. ; data, H. 

bahbooahraekah, U. 

utahpee, D. 

toka, D. 

taxsetoo, D. 

ohpai, Min. ; appah, U. 

esa, U. 

eshtike, D. ; ishchuhauhha, W. 

doli, J. 

ahisong, J. 

boaang, J. 

ahoni. shisoku, J. 

muauko, J. 

tschangkuon, C. ; kamgoyak, T. 

Sibi, yobu, A. 
chlmga, K. 
shao, C. 
wooooahe, L. 
taku, J. ; yaddee, L. 
yaku, J. akka, L. 
wocka, L (young) ; wasaso, A. 
pahatshitsh, Ka. ; bogotschi, A. 
ahoni, J. 

chlng, L. ; choongay, C. 
koenetsch, Ka. 
tachachtschen, K. 
syrriam, A. 
kiyetarn, J. 

samui, lean, J. : kanjukukok, T. 
ki, ku-ru, J. ; kokwasitch, Ka. 
gannak, T. 
tokok, f . 
rai, rairoaiwo, A. 
itashi, J. 
ching, inu, J. 
kuiki, Ka. 
earn gam, K. 
migutschi, T. 
tapatken, K. 
tschintak, T. 
kui, C. ; igiad. Ka. 
Uyud, Ka. ; wilugi, K. 
nunna, T. 
mok, C. 
etsyb, Ka. 
ippah, inibi, A. 
tabe-rn, J. 
tekl, J. 

tangkittl, tyngfouti, K. 
ynbe, J. ; aibyngit, T. 
lik, T. 
sik, shigl, A. 

ate, H. ; a tag, D. ; dadai, Om. ; atoucu, T. atta. attaka, T. 

menoomphe, U. 

kaataka, D- 

onkaha, M. 

shake, D.: shagah, Os.; shagai, Om. 

buschie, U. 

napchoopai, T.; shantee-ichpoo, Min. 

pytshi, W.; pechae, I. (Iovoay); pajah, a peri, A.';'pangitsch, Ka.;fl, L. 

beerais, Min.; wareday, M. [Or. pol, 0. ; brynumchitsch, Ka. 

hoaabug, D.; baugb, Os.; hohhah, W.; eo, L. ; kokl, kukl, C. ; giyo, J. 

hobo, Om.; ho, Ot; huh, Q. 
poh, M.; boa, Min.; booah, U. 
noghang, D. ; hohung, Y. 
cehpl, D. 
tado, Y.; tahyuh, Q.; tatookai, Ot; 

Undo, D.; tandocah, Os. 
cuructahittee, Min. 
chahnah, W. 
odakapaki, H. 

hka, D. [Bih, K. (Konzcu) ka, C 

siha, D. ; aih, Q. ; si, W., Ot , Om., Os ; asbi, shake, J. 
ochaw, D. .... 

soheeda, D. 

waakuyeca, D. [hoongshee, D. . „ 

meyakatte, U.; macath, Miu.; meets- math, A.; newekik, T. 
meeyaikanja, Min. neuweku, T. 

sookmeha, M. . shuguina, Ka. 

cejonggal. On. ungua, L. ; suwing, Ka. 

enpitsch, Ka. 

tatakau, J. (kogdak Yukaghr). 

aibanka, T 

sokora, C. ; keko, gyhgek, Ka. 

J>kotsha, Ka 
ubi, A. ; yubi, J. ; eebee, L. 

uwo, J. 
sakana, J. 
tubia, Ka. 
taat, tatchal, Ka. 

korattal, K. 

koki, C. 

ibuiki, sipoike, A. 

hayaahi, J. ; ooda, Ka. 

tachkuada, Ka 

kuwashi, J. ; isgateaitch, Ka. 



girl, daughter 










heaven, sky 




life, live 









heenukhahhah, W. 

sheinashinga, Os. 

khu, accuje, D. ; kn, H. 

dan, U.; de, D. 

itsicka, U.; tsaki, H. 

tonhai, Os. 

uohta, D. 

pezi, D. ; beka, U. ; mika, H. 

makkoupah, U. 

nijihah, Q ; maaheah, U. ; natoo, Ot. 

aira, Mm. 

shautee, Min. [shagai, Om. 

sake, D ; saki, H. ; shagah, D. ; 

na, U.; nee, Min ; neeah, W,: ount, M 

naso, Ot ; nahsso, W. ; uantbu, I. 

pa, D. JPah, Y. ; pahhih, Q. 

nasse, U ; nochteh, Q. ; natah, Min. 

cangt*, D. 

ammahhe, U. ; mahagh, Os. 

choustungatch, A 

ahre, U. ; arraise, Min. 

dsaposh, M. 

dindita, D. 

tshe, I. ; assua, U. ; cheehah, W. 

tipi, D. ; teepee, Y. ; teib, A. 

ote, M.; ati, H. ; tea, D ; tshe, L; 

attee, Min. ; teeah, Os 
be, U. ; vieh, Q ; veca, Os. 
cagha, D. 

niatsi, Min. ; mitsa, U. : mahee, Ot , Om 
tehha, W. 
ape, wapa, D. 
moneyahpe, U. 
niya, D. : nee, Os. 
ti, D ; itshasa, U. 
thieshe, U. : edayhuah, M. 
ohjajo, Y. 
wahfctcheeng, D. 
ahmutcheshe, U. 

echong, D \Y 

wica, D. * wahBheegae, Ot ; weechasha, 
wongahah, W. ; wineha, A. ; neka, Os ; 
mattra, Min [nikkah, Q. 

hickechewechasta, D. 
hihna, D. 
oeeteka, D. 

hangetu-wi, D (night-sun) 
minnatatche, U. 
ina, hung, D. ; enaugh, Os. 
khvaykah, D. ; haiaca, Y. ; ohal, T. 
paha, D. ; avocavee, Min. 
mahpo, ahraahabbe, U. 
iiptshappa, Min. 

shaka, D ; shakahaugh, Os ; saki, H. 
askahaah, D. 
shuah, U. 

doti, H. ; dote, D. ; tashai, Ot. 
apeeh, Min. 
hangyetu, D. 
estogr, M. 
honkoBha, Os. 
barnetkah, U. 
ea, D. ; eah, A. 
wozuha, D. 

maghazu, D ; mahajon, Y ; nezuma, Os. 
naunshec, Om ; neezhuh, W. 
hkahoosh, M. 
hannah, U. 

harai, Min. [hecat, U. 

hishi, H : ishshec, Min ; Rha, D. ; hls- 
wakpa, D ; wacopa, Y. [U. ; azi, H. 
passahah, M. ; watishka, Om.; ahesu, 

kanaz, A, 

shinzo, J 

qui-ung, L. ; katchu, Ka. 

tout, teut, Ka 

matschinka, T. 

itainoktok, T. 

hota, C. 

phee, C ; wuk, wehei, T. 

yobu, J. (to hail) 

mutihushi, C ; nujak, nujet, T. 

ruh, A. ; tserachcr, Ka. 

syttu, sotong, Ka. 

ki, L ; chketscb, chkat&ch, Ka 

oan, onno, unin, K 

nashko, n.iskok, T. 

fi»a, A ; busi, L 
iku. J. 
nokguek, nunjugu, Ka. 
shing. J. 
ame, J. 

ftuinitschkit, K. 
karai, J. 
attisa, L. 
danki, J. 

uche, ke, J ; zise, A. 
zibu, tschap, tschlbi, C 
katchi, L. ; yado, taku, J. 

wu, T 

cigu, K. 

wattshoo, Ka ; majiddi, A. 

to, A. ; touga, T. 

wha, L. (Jipan, Yukagir) 

niep, A. 

inochi, J. 

itchitchee. L. 

atchat, Ka. 

choigychei, K. 

eiwatschim, K. 

aksmatjen, K. 

oochoong, L. 

ickkeega, L. ; okkai, A. ; uika, T. 

ningen, J. ; kenge, Ka. 

nutaira, K. , 

oyachutsch, T. 

ainu, A. 

otoko, J. 

hito, J. 

tangkitti, K. (night) ; fl, hi, J. (sun) 

raan-getsu, J. (full-moon) 

ainga, T ; anguan, Ka. 

oka, J. ; gyeigoi, K. [Kaffir) 

pehguktscn, Ka ; bukkon, K. (pea iV 

fhufa, tenup, K. 

Jeep, C. 

kugi, J. ; kukuh, Ka. 

kukio, T 

kuiich, Ka. 

iityg, T. ; hutdehn, K. 

kubi, J., L 

tyngfouti, K. ; unnjuk, T. 

atari roo, L. 

uinge, K. 

biiu.tkitlin, Ka. 

iya, J. 

foosa, L. 

muchemuks, K. 

azgatsch, Ka. 

awe, J : kantsch, Ka. 

furi, J. 

akassa, L. ; akai, J. 

woyampih, K. 

peth, fez, boz, bezu, A. 

fta, T. 
neptahuk, imagDach- 



»be mahetoh, M. 

ran doozakon, D. 

akharooah, Os. 
salt miniskuya, D. ; amahota, H. 

sea tehha, tehchuna, W. 

servant toka, D. 

. flew kikaki, H. 

shoe hangpa, D.; honpeh, Q. 

opah, Mia. ; hupa, H. 
shoulder idaspa, H. 

hiyete, D. 

undo, D. 
sick ■ yazang, D. 

sing dowang, D. 

sister wetonga, Os. 

sit aingatch, A. 

slcin uka, koku, D. ; adnaka, K. 

sleep ishtingma, D. 

mughumme, U. 

eistimmatch, A. 
small tscheestin, tonana, D. ' 

ecat, U. (Min.; wahhab, W. 

snow beah, U. ; pan, Os. ; pah, Ot. ; mahpai, 

speak ide, H. 

ia, D. 
star wickangpi, D. 

Eeekahhal, Ot 
kaka, M. ; icka, H. ; eekah, Min. 
steal kl, D. 

stone eeyong, Y. 

eengro, Ot- 
storm tattasogsy, Os. 

son meencajai, On. ; menahkah, M. 

wee, D. ; pee, Ot. ; weehah, W. 
sword magasagye, D. 

tail tsita, H 

take ichu, eyaku, D. 

tlwy eonah, M. 

think echin, D. 

thou de, U. ; deeah, Os. ; dieh, Q. [ne, M. 

niah, D ; nehe, Min.; ney, W.; nea, A ; 
thunder waikeeang, D. 

to-morrow hayahkaytseehah, D 
tongue dezi, H. ; tshedzhi, D. : they si, Min. ; 

dehseehah, W.: dehseh, Q. 
tooth hi, D., n.j he, I , W., Ot ; hih, K. ; 

hee, Y. ; ea, U. ; tt, Min. 
tree nahnah, W. 

tillage otoe, D. 

ameteh, Min. 
warrior ahkitshutah, D. 

ankedaugh, Os. 

nassarbattsats, U. 
wash ynzaza, D. 

water nih, Q. ; neah, Os. ; ninah, W. 

mini, D. ; meenee, T.; minne, U. 

pasnahah, M. 

midi, H. 
we hero, U 

onkia, D. ; ungealp, A. ; nngnar, Os. 
weep cheya, D. 

white ataki, H. ; hoteechkee, Min. 

sang, D . [chose, U. 

ska, D , Ot., Om. ; skah, W., Q., Os. ; 
wife moorse, M. 

raoah, u. : mega, I. 
wtad hootsee, U. [mia, H. 

woman meha, M.; meyakatte, U ; meeyai, Min ; 

wingy, winnokeja, D. ; nogahah, W. 

wakka-angka, D. 

tawtcu, O. 

unah, D. - enanh, Os. 
wood tschang, D. 

money, U. 

makak, T. 


mashoo, L. 

ta, C. ; atui, aducka, A. 

tsheqnatsh, Ka. 

koke-m, I. 

hunginn, C. ; angesnf, K. 

sabock, L. 

tapsnt, tapfka, A. ; tschilpit, T. 

kntta, L. ; kata, J. 

oondee, A. (arm). 

yadong, L. 

utau, J. ; ootayoong, L. 

ichtnm, Ka. 

tsehakyhetsch, K. 

eeoong, L. [kotschi, C 

ka, L. ; kawa, J. ; kooogh, Ka. ; 

tungykushih, Ka. 

mogurn, A. : miilchamik, K. 

miichaten, T. 

takine, takoni, A. ; nitschenan, Ka. 

ekitachtn, T. 

upas, A. ;• pangopag, K. 

idakuwa, A. 

y, in, J. 

asbangit, Ka. 

fosi. L. 


ikka, A. 

uignm, T. 

whrangon, K. 

techtok, T. : tschitchntscha, Ka. 

matschak, T. 


raagiddee, A. 

dzoo, L. 

eechoong, L.; uke-ra, J.; uhk, okn, A. 

oanas, K. 

shiang, kangaye, J. 

tu, Ka. 

eanny, A. ; nanji, J. 

Segilkegie, T. 
aiedsai, C. 

ha, J., L.; Ji, 0. 

nan, C. ; nih, A. 

atanym, Ka 

machi, J. 

shisotso, J. (soldier) 

gunsotsu, J. (soldier) 

bushi, J. (soldier) 

yusugu, J. 

inh, K. ; nouna, T. 

nouna, mok, T. ; mimel, K. 

peh, A. 

mese, L. * 

warera, J. • morn, K. 

wankuta, T. 

kia, T. ; tschisgoa, A. 

attych, Ka. 

chein, C. 

bakn, J. 

maroo, A. 

mazy, A. 

kyteg, K.; kyttych, tschichntsha, Ka. 

math, A. 

innago, L. ; mennokoost, A. 

aganak, T. 

taokki, L. 

newem, T, 

tschitschini, A. 

nammo, C. 



write akakashi, H. 

>w tridi, H. 

srday tanneehah, D. 

you dero, U. 

1. duets*, H. 
wajitah, D 

jungihah, W.; eyunkae, I.; onje, D. 

2. dopa, H. 

nopa, D. ; noopah, Min ; nopi, W. 
none, Ot ; nowae, L 
tekeni, Ot 

3. rabeenee, Om.; laubenah, Os. 
tana, Ot. ; tanye, I. ; tabid, W. 

4. topa, H., D.; topah, Min,, T. ; toba, 
tome, A. [Om. ; tobah, Os. 
tuah, Q. ; tona, Ot. 

5. aatsch, W. ; satton, Q. ; sahtah, K ; 

sahtsba, Min. ; thata, I. 
kibu, H. ; kakhoo, M. ; cheeboh, Min. 

6. ahkewe, fl ; ahaqae, Ot. ; kohni, W. 
akama, H.; kemah, M ; acamai, Min.; 

abcamacat, U. 
schappeh, Q. ; shappeh, K. ; sbapab, Os. 

7. sbahco, D. ; shakoee, Y. ; shagoa, A. ; 

shako, W. [napah, Q. 

painnmbe, Om. : panompah, Os. ; pen- 

8. dopapi, H. ; kefa-tobaugh, Os. 
pehdaghenih, Q. 

tatuckiL M. 

shahendohen, D. ; sbakundoba, T. 

kraerapano, I. ; kraerabane, Ot. ; krai- 

rabainf, Om. 
perabine, Om. (rabeenee = S). 6+3. 
schunkkah, Q. ; sbanke, Ot. ; sbonka, 

Om. ; sbankah, Os 
nowassapai, Min ; napchingwangka, D. 
nuhpeetchewunkuh, V. 
mahpa, M 5+4 

10. wiket-shimani, D. ; weekchee-minuh, Y. 


daadsal, Ka. 

cheenoo, L. 


tizi, L. ; dyaak, Ka. 

hitotsu, J. 

ahnehn, ingsing, inshiugyan, K. 

tupu, C ; tup, A. 

yhnap, inipf, A. (4) 

ni, J. 

nitakaw, K. 

liep, raph, A. 

sang, L. ; san, J. 

tupu, C. ; tup, A. (2) 

ishtama, T. 

tsaak, Ka. 

itauUu, J. 

aahealc, A. ; goo, L. ; go, J. 
iishu, C. 
ihguaen, ywam, A. 

juwambe, A. 
iikii, C. ; afaicbi, J. 

aruwambi, A. 

dnhpyhs, tubishambi, A. 

tschookotak, Ka. ; yatso, batchi, J. 
tschonutonu, Ka. 

raph, A. (3). 
ohonatachinki, K. 

syhoahpyhs, sinesambi, sinobsam, A. 

yhnap, A. (4). 

min-gttke, K. ; tschom-chotako, Ka. 





Preiidmt of Univer$Uy College Toronto. 

(Rsad before thc Cahadux I mctitu tk, IIth Jajcuahy, 1879.) 

The following notes of a tourist's observations in a brief visit 
to a locality of great interest alike to the palaeontologist and the 
archaeologist, were originally prepared with no further object in view 
than the contribution of a paper to be read at one of the evening 
meetings of the Canadian Institute, in tbe winter following the 
Irish explorations to which they refer. 

The reconstruction of the geography of the Palaeolithic Age, and 
the re-animating its haunts with the extinct mammalia known to 
us now only by their fossil remains, furnish materials for a romance 
of science more fascinating to the thoughtful student than all the 
fanciful creations of fiction. The geologist speaks of that time as 
recent when the temperature of southern France was such as to 
admit of the reindeer and the musk-ox, or sheep, haunting the low 
grounds along the skirts of the Pyrenees. But the term recent is 
used not in a historical, but a geological sense ; and is employed in 
the full recognition of the evidence of enormous revolutions, by 
which changes have been wrought, the results of which are now seen 
in the climate, the physical geography, the fauna and flora of modern 
Europe. Nor have these revolutions been limited to the Eastern 
Hemisphere ; though some of the climatic phenomena of the North 
American continent still perpetuate characteristics that help us in 
the interpretation of the strange disclosure of Europe's pleistocene 
era. Within the preceding geological age the whole northern 
hemisphere experienced an enormous climatic change, which attained 
its maximum in the glacial period. Far to the south of the British 


Islands Europe presented a condition similar to that of Greenland at 
the present time ; and during the prevalence of this period of extreme 
cold the glacial drift, boulder clay, and stratified sands and gravels, 
were deposited over the whole of Northern Europe, and over North 
America, as far south as the 39th parallel, during prolonged sub- 
mergence under an arctic sea. Then followed the changes of that 
subsequent period, during which the physical geography acquired its 
latest development, and the present continents gradually assumed 
the characteristics fitting them for existing conditions of life. 

Of nearly a hundred species of mammals recognized in the post- 
glacial deposits of Europe, fifty-seven still occupy the same localities ; 
whilst others, such as the reindeer and the musk-sheep have with- 
drawn to northerly areas. A continuous chain of life, however, is 
indicated by the prolongation of about twelve pliocene species into 
the post-glacial fauna of Great Britain. But, along with those, 
numerous new species appear ; and changes of an altogether novel 
character are inaugurated by the presence among them of man. 

The revolution wrought in physical geography, in climate, and in 
all the accompanying conditions of life, during the pleistocene age are 
most clearly illustrated by the character and distribution of the 
mammalia, of which fifty-three species are represented in the remains 
found in the gravels and cave deposits. The Elephas primigenius, or 
mammoth, common both to Europe and America, has become 
extinct in the old world, subsequent to the advent of man. It is still 
an open question whether in the new world man coexisted with the 
mastodon ; but in the eastern hemisphere at least, more than one 
species of proboscidian abounded, and in vast herds overspread the 
northern plains of Europe and Asia. Along with those there were 
three or four species of rhinoceros, a large hippopotamus, and other 
forms of animal life pointing to a condition of things widely differ- 
ing from anything known within the historic period. The herbivora 
included both deer and oxen, some of which still survive in more 
limited northern areas ; and those, along with the mammoth, woolly 
rhinoceros, Irish elk, and reindeer, were preyed upon by numerous 
carnivora, including the extinct cave lion and great cave bear, the 
urmsferox, or grizzly bear, — now the strongest and most ferocious of 
all the carnivora of the American continent, —and the cave hyaena, 
which has still its living representatives in South Africa. 


In the variations of temperature which marked the retrocession of 
the expiring glacial influences in central Europe, throughout the 
region extending between the Alps and the mountain ranges of Scot- 
land and Wales, the winter resembled that which even now prevails 
on the North American continent, in latitudes in which the moose, 
the wapiti, and the grizzly bear, freely range over the same areas 
where during a brief summer of intense heat enormous herds of 
buffalo annually migrate from the south. A similar alternation of 
seasons within the European glacial period can alone account for the . 
presence, alongside of an arctic fauna, of animals such as the hippo- 
potamus and the hyaena, known only throughout the historical 
period as natives of the tropics. The range of temperature of Cana- 
dian seasons admits of the Arctic skua-gull, the snow-goose, the 
Lapland bunting, and thelike northern visitors, meeting the king-bird, 
the humming-bird, and other wanderers from the gulf of Mexico. 

Such conditions of climate may account for the recovery of the 
remains of the reindeer and the hippopotamus in the same drift and 
cave-deposits of Europe's glacial period. The woolly mammoth and 
rhinoceros, the musk-sheep, reindeer, and other arctic fauna, may be 
presumed to have annually retreated from the summer heats, and 
given place to those animals, the living representatives of vrhich are 
now found only in tropical Africa. No class of evidence is better 
calculated to throw light on some of the obscure questions relative to 
primeval man, than that which exhibits him associated with the 
long displaced or extinct mammals of that transitional period. Man, 
it is no longer doubted, was contemporaneous with the mammoth 
before its disappearance from southern France ; and occupied the 
cave-dwellings in the upper valleys of the Garonne, while the reindeer 
still abounded there. In fact, the palaeolithic hunter of central 
Europe, and the extinct carnivora of its caves, alike preyed upon 
the numerous herbivora that then roamed over fertile plains and 
valleys reaching uninterruptedly, northward and westward, beyond 
the English Channel and the Irish Sea ; just as the Buffalo — now- 
hastening to extinction, — still ranges over the vast prairies of the 
North American continent. 

Among the fauna of this transitional period in Europe's pre- 
historic era, one animal, the magnificent deer, known as the Cervus 
megaceros, the Megaceros Hibernicus, or Great Irish Elk, occupies 
in some respects a unique position, and specially invites study. In 


its limited endurance as a species it contrasts with the reindeer, 
along side of the fossil remains of which its horns and bones repeatedly 
occur; and its circumscribed area gives a peculiar interest to 
any indications of its co-existence with man. The evidence furnished 
by the abundance of its remains in certain localities tends to suggest 
the idea that, at a time when the British Islands were only the more 
elevated portions of the extended continent of Europe, — which then 
included in one continuous tract the English Channel, the German 
Ocean, and the Irish Sea, with a prolongation westward, embracing 
the Atlantic plateau now submerged to the • extent of about one 
hundred fathoms: — the favourite haunts of the Cervus megaceros 
were in plains and fertile valleys which, throughout the historic 
period have been mostly. buried under the sea. 

In the ingenious speculations of the late Professor Edward Forbes 
on the migrations of plants and animals to their later insular habitats, 
he assumed a land passage to Ireland, consisting of the upraised 
marine drift which had been deposited on the bottom of the glacial 
sea. Over this he specially noted the presence of numerous remains 
of the fossil elk in the fresh water marl of his own native Isle of Man. 
In Scotland, on the contrary, where the reindeer existed apparently from 
the time when it was the contemporary of the mammoth, to a period, 
historically speaking, recent, authenticated examples of the Cervus 
megaceros are extremely rare ; whereas its designation alike as the 
megaceros Hibemicus, and Irish elk, is based on the occurrence of 
its skeletons more frequently in Ireland than elsewhere. It has 
indeed been assumed that there now lie submerged beneath the Irish 
Sea, the once fertile plains which, towards the close of its existence, 
constituted the favourite haunt of this magnificent fossil deer. 

It is not until the newer pliocene period is reached that the palaeon- 
tologist encounters the amply developed horns of the gigantic bisons 
and uri ; and that a corresponding size characterises for the first 
time the antlers of the Cervus Sedgwickii, the Cervus dicranios, and of 
the Cervus megaceros, pre-eminently noticeable for the enormous di- 
mensions of its spreading antlers. Along with the remains of the 
latter, or in corresponding postpliocene deposits, those of the rein- 
deer, which still survives both in Northern Europe and in America, 
are also found, at times in considerable abundance. 

At the meeting of the British Association, at Dublin, in 1878, 
an intelligent local naturalist, Mr. Richard J. Moss, of the Royal 


Dublin Society, took advantage of one of the excursions organized 
for the purpose of visiting the special attractions of the neighbour- 
hood, to invite a party to explore an ancient habitat of the Irish 
fossil deer, at the Ballybetagh Bog, in the parish of Kilternan, about 
fourteen miles south of Dublin. The encouragement to research was 
great, for on two previous occasions the bog had disclosed numerous 
remains of the Cervus megaceros, and during the earlier excavations 
a fine specimen of the horns of the reindeer, now preserved in the 
Museum of the Royal Dublin Society, was also found. 

Excavations made preparatry to the arrival of the excursionists 
revealed enough to furnish ample encouragement for further explor- 
ation. Saturday (August 17th) was devoted to a tentative examina- 
tion, with disclosures that abundantly encouraged renewed research ; 
and on the following Monday a small party revisited the spot, under 
the efficient guidance of Mr. R. J. Moss, and his brother, Dr. Edward 
L. Moss, R. N., who most liberally undertook the entire charge of the 
exploration: The results of this renewed investigation of the ancient 
lacustrine depository of the remains of the fossil deer, though neces- 
sarily limited to the labours of a couple of days, proved highly satis- 
factory ; and prepared the way for a systematic exploration of the 
site at a later date. Meanwhile a brief notice of the subject may 
possess some interest for others besides those who shared in the 
exciting operations of a busy but most pleasant holiday. 

Ballybetagh Bog lies at the bottom of a glen about 600 feet above 
the sea, with hills of slight elevation on either side. Here some 
forty years ago, in making a cutting through the bog for the purpose 
of turning the water of a spring, known as the White Well, into a 
Sfcream that flows through Kilternan, the first discovery of the 
remains of the fossil deer was made ; but as the excavations were then 
carried on with no scientific object in view the chief value resulting 
from them was the demonstration of the existence there of abundant 
remains of the great extinct deer. 

In 1875, attention was anew directed to the locality ; Professor 
A. Leith Adams and Mr. R. j! Moss visited Ballybetagh Bog, and 
the latter gentleman undertook a systematic investigation, in concert 
with Dr. Carte, of the Dublin Society. No record had been pre : 
served of the precise spot where the previous remains had been 
found, and considerable labour and research had to be expended 
before the proper site for renewed exploration could be determined. 


An account of this exploration was contributed by Mr. Moss to the 
Royal Irish Academy in which, he thus describes the formation under 
which the fossil remains lay : '* The first foot of material removed 
consisted of peat ; under this there was a stratum of sand of an 
average depth of about two feet. The sand lay upon a brown 
coloured clay which extended for about two feet, and lay upon a bed 
of granite boulders. The spaces between the lower parts of the 
boulders were filled with a fine bluish-grey clay." Here amongst 
the boulders, and surrounded with the brown clay, nineteen skulls, 
with many broken pieces of horn and bones were found ,* and the 
result in all was the recovery of thirty-six skulls with antlers more 
or less imperfect, mostly belonging to young deer, along with 
detached horns and bones, representing in all about fifty individuals 
of the Cervus megaceros. Among the specimens recovered at the 
earlier date about thirty individuals of the same gigantic fossil deer 
had been represented ; although both explorations involved only a 
very partial examination of this remarkably rich lacustrine deposi- 
tory. But the result of Mr. Moss' careful investigation was to 
determine the precise locality where research might be renewed to 
like advantage at any future time ; and here it was accordingly that 
a party of members of the British Association were invited to join him 
in hunting the Irish elk in its ancient habitat among the Wicklow 

The scene of this interesting exploration is the site of an ancient 
tarn, where for ages the moss has been accumulating, till a peat 
formation of varying thickness overlies a sandy clay intermingled 
with forms of vegetable matter, and at times with fallen trunks of 
trees. The whole rests on a bed of clay interspersed with granite 
boulders, as already described. Among these, but not below them, 
the bones of the fossil elk occur. But before describing the incidents 
of the recent exploration, it may be well to make some general 
reference to the gigantic deer once so abundant in the range of 
mountains which extend there in a north-westerly direction from the 
south coast of Dublin Bay, and to the general bearing of the evidence 
as to the probability of its co-existence with man. 

An examination of the detritus and included fossils, the accumula- 
tions of fossiliferous caves, and the disclosures of peatmosses, shows 
that when the earliest ascertained colonists entered on the occupation 
of the British Islands — whether then insular or continental, — the low 


grounds were extensively traversed by a net- work of lakes, and the 
surrounding country was covered with forest, and overrun by animals 
known to as now chiefly by the researches of the palaeontologist. But 
also it is among the glimpses which that prolonged transitional period 
furnishes, that we catch, towards its prehistoric close, evidence not 
only of the presence of man, but of the introduction of the domesticated 
animals of Europe. Among its fossil mammalia the true Cervidce, 
to which the Irish elk belongs, appear to be, geologically speaking, 
of recent origin. No remains of extinct genera of the deer family 
thus far discovered in either hemisphere have been found to extend 
farther back than the upper mioscene ; and Mr. A. Russel Wallace 
recognises the whole family as an Old WorM group which passed first 
to North America, and subsequently to the Southern continent. The 
remains of many extinct species belonging to existing genera occur 
in the post-pliocene and recent deposits both of Europe and America ; 
but no representative of the deer family has thus far been found in 
South Africa or Australia. 

Of the numerous ascertained fossil deer many forms are known 
only by fragmentary remains ; but few great collections of Natural 
History fail to possess a well preserved skeleton of the Irish elk. 
Strictly speaking the Cervus megaceros is not a true elk, like the 
living Moose (Alces pcUmatus). It takes its place intermediately 
between the Reindeer and the Fallow deer (Dama vulgaris), and has 
its living analogues in the European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), and 
the Wapiti {Cervus Canadensis) of the American Continent. The 
abundance of its remains in some localities, as in the Ballybetagh 
Bog, their high state of preservation, and their position generally in 
bogs and lacustrine deposits, overlaid by bog oak and other remains 
of the latest forests ; and at times by actual evidences of human art : 
all tend to suggest the idea of this . gigantic deer having co- 
existed with man. It was contemporaneous, not only with the 
mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, and other extinct European mam- 
malia of a like unfamiliar type, but also with an important group of 
wild animals which not only survived into that transitional period 
in which the geologist and the archaeologist meet on common ground ; 
but some of which have still their living representatives. Of the 
former the gigantic Urns (Bos primigenvus) is the most notable, 
with its recognized relationship to the larger domesticated cattle of 
modern Europe. Of the latter the most interesting is the Reindeer. 


It bears a near affinity to the Irish elk ; they co-existed under similar 
circumstances, and even at times in the same localities. All three 
were contemporaneous with the Ursus spelceus, the Felts spdcea, and 
other great post-pliocene carnivora ; and their remains abound in the 
ancient cavern haunts of those extinct beasts of prey. 

The cave-bear and the Irish elk appear to have been limited to a 
temperate range, and have both become extinct ; and the remains of 
the latter occur in such abundance in recent deposits that there is a 
strong temptation to assume the occurrence of some sudden change, 
climatal or otherwise, which abruptly exterminated this great fossil 
deer. The Urus and the Reindeer were both in existence in Britain 
within historic times ; whereas the evidence thus far adduced in proof 
of the co-existence there of the fossil elk with man, pertains exclu- 
sively to the palaeolithic period ; and in so far as Ireland is concerned, 
where its remains occur in greatest abundance, the conviction 
is reluctantly forced on us that the great Irish deer had finally 
disappeared from its fauna before man made his appearance there. 
This, however, as will be shown, is not an opinion even now univer- 
sally accepted, either by archaeologists or geologists. 

In the post-pliocene age the cave lions, bears, and hyaenas, of 
' Germany, France, and the British Isles, preyed on the Irish elk, 
along with the reindeer, mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, the fossil 
horse and ox ; and the bones of all of them occur among the cave 
deposits in which traces of primitive art reveal the early presence of 
man. Professor Boyd Dawkins in his record of researches in the 
Somerset oaves, in 1862-3, mentions the remains of the Irish Elk as 
35 in number, where those of the Mammoth, the Reindeer and 
the Bison numbered 30 each, the Rhinoceros 233, the Horse 401, 
and the cave Hyaena 467 ; while thirty-five implements or other 
evidences of human art suggested the contemporaneous presence of 
man. Remains of the Megaceros have in like manner been identified 
in the Devonshire Caves ; and especially in Kent's Hole Cave in the 
same strata with flint and bone implements. Its bones are included 
among the specified contents of the famous sepulchral cave of 
Aurignac, at the northern foot of the Pyrenees ; and its remains 
have been recognized in seventeen different cave deposits to the 
north of tho Alps ; in eleven of which there are indications of the 
presence of palaeolithic man. 


So far as evidence thus far points no traces of human art suggest 
the presence of man either in Scotland or in Ireland, at the period of 
palaeolithic art, so abundantly illustrated in the contents of the caves 
and river gravels of southern England. But the Irish elk is not only 
the latest among the extinct mammalia of Europe's palaeolithic period ; 
it is recognized as surviving into its neolithic period. Its remains 
occur in the caves of the reindeer period in southern France, as in 
those of Laugerie Basse and Moustier; and artificially worked 
and carved bones of the reindeer have been recognized in 
more than one of the Swiss caves. Their presence has excited 
special attention in that of L' Echelle, between the great and little 
Saleve, from its close vicinity to Geneva, owing to the proof it affords 
of the coexistence of man and the reindeer, within the area which 
subsequently formed the hunting ground of the lake-dwellers of 
Switzerland ; whilst no trace of either the megaceros or the reindeer 
has been found among their abundant illustrations of the arts alike 
of the neolithic, and of the bronze period. 

The weight of evidence thus tends to favour the idea that the 
fossil elk was coexistent with the men of Europe's Palaeolithic age, by 
whom the reindeer was so largely turned to account, alike for food 
and the supply of material for their primitive arts ; while it became 
extinct long before the more enduring reindeer withdrew entirely 
beyond the # temperate zone. In Ireland, however, as hereafter 
noted, the abundant remains of its great fossil deer occur, geologically 
speaking, so nearly upon the horizon of its prehistoric dawn, and so 
little removed from some of the primitive evidences of man's presence 
there, that it will excite little surprise should further evidence of a 
wholly indisputable character demonstrate the survival of the Cervus 
megaceros within the Neolithic period, and contemporaneously with 
man ; as in the remoter age of the Drift Folk of southern England 
it is now believed to have been an object of the chace, and a source 
of food, clothing, and tools. 

When once it is admitted that the great fossil deer was contem- 
poraneous with the men of central Europe, in its Reindeer period ; 
and has to be included among the fauna familiar to the Drift Folk 
of southern England : this special question as to its survival 
in Ireland within any period of the presence of man has its chief 
value in relation to his own advent there ; for this is not a mere 
question of geographical distribution, but deals with the relative 


age of prehistoric man in Central Europe, in Southern England, and 
in the later post-pliocene areas of Northern Europe. Meanwhile it 
will suffice to note some of the discoveries which have already been 
advanced in favour of the idea that the great fossil deer of Ireland 
was not unknown to its earliest inhabitants as one of its living 

Professor Jamieson and Dr. Mantell long ago noted the discovery, 
in the County of Cork, of a human body exhumed from a depth of 
eleven feet of peat bog. It lay in the spongy soil beneath. The soft 
parts were converted into adipocere, and the body, thus preserved, 
was enveloped in a deer-skin of such large dimensions as to lead 
them to the opinion that it belonged to the extinct Irish elk. 

At the meeting of the British Association, at Newcastle, in 1863, 
Professor J. Beetes Jukes exhibited a right tibia, with a portion of one 
of the antlers of a Cervus megaceros, recovered from a bog 
near Logan, County Longford. They were found along* with other 
remains of the skeleton, embedded in shell-marl two or three feet 
thick, resting on blue clay and gravel. A deep indentation on 
the tibia, about two inches broad and a quarter of an inch deep, 
was exactly fitted to receive the antler-tyne. " They looked," 
says Professor Jukes, " as if they had been each chipped out 
with some sharp instrument," and he added, "The impression 
left on my mind from a first inspection was that these indentations 
were the best evidence that had yet turned up in proof of man 
having been contemporaneous in Ireland with the Cervus megaceros, 
and having left his mark upon the horns of an animal soon after its 
death, which he had himself probably killed." * I was present in the 
section at the Newcastle meeting, and examined with much interest 
this supposed lethal weapon of the men of the era of the great Irish 
deer, adduced on such credible authority as seemingly determining 
the question of their coexistence in Ireland. But more careful 
observations, added to the apparent fact that the indented bones 
and antler had lain alongside of other portions of the skeleton 
embedded in the marie, has since led to the conclusion that this sup- 
posed primitive weapon was the chance product of natural processes 
still in force. Such seemingly artificial indentations and abrasions are 
now found to be by no means rare, as will be seen from specimens 
now produced, of similarly marked bones of the Cervus megaceros 

* Dublin Quarterly Journal of Science, iv. 212. 


from Loch Gur, County Limerick.* The opinion which is now 
generally accepted is that these- abrasions and indentations are due to 
the juxtaposition of the sharp point or edge of one bone and the 
side of another, while subjected to a prolonged immersion in the moist 
clay or marl. But to this it is further assumed must be superadded 
the combined action of friction with pressure consequent on the 
motion of the bogs in which such bones are embedded. The boggy 
ground in which they chiefly occur is subject not only to a perpen- 
dicular oscillation, consequent on any vibration from passing weights 
shaking the ground, or even from the wind ; but also it undergoes a 
periodical contraction and * expansion by the alternate drying and 
saturating with moisture, in the summer and winter months ; and 
thus indentations and cuttings, like those ordinarily ascribed to a 
flint knife or saw, are of frequent occurrence on the bones of the 
great fossil deer. To this subject Dr. A. Carte drew the attention of 
the Royal Geological Society of Dublin, in 1866, in a paper, entitled: 
"On some Indented Bones of the Cervus megaceros, found near 
Lough Gur, County Limerick," and I am now enabled to exhibit 
for your own inspection additional illustrations from the same locality 
illustrative of this phenomenon, furnished to me by Mr. Pride, 
Assistant-Curator of the University Museum. 

In some of those the indentations are such as few would hesitate 
at first sight to ascribe to an artificial origin ; and so to adduce them 
as evidence of the contemporaneous presence of man. But they occur, 
not on separate bones, but on portions of fossil skeletons recovered 
from the lough under circumstances which wholly preclude the idea 
that they had been detached and carried off for purposes of art ; or 
that the indentations upon them can have been the work of human 

Professor Jukes was present when Dr. Carte's paper was read, and 
referred to former statements of his opposed to the idea of the con- 
temporaneous presence in Ireland of man and the Cervus megaceros. 
" They knew," he said, " that man did exist contemporaneously with 
that animal in England; and then arose the geological question, was 
Ireland at that time already separated from England and the v conti- 
nent? Was the great plain which formerly connected the British 

* The principal bones of a nearly complete skeleton of the Cervus megacTOt, .from Loch Gur, 
were exhibited to the Canadian Institute ; and the various characteristic indentations, on what 
most have been an nndiatmrbed skeleton in attav were pointed out 


Islands with the continent already worn away, or had man already 
crossed over from England to Ireland 1 They knew that man had 
existed in England probably before England was separated from the 

But, whatever be the final determination on this interesting ques- 
tion of the co-existence of Man and the Cervus megaceros in Ireland, 
the bones of the latter are recovered there in enormous quantities, 
not infrequently in a condition admitting of their being even 
now turned to account for economic uses ; and examples have un- 
doubtedly been found there bearing unmistakeable evidence of human 
workmanship. One of the most interesting of these was an imperfect 
Irish lyre dug up in the moat of Desmond Castle, Adare, and ex- 
hibited by the Earl of Dunraven, at a meeting of the Archaeological 
Institute in 1864. The relic was of value as a rare example of the 
most primitive form of the national musical instrument ; but greater 
interest was conferred on it by the opinion pronounced by Professor 
Owen that it was fashioned from the bone of the Irish Elk. 

In weighing such evidence it is manifestly important to keep 
prominently in view the fact already referred to, that the bones 
and horns of the fossil deer are recovered in a condition not less fit 
for working by the modern turner and carver than the mammoth 
ivory or the bog oak, which are now in constant use by them. 
In the Goat Hole Cavern at Paviland, Glamorganshire, Dr. Buckland 
noted the discovery of large rings or armlets and other personal 
ornaments made of fossil ivory, lying alongside of a human female 
skeleton, and in near proximity to the skull of a fossil elephant. The 
tusk of another fossil elephant, recovered at a depth of twenty feet 
in the boulder clay of the Carse of Sterling, is now preserved in 
the Edinburgh University Museum, in the mutilated condition in 
which it was rescued from the lathe of an ivory turner. This, so far 
as Scotland is concerned, is an exceptional example of the manufac- 
ture of fossil ivory, but we are very familiar with the fact that the 
tusks of the Siberian mammoth have long been an article of commerce. 

In a paper " On the Crannoges of Lough Rea," by Mr. G. H. 
Kinohan, of the Geological Survey, read before the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy in 1863, he describes a fine head of the Cervus megaceros found, 
along with abundant evidences of human art, in a large crannoge on 
Lough Rea. It measured thirteen feet from tip to tip of its horns ; 
but Mr. Jukes suggested the probable solution of its discovery under 


such circumstances to be, not that the megaceros had been hunted and 
killed by the crannoge builders, but that they had found the gigantic 
deer's head, " and put it up for an ornament or trophy, as is done 
at the present day."* 

So far, at least, it thus appears, — notwithstanding the indisputable 
proofs of the employment of the bones and horns of the Cervus 
megaceros by primitive manufacturers of the Neolithic age ; and the 
survival of this gigantic deer throughout the Palaeolithic age of human 
art : — that evidence is still wanting to satisfy the scientific en- 
quirer as to the co-existence of man and the great fossil deer in Ire- 
land, where, more than in any other locality, this might be expected 
to occur. The primitive lyre found in the moat of Desmond Castle 
was undoubtedly fashioned from the bones of the extinct deer; but. 
the material may have been recovered, as in modern times, from the 
marie of some neighbouring bog, and turned to account like the bog oak 
so abundantly used in modern art ; rather than have been wrought 
by the Neolithic craftsman from the spoils of the chase. 

In 1859, Sir W. R. Wilde read a lengthened communication at 
two successive meetings of the ttoyal Irish Academy, " Upon the 
unmanufactured animal remains belonging to the Academy." In 
arranging its collection of Irish Antiquities his attention was drawn 
to numerous crania and bones, chiefly of carnivora and ruminants, 
from river beds, bogs and erannoges ; including sixteen crania, and 
upwards of seventy detached fragments of skeletons of the Cervus 
megaceros. The circumstances under which they were recovered 
have not been in all cases preserved, and no distinct evidence tends 
to confirm the idea of their contemporaneity with man. In remark- 
ing on the then novel recognition of the remains of Irish fossil deer 
in the tool-bearing gravel drifts of Abbeville, Sir W. R. Wilde 
observes : " As yet we have not discovered any Irish name for it. 
If the animal was here a contemporary of man, it certainly had 
become extinct long before the Irish had a knowledge of letters." t 
It is, however, altogether consistent with the evidence of a succession 
of races in the British Isles, and throughout Europe, to find that 
this era of the long extinct, fossil mammalia pertaining to the Palaeo- 
lithic, or even to the Neolithic age of primitive art, has no record in 
the oldest of the living languages. The same is true of others of 

* Dublin Quarterly Journal of Science, iv., 126. f Proceedings of R. L A. viL, 196. 


the extinct mammalia, of which evidence of their familiarity to 
tfee men of the Neolithic period is abundant. It is indeed worthy of 
note that, while the ingenious artists of central Europe's Reindeer 
period have left wondrously graphic carvings and drawings of the 
mammoth, the fossil horse, and of the reindeer and other cervidae, 
no very clearly recognizable drawing of the great fossil deer has been 
found. It has indeed been assumed to be the subject of more than 
one representation of a large horned deer, but the identification is at 
best doubtful. This is all the more noteworthy, «s the characteristics 
of the great deer are such as could not fail to attract the notice of an 
artist capable of so successfully representing the salient features of the 
reindeer, as illustrated in familiar engravings of it, such as that from the 
Kesseiioch, Schaffhausen, traced on a piece of one of its own antlers. 
If the engravings assumed to represent the Cervus megaceros are 
indeed efforts at its depiction, their less definite character may be due 
to the rarer opportunities for studying an unfamiliar subject. 

But if, as Sir W. R. Wilde, says, no native Irish name has been dis- 
covered for the great fossil deer, an ingenious identification of it has 
been assumed with one of the objects of the cbace referred to in the 
Niebelungen lied. There, after the hunter has slain a bison, an elk, 
and four strong uruses, he crowns his feats with the slaying of a 
fierce schelch. It is no sufficient argument against such identification 
that the poem abounds with allusions to fire-dragons, giants, pigmies, 
and other fanciful creations. The " lusty beaver," the elk, " the ravin 
bear," and other contemporary, though now extinct, animals of Scot- 
land, are introduced in the fanciful vision of " The King's Quair:" 

" With many other beasts diverse and *fcrange." 
But any reasons adduced for identifying "the fierce schelch" of 
the Niebelungen Lied as the Cervus megaceros are sufficiently 
vague and slight ; and so far the matured opinions of archaeologists 
appear to coincide with those of the geologists, that this extinct 
deer did not coexist with man in Ireland. 

But, whatever be the ultimate conclusion as to the period of its final 
disappearance there, no doubt is entertained as to this extinct 
deer having been contemporaneous with palaeolithic man in western 
Europe, and even in England. Only two or three traces of its 
remains have been found in Scotland ; and if in Ireland — seemingly 
its latest special habitat, — it had finally disappeared before the advent 
of man there ; the results are significant in reference to the period of 


its extinction; as well as to the order of a succession of events in the 
prehistoric dawn. Indications of the presence of man must be looked 
for as following in natural sequence to the geological reconstruction 
of specific areas, and their evidences of climatic changes in the post- 
glacial period. Sir John Lubbock remarks in his " Prehistoric 
Times," when referring to the Cervus megaceros : " Though there is 
no longer any doubt that this species coexisted with man, the evi- 
dence of this has been obtained from the bone -caves, and from strata 
belonging to the age of the river-drift gravels. No remains of the 
Irish elk have yet been found in association with bronze ; nor indeed 
are we aware of any which can be referred to the later, or Neolithic 
Age." When the subject was under discussion at the meeting of the 
British Association at Dublin, Professor W. G. Adams affirmed most 
definitely the co-existence of palaeolithic man and the fossil elk ; while 
admitting the absence of any such evidence where the remains of the 
latter are now found in greatest abundance. " There is," he said, "no 
evidence that in Ireland man existed contemporary with the Mega- 
ceros, or had any thing to do with its extinction ; whereas we have 
authentic evidences of the coexistence of man with this animal in 

This conclusion, however consistent with the proofs thus far 
obtained, cannot as yet be recognized as one so absolutely settled 
as to render further research superfluous. Whistles formed of 
phalanges of the reindeer are among the most characteristic imple- 
ments of the more ancient French, caves ; and one found by M. E. 
Piette, in 1871, along with various flint implements, in the Cavern 
of Gourdan (Haute-Garonne), pierced not only with a mouth-piece, 
but with finger-holes along the sides, is aptly described by him as a 
neolithic flute. There is nothing therefore in the mere design or 
workmanship of the primitive Irish lyre incompatible with its execu- 
tion at the period when the Irish elk survived ; if it can be shown 
that it was coeval with man in Ireland. Professor Boyd Dawkins 
when drawing attention to the fact that out of 48 well ascertained 
species living in the palaeolithic period, only 31 are found surviving 
into the neolithic period, adds : " The cave bear, cave lion, and cave 
hyaena had vanished away, along with a whole group of pachyderms ; 
and of all the extinct animals, but one, the Irish elk, still survived." 
There is indeed something peculiar and exceptional in this magnifi- 
cent deer which so specially claims a place among the extinct nihiii- 


malia of prehistoric Ireland. Its range, alike in place and in time, 
appears to have been more circumscribed than that of most, if not 
all of the animals with which it is found associated in post-pliocene 
deposits. Traces of it, indeed, have not only been noted to the south 
of the Alps, but Professor Brandt has identified its remains among 
the cave disclosures of the Altai Mountains. But on both continents 
it had a similar temperate range ; and no remains of it have been dir 
covered in the extreme north of Europe. To this the nature of its 
food may have contributed ; while the mammoth and the reindeer 
were able to subsist within the Arctic circle, as well as in temperate 
ranges common to them and to the gigantic elk. But circumscribed 
though the range of the latter appears to have been, its enormous 
dimensions, conjoined with seemingly gregarious habits, were incom- 
patible with limits so greatly restricted as the Isle of Man, if not 
indeed with those of Ireland ; and hence the probability of the 
assumption that its extinction preceded, or speedily followed the 
period when the British Islands became detached from the Continent 
of Europe. 

The Cervus megaceros attained a height of nearly eleven feet, and 
bore an enormous, pair of antlers, measuring at times nearly fourteen 
feet from tip to tip. The head, with its ponderous pair of antlers, 
is estimated to have exceeded 100 lbs. in weight when living. To 
this the frequent miring of the deer in the lakes and bogs, where 
their remains abound, has been ascribed ; nor is it improbable that 
the ultimate extinction of the species may have been due to the 
abnormal development of such head-gear, while its large antlered con- 
temporary, the Reindeer, still survives. 

Mr. R. J. Moss was led from his former careful observations to 
Conclude that Ballybetagh Bog occupies the site of an ancient lake 
or tarn which stretched along the bottom of the glen. The west 
side of the glen is flanked by the southern side of a hill, and another 
of less elevation hems it in on the east. The embouchure of the 
lake appears to have been at the southern end; and whether 
we assume that the deer when swimming across the lake got entangled 
in the stiff clay at the bottom, and so were drowned ; or that they 
resorted to the lake to die, it would seem that their bodies drifted 
with the current to the outlet of the lake, and hence the enormous 
accumulation of their remains in one place. In describing one of 
the. trenches opened by him, Mr. Moss says ; " At the north end 


the stony bottom was reached at a depth of only four feet ; it dipped 
towards the southern end, where it was about five feet from the sur- 
face. The northern half of this trench did not contain a single 
fragment of bone or horn ; the southern half was literally packed 
with them." * The remains found in the course of this exploration 
represented about fifty individuals, the majority of the bones being 
those of young deer. 

The result of the more hasty excavations recently made, was the 
discovery of two skulls and several portions of horns on the first 
day. On the second day a trench was opened, and cut through an 
accumulation of 27 inches of peat, resting upon about 22 inches of 
sandy clay, intermingled with roots and traces of various forms of 
vegetation. Underneath this among granite boulders, three fine 
heads were found ; one of them of the largest size, and in nearly per- 
fect preservation, with antlers measuring about eleven and a half feet 
from tip to tip. 

There was something startling in the success of our expedition : 
thus setting out from the busy scenes of Dublin, with all the bustle 
of its crowded thoroughfares, and not less crowded scientific sections ; 
and landing among wild uncultured bogs, to dig down, and at once 
light upon the remarkable evidences of an extinct fauna once so 
abundant. There were not even wanting sceptical doubters ready to 
hint at previous preparations having facilitated a too easy discovery. 
In this, however, we profited by the careful and intelligent labours 
of Mr. Moss at an earlier date ; and all who put themselves under 
his guidance were amply rewarded by the results. 

It is worthy of note that, neither on this occasion, nor in the older 
excavations was a true marl found underlying the peat, or clay. The 
rock of the district is granite; being part of a band of granite five 
miles broad, which extends from Dublin Bay in a south-westerly 
direction into the County of Waterford. A granite sand was found 
in some places to a depth of three feet; and Mr. Moss, after careful 
examination, describes the underlying clays as almost entirely free 
from calcium carbonate, and having every appearance of a granitic 
origin. But a little to the north of the section thus described, a 
light-coloured marl, rich in calcium carbonate, makes its appearance 
almost under the turf. 

* Proceedings R. L A., 2nd Ser. , Vol. 1L 


Thus far about eighty individuals of the great fossil elk, and one 
reindeer, are represented in the remains recovered from the Bally betah 
Bog, without any traoes of the co-existence of man having been 
observed. But no better locality could be chosen to test the question. 
Lying though this interesting locality does, in such near vicinity to 
the Irish metropolis, it has been left nearly untouched by the hand 
of man within the whole historic period, during which cathedral 
and castle, college, mart, and wharf, have crowded the banks of the 
Lifiy. The traces of the primitive architecture of remoter eras have 
thereby escaped defacement. The general contour of the district 
remains little changed. The aspect is wild and savage ; and it requires 
no very great exercise of the fancy to restore the ancient mere, 
redothe its shores with forests, the buried trunks of which abound 
in the underlying peat, and reanimate them with the magnificent 
herds of the great fossil deer. Here are still the unefaced memorials 
of primitive art. On the rising ground on the south-east margin of 
the bog stands a large chambered cairn, which has been rifled ; and 
the exposed chamber shows the megalith ic structure characteristic of 
the most ancient works of this class. There is also a circle near it 
formed by an enclosure of stones and earth, which is regarded by the 
natives with superstitious awe. According to the belief of the 
peasants, if their cattle stray into this enclosure they will die. 

Here, then, it is probable that the bed of the neighbouring tarn or 
bog must contain some evidences of the primitive arts of the Cairn- 
builders, with means for determining the relative date of then- 
presence there, as compared with the true age of the C&rvus mega- 
eeros. A report of the successful operations which rewarded the brief 
labours of the excursion party was made to the executive council of 
the British Association, and steps were taken with a view to a 
systematic and thorough exploration of this favourite haunt of the 
great fossil Irish elk, one of the most remaikable among the fauna 
of Europe's Palaeolithic period. 





Senior Assistant Director of the QeologieeU Surety of Canada. 

The. existence of petroleum at several places on the Athabaska 
River has long been known. Numerous details on the subject are 
to be found in Sir John Richardson's Journal of a Boat Voyage in 
1848. Some of these localities are also described by Professor 
Macoun, Botanist to the Geological Survey, who passed through the 
same region in 1875, and noticed an additional locality on the Peace 
' River, about 100 miles west of its junction with the Slave River. 
Last autumn I was informed of the occurrence of petroleum in some 
new localities further north than those hitherto known, by Mr. 
Hardisty, formerly resident at Fort Simpson, who kindly gave me 
particulars in regard to them. In 1877, I was able to establish the 
Devonian age of the rocks lying to the south of James' Bay, and 
one of my assistants discovered indications of petroleum in these 
strata about fifty miles from Moose Factory. 

All these oil regions have certain geological relations in common. 
Having collected together all the notes by explorers who have written 
about such matters, as well as any information which I could gain 
from other travellers, I propose to offer a few remarks upon the sub- 
ject. I shall first refer to the localities in the Athabaska-McKenzie 
Valley, enumerating them in their order from south to north. 

In following the ordinary route of travel from the southward, this 
valley is entered by a sudden descent of 600 feet to the Clear-water 
River at the north end of the Methye Portage, which leads across 
from the head-waters of the Churchill River. The Clear-water is a 
small stream flowing westward to the Athabaska. The first known 


locality for petroleum is met with on this river ten miles from its 
junction with the main Athabaska, at which distance, Professor 
Macoun says, "the men pointed out a tar-spring in the stream, at 
which they very often got tar." 

He also states that tar oozes from the black shales, 150 feet thick, 
at the forks of these two rivers. Sir John Richardson says these 
shales are underlaid by soft limestone, " which forms the banks of 
Athabaska River for thirty-six miles downwards " (frOm the forks). 
" The beds vary in structure, the concretionary form rather prevail- 
ing, though some layeis are more homogeneous and others are stained 
with bitumen." limestones, occupying a similar position, re-appear- 
on the Peace River near the oil-spring, already referred to, and are 
there described by Professor Macoun as " almost wholly made up of 
those branching corals (Alveolites) so common in Devonian rock6, 
intermixed with a species of Zaphrentis in great abundance, some of 
the higher strata being largely made up of these." When at a part 
of the river about "mid way between the forks and Athabaska Lake, 
a distance of about one hundred miles, the same gentleman remarks : 
" I found below a light grey sandstone, partly saturated with the tar, 
and overlying this, there was at least fifteen feet of it completely 
saturated, and over this again, shale largely charged with alkaline 
matter. This was the sequence all the way, although at times there 
was much more exposed. Where we landed the ooze from the bank 
had flowed down the slope*into the water and formed a tarred sur- 
face extending along the beach over one hundred yards, and as hard 
as iron ; but in bright sunshine the surface is quite soft, and the men 
when tracking 'along shore often sink into it up to their ankles." 
Sir John Richardson says : "About thirty miles below the Clear- 
water River the limestone-beds are covered by a bituminous deposit 
upwards of one hundred feet thick, whose lower member is a con- 
glomerate having an earthy basis much stained with iron and colored 
by bitumen. * * Some of the beds above this (conglomerate) 
stone are nearly plastic from the quantity of mineral-pitch they con- 
tain. Roots of living trees and herbaceous plants push themselves 
deep into beds highly impregnated with bitumen; and the forest 
where that mineral is most abundant does not suffer in its growth. 
* * * Further down the river still, or about three miles down the 
Red River (of the Athabaska), where there was once a trading 
establishment, now remembered as ' La Yieux Fort de la Riviere 


Rouge/ a copious spring of mineral pitch issues from a crevice com- 
posed of sand and bitumen. It lies a few hundred yards back from 
the river in the middle of a thick wood. Several small birds were 
found suffocated in the pitch." * * At the deserted fort named 
' Pierre au Calumet/ cream-colored and white limestone cliffs are 
covered by thick beds of bituminous sand. * * A few miles 
further on the cliffs for some distance are sandy, and the different 
beds contain variable quantities of bitumen. Some of the' lower 
layers were so full of that mineral as to soften in the hand, while the 
upper strata, containing less, were so cemented by iron as to form a 
firm dark-brown sandstone of much hardness. * * The whole 
country for many miles is so full of bitumen that it flows readily into 
m pit dug a few feet below the surface. In no place did I observe the 
limestone alternating with these sandy bituminous beds, but in 
several localities it is itself highly bituminous, contains shells filled 
with that mineral, and when struck yields the odor /of stink stein" 
Elsewhere, this author describes these bituminiferous sands as 
resting unconformably upon the limestones, and, indeed, they must 
be of much more recent age, as he states that " in one of the cliffs 
not far below the Clear- water River, the indurated arenaceous beds 
resting on the limestone contain pretty thick layers of lignite, much 
impregnated with bitumen, which has been ascertained by Mr. 
Bowerbank to be of coniferous origin, though he could not determine 
the genus of the wood." 

In approaching Athabaska Lake the banks of the river of the same 
name become low and consist of gravel and reddish earth,* then sand 
and finally only alluvial soil. The last evidence of the bitumen con- 
sists of rolled balls on pebbles of sand cemented together by the tar, 
which have been carried down by the river. According to Prof. 
Maconn, these balls are very abundant and in places form beds of 
" tar conglomerate " in the river banks often two feet thick. Mr. 
Hardisty, who passed up this river last summer (1878), informs me 
that the banks on both sides are frequently composed of sand 
cemented by pitch, which softens in the sun and renders the walking 
very disagreeable. Masses of the more hardened varieties lie about 
on the river shores like lumps of coal. 

At its western extremity, Athabaska Lake discharges its waters 
northward by the Slave River into Slave Lake, receiving the Peace 
River from the west, a short distance below the outlet. Fort Chipc- 


wyan is situated on Athabaska Lake where Slave River leaves it and 
Fort Resolution is built on the south shore of Slave Lake where the 
same river enters it. Sir John Richardson says that on this river, 
thirty miles from Fort Chipewyan, there is a limestone cliff " the 
lower beds of which have a compact structure, a flat conchoidal 
fracture and a yellowish-grey color. Some of the upper beds contain 
mineral pitch in fissures " and they also hold Devonian fossils. 

The western extremity of Slave Lake is about 115 miles west of 
Fort Resolution and here it discharges its waters by the McKenae 
River. Numerous islands occur in this part of the lake, the largest 
of which is Big Island, so celebrated in the writings of northern 
travellers for its productive fishery. The next localities for petroleum 
which I shall notice are two of those about which I was informed by 
my friend Mr. Hardisty. One of them is situated about ten miles 
north-eastward of the Big Island Fishery. Here the oil rises from 
the bottom of the lake in about ^ve feet of water, in a bay, and at 
a distance of a mile and a half from the shore. This bay is the one 
most nearly opposite to Big Island. The petroleum is of a dark 
color and in calm weather in summer it spreads itself Over the sur* 
face of the lake, but in winter it keeps the water open directly over 
the source from which it rises, forming a round hole in the ice, in 
which it accumulates to a sufficient depth to be easily dipped out. 
It has the ordinary smell of petroleum, is very liquid and when 
thrown upon a fire it explodes. In many places along this part of 
the north shore of the lake petroleum oozes out of the earth and its 
smell is quite noticeable to the traveller in passing by the coast. On 
the main shore of the next bay east of the one above referred to, there 
is a copious spring or puddle of tar and pitch mixed with leaves and 
sticks, which, if cleared out, would no doubt fill up with liquid oil 
This spring was discovered by Mr. John Hope, of the Hudson Bay 
Company. The western part of Slave Lake is shallow and its bottom 
and shores are underlaid by bituminous limestone and dark, bitu- 
minous shales of Devonian age. Mr. Woodward in referring to some 
of the corals from these limestones mentions that their cyBts are filled 
with bitumen. 

