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Full text of "Proceedings and collections"

THOMAS WRIGHT. 

17481820. 



PROCEEDINGS 



COLLECTIONS 



WYOMING HISTORICAL UNO GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 




VOLUME V. 



WlLKES-BARRE, PA. 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 
1900. 



v- 



PRINTED BY E. B. YORDY & Co. 
Wilkes-Barrfi, Pa. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE, 5-6 

PROCEEDINGS, 7-13 

REPORTS OF OFFICERS, 14-26 

REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D., BY MRS. CHARLES 

E. RICE, 27-46 

THE DEFENCE OF THE DELAWARE RIVER IN THE REVO- 
LUTION, BYCAPT. HENRY HOBART BELLAS, U.S. A., 47-73 

MATTHIAS AND JOHN HOLLENBACK'S LIST OF LOSSES 

BY THE INDIANS, 1778, , 74 

THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM, PA., BY REV. DAVID CRAFT, 

D. D., 75- 110 

THE EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY, PA., 

BY HON. CHARLES A. MINER, 111-152 

DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA, BY FREDERIC 

CORSS, M. D., 153-162 

FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON, PA., BY 

FREDERIC CORSS, M. D. , 163-167 

BURIED VALLEY AND POT-HOLES IN THE WYOMING 

COAL FIELD, BY FREDERIC CORSS, M. D. ... 168-176 

CATALOGUE OF THE LACOE COLLECTION OF PALEOZOIC 

FOSSILS, WITH REPORT OF THE CURATOR, . . . 177-204 

LISTS OF TAXABLE INHABITANTS IN THE TOWN AND 

COUNTY OF WESTMORELAND, 1776-1780, . . . 205-242 

WlLKES-BARRE, 2O9, 22O, 232 

KINGSTON, 211, 219,231 

PLYMOUTH, 212, 222, 234 

HANOVER, 214, 225, 237 

PITTSTON 215, 226, 238 

EXETER, . , . . . 216, 228, 240 

UP THE RIVER, 217,228 

LACKAWANNA, 218, 229, 240 

WESTMORELAND, 218, 241 

OBITUARIES, BY WESLEY E. WOODRUFF, 243-254 

OFFICERS AND MEMBERS, 1900, 2 55- 2 59 

CONTRIBUTORS, "... . . 260-261 

PUBLICATIONS, 262-264 



REV. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN, 
WILLIAM REYNOLDS RICKETTS, 
MISS HANNAH PACKARD JAMES, 

Publishing Committee. 



PREFACE. 



Agreeably to the promise made by the Publishing Com- 
mittee in Volume Four of the Proceedings of the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society, to issue a similar volume 
annually, the Proceedings for 1898 and 1899 are herewith 
presented to the members of the Society. 

It has been our purpose to make each volume of Pro- 
ceedings equally rich in scientific as well as historical data. 
Especial attention is called to the three Geological papers 
by Dr. Corss, and to the very rich catalogue of Palaeozoic 
Fossils of the Lacoe Collection. We are promised as 
valuable material for the volume to be issued in 1901. 

During the present year the Committee will issue, for 
public use, a full catalogue of the Geological Library of the 
Society, containing over 1000 titles. Attention is especially 
called to the treasures of the Society in its Geological cabi- 
nets, which are open to the public daily. 

The thanks of the Committee are due to the generosity of 
Hon. Charles A. Miner for the illustrations which enrich 
his valuable paper on " The Early Grist-Mills of the Wyo- 
ming Valley," all of which, except the few recognized as 
from Pearce's Annals, and one kindly loaned by Mr. W. H. 
Richardson, of the Miller's review, have been given at much 
expense by Mr. Miner. 

The entire work of editing the present volume having 
fallen on the Corresponding Secretary and Librarian, he 
desires to assume all responsibility for any errors that may 
be discovered. 

PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



The Society will be glad to receive any copies of its Publications that 
members may be willing to spare, especially early issues. 



PROCEEDINGS AND COLLECTIONS 

OF THE 

istorical an& ealagical Society 



Volume V. WILKES-BARRE, PA. 1900. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



Stated Meeting, April 15, 1898. 

Judge Woodward, the President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the February meeting were read and approved. 

The transfer of the following members to the life membership 
list was approved : Rev. N. G. Parke, D. D. , Miss Jane A. 
Shoemaker, Mr. Charles J. Shoemaker, Mrs. Esther Shoe- 
maker Norris, Mrs. Kate Pettebone Dickson. 

The Corresponding Secretary announced that the life mem- 
bership list numbered 58, with 12 promised additions. 

The President announced the speaker of the evening, O. J. 
Harvey, Esq., who, at the request of the Trustees, had con- 
sented to read a chapter from his unpublished History of Wilkes- 
Barre, on the subject of the " Laying Out and Naming of Wilkes- 
Barre. ' ' Mr. Harvey' s paper was rich in original matter, un- 
known to the historians of Wyoming, and received close atten- 
tion for an hour. On motion of Dr. Johnson, the thanks of 
the Society were unanimously voted to Mr. Harvey. After in- 
teresting remarks from several members, the Society adjourned 
at 9. 30. 



Quarterly Meeting, May 12, 1898. 

President Woodward in the chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting and of the meeting of 
the loth day of February, 1898, were read and approved. 

In a short speech the President introduced General W. H. 
H. Davis, of Doylestown, Pa., the speaker of the evening. 



8 PROCEEDINGS. 

The subject of the General's address was "Some Men I Have 
Met and Things I Have Seen." He gave interesting remin- 
iscences of General Gushing, Henry M. Stanley, Presidents 
Pierce and Arthur, Generals Scott and Taylor, Dr. Evans, of 
Paris, and others. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to General Davis for his admir- 
able address. On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



Stated Meeting, October 21, 1898. 

The President, Judge Woodward, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

A list of the contributions to the Society, since the last meet- 
ing, was read, and a vote of thanks was extended to the several 
donors. 

The following persons were elected to membership : Dr. R. 
L. Wadhams (Life member), Mrs. Isabella W. Bowman, Dr. C. 
W. Spayd. 

A fine collection of relics of the Spanish-American war, loaned 
by Joseph W. Graeme, Naval Cadet, of the U. S. battle-ship Iowa, 
was exhibited. 

Mr. W. E. Woodruff, Historiographer, read biographical 
sketches of Isaac Long and Capt. L. D. Stearns, deceased mem- 
bers of the Society. In this connection Mr. Hayden announced 
the interesting fact that the morning after the fire at St. Stephen's 
Church, Mr. Long sent the Rector a check for $200. 

Dr. Johnson, by request, gave some account of his visit to the 
Omaha Exposition, whither he had gone as a Commissioner of 
the State of Pennsylvania. He spoke in an interesting way of 
the fine exhibition, the poor accommodations and restaurants, 
the Indian Congress, Geronimo (Indian Chief), and the Penn- 
sylvania Club of Omaha. He was given a vote of thanks. 

On motion, the Society adjourned. 



Quarterly Meeting, December 16, 1898. 

Vice President, Rev. Dr. Henry L. Jones, in the chair. 

The Historiographer, W. E. Woodruff, Esq., read a biograph- 
ical sketch of Col. Samuel H. Sturdevant, deceased, after which 
a portrait of Col. Sturdevant was presented to the Society in 



PROCEEDINGS. 9 

the name of his daughter, Miss E. U. Sturdevant, and a vote of 
thanks was extended. 

The Hon. Charles A. Miner, who was expected to read before 
the Society his paper entitled the "Old Mills of Wyoming Valley 
from 1772 to 1898," being ill, his son, Col. Asher Miner, was 
introduced, and read part of his father's paper. Several illus- 
trations of the subject were also exhibited. On motion of the 
Rev. Mr. Hayden, a vote of thanks for his exhaustive and in- 
teresting paper was extended to Mr. Miner, and the paper re- 
ferred to the Publishing Committee. 

A vote of thanks was also extended to Dr. L. I. Shoemaker for 
the portrait of his father, Hon. L. D. Shoemaker, Vice Presi- 
dent of the Society from 1890 to 1894. 

On motion, the Society adjourned. 



Annual Meeting, February 10, 1899. 

President, Hon. Stanley Woodward, in the chair. 

After prayer by Rev. Mr. Hayden, the Secretary read the 
minutes of the meetings of October 21 and December 16, 1898, 
which, on motion, were approved. 

The election of officers being in order the following persons 
were nominated and elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Vice Presidents, Capt. Calvin Parsons, Rev. Dr. H. L. Jones, 
Col. G. Murray Reynolds, Rev. Dr. F. B. Hodge. 

Trustees, Hon. Charles A. Miner, Mr. Edward Welles, Mr. 
S. L. Brown, Mr. Richard Sharpe, Mr. Andrew F. Derr. 

Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

Recording Secretary, Mr. Sidney R. Miner. 

Treasurer, Dr. F. C. Johnson. 

Librarian, Hon. J. R. Wright. 

Assistant Librarian, Rev. H. E. Hayden. 

Curators Archaeology, Hon. J. R. Wright. 

Numismatics, Rev. H. E. Hayden. 
Geology, Mr. W. R. Ricketts. 
Paleontology Mr. R. D. Lacoe.l 
Historiographer, Mr. W. E. Woodruff. 
Meteorologist, Rev. Dr. F. B. Hodge. 

The Treasurer, Dr. F. C. Johnson, read his report for the 
past year. It was, on motion, approved and referred to the 
Publishing Committee. 



IO PROCEEDINGS. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Mr. Hayden, 
was read, accepted with thanks and referred to the Publishing 
Committee. 

The following candidates for membership were elected : 

Resident, Edward Welles, Jr. , Mrs. Dora Long, J. E. Parrish, 
Mrs. Mary Slocum Butler Ayres, George Woodward, M. D., 
Otis Lincoln, William G. Eno, Miss Esther S. Stearns, Percy 
R. Thomas, Thomas K. Sturdevant, Harrison Wright, 3d. Of 
these, Edward Welles, Jr., Dr. George Woodward, Esther S. 
Stearns and Harrison Wright, 3d, were transferred to the Life 
Membership list. 

The President introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. 
William H. Egle, who read an interesting paper on "The Buck- 
shot War in Pennsylvania in 1835." 

A vote of thanks for the address was extended to Dr. Egle. 

On motion, the meeting was adjourned. 



Stated Meeting, April 14, 1899. 

In the absence of the President and Vice Presidents the meet- 
ing was called to order by the Corresponding Secretary, the 
Rev. Mr. Hayden. 

Gen. Henry M. Cist, of Cincinnati, Ohio, was elected a Cor- 
responding Member. Major C. A. Parsons, E. S. Loop, and 
Dr. Charles H. Miner, were transferred to the Life Membership 
list. 

Hon. J. Ridgway Wright then gave a very interesting account 
of his "Trip to Honduras in 1898," illustrated by stereopticon 
views. Mr. Harry R. Deitrick, who also made the slides, 
operated the lantern. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Major Wright and Mr. Deitrick 
for their respective parts in the entertainment. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



Quarterly Meeting, October 12, 1899. 

Rev. Dr. Henry L. Jones, Vice President, presided. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. Hayden, Corresponding Secretary, reported the receipt 
of a valuable donation by Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Palaeozoic Fossils, 
and a portrait of the late Captain L. D. Stearns, deceased, from 



PROCEEDINGS. 1 1 

Major and Mrs. I. A. Stearns. A vote of thanks was passed by 
the Society for both donations. 

Miss Anne Dorrance was elected a Resident member, the 
Rev. David Craft, D. D. , of Tioga, Pa. , a Corresponding mem- 
ber, and the Rev. Edwin Griffin Porter, A. M., President of 
the New England Historical and Genealogical Society, of Boston, 
an Honorary member, the ballot of the Society being, on motion, 
cast by the Secretary, for each of the nominees. 

The speaker of the evening, Dr. Frederick Corss, was then 
introduced and delivered a very interesting address on ' ' Buried 
Valleys and Pot Holes of the Susquehanna. " 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were tendered to the 
speaker, and the paper referred to the Publishing Committee. 
A general discussion followed, and at its close Mr. Hayden read 
portions of an interesting anonymous paper on the subject of 
"Harvey's Lake." 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



Stated Meeting, November 17, 1899. 

Vice President, Rev. Dr. Henry L. Jones, presided. 

Prof. C. O. Thurston, of the Wyoming Seminary, was elected 
to membership. 

The Chairman then introduced Mr. William Abbatt, of New 
York city, who delivered a very instructive address on "The 
Story of Arnold and Andre," accompanied by stereopticon 
views. During the lecture four members of the gth Regiment 
Drum Corps repeated the dirge which was played at Andre's 
execution. 

At the close of the address a vote of thanks was passed to the 
lecturer. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



Annual Meeting, February 9, 1900. 

President, Hon. Stanley Woodward, in the chair. 

The meeting was opened with prayer by Rev. Dr. H. L. Jones. 

The minutes of the two previous meetings were read and ap- 
proved. 

The President appointed Mrs. G. M. Reynolds, Col. E. B. 
Beaumont and Major O. A. Parsons a Committee to report 
nomination of officers for the coming year. 



12 PROCEEDINGS. 

The following applications for Resident Membership, approved 
by the Trustees, were presented and unanimously elected : 

Miss Lucy W. Abbott (Life), Miss Martha Sharpe (Life), Dr. 
Granville T. Matlack, John F. Shea, Esq., Miss Elizabeth S. 
Loveland, Mrs. F. D. L. Wadhams, Rev. Ferdinand von Krug, 
D. D., Mr. E. T. Long, Mr. J. H. Fisher, Scranton ; and Mrs. 
William P. Ryman. 

On motion, the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot. 

The following persons were nominated for officers by the 
Committee and unanimously elected by the ballot of the Secre- 
tary : 

President, Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Vice Presidents, Rev. Dr. H. L. Jones, Hon. J. Ridgway 
Wright, Col. G. Murray Reynolds, Rev. Dr. F. B. Hodge. 

Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

Recording Secretary, Sidney R. Miner. 

Treasurer, Dr. Frederick C. Johnson. 

Librarian, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

Trustees, Hon. Charles A. Miner, Mr. Edward Welles, Mr. 
Samuel LeRoi Brown, Mr. Richard Sharpe, Mr. Andrew F. Derr. 

Historiographer, Mr. Wesley E. Woodruff. 

Meteorologist, Rev. Dr. F. B. Hodge. 

Curators Archaeology, Hon. J. Ridgway Wright. 
Paleontology, Prof. J. F. Welter. 
Mineralogy, Mr. William Reynolds Ricketts. 
Numismatics, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

On motion of Mr. Welter, it was resolved that the Librarian 
shall be empowered to appoint an Acting Assistant Librarian for 
the ensuing year. 

The Treasurer, Dr. F. C. Johnson, read his report, which, 
on motion of the Corresponding Secretary, was received and 
referred to the Publishing Committee. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Mr. Hayden, read his 
report, which was, on motion of Col. E. B. Beaumont, received 
and referred to the Publishing Committee, and a vote of thanks 
was extended to Mr. Hayden for the work of the past year. 

Rev. Mr. Hayden reports that the number of Life Members 
had increased to 81, with five to be added this Spring. Resi- 
dent Members, 216. 

The Rev. Dr. Jones offered the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That we record, with sorrow, the death of Calvin 
Parsons, one of the oldest members of this Society, for four years 



PROCEEDINGS. 1 3 

its President, for twelve years one of its Vice Presidents. We 
have sweet remembrances of his kindly heart, genial presence 
and loving interest in all efforts to preserve the historical treas- 
ures of the Wyoming Valley. His uniform gentleness and 
courtesy, his strict integrity and conscientious devotion to duty 
are a precious heritage to the community in which he lived. 

Rev. Mr. Hayden offered the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested to 
repeat to Mr. R. D. Lacoe the sincere thanks of this Society 
for the valuable collection of Palaeozoic Fossils he has so gener- 
ously presented to us, and to express to him how highly we ap- 
preciate his kindness to this Society in arranging its collections, 
and by his many gifts, and in his sixteen years of continued 
service as Curator of Paleontology. 

The Secretary also offered a resolution of thanks to the various 
contributors to this Society for the past year, which was unani- 
mously adopted. 

Col. G. Murray Reynolds read a brief notice of Rev. Edward 
Griffin Porter, M. A., who was to have addressed the Society 
this evening. The notice was from the Boston Transcript. 

Remarks were made eulogistic of Mr. Porter by Rev. Mr. 
Hayden, Dr. F. C. Johnson and Rev. Dr. Scovill, of Stamford, 
Conn. , who had known him in college, and intimately in later life. 

The Rev. Mr. Hayden offered the following motion, which 
was unanimously adopted by a rising vote : 

"It is with the most profound sorrow that this Society has 
learned of the sudden death of the Rev. Edward Griffin Porter, 
M. A., President of the New England Historical-Genealogical 
Society, and an Honorary member of this Society, who was to 
have delivered before us to-night the annual address. There- 
fore it is 

' ' Resolved, That, in honor of his memory, this Society do now 
adjourn, without further business, and that the Corresponding 
Secretary be requested to communicate this action to the family 
of the deceased, with suitable expressions of our deep sympathy 
with them in this very sad bereavement, and of our appreciation 
of the great loss that has been sustained by them, and by the 
many friends and associates of the Rev. Mr. Porter. ' ' 

The Rev. Dr. Scovill addressed the Society briefly, relative 
to his college associations with both Mr. Porter and President 
Woodward. 

On motion, the Society adjourned at 9 p. m. 



REPORTS. 



Report of the Corresponding Secretary for 1898. 



To the President and Members of the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society : 

GENTLEMEN In presenting my annual report it is with sincere pleasure 
that I announce continued advancement and substantial improvement in all the 
departments of the Society. During the year ending to-day there have been four 
meetings of the Society with the usual presentation of historical papers. At the 
annual meeting February n, 1898, Dn Ethelbert D. Warfield, LL. D., Presi- 
dent of Lafayette College, read before the Society an admirable paper on the 
"Battle of King's Mountain," 1780. At the meeting in April, O. J. Harvey, 
Esq., of this city, at the special request of the Trustees, read an exceedingly 
interesting chapter from his forthcoming "History of Wilkes-Barre," entitled 
" The Laying Out and Naming of Wilkes-Barre." The October meeting was 
made interesting by most excellent sketches of our late members, Mr. Isaac 
Long and Captain Lazarus Denison Stearns, from the pen of the Historiogra- 
pher, Mr. Wesley E. Woodruff, and an informal talk by Dr. F. C. Johnson, 
one of the Commissioners from Pennsylvania, on the Omaha Exposition. The 
December meeting was the occasion of the reading, by Col. Asher Miner, of 
an exhaustive and unusually valuable paper on the "Old Mills of the Wyoming 
Valley" from the pen of the Hon. Charles A. Miner, whose familiarity with 
the subject goes without saying. The Biographical Sketches, and Mr. Miner's 
paper, will all appear in the publications of the Society during the present year. 
We are promised some interesting papers for the coming year, beginning with 
the address by our Honorary member, Dr. W. H, Egle, this evening. In April 
another local paper by Dr. F. C. Johnson, and one on a geological subject by 
Dr. Frederick Corss. In May, Gen. W. H. H. Davis of Bucks county will 
address us on a subject yet to be announced. Later in the year other speakers 
will be with us at our meetings. During the latter part of the past year the 
Publication Committee issued part I of Vol. 4 of the Proceedings of the Society, 
entitled a "Memorial of Sheldon Reynolds, Esq., late President of this Society," 
an issue that, for its careful preparation and its typography, is a matter of just 
pride to the Society. This includes Mr. Reynolds' History of the Presbyterian 
Church, Wilkes-Barre, also issued separately. Part 2 of Vol. 4 is now in the 
printer's hands and will issue in the spring. It will be full of interest, and 
will contain, in addition to historical papers, the names of every elective officer 
since the beginning of the Society, with full lists of members and contributors. 
The Librarian reports that the Library of the Society, which numbered 
over 13,000 volumes at the last report, has been increased by the addition of 
500 bound and 600 unbound volumes and pamphlets. This increase, unlike 
that of 1897, which numbered 1,500, is all gain to the library. The additions 
noted in the last report included many duplicates, ten large sacks of which 
we gave to the Tioga Point Historical Society at Athens, Pennsylvania. Of 
the I, loo additions to the library in the past year nearly 100 were added by 
purchase, 300 were additions to the public depository library from the United 
States Government, 85 pieces were given by the Massachusetts State Library, 
34 volumes and pamphlets were donations from Mr. John W. Jordan of the 



REPORTS. 1 5 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and a corresponding member of this Society. 
Three years ago there were not over 30 volumes of genealogy in the library, 
where there are now over 300, and these are in continual use by visitors. The 
number of bound volumes of newpapers reported last year in the library was 
509 ; this number has been increased until we are now able to report over 625 
volumes of newspapers, including files of the Wilkes-Barre Times, the Nanti- 
coke Tribune, and the Plymouth Star. Also two volumes of The New Yorker, 
Horace Greeley's first newspaper venture, presented by our corresponding 
member, F. W. Halsey. From our honorary member Dr. W. H. Egle, to whom 
we are always largely indebted for kindnesses, we have received the several 
publications of the State for 1897. What the result of the change in State 
Librarians may be to us, is not yet known. This Society, through the influence 
of Messrs. Dana, Wright and Reynolds, secured the passage by the State 
Legislature of a resolution supplying every Historical Society in the State with 
all the publications of the State annually, but by some mistake the resolution 
did not specify precisely whose duty it should be to distribute these publications, 
so that it has been a dead letter ever since its passage. Dr. Egle, however, 
has generously supplied our need in that direction, and doubtless our Senator, 
Hon. W. J. Scott, will do so during his tenure of office. 

It is also a pleasure to report seven additions to our portrait gallery of de- 
ceased members, i. e., Dr. Edward R. Mayer, late a Vice President of the 
Society, from Mrs. Mayer ; Hon. Eckley B. Coxe, late a Vice President of the 
Society, from Alexander B. Coxe, Esq. ; Mr. Lewis C. Paine, also a Vice Pres- 
ident, from Miss Paine ; Hon. L. D. Shoemaker, also a Vice President, from Dr. 
L. I. Shoemaker; Col. Samuel H Sturdevant, member, from Miss Sturdevant; 
Miss Emily I. Alexander, member, from her sister, Miss Carrie M. Alexander; 
and Hon. G. W. Woodward, from his son, our honored President. One addi- 
tion to our picture gallery deserves especial notice. Mrs. Mary Butler Ayres 
has very generously consented to deposit for a few months with the Society 
her valuable portrait of Frances Slocum, the Lost Sister of Wyoming, whose 
well known history has done, perhaps, as much as the Massacre of Wyoming 
to make this lovely Valley famous. It hangs in the front hall where it can be 
seen on entering the building. There are in this county, in ancestral homes and 
elsewhere, many portraits of old settlers and prominent business men, factors 
in the development of the Valley and its enterprises, which, it is hoped, will 
some day find their way to this place. Some families have already arranged 
to deposit here permanently, in time, family portraits which might otherwise be 
lost, as was the portrait of Dr. Thomas VV. Miner, which has disappeared en- 
tirely from sight during the past twenty years. 

During the year the Corresponding Secretary has received 330 letters and 
communications from other societies and individuals, and has written 375 letters 
in reply. This does not, however, include the usual acknowledgment of over 
1 ,200 donations and additions, and the distribution of the publications of the 
Society to members and other societies, which will make the outgoing mail of 
the Society reach over 2,000 pieces. 

To Mr. John W. Jordan we are indebted for an artist's proof of Mr. Sar- 
tain's historic picture of Zeisberger Preaching to the Indians, which is here 
exhibited. And to Cadet Joseph Graeme, of the U. S. battleship Iowa, who 
was a participant in the destruction of the Spanish fleet under Cervera, we are 
indebted for the loan of his exceedingly valuable and interesting collection of 
Spanish relics from the Viscaya, the Christopher Colon and other vessels of 
Cervera's fleet. 

During the past year the rooms of the Society have been opened, as usual, 
three afternoons in the week to the public. The attendance, including this 



1 6 REPORTS. 

week, has been 2,803, an average of over 20 each opening day. During the late 
School Institute held in this city an invitation was given to the teachers to 
visit the rooms and an afternoon appointed for the purpose, with the result that 
150 of the teachers availed themselves of the privilege. 

The Treasurer's report has shown the present financial condition of the 
Society, but it does not cover that part which has not yet come under the Treas- 
urer's notice officially. Since January I, 1897, an earnest effort has been made 
to increase the invested funds of the Society. This can be done only in one 
or two ways, by gift, or by life memberships. In 1894 the invested fund was 
about $8,000. It is to-day $13,000. During the past two years the life mem- 
berships have been increased by forty-two, or $4,200. Of these forty-two all 
have paid their fees of $100 but nineteen, whose autographic subscripitions to 
the fees are as good as gold, but are not due until December 31, 1899. These, 
when paid in, will increase the invested funds of the Society to $15,000 at five 
per cent. Convinced that we should have an endowment of not less than 
twenty thousand dollars, a further effort has been made to secure this additional 
amount of $5,000, with the success that one gentleman has pledged himself to 
give $1,000 towards that sum if four others will do likewise, the money to be 
given either in cash or in securities, and to be paid only when the entire sum 
is subscribed and the previously noted $15,000 is paid in and invested the 
five donors to have the privilege of naming the fund of $1,000 they respectively 
give after their own name. This sum of $20,000 will secure an income that 
will insure the care and enlargement of the Society's library and cabinet for 
the future. The Wright Fund has been invested and the interest is annually 
expended in the purchase of books, as the appended report shows. The Rey- 
nolds Fund has reached the sum of $650, and is also invested to increase, by 
interest and the sale of publications, until it also reaches $1,000. The Cor- 
responding Secretary has also begun the Charles F. Ingham Memorial Fund, 
which has now reached the sum of $50. This fund will be devoted to the 
scientific departments of the Society. As the creating of such funds, payment 
of life membership fees, and every effort to increase the endowment of this 
Society simply aids the Society to preserve the history of your individual life, 
and that of your family and your homes, the writer has not the slightest hesi- 
tancy in urging you to make such effort a success. Life membership relieves the 
payment of annual dues, and insures an after-death memorial, in that the money 
paid remains under your name a perpetual reminder of your act as well as a per- 
manent aid to the preservation of the Society. An annual member may cease 
to pay his dues and drop from the rolls of the Society and appear no longer on 
its list of members, or he may die, and while his name still remains on the list of 
members it returns nothing to the Society. The life members, even after they 
have passed away, are still alive in the activities of the Society, as the annual 
income from their life membership fee makes them perpetual factors in the 
growth and success of the Society. Their influence lives after them, and when 
another generation of their name arises and becomes members of this associa- 
tion the deceased life-member is still an integral part of the corporation. The 
Trustees have long ago decided that a life membership fee may, if desired, 
cover two years arrears of dues, so that one who is not in arrear may pay his 
life membership fee in two installments of fifty dollars each, if within two years, 
thus making it of easier payment when so desired. 

The founders of this Society may not have done wisely in naming this the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, but while their wisdom has not 
yet been disproved, it has been the means of securing to the Society one of the 
finest geological and archaeological cabinets within the borders of this great 
geological State of Pennsylvania. We are located in the centre of the vast and 



REPORTS. I/ 

rich anthracite regions of America, where the carboniferous system covers an 
area of 200,000 square miles. The prosperity of this valley, and the entire 
northeastern portion of the State, is largely the result of the coal mining inter- 
ests which have been developed therein. This fact should awaken thought as 
to the intimate connexion between Geology and History. It is this connexion 
that has made it necessary to have in this Society the very important depart- 
ments, with their Curators, of Archaeology and History ; of Paleontology, and of 
Mineralogy. Geology reveals the changes of the earth's history and the char- 
acter of the animal life existent before the life of man, from the primary, or 
paleozoic, fossils showing the long extinct species, to remains identical with 
existent species, where Archaeology truly begins. The Archaian or Azoic pe- 
riod, the first period, of granitic or gneiss formations, in which are found few 
if any fossil remains, is followed by the Paleozoic, or ancient life period, 
after an interval of indefinite time. This Paleozoic period covers the Cam- 
brian, Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous, or Coal, period, in which latter 
we are most deeply interested. In the Paleozoic period, as rich in fossils as the 
Azoic is barren, we find the most delicate forms of animal and insect life, many 
exquisite specimens of which we have in our valuable cabinet in the geological 
room. The importance of this period, in its remains, to the study of Archaeol- 
ogy cannot be overestimated. This Society in the past, when such scientific 
and historic minds as Drs. Ingham and Wright and Sheldon Reynolds were 
the animating spirits, was not unmindful of the value of Paleozoic remains to 
the true study of History. Hence those of us who are familiar with the publi- 
cations of this Society, publications which have raised it to a very high level 
in the scientific as well as the historic world, will remember that one of the 
first publications was No. 5 of Vol. I, entitled "List of Paleozoic Fossil 
Insects of the United States and Canada," by Mr. R. D. Lacoe, the Curator of 
Paleontology in this Society. This publication has carried our name to the 
scientific Societies of Europe, as well as America. Among the most valued 
subsequent publications of the Society are Prof. Claypole's "Report on some of 
the Fossils from the Lower Coal Measures near Wilkes-Barre," read before us 
in 1884, describing some of the present treasures of our collection ; also "Report 
of the Wyoming Valley Carboniferous Limestone Beds," by Ashburner, with de- 
scriptions of fossils in those beds by that eminent Paleontologist, Prof. Heilprin, 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science. These fossils are also in our 
collections ; and these papers indicate the value 'and importance of such collec- 
tions to a society such as this. This preamble is presented to you to lead up 
to the importance of another rich collection of Paleozoic fossils which this So- 
ciety ought to possess, the donation of which depends on the interest excited 
by the subject among its members. Our eminent Curator, Mr. R. D. Lacoe, 
who is in charge of the department of Paleontology, and who had, a few years ago, 
one of the richest and rarest collections of Paleozoic fossil insects in America, 
presented the larger part of his collection to the Smithsonian Institute. I am 
assured that had this Society maintained the high standard of interest in the 
matter created by Drs. Ingham and Wright, and Mr. Reynolds, that magnificent 
collection would have come here to stay. Now, however, it has been diverted 
elsewhere. But there still remains in the hands of Mr. Lacoe a most valuable 
collection of Paleozoic Fossil animals from the New York and Illinois limestone 
beds, numbering several thousand specimens, which he is ready to donate to 
this Society whenever it shall provide room for the cabinets, and some one suf- 
ficiently interested in the study of these fossils to undertake the careful removal 
of the collection and arrangement of the several specimens, with a good promise 
that the collection will be enriched by this Society by exchange and purchase. 



1 8 REPORTS. 

This offer of Mr. Lacoe should be instantly met by a hearty response and the 
collection be named after the generous donor. 

The cabinet in the geological room, which was originally arranged with 
the greatest care and loving devotion by that coterie of kindred minds, Ingham, 
Wright and Lacoe, showing the crust of the earth, as an argumentum ad 
hominem, or object lesson in geology, has lately been much enriched by addi- 
tions from Mr. Lacoe's cabinet of Paleozoic fossils. That exhibition has 
been already invaluable to the students of geology, illustrating in fact what is 
taught them in theory, and exhibited in books only by dotted sections, curved 
and straight lines, to show the various geological strata of the earth. Its neces- 
sity to a student is best illustrated by an incident that occurred in this city some 
years ago. When Mr. O'Brien was manager of the Electric Light Company 
of this city he was called upon by one whom he had known for years, and who 
had graduated with high honors well earned in a leading University in the 
School of Electricity. He asked for a position in the company and named his 
salary, which was no mean sum. Mr. O'Brien asked him, "Could you go to 
the corner of the street and set the dynamo for me to-day if I should ask you ?" 
The young man promptly replied, "I could if you would show me how." Mr. 
O'Brien replied, " Yes, so could any one if I show him how. But did they 
not show you how at the University ?" The student replied, "No, they told us 
how, but gave no demonstration of it." 

It is not expected that colleges and universities will give students the prac- 
tical knowledge that can be gained only by personal experience in life, but 
there is much that can be done only by the object lessons which selected cabi- 
nets, or selected specimens, can give. This Society should be to the students 
of our public and private schools such an object lesson in history, in geology, 
in archaeology, by making its cabinets accessible, full and of practical use. To 
this end the classes in geology of the High School have been annually invited, 
and during the past year Mr. Welter of the High School has made frequent 
and valuable use of them for his pupils, who have made their visits here as a 
class, under his personal instruction. The Curator of Geology, Mr. William 
Reynolds Ricketts, has, during the year, given much of his spare time in index- 
ing and assorting the geological collection so as to make it accessible to every 
one, and is making a card catalogue for that purpose. The writer has, during 
his past life, given some years to the study of geology and paleontology, and 
once had rich collections of both ; but that was years ago, when youth and 
time were ready accessories. The pressing duties of later years has made it im- 
possible to keep up such studies, and with the parting from his cabinets he 
found it necessary also to lay aside the special study of these delightful sub- 
jects, so that it is not easy on his part to do more than guide visitors to these 
rooms in the studies referred to. He cannot claim to be an instructor, or 
anything more than a helper, his spare time being devoted mainly to American 
History. We need an assistant Curator of Paleontology, to whom Mr. Lacoe 
will most gladly give all the aid in his power to make that department more 
perfect. 

HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



\ 



REPORTS. 19 

Report of the Treasurer for the Year 1898. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance, February 11,1898, $ 452 88 

Dues of Members, 1,020 oo 

Interest on Securities, 550 oo 

Transfer from Savings Account, l,ooo oo 

Total, #3,022 88 



EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries of Employes, $ 642 81 

Publications, in 75 

Books and Cabinet, 435 oo 

Binding, 244 05 

Harrison Wright Fund, Interest 42 50 

Addresses 25 oo 

Repairs and Sundries, 73 46 

Framing Pictures 23 85 

Printing and Stationery, 15 20 

Postage and Revenue, 31 20 

Water Company Bond 1,000 oo 

$2,644 82 

To Balance on hand 378 06 



Total, #3,022 88 



RESOURCES. 

Bonds, Wilkes-Barre Water Co. $ 7,000 oo 

Bonds, Plymouth Bridge Co., 5,000 oo 

#12,000 oo 

Savings Account, Anthracite Bank, 109 17 

Interest, Anthracite Bank, f 55 2 

Life Membership Fees, 1,210 oo 



#13.334 69 

F. C. JOHNSON, 

Treasurer. 



2O REPORTS. 

Report of the Corresponding Secretary for 1899. 



To the President and Officers of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society : 

GENTLEMEN I have the honor of presenting to you my annual report for 
the year 1899, showing continued advancement and prosperity in the work of 
our Society. One year ago the Trustees, impressed with the growing demands 
of the public, decided that the financial condition of the Society justified the 
opening of the library and collections to the public daily, instead of tri-weekly, 
thus doubling the hours when the people of this section of the State could have 
access to the rooms. Hence, for the past year, the rooms have been opened 
every afternoon and two nights during each week. The result has been most 
gratifying the attendance in 1899 reaching 4,400, as against 2,800 in 1898, 
when the rooms were opened tri-weekly. 

The Library of the Society numbers fifteen thousand (15,000) volumes, and, 
with the Osterhout Free Library, gives the public access to nearly 45,000 vol- 
umes in the same immediate locality. These two libraries are, however, 
entirely separate and distinct although virtually under the same roof. It has 
been the rule with both institutions, during the past five years, to avoid duplicating 
books. Thus, this Society confines its book additions especially to American 
History and Geology, while the larger Osterhout Library covers all depart- 
ments of literature. Then this Society being a Public Depository for Govern- 
ment publications, contains everything issued by the United States Government 
presses, which covers a very wide range of subjects bearing on the history of 
this country in all its departments. It frequently happens that students from 
other sections of the State, beyond the County of Luzeme, visit Wilkes-Barre 
for research, and the convenience of having two separate libraries of different 
character open daily must be apparent. 

During the past year 1,050 bound, and 675 unbound volumes and pamph- 
lets have been added to our store, of which number 1,200 and more have been 
actual additions to our library, the rest being duplicate volumes. Of this addi- 
tion 100 have been by purchase, the rest by exchange or gift. Among the 
donations there are seventy-five volumes of newspapers, including forty-five 
bound volumes of the Daily News-Dealer and Wilkes-Barre News. Also six- 
teen volumes of the issues of our other dailies which have been supplied to us 
annually for years. Eight volumes of the Berwick Independent, with others of 
the Dallas Post, Hazleton Sentinel, Plymouth Star, etc., etc., our newspaper 
files now number over 700 bound volumes. From Hon. Charles A. Miner we 
have received 360 volumes of the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, which 
have enabled us to complete several full sets of that valuable publication for 
sale. From the State Librarian we have also received twenty-five volumes of 
State documents, and many other gifts will be acknowledged in the next volume 
of our Proceedings and Papers. From the American Antiquarian Society, ten 
volumes; from General H. M. Cist, eighteen volumes; from Secretary of State, 
Pennsylvania, eleven volumes; from Major O. A. Parsons, seventy-five me- 
morials of the Loyal Legion ; from Mr. A. D. Dean, of Scranton, a manuscript 
sheet of Rev. John Miller, of Abington, Pa., with a copy of his marriage records 
from 1802 to 1857. 

During the year as Corresponding Secretary I have received 450 communi- 
cations from societies and individuals, and have written 400 in reply, all of 
which will be found copied in the letter book of the Society. I have also 
acknowledged the receipt of all the additions to the library and cabinets, have 



REPORTS. 2 1 

mailed to members and others 400 copies of our last volume and other publi- 
cations, and have sent out other mail to an aggregate of over 2,200 pieces. 

Among the communications referred to, there is a letter from the Corre- 
sponding Secretary to the Hon. Secretary of War, dated October 17, 1898, ask- 
ing the donation of a small piece of ordnance from those captured by our vic- 
torious fleet and army from the Spanish in Cuba and Puerto Rico. To this 
request the Hon. Secretary of War, in his reply, stated that "All the ordnance 
captured from the Spanish army in Cuba and Puerto Rico has not yet been 
returned to the United States, nor has any definite policy yet been formulated 
as to its disposition," showing that very probably the suggestion of this So- 
ciety was the first of the kind received by the Secretary. When it was subse- 
quently decided to distribute these pieces of ordnance to various sections of the 
country, the Secretary of War specified the city of Wilkes-Barre as the one 
locality in Pennsylvania that had asked for a cannon. But it was ordered by 
him that the cannon, when delivered, should be donated to the municipality. 
Of the captured cannon, five pieces were sent to this State to be thus distributed 
at the option of the Governor. The city of York zealously contended with 
Wilkes-Barre for one piece, but through the appeals of this Society from the 
President, Corresponding Secretary and other members among them Hons. 
H. W. Palmer and W. J. Scott, Governor Stone donated the piece to the city 
of Wilkes-Barre. Then, notwithstanding the facts that this Society was so in- 
fluential in securing this decision, and through its honored President and other 
officers, made formal application to the City Council for the care of the piece, 
the Property Committee, on the plea that "no one else had asked for it," gave the 
ordnance to the care of the Conyngham Post of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, totally ignoring, in its distribution and reception of the piece of can- 
non, this honored Society. With this experience the Corresponding Secretary 
finds very little incentive to undertake similar ventures for the benefit of the 
Society. 

During the year past we have held five meetings for business and addresses. 
At the annual meeting, February 1 6, 1898, our honorary member, who is 
always so ready to aid us, Dr. William H. Egle, read before us his exhaustive 
and valuable paper on the "Buckshot War in Pennsylvania in 1838." He 
had previously read this paper before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
which Society has since published it in their Magazine of History for July, 1898. 

The second meeting of the year, held April I4th, will be remembered by 
the extremely interesting illustrated lecture of Hon. J. Ridgway Wright, on his 
"Trip to Honduras in 1898," with stereopticon views. 

On the I2th of May the quarterly meeting was held and an address, full 
of historical reminiscences was delivered by Gen. W. H. H. Davis, one of our 
Corresponding Members, and a hero of two wars, on the subject "Some Men 
I Have Met, and Some Things I Have Seen." 

At the quarterly meeting of October I3th, Dr. Frederick Corss continued 
his admirable and instructive papers on local Geology, taking for his subject 
"The Buried Valleys and Pot Holes of the Susquehanna," which, with his two 
earlier papers, will appear in our next volume of Proceedings this Spring. The 
last meeting of the year was held December 8th, when Mr. William Abbatt, of 
New York City, addressed the Society on "The Story of Arnold and Andre," 
with stereopticon views, giving many new facts relating to the treason of Arnold 
and the capture and execution of the British spy, Andre. 

To-night we had expected the pleasure of listening to the President of the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Society, Rev. Edward Griffin Por- 
ter, who visited our city last Fall and so charmed all who met him by his many 
graces of mind and character. But just as we were anticipating the very great 



22 REPORTS. 

delight which his presence gave wherever he appeared, the sad news came to 
us of his death on Sunday last of pneumonia. He was a man of rare gifts of 
mind and character, possessing a love of nature, of study, of home and country 
which he improved by careful culture and extensive travel. All this, enriched 
by a most devout love of things divine, made him the centre of attraction in 
whatever circle he might be. For years he was the beloved pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church at the historic town of Lexington, Mass., retiring from the 
charge on account of ill health. We have missed a rare treat by his absence, 
but those who felt the power of his spiritual life, so unconsciously manifested in 
his conservation and daily walk, need no further assurance that the gentle spirit 
of the minister of God is in joy and felicity. 