Perhaps the most remarkable locality for petroleum in the North- 
West Territories is one described to me by Mr. Hardisty as occurring 
about seventy miles eastward of Fort Simpson, which is situated on 
the McKenzie River at the junction of the LiarcL This locality is 


in the depths of the forest, near no lake or stream of sufficient size 
to mark the place. The oil issues from springs in the form of great 
holes in the ground, down which poles may be plunged as far as they 
will reach without meeting with any resistance beyond that of the 
slimy liquid. The Indians fill tight boxes with the partially inspis- 
sated petroleum at these springs and haul it to Fort Simpson on 
sleighs in winter. Here it is boiled down to a proper consistence 
and used for pitching boats. 

In giving a general description of the geology of the McKenzie 
River, Richardson says, " a shaly formation makes the chief part of 
the banks and also much of the undulating valleys between the 
elevated spurs. It is based on horizontal beds of limestone and in 
some places of sandstone which abut against the inclined strata of the 
lofty wall-like ridges or rests partially on their edges. The shale 
crumbles readily and often takes fire spontaneously, occasioning the 
ruin of the bank, so that it is only by the encroachment of the river 
carrying away the debris that the true structure is revealed." At a 
high point below Fort Simpson, known as "The Rock by the River's 
Side," the bituminous shales are described as having a very great 
similarity to those at the junction of the Clear- water and Athabaska 
Rivers. The same author describes thick beds of bituminous shale 
as occurring on the western shores of Great B^ar Lake, which dis- 
charges westward by a comparatively short river into the McKenzie 
River. Below the confluence of these great streams the same shale 
is seen running down the banks of the one last mentioned. "Under- 
lying the shale, horizontal beds of lime are exposed for some miles 
along the McKenzie and from them issue springs of saline sulphurous 
waters and mineral pitch." In approaching the Artie Ocean the 
McKenzie River is hemmed in to a width of only about one-third of 
a mile by rocks which, from their forms, have given the locality the 
name of " The Ramparts." Here Richardson says, " the cliffs have 
been denuded of the covering of shale which exists higher up the 
stream, but the limestone of which they are chiefly formed is stained 
with bitumen either in patches or whole layers." 

From the foregoing it will be perceived that 'I have traced a highly 
bituminous character in the rocks of the Athabaska-McKenzie 
Valley all the way from the Clear-water branch to the Ramparts, a 
distance of no less than one thousand miles in a straight line. The 
continuation of the same rocks is known to extend to the northward 


and to the southward of the above limits far enough to give a total 
length of two thousand miles. They belong to the Devonian system 
and have a strong resemblance to the petroleum-bearing strata of 
Western Ontario. The corals of the Corniferous formation are often 
filled with bitumen like those of the limestones of the Athabaska and 
McKenzie Rivers ; and the pyrites and carbonaceous matter of the 
black shales of Kettle Point, on Lake Huron, under the influence of 
air and moisture, have given rise to a sort of spontaneous combus- 
tion like that of the shale of the McKenzie. Southward of the 
Clear-water River the petroleum-bearing formation strikes across the 
Saskatchewan, between Cumberland House and The Forks, and, 
passing through lakes Winnipegosis and Manitoba, it continues 
southward up the Red River valley, and is lost in the United States. 
On the shore of Lake Winnipegosis, brine springs issue from these 
rocks, and salt is also found in abundance near Slave River and 
between Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake. Petroleum may be 
looked for all along the stiike of this great Devonian formation in 
our North- West Territories, including the tract at the eastern base 
of the high grounds on the west side of the lakes of the Winnipeg 

I shall conclude by referring very briefly to the indications of 
petroleum found to the south of James 1 Bay. In this region the 
limestones have a strong resemblance to those of the Athabaska, 
being of a yellowish color, and more or less of a bituminous character. 
The fossils which I collected in 1875 and 1877 on the Moose River 
and its branches have established the Devonian age of the formation. 
Gypsum and carbonate of iron occur in it in quantities of economic 
value. In 1877, on the ABittibi branch of the Moose, thirty-nine 
miles from its mouth, Mr. A. S. Cochrane, a member of my party, 
found a brownish-black shale, like that of the Athabaska, which 
emits a bright flame and an odor of sulphur when strongly heated. 
This shale is underlaid, as on the Athabaska, by soft bituminous 
yellow limestone, at one place impregnated with petroleum, which 
extends for ten miles up the river. In this district, as well as in the 
North- West Territory, these rocks consist of pure carbonate of lime, 
while the underlying Silurian strata, in both regions, are dolomitic. 



Univtrtity CoUegt, Toronto. 

1. Motion of a point in a plane. 

At time t let the moving axes be Of, Chi, and P a point (? , jj) in 
their plane. At time t -f- dt let these axes coincide with Of, (hf, 
and P with P; then the £ and 17 components of the displacement 
PP are — *n}dt, a>£dt, respectively, if at is the rate at which the axes 
torn round OC. Let a moving point be at P at time t, and at Q at 
time t + dt, the co-ordinates of Q referred to Of, <h{ being S + £dt, 
y + 1}H ; then the absolute velocity of the moving point is ultimately 

y = ( -jr-9 ~j£- J, the $ and 17 components of which are $ — anj, ij -f- 
«f , respectively. 

Putting $ — any = u = 04, and j} -f- »? = = OB, the component 
velocities at time t-\- dt become u -f- toft = Oil' along Of, and v + 
«tf* = 02? along 0^'. Hence the absolute acceleration ultimately = 

\~aT' If)' *^ e com P onei1 * 8 of which are 

ii — wo = £ — 2 art) — yd* — o»*$ along 0$, 
v + uu> = fj -f- 2 o»£ 4- £ — J ^ along O17. 

2. Motion of a rigid body round a fixed axis OC, the axes Of, O3 
being fixed in the body. 

At time t the whole momentum is — Mwrj = 0.4 along Of, and 
Mm£ = Oj? along 0^, where £ , 19 are co-ordinates of the centre of 
inertia. At time t + dt the momentum is — My (at -f- <bdt) = 0-1' 
along Of, and MS (<* + d>dt) = 0B f along Otf . The changes of 

A A' DD> 

momentum per unit time are, therefore, ultimately -^-> -^—* whose 

components are 

_ MyA — Matg along 0$, 
Jf&& — J/aA? along Or}. 


At time t the whole moment of momentum is (employing 04, OB 
in a new sense) 

— fiw = OA along 0c, 

— aw = 02? along 0iy, 
Co .... along 0C, 

where a = SmyZ, C = <£»» (£* -(- iy 2 ), eta 

At time t -\- dt the moment of momentum becomes 

— P (a» + £&) = OA' along Of, 

— a (a> -f* £&) = 02F along Orj', etc. 
Hence the changes per unit time of moment of momentum are ulti- 
mately -^p -r-> Cit, the components of which are — /to + «<** along 

0£, — aw — /W along 0^, and Ci> along 0C. 

These, it will be observed, are of the same form as when the axes 
are fixed in space. 

3. To measure the absolute velocity and acceleration of a point 
referred to axes moving in space round 0. 

Let the motion of the axes be due to rotations U 8^ S measured 
along themselves. Then, proceeding as in § 1, the displacements of 
a point P (£, iy, C) due to these rotations are (C# 2 — rjO s ) dt along OL 
(£0 S — i$ x ) dt along O9, and (^ — £0 2 ) dt along 0£ These added to 
the relative displacements (j-dt, ijdt, HJdt) of the moving point give 
the absolute displacements. Hence the components of the absolute 
velocity arc 

u = OA = k + C0, — ?0 a along 0£, 
t>= OB = H + #3— Wx along 0^, 
w = 00 = C + ^ — £0 2 along 0C. 

Again, let the velocities at time * + & be 0A f = w -f- «£* along 

A A f /?/?* CC 

0£, etc.; then the absolute accelerations are ultimately -j-> -j-> -^- > 
whose components are 

* — V^z + w0 2 along 0£, 

i> — w?0j + ud $ along 0iy, 
10 — u0 2 + t?^ along 0C. 
These become, on reduction, 

along 0£, etc. 

Note. — These resolutions are most readily effected as follows : A A' is 
equivalent to AD along Oij, DH along 0(, and J5W along 0£ ; and similar 


resolution* are effected for BB\ CC. The values of AD, DH, etc., are at 
once derived from the displacements in time it of the points (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), 
(0, 0, 1). The latter are, respectively, 

o , e t , e 9 , 
0,, 0i, o , 

each multiplied by it ; from which the values of AD, DH, etc., are obtained 
by multiplying the first set by OA, the second by OB, and the third by OC. 
Moreover, the parts HA', etc., remain unchanged in magnitude when resolved 
along 0£, Ojj, 0£, if infinitesimals above the first order be neglected. Thus, 
in the present case, HA = itit, AD = u9 % U, DH=z—-u9 9 it. 

4. If, in the previous case, the origin moves, its acceleration must 
of course be added to the expressions found in § 3. These formulas 
may be tested by the following well-known example. Let be on 
the earth's surface in latitude X, and let Of be drawn south, Or} east, 
and OC vertical. Then at being the earth's rotation and r its radius, 
the accelerations of O are 

— w 2 r cos X sin X along Of, 

— o;V cos 2 X " oc. 

Also, l = — o» cos X, 0, == 0, 3 = at sin X, and t = = B 9 = 8 . 
Hence the acceleration of m at (f, rj, C) are 

£ — <wV cos X sin X — 2 atfj sin X — a> 2 £ sin'A — a>*Z sin A cos X, 

f\ -f" 2 o>C cos A -(- 2 o>£ sin A — aA?, 

C — «>V cos 2 ^ — 2wf} cos A — o> 2 C cos?X — o* 2 f sin A cos X, 
along Of, O19, OZ, respectively. 

5. To measure the changes in the rotation of a rigid body with one 
point fixed, the axes moving as in § 3. Let the rotations to which 
the displacement, of the body is due be at time t, at x = OA, at 2 =0B, 
« 3 = OC measured respectively along Of, Oiy, OC. Then since at 
time t -f- St these become a> x -f- <M* = OA\ etc., along Of, Orf, OC, 
the absolute changes per unit time in the rotation are ultimately 

AA' BR C£ 
U* it' it' 

Resolving these, we get for the required components 

o> l — at£ z -f~ ^j along Of, etc. 

6. To measure the change in the whole absolute momentum of a rigid 
Wy, one point of which is fixed at O, the axes moving as in §§ 3, 5. 
Since the absolute momentum of m in the position (f , iy, C) at time t is 

m {' K + $ i) — 7 K + %)} alon g 0& etc > 


it follows that the whole absolute momentum at that time is 

* K + j) — V K + B i) along 0{, 
* x fa + e 8 ) _ z fa + OJ along Otf, 

y K + °i) — * K + °s) along OC, 
each multiplied by' M, where (x, y, 2?) is the position of the centre of 
inertia. Calling these components fi y = OA 9 /^ = OB, /%= OC, 
respectively, it follows that at time t -f- dt they become /*!+/&!** 
= OA' along Of, ^ + 'pjt = 0# along Oj/, /^ + fi^t = OC 
along OC'. The changes in the whole momentum per unit time are, 

^ , AA' BB' CC , 

therefore, -^—> -^--> -^r-> whose components are 

k — fh B * + fh Q 2 .along Of, 
Ma — ^°i + M> along Cty, 
jis — fh Q 2 + fh 6 i along OC. 
Since x = sa>, — t/w^ etc., these expressions become, on reduction, 
M times 

for the first, with similar values for the other two. 

7. To measure the changes in the whole absolute moment of 
momentum under the same circumstances as in § 6. Since the 
absolute moment of m's momentum at time t is m times 

("k + 'OGf + C 1 ) — (•* + ••)«* — 0»s + »)« along OS, 
with corresponding components along 0?, OC, it follows that the 
components of the whole moment of momentum at that time are 
A fa + e i )— r fa + QJ—P fa + *,) along 0$, 
— r («i + *i)+£("2 + *«) — «("s + °3) along 0?, 
— /? fa — eJ—afa + Oj + Cfa + <> 9 ) along OC, 
where A = 2m (if -f- C*), a = £wm?C, etc. 

Let these components be called v x = OJ, v 2 — Oj5, v 8 = 06*, respec- 
tively. Then at time t-\-dt they become w x + v[St = OA' along OP, 
v, + y/l = OJ? along Ch/, and vV + v 3 <W = OC along OC'. Hence 
the changes of the moment of momentum per unit time are 

AA' BB f Cq 
to' it' it 9 
whose components are 

\i — y£% + ** Q i along 01, 
\% — *A + *i e s along Oi}, 
rt—yA + *A along OC, 



Nov, since £ = C«, — j?o> 8 , etc., it follows that 

= 2( rw8 — /9«,) 
JB = 2 (on» x — yia t ) 
C=2(#*j— o^) 
a = 2m (rjZ + C*) 

4 = r«i + U — O) w 2 — «« , 

Hence the above values for the component changes of moment of 
momentum become 

-(«. + e *) I- A* + «». + (* — ^) «»] - <«• + ••) [m + 
(A- <7) •*—«•.] - ft, [— r («i + e i) + * o*+e f > _«.(«, + 

for die first ; with similar expressions for the other two. 




The Council of the Canadian Institute in presenting their Thirty Second 
Annual Report, are gratified in being able once more to congratulate the Insti- 
tute on another year of satisfactory work throughout the Winter Session. 

The advantages resulting from the admirable accommodation for all the 
ordinary meetings of the Institute which the new building supplies, fully 
justify the action of the Council in recent years in incurring an outlay neces- 
sarily involving a burden of debt, which must continue for some time to 
hamper the action of the Institute in various ways ; and especially to absorb 
to a large extent the funds which would otherwise be available for the import- 
ant object of the 'printing proceedings. So important has it appeared to the 
Council to reduce the debt as speedily as possible, that however reluctant to 
delay the issue of their printed proceedings, they have allowed a year to 
elapse without any new issue. This has enabled the Treasurer to devote the 
money to the reduction of the debt, and the Council have accordingly the 
satisfaction of reporting a diminution of the capital sum due, and a corres- 
ponding reduction of the annual charge payable on the mortgage effected on 
the building. 

The debt remaining at the close of the last financial year amounted to 
$5,500, involving an annual payment of interest of $440. Since then the 
Treasurer has made a further payment of $500 in reduction of the mortgage 
debt, reducing it to $5,000 ; and also has effected an arrangement whereby the 
annual interest is reduced from 8 per cent, to 7 per cent., making the amount 
of present annual interest $350. 

It -is inevitable that the existence of a debt involving an annual charge which 
absorbs to so large an extent the annual surplus over and above ordinary 
expenditure, must hamper the exertions of the Council and of all the mem- 
bers of the Institute ; and greatly diminish its efforts in the cause of Canadian 
Science and Letters. The Council accordingly recommend to their successors 
and to the members at large, a renewed effort for the reduction of this debt,* 
so as to place at their disposal an annual revenue adequate for the printing of 
the proceedings, and the carrying out on an adequate scale the legitimate work 
of {he Institute. 

Appended to this Report are abstracts showing — (1) The present condition 
of the membership, including 124 ordinary and life members ; (2) The Papers 
communicated at the meetings during the, year; (3) The additions to the 
Library during the same period, and (4) The Treasurer's balance sheet, with 
a report of the receipts and liabilities of the Institute at the present date. 

All which is respectfully reported. 





TO 1ST APRIL, 1881. ' 

1880. Debtor. 

To Summary. $ cts. 

" Annual Subscriptions 362 00 

44 Government Grants 1,500 00 

44 Joarnals sold 7 13 

" Subscriptions to Building Fund 213 00 

'• Rent from Warehouse . / 83 00 

$3,165 13 

1880. Creditor. ==== 

By Summary. $ cts. 

44 Amount due to Treasnrer 153 86 

44 Express Charges 7 35 

44 GasSupply 5 96 

44 Water Supply 17 25 

44 Advertising 31 00 

" Postage 3 87 

"Lecture Fee 4 00 

" Housekeeping Contingencies 6 10 

41 Repairs 6 12 

44 Fuel 68 75 

44 Taxes 11 39 

44 Magazines 82 45 

44 Salary to Secretary 336 00 

44 Binding of Books 7 20 

44 Reduction of Mortgage 500 00 

44 Interest on Mortgage 412 50 

44 Cash in hand 511 33 

|2,165 13 
Copy of Certificate from Auditors. = — ===== 

We Certify to having compared the vouchers of tlie above entries of expendi- 
ture, and find the same correct. The amount of receipts is properly added, 
shewing balance in Treasurer's hands of five hundred and eleven ^ dollars. 

It will be seen that two annual Government Grants appear in this year. 
This results from the earlier meeting of the Legislature in 1881 and earlier 
obtainment of the Grant. 

The total amount of receipts from subscriptions to the Building Fund is 
$1,347.00, of which $1,000.00 has been applied to the reduction of debt, said 
debt being now $5,000.00, and the interest has been reduced from 8% to 7%, 
by permission of the Mortgagee. 



The following valuable and interesting papers and communications were read 
and received from time to time at the ordinary meetings held during the 
Session 1880-81 : 

April 3, 1880.— By T. H. Monk, Esq., on " Vital Statistics." Prof. Bamsay 
Wright, described some West Indian Flukes, exhibited by Mr. Troutman, 

April 17, 1880.— Prof. Jas. Loudon, M.A., "Investigations in Relative 
Motion." Dr. Daniel Wilson, LL.D., on the " Imitative Faculty as a 
Race -Distinction." 

May 1, 1880.— Prof. Macoun, M.A., on the "Climate of Manitoba and the 
North- West Territory. " 

October 30, 1880.— Dr. Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Inaugural Address, on the 
" Independent Origin of Written Language on the American Continent " 

November 27, 1880.— Dr. Daniel Wilson, ,LL.D., on the " MareCrisinm^illiiB- 
trated by telescopic views, illustrative of Lunar Physics. Prof. R. Ram- 
say Wright, exhibited a series of wax models, illustrative of Natural 
History. Dr. Jos. Workman, on "Maroo-Elepsia." ' 

December 11, 1880.— Dr. Jos. Workman, on " Moral Insanity ; What is it T". 

January 8, 1881. — A communication from the Director of the Imperial 
Observatory of Poulkova, on the " Proposal for establishing a Prime 
Meridian," by Sandford Fleming, C.M.G. Dr. Daniel Wilson, LL.D., on 
the " History of the Calendar.^ 

January 22, 1881. — John Notman, Esq., on " Meteors." A. Elvins, Esq., on 
the " Mare Imbrium, and Lunar Crater Copernicus," illustrated by Pho- 
tographic views taken by the author. 

February 19, 1881.— C. B. Biggar, Esq., on the "Climate of South Africa." 
Wm. Oldright, M.A., M.D., on " Sanitary Legislation." 

March 5, 1881.— A. H. Elwin, C. E., on "Some of Faraday's theories of 

April 2, 1881.— Rev. Dr. Scadding : " A Boy's Books ; Then and Now— 1818- 

April 16, 1881. — Dr. Daniel Wilson, " Some Notes on Ben. Jonson and his 
Orthography. " 

April 23, 1881.— Rev. Dr. Scadding, " A Notice of the late Elstow Edition 
of Banyan." Professor Loudon, "Acoustic Experiments." 


Members at the commencement of Session 1880-81 134 

Members elected during the Session 8 


Deaths 1 

Members retired 15 

— 16 

Total Membership, March 31st, 1881 126 

Composed of: 

Honorary Members 2 

life Members - 17 

Ordinary Members 107 



United States: 

Anim a l Report of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 

Nos. 1-11. 
Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1880. 
Perm. Magazine of History and Biography, Philadelphia, No. 1-4, Vol. 4. 
Contributions to the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts from the Boston 

Society of Natural History. 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. Nos. 74-5. 
Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. 
Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 
Harvard University Library Bulletin. 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1880. 
Report of the Director of Central Park Menagerie, New York, 1880. 
Annals of the* Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 
Thirteenth Annual Report of Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 
Publications of the Missouri Historical Society of St. Louis. Nos. 1*4. 
Publications of the Boston Society of Natural History, part 3. 
Journal of Speculative Philosophy of St. Louis, 1880. 
Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. Vol. 1-3, 1880. 
Annual Report of -New York State Museum of Natural History, 1875-79. 
Brief of a Title of the Seventeen Townships of County of Luzerne, by 

Henry M. Hayt, Harrisburg. 
Variable Stars of Short Period, by E. C. Pickering, Cambridge. 
American Journal of Science, 1880. 
Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1880. 

Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, No. 136-141, 1878-1880. 

Proceedings of tire Royal Geographical Society, London, 1880. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Vol. 3. 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological -Society, London. 

Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, Vol. 15 to pt. 2 Vol. 16. 

list of the -Geological Society of London, 1878-1879. 

Annual Report of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 1879-1880. 

Journal and Transactions of the Victoria Institute, 1880. 

Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London. 

The Relation between Science and Religion, by Bishop of Edinburgh. 

The Annealed Jaws from the Wenlock and Ludlow Formations, by 6. J. 

Hinde, F.G.S. 
Scotland : 

Transactions and Progress of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol 13, 

part 3. 
Report of Temperature, Winter 1178-1879, Edinburgh. 
Transactions of Geological Society of Edinburgh, 1880. 
Transactions of Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1877-8-9. 



Ireland : 

Annual Report of the Belfast Naturalist Field Club. 

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1879-1880. 

Scientific Progress of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1878-9-80. 

Journal of the Royal Dublin Society, 1878. 

Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 1878-9-80. 
The following additions and donations have been made to the Library of 
the Canadian Institute during the past year : 

The Canadian Naturalist, Montreal 

The Canadian Journal of Medical Science, 1880. 

The Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, 1880. 

Journal of Education, Quebec, 1880. 

Annual Report of the Entomological Society, Ontario, 1880. 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Economic Minerals of Canada, Montreal, 1880. 

Canadian Entomologist, 1880. 

Report of Meteorological Service of Canada, 1880. 

Annuaire de 1' Institut Canadien, Quebec, No.* 7, 1880. * 

Report of the Toronto Water Works, 1880. 

Report of Progress Geological Surrey of Canada, 1878-1879. 

La Revue Canadienne of Montreal, Janvier, 1881. 
France : 

Memoirs de la Societe Ingenieurs Civils, 1880. 

Catalogue of the National Society of Natural Scienoes of Cherbourg, 1878. 

Bulletin of the Geological Society of France, 1880. 

Memoirs of the National Society of Natural Sciences of Cherbourg, 1877-8. 

Annales Des Mines, 1879. 

Eloge de M. Louis. By M. J. Beclard, 1874. 

Extracts D'un Memoire sur les Moyens De Prevenir Les Dissetts par U 
. C. A. Hugo. 
Toeina : 

Cosmos. By Guido Cora, for 1880. 
Italy : 

Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienza Naturale, 1880. 

Jahrbuch der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstadt, 1879-80. 

Mittheilungen der Kais. und Kon. Geographisohen Gesellsohaft, 1879. 

Verhandlungen der K. K. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellsohaft, 1879. 

Sitznngsberichte der K. b. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1878-9-80. 

Ignatius Von Loyola der Romischen Curie, 1879. 

Meteorologische und Magnetische Beobaohtumgen der K. Sternwarte hie* 
Munchen, 1879. 
Deesdbn : 

Sitzungs-Beritchte Nat. ges Gesellsohaft. Isis in Dresden, 1879*80-1. 
Gottinoen : 

The Royal Association of Sciences, Naritohten, 1879. 

Enter Jahr't Geographische Gesellschaft su Hannover, 1879. 



Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 1879-80. 

Record* of the Geological Surrey of India, 1679-80. 
New South Wales : 

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society, New Booth Wales, 1878. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1879. 
Mexico : 

Annales del Mnseo Nacional De Mexico, 1878-80. 
Bonn : 

Verhandelnngen der Natur'chen Vereines der Prusisehen Rheinland, West 
falens, 1879-80. 


Association of Natural Sciences, 1880. 
Amsterdam : 

Verhandelnngen der Koninklijke Akademie, Von Wetenschappen, 1879. 
Verslagen en Mededulungen, der Koninklijke Akademie, Van Wetens- 
chappen, 1879. 
Jaarboek Van de Koninklijke Akademie, Van Wetenschappen, 1878. 


Royal Danish Society of Sciences, Oversigt, part 3, 1879, part 1-2, 1880. 
Harlem : * 

Archives Nenlandaises Sciences Exactes et Natur's : per Holland Society 
of Sciences at Harlem, Tome XIV-XV, 1879-80. 

Archives du Musee Teyler, Vol. V. 1880. 

The' Association of Natural Sciences df Bremen : Abhandlungen, 1879-80. 

Beilage, No. 7, of Natural Sciences of Bremen : Abhandlungen, 1879-80. 

K. K. Sternwarte zu Prag : Beobachtungen, 1879. 
Utrecht : ■> 

Meteorologisoh Jaarboek, 1879. 
Madrid : 

Annuario de Observatorio de Madrid, 1877-8. 

Resumeu de la Observaciones Meteorlogicas, 1875-8. 


Jahresbericht des Vereines fur Naturwiasenschaft, zu Braunschweig, 
The following publications are subsccibed for by the Institute : 
The Contemporary Review. 
The Nineteenth Century. 
American Journal of Medical Science. 
Medical Science. 
Hardwick's Science Gossip. 
Popular Science Monthly. 
Scientific American. 
Scientific American Snpplement. 
English Mechanic. 

Medical Times and Gazette. 
Blackwood's Magazine. 
London Quarterly Review. 
British Quarterly Review. * 
Edinburgh Review. 
Westminster Review. 

Case Shelf. 

L I IB Tt J± IR, ~Z" 


Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology 



Received ]?H*><^ ^ ^- //T^ 




No. I. 

Profefsor in University CoUege, Toronto. 

In the course of some helminthological investigations concerning 
the Fresh- Water Fishes of this region, the results of -which I hope 
to publish shortly, my attention has occasionally been attracted to 
Parasitic Copepoda, the careful examination of which I have hitherto 
been obliged to defer. The present paper has for its object the 
consideration of three of these forms. 

Ergasilus centrarchidarum, n. sp. 

The gills of various members of the family Centrarchidae are 
found in this neighbourhood to be infested by a small species of 
Ergasilus, which usually occurs abundantly on infected individuals. 
I have observed that the same parasite may also occur on the Perch, 
but it is much more commonly met with on the Rock Bass (Amblo- 
plites rupestris), the common Sun-Fish (Eupomotis aureus, Gill and 
Jordan), and the Long-Eared Pond-Fish (Lepomis auritus [L.] Raf.) y 
especially on the first of the three. I have only met with female 


Length of body, exclusive of /ureal bristles, £ mm., of egg-sacs 1 
mm. Cephalothorax nearly as broad as long. Median constriction 
bo/rely noticeable. The longest of the antennulary bristles as long 
as the antennule. Mandible without palp. Basal jpint of natatory 
limbs naked. Ramus internus of 1st pair, with single bristle on 
inner border of 1st and 2nd joints, and 5 terminal bristles : of 
succeeding pairs, with 2 bristles on the 2nd joint. Ramus extemus 
of 1st pair with 1 spine on outer border of 1st, 2 on outer border of 
3rd, and a bristle on inner border of 2nd joints: of succeeding 


pairs, without the 2 spines on 3rd joint. FurccU bristles 4, — 3 prin- 
cipal, 2 subsidiary, of which one very short. 

The appendages. — AnteknxtLu«. 

One of these is represented in Fig. 13, from the posterior 

They are 6 -jointed, and originate on the under side of the head at 
some little distance from each other. There is no antennulary 
sternum. Of the joints the 2nd is the largest, and with its 
exception, the 6th the longest. All the joints bear simple bristles, 
the longest of which are nearly as long as the antennule itself The 
bristles of the first four joints are chiefly directed downwards ; of 
the two terminal joints backwards and outwards. Into each bristle 
branches of the antennulary nerve may be seen to pass. 


As in the other species of the genus, the antennae form strong 
prehensile claws by which the animal clings on to the gill-filaments 
of its host. The antennary sternum is well developed (Figs. 12 and 
14, st.), and enters at its extremities into the construction of the 
hinge-joints, which the antennae form with their sockets. The basal 
joint is much inflated (as in E. gibbus Y. Nordmann) on its outer 
and lower aspect, while on the opposite it is strengthened by 2 
chitinous ledges, which descend from the hinge between it and the 
succeeding joint (c*, Fig. 14) to the socket (c 1 ). When viewed 
from the surface one of these ledges gives the appearance of a 
diagonal division in the basal joint. 1 The hinge between the 2nd 
and third joints is somewhat complicated, but its arrangement, as 
well as those of the chief flexor and extensor muscles entering the 
appendage, may be studied in Fig. 14. The terminal joint is 
particularly short and curved ; in this respect unlike the same part 
in E. Sieboldii.* 

Appendages of the mouth. 

These have been only satisfactorily described for E. Sieboldii by 


. ■ ■ » — i _ — ■ 

i Vide OUson, Ofversigt af Kongl. Vet Akad. Forhand, 1877, No. 5, p. 70. 

* v. Clans Zeit Wias. Zcol., TaL XXIII., Fig. 14. In a revision of the specie* of 
Brgasfhis, it will probably be found that apart from the size, form of body, and length of egg- 
seoa, the form of the appendages win afford valuable specific characters. As far as I am 
aware, howe-ver, Glaus' figures are the only ones which possess the necessary accuracy of 


The parts are somewhat difficult to study in the present species 
on account of its small size, but the main facts elucidated by Claus 
are found to obtain also here. I have not detected any labmni. 
The basal joint of the mandible is very large, and works in a some- 
what oval socket from which a ohitinous ledge is continued forwards 
and outwards. The cutting edge is provided with several strong 
bristles. No palp is to be seen. The maxilla (nix., Fig. 15) is, 
however, more intimately attached to the mandible than in E. 
Suboldii. That it is the maxilla, and not a mandibular palp, is 
shown by its articulation to a chitinous ledge continued forward 
from the socket of the maxillipede, and on which the basal joint of 
the mandible also partly rests. 

The second maxillipede is absent : the first 2-jointed and armed 
on the anterior and inferior faces of the lower joint with short, stout 
bristles. The maxillipedary sternum is particularly strong. 

The katatoby feet. 

Except in details, which I have found to be constant, and which 
ought to be looked to for specific characters, the present species 
agrees with E. Sieboldii. The five sterna belonging to the five 
thoracic somites are constructed on the same type, and are formed of 
2 transverse chitinous thickenings continuous with each other at the 
sockets of the limbs. The sockets (a Fig. 16) project more or less 
from the surface of the body, and enter into the formation of a very 
free hinge-joint, with the basal segments of the limbs. These are 
also movably articulated to the posterior of the two sternal thicken- 
ings. The figure shows how the bristles and spines are disposed in 
the external and internal rami of the 1st natatory limb. The 
internal rami of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th pairs differ from that of the 
1st in having two bristles on the second segment instead of one, 
while the external rami of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th pairs differ from 
that of the 1st in the absence of the 2 spines on the terminal 
segment. The basal joint is not ciliated as in E. Sieboldii. The 
natatory limbs of the fifth pair are represented by a bristle articu- 
lated to the end of the comparatively well developed sternum. 

I have not been able to determine the precise function of the 
curious chitinous structures situated at the opening of the oviduct, 
and which Claus has figured much more accurately than previous 
authors. They are evidently developed from the lining membrane 


of the terminal portion of the oviduct. Three or four short chitincras 
pieces situated above the opening, and connected with each other, 1 
at first supposed to be a coiled tube similar to that described as 
passing in various free forms from the receptaculum seminis to the 
end of the oviduct. 1 But there is no trace of a receptaculum seminis 
in Ergasilus, and these chitinous pieces serve to form a hinge for the 
two longer pieces which stretch back within the segment on each 
side. (Fig. 18). The muscle attached to the shorter chitinous 
pieces may serve to abduct the egg sacs. 

The furcal bristles are differently disposed from any described 
species of Ergasilus. I am not confident that the arrangement 
represented in Fig. 7 is constant, but it seems fairly common* 
Borne variability must be assigned to these structures, as Olsson 
(loc. cit.) has noticed the occurrence of three in E. Sieboldii, and I 
have observed the internal (stronger) bristle bifurcated on one or 
two occasions. 

The eg^-sacs, although often unequal, are generally twice the 
length of the body of the female. 



(Prodromes faunae Copepodoram parasitantium Scandinavia*. Act. Univ. Lund,, 
1868, p. 86.) 

Prof. Osier, Montreal, obtained several specimens of a species of 
Lernceopoda from the gills of the brook trout (Salmo fontinalis), 
which differs markedly from the S. Salmonea of Baird, but agrees 
very well with Milne-Edwards 1 figure oi Basanistes Salmonea from 
Salmo umbla (Hist. Nat. d. Crust., Tab. XLL, f. 3). In the above- 
cited memoir, Olsson proposes the specific name of L. Edwardsii for 
Milne-Edwards' form, and describes its characteristic features from 
specimens (from unknown host) in the Museum of the University of 
Lund. It can hardly be doubted that, at any rate, this species of 
Basanutes is a true Lernceopoda. 1 

* Aug. Gruber, Zeit Wiss. ZooL XXXII., p. 407 seq. 

• Apart from the rounded tubercles on the abdomen of B. hnchonis, the shortness and 
thickness of the "arms/' and their separate attachment to the chitinous bulla, are regarded si 
characteristic of the genus ; but the different species of Lernieopoda vary much in this respect 
In the form described in the text it is easy to prepare the bulla into the halres belonging to 
each arm. 


In size my specimens agree best with L. Edwardsii and L. 
alpina Olsson, but the details furnished of the latter l forbid their 
reference to this species, while on the whole they agree very well 
with Olsson's description of the former. This is, however, not 
accompanied by details of the appendages, and as Kurz observes * it 
is to these, and not to the form of the body or the angle which the 
" arms " make with it, that we must look for constant characters on 
which to ground valid species. I prefer, therefore, to describe the 
appendages of the present form under the above specific name, rather 
than attribute too much importance to the difference in shape of the 
chitinous bulla in Olsson's description. 

The shape of the body is sufficiently indicated by the outline 
sketch, Fig. 1, which also indicates the hump on the cephalothorax, 
opposite the origin of the arms. The length of the body, exclusive 
of egg-sacs, is 4 mm., of the egg-sacs 2 mm. (they are probably some- 
what more shrunken in proportion by their preservation in alcohol 
than the body), while the arms are about 2 \ mm. long. The 
position of the 1st and 2nd pairs of antennae, and of the projecting 
upper lip, in relation to the anterior border of the cephalothorax, 
may be seen from the outline sketch from above, Fig. 2. The 1st 
pair of antennae are much more easily studied from above than from 
below, owing to the lateral projections from the upper lip, x f Fig. 3, 
which nearly conceal them from that aspect. They measure 0.07 
mm. in length, are indistinctly 3-jointed, and bear on the rounded 
end of the terminal joint 3 minute spines, of which the median one 
is distinctly articulated to the antenna, v, Fig. 3. The second pair 
of antennae may be most conveniently examined from below and 
from the side. They consist of a thick stem indistinctly 3-jointed, 
the basal joint being far the longest, and alone provided with a 
chitinous plate (ch, Fig. 3), and of two short branches, dorsal and 
ventral (d and v, Figs. 3 and 5), of which the dorsal is the longer 
and more internal of the two. It is composed of one joint, the 
rounded extremity of which is provided with numerous curved 
chitinous points for the most part directed inwards. The ventral 
and more internal branch has two joints, of which the terminal one 
(t, Fig. 5) is more palp-like than the other parts of the antenna, 

1 Ofvaralgt af K. Vetensk. Akad. Forhand, 1877, No ft, p. 82, Figs. 913. 

• Stadien ilber die Familie dor Leraoopodiden, ZelL L Wiaa. ZooL, B. XXIX., p. 382. 


while the basal one bears two discoidal chitinous outgrowths, armed 
with curved points, of which one is lateral, while the other is 
ventral, in position (o and o\ Figs. 3 and 5). 

The mandibles (Fig. 6) are 0.1 mm. in length, of which one-third 
belongs to the toothed portion. This differs from any of the maud- 
ibles figured by Kurz in the absence of secondary teeth. 

The maxillae (Fig. 7) are tri-articulate, the basal joint inflated on 
its lateral aspect, and the terminal joint ending in an outwardly- 
directed curved spine. The palp originates from the distal part of 
the second joint above a spine, and itself terminates in two sharp 
points. The maxillae measure 0.095 mm. in length, of which one- 
half is occupied by the basal joints. 

The maxillipedes of the first pair, as in the other members of the 
genus, originate behind the second pair, and are independent as far as 
their attachment to the bulla. This is best described as mushroom- 
shaped, and its bilateral character is as well indicated by a surface 
view (after the fragments of gill have been removed from it), (Fig. 8), 
as by the fact that it is easy to prepare separately the halves be- 
longing to each maxillipede (Fig. 9). 

The maxillipedes of the second pair measure 0.73 mm. in length, 
and present the typical characters described by Kurz for these 
appendages in other Lernaeopodidae. Their specific characters may 
be studied in Figs. 3 and 10. 

Fig. 11 reproduces the punctated appearance presented by the 
border of the lower lip, which measures 0.03 mm. from its attached 
to its free margin ; the latter has only a very narrow fringe. 

On comparing Olsson's figures of L. alplnus with mine, it is appa- 
rent that the bulla presents considerable' resemblance ; the 2nd 
antennae also bear a similar spiny excrescence, but have a pointed 
instead of a blunt ventral branch ; while two chitinous appendages 
project between the maxillae from the ledge uniting their basal 
joints. If the figure of the 2nd maxillipede is accurate, it also 
differs considerably in outline. The details of Milne-Edward's figure 
of Basanistes scdmonea are insufficient for comparison, but the resem- 
blance of the 2nd antennae and the 2nd maxillipedes (3«, 3**, PL XLI. 
loc. cit.) is sufficiently striking to justify the conclusion that the 
form found on the European S. umbla and on our Brook Trout are 

Loo. ©it, TV. V., Figs. 10, 11, 18, 15. 


identical ; a conclusion which is rendered more probable by the fact 
that the hoftts both belong to the subgeneric group of the Charrs. 


The specimens for which I have selected the above specific name 
were found in considerable numbers, both male and female, in the 
mouth cavity and on the gill-arches of the small-mouthed Black Bass 
Micropterus salmoides [(Lac.) Gill]. As far as the size of the female 
is concerned, and the character of its fixation in the mucous mem- 
brane of its host, it might well be referred to A. percarum V. Nord. ; 
but the relatively larger size of the male, the constant downward 
direction of the arms, the shape of the bulla, some details of structure 
in the other appendages, and the cylindrical form of the egg-sacs, 
point to the specific distinctness of this form. I am assured by 
Prof. D. S. Kellicott that it is also distinct from his A. Ambloplytis 
from the mouth of the Bock Bass ; otherwise I should have been 
inclined to suspect the identity of the two American forms. I have 
never met with any Achtheres in our common Perch. 

The female measures on an average 4 to 4 J mm., the cylindrical egg- 
sacs 2£ mm. Fig. 1 represents the appendages of the head from the 
ventral aspect The antennulae are attached at some considerable 
distance behind the mouth : their basal joints are the longest and 
stoutest of the three. The internal rami of the antennae seem to 
present little difference from A, percarum, but the ends of the 
external rami are furnished with toothed sickle-shaped spines. 

The mandibles, Fig. 2, have 9 teeth, of which the third is tho 
shortest of the first six, and the last three are successively smaller. 
The innei edges of the mandibles are sharpened into a knife-edge, 
which is broadest immediately behind the teeth. 

The maxillae are two-jointed — the distal joint bearing a lateral 
two-jointed bristle-like palp, and two terminal rami of the same 
character. The maxillary sternum forms a prominent fold (rnxs., 
Fig. 1), owing to the advance of its appendages in front of the 
attachment of the antennae. 

The internal maxilli pedes are three-jointed : the basal joints are 
united, the second are stout and furnished with a hook on the inner 
side (vide left side of Fig. 4), while the third are armed with a 
strong terminal curved claw articulated to the joint, which on its 
inner aspect is further furnished with two trenchant serrated ridges. 


Of the muscles which move the terminal joint, the flexors are by far 
the most powerful ; whence the ordinary position of these joints; 

The arms in length (1 J mm.), transverse wrinkles, Ac., resemble 
those of A. percarum, but instead of lying in front of the head have a 
downward direction as in Lerneeopoda. Unlike this genus there is no 
continuously chitinized bulla, and the separation of the plate which 
represents it from the mucous membrane is much more difficult than 
in that form. The plate is somewhat hollowed out on its distal 
surface (cup-shaped in A. percarum V. Nordmann), and from it 
radiate many fine threads of chit in, which undoubtedly are the 
cause of the extremely intimate coalescence with the mucous mem- 
brane. The proximal surface of the plate is strengthened by a 
reticulum of chitinous bars, which become narrower as they approach 
the margin of the plate. 

I have not had the opportunity of examining any living specimens, 
and am thus unable to contribute anything to the further knowledge 
of the soft parts. 

Fig. 5 represents the post-abdomen of the female before the 
spermatophores are attached. The two canals for impregnation open 
upon its extremity : their walls are chitinous, aud are especially 
thick posteriorly. In many females the spermatophores (Fig. 3) 
may be found sometimes empty, with the narrow ends of their 
terminal capsules inserted in these orifices, while in others nothing 
remains of the spermatophores, except these capsules. It is in this 
condition that they were interpreted by Clans 1 as receptacula seminis 
belonging to the female ; but when entire they may usually be 
separated without difficulty from the female post-abdomen; the 
greater or less ease with which they may be detached from th© 
terminal orifices depending on the amount of cement with which 
they have been attached to the orifices. Occasionally the cement 
may be present in such quantities as to deform the post-abdomen. 
The mode of formation of the brown capsules and of the cement is 
discussed further on. 

The male measures as much as 1 J mm., thus being fully one-third 
of the length of the female. Usually I have found the male attached 
to the post-abdomen of the female, occasionally further forward on 
the body, in one case on the arms. The appendages of the head, 

iZeit. wins. Zool. XI. The similar structures of Lamproglena have been more recently 
{$eit wiss, Zool, XXI.) spoken of by Clans as belonging to the spermatophoral apparatus. 


although proportionately smaller, have all the specific characteristics 
of the female. The anoennulse (Fig. 7) are slenderer, and the 
internal bristles of the basal joints more distinct, while the hooks on 
the external rami of the antennae are simple, and do not present the 
toothed sickle-shaped form observable in the female. The strengthen- 
ing chitinous plates (ch. 9 Fig. 7) are also of different form. The 
mandibles and maxillae seem only to differ in size. 

The peculiar form of the first maxiUipedes described by V. Nord- 
mann for A. percarum can also be seen here. The deep and narrow 
sternum of these appendages (Fig. 8), shaped somewhat like a dice 
box, gives origin to the powerful adductor muscles, which occupy 
the greater part of the cavities of the basal joints. Of the two 
muscles which move the terminal claw-like joint, the flexor is much 
the more powerful, and keeps the claw shut against the toothed 
chitinous outgrowth of the basal joint. 

The second maxillipedes (Figs. 6 and 9) are two-jointed, the 
distal joint terminating in two claws, both of which are hinged to it, 
and which are anterior and posterior in position. The anterior 
shuts into the posterior, which is hollowed out to receive it. The 
basal joint is strengthened by a diagonal chitinous bar : it is to this 
that V. Nordmann refers as a " muscle of almost cartilaginous con- 
sistence." The basal joints abut against each other in the middle 
line, and give rise to a cylindrical structure, which forms a striking 
feature in the profile view of the male (Fig. 6). This is represented 
from the ventral aspect in Fig. 9, in which an evident orifice may 
be seen. This may possibly be the outlet of certain little glandular 
masses situated in the basal joints of the appendages (gl., Fig. 9), 
but the want of fresh specimens has hindered a satisfactory 
elucidation of this organ. The glands may possibly be homologous 
with the arm glands of the female : whether their secretion is 
employed for the fixation of the male on the female I have not deter- 
mined. A thorough examination of the male reproductive apparatus 
of the Lernseopodid® is very desirable for the purpose of elucidating 
the formation of the spermatophores in the Parasitic Copepoda, as 
Grnber has recently done for the Free forms. 1 I regret that my 
alcoholic specimens have not permitted an exhaustive study 6f this 

iZeit wise. ZooL B. XXXII. 


Fig. 10 represents the abdomen of the male from the ventral 
surface, and is intended to illustrate the position of the male repro- 
ductive organs. The testes occupy the anterior segment of the 
abdomen, and the 1st portion of the vas deferens is dilated by the 
accumulated seminal elements. The 2nd portion is convoluted and 
beset with glandular tissue, till it opens into the pocket containing 
the spermatophore in course of formation. The ripe spermatophore 
may be studied in Fig. 1 1. No indication of the canal or capsule 
with which the spermatophore is attached to the female can be seen 
at this stage. The case of the spermatophore passes by a neck-like 
constriction into the case of the developing spermatophore, and it is 
through the aperture formed by the rupture of this constriction that 
the contents pass out. These correspond to the three elements 
described by Gruber for the Free Copepoda, viz., a globular central 
mass, -085 mm. in diameter, representing the axial cement in the 
free forms, numbers of rod-like spermatozoa (not more than 2 fi in 
length), occupying the greater part of the rest of the axis of the 
spermatophore, and lastly, the refractive polygonal discharging 
corpuscles (the Austreibemasse of German Zoologists). 

These I have only observed in preparations taken from alcoholic 
specimens of the male, and I have not had the opportunity of study- 
ing the mode of fixation of the spermatophore on the female. Two 
kinds of cement have been described in the Free Copepoda, (1) that 
situated in the sperm atophoral dilation of the vas deferens, which, 
serves to fix the ejected spermatophore to the female, and (2) 
that in the axis of the spermatophore, and which in Canthocamptus, 
e.g., forms a curved canal through which the spermatozoa are ejected. 

That the former kind of cement exists also in Aohtheres is readily 
seen from the pieces of it adhering to the post-abdomen of the 
female, and which I have referred to above as being often present in 
considerable quantity. It appears to be formed by the glands grouped 
round the lower part of the vas deferens. The second sort of 
cement is ejected from the spermatophore in the form of a somewhat 
globular mass, composed of a peripheral translucent layer with finely 
granular contents. It appears to me that this mass undergoes a 
change similar to what takes place in Canthocamptus only more 
complicated, viz., that after the fixation of the spermatophore to the 

lOTOberZeit wiss. ZooL 82, PL 25, Fig. 15. 


female the globular mass is extruded through the opening in the 
8permatophoral wall referred to above, and inserted into one of the 
openings of the canals through which fertilization is effected ( v. o. 
Fig. 5) : its peripheral layer then becomes indurated and brown 
in colour, and is then transformed into the brown capsule, while 
its contents are poured out to form the convoluted canal through 
which the remaining contents of the spermatophore pass into the 
body of the female. That the brown capsule acts as a sort of 
receptaculum seminis is also possible : because spermatozoa are to be 
observed in it, even after the detachment of the empty spermatophore. 



Figs. 1-11. — Lernseopoda Edwardsii. Figs. 12-18. — Ergasilus Centrar- 

Fig. 1. — Outline of body, female. 

Fig. 2. — Outline of head and antennae from upper surface ; ol $ the upper lip ; 
a 1 , antennulae ; a 11 , antennae. 

Fig. 3. — Ventral surface of head ; d, the dorsal ; v, the ventral branch of 
the antennae ; o and o 1 , chitinous outgrowths on the latter ; ch, 
chitinous plate in 2nd joint of antenna ; mx, maxilla ; mxp 1 , the 
internal maxillipedes, the second pair according to some mor- 

Fig. 4. — One of the first pair of antennae. 

Fig. 5. — One of the second pair of antennae from the outer side ; t t the 
terminal joint of the ventral ramus. 

Fig. 6. — Toothed part of mandible. 

Fig. 7. — Maxilla with palp, mxt. 

Fig. 8. — Chitinous bulla from surface. 

Fig. 9. — Inner surface of one half of a bulla in connection with the arm. 

Fig. 10. — An internal maxillipede. 

Fig. 11. — The free border of the lower lip. 

Fig. 12. — Errattus Centrarcnidarum from ventral surface; 1 — 5, the natatory 

Fig. 13. — The 1st pair of antennae from behind. 
FlG. 14. — The 2nd pair ; c l c* c 8 , hinges between the various joints ; c 1 e 2 e 8 , 

extensor muscles ; /, flexor ; et, antennary sternum. 


Fio. 15. — Mouth-parts; mx, maxilla; mxp, maxillipede; rt, maxillipedary 
sternum ; mm, muscles ; ch, points to the chitinous bar which 
runs from the socket of maxillipede to the socket of the maxilla. 

Fio. 16. — 1st pair of natatory limbs ; «, the sternum ; a, the socket ; 6, the 
basal joint ; ri, ramus internus ; re, ramus externus. 

Fio. 17. — Genital segment and rest of abdomen from below; go, genital 
orifice ; ch, chitinous rods. 

Fio. 18. — Attachment of egg-sac to genital aperature, showing the disposition 
of the chitinous rods. 



Fio. 1. — Head of female from ventral surface ; lettering as above. 

Fio. 2.— Mandible of female. 

Fio. 3. — Empty spermatophore detached from female. 

Fio. 4. — Internal maxillipedes. 

Fio. 5. — End of abdomen, female, to show the canals for impregnation with 
their orifices, v o, to which the brown capsules are often found 

Fio. 6. — Outline of male from side ; m, the mouth ; p, the cylindrical process 
from the external maxillipedes. 

Fio. 7. — The two pairs of antennae of the male from the inner aspect ; ch, 
the chitinouB supporting plates. 

Fio. 8. — First pair of maxillipedes. 

Fio. 9. — Right 2nd maxillipedes from below ; p\ the cylindrical process. 

Fio. 10. — Abdomen of male from below ; the preparation is slightly oblique ; 
/, the f ureal appendages ; gl, the glandular heaps in these ; a, 
the arms ; in, the intestine ; m m, muscles of the abdominal wall 
broken ; t, the testis ; vd 1 , 1st, vd 1 , 2nd portion of vas deferens. 

Fio. 11. — Spermatophores dissected out, the ripe one ruptured below the 
neck-like constriction which joins it to the developing spermato- 
phore ; the globular cement mass is emerging, behind it are the 
rod-like spermatozoa ; the discharging corpuscles still line the 
wall of the spermatophore ; spp, the spermatophoral pouch ; gl, 
the glands which secrete the cement which fixes the spermato- 
phore in the first place to the abdomen of the female. 




IN 1765. 

Pretident of University College. 

Accidental circumstances have recently brought under my notice, 
and ultimately led to the acquisition for the museum of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto, of a curious relic of one of the great Indian con- 
federacies which still maintained its influence as the colonial history 
of the older plantations of North America drew to a close. The 
date on the memorial horn now referred to carries the mind back to 
a period when the warriors of the Creek nation, to whom it refers, 
were still a powerful native confederacy ; and negotiated with haughty 
condescension, alike with their Indian rivals, and with the repre- 
sentatives of the Sovereign of Great Britain. The Creek nation has 
not, even now, passed away. Some of the members of the con- 
federacy still claim a share in their ancient inheritance ; but in the 
intervening century the marvellous changes which have transpired 
render the historical memorial here referred to scarcely less strange 
than if it recorded some of the first interviews with the men of the 
new world by European adventurers of the sixteenth, instead of the 
eighteenth century. 

The Creek nation is not to be confounded with the Crees of our 
Canadian North-west. An extensive tract of country in what now 
constitutes the Southern States was, in the 18th century, occupied 
by the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Catawbas, Uchees, and 
Muscogees. To all of those the English appear to have loosely 
applied the term "Creeks" But the name strictly belongs to a 
nation formed by the union of a number of minor Indian tribes with 
the Muscogees, who occupied the country in the northern part of the 
States of Georgia and Alabama, watered by the Chatahoochee and 
the Flint rivers ; the Alabama river forming the contested boundary 


line between the Creeks and the Choctaws. The Muscogees, who 
were the central tribe of the powerful Creek confederacy, cherished 
a tradition that their ancestors first issued out of a cave near the 
Alabama river. De Brahm reckoned the number of the Creeks at 
15,000, including women and children. They were brave and power- 
ful warriors, shrewd and politic in their relations with outsiders ; 
and intensely jealous of all, whether red or white men, who did not 
belong to their own confederacy. 

De Bry, in his " Brevis Nwrrcdio" 1591, presents a spirited 
description of the Mico, or chief, and his warriors, in convention. 
A council meeting was opened by the cup-bearer handing to him a 
shell filled with a decoction of the cassine or ilex yupon. This is a 
powerful diuretic; and its medicinal influences were invoked to 
purge them from all hindrance to thoughtful deliberation. This 
done, all partook of it, drinking it from shells made of the large 
pynelre of the Gulf. They next engaged in a solemn dance; and 
then, seated in the Council House, listened to the addresses of the 
orators and principal men among their tribes. When this was done, 
the Mico sprinkled them all with water, saying : " Thus may the 
blood of your enemies flow freely.*' Then he poured water on the 
council fire and extinguished it, exclaiming : " Thus as I extinguish 
the flames so may your enemies be vanquished and exterminated." 

The curious relic of this ancient Indian people, which has been 
recently acquired for the museum of the University of Toronto, was 
the property of Mr. J. A R. White, of Walkerton, Ontario ; and, 
as will be seen, is not only an interesting memorial of colonial inter- 
course with one of the most powerful southern tribes upwards of a 
century ago ; but has acquired altogether novel and romantic asso- 
ciations from the more recent incidents of its singular history. Its 
late owner served in the Royal Engineers, and, as a member of that 
corps, was during the terrible revolt of the Sepoys in British India, 
He was present, along with his company, at the siege of Lucknow, 
and took this horn from the body of a Sewor, or light dragoon of the 
Bengal mutineers, killed in a skirmish at the stone bridge at Luck- 
now, on the 17th March, 1857. The native Sewor, he presumes, 
had acquired it among the spoils of some English dwelling sacked 
by the mutineers. The inscription shows it to have originally 
belonged to a British officer ; but the date carries us back upwards 
of a century ; and so adds to the singularity of the recovery of this 


curious relic of a conference with the warriors of the Creek nation 
in 1765, away on the opposite side of the globe, on one of the 
remote tributaries of the Ganges. 

The style of engraving of the horn fully accords with its date. 
A shield, left blank, has inscribed below it : 

"William Sharp, Esq., Lieut, of the Ninth Regiment, 1766." 

This is, no doubt, the original owner of the horn. At a table, seated 
under a canopy, are a group apparently of British officers, wearing 
the three-cocked hats of the 18 th century. In front a group of 
Indians appears seated on the ground : with the exception of two 
who occupy chairs nearer the table, and smoke their tomahawk pipes. 
Behind the officers another group of Indians engage in a dance : and 
this inscription is graven below : " An Indian beloved dance per- 
formed by ye Creeks." Underneath the whole is this inscription : 
" The Congrass held at Picalata betwixt Governor Grant the Head 
Men and Warriors of the Creek Nation, November the 17th, 1765." 
Beneath this, in reverse, is a man shooting at a flying deer. 

The horn, it may be added, appears to have been originally a 
powder horn. But it was cracked, and the bottom detached from it, 
as its late owner believed, owing to the native Sewor, from whose 
body he took it, having fallen on it when he received his death blow. 
It has subsequently been protected, as will be seen, by a silver rim 
placed round the lower end, so as to give it the appearance of a 
hunting horn. 

Picalata may probably still be identified in the Picolata, a small 
portal town, in St. John's County, Florida. If so, it indicates the 
site chosen for the Congress of 1765, considerably to the south of 
the region occupied by the principal members of the Creek con- 

In BrownelTs "Indian Races," and also in Drake's "Biography 
and History of the Indians of North America," notices occur of 
Colonel James Grant — the same person, in all probability, as is 
named on the inscribed horn as Governor Grant. French emissaries 
were busy fomenting strife, and exciting the Indians of Carolina 
against the English. At a grand conclave of the Cherokee nation 
in 1760, Latinac, a French officer, stepped out and drove his hatchet 
into a log, calling out : " Who is the man that will take this up for 


the King of France." Salone*, a young warrior of Estatoc, laid bold 
of it and cried out : "lam for war I The spirits of our brothers 
who have been slain still call upon us to revenge their death. He 
is no better than a woman who refuses to follow me." It was 
immediately after this event that Col. Grant assumed command of 
the British forces in Carolina. Brownell says : 

"In the following spring (i.e. in 1761), Col. James Grant, who 
had succeeded to the command of the Highlanders employed in 
British service in America, commenced active operations against the 
belligerent nation — the Cherokees. What with the aid of the 
Provincials and friendly Indians, he was at the head of about 
twenty-six hundred men. The Chickasaws and Catawbas lent some 
assistance to the English ; but the Creeks are said to have alternately 
inclined to the French or English, according as they received or 
hoped for favours and presents. 

"The army reached Fort Prince George on the 27th of May 
(1761), and there old Attakullakulla, a Cherokee chief who had 
been long the fast friend of the English, made his appearance, depre- 
cating the proposed vengeance of the whites upon his people. He 
was told that the English still felt the strongest regard for him 
individually, but that the ill-will and misconduct of the majority of 
the nation were too palpable and gross to be suffered to go longer 
unpunished. Colonel Grant marched from the fort in the month of 
June. The Cherokees made a desperate but unavailing stand ; they 
were routed and dispersed, leaving their towns and villages of the 
interior to be destroyed by the invaders. Etchoe was burnt on the 
day following the battle. . . . Upon the return of the army to 
Fort Prince George, after this campaign, Attakullakulla again visited 
the camp, bringing with him a number of other Cherokee chiefs. 
Broken down by their disastrous losses, and disgusted with the 
deceitful promises of the French, they gladly acceded to such terms 
as Col. Grant thought fit to impose, and a treaty of peace was 
formally concluded." 

Drake, in referring to the same campaign against the Indians of 
Carolina, says : 

" Such was the condition of the country that a second application 
was made to General Amherst for aid, and he promptly afforded it 
Colonel James Grant arrived there early in 1761, and not long after 
took the field with a force of English and Indians, amounting to 


about 2,600 men. He traversed the Cherokee country, and subdued 
that people in a hard fought battle near the same place where CoJ. 
Montgomery was attacked the year before. It lasted about three 
hours, in which about 60 whites were killed and wounded. The 
loss of the Indians was unknown. Colonel Grant ordered his dead 
to be sunk in the river, that the Indians might not find them to 
practice upon them their barbarities. He then proceeded to the 
destruction of their towns, 15 in number, which he accomplished 
without molestation. Peace was at last effected by the mediation of 
Attakullakulla. ,, 

After this date, 1762, it is said : " Affaire looked peaceable and 
prosperous for some years." The natives made over a large addi- 
tional tract of land to the growing colony of Georgia. The date, 
1765, does not appear. But in 1767, there was temporary trouble, 
settled by Governor "Wright at Savannah. The Creeks occasioned 
this trouble, having seized, or stolen, as it was said, some horses 
found on their territory belonging to the whites. 

It thus appears that, at the date of the Congress named on the 
curious memorial horn, which perpetuates its graven record of the 
incidents of a conference with the Creek nation on the Nth Novem- 
ber, 1765, the Creeks and other nations of the great Muscogee con- 
federacy were being stirred up to war against the English, chiefly 
through the machinations of their French rivals. In 1761, Colonel 
James Grant was appointed by General Amherst, the Commander- 
in-Chief, to conduct the military operations in Carolina against the 
belligerent Indians ; and to him, it may be assumed, was thereafter 
entrusted the civil, as well as the military, conduct of affairs in the 
extensive southern region occupied by the Indian nations of the 
Muscogee confederacy. The southern Indians were old enemies of 
the Iroquois, the staunch allies of the English against the French 
on the St. Lawrence ; and were the more easily stirred up to attack 
the English settlers in Virginia and the Carolinas. But James 
Adair — a trader long resident among the southern Indians — in a 
"History of the American Indians," published by him in 1775, 
ascribes their inveterate hostility to the English to their crediting to 
the machinations of the latter the introduction of the small-pox. 
When South Carolina was first settled, he says : " The Catawbas 
were a numerous and warlike people, mustering about 1,500 warriors, 
but small-pox and the use of ardent spirits reduced them to less than 


a tenth of their former numbers." And he describes a waste area 
seven miles in extent, still showing the traces of cultivation once 
carried on by them throughout its whole extent. In 1738, neaily 
half of the Cherokees perished by the small-pox; bat the Creeks 
early recognized the necessity of isolating those attacked by the 
disease ; and so, to a large extent, escaped the decimating influence 
of this terrible scourge. 

The Indians of the Six Nations still preserve at Tuscarora, on the 
Grand River, the Silver Communion Service brought with them from 
the old home of their most warlike tribe, in the Mohawk Valley, of 
the State of New York, and which bears the inscription : 

"A. R. 1711. The Gift of Her Majesty, Ann, by the Grace of God, 
of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, and of Her Plantations nr 
North America, Queen : To Her Indian Chappbl of the Mohawks.'' 

This singularly interesting memorial is of earlier date, and asso- 
ciated alike with a race peculiarly identified with Canadian history 
and with its royal donor. Nevertheless the Picalata horn may be 
fitly classed with the Silver Communion Plate "of the Indian 
Chapel of the Mohawks/ 1 as a historical memorial of incidents other- 
wise lost sight of, and of a representative Indian nation now dis- 
appearing from the scenes where little more than a century ago it 
treated on proud equality with the representatives of the British 




BY W. HAMILTON MERRITT, F. O. &, Assoc. R. 8. M., &a, Jfco. 
Mining Engineer and Metallurgist, Mail Building, Toronto. 

Boring the past Rummer 1 was called upon to make a general 
report of the iron occurrences in the vicinity of the Victoria Rail- 
road, and I now have much pleasure in bringing to your notice, in a 
condensed form, the result of my investigations. 

The Miles Location, or Old Snowdon Mine, has received notice at 
the hands of Prof. Chapman in a report published in 1874, therefore 
the general character of the ore will be known to some of you. 

The Victoria Railroad, as you know, runs from Lindsay to Hali- 
burton, some 55 miles. A short distance north of Lindsay a branch 
was built by Mr. Miles, which runs in a westwardly direction to his 
iron location, six miles from the main line. I shall now briefly refer 
to the geological outlines, which I do not think have been previ- 
ously recorded. 

Going north from Lindsay, several escapements of horizontal beds 
of Silurian Limestone are passed through. On crossing the Burnt 
River, after leaving Fenelon Falls, an outcrop of Granite appears on 
west side of the Railroad. Some compact limestone, approaching a 
marble in texture, which takes a good polish, and a bed of lithographic 
stone, are passed in cuttings near Felly's Bridge. 

The crystalline rocks come in between Felly's Bridge and Kin- 
mount (at which place they are well defined), but owing to the over- 
grown condition of the country, it was impossible to note their junc- 

The crystalline rocks belong to the Lauren tian Series, the strongest 
iron carrying rocks in our country. Their strike here, as is general, 
is about N. N. E. and S. S. W. and dip about 40 % E. 

They consist of alternating granite, gneiss, syenite and crystalline 
limestone, with occasional bands of dioritic rocks, which, however, are 
not so strongly developed in this as in the Madoc region. 


The occurrence of labradorite rock or norite, which is found at the 
Miles Location, and titaniferous iron beds, which occur at Pine Lake 
and other places, would seem to point to the norian or upper lauren- 
tian of Logan, but there is not a universal enough development to 
justify such a conclusion. 

To the East of Kinmount the gneiss ia replaced by crystalline 
limestone, in which rock the Victoria, or Old Snowdon, mine occurs. 
Continuing Eastward, between the Victoria mine and the Howland 
and Ledyard locations, the road is very circuitous, and not on the 
map, therefore my observations of the rocks might be misleading as 
to their actual occurrence. Halfway between the Snowdon and Ledy- 
ard locations, quartzite and a fine grained pinkish syenite take the 
place of limestone. The crystalline limestone appears again before 
arriving at the Ledyard location, and continues westward beyond the 
Howland property further than I went. 

In the Ledyard property there is a band of dioritic rock (doleritic 
in places), in which are the iron occurrences found in that property. 

Coming back to Kinmount, and then going in a westwardly direc- 
tion, the gneiss is replaced by a band of crystalline limestone a 
mile wide, which, again is immediatety succeeded by gneiss and 

Not far from the limestone the Pax ton mine is in a syenite gneiss, 
with narrow beds of crystalline limestone occuring in places both 
above and below the ore 

From Kinmount North the general character of rocks is precisely 
the same as already mentioned, granite, gneiss, syenite and crystalline 
limestone. The geological features of that part of the country which 
I saw are precisely the same as the Madoc region, with the exception 
of a stronger development of the dioritic ridges in the Madoc region. 

In this district, hornblendic pyroxenic rock and crystalline lime- 
stone are, as a rule, associated with the iron ore. In the Madoc district 
the Haematite mine is an example of the intimate connection of the 
iron ore with crystalline limestone, while the Seymore mine is an 
example where that rock is wanting. 

From the accumulation of instances, however, it would seem that in 
searching for iron ores, especially in the Victoria district, it would be 
well to keep in the vicinity of the bands of crystalline limestone, for 
as a rule the ores occur both in it and near its junction with granite, 
hornblendic and pyroxenic rocks. 


I understand it to have been shewn by Mr. Vennor, in his investi- 
gations in Hastings, that the iron deposits occur in defined belts, which 
can be traced for long distances. My investigation in Victoria 
unfortunately was of too local a character to enable me to establish 
the continuity of the ore deposits, but it seems probable that in 
Snowdon Township the deposits are not merely local, but that a belt 
can bo followed from Lot 20 in the I. Concession as far as Lot 30 in 
the V. Concession, a distance of 3 miles, including five locations, or 
possibly further in the same direction. 

In Sweden the mineral bearing horizons can be followed, having 
the same direction as the encasing rocks, and fresh masses of mineral 
will be met with at intervals for dozens of kilometers, and each bed 
generally consists of several parallel beds separated by rock more or 
less barren. 

In the famous Dannaraore district the magnetite occurs in an irre- 
gular belt of a mile and a half in length, embedded in crystalline lime- 
stone, and it has been rained to a depth of more than 600 feet 

The iron occurrences that came under my notice bear the character 
of beds deposited with the enclosing rocks, the lie both of the ore bed 
and the intercalated minerals being the same as that of the country 

The Victoria mine would seem an exception, as the strike of the 
bed is 42 % N. W. and S. E., being nearly at an angle Of 45 % to the 
general strike of the rocks of the country ; but it is possible that a 
feult running through the valley immediately to the N. W. may have 
altered the strike of the ore deposits, especially as at the edge of the 
valley, close to which the mine has been opened, there is evidence of 
much disturbance. 

I shall not inflict you with the detailed description of the various 
mines in operation, and undeveloped locations that I was obliged to 
include in my report. 

I shall simply give the result of a number of analyses from speci- 
mens I obtained at the mines, which shew, firstly, the richness of 
selected ore, which is better than the average shipped to the United 
States ; secondly, the average ore without close selection ; and thirdly, 
the ore that has been thrown on the dump as too poor to ship to 
Bessimer works. 

The ore varies in texture from crystalline magnetite, with small 
crystals and an open texture practically free from sulphur, as found 


at the Paxton mine in Lutterworth, or a closer grained magnetite 
carrying a certain amount of pyrites, as is seen in the Snowdon occur- 
rences, to a compact crystalline ore containing more or less titanium, 
such as is found at Pine Lake and other places. 

In all cases the analyses of the picked specimens were practically 
the same, about 60 % metallic iron, and practically free from phos- 
phorus, sulphur and titanium. 

The average samples of ores from the Snowdon properties, which 
would represent the character of the Victoria, Miles, Ledyard and 
Howland, is the following : 

Silica 21.20 

Oxides of Iron 66.28 

Alumina 3.70 

Lime 5.04 

Magnesia 2. 19 

Sulphur 1.64 

Phosphoros 02 

Titanium 00 


Metallic Iron 48.00 

These would require thorough calcining to remove the sulphur. 
At the Howland mine it was calcined very roughly in large pieces in 
heaps of 100 tons, but as samples of the calcined ore which I obtained 
shewed the same amount of sulphur as the raw ore, the present sys- 
tem of calcining is practically useless. 

Average ore from the Paxton mine in Lutterworth analysed : 

Oxides of Iron 67.77 

Silica 19.30 

Alumina 6.24 

Lime 3.81 

Magnesia 3.38 

Sulphur 03 

Phosphorus None. 

Titanium 15 

100 68 

Metallic Iron 48.64 

This ore has the decided advantage of being so free from sulphur 
that it would not require calcining. 

The third class of samples I collected and mentioned as taken from 
the dump, shewed that waste ore contained over 30 % metallic iron. 


There is a good deal of hornblend intimately mixed with these 
ores. Microscopic examinations shewed a little more free silica in 
the Paxton than the other ores. 

The minerals occurring with the ores in this district are calcite, 
hornblend, actinolite, augite, felspar, mica, iron pyrites, quartz, and I 
found specimens of olevine, scapolite and serpentine. 

To obtain a true estimate of the value of the above ores, we will 
consider those of Sweden which most closely resemble them, and 
which are at the same time recognized as equal to any in the 

In a very interesting pamphlet on the actual state of the iron indus- 
try in Sweden, written in 1878, by Richard Akerman, Professor at 
the School of Mines of Stockholm, and one of the best known metal- 
lurgists of the day, a very great number of analyses of Swedish iron 
ores are given, nearly 800. The average ore as shewn by these con- 
tains from 45 to 50 % metallic iron, and the majority requires calcin- 
ing to remove the sulphur. Mr. Akerman states that some calcareous 
ores, especially useful for mixing with the silicious ores, are mined 
as low as 20 % iron. This pamphlet also tells us that in Sweden, 
with a smaller population than ourselves, 484 mines were worked in 
1876, from which 787,950 tons of ore were raised. From the above 
facts it is evident that our magnetic iron ores are equal in composition 
to the celebrated Swedish ore, and they are similar in occurrence. 
Therefore, notwithstanding the fact that it does not pay to ship 
under 50 % metallic iron to the United States, the majority of 
Swedish ore would be excluded- -by which fact we can rest assured 
that our magnetic iron ores must soon be much more extensively 
worked ; which, with the aid of the diamond borer for exploration 
and steam mills, will, without doubt, be most successfully accom- 

The Cleveland and Pittsburg smelters are looking about most anxi- 
ously for new supplies of ores, as those from Lake Superior are 
becoming very expensive. They are even meditating opening up part 
of "West V irginia with a Railroad 300 miles long, to get at a low 
grade ore. We have the advantages to offer them of better ore and 
cheap return freight in coal vessels to Cleveland. 

A few words on the question of iron smelting with charcoal I 
thought would not be amiss in connection with this paper. 


It is needless to mention there is no industry that is of such import- 
ance to the prosperity of a country as the smelting of iron ; England 
is of course the most striking example of this. Were it not for her 
smelting works the United States would not have the balance of her 
commerce on the export side. 

Concomitantly with the present great prosperity in France, her 
iron industries have taken most gigantic strides. 

Belgium, Germany, Sweden, and even Russia, are examples of the 
great benefits which accrue to countries from the encouragement of 
iron smeltimg. 

In Ontario it is a question whether we could smelt with mineral 
fuel, without a high protection. 

It seems very probable that smelting with charcoal can be carried 
on with profit in those parts of the Province where iron ore, large 
quantities of timber, Railroad facilities and good water power are 

These essentials are united in the Victoria district. As before 
mentioned, the standard required in the ore to be shipped to the 
United States is such a very high ore that a seriously large proportion 
of good ore is left as a waste product. 

In the vicinity of the iron mines in Victoria County, there are 
large tracts of woods which have been partially culled of the choicest 
timber, yet enough remains for the manufacture of charcaal for a long 
time to come. In lumbering, the branches and tops of the trees are 
left; these make excellent charcoal. Therefore a smelting works 
would prevent great waste both of the mine and forest. Settlers 
would soon find the burning of charcoal a handsome .little per- 

One point in locating a works is important, and that is unless there 
is in any deposit a proved quality of ore in sight, it would be very 
dangerous to risk the supply of a works to one deposit, as the 
deposits vary much in size ; but the smelting works should be in a 
position to tap the production of several proved deposits. 

In Sweden it is common to combine a saw mill with iron smelting 
works, as the refuse is made of much use in producing gas for the 
regenerative furnaces. 

The cost of erection of a plain but substantial plant, with charcoal 
furnaces, to turn out 100 tons (minimum) per week, would be pro- 
bably $60,000. With Whitewell hot blast stoves, Westman calcining 


kilns, and expenses connected with water power and other details, the 
total cost would reach the neighbourhood of $100,000. 

As regards the production of charcoal iron. In 1880 the United 
States produced 537,558 gross tons of charcoal pig iron from 151 
blast furnaces, and in 1879 Sweden 336,176 gross tons of pig iron 
from 182 blast furnaces. 

In 1880 France turned out 66,330 tons of charcoal pig, and 29,148 
tons with coke and charcoal mixed. Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, 
Austrian Tyrol and Saltzburg produced in 1874 collectively 217,400 
tons, and Russia in 1879 produced 429,865 gross tons of pig iron, 
mostly with charcoal and magnetite as the ore. We might say that 
about two million tons of iron are produced from charcoal per annum- 

In Austria, two parts of compressed peat and one of charcoal are 
used at Vordernberg. Smelting by lignite has at last been success- 
fully accomplished in the latter country. This question is of vital 
importance to our North- West territories. 

I will close by finally stating that the question of charcoal smelting 
is one worthy of attention, and our local government would do well 
to have a thorough report made upon the subject. 




In presenting this their 33rd Annual Report, the Council of the Canadian 
Institute are happy to be able to state that the progress of the Institute 
during the last Session has been upon the whole satisfactory. 

One important change has been successfully made in reverting to the old 
weekly meetings, instead of only on alternate weeks, and it is satisfactory to 
be able to report that the meetings have been well attended, and many 
interesting papers have been read by the members. There is, however, still 
room for improvement in that respect, and the Council sees no reason to 
doubt that in the next Session, when the members have become more used to 
the new arrangement, there will be a further increase of attendance, and 
more readiness in bringing interesting communications before the meetings. 

Another arrangement of some importance has been accomplished, namely, 
that the use of our building and library has been extended to the Natural 
History Society, thus giving some aid and encouragement to a Society having 
similar objects with our own, and at the same time making the advantages of 
our Institute more generally known. 

Another important transaction has been the sale of about 30 feet of the 
vacant land on the western side of our building, thus enabling us to reduce 
our mortgage debt by nearly one-third, with a proportionate decrease of the 
interest payable ; and we are not without hopes that an arrangement may be 
made to reduce the rate of intetest now paid. This will probably enable us 
to enlarge the publication of our transactions, which would add very materially 
to the utility of the Canadian Institute. 

The Treasurer's reports, the papers communicated at the meetings, the 
additions to the library, and the present condition of the membership, are, at 
usual, appended. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN LANGTON, President. 
— •— 

Members at the commencement of Session, 1881-82 126 

Members elected during the Session 17 

Deaths 4 

Total Membership, March 31st, 1882 139 

Composed of : 

Corresponding Member 1 

Honorary Members 2 

Life Members 17 

Ordinary 119 



I submit accounts shewing the financial condition of the Canadian Institute, 
and consider farther comment unnecessary. 

Summary of Current Account to 31ar March, 1882. 

• To balance in hands of Treasurer $511 33 

" Cash from Sale of Land 1,588 75 

" Cash from Annual Subscriptions 294 00 

" Subscriptions to Building Fund 158 00 

" life Membership 25 00 

" Rent from Warehouse 60 00 

" Rent from Medical Society, Toronto 50 00 

" Rent from Natural History Society 7 50 

" Journals, Ac, sold * 4 75 

" Cash due to Treasurer 133 75 

$2,833 08 

By Principal on Mortgage $1,589 00 

" Interest on Mortgage 350 00 

" Salary to Librarian 336 00 

" Printing Journal 152 13 

" Fuel 86 93 

'* Periodicals 80 55 

" Advertising 67 00 

" Insurance 42 50 

" Commission on Sale of Land 39 72 

" Water 24 00 

" Gas 12 43 

" Taxes 10 94 

" Express charges 10 82 

" Postage and Telegrams 8 92 

" Contingencies 7 85 

" Repairs 6 79 

" Engrossing 5 00 

" Law expenses 2 50 

$2,833 08 

We certify to hare examined the vouchers and the addition, which we find 
correct. The balance due the Treasurer being one hundred and thirty-three 
dollars and seventy-five cents. 

JAMES BAIN, jun., ) 
G. KENNEDY, ) Auditor*. 

$Mh April, 1889. 


To Amount at last Audit $1,347 00 

' Subscription from R. Wilkes * 

' " Copp, Clark & Co 

100 00 
30 00 

" Prof. R. R. Wright 

• " T. Kirkland 

10 00 
6 00 

' " Dr. Ellis 

10 00 

' " N. Cawdry 

2 00 

$1,505 00 
Sale of 30 feet of Land 1,588 75 

$3,093 75 

By Amount due on Mortgage $5,000 00 

" Amount paid on Mortgage 1,589 00 

" Amount now due $3,411 00 

and bearing interest at 7 per cent. ~ 


Canadian Institute Building $11,000 00 

" Warehouse 720 00 

" Ground 2,500 00 

" " Library 5,000 00 

" * 4 Specimens , 1,200 90 

" * ' Personal Property 400 00 

$20,820 00 

Liability. — 

Amount due by Mortgage $3,41 1 00 



The following valuable and interesting papers and communications were 
read and received from time to time at the ordinary meetings held daring the 
Session 1881-2: 

May 14, 1881. — Annual Report and Election of Officers. C. Carpmael, M.A., 
exhibited and explained the photographic curves from the instruments 
during the magnetic storm on the 11th, 12th and 13th days of August, 
1880, and also of the storm on the 31st January, 1881. 


October 29, 1881. — Inaugural address by the President. 

November 5, 1881. — Rev. Dr. Scadding, on " The Dethronement of Latin in 

the Modern Scholastic World," being a continuation of " A Boy's Books, 

Then and Now." 
November 12, 1881.— Prof. R. Ramsay Wright, B.Sc, on "A Cell and its 

November 19, 1881.— Dr. W. H. Ellis, M.A., on "The Water Supply of 

November 26, 1881.— Dr. Covernton, on "State Medicine : Ancient, Medieval, 

and Modern." 
December 3, 1881. — John Notman, Esq., " Remarks on the origin of Numerals.' 

Paper on "The Genesis of Worlds." 
December 10, 1881.— A. Elvins, Esq., on "The Lunar Surface," illustrated 

by photographs and drawings. 
December 17, 1881.— W. Hamilton Merritt, F. O. S., on "The Magnetic 

Iron Ores of Victoria County," with notes on Charcoal Iron Smelting. 
January 14, 1882. — Rev. Professor Campbell, M.A., on " Deciphering 

Hittite Inscriptions." 

January 21, 1882.— Rev. R. Von Pirch, on "Linguistic Studies." 
January 28, 1882. — John Langton, M.A., on "Popular Errors and Prejudices." 
February 4, 1882.— Dr. J. Workman, on " The Origin of the English 

Language," with a translation of a Danish poem. 
February 11, 1882.— Rev. Dr. MacNish, LL.D., "Are the Poems of Ossian 

of Scottish or of Irish origin?" 
February 18, 1882. — J. M. Buchan, M.A., on " The proportions of the 

Constituents of the English Language." 
February 26, 1882. — Dr. Daniel Wilson, LL.D., on " Incidents illustrative of 

the changes wrought on the native Indian tribes from the practice of 

March 4, 1882.— C. A. Herschfelder, Esq , on " The manners and customs 

of the aboriginal Americans." 
March 11, 1882.— Dr. P. H. Bryce, M.A., on " Hypnotism and its 

March 25, 1882.— Dr. Jos. Workman, "Is it true that the Celtic languages 

have contributed but little to the English and its affiliated languages ? " 
April 1, 1882.— Notes on "Vapour Tension and Specific Heat," by W. J. 

Loudon, B.A. 
April 22, 1882.— W. Brodie, Esq., on " Canadian silk producing Moths." 


Canada : 

The Revue Canadienne, Montreal, 1881. 

The Canadian Naturalist, Montreal, No. 1, Vol. X. 

The Canadian Journal of Medical Science, 1881. 

The Annual Report of the Entomological Society, 188]. 

The Canadian Entomologist. 


Canada — {Continued). 

Report of Progress Geological Survey of Canada, 1880-1831. 

Report of Meteorological Service of Canada, 1881. 

Pamphlet on the adoption of a Prime Meridian to be common to ill 
Nations, by Sandford Fleming, Esq., C. M. G. (the author). 

Report of the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, 1882. 

Report of the Superintendent of Education, Quebec, 1881. 

Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, 1881. 

Statutes of Ontario, 1881. 
England : 

Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, 1881. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1881. 

Index and Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1881. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1881. 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 1881. 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute, London, 1881. 

Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 1881. 

Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1881. 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1881. 

Transactions of the Victoria Institute, 1881. 

Report of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 1881. 

Southern Skies, by H. E. Lieut. -General Sir J. H. Lefroy, C. B. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Geographical Society, 1871. 

Pamphlets on Free Trade and Protection, London. 

Rainfall and Climate of India, by Sir Joseph Fayrer, K. C. S. I., F. R. 8- 

Financial Reform Almanack, 1882. 

Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1879. 

Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1879. 

Trubner's Literary Record, 1881. 

Minutes and Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 1880-81. 


Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 1880 and 1881. 
Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society, 1881-82. 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1879-80. 
Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1879-80. 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 1881. 
"Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, 1879-80. 


Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1880-81. 

Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, 1881. 

Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 1881. 

Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland. 

Records of Geological Survey of India, 1880-81. 

Memoirs of Geological Survey of India, 1880-81. 

Memoirs of Geological Palseoritologia Indica, 1880. 


New South Wales : 

Reports of the Council of Education, 1879. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1879-80. 

Annual Report, Department of Mines, for 1878-9. 

Maps, Department of Mines, for 1878-9. 

Report upon certain Museums, by A. Liversidge, 1880. 
New Zealand: 

Transactions aud Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1880. 
Tasmania : 

Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 1880. 
United States: 

The Names of the Gods in the Riche Myths, Central America, by D. G. 
Brinton, M.D. 

The American Journal of Science, 1881. 

The Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1881. 

Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 1881-2. 

Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, 1880. 

Anniversary Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1830-80. 

Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1881-82. 

Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 1881. 

Anna-la of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1881. 

Report of the New York State Museum of Natural History, 1879. 

Records of the Proprietors of the Worcester Society of Antiquaries, 1881. 

The Philadelphia Magazine of History and Biography, 1881. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1881. 

Journal of Speculative Philosophy, by W. T. Harris, 1881. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 1881. 

Report of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 1880-81. 

Proceedings of the Worcester Society of Antiquity, 1881. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1881. 

Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1881. 

Report of the Comptroller of the Currency, 1880. 

library Bulletin of the Harvard University, 1881. 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute, 1881. 

Visitors* Guide to Salem. H. P. lives, Publisher. 

Annual Report of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore, 1881. 

Report of the New York State Library, 1880. 

Bridgeport Scientific Society, Annual Address by President N. H. 
Powers, D.D., 1881. 

Memoirs of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, 1881. 

Koniglich bohmische Gesellschaf t der Wissenschaften, Prag, 1879-80. 

K. K. Sternwarte zu Prag. Beobachtungen, Prag, 1879-80. 

K. K. Geographische Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1879-80. 

K. K. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1880. 

K. K. Geologische Reichsanstadt, Vienna, 1880-81. 


Belgium : 

Academic Royal des Sciences, des Lettres, e$ des Beaux Arts, Brussels, 
Denmark : 

Academie Royal des Sciences, Copenhagen, 1880-81. 
France : 

Society Nationale, des Naturales Sciences, Cherbourg, 1879. 

Societe Geologique De Normandie, Havre, 1879. 

Society Ingenieurs Civils, Paris, 1881. 

Society Geologique, Paris, 1880. 
Germany : 

Naturhistorischer Verein der Preussischen Rheinlande und We&tphalens, 
Bonn, 1881. 

Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen, Bremen, 1880-81. 

Nat. ges. Gesellschaft. Isis in Dresden, Dresden, 1881. 

K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Gottingen, 1881. 

Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins von Hamburg- Altona, Hamburg, 1881. 

Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, Hannover, 1879. 

Die Physikalisch-Okomische Gesellschaft, Konigsberg, 1876-80. 

Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Munchen, Munchen, 1880. 

Der K. Sternwarte bie Munchen, Munchen, 1881. 
Italy : 

Del Re Institute Di Studi Superiori e Di Perfezionamento in Firenxe, 
Florence, 1880-81. 

Societe Toscana Di Scienza Naturale, Pisa, 1881. 

Cosmos. Di Guido Cora, Torino, 1881. 
Mexico : 

Museo Nagional De Mexico, Mexico, 1880-81. 
Netherlands : 

Koninklijkf Akademie Van Wetenscappen, Amsterdam, 1879-80. 

Seciete Hollandaise Des Sciences a Harlem, Harlem, 1880-81. 

Archives Du Musee Teyler, Harlem, 1879-81. 

Koninklijk Nederlandsch Meteorologisch Iustitut, Utrecht, 1879-80. 
Sweden : 

Kongliga Svenaka Vetenskapo- Akademie, Stockholm, 1876-81. 






Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology 



££Ls <h^Ls££o^£ 


Tywauf 2~^. /Tt+f 

M^** 1 






Prqfsssor in University Colltgt, Toronto. 

In the American Naturalist for December, 1882, I announced the 
discovery of this Demodex in pieces of pork-skin submitted to me 
by Mr. R. Awde, Inspector of Food for the City of Toronto. The 
portion of skin was thickly studded with white tubercles, varying in 
size from a pin's head to a pea ; these did not project much above 
the surface of the epidermis, but on reflecting the skin the larger ones 
were seen to extend into the subcutaneous tissue. The tubercles are 
enlarged sebaceous glands filled with hundreds of mites in various 
stages of development. The parts of the body chiefly affected are 
the mouth, cheeks, flanks, belly, and inner surfaces of the legs. 

Mr. Awde asserts that one in twenty of the pigs sent in to market 
in Toronto during the pork season, are affected to a greater or less 
extent with this cutaneous parasite. In view of such frequency it 
is somewhat singular that its occurrence has not hitherto 1 been 
recorded elsewhere, except by Dr. J. Csokor, of the Veterinary 
Institute at Vienna, Austria, who found in 1879, a herd of swine 
from Galicia affected in this manner, and described the Demodex 
causing the disease as a new variety, I), phylloides. 

The skin in these swine was, however, much more seriously 
affected, the collections of mites in the glands having caused the 
formation of subcutaneous abscesses frequently as large as a hazel- 
nut, which in one or two cases had become confluent on the inner 
surfaces of the legs. Mr. Awde has never observed any such cutane- 

1 After publishing the note in the American Naturalist, I learned that Dr. A. J. Johnson, of 
this city, to whom Mr. Awde had submitted specimens of affected skin, had sometime ago 
recognized the parasite as a Demodex, and mentioned the fact of its occurrence at the meeting 
of the American Microscopical Society, 1881. 


ous abscesses. As the parasite is confined to the skin, and does not 
appear to affect the general health of the animal, he has merely 
ordered the removal of the skin from the parts involved, a precaution 
which is entirely sufficient to render the flesh useful for food. 

My observations have served to establish the complete agreement 
of my specimens with those of Osokor. I have accordingly concluded 
that a synopsis of his paper, which is probably accessible only to a 
few of those who may be interested in the matter, with a copy of his 
excellent figures, may stimulate enquiry into the distribution of this 
parasite in America, and perhaps into the means best adapted to 
hinder its attacks becoming so formidable as represented by Dr. 

Dr. Csokor's paper considers : 

1. The history of hair-sac mites in general. 

2. Their systematic position. 

3. The natural history of D. phylloides in particular. 

4. Its occurrence and mode of life. 

1. — Species op Dehodex occur in the sebaceous glands and hair 
follicles beside the nose in man, occasion forms of mange in dogs 
and cats, and have been recorded (but merely in isolated cases) from 
the sheep, horse, ox, and Surinam bat. The best known forms hare 
been distinguished by Megnin as three varieties : 

D. folliculorum hominis. 
D. folliculorum cams. 
D. folliculorum cati. 

A good many experiments have been made with a view to ascer- 
tain whether the Demodex of the dog is capable of being transferred 
to man, and vice versa, and although some results appear to render 
likely the possibility of both methods of transference taking place, 
yet the weight of evidence unquestionably points the other way. 

The mode of occurrence of the Demodex of the dog is so totally 
unlike that of the Demodex of man, that apart from difference in 
form and size, we would be inclined to suspect a difference of at any 
rate varietal value. In man the Demodex is found on the hairless 
parts of the face and is perfectly harmless, in the dog it is found in 
the hairiest parts and brings about a troublesome and often fatal 
outaneous disease. Experiments, however, as to transference can 
hardly be depended upon, for although it is quite certain that the 


Demodex may be conveyed from dog to dog, yet experimental 
attempts to prove this have failed, and very often one dog in a 
kennel may be affected, and, although mingling freely with the 
others, may be powerless to infect these. 

2. — Systematic Position. 
After discussing the results of previous observers as to the 
anatomy of Demodex, he concludes under his second heading that 
five well marked varieties may be distinguished, all referable to that 

genus, viz. : 

D. folliculornm hominis. 
D. folliculornm canis. 
D. folliculornm cati. 
D. phyllostomatis (Ltydig). 
D. phylloides (Csokor). 

The genus he regards with Koch as forming an independent 
Family of the Acarina the DermatophUi. 

3. — Natural History of D. Phylloides. 

The form of the body and its division into three regions, head, 
thorax and abdomen (the last distinguished by the absence of 
appendages and of the chitinous framework present in the thorax), 
may be studied in Figs. 7 and 8. 

The result of a series of comparative measurements shows : 

1. That D. phylloides (length, male 0.22 mm., female 0.24—0.26 mm. ) 

reaches the minimum length of D. eanis, but never that of D. 

2. Head and thorax are together equal in length to the abdomen, 

while in D. canis they only form a third of the whole length of 
the body, and ia D. hominis only a fourth. 

3. D. phylloides is comparatively almost twice as broad as D. canis 

or hominis. 

4. The head in D. phylloides is absolutely both longer and broader 

than that of either D. canis or hominis, a circumstance which 

renders the analysis of the appendages of the head easier in this 

& The egg is more oral than spindle-shaped, and both it and the 

larval stages are longer and broader than the similar stages in 

D. canis and hominis. 
6. There is more difference between D. phylloides on the one hand, 

and IX canis and hominis on the other, than there is between 

these two laat-mentioaed varieties. 

278 on demodex phylloidks. 

The Skin. 

In the abdominal region the cuticle is transversely striated, an 
appearance which Osokor attributes to segmentation. In the head 
the cuticle is not so closely applied to the underlying parts as in the 
rest of the body — a clear margin resulting, to which Megnin has 
applied the term epistome. In the thoracic region the cuticle is 
locally thickened along certain ridges which thus form a chitinous 
framework. The mesial element of this is the sternum, which gives 
off laterally four pairs of epimera, and projects also beyond the 
origin of the last pair of epimera almost as far as the anus. The 
first pair of epimera run obliquely forwards and form the boundary 
between the head and thorax. The basal joints of the four pairs of 
appendages are movably articulated to the outer thirds of the 
corresponding epimera. 

The appendages of the head are three pairs, viz. : 1 pair of 
mandibles, 1 j>air of maxillae, 1 pair of pedipalpi, and an impair 
stylet-like structure between the maxillae (Ig, Fig. 11\, which, 
together with these, forms a piercing apparatus, while the mandibles 
and pedipalpi move chiefly from side to side, and are therefore 
masticatory. All of these appendages are attached to the cephalic 
segment, (cp, Fig. 11). On the cephalic segment are also to be 
noticed two punctiform ocelli (oc, Fig. 11), and close beside the 
contour of the pharynx (ph, Fig. 11) are two openings (dc, Fig. 11) 
apparently belonging to glands in connection with the pharynx. 

The development of the cephalic segment and its appendages is 
illustrated in Fig. 1-5. First a retraction of the granular contents 
is noticeable (Fig 1 ), then a demarcation of the hyaline region as 
head (Fig. 2), in which an anterior notch containing a pyramidal 
outgrowth is bounded by two lateral curved processes j these are 
the future pedipalpi, while the pyramids by a division in the middle 
line (Fig. 3), and the subsequent longitudinal division of each half 
gives rise laterally to the mandibles, medially to the maxillae 
(Fig. 4-5). 

The maxillae are curved rods 0.01 mm. in length, (tux, Fig. 11). 
Although chiefly piercing organs, they can also be moved from side 
to side. 

The pedipalpi are three jointed, the middle joint being soft, while 
the basal and terminal joints are provided with a chitinous frame- 


work, which projects on the terminal joints into three inwardly- 
directed hooks. 

The mandibles are 0.04 mm. in length, and in form resemble a 
pair of shears with rounded points, (md, Fig. 11). 

The oesophagus is short, leading directly into the stomach, which 
occupies the whole of the thoracic cavity, and is possessed of rudi- 
mentary caeca answering in position to the appendages, which give 
the stomach a wavy contour when seen from the side. (Fig. 9). 
The anus is close behind the sternum. 

In accordance with the views of Leydig, the refractive corpuscles, 
which are to be seen towards the posterior end of the body in the 
adults as well as in all stages of development, are regarded as urinary 

A rudimentary tracheal system is present, which is represented in 
Fig. 10. No stigmata have been made out. Between the longi- 
tudinal tracheae are two reniform bodies which Csokor is inclined to 
regard as central organs of circulation. 

Csokor studied the locomotion of the Demodex in oil on a hot 
stage. He found that the movements of the mites became very 
lively with increased temperature, and is inclined to attribute non- 
success in experiments as to transference to the absence of a suitable 
temperature for encouraging locomotion. Pedipalpi, head and legs 
are all active in locomotion ; the head is capable of lateral as well as 
vertical movement ; at a high temperature, also the abdomen may 
move upon the thorax so as to form an angle with it. The legs are 
3-jointed, (Coxa, Tibia and Tarsus ; see Fig. 11), but only the two 
latter take part in locomotion, the tarsus being capable of invagina- 
tion into the cavity of the tibia. Each tarsus terminates in five 
equally long claws. 

One of the most important of Csokor's results is the establishment 
of three ecdyses or moults which take place (1) between the egg 
and the six-footed larva (Fig. 2) ; (2) between the six and eight- 
footed larva ; and (3) between the latter and the adult. 

4. — Occurrence and Mode op Life. 

Under this heading Csokor mentions that in the smallest tubercles 

50 — 60 mites may be reckoned, in the larger 500 — 1,000. The 

cast-off cuticles are found towards the centre of the tubercle, the 

younger stages towards the duct of the gland, and the adults 


towards the base and periphery of the gland, head downwards. 
That the mites are air-breathers is apparent from the little 
bubbles constantly forming under the cover-glass from specimens 
recently pressed out of a gland. 

As the whole of the herd observed by Csokor (22 animals) were 
attacked by the Demodex, he considers that its transference from 
pig to pig is evidently more easily effected than is the case with 
D. canis. The explanation of this is to be sought for in the dirty 
habite of the pig and uncleanly condition in which they are kept 


Fio. 1.— Ripe egg of D. phylloides, 

Fig. 2. — First ecdysis : head with rudiments of jaws and ocelli ; crenate 

outline of thorax due to the developing extremities ; granule* 

posteriorly may be urinary concretions. 
Fio. 3. — First 6-footed larva ; appendages of head already well advanced ; 

6 short feet. 
Fio. 4. — Second ecdysis : the jaws in the form of four rods, larval case 

striped posteriorly. 
Fio. 5. — Eight-footed nymph ecdysis beginning posteriorly. 
Fio. 6. — Last ecdysis, within the larval skin is the fully developed mite. 
Fio. 7. — D. phylloides : male, ventral aspect — the small fissure near the 

front of the ventral surface of the abdomen is the anus, in front 

of this two folds represent the penis. 
Fio. 8. — Female, ventral aspect — the abdomen contains an egg undergoing 

segmentation ; genital and anal fissure behind the sternum. 
Fio. 9. — Female, lateral aspect — the crenate outline towards the dorsal 

surface of the thorax is the contour of the stomach ; the egg 

inclines towards the genital fissure ; the transverse striping of 

the abdomen is seen to stop abruptly at the thorax. 


Fig. 10. — Female, dorsal aspect — the branched tubes are tracheal ; the 

median renif orm bodies hearts. 
Fig. 11. — Appendages and skeleton of head : 

rnd —= mandibles ; 

mxl = maxillae ; 


= pedipalpi ; 


= ocelli; 


= ligula; 


=- pharynx ; 


= openings of glands ; 


= sternum ; 


= epimera ; 


= coxa ; 


= tibia ; 


= tarsus. 

Fig. 12. — Section of skin of pig, with sebaceous gland filled with mites ; 

incipient inflammation. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, were drawn with Hart oc. 2, obj. 8. 
Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10 with oc. 2, obj. 7. 
Fig. 11, oc. 6, obj. 11. 
Fig. 12, oc. 3, obj. 4. 





Professor in the Presbyterian College, Montreal. 

In several published articles, some of which were read before the 
Canadian Institute, I have given comparative vocabularies illus- 
trating the connection of the American languages with those of the 
Old World. Among ethnologists there is a strong prejudice against 
this mode of procedure, a prejudice arising partly from an unwilling- 
ness to undertake the labour necessary for an appreciation of the 
results obtained ; partly, it may be, from a suspicion that the 
vocabulist has been too anxious to prove his point to be scrupulous 
about the means ; and, in particular, from the possibility or prob- 
ability that the resemblances exhibited are nothing more than such 
chance coincidences as will appear more or less in comparing any 
two languages in the world. A similar prejudice might have 
opposed, and in many minds probably did for a time oppose, the 
reception of the Indo-European family of languages, for the resem- 
blances presented in their vocabularies as compared among them- 
selves are not a whit more striking than those which characterize a 
comparison of the languages of north-eastern Asia with those of the 
principal native races of North and South America. This, however, 
distinguishes the two linguistic fields ; the Indo-European is infinitely 
better known. Now, speaking of that field, Professor Max. Miiller 
tells us that, as far as etymological science is concerned, identity or 
similarity of sound or meaning is of no importance whatever. This, 
of course, is true when we are dealing with individual words, but to 
apply such a rule in the case of a general comparison of vocabularies 
would be to remove the foundation on which the classification of 
languages has been laid and from which comparative etymology has 
sprung. Ajs well go to the extreme at once, and, with Schleicher, 


assert that grammatical construction is the only test of linguistic 
affinity, as if no great changes had taken place in such construction, 
soul of language though it be, even within the period of modern 
history. Putting aside such extreme views, or perhaps, as it would 
he more just to term them, extreme statements, and asking the 
philologist to suggest some valid criterion of relationship among 
languages which we deem to be connected and whose grammatical 
systems are, to say the least, not discordant, he will probably invite 
us to discover among them such a process of phonetic change as has 
been illustrated in the case of the Indo-European languages by the 
well-known Grimm's law. Now it is precisely such a law, or a 
portion of such a law, that I profess to have found, after a somewhat 
laborious and careful examination of those New and Old World 
languages which may constitute provisionally the Khitan family. 

The name requires explanation. About the middle of the tenth 
century, a foreign horde, whom the Chinese annals know as the 
Khitan, descending from the north, took possession of Mantchuria, 
and extended their sway over the whole of Northern China. For 
two centuries they maintained themselves as the rulers of that 
empire, being recognized in Chinese history as the Liao Dynasty, 
and were then expelled to the north-east by the Nyuche, a supposed 
Mantchu tribe, who ruled in their place as the Dynasty of Kin. It 
was these Khitas or Khitan, for the final n is the Khita mark of the 
plural, who gave to the Celestial Empire its mediaeval name Cathay. 
Some of the Chinese historians derive the Khitan from the desert of 
Kobi, but, farther to the north about the sources of the Yenisei, and 
throughout Southern Siberia according to Tartar tradition, their 
remains are found. These are tumuli, similar to the mounds of this 
continent, containing arms and ornaments, and sculptured inscrip- 
tions upon adjoining rocks in an unknown hieroglyphic character. 
The Tartars call the tumuli Li Katei, or the tombs of the Cathayans. 
Tumuli of the same character as those of Siberia, accompanied in 
many cases by cup shaped and other rude sculptures agreeing in out- 
line with those found in many parts of this continent, appear in 
India, where they are regarded as the work of a Turanian people, 
the Indo-Scyths of history. These must have been none other than 
the Kathaei of Arrian and Strabo, whom Alexander the Great 
encountered at Sangala in the Punjaub. The very name Sangala is 
Khitan, for from the Songari River the Khitan are said to have 


descended upon China ; to the country of Saghalien they retired ; and 
their presence farther east in Japan is marked by the straits of 
Sangar. Sangura again or Sagura was the name of a river in the 
country of the Khita or Hittites, according to the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions, and its ethnical character is apparent in its use as the proper 
name of one of the greatest Hittite monarchs, Sangara of Oarcheniish. 
Several native references to the Indian Sangala, as well as that of 
Isidorus Characenus, make it plain that its population was not 
Aryan, but Turanian or Indo-Scythic. In the third century, A.D., 
these Indo-Scytbs were expelled or subdued, and at that point the 
migration northwards through Tartary to Southern Siberia must 
have commenced. It is natural to suppose, in the want of definite 
information, that the Kathaei or Khitan reached the Punjaub from 
the west by skirting the northern boundary of the Persian empire, 
arriving in their Indian home at or before the fourth century, B.C., 
when Alexander found them there. The Persian chronicles class 
among the northern peoples of Touran the Khatai, and link them 
with Shankul, Prince of Hindustan, another Sagala or Sangala. 
The original cause of their movement eastward was the capture of 
the Hittite capital Carchemish on the Euphrates by Sargon, King of 
Assyria, in 717 B.C., and the consequent dispersion of a brave and 
restless people unwilling to live under a foreign yoke. Many tribes, 
as has been shown by Professor Sayce, Dr. Hyde Clarke, and others, 
found their way into Asia Minor, where Hittite dynasties reigned 
down into the days of Rome's supremacy. Others, long ages before, 
when the Kheti invaded the land of the ancient Pharaohs, leaving 
their Syrian domain, planted colonies in northern Africa, and even 
penetrated into Europe. But the great bulk of the Hittite population 
took refuge in the Caucasus, and from thence by dint of pressure, 
internal and external, forced its eastward way along the route that 
has been traced in retrograde order, from the Caucasus to the 
Punjaub, from the Punjaub to the Yenisei, from the Yenisei to the 
Songari, and thence to Corea, Japan, the Kurile Islands, Kamtchatka, 
and, finally, as far as the Old World is concerned, to the Aleutian 
chain. They carried with them their practice of mound building, 
their peculiar hieroglyphic character, and their own geographical 
and tribal nomenclature. The mounds begin with the Tells of 
Syria, are followed on the west by the Lydian and other similar 
tombs of Asia Minor, on the east by the tumuli of the Caucasus, 


India, Tartary, Siberia and Japan, and on this continent give name 
to their otherwise unknown architects, the Mound Builders. At 
Carchemish and Hamath, in Phrygia and Lydia, the Hittite hiero- 
glyphics strange and distinctive remain as monuments of Khitan 
empire and journeyings. The Cypriote syllabic notation has bor- 
rowed largely from them ; the Libyan and Kelt-Iberian alphabets 
are their descendants. Some of the more characteristic symbols 
appear on rudely sculptured rocks in India ; the alphabet of Corea 
preserves many forms identical with those of Hamath ; and, in this 
western world, the few surviving inscriptions of the Mound Builders 
are unmistakably Hittite, while the Aztec paleography is but an 
adaptation of the ancient symbolism of Syria to the productions and 
necessities of a new land. The Hittites of the Hebrew Scriptures 
are the Kheti of the Egyptian, and the Khita of the Assyrian 
records, the Ketei of Homer, who left their name to the Keteus river 
in Mysia, the Kathaei of the Punjaub, the Katei of Siberia, and the 
Khitan of Chinese history. When, in the 12th century, the 
Aculhua Tepanecs, traversing the length of the North American 
continent, arrived in Mexico within the borders of the Chichimec 
kingdom, they sought to conciliate its monarch Nopaltzin by the 
tidings that they belonged to the same ancient stock from which he 
was descended, that namely of the Citin, a race illustrious by its 
nobility and heroic deeds. Hamath, a Hittite word, yields its 
meaning only when we discover it in the native name of Japan 
which is Yama-to, the mountain door ; and this again explains the 
Bible expression, " the entering in of Hamath." Hittite colonists, 
or Greeks who had dwelt with Hittites in Asia Minor, carried the 
word into Europe as Haemus and Hymettus. The Kathaei carried 
it with them to India, where it became on Aryan lips Himavat, 
afterwards to change to Himalaya. Among the survivals of the 
ancient name on this continent I may mention Yuma, that of a tribe 
in south-western California to which, with the other members of the 
family so designated, I shall have occasion to refer more than once, 
and Yemez, the name of a Pueblo people of New Mexico. The 
languages of these two peoples are undoubtedly Khitan. Another 
group of Khitan names to which I can only briefly refer, as I have 
already directed attention to them in my paper on " Hittites in 
America," has been linked with the Kathaei by writers on Indian 
antiquities. These have supposed that the Kathaei and the Ksha- 


triyas are one and the same. The Kshatriyas also were Asuras, and 
of the Asuras were the Pisachas. With these three names, Asura, 
Kshatriya, Pisacha, may be compared the Basque Euskara, Haiior, 
Basque and Guipuzcoa, the Caucasian Iskwria or Dioscurias, the 
Dioscurian Castor, who found his way into classical mythology, 
Aba8ec/i and Schapsuch, the Khita (of Syria) Sangara, Jshieroih and 
Khupuskia, the Huron-Iroquois Tawiscara, AluUsistari and Jouskeha 
and the Peruvian Huasoar, Ayatarco and Pasco, together with the 
Kheti Ashtar, the Dacotah SeepoJiskah, the Muyscan Bochica, and 
many other isolated members of the triad in other tribes and 

The original physical features of the Khitan must be found on 
this continent in regions more or less remote from European influ- 
ences, for in Spain and the Caucasus, in India, and even in Japan, 
foreign intermixture has so changed the type that little but language 
and tradition remain to point out a Khitan origin. The measure of 
Khitan culture was probably never in excess or greatly in excess of 
that which anciently prevailed in Mexico and Peru. The savage 
independence of Khitan character appears equally among the tribes 
of the Caucasus and the Koriaks of Siberia, on the one hand, and 
among the Dacotahs and Iroquois of this continent, on the other: 
It is language, however, that determines the relationship of the 
various members of this once central and historical but now widely 
scattered family. 

Of the African and Indian members of the dispersion, I prefer 
for the present to say nothing. In Europe the Basques, with their 
polysynthetic language are the most westerly of the Khitan. In 
the Caucasus, under modified grammatical forms, the same language 
survives among the Lesghians, Mizjeji, Circassians, and Georgians. 
In Central Siberia the Yeniseians are the remnant of the Katei, 
whose inscriptions are as unintelligible to them as those of the Mound 
Builders to our Indians. Of the same family are the whole of Dr. 
Latham's Peninsular Mongolidae, namely, the Koriaks (including the 
Tchuktchis) of Siberia, the Kamchatdales, the Ainos, Coreans and 
Japanese, together with the Yukahiri within the Koriak area. 
The leading American divisions of the Khitan are : in the northern 
continent the Dacotahs, Huron-Iroquois, Choctaws, Cherokees, 
Natchez, Adahis, Shoshonese, the Pujunis and Yumas of California, 
Pueblos Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, the Sonora tribes, the 


Aztecs and the Lencas; and in the south, the Muyscas of New 
Granada, the Quichas, Aymaras, Atacamenos, Sapibocones and 
Cayubabas of Peru, and the Chileno family, embracing the Chilians, 
Pampas Indians, Patagonians and Fuegians. The Dacotah, Huron- 
Iroquois, Choctaw, Shoshonese, Pujuni, Y.uma, Pueblos, Sonora and 
Lenca divisions comprise many dialects, and, as I propose to treat 
the Chileno division as one under the name Araucanian, the same 
will be true concerning it. The dialectic differences of the Basque 
are few, as are those of the Circassian and Mizjeji, but the Georgian 
has four dialects, and the Lesghian at least ten. The Yeniseian, 
Koriak, Kamchatdale, and Aino divisions each present tribal and 
dialectic differences, and the language of the Loo Choo Islands pro- 
vides a complement to that of Japan. These dialectic differences 
are valuable as furnishing the laws of phonetic change within the 
bounds of a single language, and as aiding in the application of simi- 
lar laws to forms of speech widely separated geographically. 

Instead of setting forth in this paper the whole of my compara- 
tive vocabulary of over 150 words in the various languages and 
dialects of the Khitan family, which would be more likely to con- 
fuse than to convince, I prefer for the present to restrict myself to 
an exhibition of some of the relations of one such language to its 
connected forms of speech. The language selected is the Huron- 
Iroquois in its various dialects, the Huron, Tuscarora, Nottoway, 
Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, <fcc. This is one of the 
most peculiar and difficult members of the family, differing from all 
the others known to me in this particular, that no one of its dialects 
possesses the labials 6, p, v, f f or the liquid and labial m. The 
nearest approach they can make to a labial sound is to, and where 
m cannot be similarly represented it must be replaced by another 
liquid, n. With the Huron-Iroquois language I compare first of all 
that member of the family which, following the line of Khitan 
migration backwards, is the most remote from it, namely the Basque 
of northern Spain and south-western France. Grammatically the 
two languages agree, for it has been rightly said that the Basque is the 
most American of the Old World tongues known to philology. A better 
acquaintance than is at present possessed of the languages of north* 
eastern Asia would doubtless modify such a statement. Still it is well 
to be on a right footing with tbe grammarians, although one of them, 
M. Vinson, a distinguished Basque scholar, who, some time ago, pub- 


lished an article comparing the Basque with the Iroquois, failed to 
find the grammatical accordance of the languages borne out by the 
lexicon. This, however, arose from the fact that M. Vinson had 
not made a special study of the Iroquois, and that he had neglected 
the geographically intermediate languages which, in some respects, 
furnish the key to the common origin of the Iroquois and the 


Take, for example, the Iroquois word for tooth, honozzia, onotchxa. 
It is easy to perceive the relationship between these forms and the 
innotay, noti, of the Choctaw, the ente of the Natchez, the noto of 
the Shoshonese, and even the neas, nagha, of the Lenca. But 
where, it may be asked, is the similarity between these names for 
tooth and that of the Yuma, which is aredoche t The Basque dis- 
plays the relation. Its word for tooth is hortz, ortz, or, in the plural, 
hortzac, ortzac. The unaspirated ortz, somewhat drawn out as is 
generally the case in the pronunciation of uncivilized man who has 
abundance of time for his conversation, becomes, without any conso- 
nantal change worth noting, the Yuma aredoche. If, however, we 
apply the rule which transforms the Basque r into the Iroquois w, 
then ortz becomes ontz, and hortz, the aspirated Labourdin and Bas- 
Navarrais form of the word, hontz, thus furnishing us with abbrevi- 
ated but distinctly recognizable equivalents of the Iroquois onotchxa 
and honozzia. In the Kasi Kumuk dialect of the Lesghian the 
Basque aspirate is strengthened into k, kerUhi being its rendering of 
hortz. Indeed it may almost be said to be a rule that the Basque 
aspirate, as an initial letter at least, becomes the Lesghian guttural. 
The Quichua of Peru follows the same rule, and surpasses the 
Lesghian in its attenuation of the vowel, by changing kertshi to kiru. 
Thus the two forms onotcJtia and kiru, which appear to present no 
feature in common, are found to have the same origin. 

A similar instance is that of the Iroquois kclanquato, which de- 
notes the moon, but also the sun. The Pueblo word for sun is 
hoolenwah, with which the Yukahiri name for the same orb, yelonsha, 
invites comparison. But in the Basque the equivalent for kelan- 
quaw, the moon, is hilargia ; and, just as the Yuma aredoche cor- 


responded with the Basque ortz, so does the Yuma hullyar almost 
perfectly reproduce the Basque kttargia. Let the Iroquois n be- 
come r, and kelarquaw is the Basque hilargia and the Yuma hullyar. 
The Quichua, still retaining its original guttural, changes hilargia 
and hullyar to coyllor, but employs the word to designate not the 
moon but a star. It is worthy of note that the Yukahiri of Siberia, 
which renders the sun as yehnsha, calls the moon kininsha, thus 
replacing the I as well as the r of hilargia by n, and preparing the 
way for the Aino kunezu and another Iroquois form, kanaughquaw. 

An Iroquois word for an axe or hatchet is ahdokenh, and this is 
the Koriak adaganu. Turning once more to the Yuma, the pheno- 
menon presented in aredoche and hullyar is repeated, for the Yuma 
word for an axe is atacarte. Here sgain we meet with the Basque, 
for atacarte is to aizkora as aredoche is to ortz. In Aino and Ja- 
panese the Basque word takes a prefix m, and aizkora becomes 

The Yuma gives us kooruk for the adjective old, and the Iroquois, 
akaion; here also the Yuma and the Basque agree, for in the latter 
language old is agnrea. But in the Lesghian both forms appear, 
for, while the Avar and three other dialects accord with the Basque 
and Yuma in herau, two, the Akush and Kubetsh, are in harmony 
with the Iroquois, ukna and okna being their respective renderings. 
In North America the Dacotah also gives two forms, that of the 
Sioux or Dacotah proper being kon, and that of the Upsarokas or 
Crows, karrahairea. The double form karrahairea is itself far from 
singular. The Lesghian tribe of the Avars, besides fierau, uses 
mirvara, which becomes noorkoor in Corean, porugur in Aino, and 
furuberu in Japanese. 

A remarkable word for egg is the Basque arratuUzia. The appli- 
cation of the rule to r and I reduces arraultzia to annauntzia, which 
is almost the sound of the Iroquois word onhonehia. The Quichua 
agrees with the Iroquois in changing the I to n, but retains the r, 
and removes the initial vowel ; thus arraultzia becomes runto. A 
similar elision of the initial vowel takes place in Kamtschatdale, 
which furnishes the two forms — lilchatsh corresponding with the 
Basque, and nyhatch according with the Iroquois. 

In all the Khitan languages there is no radical distinction of ad- 
jective and verb. Indeed almost any word may become a verb. 
Taking the word dead, therefore, we find it represented by the 


Basque substantive so called, erio, heriotce, aud the Iroquois adjec- 
tive kenha. But kenha is the same word as heriotce, for, while the 
Lesghian tribes, Tshar and Kabutsh, render it by chana like the 
Iroquois, the other Lesghian tribes, Dido and Unso, agree with the 
Basques in calling it haratz. The Dacotah sides with the Basque in 
karrasha, and the Peruvian Aymara with the Iroquois in hinata. 

A road or street in Basque is kliarrika, but in Iroquois chanheyens. 
The Dacotah, which the late Lewis Morgan proved to be of the same 
stock as the Iroquois, furnishes the more appropriate form kanga, 
while the Lesghian reconciles the Basque and it by its duplicate 
renderings chvldu and chuni. The Corean rejects the termination 
which appeai-s in kharrika and chuldu and calls a road klr. 

The Koriak ennen, innaen, a fish is the Basque arran, arrain, and 
the same with the prefix of a guttural is the Iroquois kunjoon. So 
the Iroquois enia a finger is the Basque erhia, and the Basque oscola, 
the bark of a tree, is the Iroquois askoonta. Again, the Quichua 
rejects the initial vowel and calls bark kara. The t of askoonta 
which is not found in oscola is probably a euphonic addition merely, 
since it frequently appears, as in ourata, a leaf, the Basque orri, in 
ashuchtu, a hand, the Basque escua, and Dacotah sake, and in kihade, 
a river, the Kamtchatdale kiha. 

II. — The Iroquois replaces the Basque m by an, en, on; and the 
Basque b follows the same rule as m when it is the equivalent 


One of the best known Iroquois words is onontes, a mountain, 
figuratively employed to denote a governor or great personage, as 
onontio, the beautiful mountain. This form onontio probably explains 
the Hittite word mati in the Hamath inscriptions, which I have 
translated " king." However, the Iroquois onontes is the Basque 
mendia. In South America the Basque form is almost given back 
in the Araucanian mahnida, but the Cayubabas of north-eastern 
Bolivia, a people allied to the Quichuas, are Vasconibus Vasconiores 
and turn the Iroquois onontes into iruretui. 

The word tongue in Basque is mia, mihia, the Lesghian mitz and 
mas. The application of the rule transforms mas to ennas, which is 
just ennasa, the Iroquois tongue. The Georgian form is ena. 

The Caucasian m is frequently represented in Basque by b. Thus 
the Lesghian mussur, muzul, the beard, is the Basque bizarra. 


There is little doubt that the Lesghian form is the more ancient and 
radical. In the Atacameno, a Peruvian language of the Quichua 
family, musur survives, not indeed as denoting the beard but the 
hair. The Iroquois therefore instead of rendering the Basque b by 
w recognizes the original in m and calls a beard onwskera. 

A similar word, bwrua, the head in Basque is the Lesghian mier, 
maar, the G'orean mart, the Dacotah marshaa, the Sonora moola, the 
Cayuliaba abararcama and nahuara-cama. Accordingly in Iroquois 
its form is not taara but anuwara. 

The radical part of the Iroquois cniorhene, to-morrow, is enior, 
and this is the Basque btiuir, liar, biyar. While the Iroquois agrees 
with the Guipuzcoan and Biscayan dialects of the Basque in suppress- 
ing the medial aspirate or guttural, it refuses to recognize the initial 
by and thus claims affinity with the Georgian michar and the Corean 
myongir. The Yuma gives back the Georgian form in mayyokal ; 
while the Dacotah and Cherokee, preserving the Iroquois form, 
prefix a sibilant, shinnakshare and sunahla being their respective 

No unscientific collector of verbal coincidences would dream of 
associating the Basque bizkhar, the back, with the Iroquois ohnaken. 
But when we learn that the Basque bizkhar is the Lesghian machol, 
it is easily perceived that by the application of the first law machol 
becomes maehen, and, by that of the second, machen is transformed 
into onachen. 

III. — When the Basque b is represented by the same letter, or a 


A Basque adjective meaning great and wide is zabala. In 
Lesghian it appears as chvaUal, chvallase, and similar forms are fur- 
nished by the Shoahonese, Aztec, and Atacameno, namely, oboloo, 
yzachipul and caput. The first rule changes the Basque and Lesghian 
I into the Iroquois n, and, by this third rale, the b and v of these 
two languages become w. Hence we have kowanea, the Iroquois 
word. It is to be remarked that in certain Lesghian and Iroquois 
dialects the labial disappears altogether, the Lesghian kunosa being 
the counterpart of the Iroquois hons. 

The Basque word for grass is bdharra. Here the Caucasian and 
Basque agree, for hdkarra is the Georgian balaehi. Accordingly the 


Iroquois form is wennokera, a term illustrating the first law as well 
as the third. 

The Basque dialects furnish us with two words for hair, ileac and 
biloac. In Iroquois also we find aroc/da and iverochia or ahweroehia. 
The first form corresponds with the Lesghian ras 9 the Aino ruh, and 
the Dacotah arra. In the second we meet with the Circassian abra. 
The final ac of ileac and biloac is the Basque mark of the plural, and 
is the same in origin and in function as the Iroquois ke. 

Although not entitled to rank as a law of phonetic change, it is 
worthy of note, as tending to simplify the exhibition of the common 
origin of Basque and Iroquois, that tlie Iroquois frequently differs 
from the Basque by inserting a dental between the letters n and r f for 
purposes of euphony. 

Thus the Iroquois kanadra, bread, is the Basque janhari, janari, 
food ; for the initial j, as we learn from M. Lecluse, though pro- 
nounced as in French in the canton of Soule, and as in German in 
that of Labourt, assumes the power of the Spanish letter in Gui- 
puzcoa, and may be represented by kh. 

The verb to love in Basque is onerechi, oniritzi, in which it is easy 
to recognize the Yukahiri anoorak t and the Japanese noroke. In 
Yuma the word is awvonoorch. Three Iroquois forms are emloorooh- 
quah, aindoorookwa and enorongwa. 

A large number of words in Basque and in Iroquois coincide in 
sound and in signification, and for such coincidence I have so far 
been able to discover no law. Among these may be mentioned the 
Iroquois garioha, bird, which is the Basque choria, the Lesghian zur, 
the Aymara chiroti. The final ti of the Aymara has also appeared 
in hinata, dead, as compared with the Iroquois kenha and the 
Lesghian chana. The Iroquois white, which English missionaries 
write hearagea and the French kenraken, is the Basque churia, the 
Japanese kiroi t the Loo Choo ehirusa, the Lesghian tchalasa, and 
the Quichua yurac. An Iroquois word for dog is tschierha, the Sho- 
shonese schari, the Mizjeji (Caucasian) tkari, the Georgian djogori, 
and the Basque zacurra. So the Basque hezurra, bone, is the 
Iroquois ohskereh, and the Cherokee ookolah ; and the Basque aztala, 
leg, is the Iroquois okotara, and the Lesghian ultur. While geree, 
an Iroquois word for tree, agrees with the Basque chara and the 
Quichua kullu, meaning wood, another Iroquois form, kaeet, is the 
Lesghian hueta } guet, the Basque zuaitz, mhaitz, and the Aztec 


quahuit, quauitl. The Khitan terms for thunder are like the Semitic 
gul y ad. The Lesghian seems to furnish the type in yurgur, which 
is approached by the Basque curciria, ifiwrzuria, and aggravated in 
the Koriak urgirgerkin. The Georgian modifies the harsh sound by 
dropping one of the r's, as in gurgin and kuchUi, the latter of 
which corresponds with other Koriak forms, kyhal, kyigaJ.a, and with 
the Kamtchatdale Kychichlizen, The Choctaw has the two forms 
jyrajaa and hiloha ; the Yuma stops short at aker ; but the Iroquois 
furnishes a word kawseras that agrees more perfectly with the Old 
World forms. 

I have already referred to the Yuma dialects (the Yuma or 
Cuchan, Maricopa, Mojeve, Dieguno), as valuable members of the 
Khitan family for comparative purposes. Two Yuma words for 
cold are xetchwr and hutseelo. The former accords with the Dacotah 
Kootsheere and the Iroquois oUorai, which the Basque changes to 
atsbero, while in hutseelo we find the Lesghian chuatzala. The con- 
nection of the Iroquois onyare, neck, with the Basque cinzui-ra 
might seem doubtful, as the Basque sibilant and guttural prefixes- 
are generally more conspicuous by their absence than by their pre- 
sence. But the Yuma form Jtenneeil shows that it is the Iroquois 
which errs by default in this respect. The YukahirijomweJ restores 
that original form which would naturally have been looked for in 
the Basque, and leads the way to the Lenca ampshala. The Lesghian 
word gabur, which could naver be evolved out of cinzwrra, naturally 
rises out otjomud. 

The Iroquois onuste, maize, and the Basque arto t art/to, have little* 
in common. The Yuma tarrichte, however, dropping the initial t 
and applying the first rule as if it were a Basque word, becomes. 
annichte. Another Yuma form is terditch, with which may be com- 
pared the Lesghian zoroto and the Circassian nartouh, and with these 
the relation of the Basque arto, artho is easily perceived. 