Of the additions to our cabinet, none, since the generous gift of General 
Ross, have equaled in scientific value the important donation by Mr. R. D. 
Lacoe of his collection of Paleozoic fossil animals mentioned in my last report. 
Mr. Lacoe has expended many years of time and much money in making this 
collection. The trustees authorized the purchase of a proper case for this col- 
lection, the cost of which was $80. During the past Summer Prof. J. L. Welter, 
who has just been elected Curator of Paleontology, and the Corresponding Sec- 
retary, spent over a week in packing and removing this collection to these 
rooms, and have spent several weeks in unpacking and placing it properly in 
the cabinet which stands on the third floor of this building. This collection 
proper is opened only to students, but representative specimens of each species 
are placed in the long case in the geological room for public inspection. The 
collection contains over 4000 specimens covering 1012 species, and forms a 
treasure such as few public institutions in the United States possess. When 
these fossils are thoroughly classified and the list is printed in our next volume 
this Society will, with its large collection of minerals and coal fossils, be in bet- 
ter touch with the scientific societies of the country than ever before. 

In referring to this gift in my report last year I stated that the collection of 
fossils from the Wyoming Valley carboniferous beds described in our second 
volume by Prof. Heilprin were in the possession of this Society. This, I find, 
was erroneous, as they have always been the property of our member, Mr. 
Christian H. Scharar of Scranton. Mr. Scharar has, however, generously con- 
sented to donate them to this Society, a case has been obtained for them, and 
it is the intention of the Curator and myself to secure them at the earliest 
moment. 

The membership of the Society has been reduced during the past year by 
the death of two, the resignation of three, and the transfer of sixteen to the Life 
Membership list, but the election of twelve new members has again increased 
the number of resident members to 216. The Life Membership list is increased 
by adding to the list twenty subscribers, i. e., Major Oliver A. Parsons, Mr. E. 
Sterling Loop, Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, Dr. Charles H. Miner, George 
R. Bedford, Esq., Harrison Wright, third, Alexander Farnham, Esq., Thomas 
Darling, Esq., Mrs. J. Vaughn Darling, Miss Martha Bennet, Mr. William 
Loveland, Mr. Edwin H. Jones, Edward Welles, Jr., Mr. John A. Turner, 
Mr. Thomas K. Sturdevant, Mr. Percy R. Thomas, Mr. Robert P. Brodhead, 
Andrew H. McClintock, Esq., Miss Martha Sharpe, Miss Lucy W. Abbott. 
These, with those who have not yet paid the usual fee, have increased the Life 
Members to eighty-five. 

It is my purpose, during the present year, to increase this number, if 
possible, to 100 Life Members. The invested funds of the Society, as re- 
ported by the Treasurer, are now $13,500, with $1400 still in hand to invest, 
which, with $500 due in April, will make the full invested fund for the year 
1900, $15,400. The increase of this fund to $20,000 which I had hoped to be 



REPORTS. 23 

able to report at this meeting has not yet been effected, but the future is full of 
hope for the Society, and I doubt not that in time it will be realized. The work 
of the Society is becoming better known and better appreciated. The Rev. Mr. 
Porter, a man of rich experience in such matters, and president of one of the 
most eminently successful societies in the United States, when here last Octo- 
ber, expressed himself greatly surprised at the work represented by our Society, 
and it was his own suggestion that his subject at this meeting was to cover 
largely the work of this Society in the past, and its rare opportunities for the 
future. 

It was announced last year that the Society would annually issue a volume 
of proceedings. Volume IV was issued during the year 1898, attracting much 
attention and many complimentary notices. Volume V is now waiting for the 
printer and will issue before the Summer. Volume IV was entirely historical, 
but volume V will be divided between history and geology, and will prove as 
interesting as any previous volume. This Society has no lack of historical 
material for annual issues, and as the life of historical societies is estimated by 
their publications, there is no reason why this Society should not maintain the 
high standard among similar institutions which it has held for the past twenty 
years. 

To our portrait gallery has been added the portrait of our late member, 
Capt. L. D. Stearns, who lost his life in the military service of his conntry as 
an officer of the Ninth Regiment, National Guard, during the War with Spain. 
This was presented by his father, Maj. I. A. Stearns. We will have on our 
walls this year portraits of Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, one of the earliest members 
of the Society; Hon. E. L. Dana, our first President, presented by his son; 
our late Presidents A. T. McClintock, LL. D., and Calvin Parsons, presented 
by their sons ; William R. Maffet, a Life Member, with those of the late John 
C. Phelps, Life Member, Hon. Ziba Bennett, John Dorrance, and others. 

During the year the Curator of Mineralogy, Mr. William R. Ricketts, has 
given much time to the catalogueing of the mineralogical cabinet, and Prof. J. 
L. Welter, the Curator of Palentology, has not only spent many hours in his 
department, but he has done what is especially desirable for our work, fre- 
quently brought his high school classes to these rooms to study the mineralogi- 
cal specimens in connection with their school course. 

The lack of room, and the fact that the subject is not kindred to the scope 
of our work, have made it necessary that the large and valuable Conchological 
collection of this Society should be packed away and not displayed. The 
Society, a few years ago, removed this subject from its work. This collection 
of shells will be sold to the highest bidder when it can be properly appraised 
and a purchaser found, and the money added to our permanent fund. This 
intention is mentioned here that any member of the Society who may hear of 
some institution desiring such a collection may aid us to dispose of it wisely. 
Archseology and History, Mineralogy, Paleontology and Numismatics are the 
only subjects properly covered by the title of this association. 

In conclusion I beg to ask that the members of this Society make some 
effort to familiarize themselves with our treasures and work by visiting these 
rooms more frequently. Although nearly 450x3 visitors have registered them- 
selves since the last annual meeting there are members of years' standing who 
have informed me that they have never been inside this building and do not 
know what this Society possesses. More personal interest on the part of mem- 
bers will greatly help our progress, and encourage those who are working to 
advance the life of the Society. 

HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



24 REPORTS. 

Report of the Treasurer for the Year 1899. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand February n, 1900, $ 378 06 

Dues of Members, I, US 42 

Interest on Investments, 656 25 

Total, $2,149 73 



EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries, Librarian and Assistant, $ 976 63 

Janitor and Labor, 87 10 

Publications 128 25 

Books, 200 oo 

Binding, 45 oo 

Interest on Wright and Reynolds Funds, 80 oo 

Addresses, &c., 58 25 

Framing Pictures, 9 45 

Printing, Incidental, 6 50 

Postage and Revenue, 12 oo 

Furniture, 7 80 

Insurance on Library and Museum, 1 12 50 

Repairs, Book Cases and Sundries, 78 08 

jj!i,8oi 56 

Balance on hand, 348 17 



Total, $2,149 73 



RESOURCES. 

Bonds of Wilkes-Barre Water Co., $ 7,ooo oo 

" " Plymouth Bridge Co., 5,ooo oo 

" " Miner-Hillard Milling Co., I, SOD oo 

" " Westmoreland Club, 100 oo 



$13,600 oo 
Savings Account Anthracite Bank, 1,127 70 



Total, $14,727 70 

F. C. JOHNSON, 

Treasurer. 



REPORTS. 25 

To the above account of the Society Resources should be added the following 
Special Funds placed in the Treasurer's hands since the annual meeting : 

Sheldon Reynolds Fund, Anthracite Bank, $ 100 oo 

Charles F. Ingham Fund, Miners' Bank, 75 oo 

Life Membership Fees paid, 200 oo 

" " " due April, 1900, 400 oo 

$ 775 oo 

Add Resources as above 14,727 70 



Grand Total Resources, 15,502 70 



SPECIAL FUNDS, 
(Included in above "Resources.") 

HARRISON WRIGHT MEMORIAL FUND. 

By Cash (invested at 5 percent.), $1,00000 

Accrued interest 132 72 



$i,i3 2 7 2 
Expended for Books, 122 67 

Total, $1,010 05 



SHELDON REYNOLDS MEMORIAL FUND. 

By Cash (invested at 5 per cent.) $ 600 oo 

" Interest, Anthracite Bank, 5* 5 

" Sale of Publications, &c., 48 95 

Total, $ 700 oo 



CHARLES F. INGHAM MEMORIAL FUND. 

By Cash, Miners' Bank $ 75 oo 

" Sale of Publications, &c., 25 oo 

Total, $ ioo oo 

Total Memorial Funds invested, $1,800 oo 



V 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D., 

(SIGNER OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.) 

BY MRS. CHARLES E. RICE. 
READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY FEBRUARY 12, 1897. 



James Anthony Froude expresses this opinion : "It often 
seems to me as if history was like a child's box of letters, 
with which we can spell any name we please, we have only 
to pick out such letters as we want, arrange them as we 
like, and say nothing about those which do not suit our 
purpose." In the game in which we are about to engage 
some of the letters are lacking and must be supplied by 
conjectural additions and rational inferences. Although the 
regions of conjecture, and of the imagination, pertain rather 
to the poet than to the historian. 

Kindly turn your attention in the direction of John Wither- 
spoon Patriot, Preacher, President of Princeton College, 
and Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Sometime 
before he could begin to shine in any of these capacities he 
was born on the fifth of February, 1722. A superficial en- 
cyclopediac reading would lead to the inference that John 
Witherspoon's terrestrial existence began in different locali- 
ties, for it is variously stated that he was born at Yester, 
at Gifford, and at Haddington. We are all familiar with 
the bird's nesting exploits of the Eliza, Elizabeth, Betsey 
and Bess, who were apparently four distinct individuals, in 
reality one and the same person. The Witherspoon birth- 
place seems to be on a similar principle. Gifford is the vil- 
lage, Haddington the county, and Yester the parish. His 
father was the Rev. James Witherspoon, a clergyman of the 
church of Scotland, minister of the parish of Yester. His 
mother was a lineal descendant of the reformer John Knox, 
whose prayers Mary Queen of Scots "dreaded more than all 



28 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

the armies of Cromwell." From father and mother he re- 
ceived the heritage of the "good name which is rather to be 
desired than riches." 

There was also considerable landed estate in the family 
connection. We find no record of his childhood. It has 
not been possible to ascertain whether his intellectual powers 
were prematurely developed, or whether his early years 
were distinguished by any particular events. Sidney Smith 
said the "Scottish people cultivated the arts and sciences 
upon oatmeal." So much for the physical pabulum. With 
regard to the mental and spiritual training we may safely 
believe that the young descendant of John Knox, and a son 
of a Scottish minister of the gospel, was induced "to walk 
in the way in which he should go." We may be sure that 
it could not be written of him, as it was of Adonijah, that 
"his father had not displeased him at any time." For he 
lived at a period when the words of Solomon regarding the 
rod had a most literal and practical interpretation. To the 
youthful Caledonian, whose footsteps were thus guided in 
wisdom's ways, the path at first setting forth may not have 
seemed pleasant or peaceful. Nevertheless the success 
which came to him afterward may be regarded as fulfillment 
of the promise to those who "remember the commandments 
of God to do them." 

We are authentically informed that the Rev. James Wither- 
spoon was a godly man, and an accurate scholar. He took 
great pains with the education of his son John, who some 
one says was his youngest child. The father was made 
happy by the diligence of the son, and especially by his 
early resolution to dedicate his life to the service of God in 
the Christian church. 

At the age of fourteen John Witherspoon entered Edin- 
burgh University, where he soon made a reputation by the 
assiduity with which he applied himself to his studies. He 
continued in the university until he was twenty-one. Then 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 2Q 

he was licensed to preach the gospel. He was invited to 
become his father's assistant in the parish of Yester, with 
the right of succession to the charge. At the same time he 
had a call to a place in the western part of Scotland called 
Beith. He preferred the latter invitation, and was ordained 
and settled with the universal approval of the congregation, 
who found him instructive and interesting in the pulpit, and 
faithful in the performance of all his parochial duties. About 
this time he married Miss Elizabeth Montgomery. 

In a hymeneal poem addressed to Mrs. Gladstone, she 
was exhorted to "soothe in many a toil worn hour the noble 
heart which she had won," She was furthermore advised 
to "be a balmy breeze to him, a fountain singing at his side, 
his star whose light is never dim, a pole-star through the 
waste to guide." 

Regarding Elizabeth Montgomery Witherspoon very little 
is told. We do not know from whom she was descended. 
From what is revealed it is affirmable that she was amiable 
and pious and altogether worthy. She became the mother 
of many children. Ten is estimated to have been the event- 
ual number. We also have faith to believe that like Mrs. 
Gladstone she was able to "soothe, to be a balmy breeze, a 
pole-star, and at the same time a singing fountain." During 
the early years of her husband's residence at Beith, there 
occurred that disturbance known in history as the Scottish 
Rebellion. When, as Charles Dickens tells, "some infatuated 
people took up the Pretender's cause, as if the country had 
not, to its cost, had Stuarts enough, and many lives were 
sacrificed and much misery occasioned." 

The reader of Johnson's encyclopedia may be led to be- 
lieve that Witherspoon joined the Pretender's cause, for it 
says that he did. A more reliable statement seems to be 
that when the country in the neighborhood of Beith became 
alarmed at the approach of the rebels, the Rev. Mr. Wither- 
spoon drew up a resolution which was signed by his parish- 



3O REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

ioners, in which they bound themselves to join the militia, 
and march with them to Stirling "for the support of their 
religious liberty and in defence of their only rightful sover- 
eign, King George, against his enemies in the present rebel- 
lion." Having stimulated his people, Mr. Witherspoon as- 
sembled a company of them and marched at their head as 
far as Glasgow. There he was told that from the number 
of the king's troops as compared with those of the enemy, 
and the confidence reposed in them, the militia need go no 
further, and he received orders to return. But his zeal 
could not so easily be subdued. He went forward and was 
present as a spectator at the battle of Falkirk, January i/th, 
1746. After that engagement the rebels "descended like 
wolves on the fold," and the pastor, Witherspoon, was taken 
prisoner, and conveyed to the castle of Donne. He was 
confined in a large dismal room in the highest part of the 
castle next the battlements. In one end of the room were two 
cells. In one of them were five members of the Edinburgh 
company of volunteers, and two citizens of Aberdeen, who 
had been taken for spies, and were to be hung. In the other 
cell were eight men, who, like himself, suffered the effects 
of "injudicious curiosity." Naturally the principal subject 
for meditation and conversation among them was some 
means of escape. One of the fellow prisoners, being of 
"diminutive size, got himself dressed in woman's attire and 
walked away carrying a tea kettle." The others proposed 
to make a rope of their blankets by which they might de- 
scend from the battlements to the ground on the side of the 
castle where there was no sentinel. The plan was agreed 
to by the Edinburgh volunteers and the two men from 
Aberdeen. John Witherspoon said he would go to the 
battlement and see what happened ; if they succeeded in 
reaching the ground safely he would follow them. The rope 
was finished, the order of descent adjusted. At "the witch- 
ing hour" of one in the morning they went to the scene of 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 3! 

action, and having fastened the rope began to descend. 
Four men reached the earth in safety. The fifth went in a 
hurry and the rope broke as he touched the ground. The 
next man dislocated his ankles, and broke some ribs ; was 
so grievously hurt that he never recovered. Mr. Wither- 
spoon concluded to await his liberation in a safer manner. 
This came to pass after the battle of Culloden, which was 
fought on April i6th, 1746. This would make his term of 
imprisonment exactly three months minus one day, although 
it is set down as two weeks in the encyclopediac surveys of 
his life. It is said that this experience resulted in perma- 
nent injury to his health. However this may have been, the 
young ecclesiastic now resumed his pastoral duties at Beith. 
A few years later his first book appeared. It was published 
anonymously, and was entitled "Ecclesiastical Characteris- 
tics, or the Arcana of Church Policy." It was a satire, and 
was aimed at principles and practices prevailing in the 
Church of Scotland. The attack was severely felt. "It 
lighted up a greater fire than was ever kindled in the church. 
It excited the rage of many ministers. Most dreadful 
menaces were uttered in case they should discover and con- 
vict the writer." Subsequently he published "A Serious 
Apology for the Ecclesiastical Characteristics, by the real 
Author of that Performance." In this he avowed himself 
the author of the offending work, which he defended upon 
the basis of Holy Writ, and justified by example and recom- 
mendations of grave and venerable fathers of the Church. 
The Ecclesiastical Characteristics added much to his fame. 
Bishop Warburton mentions the work with particular ap- 
probation, and expresses his wish that "the Church of Eng- 
land had such a corrector." Witherspoon continued to 
live in great reputation and usefulness at Beith, enjoying 
the confidence and affection of the people until the begin- 
ning of the year 1757, when he accepted a call to Paisley. 
He was installed there January i6th, 1757. In the course 



32 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

of that year he was chosen moderator of the synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr. In Paisley, as in Beith, he faithfully per- 
formed the duties of his office, and preached on various pub- 
lic occasions. 

In 1762 he preached a sermon entitled "Seasonable Ad- 
vice to Young People," which involved him in some diffi- 
culty. The subject was "Sinners Sitting in the Seat of the 
Scornful." It denounced some young men for mocking the 
sacrament. The sermon was published with an introductory 
address to the publisher, in which the names of the accused 
were given. This occasioned great offence, followed by 
prosecution, which went against him. He was subjected to 
a heavy fine for libel, which caused him pecuniary difficulty. 
During residence at Paisley he became more and more 
widely known. 

In 1764 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upon him by the University of Aberdeen. From this time 
henceforward we will speak of him as Dr. Witherspoon. 

The writings of the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon are various in 
subject and in style. There are his humorous productions 
"The History of a Corporation of Servants," is witty, 
amusing and instructive. "The Recantation of Benjamin 
Towner" belongs to this same class. He wrote a number 
of periodical essays on social and literary topics called the 
"Druid." There are works on the political questions of his 
time. The Witherspoon wisdom is exemplified in his essay 
on money. His theological writings consist of sermons, 
essays, lectures. In his sermons are discussed nearly all 
the vital truths of Christianity. There is his essay on "Justi- 
fication," his treatise on "Regeneration," of which the Rev. 
John Newton said : "I think it is the best I have seen on 
this important subject." There is his "Inquiry into the 
Scripture meaning of Charity." There are also his lectures 
on moral philosophy and on marriage. His "Serious In- 
quiry into the Nature and Effects of the Stage," was inspired 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 33 

by the play of Douglas, written by Mr. John Home, a min- 
ister of the Church of Scotland. The Rev. John Newton 
wished this "might be read by every person who makes the 
least pretense to fear God." All his theological writings 
are remarkable for perspicuity, soundness, and earnestness. 
Many professors of divinity in all countries where the Eng- 
lish language is spoken have been influenced by these im- 
portant works. 

When John Witherspoon, a young man of twenty-five, 
was in the first year of his residence at Beith, far away over 
the sea in the colony of New Jersey, in the month of May, 
1747, a college had been founded at Elizabethtown, under 
the auspices of the Presbyterian Synod. During that same 
year it was transferred to Newark, whence it was removed 
to Princeton in 1757, upon the completion of a college edi- 
fice, which was named Nassau Hall, "to the immortal mem- 
ory of the glorious King William the Third of the illustrious 
house of Nassau." From the founding of the institution 
until the year 1766 five men, all celebrated for genius, learn- 
ing and piety, had presided there. These honored men 
were the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, the Rev. Aaron Burr, the 
Rev. Jonathan Edwards, the Rev. Samuel Davis, and the 
Rev. Samuel Finlay. Shortly after the death of President 
Finlay, in July, 1776, "the eyes of the trustees of Nassau 
Hall were directed to a brilliant star which had been shining 
in the firmament of Scotland." 

This same luminary had already attracted the attention 
of the dwellers upon the earth at Dublin, at Dundee, and at 
Rotterdam, but he was unwilling to leave a sphere where 
he had become so useful and famous as a Paisley. More- 
over, Mrs. Witherspoon was loth to leave the "sepulchres 
of her fathers." Therefore the invitation to Princeton was 
declined. Subsequently, being wrought upon by the en- 
treaties of friends whose judgment he respected, animated 
by the hope of greater usefulness in the ministry and inter- 



34 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

ests of learning in the new world, the objections of Mrs. 
Witherspoon being overcome, he resolved to cross the 
ocean and accept the charge to which he had been called 
by friends of the College of New Jersey. It involved no 
small sacrifice to sever the connexion with the people of 
Paisley, to leave fame and happiness in the prime of life and 
go to a new country. Not long before he left Scotland, an 
old gentleman, a relative of the family, promised to make 
him his heir if he would not go to America. He had very 
little regard for personal interest when opposed to the 
claims of duty. 

In December, 1767, Mr. Richard Stockton informed the 
board of trustees that the differences which had prevented 
Dr. Witherspoon's acceptance had been removed, and upon 
re-election he would enter upon that public service. The 
news was received with great satisfaction. There was im- 
mediate unanimous re-election. On April i6th, 1768, he 
preached a farewell sermon to the people of Paisley, which 
was published under the name of " Ministerial Fidelity in 
Declaring the Whole Counsel of God." 

In May, 1768, at the age of forty-six years, John With- 
erspoon, with his wife and children, took leave of the tombs 
of their ancestors, and of their living kindred, and departed 
for a strange land, where his name was to be made great, 
where he was to be blessed, and where he was to become 
a blessing. They took their journey deliberately, being 
three months on the way. On the evening of arrival in 
Princeton, in August, great was the joy of the occasion. The 
village was illuminated, and, it is said, also the adjacent 
counties. On August I7th, 1768, he was inaugurated. He 
brought with him to America his wife, five children, and 
three hundred valuable volumes. The volumes he pre- 
sented to the college. His friends in England and Scotland, 
gave many more. 

It is no reflection upon the illustrious predecessors, Dick- 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 35 

inson, Burr, Edwards, Davis and Finlay, to say that the 
College of New Jersey was at that time in a deplorable con- 
dition. This was due to some extent to the newness of the 
country. It was also owing to the fact that party views and 
feelings had mingled largely with the management of the 
college. The college was in debt. The treasury was 
empty. It may be easily perceived that the coming to 
Princeton had involved no small sacrifice, but it was made 
voluntarily, intelligently. Dr. Witherspoon at once identi- 
fied himself with the interests of his adopted country and of 
the college. His presence awakened new confidence in the 
institution. One of the first benefits which resulted was the 
increase of funds. At that time the college was dependent 
upon the liberality of individuals. Dr. Witherspoon made 
a tour through the country appealing to the friends of learn- 
ing for aid. He even issued an "Address to the Inhabitants 
of Jamaica and other West India Islands in behalf of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey." Owing to his enterprise and effort 
the debt was soon extinguished. No one ever heard him 
utter a word in derogation of the merits of his predecessors. 
He caused important revolutions in the systems of educa- 
tion, yet he made no violent changes, but introduced his 
improvements silently, imperceptibly. 

Great advantage was derived from his literature, and 
mode of superintendence. He enlarged the course of phi- 
losophy so as to include political science and international 
law. He promoted the study of mathematics. He intro- 
duced the lecture method. He himself gave lectures in 
rhetoric, in moral philosophy, history, and theology. He 
introduced a system of public voluntary competition among 
the students in various branches of study pursued in the 
college. One of these consisted in translating a given phrase 
of English into Latin on the spot without previous prepa- 
tion, and in an extemporaneous exercise in writing Latin, 
for the completion of which a short specified time of only a 



36 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

few moments was allowed. The competition in Greek was 
in reading, translating, analyzing. 

He instituted a class in Hebrew (1772). He introduced 
the study of French. His especial department of instruc- 
tion was that of divinity. During the period of presidency 
he acted as pastor of the church in Princeton. His theology 
was Calvinistic. 

He had an admirable faculty for governing, and for ex- 
citing the emulation of the youth committed to his care. 
Young and old loved his society. He was very fond of 
social intercourse. He had great discernment of character ; 
was very kind and attentive to young people ; never lost 
an opportunity to impart useful advice, and that with so 
much kindness and suavity that it could not be forgotten. 
The number of students increased ; the reputation of the 
College of New Jersey was widely extended. In coming to 
America the sole purpose of Dr. Witherspoon was to pro- 
mote the cause of learning and religion here. It was divinely 
ordered that the sphere of his usefulness should be enlarged, 
and that he should be one of the founders of the republic. 
For several years war clouds had been gathering, and now 
the storm of the Revolution broke over the country. The 
eight years of prosperity to Princeton were to be followed 
by six of calamity and war. Other colleges suffered from 
enlistment Princeton entirely dispersed. In an eloquent 
paper by Mr. John Grier Hibben, entitled "Princeton Col- 
lege and Patriotism," which appeared in the Forum at the 
time of the sesqui-centennial, Mr. Hibben declares: "The 
spirit of the Revolution was in the college and in the hearts 
of the students, kept alive, and fanned into glow and flame, 
by the enthusiasm of their Scotch President, long before 
the signing of the Declaration of Independence, and the 
first call to arms. * * * John Witherspoon was a stal- 
wart champion of liberty a patriot from the day he set foot 
on American soil. He inspired his colleagues with the 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 37 

courage to sign the Declaration of Independence. * * * 
From the outbreak of the Revolution to its close, and 
through the many perplexities of the early life of our Re- 
public, Witherspoon was sacredly devoted to the cause to 
which he had pledged life and reputation." As the war pro- 
gressed the college edifice was alternately occupied by the 
two armies. The library was purloined consumed ; the 
woodwork, doors, floors, roof, used for fuel. In 1776 only 
seven students were ready to graduate, and a quorum of 
trustees was rarely attainable. May I7th, 1776, was ap- 
pointed as a day of fasting and prayer. At that time he 
delivered a remarkable sermon on the Dominion of Provi- 
dence over the Passions of Men. This was published, and 
dedicated to John Hancock. It was reprinted in Glasgow, 
with a note denouncing the author as a rebel and a traitor. 
In America it produced a different effect. The citizens of 
New Jersey, knowing his ability, and being proud of his 
reputation, elected him as delegate to the convention which 
met at Burlington on June loth, 1776,10 frame the state 
constitution. On the 2ist of the same month he was chosen 
delegate to the Continental Congress. He surprised his 
fellow members by his knowledge of the law. Sometime 
before this, John Adams mentions him as "as high a son of 
Liberty as any man in America." 

In all important movements he took a conspicuous part. 
It is not possible to particularize the services rendered the 
country during the Revolution. Dr. Witherspoon was very 
active on committees. He was upon enough of them to 
satisfy the most zealous organizer of the present day. He 
was a member of secret committee ; a member of the com- 
mittee to confer with Washington with relation to recruiting 
regiments whose term of service had expired. He was upon 
the committee which prepared the appeal to the public 
during the gloom and despondency which preceded the 
battle of Trenton ; was a member of the board of war ; was 



38 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

on the committee which proposed the manifesto respecting 
American prisoners ; was on the committee appointed to 
investigate the difficulties in New Hampshire grants which 
at one time threatened civil war ; was a leading member of 
the committee of finance. He opposed different issues of 
paper money, which caused so much distress, which he 
called "a great and deliberate breach of the public faith." 
He was on the committee to decree means to procure sup- 
plies for the army. He was probably on every committee 
appointed in his vicinity during the war, and it is said that 
when he differed from his compeers as to the policy to be 
pursued, or the means most proper to produce any desired 
result, subsequent events indicated the accuracy of his judg- 
ment and the soundness of his views. After taking part as 
a member of the Provincial Congress in the overthrow of 
the royal governor, William Franklin, he was elected to the 
Continental Congress, and took his seat in June, 1776, a few 
days before the Declaration of Independence. 

Several historians mention the impatience of Dr. Wither- 
spoon at the delay in making that "noble Declaration," 
which, according to Buckle, "ought to be hung up in the 
nursery of every king, and blazoned on the porch of every 
royal palace." The chroniclers speak of a distinguished 
member, whose name, however, is never given, who objected 
that the people were not "ripe for a Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." To which Dr. Witherspoon replied : " In my 
judgment, sir, we are not only ripe but rotting." He fur- 
ther declared, "he that will not respond to its accents, and 
strain every nerve to carry into effect its provisions, is un- 
worthy of the name of freeman," and protested "although 
these grey hairs must soon descend into the sepulchre, I 
would infinitely rather that they should descend thither by 
the hand of the public executioner than desert at this crisis 
the sacred cause of my country." 

On the 2d of July, 1776, in the words of John Adams, 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 39 

"the greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America, and a greater, perhaps, never was, nor will be, 
decided among men." * * * "The 2d of July, 1776, 
will be the most memorable epoch in the history of Amer- 
ica, to be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great 
anniversary festival, commemorated as the day of deliver- 
ance by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty, from 
one end of the continent to the other, from this time onward, 
forevermore. * * * I am aware of the toil, and blood, 
and treasure that it will cost us to maintain this declaration, 
and support and defend these states, yet through all the 
gloom I can see the ray of light and glory ; that the end is 
worth all the means ; that posterity will triumph in that 
day's transaction, even though we should rue it, which I 
trust in God we shall not." On this day "twelve colonies, 
with no dissenting one, resolved that these united colonies 
are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states ; 
that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British 
crown, and that all political connection between them and 
the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dis- 
solved." The election of Thomas Jefferson to draft the 
"confession of faith of the rising empire" was followed by 
nearly three days of debate, by the supporters and opposers 
of that paper, which was finally adopted, with the amend- 
ments thereto. On the 4th of July, 1776, the Declaration of 
Independence was proclaimed, and the United States of 
America had come into existence. " The Declaration was 
not signed by the members of Congress on the day on 
which it was agreed to, but it was duly authenticated by 
the president and secretary, and published to the world. 
The nation, when it made the choice of its great anniver- 
sary, selected not the day of the resolution of its indepen- 
dence when it closed the past, but that of the declaration of 
the principles on which it opened its new career." 



4O REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

On the 2d day of August Dr. Witherspoon affixed his 
signature to the Declaration. 

For six years he was annually reappointed to Congress, 
and performed the arduous duties without intermission dur- 
in the whole period. He warmly maintained the necessity 
of union to impart vigor and success to measures of govern- 
ment. Strongly he combatted the opinion that a lasting 
confederacy of the states was impracticable. "Shall we 
establish nothing good because we know it cannot be eter- 
nal ? Shall we live without government because every 
constitution has its old age and its period ? Because we 
know that we shall die, shall we take no pains to preserve 
or lengthen our life ?" Dr. Witherspoon was a sagacious 
politician. He had great influence as a speaker. He had a 
happy talent for extemporaneous debate. His powers of 
memory were of importance to him in Congress. He said 
that he could precisely repeat a speech or sermon, written 
by himself, by reading it three times. While serving his 
country as a civilian, he never forgot that he was preemi- 
nently a "servant of God." He never laid aside the robe 
which distinguished his sacred office, but sat for six years 
in "full clerical dress." 

Dr. Witherspoon was a profound theologian. He was a 
grave, dignified, solemn speaker perspicuous, simple. He 
was well acquainted with human nature ; never read his 
sermons or used notes, but wrote and committed them to 
memory by reading three times. A peculiar affection of 
the nerves, attended by dizziness, always overcame him 
when he gave free vent; to his feelings. Dr. Rush thought 
this apoplectic. He once fell from the pulpit in a moment 
of religious excitement, and was obliged to impose a guard 
upon his sensibility, and substitute grave seriousness of 
manner in place of the fire arid warmth he was so well qual- 
ified to display. His eloquence was simple and grave and 
as animated as his malady would permit. Perhaps it was 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 4! 

well for the audience that this check was placed upon him, 
for it is said that his was a kind of Demosthenian eloquence 
which made the blood "shiver along the arteries." His 
discourses commanded universal attention. His manner was 
irresistible. He never indulged in "florid flights of fancy." 
A lady, walking through his garden one day, remarked : 
"Excellent, but no flowers." "No, madam, neither in my 
garden nor in my discourse." Some one adds : "Although 
without flowers, they were certainly not without fruit." 

During the whole period of presidency of Princeton Col- 
lege he was anxious to train those who had the ministry of 
the gospel in view, for usefulness in this holy profession. 
His constant advice to young preachers was never to enter 
the pulpit without the most careful preparation. His am- 
bition was to render them the most learned, the most pious 
and most exemplary body of men in the republic. Scarcely 
any individual of the age had a more vigorous mind or 
sound understanding. He was well versed in the dead lan- 
guages, was proficient in Greek and Hebrew, and spoke and 
read Latin with facility. He also spoke and read French. 
Yet some one says he was not of varied or extended learn- 
ing. In 1779 he wrote to a friend : "I have had it in view 
for some time to spend the remainder of my life in otium 
cum dignitate. You know I always was fond of being a 
scientific farmer. That disposition has not lost, but gath- 
ered in strength since my being in America. In this respect 
I received a dreadful shock indeed from the English while 
they were here. They have seized and mostly destroyed 
my whole stock, and committed such ravages that we have 
not yet fully recovered from it." About this time he wished 
to resign his seat in Congress, on account of the expense 
incident to the position, but he was re-elected and obliged 
to remain. 

At the end of the war the college was again in a state of 
poverty. In 1783 Dr. Witherspoon was urged to go to 



42 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

Great Britain for financial aid for the college, as he said in a 
letter to John Jay, "very much contrary to my judgment." 
It surely was an ill-timed appeal for help to the people from 
whom they had so recently cut asunder the bond of union. 
The voyage was a disastrous one. In a severe storm while 
on the ocean, Dr. Witherspoon received a blow upon one of 
his eyes, which resulted subsequently in blindness, and he 
collected just money enough to pay the expenses of the 
voyage. 

The beatific vision of " Cicero in his retreat at Tusculum 
beautiful Tusculum" was not given to Mrs. Blimber, 
but the friends of Dr. Witherspoon enjoyed the felicity of 
seeing him retire to his farm of that name, situated one mile 
from Princeton. This came to pass in the year 1784, when, 
finding nothing to interfere, he resigned his home on the 
college grounds to his son-in-law, Samuel Stanhope Smith, 
and withdrew from those public functions not connected 
with his duties as president of the college and minister of 
the gospel. 

It is said that in appearance Dr. Witherspoon had more 
of what is called presence than any man except Washington. 
He was six feet in height, with a tendency to be corpulent. 
He was fair, and well proportioned. He had intelligent 
eyes. His eyebrows were large, the ends next the temple 
hanging down, occasioned by the habit of pulling them 
when excited. His countenance was of a grave, benign 
expression. Like other clergymen in the country at the 
beginning of national independence, he laid aside his wig 
and wore his natural hair, which covered his head, and 
which was confined in an artificial curl or buckle. His 
portrait by Charles Peale may be found in the Hall of In- 
dependence, Philadelphia. 

" Patriots, go : to that proud Hall repair. 
The sacred relics which are treasured there 
With tongueless eloquence shall tell 
Of those who for their country fell," 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 43 

and of those who, with equal heroism and devotion for sake 
of country, resigned every earthly advantage. The elder 
Cato considered family life the central object of existence. 
It was better to be a good husband than a great senator. 
Dr. Witherspoon was a sincere friend, an affectionate hus- 
band, a true and tender father. It was his custom to spend 
the last day of every year with his family as a day of fast- 
ing, humiliation and prayer. He maintained that family 
religion and the careful discharge of relative duties was an 
excellent incentive to the growth of religion in a man's own 
soul. "How can any person" he asked, "bend the knees 
in prayer every day with his family without its being a 
powerful restraint upon him from the indulgence of any sin 
which is visible to them ? Will such a one think you dare 
to indulge himself in anger, or choose to be seen by them 
when he comes staggering home with drunkenness, unfit to 
perform any duty or ready to sin still more by the manner 
of performance ? Let me earnestly commend the faithful 
discharge and careful management of family duties as you 
regard the glory of God, the interest of the church, and the 
advantage of your posterity and your final acceptance in the 
day of judgment." 

The reader of Johnson's Encyclopedia may be led to be- 
lieve that Dr. Witherspoon sent his only son to the war, 
and that he was killed at the battle of Germantown. That 
Major James Witherspoon was killed at the battle of Ger- 
mantown is most grievously true, but there remained John, 
who was a physician, and David, who was a lawyer. Presi- 
dent Samuel Stanhope Smith, Dr. Witherspoon's successor 
at Princeton, was also his son-in-law, having married the 
daughter, Ann Witherspoon. Dr. David Ramsay, the his- 
torian, married Frances the younger daughter. These five, 
James, John, David, Ann and Frances, came with their 
parents to America in the year 1768. Now, in the year 
1789, the time drew near when it was appointed unto Eliza- 



44 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

beth Montgomery Witherspoon to die. This was truly a 
grief of mind to her husband. Nevertheless, a year and a 
half later, in 1791, he again took a wife, and her name was 
Mrs. Dill, of Philadelphia. She was twenty-three years old 
and he was sixty-nine. Two daughters comprised their 
family. One died in infancy. The other continued to live, 
and married the Rev. James S. Woods, and some of their 
descendants are still existent. There are also descendants 
of John Witherspoon, and his former wife, Elizabeth Mont- 
gomery Witherspoon. 

When this narrative had progressed thus far information 
was received through a distinguished living jurist of a third 
wife and nine children. Let it be remembered that the 
second marriage took place in the year 1791. Dr. Wither- 
spoon died in 1794. The introduction, in three remaining 
years of earthly career, of two wives and eleven children, 
making a grand total of thirteen, is attended with palpable 
difficulty. At this crisis appeal was made to a living lineal, 
the Rev. D. W. Woods, Jr., of Lewistown, Pennsylvania. 
From him were received certain facts already incorporated in 
this article, but of the third wife he said : "Perhaps some of 
the theosophists may be able to explain Witherspoon's third 
marriage after his re-incarnation. But I never heard of his 
ghostly hymeneal." From this same source (Rev. D. W. 
Woods) came copies of two letters written in the year 1776 by 
Witherspoon to his son David. They may be obtained by 
application to the present writer. 

"There is aye so muckle to say about a minister," and 
when the minister has likewise been president of a college, 
and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, the theme 
becomes endless. The history of Dr. Witherspoon abounds 
with stories of his wit, and specimens of his pleasantry. 
There is a favorite anecdote relating to the surrender of the 
British to General Gates at Saratoga, which is contained in 
most American histories. Many minor incidents of similar 

\ 



REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 45 

nature may be discovered by those who will take the trouble 
to search for them. During the last two years of his life 
he became blind ; yet his mental activity did not abate. 
His correspondence was kept up through an amanuensis. 
Aided by a guiding hand he continued to ascend the pulpit 
and to preach every third Sunday, with all the earnestness 
of his early days. 

In the autumn of 1793 "having won the bounds of man's 
appointed years, life's blessings all enjoyed, life's labors done, 
serenely to his final rest he passed," on the fifteenth of No- 
vember, 1794. 

In the cemetery, at Princeton, he sleeps by the side of 
Edwards, Burr, Dickinson, Finlay, and other kindred spirits. 
The following are the words which were inscribed on the 
marble which covers his grave : 

"Reliquae Mortales Joannis Witherspoon D.D., LL.D., 
Collegii Neo-Caesariensis, Praesidis, plurimum venerandi ; 
Sub hoc marmore inhumantur. Natus parochio Yestrensi 
Scotorum. Nonis Februarii MDCCXXII, V. S. Literis 
humanibus in Universitati Edinburgensi imbutus ; Sacris 
ordinibus initiatus, anno MDCCXLIII munere pastorali- 
perviginti quinque annos fideliter functus est primo apud 
Beith, deinde apud Paisley. Praesis designatus Aulae Nas- 
sovicae anno MDCCLXVIII ; Idibus Sextilis maxima ex- 
pectatione omnium, munus praesidiale suscepit. Vir eximia 
pietate ac virtute ; omnibus dolibus animi praecellens ; doc- 
trina atque optimarum artium studies, penitus eruditus, 
Concionator gravis, solemnis, Orationes ejus sacrae prae- 
ceptes et institutis vitae, praestantissimus, nee non ex- 
positionibus sacros Sanctae Scripturae dilucidis sunt re- 
pletae. In sermone familiari comis lepidus ; blandus rerum 
ecclesiae forensium peritissimus ; summa prudentia et in 
regendaet instituenda juventate, praeditus. Existimation- 
em Collegii apud pregrinos auxit ; bonasque literas in eo 
multum provexit Inter lumina clarissima et doctrinae et 



46 REV. JOHN WITHERSPOON, D. D. 

ecclesiae diu luxit. Tandem veneratus, dilectus, lugendus 
omnibus aniniam efflavit XV Kal. Nov. anno Salutis mundi 
MDCCXCIV Aetatis suae LXXIII." 

The honor connected with the erection of the colossal 
statue of John Witherspoon, which faces one of the most 
beautiful drives at Fairmount Park, belongs to the late, 
much lamented, Rev. Dr. William P. Breed, the funds being 
mainly raised by his personal efforts. 

"To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die." John 
Witherspoon is not forgotten in the land of his birth. In 
his adopted country his memory must live while America is 
a nation, and in the heavenly country he has received the 
crown of glory which fadeth not away. 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER 
IN THE REVOLUTION. 