Still another Yuma word meaning to speak is atchahquerck. This 
is undeniably the Aino iiakguru. But another Aino dialect gives 
idakuwa, and this prepares us for the Iroquois atakia and the Basque 
itzegin. The nearest word to the Yuma hawed, meaning a river, is 
the Aymara hahuiri or hawiri, and this is plainly the Lesghian uor, 
chyare, and the Basque tiharre, uharha. In chyare, by the appli- 
cation of the first rule, we detect the Iroquois kahionha. 


Iii some cases the Basque word, while agreeing with the Iroquois, 
differs from the Lesghian, so that both Iroquois and Basque must be 
brought under the first rule, in which Lesghian must take the place 
of Basque. Thus the word for name is in Iroquois chinna and in 
Basque icena, while the Lesghian form is zar. 

Certain roots also which I have not found in Basque unite the 
Lesghian and the Iroquois. Such is the Lesghian surdo, night, 
which is the Iroquois asunto. Another Lesghian form chur agrees 
with the Aino attiru. The Lesghian ras, a feather, is the Iroquois 
onatsa. The Iroquois word for rain, iokennores, is not very like the 
Lesghian Kasi-Kumuk form kural, but is at once recognisable in that 
of the Akush dialect, which is kunili. In fact the phonetic changes 
which I have pointed out as existing between the Basque and the 
Iroquois are really found operating in greater or less measure within 
the bounds of individual K hi tan languages both in the Old World 
and on this continent. Even the Kamtchatdale, which generally 
accords with the Iroquois, gives occasionally a Basque form, as in 
kcJiaifta, the belly, as compared with the Iroquois kchonta. 

Before concluding the list of examples, which, however tiresome 
to enumerate, I feel are due from me to those who would themselves 
judge the validity of the laws which I have enunciated, I wish to 
set forth the relations of two connected Iroquois words the deriva- 
tion of which has long been sought in vain. The first is the word 
for house onushag, kanuc/ua, anonchia, kanonsa. Beginning near 
home, the Shoshonese niki and Sonora nihki should not be foreign to 
the Iroquois forms, especially as another Shoshonese form kanuke 
almost reproduces the Iroquois kanuchsa, and as the Sonora kaliki is 
the same word. The Shoshonese has still another form liki, which 
is the Araucanian ruka, and the Lesghian rtik. If, however, we ask 
how the Iroquois forms anonchia and kanonsa obtained their double 
n, we must be referred to the Koriak, which renders the Lesghian 
ruk by oranga, and this the Iroquois changes to onanga, anonchia. 
The Aztec colli, different as it may appear, is the same word, for 
the Sonora which gave us kaliki abbreviates this in certain dialects 
into kari, from which colli is derived by the simplest of all phonetic 
changes. The other word is that which gives name to our Dominion, 
kanada, kanata 9 a village. Nobody would dream of associating it 
with the Natchez word wait, and yet their derivation is one. Hie 
language of the Yenisei furnishes the original term, kelet, koleda, 


unless we are disposed to admit the prior claims of the Circassian 
sheeklay or the Georgian kalaku 

Nothing can prove more convincingly the wonderful vitality of 
words even among peoples devoid of literature than the comparison 
just instituted between the Basque and the Iroquois. If it be 
allowed that the separation of the two stocks only took place at the 
time when the Hittite empire was overthrown by the Assyrian 
Sargon, for certainly it can be placed at no later period, then it fol- 
lows that 2,600 years have passed since the ancestors of the Vascones 
and those of our Hurons and Iroquois mingled their voices on the 
banks of the Euphrates. But if, as is far more probable, the Basques 
reached their Spanish home by way of Northern Africa, this journey 
must have been undertaken long centuries before, when that Shepherd 
tide of conquest, in which the Khebi formed a mighty wave, was 
driven back upon the desert sands and the Mediterranean shore by 
the great Egyptian Pharaohs of the 18th dynasty. When Moses 
was still a child, and the ancient Hebrew language had not yet 
assumed a literary form, the Khitan wanderers carried their imperish- 
able speech across the Libyan sands to plant it at last in the remotest 
bound of the European continent. 

Even now we hear much of the Atlantis theory, of the population 
of America from Western Europe and Africa by means of a sub- 
merged continent, or by such brave sea daring as brought Columbus 
to the New World, and the veiy connection of the Basque and 
Iroquois languages tempts the question : May there not be truth in 
such a theory f But language, which has established the relationship 
of the peoples, refutes the theory. Our Huron-Iroquois came not 
to the east first but to the west, not to the south but to the north. 
Their features, their religion, their character and customs are dis- 
tinctively Koriak, and their appearance upon the stage of American 
history began at a time when, had Biscay or Morocco been their 
starting point, they must have brought with them some traces at 
least of mediaeval culture. Euskara and Basque, names of a people 
only in Spain, are to the Iroquois Tawiscara and Jouskeha, gods or 
divine ancestors of the race, whose memory has vanished long years 
ago from Guipuzcoa and Navarre. The Basque is a seaman, but 
some other race than his own, that of his mother, it may be, who 
gave the Euroj>ean tint to his dusky complexion, must have taught 
him to hold the sail and brave the dangers of the ocean, for the 


Khitan, fierce, warlike, indomitable, as many of their tribes have 
proved themselves on mountain and plain, have never taken rank 
among the masters of the sea. Their very passage to this Western 
World has been the stepping stones of the Kurile and Aleutian 
Isles, with land in sight for almost all the way. 

To return to language ; we look in vain in our Basque lexicons 
for the compound words of the Iroquois tongue, but in Koriak, in 
Kamtchatdale, and in Japanese, we discover, not indeed the precise 
words, for a few centuries may suffice to alter these, but some of the 
elements of which they are composed. Take, for instance, the 
Iroquois word for silver. It is hwichtan-oron. I am not sufficiently 
versed in ancient Iroquois to know the meaning of its component parts, 
but there can be no doubt that the first of these, hwiclitan, is the same 
as wychtin in the Koriak word elnipel-wycJuin, denoting the same 
metal. An Iroquois word for the colour yellow is cheena-guarle, 
and guarle is apparently the same word as karalfo in the Kamtchat- 
dale ducKlrkarallo % which moans not yellow indeed but green, colours 
not always distinguishable by savages, for the Koriak uses the same 
term, nijxL-tihacluxin, for both. Another Iroquois word for yellow is 
hotgikkwa-rogon, of which the latter member, royon, corresponds 
with grachen in the distinctive Koriak term for yellow, nuuUl- 
graclien. We are on a surer foundation in regard to the Iroquois 
woids for red, two of which are otquec/t taroku and quwen-tarogon. 
The first part of each word is a variation of the terms otweacha, 
hutkwensa y blood. The Koriak red is nitshel-raclien, although nitsliel 
is sometimes used alone. The latter Koriak word does not seem to 
denote blood. Still the rachen of nitshel^racJitn, red, and the grachen 
of nuntel-gracJien, yellow, are doubtless variations of the Iroquois 
rogon of Jtotyikkwa-rogon, yellow, and the tarogon of quwen-tarogon, 
red. The explanation of these terms is found in the Japanese. One 
of its words for red is chi-darake-no, literally, •' smeared with blood," 
for chi denotes " blood," and darake, or with the particle darake-no, 
means " smeared with." Hence the Iroquois words for red, in which 
we have already found the equivalents of the Japanese cAt, blood, 
plainly exhibit their Northern Asiatic origin, for taroku and tarogon 
are the Japanese d«rake and y as well as the raclien and 
grachen of the Koriak. Taking the Japanese also as the more 
correct form of the language, it follows that the Iroquois have been 



more careful of their speech than the Koriaks. Hie Atlantis 
theory gains no support from philology. 

If in this paper I have not exhibited the relation of the Iroquois 
dialects to those of all the divisions of the Khitan family, it is not 
from lack of material or in order to avoid any difficulty. I have 
purposely chosen for comparison languages the most remote in place 
and in time of separation from the original toague, languages of 
peoples most unlike in present feature and character, whose sole con- 
necting link has been supposed to be the common possession of a 
complicated grammatical system marked by polysynthesis. That I 
have succeeded in showing the relation of these languages to one 
another and at least to some of the intermediate members of the 
Khitan family, will be granted, I doubt not, by all true philologists 
who do not shut their eyes at antecedent improbability. 


The Iroquois replaces 


Basque I and r by n. 


Bulk Applibd. 



1. ortx, horte 

onts, honts 

onotchia, honozafc 


S. hilargia 




3. aixkora. 




4. agurea 




&. arraultiia 




6. herio 


ken ha 


7. kbarrika, 


(Daeotah, canga) 


8. arrain 



9. erhia 




10. oscola 




Note. — Illustration* of the Rule in other Language*. 

Basqus formb. 
L ortz — rytti, Koriak; aredoche, Yuma 
horts -» kertahi, Lesghian; kirn, Quickua 

S. hilargia — hnllyar, Yuma ; coyllor, Quickua 

3. aiakora — masakari, Japanese, Aino; ata- 

earte, Yuma 

4. agurea *-herau, lAsgkian; kooruk, Yuma; 

karraliairea, DaeoUh 

5. aiTaalUfo»li1chatsh,if«mfcAaftfaJe;ranto, 

«. herio, heriotce, =- haratz, Lesghian ; 
carraaba, Daeotah 

7. kharrika — share, Georgian: chuMu, 

Lesghian; kir, Carton 

8. arrain atian, Aztec 

» erhia » Ulish, Lesghian ; gelyhat, Koriak ; 

hal, Yenisei 
10. oscola =« kerki, Georgian ; ichilgyu, Koriak ; 
kara, Quickua 

Iroquois korms. 
onotchia — innntay, noti, Choctaw; ente, 

int, Natchez; noto, Shoshone*; neaa, 

nigh, nagha, Lenca 
kelanquaw = gailgen, Koriak; yelonsha, 

Yukahiri ; hoolenwah, Pueblos. 
ahdokenh «= adaganu, Koriak; tlateconi, 

akaion — ukna, okna, Lesghian; kon, 

onhonchia, — nyhatch, Kamtchatdale ; nanki, 

kenha — cliana, Lesghian; hinata, Aynara 

chanheyens — chnni, haul, Lesghian ; canga, 

Daeotah ; hinah, Choctaw 
kunjoon — ennen, innaen, Koriak; henn, 

Hatch ez; kan u , A ymara 
enia « onkahah, Dacitah 

aakoonta — kani, Georgian (skin) ; cangha, 
chonha, Daeotah 




The Iroquois replaces the Basque m by an, en, on, and the Basque ft 


Basque. Caucasian. Iroquois. English. 

1. mendi mta. Georgian onontes mountain 

suntu, J^sghian 

2. mia, mlhia mitt, man, Lesghian ennui tongue 

en a, Georgian 

3. bizarra mussnr, muzul, Le$gkian onwikera beard 

4. burna mier, maar, Lesghian onuwara head 

6. biar, bihar, bigar miehar, Georgian enior-hene to-aortow 

6. bizkhar mac hoi, Lesghian ohnaken back 

Note. — Illustrations of the Rule in other languages. 

Basque and Caucasian forms. 
1. mendla — mahnida, Araucanian ; 

pinujidtsh, Kamtchatdale 
8. mia, mas — matt, motto, Mixjejl 

8. bizarra, mnssur — musur, Alacameno; 
rauznl, (hair) 

4. burns, mier, maar — mari, Corson ; 

marshaa, Dacotah ; moola, Sonera ; 
abara-cama, Cayubaba 

5. biar, miehar » inyongir, Conan ; 

mayyokal, Yuma; miecar, Yuma 
(morning) ; emukulas, Kamtchatdale 

6. bizkhar, machol — ushiro, Japanese 

Iroqoois roans, 
onontes — suntu, Lesghian; neit, Koriak 

nenichaba, Choctaw 
ennasa — ena, Georgian; onnor, YukahiH; 

neeighjee, Ducotah; yahnohgah, Cherokee; 

honiuee. Pueblos; anougin, Shoshonm; 

nenetl, Aztec ; ine, Cayubaba 
onwskera — hannockquell, Shoshonest (chin); 

huntur, Atacameno 
anuwara — nahuar-acama, Cayubaba 

enior-hene — unhaiel. Tnkahiri (morning); 
onnihile, Chottaw (morning); sonants, 
Cherokee (to-morrow and morning): 
shinnakshare, Dacotah (to-morrow and 
moruing) ; yanrne, Shoshontu (morning) 

ohnaken — senaka, Japanese 


The Iroquois replaces the Basque b by to when b is the equivalent 
of a labial in the Caucasian languages. 
Basque. Caucasian. Iroqoois. English. 

1. zabala chvallal, chvallase, Lesghian kowanea great 

2. belharra balachi, Georgian wennokera grass 
S. biloac abra, Circassian ahwerochia hair 


The Iroquois inserts a dental between the Basque w and r. 
Basque. (roquois. Other Languages. English. 

1. janari, Janhari kaiiadra kendowan, Koriak bread, food 


onerechi, oniritzi endooroohquah anorak, Yukahiri 

to love 

aindoorookwa noroke, Javanese 

awvonoorcn, Yuma 

Roots coinciding in Basque and Iroquois. 


Iroquois. Other Lanouagbs. 




garioha sur, Lesghian ; chiroti, Aymara 
kearagea kirol, Japanese : shirusa, Loo Choo 







tchalasa, Lesghian ; yurao. Quichua 
tschierha djogori, Georgian ; tkari, Misjeji 
schari, Shoshonese 




ohskereh ookolah, Cherokee 




okotara nttur, Lesghian 

le «, ^ 



geree kullu, Qmchua 
kaeet hueta, guet, Lesghian 
quahuit, quauitl, Axtee 

wood, tree 

zuaitz, zuhaits 



kawseras gurgur, Lesghian 

urgirgerkin, kyhal, kyigala, Koriak 


kychichllsen, kamtchatdale 

gurgin, kuchili, Georgian 

Jyrajaa, hiloha, Choctaw; aker, Yuma 



This Yuma dialects as aids to comparison. 

1. otsorai 

1 onyare 

8. omute 

4. atakia 

5. kahionha 

1. chinna 
f. asonto 
S. onata 

4. iokennorea 
ft. kcbont* 





arto, artho 


Othrr Lamgu/orr. 
chuatzala, Lesghian 

jonrael, Yukahiri 
arapehala, Lenoxx 
gabur, Lesghian 
soroto, Lesghian 
nartuch, Circassian 
Hakgaru, idakuwa, Aino 
nor, chyare, Lesghian 
hahuiri, Aynara 

(/Set also under Illustrations of Rule I.) 

xar, Lesghian 
snrdo, char, Lesghian 
rsa, Lesghian 
kamesh, Miejeji 
kanili, kural, Leeghian 
siarad, Leeghian 


neck, throat 

to apeak 

feather (wing) 

& onoshag, kanonaa ruk, Leeghian 

aheelday, Circassian 
kalaki, Georgian 

Othrr Lakouaorr, 
icena, Basque 
aslru, Aino 
haunt. Loo Choo 

chenar, Shoehorns* rain (hail) 

kchailts, KamtchatdaU belly 

xillantli, Aztec 

ruka, Auraeanian bouse 

kanuke, liki, niki, Shoehonese 

kalikf, cari. nihki, Sonora 

calli, Axtec ; oranga, Koriak 

kelet, koleda, Yenisei Tillage 

wait, batches 

The relation of compound words in Iroquois. 

L hwichtan-orm 
f. ckceoa-guarle 
ft. hotgikkwa-Togan 
4, ofeveefc-taroku 

•Infoef-wYchtin, Koriak 
dwJU-karallo, Kamtchatdale 
mtvteJ-grachen, Koriak 
niUhel-nchen, Koriak. 
oAf-darake, eai-darakeno, Japanese 





Vrqfmw of Biology in the Ontario Agricultural Colltg*. 

For some weeks past I have been occupied in identifying some 
Infusoria found in water from a pool in the neighbourhood of the 
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph. This was obtained during 
the past summer, and has been standing in a moderately warm spot 
since. Even during the time I have been engaged in investigating 
it, its fauna has varied considerably, depending, to a certain extent 
at least, on the temperature, which has been allowed to vacillate 
within somewhat wide limits. A lowering of temperature will no 
doubt cause the disappearance of certain forms, whereby other more 
hardy ones, in the struggle for existence, will, by obtaining more 
abundant food be able to propagate themselves, and hence appear 
more abundantly, and also no doubt it will act indirectly upon certain 
other forms by destroying their usual food, and thus eventually 
causing these forms to disappear also, although they may of them- 
selves be able to withstand the increased cold. 

The only reference I have been able to find to any researches on 
the influence of low temperature on Infusoria is contained in Semper's 
work on the Natural Conditions of Existence as they affect Animal 
Life. He there alludes to Rossbach's investigations as to the influ- 
ence of temperature on the pulsation of the contractile vesicle, which 
show that at 5° c. the contractions follow each other at long intervals, 
and at 3° c. a condition supervenes, which Rossbach has termed 
"chillcoma," from which the animal can be roused by increasing the 
temperature, but if it be long continued at that degree, death super- 
venes. These observations were conducted only with Ckilodon cucuL 
lus, Euplotes charon and Stylonychia postulate, and even in these 
forms considerable variation was observed. 


Many data, however, are yet required to elucidate the action of 
external conditions on these low forms, and my professional duties 
have not allowed of a sufficient inquiry into the subject to permit of 
any generalizations or instances being given here. 

In the following notes I do not pretend to give a complete list of 
all the forms observed, but shall merely deal with certain forma 
which seem to merit description. In the first place, however, it will 
be well to record the general zoological and botanical characters of 
the water. 

As to the vegetable life observed, there was in the first place 
always a largo quantity of a small species of Nostoc, apparently iT* 
lichenoides, var. vesicarium, usually mucous or hollow in the interior, 
the threads traversing the cavity being surrounded each with its own 
gelatinous envelope. Oscillator ice, Spirogyra, Protococcus and vari- 
ous forms of Chroococcacece were also present in considerable abun- 
dance, although towards the last the Spirogyra threads disappeared. 
Diatoms — principally Navicula sp. ? and Desmids belonging to the 
genera Cosmarium, Closterium, Scenedesmus and Ankistrodesmus 
were exceedingly numerous, and like the Nostoc were apparently not 
at all affected by cold. Latterly many Bacteria, Bacilli and Spirilla 
were present, and in regard to the latter I noticed, that when only a 
small portion of the slide was kept illuminated for a length of time, 
by the use of a diaphragm with a small aperture, they invariably 
congregated in large numbers at that spot, apparently showing that 
these low forms have appreciation of light. Engelmann, however, 
shows * that these forms only approach the light for the purpose of 
obtaining oxygen, which, under its influence, is given off from green 
algae, etc., only two bacterial forms being observed by him, which 
are attracted to the light for the light's sake — Bacterium chlorinum, 
which is of a green colour, and B. photometricum, slightly reddish in 

As to the animal life, in addition to Infusoria, many lower and 
higher forms were present. When first procured the water contained 
numbers of specimens of Daphnia pulex, De Geer, in company with 
whicli were an undetermined Oslracode, and Cyclops quadricomis. 
Of these the two former soon disappeared completely, the Cyclops 
disappearing when the water was exposed to a moderately low tern- 

i Berne Internat. ScL Biol, ix., 1881 Cf. Jonrn. Roy. Mier. Soc. it, 1882. 


peratare, reappearing when the temperature increased, the ova 
apparently not being affected at a temperature which destroys the 
adult animal. This is a well-known phenomenon, and is exemplified 
by many of our Insects, which perish in the Fall, but whose eggs are 
able to withstand the intense cold of Winter. These same remarks 
apply to the Rotifer Philodina citrina, which was also present in 
considerable numbers. A single Nematode worm, which I did not 
identify, and several examples of a Planarian were seen, the latter 
possessing a distinctly vacuolar parenchyma. Of the lower forms of 
life many examples were observed : Arcellce, especially A. derUata, 
AmcebcBy Actinophrys sol, and many FlageUata. Of these the Arcelfa 
persisted through all the changes, the Amcrfxz perished in low tem- 
peratures, and Actinophrys, having only appeared lately, has not been 
exposed to cold. 

With these preliminaries I shall now pass on to my observations 
on certain Infusoria, which I regret are somewhat incomplete, owing 
both to lack of sufficient time to perfect them, and more especially 
to the want of the necessary literature, which, for efficient work, 
shoud be continually at hand. 

Metopus, nov. spec. 

The genus Metopus was originated by Claparede and Lachmann 
for the reception of a species formerly described by O. F. Muller as 
Trichoda sigmoid**, and by Perty as an unknown form. It presents 
many peculiarities, and has hitherto been frequently mistaken for 
other forms ; Balbiani, for instance, mistaking it for the young form 
of Spirostomum ambiguum. It has been described from several 
localities in Europe, Claparede and Lachmann having found it at 
Berlin, Englemann at Leipzig, Stein at Tharand and Niegmegk (very 
numerous among Lemna polyorrhiza and toisulca), and Balbiani at 
Paris, but as far as I can ascertain it has not yet been described from 

The characters of the genus are thus given by Kent 1 : " Free- 
swimming, highly elastic and changeable in shape, normally elongate, 
oval, or fusiform, rounded at both extremities, cylindrical or only 
slightly flattened; the anterior portion usually twisted obliquely 
towards, and overlapping the left side of the ventral surface, sharply 

i Manual of the Infusoria. London. 1882. 


separated from the posterior portion ; peristome field furrow-like, 
commencing on left side a little distance from the anterior extremity, 
produced obliquely downwards towards the right in a groove formed 
by the oblique curvature of the body, and terminating in a short 
pharynx at or shortly past the middle line ; on the contraction or 
shortening of the body, the peristome with the pharynx tor the time 
describes a complete spiral circuit, the animalcule presenting in this 
condition a totally different aspect ; anal aperture postero-terminal ; 
contractile vesicle single, posteriorly located. Inhabiting salt and 
fresh water." 

With this definition of the genus my observations, although identi- 
cal in most particulars, do not exactly correspond. The points on 
which I differ are mainly the position of the anal aperture, and the 
number of contractile vesTcles. On reference to the figure (PI. 
fig. 1 ), it will be seen that I have represented the anus (a) as being 
postero-lateral, and I have done so only after having witnessed the 
emission of unconsumed food from that point. Claparede and 
Lachmann 1 did not observe the anus, but merely suppose it to be 
situated posteriorly. Stein, 1 however, distinctly states that it is 
postero-terminal, and on his authority it is so described above. As 
to the contractile vesicles, I have observed two, one situated in front 
of the pharynx (a. c. v.) and the other (p. c. v.) near the posterior 
extremity but not quite central. On first observing the form I did not 
see the anterior vesicle, probably on account of the constant rotation 
about their long axis which the animals performed, and which, as 
the vesicle is situated slightly in front of the junction of the over- 
lapping anterior portion with the posterior one, would render it liable 
to be overlooked. I, however, lately observed it in one form, but 
having lost it, and having not as yet discovered another, 1 am unable 
to confirm the observation. I would then alter these points of the 
generic definition so as to read, " anal aperture posterior ; contractile 
vesicle single or double." 

The only species belonging to this genus that I have been able to 
find reference to is M . sigmoid**, and for it the genus was formed. 
The descriptions of this form vary somewhat, but in no particular 
sufficiently important to establish a new species. The characters of 

» Etude* gar les Infusoires et Rhixopodes. 1858-1860. 
* Iter Organtanas der Infaiionthfer*. 


the form which I observed differ so very considerably from those of 
M. sigmoidcs, tlmt I think it necessary to regard it, however, as a 
new species. M. rigmoides is described by Claparede and Lachmann 
as having the buccal fossa bounded by cilia much more vigorous than 
those of the rest of the body. In the digestive cavity anteriorly are 
constantly found a number of granules, highly refractive, whose 
signification is still problematic, and which recall. very strongly those 
found frequently in Paramecium Aurelia, and in certain Naisula. 
The contractile vesicle is spacious, and lodged in the posterior half of 
the body, which is S-shaped. In the figure they represent the 
nucleus as a niorula-like structure. Engelmann 1 describes it thus : 
"It reaches a size of only 0.15 mm., posteriorly is bent towards the 
right not quite S-shaped, possesses at the posterior extremity some 
long bristles and at the centre of the body a usually curved reniform 
nucleus. Metopus possesses an adoral row of cilia of short bristles, 
which are however in a strange manner fastened not on the upper 
but on the lower side of the long peristome field. The upper border 
of the peristome bears the usual cilia, as well as tbe whole anterior 
half of the body." Engelmann's form accordingly differs from that 
of Claparede and Lachmann in the possession of terminal setae, 
which are neither mentioned by the latter authors in tbe text, nor 
represented in their figure ; also in the absence of the highly refrac- 
tive bodies, and in the shape and appearance of the nucleus. Stein, 
again, describes this same form as occurring in three distinct shapes — 
the normal, described above, the shortened, and the rolled up ; and 
also describes a bunch of terminal seta? and a terminal anus. He 
criticises Claparede and Lachmann's figure somewhat harshly, point- 
ing out the non-pourtrayal of the proper curvature of the posterior 
portion of the body, and the incorrectness of the structure of the 
peristome and the nucleus, and the absence of the terminal bristles. 
He evidently does not recognize the possibility of the form observed 
by the Swiss authors being different from that he describes. 

The form I observed differs from these descriptions in many 
respects, and the various differences may be discussed serially. 

(1) The twisting does not appear to be as extensive as described 
for M. sigmoides. On examining the figures of C. and L. it appears 
that the plane of the anterior half of the body is parallel with that 

» Zeft. Hir WJm. Zool. XL 1801. 


of the posterior half ; whereas in my form they are almost at right 
angles, and are more like £ngelmann's description, " not quite S- 

(2) The situation of the anal aperture. 

(3) The presence of two contractile vesicles. 

(4) The presence of terminal setae distinguish it from G. and L's 
form, but in this particular it resembles those of Engelmann and 

(5) The granules of the external portion of the protoplasm are 
arranged in rows so as to give the borders of the body a striated 
appearance, one stria apparently corresponding with each cilium. 
This appearance is particularly noticeable, and is not represented in 
any of the descriptions above referred to, and it may certainly be 
concluded that it was not present. 

(6) The nucleus (n) is situated near the pharynx, and is ovoidal, 
with an endoplastule. In this it resembles Stein, but differs from 
the other observers. 

(7) The peristome field does not bend round the body as repre- 
sented by Stein and C. and L., but merely runs obliquely downward, 
being expanded at the top. This is dependent on the lesser extent 
of the twisting in my form. 

As regards the size of my form, it ranges from 0.17-0.19 mm., 
while Engelmann's measured 0.15 mm., and, according to Kent, 
Stein's (?) measures yfoj ifo of an inch, equivalent to 0.08-0.3 mm., 
a sufficiently large range to include almost anything, but which may 
be explained by the existence, according to Stein, of three distinct 
forms. Of the pharyngeal cilia, I can say nothing, not having suffi- 
ciently studied them. 

Taking into consideration these various points, I think the form 
under observation was sufficiently characterized to be denoted a new 
species, but so much variation occurs in the descriptions of M. sig- 
moides, as given by different observers, that I do not feel justified in 
giving my form a name, until by renewed research I have fully 
satisfied myself of its specific distinctness. 


The genus Scyphidia belongs to the solitary, sessile VorticMida, 
and attaches itself to foreign objects by means of an acetabuliform 
organ. Considerable doubt prevails as to the true position of many 


forms described as belonging to the genus. It was originated by 
Dujardin for the reception of S. rugosa, and Perty described another 
form as S. patula. Lachmann, 1 however, disputes both these identi- 
fications, regarding the forms as being merely recently attached im- 
mature VortxedUz, and admits to the genus only two forms discovered 
by himself, viz. : S. limacina attached to small PLanorbis, and 
S. physarum attached to Physafontinalu. Kent, in his Manual of 
Infusoria, refers two other forms to this genus. Promentel described 
a form as S. rugosa, front which, however, it differed in possessing 
three contractile vesicles, and a very short footstalk ; this Kent 
terms S. FromenteUL IV Udekem's Gerda inclmans he also places 
in this genus, the discoverer being somewhat undecided where it be- 
longed, having described it as belonging to the closely allied genus 
Gerda, while expressing a doubt whether it might not be referred to 
Dujardin'8 Scyphvlia, or to an immature form of his own EpUtylii 
tubificis. The form I had under observation (PI. Fig. 2.) presented 
a very close resemblance to this, differing, however, in some points 
from Kent's description. Unfortunately, I only met with a single 
example. This measured 0.075 mm., and was over three times as 
long as broad. The adherent disc I was unable to see, as the ex- 
tremity of the foot was constantly concealed among conferva. It 
tapers considerably posteriorly, and the body presents a fine trans- 
verse striation. The ciliary disc is elevated somewhat above the 
peristome, is inserted somewhat obliquely, and is capable of retrac- 
tion. The mouth occupies the other half of the peristome, which is 
furnished with a few bristle-like cilia. The ciliated pharynx leads 
down from the mouth towards the centre of the body. Immediately 
beneath the edge of the peristome and below the ciliary dise is the 
single contractile vesicle (e. v.), while below it was a granular ovoid 
body (n.), corresponding with which was a similar structure on the 
other side of the pharynx. I was not able to distinguish any con- 
nection between these two bodies, but imagine them to be portions 
of the nucleus. According to Kent's description, D' Udekem's form 
differs from mine in the comparative length and breadth, in the 
smoothness of the cuticle, and in the snout-like projection of the 
anterior margin when contracted. He also describes the animalcnle 
as being bent to one side when in the contracted state, and trans- 

*Ueber dar Organisation der Inftwtorieo, tnsbetondereder Vorticellinen Mullet'i Archlr. 18*6. 


Tersely wrinkled on the concave border. These points, however, do 
not appear to be of sufficient moment to authorize the establishment 
of a new species. 

A peculiar feature in the ingestion of food was noticeable, which 
1 have observed in no other form. Below the termination of the 
pharynx was a clear spot (V), which appeared to be ciliated on first 
looking at it, but the ciliation on further examination was seen to 
belong to certain structures contained therein. On watching it, it 
was seen to detach itself after a time from the pharynx and pass 
down the left side of the body close underneath the cuticle, the cilia 
continuing to work until it reached that point where the body com- 
mences to taper off into the foot, where it stopped and gradually disap- 
peared. In the meantime a new spot has appeared at the termination 
of the pharynx, and it in its turn passes through the same changes. 
I believe the explanation of this phenomenon is to be found in the 
manner of feeding. The clear spot is merely an enormous food 
vacuole, the animal not absorbing its food into the protoplasm of the 
body, until a considerable quantity of it has been collected, and the 
apparent ciliation of the vacuole, as stated above, is due to the pres- 
ence of ciliated forms in its interior. The appearance and disap- 
pearance of the vacuole is apparently rhythmical, but this was due to 
the animalcule being in a situation to obtain a large and constant 
supply of nutrition, but even then the intervals between the swallow- 
ing of the vacuoles varied considerably. 


These two forms occurred in considerable abundance, particularly 
the former, which, however, seemed to be rather susceptible to cold, 
while the latter was not affected. C. glaucoma (fig. 3) measures 
about 0.019 mm., and is covered throughout with bristle-like cilia, 
which, however, are capable of very powerful action. At the 
posterior extremity of the body (and not the anterior as has been 
stated) is the contractile vesicle (c. v.), and behind it an extremely 
long seta. The mouth is situated on the under surface of the body, 
and is provided with an exceedingly large hood-shaped retractile 
structure (h). These forms collect in large numbers wherever the 
light shines most strongly. Their motion is exceedingly rapid and 
jerky ; usually remaining at rest, when disturbed one after the 


other will give a quick sudden jump, settling to repose again almost 

C. margaritaceum (fig. 4) differs from the preceding in many 
respects, It presents the same hood-shaped structure (h) at the 
mouth, which is in the same position, but the hood is not nearly as 
large as that of C. glaucoma. It is somewhat large, measuring 
0.024 mm., presents a somewhat pearly appearance, and is covered 
with minute tubercles. The arrangement of the cilia is also very 
different, the anterior three-fourths being covered with ordinary small 
cilia, while at the posterior extremity are a few setae. It is con- 
stantly in motion, seldom resting, and never moving in the quick 
jerky manner characteristic of the other form. 

The two following forms I observed in water from the University 
creek, Toronto, which had been allowed to stand for some time, and 
was almost destitute of green matter. 


The striations in this form (fig. 5) are not easily seen, but may be 
observed most readily under oblique illumination. My object in 
mentioning it is to confirm, or rather partially confirm, a phenomenon 
observed by Kent. While watching one of these animalcules, I 
observed it suddenly leave the stalk, which immediately contracted, 
and swim away by means of the cilia of the disc, not developing a 
posterior circle as is usual in such cases. The consequences of this 
action I was unable to follow, as by the next morning the animal 
was dead. Kent, however, has been able to follow it farther, and 
states that it encysts, the cyst having a characteristic appearance. 


This form (fig. 6) occurred in considerable abundance. It was 
0.126 mm. in length, and is mentioned on account of the entire 
absence of the green colouring matter which usually characterizes all 
members of this genus. The red eye-spot (e) was however plainly 
visible. This was probably owing to their not being able to procure 
their accustomed food. Kent, in 1880, received specimens from 
near Birmingham, averaging 0.169 mm. in length, which presented 
the same peculiarity, which he attributes to the above mentioned 
cause. His forms were all exceedingly attenuate and stiff in their 
motions. Certain of. the forms I observed were capable of consid- 


erable movement, bending the body into a circle, or even twisting it 
to form a spiral, but still the movements were stiff and ungraceful. 
The so-called amylaceous corpuscles, (c) on account of the absence 
of pigment, wei*e remarkably distinct and almost tilled the body. 
They were much elongated. Dujardin imagined these structures to 
be carbonate of lime, but the occurrence of no effervescence on the 
addition of strong sulphuric acid at once disproves that supposition. 
As regards their amylaceous nature, some doubt exists in my mind. 
The constant association of starch with chlorophyll in the vegetable 
kingdom, and the similarity between the green colouring of Euglena 
and that of plants, has no doubt to a certain extent, led to the suppo- 
sition. But, as far as I know, no direct experiments as to the 
decomposition of carbonic acid gas by Euylenn have proved the 
colouring matter to be chlorophyll, and further, we have here an 
individual containing no green colouring matter, and yet possessing 
large numbers of the corpuscles. Iodine or Iodine and sulphuric 
acid stain amylaceous substances of a dark brownish-purple colour, 
and these bodies when subjected tp both these substances presented 
no such reaction, a fact, which, of course^ militates rather forcibly 
against the amylaceous theory. 

Guelph, January 25th, 1883. 


n. = nucleus, c. v. = contractile vesicle, v. = food vacuole, ph. = pharynx, 
h. = hood. a. = anal aperture. 

Fig. 1. — Metopus n. s. a. c. v. =■ anterior contractile vesicle, p. c. v. = 
posterior contractile vesicle. Zeiss obj. D., oc. 4. 

Pig. 2. — Schyphidia inclinans, D' Udk. v l = food vacuole undergoing ab- 
sorption. Zeiss obj. J., oc. 2. 

Fig. 3. — Cyclidium glaucoma, Ehrh. Zeiss obj. J., oc. 2. 

Fig. 4. — C. margaritaceum. Zeiss obj. J., oc. 2. 

Fig. 5. — Vorticella microstoma, Ehrh. Hartnack obj. 9, oc. 2. 

Fig. 6. — Euglena acus, Ehrh. C. amylaceous (?) corpuscles, e. = eye spot, 
m. ■= mouth. Hartnack obj. 9, oc. 2. 






I am of opinion that a topographical argument, so far as such an 
argument can be regarded as valid and satisfactory, can easily be 
framed out oi the names of the rivers, and mountains, and valleys 
of England, Scotland and Ireland, in favour of the theory that the 
branch of the Celtic family whose representatives now are the Gaels 
of Scotland and Ireland was the first to enter the British Isles ; and 
that those early Celts, after crossing into England from the Continent 
of Europe at what is now known as the Straits of Dover, extended 
north ward and westward until they reached the extreme portions of 
Scotland and Ireland. In his edition of Pritchard's "Eastern Origin 
of the Celtic Nations" (p. 57), Latham thus expands the views 
which Adelung advanced in his " Mithridates." " The Belgae, the 
author, t. «., Adelung, makes Kelto-Germans ; and connects them with 
the Cimbri, the doctrine running thus : That part of Northern Gaul 
which Caesar gave to the Belgae, though orginally Keltic, came to 
be invaded by certain tribes from Germany. These styled them- 
selves Kimri, or, as the Romans wrote the word, Cimbri . . . Belgae 
was the name by which the Gauls designated the Cimbri Some 
time, perhaps not very long before the time of Csesar, these Belgic- 
Cimbri, German in some points, Kelt in others, invaded Britain, 
until then an Erse or Gaelic country ', and occupied certain portions 
thereof until, themselves invaded by the Romans, they retired to 
Wales and thence to Brittanny. If so, the whole of the British 
Isles was originally Gaelic. If so, the language of Southern and 
Central Gaul was more or less Gaelic also. If so, the so-called 
British branch of the Keltic stock had no existence as a separate 


substantive form of speech, being merely a mixture." According to 
the reasoning of Adelung, therefore, the earliest settlers of the 
British Isles were those Celts who spoke Gaelic and whose descend- 
ants are the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland ; and the Cimbri, whose 
descendants the Welsh are, entered Britain at a later date. 

Nicholas, in his preface to The Pedigree of Hie English People, 
(p. 7), thus writes respecting the argument which he pursues in his 
book : li It is first shown that the numerous tribes found by the 
Romans in possession of the British Isles were all presumably of 
what is called the Celtic race, and presented only such dissimilarities 
as would arise from separation into independent Clans or States. 
. . . Although among these numerous tribes, the Cymry may 
rightfully claim pre-eminence, as that branch of the family which 
both sustained the heaviest shock from the Teutonic invasion and 
tinged most deeply the new race with Celtic blood — the Gaels 
having from remote ages pushed their way northward and into 
Ireland — the term ancient Britons cannot be confined to them, but 
must be made to comprehend in short all the early Celtic inhabitants 
of Britain and Ireland." 

It is important to notice that in the judgment of Nicholas, the 
Gaels pushed their way in the far-off past and before the arrival of 
the Cymry, northward and into Ireland : in other words, that the 
Gaels arrived before the Cymry in the British Isles, and that enter- 
ing these Isles in the south of England, they gradually extended to 
Scotland and Ireland. According to Nicholas (p. 34), Meyer assigns 
two principal routes to the Celtic tribes in their westward progress 
from Asia : " One route he traces through Syria and Egypt, along 
the northern coast of Africa, across the Straits of Gibraltar, and 
through Spain to Gaul, where it separates into three branches, one 
terminating in the British Isles, the other in Italy, and the third 
near the Black Sea. The other great stream of migration ran less 
circuitously and inore northwards through Scythia in Europe, .the 
shores of the Black Sea, Scandinavia, or Jutland, Prussia, through 
Northern Germany, the plains of the Elbe, and to Britain across the 
German Ocean. It is conjectured that the stream which came by 
Africa and Spain was the earliest to reach Britain. They may have 
been the Gaels." 

As to who the Cimbri were, and as to where their home on the 
Continent of Europe was, Nicholas thus writes (p. 31): "Local 


names in Jutland, and words in the vernacular of Schleswig and 

Holstein, are found to be Cymric. It is difficult to know why the 

Chersonese should be called Cimbrica at all, except for the reason 

that the Cimbri abode therein ; and it is impossible to account for 

the belief of ancient historians that this peninsula was inhabited by 

Cimbri, unless such was the case. Equally difficult is it to account 

for the adoption of the name Cymry or Cyniri by the people now 

represented by the inhabitants of Wales, unless we allow as the 

reason their relationship to the ancient Cimbri. The plain account 

of the name Cymro or Cymru is that it is a modification of Cimbri, 

just as Cimbri again, according to the testimony of Diodorus, is a 

slight modification of CimmeriL" Whatever other value the opinions 

whicli have been cited respecting the order in which the two divisions 

of the Celts entered the British Isles may have, a strong expectation 

will thus be formed that when the tojwgraphy of these Isles has 

beeu closely examined, it will corroborate the theory that the Gaels 

came at an earlier time than the Cymri from Europe, and that those 

Celts who still speak the Gaelic language are the descendants or 

representatives of the earliest Celtic occupants of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Nor, so far as the value of such a topographical argument 

is concerned, is it material to determine the question, as to whether 

there were races iu Britain before the Celts made their appearance, 

the desire being simply to ascertain what the Celtic names of streams, 

and rivers, and headlands, and mountains, and hillocks have to 

teach respecting the manner in which the Celts must have spread 

over the British Isles. In his Celtic ScotUnd (vol. 1, pp. 164, 226), 

Skene says; " Archaeology enables us to trace the previous existence 

of a people of a different raee, indications of which are to be 

found to a limited extent in the earlier notices of Britain and its 

topography. . . . The Celtic race in Britain and Ireland was 

preceded by a people of an Iberian type, small, dark-skinned and 

curly-headed." It will be generally admitted that the names of 

rivers, and lochs, and hillocks, and mountains, and headlands, and 

bays which are to be found in any country, furnish a very useful 

guide for determining who the earliest settlers of the couutry were, 

and who were the earliest races that had sufficient strength and 

importance, and continuance to leave indelible traces of their presence 

in the topography of the country. Such names as Ottawa, Ontario, 

Toronto, Niagara, Caughnawaga, Manitoba, «fcc., will always pro- 


claim that the Indians were at least the earliest occupants of any 
permanence or strength in Canada, and that whatever alterations 
may occur in our population owing to the unrest of modern times, 
the very names of our lakes and livers will continue to remind us of 
a time when the Indians had supreme, if not undisputed, sway in 
our Dominion. 

It will frequently be found that the leading names of rivers and 
mountains are very expressive, enabling us to perceive how very 
observant those early and untutored tribes were, and how remarka- 
ble their success was in framing names whereby the characteristics 
of stream, and hill, and loch, and headland are pourtrayed with 
faithful accuracy. 

In his article on Gaelic Language and Literature in the Encyclo- 
paedia Briiannica, Dr. MacLauchlan remarks that " Topography is 
a remarkable source of evidence and one that will be made to serve 
purposes it has never served as yet." Skene asserts 1 tUat " the oldest 
names in a country are those which mark its salient physical features 
— large rivers and mountains — islands and promontories jutting out 
into the sea. The names of rivers and islands are usually root- 
words, and sometimes so archaic that it is difficult to affix a meaning 
to them. In countries where the Topography obviously belongs to 
the same language with that spoken by the people who still possess 
it, though perhaps in an older stage of the language, it presents 
little difficulty. It is only necessary to ascertain the correct ortho- 
graphy of the names and apply the key furnished by the language 
itself in that stage of .its form to which the words belong. This is 
the case with the greater part of Ireland and with the Highlands of 
Scotland, where the local names obviously belong to the same Gaelic 
language which is still the vernacular speech of its population." 

The conjecture is at least pardonable that in the earliest migra- 
tion of the human race, when the knowledge and ingenuity of men 
were in the rudest form, and when in the tiny craft that then 
obtained, even adventuorous races would not care to face the storms 
of an open sea, the Celts who had their home in Gaul would natur- 
ally select the narrowest portion of the strait that divides England 
from Europe for the purpose of entering the British Isles. Calais 
is a faithful reproduction of Caolas — a Gaelic word which signifies 

» Celtic Scotland, vol I., pp. 212, 213. 


a strait, and which in its simplest root Caol is of frequent occurrence 
in Scotland. In such words as Na Caoil BJwideach, the Kyle$ or 
Strait 8 of Bute ; Caol ant-snaitnh Colintraive; Caol Mhuile, the Sound 
of Mull ; Caol lie, the Sound of Islay ; Ca >l Dhiura, the Sound of 
Jura, the first syllable Caol of Calais occurs. In Baile-Chaolai*, 
Ballachulish, at the mouth of Glencoe in the north of Argyleshire, 
there is an exact reproduction of Calais or Caolas. Baile-Chaolau, 
which may be regarded as the Shibboleth of English tourists, means 
" the village or hamlet of tlie strait." It is remarkable that there 
should be so striking a correspondence between the word Calais and 
many words in Scotland which signify strait or narrow arm of the 
sea. In Colne, the name of a river in Essex and of another river 
in Gloucester, compounded as it is of Caol and Amhainn, an, a river, 
and signifying, therefore, the narrow river, we have another example 
not far from Calais itself, of the root which enters into it. There is 
nothing unreasonable in the conjecture, that the Celts who gave its 
name to Calais and their names to the Kyles of Bute, and to many of 
the straits of Scotland, spoke the same language and were one and 
the same people. 

Dobhar is an old Gaelic word which signifies water or the border 
0/ a country : it has the same meaning in Irish Gaelic. Dobhar is 
found in Scotland in such words as Aberarder, the ancient spelling 
of which was Aberardour, i.e. the confluence of tfie water of the 
height. Dobhar is also present in the word Aberdour, the ancient 
spelling of which was Aberdovair, ie. the confluence of the water or 
stream : it is also present in Aberchirder, Aber chiar dur, the con- 
fluence of dark-brown water; and in Calder, which was formerly 
spelled Kaledover and Kaledour, i.e. Coille dur, the wooded stream. 
It is quite evident that the word Dobhar is of common occurrence in 
the Topography of Scotland. If we choose to assign to it the inter- 
pretation of the border of a country, we can discern a fitness in such 
a designation so far as the Celts of Gaul were concerned, Dover 
being to them the nearest portion of Britain. In any case, the 
words Calais and Dover are purely Gaelic, and have many kindred 
names in the topography of Scotland. Cam, the classical stream of 
Cambridge, is the Gaelic Cam, crooked. I sis, the classical stream of 
Oxford, is likewise a Gaelic word. In his Words and Places, Taylor 
maintains that I sis is a reduplicated form of is, one of the contrac- 
tions which the Gaelic word uisge assumes. " The Isis," he says, 


"contains the root in a reduplicated form, and the Thamesis or 
Thames is the broad Iris" Whether the interpretation which Taylor 
gives of Iris be correct or not, or whether we may find in that word 
the root eas a cascade, an eas, or a sios downwards, there can be 
little doubt that Isis is a Gaelic word. It is better to regard Tamh, 
the first syllable in Tamesis, as meaning quiet or silent, or as the 
root Tabh, water, which occurs in Tay and Tagus. 

The rivers Anne, in Devonshire, and Ehen, in Cumberland, come 
from amhainn, the Gaelic word for river. Esk, in Yorkshire, and 
Eskle, in Hereford, faithfully reproduce uisge, the Gaelic word for 
water. Devon is a contraction of da, two, and amhainn, an, river, and 
therefore means two rivers. The Exe in Devonshire, the Ouse in 
Yorkshire, the Ouse in Norfolk, and the Axe in Somersetshire, are 
derived from the same root uisge, water. Leven, in Yorkshire, is 
compounded of liath, hoary or grey, and amJiainn or an, a liver, and 
means the grey river. Don, in the same county, is a compound of 
dubb, black, and an, i.e., the black river, or it may simply be from 
domhainn, deep. Don is the name of a river in Aberdeenshire, and 
Doon, in Ayrshire, is the same as Don. Dee, in Cheshire, is com- 
pounded of da, two, and abh, water, Daabh, Deva, Dee, and means the 
two waters. Aire, in Yorkshire, the river on which Leeds is situated, 
is compounded of a, water, and reidh, smooth, i.e., the smooth water. 
It is the same as the river Ayr in Ayrshire, the river Aray in 
Argyleshire, and the river Arra in Tipperary. 

Tyne, in Northumberland, and also in Haddington, is from teth, 
warm, and an, a river, the warm river. 

Aldie, in Suffolk, is from aUt, a stream, and dubh, black or dark, 
the black stream. 

Lee, in Cheshire, is from liath, hoary. 

Leen, in Nottingham, is from liath, hoary, and an, the hoary river. 

Stour is the name of six different rivers, and comes from sturr, 
rough, uneven. 

Cover, in Yorkshire, is the Gaelic word cobhair, froth, and means 
the frothy river. 

Avon, which is the Gaelic word amhainn, occurs in many parts of 

Severn is from seimh, smooth or calm, and burn, water. 

The names of English streams and rivers which have now been 
adduced, may suffice to show, because they are undoubtedly Gaelic 


words, that tribes or people who spoke Gaelic must have preceded 
the Cymri or Welsh in England ; and that one and the same people 
gave, in the unrecorded beginnings of human settlement in Britain, 
names to the rivers and streams of England and Scotland. Altera- 
tions in the topographical names of England must have been made 
to a much larger extent than in Scotland or Ireland, in consequence 
of the successive and powerful waves of invasion that swept over it 
from the time of the Romans until the Norman conquest. 

The Gaelic word Dun (hillock or fort), which is of very common 
occurrence in Scotland, still survives in many parts of England. In 
Doncaster, with its Latin termination; in London, whose second 
syllable is supposed to be dun, the hill or fort on which St. Paul's 
Cathedral now stands ; in Dunstable, Dunmore and Dundry in 
Somerset, the word dun is to be found. Linn the Gaelic word for 
pool occurs in Lincoln and in Linn, as it does in Loch Linne, in 
Argyllshire, in Dublin and Roslin. Beinn (ben), the well-known 
Gaelic word for a hill, may be discovered in Penard or Beinnard, 
high hill y in Somerset, (the letters 6 and p being convertible), and in 
Penn in Buckinghamshire. Ceann, the Gaelic word for head, which 
occurs frequently in the Topography of Scotland and Ireland, appears 
in England in Kenne, in Somerset ; in Kennedon, (i.e., ceann an 
duin, the head of the hillock), in Devonshire ; Kenton, {ceann duin, 
head of the hillock), in Middlesex ; Kencet, in Oxfordshire, and 
Kencomb (ceann cam, the crooked head), in Dorsetshire. There is 
a striking similarity between Cheviot <in Cheviot Hills) and 
tiughad, the Gaelic word for thickness. With regard to England, 
Taylor remarks that " over the whole land almost every river-name 
is Celtic : most of the shire names contain Celtic roots, and a fair 
sprinkling of names of hills, and valleys, and fortresses bear witness 
that the Celts were the aboriginal possessors of the soil." 

When we turn our attention to Scotland, wo find that over the 
entire extent of that country, — in the names of mountain and glen, 
of strath and cony, of pass and headland, of stream, and loch, and 
river, in sequestered islands, as well as in the heart of large cities 
and centres of population and industry, words of the purest Gaelic 
are to be found, — words which serve to connect the present time 
with the far-off centuries, and to testify that in the Gaelic as the 
Scottish Highlanders have it and speak it, there is perpetuated the 
language of those early Gaels, who, before they could leave an 


indelible record behind them in the names of streams, and hills, and 
valleys, must of necessity have held for a long time undisputed 
possession of the country. 

It is noteworthy that, though for more than 1,300 years Gaelic 
has not been spoken in the South of Scotland, Gaelic words con- 
tinually occur in the Topography of that part of the Kingdom. A 
brief reference must here be made to a theory which has as its 
advocates such scholars as Chalmers in his Caledonia, Dr. Mac- 
Lauchlan and Taylor — the theory that at one time the Cymri occupied 
the region which was known as Strathclyde; and that the topo- 
graphical names of that portion of Scotland are Cymric and not 
Gaelic. Taylor, in his Words and J laces, thus writes (pp. 257, 258, 
259) : " The Cymry held the Lowlands of Scotland as far as the 
Perthshire hills. The names in the valleys of the Clyde and the 
Forth are Cymric not Gaelic. ... To establish the point that 
the Picts, or the nation whatever was its name, that held central 
Scotland was Cymric not Gaelic, we may refer to the distinction 
between ben and pen. Ben is confined to the west and north, and 
pen to the east and south. Inver and Aber are also useful text- 
words in discriminating between the two branches of the Celts. 
The difference between the two words is dialectic only, the etymology 
and the meaning are the same — a confluence of waters either of two 
rivers, or of a river with the sea. ... In Scotland the invers 
and aber* are distributed in a curious and instructive manner. If 
we draw a line across the map from a point a little south of Inverary 
to one a little north of Aberdeen, we shall find that (with very few 
exceptions) the invers lie to the north of the line, and the abers to 
the south of it. This line nearly coincides with the present southern 
limit of the Gaelic tongue, and probably also with the ancient 
division between the Picts and Scots. The evidence of these names 
makes it impossible to deny that the Celts of the Scottish Lowlands 
must have belonged to the Cymric branch of the Celtic stock." By 
way of refuting the theory which Taylor has thus expounded, in 
reference to the prevalence of Cymric and not of Gaelic names in the 
region which was known as Strathclyde, it will be sufficient for my 
present purpose to cite the conclusions at which Robertson and 
Skene have arrived after able and mature consideration of the 
theory in question. 


In his Historical Proofs of the Highlanders, Robertson thus 
writes : " The great number of genuine Gaelic names of places that 
exist in parts which we know were inhabited in the south-west 
of Scotland by Britons, undoubtedly prove that the Gael had there 
preceded them, and even lead to the conclusion that the British or 
Welsh occupation had only begun therein with the invasion of the 
Romans and under their protection. 11 In his valuable and ingenious 
work on the Gaelic Topography of Scotland, the same author, after 
an exhaustive examination of the theory in question, in the discus- 
sion of which his Celtic temperament sometimes assumes unnecessary 
warmth, concludes (p. 99) : " that instead of aber being, as Dr. 
MacLauchlan contends, in Scottish topography always joined to 
pure Welsh words, the truth is that in all Scotland there is not a 
single aber which has Welsh words joined to it. As to Dr. Mao- 
Lauchlan's second statement that aber is never associated with a 
a Gaelic word, the truth is that in the whole of Scotland every 
instance where words are joined to aber they are Gaelic. The abers 
are as invariably joined to Gaelic words as are the invert ; and both 
aber and inver were used to signify a confluence by the Gaelic- 
speaking race who originally gave all the Gaelic designations in 
Scotland, namely, the Caledonian Gael." Skene (Celtic Scotland, 
vol. I., p. 221), effectually disposes of Taylor's theory so far as the 
dividing line which the latter draws between the region of invers 
and abers is concerned. Skene thus writes : " This would be a 
plausible view, if true, but unfortunately there is no such line of 
demarcation between the two words. South of Mr. Taylor's line 
there are in Aberdeenshire 13 abers and 26 invers; in Forfarshire, 
8 abers and 8 invers ; in Perthshire, 9 abers and 8 invers ; and in 
Fifeshire, 4 abers and 19 invers. ... If these words afford a 
test between British and Gaedhelic, we might naturally expect to 
find as many abers' in what was the Strathclyde kingdom as in 
Wales, but there are no abers in the counties of Selkirk, Peebles, 
Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, Stirling and Dumbarton, 4 abers in Dum- 
friesshire, 6 in Lothian, and none in Galloway ; and when we proceed 
further south, we find nothing but abers in Wales, and no appear- 
ance of them in Cornwall." There can be no doubt that the 
Topography of what was known as Strathclyde is Gaelic and not 
Cymric, and that Robertson and Skene have successfully refuted the 
theory of Dr. MacLauchlan and Mr. Taylor. And, even were it 


granted that Cymric names occur in the Topography of Strathclyde, 
it would still be true that the names of streams, and hills, and valleys 
in that part of Scotland are purely Gaelic. 

Taylor correctly observes in his Words and Places (p. 203) : "That 
the river-names, more especially the names of important rivers are 
everywhere the memorials of the very earliest races. These river- 
names survive where all other names have changed : they seem to 
possess an almost indestructible vitality." The names of the streams 
and rivers that occur in the southern counties of Scotland are so 
manifestly of Gaelic origin,, that they refute the theory to which 
allusion has already been made, e. g. 

In Wigtonshire are Tarff (tarbh, a bull), the wild river. Cree, 
criadh, clay, perhaps- owing to the colour of the water. 

In Ayrshire are the rivers Ayr, a, water, reidh, smooth. Doon = 
Don, dubh an, the black or dark river. Girvan, town and river, 
garbh, rough, an, river, rough river. Irvine, town and river, lar, 
west, an, the west river. 

In Kirkcubright are Dee = da, two, abh, water, double water. 
Ken, ceann, a head. Urr, oir, a margin, from the direction in which 
it flows. 

In Dumfries (Dunphreas, the fort of the copsewood), Esk, ui&ge, 
water. Annan, an, quiet, and an, the quiet river. 

In Lanarkshire, Avon, amhainn, river, which flows into the Clyde. 
Douglas, dubh and glas, grey, the black, grey stream. Kelvin, coille 
an, the wooded river. Clyde =- Cliid « Cli, strong. 

In Peebles, Eek, uisge, water. Lyne, Linnhe, pool, as in Dublin, 
Loch Linnhe. Leithen, Uath, hoary, and an, the hoary river. 
Earn, Ear, east, and an, the east river. 

In the counties of Roxborough and Selkirk are some of the rivers 
that have been celebrated by Sir Walter Scott, e. g., Teviot taobh, a 
side, and aits, a place, from the course which the Teviot pursues. 
Ted, teud, a string, owing to the straight channel of the river. 
Gala, geal, white, and a, water, the white water. Tweed, tuath, 
north, and aite, a place, from the direction in which it flows. Yarrow, 
garbh, gharbh, rough. Enrich, an, river, riabhach, greyish, the 
greyish river. 

Those rivers in Strathclyde, whose names have now been given, 
are purely Gaelic and not Cymric, and therefore invalidate the 
theory that the Topography of Strathclyde is Cymric. 


In the Mull of Galloway, the word muli or maol, bald, is the same 
word that occurs in the Mull of Kintyre, and in Malin Head 
(Maolan), in the north of Ireland. Galloway is Galway in Ireland, 
and is a compound of gall, a stranger, taobh or thaobh, a side or 
direction. Tairbeart, the Gaelic word for Isthmus, which is of 
frequent occurrence in the Topography of Scotland, is found near the 
Mull of Galloway. There are in Wigtonshire such additional Gaelic 
names as Glenluce, gleann au luis, the glen of the plant : Drum more, 
Druim mor, the large ridge : Blairbowie, blar buidhe, the yellow 
plain : Loch Ryan, reidh an, the loch of the smooth river : 
Machriemor, the large field : Stranraer, erath an rogha fheoir, the 
Strath of the good pasture. 

In Ayrshire are Ballantrae, Bails 'n traighe tbwn or hamlet of the 
shore : Maybole, rnagh, a plain, baile, a town, the plain of the town : 
Mauchline, rnagh linne, the plain of the pool. Magh is a common 
word in the Topography of Ireland, e.g., Armagh, Mayo, Omagh. 
In Ayrshire are also Dairy, Dal-righ, the field of the king : Dunlop, 
Dim Luibe, the foot of the comer or angle : Largs, Learga, a plain, 
and a word of constant occurrence in the phrase Learga G/iaUda, 
the Lowland Largs. 

In the Valley of the Clyde are Strathaven, Straven, the strath or 
valley of the river; and Inbhiravon, the confluence of the river. 
Melrose is compounded of meall, a heap, and rois, ros a promontory, 
the projecting hill. Exldon is eile y another, and dun, a fort, the 
other fort or hillock. LirditJigow is compound**! of linne liath, 
dhubh, and accoixlingly means the grey-dark pool. The examples 
which have now been given from the Topography of Strathciyde 
may suffice to substantiate the conclusion, that the Gaels gave names 
to the rivers and prominent places of that region before the 
Cumbrians obtained possession of it. 

From that portion of Scotland which has always been inhabited 
by Gaels, it will be well to take a few topographical names merely, 
if for no other purpose than to show how strong and unmistakable 
the correspondence is between the names of the rivers and streams 
of England and of Ireland (as will subsequently be seen), and between 
those names which are acknowledged alike by friendly and unfriendly 
critics to be purely Gaelic. 

Achadh, the Gaelic word for field, is of frequent occurrence in the 


Topography of Scotland. Achadhmore, the large field. Achray, 
achadh reidh, the smooth field. 

Dal, another name for field, occurs in such words as Dal more, the 
large dale ; Dalness, dal an ei», the dale of the cascade ; Dalhousie, 
did na h-oime, the dale of the corner. 

Aber, a word of which mention has been made at some length 
already, compounded as it seems to be of ath, ford, and bior, water, 
water-ford, is frequently found in the Topography of Scotland, e. g. 

Aberdour, aber dur, water : the confluence of the water. 

Aberlour, aber, luath, fast ; dwr = the confluence of the rapid 

Loch Aber = the loch of the confluence. 

Aberfeldy, aber feathail, calm : the calm confluence. 

Ard means a height, e.g. 

Airdrie, ard an righ, the king's height. 

Ardentinnie, ard na teine, the height of the fire. 

Ardrossan, ard ro# fhonn = the land of the high promontory. 

Ardthornish, ard thor an eis, the high cliff of the cascade. 

No word is of more frequent occurrence in Gaelic Topography 
than amhainn, Avon, which is supposed to be a compound of abh, 
water, and -inne, a channel. In addition to the names of rivers 
which have been already mentioned in connection with the Topo- 
graphy of Strathclyde such names may be cited as : — 

Ness, an toe : the water or cascade. 

Carron, car amhainn : the crooked river. 

Nairn, an ear an : the east river. 

Orchy, oir, edge, and aclwdh : the edge of the field. 

Leven, Hath an : the hoary river. 

Cona, cnmhann, a : the narrow water. 

Bannockburn, ban cnoc burn : the water of the white hill. 

Baile, a farm, or town, or hamlet, occurs often, e.g. 

Balmoral, baile morail : the stately town. 

Balfour, baile fuar : the cold town. 

Beinn, ben, is everywhere to be found in the Topography of 
Scotland, e.g. 

Ben Wy vis, Beinn an uamhais, the hill of terror. 

Ben Nevis, nimh bhathais, the hill of the cold brow. 

Ben Cruachan, cruachan, a hip, the cone-shaped hill. 

Ben Mac Dui, muc dubh, the hill of the black pig. 


Cairngorm, the blue cairn or mound. 

Bennan, Beinn an, the mountain of the river. 

Benvenue, mheadJionaidh, the middle mountain. 

Benledi, Beinn le Dia> the hill of God. 

Dun (Dun), a hillock, is an appellative which is present in very 
many names, e.g. 

Duneidinn, dun eidinn, the hillock of Edwin. 

Dundee, dun dhia, the hillock of God. 

Dunbarr, barr t a point, the fort of the point. 

Words into which gleann, a glen, enters, are very numerous, e. g. 

Glencoe, gleann cumhainn a, the glen of the narrow water. 

Glenbervie, barr bhuidhe, the glen of the yellow top. 

Glengarry, gath ruith or garbh ruith, the glen of the straight or 
rough running [stream]. 

Goille is found in the first syllable of many words, e. g. 

Kildarroch, Coille daraich, the wood of the oak. 

Callander, Coille an darach, the wood of the oak. 

Kill, a cell or Church or burial ground, enters largely into the 
names of Churches which had graveyards attached to them, e. g. 

Kilcherran, kill Ciaran, the Church of Saint Ciaran. 

Killean, kill, IUeathain, the Church of the servant of St. John. 

Kilmory, Muire, the Church of Mary. 

Inver, a confluence is supposed to be compounded of Inne, a 
channel, and bior, water. The examples of it are numerous in the 
Topography of Scotland, e. g. 

Inverary, inbhir a reidh, the confluence of the smooth water. 

Inversnaid, snathad, a needle, the confluence of the needle. 

Inveresk, esk, uisge, water, the confluence of the water. 

Inverleitb, liath, hoary, the hoary confluence. 

Loch is the Gaelic word for lake or lakelet, e. g. 

Loch Aline, aluinn, splendid, the splendid loch. 

Loch Carron, car amhainn, the loch of the crooked river. 

Lochee, I an island, the loch of the island. 

Lochness, an eis, the loch of the cascade. 

Lochnell, nan eala, the loch of the swans. 

Loch Laggan, laggan, a hollow, the loch of the hollow. 

Locheil, eile, another, the other loch. 

Srath — Strath embraces a wider extent of land than gleann : 
words into which it enters as a component part are of frequent 
occurrence, e. g. 


Strathaird, aird, high : the high strath. 

Strathglass, glass, grey : the grey strath. 

Strathearn, iar an : the strath of the western river. 

Tigh, a hoxise, is present in such words as Tyndrum, tigh an 
druim : the house of the ridge. 

Tom, knoll, forms the first syllable in such words as Tom ban, 
the white knoll ; Tombreck, the spotted knoll. 

Torr, a hsap, appears in such words as Toraven, torr amhainn, the 
heap of the river ; Torantuirc, torr an tuirc, the heap of the boar ; 
Torness, torr an eis, the heap of the casade. 

TvLach, a kill or knoll, forms the first syllable of such words as 
Tullochgorum, the blue hillock ; Tillycoultry, tulach cut tir, the 
hillock of the back of the land. 

It is instructive to observe how in the names of the hills and 
valleys, of the lochs and rivers, of the prominent headlands and 
picturesque cascades of Scotland, the Gaelic of our time is undoub- 
tedly to be recognized ; and how the strongest link is thus established 
between the Scottish Gael of the nineteenth century and the Gael 
of it may be several centuries before the Christian era. 

The eary Irish annalists gave unbridled reins to a vigorous imagi- 
nation for the purpose of tracing the first settlers of Ireland from a 
very remote antiquity. Dr. Sullivan, in an article on Celtic Litera- 
ture in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, thus remarks : " In any case, 
the time has scarcely come for dissecting and analysing the curious 
tissues of legends . . . which constitute the mythical parts of 
Irish history. As in the case of other nations of middle and north 
Europe, the true chronological history began in Ireland either by 
contact with the Romans, or with the introduction of Christianity ; 
and like the mediaeval chronicles the genealogists tacked on the pedi- 
gree of Irish kins and chieftains to those of Genesis." 

The Topography of Ireland furnishes the most satisfactory evidence 
of purely Gaelic origin, and indicates that those who gave its names to 
the Topography of Ireland spoke the identical language which is now 
spoken in the Highlands of Scotland and in many parts of Ireland 
itself. The Scots, who gave the name to Scotland which it now has, 
came originally from Ireland. It is maintained that the word Scot 
is the Gaelic Scuit, a wanderer, and that from Scuit the Romans 
took the designation Scoti. Robertson remarks that Ammianus 
Marcellinus is the first writer that mentions the Scots, and that he 


calls them Scoti vag antes, i. e., the wandering Scots, proving thus 
that they could not be natives. Bede calls these marauders Hiberm, 
i. e., Irish, and Gildas says that " the Hibernian robbers return 
home." As it was only in the beginning of the sixth century that 
the Scots came to have any permanent home in Albin, it is evident 
enough that they came too late to have any material influence on the 
, Topography of that country. In his introduction to the Dean of 
Lismore's book, p. 28, Skene thus effectually disposes of the allega- 
tion of Irish historians that the language of the Scoti or of Gaelic 
Dalriada had subsequently to the ninth century spread, with the rule 
of a Scottish king, over the whole of the Highlands not embraced in 
that limited territory : " They (the Irish historians) have never 
attempted to account for the entire disappearance of the previous 
language, and the expulsion of the previous population of so exten- 
sive a district, so mountainous and inaccessible in its character, and 
so tenacious of the language of its early inhabitants in its Topography, 
which such a theory involve*" 

Were it true that the Scoti, who eventually succeeded in giving 
their name to the country which was formerly known as Albin, 
displaced the Celtic tribes of that country, it is very strange that 
no word representing St oti has hitherto found its way into the Gaelic 
language, and that to this day Scottish Celts are wont to say regard- 
ing themselves, Is Albannaich raise : I am a native of Albin ; Is 
Albannaich sinne : We are natives of Albin. Even respecting 
those inhabitants of Scotland whose blood is not Celtic and whose 
language is not Gaelic, the Scottish Gael always says, Is Albannaich 
tad : They are natives of Albin. A refutation of the opinion that 
the Scoti subdued or exterminated the Gaels who occupied Scotland 
before their time, may surely be found in the entire absence from the 
Gaelic language of any word representing Scotland. 

In turning attention to the Topography of Ireland, I shall, 
deferring to the extraordinary and sensible importance which Taylor 
assigns to the names of streams and rivers, first consider the names 
of the Irish streams and rivers that it may be seen how purely Gaelic 
they are. 

In Antrim are the rivers Bann, a bend or hinge ; Bush, buas y 
abounding in cattle; Braid, braghad, neck; Main, min, soft, gentle; 
and Don, dubh-an> the dark river. 


In Londonderry are Roe, ruadh, red; Foyle, Feabhal, fual, water; 
Cas, rapid ; Esk, uisge, water, — the name of a river that occurs in 
England and Scotland. 

In Donegal are the rivers Finn, pale, white ; Suilly, suileacJi, 
sparkling, or saileach, willowy. 

In Tyrone are Derg, dearg, red ; Mourne, muirn, delight. 

In Fermanagh are Erne, tor an, the west river ; Arney, iar an, 
diminutive west river. 

In Sligo, Gara, garbh, rough ; Easkey, uisge, water ; Avengorm, 
the blue river. 

In Mayo are Bangor, beann <har, mountain-winding ; Adar, ath, 
a ford, and dara, an oak, oak ford. 

In Gal way, Suck, suction, drawing, and Clare, flat or even, dear. 

In Clare, Fergus, /ear, person, one, gut, face ; Dombeg, dom, a 
house or town, bush, and beg, small ; Shannon, sean, old, am/taiun, 
the old river. 

In Limerick, Maig, pride or proud gait ; Deel, dad, a leech ; 
Starr, storr, rugged. The river Storr occurs several times in 

In Kerry, Feale, foal, water ; Flesh, fleasc, lawn or fleasg, mois- 
ture, fliuch ; Lanne, linnhe, a pool ; Rough ty, roichteadh, a great 
cry, noise ; Avenbui, the yellow river. 

In Cork, Lee, liaih, hoary, a word which occurs often in the river- 
names of England and Scotland; Bandon, ban, white, and donn, 
brown (perhaps) ; Ialin, is uisge, water, and linn, pool, water-pooL 
In Waterford, Stdr, water or river. ♦ 

In Wexford, Barrow, bearbha, still water; Stanley, slan, sound, 
entire ; Bann, a bend or hinge. 

In Tipperary, Arra, a, water, and reidh, smooth, the smooth 
water. Arra is identical with Aire in Yorkshire, with Aray in 
Argylshire, and Ayr in Ayrshire ; Tar, across or tara, quick ; Nier, 
an iar, west. 

In Kilkenny, Nore, anfheoir, the grass. 

In Wicklow, Avenmore, the large river. 

In Dublin, Liffey, liaih, hoary, and buidhe, bhuidhe, yellow, the 
hoary yellow river ; Dour, dobhair, water ; the Dover of England, 
and Dour in Aberdour, and Calder, &c., in Scotland. 

In Meath, Aney, amhainn an, diminutive of rivers; Boyne, 
boinne, drop or water. 


In Louth, Dee, da abh, doable water. Dee is the name of a river 
in Cheshire and of several rivers in Scotland. 

In Cavan, Annalee, an Math, the hoary river. 

In Down, Bann, a bend or hinge ; Lagan, a hollow. 

In Longford, Camlin, cam, crooked — the Cam of Cambridge — and 
linn, a pool. 

The streams and rivers of Ireland perpetuate purely Gaelic names, 
names which occur in the Topography of England and Scotland, and 
which tell that the same people in ages, however remote, gave names 
to the streams and rivers of the British Isles. 

The names of the Irish lochs are generally traceable to Gaelic. 

In Fermanagh are Loch Erne, iar an, the loch of the west river; 
Melvin, meatt, a mass or heap, and min, soft, meatt, whin ; Gill, the 
Loch Goil of Scotland, from goil to boil. 

In Mayo are Loch Conn, Loch Cuan, the loch of the ocean; 
Mask, niea8ca 9 mixture or confounding ; Loughrea, riach, riabhach, 
grayish loch. 

In Clare, Loch Roe, ruadh, the reddish loch ; Loch Derg, red 9 the 
red loch ; Loch Doo, dvbh, the black loch. 

In Kerry, Loch Allua, allaidh, savage or wild loch. 

In Cavan, Loch Ouchter, uachdar, upper, the upper loch ; Loch 
Sheelin, sith pass, linn, pool or water; Loch Neagh, loch ri eathach; 
Loch Gur, gair, gearr, short; Loch Foyle, feabhail, fuail, water; 
Loch Suilly, sui leach or saileach. 

The names of the islands that lie along the Irish coast are also 
Gaelic, e.g. : * 

RatlUinn, rath, defence or way, and linn, pool. 

InnistrahvM, innis tri chaoil, the island of the three straits. The 
last syllable, cool, is the first syllable in Calais, and is identical with 
Caol in the Kyles of Bute, and in Caol Isle, <fcc. 

Torry Island, on the western coast, from torr, a heap. 

Inishbofin, innis bofin, cow white as milk : island of the milk or 
white cow. 

Inishfree, freadk, plundering : the island of plundering. 

North Inniskea, syiath, a wing; Skye in Scotland : the island of 
the wing. 

South Inniskea : island of the wing. 

Innisturk, tore, a boar : the island of the boar. 


Inniahorc, tknrc of boars; Orkney in Scotland — Thorc innu is 
the equivalent of innU ho re. 

The names of almost all the counties of Ireland are purely 
Gaelic, e.g. : 

Antrim, an druim : the ridge. 

Londonderry, doire : a thicket. 

Tyrone, tir Eoghnin : Owen's land. 

Donegal, dun nan gall : the hillock or fort of the strangers. 

Fermanagh, fear m*inack, monk, or fear magh : the grassy plain. 

Leitrim, liath dhruim : the hoary ridge. 

Sligo, digeach, shelly : slige, a shell. 

Roscommon, ros, a promontory. 

Mayo, magh, a plain, and o, yew or beautiful. 

Gal way, gaillimh = GalUhaobh : the border of strangers. 

Clare, even, Hat. 

Limerick, luimneach. 

Kerry, cearraidh**, a'ar 9 dusky. 

Core, corcach, moor, marsh. 

Tipperary, tohair, tiobmid, or tiprad, well or fountain, and ara, 
the well or fountain of the river Ara. 

Dublin, dubh, black, and linne, pool : the Linne of Loch Linne 
and Roslin in Scotland, and meaning the black pool. 

Kildare, coill, a wood, and dara, oak : the oak forest. 

Meath, midhe, the neck. 

Monaghan, mineachan. 

Waterford : its Gaelic name was ath lairgt, ath learga, the ford of 
the plain. 

Armagh, ard-magh, the high plain or macha. 

Down, dun : the hillock. 

Cavan, cabhnn: a hollow plain, a field. 

The word cluain, cluatx, cluaine is often found among the topo- 
graphical names of Scotland : it means lawn or pasture. The word 
Clime occurs in Banff, Inverness, Perth, Ayr and Renfrew. Clune 
mar and clune beg are in Atholl. Clunie and Clung appear in Perth- 
shire, Fife and Banff. Clung in Invernesshire is the name of the 
home and title of the chief of the Clan MacPherson. The same 
word, cluain, occurs with exactly the same meaning in the Topography 
of Ireland, e. g. 

Cloyne, cluain uamJia, the lawn of the cave. 


Clonsost, $osta, abode, the lawn of the abode. 

Clonfert, feart, a feat or action, the lawn of the action. 

Clonard, the high lawn. 

Clonakilty, na coille, the lawn of the wood. 

Clontarf, tarbh, a bull, the bull's lawn or pasture. 

Clonegal, cluain nan gall, the lawn of the strangers. 

Clones, cluain eois. 

Clonmel, cluain meal a, the pleasant or honey lawn. 

Magh, a plain, (Anglicised moy) enters largely into the Topography 
of Scotland, e . g. 

Megginch, magh inn is, the plain of the pasture. 

Mauchline, magh linn, the plain of the pool. 

Machray, reidh, the smooth plain. 

Methnen, Jlonn, white, the white plain. 

Moidart, ard, high, the high plain. 

Mochdrum, magh dhruim, the plain of the ridge. 

Magh is frequently met also in the topography of Ireland, e. g. 

Moville, mngh bhih, the plain of the margin. 

Magherboy, buufhe, the yellow plain. 

Magherros, ros, the plain of the promontory. 

Mayo, magh o, the plain of yew trees or the beautiful plain. 

Omagh has the same meaning as Mayo. 

Moyluing, magh luine = Mauchline, in Ayrshire. 

Maylurg, magh an lurg, the plain of the end. 

Magh era] in, aluinn, excellent, the excellent plain. 

A casual examination of the map of Ireland indicates unmistaka- 
bly that, in spite of all the alterations that centuries may have 
effected in the spelling and pronouncing of topographical names, the 
Gaelic origin of them has by no means been obliterated. The cita- 
tion of a few additional names will be sufficient. 

In Cork, Bantry, ban traighe, the white shore; Ballydehob, da 
thaobh, the town of the two sides ; Inchgeelagh = the Gaelic pasture ; 
Bally neen, an fhion, the town of the wine ; Kinsale, ceann saile, 
the head or end of the salt water ; Fermoy, /ear magh, the grass of 
the plain. 

In Kerry, Kenmare, ceann mora, the head of the sea ; Killarney, 
coiU fhearnaidh, the alder wood; Dunmore, the large hillock; 
Ardfert, the high land ; Tarbert, tairbeart, isthmus ; Tralee, traighe 
Ixath, the hoary shore. 


In Limerick, Kenry, return riyh, king's head. 

In Clare, Ennis, pasture, innh; Kilrusb, coill ros, the wood of 
the promontory ; Killaloe, da lua, the cell or wood of the two heaps; 
Dromore, the large ridge ; Bally veaghan, hh ag*nt t few, the town of 
the few ; Killediseirt, the wood of the desert. Galway ; Kenmarra, 
eeann mar a, the head of the sea ; Gort, garden, standing corn ; 
Oranmore, odhanmmor, the large cow parsnip; Glenaraaddy, the 
glen of the dogs. 

Mayo, Bally hannis, *ana*, the town of the warning; Ballina, atk, 
the town of the ford ; Killamagh, the wood of the plain. 

Sligo, Dromore, the large ridge; Drumkeeran, druim ciar, the 
dusky lidge. 

Leitritn, Carrick, a rock, carraig. 

Tyrone, Strabane, the white strath ; Omagh, the beautiful plain 
or the plain of yew trees ; Aughnacloy, the field of the stone. 

Donegal, Malin, Maolan, bare, Mull ; Donros, dun rots, the fort 
of the promontory; Leek = a stone; Innishowen, Owen's isle. 

Londonderry, Limavaddy, the dog's leap; Kilrea, riabhach, the 
grayish wood ; Tobermore, the large well. 

Kildare, Clane, cluain ; A thy, aih, a ford; Bally tore, the town of 
the boars. 

Tipperary, Ballina, afh, the town of the ford; Roscrea, ro« criadh, 
promontory of clay ; Cahir, a city. 

Antrim, Port Bush, voir; Carrick Fergus, the rock of Fergus; 
C rum linn, crom, bending, linn, pool ; Lisburn, lias, garden or fort, 
burn, water. 

Down, Bangor, beann char, the bend of the hills ; Dundurm, the 
foot of the ridge ; Ardglass, glas, the grey height. 

Meath, Dunleek, dan leac, the foot of the stone; Drogheda, drochaid 
ath, the bridge of the ford ; Dunboyne, dun Imnne, the fort of the 

Wicklow, Donard, dunard, the lofty hill fort ; Bally more, the large 
town or hamlet ; Bathdrum, rath dmim, the foot of the ridge. 

Kildare, Naas, an assembly ; Bally tore. 

It may without any hesitation be asserted that, when regard 
is had to Ireland as a whole, its topographical names are more 
commonly and consistently and plainly Gaelic than those of 
either England or Scotland. It is impossible to resist the infer- 
ence that the same people who gave names to Calais and Dover and 


to the streams and rivers of England, who gave names to the 
streams, and rivers, and lochs, and mountains, and headlands, and 
valleys of Scotland, must have been the same people who gave names 
to the streams and rivers, to the lochs and mountains and hillocks, 
to the headlands and valleys of Ireland. So far as a topographical 
argument can be admitted to be of much avail or consequence — and 
it is difficult to understand why, in' the determining of questions 
that affect the settlement of countries in the far-off past, great 
value ought not to be attached to topographical names it must be 
conceded that, without considering the presence of a previous race in 
the British Isles, there is sufficient evidence that the Gaels pre- 
ceded the Cymry, and that in England, Scotland and Ireland the 
Gaels have left indelible traces of their presence at a remote time. 
There is certainly very much to justify the conjecture of Nicholas, 
who, in his " Pedigree of the English People? (p. 46), thus writes : 
" In the absence of historic record, we are justified in presuming 
on grounds of antecedent probability that Ireland would receive its 
first inhabitants from Wales or Scotland. Wonderful explorers 
were those ancient Celts. Probably they soon pushed their way 
through thicket and swamp to the Highlands of Scotland, and find- 
ing there an end to their territory, they there, from the highest 
eminences, looked out westward and descried the misty coast of the 
Green Isle. The first tribes to arrive in Britain would probably be 
the first settlei-s in Scotland and Ireland. Pressed toward the 
interior by subsequent arrivals, nomadic hordes but slightly attached 
to any particular spot, they would readily move forward to new 
pasturages rather than long contend for the old. The Gaelic or 
Gadhelic people, therefore, may be presumed to have had the advan- 
tage of priority of occupation." Aristotle, the first writer who 
refers to Britain, says : " Beyond the pillars of Hercules, the ocean 
flows round the earth, and in it are two very large islands called 
British (Pperraytzat XsyotUvai) Albin and Ierne lying beyond the 
Keltoi." By the term Albin Aristotle must have intended that 
portion of the British Isles now embraced by England and Scotland. 
The Scottish Gaels still speak of their country as Albin, and of 
themselves as A f ban natch, thereby showing that, if theVe is any 
force in the reference of Aristotle, they are the representatives of 
the earliest inhabitants of Albin, or of England and Scotland. 


. The topographical argument in favour of the peopling of the 
British Isles by the Gaels may be thus briefly expressed : Calais 
and Dover are Gaelic names which must have been given by Gaels 
who were in the habit of crossing at those points from the continent 
of Europe to the British Isles. Along the eastern coast of England 
there are indelible traces in the names of streams, and rivers, and 
hillocks of the presence of the Gaels. Owing to the powerful wave 
of invasion that successively rolled over England until it was sub- 
dued by William the Conqueror, Gaelic names, which doubtless 
were given to what is now the site of English towns and cities, were 
superseded by names of Roman origin, or by names which the later 
invaders chose to give. That such an opinion is correct may readily 
be seen by looking carefully at the map of England. That portion 
of Scotland which lies south of the Friths of Forth and Clyde was 
subjected from the time of the Roman invasions to inroads from 
other nations, and, as a natural consequence, the topographical 
names are not so commonly Gaelic as in the Highlands. A close 
similarity obtains between the topographical names of England, of 
the south of Scotland, and of the Highlands of the latter country ; 
whence the inference may be drawn that the Scottish Gaels are now 
the representatives of those Celts who were the first to enter Britain, 
and to travel northwards from the south of England to the north of 
Scotland. From an examination of the Topography of Ireland, the 
inference may fairly be drawn that the same Gaelic race must have 
peopled that country, and that the Scottish Highlanbers of to-day 
can extract satisfactory evidence from the topographical names of 
Ireland to convince them, that their own remote ancestors and the 
Celts, who were the first to people Ireland, were one and the same 
people, and spoke the same language. 

The topographical argument which has been now examined, leads 
to the conclusion, that the first powerful stream of immigration into 
the British Isles was Gaelic ; that it entered the south of England 
and extended northwards and westwards ; that from Scotland, where 
its branches were widely scattered, it passed into Ireland, and left 
there numerous and indelible proofs that the same Celts who gave 
names to Calais and Dover, gave also names to Innistrahull and 
Durrow, to Ballachulish and Aberdour; and that the same Celts 
who gave names to Fintry and Bannockburn in Scotland, gave 
names also to Bantry and Kinsale in Ireland. 




BY J. B. TYRRELL. B.A., F.G.8. 

Sarcoptes minor, var. Cati, Hbring. 

A short time since my attention was called to a cat whose face had 
apparently been scratched and torn and was now covered by a moist 
scab, which was especially noticeable at the base of the nose and 
around the eyes ; however, on turning back the hair from the top of 
the head and base of the ears the same diseased condition was seen 
to prevail, though not to such a marked extent 

On removing the scab, the skin was found to be completely honey- 
combed, presenting the appearance of coarse cellular tissue, in the 
cells of which, and among the roots of the hair which had been 
pulled out with the scab, could be seen a number of exceedingly 
small white specks which, when picked up on the point of a needle, 
and placed under the microscope, proved to be a small itch-mite 
belonging to the species described by Fiirstenberg as Sarcoptes minor 
(S. cati, Henng ; S. notoedres, Bourguinon and Delafond). It is 
the smallest species as yet described, not being more than half as 
long as Sarcoptes scabiei, the common itch-mite which infests man. 

As this minute parasite has in many places proved very fatal to 
our domestic favourites, it will be interesting to notice shortly the 
peculiarities of its structure, and then to look for a moment at the 
way in which it commits its depredations. 

The general shape of the body is almost globular, being slightly 
longer than broad, the female being about .12 mm. long and .1 mm. 
broad, the male somewhat smaller. To the naked eye it appears as 
a shining white spot, but under the microscope it has a grayish white 
appearance with light brown colored markings, showing the position 
of the chitinous skeleton. 

The body is, as in S. scabiei, covered with a thin transparent 
epidermis raised into minute folds, which follow more or less closely 


the outline of the body, or rather circle round the anus, which, in 
this species, is placed almost in the centre of the back. As the 
folds approach nearer the anus they become less and less continuous, 
becoming first rows of rounded papillae, and then disappearing 
almost altogether. Towards the anterior end of the dorsal surface 
and near the median line are two short spines, one on each side ; 
and a somewhat shorter one is present on each side near the lateral 
margin. On each side of the anus there are two curved rows of 
short, blunt bristles, forming a kind of double arch over it, and 
made up, the outer one of four, the inner one of two bristles on 
each side. These point in a general way backwards and inwards 
towards the anal opening. Anal bristles on the posterior end of the 
body are entirely wanting. 

The dorsal position of the anus is very peculiar, and it was this 
that suggested the name " notoeclres," which Bourguinon and 
Delafond applied to this species. It is strange that the peculiarity 
should have escaped the notice of earlier observers, as it is very 
well-marked. Furstenberg, who has given some very fine figures of 
this species, cakes no notice of the dorsal opening, but indicates an 
opening on the ventral surface where none exists. 

At the anterior end of the body is situated the rostrum, composed 
of the following parts : A pair of biting three-jointed mandibles, 
the third joint springing from the side of the second and growing 
out to an equal length with it, the opposed edges being furnished 
with blunt serrations, thus forming strong nippers on each side of 
the mouth. Below these are the immovably united maxillae with 
their three-jointed palps, which extend forward parallel with the 
mandibles. A thin fold of the integument surrounds the whole, 
enclosing it in a kind of sac open in front, called by Robin the 
eamerostomum. Viewed from the dorsal surface a portion only of 
the rostrum is seen, as it is partially covered by a fold of the skin 
which projects over it. 

The body is provided with four pairs of five-jointed legs, two 
anterior and two posterior, the anterior arising from the antero- 
lateral margins of the body, the posterior from the hinder portion of 
the ventral surface. The first four joints of these legs are surrounded 
and strengthened by rings of chitin of a more or less irregular 
shape, and are armed along their sides with bristles whose positions 
are constant in the same species. The fifth joint is covered with a 


cone-shaped cap of cbitin supporting the terminal processes. The 
two anterior legs on each side bear at the extremity of this latter 
joint four curved hook-like claws, and a relatively large bell-shaped 
sucker on a stem which, though long, is much shorter than in S. 
scabiei. In the female the posterior legs are terminated by long 
flexible bristles in place of suckers. In the male the third leg only 
ends in a bristle, the fourth bearing a long-handled sucker very much 
like that on the first and second legs. The legs articulate with and 
are supported by the epimera, which are light brown chitinous bands 
present in the walls of the body and extending in a general way along 
the ventral surface from the points of insertion of the legs towards 
the median line. Those of the front pair of legs run backwards and 
inwards, and, a short distance behind the rostrum, unite to form an 
elongated Y-shaped figure. The arms of the Y, however, are 
bifurcated, the anterior branch running forward to support the 
palps, the posterior articulating with the first leg. The second 
epimere also runs backwards and inwards for a considerable 
distance, but before reaching the median line it takes a sharp 
turn outwards and terminates abruptly. The third and fourth 
epimera in the female are short and slender, running forwards 
and inwards, and bending towards each other at their anterior 
ends. In the male the arrangement is more complicated; the 
third and fourth epimera run forwards and inwards joining the 
anterior portion of the tfternitc, a median chitinous band which runs 
backwaids along the posterior portion of the ventral surface, thus 
enclosing the male sexual organs under a sort of double arch, the 
keystones of which are prolonged until they meet each other. 

The external sexual organs in the male are situated between the 
points of insertion of the fourth pair of legs, and are composed 
essentially of the three following parts : (1) the sternite, composed of 
a chitinous band on each side of the sexual opening, which runs 
forward and joins the one from the opposite side in front of the 
opening and becomes continuous with the median chitinous strip 
mentioned above ; (2) a lid or hyposternum, made up of two arched 
bands and a connecting membrane, thus forming a triangular cover 
hinged to the sternite at its postero-lateral angles, and with the 
point directed forwards; and (3) a penis, which, when prone, is 
directed forwards under the episternum and may be seen through 


it, but in copulation it is turned backwards, when, of course, the 
episternum is also turned back beneath it. 

The external sexual organ of the adult female is simply a narrow 
slit running across the under surface of the body, about half way 
between the insertions of the second and third pairs of legs. It is 
rather an interesting fact, however, that the male does not copulate 
with the fully developed female, but with the female in what has 
been called the nymph stage, when the ventral opening into the 
oviduct has not yet appeared ; another ecdysis being necessary 
before the adult form is assumed. I have not had the opportunity 
of observing the mode of copulation, but there would appear to be 
no doubt that the anus serves for the opening both of the intestine 
and the vagina. Fiirstenberg, in his comprehensive treatise on 
" Die Kratzmilben," does not mention the opening in the middle of 
the ventral surface, but in Sarcoptes scabiei figured the oviduct as 
opening into a cloaea along with the intestine, evidently not 
recognizing the fact that the oviduct and vagina opened at different 
parts of the body. He also states that he saw a male and female in 
copulation, and that the penis was inserted into the anal opening. 

In the closely allied family of the " Dermaleichidae " also, the 
arrangement of the female sexual organs is essentially as follows : — 
There is a post-anal opening leading by a duct into the Receptactdvm 
seminisy which opens into the oviduct, at one end of which the 
ovaries are placed, and the oviduct opens on the middle of the 
ventral surface. It appears very probable that an arrangement of 
the parts similar to the above exists in the genus Sarcoptes. 

With the exception of the absence of a ventral sexual opening, 
and the slightly more posterior position of the anus, the nymph is 
very similar to the adult female. 

The larva is somewhat smaller than the nymph, and is only 
provided with six legs, the hinder pair of which end in long bristles 
as in the adult females. 

The egg is small, oval or somewhat ovate, and about half the 
length of the adult female. 

We have adopted Fttrstenberg's name minor for this species 
instead of cctii, which had previously been given to it by Hering, as 
the first is characteristic of the species itself (it being very small), 
and not merely of its habitat, for though it was first found on the 
oat, it has since been found on the rabbit and other animals. On 


the rat, for instance, M. Megnin has found a species of Sarcoptes 
which differs considerably from the one on the cat, but which he has 
shown to be only a variety of the same species, therefore we retain 
Hering's name ccUi for the variety from the cat, and adopt the name 
muris for that from the rat. 

This little parasite first attacks the oat at the base of the nose, 
around the eyes, and at the base of the ears, where it forms small 
white pustules in which the mite may be found. From these points 
it spreads over the whole head, then it is stated to work backwards 
over the neck, and finally over the whole body, reducing the poor 
animal to the last stages of leanness and decrepitude. M. Megnin, 
however, states that the mite does not attack any other parts of the 
body, except the head and neck. As I have not had any opportunity 
of observing cats which have been a long time diseased, it is impossi- 
ble for me to say at present which of these statements is correct. 

It has been asserted by some authors, who have no doubt drawn 
their conclusions from analogy to Sarcoptes scabiei rather than from 
direct observation, that this mite bores long and tortuous passages 
through the skin among the roots of the hair, but an examination of 
the diseased parts shows, not a number of winding passages filled 
with eggs and faces, but a great number of round, cell -like cavities, 
in which the adult female is lying surrounded by several eggs and a 
quantity of f cecal matter, showing clearly that the mite has been in 
this nest for a considerable time. The male and young are not 
found imbedded in the tissue, but scattered through and under the 
scab and on the surface, when the copulation evidently takes place. 
After impregnation the nymph then bores into the tissue, takes on 
the form of the adult female, and lays her eggs in the nest which she 
hollows out for herself. In parts of the animal which have been 
long affected, these nests are packed together so closely as to be 
almost in contact. 

It only remains for us to mention some of the remedies which 
have been recommended for the cure of this disease, always, however, 
bearing in mind the fact, that on account of the excessive sensitive- 
ness of the skin of the cat, many of the washes and lotions, which 
would be exceedingly useful when applied to other animals, would 
in this case probably prove hurtful or even fatal 

Sulphur is the most generally useful insecticide, and where the 
mite can be reached by it, there is no doubt but that it will effect a 


cure. Sulphur ointment applied repeatedly to the diseased parts is 
said to effectually destroy the pest. A solution of Balsam of Peru 
in alcohol, applied carefully, has also been highly recommended. 


While engaged in the study of Sarcoptes minor, a mouse was 
brought to me which had a crusty scab on the lower part of the 
back of the ear, extending round its outer edge and into the interior 
of the conch, where it assumed the appearance of a tough, leathery 
skin of a dirty grey colour. When a piece of this scab was pulled 
off with the forceps and placed under the microscope, a number of 
small mites were seen crawling over and burrowing their way into 
it. At first sight they appeared to me very much like small, short 
specimens of Myobia musculi, but a more careful study showed them 
to be separated by many marked characteristics from this latter 
species. It was seen, too, that they were all males, and that a fur- 
ther search must be made for the females and young. I therefore 
placed the scab in glycerine and tore it to pieces with needles, and 
in this way brought to view a number of round, white specks, which 
proved to be the females, nymphs and larvae, resembling the male in 
very little else but the structure of the rostrum and the even distri- 
bution of the feet along the sides of the body. 

This is in all probability the species mentioned by Gerlach, in a 
book entitled " Kr'atze and Raude," published in 1857, as occurring 
on the ear of the common mouse, though on this point I am unable to 
speak positively, as I have had no opportunity of seeing the original 
description and figures. As M. Megiiin, however, in his invaluable 
work on " Les Parasites et les Maladies Parasitaires," says that it is 
impossible to determine from the original figure even to what family 
this mite belongs ; and as neither Megnin, in the book just cited, 
nor Gerstacker, in his review of Gerlach *s work in " Archivs fur 
Naturg eschichte," make any mention of a name having been given 
to it, and as Furstenberg in his extended synopsis of Krtitze and 
Raude does not even notice the fact that an itch-mite had been 
recorded from the mouse, it seems advisable to publish a new 
description of it and give it a name. If it appears afterwards that 
it has already received a name, the one now used will of course be 
abandoned and the previous one adopted in its stead. 


In colour the body, over the greater part of its surface, is of a 
dirty white, though the epimera and the chitinous bands which en- 
circle and support the legs are tinged with light yellowish-brown. In 
shape the two sexes differ very much. Looking at the dorsal surface 
the general outline of the male is ovate with the obtuse pole directed 
forwards and rather strongly truncated, and from the middle of 
this anterior end projects the conspicuous and almost quadrangular 
rostrum, close to which on each side the anterior extremities take 
their origin and point when at rest obliquely forwards and outwards. 
The lateral margin of the body is marked by three constrictions 
dividing it into four sub-equal segments, each of which bears a pair 
of legs, hence the legs are arranged at almost equal distances from 
each other along the sides of the body. This character creates a 
marked distinction between this species and those of the genus 
Sarcoptes, in which the legs, instead of being situated at equal 
distances from each other, are arranged towards the anterior and 
posterior ends of the body, a considerable distance separating the 
insertions of the second and third pairs. On the other hand it 
appears to point to a general relationship with the genus Myobia, 
which further examination only serves to strengthen, though the 
form of the female and the general course of development remove it 
very far from this genus. The surface of the back is considerably 
arched, rounding off along the sides into the belly which is flattened 
towards the anterior end, but deeply hollowed out from the level of 
the insertion of the second pair of legs backwards, evidently for the 
purpose of receiving the female during copulation. In the female 
the general shape is very different from that of the male. The body 
is almost globular, being rounded on both the ventral and dorsal 
surfaces ; the rostrum projects but very slightly beyond the anterior 
end, and the legs are represented merely by little knobs situated 
along the sides of the body. The male averages about .12 mm. in 
length and .1 mm. in breadth. The female is not quite as large, 
both length and breadth being about .1 mm. 

The body is co vered with a thin, soft skin, which is smooth or 
irregularly dotted over the greater part of the ventral and dorsal 
surfaces, but along the sides in the male a few fine wrinkles can be 
made out, following in their course the general outline of the body. 
Imbedded in the skin are the epimera and the chitinous supports to 
the legs, which will be described below. The skin is thus very like 


that of Sarcoptes scabiei, except that the wrinkles are much fewer 
and finer. At the anterior end of the body the organs of manducation 
are grouped together into the form of a sub-quadrate rostrum, which 
projects considerably beyond the front of the cephalo-thorax, though 
it is, to a certain extent, retractile under it. The rostrum, seen from 
the dorsal surface, is somewhat rectangular in outline, the outer 
angles being slightly rounded off and the line of the front curved 
outwards to a certain extent. Its length is considerably greater 
than its breadth, being on an average about 0.025 mm. broad and 
0.015 mm. long. It is composed essentially of the following parts, 
viz. : (1) A long delicate lingua, or tongue, which, however, is very 
difficult to discern clearly until the animal has been submitted to 
strong pressure, when it sometimes may be seen as a stout bristle 
projecting beyond the anterior margin. (2) A pair of long, acutely 
conical unjointed mandibles running parallel and close together during 
the greater part of their length, and apparently forming a sheath for 
the median tongue. (3) A pair of maxilla firmly united at their base, 
but bearing at their outer and anterior angles a pair of two jointed 
palps, one on each side of the mandible, the first joint being large 
and sub-rectangular, the second small and conical. Towards the 
side from the insertion of the palp, the angle of the maxilla is 
extended into a short spine. With the exception of the characters 
which we have just enumerated, namely, those of the skin and of 
the rostrum, and perhaps also those of the digestive canal, which 
however we have not been able to make out, the male and female 
present an entirely different appearance, and it will be most con- 
venient to consider them separately. 

In the male, which as stated above is flattened from above down- 
wards, the legs arise on the ventral surface a short distance in from 
the lateral margin, so that the first and part of the second joints are 
hidden from view when looked at from above. The number of 
joints present in each of the legs is four, the second probably corres- 
ponding to the second and third in Myobia musculi, and other closely 
allied species. They are all strengthened by very light brown rings 
of chitin which encircle them and form points of attachment for the 
flexor muscles. The first joint in all the eight legs is somewhat 
triangular in outline, the base of the triangle, which is the side 
nearest the middle line of the body, being somewhat incurved, with 
the angles adjacent to it slightly rounded, the anterior angle running 


forwards for a considerable distance to articulate with the epimera. 
The second joint is large, with a long and strongly curred outer and 
a short inner margin. On the outer side, but rather towards the 
dorsal surface of this joint, three small tubercles are present, bearing 
at their ends as many short bristly hairs. These are most strongly 
developed on the first and fourth legs, not being so conspicuous on 
the second and third. The third joint is smaller and more nearly 
round, though somewhat longer on its inner than on its outer border. 
On this latter border there is a short tubercle and spine present on 
the first leg, and a pair of blunt spineless tubercles on the fourth. 
Articulating with the distal end of the third joint is the fourth joint 
or tarsus, which at its proximal end is comparatively narrow, but 
after a short distance it suddenly increases to about double its 
original breadth, forming on the inner side of the first leg a back' 
wardly projecting spine, which, however, is not present in the other 
extremities. After thus enlarging the tarsus does not again contract, 
but continues of about the same size to the end of the joint, when it 
is sharply truncated, the end being straight or even slightly incurved. 
In this emargination, but rather towards the dorsal surface of the 
joint, a short blunt spine takes its origin. On the same joint, 
but on the extreme outer angle, there is also present a rather 
strong, slightly curved claw, of about the same length as the spine 
and with it giving to the leg the appearance of being terminated by 
two claws. Besides the spine and claw the tarsus is armed with 
two bristles, one on the inner and one on the outer side. 

Situated immediately under the thin transparent epidermis, and 
imbedded in the tissues of the body, the epimera, which are com- 
posed of strips of light-brown coloured chitin, extend from the 
anterior angle of the base of the legs towards the middle line of the 
body, and form with the small pieces of chitin behind the rostrum 
the framework or skeleton of the trunk. Their principal functions are 
to serve as supports for the legs and to form points of attachment for 
the muscles which move them. Those of the anterior pair of legs 
arise on each side of the rostrum and close to it, and run backwards 
and inwards for about one-fourth the length of the body, not meeting 
to form a point, however, as in Sarcoptes minor, but turning sharply 
outwards and ending abruptly. Those of the second, third and 
fourth legs are also each of them present as detached bands. The 


anus is present as a longitudinal slit on the posterior end of the 

The sexual aparatus is situated between the insertions of the 
fourth pair of extremities, and is composed of two bands of chitin 
running backwards along the ventral surface, each having the appear- 
ance of two segments of circles placed end to end, one behind the 
other, the posterior including more of the circumference of the circle 
than the anterior. Between these two longitudinal bands the penis 
is present as an elongated cone, directed towards the posterior end of 
the body. Epidermal appendages are very poorly represented, the 
only ones of any importance being two long bristles which arise one 
on each side from the posterior end of the sexual chitinous bands? 
and extend a considerable distance beyond the hinder end of the 
body. Besides these there are the small bristles or hairs on the legs 
which have been already mentioned. 

The structure of the female is exceedingly simple, having the 
appearance externally of a minute white ball, with the sab-rec- 
tangular rostrum projecting from its anterior surface. The feet, 
which occupy the same positions as in the male, are, however, very 
much smaller and quite useless for walking on a level surface, though 
probably very effective in boring through the soft tissues of the ear 
of their host. They are composed of but two short joints, the first 
of which is almost immovable, and is united by a triangular chitinous 
base of attachment to the skin of the body; the second is of a 
rounded triangular shape, and is niovably articulated to the first. 
Epimera are present, but are very small, their place being taken 
functionally by the chitinous base of the legs. The surface of the 
body is smooth, no bristles or spines of any kind being present either 
at the posterior end or on the diminutive legs. The anus is at the 
hinder end of the body. The opening from the oviduct is in the 
form of a simple transverse slit on the ventral surface, a short dis- 
tance behind the base of the rostrum. 

The course of development of this aberrant form of itch-mite is 
very peculiar, for though in its adult condition it bears considerable 
resemblance to Dermatoryctes fossor, so carefully described by Prof. 
Ehlers in Zeit. f. w. Zool. Bd. XIX., yet it differs essentially from 
this latter, in the fact that the larva closely resemble in general form 
the adult female rather than the adult male, thus leading one to 
suppose that the male was a farther development of a mite like the 


female, and not that the female was degraded by more complete 
parasitism from a mite possessed of the higher type of structure 
presented by the male ; thus the nymph or unimpregnated female is 
very much like the adult female, except that it is slightly smaller, 
and there is no ventral opening to the oviduct, and the larva also is 
very like the female, except that the fourth pair of legs have not yet 
appeared. The egg is more or less irregularly, oval in shape, and 
somewhat more than half as long as the adult female. 

It will be seen from the above description that the mite found on 
the ear of the mouse differs considerably from any forms already 
described, resembling Dermatoryetes fossor (Ehlers) in the simple 
character of the female, but resembling much more nearly Myobia 
musculi in the structure of the rostrum and the general form of the 
male. It also differs from D. fossor in being oviparous and not 

Considering all the circumstances, it has appeared to me advisable 
to create for its reception a new genus, with the following characters: 


iPw/wz, a scab ; ipyarys, a builder. 

General shape of the male and female quite different, the male 
being provided with legs which are terminated by a spine and 
claw, in the female the legs are very small and without terminal 
appendage, Mandibles styliform. The nymph and larva resemble 
the female rather than the male, Oviparous. 


Characters enumerated above. 

Its habits were mentioned in the first part of this paper, namely, 
that it has been found living under a soft scab for the most part 
inside the conch of the ear of a mouse (Mus mttscultu) ; but atten- 
tion must be drawn to the circumstance that the male, though very 
active, and often found on the surface of the scab, must also bore 
into and under it in order to copulate with the nymph, which, from 
the shortness of its legs, would be unable to move outside the tissues 
of its host. In this particular it differs essentially from Sarooptes 
minor, in which it will be remembered the nymph is active and 
moves about on the surface ; and it is only after copulation that it 
bores into the tissue and assumes the adult form. 


Sabooftes minor, tar, Oati. 
1. — Adult female, ventral surface x 250. 
2. — Male, ventral surface x 250. 
3. — Nymph or immature female, dorsal surface (it very closely resembles the 

adult female, except that in this latter the anus is nearer the centre 

of the back), x 250. 
4. — Six-legged larva, dorsal surface x 325. (After Furstenberg. The anus 

has, however, been drawn on the dorsal instead of on the ventral 

5. — Rostrum of S. minor, var. muris, x 600. (After Megnin). 

Pborxrgatbs simplex. 
1. — Male, dorsal surface. 
2. — Male, ventral surface. 
3. — Adult female, ventral surface. 
4.— Nymph, or immature female, ventral surface. 
5. — Larva, ventral surface. 

6. — Rostrum, showing palps, mandibles and tongue. 

All the figure* magnified 435 times. 


or TH» 


[The following is a summary of a popular Lecture given by Prof. Wright under 
the auspices of the Canadian Institute on the Germ-Theory of Disease. The 
Lecture was intended mainly to elucidate the subject from a biological point of 
view, and reviewed the interesting facts which have been contributed to the 
Natural History of the lowest Fungi by researches into the relationship of micro- 
scopic organisms to Disease. The present synopsis may be of interest to the 
members of the Institute.] 

During the last ten years a host of investigators have been busy 
in different parts of the world in attempting to discover the causes 
of certain forms of disease, and their labours have been so far 
attended with success that in almost all forms of contagious and 
infectious diseases, and in certain others which have not been 
included in that category, minute organisms of a special form have 
been found constantly associated with the particular diseases. The 
thought, of course, lay upon the surface that these organisms are not 
only the originators of the disease, but are simultaneously the means 
of spreading it. Such, indeed, has turned out to be the case. It is 
indisputably proved by means of laborious experiments that in some 
diseases the minute organisms are entirely responsible for all the 
course of the disease ; and it is reasonable to conclude that when the 
same methods have been applied to the study of other diseases, a 
connection of the same nature will be demonstrated. 

The first discovery affording a substantial basis for a Germ-Theory 
of disease was made more than twenty years ago by Casimir Davaine 
(who died in Paris towards the close of last year). He found in 
the blood of animals affected with Anthrax i a rod-like organism 
(now known as Bacillus antfiracis), in immense quantities, which, 
accustomed as he was to the investigation of diseases caused by 

* This disease, also known aa Charbon, which baa produced immense ravage* eapecially 
among sheep and cattle in Euro)* is fortunately very little known in Canada. Isolated cases, 
however, have been recorded both from Ontario and Quebec, chiefly horses having succumbed 
to it 


internal parasites, he bad no hesitation in accusing as the cause of 
the disease. 

The actual proof of this, by separating the organism, cultivating 
it free from anything to which the disease might be ascribed, and 
subsequently producing the disease in a healthy animal by innocula- 
tion of such pure cultures, was delayed for many years. Neverthe- 
less, Davaine's was an epoch-making discovery, and the insight which 
lias been gained into the relationships l>etween microscopic organisms 
and disease is very largely owing -the classical researches of Pasteur, 
Koch and others on Anthrax. To these and similar researches 
biology is much indebted for additions to the knowledge of the group 
of Fungi to which these disease-producing organisms belong, and 
enquiries into the natural history of the group as a whole have been 
thereby stimulated, which have led to many interesting results. 
The present paper is intended to indicate a few of the most import- 
ant of these. 

Although the function of the green-colouring matter of plants 
cannot yet be regarded as definitely established, 1 coloured forms are 
nevertheless known to be able to draw their carbon from the 
carbonic acid of the medium in which they live, while colourless 
forms depend on living or dead organic matter for their food, and 
are thus either parasites or saprophytes. Most of the colourless 
plants belong toHhe lowest vegetable sub-kingdom (the Thallophytes), 
and constitute the class Fungi of that subdivision. Coloured and 
colourless Thallophytes exhibit various grades of organization, but 
with the exception of the Mould-Fungi all of the organisms which 
produce disease belong to the lowest grade, which reproduce them- 
selves mainly by division or fission, and have on this account 
received the ordinal name of Schizophytes. 

Among the Mould-Fungi both parasitic and saprophytic forms are 
to be found. Many diseases of plants are attributable to the 
former, and not a few of those incident to tho surface of the body in 
animals. Under ordinary circumstances the interior of the body is 
not favourable to the development of moulds : not only is the 
temperature too high, but the alkaline reaction of the fluids and the 
scarcity of oxygen are both factors which hinder their growth. It 
is otherwise with the colourless Schizophytes ; the conditions which 

» Recent researches appear to indicate that Chlorophyll protects the first products of 
assimilation again«t the decomposing action of light 


interfere with the development of the moulds are favourable to them, 
t n I it is consequently with this group that we have alone to concern 
ourselves in connection with the Germ-Theory of Disease. The 
colourless Schizophytes or Schizomycetes, as they are also termed, 
present many difficulties to the investigator on account of their 
extremely small size. 1 

Various generic forms have been distinguished, such as Micro- 
coccus, embracing the minutest globular or oval forms often in 
chains; Bacterium, short, rod-like forms; Bacillus, longer rods; 
Leptothrix, long jointed threads; and in addition various spiral 
forms, Spirillum, Spirochete. The constancy of these foiins has 
been defended by some authorities and denied by others, but the 
recent researches of Zopf on Cladothrix and Beggiatoa indicate that 
all of these so-called genera may be merely different stages of 
development of higher members of the same group of Fungi. Thug 
the thread-like Cladothrix and Beggiatoa, two of the commonest 
aquatic fungi of cosmopolitan occurrence, give rise in the interior of 
the threads to Micrococcus or Bacterium-like spores which may 
grow out into Bacillus- and Leptothrix-like forms, or may first 
multiply themselves rapidly in a motionless or zoogloea condition 
Again in both the adult threads may undergo a retrogressive 
development, becoming divided up into shorter or longer pieces 
(Bacillus- or Leptothrix-like), which again may fall into still shorter 
rods. Spiral forms are also described as belonging to the genetic 
cycle of Cladothrix and Beggiatoa. These are formed by the break- 
ing up of a thread which had become spiral in virtue of one-sided 
growth, and the resulting fragments are Spirillum-like or Spirochate- 
like, according to the closeness of the spiral and thickness of the 
portion of the thread to which the fragment belonged. Whatever 
their length and shape the fragments formed in the course of this 
retrogressive development attain cilia on becoming free. It is simi- 
larly asserted that all of the Micrococcus, Bacterium, and BacUlus- 
like forms found in the mouth belong to the genetic cycle of 
Leptothrix buccalis. 

A similar inconstancy of physiological peculiarities has also been 
asserted by recent observers, so that the view that disease-producing 

1 They are usually measured for convenience sake by micro-millimetres, one of thee© units 
being the y^- mm. = flft } 00 inch, and represented by the sign m- 


8chizophytes are merely varieties of harmless forms which have 
acquired special virulence is defended by many authorities. Dr. H. 
Buchner, of Munich, has described the conversion by artificial cul- 
ture of the ordinary Bacillus of Hay-Infusion into the virulent 
BadUus of Anthrax and vice versa. Although many careful ob- 
servers hesitate to recognize the value of his experiments, there can 
be no doubt that the virulence of the Bacillus of Anthrax may be 
" attenuated" by cultivation under certain conditions. Such attenu- 
ated virus has been employed by Pasteur for the protective innocu- 
lation of sheep and cattle against Anthrax. Although the results 
obtained have not been so satisfactory as could be desired, yet the 
establishment of the principle is a great step in advance in the 
fighting of the infectious diseases. 

The physiological inconstancy of the Schizophytes is likely to 
prove as great a stumbling block in the way of their classification as 
their inconstancy of form. It has been proposed, however, to 
arrange them in three groups : colour-producing (Chromogenic), 
fermentation-producing (Zymogenic), and disease-producing (Patho- 
genic) forms. 

To the Chromogenic forms belong the Micrococcus prodigiosus, 
which forms a red incrustation on bread, besides other Micrococci 
which produce the characteristic colours of " blue milk," " blue pus," 
" red sweat," Ac. Higher members of the Schizophyte group may 
also be Chromogenic. 

A very large number of forms are recognized as Zymogenic. The 
yeast plant (Saccharomyces) and its allies, although reproducing by 
budding and not by division, have nevertheless many points in 
common with the true Schizophytes, and are conveniently considered 
along with them. Several species of Saccharomyces are known 
capable of producing the alcoholic fermentation, but the amount of 
sugar destroyed and alcohol produced appear to be different for the 
different species. One form, S. mycoderma, is so avid of oxygen that 
if it should be formed in wine, the alcohol undergoes slow combus- 
tion, and eventually little but water is left behind. To the 
Zymogenic group, however, belong many true Schizophytes ; such 
are the ferments of the acetic, lactic, butyric and viscous fermenta- 
tions, as well as many others to which chemists and biologists are 
only now turning their attention. So putrefaction is now generally 
recognized to be a form of fermentation, complex on account of the 


complexity of the fermentable bodies on the one hand, and the 
complexity of the products of fermentation on the other. The 
common ferment organism of putrefaction is the Bacterium termo, 
with which others are unquestionably associated. 

As already indicated, many authorities regard the pathogenic 
Schizophytes as constant species with constant physiological pecu- 
liarities. Naegeli has most ably defended the opposite view, in 
accordance with which they are at most physiological varieties, and 
points to the occurrence of new contagious diseases, and the sporadic 
appearance of already known diseases, as confirmatory of his theory. 

Almost all the generic forms of Schizophytes have been recognized 
in connection with one or other of the diseases of which they are now 
generally believed to be the cause. Thus Micrococci have been 
found in small-pox, diptheria, erysipelas, and some forms of blood- 
poisoning ; Bacteria in septicaemia of the pigeon ; Bacilli in 
anthrax, various forms of septicaemia, malaria, tuberculosis and 
leprosy, and Spirochaete in relapsing fever. The list of diseases is 
in fact being daily increased (especially by investigation into various 
diseases of the domestic animals) with which specific pathogenic 
Schizophytes (or Microbes, as the French investigators term them), 
are found to be constantly associated. 

Since the establishment of the Germ-Theory of Disease on the 
sound basis on which it now stands, increased interest has been 
evinced in the microscopic examination of air and water, the chief 
media from which the disease germs invade the body. With regard 
to the latter microscopic examination cannot yet be regarded as 
affording proof of the harmlessness or the reverse of water for 
drinking pnrposes, although the examination of suspected water has 
revealed in certain cases (Typhus-Brautlecht) micro-organisms to 
which disease has been attributed. Chemical examination which 
speedily reveals contamination by sewage, and therefore a possible 
source of infection, is as yet to be more depended upon. No doubt 
the researches on the Schizophytes which are now being carried on 
may tend to render the microscopic analysis of water of greater 
importance than it is at present Michel and Hansen's observations 
with regard to the occurrence of micro-organisms in the atmosphere 
are of the highest interest By far the greater number of the spores 
found floating in the atmosphere belong to moulds, and are therefore 
quite harmless to man. The same is probably true of the great 


majority of the spores of Schizophytes which are also found. Michel 
has calculated that in the neighbourhood of the observatory at 
Montsouris a man may inspire in 24 hours 300,000 mould spores 
and 2,500 Schizophytes. Probably not ^th of these are possessed 
of any life or ca|>acity for further development, but Michel has 
nevertheless discovered that the curve representing the occurrence 
of Schizophytes in the atmosphere, and the curve representing the 
prevalence of infectious diseases, are coincident. He has shown the 
necessity for ventilation by pointing out the great increase of 
microbes in the atmosphere of the Parisian hospitals during winter, 
when doors and windows are kept close for warmth's sake. He has 
also shown that microbes are not more abundant in the neighbourhood 
of open sewers than in the air generally, a fact which is confirmed by 
investigations of Hansen and Naegeli. The latter demonstrates that 
all micro-organisms must be previously dried before being carried 
into the atmosphere. They exist there generally in the spore* 
condition, a condition which usually steps in when changes unfav- 
ourable to the ordinary method of propagation by division have come 
into operation. The spores, which are produced in the interior of 
the eel 1 8 of the Schizophytes, are possessed of much greater vitality 
than the mother-plants, being able to resist extremes of temperature, 
and deprivation of moisture and food immeasurably better than 
these. The discovery of such spores and their properties has given 
a death-blow to the doctrine of spontaneous generation, for it is now 
satisfactorily determined that any organic infusion may be kept per- 
fectly free from micro-organisms in a sealed flask, if the proper 
precautions have been taken not only to kill the mature Schizophyte 
in it, but also their spores. 

It is not surprising in view of these facts that the strength of the 
disinfectants used to kill septic material must be very different 
according as the material is in a vegetating or spore-condition. In 
the latter case no volatile antiseptics, except chlorine and bromine, 
have been found to possess any efficacy, and it has been shown 
that the antiseptic virtues of carbolic, salicylie, <fcc., have been 
greatly overestimated. As a result of various experiments made to 
determine the best means of disinfecting clothes (rags impregnated 
with spores of Bacillus anthracis being chiefly employed), prolonged 
boiling — for several hours — has been recognized as the simplest effi- 
cacious method. The experiments have shown that the process of 


disinfection of rooms, clothes, <fec., during and after contagious disease 
ought to be under the control of a health officer, in order that this, 
the most important method of combating the spread of contagious 
diseases, should be efficiently and systematically carried oat. 

The introduction of an abundant supply of pure water, and the 
construction of proper drainage systems, are now aimed at by most 
large cities : in many the compulsory use of these by all the inhabi- 
tants remains to be earned out. So much knowledge has been 
acquired as to the origin of disease in course of the researches 
alluded to in the previous pages, that it becomes the obvious duty of 
educators to extend and provide for the increase of that knowledge. 
This can be most efficiently done by giving every medical student an 
opportunity of becoming practically acquainted with the methods of 
research which have been adopted in the enquiries referred to. It 
is obvious that medical men in practice will rarely combine leisure, 
inclination and capacity for such studies ; but, on the other hand, 
much hard work has been expended with little or no result, simply 
from a want of rigid early training. Such is particularly necessary 
in the study of these lowest organisms, where errors of observation 
and experiment are avoided with the greatest difficulty. 




The Council of the Canadian Institute in presenting their Thirty-Fourth 
Annual Report, are pleased to be able to congratulate the members upon the 
termination of another successful year. 

They are particularly gratified with the character of the communications 
which hare been read at the meetings, and point with pleasure to the fact 
that some of the more important of them are the work of quite young men, 
from whom many additional valuable original investigations may be expected 
in the future. Another promising feature of the history of the Session that 
has just closed is the great increase in the number of members, which has 
risen from 139 to 225. The Council also have pleasure in reporting an 
increase in the average attendance at the Saturday evening meetings. 

During the month of September a course of popular lectures on Sound was 
delivered in the Library Hall, under the auspices of the Institute, by Professor 
Loudon, of University College in this city, and Dr. Koenig, of Paris. Another 
course, consisting of four lectures, including one by each of the following 
members, namely, President Wilson, Dr. Reeve, Professor Wright, and Mr. 
Lander, was delivered in January and February, under the management of a 
Committee of the Council. The Council recall *ith pleasure the share they 
had in furnishing the public with an opportunity of hearing these exceedingly 
instructive and valuable lectures. 

Early in the Session the Council deemed it advisable to adopt a resolution, 
providing that the Library and Reading Room should be kept open seven 
hoars on Saturdays and five hours on other week days. This led to the 
resignation of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Thomas Heys, to whose long and 
valuable services the Council gladly seize this opportunity of bearing testimony. 
He has been replaced by Mr. R. W. Young. 

Though a considerable sum of money has been spent in furnishing the 
Library Hall with gas fixtures and seats, and in increasing the number of the 
periodicals taken for the Reading Room, the Council are gratified to find that 
the report of the Treasurer shows that the financial position of the Institute 
has not been weakened. 

A large amount of work has been done during the year by members of the 
Council, and under their direction, with the view of putting in order and 
cataloguing the library, and preparing for binding the very considerable col- 
lection of transactions of scientific societies and other publications of value 
which we have in our possession. The binding has not actually been done, as 


it was thought best, before proceeding with it, to make exertions to complete 
imperfect sets and replace missing numbers, but the Council recommend the 
matter to the early attention of their successors. They also suggest the 
desirability of taking further steps, as soon as practicable, to put our scientific 
collections in complete order. 

Appended to this report are abstracts showing : (1) The present condition 
of the membership ; (2) the papers communicated at the meetings during the 
year ; (3) the additions to the library and the donations during the same 
period ; (4) the Treasurer's balance sheet ; (5) the Lecture Committee's 
balance sheet. 

All of whioh is respeotf ully submitted. 

J. M. BUCHAN, PrendaiL 


Members at commencement of Session, 1882-83 139 

Members elected during the Session 117 

Withdrawals and deaths 31 

Total Membership, March, 1883 225 

Composed of : 

Corresponding Member 1 

Honorary Member 1 

life Members 17 

Ordinary Members 206 


By Season and Single Tickets $129 25 

To Honorarium to Leoturers, Advertising, &c 122 50 

•6 75 

YEAR 1882-83. 
I herewith submit my financial summary of accounts for the year of 

The Annual Subscriptions are more than usual by reason of increased mem- 
bership. Two Government Grants have occurred and been received during 
the financial year, and rent receipts have been more than usual. The interest 
payment has been reduced, while the only items of increased expenditure 
worthy of notice are those of fuel, furniture and gas fixtures, the last two of 


which are not likely to occur again. The Institute may well be congratulated 
upon ite healthy condition, and its substantial balance now in the Bank and 
at ite credit. 