HENRY HOBART BELLAS, LL. B. 

CAPTAIN U. S. ARMY. 
READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY APRIL 19, 1897. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Members of the Wyoming Histor- 
ical Society : 

The subject of the paper which I propose to read 
before you this evening is one which has been already 
treated by those far abler than myself, so that I must ask your 
indulgence in the brief review which, at the risk of repeti- 
tion, I now offer of the history of the defences of the Dela- 
ware River both prior to and during the Revolution, as well 
as of those operations which finally led to the evacuation of 
the city of Philadelphia by the British in less than a year 
after its occupation. 

The defences of the Delaware for the protection of Phila- 
delphia in the early provincial period were few and exceed- 
ingly primitive. Of the rude forts erected on the Delaware 
by the early Swedes and Dutch during the i/th century in 
the locality of New Castle and Wilmington, viz., Forts Nas- 
sau, Christina, Casimer and others, with their constantly 
changing possession, we will not now stop to speak. The old 
Wicaco block-house, which also stood near the river, and 
it is believed about the site afterwards occupied by the 
Swedish church, Gloria Dei, on Swanson south of Christian 
street, was built in 1669; principally, however, for defence 
against the Indians. This was torn down in 1698, and the 
church dedicated on July 2, 1700. Coming down, then, to 
a later period, we find that in April, 1748, the first bat- 
tery, consisting of thirteen guns, was erected by the As- 
sociators for the protection of the city against French and 



48 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

Spanish privateers, at Anthony Atwood's wharf, under 
"Society Hill," between Pine and Cedar, and near the pres- 
ent Lombard street. The breastwork was constructed of 
timber and planks eight to ten feet in thickness and filled in 
with earth. Much of the work was done by the volunteer 
labor of the city carpenters, and the entire fortification was 
rapidly completed and its armament of six and nine-pound- 
ers mounted in place. 

There was a great scarcity of cannon, however, we are 
informed by the authorities of the time. All the old and 
hitherto neglected pieces lying about the wharves were 
overhauled and seventy or more found serviceable for an 
emergency. Application was made at the same time to 
Governors Shirley of Massachusetts and Clinton of New 
York for the loan of some additional pieces. The latter 
sent a number of eighteen-pounders with their carriages, 
which were brought overland from New York. The man- 
agers of the lottery which had been organized for the pur- 
pose of raising ,3000 for defence, at the same time sent 
to England for additional cannon for another battery, 400 
feet in length, styled the Grand battery, which was located 
below the city and beyond old Swede's church, on ground 
afterwards occupied by the United States Navy Yard. Al- 
though the Associator companies mounted guard here dur- 
ing the early summer for the protection of the river, it was 
not until August of this same year that the pieces applied for 
to England were received. The proprietaries of the Province 
also responded to the request of the city corporation by 
sending over thirteen pieces (prophetic number) in Novem- 
ber, 1750, which were also mounted, making a total of up- 
wards of fifty pieces of 18-, 24- and 32-pounders. One of 
the largest, a new 32-pounder, was presented by the "Schuyl- 
kill Fishing Company," and in succeeding years was known 
by the name of " Old Schuylkill." Its trunnions were 
broken off when finally abandoning the city to the British 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 49 

twenty-seven years after, and it was left lying in the ditch 
at Fort Mifflin whither it had been removed. Here it rested 
till a few years since, when it was reclaimed and by direc- 
tion of the United States War Department presented to 
the celebrated "State in Schuylkill," who zealously to-day 
guard it as a relic of the antiquity of their Association. 

All these early colonial defences along the Delaware near 
the city, had been abandoned at the time of the British oc- 
cupation. Fort Mifflin, then called Mud Fort, and located 
below the junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers; 
Fort Mercer, at Red Bank opposite on the Jersey shore, 
and the fortifications at Billingsport farther down, were still 
all garrisoned by American troops. The river at the same 
points was also effectually blockaded by the American fleet, 
consisting of over sixty vessels of all sizes, sorts and condi- 
tions, under the command of Commodore John Hazlewood, 
together with a strong chevaux-de-frise of logs, constructed 
in September of the preceding year across the main channel 
on the Jersey side, and reaching from Billingsport to the 
island of the same name opposite. Of the first named of 
these defences (the present Fort Mifflin), its construction had 
been originally authorized by the Assembly as early as 
1762, when there were fears of a war with Spain, and ; 15,000 
voted therefor. This appropriation, however, had been 
diverted for other purposes, and a new act was passed nine 
years later (1771) appropriating an additional sum of ^i 5,000 
in letters of credit. The commissioners in charge of the 
work were Joseph Galloway, Benjamin Chew, Michael Hil- 
legas, Thomas Cadwalader, and several others. They pur- 
chased a small island in the Delaware, about eight miles 
below the city, owned by Galloway and known as Great 
Mud Island (one of two of that name), which became there- 
after known as Fort Island. Application was made to Gen- 
eral Gage, then in command, for an engineer officer to con- 
struct the work. He appointed the skillful Captain John 



5<D THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

Montressor of the British army, who superintended during 
the next two years the construction, without any anticipa- 
tion of the use to which it would eventually be put in resist- 
ing the power of Great Britain. By a still stronger coin- 
cidence, this same officer was also Howe's chief engineer in 
the attack on the same fortification less than half a dozen 
years later. 

The site for Fort Mercer opposite was originally selected 
immediately after the commencement of the Revolution (in 
July, 1775), when the Committee of Safety, with Franklin 
as its President, went down to Red Bank with a number of 
engineers to decide upon its location. In the following 
year (December, 1776), General Putnam, who had been ap- 
pointed Military Governor of Philadelphia by Washington, 
began new works (with Kosciusko for his engineer officer) 
at Red Bank, opposite the fort on Mud Island, and protect- 
ing the upper chevaux-de-frise in the river.* This defence, 
known as Fort Mercer, though in the State of New Jersey, 
was especially constructed under the authority of the Penn- 
sylvania Council of Safety on the recommendation of Major 
Thomas Proctor of the Artillery, made to the Council on 
December 23, 1776, though built under the directions, as 
stated, of Kosciusko, and afterwards of Col. John Bull in 
the next year. 

Du Coudray, a French engineer, who, with General Mif- 
flin, had been delegated by Congress to superintend the 
completion of all the works along the Delaware, at the time 
of the British advance on the city, had reported, while com- 
mending, with a few exceptions, the manner in which the 
works had been constructed, that he was of the decided 

* Exactly when this fortification was first called Fort Mercer is not definitely known 
(it being named after Gen. Hugh Mercer, who fell at Princeton) , but it must have borne 
that name at the time of, if not before, the attack thereon by Cosnt Donop, since the 
name is mentioned in a letter of Washington's to Col. Samuel Smith, dated Octber 28, 
in this year, and a joint communication to Commodore Hazlewood from Generals St. 
Clair and Knox and the Baron De Kalb, in November of the same year, is dated "from 
Fort Mercer." 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 5 I 

opinion that these at Fort Mercer, like the works at Bil- 
lingsport, farther down, were too extensive for proper de- 
fence and could not be made of much use in obstructing the 
entire channel of the river. He recommended the removal 
of nearly all the guns therefrom to Billingsport, leaving 
only two or three at Red Bank as sufficient for the protec- 
tion of the chevaux-de-frise. This latter, originally devised 
by Dr. Franklin, was likewise defended by the improvised 
Delaware flotilla of gun-boats, galleys, xebeques, floating 
batteries, fire-ships and fire-rafts, the last named being in- 
tended to fire the enemy's shipping. This navy, constructed 
with great rapidity by the American ship builders and con- 
trolled by the Committee of Safety, was, as stated, under the 
immediate command of Commodore Hazlewood, who had 
superseded Seymour, enfeebled by age, and had the cele- 
brated Dr. Benjamin Rush for its fleet-surgeon. Though 
its services, both before and during the British occupation 
were valuable, it scarcely repaid the Committee of Safety for 
its construction, either in prizes or in security against the 
enemy, although it cost over .100,000 per annum to main- 
tain. Much of its efficiency, as we will see later on, was 
lost by jealousy and by conflict of authority between the 
commanding officers of the land and river forces. At Bil- 
lingsport,* Robert Smith, under orders of the Committee of 
Safety in 1776, commenced to build an extensive series of 
fortifications which had been also planned by Kosciusko (at 
the same time he had laid out those at Fort Mercer), to pro- 
tect the lower chevaux-de-frise in the river. Colonel Bull 
and Blaithwaite Jones continued the construction, the former 
as commandant and the latter as chief engineer. Though 
a considerable number of men were employed, the works 
were still unfinished in June, 1777, and were reported as re- 
quiring yet several months to complete them. 

* Originally Byllinge's Point, so called in honor of Edward Byllinge, the purchaser 
of Lord Berkley's moiety of the Province of New Jersey. 



52 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

Considerably farther down the river, at New Castle, was 
also a battery which had been originally erected here in 
1748, as well as Fort Christiana built the same year as the 
"Association Battery," and on the site of the old Swedish 
Fort Christina at Wilmington. 

All these defences, however, were reported by General 
Mifflin in his report to Congress just prior to the British 
occupation, as in an unsatisfactory condition. Those on 
Fort Island were badly constructed, one-half the guns being 
so placed as to be virtually useless. At Red Bank the river 
was too wide for any serious execution by the guns of Fort 
Mercer. The works at Billingsport were on too extensive 
a scale and still remained, as stated, unfinished. The Navy 
Board arranged to flood Hog Island, and the meadows im- 
mediately below and surrounding Fort Mifflin ; to construct 
a bridge of boats from the latter to Province Island, and to 
throw a garrison into a fortification at Darby Creek. It 
also sunk vessels in the main channel of the Delaware to 
block navigation. 

Such was the condition of the defences of Philadelphia, 
when Howe, with his army, occupied the city on the 26th 
day of September, 1777, some two weeks after the battle of 
Brandy wine. 

The British general's position, however, as has been well 
said, was one to excite the liveliest anxieties of a prudent 
commander of an invading force. To the north of the city 
was the main army of the Americans under Washington, 
and which had just shown itself bold enough and strong 
enough also, to attack the enemy in his fortified stronghold. 
On the south were the forts, still held by the Continental 
troops, the galleys and gun-boats, the chevaux-de-frise and 
other obstructions in the river, shutting him out from the 
navigation of the Delaware and the provisioning of his army ; 
the militia of New Jersey patrolled all the east side of the 
river, while on the west side of the Schuylkill the country 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 53 

was held and guarded by the Pennsylvania State troops 
under General Potter. General Howe saw at a glance that 
the river must be opened at once for communication between 
his army and the British fleet lying in the river opposite 
Chester, or he would be forced to abandon the city he had 
but just gained ; since, hemmed in as he was on all sides, 
it would be impossible to supply his army. It has been 
admitted that had Gates not withheld, apparently from 
envious motives, the reinforcements called for immediately 
after Burgoyne's surrender, two brigades of fresh troops 
would have aided materially, and in all probability have 
prevented these river defences from being overcome and 
forced the result indicated, viz., the immediate evacua- 
tion of Philadelphia by the enemy. The colonial defences, al- 
luded to as having been abandoned by the Americans, were 
already occupied and strengthened by the British. A re- 
doubt was constructed at the intersection of Reed and 
Swanson streets, the old "Association Battery" was manned 
with three or four guns, another was built at Swanson and 
Christian streets, and still another in the upper part of the 
city on a wharf above Cohocksink Creek ; all manned with 
twelve-pounders and howitzers. 

The American gun-boat flotilla which, with the ships of 
war "Montgomery" and "Aetna," under command of Com- 
modore Andrew Caldwell and Captain Thomas Reed, had 
on May 8th, 1776, attacked the British frigates "Roebuck," 
"Liverpool," and their tenders off the mouth of Christina 
Creek, running the former ashore, capturing a brig belong- 
ing to the squadron, maintaining the fight with spirit until 
dark, and pursuing the enemy's vessels as far as New Castle, 
gave promise in this activity of accomplishing good results 
in the future. 

On the day after the occupation of the city, accordingly 
(September 27th), and before the enemy had an opportunity 
to fully complete their counter river defences, Hazlewood 



54 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

sent up the frigates "Montgomery" and "Delaware," with 
many galleys from the flotilla, to engage them. The "Dela- 
ware" anchored opposite the lower battery and opened fire, 
while the remaining vessels engaged the other batteries. 
Not much execution was however done on either side. The 
"Delaware" was badly manoeuvered, got aground, was 
forced to strike her flag and was taken possession of by the 
enemy. Another of the vessels, a schooner, was also run 
ashore and lost, while the remainder of the fleet, badly crip- 
pled, attempted to run past the batteries and up the river 
between Windmill Island and the Jersey shore. They were 
driven back in confusion by the Cohocksink battery, and 
the "Montgomery" had her mast shot away by the lower 
battery, while the rest sought shelter under the guns of Fort 
Mifflin. The result of the whole venture was a dismal fail- 
ure. It was necessary, however, for the British to reduce 
the defences at Billingsport and Red Bank before their 
fleet could get up the river to either attack Fort Island, or 
to pass, without interruption, through the chevaux-de-frise 
and relieve the force shut up in the city. 

A combined naval and military attack was therefore 
planned to take effect at once. On September 2pth two 
regiments under Lieut. Colonel Stirling were detached in 
order to make a movement against the fort at Billingsport, 
which still protected the lower line of obstructions in the 
river. The British force marched to Chester and prepared 
to cross the Delaware. The officers and crews of many of 
the American galleys, considering their destruction immi- 
nent, commenced to desert en masse. Colonels Bradford 
and Will of the City Militia had entrenched themselves in 
the Billingsport lines when Philadelphia was occupied ; suc- 
ceeding Col. Jehu Eyre, who had been ordered there in 
September with two companies o,f militia artillery. Colonel 
Bradford's garrison was unequal, however, for such an ex- 
tensive work, consisting, as his force did, of only one hun- 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 55 

dred militia, a company of artillery, and about one hundred 
and fifty additional Jersey militia. The enemy landed nearly 
one thousand men at Raccoon Creek, opposite Chester and 
some four miles below Billingsport, on October ist. Gen- 
eral Newcomb (evidently as great a failure, judging from 
contemporaneous historical accounts, as some of his naval 
brethren of the time), was sent with a party of New Jersey 
troops to meet the British, but failed to prevent their ad- 
vance and retreated. Thereupon Colonel Bradford sent his 
garrison to Fort Island and Fort Mercer, took off all the 
ammunition, removed some of the cannon, spiked the rest, 
set fire to the barracks and other buildings, and abandoned 
the post. The Highlanders and marines of the enemy took 
possession of the works and effectually destroyed them, as 
well as burnt the remaining houses and abandoned likewise 
the place on October /th. The British fleet was thus ena- 
bled to remove and pass the lower line of obstructions and 
approach the fortifications immediately below Philadelphia, 
while Admiral Howe now sent up a squadron of gunboats 
under Captain Clayton, which passed undiscovered the 
American forts and flotilla and reached the city in safety. 
In these boats General Howe, on October 2ist, sent Colonel 
Count Donop across the Delaware to Cooper's Point with 
a regiment of Myrbach infantry, chasseurs and three bat- 
talions of Hessian grenadiers, two thousand five hundred 
men in all, to attack Fort Mercer ; the reduction of both 
this post and Fort Mifflin being now a matter of vital impor- 
tance to the British. 

Washington, anxious for the defence of both these forts, 
had already sent forward reinforcements under Lieut. Col- 
onel Simms of the Sixth Virginia Regiment. He crossed the 
Delaware below Bristol, and reaching Moorestown at eight 
o'clock in the evening of the same day, heard that a body 
of the enemy was crossing at Cooper's Ferry. Warning 
the detachments of the American militia he found on guard 



56 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

on his route, he marched on to Red Bank and offered his 
services to Lieut. Colonel Christopher Greene, in command 
at Fort Mercer, but the latter declined them and sent Simms 
across the river at daybreak to aid in the impending defence 
of Fort Mifflin on Mud Island. 

The advance of the Hessians in the meantime was slow 
and cautious. Proceeding by the way of Haddonfield, they 
found the bridge taken away at Timber Creek, a few miles 
from the post, and at four o'clock in the afternoon of the 
22d, the front of the enemy's column was seen emerging 
from the woods on the sides of the fort opposite from the 
river. 

You are all doubtless fairly familiar with the story of that 
heroic defence by the gallant Greene and his brave garrison 
of four hundred from Varnum's Rhode Island brigade. 
Although with but a small proportion of his guns mounted 
and unable to properly man the entire work, Greene scorned 
the summons to surrender. "We ask no quarter, nor shall 
we expect any," was his reply. While determined to resist 
at the outworks, he reserved his main stand for the interior 
fort in the southern angle of the works. Finding the ad- 
vance posts and the outworks virtually abandoned but not 
destroyed, the enemy imagined for the time the garrison 
had fled. Shouting "victory" and with the drums beating 
a lively march, they rushed toward the redoubt under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Minnegerode, only to be met with a wither- 
ing shower of grape-shot and musket balls poured upon 
them from both front and flank with terrible effect, in which 
their leader fell, and driving them back to the remote in- 
trenchments. A portion rushing around to the river front 
endeavored to scale the works on that side, but the Ameri- 
can galleys in the river quickly drove them thence, and the 
entire assaulting column on the northern side of the fort 
fled in disorder to the woods pursued by the cannonade 
from both fort and galleys. The storming column on the 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 5/ 

south side, and which was under the immediate command 
of Count Donop himself, met with an even worse fate. He 
fell mortally wounded ; his men vainly endeavored to scale 
the palisades, nine feet high, and unable to gain a foothold 
in the works were mercilessly slaughtered, until they also 
fled utterly routed and joined their companions in their 
panic-struck retreat. Three days later their commander 
closed his earthly career, a prisoner in the hands of the 
Americans, and "a victim," in his last words, "of his own 
ambition and the avarice of his sovereign." The total Hes- 
sian loss was from 300 to 400 men, that of the Americans 
less than 30 killed and wounded. The enemy retreated to 
Haddonfield, abandoning all their wounded on the field, 
and thence the next day made their way back to Philadel- 
phia. In the interesting personal reminiscences recently 
discovered of a member of the Howell family, the narrator 
(the mother of the late Dr. Benjamin Paschall Howell of 
Woodbury, New Jersey), gives a realistic account of the 
scenes already described. She remembered well the appear- 
ance of the Hessians as they passed through Haddonfield, 
where, a child of ten years of age, she was then residing. 
They presented a very fine and martial appearance, and 
seemed to be, as they were, a picked body of men. They 
were in excellent spirits, as if assured of an easy victory 
over raw and undisciplined troops, as the Americans were 
considered by them. She also graphically describes the 
marked contrast in their bearing the next day in their retreat, 
panic-stricken and apparently demoralized. All discipline 
seemed cast aside; two of the soldiers entered her mother's 
house in search of food, seized what they could find, quar- 
reled over it, and in the struggle it fell to the floor and was 
trampled on. In their retreat through the door their officer 
thumped their heads against the door-post, much to the 
delight of her mother, who sat with her back against a cor- 
ner cupboard that contained a supply of ammunition for 



58 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

the American forces in the neighborhood and which she 
jealously guarded. 

Lieut. Colonel Linsing, who commanded the retreat, as 
well as Count Donop and Lieut. Colonel Minnegerode, 
both of whom fell in the attack on Fort Mercer, were all 
well remembered particularly Donop, whose fine appear- 
ance and tall, elegant figure attracted much attention. Sev- 
eral persons, whom they found along the roads in the vicin- 
ity of Haddonfield, were pressed into service by the Hes- 
sians. Two, a white man and a negro, belonging to the 
narrator's father (Colonel Ellis), who commanded the New 
Jersey Militia in the neighborhood, volunteered their assist- 
ance as guides and were loud in their abuse of the Americans 
whose destruction they now considered certain. That they 
made a fatal error, however, was evident from the fact, she 
stated, that immediately after the repulse of the enemy at 
Fort Mercer these two miscreants were identified, seized and 
hung in the fort. 

The account of the slaughter of the Hessians and the find- 
ing of Count Donop still living among the slain by De 
Maudit, Greene's engineer officer, tallies with the usual pub- 
lished historical version. Some of the Americans wished 
to give Donop no quarter, but were prevailed on by De 
Maudit to leave him in his hands. He was taken first to 
the old Whitall House, near where he fell, but was, states 
the narrator, afterwards removed to the house of the Lowe 
family south of Woodbury Creek. Here (and not in the 
Whitall House as generally stated) he died three days after, 
though his wounds had not at first been considered mortal. 
H^ was buried between the fort and the Whitall House and 
his ^grave marked by a boulder and inscription. Our in- 
formant remembered that both these houses were used as 
hospitals, and particularly that the floors of the Whitall 
House (still standing), showed traces, for a long time after, 
of the blood of the wounded Hessians, who pressed so close 



Y 



\ 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 59 

to the Americans in the fight that the wads from the guns 
of the latter, it is said, were blown through their bodies. 

Colonel Greene's conduct in the defence of Fort Mercer 
was highly applauded, and the Board of War was directed 
by Congress to prepare and present him with a sword as an 
appreciation of his services. This tribute, like so many 
other similar cases, was finally presented to his family, sev- 
eral years afterward, when Greene himself was no longer 
living to receive it. 

The firing of the first gun from the Hessian battery upon 
Fort Mercer was followed by a combined attack on both 
this fort and Fort Mifflin opposite, by the British vessels in 
the Delaware. The "Augusta," "Roebuck," "Liverpool," 
and several smaller vessels passed through the chevaux-de- 
frise at Billingsport and came up the river to join in the as- 
sault. The channel, however, having been changed by the 
obstructions in the river, the "Augusta" grounded near the 
mouth of Manto Creek, the "Merlin" followed suit just 
beyond, and before the next morning the "Roebuck" was 
likewise aground. The cannonade against the fort by the 
vessels resulted in little or no injury. When morning came 
the exceedingly perilous situation of the British vessels was 
apparent to the American fleet, and Hazlewood immediately 
advanced to the attack with his galleys and floating bat- 
teries. Four fire-ships were also sent against the "Augusta," 
and although she made a fierce defence she took fire either 
from the hot shot of the enemy, or from her own guns, and 
soon after her magazine exploded, causing the loss of many 
of her crew. The "Roebuck" had gotten afloat and with 
the remainder of theBritish fleet, with the exception of the 
"Merlin" (which was abandoned and burnt by her own crew), 
was driven back by the fire of the galleys and forts and fell 
down the river again below Billingsport, leaving the Ameri- 
cans masters of the fortifications still for a brief period. 
Both land and naval attacks by the enemy had resulted in 



6O THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

complete failure. It was none the less imperative, however, 
for General Howe and his army in Philadelphia to establish 
communication, and quickly too, with Admiral Howe and his 
fleet in the river below. Preparations were pushed with 
vigor for an immediate attack on Fort Mifflin on Mud Is- 

o 

land, and when the first week in November arrived the Brit- 
ish were ready for the combined assault from all sides on 
the little devoted garrison. This fortification had been origi- 
nally designed by Montressor to command and sweep the 
main channel in the river, and the defences on the north 
and west sides were indifferent. Batteries were therefore 
erected by the British against them on the opposite shores 
from every available point, and particularly on Province and 
Carpenter's Islands ; the guns, twenty-four and thirty-two 
pounders being taken from the frigates and ships-of-the-line 
in the Delaware. The fleet likewise, arrayed against the 
fort, comprised nearly a dozen vessels of all sizes, from the 
"Somerset" of seventy guns down, and making over 300 
cannon on land and river, besides mortars, trained against 
the doomed fortification. 

The brave Lieut. Colonel Samuel Smith, in command 
since September 2/th, was not unmindful of the preparations 
against him. He had strengthened the place in every pos- 
sible way and in conjunction with the galleys and gun-boats 
had already assaulted and captured one of the enemy's bat- 
teries opposite, on Province Island. But the fort had neither 
defences nor guns to properly withstand a powerful attack. 
As stated, while a strong battery commanded the approaches 
from the river, the remaining sides were defended alone by 
wooden block-houses, embankments and stockades, faced 
with ditches but not defended by artillery. The fort was 
also supported by a small battery opposite on Brush Island, 
by the sloops and brigs, the galleys and floating batteries, 
and other craft under Red Bank on the Jersey side, where 
Greene still held Fort Mercer; while a three gun battery 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 6l 

was also erected a little below at the mouth of Manto Creek. 
Varnum's Rhode Island brigade had likewise been sent 
down by Washington to support the fort in case of an as- 
sault by land. 

It is hardly my purpose here to enter into a detailed or a 
technical account of this memorable attack of six days and 
nights, and the equally celebrated heroic defence by the 
handful of brave men constituting the garrison. It has been 
already written and described by both historians and mili- 
tary writers, and has furnished the theme for many an elo- 
quent discourse on both American bravery and American 
patriotism. From the recently published exhaustive and 
valuable correspondence of the time between General Wash- 
ington and the other officers of the American forces, we ob- 
tain a clearer and more intelligent view than possessed pre- 
viously of the operations by both sides during, not only this 
brief time, but for the entire period covered by the years 
1777 and '78. Washington, with the main army at White 
Marsh, north of the city, was extremely anxious, by his own 
letters, that both Forts Mifflin and Mercer should be de- 
fended to the last extremity, and was in constant communi- 
cation with Varnum and others as to their condition and 
necessities. Although weak in numbers and deficient in all 
that was necessary for an army's maintenance, yet reinforce- 
ments of men, ammunition and supplies were forwarded by 
Washington as speedily as obtainable, and every precaution 
taken that could be devised for their support. Little, how- 
ever, could be done to counteract the enemy's operations. 
Generals Greene, Potter and Reed also proposed to relieve 
the fort by an attack on the British batteries in the rear, 
particularly on Province Island, which threatened the im- 
mediate safety of the entire garrison, but here the swampy 
nature of the ground and lack of proper energy in carrying 
out the plans of the commander-in-chief prevented the 
demonstration that would alone have saved the post, until the 



62 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

favorable opportunity was gone forever. It has been hitherto 
supposed that Washington was indifferent to the defence of 
these posts in the Delaware, or rather that he contented 
himself with suggestions for their continuance, to the officers 
immediately concerned. But the correspondence recently 
published from the original letters, confutes this conclusion 
absolutely. "Nothing," he himself says, "had taken up so 
much of his consideration and attention in this campaign as 
the relief of Fort Mifflin." As early as the beginning of the 
month in which the siege commenced, we find he writes to 
General Varnum, in command at Red Bank, urging him to 
use all the means in his power, and with the aid of all the 
men at his command, to continue the defence of the fort on 
Mud Island to the last extremity, and with this end in view to 
use all his efforts to preserve the necessary confidence and co- 
operation between Colonel Smith and Commodore Hazle- 
wood, the commanders respectively of the land and naval 
forces at Fort Mifflin. To these latter named officers he also 
issued similar orders for the discharge of their duties and in 
the same urgent terms he directs Colonel Greene and General 
Potter, in command on the Jersey and Pennsylvania shores 
respectively, to use all their efforts to prevent the enemy 
from breaking the blockade established in the river against 
the passage of their vessels through the different channels 
towards the city. On the sixth he again writes Varnum, 
that he "is convinced that the enemy are upon the point of 
making a grand effort upon Fort Mifflin. A person in the 
confidence of one of their principal artificers thinks it will 
be to-day or to-morrow ; " alluding, no doubt, to the informa- 
tion he had received of the joint attack proposed on that 
date, by Captain Montressor, Howe's chief engineer, and 
which is verified in this officer's excellent journal, published 
in full several years ago by the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. Washington then recommends that all the Conti- 
nental troops be placed in or near Forts Mercer and Miff- 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 63 

lin, while the militia be left to garrison the outstanding posts, 
and that the fleet be prepared to meet the floating batteries 
and fire-rafts of the enemy. On the eighth, two days later, 
he again repeats his warning and instructions to Varnum 
to immediately reinforce Fort Mifflin as strongly as pos- 
sible, and to give Commodore Hazlewood notice of the in- 
tended attack. 

On the morning of the tenth the guns of the enemy were all 
in position, all his preparations were completed and the bom- 
bardment opened. From every vessel of the foe in the river, 
some carrying seventy guns, from every battery located on 
land and water surrounding the works on every side, was 
poured in for six days and nights on the small but devoted 
garrison, a storm of shot and shell from cannon, mortar and 
howitzer (over three hundred in all). At the end of the 
first day its brave commander, Colonel Samuel Smith, of 
the Maryland Line, but a native of the state of Pennsylvania, 
with his engineer officer Major Fleury, fell disabled. Lieu- 
tenant Treat, in charge of the artillery, was killed, with 
many others also wounded, and the defences and barracks 
were greatly damaged. The command then devolved on 
Lieutenant-Colonel Russell of the Connecticut troops, who 
was succeeded the following day by the heroic Major Simeon 
Thayer of the Rhode Island Line, and who conducted the 
defence during the remainder of the siege. The best idea 
of the condition of affairs at the end of the first day's attack 
can probably be given from Varnum's brief dispatch to 
Washington, dated the nth of November. He writes: 
"Capt. Samuel Treat was killed this morning ; the enemy 
have battered down a great part of the stone wall." (This 
was the wall originally erected by Captain Montressor, who 
now superintended its destruction.) "The palisades and 
barracks are shattered. The enemy fire with twenty-four 
and thirty-two pounders. Colonel Smith is of opinion that 
the fort must be evacuated. A storm would not be dreaded, 



O4 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

but it appears impossible for the garrison to withstand point- 
blank shot" And in a second dispatch at midnight, he 
says : "I am, this moment, returned from Fort Mifflin. 
Every defence is almost destroyed. Poor Colonel Smith is 
on this shore (New Jersey) wounded. I have ordered the 
cannon least in use to be brought off, but have ordered the 
garrison to defend the fort, at all events, 'till your pleasure 
can be known, though they cannot hold out more than two 
days." Colonel Smith had reported to Varnum : "By to- 
morrow night everything will be levelled. Our block- 
houses next to the enemy are almost destroyed the N. W. 
block has but one piece of cannot fit for service, one side of 
it is entirely fallen down. They have begun on that next 
Read's House, and dismounted two pieces ; the palisades 
next the meadows are levelled ; the small battery next 
the gate torn up, and another battery also. The wall is 
broke through in different places. In fine, should they 
storm, as I think, we must fall. However, as it is your 
opinion, / will keep the garrison, though I love mine and 
my soldiers' lives." And Major Fleury adds : "The cannon 
of all our block-houses are dismounted except two. Some 
of our palisades are broken, but we can mend them every 
night," as was done. He also reports : "The garrison is so 
exhausted by watch, cold, rain and fatigue that their cour- 
age is very low, and in the last alarm one-half was unfit for 
duty. The garrison is a heap of ruins." 

Washington advised of the desperate state of affairs, now 
recommended to Varnum a diversion to relieve the garrison 
by a descent on the enemy's fortifications on Province Is- 
land, for the purpose of spiking their cannon and leveling 
their works there, which were the most destructive to Fort 
Mifflin, and that would, as he says, "considerably embarrass 
the enemy and gain us a great deal of time ;" he still look- 
ing anxiously for the repeatedly urged-for re-inforcements 
from the Northern Army (for which he had sent Hamilton 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 65 

in person to hasten), and without which he felt it hazardous 
to proceed in the extensive operations proposed against the 
enemy in Philadelphia. 

It is impossible here, however, in a limited time and space, 
to follow, in detail, the account of this heroic defence day by 
day. Men, palisades, fascines, and even the earth necessary 
for the repair of the defences, had continually to be trans- 
ported from the Jersey shore. The gallant defenders of the 
fort, consisting of a portion of a couple of regiments of the 
Maryland Line, fought on stubbornly day after day en- 
deavoring, when these supplies failed, as Fleury writes in 
his journal, "to accomplish the impossible task of repairing 
the breaches in the works with watery-mud alone, to make 
them capable of resisting the shot from the enemy's thirty- 
two pounders." 

The British had also now succeeded in driving back the 
gun-boats in the river after a faint-hearted resistance and 
establishing two floating batteries in the channel in the rear 
of the fort, between it and Carpenter's Island, and which 
threatened the speedy destruction of the entire garrison. 

On the I4th, Varnum writes to Washington that it is im- 
possible for him to make the desired attempt against Pro- 
vince Island, "having no troops but fatigued ones, and those 
in less force than the enemy's upon that place." Washing- 
ton immediately issued orders to General Wayne in his own 
army (the man for the post of danger and on whom he never 
relied in vain) to take command of the relieving column, 
consisting of his own division and Morgan's corps, to pro- 
ceed at once to Province Island and storm the enemy's lines, 
while the main army, having passed the Schuylkill, was to 
take post near the Middle Ferry (Market street) as a sup- 
port. There has been some doubt expressed as to the ap- 
parent contradiction of authorities on this interesting point 
and whether such a movement was finally decided upon 
(for it was undoubtedly contemplated, as we have seen, by 



66 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

the Commander-in-chief of the American Army) ; but I 
think it is perfectly clear, from both Washington's orders 
and General Wayne's positive statement in his letter to 
Richard Peters, the Secretary of War (dated November i8th), 
that such orders were actually issued, and preparations made 
for the expedition. "I had given orders," states Washing- 
ton, in his report to Congress on the i/th, "for the removal 
of the stores of the Army from the places before mentioned, 
viz : Easton, Bethlehem and Allentown, to Lebanon and 
other places in Lancaster county, which is, at any rate, 
more safe and convenient than where they were."* Had this 
proposed expedition been carried out, there is every reason 
to believe, from our knowledge of the leader and the plan 
proposed, it would have been successful and the fort would 
have been saved. Without apparently waiting for the long 
expected reinforcements from the north, Wayne proposed, 
he states, to make the attack on the enemy on the i6th, 
the very day following the evening on which the evacuation 
of Fort Mifflin took place. On such slender chances do the 
results of war often depend! General Nathaniel Greene re- 
ported only the day before the evacuation of the works, 
"the enemy are greatly discouraged by the fort's holding 
out so long, and it is the general opinion of the best of the 
citizens that the enemy will evacuate the city if the fort 
holds out till the middle of next week." 

We also have excellent authority for stating that the Brit- 
ish, notwithstanding their apparent success, had determined 
to abandon the attempt at reduction had the resistance of 
the Americans but continued a couple of days longer than 
it did, until they were advised of the condition of the fort by 
a deserter. But the garrison was exhausted. During the 
last one of the six days and nights of this memorable siege, 
over one thousand cannon shot were fired by the enemy, 

*See report of Commander-in-chief to Congress, of November 17, 1778; also Gen- 
eral Wayne's letter above cited. 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 6? 

until, as we have seen, not a palisade was left, the parapets 
were destroyed, the embrasures were ruined, the guns dis- 
mounted, and the barracks and block-houses burnt and 
leveled. Yet the gallant Thayer still remained faithfully at 
his post, though Colonel Smith crossing from Woodbury 
to the fort the night of the evacuation, reported it a heap of 
ruins to be defended only now with musketry in case of 
being stormed by the enemy. "When they do," he calmly 
adds, "I presume they will succeed ; our great dependence 
must be their being too much afraid to storm." But the 
floating battery of the enemy, formerly the "Empress of 
Russia," now styled the "Vigilant," armed with eighteen 
twenty-four pounders, and which had been silenced by the 
garrison, had, on the I4th, once more gotten into a new and 
more favorable position in the rear of the fort and on the 
side where the defences were weakest, and with her ally 
(the "Fury,"), completely commanded the fort and its occu- 
pants at their guns. Lying within one hundred yards of 
the works, with an incessant fire from her cannnon, as well 
as with hand grenades and musketry from the round-top, 
every man was killed who appeared upon the platforms in 
the fort, and in twenty-four hours thereafter Fort Mifflin, as 
a defensive work, virtually existed no longer. Of the garri- 
son of 300 or more defenders, 250 were either killed or 
wounded. At midnight, on the I5th, every defence and 
shelter being swept away, the indomitable Thayer and the 
remainder of his gallant band, having sent early in the same 
evening all their wounded comrades in advance to Fort 
Mercer, abandoned the ruins, but with the American flag 
still flying over all, and leaving the fort in flames, by their 
light crossed the Delaware to the friendly shelter of Red 
Bank. 

It was the most gallant defence yet seen during the Revo- 
lution, but Congress, by a strange, though not unusual over- 
sight, while honoring Smith, Fleury and Hazlewood also, 



68 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

gave no recognition whatever, for his heroism, to Thayer, 
of whom Colonel Smith wrote immediately after, in an- 
nouncing the fall of the fort: "Major Thayer defended it 
too bravely;" and General Varnum said: "It was impos- 
sible for an officer to possess more merit than Major Thayer." 
General Knox said, in writing to Colonel Lamb, that "the 
fire, the last day of the attack, exceeded, by far, anything 
ever seen in America," and "that the defence was as gallant 
as is to be found in history." Washington, himself, in his 
communication to Congress on the i/th inst, reporting the 
loss of the fort, speaks in the same terms of deserved praise 
of the conduct, which, to use his own words, "does credit 
to the American army and will ever reflect the highest honor 
upon the officers and men of the garrison." 

Communication was now opened between the British 
army and fleet and their investiture of six weeks was ended. 

If I have devoted more attention to this particular portion 
of the defence of the Delaware, I certainly think you will 
agree with me that from all sides of the question it is justi- 
fiable, both by reason, in a military sense, of its importance 
and in its effect upon the occupation of Philadelphia, as well 
as in the clearing up, as I have endeavored to do, though 
in an imperfect way I fear, the apparent contradiction in the 
statements made hitherto regarding the reasons for the final 
abandonment of the movement ordered by Washington for 
the relief of the ever hereafter historic Fort Mifflin. 

Events now rapidly succeeded each other. Five thousand 
British under Cornwallis were sent against Fort Mercer for 
a second attack. Leaving Philadelphia on the night of the 
1 8th of November he crossed the Schuylkill at the Middle 
Ferry (which was, by the way, the only one available), and 
took the road to Chester, surprising an American picket at 
the Blue Bell tavern near Darby. Marching all night he 
reached Chester on the morning of the iQth, crossed the 
Delaware to Billingsport, "the enemy making no secret of 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 69 

their intentions" (said Joseph Reed in a letter to Washing- 
ton) "to attack Red Bank, and saying they would storm it 
that night if practicable." At Billingsport, Cornwallis united 
with another division of three thousand men under Sir 
Thomas Wilson, sent by Clinton from New York, and from 
this point, the fortifications of which had been effectually 
destroyed in the preceding month as related, after its evacua- 
tion by Colonel Bradford and his force of Philadelphia and 
New Jersey militia, the enemy's column took up its march 
for Fort Mercer, three miles above. Although Washington 
had sent General Greene down to Varnum's relief at Red 
Bank, as soon as he received news of this proposed attack, 
the latter did not deem it prudent to wait for the support 
hurrying toward him under Greene, Lafayette and Hunt- 
ington, but abandoned his post and retreated in the direc- 
tion of Haddonfield. Cornwallis marched up the river bank 
to Fort Mercer, dismantled the fort and destroyed the works 
on the 2 1st (one month after its gallant defence), and then 
proceeded to Gloucester where he encamped and fortified 
himself. When Greene and Huntington came up with Var- 
num, the advisability of attacking the British was considered, 
but abandoned, and after some slight skirmishes between 
the opposing forces Cornwallis returned to Philadelphia and 
the American troops rejoined the main army under Wash- 
ington north of Philadelphia. 

My informant of the Howell family from whom I have 
already quoted, gives her clear recollections of Lafayette, 
Count Pulaski and others, whose troops were quartered in 
the neighborhood of Haddonfield at this time. The former, 
Lafayette, she remembers as wearing quite an amount of 
jewelry, being very polite and affable, and appeared to be 
held in high esteem by both his officers and men. Though 
but a child she recollects his expressing himself as delighted 
with the gallantry displayed by the Americans in attacking 
and driving back a picket of three hundred British troops 



/O THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

near Haddonfield. Pulaski wore a green uniform and tight 
fitting buckskin breeches. He was a very fine horseman 
and frequently displayed his horsemanship by leaping his 
horse over a fence in front of her mother's house, and giv- 
ing other exhibitions of his skill as a rider. But one more 
scene remained to be enacted in the local drama, and by 
a strange coincidence, in the same locality in which had 
occurred the first. The Delaware River was now fully 
open, and the American fleet which had assisted in the 
defence of both Forts Mifflin and Mercer, found itself 
in a cul-de-sac. Unable to maintain itself in its present 
position, in that both the forts named had been destroyed, 
equally unable to pass either up or down the river except 
under the guns of the British batteries ; measures were 
taken for its relief in accordance with a council of war held 
at Fort Mercer prior to its evacuation by Generals St. Clair, 
Knox and De Kalb. Orders were given by Commodore 
Hazlewood to the different vessels to endeavor to escape 
up the Delaware by the first favorable wind, passing beyond 
the city and its batteries on the eastern or Jersey side. The 
attempt was made accordingly on the nights of the ipth and 
2Oth of November. A portion of the fleet succeeded in es- 
caping, but some of the vessels were grounded and driven 
ashore, while still others, including the greater portion of 
the Continental fleet, and the floating batteries, were unable 
to follow. The wind baffled them, they were exposed to a 
raking fire from the enemy, and opposite Gloucester Point 
they were finally set on fire and abandoned ; seventeen ves- 
sels in all. 