To Annual Subscriptions $509 00 

" Subscriptions to Building Fund 21 00 

" Government Grants 1,600 00 

" Rent from Warehouse 60 00 

11 Rent from Toronto Medical Society 50 00 

" Rent from Elocution Society 25 00 

" Rent from Catholic Literary and Debating Society 18 75 

" Rent from Natural History Society 7 50 

" Rent from J. Buchan for use of Hall 6 00 

" Journals sold during the year 2 25 

12,198 50 

By Due to treasurer from last Audit 9133 75 

" Interest 238 78 

"Salary 335 33 

• f Fuel 117 90 

•• Gas fixtures 146 34 

" Furniture 115 00 

"Printing 80 70 

" Advertising 76 00 

"Periodicals 69 76 

" Painting 31 60 

" Postage 48 87 

" Carpenter work 27 67 

"Gassupply 24 34 

" Water supply 18 00 

M Express charges 1195 

•* Taxes 9 61 

•• Contingencies 25 07 

'» Balance in Bank 689 04 

$2,198 60 
JOHN NOTMAN, Treamtrer. 

Examined, compared with vouchers, and found correct. 

E. A. MEREDITH, \ AudU ors. 
tSth April, 1883. 



On Sound: By Dr. Kosnig, Paris, France, and Prof. London, University 

College, Toronto. 

1. — Mechanism of the Ear : Noises, Notes and Tones. (Sept. 15th, 1882.) 

2.— Qualities of Sounds : Pitch, Intensity and Timbre. (Sept. 18th, 1882.) 

3. — Methods of Studying Vibrations : Determination of Pitch. (Sept 

20th, 1882.) 
4. — Determination of Intervals : Scales, Propagation of Sound, Communi- 
cation of Vibrations, Composition of Vibrations. (Sept 22nd, 1882.) 
5. — Phenomena produced by the Co-existence of Two Sounds: 

Interference, Beats, Sounds of Beats. (Sept. 25th, 1882.) 
6.— Timbre of Sound : Analysis and Synthesis. (Sept. 27th, 1882.) 
Reindeer and Mammoth Age of Southern Europe. (Dr. Daniel Wilson, . 

President of the University of Toronto, January 19th, 1883.) 
The Hygiene of the Eye. (Dr. Reeve, January 19th, 1883.) 
The Germ-Theory of Disease. (Prof. Ramsay Wright, University College, 

Toronto, January 26th, 1883.) 
Richard Wagner and the Music of the Future. (Prof. W. Waugh Lauder, 

February 2nd, 1883.) 
Science and Progress. (The President's Inaugural Address, November 4th, 

Some Laws of Phonetic Change in the Khitan Languages. (Prof. Campbell, 

of Montreal ; read for him by Prof. Loudon, November 11th, 1882.) 
The Presence of Tellurium, in connection with Gold, Silver and Lead, in 
Specimens of Ore from Lake Superior. (Prof. Ellis, School of Practical 
Science, Toronto, November 11th, 1882.) 
Anthropological Discoveries in Canada. (C. A. Hirschf elder, Esq., November 

18th, 1882.) 
The Transit of Venus. (Mr. Carpmael, Superintendent Toronto Observatory, 

November 25th, 1882.) 
The Classification of Languages. (Mr. W. fl. Vander Smissen, December 

2nd, 1882.) 
The Ophidians of Texas. (Prof. Croft : read for him by Dr. J. E. White, 

December 9th, 1882.) 
Description of an Interesting Historical Monument of the 15th Century. 
(Dr. Daniel Wilson, President of the University of Toronto, December 
16th, 1882.) 
A Demodex in the Skin of a Pig. (Prof. Ramsay Wright, University College, 

Toronto, December 16th, 1882.) 
Description of a New Micro-photo-graphic Apparatus, and a Resume of Cohn's 
Experiments on Trichina). (Prof. Ramsay Wright, January 20th, 1883.) 
Evidence of Water-action on the Surface of the Moon. (Mr. A. Elvins, 

January 20th, 1883.) 
Some Reasons Why so many Persons Die of Consumption, (Dr. P. H. 

Bryce, January 27th, 1883.) 
On Spelling Reform. (Mr. W. Houston, February 3rd, 1883.) 


A Topographical Argument in favour of the Early Settlement of the British 

Isles by Celts whose language was Gaelic. (Rev. Neil McNish, D.D., 

Cornwall ; read for him by Mr. W. H. Vander Smissen, February 10th, 

On the Water supplied to the City of Toronto. (Prof. Ellis, School of 

Practical Science, Toronto, February 17th, 1883.) 
Some Forms of Canadian Infusoria. (Prof. J. Playfair McMurrich, February 

17th, 1883.) 
The Poisonous Snakes of North America. (Dr. Gamier, Lucknow, February 

23rd, 1883.) 
The Principles of the Solutions of Equations of the higher Degrees. (Prof* 

Young, University College, March 3rd, 1883.) 
On the Analysis of Tea. (Prof. Ellis, March 3rd, 1883.) 
On Lord Durham's Report, 1839. (Mr. William Creelman, March 10th, 1883.) 
On Nomenclature. (John Notman, Esq., March 17th, 1883.) 
On Some Experiments on Ice. (W. J. Loudon, B.A., March 24th, 1883.) 
On Pendulum Curves. (W. J. Loudon, B.A., March 24th, 1883.) 
The Practical and Theoretical Study of Archaeology. (C. A. Hirschfelder, 

Esq., March 31st, 1883.) 
On the Microscopic Organisms found in Toronto Tap- water. Messrs. Acheson 

and McKenzie, April 7th, 1883.) 
A Chemical Analysis of the Toronto Water Supply. (Prof. Ellis, April 7th, 

The Hymenoptera of Ontario. (Mr. William Brodie, April 1 4th, 1883.) 
What is Wealth? (W. A. Douglas, Esq., April 21st, 1883.) 
Some new Emendations in the Text of Shakespeare. (E. A. Meredith, Esq., 

LL.D., April 21st, 1883.) 
On Colonies for Invalid School Children. (Dr. Covernton, April 28th, 1883.) 
On the Discovery of the Pelly River. (J. H. Hunter, Esq., M.A., May 5th, 

On the Prairie Chicken. (Ernest E. T. Seton, May 5th, 1883.) 

Received from April Ut, 1882, to March Slat, 1888. 


Le Figaro et Supplement, Paris. Presented by U. E. Shaw, Esq., M.A. 
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Das Echo, Berlin. Presented by W. H. Vander Smissen, M.A, University 

The Historye of the Bermudas, edited from a MS. in the Sloan© Collection, 

by General Sir J. H. Lefroy, R. A., C.B. Presented by the Editor. 
Obstetric Table, by G. Spratt. 3rd Ed., 2 Vols. Presented by Dr. T. 

The Financial Reform Almanac for 1883. Presented by the Cobden Club. 


On the Results of Recent Explorations of Erect Trees, containing Animal 

Remains in the Coal Formation of Nova Scotia, by J. W. Dawson, LL. D., 

F. R. S. Presented by the Author. 
First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology for 1879-80. Presented by 

the Director, J. W. Powell, Esq. 
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Papers on " Canadian Fresh Water Polyzoa," " Parasites in the Pork 8upply 

of Montreal," and "Certain Parasites in the Blood of the Frog," by 

William Osier, Esq., M.D. Presented by the Author. 
Paper on the Origin of the so-called " Test Cells," in the Ascidian Oran, by 

J. Playfair McMurrich, B. A. Presented by the Author. 

h.— exchanges. 
Canada : 

The Statutes of Ontario for 1882. 

The Canadian Entomologist, Nos. 6-12, 1882, and Nos. 1-3, 1883. 

Transactions of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, No. 3, and Circular. 

The Canadian Naturalist, Vol. X., Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. 

Bulletin of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Discovery of Tripoli, near St. John. Pamphlet. 

Annnal Report of the Natural History of New Brunswick. 

Medicinal Plants of New Brunswick. 

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Flora of Essex Co., Mass., by J. Robinson, 1880. 

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Smithsonian Report, 1880. 

Bulletin of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2. 

Proceedings, 1881. 
Annual Report of Yale Observatory, 1881-82. 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, Vol. 

X., Nos. 1-1 
Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at 

Harvard College, for 1881-82. 
Worcester Town Records, 1882. 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Vol. 2, Parts 1 and 2. 

Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. III., 

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Scientific Proceedings of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute, Vol. 1, No. 4; 

Vol. 2, No. 1, 1882-83. 
Annual Address of the President before the Bridgeport Scientific Society, 

Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Vol. IV., No. 3, 

Thirty -first Annual Report of the New York State Museum of Natural 

History, by the Requests of the University of the State of New 

Sixty-second, Sixty-third and Sixty-fourth Annual Reports of the 

Trustees of the New York State Library for the years 1880 and 1881. 


Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico, Iomo 2 and 3, 1882-83. 

England : 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1882-83. 

Transactions of the Royal Geographical Society, July, 1882. 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 

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The Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, March, 1882, 

No. 61, No. 62, and November, 1882. 
Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Nos. 27 to 32. 
Minutes and Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Vols. 58, 69, 

Part 3, 67, 70. 
Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology, Vol. 13, No. 72, 1878; Vol. 

14, Nos. 73-80, 1877-79 ; VoL 16, Nos. 81-88, 1880-81 ; Vol. 16, 

Nos. 89-94, 1881-82. 
Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany, VoL 16, Nos. 93-97, 1877-78 ; 
VoL 17, Nos. 98-106, 1878-80; VoL 18, Nos. 106-11% 1880-81; 

VoL 19, Nos. 114-121, 1881-82. 


Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London from November, 1875, to 

June, 1880. 
list of the Linnean Society of London for 1877-78 ; November 1, 1879; 

January, 1881. 
Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, Volt. 

33 and 34. 
Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, Vol. 13, 1881-82. 
Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, VoL 16, Parts 14-18 ; 

Vol. 17, Parts 1-4. 
Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. X., 

Part 3. 
Catalogue of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, 1882. 
Annual Report of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 1881-82. 
Eighth Annual Report of the Public Library and Gallery of Art 

Committee, 1881-82. 
The Scientific Roll, by Alexander Ramsay, F.G.S., Nos. 1-10. 1880-83. 
Scotland : 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 3 Vols, 1878-79, 

1880, 1881. 
Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1881-82, Vol. 13, 

No. 2. 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1880-81. 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1880-81. 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, VoL X., Part 4. 
Ireland : 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 2, No. 3 ; VoL 3, Nos. 

7 and 8. 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 28, Nos. 6-10. 
Annual Reports, Belfast Natural History Society, 1879-80, 1880, 18S1. 
Index of Proceedings, Vol. 1, 1873-80. 
Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 

Series II., Vol. 1, Part 4. 

India : 

Geology of India, Part III. 

Economic Geology. 

Records of the Geological Survey, Parts 2, 3, 4, Vol. XIII., 1881. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Parts 1, 2, 3, Vol. XVIII. 

Paheoritologia Indica, Series IL, XI., XII., XIII., XIV. 
New South Wales: 

Annual Report, Department of Mines, 1881. 

Mineral Products of New South Wales, 1882. 
New Zealand : 

Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, VoL XIV., 188L 
Tasmania : 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania for 1880. 



Abhandlungen heransgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine za 

Bremen, Bremen, Band VII., Heft 3, 1882. 
Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereines der Preussichen Rhein- 
. lande and Westfalens, Bonn,* 1881 and 1882. 
Die Kafer Westfalens, 1 and 2 Abtheilung. 
Supplement zu den Verhandlungen, 1881-82. 
Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturwissensohaftlichen Gesell- 

schaft Isi8 in Dresden, Dresden, 1881-82. 
Einondzwanzigster Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft fur Natur 

nud Heilkunde, Giessen, 1882. 
Nachrichten von der K. Gesellchaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg 

Augusts Universitat zu Gottingen, Gottingen, 1881, Noe. 1-16. 
Unterhaltung des Natnrwisaenschaftlichen Vereins von Hamburg- Altona, 

Hamburg, 1879. 
Verhandlungen des Naturwissensohaftlichen Vereins von Hamburg- 

Altona, Hamburg, 1881. 
Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins von Hamburg- 

Altona, Hamburg, 1883. 
Schriften der Physikalisch-Okonomischen Gesellschaft, Konigsberg, 

Meteorologische und Magnetische Beobachtungen der K. Stern warte bei 

Munchen, Munich. 1881. 
Berichte und Abhandlungen der K. Bayerischen Akademie der Wissen- 

schaften zu Munchen, Munich, 1881-82. 
Beobachtungen der K. K. Stern warte zu Prag, Prag, 1881. 
Kuhrer zu den Excursionen der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 

Katalog der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Vienna. 
Jahrbuch der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 1881-82. 
Verhandlungen der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 1882. 
General- Register K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 1872. 
Mittheilungen der K. K. Geographischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 1881. 
Verhandlungen der K. K. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 

XXXI. Band, 1882. 
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Jaarboek van de Eoninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 

Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, 21 Part, 

Vertlagen et Mededeelingen der K. Akad., Reeks, Deel XVI. , Stuk 1 

and 2, 1881. 
Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles par la Society 

Hollandaise des Sciences a Harlem, Haarlem, Tome 17, 1882. 
Archives dn Muse© Teyler, 2 Part - 
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Pubblioazioni del R. Istituto di Studj Superiori Pratioi e di Porfezio* 
namento in Firenze, Florenoe, 5 Parts. 

Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Pisa, 1881-82. 

Cosmos doe Ouido Cora, Turin, Vol 7, 1882, Parts 5 and 6, 
Denmark : 

Oversigt over der Kongelige Dantke Videnskabernes Selskabs, Copen- 
hagen, Noe. 2 and 3, 1881 ; No. 1, 1882. 
Nobway : 

Nyt Magarin for Naturvidenskaberne, Christiania, 1880-32. 

Beretning om Bodsfaengslets Virksomhed, 1878-81. 

Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindes-Merkers Bevaring, 1880. 

Fordhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskaber i Christiania, 1879-81. 

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a. — 

I¥ttc Caxi Jtvht .,pt 3, &j. 

Ffroc.Ccm.I-ast.N S.Vol.I Pt 3 F 10 

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Broc.Can.Inst,N:S.Vol.l.Pt2 K 

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[Read at the Opening Meeting, Sovember tnd, 1888.] 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

In appearing before you at this, the first meeting of the Canadian 
Institute during the present season, in order to assist in inaugurating 
what I trust may be an important and interesting winter's work, I 
desire in the first place to acknowledge the high honor which my 
fellow-members have conferred upon me in electing me to the presi- 
dency. I regret, indeed, that the duties which that honor imposes 
have not fallen into abler hands ; but in undertaking to attempt to 
perform them I rely upon the kind forbearance and active cooperation 
of all who have at heart the welfare of this old, Important and 
useful institution. 

The value of associations of the kind of the Canadian Institute is 
very often not recognized by the general public, Nor is this to be 
wondered at. Our work is from its very nature not likely to make 
much noise or attract much attention. Nevertheless we discharge a 
function, the importance of which will at once be conceded when it 
is stated. The Canadian Institute serves as a rallying point for culti- 
vators of all branches of knowledge, for original investigators, and 
for all who without themselves performing original work, or in any 
special sense cultivating knowledge, desire to afford every aid and 
encouragement possible to those that do. Here any one who has in 
any way enlarged the sphere of our knowledge will find some to 
appreciate and applaud his efforts. We do not, however, confine 
ourselves to mere appreciation and applause ; as well as we can, we 
discuss and criticise ; and every year a certain number of papers are 
selected for publication in our transactions. These transactions are 
sent to other similar societies in exchange for their published pro- 
ceedings, and in this way our and their knowledge of what work is 
being done is kept up. We correspond in this way with 114 bodies 
in various parts of the civilized world. You will find on our tables 


proceedings and reports from various bodies in the United States of 
America, Mexico, South America, the British Islands, France, Spain,. 
Italy, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Norway, 
Sweden, India, Australia, and other countries, giving us information 
as to what the learned world is doing everywhere in all departments of 
inquiry. These are of great value to the specialist, inasmuch as 
they enable him to ascertain what other specialists in his department 
are doing. We are in this way a member of a great federation of 
learned societies, each of which, as far as practicable, cooperates with 
all the rest, and whose work, when summed up, amounts in each year 
to a great total, however insignificant the contributions of individual 
bodies may be. The existence of these learned societies is one of 
the marked features of the history of modern times, and both an 
index of a great advance in civilization, and an augury of still 
greater progress. 

In addition to encouraging research and the acquisition of know- 
ledge, we undertake to discharge the related function of receiving 
and caring for objects of scientific, historical or antiquarian interest. 
We have already accumulated a considerable collection, which we 
are now engaged in classifying, and we hope ultimately to have here 
a museum which will be one of the most interesting sights in the city. 
We have hitherto been prevented from arranging our material by two 
causes. Before this building was erected we had no room ; since its 
erection we have had no money. We now feel able to attempt to 
devote a little money every year to this purpose; not as much indeed, 
as we would like, but still some. I know of no object to which one 
of our wealthy fellow citizens could better devote a legacy of a few 
thousand dollars, than to the building up of our museum. And there 
is a pressing need of a good museum somewhere in Ontario, for one 
reason. There are scattered over this country an immense number of 
objects of ethnological and archaeological interest, that have recently 
been obtained from Indian ossuaries which reveal to us the physical 
character and state of civilization of the aborigines of this country 
before they came into contact with the white race. Unless some 
effort is made to prevent it many of the most valuable of these relics 
will be lost, or destroyed, or carried off to other countries. The 
Canadian Institute proposes to do what it can to meet this want, and 
it asks for the hearty cooperation of all who feel the importance of 
the work. 


It is the intention of the Council of the Canadian Institute to 
arrange for two short courses of public lectures this winter. One of 
these courses will be scientific, the other literary. What the Council 
aims at is to perform somewhat the same kind of work as is done by 
the Royal Institution and some similar societies in London. The 
Council asks for the cordial assistance of the friends of the Institute 
in carrying out this scheme, not only on account of the intrinsic 
desirability of having such courses delivered, but also because it 
hopes to be able by means of the surplus of receipts over expense^ 
to add to the amount available for improving the museum and 

I now purpose inviting your attention for a short time to some* 
remarks on the relation between progress in physical science and pro- 
gress in other departments of thought and action. It is of course im- 
possible for me to do justice to so vast a subject, in the time at my 
disposal, nor do I flatter myself that I could say very much that is 
new, if I had time, but I have selected this topic for a few inaugural 
remarks, because discussion of it, however imperfect, will throw more 
light on the real importance of societies such as the Canadian Insti- 
tute than anything else, which I could say. 

It will in the first place be advisable to obtain a clear idea as to 
what is meant by the word science. Science originally meant 
knowledge, but now it means something more. A man may 
know a great deal about some groups of facts, and yet have no 
scientific knowledge of them. A savage of three-score-and-ten who 
has spent his life in hunting will have a great knowledge of animals, 
but not a scientific knowledge. An accumulation of knowledge 
becomes a science when it is brought into order by the discovery of 
great general statements that enable us to arrange the facts, or by 
the discovery of the laws of certain phenomena. The savage whom 
I have just mentioned would come to have a scientific knowledge of 
zoology, if he became able to arrange the animals he knew in certain 
classes. In proportion as knowledge becomes systematized it becomes 

In the next place what is meant by physical as distinguished from 
other science ? The physical sciences are those which deal with the 
material universe ; mental and moral science deal with the spiritual 
universe. The term natural science is now often used as synonymous 
with physical science. Originally it meant something quite different. 

364 the president's address. 

and might have been construed to include much that is now brought 
under the head of mental and moral science. It meant all science 
that is not supernatural, that is, all knowledge that is not obtained by 
revelation from the Deity or by occult dealings with the devil and 
his agents. It is used in this sense in the charter incorporating the 
Royal Society granted about the beginning of Charles IL's reign. 
The reason of the change in the meaning of the term is to be found 
in the fact that since that date the progress of physical science has 
been much greater than that of mental or moral science. In the 
same way and for the same reason the generic term, science, has 
come to be commonly used in the specific sense of physical science. 
There is a latent popular disbelief in the existence of any science 
except physical science. 

There is no race of mankind since history began that is not, and 
has not been, in possession of some of the facts on which the various 
physical sciences are based. But progress in physical science depends 
not so much on capacity for collecting facts as on ability to discover 
the laws of facts, and this ability has never been manifested to any 
considerable extent except during the last three centuries and a half, 
and then only in the limited part of the earth's surface occupied by 
the civilized European nations. The ancient Greeks, indeed, whose 
vigour of intellect led them to attempt every department of inquiry, 
paid great attention to the physical sciences, but their progress was 
not at all commensurate with the amount of effort they put forth. 
We have accounts which show that they laid siege to the secrets of 
nature for about 800 years, or from the time of Thales, about 600 
years before, to that of Ptolemy, the astronomer, about 200 years 
after Christ ; but during all this time they did not succeed in estab- 
lishing one important physical law. It is true that some Greek 
astronomers broached the idea that the earth is round, and the sun 
the centre of the system of worlds to which the earth belongs ; but 
not only were these views not established, the contrary notions pre- 
vailed. The Ptolemaic system, which obtained universal acceptance 
until the 16th century, made the sun revolve around the earth. 
Archimedes, indeed, discovered the laws of the equilibrium of fluids, 
but he did not succeed in so establishing them as to make them a 
part of the common mental property of mankind. 

The failure of the Hellenic intellect in this department appears to 
have been due to the adoption of a wrong method. In modern times 


great progress has been made because the scientific mind has become 
impressed with the necessity of, from time to time, examining every 
received theory, in order to ascertain whether it is still in accordance 
with facts. Thus, the phlogistic theory of chemistry promulgated 
by Stahl and Beccher was replaced by the oxygen theory of Lavoisier, 
when the discoveries of Scheele, Priestley, Cavendish and Black, showed 
it to be no longer tenable ; and in our own day a very considerable 
change in chemical theory and nomenclature has been made, because 
the facts were found not to agree with deductions from the received 
theory. Now, the Greeks did not neglect to observe facts, and in 
truth, all the theories that they formed were based on facts. But 
they had, as Buckle thinks the Scotch have, a strong bias towards 
deduction, and having once made a generalization, their tendency was 
to reason from it and accept the results of this reasoning without 
ascertaining whether they too were supported by the facts. From 
this, also, resulted a great indistinctness and haziness in their expla- 
nations of phenomena, even when they had by chance obtained some 
glimmering of the correct view. As in the case of the giant who 
received an accession of strenjjth when he touched mother earth, it is 
for the advantage of all theorizers to come down frequently to the 
solid basis of reality. This tendency to deduction in the Greek mind 
had, indeed, its good side. To it we owe the geometry of Euclid, 
which is the logical exhibition of the conclusions implicitly contained 
in a few definitions, postulates, and axioms. In modern times there 
has been a close alliance between the mathematicians and the devo- 
tees of the sciences of observation and experiment, to their great 
mutual advantage. But whatever may have been the cause, the geo- 
metry of Euclid failed in ancient times specially to promote progress 
in other sciences. 

While the failure of the Greeks to make any great advance in 
this department has its lesson for us, the fact that they were the only 
race of antiquity that made great and persistent exertions to solve 
scientific problems has also its lesson. What was the cause of the great 
intellectual activity of this race ? I believe it to have been due to 
the same causes that made the Greeks free, whether these were 
climatic, or racial, or connected with their occupation and mode of 
life. As compared with Rome or Carthage, Athens and some of the 
other great commercial cities of Greece were decidedly democratic, 
the Roman and Carthaginian populations having never been able to 

366 the president's address. 

shake off the influence of great leading families to the extent to which 
this was done in some parts of Greece. Rome was, however, freer than 
Carthage, and accordingly we find that, while in Carthage there was 
little intellectual activity, apart from trade, in Rome there was some, 
and in Athens a great deal. 

The most interesting part of history is that which throws light 
upon the ideas and influences that have borne sway over the minds 
of men. If we could gain a complete knowledge of these, we should 
easily be able to construct a philosophy of history, for the great move- 
ments of every age are due to these springs. The deed always exists 
in thought before it becomes fact ; and, though it would not be correct 
to say that humanity is conscious of the influences that sway it at 
any particular time, yet it is true that the historical facts of the next 
generation have now an immaterial, but no less real existence, in the 
tendencies of the modes of thinking, feeling, and acting of the pre- 
sent. Buckle has said that Shakspere helped much to make New- 
ton. I think that true, and I think that Newton has in his turn ex- 
ercised an influence on literature. To Newton, had he been born 
earlier, both the antecedent discoveries necessary to enable him to 
perform the work that he did, and the stimulus to do this work, would 
have been alike wanting. There were undoubtedly very many men 
of great ability in the middle ages ; but not one of them in any way 
materially advanced physical science during that period of a thousand 
or more years. 

There was, in fact, other work to be done in those times. Out of 
the disorganization resulting from the break-up of the Western Roman 
Empire, a new polity was to be developed. New common interests 
were to be created to bind together the various races and to override 
the differences which separated them. The history of Western Europe 
has since that time been increasingly one. In every period since then, 
and now more than ever, every important internal change in one of 
the civilized European states is found to affect the rest. In the middle 
ages, indeed, all Western and Centi-al Europe tended, more and more, 
to become, and finally became one community, at the head of which 
was the Pope; and, though his religious headship has long since 
ceased to be recognized by some of the states, and Russia has forced 
her way into the circle, there is still a real oneness of civilization and 
interests. This oneness comes out in a remarkable manner when we 
consider the general movement of events in modern times, and this it 


will be necessary briefly to do in order to show the part which has 
been played by physical science. 

During the middle ages the church was in the van of human pro- 
gress. She bound together distant lands by the tie of a common 
belief, a common religious language, a common priesthood, and com- 
mon prayers. Under her influence all I atin Christians came more 
or less to feel that they were brethren. Before all the nations of the 
rude west was placed a lofty ideal of life ; and into all were intro- 
duced under her auspices some seeds of useful knowledge, of art, of 
learning, and of refinement. The monks improved agriculture in the 
north and west ; every pilgrim that went to Rome brought back new 
ideas ; and the clergy were the conservers and disseminators of the 
little knowledge of the time. But perhaps the most important work 
that the church did in those ages was that which she performed in 
aid of the abolition of serfdom. For lending her powerful assistance 
to the cause of personal liberty she deserves the everlasting gratitude 
of mankind. 

With the abolition of villenage the church ceased to lead. Per- 
sonal freedom led to increased industry, towns sprang up all over 
Europe, there was a great development of commerce, and wealth 
increased. Increase of wealth led to a greater diffusion. and increase 
of knowledge ; this in its turn led to inventions and discoveries 
gunpowder revolutionized war ; the printing press multiplied books 
the Renascence, or new birth of learning, art, and literature, follows 
then comes Luther, and personal freedom has led to a movement 
for spiritual emancipation. 

The revolt of Luther was contemporary with a great outburst of 
imprisoned forces and a great onward movement of humanity. 
Before the middle of the seventeenth century four great national 
literatures had come into being, the English, the French, the Spanish, 
And the Italian. The northern part of Europe became religiously 
independent, and this religious independence was conjoined in two 
cases, England and Holland, with political freedom. The air was 
full of bold and original speculations, and nature began for the first 
time in the history of man to find herself interrogated with success. 
The first great event in the history of science is the establishment 
of the heliocentric theory by Copernicus. Copernicus was a 
contemporary of Luther, dying just three years before him, and, 
though he lived and died in the old faith, was, in his own way, 


as much as Luther in his, the leader of a revolt against authority. 
Though he seems to have satisfied himself of the truth of his views 
early in the century, he did not promulgate them till about 1540. 
They made their way slowly : it was not until after the middle of the 
seventeenth century that they were generally received in England. 
Bacon, the great apostle of induction, never assented to them, and 
Milton, writing about 1660, bases the machinery of Paradise Lost 
on suppositions inconsistent with the Copernican theory. 

The discoveries of Copernicus were followed by those of Kepler, 
who established the following propositions regarding the solar system, 
namely : — 

(1) That the orbits of the planets are elliptical. 

(2) That the line connecting the sun and any planet sweeps over 
equal areas in equal times. 

(3) That the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in 
the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the 
sun. Then follow the discoveries of Galileo, and in the latter half 
of the seventeenth century Newton appears on the scene to furnish 
a mathematical explanation of the motions of the heavenly bodies. 

About 158 1 the laws of the equilibrium of fluids, which had been 
known to Archimedes, were rediscovered by Stevinus. In 1616 
Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood. About 1621 
Willebrod Snell discovered that the ratio of the sines of the angles 
of the incidence and refraction of a ray of light is constant for the 
same media. During the first half of the seventeenth century the 
three fundamental laws of motion were established, the most promi- 
nent name connected with them being that of a scientific man already 
mentioned, the astronomer and physicist, Galileo. During the same 
period Torricelli discovered the vacuum which goes by his name, 
and Pascal proved that the height of a column of liquid in a tube 
with a vacuum above it depends upon the weight of the column of 
air balanced by it. About 1650 Boyle established the law that the 
density of a gas varies as the pressure, and in 1651 Pecquet, a French 
physician, discovered the motion of the chyle. 

By the middle of the seventeenth century the violent perturbations 
caused by the great movements of the sixteenth century had for the 
most part ceased. Italy and Spain, having early rejected spiritual 
liberty, had fallen into decadence. The Thirty Years' "War, the last 
European religious war, had ended in 1648, leaving Germany 


exhausted. The defeat of the Fronde and the consequent establish- 
ment of a paternal despotism in France, injuriously affected science 
in that country. With the decline of interest in religious questions 
a change came over the intellectual temper of Europe. Though, in 
the north-west of the continent, knowledge was becoming every year 
more widely diffused, and the spirit of investigation and discovery 
was very active, there was throughout the entire civilized world 
during the period between 1650 and 1750 as compared with the 
periods preceding and following it an absence of lofty dominating 

It is a noteworthy fact that during this period the greatest intel- 
lectual activity was manifested in the country which made the greatest 
political progress, and that the single scientific name of the highest 
rank, that of Newton, belongs to the same country. 

The Royal Society was one of the results of the same intellectual 
ferment which produced in the political sphere the civil war and the 
changes in the English constitution which resulted from it, in the 
religious sphere the first great English sceptics and the break-up of 
the national church into sects, and in the literary sphere the poetry 
of Milton. Its inception dates back to 1645, the last year of the 
civil war, but it was not organized as the Royal Society until the 
Restoration. It was one of the marks of the beginning of a new 
age in England — of an age which, accepting as final the solutions of 
religious and political questions resulting primarily from the civil 
war, but thrown into their ultimate shape by the revolution of 1688, 
devoted itself with a single eye to material progress. For about a 
century, or from about 1600 to 1760, England was almost destitute of 
enthusiasms affecting great masses of people. The most typical part 
of this period is the administration of Walpole. An examination 
of its character reveals to us a slumbering church and a politically 
apathetic people governed by a corrupt parliament. Manufactures 
are increasing, the colonies are growing, foreign trade is developing, 
waste lands are being reclaimed, population is advancing. Every- 
where the evidences of a smug material prosperity are to be discov- 
ered. It was a prosaic age. It was likewise, in the most literal 
sense, an age of prose. Between Milton and Wordsworth we had 
no poetical writer of the first order of merit. More than this, our 
modern English prose style was then formed. The long, involved, 
highly eloquent, but strangely worded, and strangely arranged sen- 

370 the president's address. 

"tences of Milton sound almost foreign to our ears. The new prose 
■style began with Dryden, was improved by the writers of the age of 
Anne, and perfected by Dr. Johnson. The thorough limpidity of 
which the new style is capable is, I believe, to a large extent due to 
the absence of enthusiams, to the material aims, and to the mainly 
*natter-of-fact scientific discussions of the age in which it was formed. 
For it was not an age of brilliant scientific speculations, but rather 
one in which the mines discovered by preceding geniuses were worked, 
in which facts were collected, in short an age of considerable though 
not specially brilliant advances upon the past and anticipations of 
the future. 

The character of this period between 1660 and 1760 is the same 
throughout Western Europe as in England. It is the plain be- 
tween two mountain ranges, the pause between two pulsations of 
hnman progress. It was a period of intellectual ebb. There were 
undoubtedly great and active minds in all the cultivated European 
nations ; but the work which they performed consisted mainly in 
extending the application of the laws discovered by the men of the 
previous epoch and in accumulating new facts. But, though it was 
a period comparatively infertile in new ideas, it would be a mistake 
to consider it one of retrogression. It was rather a foundation- 
laying period, rather the period of the slow germination of the con- 
cealed grain. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century a change came over 
the intellectual life of Europe. A new race of writers and thinkers, 
more numerous than, and as active and able as any the world had 
ever seen, began to propound new views in every department of 
human enquiry. To the political thinkers of that age we owe the 
democratic impulse which within about a hundred years produced the 
American Revolution, the French Revolution, the change of the 
Spanish American Colonies into republics, the English Reform Bills, 
the movements of 1848, the freedom of Italy, the unification of 
Germany, the abolition of slavery, the great host of socialist move- 
ments, the establishment of systems of universal education. To the 
same movement operating in the moral and spiritual sphere, we owe 
the overthrow of the Jesuits, the weakening of the alliance between 
ohurch and state everywhere, the emancipation of proscribed religious 
minorities, such as the Catholics in England and the Protestants in 
France, the great tendency to scepticism and atheism which has since 


prevailed, the great philanthropic movements for the improvement of 
the treatment of criminals, of the insane, of idiots, of the mute, and 
of the blind, the attack upon the use of alcoholic beverages, and 
varioui other great humanitarian enterprises. 

In literature, a new race of poets arose, untrammeled by received 
traditions as to the form or the subjects of poetry. Germany produced 
her first and only great poets, Schiller and Goethe ; in England the 
poetical glory of many preceding ages was eclipsed by that which 
produced Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Byron and Scott. The 
modern philosophical method of writing history was developed by 
Montesquieu, Voltaire, Hume, Robertson and Gibbon. Contemporane- 
ously with all these intellectual and spiritual movements arose a great 
scientific one. The latter half of the eighteenth century is preemi- 
nently an era of the promulgation of great scientific theories and the 
discovery of great natural laws. In this work the intellect of France, 
the country which was most powerfully affected by the great upheaval 
was by far the most prominent. Lavoisier laid the foundation of 
chemical science by propounding his oxygen theory. To Rome* de 
Lisle, we owe the science of crystallography, to the two Jussieus is 
due the natural system of classification in botany ; in zoology, Cuvier 
originated the idea of types, and the same thinker may claim the 
merit of being one of the fathers of the science of geology. To 
Fourier, another Frenchman, we owe the accepted theory of the con- 
duction, to Prevost that of the radiation of heat. Coulomb, one of the 
greatest names in electricity and magnetism, and Laplace, perhaps 
the greatest advancer of mathematical astronomy since Newton, were 
likewise Frenchmen of this age, and to these may be added a whole 
host of lesser names. 

In English-speaking countries the spirit of scientific research was 
only less active. The names of Black, Cavendish, Priestley, Erasmus 
Darwin, Smith the geologist, Franklin, and the first Herschel at once 
occur to every one. More eminent than any of these are Dal ton, the 
propounder of the atomic theoiy in chemistry, and Thomas Young, 
the establisher of the undulatory theory of light, both of whom 
flourished about the commencement of this century. In Italy, the 
foundations of galvanism were laid by Galvani ; in Germany, we have 
"Werner, the geologist, and Goethe, the poet, whose theories on the 
morphology of animals and plants, show that his scientific was not 
greatly inferior to his literary ability. From that time the number 


of scientific workers and scientific societies has steadily and rapidly 
increased, and while the democratic spirit has been making its way 
in the political, the scientific spirit has been growing increasingly 
powerful in the intellectual world. 

And there are no signs that either the democratic or the scientific 
impulse that we owe to the eighteenth century has spent its force. 
The wave of political liberty still rolls onward, and every year adds 
some remarkable discovery to the list of scientific achievements. 
Enough has been said to show that there is a certain sympathy 
between science and liberty. When the intellect of Europe emanci- 
pated itself from authority in the sixteenth century, modern science 
began ; when, in the eighteenth century, the era of democracy set in, 
a host of new sciences came into existence. In ancient times any- 
thing of importance done in science was done by the Greeks, one of 
the two great free nations. Are these coincidences mere accidents, 
or do they point to a real connexion between science and freedom ? 
If there is a real connexion, can we to any extent define its nature ? 

The connexion between science and freedom is, of course, a single 
phase of that between science and human progress. Let us see 
whether we can discover how science is related to human progress. 

In discussing questions of this kind it is of course impossible to 
separate completely one element in human progress from the rest, 
and to point out fully what its reactions have been. The utmost 
that we can do is to discover some links of connexion. We 
find for example that in the sixteenth century a great scientific and 
a great religious movement existed together. From their synchron- 
izing we infer that they were both products of the same general 
causes, whatever these were. Both were clearly of the nature of 
revolts against established authority, and to both the principle of the 
right of private judgment was very important. Up to a certain 
point the cause of science and that of Protestant theology were the 
same. But it is impossible not to see that they have long since 
diverged, and that there is now a certain antagonism between them. 
There can, of course, be no real opposition between religion and 
science. All truth is one. But at present certain received theologi- 
cal dogmas and scientific generalizations clash, and until the one, or 
the other, or both are modified, peace cannot be restored. If, for 
example, the Deity may send rain in answer to prayer, it cannot be 


true that " nature is the expression of a definite order with which 
nothing interferes." 

At any rate the great scientific movement of the last 1 30 years 
has been attended with a great development of atheism and scepti- 
cism and of materialist philosophies. That scepticism, which it is 
necessary for the succesful student of science to exercise with regard 
to every supposed discovery, until it is proved beyond a peradventure, 
has been carried by many into the religious and philosophical spheres 
in such a way as to lead to these results. The most popular philoso- 
phy of the present age on this side of the Atlantic is that of Herbert 
Spencer. It owes its origin to the speculations of Charles Darwin, 
and is simply an application of his theory of natural selection to 
every department of human inquiry. If not in strictness to be 
called a materialist system, it is so near to being one as to produce 
all the hardening and narrowing effects of materialism on nearly all 
those who adopt it. 

In so far as the study of physical science assisted in establishing 
the principle and furthering the practice of the right of private 
judgment it served the cause not only of religious, but likewise of 
political freedom. In so far, too, as it substituted for the old idea 
of a god capriciously ruling the universe, like an oriental sultan, 
that of a deity guiding it according to fixed laws, it contributed to 
the setting up of a good model for earthly governments. Perhaps it 
would be in accordance with fact to go further in the same direction 
and say that in so far as the advances of physical science have tended 
to develope the pantheistic idea that God is not a separate entity, but a 
force pervading the universe, conscious in many living creatures, 
unconscious elsewhere, it has set before the world a model for demo- 
cratic government, seeing that in that form the sovereign power is 
recognized as really diffused through every part of the state. These 
analogies may seem fanciful, but those who know how the political 
and religious ideals of a nation react upon each other will not hastily 
conclude that there is nothing in them. 

It will be interesting to note here that the pantheistic view of the 
universe referred to just now has permeated the writings of some 
modern republican poets. Shelley, who began with atheism, ended 
with views which were pantheistic in character, and it is worthy of 
notice that he was distinguished among the English poets of his age 
for the interest he took in physical science. One of his contempo- 


raries, Keats, laments in a very beautiful passage that the discoveries 
of science are lessening the mystery of nature. 

There was an awful rainbow onoe in heaven. 
We know her woof, her texture, she is given 
In the dull catalogue of common things. 

Science does not, of course, really diminish mystery ; it merely 
pushes it back. He who possesses a little knowledge is simply the 
centre of a small circle whose circumference touches the mysterious 
at every point. Enlarge the circle by increasing knowledge, and a 
larger circumference affords more points of contact with infinite 
mystery. Shelley deals with science in a very different fashion from 
Keats, and has in a few poems, notably in that of The Cloud, made 
his scientific knowledge furnish part of the very web of his fabric. 
His pantheism appeal's in expressions such as that in which he 
represents the sun as saying : 

I am the eye with which the universe 
Beholds itself and konws itself divine. 

Emerson, the American poet and philosophical thinker, recently 
deceased, is -remarkably distinguished for the prominence he gives to 
the poetical aspects of science. For him likewise the pantheistic 
view of the universe had great attractions. His poems abound in 
passages like the following in that entitled Brahma. 

They reckon ill, who leave me out ; 

When me they fly, I am the wings ; 
I am the doubter and the doubt : 

And I the hymn the Brahmin sings. 

Or like this in the Song of Nature, in which in answer to the 

question : 

But he, the man-child glorious, 
Where tarries he thejwhile ? 

He makes her say, 

Twice I have moulded an image, 

And thrice outstretched my hand, 
Made one of day, and one of night, 

And <5ne of the salt sea-sand. 
One in a JucUean* manger, 

And one by Avon stream, 
One over against the mouths of Nile. 

And one in the Academe. 
I moulded Kings and Saviours, 

And bards o'er kings to rule, eta. 


Thus expressing clearly the view that the greatest beings that have 
been upon earth are products of the force of nature. 

The pursuit of knowledge of any kind has a levelling tendency. 
It was by no accident that the phrase, republic of letters, was coined. 
In literature there is no king. There are no more democratic bodies 
than companies of learners, and the capacity to appreciate any given 
book, puts at least for a time, the peasant on the same platform with 
the prince. In the department of physical science, in particular, a. 
man's standing depends completely on his merit. It affords a very 
good example of the carrying out of the democratic maxim : 

La carriere onverte aux talens. 
The tools to him that can use them* 

More than this, the very spirit of investigation fostered by thfr 
study of the physical sciences is fatal to respect for any authoiity 
based on no real claim. When men of science take to politics they 
geneiully show decided democratic leanings. Again, the improve- 
ments in industrial processes, the labour-saving inventions, the many 
contrivances for increasing the control of man over nature which have 
resulted from the discoveries of men of science, have linked them, in 
an intimate way, with the masses of mankind. They are in fact the 
high priests of industrialism, which is always democratic. 

And this leads me to remark that the .cultivation of the physical 
sciences has been favourable to democracy in another way. It has 
resulted in the building up of a great learned class independent of 
the court, the nobility, and the* clergy, and without any class interests 
or class organization that can be inimical to the well-being of the 
state. The importance of this has perhaps not been sufficiently 
noticed, if noticed at all. 

It remains now to still further remark upon the influence of the 
scientific spirit upon literature. It has, indeed, affected every branch 
of it. I have already said that the modern philosophical method of 
writing history had its origin in the eighteenth century. Since then^ 
the scientific method has demolished many a false historical fabric, 
and a beginning has been made in the science of comparative politics. 

We have ceased to believe in Romulus and the she-wolf that 
suckled him ; all early Roman history has been re- written ; we are 
doubtful whether there was a Homer ; William Tell's splitting of the- 
apple with his arrow has been shown to be a myth. The pervading, 
soepticism of the scientific method has caused almost all statements 

376 the president's address. 

with regard to the past to be subjected to a raking cross-fire. Much 
has been shown to be unworthy of credence, but the separation of 
the wheat of history from the chaff, as far as it has been accom- 
plished, has been a work of great value. 

In the study of languages also the scientific method has been 
adopted. But perhaps the most remarkable thing to which attention 
can be directed in this connection is the rise contemporaneously with 
the scientific and democratic movements of last century of a race of 
poets manifesting a sympathy with nature in all her moods never 
exhibited before. It has often been remarked that the feeling for 
the beautiful and the sublime in the external world is much stronger 
in modern than in ancient poets. It has often also been remarked 
that there was a great revival of the love for external nature in the 
poets who flourished in England at the end of the eighteenth and the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. Ruskin, for example, has 
noticed that the sense of colour is more highly developed in modern 
than in ancient writers, and in speaking of Scott, he directs attention 
to the way in which he looks at nature " as having an animation and 
pathos of its own wholly irrespective of human presence or passion." 
It has, I believe, never before been suggested that this is connected 
with the great development of the sciences of observation. Yet 
there is some reason for thinking that it is. I must not, however, 
be understood to say that the greater intensity of this particular 
poetic feeling is the effect of our scientific progress. It may be to 
some extent its cause ; but it would perhaps be more correct to 
speak of both as different phases of, and alike due to the influences 
which have given its special characteristics to the intellectual growth 
of modern times. ' 

Not only, however, are modern poets distinguished by a deeper 
feeling for the aspects of external nature ; they also observe it with 
a minute and scientific accuracy. Read, for example, the beginning 
of Enoch Arden : 

Long lines of cliff breaking have left a chasm ; 

And in the chasm are foam and yellow sand ; 

Beyond, red roofs about a narrow wharf 

In cluster ; then a moulder'd church ; and higher 

A long street climbs to one tall-tower'd mill ; 

And high in heaven behind it a gray down 

With Danish barrows ; and a hazel-wood 

By autumn nutters haunted flourishes 

Green in a cup-like hollow of the down. 


What completeness in the details of this picture f You would 
know the place if you happened to visit it. 

Read also for example the following passage from Marmion, de- 
scriptive of the hero's journey on the day after leaving Norham Castle. 

Oft on the trampling band, from, crown 
Of some tall cliff, the deer looked down ; 
On wiog of jet, from his repose 
In the deep heath, the black-cock rose ; 
Sprung from the gorse the timid roe, 
Nor waited for the bending bow ; 
And when the stony path began, 
By which the naked peak they wan, 
Up flew the snowy ptarmigan. 

There are no generalities here ; the description is marked by ex- 
ceeding accuracy ; Scott had himself seen these details with delight 
and reproduces them with pleasure. 

But of all modern English poets Wordsworth is perhaps most dis- 
tinguished for the love of nature. He spent his life in one of the 
most beautiful parts of England and composed much of his poetry 
out of doors. He tried in prose to give expression to his theory of 
the essential beauty of the commonest sights. His poems show how 
he loved the external world, not only in its general aspect but in its 
minute details. They likewise show that he was inspired by a love 
of nature for herself which was entirely independent of any meaning 
he saw in her. He says : 

The sounding cataract 
Haunted me like a passion ; the tall rock, 
The mountain, and the deep and gloomy wood, 
Their colours and their forms, were then to me 
An appetite, a feeling and a love, 
That had no need of a remoter charm 
By thought supplied, or any interest 
Unborrowed from the eye. 

Very many of us now share this mental attitude ; but that should 
not lead us to forget that as a prevailing habit of mind the love of 
nature has gained greatly in depth and range in the last century. It 
is only within that period that the love of scenery has appreciably 
influenced the travelling public. It may be that previously the diffi- 
culty of going from place to place was so great as effectually to nip 
in the bud any nascent taste for natural scenery ; but this explana- 

378 the president's address. 

tion does not fully account for all the facts. The ancients, like the 
moderns, were accustomed to go in great numbers to pleasant places 
that were easy of access ; but we do not hear of their going at the 
expense of great physical discomfort to spend a night on the summit 
of a frozen Alp, in order to witness the sun rise from it, or doing 
anything of a similar character. They loved nature in so far as her 
aspects suggested comfort and enjoyment ; but the whole class of 
poetic sensations based on the feeling of man's oneness with the rest 
of the universe was almost entirely absent from their souls. 

Another important feature in the literary history of the nineteenth 
century which is, I think, connected with the predominance of physi- 
cal science in the intellectual world is the production of a consider- 
able mass of verse which may be classed as the poetry of doubt and 
negation. The leading feature of the poems belonging to this class 
is that they deal with the religious aspect of the general scepticism 
due to the scientific method. The prominent English names in this 
school are Shelley, Tennyson, Arthur Hugh Clough, and Matthew 
Arnold. Tennyson, indeed, falls into this class not on account of the 
general character of his works, but on account of one single poem, 
In Memoriam. That, however, is his best. The connexion of the 
scepticism, which he fights and overcomes in that poem rather by 
force of will than by argument, with the scientific movement is 
shown by innumerable passages, many of which have become stock 
quotations. Here is one of the most familiar : 

Are God and Nature then at strife 
That Nature lends such evil dreams ? 
So careful of the type she seems, 

So careless of the single life, 

That I, considering everywhere 

Her secret meaning in her deeds, 

And finding that of fifty seeds 
She often brings but one to bear. 

I falter where I firmly trod. 

Matthew Arnold has, like Tennyson, fought his doubts and over- 
come them ; but he has arrived at a much less definite belief. 

Clough and Shelley both died before reaching any very defined 
belief. The nature of the former made him a pure doubter ; that of 
the latter an asserter of negations. Shelley is not so much a poet of 
doubt as of defiance. 


No one who narrowly scrutinizes the intellectual influences of our 
own day can fail to see that that of science is one of the most impor. 
tant. One scientific speculation, that of Charles Darwin on the 
origin of species, has within less than a quarter of a century com- 
pletely revolutionized the world of thought. The frequency with 
which such words and phrases as, development, evolution, survival of 
the fittest, struggle for existence, etc., are now used in our newspapers 
and in ordinary conversation, is perhaps the most striking proof of 
the extent to which the world generally has been unconsciously 
influenced by him. Nearly all the leading scientific men of the age 
are Darwinians ; the only exceptions are a few of the older men who 
still keep their heads above the advancing tide. This theory seems 
to strike at the belief in personal immortality and the other founda- 
tions of morals and religion ; and some writers, notably Mr. Gold win 
Smith, have given expression to the opinion that a day of moral un- 
settlement and consequent deterioration of hunan conduct is approach- 
ing. They would reecho what Tennyson has expressed in In 


I trust I have not wasted breath : 
I think we are not wholly brain, 
Magnetic mockeries ; not in vain, 
Like Paul with beasts, I fought with death. 

Not only cunning casts in clay : 

Let science prove we are, and then 

What matters science unto men, 
At least to me ? I would not stay. 

Let him, the wiser man who springs 

Hereafter, up from childhood shape 

His action like the greater ape, 
But I was born to other things. 

Such lamentations appear to have little effect upon the advance of 
evolutionist views. Like some necromancer whose spells have evoked 
a spirit which he cannot lay, the activity of the human intellect has 
developed a system of beliefs with regard to the material universe that 
seems to threaten the very foundations of society, and we can do 
nothing but look on. Yet I, for one, have no serious apprehensions. 

I believe 

That somehow good 
Will be the final goal of ill. 

The presence of the religious and moral elements in man is at least 
^8 much a fact as the links of resemblance that establish a relation 

380 the president's address. 

between us and the anthropoid apes. If the analogies of our physi- 
cal nature connect us with the earth, those of our spiritual nature join 
us with the skies. The Power that rules the universe governs not only 
us but everything in it, including the causes and effects of the pro- 
mulgation of the Darwinian theory, and it seems therefore unreason- 
able to be over-anxious because we cannot see how the breakers, or 
appearances of breakers ahead are to be avoided. We are looking 
at a single scene of the great drama of human progress, and though 
I do not know what is going to happen in succeeding scenes and acts, 
I have an abiding faith that what doeii happen will be right. 

But, if the great advance of science has produced some effects that 
seem of doubtful benefit, of what incalculable value has it not been 
on the whole ] It has in may ways mitigated or nullified pain \ it 
has procured for us innumerable physical comforts ; it has lengthened 
life ; it has built up the confidence and increased the energy of man 
by causing him to believe that his control over the forces of nature 
may be indefinitely increased. But on these things I shall not dwell 
for science has won greater victories. Its discoveries have furnished 
subjects of contemplation that have solaced innumerable spirits in the 
hour of misery, that have elevated the mean, and given breadth to the 
narrow, that have shamed men out of selfishness, and added a new 
force to every lofty and honorable impulse. In comparison with the 
vast extent of the physical universe how small is my material being, 
but how grand that part of my nature that makes me intellectually 
monarch of all that the mental eye can see. Into remote spaces 
whence it takes light millions of years to come, I range in thought ; 
I view the smallest object visible under the most powerful microscope 
and yet see further with the eye of the mind ; I trace the history of 
the earth from its original completely molten state down through 
successive stages of cooling to the present, and onward through in- 
numerable «ons in the future, by virtue of my power of intellectual 
vision. In presence of the sublime conceptions to which such ex- 
cursions into the infinite realms of time and space give rise, one learns 
to look down on the petty annoyances of the day, one rises superior 
to temptations, nature becomes a temple, and life a poem. 




In 1623, just seven years after Shakespeare's death, John 
Heming and Henry Condel "set forth" the first collected edition 
of the poet's plays— the famous " First Folio/' so frequently referred 
to by Shakespeare commentators. In their preface to " The great 
variety of readers from the most able to him that can spell," as they 
quaintly phrase it, they say, " you have been abused with divers 
stolen and surreptitious copies maimed and deformed by the frauds 
and stealth of injurious impostors :" " whereas," they add, " those 
now offered to your view are cured and perfect of their limbs, 
absolute in their members, as he (Shakespeare) conceived them." 
After deploring the fact that Shakespeare had not lived to set forth 
and oversee his own writings, they add, by way of further recom- 
mending the accuracy of their own work, " We have scarce received 
a blot on his papers." From this it would naturally be supposed 
that the editors enjoyed the special advantage of printing from 
Shakespeare's own manuscript — a supposition the more likely, as 
the editors had been his intimate companions and were privileged to 
speak of the poet as their " friend and fellow." As a matter of 
fjwt the editors of the " First Folio " do not appear to have had 
any such advantage, for Professor Dowden, perhaps the highest 
authority on such a question, assures us that " several of the plays 
in the * First Folio ' are in fact printed from earlier Quartos, while 
in other cases the Quartos gave a text superior to the Folio." 

If Heming and Oondel were the first Shakespeare editors to 
mourn over the corruptions and mutilations which the text of their 
author had undergone, they most certainly were not the last. From 
that day to this these corruptions have not ceased to perplex the 
editors of Shakespeare and to furnish an inexhaustible field for the 
ingenuity of his innumerable commentators. 


If we are correct in ascribing to Shakespeare the well-known 
epitaph on his tombstone cursing any one who should disturb his 
bones, we cannot but regret that the poet who concerned himself so 
much about the safeguarding of his earthly part, should have taken 
so little thought about his literary remains. Never, perhaps, were 
literary pearls cast before swine more recklessly than by Shakespeare. 
Referring to the infinite variety of influences which contributed 
to the corruption of Shakespeare's plays, Johnson truly says, "It 
is not easy for invention to bring together so many causes con- 
curring to vitiate a text." -Illiterate copyists, blundering printers, 
stupid players, all took part in the work of destruction. Small 
wonder that so large an amount of alloy has come to be mixed up 
with the pure gold of Shakespeare. The wonder is rather that the 
mutilation and destruction was not more disastrous and complete. 
In the work of reverently restoring the original text of our poet, 
of recovering his lost pearls, all the great English commentators 
from Howe and Malone down to our own time have lent their will- 
ing aid. Specially during the last quarter of a century has the work 
of restoration been helped forward by such scholarly critics as Dyce 
and Staunton, to say nothing of the ingenious Collier, of somewhat 
questionable honesty. 

Although much has been done, still very much remains to be done 
before the text of Shakespeare can be purified altogether of its dross. 
There is still no lack of confessedly spurious passages to provoke 
and reward felicitous conjecture. The present paper is my second 
contribution to this pious work. 1 The emendations which it con- 
tains, original so far as I know, will be found, it is hoped, to clear 
away some of the errors of copyists and printers. The textual 
changes are for the most part slight, sometimes merely the alteration 
of two or three letters or the transposition of two consecutive 

Turn we to " The Tempest," usually placed first in the old 
editions of Shakespeare, although it is now universally admitted to 
have been one of his latest plays, in Professor Dowden's opinion 
possibly his very latest. Act II., sc. 11 — Trin&do loquitur — He 
has come upon the monster Caliban stretched upon the ground partly 

» A paper on the same subject was read before the Literary and Historical 8ociety of 
Quebec, and published in the Transactions of the Society fur April, 18t$3. 


hidden by the logs of wood which he had been carrying to Pros- 
pered cave, and which he had thrown down in terror on seeing 

" What have we here — a man or a fish — dead or alive ? Were I 
in England now, <fec., then would this monster make a man. When 
they will not give a doit to relieve a lame beggar, they will lay out 
ten to see a dead Indian." I venture to suggest that Shakespeare 
wrote live, and not lame. The two words, if carelessly written, look 
very much alike, but live seems the natural and true word, and gives 
force to the contrast which the jester Trinculo wishes to draw, viz. : 
That the English sight seer would spend ten times as much on seeing 
a dead Indian as in relieving a live countryman. 

The opening speech of Ferdinand in the 3rd Act of the same play 
contains a line which has been a veritable enigma for the critics. 
Ferdinand, being commanded by Prospero to pile up a number of 
logs at his cave, enters carrying one. Pausing in his work he thus 
soliloquizes : 

"There be some sports are painful, 
But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labour ; 
Most busie least when I do it." 

The last line is hopelessly meaningless. To quote Staunton : 
" It is the great crux of the play. No passage of Shakespeare has 
occasioned more speculation, and on none has speculation proved less 
happy. The first folio reads, ' most busie lest when I do it.' The 
second, * most busie least when I do it.' Pope prints, 'least busie 
when I do it/ Theobald, ' most busiiess when I do it.' " 

All will agree with Staunton that none of the emendations pro- 
posed are very happy, and it were prudence, probably, not to attempt 
to solve a difficulty which has baffled so many. It seems to me,, 
however, clear that " most " and " least " cannot stand together in 
the line, and that one or the other was written as a gloss for the 
one which Shakespeare wrote. Either " most busie when I do it," 
or " least busie when I do it," is intelligible. " Most busie," how- 
ever, would refer to " these sweet thoughts " of which he has just 
spoken, and " least busie " to his feelings when at work. " Studio 
fallente laborem." I am disposed to believe that Shakespeare wrote : 

"•But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labour ; 
Most busie — when I do it." 


These- sweet thoughts being most busy when he was employed at 
work. Some actor or copyist not understanding busie as referring 
to these " thoughts," probably wrote " least " as a gloss in his copy, 
and both words were by the printer incorporated in the text. 

It is not a very uncommon thing for a gloss or a stage direction 
to find its way from the margin into the text. We have an illus- 
tration of the latter, if I am not mistaken, in the commonly received 
reading of a line in the opening scene of the second Act of Henry 
V., Corporal Nym, loquitur. 

Nym. — " For my part I care not, I say little ; 

Bat when time serves there shall be smiles." 

The last word in the second line, " smiles," was, I take it, a stage 
direction at the end of the line. Nym. merely says " there shall be 

," without saying what. It is his " humour " to " say little," 

but he " smiles " significantly, as though he could say a good deal if 
he would. The line as usually given, " we shall have smiles," seems 
weak and not in Nym's vein. 

By the way, I am not aware whether it has been suggested, that 
Corporal Nym, whose '• honesty " was of the FalstafF type, derived 
his name from an old and now utterly obsolete English word 
" Nimm," to take. The name being thus an index to the character, 
as in the case of " Pistol," " Quickly " and " Doll Tearsheet " in the 
same play. 

In first part Henry IV., in the last line (Act III., s. 11), in Prince 
Harry's speech, " If not the end of life cancels all bands" I think 
we should certainly read bonds for bands. Cancelling bands is hardly 
intelligible, but cancelling bonds is technically correct. Shakespeare 
uses the same phrase twice elsewhere. In Richard III., we have 
* 'cancel his bonds of life," and in Cymbeline, "cancel these cold 
bonds." Oddly enough in the previous part of this very speech the 
Prince distinctly speaks of other legal instruments : 

" Percy is but my factor. Good, my lord, 
To engross up glorious deeds in my behalf." 

In this connection I need hardly mention that the frequent and 
correct use by Shakespeare of technical legal phrases has been ad- 
duced as an evidence that Shakes}>eare must have spent some years 
as a clerk in a lawyer's office. 


In Richard II. there are two or three of the finest passages in 
the play in which I venture to suggest emendations. The first 
occurs in the splendid and patriotic speech which Shakespeare puts 
into the mouth of old John of Gaunt, when on his deathbed, he 
utters his last warning counsel to the weak young king, Richard 
II. (Act II. s. 1.) It is the oft-quoted speech beginning, ^Methinks 
I am a prophet, new inspired," then follows his magnificent descrip- 
tion of England : 

" This sceptred Isle, 

This fortress built by nature for herself 
Against infection and the hand of war." 

Staunton objects, rightly I think, to the word " infection," 
because, as a matter of fact, England in Shakespeare's time was not 
preserved by her insular position from pestilential contagion. But 
Apart altogether from this very matter of fact argument I cannot 
bring myself to believe that Shakespeare ever thought of regarding 
the " silver sea" in which England was set, the " triumphant sea " 
as it is called in the same speech, asa " cordon sanitaire" to protect 
the country from the plague ! This were on a par with using 
" Imperious Caesar dead and turned to clay, to stop a hole to keep the 
wind away." Farmer, feeling the necessity of an emendation here, 
proposed the word in/estion — a word not found, so far as I know, 
anywhere else either in Shakespeare or any other English writer. 
" Invasion " was, I believe, the word written by Shakespeare. 
" Against invasion and the hand of war" brings the line into har- 
mony with the whole speech. 

In King Richard's speech, in the same scene, he is made to say : 

" Now for our Irish wars ; 
We must supplant these rough rug-headed kernes, 
Which live like venom where no venom else 
Hath privilege to live. " 

"Living like venom" appears to me harsh and forced, if not 
obscure. I suspect Shakespeare wrote "vermin" not "venom," 
alluding to the legend, popular then as now, that St. Patrick had 
" banished all the vermin " from the Island of Saints. It may be 
noted too that Richard proposes to deal with the " Irish kernes " 
very much as the Saint had done with the Irish vermin, namely, 
" supplant them," or, in other words, exterminate them — a mode of 
dealing with the Irish which has probably suggested itself to the 


minds of many of the English rulers of Ireland since King Richard's 
day. 1 

Turn we now to what Professor Dowden calls the "dark and 
bitter " comedy of Measure for Measure, a play which enjoys the 
unenviable distinction of having more manifestly corrupt passages 
than any other of Shakespeare's plays, excepting perhaps " Cymbe- 
line." Claudio when deprecating the cruelty of the Duke's Deputy 
in enforcing against him the penalty of an obsolete statute, in con- 
sequence of his having had a child by Juliet says, Act I. s. 3 : 

" And the new Deputy now for the Duke, 
Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness, 
Or whether, Ac." 

The meaning of glimpse in this line I fail to see, and would suggest 
that Shakespeare must have written not glimpse but gloss— gloss of 
newness is most natural in speaking of the sudden accession of new 
dignity to the Deputy. It is worth noting too that in several other 
passages " gloss" and " new" are brought into close conjunction by 

In Much Ado, we have " new gloss of your marriage ;" in 
Macbeth, " be worn now in their newest gloss ;" in Othello, " con- 
tent to slubber the gloss of your new fortunes." 

Gloss written or printed with the long s might readily be mis- 
taken for glimpse, especially when the former word was spelt with 
an e at the end, as it certainly was by Shakespeare. 

In Olaudio's speech, immediately preceding the one in which this 
line occurs, I would suggest the omission of " the " in the fourth 
line, which now stands : 

" Save that we do the denunciation lack." 

" The " is not necessary here for the sense and spoils the rythm of 
the line, and I believe we are justified in suspecting any line in 
Shakespeare which is unrythmical as being corrupt. 

i Since writing the above my attention has been called to some passages from the literature 
of Shakespeare's time, which certainly support the present reading. 
" That Irish Judas, 
Bred in a country where no venom prospers 
But in his blood." 

And in Pier's Ploughman wo have 

" Of all freting venymes, the vilest is the Scorpion,** 
Where " venyni" is clearly used as the animal not the poison. 


I cannot help referring to a remarkable instance which this play 
affords of a corrupt passage being retained in the text long after the 
obviously true reading had been suggested. See III. Act, s. 2 : 

Elbow. — " He must before the Deputy, &c. 

The Deputy cannot abide a whoremaster." 
Duke {who is now aware what a hypocrite the Deputy is) says : 
" That we were all as some would seem to be, 
Free from our faults as faults from seeming free." * 

The last line is sheer nonsense, and the ingenuity of all the com- 
mentators from Warburton to Staunton has failed to extract any 
sense from it. The simple transposition of faults and from in the 
latter part of the line makes the whole passage perfectly clear, and 
gives exactly the idea in the mind 01 the Duke, namely, that 
Angelo was not as faultless as he seemed to be. The same opinion of 
Angelo is expressed by the Duke in other passages of the play : 

" Hence we shall see 
If power change purpose what our seemers be." 

And again, when he says : 

" O, what may man within him hide, 
Tho' angel or the outward side." 

When it occurred to me many years ago thus to correct the line, 
I jumped at once to the conclusion that the suggestion had never 
been made before. For if made I thought it could not but have 
been immediately adopted. What was my surprise then to find 
that the suggestion had been actually proposed by Hamner, a very 
sensible fellow by the way, more than 1 00 years ago. The correction 
has not even now been generally adopted in the recent editions of 
Shakespeare, which aim at special accuracy in the text. The cele- 
brated " Globe " edition of Shakespeare, published within the last 
twenty years, marks the passage with an obelus (t), indicating that 
it is a corrupt one for which no admissible emendation has been 

Let us take up now the tragedy of Macbeth, and turn to the 

king's speech (Act I., s. 4), which he addresses to Macbeth returning 

after his victory : 

41 worthiest cousin. 

Would thou hadst less deserved 
That the proportion both of thanks and payment 
Might have been mine." 


" For mine" says Staunton, '* which no one can for a moment 
-doubt to be a corruption, we would suggest that the poet wrote 
mean, i.e., equivalent, just and the like, the sense being, that the 
proportion of thanks and payment might have been equal to yoor 
deserts. 1 ' J cannot think Staunton as happy as usual in this 
•emendation. The word Shakespeare wrote here was, I suspect, 
" more," not " mine," or " mean." The substitution of more makes 
the passage clear. Had Macbeth's deserts been less, the proportion 
of the king's thanks and payments would certainly have been mor*. 
What immediately follows confirms this correction, for the king 

goes on : 

" Only I have left to say, 
Afore is thy due than more than all can pay." 

As an instance of the absurd rubbish, absolute jargon, which the 
printers were ready to give as Shakespeare, I may cite a line from a 
speech of the witty Mercutio as it is given in ail the old editions 
but one — 

" Cry but ' ah me' — Provant but love and day." 

The true reading being — 

" Appear thou in the likeness of a sigh, 
Speak but one rhyme and I am satisfied, 
Cry but ' ah me,' pronounce but love and dove." 

The ah me is, the sigh, love and dove stands for the rhyme. Oddly 
-enough, " ah me" is the very first word which Juliet speaks or 
sighs as she enters in the next scene. 

It is no part of such a paper as the present to lay down any 
general canons of criticism on the subject of Shakespearean emenda- 
tions. But the following dicta will, I venture to think, be accepted 
by most Shakespearean students : 

1. That the sole object and justification of any emendation in the 
text of Shakespeare, should be to eliminate any thing which 
Shakespeare did not write, and to substitute if possible the ipsissima 
verba of the author. 

3. That any passage which is obscure and unintelligible may be 
assumed to be corrupt. 

3. That any line which is not rhythmical may be suspected not to 
be Shakespeare's. 

The first and second of the foregoing propositions will, I think, 
•commend themselves to most Shakespearean scholars. The second 


is in truth a corollary of the proposition, which is I think unques- 
tionable, " That nothing which is obscure is SJiakespeare." 

As to the third, it is only another way of stating that Shake- 
speare was such a master of rhythm, his musical ear was so correct, 
that he could not write any thing which was harsh or unmusical. 

When, therefore, we are startled by any line which lacks the 
usual melody and rhythmical flow of Shakespeare, we cannot but 
regard it with grave suspicion, and if we hesitate to pronounce it as 
ipso facto corrupt, we must at least place it iu the category of those 
which are soupgonnes d'etre suspects. 

But besides the obscure and unmusical lines there are no doubt 
many others which are corrupt. The accomplished editors of the- 
Cambridge Shakespeare truly remark : " There are many passages, 
easily construed and scanned, and therefore not generally suspected 
of corruption, which nevertheless have not been printed exactly as 
they were written. Some ruder hand has effaced the touch of the- 
master." Some of these unsuspected corruptions have been dealt 
with in this paper. 

When I consider the scholarship and learning expended during 
the last quarter of a century, both in Europe and America, upon the 
works of Shakespeare, the volumes which have been written on his 
genius, mind, art and influence, the subtle sometimes perhaps too 
subtle — analysis to which the principal plays and characters have- 
been subjected, to say nothing of the recent contribution to Shakes- 
pearean literature in connection with what has been well called the 
Bacon-Shakespeare craze, 1 cannot but be sensible of the compara- 
tively humble field of enquiry to which my Shakespearean labours 
have been directed. Indeed, I feel that to speak of what I have- 
done as " labour" at all may be to give to it a dignity to which it 
has no claim. But if it may be so designated, it has assuredly been 
a labour of love, where the labour was its own reward. If I could 
hope by my suggestions to remove even one or two of the blem- 
ishes or obscurities which mar and disfigure the bright page of 
Shakespeare, I shall have the further satisfaction of feeling that I 
have done something to mark, however feebly, my gratitude for the 
infinite enjoyment and instruction which I have- derived from his* 




BY A. B. MACALLUM, B. A., High School, Cornwall, Ontario. 

The original object of the present paper was a description of the 
Organ of Jacobson as it obtains in Eutaenia. During the progress 
of my studies in that direction, however, new features and modifica- 
tions of previously described structures in the nasal cavity, lachry- 
mal duct, and on the palatal surface, were observed, and I felt 
compelled, in consequence, to abandon that limit, and to include 
below a description of the whole Nasal Region. 

The material for study consisted of a series of sections from an 
embryo-head, 6 mm. in length, of Eutaenia sirtalis, and several 
series from the nasal region of adult forms of the same species. 

In addition to these, I have examined many of the parts in ques- 
tion in fresh state in salt solution, and also when macerated. A 
number of macerating reagents were employed, but treatment with 
Midler's Fluid and subsequent staining with an alcoholic solution of 
Eosin, gave the best results. 

I must here express my sincere thanks to Prof. Wright for the 
kind advice and assistance received from him on points of this work, 
and especially on the Organ of Jacobson, the structure of which I have 
studied with him in his own laboratory. I am also indebted to him 
for several of the drawings accompanying this paper. 

The roof of the mouth in the adult possesses several strongly 
marked ridges and depressions. Of the former there are two on 
each side of the middle line, that over which the maxilla lies being 
the most prominent throughout. It runs parallel with the lip, and 
does not unite with its fellow of the opposite side in front. The 
palatine ridges commence some distance behind, are parallel to each 
other, and bound a depressed palatal surface. Between the maxillary 
and palatine ridges of each side lies another longitudinal depression 
whose surface is striated, the course of the striation being obliquely 


backwards and inwards across the axis of the depression. (Fig. 1.) 
It is due to a folding of the mucous membrane into crypts. The 
middle palatal depression is bounded anteriorly by a raised portion 
of the palate from which a crest, large, rounded in front, is continued, 
diminishing in height as it proceeds backward. Behind the palatal 
depression lies the choanal region, oblong in shape, and much deeper 
than the rest of the upper surface of the mouth. It contains the 
somewhat crescent-shaped choanae and the choanal cul-de-sac, the 
latter to be found between two folds separating the choanae, diverging 
and flattening out posteriorly. At a point on the middle palatal de- 
pression on each side of the palatal crest, opposite its posterior termina- 
tion and adjacent to the palatine ridge, is to be found, in hardened 
specimens, a very delicate groove, containing the openings of the 
Organ of Jacobson and the lachrymal duct. 

The corneous matter covers the edge of the lips to the lateral 
border of maxillary ridge. At this junction of the corneous and 
maxillary regions the apertures of the ducts of the upper lip gland 
are found. 

In a transverse section of the nasal region of the adult, through 
the middle of the Organ of Jacobson, the latter is situated immedi- 
ately above the palatine ridge and the middle palatal depression on 
each side of the middle line, and placed adjacent to the inner wall of 
the nasal passage, which is here inclined outward and downward. 
Laterally from the Organ of Jacobson and under the nasal passage 
lies a cavity with its transverse axis horizontal, which may be termed 
the maxillary sinus. Above it Muller's Nasal Gland covers the 
lateral wall of the nasal passage. (Fig. 2, Mg.) Immediately above 
the inner corneous portion of each lip is seen the upper lip gland 
with several lobules. Below, the maxillary and palatine ridges are 
strongly marked, and the middle palatal surface has a distinct crest. 
(Fig. 2, m,p, andpc.) 

The vomer is double, each half forming a capsule for the inner 
and a portion of the under and upper walls of the Organ of Jacobson 
of its side, and consisting of three portions, a basal not quite horizon- 
tal, a thin vertical plate concave on its outer face, and a cupped 
<crest. The inner edge of the septomaxillary, appearing in section as 
if turned under on itself, rests on the cup of this crest, and the septo- 
maxillary is continued from here outwards between the Organ of 
Jacobson and the nasal passage. Under the latter, it gives two 


plates, one to proceed down the outer surface of the Organ of Jacob- 
son, the other, to proceed in opposite direction, on the outer wall of 
the passage and terminate in the middle of its height. The lower 
plate is found in other sections to enter the pedicle (Fig. 2, pd f ) of 
the Organ of Jacobson, and partly fuses there with the basal portion 
of the vomer. In the section represented it does not so enter, ite 
place being occupied by the cartilage which passes out from the 
pedicle and Hues the outer under face of both plates of the septo- 
maxillary, and ultimately in sections behind this reaches the turbin&l 
ingrowth, with the cartilage of which it unites. (Figs. 2, 3, 4, tb.) 
The upper half of the pedicle is tilled with cartilage throughout, 
(tb' 2, 3.) The turbinal cartilage extends over the nasal cavity to 
connect in front with the wing of the nasal septum, which terminates 
interiorly with a rounded edge between the cupped crests of the 
vomer of each side. (Figs. 2, 3, 4:, Sept.) 

In a section through the anterior termination of the maxillae, the 
latter with the preinaxilla form a horizontal plate with a plate of 
cartilage, also horizontal, in its centre. In a section behind this- 
the cartilage is concave on its upper face, and the osseous 
piece above it, is the ascending process of the premaxilla. Below, 
are two basal pieces, not distinctly separated from each other, or 
from the maxillae now somewhat laterally. Behind this again the 
cartilage takes a U form, the wings of which give off on each side a 
nearly vertical transverse plate, forming a prenasal wall, and reach- 
ing the cheek in front of the anterior nasal opening. Between the 
wings of the main cartilage, now the nasal septum, the ascending 
process of the premaxilla extends and forms a vertical plate. (Fig. 
6, pra. ) Immediately behind the transverse prenasal wall of each 
side, the septomaxillary commences rod-like, and separated from the 
similarly shaped vomer by a thin sheet of cartilage continuous with 
the transverse prenasal wall. The basal portions of the premaxilla 
(prb) do not extend much further behind this point. The septo- 
maxillary becomes flattened as it proceeds backward, its transverse 
axis directed outward and downward, and applied in this manner to 
the wall of the nasal cavity. It is still separated by the cartilage, 
above described, from the vomer. When the Organ of Jacobson is 
reached, the septomaxillary has acquired considerable thickness and 
forms ite anterior wall, while the cartilage enters the pedicle, in the 
anterior half of which the two mentioned bones fuse, although inconv 


pletely. The septomaxillary undergoes another change in form at 
the hinder half of the Organ of Jacobson it gradually loses the pro- 
longation on the outer and under surface of the Organ, which is there 
replaced by the vomer. It also rises and becomes more closely applied 
to the nasal wall. On the other hand, the cupped crest of the vomer 
becomes prolonged outward under the septomaxillary and parallel 
with it. This portion of the vomer is much fenestrated to allow a 
passage to the Organ of Jacobson for the olfactory nerve bundles. 
Below, the basal portion reaches outward, and finally unites with the 
superior prolongation on the outer surface of the Organ. 

The vomer thus surrounds and envelopes the posterior, as the septo- 
maxillary does the anterior, termination of the Organ of Jacobson, 
behind which it divides into two portions, the inferior quickly dis- 
appearing, the superior losing its horizontal process rises, and with 
its fellow of the opposite side forms a capsule for the lower half of 
the nasal septum, now oval in section. Approaching the choana of 
its side, it descends again to apply itself to its inner wall, and 
terminates by sending a plate outward over the choanal roof to unite 
with the palatine bone. 

As before stated, the wings of the nasal septum pass out over the 
nasal cavities down their sides to connect with the turbinal carti- 
lages. The latter are provided in their front half with a concavity 
on the outer face of each, to which the Nasal Gland of M tiller accom- 
modates itself. This concavity deepens as the cartilage is followed 
backward, the edges approximating and forming ultimately behind a 
closed tube, containing a separate portion of the gland. (Fig. 4, Mg'). 
This tube ends blindly with the turbinal ingrowth. 

In front a plate of cartilage, continuous with the turbinal, passes 
around the nasal opening, and is connected with the transverse pre- 
nasal wall. (Figs. 6, 7, nc, nc'.) Below, the turbinal is connected 
with the cartilage of the pedicle of the Organ of Jacobson by a 
narrow transverse plate passing under the septomaxillary. This 
transversely directed plate of cartilage is continued backward into 
two pieces, which in a transverse section containing the opening of 
the Organ of Jacobson are arranged, one immediately under the 
outer half of the latter, the other some distance laterally. (Figs. 3, 
4, &/, fc".) These are the lachrymal cartilages, and are described 
below in connection with the lachrymal duct 


The nasal bones immediately succeed the ascending process of the 
premaxilla. They reach down between the wings of the nasal 
septum, and do not pass out farther than the superior border of 
Miiller's Gland. Posteriorly, each have a process directed downward 
to unite with the process of the inner edge of septomaxillary, when 
the plate of the latter disappears behind. (Fig. 4, na.) This inferior 
process is continued into the rostrum of the frontal bone of the same 

In the same section as at first examined, viz., that through the 
middle of the Organ of Jacobson, the mucous membrane of the roof 
of the mouth differs in structure at the following points : 

(a) At the inner surface of the lip, where large nucleated cells are 
overlaid by a corneous stratum ; the cells at the base, while of the 
same size and shape, are more granular in contents. 

(/3) In the immediate neighborhood of the furrow, in which the 
ducts of the upper lip gland open ; there the corneous layer is replaced 
by flattened, apparently squamous, cells overlying a layer of small 
oval cells. This is the structure of the membrane on the middle 
palate and in the dental pits. 

(y) In the palatine crypts, where goblet and ciliated cylindrical 
cells alone are found, the latter being to all appearance the more 

(6) At the passage from one palatine crypt to another, where the 
membrane is formed almost wholly of ciliated epithelium cells, with 
here and there a goblet cell. 

The furrow to be found limiting the inward extension of corneous 
layer of the lip receives at regular intervals the apertures of the 
ducts of the upper lip gland. From here the ducts lead upward and 
outward, and break up into a number of acini. Immediately above 
the lobule thus formed are to be found the sections of preceding or 
succeeding lobules, three or four in number. The cells of the acini 
in the uppermost lobules are of larger size than those of the lower. 
The nucleus in each is generally situated in the outer half of each 
cell, the contents of which are more or less granular, and slightly 
pigmented, giving to the gland, as a whole, a yellowish tinge. When 
removed in a state of active secretion, the cells of the gland are found 
to be extremely granular. As these approach the main duct they 
elongate and become cylindrical. The acini are compressed against 
each other, thus becoming polygonal in section and are separated by 
small quantities of nerve fibres and connective tissue. 


The gland extends from the transverse 'prenasal wall to a point 
immediately behind the fleshy union of the jaws. The lobules are 
larger and reach higher as they are followed backward. 

A large gland fills up the space between the cartilaginous prenasal 
wall and the apex of the snout. It is termed the " snout gland," and 
and is shown by Reichel to be but a separately developed portion of 
the upper lip gland. Its ducts open in the depressions placed 
laterally from the head of the palatal crest. This shows it to be a 
paired gland, but the acini of lobules from one side are directed in* 
every manner amongst those of the other side ; as Reichel 
points out, they are quite separate at an early stage. The cellular 
structure is very similar to that of the upper lip gland, and possesses- 
also the yellowish tinge. The lobules reach up nearly to the posterior 
end of the ascending premaxilla. 

The Nasal Gland of Miiller is situated on the lateral wall of the 
nasal cavity, from which it is separated by the turbinal cartilage, 
and the septomaxillary ; as already described, it conforms itself to a 
concavity on the outer face of turbinal cartilage. As the concavity 
deepens to form a tube, a portion of the gland is included in it to its 
blind termination. It does not reach farther behind than the 
turbinal ingrowth, and anteriorly than the Organ of Jacobson. 
The duct, however, is continued, first on a level with the tur- 
binal ingrowth, then on the lower outer surface of the nasal wall, 
which position it keeps till it reaches the anterior nasal opening, on 
the lower posterior edge of which is found its flask-like aperture. 
Fig. 7 is a representation of a transverse section at this point, with 
op the aperture over a broad groove, which in front of this forms the 
floor of the nasal cavity. 

The cells of this gland are provided with large distinct nuclei and 
a protoplasm but little granular and staining very deeply. Their 
shape is generally cubical, approaching to cylindrical. The acini are 
arranged in horizontal layers separated by connective tissue, nerve 
fibres and capillary vessels, and are perfectly circular in transverse 
section. The main duct is continued behind, about the centre of the 

The mucous membrane lining the floor of the nasal passage is. 
folded in a remarkable manner, reaching out into and narrowing its 
lumen ; its constituents are ciliated cylindrical cells and goblet cells. 
Below these is found a layer of cells whose characteristics change 


with their situation, oftenest of small spherical form and granular 

The olfactory portion of the wall of the cavity may be divided for 
the purpose of description as follows : 

(a) The mucous stratum, lying adjacent to the cartilaginous plate ; 
it is constituted of large pigment cells, nerve fibres and capillaries, 
forming a plexus, which surrounds the branch tubules of Bowman'i 

(/?) The sensory stratum, resting on a, which is composed mainly 
of the nuclear portions of the sensory cells, arranged in 8-10 layers. 
The central processes of these are much more delicate than the 
peripheral, and in many places in my preparations are seen to be 
continuous with olfactory nerve fibres. The peripheral processes 
exhibit a marked wavy contour, and in specimens, subjected to the 
action of Mailer's fluid, appear possessed of granular contents. 
Outside and beyond the cells of y, these abruptly become slender, 
forming the so called sense hairs, (the Riechharchen of Max Schultze) 
directed into the nasal cavity. These, when examined in salt solu- 
tion, exhibit considerable movement, their axes becoming every now 
and then wavy. At their origins are to be observed delicate swellings. 
The nucleus of the sensory cell is perfectly spherical, and, like the 
protoplasm surrounding it slightly glanular. 

iy) The superficial stratum, composed of cylindrical epithelium 
cells with oval nuclei lying between the peripheral processes of 0. 
The central ends of these are very delicate, and are not branched. I 
have not observed any longitudinal striation on their surface. Form- 
ing the outer terminations of these cells and encasing the delicate 
swellings of the sense hairs, is seen, with favorable light, a distinct 
border structure, corresponding to a membrana UmUans otfactoria. 
Through this the protoplasm of the cylindrical cells sends out exces- 
sively fine cilia which are seen in their entirety in salt solution, but 
when macerated, too often form only a granular precipitate at the 
border of the cell. They do not reach nearly the same length as the 
sense hairs, and exhibit a very slow movement, their axes remain- 
ing perfectly straight all the while. Sometimes these are obscured 
by the mucous and mucous cells from the adjacent glands. 

At the junction of the olfactory with the mucous portion of the 
nasal wall a great development of Bowman's Glands is to be observed ; 
their size here is extraordinary compared with those-of other portions. 
They are composed of cells of two forms, those in the depth of the 
gland being large and almost spherical. As they approach the aperture 
of the gland they gradually become smaller, assuming a rhombohedral 
form. The large cells in ordinary stained preparations do not show 


nuclei, but after a stay in Midler's Fluid the nucleus is found adjacent 
to the wall of the now perfectly spherical cell. The opening of the 
gland takes place at an indentation on the surface of the membrane. 
The following account of the structure of the Organ of Jacobson 
based partly on my preparations, was contributed by Prof. Wright 
to the Zoolof/ischer Anzeiger (No. 144), and will serve to explain his 
figures (Nos. 8, 9, 10) : 

"The Roof. — Immediately within the osseous capsule which the 
Vomer forms for Jacobson's Organ lies a somewhat scanty mucosa 
which is largely occupied by olfactory nerve- bundles : it is more 
richly pigmented than the corresponding layer in the nasal cavity, ite 
blood-vessels are of larger calibre, and it is destitute of Bowman's 
Glands. Most of the elements of the mucosa are continued inwards 
towards the lumen of Jacobson's Organ between vta cellular columns 
which are thus isolated from each other by pigmentary connective- 
tissue and capillary vessels. Very few of the olfactory nerve-fibres 
appear to run in the partitions thus formed, the bundles entering the 
outer ends of the cellular columns almost entirely. The capillaries, 
arrived at the deep surface of the Neuro-epitheliiim form there a 
plexus, the polygonal meshes of which are occupied by the inner 
ends of the cellular columns. This plexus obviously corresponds to- 
that on which the Neuro-epithelinra in the nasal cavity rests ; but 
there is no intervening basement membrane, for a reason which will 
be presently apparent. The Xeuro-epUheliuw (inside the plexus) ig. 
only 33 ,u high, and the greater part of this belongs to the superficial 
stratum (as defined above), while only one or two layers of cells cor- 
responding to the nuclear are to be detected. These latter cells, 
however, differ in form, according as they stand opposite a node or a 
mesh in the capillary plexus ; in the former case they are shorter, 
and their deep processes are bent in such a manner as to pass around 
the vessel, in the latter case they are more fusiform and they retain 
this shape for three or four layers while passing through the mesh 
in the corresponding cellular column. With the exception of these 
spindle-shaped cells which form their inner ends, the cellular columns 
are formed entirely of cells, completely resembling those of the nu- 
clear stratum in olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity ; ». e., they 
possess rounded nuclei (6 — 7 /tX5/i) surrounded with very scanty 
protoplasm prolonged into processes at either end. The highest 
columns measure about 300 fi. 

The Floor.— The following structures'may be traced from roof to* 

(I) The layer of ordinary cylindrical epithelium cells which are 
now only 15 fi high and bear short cilia ; between the bases of these 
are wedged small rounded cells forming rarely more than one layer ; 
these rest on 


(2) The capillary plexus, which is directly continuous with that 
mentioned above ; the rest of the mucosa is occupied by 

(3) The abundant pigment cells which spread out at the junction 
of floor and roof to surround the cellular columns in the mode de- 
scribed above." 

Prof. Wright's and my own studies further on the same subject 
have^given the following : 

The sensory stratum is divided into (1) the cellular columns 
already mentioned, oblong in section in the body of the organ, but at 
its posterior termination, polygonal, completely surrounded by the 
constricting plexus at all but one point, where their cells pass 
gradually over into those of (2) the sensory portion adjacent to the 
superficial stratum, and consisting of two or three layers. The 
cells of the second portion of this stratum do not exhibit any differ- 
ence from the sensory cells of the nasal passage, except that the 
nucleus in each and the portion of the cell containing it are more or 
less fusiform. In those of the columns, however, the central and 
peripheral processes are undistinguishable, so far as shape is con- 
cerned, both exceedingly delicate and wavy in their course. When 
the columns, macerated in Mitller's Fluid, are teased out, minute 
portions will be frequently seen through which the delicate processes 
pass in every direction. The nucleus in each is large, distinct and 
quite spherical, with little protoplasm surrounding it. Through the 
point of the connection of the columns with the rest of the sensory 
cells, their peripheral processes reach down between the latter to 
the lumen of the organ and terminate like them. 

The terminations of the sensory cells in the lumen are knob-like 
and about one-fourth the length of the sense-hairs in the nasal pas- 
sage. With such a length all capability of movement is absent- 
There is no swelling to be observed at the base of each. 

In the superficial stratum the cells have the same shape as in the 
nasal cavity. They are provided with the same distinct border 
structure, through which the sensory terminations push. Of any 
prolongation of the protoplasm of the superficial cells beyond this 
border structure no convincing proof has been met with as yet. In 
several cases a faint striation parallel with the cylindrical cell was 
observed at its border. This was replaced by a delicate granular 
precipitate in macerated specimens. The number of cases in which 
such a striation was observed, were few in comparison to the amount 
of material examined. It is, however, quite probable that the cylin- 
drical cells are provided with cilia as excessively fine as these of the 
nasal cavity. 

The border structure must be regarded as the homologue of the 
membrana limitans olfaetoria of the nasal cavity. 


The contents of the nerve-bundles near their origin from the olfac- 
tory lobes have a gelatinous appearance, with delicate lines to indi- 
cate a division into fibres. Each bundle is provided with a thin 
cellular sheath, which in cross sections is seen to strike in to form 
etill smaller bundles. The fibres which appear more distinctly some 
distance down the bundle are non-raedullated, but provided with 
a distinct sheath in which are to be observed here and there 
spindle-shaped cells, giving often the appearance of swellings on 
the course of the fibre. In the immediate neighbourhood of the 
sensory stratum either of the Organ of Jacobson or of the nasal 
cavity, these appear to be wanting. The diameter of the nerve 
threads here compared to those of the bundles farther up, would seem 
to indicate that these are primitive fibrils formed by the division of 
the contents of the main fibres. These primitive fibrils, if they are 
such, show no varicosities and give no evidence of any sheath like 
that possessed by the main fibres beyond having a sharply defined 
boundary. These fibrils are seen in such a condition when the sen- 
sory cells are pencilled out from cellular columns, leaving only a few- 
fibrils. They terminate as far as I can make out from my preparations 
at the central processes of the censory cell. The process and the 
fibril are of equal diameter. In sections from the embryo the fibrils 
appear to end in the nuclear portion of the sensory cell, and then a 
central process is not percievable. It is impossible to say whether 
the latter is a structure distinct from the nerve fibril ; on the other 
hand, I have no hesitation in saying that the both are continuous. 

The bundles may divide for both the Organ of Jacobson and the 
nasal cavity. Those for the former are arranged in a fan-shaped 
fashion. The smaller bundles for the nasal cavity strike in at every 
angle through the mucous stratum, bending around capillaries and 
crypts of Bowman till they reach the sensory stratum. 

The nasal cavity, in front of its anterior opening, is of the shape 
represented in Fig. 6. The groove to be found on its floor here 
runs backward through the opening on the cheek posteriorly. 
^Fig. 7, gr.) Behind this the passage takes a V form, whose 
lumen the turbinal ingrowth tends more and more to diminish, 
and is practically divided by it into two channels, one. the upper 
nasal chamber, to a great extent lined by the olfactory mem- 
brane, and communicating over the rounded edge of the turbinal 


with the mucous or lower nasal chamber, whose size is diminished 
by the mucous folds. The inner wall of the mucous chamber runs 
into a tube prolonged forward on a level with the Organ of JTacobson, 
and ending blindly immediately behind it. The tube is succeeded 
by a groove of the same calibre, which, with its fellow of the opposite 
side, narrows considerably the fleshy septum. The canal and groove 
are lined with folded mucous membrane. With the termination of 
the turbinal the passage becomes smaller and descends to the roof of 
the mouth to end in the choanae. These, observed from below, are 
slightly crescent-shaped, and are separated by folds (Fig. 1, chf.) 
which contain between them the choanal cul-de-sac, ending blindly in 
front over the middle palate. The choanal depression is somewhat 
narrowed below by a fold on each side from the palatine ridge. 

It is necessary to add some further details concerning the general 
histology of the nasal cavity, in addition to what is given above, for 
one section. of it. 

In the groove in the floor of its cavity, in front of the nasal open- 
ing, the cells of the lining membrane are, passing from its base 
upward, oval and granular, then large and polyhedral, and covered by 
a layer of flat corneous cells, the latter several layers thick near the 
posterior termination of the groove. The whole offers no contrast to 
that found just inside the lips, except in the size of its constituent 

The cavity anteriorly to the Organ of Jacobson is very poor in 
olfactory epithelium. The mucous membrane is but little folded, 
and the cylindrical cells with thick cilia appear to wander into the 
olfactory portion. 

Above the Organ of Jacobson the mucous folds of the lower 
chamber seem to till it out completely, while the olfactory epithelium 
does not reach that development which obtains behind. For there 
the turbinal is of its greatest transverse length, and its rounded edge, 
like the inner and upper walls of the upper nasal chamber, is lined 
by well developed olfactory membrane. The superficial and sen- 
sory portions of the same are wanting in the floor of the upper 
chamber. Coincident with the disappearance of the turbinal 
behind, the olfactory epithelium becomes scanty again, and on 
the roof and floor of the passage, in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the choana, is replaced by mucous membrane, that lining 
the roof abounding in goblet cells, while the majority of the 


constituents in the floor are formed by ciliated epithelium cells, 
which are also abundantly found on the palate immediately anterior 
to the choanae. In the choanal depression, minor folds of the mem- 
brane are very abundant. The two large ones separating the choanae 
enclose a cul-de-sac, whose lining membrane contains a profusion of 
goblet cells, which, however, give place to ciliated epithelium cells 
at the opening. 

The Organ of Jacobson (Pig. 2, J. 0.) is with its pedicle of serai- 
circular shape in transverse section, the cellular columns of its roof 
appearing to radiate about the crescentic lumen of the canal, and to 
form the greater portion of its bulk. These are of greatest 
length on the inner and upper side at the opening, behind 
which they are found on all sides of the now oval lumen. (Fig. 4.) 
The crescent form of the canal in front is due to the growth in- 
ward on its floor of a projection from the palate, and filled out 
with cartilaginous and parosteal structures as described above. For 
want of a better term I have called it the pedicle, (pd.) It bears 
a marked resemblance to the turbinal, this similarity heing some- 
what strengthened when one considers the connection of their carti- 
lages, and that the Organ of Jacobson and the upper nasal chamber 
are functionally alike. The inner wing of the lumen of the canal 
becomes prolonged downward between the pedicle and the basal 
portion of the vomer, and opens in the groove to be found on the 
border between the middle palate and the palatine ridge. (Fig. 3, 
Jop.) This groove can without much difficulty be seen in hardened 
specimens, and in fresh ones only when the upper jaws are 
pressed upward, thus separating the palatine ridge and middle 
palate and exposing the groove. Behind this opening the pedicle 
disappears and leaves the canal oval in section. (Fig. 4). On 
its further course the columns arrange themselves on its under side, 
and are continued for some distance behind its blind termination. 

The lachrymal duct opens on the inner wall of the same groove in 
which the Organ of Jacobson opens. (Fig. 3, Lop.) It runs behind 
under the organ as far as it is continued behind, when it gives a 
sharp turn outward toward the palatine bone. A longitudinal section 
of the duct is illustrated in Fig. 11. There a represents the basal 
portion of the duct which lies partly under the vomer and partly 
l>eside the palatine bone, and ends blindly behind (6). The main, 
duct is continued upward and outward over the palatine, where a 


slight prolongation forward is found (c), and which appears in sec- 
tion in Fig. 4. A similar prolongation is found on the level of the 
turbinal, the cartilage of which furnishes a ledge on which the duct 
rests for a short distance, after which it is completely surrounded 
by the lachrymal bone for a portion of its course. As it approaches 
the eyeball it lowers to its anterior angle, and takes a sharp turn 
inward and upward to terminate in its gland, situated on the inner 
surface of the eyeball, and separated from its fellow of the opposite 
•side by the basisphenoidal rostrum. 

The cartilages (Figs. 3, 4, k\ Ic") which have been termed lachrymal 
*above, are but backward continuations of the transverse band con- 
necting the turbinal cartilage with that of the pedicle of the Organ of 
Jacobson. When the lachrymal duct has reached the palatine bone, 
they apply themselves to its outer and under wall and fuse, forming 
a plate continued behind with the blindly ending basal j>ortion of the 
duct. The plate behind the latter becomes flattened horizontally, and 
terminates in front of the choana of its side. 

The sections from the embryo head reveal some important points 
^which may be summarized here. 

The roof of the mouth exhibits in the main the features of the 
•adult palate. No glandular structures are present, there being but 
an involution of the lining membrane to form the future upper lip 
gland. (Fig. 5, gl.) The opening of the Organ of Jacobson is situated 
in the groove to be found laterally from the choanal depression. 

The Organ of Jacobson has the same form as in the adult. The 
■cellular columns number about twenty in each section, while in the 
^dult the number reaches sometimes as high as sixty. But the 
remainder of the roof, of which they are the constricted portions, is 
much thicker, and in it 8-10 layers of cells may be counted. Neither 
these nor those of the columns are possessed of peripheral processes, 
at least such are not demonstrable. Fibres arising from the inner 
surfaces of the olfactory lobes pass down the sides of the septum, 
enter the outer ends of the columns, and terminate at its cells. The 
whole roof does not exhibit, in addition to the division into columns, 
any difference from that lining the upper nasal chamber. Its floor 
is lined by two layers of interfitting columnar cells. 

The continuity of the cartilage of the Organ of Jacobson with that 
of the nasal cavity, which only a study of many sections of the adult 
shows, is demonstrated by one, or at most two sections, from the 


•embryo head. Fig. 5 is a representation of one of these. The carti- 
lage there seen on the lateral wall of the upper nasal cavity passes 
down into the turbinal, bends and forms a loop, which is the origin of 
the closed turbinal tube containing in the adult a portion of M tiller's 
Nasal Gland. It is continued downwards, and after giving off a thin 
sheet, which is deflected between the Organ of Jacobson and the nasal 
wall, the main portion reaches the maxillary cartilage, bends horizon- 
tally inwards to the pedicle of the Organ of Jacobson, where it turns 
upward and ends in a thickened rounded edge. I have not found 
.any thin plate separating the nasal wall from the Organ of Jacobson 
in the adult. 


Figs. 1, 8, 9, 10 were executed by Prof. Wright. The others were drawn by 
myself from photographic representations or by means of the 


■Ch. . . Choanae. 

•CA/. . . Choanal folds. 

Mdp. . . Middle palate. 

M. . . Maxillary ridges of the palate. 

JP. . . Palatine ridges bounding the middle palate. 

Pc. . . Longitudinal crest of the middle palate. 

Pa. . . Palatine bone. 

Mx. . . Maxilla. 

Ols, . . Upper lip gland. 

Mg. . . Lateral Nasal Gland of Muller. 

- J. 0. . . Organ of Jacobson. 
J. C. . Ganal of the Organ of Jacobson. 

Pd. . . Pedicle projecting into the floor of the Organ of Jacobson. 

Vo. . . Vomer. 

Tb. . . Turbinal cartilage. 

Tb'. . . Cartilage of the pedicle of the Organ of Jacobson. 

.Sept. . . Nasal septum. 

Spx. . . Septomaxillary bone. 

■Spx". . . A portion of the vomer replacing the septomaxillary. 

Ha. . . Nasal bone. 

Pra. . . Ascending process of the premaxilla. 

Ld y U?. . . Lacrymal cartilages. 

Lop. ... Opening on the mouth of the lachrymal duct. 

Lc. . . Lachrymal duct. 

Op J. . . Groove into which the canal of the Organ of Jacobson opens. 

Clf. . . Olfactory lobes. 


.ATc, nc/ . . Cartilage surrounding anterior nasal opening. 

TV. .. Transverse plate of cartilage passing from the pedicle of the 

Organ of Jacobson to the turbinal cartilage. 

Une. . . Upper nasal chamber. 

Lnc. . . Lower nasal chamber. 

Fig. 1. — A view of the roof of the mouth in Eutaenia sirtalis ; several times 

Fig. 2. — A trarisverse section of the nasal region through the middle of the 
Organ of Jacobson. x 20. 

Fig. 3. — One half of a transverse section of the nasal region through the 
openings of the Organ of Jacobson and the lachrymal duct. 


Fig. 4. — A transverse section some distance behind that represented in 
Fig. 3. x 20. 

Fig. 5. — One half of a transverse section of the nasal region of an embryo 
head 6 mm. in length of Eutaenia sirtalis. x 50. 

Fig. 6. — A transverse section of the nasal cavity anterior to the external 
nasal opening. x 30. 

Fig. 7. — A transverse section of the nasal cavity containing the aperture 
of the duct of Muller's Nasal Gland. x 30 

Fig. 8. — A portion of a transverse section of Organ of Jacobson in an adult 
Eutaenia ; J. C. the canal of the Organ separating roof and floor ; 
o, capillary vessel descending between columns, one of its 
branches passing to the left around the point of passage of the 
censory cells adjacent to superficial cells over into those of a 
column. Separating the columns also is seen pigmentary tissue. 
Above, the mucosa contains a nerve bundle cut across and a 
large capillary. x 250 

Fig. 9. — A portion of the foregoing — a, superficial ceils ; the peripheral pro- 
cesses of the sensory cells pass down between them and through 
the " border structure " ; b, sensory cells opposite a node (d) of 
the capillary plexus ; c, those opposite a mesh of the same and 
passing over into b' those of the columns. (The outer ends of 
the sensory processes and of the superficial cells are represented 
diagrammatically . ) x 700 

Fig. 10. — A transverse section of the posterior ends of the cellular columns 
of the Organ of Jacobson in an embryo Enteenia. The plexus 
separating the polygonal areas is not shown. x 200 

Fig. 11. — A longitudinal (diagrammatic) section of the lachrymal duct; a, 
the basal portion found under the Organ of Jacobson and con- 
tinued into 6, ending blindly ; to the walls of this latter the 
fused lachrymal cartilages are applied ; c, a swelling of the 
lumen of the duct over the palatine bone ; d, the portion on a 
level with turbinal. The gland is supposed to be seen through 
the eyeball. 

Note— In the figures the shaded portions represent membrane bone, while the dotted pro- 
tlons are intended to designate cartillage. 




{Ptdio€c*U$ PkatiantUusJ. (BairdJ. 


For brevity I may describe it as a grouse, mottled above and 
"white below, pretty much like all the family, but unlike in having 
the tail feathers very stiff and so short that the upper coverts ending 
in a point project beyond the quill feathers. Hence the name 
" Sharptail," or more commonly " Pintail," though throughout this 
country it is most known as the " Prairie Chicken." 

To avoid that most tedious and thankless task, a detailed verbal 
description, I forward herewith a stuffed specimen, a female, but there 
is little difference between the sexes. The males have bright yellow 
bare skin over the eye (not red, as say Wilson and Audubon), and on 
each side of the neck a bare airsac, blue, and about the size of a 
pigeon's egg. These connect with the mouth, for they can be in- 
flated by blowing down the throat. When the bird is quiescent 
they are merely sunk under the surrounding feathers, which are not 
in any way specially developed to hide them, as in the Ruffed and 
Pinnated Grouse. In the breeding season they are in a state of 
chronic inflation and brilliancy. 

The females differ only in having their bare skin ornamentations 
much less (not absent, as I have seen stated). The young of both 
sexes are indistinguishable from the female or the male in non- 
breeding season, except that they are a little smaller, and have the 
hair-like feathers on the feet shorter and more marked with dusky. 

In the feathering of the legs this grouse comes just between the 
Buffed Grouse of the South and the Ptarmigan of the North, as 
does the bird itself geographically. The feathering stops at the 
base of the toes, but by reason of its length the toes are half hidden. 

Their toes, as in all grouse, are notably pectinated. Not having 
heard of any use for these combs, I append a few observations. In 


early spring they begin to drop off, just an odd one adhering here 
and there. In a week or two they are all gone, and daring the 
summer the toes are clean and smooth. After the second or third 
week of the young one's lives, (that would be mid- August or earlier) 
both young and parents begin to show a row of growing scales along 
each toe. These grow with the growth of the chicks, and by October 
the birds are full grown, as are their toe combs and those of the 
parents. Then, since these combs exist only in winter, it is natural to 
suppose they are meant to act as snowshoes, and to stay the bird from 
slipping on the crust and icy limbs of the trees whose browse forms- 
its winter food. These snow combs continue in perfection during 
the six months of winter, but with the first return of warm weather 
they are shed. 

The tail feathers, of which I have already spoken, are worthy of 
notice. They are exceedingly stiff and I may say sonorous. When 
the male is strutting before the female, or when either is shot and 
dying, the tail is rapidly opened and shut, the stiff quills making a 
loud noise like a porcupine's quills, or like shaking a newspaper. 
The muscles for expanding the tail seem to be very largely developed- 

The chickens winter in the dense bush, but in spring, ere yet the 
snow is gone, they scatter over the prairies, where alone they aie 
found in summer. They are now very shy, for only the shy and 
wary ones have successfully run the gauntlet of such winter hunters 
as owls, foxes, wolves, martens, Indians, etc. 

Their advent on the still snow-covered plains might be reckoned 
premature and fatal to many, but they tind a good friend in the 
wild rose. It is abundant everywhere, and the red hips, unlike 
other fruit, continue to hang on the stiff stems, high above the 
damage of wet and earth. It grows most abundantly on the high 
sandy knolls, where the snow is thinnest, so here the grouse meet 
and are fed. In this section of the North- West stones or gravel are 
almost unknown, so birds requiring such for digestive purposes 
would be in a dilemma, but that the stones in the rose hips answer 
perfectly, thus the hip supplies them with both millstones and grist 
at once, the flesh at the same time receiving a most delicate flavor. 
While from the same cause the gizzard of a newly-killed grouse is of 
a most pleasing odor of rose. 

It is difficult to over-estimate the importance of the rose to this. 


and other birds. I append a table of observations on the crops of 
grouse. I regret that it is not complete for the year : — 

April Rose hips, birch and willow buds. 

May " sand flowers, etc. 

June " grass and various. 

July " stargrass seed, etc. 

August " grass and various berries.. 


October " grass, berries, etc. 

November " Arbutus berries, browse, etc.. 

December " Juniper '• " " 

January " browse and equisetum tops, etc. 

February and March . . Not observed. 

This is, of course, a mere list of staples, the grouse being quite- 
omnivorous, but throughout I found, that, of their food, hips formed 
a large part, for they are always attainable, even in winter, through 
their two valuable qualities, of growing where the snow is thinnest 
and not falling when ripe. 

After the hips, their most important food, in May, is the sand- 
flower, which whitens the prairies with its millions, spreading from 
the great lakes to the Rockies. This plant is for the time the food of 
all creatures, the grass not yet being grown, so on it buffaloes, deer, 
horses, cattle, crane, grouse, geese, gophers, and all but carnivorous 
animals subsist. The receptacle is large and fleshy and apparently 
very nutritious. To the taste it is very pungent, so it may hasten 
the breeding season of the grouse, etc. 

During spring and summer the grouse are assembled every morn- 
ing on the top of some chosen hillock in companies of half-a-dozen 
or more. Here there is a regular performance called " Partridge 
Dance," the birds runniug about, strutting and crowing in an 
extraordinary manner. I refer the reader to Wilson, as his account 
thereof is more detailed than any I can give. I may state, however,, 
that he says these dances terminate when all are paired, whereas I 
find them to continue until the young are hatched, and, indeed, I 
begin to have little faith in the pairing at all, as this " hillock dance'* 
appears to be the common nuptials of the tribe, and it is difficult to 
Bee how the males and females can both be there (the males are 
most indefatigable in their attendance) if the males have anything 
to do with the eggs. 


During the dance, the males strut as do most gallinaceous birds, 
with feathers all erect, the wings spread (not touching the ground), 
tail spread and upright, the head nearly touching the ground, the 
sacs on the neck inflated and displayed to their utmost ; thus the 
bird runs a few yards uttering a sort of bubbling crow, which 
sounds as if it came from the air-sacs ; after this they relax for a 
few moments, then repeat the performance ad lib. When disturbed 
they immediately take wing and scatter (not hide in the grass 
(Wilson), uttering as they rise a peculiar vibratory " cack," " rack,* 
" cack," almost like a cough. This is nearly always uttered simul- 
taneously with the beats of the wings, and so rarely heard except 
then that I at first supposed that it was caused by them, but since 
have heard the sound both when the bird was sailing and on the 
ground, besides seeing it whirr up without the note. They have 
also a peculiar call note, a whistle of three slurred notes. In the 
fall their common note is a sort of whistling grunt, which is joined 
in by the pack as they fly. The " crow" is heard only in spring, 
the grunt only in fall, but the cackle and the whistle always. 

Their flight is very strong and rapid, so much so that they can in 
winter escape by flight from the white owl. When sprung they rise 
with a loud whirr, beating rapidly but soon sail, flying and sailing 
alternately every fifty or one hundred yards. 

The hen nests in the long grass tangle, generally near cover or on 
the edge of timber. The nest is a slight hollow arched over by the 
grass, lined only with a few straws. She lays eight to sixteen eggs 
no larger than those of a pigeon. Just before being laid they are of 
a delicate sky-blue, on exposure they soon become a deep chocolate 
with a few dark spots. In a fortnight they are gradually changed 
to a dirty white, partly by bleaching, partly by the scratching of the 
mother's bill in turning them. Common as addled or infertile eggs 
are in the barnyard, I never in nature found more than one, and 
that was of the present species. I found the nest in June ; it had 
eight eggs (less than the complement) ; I left it untouched, and 
some weeks after returned to find all had hatched but one ; this, on 
inspection, proved to be non- fertile. Assuming that they really and 
faithfully pair, it is accountable by supposing that the male was 
killed and the female laid her last egg unimpregnated and carried 
out her duties alone. 


The young are hatched in about twenty days (?) and are covered 
with yellow down. From the first, like all their kind, they are 
strong and able to help themselves. By about the tenth day, 
though still weighing under two ounces, their wings are large and 
strong, so that when the startled mother rises with a " whirr " there 
are a dozen little " whirrs," and away she flies followed seemingly 
by a flock of sparrows, but they are only her young, still clothed in 
the yellow down all except the wings which shew the long strong 
quills of flight. When half grown they are readily mistaken for 
young turkeys. At about two months they are full grown but still 
with the mother. At this time the family generally numbers from 
four to six or eight individuals, but the average number of eggs is 
about twelve, so we can imagine the numbers that fall victims annually 
to their natural enemies. It is noticeable that all summer I never 
found grain in their crops, so that they cannot be injurious to stand- 
ing grain ; indeed, I have never seen them in it. But now that the 
young are grown, they find their way to the stacks so regularly and 
pertinaciously that they form a considerable item in the autumn 
dietary of the farmer, while they can only damage the grain that is 
exposed on the very top. They continue on the plains and about the 
farms until the first fall of snow, which immediately sets them 
en masse to the timber. In summer they rarely perch on trees (even at 
night, for they sleep squatting in the grass), but now they make them 
their favorite stations, and live largely on the browse there gathered. 
This is the time for the sportsman, for they are fat and well flavored. 
Ajiy small clump of birch or willow is sure to contain some dozens 
every morning. As the winter advances, they cease to come on the 
plains, their haunts then being sparsely timbered country, especially 
if sandy and well supplied with rose bushes. They now act more 
like a properly adapted tree-liver than a ground-dwelling " Tetrao," 
for they fly from one tree to another, and perch and walk about 
the branches with perfect ease, seeming to spend much more time 
there than on the ground. When in a tree they are not at all 
possessed of that feeling of security from all hunters, which makes 
the " Ruffed Grouse" so easy a prey to pot-hunters, when so situated 
the " Pintail " on the contrary is very shy and disposed to fly at 
150 yards. 

Like most wild animals, they have a foreknowledge of storms, and 
when some firewood hunter returning from the woods reports that 


" the chickens are going into the bush/' t. e., leaving the open timber 
and going into the dense fir coverts, the hearers make ready for a 
severe storm. 

Like most of the grouse family, this in winter spends the night in 
a snow-drift. Out on the plains the wind has pounded the snow into 
drifts of ice-like hardness, but in the bush it continues soft (this 
very softness affords another security to the chickens, through its 
causing the wolves and foxes to quit the bush for the winter though, 
they live there by preference the rest of the year.) In the evening- 
the chickens fly down either headlong into a drift, or run a little 
then dive. Each makes his own hole. They generally go down six 
inches or so, and then along about a foot. By morning their breath, 
has formed a solid wall in front of them, so they invariably go out- 
at one side. In Ontario, the non-conductive power of snow is not as 
likely to be manifested as here, so to illustrate : For weeks, the 
thermometer being at 20 below zero F.) six inches of snow on one- 
quarter inch of ice kept the water beneath above 32° F. Without 
the snow the same ice increased in a day to a thickness of two 
inches. Likewise, under 10 inches of snow the ground continued 
unfrozen after the thermometer had for a month ranged from zero to- 
40 below. Thus we can readily understand that under six inches of 
snow and one inch of feathers the chickens do not mind even 50 
below zero. The great disadvantage of the snowbed is that they are 
so liable to become the prey of foxes, etc., whose sagacious nostrils 
indicate the very spot beneath which the bird is sleeping I am 
almost inclined to think that this is the only way in which a fox has 
a chance of securing an old chicken, so wary are they at all times. 
As the winter wanes it is not uncommon for the land to be visited 
by a fall of snowy sleet ; this drives the chickens at once into the 
snow drifts, and as the sleet freezes it imprisons them and in this 
way very many perish. In the spring the melting snows leave them 
exposed, but they are now little else than bones and feathers. There 
is little else to note about the bush or winter half of their lives. By 
spring, many of them, by continually pulling off frozen browse, have 
so worn their bills that, when closed, there is a large opening right 
through near the end. As the winter wanes, with their numbers 
considerably reduced, but with the fittest ones surviving they once 
more spread over the prairies, at first, in flocks, but soon to scatter 
and enter on their duties of reproduction. 


There is another heading under which to discuss the Prairie 
Chicken, viz., its fitness for domestication. An apparently necessary 
and most profitable adjunct of every farm is a stock of poultry. 
But my experience with four varieties of poultry goes to shew that 
the winter here is far too severe ; late chickens are sure to die, while 
old ones are almost sure to be badly frost-bitten about the head the 
first winter, and even lose their unprotected toes and legs in the 
Same way. Their feathers, for want of the regular dust bath, etc., 
become very deplorable and stick so in points and lumps that they 
lose half their non-conducting power. From this it is evident that 
the farmer wants a fowl that is without such unnecessary and deli- 
cate appendages as combs and wattles, has its legs and feet well 
protected from the frost, is able to stand any amount of cold, having 
feathers of duck-like density. The abundance of hawks renders it 
also desirable that the bird be inconspicuous, not bright colored or 
-white like the common fowls. All this seems to point very clearly 
to the Prairie Chicken. In addition to these it has the great 
advantage of maturing early ; in ten weeks a Prairie Chicken is> 
full grown, while a common fowl takes thrice as long. The grouse 
-weighs only about three pounds, yet it yields more solid meat than a 
five-pound chicken, and it can fatten on what the chicken will scarcely 
look at, having also the advantage of being able to take at one meal 
enough to last it all day, if necessary, such is the size of its crop. 
Its flesh is of a most delicate flavor, no barn-door fowl being at all 
to be compared with it, though this might be one of the first things 
to be lost in a state of domestication. 

I cannot say I know it to be capable of domestication ; indeed, I 
know one man who kept one six months, and at the end it was as 
wild as at first, but this was caught when full grown. Yet Audubon 
tamed the Pinnated grouse with little trouble, as did Wilson the 
quail. And I have little doubt that in a generation or two this 
-would become manageable. The number of eggs laid would, doubtless, 
increase if eggs were cautiously removed, though, I confess, I found 
them rather jealous, for, on taking six eggs out of a nest of fourteen, 
the rest were deserted. These six eggs were hatched by a hen, but 
earlier than her own eggs, and I found the young grouse all 
crushed. Wilson says, all attempts to raise the young have failed 
probably for want of proper food. Perhaps he is right. The situa- 


tion of the Prairie Chicken's nests here, together with what little I 
know of the mode pursued in the Old Country for raising young 
pheasants, induce me to believe that young Prairie Chickens could 
be successfully reared in a paddock, with a dry sandy soil and plenty 
of anthills and rose bushes. Ants and ant eggs are the best of food 
for these delicate creatures. 

It is hardly likely that any Manitoban farmer will try to domesti- 
-cate them, when they are abundant in their wild state, especially as 
they cannot be expected to compete with the common fowls as egg- 
producers. It is also extremely unlikely that they will ever be killed 
out, for notwithstanding the absence of respect for game laws, even 
in the old settled districts the chickens are as thick as ever, for there 
is all over a great deal of land that will never be brought under 
cultivation and it is exactly suited to the chickens. 

Yet I think the experiment worth trying, and if any of the 
gentlemen of the Society have a suitable piece of ground and 
inclination to take the trouble, I will endeavor in the spring to find 
him the necessary stock to start with. 

February, 1883. 




Science Master in Toronto Collegiate Institute. 

The object of this paper is to give the results of investigations 
into the biological nature of the suspended matter in the tap-water 
of the School of Practical Science. No pretence is made of being 
exhaustive, for the work has only been carried on at intervals, and 
observations for any definite length of time have not been continu- 
ous. The results therefore are fragmentary, but may serve as a basis 
for future and more extensive research. A thoroughly systematic 
examination of the water should include not merely the determina- 
tion of the animal and vegetable species which are to be found in it r 
but the physiological influence which these organisms exert, and 
their importance from a sanitary standpoint. This subject accord- 
ingly may be dealt with from both a morphological and a physio- 
logical point of view. It is with the first of these aspects only that 
the present paper is concerned. In regard however to the physio- 
logical and hygienic aspect it may be briefly observed, that the 
purity of water does not depend merely on the quantity of organic 
matters which it contains ; for, if these be living vegetable growth* 
containing chlorophyll, they have a beneficial influence on the water, 
by supplying oxygen to it and removing carbon dioxide, provided, of 
course, that their presence in large quantities does not counterbalance 
their salutary effects. On the other hand, there are organisms 
which, even if present only in small numbers, exert a very prejudi- 
cial influence, and which, if undoubtedly recognized as constantly 
occurring, should mark a water as unfit for use. 

To obtain matter for examination two methods may be employed. 
One is to tie a muslin bag to the tap and allow the water to run in 
a slow stream for a few hours ; then, taking off the bag, rinse it in 
a small quantity of water, which, on being allowed to settle for a 


few minutes, will afford an abundant supply of sediment. The other 
plan is to open the tap to the full extent and allow it to run for a 
short time, so as. to stir up whatever sediment may be in the pipe ; 
then a tall glass cylinder is filled, and a watch-glass attached to a 
piece of platinum wire, by which it can be raised, is let down to the 
bottom of the vessel. The whole lightly covered is put aside for 24 
hours to allow it to settle, and after this the water is siphoned off 
almost down to the watch-glass, which can then be raised without 
disturbing the sediment which it contains. This latter method 
possesses the advantage that the same quantity of water is always 
taken, and thus the amounts of sediment at different times can be 
compared ; while it is almost impossible to fix a tap to run continu- 
ously at a given rate, owing mainly to variation in the pressure of 
the water in the pipes. 

A little of the sediment obtained in either of these ways was 
transferred by a pipette to a slide, and examined with a Hartnack 
Objective No. 8 and No. 4 Eyepiece. This combination has a 
magnifying power quite high enough for diagnosing the most of the 
forms ; though on one or two occasions a No. 10 Immersion was 

The actual amount of suspended matter present in any definite 
quantity of the water varies very considerably, and depends upon 
several conditions, among which some of the most noticeable are the 
season of the year, the amount being greater in winter and spring 
than at any other time; the prevalence of stormy weather; the 
quarter of the city from which the water is taken ; and the tap 
itself ; for, if the water be drawn from a pipe which is seldom used, 
it is sure to contain more sediment than that from one in constant 
use, as it settles when allowed to rest for some time. There is no 
doubt also that organisms are often found in the mains which are not 
found in water taken directly from the lake. This, together with the 
fact that the number of individuals of some species is greater in the 
water of the mains than in that of the lake, may be explained on 
the supposition that the former habitat affords them a better food- 
supply, consequently they multiply more rapidly. Tne exclusion of 
light also seems favorable to the development of certain forms. 
Another marked result of these investigations has been the conclu- 
sion, that many of the forms seem to have a preference for certain 
times of the year, being much more abundant then than at any other 


time ; but the exact harvest time of each particular form has not 
been accurately determined, since the observations have not been 
sufficiently close. For the same reason, although the comparative 
frequency of most of the forms met with can be indicated gene- 
rally, their relative abundance or scarcity at any particular time 
•cannot be stated with any degree of accuracy. 

To the foregoing general remarks is now added an enumeration of 
the different organic species which from time to time I have found in 
the tap water of the School of Practical Science, with brief notes on 
.some of the more interesting forms, and a more detailed account of 
-one or two which I believe to be hitherto undescribed. 


The Diatoms are noticed first because by far the greatest part of 
the sediment consists of them, and because in the number of species 
they greatly exceed any other group. The diagnosis of species unless 
•one is a specialist in this department of microscopy, is not a very 
-easy matter, especially if the literature to which one has access is 
jiot very extensive. Accordingly a slide was prepared and sent to 
Prof. H. L. Smith, of Hobart < 'ollege, Geneva, N. Y., who kindly 
named the following species : — 

Melosira Crotonensis, Tabellaria fenestrata, CycloteUa Kutzingiana, 
KJyc. operculata, Cyc. astrea (a variety of Stephanodiscus Niagarae), 
Stephano*liscu8 Niagarae, Fragittaria Crotonensis, Frag. Gregoryana 
( sb Dimeregramma Grunow), Frag. Capucina, Synedra radians, 
Synedra longissima, Synedra xdna, Cocconema parvulum, Coc. cymbi- 
Jorme, Coc. gibbum, Cymbella dicephala, Navicvla radios*, Na\h 
carassius, Nav. Rhein/iardtii, Nav. Saugerii, Nav. cryptowphala, 
Nitzschia lineata, SurireU/i piniiata, Sur. lineata, Cocconeis Thwaitsii, 
Coc. placentula, Cymatopleura ( Sphinctocystis ) solea, Pleurosigma 
Spencerii, Gomphonema tentllum, Gomph. acuminatum, Gomph. con- 
st/rictum, Gomph. sp. ? Amphiprora ornata, Odontidium mutabile, and 
Encyonema caespitomm. 

In addition to the above the following have also been noticed : — 
Tabellaria fioaulosa, AsUrionella Jormosa, Meridiem constrictum, 
Actynocyclu8 Niagarae, Nitzschia sigmoidea, TryUlioneUa gracilis, 
Epithemia turgida, Cymatopleura (Sphinctocystis) elliptica, Eunotia 
-didyrna, Melosira varians, and Melosira dentate, n. sp., with charac- 
ters as follows : — Filaments, slender ; frustules, scarcely twice as 


long as broad, divided in the centre by a double line; extremi- 
ties of the cells dentate ; breadth, 00075 mm. — 0009 mm. Fig 1. 

The two species, Rhizosolniia Eriensis and R. gracilis, are also 
present, the former always and the latter quite frequently. As R. 
gracilis has only lately been described by Prof. Smith, by whom it 
was first discovered in filterings from the Niagara River water supply 
at Buffalo, its characters are appended : — " Frustules small, slender, 
round or but slightly compressed ; annuli, obsolete ; body, smooth ; 
fifteen to twenty times as long as broad ; imperfectly siliceous ; calyptra, 
conical ; bristle fully as long as the body, or longer; often slightly- 
curved, and, with the calyptra, rigidly siliceous ; length, '004* 
— -008"." It can be readily distinguished from R. Eriensis by its- 
curved bristle, and by the absence of the markings which are so 
characteristic of the latter species. 

It might be observed here in passing that the above are the only 
two fresh water species of RhizosoUnia as yet known, all the others 
being marine. The presence of these two species, together with, 
others of genera, such as Stephanodiscus and Actynocyclus, mostly 
marine, would seem to point to the fact of the connection at one 
period of the great lakes with the ocean, and the survival of a few 
marine or brackish forms, which have been able to accommodate- 
themselves to the altered conditions of their habitat. 