"I walked down to the wharf at four o'clock this morn- 
ing" (is Robert Morton's entry in his diary for November 
2ist), "and seen all the American navy on fire, coming up 
with the flood tide and burning with the greatest fury. Some 
of them drifted within two miles of the town and were then 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIYER. 7 1 

carried back by the ebb tide. They burned nearly five 
hours. Four of them blew up." 

The defences of the Delaware were thus finally scattered 
to the winds. After a long and stubborn resistance the 
enemy had, for the time, full and undisputed possession of 
Philadelphia ; congress had fled to the interior of the State 
and the broken battalions of the American army took up 
their march from their camps at White Marsh and in New 
Jersey, toward their eventual winter quarters at Valley 
Forge. Early in the following spring (May 8th) the rem- 
nant of the American navy lying anchored in the Delaware 
off Bristol and Bordentown, together with much private 
property located at these points, was burnt by a marauding 
column of the enemy under Colonel Maitland. By this 
disaster over forty vessels in all were destroyed, including 
the Continental frigates "Washington" and "Effingham," 
the "Montgomery" and a number of others, which, with 
care and watchfulness, might possibly have been saved from 
loss. Early in the beginning of the following month (June), 
and even before the arrival of the peace commissioners from 
England, Sir Henry Clinton, the successor to Howe in com- 
mand (the latter having sailed for England on the 26th of 
May), had decided to evacuate the city, the occupation of 
which had been found both profitless and dangerous. Noti- 
fication was given to the principal citizens to the like effect, 
so that "all those who could not safely remain might pre- 
pare for flight." Notice was also given "that all deserters 
from the American army who desired to be sent to Eng- 
land, would receive passage," and many availed themselves, 
it was said, of the opportunity. Three regiments of British 
troops were sent across the Delaware at Cooper's Ferry as 
an advance guard and encamped in the neighborhood of 
Gloucester. From that time until the i8th, the upper re- 
doubts along the northern line of defence of the city were 
gradually evacuated and the forces withdrawn, a manoeuvre 



72 THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 

which was strongly condemned at the time by Montressor as 
hazardous to the rest of the army. On the day immediate- 
ly preceding the evacuation the British fleet dropped down 
the river with some three thousand refugees on board, car- 
rying with them all their possessions they could transport 
from the home of their lives, exiles forever, broken in for- 
tune and most of them with no definite career for the future. 

Early on the morning of the i8th of June, just one month 
after the dazzling pageant of the Mischianza, with the ac- 
count of which also you are doubtless familiar, the main 
body of the British Army moved out of Philadelphia and 
proceeding down towards the "Neck" embarked for the 
opposite shore. By ten o'clock the rear-guard had crossed 
to Gloucester Point, three miles below Philadelphia ; the city 
was finally abandoned to the advance of the American troops, 
who speedily took possession, following closely on the heels 
of the retiring foe and capturing the laggards, while the 
enemy's columns took up their march through the Jersey 
sands enroute for New York, followed by an immense 
wagon train it is said nearly twelve miles in length, much 
of it carrying the belongings of those other refugees who 
had decided to accompany the army, and who, as they set 
out upon their journey, paused to take a last look across 
the Delaware at their former homes, but possibly only to 
see the gallant Allan McLane and his partisan troopers gal- 
loping through the streets of the now deserted city. 

The British army, to quote from my previously cited in- 
formant, halted in Haddonfield two days to perfect its ar- 
rangements for continuing its march to New York. She 
speaks of her frequent opportunities of seeing this army and 
its distinguished commander, Sir Henry Clinton, with his 
generals, Lord Cornwallis and Sir William Erskine, who 
rode abreast at the head of the columns as they marched 
out of the town. The officers were resplendent in gold lace, 
trimmings and facings, and the men made a fine appearance, 



THE DEFENCES OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. 73 

in her eyes, arrayed in scarlet uniforms and white gaiters 
buttoned above their knees. She was much impressed with 
the appearance of the Scotch Highlanders as a body of fine, 
tall and powerful men, dressed in their plaids, kilts and bon- 
nets. While the army halted one of the Highland officers 
was quartered at her mother's house. He made a great pet 
of the little girl, allowing her to put on her head his velvet 
bonnet with its handsome drooping plumes, and dance up 
and down the room. She recollects that her mother had a 
long and earnest discussion with this officer, and it is her 
strong impression that he deplored the war against the 
colonies. The horses of the army were turned in the fields 
of standing grain ; the wheat at the time being ripe for the 
sickle. Discipline was well preserved, however, among the 
men, and everything was conducted with the strictest mili- 
tary precision ; even the pewter plates, knives and forks she 
remembers seeing washed and scoured till they shone, and 
then packed carefully away after each meal ready for in- 
stant departure. 

Washington had lost no time in pushing into Philadelphia, 
the city being re-occupied by a detachment of the Ameri- 
can forces the day following the evacuation by the British, 
and Arnold placed in command. The main army under the 
Commander-in-chief pressed forward rapidly in pursuit of 
the retreating enemy, crossing the Delaware at Coryell's 
Ferry and coming up with the British on the 2/th. Over- 
taken in his retreat, and finding his march impeded, Clinton 
turned and made his preparations for defence ; only, how- 
ever, to meet, at the hands of Washington and his pursuing 
patriot army, on the morrow, and but ten days after the 
evacuation of Philadelphia, with crushing defeat and disas- 
ter on the glorious battle field of MONMOUTH ! 



MATTHIAS AND JOHN HOLLENBACK'S LIST OF 
LOSSES BY THE INDIANS, &c.* 



A list of effects which the subscribers lost when the Indians made 
an Incursion on Westmoreland County, in the State of Connecticut, in 
the month of July, 1778. 





i Dwelling House with a 

large kitchen, . . . 400 

I ditto, 30 

i Pair of large oxen, . . 16 

I Pair ditto, 12 

i odd ox, 8 

i pair of 4 year old steers, 

I UK, (( 

I COW, 

I plow iron and devices, . 

i ox chain, 

i pair wedges and small 

rings, 

I ten plate stove with a long 

pipe, 10 

1 cutting box and knife, . I 

3 Feather beds, 12 

4 bedsteads with cords, . 3 

2 black walnut Tables, . , 3 
6 Flagbottomed chairs, . I 
I chest with lock and hinges I 
30 Ibs. tenpenny nails, . . i 
30 " shingle " . . 3 
10 dollars hard cash, . . 3 
200 " Continental do., 

according to scale, . 19 



o o 
o o 
00 

O O 
00 
O O 

00 
00 

00 

12 O 



O IO 



554 



o o 

o o 

o o 

o o 

o o 

16 o 

o o 

IO O 

o o 

o o 

o o 

8 o 



\ 



s. d. 

4 large sows with pigs, . . 480 

I year old barrow, ... I o o 

i Gun, i 16 o 

I Pan and copper Fry kettle, I o o 

I large Iron kettle, ... 200 

i small " " , . o 15 o 

3 Large Iron pots, ... 300 

30 small" " . , . . II o o 

i y z bbls. salted Shad, . . 3 12 o 

1 Foot [spinning] wheel, I 

large do., I 10 o 

8000 feet of Pine boards, . 16 o o 

20 barrel casks, . . . . , 400 

2 bbls. vinegar, 300 

I coat and 2 waist -coats, . 7 
2^ yds. blue cloth with 

Trimming, 800 

I pr. knit patern breeches, I 10 o 

1 silver watch 500 

10 bushels Rye, .... i 10 o 

2 acres oats, 200 

I pr. silver buckles, ... I 10 o 

i " boots, i o o 

300 ft. walnut boards, . . 140 



Half the damage done to 

two sawmills, ... 35 



Endorsement on the back in the handwriting of Matthias Hollenback ; the list appears 
to be in the hand of John Hollenback ; not signed by any person. 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

BY REV. DAVID CRAFT, D. D. 
READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, JANUARY 14, 1898. 



The various attempts of the French people to plant colo- 
nies on this continent is a chapter of great enterprise, of 
heroic self-denial, of marvelous patience and perseverance, 
of bright promise in the beginning, and of dismal failure in 
the end. The bold attempt of Champlain and other French 
governors in Canada to extend French rule, the patient toil 
and untold suffering of Jogues and other Jesuit priests in 
their almost futile efforts to christianize the Indians two- 
and-a-half centuries ago, have but few parallels of patient 
endurance and self-sacrifice in the world's history. The 
conspicuous failure of the attempt of Coligny to plant a 
colony in Florida is familiar to all readers of American his- 
tory. 

This paper is devoted to a brief account of another ex- 
periment to plant a French colony on American soil, not for 
the purpose of territorial aggrandizement to the Home Gov- 
ernment, nor for the acquisition of wealth, but to found an 
Asylum where their fellow countrymen, expatriated from 
their native country for political opinions, could find home 
and refuge in peace and safety. 

The American Revolution of 1776 was the first success- 
ful revolt of colonies in the New World against the Home 
Government in the Old, the beginning of the end of foreign 
domination on this continent, now almost completed. The 
two European governments most affected by this revolution 
were Great Britain, whose authority was overthrown, and 
France, her hereditary enemy, who seeing an opportunity 
to weaken the power of her rival and cripple her resources, 
sent liberal supplies of men and money to aid the struggling 
colonies in achieving their independence. After the close 



76 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

of the war many of these French soldiers returned to their 
homes deeply imbued with the ideas of political freedom 
which they had learned in our struggle to acquire it, and 
soon the words "Liberty" "Independence" and "Fraternity" 
became as familiar in France as they had been in America. 
The representatives of the new nation of the west were re- 
ceived in Paris with great enthusiasm, and Franklin, Adams, 
Jefferson and Washington were names as well known and 
as greatly revered in France as in America. When in the 
last decade of the last century France was swept by that 
political whirlwind known as the "French Revolution," 
America was the asylum and resting-place toward which 
loyalist and conservative turned with longing hope for shel- 
ter and safety. Many, forseeing what was likely to come, 
fled from France, some going to England, some to the 
French colony on the island of Hayti, and others to the 
United States. It has been estimated that no less than 
seventy thousand of the nobility, and a much larger num- 
ber of loyalists escaped from France at this period, many 
of them at great peril, and all at great trouble and sacrifice, 
for they left behind them all their estates which were sub- 
sequently confiscated by the revolutionary government, and 
in many instances their families, and fled for their lives. 

As early as 1630 a colony of French had obtained a foot- 
ing on the northwest coast of Hayti. By the treaty of Rys- 
wick, 1697, about one-third of the island was ceeded to 
France, and called San Domingo [St. Dominque], which, 
at the time of the French Revolution, had attained great 
prosperity. Hither many of the refugees from France fled. 
The population consisted largely of free blacks and of 
slaves upon the plantations, who, in ratio to the whites, 
were about as sixteen to one. The watchwords "Liberty," 
"Fraternity," "Independence," which had so thrilled the 
hearts of French bourgeois in the streets of Paris, found a 
responsive echo in the aspirations of the slaves of San Do- 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 77 

mingo. Insurrection followed. Under the leadership of 
Toussaint 1'Overture the revolution was successful, and 
many of the French planters, escaping from their wrecked 
plantations, fled to the United States, where they joined the 
refugees from the mother country. Some of them had 
friends here, others on the ground of the kindly public senti- 
ment at that time prevailing in this country toward France 
for her aid in achieving our independence, cast themselves 
upon the liberality of several of our public men, as they 
were without means of support and helpless to secure any. 
What to do with these impoverished and improvident gen- 
tlemen and their families, who had been accustomed to 
lives of luxury and ease, became a very serious question. 
Among the more prominent of these refugees were the Vis- 
count Louis Marie de Noailles and the Marquis Antoine 
Omer Talon. They, in consultation with John Keating, an 
Irishman by birth, formerly having large interests in San 
Domingo, but then a Philadelphia merchant, and becoming 
an extensive owner in Pennsylvania wild lands, and with 
Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution, and with 
John Nicholson, also a Philadelphia merchant and land 
speculator, entered into an association in which these five, 
Noailles, Talon, Keating, Morris and Nicholson were the 
partners, called the "Asylum Land Company," whose plan 
contemplated a stock consisting of a million acres of uncul- 
tivated land, and a certain sum of money, should afford 
these refugees a place of settlement, aid them in purchasing 
land as they could acquire the means for its cultivation. 
The land for which they secured warrants of survey from 
the State, extended southwesterly from the Susquehanna at 
Standing Stone, through Bradford and Sullivan counties 
into Lycoming. 

Of Messrs. Noailles and Talon whose public services, as 
well as their prominence in promoting the Asylum settle- 



78 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

ment, have given them considerable conspicuity, a brief 
sketch will here be given. 

The Viscount de Noailles, called, generally, by our people 
"The Count," born in Paris April 17, 1756, was the second 
son of Philippe de Noailles, Duke of Mouchy, a Marshal of 
France and soldier of some renown, guillotined June 27, 
1794. The Viscount, whose wife was sister to the wife of 
General Lafayette, was bred to the profession of arms, and 
was remarkable for his knowledge of military tactics, and 
the high degree of discipline acquired by the troops of his 
command, so that he was considered one of the best colonels 
of his time. He came to the United States in 1779 to as- 
sist the Americans in the war for independence, and was 
among the most distinguished of the young French officers 
in the army of Washington, by whom he was, a number of 
times, complimented for his bravery in general orders. At 
the battle of Yorktown, 1781, he was commissioned to re- 
ceive on the part of the French the surrender of Cornwallis 
and negotiate the terms of capitulation. 

On the conclusion of peace he returned to France, where, 
as a reward for his services, he was offered a promotion 
which he refused. "At the epoch of the Revolution he ac- 
cepted its principles, and was counted among the most 
zealous defenders of the popular cause." He was a deputy 
of the nobility to the States General, May, 1789, from the 
bailiwick of Nemours, and subsequently a member of the 
National Assembly, where, on the 4th of August, that year, 
he proposed those celebrated acts by which the whole Feu- 
dal system, with its long train of abuses and privileges, was 
abolished. He exerted a powerful influence in military 
affairs, and was active in the re-organization of the army 
and colonel of the regiment of the Chasseurs d'Alsace, and 
Field Marshal commanding at Sedan. At length, in com- 
mon with all true Republicans, he fell under the displeasure 
of Robespierre, by whom he was condemned to death and 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 79 

his property confiscated. He resigned his command May, 
1792, and fled to England, thence came to the United States, 
and took up his residence in Philadelphia, where his former 
active service in the American Revolution brought him into 
intimate relation with the leading men of the country. 

In his "Journal of an Excursion to the U. S. of N. A. in 
the Summer of 1794," Mr. Wansey thus alludes to the Vis- 
count. Under date of June 8, he says : "I dined this day 
with Mr. Bingham, to whom I had a letter of introduction. 
* * * There dined with us Mr. Willing, President of the 
Bank of the United States, the father of Mrs. Bingham, 
Monsieur Callot, the exiled governor of Guadaloupe, and 
the famous Viscount de Noailles, who distinguished him- 
self so much in the first National Constituent Assembly 
on August 4, 1789, by his five propositions, and his speech 
on that occasion for the abolition of feudal rights. He is 
now engaged in forming a settlement with his unfortunate 
countrymen about sixty-five miles north of Northumberland 
town. It is called 'Asylum,' and stands on the eastern 
branch of the Susquehanna. His lady, the sister of Madame 
LaFayette,* with his mother and grandmother, were all guil- 
lotined, without trial, by that arch-villain Robespierre." In 
company with Mr. Talon he succeeded in establishing the 
Asylum colony, and was a prominent share-holder in the 
Asylum Company. On the accession of Napoleon his estates 
were restored to him and he returned to France and re- 
entered the military service in 1803 with the rank of Briga- 
dier General, and accepted a command under Rochambeau 
in San Domingo. He was mortally wounded in an engage- 
ment with an English corvette off the coast of Cuba, Jan- 
uary 9, 1 804. His soldiers, by whom he was greatly be- 
loved, encased his heart in a silver box which they attached 
to their flag. 

*The escape of Madame LaFayette has been lately detailed with great vividness by 
Anna L. Bicknell, in the Century Magazine, October and November, 1897. 



8O THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

The above was furnished me by the late Marquis Eman- 
uel Henri V. de Noailles, who, at one time, represented the 
French government at Washington, supplemented by ex- 
tracts from the Biographic Universele, Paris, and Century 
Dictionary of names. 

Omer Talon was born in Paris, January 20, 1760 (one 
authority says 1740), of one of the most illustrious families 
of the French magistracy. At the age of sixteen he was 
accepted as an advocate, and was civil-lieutenant, or advo- 
cate-general, at the Chatelet [cha-t-le] when the revolution 
of 1789 broke out, and where he did his duty as a just and 
courageous magistrate, and was distinguished for his fear- 
less and unflinching defence of the royal prerogative. For 
this he was accused and imprisoned, but the accusations 
against him could not be sustained and he was discharged. 
He was appointed deputy substitute from Chartres to the 
National Assembly, but never took his seat. The next 
year he was compromised in the flight of Louis XVI, ar- 
rested and imprisoned for a month, when he was released. 
He then became one of the faithful advisers of the king, 
with whom he held frequent conferences, always at night, 
and labored earnestly to attach powerful and influential 
friends to the royal cause. It is known that the unfortunate 
monarch contemplated appointing him keeper of the Privy 
Seal, but was so bitterly opposed by some who were in close 
alliance with the crown that he desisted. The king, how- 
ever, as a mark of personal friendship and confidence, pre- 
sented him with his portrait, with this autograph inscription : 
" Given by the King to M. Talon, Sept. 7, 1791." He was 
again compromised by a letter found in the famous " Iron 
Chest," and ordered to be arrested by the Revolutionary 
Assembly. He managed to keep himself secreted from the 
police for several months, part of the time in Paris, and part 
of the time at Havre, until his friends finding an American 
ship about to sail for the United States, he was put into a 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 8 1 

large cask, carried on board and secreted in the hold of the 
vessel until out to sea, when he was released from confine- 
ment. In Philadelphia he kept open house for his distressed 
countrymen, and when the settlement at Asylum had been 
determined on, he became one of its active promoters, and 
the general manager of the business there. He returned to 
France under the Directory, when, in 1804, he was engaged 
in a royalistic plot, for which he was transported to the Isle 
St. Marguerite, and did not obtain his liberty until 1 807. 
His mind began to fail under the pressure of repeated pri- 
vations and disappointments, and he died at Grez, August 
1 8, 1811, in the fifty-second year of his age. 

In order to find a suitable place for the proposed settle- 
ment, M. Charles Felix Bui Boulogne, who could speak 
English well, and Major Adam Hoops, then residing at 
Westchester, Pa., who had been an officer on General Sul- 
livan's staff when on his expedition against the Indians in 
1779, and familiar with the Susquehanna valley from Wilkes- 
Barre to the state line, were sent up the river on a tour of 
observation. Under date of August 8, 1793, Robert Morris 
addressed the following letter to Matthias Hollenback of 
Wilkes-Barre, Mr. Dunn of Newton [Elmira, N. Y.], and 
Messrs. Tower & Co. of Northumberland, and to any other 
persons to whom "Mr. Boulogne, Mr. Adam Hoops, and 
the gentlemen in their company may apply," saying: 
"Should Mr. Boulogne find it necessary to purchase pro- 
visions or other articles in your neighborhood for the use 
of himself and his company, I beg that you will assist him 
therein, or should you supply him yourself and take his 
drafts on this place, you may rely that they will be paid, 
and I hold myself accountable. Any services it may be in 
your power to render this gentleman or his companions I 
shall be thankful for." From an endorsement on the copy 
found among Judge Hollenback's papers it would appear 
that the party was in Wilkes-Barre the 27th of August, 1793. 



82 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

The plain called " Shewfeldt's Flats," containing about 
two thousand acres, lying on the right bank of the Susque- 
hanna opposite the mouth of Rummerfield creek, was fixed 
upon as a suitable site for the settlement. The soil for the 
most part is good, the place one of great natural beauty. 
The river, with a beautiful curve, sweeps majestically down 
on two sides, while on the other two the hills are high and 
steep, shutting in the plain like the floor of a vast amphi- 
theatre. It was included in the Susquehanna Company's 
township of Standing Stone, but called sometimes Shaws- 
boro, sometimes Wooster. Among the German Palatinates 
who emigrated from the "Mohawk country" in New York 
and settled along the Tulpehocken in Pennsylvania in the 
early years of the last century, Rudolph Fox stopped on 
Towanda Flats, Anthony Rummerfeldt on the creek which 
bears his name, and Peter Shewfeldt on the opposite flats. 
Finding an adverse title to his lands, Shewfeldt removed to 
the West Branch, where he was killed in one of the Indian 
raids upon that country. 

Prior to the Revolutionary war the Susquehanna Com- 
pany had surveyed lots on both sides of the river. Simon 
Spalding and Henry Birney had made settlements in Stand- 
ing Stone, and Justus Gaylord, Perrin Ross, James Forsyth 
and perhaps others were occupying lands on Shewfeldt's 
flats. In August, 1793, when the place was visited by the 
French explorers, they found there were eight lots of three 
hundred acres each, occupied by the New England people, 
as follows : next the river on the north, No. 21, was Robert 
Alexander, while his son Robert held the island. Charles 
Townley had the next two lots on the south, Nos. 19 
and 20; next, another lot of Robert Alexander, No. 
18; then Adelphi, son of Perrin Ross, deceased, No. 17; 
then the Forsyth lot, which had been sold at sheriff's sale 
to Rosewell Welles, and by him conveyed to Ebenezer 
Skinner, who then was living on it, No. 16; the heirs of 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 83 

Robert Cooley, No. 15, while one of the sons .of the elder 
Justus Gaylord held the lot on the southern end of the 
plain, No. 14. At this time it will be remembered land 
titles through all of northern Pennsylvania were in great 
uncertainty, and questions relating to them were before the 
legislature and courts of the state for adjustment. In order 
to obtain an unquestionable title to the land it was deemed 
advisable to secure both the Connecticut and Pennsylvania 
claim. The former was entrusted to Judge Hollenback, 
who was personally acquainted with the parties, and the 
latter was undertaken by Mr. Morris. The colonists also 
depended on Mr. Hollenback to cash their drafts and Bills 
of credit, and to procure for them nearly all of their supplies. 
The matter of first consideration was to extinguish all claims 
and secure an undisputed title to the lands they had selected. 
The following full abstracts of a long letter written by Mr. 
Morris to Judge Hollenback, under date of October 9, 1793, 
will throw light on this part of the transaction. He says : 
"Messrs. De Noailles and Talon desire to make the pur- 
chase of the eight lots or tracts that compose the tract of 
land called the Standing Stone, and also the island or islands 
which they mentioned to you, but they will have all or 
none ; this they insist on as an absolute condition, as you 
will see by a copy of their observations on nine articles 
extracted from the contents of your letter to Mr. Talon. 
They do not object to the prices or terms of payment stated 
in your letter, but you will perceive, by their decision, to 
have all or none, that it will be necessary to make condi- 
tional contracts with each of the parties, fixing the terms 
and binding them to grant conveyances of their rights upon 
the performance of the conditions by you on your part, but 
reserving to yourself, for a reasonable time, the right to 
make the bargain valid or to annul it. If you can get the 
whole of them under such covenants under hands and seals, 
you can then make the whole valid, and proceed to perform 



84 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

the conditions and take the conveyances in the name of Mr. 
Talon, but should any of the parties refuse to sell, or rise 
in their demands so that you cannot comply with them, you 
can, in such case, hold the rest in suspense until Mr. Hoops 
or you send an express to inform me of all particulars, which 
will give my friends an opportunity to consider and deter- 
mine finally. 

"Mr. Adam Hoops will deliver this letter. He possesses 
my confidence, and will be glad to render the best assist- 
ance or service in his power upon occasion. He must, 
however, act under you, for in any other character the Con- 
necticut men would consider him a new purchaser and rise 
in their demands. He will go with you, if you choose, or 
do anything you may desire to accomplish the object in 
view. You and he will, therefore, consult together as to 
the best mode of proceeding, and I must observe, that 
altho' Mr. Talon has agreed to the prices and terms de- 
manded by the Connecticut claimants, I cannot help think- 
ing them very dear ; and more so, as we have been obliged 
to purchase the Pennsylvania title, which Mr. Hoops will 
inform you of. I hold it then as incumbent on you to ob- 
tain the Connecticut rights upon the cheapest terms that 
is possible, and you may, with very great propriety, let 
them know, if you think it best to do so, that unless they 
will be content with reasonable terms, that we will bring 
ejectment against them, or rather that you will do it, and 
try the strength of Title, in which case they will get nothing. 
Whatever you do must be done soon. Winter is approach- 
ing, and these Gentlemen are exceedingly anxious to com- 
mence the operations necessary to the settlement they in- 
tend to make, but they will not strike a stroke until the 
whole of the lots are secured for them, and, unless the 
whole are obtained, they give up the settlement and will go 
to some other part of America. 

"I engage to make good tae agreements and contracts you 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 85 

may enter into consistently with your letter of the I4th of 
September last to Mr. Talon, and with his observations 
thereon, a copy of which Mr. Hoops will give to you if de- 
sired, and to enable you to make the payments according 
to those stipulations which you may enter into in that re- 
spect, I shall also pay the order for a Thousand Dollars al- 
ready given you on their account. The settlement which 
these gentlemen meditate at the Standing Stone is of great 
importance to you, therefore you ought, for your own in- 
terest, and the interest of your country, to exert every 
nerve to promote it. They will be of great service to you, 
and you should render them disinterestedly every service 
possible. Should they fail of establishing themselves at the 
Standing Stone, there is another part of Pennsylvania which 
I should prefer for them, and if they go there, I will do any- 
thing for them that I possibly can." 

Mr. Hollenback heartily entered into the plans of Mr. 
Morris and his friends. With much tact and patience he 
secured the Connecticut titles of the settlers on the ground. 
The imperfect manner in which conveyances were at that 
time often written, and the frequent neglect of placing them 
on record, makes it now impossible to know just how much 
Mr. Hollenback was obliged to become responsible for in 
the purchase. The prices varied from 300 to 50 Penn- 
sylvania currency or from $800 to $133. The eight lots at 
the lowest figure would cost more than $2000. One thing 
is certain, as late as August 10, 1814, the Asylum Company 
owed him for a large part of the money advanced by him, 
because the Company had no means to pay the notes he 
had given for the lots purchased for them. Of the sum he 
had thus advanced he reminds the company in a letter of the 
the above date he had received $648.60, which was but a 
small part of what was due him ; that while willing to give 
his time and trouble, he thought that as the Company was 



86 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

fast selling their lands he ought to be paid for the money 
advanced. 

I have been unable to learn anything about the Pennsyl- 
vania title to Asylum. The place of settlement having been 
determined and the titles secured, Mr. Boulogne purchased, 
early in October, the possession of Simon Spalding, a man 
of considerable prominence in this valley during the Revo- 
lutionary war, who had before the war made a settlement 
on the lower part of present Standing Stone, but after set- 
tled at Sheshequin, and at once began to make preparations 
to receive the colonists. In addition to the clearings made 
and houses built by the former settlers, much had to be 
done. Trees were felled, clearings made, the town plat was 
surveyed, carpenters, masons and laborers were employed 
in the erection of houses, fences were built, and the general 
work of clearing and fitting up the ground was carried on 
as fast as the fine autumn weather would permit. The fol- 
lowing letter from Mr. Boulogne to Judge Hollenback, by 
the hand of Joseph C. Town of Wyalusing, and who erected 
the first saw-mill on Wyalusing creek, under date October 
19, 1793, from Standing Stone, affords a glimpse of the 
activities at Asylum at this time. He writes : 

" I received by Mr. Town the favors of yours dated the 
nth instant, and your boat also arrived here a few days 
after. All that was enumerated in your bill of lading hath 
been delivered, and you are therefore credited on my account 
of ^48.10.2, this currency, when you'll send me the price 
of the ox-cart, cows and Bell, I shall do the same. 

"The cows are exceeding poor, and hardly give any milk, 
but I hope they v/ill come to, and therefore we will see one 
another on that account, but I cannot help observing to you 
that your blacksmith hath not treated us well ; the chains 
and tools are hardly worth anything. The iron is so bad 
or so tender that it breaks like butter. I wish you to men- 
tion it to him for the future. The difficulty of having the 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 8/ 

buildings and many articles of provisions in proper time 
hath determined us and the gentlemen in Philadelphia to 
lessen them, and as Mr. Keating hath told you, the expenses 
of course will be lessened ; therefore I have not sent you 
the draft of 3000 dollars which we spoke of when I was in 
Wilkes-Barre, and one [d'Autremont] of the gentlemen 
who will deliver you this letter is going to Philadelphia, 
and if you are not gone will be very glad of your company 
will, as well as you, see Mr. Talon and de Noailles in that 
city and send or bring their answer on things relating to 
the expenses. 

" I will be obliged to you to deliver to the other gentle- 
man, who is coming back here directly, as much money as 
you possibly can, or the 1250 dollars which remain in your 
hands for my drafts on Robert Morris, Esqr., and you'd 
take his receipt and charge it to my account. 

"You may also make me debtor for the sum of .13.7.6 
which Mr. Joshua Whitney hath given me for your account 
and of which you'll dispose according to the note herein 
enclosed, having credited you here of the same. 

"Esqr. Hancock hath not yet concluded his Bargain with 
Gaylord and Skinner ; you know it is of the greatest im- 
portance to have it concluded, as well as the use of Ross, 
otherwise it will stop me here all at once ; the gentlemen 
in Philadelphia being determined to have the whole or none 
at all, or to reject the whole purchase from Mr. Morris. In 
your letter you speak to me of having bought from Mr. 
Ross the house and part of the land, but you don't tell me 
the quantity of land. I hope you have concluded the whole, 
and beg on you to say something to me on that account in 
your letter, and explain it well, because according to your 
answer I shall either go on with the buildings or stop them 
directly. 

" In buying from Mr. Ross you must absolutely buy the 
crop which is in the ground. Everybody here is sorry you 



88 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

had not done it so for the other purchase, because it keeps 
us one year entirely without enjoying our property. I have 
received the cloth that was over Mr. Talon's boat, but you 
have forgot to send me by your boat the frying-pan, salt, 
axes, &c., that Mr. Ross hath return to you ; be also kind 
enough to send by the first opportunity the sack of things 
belonging to Michael, which by mistake I left or sent at 
your house." 

From the phrase "everybody here" in the above letter it 
may be inferred that Mr. Boulogne was accompanied by 
some of his countrymen ; if so, their names have not been 
found. 

On the 1 3th of November the Viscount de Noailles visited 
the settlement and remained two or three days. While here 
the plan of the town was fixed upon, and it received the 
name of Asylum, which it has ever since retained. The 
plain on which the village was built is nearly a parallelo- 
gram whose longer side is north and south, its north and 
east sides being bounded by the river. Five streets were 
laid out running due north and south, next to the westerly 
one being the present road from the house of Mrs. B. La- 
porte to the Hagerman place. These were crossed at right 
angles by nine other streets, each street being fifty feet in 
width. Near the center of the plat was an open square 
about one hundred and forty by seventy rods, containing 
about sixty acres. The farms of Laporte, Gordon and Mil- 
ler corner upon this square. On the plat were surveyed 
four hundred and thirteen house lots of about one acre each, 
the most eligible of which were on the northernmost east 
and west street, which has since been washed away by the 
river. There were also surveyed on the west and adjoining 
the town plat seventeen lots of five acres each, and fifteen 
lots of ten acres each, which were called town lots. In ad- 
dition there were purchased of the Asylum Company, by 
subscription, one hundred thousand acres on the Loyal Sock 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 89 

Creek, twenty-five thousand of which (sixty warrants) were 
divided into lots of four hundred acres each, called town 
shares, of which, when any part was cleared and enclosed 
with a fence by a subscriber, he received nine dollars per 
acre out of a common fund. 

Mr. Boulogne was bending all of his energies to get houses 
in readiness for the emigrants in the early spring. In this 
he was greatly favored by the fine open weather which con- 
tinued until near Christmas. The houses were mostly two 
stories in height, built of hewed logs, with cellar, and roofed 
with shingles. Trees were felled, timber hewed, cellars dug 
and walled, employing a large number of masons, carpen- 
ters and day laborers, many of whom were sent up from 
Wilkes-Barre, while much of their supplies, including pro- 
visions and building material, were procured by Judge Hol- 
lenback and sent up the river on Durham boats. The dis- 
tance is about seventy-five miles, and it required four or 
five days to make the trip. Ignorance of our language and 
methods of business, scarcity of money in circulation, which 
sometimes caused delay in cashing drafts and bills of credit, 
the considerable distance from their base of supplies, all 
caused unavoidable delays, misunderstandings and vexa- 
tions. It is not surprising that a little disappointment and 
petulance even sometimes should manifest itself. In one of 
his letters to Mr. Hollenback, in which he expresses disap- 
pointment in not receiving all the money he expected, Mr. 
Boulogne says : "I believe that I ought to know on what 
ground I am to stand, particularly having business with so 
many hands from all quarters for work, and being deter- 
mined to take no engagements that I could not fulfill." 

On the 3Oth of November Mr. Boulogne writes : " Mr. 
Dupetit Thouars with all his hands arrived here yesterday, 
and also Mr. Periault." Of how many the party consisted 
we are not told, but that the houses were not ready for 
them is certain, for in a letter to Mr. Hollenback he is asked 



QO THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

to send up a number of Franklin stoves with pipe, since the 
weather had been so cold the masons could not build chim- 
neys ; also window frames, seasoned lumber, nails, hinges, 
&c. Aristide Aubert Du-petit Thouars, or the "Admiral," 
the name by which he was most frequently known by the 
people about Asylum, was in many respects the most re- 
markable man in the settlement. He was born in 1760, 
educated in the military school of Paris, and became Post 
captain in the French army. Of a frank and generous 
disposition, and fond of adventure, he was very popular 
with his companions at school and in arms. He was in the 
French naval service during a war with England, and after 
the peace was engaged in cruises to England and elsewhere. 
Later he became greatly interested in the fate of the missing 
navigator, La Prerouse, and at great personal expense and 
sacrifice, he fitted out an expedition to find the unfortunate 
adventurers. He sailed in September, 1792, but had hardly 
began his voyage when a fatal malady broke out among his 
men and carried off a third of them, which determined him 
to put into the nearest harbor the island of Ferdinand de 
Noronha. Here the Portuguese seized his vessel, arrested 
and sent him a prisoner to Lisbon, where he underwent a 
captivity of some duration. Immediately on his release he 
came to America, when, being acquainted with M. de No- 
ailles, he was induced to come to Asylum. His fine spirit, 
genial temper, benevolent disposition and chivalrous bearing 
made him beloved and respected by all who knew him. 
None of the French people are so well remembered, and of 
none are so many anecdotes related as of the "Admiral." 
While at Asylum he was the guest of Mr. Talon. Disdain- 
ing to be the idle recipient of his host's bounty, at his request 
a lot of four hundred acres of land, where the present bor- 
ough of Dushore now stands, was assigned to him. Single- 
handed literally (he had lost an arm in an attack upon a 
pirate ship) and alone, several miles beyond any other 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 9 1 

clearing, in a dense unbroken wilderness, near what has 
since been called the Frenchman's spring, he built his 
shanty and commenced his plantation. A number of years 
afterward, the late Hon. C. F. Welles of Wyalusing, in com- 
pany with Mr. John Mozier, the owner of the tract, discov- 
ering his clearing and knowing the history of this remarka- 
ble man and his courageous enterprise, suggested "Dushore," 
the common pronunciation of the Admiral's name by Amer- 
icans, as an appropriate name for the new village then just 
springing up, a name which it has ever since borne. 

Among the numerous anecdotes related of Du-petit 
Thouars the following are characteristic : Returning one 
day from his woodland home when on the top of the moun- 
tain overlooking Asylum he met a man nearly naked, who 
told him he had just escaped from captivity among the In- 
dians, whereupon the Admiral gave him his only shirt, but- 
toned his coat to conceal the loss, and returned to M. Talon's. 
At tea that evening, the room being very warm, the Admi- 
ral was in a profuse perspiration ; it was suggested that he 
would be more comfortable if he unbuttoned his coat. 
Thanking his host for his attention, with true French po- 
liteness he protested that he was only comfortable too 
proud to expose his poverty and too modest to tell of his 
benevolence. His want was soon discovered and supplied 
in a way to save him from mortification. Too proud to 
speak of his need of better apparel, his sensitiveness was 
respected by some one entering his room after he had re- 
tired, and quietly exchanged the worn articles for better 
ones to which no allusion was made. The Duke de la 
Rochefoucauld de Liancourt returned from his visit to 
Asylum via Niagara Falls, accompanied by Messrs. Blacons 
and Du-petit-Thouars, the former on horseback, the latter 
on foot, protesting all the time that he much preferred this 
to riding, simply because he was too high-spirited to wish 
to appear to be dependent upon others. On the revocation 



92 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

of the decree of expatriation against the "emerges," he was 
among the first to return to France, and was strongly rec- 
ommended by the most noted naval captains for a place in 
the French navy. It is said of him that when he presented 
himself before the Minister of Marine to receive his com- 
mission, the Minister said to him : "You have but one hand, 
you ought to go on the retired, not on the active list." Du- 
petit-Thouars, proudly rising and stretching forth the hand- 
less stump, replied : " True, sir, I have given one hand for 
France, and here is another for her service." He received 
his commission. When the expedition to Egypt was pro- 
posed, he was placed in command of "Le Tonnant," an old 
vessel of eighty guns. Having reached its destination, the 
fleet was unwisely, and against the judgment of Du-petit- 
Thouars, detained in the roadstead of Aboukir. He fought 
with great bravery against the already victorious enemy, 
and fell just at the close of the engagement, August I, 1798. 

On the 9th of December Mr. Talon arrived at Asylum 
and took charge of affairs there, although for some time 
Mr. Boulogne carried on the correspondence. Workmen 
continued to arrive until the 23d, when the weather be- 
came so severe that all operations were suspended until 
the following spring. Several buildings were completed 
except chimneys, and for these were substituted Franklin 
stoves and pipe, so that the winter was spent in them with 
some comfort. Mr. Talon had sent to Catawissa a consid- 
erable quantity of supplies for the settlement, to be brought 
up from there by boat. The lateness of the season and the 
amount of ice in the river created great anxiety in the minds 
of the settlers lest the goods would be retained until spring 
or lost altogether, which was removed a few days later when 
the boats containing them arrived safely at Asylum. 

With the opening spring active business was renewed at 
Asylum, navigation was resumed on the Susquehanna, and 
the emigrants who had been spending the winter in Phila- 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 93 

delphia began to arrive. Of these some were of noble birth, 
several had been connected with the king's household, a few 
belonged to the secular clergy, i. e., had not assumed mo- 
nastic vows, some were soldiers, others were keepers of 
cafes, merchants and gentlemen ; few, if any, belonged to 
the laboring class, and none were agriculturists. They 
were Parisians by birth, had spent their lives in the city, 
were accustomed to its ease and its luxuries, but knew 
nothing about clearing land, nor of the hardships, toil and 
privation to which the early settler in a new country is ex- 
posed. It must have been a sad sight as these French gen- 
tlemen looked for the first time upon their wilderness home. 
The rude log house with its narrow quarters, half hidden in 
the woods, the small clearing on which the stumps were 
still standing, no roads but a log path for oxen and sled, 
must have presented a strong contrast to these city-bred 
gentlemen and ladies to the luxurious homes to which they 
had been accustomed. No sooner, however, were they set- 
tled in their new homes than they set about to improve 
their land and make themselves comfortable. They did not 
stop in simply providing for present necessities, and volun- 
tarily subjecting themselves to some inconveniences ; they 
expended their means lavishly for improvements which 
never contributed to their welfare, and a style of living 
which was for them exceedingly expensive, and surrounded 
themselves with many of the luxuries which they had for- 
merly enjoyed. 

The Asylum Land Company, which had been formed 
the previous autumn, was now more fully organized, and 
"Articles of Association" were entered into under date April 
22, 1794, between Robert Morris, on behalf of himself and 
others, his associates, of one part, and John Nicholson, on 
behalf of himself and others, his associates, of the other 
part. The object is declared to be the "settling and improv- 
ing one or more tracts of country within the State of 



94 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

Pennsylvania," to which they had acquired title. The affairs 
of the company were to be controlled by a Board of Man- 
agers, the lands surveyed and agents appointed to secure 
their settlement. It will be remembered that at this time 
there was a perfect craze of speculation in Pennsylvania 
wild lands, and men, some of whom were the leading spirits 
of this company, were embarking all their means and all 
their credit in the purchase of lands from the State. They 
thought they saw here fabulous sums of money to be se- 
cured, but instead lost alt. The one million acres of which 
the capital stock of the company consisted was divided into 
five thousand shares of two hundred acres each. 

A year later, April 25, 1795, Nicholson having purchased 
the interest of Mr. Morris in the company, new articles of 
association were formed by which the title to the lands was 
vested in two or more trustees chosen by the Board of Man- 
agers, who were John Nicholson, Louis M. de Noailles, 
William Hammond and James Gibson. The capital stock 
and number of shares remained unchanged, further pur- 
chases of land were prohibited, and an annual dividend of 
thirty dollars per share was guaranteed to each proprietor. 
Jared Ingersoll and Matthew Clarkson, both of Philadelphia, 
were chosen trustees under this arrangement. 

The company did not prove to be as successful as antici- 
pated. The dividends which were to arise from the sale of 
the land could not be paid. Aside from Messrs. Morris 
and Nicholson only two thousand shares, representing four 
hundred thousand acres, had been taken October 26, 1801, 
when the company was again reorganized on account "of 
the inability of Robert Morris and the late John Nicholson 
to perform their covenants therein contained, arising from 
pecuniary embarrassments and judgments obtained against 
them." September I, 1808, Mr. Clarkson having deceased, 
at a meeting of the Board of Managers of the Company, the 
surviving trustee, Mr. Ingersoll, was directed to convey the 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 95 

trusteeship to Archibald McCall, John Ashley and Thomas 
Ashley in trust for the use of Asylum Company. This 
trust deed, conveying all and singular, the lands, tenements, 
hereditaments forming the common stock of funds of the 
said Asylum Company, wherever situated, was executed 
November 3, 1808. As the country covered by the com- 
pany's lands began to be settled much of them were sold. 
On the 4th of March, 1843, tne residue of their lands, con- 
sisting of from ten to twenty thousand acres, was sold to 
Hon. William Jessup of Montrose, who subsequently con- 
veyed the same to Michael Meylert of LaPorte, the title to 
some of which is held by the trustees of his estate. 

Mr. Boulogne had obtained the agency for the sale of a 
large tract of land (15,360 acres) on the Chenango river, a 
few miles above Binghamton, N. Y., at a place called the 
"Butternutts," which he undertook to dispose of to French 
emigrants to the United States. Madam Marie Jeane d'Ohet 
d'Autremont, whose husband, a pronounced royalist, had 
been guillotined by the Revolutionists in Paris, entered with 
some others into contract with Mr. Boulogne at Paris, March 
27, 1792, for several thousand acres of this land, and soon 
after sailed for this country, where, September 12, 1792, 
Mr. Boulogne executed to them a deed for the land, and 
she with her three sons Louis Paul, aged 22, Alexander 
Hubert, aged 16, and Augustus Francois Cecile, aged 9, 
and with her brother-in-law, Antoine Bartolemy Louis Le- 
Fever, and W. Brevost, went upon the purchase. Log 
houses were built and eight families moved upon this tract 
in the autumn. Here their surroundings were exceedingly 
unpleasant. Their houses were built in thick woods where 
not even a corn patch was cleared. An Indian reservation 
near by brought them into a very undesirable neighbor- 
hood, while all of their provision had to be carried up from 
Chenango Point, a distance of several miles. To add to 
the discomfort of their situation the title to their land was 



g THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

called in question, which later they either abandoned or sold 
for a song. After the settlement at Asylum was begun, it 
was visited, October i8th, 1793, by Mr. Louis d'Autremont 
on his way to Philadelphia. The following summer Mrs. 
d'Autremont and her three sons came to Asylum, and on 
making known their condition to Mr. Talon he sent up a 
boat to the Butternutts and brought down the entire colony, 
which, while adding to the numbers, was no addition to the 
efficiency at Asylum. Almost every week witnessed new 
additions to the settlement. Wherever the separated roy- 
alists happened to be they began to think how they might 
reach the new town on the Susquehanna to which they 
looked as their Asylum and resting place. The problem 
was to reach Wilkes-Barre, when they expected Judge Hol- 
lenback would see them safely to the desired haven. In a 
letter dated Pottsgrove, 25 September, 1794, Mr. James 
Montulle writes to Mr. Hollenback as follows : "The follow- 
ing articles I beg you will be so kind as to secure in your 
store, to be forwarded to Asylum to Mr. Keating, by the 
next opportunity, as I intend to move up very soon with a 
part of my family. I should like to know if the water will 
allow to go up in a small boat, and whether such thing 
might be to proceed at Wilkes-Barre. In case the water 
being too low for boats, would it be a matter of possibility 
to hire a canoe to carry one ton ? I should take it as a 
great kindness, Sir, if you will take the trouble to give me 
such information, and likewise if horses fetch a good price 
in your place, as when I move up I shall have two capital 
horses to spare." He enumerates his effects as consisting 
of three chests covered w^h leather and skin, two chests of 
plain wood, and a large bundle of bedding. One of his 
capital horses proved to be blind, and called forth several 
letters to Mr. Hollenback to secure its sale. 

Mr. Talon who was manager of affairs at Asylum plan- 
ned improvements on a large scale. The colonists were 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 97 

encouraged to clear up their lots, beautify their homes, 
plant gardens and lawns, and make their surroundings at- 
tractive. At this time there was not a mill in Bradford 
county that could grind flour, and at Asylum there was no 
stream that would afford power to drive one. So a grist 
mill driven by horse-power was built, the mill stones were 
procured at Wilkes-Barre, and for bolting cloth one of the 
ladies gave her silk dress. There were no stores at or near 
Asylum; the nearest was the Hollenback store at Tioga 
Point. Two stores were, however, opened in the settlement 
where the variety and quality of goods kept were superior 
to any place above Wilkes-Barre. Blacksmiths, carpenters, 
weavers and tailors had shops managed by skilled work- 
men, for which France was as noted then as now. Although 
lying on the side of the river on which there was the least 
travel, yet the romance of the settlement, the reputed wealth 
of the settlers, their refined style of living, so far in advance 
of those about them, their well-filled stores, and their skill- 
ful workmen, soon brought throngs of visitors to Asylum, 
drawn either by curiosity or business. To accommodate 
the strangers who came among them, as well as some of 
their countrymen who were without homes, in August, 
1794, Mr. LeFevre was licensed to keep an inn at Asylum. 
At its January Sessions, 1795, the court of Luzerne county 
granted a like license to M. Heraud, and in April, 1797, to 
Peter Regnier and John Becdelliere. Among the settlers 
were several of the secular clergy, i. e., clergy not bound 
by monastic vows, and the rites and services of the Church 
were duly observed, although they did not have, as far as 
can be learned, even a chapel for religious worship. The 
missal in use there was in the possession of the late Rev. 
Patrick Toner, formerly Roman Catholic priest at Towanda, 
and later at Plymouth of this county. The first care of Mr. 
Talon was to open and improve the roads leading to Asy- 
lum. A road was also surveyed as far as Dushore and 



98 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

beyond, and built as far as Laddsburg in Bradford county, 
and is still known as the "old French road." Farms were 
laid out, fences were built and quite a settlement begun on 
what was formerly the Hiram Stone farm, in Terry town- 
ship. The refugees were all royalists and felt the deepest 
interest in the fate of the royal family, who, when they left 
France, were being rapidly degraded by the Revolutionists, 
and their lives in constant jeopardy by the mobs that ter- 
rorized Paris. At one time it was thought they could safe- 
ly be brought to America, and plans were made for their 
reception and care. Two large houses were begun in the 
settlement in Terry, a large bakery constructed, and other 
buildings were in contemplation when the news of the death 
of the king, reaching Asylum, put an end to their plans. 
Along the valley of the south branch of Towanda Creek 
numerous clearings were begun in the vicinity of New Al- 
bany and Laddsburg. It will be remembered that none of 
the colonists were farmers. Probably not one of them had 
seen a tree felled until they came to Asylum. In chopping 
down a tree they cut on all sides, while one watched to see 
where it would fall that they might escape being struck by 
it. Near New Albany the frame of a saw mill was erected 
of the finest oak timber, every stick of which was smoothly 
planed and the joints as closely fitted as in the finest joiner 
work. Irons for the gearing were brought over but never 
put in place. One solitary adventurer had gone four miles 
beyond and made a clearing on the site of Dushore. At 
Asylum a brewery was built on the little stream crossing 
the highway near the Gilbert homestead. Arrangements 
were made for its enlargement but the disruption of the 
colony prevented the execution of the plan. During the 
existence of the colony one committed suicide, two or three 
were accidently killed, others died from sickness, but I have 
failed to discover a common cemetery. Probably each, like 
the LaPortes and Hornets, had a burial plot on his own 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 99 

premises. Some of those who came from St. Domingo 
brought slaves with them. These were not long in finding 
out that under our laws they were free, and bade their 
masters an uncermonious good bye. April i, 1796, Mr. 
Larone writes to Mr. Hollenback offering five dollars for the 
return of a negro man about thirty years of age, stoutly 
built, not able to speak scarcely a word of English, who 
ran away from his house the night before taking various 
articles of clothing, claiming to be free, although Mr. La- 
rone says he was bound for fourteen years. 

No better picture of the outward life of the people, the 
style of their houses and the character of their improve- 
ments could be given than the following description em- 
bodied in an agreement entered into between Sophia de 
Seybert and Guy de Noailles, December 23, 1797: "On 
number four hundred and sixteen stands a log house thirty 
by eighteen feet covered with nailed shingles. The house 
is divided into two lower rooms and two in the upper story. 
The lower ones are papered. On both sides of the house 
stand two small buildings of the same kind, one is used for 
a kitchen, the other being papered is commonly called the 
dining room ; both these buildings have good fire-places 
and a half-story. Three rooms in the biggest house have 
fire-places, the two side buildings and the other are joined 
together by a piazza. There is a good cellar under the din- 
ing room. The yard is enclosed by a nailed paled-fence, 
and there is a good double gate. The garden has a like 
fence, and a constant stream of water runs through it. Over 
the spring a spring-house has been erected ; it is divided 
into two rooms one of which is floored. .The garden is 
decorated by a considerable number of fruit trees, young 
Lombardy poplars and weeping willows, and by a lattice 
summer house. Next to the garden is a nursery of about 
nine hundred apple trees. The lower part of the lot forms 
a piece of meadow of about eight acres enclosed by a post 



IOO THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

and rail fence. On the same lot stands a horse grist-mill. 
The building is forty feet long by thirty-four feet wide. 
Part of the lower story is contrived into a stable for the mill 
horses and a cow stable. Part of the upper story is used 
to keep fodder. The mill is double-geared and in complete 
order, being furnished with a good pair of stones, good 
bolting-cloth, and in one corner stands a good fire-place. 
Above the mill runs a never-failing spring which waters a 
great part of the meadow." 

The house of Mr. Talon stood near the LaPorte home- 
stead, was of the same general style but larger, having two 
stories with dormer windows, and two front doors. Some 
of the emigrants succeeded in bringing with them a part of 
their furniture, which added somewhat to the elegance of 
their mode of living, and was endeared to them by the as- 
sociations with the homeland. Mrs. John Huff, a daughter 
of Antoine LeFevre, who was born in Paris, and could re- 
member seeing men's heads carried on pike-poles through 
the streets of that city, used to point with pride to a bureau 
with a marble top and some other articles of furniture telling 
her visitor, "That came from France." 

From time to time the settlement was visited by noted 
travelers who were entertained with all the luxury that their 
wilderness homes could afford. On such occasions and at 
other times also they did not forget their French habits nor 
French gayety. No matter how frugal the meal the ladies 
came to their dinner in full dress, and the gentlemen don- 
ned the best suit in their wardrobes. Evenings were spent 
either in each others homes with music, dancing and games, 
or in summer on Sunday afternoons upon a green plat on 
the hill just above the town, from which the view is mag- 
nificent. 

In May, 1795, the Duke de Rochefoucauld de Liancourt 
visited the settlement, and has given a very full account of 
it in his "Travels in North America." He says Asylum at 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. .. IOI 

that time consisted of about "thirty houses, inhabited by 
families from St. Domingo and from France, by French ar- 
tisans, and even by Americans. Some inns and two shops 
[stores of general merchandise] have been established, the 
business of which is considerable. Several town shares have 
been put in very good condition, and the fields and gardens 
begin to be productive. A considerable quantity of ground 
has been cleared on the Loyal Sock, from ten to twenty 
acres per share [of 400 acres] having been cleared. The 
owner can either settle there himself or intrust it to a farmer. 
The sentiments of the colonists are good. Every one fol- 
lows his business the cultivator as well as the innkeeper 
or tradesman with as much zeal as if he had been brought 
up to it. * * * Motives arising from French manners 
and opinions have hitherto prevented even French families 
from settling here. These are, however, in great measure 
removed. Some families of artisans are also established at 
Asylum, and such as conduct themselves properly earn 
great wages. This cannot be said of the greatest part of 
them. They are, in general, very indifferent workmen, and 
much addicted to drunkenness. Those who reside here at 
present are hardly worth keeping. The real farmers who 
reside at Asylum live, upon the whole, on very good terms 
with each other, being sensible that harmony is requisite 
to render their situation comfortable and happy. They 
possess no considerable property, and their way of life is 
simple. Mr. Talon lives in a manner somewhat more splen- 
did, as he is obliged to maintain a number of persons to 
whom his assistance is indispensable. The price of the 
company's land at present is $2.50 per acre; that in the 
town of Asylum fetches a little more. The bullock which 
are consumed in Asylum are generally brought from the 
back settlements [some were sent up from Wilkes-Barre], 
but it is frequently found necessary to send thither for them. 
The grain which is not consumed in Asylum finds a market 



IO2 THR FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

in Wilkes-Barre, and is transported thither on the river. In 
the same manner all kinds of merchandise are transported 
from Philadelphia to Asylum. They are carried in wagons 
as far as Harrisburg and thence by barges up the river. 
The freight amounts, in the whole, to two dollars per hun- 
dredweight. [Freight from Wilkes-Barre to Asylum was 
5 1 cents per cwt.J The salt comes from the salt houses at 
Genesee. Flax is produced in the country about Asylum. 
Maple sugar is made in great abundance ; each tree is com- 
puted to yield, on the average, from two to three pounds 
per year. Molasses and vinegar are prepared here. A con- 
siderable quantity of tar is also made and sold for four dol- 
lars per barrel containing thirty-two gallons. Day laborers 
are paid five shillings per day. The manufacture of potashes 
has been commenced at Asylum, and it is contemplated the 
brewing of malt liquors. A corn mill and saw mill are 
building on the Loyal Sock." He speaks also of the dislike 
many of the French had for the Americans, which, in many 
cases, were of the lowest and most ignorant sort the Van- 
der Pools, Johnsons, Hermans, and the like as being so 
strong that many of them declared that they would never 
learn to speak English. 

The next year, October, 1796, Mr. Weld, an Englishman, 
passing through Bradford county, stopped at Asylum, which 
he describes as "a town laid out at the expense of several 
philanthropic persons of Pennsylvania, who entered into a 
subscription for the purpose, as a place of retreat for the 
unfortunate French emigrants who fled to America. The 
town consists of about fifty log houses, and for the use of 
the inhabitants a considerable land has been purchased 
adjoining it, which has been divided into farms. The French 
settled here, however, seem to have no great ability or incli- 
nation to cultivate the earth, and the greater part of them 
have let their lands, at a small yearly rental, to the Ameri- 
cans, and amuse themselves with driving deer, fowling and 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. IO3 

fishing. They live entirely to themselves ; they hate the 
Americans, and the Americans in the neighborhood hate 
and accuse them of being an idle and dissolute set. The 
manners of the two people are so very different that it is 
impossible they should ever agree." 

Talleyrand, the famous French statesman and diplomat, 
an envoy to England in 1792, came to the United States in 
1794, where he staid about two years, spending a consider- 
able part of the autumn of 1795 at Asylum, where his dis- 
tinguished abilities and the important political and ecclesi- 
astical offices held by him in France gave him a prominent 
place in the esteem of his exiled countrymen on the Sus- 
quehanna. In 1796, Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, after- 
ward King of France, accompanied by several of his noble 
acquaintances, the Duke Montpensier and Count Beaujolais, 
visited Asylum and was the guest of his former Parisian 
friends, and remained there for some time. One cannot help 
thinking in this connection of the strange shifts of fortune, 
when we remember that not only the exile became a king, 
but that on the accession of Bourbons to the French throne 
a considerable number of Republicans of noble blood and 
fame, followers of Napoleon, were twenty-five years later 
(1816) exiled from France for political opinions, came to 
the United States and at great sacrifice and suffering and 
hardship made a similar futile attempt at forming a colony 
in Alabama. [See Lippincott's Magazine, May, 1897, p. 
663.] 

It is at this time impossible to tell the number of colonists 
at any one time at Asylum. In 1795 there are reported 
thirty houses and the next year fifty, but some of these were 
occupied by Americans who were farmers and laborers, 
while a considerable number of Frenchmen were then with- 
out families. In the assessment of 1796 there are twenty- 
nine on the rate list. In its best period the number may 
have been from one hundred and fifty to two hundred souls. 



IO4 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

Of these some had been persons of wealth and high position 
at home. Among the more important the following are 
worthy of special notice : 

The Marquis Lucretius de Blacons was deputy for Dau- 
phine in the Constituent Assembly. After leaving France 
he married Madamoiselle de Maulde, late canoness of the 
Chapter of Bonbourg. He kept a store at Asylum, having 
as partner Mancy Colin, formerly Abbe de Sevigny and 
Archdeacon of Tours. M. Blancons returned to France, 
and became a member of the National Assembly. M. Colin 
went to St. Domingo, became chaplain in the army of Tous- 
saint L'Overture. On the surrender to Bonaparte he fled 
to Charleston, S. C., and died soon after. James de Montule, 
a French baron, was captain of a troop of horse in the king's 
service. In Asylum he lived in the upper part of the settle- 
ment, and was superintendent of the clearings. His cousin, 
Madame de Sybert, whose husband was a rich planter in 
St. Domingo, where he died, lived near him. John Becdel- 
liere had a store near where Miller's house is. He had for 
partners two brothers, Augustine and Francis de la Roue, 
one of whom was a petit gen d'arme, and the other a cap- 
tain of infantry. They returned to France with Talleyrand, 
to whom one of them became private secretary. M. Bec- 
delliere returned to France in 1803. Doctor Lawrence Buz- 
zard, an eminent physician, was a rich planter in St. Do- 
mingo, and with his wife, son and daughter, settled at 
Asylum. He afterward went to Cuba, where he died. Mr. 
John Brevost, a native of Paris, was with Mr. Dulong inter- 
ested in the settlement at the "Butternutts." At Asylum he 
was a farmer. In January, 1801, he advertises in the Wilkes- 
Barre Gazette "that he intends to open at Asylum a school 
for teaching the French language. The price for tuition 
and boarding a child between the ages of ten and sixteen 
years will be sixty bushels of wheat per year, to be delivered 
at Newtown, Tioga, Asylum or Wilkes-Barre, at the places 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 105 

pointed out by the subscriber, one-half every six months." 
The school at Asylum proving a failure, he went to New 
Orleans, where he, his wife and daughter established a flour- 
ishing ladies' seminary. Peter Regnier, an innkeeper at 
Asylum in 1797, in a letter to Judge Gore, dated Wilming- 
ton, Del., Nov. 20, 1803, writes that Henry Welles of Tioga 
had made application to Mr. Brevost for the purchase of the 
horse mill Mr. Brevost had at Asylum, and says it can be 
had of Mr. George Aubrey, and adds : "After a long jour- 
ney of two years in Europe I am returned to this country, 
with the intention never to quit it again, being of the opin- 
ion that there is not a better one in the world. I have no 
doubt but you will hear with much concern that I have 
been very unfortunate during my absence. With a great 
deal of trouble I had realized on some properties I had in 
France, and remitted the proceeds to my house in Philadel- 
phia ; in short, I expected to have an independent fortune. 
Far from it. Three months previous to my arrival here my 
partner had made his escape to the West Indies, leaving me 
and my family destitute of everything. However, I keep 
up my spirits and trust in Providence, now the only hope I 
can rely on." Mr. Aubrey was a blacksmith at Asylum ; 
went to Philadelphia for surgical aid to remove a tumor 
from his neck and remained there. Messrs. Fromenta and 
Carles were priests and conducted religious services in the 
colony. Mr. Keating, though deeply interested in the set- 
tlement, and a valued counselor to Mr. Talon, never was a 
permanent resident at Asylum. 

When the French came to Asylum there was not a post- 
route or a post-office in Bradford county. The publishers 
of newspapers established a private express, which was ad- 
vertised each week, for the distribution of their papers. It 
was not until 1801 that there was a post-office nearer than 
Wilkes-Barre. The people at Asylum sent an express 
weekly to Philadelphia, the postman traveling on horseback, 



IO6 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

and continued it during the greater part of their occupation 
of Asylum. 

When the French National Assembly came under the 
controlling influence of Robespierre it issued a decree com- 
manding all emigrants to return immediately to France 
under penalty of permanent expatriation and confiscation of 
their estates. About the time Napoleon began to control 
public affairs wiser counsels prevailed, and all Frenchmen 
were invited to return to their native country and the resto- 
ration of their estates assured to them. It was glad news to 
the exiles at Asylum. The postman who brought it waved 
his hat and shouted it out to all he met until he became so 
hoarse that he could not speak aloud. At Asylum the set- 
tlement was rapturous with joy. Men hugged and kissed 
each other as they talked over the good news/and days 
were spent in feasting and gladness. The great majority 
at once began to make preparations to leave the woods of 
Pennsylvania and return to their own beautiful France. As 
fast as they could get the means they hastened back to their 
homes over the sea, toward which, in all the days of their 
exile, they turned with a homesick longing and ardent wish. 

Besides those already mentioned, a Mr. Beaulieu, who 
had been a captain in the French service, and served in the 
legion of Potosky in the Revolutionary war, married his 
wife here and remained in this country, but further nothing 
has been learned. 

Madame d'Autremont was a lady of wealth and refine- 
ment, and preserved the habits to which she had been ac- 
customed in France. It is related of her that she always 
dined in full dress. Her oldest son, Louis Paul, returned 
to France with Talleyrand. He was a man of considerable 
ability, and was in both Portugal and England on business 
for the French government. In 1832 he revisited the United 
States, but returned to France, where he died. He invested 
large sums of money in real estate in this country, but for 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. IO7 

some reason to little benefit to himself. On the breaking 
up of the colony at Asylum the family, mother and two 
sons, returned to the "Butternutts," and in 1806 moved to 
Angelica, N. Y. Here they were soon joined by Victor 
du Pont de Nemours, a son of Piere Samuel du Pont, one of 
the most distinguished Frenchmen of his time. He subse- 
quently removed to Delaware to join his brother in the 
manufacture of gunpowder. Madame D'Autremont died at 
Angelica, August 29, 1809, aged 64 years. Her second son, 
Alexander Hubert d'Autremont, married Abigail, daughter 
of Maj. Oliver Dodge, one of the earliest settlers of Terry- 
town, Bradford county, and a captain in the Revolutionary 
army, in 1797, and had ten children, all of whom are dead. 
He died in Angelica August 4, 1857, and his wife January 
12, 1866. The other son, Augustus Francois Cecile d'Au- 
tremont, married Sarah Ann Stewart, and also had ten chil- 
dren. His wife died in Angelica in 1840, and he in 1860. 

Charles Hornet was steward in the household of Louis 
XVI, and fled from Paris at the time of the king's attempted 
escape in 1792. On board the same ship in which he sailed 
to America was Marie Theressa Scheilinger, a native of 
Strasburg, and waiting maid to the unfortunate Marie An- 
toinette. Becoming acquainted on the voyage, they were 
married on their arrival to this country, and in about a year 
found their way to Asylum. He spent a year at the settle- 
ment in Terry township, but returned to Asylum, where he 
bought several lots of the Asylum Company, and later, 
when the settlement was abandoned, he and Mr. Laporte 
purchased a large part of the land which it occupied. Mr. 
Hornet was twice married ; by the first marriage were three 
sons, Charles, Francis and Joseph, and one daughter, Har- 
riet, who married Simon Stevens of Standing Stone, Pa. 
By the second marriage one daughter, who was the wife of 
the late E. T. Fox, Esq., of Towanda. Mr. Hornet died in 
1838 at the allotted age of three score and ten, and was 



IO8 THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 

buried beside his wife, who died in 1823, aged 63 years, on 
his farm in Asylum. The remains of both were subse- 
quently removed to the cemetery beside the M. E. Church 
in that place. 

Bartholomew La Porte was born in Tulli, France, in 1758; 
he was a sailor. Returning from a voyage his ship put in at 
Cadiz, where he learned the disturbed condition of things 
in France, and that many of his countrymen were coming 
to America. He at once sailed for Philadelphia and joined 
the refugees at Asylum. On the abandonment of the set- 
tlement he received power of attorney from the Trustees of 
the Asylum Company to lease any of the French holdings 
for one year. He afterwards became the purchaser of a 
large part of Asylum and built a house near the Talon 
residence, and was buried there. He married, at Asylum, 
Elizabeth Franklin, 1/97, and died February n, 1836. She 
died May 5, 1852, aged 71. To them was born one child, 
the late Hon. John La Porte, who was twice elected to Con- 
gress, and was Surveyor General of Pennsylvania. He 
married Matilda, daughter of Dr. Jabez Chamberlan. 

Antoine LaFevre was the keeper of a fashionable cafe in 
Paris, his wife, as has been said, being sister of Mrs. d'Au- 
tremont. His family consisted, besides his wife, of a son 
and two daughters. Becoming alarmed at the condition of 
things in Paris and fearing worse, he disposed of his busi- 
ness and, in company with his sister-in-law, Madame d'Au- 
tremont, determined to come to America. To his great 
disappointment he found that he would not be permitted to 
bring but a part of his family. His passport included him- 
self and his son. While waiting at Havre for a vessel, the 
son died. He dressed one of his daughters in the son's 
clothing, cut her hair close, when she answered the descrip- 
tion in the passport so closely as to escape detection. Their 
first settlement was made at the " Butternuts," then they 
came to Asylum. Here, during the continuance of the col- 
ony, Mr. LeFevre kept an inn; after its abandonment he 



THE FRENCH AT ASYLUM. 1 09 

moved over the river into Standing Stone, keeping here also 
a house of entertainment, whose cleanly-kept chambers and 
well-furnished table and deliciously-fragrant coffee were for 
many years fresh in the memory of the people accustomed 
to travel up and down the river, who always planned, 
if possible, to have at least a meal at Madame LeFevre's 
table. Mr. and Mrs. LeFevre are both buried in the old 
cemetery at Wyalusing. Two daughters lived to maturity; 
one married John Prevost, and lived on Russell Hill, Wyo- 
ming county; the other married J. Huff, and lived on the 
southern slope of Frenchtown mountain. Mrs. Huff was 
the little girl whom her father brought over in the disguise 
of her brother's clothing. Both these ladies lived to be past 
ninety years old. They could remember many of the events 
that transpired in the streets of Paris during the early days 
of the Revolution. To one interested in the stories of those 
awful days nothing gave them more pleasure than to repeat 
the recollections of the four score years which their memories 
included. To them and to the late Francis X. Hornet, son 
of Charles, Sr., the writer is indebted for many of the facts 
and incidents herein recorded. 

The settlement was not of sufficiently long continuance 
less than ten years [began 1793 ; power of attorney July 
3, 1807] and the people were too exclusive in their 
habits and too strange in their customs and language to 
leave any very strong influence upon the life of the com- 
munity. They set to the rough woodsmen about them an 
example of better living, of better houses and roads, of bet- 
ter manners and education, of better work, of more tasteful 
surroundings, with flowers and music, than they had seen 
before an example that some of them were willing to profit 
by, but the masses ridiculed as being "too fine and stuck up." 
It was a romantic episode in the history of this North 
Branch valley, the memory of which it is worth our while 
to keep, and of the men because of their fortitude under 
misfortune and of their loyalty to their king. 



The following Bill of Lading will somewhat illustrate the condi- 
tions of the settlement at Asylum [H. E. H.] : 



"EFFETS DELIVREE AN CHARETIER 
P* MONSIEUR TALLON. 

9. Boittes de Vere a Vitre. 

2. Malles. 

200 Ib. d'Acier. 

6. Boittes de differentes Grandeurs. 

i. " de Moutarde. 

1. Bbl. contenant Poids et Mesures. 

2. 2 ant de Cordage. 

i. Tiercone de Sucre blanc. 

4. Sacs Caffe. 

i. Bbl. de Salpetre. 

I. " Amidon. 

I. " Epices. 

i. " The. 

I. " Quincaillerie. 

i. " Vinegre. 

Les effets charges sur les Wagons de M. Parish doivent 
etre rendu a Wilkes-Barre et delivre au Colonel Hollinbach, 
qui payera le voiturage a raison de 1 1 shillings du cent 
pesant a compte du quel j'ai paye cinquante gourdes tant 
pour ces objects que pour ceux charge cher M. Rollings- 
worth et par M. Wright." 




MORTAR AND PESTLE USED IN FORTY FORT IN 1778. 
TIIK FIRST MILL FOR GRINDING CORN IN WYOMING VALLEY 



THE EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING 
VALLEY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

BY THE HON. CHARLES ABBOTT MINER. 

READ BEFORE THS WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
DECEMBER 16, 1898. 



The first settlement by white people at Wyoming was 
begun in 1762, at Mill Creek, within the limits of what was 
afterwards Wilkes-Barre, and is now Plains township. The 
number of settlers was small, and before they could do much 
more than clear some land for cultivating, and erect neces- 
sary log huts for dwellings, they were all either massacred 
by the Indians, carried away into captivity, or driven back 
to their New England homes. 

No attempt was made by these settlers to erect a grist- 
mill. In the absence of such a mill a corn-pounder or 
hominy block was used. This was the section of a tree 
trunk, with one end hollowed like a bowl. In this bowl 
the corn was placed, and then pounded with a pestle hung 
upon a spring-pole. 

In 1769 the permanent settlement of Wyoming by the 
New Englanders was begun here in Wilkes-Barre. In a 
petition to the Connecticut Assembly, dated at Wilkes- 
Barre August 29, 1769, and signed by a number of settlers, 
it is set forth that they have been at great expense "erect- 
ing houses, mills, and other necessary buildings." In the 
New York Journal of December 28, 1 769, there was pub- 
lished an account of the troubles at Wyoming between the 
Pennamites and Yankees, and reference was made to the 
capture of Maj. John Durkee while "going from the block- 
house to view some mills they were erecting." At a town- 
meeting held in Wilkes-Barre in September, 1771, Captain 
Warner was appointed to live in the block-house near the 



112 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

mills, "in order to guard ye mills ;" and he was granted 
liberty to select nine men to assist him as guards. 

These mills or, more properly, this mill, for there was 
but one structure was the mill erected on Mill Creek by 
the New Englanders in the Autumn of 1769, and it was, 
without doubt, a saw-mill. No steps had been taken, up to 
the Autumn of 1771 towards the erection in Wyoming of a 
grist-mill. According to Miner's "History of Wyoming" 
(Appendix, page 47) there were no grist-mills in Wyoming 
in 1771. "For bread the settlers used pounded corn. Doc- 
tor Sprague, who kept a boarding-house, would take his 
horse, with as much wheat as he could carry, and go out to 
the Delaware [to Coshutunk] and get it ground. Seventy 
or eighty miles to mill was no trifling distance. The flour 
was kept for cakes and to be used only on extraordinary 
occasions." 

By 1772 the New England settlers were in full and com- 
plete possession of Wyoming, and then one of the first 
matters of general interest that was acted upon in town- 
meeting was with reference to the erection of a grist-mill. 
Early in 1772 a grant was made to Nathan Chapman (who 
is said to have come from Goshen, New York), by the pro- 
prietors of Wilkes-Barre township, of a site of forty acres of 
land at Mill Creek ; thirty acres on the north side of the 
creek and ten on the south side, just east of the road 
known later as the "middle road," and now as the continua- 
tion of Main street running from Wilkes-Barre to Pittston. 
The same year a grist-mill and a saw-mill were built by Mr. 
Chapman on the portion of the afore-mentioned site lying 
north of the creek, and the grist-mill was the first one 
erected in Wyoming. 

During the period that Wyoming was under the jurisdic- 
tion of Connecticut, and the laws of that Province and State 
prevailed and were enforced here, the statute relating to 
grist-mills provided that each miller in the Colony, or the 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 113 

owner of a grist-mill, "shall be allowed three quarts out of 
each bushel of Indian corn he grinds, and for other grain 
two quarts out of each bushel ; except malt, out of which 
one quart." Should the miller presume to take or receive 
greater toll, he was liable to a penalty of ten shillings for 
each conviction. 

Each owner of a mill was required to provide sealed 
measures, viz. : One of I pt, one of I qt., and one of 2 qts., 
"with an instrument to strike the said measures." The 
miller was also allowed for bolting, one pint out of each 
bushel he should bolt. It was also provided by statute that 
"one miller to each grist-mill" be exempted from liability 
to do duty in the militia of the Colony. 

THE CHAPMAN GRIST-MILL, 

on Mill Creek was a log structure, with one run of stones. 
The mill irons were brought by Matthias Hollenback in his 
boat up the Susquehanna River from Wright's Ferry, and 
Charles Miner says the voyage "was rendered memorable 
by the loss of Lazarus Young, who was drowned on the 
way up." Stewart Pearce, in his "Annals of Luzerne 
County," says that this mill was carried away by the high 
water soon after it was erected. This I very much doubt, 
for in a deed of conveyance executed by Nathan Chapman 
October 24, 1774, he describes the two mills then standing 
on the north side of the creek as the ones which had been 
erected by him "some years past." 

Chapman ran his grist-mill from its completion in 1772 
until the last-mentioned date October 24, 1774 when, in 
consideration of 400 "to be paid" he conveyed to Adonijah 
Stanburrough, late of Orange county, N. Y., the forty acres 
of land, the two mills, dwelling-house, etc. Stanburrough 
ran the grist-mill until some time after the War of the 
Revolution had been begun, when, being a Loyalist, or 
Tory, he was forced by the inhabitants to leave Wyoming. 



114 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

Before going away he placed the Mill Creek property in 
charge of his father, Josiah Stanburrough, then at Wyoming, 
and who was not a Tory. Adonijah having failed to pay 
to Chapman the consideration money for the property, the 
latter sold the same November 16, 1777, to Josiah Stanbur- 
rough the father, who was in possession. Charles Miner 
says that in 1776-7 "the people had no other mill to grind 
for them," and Stanburrough's mill was kept in constant 
operation. 

These Chapman-Stanburrough mills were destroyed by 
the invading enemy in July, 1778. According to an official 
report made by the Selectmen of Wyoming in 1781, Josiah 
Stanburrough's losses by the British and Indian depreda- 
tions of July, 1778, were appraised at 603, 14 sh. With 
a single exception this was much the largest amount of loss 
reported by the Selectmen as having been sustained by any 
one of the Wyoming sufferers. 

About 1781 or '2 new mills were built on the Mill Creek 
site by Josiah Stanburrough. The new grist-mill was taken 
possession of by the Pennamites in the Autumn of 1783 and 
given to a man friendly to the Pennsylvania cause. (See 
petition of John Jenkins etal., to the Pennsylvania Assembly, 
Miner's "History of Wyoming," page 334.) Repossession 
of the mill was gained by the Yankees a few months later, 
but May I, 1784, it was again "taken by force from the in- 
habitants by the soldiers with large clubs." At this time it 
was the only grist-mill in the settlement. (See petition of 
Zebulon Butler, Obadiah Gore, Nathan Denison et al., to 
the Continental Congress. "Penn'a Archives," X.: 613.) 
Soon thereafter the settlers took possession of the mill by 
force, and "kept it running night and day to provide flour 
for themselves for future emergencies as well as for their 
present wants." (See Miner's "Wyoming," page 348.) 

After that Josiah Stanburrough continued to run the mill 
until February, 1787, when, for 300 he conveyed the whole 




HOMINY BLOCK OR CORN POUNDIiK, 1776. 
FROM " PKARCE'S ANNALS OF I.U-ZERNE COUNTY." 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 115 

property to his daughter Elizabeth, wife of John Hollenback 
of Wilkes-Barre. Early in the present century the old mills 
were removed, and a new grist-mill was erected by Mrs. 
John Hollenback on the south side of the creek. John 
Hollenback had died in 1797. Upon the death of Mrs. 
Hollenback in 1808 or '9 the grist-mill became the property 
of her son Matthias, 2d. In 1820 the mill was assessed for 
taxation at $500. In 1860 or '61 the mill was converted 
into a distillery, and two years later the building was turned 
into a dwelling-house. There are now remaining no vestiges 
of the building, it having been destroyed by fire ten or more 
years ago. 

Stewart Pearce in his "Annals of Luzerne County" says 
that in 1782 "James Sutton, who had previously built mills 
in Kingston and Exeter townships, erected a grist-mill on 
Mill Creek near the river. It was constructed of hewn 
logs, had one run of stones, and on the roof of the building 
there was a sentry-box from which the valley could be 
overlooked, and the movements of the enemy observed." 

According to Mr. Pearce this was the first mill erected 
within the present limits of the city of Wilkes-Barre, and he 
says that it was swept away by the Pumpkin Flood of 1786. 
I find no reference to this mill in any other reliable history 
of this locality, nor do I find any record evidence showing 
that James Sutton ever owned any land or rights along Mill 
Creek. 

If such a mill as has been described was erected "on Mill 
Creek near the river," it must have been built upon the site 
owned by Messrs. Hollenback and Gore for from 1782 till 
1788 they owned the mill-site and all the water rights at the 
mouth of Mill Creek as will be shown more fully herein- 
after. My belief is that the mill described by Mr. Pearce 
was the one erected in 1781 or '2, as previously described, 
for Josiah Stanburrough (and very probably built by James 



1 1 6 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

Sutton) on the old Chapman site, and not "near the river" 
as Pearce says. 

The testimony of all writers of Wyoming history, and all 
old records which I have examined, is to the effect that 
there was only one grist-mill on Mill Creek in the years 
i782-'5, and that was the Stanburrough mill on the Chap- 
man site. The grist-mill of 1782, with "a sentry-box on the 
roof," may have been built on the south side of the creek, 
and the saw-mill, which was erected about the same time, 
set up on the north side and, if such was the case, the 
"sentry-box" mill was, as Pearce says, the first grist-mill 
built within the present limits of Wilkes-Barre. 

HOLLENBACK'S STONE GRIST-MILL, MILL CREEK. 

In the Summer of 1772 the proprietors of the Susquehan- 
na Company who were on the ground at Wyoming voted 
"to give unto Capt. Stephen Fuller, Obadiah Gore, Jr., and 
Seth Marvin all the privileges of the stream called Mill 
Creek, below Mr. Chapman's mill, to be their own property, 
with full liberty of building mills and flowing a pond, but 
so as not to obstruct or hinder Chapman's mill provided 
they have a saw-mill ready to go by the ist of November, 
1773." The donees or grantees named sold for ten shill- 
ings, September 10, 1772, one-quarter of their right to Mill 
Creek to Capt. Obadiah Gore, Sr., of Kingston, and soon 
thereafter the erection of a saw-mill was begun. It was 
finished and in running order before November I, 1773 
the time stipulated. 

Charles Miner says ("History of Wyoming," page 142) : 
"This was the first saw-mill erected on the upper waters of 
the Susquehanna." This, of course, is an error, as we have 
hereinbefore shown that there was a mill at the mouth of 
Mill Creek in 1769 and in 1771. 

Before August, 1774, the proprietors of the mill-seat at 
the mouth of Mill Creek had built near their first mill a 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 1 17 

second saw-mill. Captain Fuller had in the meantime dis- 
posed of his one-quarter interest in the mills and rights to 
Seth Marvin, who later sold the interest to Isaac Benjamin 
for .100. In December, 1775, Marvin and Benjamin sold 
their half-interest in the two mills and the privileges annexed 
and belonging, to Capt. Robert Carr ; and in the following 
March Carr sold the same half-interest to Matthias Hol- 
lenback of Wilkes-Barre. The two Gores and Hollenback 
ran the two mills until July 3, 1778, when they were burnt 
by the British and Indians. 

Capt. Obadiah Gore, Sr., died in the Spring of 1780, and 
at that time neither of the two mills had been rebuilt. In 
the inventory of Captain Gore's estate we find this item : 
"One-quarter of a mill-seat on Mill Creek, with one-half of 
a set of saw-mill irons, 9" which shows, without doubt, 
that the saw-mill irons comprised the only portion of the 
two mills at the mouth of Mill Creek saved from destruction 
in July, 1778. 

Obadiah Gore, Jr., became the owner of his deceased 
father's one-quarter interest, which gave him a half-interest 
in the property; and August 27, 1788, he sold this half- 
interest to Col. Matthias Hollenback, who thus became the 
owner of the mill-site at the mouth of Mill Creek. Colonel 
Hollenback was the eldest brother of John Hollenback, pre- 
viously mentioned. 

Judging by the language in the deed of conveyance from 
Gore to Hollenback (see Luzerne County Deed Book I. : 
83) there were no buildings on this site in 1788 ; but within 
two or three years thereafter Colonel Hollenback had erected 
there, and was operating, a saw-mill. In 1809 this mill was 
assessed for taxation at $150. 