Desmids as far as at present known are all inhabitants of fresh) 
water, and, as stated by Wood in his " Fresh Water Algae," prefer 
" that which is pure and limpid." They have been found in stagnant 
water, but never in that actually putrid. Next to the Diatoms they 
are the commonest vegetable forms to be found in the filterings from, 
our water supply, and they seem to be most plentiful in the latter 
part of winter and during spring. The commonest representatives 
of this family are several species of Closterium, some of which I have 
not been able to determine. 

In every gathering are to be found considerable numbers of a 
form which is figured by C. M. Vorce in a paper on the " Microscopic- 
Forms observed in the water of Lake Erie," and called by him Clos. 
Venus, but which is much smaller than the form described by Wood 
under this name, the diameter as a general rule being not more, and 
often less, than 00031 mm. ( = 000015"). In shape they vary 


considerably, being more or less lunately curved, semi- circular, bent 
into a loose spiral, or sometimes resembling very much a pair of 
cow's horns ; extremities greatlv attenuated. On one or two occasions 
a larger form was observed, which agreed very closely in characters^ 
with these smaller ones. The frond was lunately curved, varying to 
sigmoid or spiral ; distance between the extremities about 30 times 
the breadth ; upper margin very convex, lower very concave ; no 
central inflation ; tapering gradually to an acute point at the 
extremities ; contents granular. Diam. 00038 mm. ( = 0000155").. 
Habitat, Lake Ontario, Fig. 2. 

In one gathering a tine living specimen was noticed which in 
most of its characters seemed to approach more nearly to Clos. 
parvulum, Naegl., than any other, though in some respects it resem- 
bled Clos. Venus as described by Wood. In size however it differed 
from both of these. The diameter was found to be 001 86 mm. 
( = 0*00074"), and the length about 8 times as much. The measure- 
ments given by Rabenhorst for Clos. parvulum are diam. max. 
0-00026"— 0-0006-2", and length 6-8 times as much ; and according 
to Wood the diameter of forms referred by him to this species is 
0-0008*. Clos. Venus has a diameter of 0-0004", and is 8-12 times 
longer than broad. The general appearance of the form was very 
similar to that of Clos. parvulum as figured by Wood, and as the 
actual size of any species can hardly be regarded as fixed within 
narrow limits, it has been refeiTed to Clos. parvulum. 

Another interesting form which is nearly always present approaches 
in some respects the description of Clos. setaceum, but is not accurately 
described in any work at my command ; accordingly I propose for 
it the. name Clos. filiforme, with specific characters as follows : — 

Chsterium filiforme, n. sp. Frond very slender, greatly elongated, 
each extremity being a colourless beak as long, or nearly as long, as 
the body ; filiform, cylindrical, smooth, not lunately curved, belly 
not inflated, gradually attenuated towards the apices, which are 
rounded and slightly curved downwards ; vacuoles 3-8 in each limb 
in a single series. Breadth 0.006*2 mm- ( = 000025"), length 
0-4154 mm.— 0-62 mm. ( = 001 66"— 0025"), or say 60-100 times 
the breadth. Habitat, Lake Ontario, Fig. 3. 

Clos. Grifithsii has also been observed. Other Desmids were 
Staurastrum uracil*, Staur. punctulatum, and a species of Cosmariumr 
probably Cos. cucumis. 


Other Chlorophyllaceous Algae present were Protococeus sp.1 
Chlorococcua sp. ? diam. of cell itself being 001 76 mm., and of 
cell together with its hyaline coat 00264 mm. Ankistrodemut 
{Rhaphidiuin) falcatus, Scenedesmtcs quadricauda, Pediastrum sp. t 
Pediastrum Boryanum. The forms included in this latter specie* 
vary somewhat from the description given by Rabenhorst and Archer. 
The coenobium is circular in outline, cells in a single stratum, 
arranged in three rows round a central cell (1 + 4 + 10 + In); 
inner cells variable, 4-6 angled, concave at one side ; peripheral cells 
-convex on the inner side, on the outer side notched and tapering into 
two long subulate points. Diam. of peripheral cells 0065 mm. 
( = about tsW'4- 

I have also seen another species of Pediastrum which is not 
* described in any work to which I have had access. The cells are in 
a single stratum, and in two rows round a central cell (1 +6 + 12); 
inner cells polyhedral, 4-6 angled; peripheral cells pentagonal; 
external angle produced into a single process about as long as the 
diameter of the cell. Diam. of coenobium 0*0434 mm. ( = 0-00173"), 
and of peripheral cells 0-0124 mm. ( = 0*0005"). 

Spirogyra sp. ? Sterile joints 10 times as long as broad ; spiral 
single with 4 turns; cell wall at each end produced. Diam. 0*0124 
mm. ( * 00005"). Fertile joints not observed. 


Belonging to the Phycochroms there were a few forms observed, 
viz. : — 

Gleocapsa sparsa, which is probably only a zooglaea stage of 
Sirosiphon ; Merismopedia nova (sp. ?) ; and at least two species of 
Oscillaria, which have been referred to Os. nigra, Vauch, and 0s. 
cldorina, Kiitzing, the former being quite common during the month 
of March, more so probably than at any other time. 


Under the name Schizophytes are included all the organisms com- 
monly known as Bacteria, together with a few parallel green forms, 
multiplying chiefly by transverse fission, though in some cases spores 
are formed. These organisms at best have but a doubtful reputation ; 
and if Intermittent and other malarial fevers, Anthrax, Diphtheria, 
Septicaemia, Pyaemia, Tubercle, and other virulent contagious dis- 


eases are produced directly by these forms, it is quite proper that 
we should be very careful that the water we drink is free from them 
if possible. If we look for natural water however which is absolutely 
free from Bacteria, probably we shall look in vain. But we must 
remember chat all forms of Bacteria are not capable of producing 
disease, even if some are, or at any rate that they do not do so under 
ordinary circumstances, but only in particular and well-marked con- 
ditions of the organism or organ attacked by them. We must not 
be surprised then to find Bacteria in our water supply. I have 
observed even in fresh filterings all the common forms, micrococci, 
rod-like forms, vibrios, spiral forms, and zooglaea stages. But if the 
filterings be allowed to stand exposed to the air for a few hours, it is 
■amazing how rapidly they increase in numbers, and after a day or 
two the whole becomes converted into one mass of Bacteria in all 
stages, growing at the expense of the other organisms, and eventually 
leaving nothing but the siliceous frustules of Diatoms, and whatever 
■other matter like this defies their digestive power. Probably there 
is no place where they thrive better, and where they exist in greater 
numbers, than in the School of Practical Science ; for they are 
certain to be found there in everything which is not positively 
destructive to them. There is no doubt then that their presence in 
such abundance in sediment which has been allowed to stand for 
4Some time exposed may be in great measure accounted for by germs 
getting into it from the atmosphere, as well as those already there 

Adopting the view held by Billroth, N'ageli, Cienkowski, Ray 
Lankester, and Zopf, that all the forms usually described under the 
generic names Micrococcus, Bacterium, Bacillus, Leptothrix, Clado- 
thrix, Vibrio, Spirillum, Spirochaete, «fcc, are only development 
stages of Schizophytes, in opposition to that of Cohn and others, 
that they are distinct species without morphogenetic connection, all 
the forms observed have been referred to the two species, Cladothrix 
dichotoma, Cohn, and Begyiatoa alba, Vauch. 

Concerning the first of these two Zopf remarks, that " what the 
common bread mould ( Penicillin m crustaceum ) is among the aerial 
mould fungi, C. dichotoma is among the aquatic fungi, and therefore 
it might be quite properly denominated the ' water-fungus ' (' Was- 
8erpilz') par excellence." 


There are Leptothrix forms besides the ordinary Cladothrix 
filaments, which, by the breaking up of the threads, produce micro- 
cocci and rod-like forms. The cocci are circular in outline, and have 
a diameter equalling, or at most double, that of Micrococcus pro- 
digiosus, Cohn. In from 24 to 48 hours these micrococci develope 
into rod-like forms (Bacterium, Bacillus), which again give rise to 
Leptothrix, and by branching to Cladothrix filaments. These 
filaments are often rolled into a loose spiral, and these spirals give 
rise to Vibrios, Spirillum — and Spirochaete —forms. All the forms 
already mentioned may pass into a zooglaea or resting stage. 

Beggiatoa alba goes through pretty much the same modifications. 
There are Leptothrix-like filaments of considerably larger size than 
those of Cladothrix dich^toma, Bacillus, Bacterium, and Micrococcus 
forms. Spiral forms are* also developed, which however I have never 
seen in any of the sediment I examined, all the spiral forms noticed 
having been referred to Cladothrix. 

In the study of these organisms it will be found of great advantage 
to stain them first with rose-aniline, or iodine. 

Before proceeding to enumerate the species belonging to the 
Animal Kingdom, a form must be described which I am puzzled to 
know where to locate. I have only noticed it occasionally ; and I 
am inclined to regard it as a Desmid. 

The body is spheroidal, in optical section broadly oval, surrounded 
by a firm cytioderm ; color, bright green ; chlorophyll, disposed in 
two lenticular masses ; vacuoles, four ; body surrounded by 7 — 9 (1) 
stiff, colorless, more or less curved bristles (setae), coming off radially, 
and 3 — 5 times the long diameter of the body in length. Three 
individuals gave the following measurements : — 

Diam. (1). 0-0093 mm. by 0.0124 mm. 
(2). 001 142 mm. by 0*01428 mm. 
(3). 00121 mm. by 00154 mm. 

Habitat, Lake Ontario. Fig. 4. 

Wood describes a globular form of Srenedesmus with radiating 
bristles, to which the organism above described is possibly allied. 

In addition to the foregoing species the vegetable kingdom is 
represented by starch grains, spores of fungi, and Occasionally some 
remains of the higher plants, such as pollen grains, cuticle of 
aquatic plants, woody fibre, <kc. 

biological 8tudy op tap water. 421 


The animal forms belong mostly to the Protozoa, being nearly all 
included in the groups Rhizopoda and Flagellate Infusoria. 

Rhizopoda. — Among the Hhizopods were noticed at least two 
-species of Amoeba — A. proteus and A. radiosa, but not very fre- 
quently ; on several occasions also Difflugia globutosa, Actinophry 9 
sol, and Acanthocystw tur/acea (sp T). 

Flagellata — Belonging to the Flagellata Infusoria there are a few 
interesting forms, some of which I shall notice in detail. 

Manas lens is occasionally seen, but by far the commonest species 
is Dinobryon sertularia, and a brief description of this beautiful 
-animalcule will not be out of place. In the spring and early summer 
they are to be found in large numbers in every filtering, but in 
autumn and through the winter they are rarely met with. 

In the classification adopted by W. Saville Kent, in his " Manual 
-of the Infusoria," they are placed in the Order Flayellata Eustomata, 
and Family Chrysomonadidae. The characters of the order are as 
follows : " Animalcules possessing one or more flagelliform append- 
ages, but no locomotive organs in the form of cilia ; a distinct oral 
aperture or cytostome invariably developed; multiplying by longi- 
tudinal or transverse fission, or by subdivision of the whole or part 
of the body-substance into sporular elements ;" and of the family : 
" Animalcules bi-flagellate, rarely mono-flagellate, social or solitary, 
free-swimming or adherent, naked, loricate, or immersed within a 
common mucilaginous matrix or zoocytium ; endoplasm always con- 
taining two lateral, occasionally green, but more usually olive-brown 
or yellow differentiated pigment bands ; one or more supplementary 
eye-like pigment spots frequently present," and, as far as at present 
known, they all inhabit fresh water. 

The genus Dinobryon consists of animalcules with two flagella, 
one considerably longer than the other ; attached by a contractile 
ligament to the bottom of a colorless horny lorica, the individual 
loricae being connected together so as to form a colony or compound 
branching polythecium ; endoplasm containing two lateral green 
bands, and a conspicuous eye-like pigment spot situated anteriorly. 

In the species D. sertularia Ehr. the individual loricae are per- 
fectly hygaline and transparent, and are shaped in general like an 


inverted cone, though they are seldom seen perfectly symmetrical, 
but usually more or less twisted and deformed, especially at th* 
posterior end ; the mouth is everted, and below this anterior rim 
there is a slight constriction, then a slight expansion, below which it 
tapers to the posterior pointed end ; they are joined into colonies by 
the posterior end of one lorica being attached to the interior face of 
the rim of the one immediately below it, without any intermediate 
pedicle ; very often the ends of two loricae are inserted into one, 
and this produces dichotomy. Empty loricae like this are found in 
large numbers, either connected or floating free during the time of 
the year already mentioned ; but in many cases the zooid itself is to 
be seen attached by its delicate transparent ligament to the bottom 
of the lorica, and rarely exserted. In shape the zooids are elongate- 
oval, with the two flagella coming off quite close together from the 
anterior end, and on a little lip-like projection is situated the reddish 
eye-spot. According to Stein, the oral aperture is close beside the 
point of insertion of the two flagella. By the aid of these flagella 
they propel themselves rapidly through the water with a rolling 
motion, and as they sail across the field of the microscope, with their 
shapely loricae, oval green bodies, red eye-spots, and rapidly vibrat- 
ing flagella, they present one of the most beautiful objects to be seen 
in the miscroscopic world. The length of the separate loricae as 
given by Kent is t^W, and of the contained zooid ^Ahf" ; but these 
measurements have always been found too small. The average 
length of the lorica is 0033 mm. ( = 0*0015") and of the contained 
zoid u-0132 mm. — 0-.H76 ( = 0000528" — 00007"). 

On one occasion two separate zooids were seen in one lorica, one 
in the usual position at the lower end, and the other just at the 
mouth partly extruded. This most probably was the result of 
fission, and the newly formed zooid had not yet secreted its protectr 
ing calyx. 

The spheroidal encystments recorded by Butschli and Stein have 
also been observed. They are to be seen at the mouths of otherwise 
empty loricae, and also floating free. They are of a yellowish-brown 
colour, and consist of an outer dense cuticular cyst enclosing a 
smaller more or less eccentric one with protoplasmic contents. No 
eye-spot was observable. At one point on the outer capsule there is 
a little conical protuberance standing out prominently from the rest 


of the circumference, and on the opposite side of the inner cyst there 
is a similar projection. Stein figures these as occurring about the- 
same place on both cysts, but in all that I observed they were on 
opposite sides, and on the outer cyst there was only one. The 
diameter of the outer cyst in several instances was found to be about 
0.0155 mm,, and through the protuberance 0.0217 mm. ; and of the 
inner 0.0124 mm. Figs. 5, 6. 

Dinobryon atipitatum, Stein, was also present once or twica This 
species differs from the one just described in the greater proportionate 
length of the loricae, which are trumpet-shaped, widest at the mouth, 
and tapering off. into the acuminately pointed posterior end, being 
about 7 or 8 times as long as their greatest breadth. The zooids 
very much resemble those of D. sertulwria, but are more elongated, 
and occupy the anterior half of the lorica, being attached by a 
thread-like ligament to its lower side wall. A large amylaceous 
more or less spheroidal body is situated near the posterior part of 
the endoplasm. The length of the lorica according to Kent is sJu". 

Two or three other species of Flagellata have also been seen, 
though rarely. 

One, belonging to the Choano-FlageUata, i.e., monads with a collar 
surrounding the single flagellum, I have referred to Salpingoeca 
fusi/ormis, Kent. Kent gives the following characters for this 
species : " Lorica sessile, sub-fusiform, or vase-shaped, widest cen- 
trally, tapering equally towards the two extremities, but expanding 
again anteriorly into a somewhat prolonged and everted neck ; con- 
tained animalcule flask-shaped as in S. amphoridium, J. Clark, but 
of larger size. Length of lorica raW'* Hab., fresh water, solitary." 

This form was seen only on one occasion, attached to a frond of 
Rhizosolenia Eriensis. The lorica was empty and corresponded 
closely with the above description. In another part of the field 
however I found what probably was the zooid of this species which 
had been set free, though it is possible that it might have been 
Monoziga socialis, Kent, with the' description of which it closely 
agreed. The body was somewhat pyriform, widest posteriorly, with 
no pedicle ; a single long flagellum surrounded by a collar. Length 
of the body 0*0062 mm. ( = Wfr/), breadth 0-00465 mm. ( = y^W). 

On one occasion I got a glimpse of a colony which I think belonged 
to the family Codonosigidae of this order. Unfortunately I lost- 


sight of it, and never succeeded in finding any of the same kind 
again. It was probably a speeies of Asterosiga, in which the monads 
are arranged in a stellate fashion. 

Another form has been doubtfully referred to the Flagellata-Pantos- 
tomata, family Bikoecidae, which includes sedentary animalcules 
with an anterior lip-like prominence, either solitary or in colonies, 
secreting separate horny loricae, mostly stalked ; flagella two, one 
long and one short ; no distinct oral aperture. In certain of its 
characters this form resembled Bicosoeca lacustris, J. Clark, and in 
others Stylobryon petiolatum, Duj. sp. y while in general appearance it 
was very like a large Dinobryon. I was unable to make out whether 
there was a distinct oral aperture or not. The individuals as far 
as observed were solitary, and characterized as follows : — Lorica 
sub-cylindrical, a little more than twice as long as its greatest breadth, 
with a pedicle of about equal length, widest* posteriorly, slightly 
everted anteriorly, tapering towards and conically pointed at the 
posterior extremity ; zooid broadly ovate, plastic, with an anterior 
lip-like prominence, occupying the posterior half of the lorica, to 
the bottom of which it is attached by a contractile thread-like liga- 
ment on which it rotates ; flagella two in number, one long and one 
short, inserted at the base of the lip-like prominence ; endoplasm 
containing two lateral greenish-yellow bands, and a reddish eye-spot 
situated anteriorly at the base of the lip-like projection ; contractile 
vesicle single, located posteriorly. Length of the lorica 0*03141 mm. 
(= jfo/'), and of the contained zooid 0*0171 mm. ( = T^rfro"). Hab., 
fresh water, Lake Ontario. Fig. 7. 

Kent regards Stylobryon petiolatum as undoubtedly a compound 
modification of Bicosoeca lacustris, and possibly the form above 
described is a variety of the same species, considerably larger than 
the one described by H. James-Clark, if it is not a species of 

The Cilio-Flagellata are represented by a species of Peridineum 
not determined. * 

Infusoria Ciliata. — Belonging to the Ciliated Infusoria there is a 
large species of VorticeUa frequently seen, either attached or free- 
swimming ; Stentor is rare ; also a few Holotrichous and Hypotrichr 
ovs forms, free and encysted are to be found occasionally. 

biological 8tudt of tap water. 425 

Metazoa. ' 

The other animal forms which have been noticed are not very 

Vermes. — The worms are represented by the Nematoid AngvMula 
fluviatilis, which is not very common ; and by one or two species of 
Rotifera belonging to the family Brachionidae, in which there is a 
carapace and one or more eye-spots. These are Anuraea stipitata, 
and another species with the back of the carapace ornamented with 
face to, as well as furnished with teeth in front. A species of the 
genus Brachiomce itself has also been observed. 

Arthropoda. —The Crustacea are represented by at least two 
species, Cyclops quadricornus and Daphnia pvlex, or a nearly allied 
form. Cyclops especially is common both in the adult and larval 

Belonging to the Tardigrada I have noticed a species of Macrobi- 
otu8 rarely present, probably M. Hu/elandii. 

Epithelial cells, bristles of Crustacea and insects and other frag- 
ments are to be found among the debris which is always present in 
considerable quantity, and which is generally described as " flocculent 
matter." It consists mainly of broken Diatom frustules, as a good 
deal of it remains after boiling in nitric acid, partly also of decom- 
posed organic matter in a fine state of division, as well as a small 
quantity of mineral matter. 

The bearing which the foregoing observations have on the question 
of the purity of Toronto's water supply may now be briefly alluded 
to. Judging from the miscroscopical examination of the suspended 
matter in the water, I would characterize it as one of the purest 
of natural waters, inasmuch as it is almost entirely free from any 
organisms which are either themselves directly injurious, or which, 
by their presence, would show that water containing them must 
necessarily be injurious. The great bulk of the sediment consists of 
vegetable matter, and that in a living condition. The animal forms 
are chiefly Flagellate Ittfosoria, which are inhabitants of fresh water, 
not depending for their food on dead, decaying, and poisonous 

The absolute amount of sediment in the water I cannot accurately 
state ; but the chemical analyses show the amount of albuminoid 
ammonia to be very small (averaging *003 — -007 grains per gal.) ; 


and I have found it necessary to run the tap a considerable time to 
collect any appreciable quantity. 

As already stated, my investigations have been confined to the 
tap water in the School of Practical Science ; and, while admitting 
that other taps in different parts of the city would probably give 
different results as to quantity, yet I think the quality would be 
found to be practically the same. 

April 7th, 1883. 


Fig. 1. -Me.lonra dentata, n. */?., filament of 4 frustules. 

Fig. 2. — Closterium, ap. ? 

Fig. 3. — Clos. JiUforme, n. sp. 

Fig. 4. — Unknown form — probably a Desmid. 

Figs. 5,6. — Encysted forma of Dinobryon sertularia, Ehr, 

Fig 7. —Flagellate Infusorian allied to Bicosoeca lacmtris, J. Clark, and 

Stylobryon petiolatum, Duj. ; e, eye-spot ; cv, contractile vacuole; 

lb, lateral bands. 



Algonquin Languages, Affiliation of 15 

Asiatic Tribes in North America 171 

Acheson, George, M. A., Science Master in Toronto Collegiate Institute. . 413 


Barometer, Reduction of, to Sea Level 1 

Bell, Robert, M.D., Geological Survey of Canada 225 

Buchan, J. M,, M. A., Principal of Upper Canada College 361 

Celts in the British Islands, whose Language was Gaelic ; Topographical 

Argument for 310 

Carpmael, Charles, M. A., Superintendent Toronto Observatory 1 

Campbell, John, M. A., Professor Church History, Montreal ... 15, 171, 282 

Cervus Megaceros, an Ancient Haunt of 207 

Canadian Institute, Report of Council, 1880-81 236 

" " " 1881-82 268 

" " " 1882-83 251 

Demodex Phylloides in Canadian Swine, on 275 


Eider's Equations of Motion 95 

Eutaenia, on the Nasal Region in 390 

Fleming, Sandford, C.M.G., Engineer-in-Chief Can. Pacific Railway, 97, 138 

Germ Theory of Disease, on Present Aspects of 344 


Helminthology, American, Contributions to 54 

Horn, a Remarkable Memorial, Notice of ; Pledge of a Treaty with the 
Creek Indians 255 

Infusoria, Canadian, Notes on , 300 

Khitan Languages, Law of Phonetic Change in 282 

428 INDEX. 


London, James, M. A., Professor, University College, Toronto 95, 231 

Longitude and Time Reckoning 138 


Meredith, E. A., LL.D 381 

MacNish, Neil, B.D., LL.D 310 

McCaul, Rev. John, LL.D.., 76 

Manitoba, Notes on 151 

Maconn, John, M. A 151 

Motion, Relative, Notes on 231 

Magnetic Iron Ores of Victoria County, on 261 

Merritt, W. Hamilton, F.G.S 261 

McMurrich, J Playfair, M.A., Professor, Ontario Agricultural College .. 300 
Macallum, A.B., B.A 390 


Parasitic Copepoda, American, Notes on 243 

Pearman, W. D., M.A 76, 160 

Plato : Philebus : Some Observations on '. 160 

Petroleum in the North- West Territories, on 225 

Parasitic Mites, on Two Species of, in Canada 332 

President's Address, Session 1882-3 361 

Prairie Chicken, or Sharptailed Grouse, on 405 


Sylva Critica Canadensium 76 

Shakespeare, on Some New Emendations in 381 

Seton, E. E. T 405 


Time- Reckoning, on 97 

Tyrrell, J. B., B. A., F.G.S 332 

Tap Water in School of Practical Science, Biological Study of 413 

Wright, R. Ramsay, M. A., Professor, University of Toronto, 64, 243,275, 344 
Wilson, Daniel, LL.D., President University College, Toronto .... 207, 255 


ZL . 


Lcudty* jO> &&- Vf6< 




SESSION 1883—1884. 


The First Ordinary Meeting of the Session 1883-84 was held 
on Saturday, November 3rd, in the Library of the Institute, 
the President, J. M. Buchan, M. A., in the chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following list of exchanges, donations and purchases 
received from April 1st to November 3rd, 1883, was presented : 


1. Report of the Superintendent of the TJ. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 

showing the progress of the work during the fiscal year ending June, 

2. The Bystander, N. S., No. 1, January, 1883, by James Bain, jun., Esq. 

3. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the United States, for the 

years 1881 and 1882. 

4. Statutes of Ontario for 1883. 

5. The Canadian Parliamentary Companion for 1883, by J. A. Gemmill, Esq. 

6. A glacial striated stone from boulder clay, shore of Lake Erie, Kingsville,. 

Essex Co., presented by David Boyle, Esq. 

7. Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Public Works 

for the Province of Ontario, on Agriculture, and the Arts, for 1872, 1873, 
1874, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, (10 vols.) per Professor 

8. Report of the Superintendent of Insurance for the Dominion of Canada. 

for the year 1882 ; from the Superintendent of Insurance, Dominion of 

9. Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the city of Balti 

more, Vol. I., containing letters A to C ; from the Board of Trustees of 
the Peabody Institute. 

10. Check list of Insects of the Dominion of Canada, compiled by the; 

Natural History Society of Toronto ; from the compilers. 


11. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 

1 1 Nos. of various volumes to complete a set ; from the Anthropological 

12. Report of Canadian Archives, by Douglas Brymner, Esq., Archivist, 1882 ; 

from the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

13. Memoires de la SocteW Acad^mique Indo-Chinoise de Paris, Four publi- 

cations from the above Society. 

14. The Literary Bulletin (11 Nos.) and Bibliographical Contributions (7 Nos.) 

of the Harvard University Library ; from the Librarian. 

15. Four reports of the Peabody Institute, city of Baltimore. 

16. Historical collections of the Essex Institute, 12 volumes and parts, com- 

pleting a set ; 13 pamphlets from the same institution. 

17. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 10 parts 

and volumes to complete a set. 

18. The Worcester Society of Antiquity, 5 Nos., completing a set. 

19. The Journal of the Linnean Society, No. 70, Vol. XIII., completing a set 

20. The Journal of the Royal Dublin Society, 8 volumes and numbers to 

complete a set. 

21. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, 9 volumes and 

numbers ; Transactions of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, 7 numbers, 
completing sets ; from the N. Y. Academy of Sciences. 

22. From the Royal Geographical Society : The Journal of the Society, Vols. 

47 and 48 ; the "Proceedings," 8 numbers, completing sets. 

23. The Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 4 numbers. 

24. Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, 5 volumes. 

25. Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, six Annual Reports, and seven 

pamphlets on various subjects. 

26. Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 19 parts, to complete 

a set. 

27. La Societe des Ingenieurs Civile, Paris : 12 Nos. Memoires et Compts 

Rendu des Travaux de la Soctett for 1882. 

28. The Smithsonian Institute, Washington : 6 Vols. Smithsonian Contributions 

to Knowledge, Vols. 18 — 23, completing a set ; 17 Vols. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, Vols. 11 to 27 inclusive ; 15 Vols, of Annual 
Reports of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 
various years. 

29. Victoria Institute : Vols. 6 to 16 of the Journal of the Transactions, to 

complete set ; sent to Messrs. Campbell & Son for transmission. 

30. Institution of Civil Engineers : Vol 57, to complete set. 

31. The Canadian Entomologist, 3 Nos. to complete a set. 


The Canadian Entomologist, Nos. 4 to 8, 1883. 

Canadian Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 8. 

Bulletin of the Natural History Society of Quebec, No. 2. 

The Canadian Practitioner, Nos. 5—11. 

Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, seems* 

of 1882-83. 
The Weekly Health Bulletin, issued by the Board of Health of Ontario, 


The Monthly Weather Review of the Meteorological Service, Dominion of 

Canada, April to September, 1883. 
Report of the Meteorological Service, Dominion of Canada, for the year 

ending December 31, 1882. 
Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society, Winnipeg, Catalogue of 340 

Specimens from their Collection. 
Report and Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society for the 

years 1882-83. 

United States of America : 

The Journal of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, April to November, 
8 Nob. 

The American Journal of Science, April to November, 8 Nos. 

Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 5 Vols., 

from the commencement in 1867, to 1882. 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 21, Part 4, 

Vol. 22, Part 1. 

Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 3, Nos. 6 and 7. 
Science, from the commencement to No. 38. 

Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Vol. 2, Parts 2 and 3. 
Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, Vols. 4 and 5, 

The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 7, Nos. 1, 2 

Vol. 6, No. 4 ; and Vol. 3, No. 2. 
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 1, Nos. 2, 3, 

4, and 14th Annual Report. 
Scientific Proceedings of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute, Vol. 1, No. 4, 

and Vol. 2, No. 2. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity, No. 18, and No. 12, Part 4 ; No. 3, 
1877 ; No. 12, 1880 ; No. 19, 1882. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
Vol. 10, Nos. 5 and 6. 

Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Vol. 17, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Account of the Semi-Centennial Celebration of the City of Buffalo. 

Report of the Director of the Observatory of Yale College for 1882-83. 

Harvard University Bulletin, No. 26. 

Tomo 3, Entrega 2« and 4«. 
England : 

Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, Vol. 17, Parts 5, 6 
and 7. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, April to October, 1883. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, April to October. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Vols. 71, 72, 73. 

Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, Vol. 10, Part 6. 

Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, April to October* 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute, April to October, 1882. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 
session 1882-83. 

Scientific Roll for 1883. 


Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, 1882-83. 

Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Annual Report of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society for 1882-83, 

Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 1882. « 

Journal of the Linnean Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Nos. 9 and 10, Dec., 1882, 

June, 1883. 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Nos. 11, 12, 13. 

India : 

Records of the Geological Society of India, Vols. 15 and 22. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. 19. 

Paheontologia Indica, Series 10, Vol. 2 ; Series 14, Vols. 1 and & 
New South Wales : 

Report of the Department of Mines. 

Minerals of New South Wales. 

New South Wales in 1881. 

Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 
New Zealand : 

Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute for 18S2. 

France : 

M^moires de la Socidte' Nationale, des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, 

Vol. 23, 1881. 
Bulletin de la Soci^te" Geologique de France, 1879—1883, 16 Nos. 
M^moires et Compte Rendu de la Soctete' des In^enieure Civils, April to 

October, 1883. 

Sweden : 

Acta Universitatis Lundensis, Vols. 15, &c, 7 Vols. 

Germany and Austria: 

Gottingen — Nachrichten yon der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 

Nos. 1—23, 1882. 
Mttnchen— Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der 

K. B. Akademie der Wisssenschaften zu Mtinchen, Hefte 2, 3, 4, 5, 

Band 12, 1882. 
Sitzungsberichte der Philosophischen, Philologischen und Historiachen, 

Classe K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mttnchen, 1882, Hefte 

1, 2, 3, Band 1 ; Hefte 1, 2, 3, Band 2 ; 1881, 4 and 5. 
Astronomische, Magnetische und Meteorologiache, Beobachtungen an der 

K. K. Sternwarte, for 1882-3. 
Wien — Jahrbuch der K. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt for 1882. 
Verhandlungen der E. K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Nos. 12-18. 
Holland : 

Haarlem, Archives Du Mus4e Teyler, S4rie 2, 3 Part, 1882. 

Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, 1882, June 

17, 3, 4 and 5 Pts. : 1883, June 18, 1 Pt. 
Copenhagen : 

Oversigt over det K. Danake Videnskabernes Selskabs 1882. 
Bulletin for 1882, No. 2. 


life of Sir William Logan, by Harrington. 
The Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. Vols. 1, 5 and 7 to complete 

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, Vol. 10 ; No. 3, 

Vol. 11 ; Nos. 1, 2 and 3, VoL 12 ; No. 1, Vol. 13 ; No. 3, VoL 14. 
The Bystander, Nos. 2, 3 and 4. 

The American Journal of Science ; 31 numbers to complete set. 
And the various Periodicals mentioned in the last Annual Report, from April 
to November, 1883. 

The President then delivered his Inaugural Address on 


Members of the Canadian Institute, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I appear before you this evening to read the introductory paper of 
the session, but before doing so I wish to express my sense of the 
honour which my fellow members have conferred upon me by electing 
me a second time to the high office of President of the Canadian 
Institute. I wish likewise to acknowledge the heartiness of the aid 
and support which they gave to the Institute during last session, and 
to express the hope that the same unselfish and disinterested feelings 
which have hitherto prompted them to encourage what is done here 
for the advancement of science and the diffusion of knowledge may 
continue to operate in their breasts. The increase in membership, 
a.nd the general success of the Institute during last winter, give rise in 
my mind, to good auguries for its prosperity during the session which 
* •commences to-night. Though the Council was unable during last ses- 
sion to accomplish everything that could have been wished, I think all 
will agree that it effected a great deal ; and I confidently anticipate 
that much of the work which is not yet finished will be overtaken 
before next May. The labour of putting our library and collections 
in order has proved much more serious than was anticipated, but a 
very large part of the work has been done, and our active and efficient 
Assistant-Secretary, Mr. Young, has already put them so far into 
shape, that he is now in a position to say what we do, and do not 
possess, in most departments. I may add that the number of 
periodicals which we take, and that of societies with which we ex- 
change publications have been considerably increased, and that, in 


consequence, our facilities for affording the student of any special 
branch of knowledge an acquaintance with what the rest of the 
world is doing in it, are much improved. It may also be stated, 
that arrangements have been made whereby it is expected that a fuller 
and more regular printed report of our proceedings will be given to 
our members. 

It seems to me that it would be inappropriate not to say a word on 
this occasion about the results that have flowed from a proposal made 
by Mr Sandford Filming in a communication read before the Institute 
two or three years ago. I refer to the proposal to adopt certain 
meridians as standards of time — a proposal which is to take practical 
effect during the present month over a great part of this continent 
The members of the Institute, seeing that they have in their corpo- 
rate capacity twice memoralized the government, and taken other 
action in this matter, and in their separate capacities have seconded 
Mr. Fleming whenever they have had opportunity to do so, cannot 
but feel pleased that so much has been accomplished ; and while I 
give utterance to that feeling of pleasure, I am sure that I am also 
speaking the mind of the Institute, when I express the hope, that 
this partial adoption of Mr. Fleming's scheme on this continent, may 
be but the prelude to its adoption in its entirety throughout the 

Some years ago I had the honour to communicate to the Institute 
the general views at which I had then arrived in regard to the very 
difficult subject of the relations of complexion and climate. Though 
I cannot pretend that the partial solution which T then offered, was, 
even as far as it went, entirely satisfactory, I still think that it em- 
bodied an element of truth. Since that time, I have gained, if not 
increased light, at least additional information, and it has occurred to 
me that a new paper on the subject, written, not so much with the 
object of advancing any special views which I may hold, as with thai 
of pointing out the nature of the difficulties which crop up when one 
attempts to elucidate it, and the character of the questions, with the 
solution of which its elucidation is connected, might prove to be of 
some popular interest. 

This topic belongs to the domain of Anthropology, a science which 
has lately come into existence. The anthropologist might take for 
his motto that oft-quoted line of Pope's 

" The proper study of mankind is man," 


but he would give it a meaning and an application which would 
astonish its author. Anthropology literally means, the science of 
man, and, if the term were construed in the full extent of its mean- 
ing, it would embrace all other sciences. It is not, however, so used, 
but is employed to designate the science which deals with the natural 
history of mun. That is to say, Anthropology is a branch of Zoology. 
The great poet of the age of Queen Anne thought, and expressed 
the thought that the proper study of mankind is man, with the impli- 
cation that it is his moral nature which is especially worthy of inves- 
tigation ; the anthropologist of to-day, without leaving man's moral 
nature out of account, feels more at home in questions about the shape 
and size of skulls, the height, weight, and colour of different races, 
the character of their hair, the peculiarities of the different parts of 
their skeletons, the relations of languages, and the development of 
civilization on the earth. 

There is no one of the differences which separate one tribe or 
nation from another more striking than that of colour. In conse- 
quence, men are often classified in popular parlance into white and 
coloured. Blumenbach, about a century ago, divided mankind on the 
basis of colour into five races : the Caucasian or white, the Mongolian 
or yellow, the American or red, the Malay or brown, and the Ethi- 
opian or black ; and this classification has, in virtue of its simplicity, 
until recently been very generally accepted. It is, however, scien- 
tifically worthless. The so-called Red race varies in colour from 
chocolate brown to dark white. There are Chinese, Japanese 
and Coreans, which races, according to Blumenbach, are Mongolian, 
as white as many so-called Caucasians ; and the Zulus of Southern 
Africa, though ranked as Ethiopians, present examples of every 
variety of complexion from yellow to black. 

In place of Blumenbach's system a great number of classifications 
have been offered. These may be divided into those based on 
language, and those based on physical peculiarities. Both are alike 
unsatisfactory ; the former because they often bring together tribes 
and nations of very different appearance; the latter because they 
separate races having related languages, and connect races whose 
languages are extremely different. In the Indo-European family, 
which is a division with a linguistic basis, are included the bronze- 
coloured Hindoo and the blonde Scandinavian. Among the Xantho- 
chroi, or blonde whites of Huxley, a race set apart on the basis of its 


physical characteristics, are included the Mingrelians of Circassia, 
the Scandinavians, and the Finns, three races speaking radically 
unlike languages, while the Samoyedes, whose language is related to 
that of the Finns, and the Persians and Hindoos whose tongues 
resemble that of the Scandinavians, are relegated to other classes. 

From facts which have occurred, and facts which we may see daily 
occurring in this country and the neighboring republic, we are led to 
the conclusion that the language a man speaks is not good evidence 
as to his descent. The descendants of the Dutch settlers of New 
York speak English. The Negroes of the South speak either Eng- 
lish or French. On the other hand physical peculiarities change 
very slowly, if at all. The Spaniard of South America, the English- 
man of Virginia, the Frenchman of Quebec seem to be precisely the 
same physically as the Spaniard of Spain, the Englishman of England, 
and the Frenchman of France. If the white race darkens within 
the tropics, or the Negro blanches under the influence of frost, the 
process is very slow. It would therefore seem the part of wisdom 
to accept a classification based on physical peculiarities. The most 
approved classification is that of Huxley, which is founded on the 
character of the hair and colour of the skin. He divides all mankind 
into Ulotrichi, that is, those possessing crisp or woolly hair, and 
Leiotrichi, or those possessing smooth hair. The colour of the former, 
that is, of the Ulotrichi, or the woolly-haired division of mankind, 
"varies from yellow-brown to the darkest hue known among men." 
Their " hair and eyes are normally dark, and with only a few excep- 
tions (among the Andaman Islanders) they are dolichocephalic," 
that is, long-headed. " The Negroes and Bushmen of ultra-Saharal 
Africa, and the Negritos of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago and 
of the Papuan Islands are the members of this Negroid stock." 

The Leiotrichi, that is, the smooth-haired division of mankind, are 
divisible into four groups, typified respectively by the Australians, 
the Chinese, the Swedes, and the Spaniards. 

1. The first of these, namely the Australioid group, have dark 
skins, dark eyes, " wavy black hair, and eminently long skulls with 
well developed brow ridges, and projecting jaws." This group in- 
cludes the native Australians and Tasmanians, and some races found 
in India in the Dekhan. Professor Huxley is inclined to consider 
the ancient Egyptians a modification of this type. 


2. The seoond, or Mongoloid group, have for the most part 
-" yellowish-brown or reddish-brown skins, and dark eyes, the hair 
being long, black and straight." Their skulls range between the 
extremes of long-headedness and broad-headedness. The group in- 
cludes " the Mongol, Tibetan, Chinese, Polynesian, Esquimaux and 
American races. 11 

3. The third, or Xanthochroio group, have "pale skins, blue eyes, 
.and abundant fur hair. Their skulls, like those of the Mongoloid 
.group, range between the extremes 11 of long and broad-headedness. 
" The Slavonians, Teutons, Scandinavians and the fair Celtic-speak- 
ing people are the chief representatives" of this type, but it extends 
-" into North Africa and Western Asia." 

4. The dark whites, or Melanochroi, constitute the fourth group. 
They are " pale-complexioned people with dark hair and eyes, and 
generally long, but sometimes broad skulls." The group includes 
"the Iberians or Basques and 'Dark Celts 1 of Western Europe, and 
the dark-complexioned white people of the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean and of Western Asia and Persia." Professor Huxley is 
inclined to hold that the Melanochroi are not a distinct group, but 
result from a mixture of Australioids and Xanthochroi, or fair 

It will be noticed that this classification brings together the widely 
separated Negroes and Negritos, neither of which races is maritime. 
The Australians are likewise ranked with the Todas and some other 
tribes of the Dekhan, though neither branch has reached a stage of 
civilization that would enable it to build ships and cross seas. From 
what Professor Huxley says in regard to the origin of the Melanochroi, 
or dark whites, it seems fair to infer that he would explain these 
difficulties by the hypothesis of a once continuous belt of Negro popu- 
lation from New Guinea to Africa, and a once continuous belt of 
Australioid populations from Australia to Britain. As these two 
belts cover to a great extent the same ground, we have another diffi- 
culty which we must solve by assuming the intrusion of either the 
♦one race or the other, and either Australioid or Negro conquest. 

These difficulties suggest, that possibly after all, Huxley's classifi- 
cation does not indicate relationship or common descent. The Negroes 
-and Negritos may resemble each other, not because they are of the 
same stock, but on account of the fact that the sum total of their sur- 
roundings, or in other words, of their environment, is similar, and 


produces similar effects upon those subjected to it. That is to say, 
the Negrito of Malacca and the Philippine Islands may resemble the 
Yoloff and the Bantu of Africa, because his climate and mode of 
life are similar. If this is not the case, it is singular, that, over the 
vast area in which either the Negrito or the Australian must have 
supplanted the other, there should be no evidence of mixture of 
race, no remains of a mixed race evidently sprung from the union of 
the two. You may say to me, that one race exterminated the other. 
I say that in early times it was impossible to conquer and extermi- 
nate a race over a vast area. It is hardly possible now for a very 
civilized to extirpate a very uncivilized race over a large tract of 
country. Much less was it possible then, when all the devilish 
enginery of modern war had not been invented, and the process of 
killing one's fellow was slow, and very far from sure. 

We shall be still more doubtful of the value of the preceding classi- 
fication as a guide to community of descent, when we notice how the 
shape of the skull, which one would think would be as fixed as the 
colour of the skin or the character of the hair, varies in all but the 
Australioid division. We know that abundance of good food will in- 
crease the size of many of the lower animals, and that by a process 
of artificial selection from among the varieties naturally produced 
we can change almost any character to an indefinite extent. May it 
not possibly be the case that the shape of the skull, and the colour of 
the skin, hair, and eyes and other physical characters may be the 
results of that natural selection which Darwin puts forward as the 
operative cause in originating species. 

A great deal of light would be thrown on the question we have 
just raised, if it could be clearly shown that some physical character 
was either independent of, or dependent on the environment. For 
various reasons the character of colour seems to give greater promise 
of results than any other. We have a greater abundance of informa- 
tion in regard to it than any other, and it seems at any rate at first 
sight to vary according to a law. 

" The colour of the skin " in the different races " varies from the 
very pale reddish brown of the so-called white races, through all shades 
of yellow and red brown to olive and chocolate, which may be w> 
dark as to look black." That of the hair, varies from the flaxen of 
some northern races, to a very deep brown of bluish black. That of 
the eyes varies from a very light blue through different shades of blue,. 


or grey, or green, to a more or less dark brown. Fair hair, and blue, 
green, or grey eyes, are never found except in conjunction with a 
white skin. The yellow hair reported as seen in some countries in 
conjunction with a dark skin, is the result of the use of a bleaching 
agent. Light eyes may occur with dark hair and a fair skin, and 
dark eyes with a fair skin and fair hair. The great majority of man- 
kind have dark eyes, dark hair, and a more or less dark skin, and 
Huxley's Xanthochroi, or the blonde whites of Northern Europe, are 
the race that departs farthest from the common type. 

According to Professor Huxley, there must once have been some- 
where an unmixed blonde white race, by mixing with which the 
Australioids of the Mediterranean region and Great Britain became 
blanched to their present hue. There is not, however, what one 
would think there ought to be on that theory, any country or part of 
a country inhabited only by blondes. Probably the country with 
the greatest proportion of fair whites in it, is Southern Sweden ; 
but here there is no inconsiderable admixture of men of the dark 
white race. On the contrary, there are countries inhabited solely by 
Melanochroi or dark whites. Such for example are Persia and 
Northern Arabia. These facts, namely, that there is no tribe or 
nation of unmixed blondes, while there are some of unmixed brunette 
whites, would seem to indicate, that the fairness of the people in the 
native country of the white race, is due to climatic causes, which 
produce their maximum effect in those parts where there are most 

At first sight nothing appears plainer than that complexion is a 
result of climate. 

The very dark races are near the equator, the light-colored ones in 
the temperate zones. The explanation seems to be at least as old as 
Homer that darkness of skin results from the intensity of the sun's 
rays. In his poems the term ^Ethiopes, meaning burnt faces, the 
root of our word Ethiopian, is used to designate an African tribe. 
But a very slight extension of our knowledge shows that this theory 
does not explain the facts. Side by side in the same country, as, for 
example, India, we find races of differing color who, apparently, have 
occupied the same soil for many centuries. On the forty-fourth 
parallel of latitude, which runs a little north of this city, we find, in 
the old world, the European brunette, the blonde Circassian, and the 
yellow Mongol, while on this continent we have the brown reddish 


or yellowish Indian. On the equator itself we have the African 
Negro, the brown Malay of Borneo, and the yellow Tupi of the valley 
of the Amazons. North of the blonde Russian is found the yellow 
Samoyede, south of the brown men of equatorial Sumatra and Java 
live the blacks of Australia, and the two darkest native races of this 
continent live near the mouth of the Colorado and that of the La 
Plata, each of which points is, speaking roughly, about thirty degrees 
distant from the equator. 

The people of the eastern continent, south of the Tropic of Cancer, 
are for the most part brown or black. Divide what is north of the 
tropics into two halves by the seventy-fifth parallel of longitude and 
those to the west are white, those to the east yellow. The inhabit- 
ants of the islands of the Pacific vary from the light yellow of the 
Japanese to the chocolate brown of the Papuans. In America the 
Haidah Islanders and the aborigines of the neighboring parts of 
Alaska are almost white, the California and Arizona Indians are dark 
brown ; the Tupis and Guaranis that occupy the valleys of the 
Orinoco and the Amazons, are yellow ; the Peruvians, and the 
aborigines of La Plata and Patagonia, are brown. The darkest of 
these, the Charrnas, who lived near the mouth of the La Plata, have 
sometimes been described as black. 

The variations within a short distance are often very striking. 
There is more dark hair in Wales than in England in the same 
latitude, but the proportions of dark eyes are reversed. In Wales, 
in Ireland, and in Brittany, dark hair and blue eyes are very frequently 
combined, and this has been supposed to be due to Celtic influence. 
In Ireland, according to Poesche, ninety per cent of the people have 
bluish-gray eyes. In Teutonic countries blue eyes are more abundant 
than gray ; in Slavonic countries the reverse is the case. In Switzer- 
land the people of the mountains are darker than those of the 
valleys. In Bavaria the inhabitants of the low-lying country, near 
the Danube, are the darkest. In Transcaucasia those who live near 
the Black Sea are blonde, those near the Caspian yellow, — between, 
there are dark whites. Blondes are found sporadically among a large 
number of the races of the Northern Hemisphere. That some of 
the extinct Guanches of the Canary Islands were blonde, is proved by 
their mummies. If we may trust the recently discovered picture of 
the mother of King Amenhotep IV., who reigned in Egypt, probably 
1700 B.C., she was a blonde. At any rate, fair-haired and light-eyed 


people occur at this day in considerable numbers among the inhabitants 
of the mountainous parts of the Barbary States. The Jews, almost 
everywhere, present specimens of the blonde and brunette types. The 
Ghelankis at the south end of the Caspian, the Nestorians of Persia, 
and the Kurds of the highlands between Turkey and Persia, are 
partially blonde. Many of the Turcomans who live just east of the 
Caspian Sea, though Turk by race and language, are blonde ; while 
the Persians to the south and the Tadjiks to the east, though Indo- 
European in speech, are brunette. Some of the Indo-European 
tribes in Afghanistan, and on the upper Indus, afford specimens of 
fair-haired and blue-eyed men. In short we may say that Xantho- 
chroi occur from the Arctic Ocean to the Sahara, and from the Atlantic 
to the Indus, in greater or smaller numbers, and that occasionally 
beyond these confines, among the Chinese or Coreans, or even the 
Indians of Northwest America, individuals may be met with, of 
pure blood, who exhibit either light eyes or fair hair. For example, 
the Spanish discoverers of the Thlinkeets of Alaska, expressly note 
the fact that some of them had blue eyes. " Eran de color bianco y 
habia muchos con ojos azules." They were of a white color and there 
were many with blue eyes, says Perez. According to the Abte 
David there is to be met with in Sltchuan, one of the northwestern 
provinces of China, an aboriginal race with light eyes and hair often 
chestnut or yellowish. 

During the last twenty-five years considerable quantities of statis- 
tics, relating to the colour of the hair, eyes, and skin, have been 
collected in various countries. In Great Britain Dr. Beddoe's figures 
show that the number of blondes increases as we go north ; in France 
the fairest part of the population is in the north and north-east ; in 
Belgium in the north ; in Gallicia, a part of Poland, the people are 
fairer in the north. In Germany the observations made on school 
children show that Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost province, is 
the fairest. The next fairest is not, as might be expected, the next 
most northerly province, East Prussia, but Pomerania, and the third 
in the list is Hanover. The geographical position of these provinces 
naturally leads to the inference that the Scandinavian Peninsula is 
the seat of the fairest population in the world. The blonde centre is 
probably somewhere in the southern half of that peninsula, as the 
Itpps in the north, though partly fair, are partly brunette. In every 


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or vies ver*a. M. de Quatrefages has suggested that the malarial fevers 
of Africa have wrought this effect there, and that phthisis has been 
the agent in the north of Europe. It certainly is the case that the 
tropical regions of Africa are very unhealthy for whites, and that the 
Negro dies out north of the parallel of 40° in both hemispheres; but 
this does not show that both races might not be acclimatized by slow 
degrees without loss of colour. In other words, no reason has been 
shown for thinking that it is to the complexion, and not to some 
other racial peculiarity that the relative immunity from certain mala- 
dies is due. 

Of these various views, I am inclined to hold that that of 
D'Orbigny and Schomburgh is most in accordance with the facts. 
Europe which is the seat of the white man is the moistest of the 
continents ; the fairest of North American Indians live on the humid 
coast and islands of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia ; 
where there are unbroken forest regions in South America, and there- 
fore a comparatively moist climate, the aborigines are yellow ; 
where prairies and droughts prevail, they are brown. As compared 
with Hindostan, Farther India is moist, and its inhabitants are less 
sombre in hue. The brown men of Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and 
Celebes inhabit forest-covered, and therefore comparatively humid 
islands, the black races of Papua and Australia roam over grass-clad 
plains, whose existence proves the relative dryness of the air. But 
neither is this hypothesis in accord with all the facts. The co exist- 
ence of races of different hues in India, and of the brown Malays, 
and black Negritos in the Philippines and Malacca, cannot be ex- 
plained by it. The west coast of Great Britain is incomparably the 
damper, but yet the inhabitants of the east are decidedly the fairer. 

Some portion of these, and similar facts, may be explained by sup- 
posing that certain introduced races have not become completely accli- 
matized. It might, for example, be held that this is the cause of the 
relative fairness of the higher castes in India. It might too, be held 
that if many thousands of years were allowed, the blonde inhabitants 
of Great Britain and Ireland would disappear, and be replaced by a 
homogeneous race of dark whites, similar to the pre-Celtic inhabitants 
of those islands. There is some evidence tending to support this 
view. In particular, I may mention Dr. Beddoe's observations on 
the colour of the eyes of women, from which it appears that the 
proportion of dark-eyed women in England is growing larger. 


-direction north, south, east, or west from this central point the pro- 
portion of blondes decreases, and that of brunettes increases. 

Many theories have been advanced to account for these anomalies. 
The common explanation is that they are due to race. If so, how is 
it that we have no aboriginal blondes between the tropics, and no 
aboriginal blacks north of 35° N. L. It has been thought that 
civilization produces fairness ; but this view is refuted by many facts, 
the civilized Peruvian Indians, for instance, being darker than their 
savage congeners on the Amazons. It has been asserted that the 
upper classes are fairer than the lower ; but, though this is the case 
in Europe and India, the opposite state of things existed in the 
Sandwich Islands, and still exists in some parts of Africa. A moun- 
tain climate has been supposed to produce a light complexion, but 
the highlandera of Scotland and Switzerland are darker than the 
natives of the plains of the same countries. Indeed, a pretty good 
case could be made out for the theory that low, flat countries produce 
fair complexions. South America, for example, which has no abori- 
ginal negroes, is much less raised above the level of the sea than 
Africa. But neither is this theory consonant with all the facts. 

The explanation has been sought in differences of diet, and it has 
been conjectured that a superabundance of carbon in the food might 
lead to the deposit of some of it in the skin. Races then, that live 
largely upon fat or oily food ought, on this hypothesis, to be darker 
than others in the same latitude. But there are no facts to show 
that the Welsh or the Irish live more on carbonaceous food than the 
English or the Dutch, and yet there is a considerable difference in 
complexion. Dr. Livingstone thought that a moist climate produces 
dark skins ; D'Orbigny considers it the cause of fairness. Poesche, in 
his work on the Aryans, seems to consider fairness to be due to the 
absence from the soil of the elements from which the pigment that 
gives the yellow, brown, or black shade to the skin is formed 

Darwin, Professor Huxley, M. de Quatrefages and others think it 
probable that racial distinctions owe their origin to the selective 
operation of the prevailing diseases of particular climates. Assuming, 
what is amply supported by facts, that individuals slightly diverging 
in different directions from the type are constantly being produced, 
it is obvious that if a dark or a light complexion be correlated with 
power to resist a particular disease or group of diseases, a white race 
may, by natural selection, be gradually developed from a coloured one, 


or vice versa. M. de Quatrefages has suggested that the malarial fevers 
of Africa have wrought this effect there, and that phthisis has been 
the agent in the north of Europe. It certainly is the case that the 
tropical regions of Africa are very unhealthy for whites, and that the 
Negro dies out north of the parallel of 40° in both hemispheres; but 
this does not show that both races might not be acclimatized by slow 
degrees without loss of colour. In other words, no reason has been 
shown for thinking that it is to the complexion, and not to some 
other racial peculiarity that the relative immunity from certain mala- 
dies is due. 

Of these various views, I am inclined to hold that that of 
D'Orbigny and Schomburgh is most in accordance with the facts. 
Europe which is the seat of the white man is the moistest of the 
continents ; the fairest of North American Indians live on the humid 
coast and islands of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia ; 
where there are unbroken forest regions in South America, and there- 
fore a comparatively moist climate, the aborigines are yellow ; 
where prairies and droughts prevail, they are brown. As compared 
with Hindostan, Farther India is moist, and its inhabitants are less 
sombre in hue. The brown men of Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and 
Celebes inhabit forest-covered, and therefore comparatively humid 
islands, the black races of Papua and Australia roam over grass-clad 
plains, whose existence proves the relative dryness of the air. But 
neither is this hypothesis in accord with all the facts. The co exist- 
ence of races of different hues in India, and of the brown Malays, 
and black Negritos in the Philippines and Malacca, cannot be ex- 
plained by it. The west coast of Great Britain is incomparably the 
damper, but yet the inhabitants of the east are decidedly the fairer. 

Some portion of these, and similar facts, may be explained by sup- 
posing that certain introduced races have not become completely accli- 
matized. It might, for example, be held that this is the cause of the 
relative fairness of the higher castes in India. It might too, be held 
that if many thousands of years were allowed, the blonde inhabitants 
of Great Britain and Ireland would disappear, and be replaced by a 
homogeneous race of dark whites, similar to the pre-Celtic inhabitants 
of those islands. There is some evidence tending to support this 
view. In particular, I may mention Dr. Beddoe's observations on 
the colour of the eyes of women, from which it appears that the 
proportion of dark-eyed women in England is growing larger. 


Another explanation of some of these facts, that possesses a certain 
degree of probability, is, that difference of colour in the same country 
is due to mode of life. It may be maintained that the Samangs of 
Malaca, and the Ae*tas of the Philippine Islands are darker than 
the other inhabitants, because the poorness of their dwellings, and 
their consequent practically constant exposure to sun or wind, renders 
it an advantage for them to be dark. 

Another explanation to which I shall make reference later, is that 
humidity is probably not the sole climatic influence that operates. 

I may say here that I do not attach importance to the direct in- 
fluence of climatic conditions. It is, indeed, a matter of common 
observation that these produce considerable effects on the individual. 
Pruner-Bey, for example, states that he has noticed that " the Euro- 
pean acclimated in Egypt acquires after some time a tawny skin, 
and in Abyssinia a bronzed skin; he becomes pallid on the coast of 
Arabia, cachectic white in Syria, clear brown in the deserts of Arabia, 
and ruddy in the Syrian mountains." But there is no proof that 
these cutaneous changes are inherited. If, however, it can be shown 
that a particular kind of skin is better than others for resisting the 
deleterious influences of a given climate, it stands to reason that 
those members of a race whose skins vary in the direction of this 
type, will, in each generation have the best chance of surviving and 
begetting children, and that by the continued increment of successive 
variations in the same direction, the skin and the climate will ulti- 
mately be brought into accord. 

The skin consists of two layers : the inner, dense and fibrous, 
furnished with blood vessels and nerves, called the derma or true 
skin ; the outer, horny, nerveless and bloodless, called the epidermis, 
cuticle, or scarf-skin. The cells which compose the latter originate 
in the rete Mabpighii, its lowest part, are gradually forced outward 
by new cells and finally exfoliate. In some of these epidermic cells 
a pigment is found which varies in different races, but always con- 
tains a yellow element. The hue of the skin does not depend on 
this colouring matter alone, but is a compound effect resulting from 
the white of the dermis, the red of the blood in the minute vessels 
near the surface, the colour and quantity of the pigment, and the 
thickness of the cuticle. Where the cuticle is thick, the colour of the 
pigment will predominate over the other elements on account of the 
greater depth of pigment-cells. Where it is thin, and the colouring 


matter light, the tint of the skin will be much affected by any 
change in the supply of blood to the capillaries at the surface of the 
body. This is the reason why the whites alone can turn pale and 

Closely related to the pigment of the skin are the colouiing matters 
of the eye and hair. Dark-skinned people usually have black eyes 
and hair ; fair hair and blue eyes are seldom found except in con- 
junction with a fair skin ; and the eyes and hair of albinoes, in whom 
the pigment of the skin is wanting, are likewise destitute of colouring 
matter. The pink hue of their eyes is due to minute blood-vessels, 
whose colour is masked in ordinary organs by the pigment of the iris. 

It is noteworthy that the colouring matters of the epidermis and 
the iris serve a very important purpose ; they protect the tender un- 
derlying parts from the injurious effects of too much heat and light. 
Albinoes everywhere find it necessary to protect their skins and eyes 
from the action of the sun's rays. In warm countries they seldom go 
out except at night. There is this difference between them and other 
men, that long-continued exposure to the sun, which ordinarily 
develops a condition of the skin capable of resisting its rays, does not 
do so in their case. It may here be remarked that, the greater the 
quantity of the pigment, the less transparent will the epidermis be, 
and the more effective will it be as a protective agency. On the con- 
trary, the smaller the quantity, the greater the transparency, and the 
less the protection. 

Under certain circumstances the exposed parts of our bodies 
become tanned, that is to say, an increase in the colouring matter 
which they contain takes place. Dark whites tan brown, fair whites: 
tan red. The change is caused by the influence of the sun or wind,, 
and is obviously protective in its character, as the unpleasant feelings 
which result from the first exposure do not recur when we have 
become thoroughly tanned. This fact, I believe, contains the key 
which explains the distribution of colour among the races,, The 
climate, or the mode of existence of most races, renders it an. 
advantage to them to begin life more or less deeply tanned. 

As an excretory organ, it is the function of the skin to discharge 
water, carbonic acid and urea — the first in large, the others in smaH 
quantities. Perspiration, or the excreting of water with some saline: 
matter in solution, is effected in two ways. In the first place,, 
sudoriparous glands, imbedded in the true skin, secrete sweat from 


the blood. This is conveyed to the air by minute ducts passing 
through the epidermis. It is obvious that, the less transparent the 
outer skin, the less light and heat will be transmitted to excite these 
glands into activity. In the second place, there is a continual 
transudation of sweat from the minute vessels of the surface of the 
body through the epidermis at every point. The thicker or more 
oily the scarfskin, the less will the amount of this transudation he. 
If it be both thick and oily, as in many dark races, the quantity 
transuded will be reduced to a minimum ; if it be thin and not oily, 
as in the fairest members of the white race, transudation will be 

The amount of transuded sweat depends, however, not only on the 
thinness of the cuticle, but also on the degree to which the air in 
contact with the body is saturated with moisture; for there is a 
limit to the quantity of vapour which the air can absorb. This 
limit varies with the temperature, warm air absorbing more than 
cold. It is also to be remarked that perspiration relieves the body 
of heat as well as of moisture, and that a dark skin may serve as a 
means of radiating heat in climates in which a large loss of moisture 
is a disadvantage. Such being the nature of the skin, I now 
proceed to inquire what kind of it will best suit particular regions. 
For this purpose climates may be classified as — 

I. Arctic. 
II. Moist temperate. 

III. Dry temperate. 

IV. Moist tropical. 
V. Dry tropical. 

1. When the skin