During the years 1809 and '10 Colonel Hollenback erected 
on the north side of Mill Creek, very near to his saw-mill 
(about where the plant of the Wilkes-Barre Electric Light 
Company now stands), a large grist-mill. The rear portion 



1 1 8 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

of the building, abutting on the creek, was four and a-half 
stories in height ; the first and second stories being built of 
stone, and the remaining stories of wood. The front por- 
tion of the building was three and a-half stories in height, 
and was built entirely of stone. The mill had four run of 
stones. This, in its day, was the most extensive and ex- 
pensive grist-mill in the county of Luzerne. It and the 
saw-mill near by were assessed in the years i8n-'i4 at 
#2000, and in 1815 at $2800. The grist-mill was known for 
many years as Hollenback's stone mill." 

After the decease of Colonel Hollenback the property 
passed into the ownership of his son George M. Hollenback, 
Esq. In the Spring of 1850 the mill was leased by George 
H. Roset of Wilkes-Barre, who, having made extensive re- 
pairs and employed an experienced miller, named the estab- 
lishment "Wyoming Mill." It was operated as a grist-mill 
until 1853, and was then used for a variety of other purposes 
until about 1867. After that it stood in a dismantled con- 
dition until 1 88 1, when it was torn down. 

One of the early millers at this mill was a man named 
John Murfy, who married a daughter of Cornelius Court- 
right. He was succeeded by Isaiah Tyson, who also mar- 
ried a daughter of Cornelius Courtright. Tyson was fol- 
lowed by Driesbach as miller, and he was followed by Stroh. 
About this time Messrs. Flick and Phillips rented the mill. 
Later a man named Simms was the miller. 

THE WRIGHT-MINER MILL ON MILL CREEK. 

About 1790 Thomas Wright moved from Doylestown, 
Penn'a, to Wilkes-Barre, where he immediately engaged in 
mercantile business. He purchased, August 31, 1793, of 
Nathan Waller and John Carey twenty-five acres of back- 
lot No. 1 1, in that part of Wilkes-Barre township which was 
later Plains township, and is now the borough of Miner's 
Mills, together with "a mill-pond and saw-mill upon and 




THE THOMAS WRIGHT MILL. 

ERECTED 1795. BURNED 1820. 
FROM A DRAWING BY JAMES A. GORDON, ESQ., 1803-4. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 1 19 

belonging to said tract." This property was on Mill Creek, 
about two miles from its mouth, and had belonged to Daniel 
Whitney of Orange county, New York, who, March 7, 
1786, sold to John Staples of Wyoming. The mill-pond 
was referred to in the deed of conveyance, and without doubt 
there was at that time (1786) a saw-mill there. If not, one 
must have been built by Staples soon thereafter, for when, 
in June, 1793, Staples sold the property to Waller and 
Carey a saw-mill was mentioned as one of the appurtenances. 

In 1795 Thomas Wright erected a grist-mill at the mill- 
pond previously mentioned; on the site of the present Miner's 
Mills. This mill was operated by Thomas Wright until 
1813 when he sold to his son-in-law Asher Miner then re- 
siding in Doylestown, Penn'a. 

Before we describe the mill a few words in relation to Mr. 
Wright, the original builder, will not be amiss. 

Thomas Wright was born in County Down, North of 
Ireland in 1748, and came to America in 1763 with his 
brothers Joseph and William and settled at Doylestown, 
Bucks county, Penn'a. Thomas was soon in charge of a 
school at Dyerstown two miles north of Doylestown. He 
secured a home in the family of Josiah Dyer and taught the 
rudiments of English to the children of the neighborhood, 
and finally made love to the daughter of his host. One day 
he and the daughter quietly slipped off to Philadelphia and 
were married which relieved the case of difficulty, as at that 
day Fnends could not consent to the marriage of their 
daughters out of meeting. About 1790 he removed to 
Wilkes-Barre. He located his home about two miles north- 
east of the village at what is now Miner's Mills, and in 1795 
built the mill before mentioned. The settlement soon be- 
came known as Wrightsville, but when incorporated as a 
borough it was called Miner's Mills in honor of the old mill 
which had been identified with the Miner family for several 
generations. 



I 2O EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

Thomas Wright built what is now known as the old Miner 
homestead, below the mill, about the time of building the 
mill (1795), or probably a short time before that. This was 
occupied by Mr. Wright till his death in 1820, and after- 
wards by the Hon. Charles Miner, the Historian, by whom 
it was named the "Retreat," until his death. 

"Aunt" Sarah Wright, as she was called by almost every 
body, wife of Joseph Wright, and mother of Charles Miner's 
wife, and grandmother of Mrs. Ellen E. Thomas, now of 
Wilkes-Barre, one day rode up on horse back from her 
home, the old Alexander house at the end of Division street, 
Wilkes-Barre, to the Thomas Wright house using as a rid- 
ing whip a branch of a sycamore tree. There were but few 
trees about the place, and she planted her riding whip which 
having lived and grown for upwards of a hundred years is 
now an immense tree, probably the largest of its variety in 
the valley, and is still an object of admiration in full vigor 
and likely to live and flourish for many years to come. 

Thomas Wright died at Wrightsville in 1820. He was 
the father of one daughter, Mary, the wife of Asher Miner, 
and two sons Joseph and Josiah, all born in Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania. He owned and published the Wilkes-Barre 
Gazette from 1797 to 1800, when it was bought by Asher 
Miner and the name changed to the Luzerne Federalist. An 
interesting fact in this connection is that the first three 
owners and operators of this mill were also publishers of 
newspapers in Wilkes-Barre, namely, Thomas Wright, Asher 
Miner and Robert Miner (my father). 

Thomas Wright became a large land owner in Luzerne 
county, and if he had retained one-tenth of his landed pos- 
sessions which afterwards became valuable for coal, his 
estate would have been one of the largest in Pennsylvania. 
It is related of Mr. Wright that when upon his death bed 
he gave directions that when he died the mills above his 
house, both the grist-mill and the saw-mill, should be imme- 




THE WRIGHT-MINER MILL. 

ERF.CTED 1795. BI-RNUI) AND REBUILT 1826. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 121 

diately stopped and remain closed until the funeral proces- 
sion had left the house. When the procession started from 
the house the gates were to be hoisted, the wheels set in 
motion and business resumed as usual. 

It is also given as family history, and is undoubtedly 
authentic, that he had numerous carriages of various kinds, 
and that as he knew he could not live much longer he had 
them all cleaned up and marshalled before his window, that 
he might see for himself that they were in proper condition 
for his funeral. So it seems he was not afraid of the ap- 
proach of death, but made suitable preparations himself that 
all things might be in order at its coming. 

From what we can gather we find that Thomas Wright 
was a well educated man for that time, and his letters show 
a forgetfulness of self and a kindly disposition. We have 
reason to believe that he was a shrewd business man, as 
his various enterprises prospered and he died a rich man 
for the times in which he lived. Probably he was an ec- 
centric man, but his eccentricities were not of a disagreeable 
kind. In short it may be said that he was a gentleman, and 
the world was the better for his having lived in it. 

The following description of the Wright mill was written 
by James A. Gordon, the local historian, known by some of 
you I have no doubt, who lived in Plymouth in 1877. The 
article was written at my suggestion for the Record of the 
Times. Mr. Gordon speaks chiefly from his personal knowl- 
edge. He says : 

"Thomas Wright, who had come from Ireland before the 
Revolution, conceived the project of building a merchant 
mill on Mill Creek about one and a quarter miles above the 
Matthias Hollenback mill, and accordingly in 1795 he began 
what was afterwards known as 'Wright's Mill.' The base- 
ment was substantial stone work which is still standing 
under what is now 'Miner's Mills.' It was thirty by forty 
feet, the superstructure was two stories, and I think from 



122 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

my own impression there were not over seven or eight feet 
between the floors. 

"Elisha Delano of Hanover was the mill-wright and James 
A. Gordon and George or Benjamin Cooper were the car- 
penters who erected the frame and enclosed it with ordinary 
half-inch weather boarding. It was started early in the 
spring of 1796 with a single run of country stones, known 
as conglomerate rock, which were made by Israel Bennett 
and Jacob Ozancup. There was no bolter for the first six 
months, but a sifter was used instead, into which was dis- 
charged the meal as it came from the grinder. 

"Jacob Ozancup was the first miller and came from Min- 
nesink, Sussex county, N. J. He continued to run the mill 
until it was fully completed as a merchant mill, which was 
sometime in 1799 or early in 1800, when the Tysons came 
on from Bucks county and took charge of the concern, and 
continued to operate it until 1821 when they removed to 
Canada. During a part of this time Joseph Murphy was 
the miller under Thomas Tyson, Isaiah Tyson having joined 
John Murphy in erecting and operating at Pittston what 
was afterwards the Barnum mill. 

"The facts above stated, which occurred before my re- 
membrance, I have received from authentic sources, being 
indebted therefor to Nathan Draper, John Clarke and my 
uncle John Atherton, and William Thompkins late of Pitts- 
ton, Mrs. Hannah Abbott of Wilkes-Barre, and Mrs Clarissa 
{Cooper) Price, all natives of that neighborhood with the 
exception of John Atherton. Besides this I remember dis- 
tinctly a stone in the foundation wall roughly cut with the 
inscription '1793' or '1795.' I have no choice from my own 
impressions which it was. 

"James A. Gordon was a resident of Wilkes-Barre less 
than three years, removing to Athens early in 1796. His 
accounts were in my possession up to 1845 when they were 
burned in my office on the Public Square in Wilkes-Barre. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 123 

In these books were charges against Thomas Wright for 
days work done on the mill in 1795. These facts and cir- 
cumstances, though not absolutely conclusive, are to my 
own mind perfectly satisfactory that the mill was commenced 
in 1795 and completed as above stated. 

"I now proceed to give a brief description of the mill as I 
remember it from 1802 up to 1820. My means of informa- 
tion are ample and my impressions of the mill and its feat- 
ures are as vivid as if they were but a week old. Within 
the last week I have drawn out from memory a front view 
of the mill with diagrams of each floor or story and ma- 
chinery somewhat in detail to which the curious reader is 
referred. On the first floor or basement were the receiving 
boxes or chests in which the ground grain was deposited 
directly from the stone. If it needed bolting, it was placed 
in the hoisting tub and raised to the second floor above and 
emptied into the bolt hopper, from whence it descended 
through the bolt to the main or second floor. Thence it 
was delivered to the owner. The grists which did not need 
bolting were delivered at the lower door on the south side 
of the mill. 

"Every part of the mill gearing was of wood, except the 
gudgeons and the journal blocks ; all the small journals 
were of wrought iron, and I have heard my mother say that 
her father, Cornelius Atherton, made them at his shop on the 
Lackawanna, at what is now called Taylorville. It is quite 
probable that the heavy journals for the master wheel were 
also of wrought iron, as there was no furnace or foundry 
nearer than the Durham works between Easton and New 
Hope. If these journals were of wrought iron they must 
have been forged at Wright's forge on the Lackawanna, or 
at Lee's forge at Nanticoke. 

"This was the model mill of its day, and was the first in 
the county that manufactured superfine flour, and the first 
which could boast of a pair of French buhrs or a huller for 



124 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

buckwheat flour. All the moving of the grain and flour 
was done by the hoisting barrel, which was rigged with 
rollers on the bottom so that it was moved with very little 
effort by the miller. In the attic story was a cooler for the 
superfine flour, which was put in motion by a geared hori- 
zontal shaft connected with the master wheel, as were also 
both of the bolters. 

"This mill had a high reputation for its buckwheat flour, 
for which it was chiefly indebted to the consummate skill 
of the miller and its huller. The whole machinery was 
operated by a breast wheel of twenty-four feet in diameter, 
with a head and fall of fourteen feet, the driving buckets 
being three and one-half feet long and made water tight. 
At this period there was always an abundant supply of 
water in Mill Creek, and except in a very dry summer the 
mill could be run from morning to sun down. I believe 
that this was the first mill in the county that sent its flour 
to the Philadelphia market. This mill was destroyed by 
fire in 1825 and was immediately rebuilt by Asher Miner 
who was then the owner of the property, and a larger and a 
better one took its place." 

In closing Mr. Gordon says : "About this time my ac- 
quaintance with the neighborhood ceased, and I cannot 
therefore speak of its successor from my own personal 
knowledge." 

I think it very safe to say that this Wright-Miner mill is 
the oldest mill in this county and perhaps in this State still 
running and managed by the descendants of the original 
owners and proprietors. It has descended in a straight line 
for five generations in one family. First, Thomas Wright ; 
then Asher Miner, his son-in-law ; then Robert Miner, the 
latter's sc ; then Charles A. Miner, son of Robert, and now 
Asher Miner, of the fifth generation, who is General Manager 
for the Miner-Hillard Milling Co., who are running it in 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 125 

connection with other enterprises. Such instances are very 
rare in this country. 

This mill has been owned and operated by Thomas Wright, 
Asher Miner, Robert Miner, Eliza Miner, his widow, Charles 
A. Miner, Miner & Thomas, Isaac M. Thomas & Co., Miner 
& Co., and now the Miner-Hillard Milling Co. 

Capt. Calvin Parsons says the mill-dam now standing was 
erected by Asher Miner about 1828, about two years after 
the destruction of the original mill by fire, consequently now 
is seventy years old, and as solid as when first erected. 

THE JOHNSON MILL ON LAUREL RUN. 

In 1817 Jehoida P. Johnson, son of the Rev. Jacob John- 
son, built a small grist-mill on Laurel Run, in what was 
Wilkes-Barre township and is now the borough of Parsons. 
Mr. Johnson operated this mill until 1825 (a man named 
Holgate being the miller), when he leased it to Christopher 
Appleton, a merchant in Wilkes-Barre, who ran the mill in 
connection with a distillery until 1829, when E. Appleton 
leased the property. 

In 1828, a year or two before his death, Mr. Johnson en- 
larged and improved the mill considerably. After 1831 the 
heirs of Jehoida P. Johnson operated the mill until 1843, 
when the property came into the ownership of William P. 
and Miles Johnson. The grist-mill, which by that time had 
depreciated very much in value, was run by these men for 
a couple of years in connection with their powder-mill, and 
then was abandoned as a grist-mill. The building was de- 
stroyed a good many years ago when the adjoining powder- 
mill was wrecked by an explosion. 

COFFRIN'S MILL, NEWPORT TOWNSHIP. 

Sometime after Chapman had sold his Mill Creek prop- 
erty to Stanburrough he erected in Newport township say 
in 1774 or '5 a small log grist-mill, with one run of stones. 



126 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

It stood near the line of Hanover township, not far from 
Nanticoke Falls, and in its vicinity the Newport iron-forge of 
Mason F. and John Alden was erected about 1777. In 
1776 this grist-mill was known as Coffrin's Mill, being then 
the property of James Coffrin. In 1777 he sold it to John 
Comer. 

Pearce says : "This was the only mill in Wyoming that 
escaped destruction from floods and from the torch of the 
savage." Miner says that in the latter part of 1779 it was 
guarded by a few men, and three or four families ventured 
to reside in its vicinity. During the Summer of 1780 it was 
guarded by one Lieutenant, one Sergeant, and ten privates 
from Capt. John Franklin's militia company then in the Con- 
tinental service at Wyoming. 

This mill was a small affair, and could hardly be dignified 
by the name of grist-mill. It was, in fact, a corn-mill, and 
was like many others which were erected during the early 
years throughout the Susquehanna settlements. They were 
located upon little streams which were often dry or nearly 
dry, and they had one run of stones but little larger than a 
half-bushel measure. These mills were so arranged that 
when the stream was low they could be turned by hand, 
and could crack into samp and meal from one and one-half 
to three bushels of corn a day. 

So far as possible the Coffrin or Newport- Hanover mill 
met the wants of the Wyoming public during the years 
i779-'8i, but the settlers were compelled to carry their 
grain to Colonel Stroud's mill at Stroudsburg, a distance of 
fifty miles through the wilderness. From the journal of 
Col. John Franklin we learn that July 20, 1780, "a boat ar- 
rived from down the river with the welcome cargo of twenty- 
three barrels of flour ;" and on the 6th of the following 
August several men "went down the river [probably to 
Sunbury] to mill, and the same day Lieutenant Gore and 
others set out to Colonel Stroud's mill. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

In a petition to the General Assembly of Connecticut 
dated at Westmoreland (Wyoming) September 28, 1780, 
and signed by the Selectmen of the town, "the difficulty of 
obtaining grinding" is set forth, among other matters, and 
it is stated that there is "no grist-mill within forty or fifty 
miles of this settlement." These brief extracts clearly indi- 
cate that the little mill near Nanticoke Falls was nothing 
more than a corn-mill. 

THE LEE MILL, NANTICOKE. 

Near the site of the old Coffrin mill there was built in 
1820 by John Oint a grist-mill which he sold to Col. Wash- 
ington Lee before its completion. This was known as the 
Lee Mill, and was operated for a good many years very 
profitably. In February, 1838, Colonel Lee offered it for 
rent. At that time he had become largely interested in the 
coal-mining business, to which he was devoting most of his 
attention. The mill property was neglected, and ere long 
no more grinding was done there. 

THE BEHEE MILL, HANOVER. 

In 1789 Elisha Delano built a saw-mill and a grist-mill in 
Hanover township on what has been known in recent years 
as Sugar Notch Creek, between Hanover Centre (now Askam) 
and the river road. Delano ran these mills for some years, 
and then they became the property of Samuel Rothrock, 
who ran them as late as 1810 or '11 and then sold out to 
Frederick Crisman, an innkeeper in Hanover. Crisman ran 
the mills for nearly two years, and then sold to Lewis Ro- 
mage, who in 1815 sold to Henry Ash. 

In 1816 George Behee having purchased the property 
began to run the grist-mill. The next year he repaired the 
saw-mill, and ran it and the grist-mill until 1819, and after 
that the grist-mill alone. In 1823 he set up a carding-ma- 
chine (which is said to have been "the pioneer carding-mill 



128 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

of Hanover"), and operated it in connection with the grist- 
mill until 1828. By this time the mill building had become 
somewhat dilapidated, and during the years 1829 to '31 
neither grinding nor carding was done there ; but, having 
been renovated and improved meanwhile, the grist-mill and 
carding-machine were operated by George Behee during 
1832, '3 and 4. Then the carding-machine was given up, 
and the grist-mill alone was operated by Mr. Behee until 
his death in 1846 or '7. After that it was operated by his 
heirs for awhile. 

THE BUTLER MILL, HANOVER. 

As early as 1793 there was a grist-mill on a branch of Nan- 
ticoke Creek in Hanover, not far from where the Dundee 
shaft was sunk many years afterwards. This mill belonged 
to Nathan Carey, then to Christopher Hurlbut, and in 
August, 1796, it passed into the possession of James Sut- 
ton. In November, 1796, Sutton conveyed to Gen. Lord 
Butler of Wilkes-Barre a half-interest in this property 
being part of Lot No. 16 and known as "the mill lot" "to- 
gether with one-half of a saw-mill and grist-mill thereon 
standing, and one-half of all the appurtenances and appa- 
ratuses thereto belonging." 

Plumb says in his "History of Hanover Township" that 
this "was probably the grist-mill of Pelatiah Fitch, assessed 
to him in 1799" in which year there were only two grist- 
mills in Hanover, Fitchs' and Delano's. If this be true 
Fitch probably owned, or ran, the mill for only a short 
time. The assessment lists of Hanover show that early in 
the present century this Nanticoke Creek grist-mill, on Lot 
No. 1 6, was the property of Lord Butler of Wilkes-Barre, 
and in 1809 it was assessed at $500, for purposes of taxation. 

The mill was operated under the direction of Lord Butler 
until 1815, when he sold the property to Joseph Pruner, the 
maternal grandfather of the late Judge Edmund L. Dana of 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. I2Q 

this city. Mr. Pruner ran the mill until 1827, when he sold 
it to Col. John L. Butler of Wilkes-Barre, one of the sons 
of Gen. Lord Butler, the former owner. Colonel Butler 
operated the mill from 1828 to 1833 inclusive. By this time 
the building and fittings were very much out of repair (the 
mill was assessed at only $50 in 1833), and no business was 
done thereafter 1833, the water power having decreased. 
The mill was in ruins in 1840. 

THE INMAN MILL, HANOVER. 

Prior to 1809 Richard and Israel Inman of Hanover built 
a very substantial grist-mill at the foot of Solomon's Falls, 
above the present borough of Ashley. In 1809 this prop- 
erty was assessed at $500. In 1812 Richard Inman became 
the sole owner of the mill, and operated it that year and the 
next. Then it stood idle until 1817, after which Richard 
Inman operated it until his death in 1830 or '31. 

Having purchased the property from the estate of Richard 
Inman, Israel Inman operated the mill in 1833 when it was 
assessed at only $40. About 1835 or later the building was 
converted into a dwelling-house, and in the Spring of 1850 
it was carried down to the flats by high water. 

THE ROSS MILL, HANOVER. 

In 1826 Gen. William Ross of Wilkes-Barre built a small 
grist-mill on Solomon's Creek at the foot of the mountain 
in Hanover township, near the Inman mill just mentioned. 
This mill was operated by General Ross until 1830, when 
he enlarged and improved it. Two years later he added 
other improvements, which made it the most valuable mill 
property in the township. General Ross operated this mill 
until his death in 1842, after which, for a number of years, 
it was operated by his son, Judge Wm. S. Ross, of Wilkes- 
Barre. 

This mill consisted of a two and a-half story frame struc- 



I3O EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

ture on a stone substructure one story in height. The 
wooden part of the building was painted red. It stood in 
the midst of very picturesque surroundings. Twenty-five 
years ago the building was in a somewhat dismantled con- 
dition, having been abandoned as a grist-mill for some years 
previous to that time. All vestiges of the building have now 
disappeared. 

THE MORGAN MILL, HANOVER. 

Prior to 1812 George Mesinger was operating a small 
grist-mill in Hanover township, on Solomon's Creek below 
the present borough of Ashley, and near the south-west 
boundary line of the township of Wilkes-Barre. In 1814 
Mesinger sold the mill to John Greenawalt, who ran it until 
1821 when he sold out to Thomas H. Morgan. The latter 
ran the mill until 1837, and then sold to Merrit Abbott. 
He ran the mill one year, and then abandoned it. In 1840 
it was in ruins. 

PETTY'S MILL, HANOVER. 

In 1845 William Petty built a very substantial frame grist- 
mill on Solomon's Creek in Hanover township, about one- 
quarter of a mile below the present south-west boundary 
line of the city of Wilkes-Barre. It stood almost opposite 
the spot where now stands the "Franklin Junction" signal- 
station of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

The mill was of good size, two and a-half stories in height, 
and had four run of stones. It was run by water supplied 
through a race from a mill-pond situated back on the hill 
below Ashley. The mill-pond received its water from Sol- 
omon's Creek, into which, at the mill, the race emptied. 

This mill, which was known as " Petty 's Mill," was oper- 
ated by the owner for a number of years. After the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad was extended through Hanover to Wilkes- 
Barre and beyond, the name of the mill was changed to 
"The Railroad Mills" inasmuch as the tracks of the rail- 
road lay within a few yards of the mill. In the Spring of 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 13! 

1864 Oliver M. Martin leased these mills and ran them 
until November, 1867, when he was joined by Charles W. 
Garretson of Wilkes-Barre as a partner in the business. 
Martin and Garretson carried on the business until the death 
of Mr. Garretson in December, 1870, dissolved the partner- 
ship. 

From 1871 to 1885 "The Railroad Mills" were operated 
by J. W. Driesbach, and then A. P. Tinsley came into pos- 
session. He operated them until February 14, 1887, when 
the building was destroyed by fire. On the spot where it 
stood there is now a railroad cattle-pen, for the convenience 
of the owners of the slaughter-house near by. 

PLYMOUTH. 

Before the allotment of lands in Plymouth township among 
the proprietors, the owners agreed to set off fifty acres near 
to Coleman's,* or Mill Creek, and a mill seat thereon, for 
the purpose of encouraging the building of a grist-mill. 
This mill lot lay along the small stream afterwards known 
as Ransom's Creek, which flowed in a south-easterly direc- 
tion in the lower end of Plymouth township, and emptied 
into the Susquehanna near the site of old Shawnee Fort. 

The erection of this mill was undertaken some years later 
by Campbell and Gilbert Denton ; but before opera- 
tions could be begun the massacre of 1778 occurred, "in 
which Denton was killed, and his son went away without 
doing anything." His half-right in the mill-site was for- 
feited. Later Campbell began the erection of the mill, but 
soon sold his half-interest in the site to Samuel Ransom, 
who continued the work of erecting the mill. 

In 1786 the mill was not yet in working order, and Ran- 
som sold his interest to Hezekiah Roberts agreeing to 
make a title to twenty-five acres of land and the mill seat. 

*So called from Jeremiah Coleraan, originally of Goshen, N. Y., who, prior to Jan- 
uary, 1773, owned a "right" of land on the banks of this stream, and had built a house 
here. 



132 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

James Bidlack then agreed to join Roberts in building the 
mill, but did nothing towards it; whereupon in June, 1787, 
the committee of the town voted the mill seat to Roberts 
"being fifty acres exclusive of a four-rod highway" and 
Roberts completed the mill the same year. 

These facts have been drawn from the original unpub- 
lished minutes of the Pennsylvania Commissioners who, 
under the Act of Assembly of 1799, examined and settled, 
early in the present century, the titles to lands in the seven- 
teen townships of Luzerne county. 

Stewart Pearce says in his "Annals of Luzerne County" 
(page 216) : "In 1780 Robert Faulkner erected a log grist- 
mill on Shupp's Creek, below the site of the present [1860] 
Shupp Mill, and about the same time Hezekiah Roberts put 
up a similar mill on Ransom's Creek." Col. H. B. Wright 
repeats this statement in his "Historical Sketches of Ply- 
mouth," written in 1872 and '73, and adds that the founda- 
tion of the old Faulkner mill had disappeared before his day. 
(The Colonel was born in 1808.) 

I think it is very certain that both these gentlemen were 
mistaken with regard to the Faulkner and Roberts mills. 
We have previously shown, by what may be considered 
good evidence, that the only grist-mill in Wyoming Valley 
in 1780 and '81 was Coffrin's little mill in Newport, near 
Nanticoke. We have also shown, by the most satisfactory 
testimony, that the Roberts mill was not completed until 
1787. It is fair to presume, therefore, that the Faulkner 
mill was erected, on what was later known as Shupp's Creek, 
about the year 1787. 

SMITH'S MILL, PLYMOUTH. 

About 1808 Abijah Smith became the owner of the 
Roberts mill (previously mentioned) on Ransom's Creek in 
Plymouth township, and, having repaired and improved it, 
ran it until 1812 or '13. Then the mill stood idle until 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 133 

1825, when Abijah's brother, John Smith, took possession 
of the mill and ran it until 1836. In 1837 Jeremiah Ful- 
ler took the mill and ran it for some time, after which it 
was converted into a distillery. 

SHUPP'S MILL, PLYMOUTH. 

In April, 1812, Philip Shupp, who had come to Plymouth 
from New Jersey a short time before, bought forty-two acres 
of a tract of land called "Mayfield," lying along the creek 
south of Ross Hill, and now known as Shupp's Creek. 
Here he immediately built a very substantial grist-mill, 
which for a number of years was the principal mill in Ply- 
mouth. 

It stood on the west side of the main road running from 
Kingston to and through Plymouth, and was some distance 
up the creek from the old Robert Faulkner mill previously 
mentioned. Mr. Shupp ran this mill until February, 1817, 
when he sold the mill property and some contiguous prop- 
erty to his son Philip Shupp, Jr., for $6000. 

From that time until 1822 the mill was operated by the 
firm of Philip Shupp & Son. Philip, Jr., then ran the mill 
from 1823 to 1833, the year of his death. The building 
was then in a somewhat dilapidated condition, and was al- 
lowed to stand idle for a year or two. Having been reno- 
vated and improved the mill was run for a number of years 
by the heirs of Philip Shupp, Jr., and by one or two others 
to whom the property was leased. The building was torn 
down some twenty-seven or -eight years ago. 

THE HARVEY-TILLBURY MILL, PLYMOUTH. 

Early in 1785 (not in 1780, as Pearce states in his "Annals," 
page 216) Benjamin Harvey erected on Harvey's Creek, 
near Nanticoke Falls, a log grist-mill, which after its com- 
pletion was run for him by his son-in-law Abraham Till- 
bury. When Benjamin Harvey died in November, 1795, 



I$4 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

Elisha Delano was building for him a new grist-mill farther 
down the creek. This mill was completed in 1796, and was 
run until 1830 by Abraham Tillbury to whose wife it had 
been devised by her father, Benjamin Harvey. 

The following paragraph, written by the late Caleb E. 
Wright, Esq., and published in The Historical Record, 
Wilkes-Barre, in 1889, is apropos : "Near the river Harvey's 
Creek passes the base of 'Tillbury's Knob/ an abrupt ledge 
similar to Campbell's at the head of the Valley. It was 
near the brow of the butting ledge, on the waters of Har- 
vey's Creek, and distant a mile or so from his nearest neigh- 
bor, that Abraham Tillbury established his noted grist-mill. 
It did the custom work for the farmers in a circuit of many 
miles around. Abraham, a silent, meditative man, wearing 
spectacles of the ancient style, whose glasses were as large 
as our silver dollars, ran the mill himself." 

In 1830 the Tillburys sold their mill to Joshua Pugh, who 
ran it until 1833 and then had a new grist-mill erected on 
the site by Henry Yingst, a German from Dauphin county, 
Penn'a. Pugh operated this mill for a number of years, and 
also kept an inn near by for awhile. A more modern mill, 
erected not many years ago, now occupies the site of the 
Pugh mill. It is operated by Messrs. Bergen & Co. of West 
Nanticoke. 

THE GRUBB MILL, PLYMOUTH. 

In 1793 Peter Grubb, who had been a shop-keeper in 
Wilkes-Barre, but was then living in Kingston township 
near the Plymouth line, and was a farmer, a Justice of the 
Peace, and one of the Commissioners of Luzerne county, 
erected a grist-mill in Plymouth township on the north-west 
or main branch of Toby's Creek. This mill stood on the 
east side of the main road running from Kingston to Ply- 
mouth, and was only a short distance from the Kingston 
line. The stream upon which the mill stood was for a long 
time known in Plymouth as "Grubb's mill brook." 




THE BUTTON MILL, 1776. 
FROM '' PKARCK'S ANNALS OF IA'ZERNE COUNTY. 




CRANK OF THE SUTTON MILL. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 13$ 

In 1795 Grubb removed from Kingston to Plymouth town- 
ship, where he resided and operated his mill until January, 
1807, when he died. Then, for three or four years, the mill 
was operated under the direction and management of Peter's 
widow, Sarah (Gallup) Grubb. 

About the time of her marriage to Agur Hoyt, and their 
removal to Ohio (in 1812), she sold the mill property to 
James Gray, a practical miller from Kingston. He ran the 
mill until 1814, when it passed into the hands of Henry 
Buckingham, a prominent merchant in Kingston. Under 
his ownership the mill was run until 1819. A few years 
later it was torn down. 

BUTTON'S MILL, EXETER. 

In 1776 James Sutton, in partnership with James Hadsall, 
put up the first grist-mill and saw-mill in the upper end 
of Exeter township. It was located about five and a-half 
miles due north from the battle-ground of July 3, 1778, on 
a small stream then called Sutton's Creek, now called 
Coray's Creek which flows north-east and empties into the 
Susquehanna. Hadsall was murdered, and the mill was 
destroyed by the enemy during the invasion and massacre 
of 1778, and the mill irons were carried away, except the 
crank, which is now preserved in the collections of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society as a relic of 
one of the earliest mills in the Wyoming Valley. 

Several years later Samuel Sutton, a son of James, built 
a second grist-mill on the same site, and in 1846 E. A. Coray 
having become the owner of the site, erected a third mill, 
which was still standing and in use a few years ago, and 

may be now. 

PITTSTON TOWNSHIP. 

The first grist-mill in Pittston township was built by the 
people of the township at the falls of Lackawanna River, in 
what is now Lackawanna township, in 1774. The mill 



136 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

stood on the north side of the river, and some years later an 
iron forge was built on the opposite side of the stream. In 
1775 the grist-mill passed into the hands of Capt. Solomon 
Strong, and soon thereafter was swept away by a flood. 

The second grist-mill in Pittston township was erected in 
1794 by Joseph Gardner and Isaac Gould, on Gardner's 
Creek, in what is now Jenkins township. 

THE HALLOCK-CONRAD MILL, PITTSTON. 

Prior to 1820 Peter Hallock was operating for a number 
of years a grist-mill in Pittston township. In the year men- 
tioned he disposed of the property to Samuel Conrad, who 
ran the mill until 1825 and then sold out to John Conrad. 
He ran it until 1829, when it was abandoned as a grist-mill. 

THE BABB MILL, PITTSTON. 

For some years up to and including 1818 Peter Pain 
owned and ran a grist-mill in Pittston township. Early in 
1 8 19 the property came into the possession of John P. Babb, 
and he ran the mill until his death in 1840. During the 
next five years it was operated under the direction of Babb's 
heirs, and then (in 1846) Edward Babb became the owner. 
He ran the mill for a number of years thereafter. 

THE BARNUM-ROBINSON MILL, PITTSTON. 

In 1819 Messrs. John Murfy and Isaiah Tyson, who had 
each, at different times, been miller at the Hollenback stone 
grist-mill in Wilkes-Barre township, erected a grist-mill in 
Pittston township. They ran the mill in 1820 and '21, and 
then removed to Canada. In 1822 this mill was the prop- 
erty of Joseph Fell, and in 1823 Calvin Wadhams of Ply- 
mouth became the owner. He soon sold it, however, to 
Zenus Barnum of Pittston, who, from 1824 to 1829 or '30, 
inclusive, operated the mill. 

In 1 830 the property was sold to John W. Robinson, Esq., 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

of Wi Ikes -Bar re, under whose ownership the mill was run 
until 1836. He then sold to George Sax, who owned the 
property one year. Judge John N. Conyngham of Wilkes- 
Barre then became the owner, and held the property until 
1841, when he sold it to Henry J. Williams. In 1843 the 
building was diverted to other uses. 

THE BUTLER STEAM MILL, PITTSTON. 

In 1846 Messrs. John L. and Lord Butler of Wilkes-Barre, 
and Judge Garrick Mallery of Philadelphia, who, under the 
firm name of John L. Butler & Co., had been engaged for 
eight years in the mining and shipping of coal at what is 
now Pittston city, erected there a large steam grist-mill. 

The engine and fittings which had been removed from 
the " Butler Steam Mill " in Wilkes-Barre were set up in 
this new mill, and in the latter part of 1846 milling opera- 
tions were begun. 

For a number of years a large and valuable business was 
done at this mill by the original owners, and by their suc- 
cessors. 

THE CARPENTER-SHOEMAKER MILL, WYOMING. 

As early as 1780 or '8 1 Benjamin Carpenter, a native of 
Connecticut, settled in the upper end of Kingston township, 
at the foot of the mountain back of the present borough of 
Wyoming. About 1790 he built a grist-mill on Abraham's 
Creek, at the lower end of the gorge where the creek breaks 
through the mountain, and later he built near by a woollen 
mill. 

This locality years afterwards known as Shoemaker's 
Mills was for a long time known as Carpenter's Mills and 
Carpenter-town ; and as late as 1830 the flats between this 
locality and Wyoming, or New Troy as the place was then 
called, was covered by a forest. 

Benjamin Carpenter operated his mills until 1807, when 



138 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

he sold them to Samuel Shoemaker and removed to Ohio. 
Samuel Shoemaker ran the grist-mill until 1816, and then 
Isaac Shoemaker, Sr., came into possession and continued 
there until 1828. 

From 1829 to 1837 or '38 John Ambler owned and ran 
the mill, and then Charles Fuller occupied the property for 
about two years. In 1840 the property came into the pos- 
session of Isaac C. Shoemaker, who rebuilt the grist-mill 
that year, putting in all the new improvements in mill fittings 
then invented. 

In 1841 the firm of Isaac C. and Wm. E. Shoemaker was 
organized, and they operated the mill until 1862. From 
1863 until about 1872 Isaac C. Shoemaker was the sole 
owner and operator, and then Samuel R. Shoemaker be- 
came the owner. Prior to 1880 steam instead of water- 
power was introduced. 

Forty years ago the flour manufactured at this mill was 
generally conceded to be the best manufactured in this 
valley, and it always sold for twenty-five cents a barrel more 
than other Wyoming Valley flour. 

This property is now leased and operated as a feed mill 
by the firm of James Fowler & Sons. 

THE TUTTLE MILL, FORTY FORT. 

Prior to 1798 Henry Tuttle erected a small two-story 
frame grist-mill on Abraham's Creek, in Kingston township, 
just south-east of the road running from Kingston to Pittston. 
It stood very near what is now known as the " stone-arched 
bridge," almost on the dividing line between the boroughs 
of Wyoming and Forty Fort. Henry Tuttle ran this mill 
until 1 8 1 2, when his son Joseph Tuttle came into possession 
of it. He ran it for twenty-six years, and then, April 9, 1 839, 
sold the property to George W. Barber, who operated the 
mill until 1853. 

In 1854 Elijah Shoemaker, Jr., bought the mill. It stood 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 139 

idle until 1861, when Mr. Shoemaker reopened it and 
operated it until his death in 1863. After that it was run 
by a tenant of Mr. Shoemaker's heirs until about ten years 
ago, when, the building having become very dilapidated, 
was abandoned. About four years ago it collapsed, and its 
remains were removed. No vestiges are now to be seen, 
save a portion of the old stone foundation walls. 

Thirty years ago this little brown mill, perched on the 
bank of the creek high above the clear and quiet waters, 
and overhung and almost surrounded by noble trees, formed 
a very picturesque view. Now the site is transformed into 
a barren, disreputable-looking, loud-smelling cow and hog- 
yard. 

THE SHOEMAKER MILL, FORTY FORT. 

In 1816 Elijah Shoemaker, Sr., erected a grist-mill, saw- 
mill and distillery on Abraham's Creek about one-fourth of 
a mile below the Tuttle mill just described. The grist-mill 
was a small affair, and was intended by its owner mainly for 
grinding his own grain. It was run by him until about the 
time of his death in 1830, and then stood idle until 1838, 
when Elijah Shoemaker, Jr., took it and operated it until 
1841. Some years later the building was removed. 

THE SWETLAND MILL, CARVERTON. 

There were other mills in Kingston township, on Abra- 
ham's Creek, at an early day, but they were not located in 
the Wyoming Valley. In 1 826 Uriah Swetland built a grist- 
mill on the creek near the present village of Carverton. He 
ran it until 1835, when it became the property of William 
Swetland, and under his ownership was run until 1 846, and 
then sold to Comer Phillips. 

THE SWETLAND-HOLGATE MILL, MILL HOLLOW. 

Prior to 1/90 Zachariah Hartsouf settled in Kingston 
township, on a large body of land purchased by him and 



I4O EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

lying in and about the mountain gorge through which the 
main branch of Toby's Creek winds its way into the Wyo- 
ming Valley. This locality soon came to be known as 
"Hartsouf 's Hollow ;" but after the departure of Mr. Hart- 
souf from Kingston in 1808, and after one or two mills had 
been erected near his old home, the name of the place came 
to be "Mill Hollow." This name it bore until from it and 
contiguous territory the present borough of Luzerne was 
erected some years ago. 

Prior to 1805 or '6 Zachariah Hartsouf sold to Samuel 
Atherholt one of the best portions of his tract of land, lying 
along the creek near the base of the foot-hill at the southern 
entrance to the "Hollow." Here Atherholt erected imme- 
diately a grist-mill, which he ran until November, 1809, 
when he sold the property to Peter Babb. From that date 
until early in 1812 Babb operated the mill, and then sold it 
to Joseph Swetland and removed to a farm in Providence 
township. 

Swetland erected a distillery on the property, and ran it 
and the grist-mill until November, 1817, when, for $5000, 
he sold twenty-two acres of land, the grist-mill, distillery 
and other appurtenances to Jacob Holgate and William 
Hicks of Germantown, Philadelphia county, Penn'a. Hicks 
took possession of the grist-mill and ran it (presumably for 
himself and Holgate, who continued to reside in Philadel- 
phia) until June 17, 1831. 

Upon that date Hicks conveys his one-half interest in the 
property to Holgate, who, in consideration thereof, "guar- 
antees and secures to said Hicks and to his heirs, during 
the life of said Jacob Holgate and his wife, the one-fourth 
part of all the tolls and emoluments of the grist-mill." Mr. 
Holgate's representatives then took charge of the mill and 
ran it from July, 1831, to sometime in 1832, when Mr. Hol- 
gate died. The representatives of his estate then operated 
the mill until 1836 or '37, when it was destroyed by fire. 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 14! 

* 

THE HANCOCK MILL, LUZERNE BOROUGH. 

About 1838 the site of the Holgate mill, previously men- 
tioned, was bought by William Hancock, formerly of Wilkes- 
Barre, but then established as a tanner and currier near the 
"Hollow." In 1839 and '40 Charles and John Mathers, 
two young millwrights of Kingston township, built for Wil- 
liam Hancock a very substantial, although not large, grist- 
mill on the site just mentioned. The mill was painted red, 
and the first miller employed by Mr. Hancock was Lambert 
Bonham. 

This mill was operated by Judge Hancock (he had in the 
meantime been elected one of the Associate Judges of the 
Luzerne County Courts) until his death in January, 1859, 
after which it was operated by the representatives of his 
estate until 1864, when it was sold to Atherholt and Lutz. 
They operated it for some years, and were succeeded by 
Atherholt and Houghton prior to 1 873. Later David Ather- 
holt ran it until after 1880. 

About 1890 H. N. Schooley & Son came into possession, 
and now occupy it. The mill stands near the Haddock 
(formerly the Hutchinson) coal-breaker. For a number of 
years it was known as the old red mill, but some years ago 
it exchanged its red coat for one of lead color. 

THE SHAFER-HOLLENBACK MILL, MILL HOLLOW. 

Some time before 1813 Adam Shafer erected on Toby's 
Creek, about an eighth of a mile above the Samuel Ather- 
holt (later the Hancock) mill-site, an oil-mill, which he 
operated until 1819, when he built near it a small grist-mill 
about one and a-half stories in height. He ran these two 
mills until 1824, when he sold out to George M. Hollen- 
back, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre. 

From 1825 to 1837 or '38 these mills were operated under 
the ownership of Mr. Hollenback, and then Thomas C. 
Reese & Co. ran the grist-mill and oil-mill until the end of 



142 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY'. 

1839. After that the grist-mill building was used for a 
plaster and chopping-mill down to 1 890. From 1 849 to 
1856 John Bartholomew ran it. The building is now used 
as a blacksmith shop. It is painted a dirty yellow color, 
and stands nearly opposite the small iron bridge which 
crosses Toby's Creek at the south end of Mill Hollow. 

THE DORRANCE MILL, MILL HOLLOW. 

What is probably the oldest grist-mill on Toby's Creek 
is the two and a-half story frame mill, painted white, which 
stands at the north end of Mill Hollow. The original 
structure is said to have been built in 1 8 1 2 by James Hughes, 
Sr., but during its long life it has been renovated, enlarged, 
renewed and improved several times. Originally it was 
what was called a clover-mill, but in 1825 and '26 John 
Breese ran it as a grist-mill, and in 1827 Josiah Marshall 
and Daniel Gore ran it as such. Then it reverted to its 
original uses. 

In 1834 Geo. W. Little came into possession of the mill 
and operated it as a grist-mill and plaster-mill until 1837 or 
'38, when he was joined by John Gore as a partner in the 
business. In 1840 Gore became sole owner, and ran the 
mill as a grist-mill only until 1845, when he sold out to 

Charles Dorrance and Pettebone. They enlarged 

and improved the mill, and made it a valuable property. 
They ran the mill until 1852, when Colonel Dorrance pur- 
chased the interest of Mr. Pettebone, and business was car- 
ried on under his ownership until 1866. 

In that year John S. Pettebone took the mill and ran it, 
and in 1869 purchased it and eight acres of land from Col- 
onel Dorrance for $7200. Pettebone ran the mill until 
1871 at least ; then C. B. Manville, and after him A. H. 
Coon, ran it. In 1880 Samuel Raub bought the mill, and 
after running it for a few years handed it over to his son 
Andrew G. Raub, who ran it until he built his Roller Mills 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 143 

in 1892, a little farther down the creek. This old white 
mill is now operated by Scureman, Gangloff & Co. 

THE RAUB-WRIGHT MILL, MILL HOLLOW. 

In 1839 Geo. W. Little built a small plaster-mill on the 
east bank of Toby's Creek, nearly midway between the 
Dorrance and Hollenback mills. Later this property passed 
into the possession of Gaylord and Smith and the mill was 
used as an iron foundry. In 1855 Samuel Raub, Jr., bought 
the property, and immediately erected a large frame grist- 
mill, to which he annexed the old mill building after repair- 
ing and renovating it. 

This mill was run very successfully by Mr. Raub until he 
sold it in 1869 to Thomas Wright, who ran it until 1890 
under the name of "The Farmers' and Mechanics' Mill." 
Mr. Wright sold the property in 1890, and from that year 
until 1896 the building was unoccupied. It was then torn 
down, and upon the site a large coal-washery is now being 
erected by the Anthony Coal Company. 

RICE'S MILL, TRUCKSVILLE. 

There were other grist-mills in early days on Toby's 
Creek, but they were not in the Wyoming Valley. The 
most important, and one of the oldest, of these mills was 
that of Jacob Rice. He came from Knowlton township, 
Sussex county, New Jersey, and in 1814 purchased of Joseph 
Swetland for $2500, three hundred and eighty-one acres of 
land in the vicinity of what is now Trucksville. On this 
tract was a small grist-mill which had been built by Wil- 
liam Trucks prior to 1808 and operated by him until 1811, 
when he sold out to Joseph Swetland. Mr. Rice some 
years later enlarged and improved this mill. He ran it 
until his death in 1858. 



144 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

THE BUTLER STEAM MILL, WILKES-BARRE. 

As previously mentioned, the first grist-mill erected with- 
in the present limits of the city of Wilkes-Barre was built 
in 1781 or '82, on the south bank of Mill Creek, about one- 
half mile from its mouth. Inasmuch as the only valuable 
and available rights on Mill Creek were already taken up, 
and there was no other stream of water at hand which could 
furnish power sufficient to run a mill of good size, no other 
grist-mill run by water was ever erected within the territory 
now comprehended in the city of Wilkes-Barre ; excepting, 
of course, the mill built by John Hollenback early in this 
century to take the place of the worn-out and behind-the- 
times mill of 1782. 

The people of Wilkes-Barre who had grists to grind were 
compelled for fifty-six years to patronize either the mills on 
Mill Creek and Laurel Run, or the mills in the neighboring 
townships of Kingston, Plymouth and Hanover. 

Some time before the next grist-mill was erected in Wilkes- 
Barre township the value of steam power had come to be 
fully understood, and it was being introduced into many 
factories and mills where water had formerly been the 
motive power. It was only in 1 830 that the first railroad in 
the United States, for the use of cars drawn by a steam 
locomotive, was opened for traffic. Eight years later Messrs. 
John L. and Lord Butler erected here in their native town 
the first steam grist-mill built in the Wyoming Valley or 
for that matter, in Luzerne county. 

It stood on the east side of Public Square, where now 
stands the building occupied by the grocery store of Lewis 
Brown. The basement of the building was a sunken story 
of stone (in which the engine was located), and above this 
the structure was of wood, two and a-half stories in height. 
Along the front of the building, on a level with the first 
floor, and six or eight feet above the side-walk, was an un- 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 145 

covered porch, reached by a flight of steps from the street. 
This mill was opened for business in 1838 or '39, and as 
long as the building stood it was known as " the Butler 
Steam Mill." It was operated at first by John L. and Lord 
Butler, but later by John L. alone. 

In 1845 ^e engine, machinery and mill fittings were re- 
moved from the building, carried to Pittston, and the next 
year installed in the new steam grist-mill erected there by 
Messrs. John L. Butler & Co., as previously noted. In the 
Spring of 1846 H. B. Robinson and Lord Butler opened in 
the room on the first floor of the abandoned mill on the 
Square, a store for the sale of general merchandise. In the 
basement story H. and F. McAlpin established at the same 
time their stove and tin-ware shop. 

The building continued to be used for miscellaneous pur- 
poses until May 26, 1855, when it and all the other build- 
ings along the east side of the Public Square were destroyed 
by fire. At the time of the fire W. W. Loomis had his har- 
ness and saddlery shop on the first floor of the mill build- 
ing, and J. C. Frederick and H. C. Wilson occupied the 
basement floor with their stove and tinware business. 

THE THOMAS STEAM MILL, WILKES-BARRE. 

The Wyoming Division of the North Branch Canal was 
completed in 1834, and for a few years thereafter everybody 
in this locality hoped and expected that the State of Pennsyl- 
vania would soon complete the canal to the New York State 
line. Our manufacturers, merchants and business men 
generally expected to derive large profits from the increased 
amount of business that would come to them by way of the 
canal ; but their expectations were never realized, owing to 
the failure of the State to hurry along the completion of the 
important work. 

In 1840 Abraham Thomas, an active and prominent busi- 
ness man in Wilkes-Barre, erected a large frame building 



146 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

for a steam grist-mill on the north bank of the canal, north 
of Union and between Franklin and River streets. After 
Mr. Thomas had erected his building he concluded, in view 
of the state of canal affairs, that it would be more profitable 
to use the building for a steam saw-mill which he did from 
1841 until early in 1846, when he died. A few years later 
the mill was sold and removed. 

THE HILLARD MILL, WILKES-BARRE. 

In 1847 Oliver B. Hillard and Moses C. Mordecai, who 
had come to Wilkes-Barre, from Charleston, S. C., about a 
year previously to engage in mercantile business, began 
the erection of a large steam grist-mill on the north side of 
Union street, east of Main street, Wilkes-Barre. The rear 
of the building abutted on the canal, and facilities were there 
provided for loading and unloading boats. The basement 
was a sunken story of stone; the superstructure was of 
brick, three and a-half stories in height. Captain Thomas 
H. Parker, of Wilkes-Barre, was the builder. Exteriorly 
the building was originally about the same as it is to-day 
barring the marks of age, decay and untidiness which it bears. 

In the erection and fitting up of the mill no expense or 
pains were spared. There were six run of stones. The en- 
gine, boilers and appurtenances came from Elmira, N. Y., 
and cost something over $5500. 

Steam was turned on at this mill for the first time on 
Christmas-day, 1 848, and early in January, 1 849, the owners 
informed the public that they were ready to do custom work ; 
and that "persons in town wishing to have grain ground" 
might have it sent for on giving notice. Merchant milling, 
however, was the specialty at this mill. 

The Wilkes-Barre Advocate of January 17, 1849, referred 
to the Hillard & Mordecai Mill in these words : "It is a 
magnificent building the machinery is extensive and of the 
best quality. The improvements made by these enterprising 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 147 

business men have added much to the business appearance 
and substantial improvement of that part of the town in 
which they are operating." 

Later in the year 1 849 Messrs. Hillard and Mordecai dis- 
solved partnership, and thereafter the mill (which was known 
as "The Wyoming Steam Mill") was operated by Mr. Hil- 
lard alone until his death in the Summer of 1861. It was 
then operated by his executors for about a year, after which 
it stood idle for some months while being overhauled and 
refitted. Sometime in 1862 or '63 Messrs. T. S. and W. S. 
Hillard, sons of O. B. Hillard, took the mill and ran it until 
the end of 1879, since which time the building has been 
used for a variety of purposes. 

THE KEYSTONE STEAM MILL, WILKES-BARRE^ 

In 1855 Messrs. Horton and Richards began the erection 
of the Keystone Steam Grist-mill in South Wilkes-Barre 
next to the Vulcan Iron Works, at the foot of Hibler's hill. 

The Record of the Times of December 12, 1855, said: 
"The building is up and the mill-wrights busy as bees put- 
ting in the machinery, whilst the masons are erecting the 
brick engine-house close by. The engine is from the works 
of Jones & Yost, their next neighbors, and will be some 
sixty horse power. The arrangements of the whole estab- 
lishment are admirable, and when completed will be quite 
an addition not only to Wilkes-Barre, but to the Valley. 
The four run of stones will be on a solid platform on the 
first floor, and close together. An opening in the wall will 
have a trough running out to boats in the canal, which is 
within a few feet of the mill. By means of this trough, with 
a spiral iron turning in it, the grain will be brought into the 
lower floor of the building, and from there taken wherever 
wanted by elevators." 

This mill was ready for business in February, 1856, and 
was operated by its owners from then until some time in 



148 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

1858, when the property was sold at sheriff's sale to 
Messrs. Drake and Sterling. They leased the mill to Herz 
Lowenstein of Wilkes-Barre, who ran it for a year or two. 
The owners then ran it until the death of Mr. Drake dis- 
solved the partnership. Shortly afterwards the property 
was sold to Messrs. M. W. Morris and R. F. Walsh, who 
took possession April i, 1864. They operated the mill 
until December 31, 1895, when, on account of failing health, 
Mr. Walsh retired from the business, which since then has 
been conducted by Mr. Morris. The original, substantial 
frame structure, painted red, is still in use, and the property 
is called "The Keystone Roller Mills." 



From about 1785 to 1795 the pioneers of the region lying 
along the North Branch of the Susquehanna River from 
Salem, in Luzerne county, to Owego, in New York State, 
were compelled to resort to the Wyoming Valley to have 
their grain ground. From 1786 to '91 the few early settlers 
in the vicinity of Owego found no mill nearer than Wilkes- 
Barre, which they reached by canoes as their means of con- 
veyance. In 1791 Fitch's mill was established four miles 
above Binghamton. 

As late as 1796 the inhabitants of Huntington township, 
Luzerne county, were compelled to bring their grists to the 
Harvey mill at West Nanticoke. In 1795 or '96 Timothy 
Hopkins and Stephen Harrison erected the first grist-mill 
in Huntington township. It was a small concern, and was 
located on Mill Creek, a branch of Huntington Creek, at the 
head of Hopkin's Glen. 

Early in 1799 Elisha Harvey, of Plymouth, completed the 
erection of a grist-mill on Huntington Creek, at what is now 
Harveyville. This mill later became the property of his son 
Benjamin Harvey, who in 1837 erected in its stead a much 
larger and finer mill, which was operated for thirty-two 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 149 

years, when it was destroyed by fire. It was replaced the 
same year (1869) by the large flouring-mill now owned and 
operated by the heirs of A. N. Harvey, deceased. 

From 1779 to 1785 there was at all times almost a scar- 
city of wheat and rye flour in Wyoming, owing to the lack 
of near-by and convenient grinding facilities. 

In 1784 Timothy Pickering passed up the Susquehanna 
River from Nescopeck to Tioga, a distance of 120 miles, 
and he says that he and his party tasted but once bread 
made from flour. Cakes made from corn coarsely broken 
in a mortar, or ground in a mill, were the substitute. 

A good deal of wheat and rye was raised by the settlers 
during the period last mentioned, and many of them paid 
their taxes to the town with grain. At a town-meeting held 
in Wilkes-Barre April 8, 1782, it was " Voted, That the town 
treasurer be desired to grind up so much of the public wheat 
as to make 200 pounds of biscuit, and keep it made and so 
deposited as that the necessary scouts may instantly be 
supplied, from time to time, as the occasion requires." 

THE NEW MINER-HILLARD CORN MILL. 

Although this paper is devoted to the Old Mills of Wyo- 
ming, a few words about this new departure the new Miner- 
Hillard Corn Mill, at Miner's Mills may not be amiss. This 
mill, which is built of brick, was erected adjacent to the old 
Miner Mill, and completed in May, 1900. It is exclusively 
a Corn Mill, that is for the manufacture of the products of 
Maize, or Indian Corn alone, such as the various sizes of 
hominy, coarse and fine meal, corn-flour, what is known as 
hominy, feed, &c. 

There is a large and increasing foreign demand for these 
goods, and the world is rapidly learning the value and econ- 
omy of our corn as food for man and beast. The capacity 
of this Mill is seven hundred barrels, or thirty-five hundred 
bushels of corn in twenty-four hours. There is only one 



1 5O EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

other Mill of this kind in Pennsylvania, and probably not 
more than twenty in the whole United States. 

It has all the latest and most approved machinery and 
has been pronounced by competent experts the best of its 
kind in the country, which really means the world, since 
there are no mills of this kind outside of the United States. 



I will conclude this paper with an extract from one which 
I read on the general subject of " Milling and its Improve- 
ments," at the State Convention of Millers, at Gettysburg, 
Pa., in September, 1894. 

My personal knowledge of grist-mills and milling methods 
extends back over a period of almost sixty years ; for as a 
small boy I saw a good deal of the old mill built by my 
grandfather and owned by him, and then owned by my 
father. 

I came into possession of this old mill after the death of 
both my parents, just before I became of age. 

At that time the milling business in this valley was con- 
fined almost exclusively to what was known as custom 
work, that is the grinding of grain of farmers for toll, which 
was one-tenth, or at the rate of one bushel in ten for grind- 
ing. The farmers had their grain ground into flour and 
feed and found a market for it themselves, and I am not sure 
when the competition was not too close but that it was as 
good a method of milling for the miller as the present sys- 
tem of buying and selling, known as merchant milling. 

Under that system there were no bad debts to worry 
about as the work was paid for before it was done. 

At the time to which I refer there were three mills on the 
same stream, from one-half to three-quarters of a mile apart 
the Hollenback stone mill, the Stanburrough-Hollenback 
mill, and my mill and all dependent upon the custom work 
of the surrounding farmers for their business. This made 




s w 



EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. I$I 

competition very lively ; so close that at one time the mil- 
lers instead of waiting for the farmers to bring their grain 
themselves to the mill, would, in their rivalry to get bus- 
iness, go with their own wagons and haul it to the mill, 
grind it and haul it back to the farmers, go sometimes as 
far as six or eight miles for it, and all the while the farmer's 
own horses were standing in the stable with nothing to do. 

I also remember that at times when business was very 
dull and custom work coming in slowly, my heart would 
occasionally be cheered by the sight of a farmer driving up 
to the mill with a wagon-load of corn ears and wheat screen- 
ings, chiefly cheat or chess, to be ground, cob and all, into 
feed. We had cob crushers in those days, and I believe 
there are a few still left, but I think corn-cobs are worth 
more for smoking hams than for making feed. 

But that kind of milling was neither pleasant nor profitable. 
On the other hand, the old-fashioned three-or four-story, 
hip-roofed mill, with its abundant and never-failing water 
power, and slow-moving but powerful overshot water-wheel, 
splashing continually day and night, and running perhaps 
three or four pairs of burrs on wheat, one or two on rye, 
one for buckwheat, in season, and one or two for feed or 
meal as occasion might require a mill property like this, 
surrounded it might be by a farm of many fertile acres, with a 
good business, either custom or merchant, or both com- 
bined as was often usual, was an exceedingly pleasant pic- 
ture to look upon, and a very substantial and profitable 
piece of property to be possessed of. 

The owner of such a property was usually an important 
and respected citizen of the neighborhood in which he lived, 
and the surrounding farmers were dependent upon him for 
turning their grain into edible or marketable form, and for 
furnishing them a cash market for their crops. In short, 
he was, to put it mildly, a prominent man among his neigh- 
bors, and often a power in the community. 



152 EARLY GRIST-MILLS OF WYOMING VALLEY. 

Such was the old-fashioned mill as it existed for many 
generations. The old mill with its humming burrs and 
laboring water wheel has long been the theme of legend, 
poetry and song, and will long continue to be ; but its use- 
fulness has ceased to exist, and a new order of things and 
new methods have come about, and have come to stay. 
If any person had made the assertion, say forty years ago, 
that flour would ever be made on anything except a French 
burr stone, he would have been considered a fit subject for 
an insane asylum. But now, as you well know, a perfect 
and well equipped modern mill, for making every species of 
flour and feed, can be built without anything resembling a 
mill-stone entering into its construction. 




EARLY HOMINY BLOCK, 
FROM WILLIAM N. RICHARDSON, ESQ. 



DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA 
VALLEY. 

BY FREDERIC CORSS, M. D. 
READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AMD GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY NOY. 13, 1896. 



THE SUSQUEHANNA. 

The Susquehanna (crooked river), rising in Otsego Lake 
in the State of New York, receives the outflow of Richfield 
Springs and Schuyler Lake, a short distance from its source. 
Flowing in a shallow valley among the rolling hills of cen- 
tral New York in a southwesterly direction, it enters Sus- 
quehanna county, Pennsylvania, whence, making a great bend 
northwestward, it moves westward in New York, and finally 
enters Pennsylvania in Athens township near the easterly 
border of a level valley some four miles broad, which be- 
comes narrowed to a width of about a mile a few miles be- 
low. In New York the water-shed of the Delaware lies but 
a few miles eastward of the Susquehanna valley, but west- 
ward, for about 1 50 or nearly 200 miles, the southern tier 
counties lie in the water-shed of the Susquehanna. 

THE CHEMUNG. 

The Chemung river, rising in midwestern New York, and 
having numerous tributaries, some of which have their 
source in northern Pennsylvania but a few miles east of the 
headwaters of the Allegheny, and draining an area princi- 
pally unwooded and subject to destructive floods, flows 
eastward until several miles below Elmira, when it turns 
south and enters Athens township near the westerly border 
of the V-shaped valley I have described, and joins the Sus- 



I 54 DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 

quehanna at Tioga Point, five miles south of the York State 
line. Roughly estimated from the ordinary maps, it appears 
that the waters at Tioga Point are derived from a water-shed 
of about 5,000 square miles in mid-central southern New 
York and mid-northern Pennsylvania. 

BELOW TIOGA POINT. 

One traveling down the river from Athens will notice that 
the river valley is bounded on each side by precipitous hills 
from 300 to 600 feet in height, which, in several places, ap- 
proach so closely that the river flats are quite narrow and 
subject to overflow in the annual spring freshets. These 
hills, though broken and interrupted, appear to belong to 
the Appalachian system. At Wysox the river valley is 
broad, and the ancient flood plain is many feet higher than 
any freshets have been in modern times. The stream fol- 
lows a tortuous way among these mountains in a general 
southeasterly direction, intersecting Bradford, Wyoming 
and Luzerne counties, to Pittston, whence it flows in a south- 
westerly course, between ridges of the Appalachians, until 
it finally escapes from its rocky barriers at Harrisburg. 

TRIBUTARIES. 

The chief tributaries are received from the west the Che- 
mung, the West Branch and the Juniata. It is interesting 
to notice that Potter county gives rise to the Allegheny, to 
Pine Creek, which enters the West Branch at Jersey Shore, 
and to the Cowanesque, which flows northeast and joins the 
Tioga, which also flows northward. Besides these larger 
streams there flow from the west, Towanda creek, Sugar 
creek and the Mehoopany, all considerable streams. From 
the eastward, though not east of the meridian of Otsego 
Lake, are derived the Wysox, the Wyalusing, the Meshop- 
pen, the Tunkhannock, the Lackawanna. Each of these 



DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 155 

streams has done its share in moving the Susquehanna drift 
material, and in its degree has affected its varied distribution. 
No doubt changes of elevation have in some cases changed 
the course of some of these streams, but the present general 
drainage is probably very ancient. 

GLACIER AND FLOODED RIVER. 

The water-shed of the North Branch of the Susquehanna 
and its tributaries, as far south as Beach Haven, was once 
glaciated, and the drift mounds to be described are probably 
vestiges of the flooded river epoch. The ice, coming from 
the far north, then more elevated above sea level than now, 
was probably several thousand feet thick in some parts and 
did not have exactly the characteristics of a glacier at the 
present day. It is important to remember that our modern 
ice rivers have been moving through their present regions 
for many thousands of years, and nearly everything mova- 
ble or breakable by ice has long since been moved and 
broken. The ice transports but few rocks, and the sub- 
glacial stream contains almost no soil or mud in suspension. 
Opposite conditions prevailed during the ice age. The gla- 
cier encroached upon soil and possibly upon standing trees 
upon broken rocks and crumbling ledges remaining from 
the preceding great upheaval. The hard pan product of the 
great ice age finds no counterpart in the modern glacial 
products. It was a rock powder, made into a paste with 
water, and is now slowly taking on the original crystalline 
form, like other sedimentary rocks. 

Again, the modern glacier is measurably confined by the 
valleys in which it lies ; it seldom mounts any high lateral 
hills, and it bends to the right or left to pass a high prom- 
ontory. But there is evidence that the great ice sheet from 
the north covered all the hills of the upper Susquehanna. 
In this valley no doubt the ice ran higher than the present 
tops of surrounding mountains. The top of Kingston moun- 



156 DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 

tain must have been well and deeply covered, for glacial 
grooves and striations are deep and abundant wherever there 
are adequate exposures. 

The melting of this continental ice caused the flooded 
river epoch. The fountains of the great deep were broken 
up. Great lakes lay where now are rolling hills. The 
present channels were insufficient to carry off the flow, and 
mountain cascades broke over the lower summits on every 
side. In the deeper lakes the water quietly deposited a 
horizontal sediment of fine mud like the present flood plain 
of the river. Where there was a chance for the water to 
find a lower level, there was a torrent loaded with broken 
ice, rocks and soil. Great fields of ice were blown hither 
and thither by the winds, and often caused immense gorges, 
in comparison with which, ours of 1875 was a mere punc- 
tuation point. No doubt very fine hydraulic effects followed 
the bursting of these ice dams. Suppose an ice dam 200 
feet high at Campbell's Ledge. The backwater would 
reach to Towanda. The sudden breaking of such a dam 
would move an enormous amount of solid material, the 
heavier portions being the first to be deposited as the water 
became more quiet in the broader valley. 

These are the notions generally accepted by professional 
students, and appear to be the necessary results of the melt- 
ing of the great continental ice sheet. What follows in this 
paper is purely amateur observation. One cannot help re- 
marking that the amateur has great advantages over the 
professional. He has no reputation at stake, and is not 
hampered by possible objections. Where dates are wanting 
the imagination easily supplies all that are needed to com- 
plete the tale. 

SPANISH HILL. 

The valley in Athens township, between the rivers, is a 
fairly level plain of river drift considerable higher than the 



DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 

highest modern floods. Upon it are situated the villages of 
Athens, Sayre and South Waverly. In the central portion 
of the plain is a large mound of gravel, bowlders, sand and 
clay, formerly called Spanish Hill. Probably the name still 
adheres. The flat summit, an acre or two in extent, is per- 
haps 80 feet above the surrounding plain, and has some- 
what an oval shape. (I describe it from a memory many 
years ago.) Its sides are steep and water-furrowed. In 
short, it resembles in form, though not in color, one of 
our familiar culm banks. The early settlers supposed this 
to have been constructed by Spanish soldiers as a fortifica- 
tion. I have often heard Mrs. Perkins, daughter of the 
famous John Shepherd of Milltown, and author of the book 
"Early Times," speak of the remains of Spanish agriculture 
upon its level top. I can find no record of Spanish occupa- 
tion, nor, indeed, a printed word upon the subject, and the 
notion appears to me entirely untenable. Immediately north 
of the mound and continuous with it is a hill of native rock 
in place, somewhat higher than Spanish Hill and about 
equal to it in width. In the light of glacial and post glacial 
history, as read in the geological record, let us picture the 
scene during the flooded river epoch. The glacier which 
covered the whole watershed of the upper Susquehanna 
has retreated under the increasing warmth as far as south- 
ern New York. The whole region is swept by an enormous 
torrent of water, loaded with mud, ice and bowlders. Con- 
fined by the narrow gorge from Ulster to Towanda, the de- 
scending flood is checked. Perhaps the whole narrow pass 
is obstructed by immense bodies of ice brought down from 
the face of the glacier real inland icebergs. So the swift 
onward rush is stopped and the whole valley of Athens be- 
comes a somewhat tranquil lake, the water flowing over the 
tops of the lower surrounding hills, as is still evident from 
water grooving in many places. The cobblestones and 
coarser gravel settle first at the head of the valley and the 



158 DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 

fine sediment and sand at the lower part (Tioga Point). The 
stratified sediment gradually becomes deeper until the whole 
valley is silted up to the level of the top of Spanish Hill. 
After years the great flood subsides ; the winter freezing is 
less severe; the ice gorge gives way; the waters sweep 
through their present channels and slowly carry with them 
the drift material which has filled the valley. But the knob 
of rock above Spanish Hill stops the current and protects 
the debris below it from the force of denudation and the 
hill remains, a symmetrical and wonderful record of its own 
origin. 

TOWANDA DAM. 

This is a fanciful sketch, but I saw its counterpart in min- 
iature when the dam at Towanda was removed. The pool 
above the dam had been partly filled with river drift, which 
was partially washed away when the dam was removed, but 
several drift mounds were left, and are there to this day. 

WEST PITTSTON DRIFT MOUND. 

The same description applies almost word for word to 
the drift mound in West Pittston between the village and 
Kingston mountain. The hill is longer than Spanish Hill, 
and its sides less steep, but you can see the rocky head 
with the drift and sand heap below it. While the great 
flood was subsiding the river ran on both sides of the hill, 
which was merely an island in the great valley lake. 

Wysox and Tunkhannock are built on interesting mounds, 
and water-worn rocks are to be seen in many places high 
up the sides of the mountains. 

WYOMING MOUND. 

The whole of Wyoming Valley is a drift plain, and the 
village of Wyoming stands on a large mound which is beau- 
tifully terraced in many places, as may be seen south of the 



DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 159 

monument. Apparently the terrace was once the bank of 
the river, as in fact it is now during high freshets. 

WELSH HILL. 

The large mound in Plymouth called Welsh Hill was 
covered until a few years ago with large angular conglom- 
erate rock fragments, which have now been mostly broken 
up for building stone. They showed some evidence of attri- 
tion, but were essentially angular. Their origin is very 
much in evidence if you follow Poke Hollow to the top of 
the mountain. You find a broad gap in the top of the 
mountain formed by the removal of the Cattskill rocks 
which form the outer border of the red shale valley and of 
the conglomerate, or inner crest of the mountain. The 
whole mountain side shows evidence of a torrent pouring 
through this gap. In several places the exposed strata 
facing up the mountain are rounded and polished like the 
ledge about Toby's cave. The Welsh Hill mound is strat- 
ified or water-bedded. The conglomerate blocks are too 
angular to have been rolled very far and are not striated, 
and exactly resemble the conglomerate still in place on the 
mountain above. These data seem to justify the opinion 
that a torrent poured through the gap above Poke Hollow. 

KINGSTON MOUNTAIN. 

If you walk along the outer crest of Kingston mountain 
you will find plenty of evidence of glaciation but none of 
water erosion. Look westward across the rolling country 
and you will see here a long straight row of mounds of 
river pebbles there a rounded clay mound there a shallow 
water course, including the whole country as far as North 
mountain. Some of the highest hills about Harvey's Lake 
are not water-marked, but the plateau upon which Lehman 
Centre stands is clearly water-bedded. 



l6o DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 
THE LEHMAN PLATEAU. 

I consider this whole area of water-swept hills to have 
been caused by the Susquehanna during the flooded river 
epoch. The river pass at Coxton, if it existed at all at that 
time, or was formed then, would have been too narrow to 
have transmitted a significant portion of the flooded river 
which flowed from the great north. Harvey's Lake appears 
to have been a natural depression in the course of this great 
body of water. I have visited the valley behind the hill west 
of Berwick and find there the same evidence of ancient water 
action. I conclude, then, that the Welsh Hill mound was 
formed by material swept down from the mountain where 
the crest is lowered above Bull Run. 

LUZERNE BOROUGH MOUND. 

The same theory appears to account for the very inter- 
esting drift mound in Luzerne borough on which was a 
military camp in 1861. This mound lies between Troy Hol- 
low and the old town of Mill Hollow. South of Raubville 
is Cooper Hill, which is part rock in place and in part sand 
and loam, which appears to have been continuous with 
military mound until a channel was worn through it by 
Toby's creek, along the banks of which Mill Hollow was 
built. The Cooper Hill mound was doubtless continuous 
with the mountain side until a channel was cut through it 
by the little stream running down from the George Cort- 
right farm. The one large mound, which was cut into three 
parts by erosion, was somewhat circular in form, about half 
a mile in diameter, and from 30 to 60 feet high. The deeper 
parts are cobblestones and the higher sand and loam. 

It is higher near the mountain and slopes gradually down 
to the D., L. & W. tracks. The Mill Hollow gap was a 
natural fault in the rocks, but water-worn ledges high up 



DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. l6l 

the mountain side show that it has been much eroded. The 
drift material from this pass lies upon the marsh which ex- 
tends along the foot of the mountain from West Pittston to 
Edwardsville, and must have been deposited long subse- 
quent to the erosion of the buried valley known to exist 
under the marsh. Possibly this buried valley may be a 
series of pot-holes like those in Watkins Glen. 

DRIFT AND GLACIAL MOUND IN EDWARDSVILLE. 

If you follow the trolley road from Edwardsville to Ply- 
mouth Junction, immediately after passing McGowan's hall 
you find upon your right a large gravel mound firmly and 
horizontally stratified, and only a few steps beyond you pass 
through a small cut in a mound of very different material, 
which is not at all in layers except upon the surface. It 
consists of large bowlders and hardpan, with some angular 
stones. Many of the bowlders are finely striated longitudi- 
nally upon their parallel faces. They are typical subangular 
striated bowlders, and the mound in which they lie is doubt- 
less an undisturbed glacial mound. Reaching Sheridan's 
Switch you will notice that a drift mound extends from 
Hoyt's Hill to Ross Hill. Furthermore, you will see that this 
mound is continuous with another which fills the whole val- 
ley between Ross Hill and the mountain, except where a 
channel has been eroded by Boston creek. This whole de- 
posit seems to have been brought from Kingston hollow 
through the little valley between Hoyt Hill and the moun- 
tain, except a small portion consisting of cobblestones and 
conglomerate which appears to have rolled down the moun- 
tain side north of Bull Run gully already described. I sus- 
pect that the glacial mound I have mentioned was protect- 
ed from removal by the meeting of counter currents, one 
being the river in the valley, the other being the arm reach- 
ing down behind Hoyt Hill from Luzerne. The sink-hole 



1 62 DRIFT MOUNDS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY. 

near the Larksville churches is not a mine cave, but a 
chance depression in the course of the stream which carried 
the material deposited all about it. 

Thus the drift mounds of the Susquehanna appear to be 
the records of a flooded river epoch, and to show by their 
position and structure the source and method of construc- 
tion. 



FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON. 

BY FREDERIC CORSS, M. O. 
RBAD BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OCT. 8, 1897. 



To the active business man the study of fossils seems a 
childish play ; but the naturalist can say with Duke in "As 
You Like It" : 

"And this our life, exempt from public haunt, 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

The history of the earth is no less interesting and important 
than the history of man, its last-arrived inhabitant. Man is 
more dependent upon the soil than upon his fellow man, 
and the study of the structure and developmental history 
of the planet has greatly contributed to the betterment of 
human conditions. Apart from considerations of utility 
there is a fascination in Natural History. 

When one, after a long hunt, finds a fact in Nature, he 
realizes the truth I quote wholly from memory of Pol- 
lock's account of the man " Upon whose mind some new 
and rare idea glances and retires as quick, ere he has time 
to note it down. Stung with the loss, into a thoughtful 
cast he throws his face reflects and re-reflects and tries to 
start the fugitive till something like a chance or flight of 
random fancy, when expected least, calls back the wander- 
ing thought long sought in vain. Then does uncommon 
joy fill all his face, and still he wonders, as he holds it fast, 
what lay so near he could not sooner find." 

This society has an interesting collection of fossils (un- 
marked), found in the river drift of Pittston, presented by 
Mr. A. J. Griffith. As these are all erratics, they are not 
characteristic of the coal measures upon which they now 
lie, but of the various regions from which they have been 



164 FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON. 

transported. The means of transport may have been either 
fluvial or glacial. In the former case their origin must have 
been from the north and west ; in the latter, from the north 
and east. Some erratics from the far north Laurentian sys- 
tem may have reached the headwaters of the Susquehanna 
by glacial action and have been farther transported by the 
river. This is evident from the well known direction of the 
great glacial movement, which was in general from the 
northeast over the region now drained by the Susquehanna 
and its tributaries. 

The enormous denudation which, together with subsi- 
dence, has reduced the Appalachian system to its present 
moderate elevation, nearly all occurred before the glacial 
epoch, and the flooded river period which terminated the 
glacial may doubtless be considered the chief agent of trans- 
portation of the fossils in question. 

The drift at Pittston is from the watersheds of the Sus- 
quehanna and Lackawanna. The watershed of the Lack- 
awanna is bounded on the east by the Moosic mountain, 
and on the west by the Lackawanna mountain until toward 
the north it approaches and joins the Moosic, as the Wilkes- 
Barre and Kingston mountains unite near Berwick. North 
of the coal fields the western limit of the Lackawanna water- 
shed is Elk Horn mountain and adjacent table lands. 

The valley extends northward to Ararat township, where 
it terminates, the drainage going northwest by Starucca 
creek to the Susquehanna and eastward to the Delaware. 
The bed of this valley in the lower part is upon the coal 
measures to the north, of Catskill and Chemung forma- 
tions. The mountain outcrops are conglomerate, red shale, 
Pocono sandstone. The numerous lakes which form so 
interesting a feature of Wayne county empty into the Del- 
aware. 

The watershed of the Susquehanna is much more exten- 
sive, including northern central Pennsylvania and southern 



FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON. 165 

central New York, and the geological features are greatly 
diversified. Chemung rocks underlie the whole region, 
here and there capped by Catskill, and coal measures appear 
at Barclay and elsewhere. 

Now, the collection of fossils we have in hand, consisting 
entirely of erratics, cannot be used to identify the horizon 
of any given region. So far as they are characteristics of 
the formations known to exist in the contributing water- 
sheds, their presence at Pittston has been accounted for. In 
examining the drift mounds from which these fossils were 
taken, we find pebbles of gneiss and granite, which are no- 
where found in place in the watersheds of the rivers. These 
foreign fragments are rounded and polished by attrition in 
water, showing that they have been much rolled and worn 
before reaching their present resting place. Many of the 
bowlders containing fossils show the same evidence of far 
traveling, and while the earlier part of their passage may 
have been by ice, the later part was by rolling in water. The 
loose ground in the bed of the river is a moving body 
slowly rolling down stream. The long time required for 
such transit, and the exceeding slowness of the process of 
rounding and polishing, is seen when we pick up an Indian 
arrow head in the bed of the river and find that a century 
and a half or twice that time has not perceptibly dulled its 
point nor obscured its conchoidal fractures. 

Among these fossils I find some teeth of fish, but I have 
not found any distinctively Catskill fossils which I can 
identify. The hardness of that formation probably prevented 
a general spread of fragments, or perhaps the accessible 
points were all swept away before the present drift mounds 
were formed. 

Our specimens, then, belong to the Chemung series. These 
rocks are of a soft claylike structure, and abound in small 
fragile shells or clay prints of them indicating, if one may 
be allowed to surmise, that they were deposited in a tranquil 



1 66 FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON. 

muddy sea of no great depth tranquil, for such waves as 
now beat upon the coral islands of the Pacific would have 
prevented their growth or crushed them before the clay 
casts could have been formed. A part of the Chemung area 
is destitute of fossils, showing that local conditions varied 
when the formation was taking place. 

An interesting feature of these remains is the frequency 
with which they are found heaped together or spread out 
on smooth flat slabs. We have beautiful specimens of each 
feature here. 

This selecting and distributing action of water is seen in 
the extensive phosphate deposits along the coast of the 
Gulf of Mexico. These, deposited several feet in depth and 
several rods wide, are hundreds of miles long, and consist of 
the teeth of sharks a definite specific gravity and continu- 
ous current in the same direction doubtless caused their 
deposition. 

The fall winds which are now blowing and heaping up 
the sere and yellow leaves of the forests in the corners of 
the fields show a tendency to segregate leaves of like size 
and weight a trifling matter, but serving to show the uni- 
formity and permanence of natural law. 

Besides these fragile shells of spirifera and oviculopec- 
tens, &c., we find great numbers of fossil corals remains of 
the limestone beds which appear here and there in the 
northern watershed. The corals, like the lingulae, have a 
great persistence of life. We can scarcely say of the ocean 
with Byron : 

" Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow, 
Such as creation's dawn beheld thou rollest now," 

but the humble polyp has written his history in large letters 
on the globe, and the corals of the Niagara and other north- 
erly formations show that a climate once prevailed there 
similar to that of the Pacific near the tropics. 

An open question is as to the extent and location of Per- 



FOSSILS IN THE RIVER DRIFT AT PITTSTON. l6/ 

mian strata in Pennsylvania. Until geologists had made 
careful examinations it was supposed that none such existed, 
and that the coal measures were the latest deposited within 
our borders except clays and gravels. Now, the flora of the 
Permian period form the main feature of distinction, and I 
can find no Permian fossils in the collection from Pittston. 
At Mill Creek the allorisma subcuneata has been found 
(a shell), which is, I believe, a Permian characteristic. No 
specimen of this is in the Pittston collection. A single 
specimen, unfortunately lost, was found by some school 
children whom I sent upon the search in the clay mound 
on Woodward Hill. As this mound was of transported 
material, the find was not determinative of the question. 

It is a matter of great regret that the society cannot ar- 
range and name the wealth of geological and paleontologi- 
cal material it possesses, which is now rapidly going to waste. 
Many rare and valuable specimens which have been identi- 
fied by Heilprin and others, and which are referred to in the 
publications of the State Geological Survey, cannot now be 
found. With adequate funds at command we could present 
to the community and the State an unequalled object lesson. 
With a few thousand dollars to pay for the services of an 
expert, and some additional material which could easily be 
obtained by exchanges, we could become in geology and 
paleontology what we now are in history an authoritative 
institution. 



BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES IN THE 
WYOMING COAL FIELD. 

BY FREDERIC CORSS, M. D. 
READ BEFORE THE WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OCT. 13, 1899. 



One visiting Watkins Glen will notice a series of bowl- 
shaped pits in the rock forming the bed of the little stream, 
some three or four yards in diameter and as many deep, 
filled with water and having on the bottom one or more 
rounded bowlders. These pits are called pot-holes, or 
sometimes kettle-holes, although the latter term is generally 
applied to pits in a gravel bank such as may be seen near 
the two churches in Larksville. Kettle-holes in a gravel 
bank may be formed by the uneven deposit of the wash 
when the gravel is deposited, or may mark the spot where 
an iceberg had lodged before the gravel was deposited, 
which remained in place while the gravel bank was under- 
going construction, and afterwards melting left its pit un- 
filled. The rock pot-hole is apparently formed by the 
gyrations of stones caused by the motion of water, the 
stones becoming rounded and the bed rock being hollowed 
out at the same time. In a small stream the process of 
attrition is much slower than in a large volume of flowing 
water, but in either case it seems that an essential condition 
is that the stream shall not convey much movable solid 
matter, as in that case the hole would be rilled up before a 
real pot-hole could be formed. This is the condition at 
Watkins Glen. The watershed of the stream is very small. 
The water remains very clear after a heavy rain, and so few 
bowlders are rolled down its bed that the holes are not filled 
up. The few that reach the holes are slowly rolled round 
and round until they become spherical and finally wear out, 



BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 169 

the small particles floating in the swirl of the water and 
finally flowing with it over the lower rim of the bowl. If 
the present conditions continue long enough these pools, as 
the Watkins people call them, will coalesce and the canon 
will be deepened. After that, if a great wash of bowlders 
should come down the stream the gorge would be filled up 
and we should have a buried valley. 

Before taking up the study of natural rock excavations 
in the Wyoming coal field let us accept and adopt two laws 
for our guidance. The first is the doctrine of Uniformita- 
rianism, which teaches that " essential uniformity in causes 
and effects, forces and phenomena, has prevailed in all ages 
of the world's physical history, and that the activities of the 
past were similar in mode and intensity with those of the 
present opposed to catastrophism." The second is Sir 
William Hamilton's Law of Parsimony, which teaches that 
when a known adequate cause exists we should not invent 
nor imagine others. 

The present study is merely an awkward attempt to read 
the facts in the light of these two laws, and by no means to 
try to make a landing where professional geologists are all 
at sea. 

No doubt natural rock excavations, now filled with drift, 
exist in other regions, where like conditions occur, as well 
as in our coal fields, but the absence of mining operations 
leaves them undiscovered. The cutting of coal has brought 
many underground surprises, as the surface seldom suggests 
any unusual formation below. The Archbald pot-holes were 
found by the workmen, the surveys having given no warn- 
ing ; and the cave-in at Eighth street, Wyoming, was en- 
tirely without warning. The Annual Report of the State 
Survey for 1885 contains a chapter by Prof. Ashburner on 
the Archbald pot-holes, from which we may get the details. 

The first hole was "discovered by the men at work open- 
ing a chamber from the air-way, where they encountered a 



I/O BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 

mass of round stones weighing from one to six or more 
pounds, which were resting like a wall in front of them, and 
which extended across the face of the workings, from within 
about one foot of the bottom of the vein up to the roof; 
worked around it and found the coal regular, with this pil- 
lar standing in an almost oval shape (greatest length about 
20 feet) ; started to clear it out, and found it ran through 
the rock to the surface, a distance of over 40 feet." 

A second or upper hole was discovered about fifteen 
months later (in May, 1885) some distance (1000 feet) up 
the same hollow as the first one occupies. Its dimensions 
are 42 x 24 feet at the surface and its depth 38 feet. Some 
of the pebbles were from the rock itself and coal, and some 
were of transported material. Mr. Branner of the geological 
survey describes the topography as follows, and you may 
observe that the words fit Watkins Glen : "The little hollow 
in which both the holes are located is one-half mile long, 
and in this distance rises about 95 feet in a direction of north 
32 east. At the lower end of this little valley the hill tops 
on either side are about 500 feet apart, and in elevation 
about 70 feet above the top of the first hole, which is at the 
lower end of the valley." 

Prof. Ashburner shows that the limited watershed of this 
hollow could have produced but a small stream, and adds : 
"These facts are presented here as bearing upon the possi- 
bility of these pot-holes having been formed during recent 
times by the fall of water resulting from natural drainage 
in the same way that pot-holes are now being formed in the 
beds of our mountain streams. When the maximum amount 
of water which could possibly be obtained during recent 
times to flow through the hollow in which the holes are 
located, the depth of the holes, their diameter and size, and 
the character of the gravel filling of the holes, are all con- 
sidered, it would appear not only improbable, but absolutely 



BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 17! 

impossible, that the holes should have been formed in the 
manner suggested." 

Mr. Ashburner then cites a letter of Prof. Lesley suggest- 
ing that the hole was formed by water falling through a 
crevasse in the glacier, which, during the glacial period, 
covered the Lackawanna Valley to a depth probably of 
2000 feet. 

Mr. Branner, in a paper read before the American Philo- 
sophical Society, says : "After having gone over the ground 
repeatedly, and after having made a thorough study of the 
topography of this region, and all that appeared to be ques- 
tions that would throw any light upon the subject, the 
more firmly am I convinced that this explanation suggested 
by Prof. Lesley is the true and only possible explanation." 

Quoting again from Prof. Ashburner, "That the cause of 
the pot-hole must be sought for during the glacial period 
there can be no question, because only during that period 
can we conceive of sufficient water, resulting from the melt- 
ing of the existing ice sheet, to produce such a phenome- 
non," he concludes as follows : "In only two ways is it pos- 
sible for me to conceive of this hole being formed : 

"First. By water which always flows underneath a glacier, 
particularly near its terminus. 

"Second. By water flowing over the edge of the retreat- 
ing ice, at the terminus of the glacier." 

He had previously given cogent reasons for rejecting the 
crevasse theory based upon the rock excavations. Let us 
bring these theories to the test of our laws. Like forces 
under like conditions produce like results. Does the gla- 
cier of to-day present the same conditions as the glacier 
which covered northern Pennsylvania ? A negative answer 
is self-evident. The alpine glacier has been flowing through 
the same channel 50,000, perhaps 150,000, years since our 
northern ice sheet disappeared. All the trees and loose 
rock and rubbish has long ago reached its terminal moraine. 



1/2 BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 

Here and there a rock breaks from an overhanging cliff and 
either rides upon the surface or slowly finds its way through 
the mass to the bottom. When it reaches the edge of a 
crevasse it falls to the bottom and probably by its weight 
remains in a pot-hole it may find, the ice flowing on over 
it. The ice of a modern glacier contains vastly less rock 
than in its youth. Considering its enormous weight and 
its irresistible advance, a glacier is wonderfully gentle in 
its work. Many years ago a traveler fell into a crevasse in 
an Alpine glacier and was lost. Forty years afterwards his 
body, wonderfully preserved by the ice and easily recogni- 
zable, appeared at the foot of the glacier. 

In Larksville, near here, at the rear of the residence of 
the late Mr. John Keller, is a knob of soft rock which the 
glacier ground somewhat but did not displace. The front 
of a glacier is always melting if on land, or breaking off if 
in deep water. On land it is covered and bounded by a 
heap of rounded stones called its moraine, which fall into 
and fill up any pot-holes which exist there. In front of the 
morain is the apron, consisting of mud and smaller gravel 
stones which the water can transport. The farther from 
the front the finer the material. When a pot-hole is filled 
with bowlders their weight keeps them immovable. The 
harder the downpour of water the more firmly are they 
compacted together. The cobblestones on the bank of the 
Bay of Fundy are so firmly wedged in their places that one 
cannot pick one up. All that may have once been mova- 
ble are ground to sand and mud, or have been pounded into 
some crevice which holds them. 

From these facts I have no hesitation in believing that 
when a pot-hole is found filled with transported material, 
only a few of the bowlders, and those at the bottom, were 
concerned in making the excavations. Once filled with solid 
matter, a pot-hole is finished. These facts and our first law 



BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 1 73 

lead to the conclusion that the Archbald pot-holes were 
pre-glacial. 

The mining disaster of Nanticoke in December, 1885, 
with its pitiful story of the loss of twenty-six lives, is still 
fresh in the public mind. In cutting coal as usual the miners 
unexpectedly tapped a pot-hole or buried valley, and were 
overwhelmed by the inrush of water and bowlders, which 
rapily spread through the open gangway for a distance of 
3000 feet. 

This natural rock excavation occurs in the valley occu- 
pied by Newport creek a small valley with a rock bottom 
which carried a small stream containing little solid matter, 
with a striking resemblance in its topography to the other 
places we have described. I do not find that it has been 
fully determined whether this pit is continuous with the 
bottom of the main valley of Wyoming, but the fact that 
it was filed with material like that in the Archbald pot-holes 
suggests that it was separated by a barrier of rock from the 
main valley. Otherwise the large bowlders would probably 
have been borne onward to the deeper depression. 

The Wyoming coal field occupies a long narrow valley 
named Lackawanna from its northern extremity above For- 
est City to Pittston, and Wyoming from Pittston to Nanti- 
coke. It is surrounded by a mountain on all sides formed 
by the upheaved rocks which in the valley underlie the coal. 
This rim consists of three strata of different degrees of hard- 
ness the Catskill the hardest, the red shale the softest, and 
conglomerate. As these three strata presented their edges 
upward, the red shale lying between the other has wasted 
away more rapidly than they, forming the red shale valley 
which lies between the two crests. 

The rim is cut through at the northern end by the Lack- 
awanna river ; next upon the northerly side by Fall Brook 
creek, and then by Legget's creek ; and in succession by 
the Susquehanna, Abraham's creek, Toby's creek and Har- 



1 74 BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 

vey's creek. At Nanticoke the inner crest is cut by the 
Susquehanna, which there enters the red shale valley. The 
southern rim is irregular in Spring Brook township, but is 
in the main one continuous ridge. The floor of the valley 
slopes towards the southwest. At Forest City the railroad 
elevation is 1481 feet above tide, at Scranton (D., L. & W.) 
740, at Pittston (L. V.) 571 (35 feet above the river), at 
Wilkes-Barre 548.83, at Nanticoke 538, at Carbondale 1083. 
In round numbers, from Carbondale to Scranton the fall is 
343 feet ; from Scranton to Pittston 1 89 ; Pittston to Wilkes- 
Barre 22 ; Wilkes-Barre to Nanticoke 1 1 feet. These rail- 
road levels do not, however, indicate the slope of the rock 
floor of the valley. Water is a great leveler. Sedimenta- 
tion upon the flood plains is of course greater in deep water, 
and thus are formed our prairie-like flats. The rock floor 
is by no means level transversely. It is interrupted by an- 
ticlinals, which, while in the main somewhat parallel to the 
long axis, are afterwards found crossing at various angles. 
Another fact discovered in mining is that at some time 
water or ice flowed directly upon the rock, cutting a suc- 
cession of pot-holes, or more probably continuous canyon, 
from somewhere above Pittston to Nanticoke. This chan- 
nel is cut entirely through the upper layer of rock and 
through the top vein of coal as well. The cave-in at Eighth 
street, Wyoming, was caused by the men in mining coal 
breaking into the filled up valley, when the loose filling 
rushed into the mine, letting the surface fall in. The loca- 
tion of this rock excavation has been determined in some 
places by the process of sinking bore holes to find at what 
depth the surface of the rock may be found. In some places 
the drift is about 200 feet deep, and experts think that is 
probably the maximum, though there may be pot-holes in 
the bottom of the buried valley much deeper. 

Now, if this rock-cut continued on down the river at the 
same depth, or with a slight increase, it would be classed 



BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 1/5 

properly as a river canyon. But such is not the case. Nan- 
ticoke dam is 5 14 feet above mean tide. So that the bottom 
of the buried valley is 3 14 feet above tide, but at several points 
down the river its rock bottom is much higher. So it ap- 
pears that the river canyon theory must be abandoned, pro- 
vided it can be known that such a channel is always of 
uniform depth. I do not belive that such is the case. The 
bed of the river at Forty Fort is lower than it is at the jail. 
The channel of the Niagara below the falls may be hundreds 
of feet deeper in some places than in others. Especially 
may this be so if the rock base is of different degrees of 
hardness. Thus the canyon theory does not seem to be 
impossible of correctness. The supposition that the chan- 
nel was caused by a sub-glacial stream during the ice age 
may be rejected on the ground that such a stream could not 
exist without an outlet. 

That it could have been caused by the attrition of the ice 
itself is a supposition not sustained by any facts known to 
this writer. Our ice sheet was, geologically speaking, a 
very transient affair. I have examined many so-called gla- 
cial grooves in rocks, but have always found evidence that 
the groove was a natural depression in the rock surface, 
merely smoothed and striated by the ice and its burden. 
If this paper was not already too long I could cite many 
proofs of the comparatively gentle action of our glacier. 

Again, the original stream may have had an undiscovered 
underground outlet. Such vanishing of streams is common 
in limestone formations, and Lime Ridge is only a few miles 
down the river. Again, our buried valley may be a succes- 
sion of pot-holes brought to coalesce by long attrition. 
Whatever its origin, it was long ago filled with various ma- 
terials. In large part this material in the deepest parts is a 
micaceous silt, such as underlie our river common, which 
has such a bad habit of slipping out from under the bank 
and letting it down when the water is very low. This silt 



1/6 BURIED VALLEY AND POT HOLES. 

was probably the first onset of the advancing glacier. Since 
the most floatable matter would have been the first to arrive 
when the ice had reached the head of the valley, it began 
to thrust forward larger pebbles and bowlders, which thus 
were deposited on top of the first arrivals, as now found. 
In time the whole area seems to have been filled to about 
200 feet above its present level. Then came the flooded 
river epoch when the movable matter was gradually swept 
on down the stream to form the gravel banks found from 
Wilkes-Barre to the plains below Harrisburg. 



REPORT OF THE 
CURATOR OF PALEONTOLOGY 

ON THE 

LACOE COLLECTION OF FOSSILS. 



Since the last volume of the Proceedings and Collections 
of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society was 
issued there have been a number of valuable acquisitions 
to the department of Geology, and much work of a practical 
nature has been accomplished along this line. The library, 
through the addition of many reports of surveys which the 
Society did not formerly possess, has now reached such 
proportions as to be justly called a working geological 
library. Besides works of a general and special nature, 
it now contains a very complete set of all reports of gov- 
ernment surveys, the larger part of all the state reports, 
and many important reports issued by the Dominion of 
Canada. To the department of mineralogy has been added 
a rich and beautiful collection of the zinc and lead ores of 
Southern Missouri, the gift of the Zinc Mining Companies. 
The Curator of this department, Mr. William R. Ricketts, has 
finished cataloguing, and is completing a card catalogue of 
the extensive collection of minerals now in the possession 
of this Society. So that, from a practical standpoint, the 
value of the collection, to students and others, is very much 
enhanced. 

During the year Mr. Ralph D. Lacoe, of Pittston, who was 
for many years Curator of the department of Palaeontology, 
presented to the Society his very complete and interesting 
collection of Palaeozoic Fossils. This collection was the 
result of many years of tireless energy and the expenditure 
of much money. Through this addition the department of 



1/8 REPORT ON THE LACOE COLLECTION OF FOSSILS. 

palaeontology, already rich in the palaeo-botany of the coal 
measures, is now very complete in its records of the flora 
and fauna as it existed from the Cambrian era to the close 
of Palaeozoic time. From duplicates of the above mentioned 
gift of Mr. Lacoe it is designed to further complete a 
unique collection, arranged a number of years ago by 
the late Dr. Charles F. Ingham, Harrison Wright, Ph. D., 
Sheldon Reynolds, Esq., and the former Curator Mr. Lacoe, 
to represent "the crust of the earth," in which is shown 
typical specimens from the earliest to the latest formations. 
This collection has been found invaluable to the students of 
the schools of Wilkes-Barre and vicinity while engaged in 
the study of Geology. 

A catalogue of the Lacoe collection, which numbers be- 
tween 4000 and 5000 specimens, will be found in the fol- 
lowing pages. The collection contains many duplicates, and 
it is hoped that the publication of this list will result in 
bringing about exchanges with other societies of a like 
character. 

To the Corresponding Secretary of the Society belongs 
the credit of many days of valuable time and much pains- 
taking labor devoted to the preparation of this catalogue. 



LACOE COLLECTION OF PAL/EOZOIC FOSSILS 

IN THE 

WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
WILKES-BARRE, PA. 



PROTOZOA. 



Beatricea nodulosa. 

Billings. Cincinnati Gr. 

Beatricea undulata. 

Billings. Cincinnati Gr. 

Coenostroma monticuliferum. 

Winchell. Hamilton Gr. 

Coenostroma pustuliferum. 

Winchell. Hamilton Gr. 

Astylospongia praemorsa. 

Goldfuss. Niagara Gr. 

Astylospongia inornata. 

Niagara Gr. 

Fusulina cylindrica. 

Fisher. Coal Measures. 

Heterospongia aspera. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Microspongia irregularis. 
Ulrich. Lower Silurian. 

Nullipora crustulata. 

Ulrich. (Receptaculites.) S.A. M. 

Pasceolus darwini. 
S. A. Miller. 

Pasceolus claudi. 

S. A. Miller. 



Receptaculites infundibulum. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Receptaculites globularis. 

Hall. Galena Gr. 

Strephochetus richmondensis. 

S. A. Miller. Hudson River Gr. 

Stromatopora arachnoidea. 

Nicholson. Var auloporoides. 

Stromatopora concentrica. 

Goldfuss. Corniferous Gr. 

Stromatopora concentrica. 

Var. Niagara Gr. 

Stromatopora confusa. 

Nicholson. 

Stromatopora frondosa. 

Janney. 

Stromatopora granulosa. 

Rowley. 

Stromatopora papillata. 

Lower Devonian. 

Stromatopora sanduskyensis. 
Corniferous Gr. Devonian. 

Stromatopora substriatella. 

Nicholson. Devonian. Silurian. 

Syringostroma columnare. 

Nicholson. Corniferous Gr. 



COELENTERATA. 



Acervularia davidsoni. 

Edwards & Haimes. Cornif. Gr. 

Alveolites davidsoni. 

Edwards & Haimes. Cornif. Gr. 



Alveolites goldfussi. 

Billings. Devonian. 

Alveolites mordax. 

Davis. Lower Devonian. 



i8o 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Alveolites mordax. 

Var. Niagara Gr. 

Alveolites, new species. 

Devonian. 

Alveolites niagarensis. 

Lower Devonian. 

Alveolites squamosus. 

Billings. Corniferous Gr. 

Amplexus intermittens. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Amplexus shumardi. 

Edwards & Haimes. Niagara Gr. 

Anthropora concreta. 

Nicholson. 

Anthropora emacerata. 

Nicholson. 

Anthropora neglecta. 

Niagara Gr. 

Anthropora nitida. 

Billings. 

Anthropora, new species. 

Anthropora shafferi. 
Meek. (Ptilodactilus.) 

Asterocerium pyriformis. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Atactopora maculata. 

Ulrich. 

Atactopora mundula. 

Ulrich. 

Atactopora ortoni. 

Nicholson. 

Atactopora septosa. 

Ulrich. 

Aulocophyllum mutabili. 
Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Aulocophyllum sulcatum. 

D'Orbigny. Corniferous Gr. 

Aulocophyllum unguloidum. 

Davis. Lower Devonian. 

Aulopora conferta. 

Winchell. Hamilton Gr. 

Aulopora neglecta. 

Niagara Gr. 



Aulopora, new species. 

Keokuk. 

Axophyllum rude. 

White & St. John. Carbonif. 

Blothrophyllum decoratum. 

Billings. Devonian. 

Blothrophyllum promiscum. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Blothrophyllum sessile. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 
Blothrophyll. zaphrentiforme. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Bythopora dendrina. 

Jones. 

Bythopora minuta. 

Jones. 

Bythopora tenuis. 

Jones. 

Campophyllum torquium. 

Carboniferous. 
Cladopora expatiata. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 

Cladopora fisheri. 
Upper Helderberg. 

Cladopora labiosa. 

Billings. Corniferous Gr. 

Cladopora lichenoides. 

Meek & Worthen. Niagara Gr. 

Cladopora pinguis. 

Rominger. Upper Helderberg. 

Cladopora reticulata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Cladopora robusta. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 

Chetetes fructicosum. 

Hall. Ham. Gr. (Monotrypella 
arbuscula.) 

Chetetes furcatus. 
Chetetes milleporaceus. 

Coal measures. 
Climacograptus bicornis. 

Hall. 

Climacograptus typicalis. 
Hall. 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



181 



Clisiophyllum oneidaense. 

L. Dev. (Acrophyllum. S. A.M.) 

Chonophyllum niagarense. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Chonophyllum nanum. 

Davis. Upper Devonian. 

Chonopora papillata. 

James. 

Chonopora scabra. 

James. 

Columnaria alveolata. 

Goldfuss. Black River Gr. 

Cyathaxonia cynodon. 

Rafinesque. Keokuk Gr. 

Cyathaxonia gainesi. 

Davis. Niagara Gr. 

Cyathophyllum americanum. 

Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum brevicorn. 

Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum conatum. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Cyathophyllum corniculum. 
Edwards & Haimes. Cornif. Gr. 

Cyathophyllum corniculum. 

Var. Meek. Upper Helderberg. 

Cyathophyllum davidsoni. 

Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum davidsoni. 

Var. Hamilton Gr. 

Cyathophyllum fimbriatum. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum juvene. 

Rominger. Upper Helderberg. 

Cyathophyllum halli. 

Edwards & Haimes. Ham. Gr. 

Cyathophyllum hallidum. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum houghtoni. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. 

Cyathophyllum rugosum. 
Hall. Corniferous. 



Cyathophyllum oneidaense. 

Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum multicrena. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum radicula. 

Rominger. Niagara Gr. 

Cyathophyllum scyphus. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. 

Cyathophyllum validum. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Cyathophyllum zenkeri. 

Billings. Corniferous. Devonian. 

Cystiphyllum americanum. 

Edwards & Haimes. Ham. Gr. 

Cystiphyllum decorticatum. 

Billings. Devonian. 

Cystiphyllum grande. 
Davis. Devonian. 

Cystiphyllum ohioense. 

Nicholson. Corniferous Gr. 

Cystiphyllum sulcatum. 
Billings. Corniferous Gr. 

Cystiphyllum vesiculosum. 
Goldfuss. Upper Helderberg. 

Cystiphyllum vesiculosum. 
Var. Goldfuss. Corniferous. 

Dekayia appressa. 
Ulrich. 

Dekayia aspera. 

Edwards & Haimes. 

Dekayia attrita (syn. aspera). 
Dekayia obscura. 

Ulrich. 

Dendropora alterans. 

Romberger. Devonian. 

Dendropora asculata. 

Dawson. Devonian. 

Dictograptus reticularus. 
Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Diphyphyllum bellis. 
Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Diphyphyllum coagulatum. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 



182 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Diphyphyllum archiaci. 

Bill. (Crepidophyllum). Devon. 

Diphyphyllum archiaci. 
Hamilton Gr. 

Diphyphyllum funicum. 

Winchell. Hamilton Gr. 

Diplograptus pristis. 

Kissinger. (Prionotus). Utica Slate 

Duncanella borealis. 

Nicholson. Niagara Gr. 

Favosites amplissimus. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Favosites arbeiocula. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites arbor. 

Devonian. 

Favosites argus. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Favosites baculus. 

Davis. Lower Devonian. 

Favosites basalticus. 

Upper Helderberg. 

Favosites canadensis. 

Billings. Devonian. 

Favosites cymosus. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Favosites digitatus. 
Rominger. Devonian. 

Favosites emmonsi. 

Rominger. Upper Helderberg. 

Favosites emmonsi. 

Var. Rominger. Devonian. 

Favosites epidermatus. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 

Favosites eximus. 

Davis. Upper Devonian. 

Favosites favosus. 

Goldfuss. Upper Silurian. 

Favosites favosus. 

Var. Goldfuss. Niagara Gr. 

Favosites forbesi. 

Edwards & Haimes. Niagara Gr. 



Favosites fustiformis. 
Davis. Lower Devonian. 

Favosites goldfussi. 

D'Orbigny. Upper Helderberg. 

Favosites goodwyni. 
Davis. Upper Devonian. 

Favosites hamiltonesis. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites hamiltonoidea. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites hemisphericus. 
Yandell & S. Cornif. Gr. 

Favosites hemisphericus. 

Var. Devonian. 

Favosites intertextus. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites limitaris. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 

Favosites mundus. 

Davis. 
Favosites nitellus. 

Winchell. Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites niagarensis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Favosites placenta. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. Dev. 

Favosites pirum. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 
Favosites pinum. 
Favosites polymorpha. 

Goldfuss. Corniferous Gr. 

Favosites proximus. 
Hall. Lower Devonian. 

Favosites radiatus. 

Rominger. Hamilton Gr. 

Favosites radiciformis. 
Rominger. Devonian. 

Favosites spinigerus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Favosites tennesseensis. 

Niagara Gr. 

Favosites tuberosus. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 



\ 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Favosites tubinata. 

Billings. Corniferous Gr. 

Favosites venustus. 

Hall. 

Favosites special. 
Graptolithus clintoncnsis. 

Hall. 

Graptolithus gracilis. 

Hall. 

Hadrophyllum glans. 

White s. p. Burlington Gr. 
(Zaphrentis). 

Hadrophyllum orbignyi. 

Edwards & Haimes. Upp. Held. 

Halysites catenulatus. 

Linneus. Niagara Gr. 

Halysites catenulatus. 

Var. Lower Devonian. 

Halysites escharoides. 

Lamarck. Niagara Gr. 

Heliolites interstinctus. 

Linneus. Niagara Gr. 

Heliolites megastoma. 

McCoy. Niagara Gr. 

Heliolites pyriformis. 

Guettard. Niagara Gr. 

Heliolites spiniporus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Heliophyllum degener. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Heliophyllum gracilis. 

Rominger. Corniferous Gr. 

Heliophyllum halli. 

Edwards & Haimes. L. Devon. 

Heliophyllum halli. 

Var. Hamburg Gr. 

Heliophyllum halli. 

Var. Hamburg Gr. 

Heliophyllum helianthoides. 

Hamburg Gr. 

Heliophyllum invaginatum. 
Hall. Devonian. 



183 



Heliophyllum irregulare. 

Hall. 

Heliophyllum tenuimusale. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Houghtonia huronica. 

Winchell. Cin. Gr. (Calapoccia). 

Lithostrotian canadense. 

Castelnau. St. Louis Gr. 

Lophophyllum proliferum. 

McChesney. Coal Measures.' 

Lyellia parvituba. 

Rominger. Silurian. 

Michelinia cylindrica. 

Edwards & Haimes. Cornif. Gr. 

Michelinia favositoidia. 

Billings. Niagara Gr. 

Michelinia favositoidia. 

Var. Devonian. 

Michelinia variety. 

Corniferous Gr. 

Michelinia insignis. 

Rominger. Upper Helderberg. 

Michelinia stylopora. 

Eaton. Hamilton Gr. 

Monticulipora approximatus. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora astricta 
Ulrich. 

Monticulipora briareus. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora calceolus. 

Miller & Dyer. 

Monticulipora cincinnatiensis. 

James. 

Monticulipora clavacoidea. 

James. 

Monticulipora clavis. 

Ulrich. 

Monticulipora communis. 
Monticulipora compressa 

Ulrich. 

Monticulipora concava 
Ulrich. 



1 84 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Monticulipora crustulata. 

James. 

Monticulipora dalii. 

Edwards & Haimes. 
Monticulipora delicatula. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora discoidea. 

James. 

Monticulipora dyeri. 

James. 

Monticulipora elegans. 

Ulrich. 

Monticulipora expatiata. 

Ulrich. 
Monticulipora fletcheri. 

Edwards & Haimes. 

Monticulipora fibrosa. 
Goldfuss. (Stenapora). 

Monticulipora filiasa. 

D'Orbigny. 

Monticulipora frondosa. 

D'Orbigny. 

Monticulipora frondosa. 
Var. decipiens. Rominger. 

Monticulipora gracilis. 

James. 

Monticulipora implicatus. 
Ulrich. 

Monticulipora irregularis. 
Ulrich. 

Monticulipora jamesi. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora lateralis. 

Ulrich. 
Monticulipora lycopodites. 

Vanuxem. 

Monticulipora mammulata. 

D'Orbigny. 

Monticulipora meeki. 

James. 

Monticulipora molesta. 
Nicholson. 



Monticulipora newberryi. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora nodulosus. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora obliqua. 
Monticulipora onealli. 

James. 

Monticulipora onealli. 

Var. sigilaroides. Nicholson. 

Monticulipora petasiformis. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora petechialis. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora petropolitana. 

Pander. 

Monticulipora pulchella. 

Edwards & Haimes. 

Monticulipora quadrata. 

Rominger. 

Monticulipora ramosa. 

D'Orbigny. 

Monticulipora rugosa. 

Hall. 

Monticulipora selwyni. 
Var. hospitalis. Nicholson. 

Monticulipora subglobosa. 

Ulrich. 

Monticulipora subpulchella. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora tuberculata. 
Edwards & Haimes. 

Monticulipora varians. 

James. 

Monticulipora vaupeli. 

Ulrich. 

Monticulipora whiteavesi. 

Nicholson. 

Monticulipora whitefieldi. 

James. 
Omphyma verrucosa. 

Edwards & Haimes. Niagara Gr. 

Pachyphyllum woodmani. 
White. Hamilton Gr. 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Pachyphyllum, special. 

Var. Corniferous Gr. 

Pachypora. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Palaeophyllum divaricans. 

Nicholson. 

Plasmapora follis. 

Edwards & Haimes. Niagara Gr. 

Phillipsastria yandelli. 

Rominger. Upp. Held. Divon. 

Protera vetusta. 

Edwards & Haimes. 

Stellipora antheloidea. 

Hall. 

Stellipora limetaris. 

Ulrich. 

Streptelasma corniculum. 

Hall. 

Streptelasma profunda. 

Trenton Gr. 

Streptelasma recta. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Strombodis pentagonus. 

Goldfuss. Niagara Gr. 

Strombodis var. 

Silurian. 

Strombodis striatus. 

D'Orbigny. Niagara Gr. 

Syringopora bouchardi. 

E. & H. Upper Helderberg. 

Syringopora, new species. 

Lower Helderberg. 

Syringopora hisingeri. 
Billings. Devonian. 

Syringopora sociabilis. 

Davis. 

Syringopora, new species. 

Corniferous Gr. 

Syringopora perelegans. 

Billings. Corniferous Gr. 

Tetradium fibratum. 

Safford. 

Thecia major. 

Rominger. Niagara Gr. 



Thecia minor. 

Rominger. 

Thecia ramosa. 

Rominger. Upper Helderberg. 

Thecostegites hemisphericus. 

Rominger. Niagara Gr. 

Zaphrentis calceola. 

White. Burlington Gr. 

Zaphrentis centralis. 

Edwards & Haimes. Keokuk Gr. 

Zaphrentis dentalis. 

St. Louis Gr. 

Zaphrentis dentiforme. 

St. Louis Gr. 

Zaphrentis elliptica. 

White. St. Louis. 

Zaphrentis exigua. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Zaphrentis exilis. 

Davis. Devonian. 

Zaphrentis explanata. 

Davis. Upper Devonian. 

Zaphrentis gigantea. 

Rafinesque. Upper Helderberg. 

Zaphrentis patula. 

Rominger. Niagara Gr. 

Zaphrentis prolifica. 

Billings. Hamilton. Devonian. 

Zaphrentis var. 

Billings. Corniferous. Devonian. 

Zaphrentis simplex. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Zaphrentis spinulosa. 

Edwards & H. Sub. Carbon. 

Zaphrentis rafinesque. 

Corniferous Gr. 

Zaphrentis var. 

Upper Helderberg. 

Zaphrentis torquata. 

Davis. Middle Devonian. 

Zaphrentis ungula. 

Rominger. Devonian. 



1 86 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



ENCHINODERMATA. 



Ancyrocrinus bulbosus. 

Hall. 

Anomaloides reticulata. 

Ulrich. 
Anomalocystites balanoides. 

Meek. Cincinnati Gr. (Named a 
Crustacean Enoploura by 
Wether by). 

Cyclostoides magnus. 

Miller & Dyer. Cincinnati Gr. 

Eretmocrinus magnificus. 

Lyon & Casseday. 

Eretmocrinus vernuillanus. 

Schumard. Burlington Gr. 

Erisocrinus typus. 

M. & W. Upper Coal Measures. 

Eucalyptocrinus crassus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Eucalyptocrinus bases. 

Niagara Gr. 
Eucalyptocrinus caelatus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Eucalyptocrinus caelatus. 

Var. Niagara Gr. 

Eucalyptocrinus ovalis. 

Troost. Niagara Gr. 

Eucalyptocrinus chicagoensis 
Winchell & Marcy. Niagara Gr. 

Eucalyptocrinus, species. 
Niagara Gr. 

Forbesocrinus ramulosus. 

Hall. Keokuk Gr. 
Gilbertsocrinus tuberosus. 

Lyon & Casseday, sp. Keokuk. 

Glyptocrinus angularis. 
S. A. Miller. (Gaurocrinus). 

Glyptocrinus baeri. 
Meek. (Zenocrinus). 

Glyptocrinus carleyi. 

Hall. (Mariacrinus). 

Glyptocrinus cognatus. 

S. A. Miller. (Gaurocrinus). 



Glyptocrinus decadactylus. 

Hall. 

Glyptocrinus dyeri. 

Meek. Cincinnati Gr. 

Glyptocrinus dyeri sublevis. 

S. A. Miller. 

Glyptocrinus parvus. 

Hall. 

Glyptocrinus inornatus. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Glyptocrinus nealli. 

Hall. 

Glyptocrinus subglobosus. 

Meek. 

Glyptocrinus sculptus. 
S. A. Miller. Meek. 

Glyptocrinus shafferi. 

S. A. Miller. 

Glyptocrinus siphonatus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 
Glyptocrinus occidentalis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Goniasteroidocrinus tuberosus 
Lyon & Casseday. Keokuk Gr. 
On same stone a Saphiocrinus, 
Platycrinus, &c. 

Granitocrinus melo. 
Owen. Burlington Gr. 

Hemicystites granulatus. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Hemicystites stellatus. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterocrinus geniculatus. 
Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterocrinus heterodactylus. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterocrinus juvenis. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterocrinus pentagonus. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterocrinus simplex. 
Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 



PAL/EOZOIC FOSSILS. 



I8 7 



Heterocrinus simplex. 

Var. grandis. Meek. Cin. Gr. 

Homocrinus scoparius. 

Hall. Lower Helderburg. 

Hybocystites probletnaticus. 

Wetherby. Trenton Gr. 

Icthyocrinus subangularis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

locrinus subcrassus. 

Meek & Worthen sp. Cin. Gr. 

Lichenocrinus offinis. 

S. A. Miller. 

Lichenocrinus crateriformis. 

Hall. 

Lichenocrinus dubius. 

S. A. Miller. 

Lichenocrinus dyeri. 

Hall. 

Lichenocrinus pattersoni. 

S. A. Miller. 

Lichenocrinus tuberculatus. 

S. A. Miller. Lower Silurian. 

Lichenocrinus warrenensis. 

James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Megistocrinus marconanus. 

M. & W. Niagara Gr. 

Melocrinus obpyramidalis. 

Winchell & Marcy. Niagara Gr. 

Nucleocrinus verneuilli. 
Troost. Corniferous Gr. 

Ohiocrinus constrictus. 
Hall, sp. Cincinnati Gr. 

Ohiocrinus constrictus. 

Var. compactus. Meek. Cin. Gr. 

Ohiocrinus laxus. 

Hall, sp. Cincinnati Gr. 

Onichocrinus exculptus. 

Lyon & Casseday. Keokuk Gr. 

Onichocrinus meeki. 

Hall. Keokuk Gr. (L. Carb.). 

Onichocrinus monroensis. 

Mott. Keokuk. Gr. (L. Carb.). 

Onichocrinus ramulosus. 

L. &C. Keokuk Gr. (L.Carb.). 



Pentremites conoideus. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Pentremites elongatus. 

Shumard. Burlington Gr. 

Pentremites godoni. 

DeFrance. Kaskaskia Gr. 

Pentremites koninckianus. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Pentremites obesus. 

Lyons. Kaskaskia Gr. 

Pentremites pyriformis. 

Say. Kaskaskia Gr. 

Platycrinus hemisphericus. 

M.&W. Keokuk Gr. (L.Carb.). 

Platycrinus infundibulum. 

Keokuk Gr. (Low. Carboniferous). 

Protaster flexuosa. 

Miller & Dyer. Cincinnati Gr. 

Saccocrinus christyi. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Scaphiocrinus aequalis. 

Hall. Keokuk Gr. 
Scaphiocrinus coreyi. 

Meek & Worthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Scaphiocrinus decadactylus. 
Meek & Worthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Scaphiocrinus uncius. 

Hall. Keokuk Gr. 

Scaphiocrinus uncius and 
goniasteroidocrinus. 

Keokuk Gr. 
Taxocrinus multibranchiatus. 

Lyons & Casseday. Keokuk Gr. 

Xenocrinus penicillus. 

S. A. Miller. Hudson River Gr. 

Zeacrinus magnoliiformis. 

Owen & Norwood. 
Zeacrinus mucrospinus 
(Hydrianocrinus). 
S. A. Miller. Coal Measures. 

Zeacrinus mooresianus. 
Lower Coal Measures. 

Zacrinus acanthoporus. 

M. & W. Lower Coal Measures. 



i88 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



MOLLUSCOIDA. 



Archimedes reversus. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Archimedes wortheni. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Bernicea vesiculosa. 

Ulrich. 

Bythopora arctopora. 
Miller & Dyer. 

Ceramopora alternata. 

James. 

Ceramopora beani. 

James. With Orthoceras duseri. 

Ceramopora concentrica. 

James. 

Ceramopora multipora. 

James. 

Ceramopora ohioensis. 

Nicholson. Lower Silurian. 

Fenestella acmea. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Fenestella delicata. 
Meek. Waverly Gr. 

Fenestella elegans. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Fenestella multiporata. 

McCoy. Coal Measures. 

Fenestella prisca. 

Lonsdale. Clinton Gr. 

Fenestella shumardi. 

Prout. Carboniferous. 

Fistulipora flabellata. 
Ulrich. 

Fistulipora natans. 

Devonian. 

Fistulipora oweni. 
Devonian. 

Fistulipora peculiaris. 

Rominger. Keokuk Gr. 

Heliopora harrisi. 
Heterodictya maculata. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 



Heterodictya magnifica. 

S. A. Miller. 

Heterodictya nodosa. 

James. 

Heterodictya pavona. 

D'Orbigny. Cincinnati Gr. 

Heterodictya plumaria. 
James. 

Heterodictya ponderosa. 

Ulrich. 
Lichenalia concentrica. 

Hall. 

Ptilodictya falciformis. 

Nicholson. 

Ptilodictya fragilis. 
Ulrich. 

Ptilodictya fenestelliformis. 

Nicholson. Cincinnati Gr. 

Ptilodictya flexuosa. 

James. 

Ptilodictya granularis. 
James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Ptilodictya nitidula. 
Bill. (Antheopora). 

Ptilodictya perelegans. 
Ulrich. 

Ptilodictya shafferi var.robusti 
Ulrich. 

Ptilodictya senata. 

Meek. Coal Measures. 

Rhinopora tuberculata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Rhombopora lepidodendra. 
Meek. Upper Coal Measures. 

Sagenella elegans. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Stictopora alba. 
Davis. Devonian. 

Stictopora carbonaria. 
Meek. Coal Measures. 

Stictopora cavernosa. 

Devonian. 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



189 



Stictopora fibrosa. 

Goldfuss. Trenton Gr. 

Stictopora labyrinthica. 

Hall. Trenton. 

Stomatopora arachnoidea. 

Hall. 

Stomatopora confusa. 

Nicholson. 



Stomatopora dilicatula. 

Coal Measures. 

Stomatopora inflata. 

Lamer St. (Hyppothsa). 

Subretopora angulata. 

Hall. 

Trematopora infrequens. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 



BRACHIOPODA. 



Ambocoelia umbonata. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Anastrophia internoscens. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Anastrophia verneuili. 

Hall. (Pentamerus). 

Athyris cora. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Athyris concentrica. 

Upper Helderberg. 

Athyris lamellosa. 

Leveille. Waverly Gr. 

Athyris var. 

Keokuk Gr. 
Athyris rogersi. 
Coal Measures. 

Athyris speriferoides. 

Eaton. Hamilton Gr. 

Athyris subtilita. 

Hall. Coal Measures. 

Athyris subquadrata. 
Hall. Kaskaskia Gr. 

Athyris subtriata. 
Coal Measures. 

Athyris vittata. 
Coal Measures. 

Atrypa aspera. 

Hall. Corniferous Gr. 

Atrypa concentrica. 

Hall. Ham. Gr. (Speriferoides). 

Atrypa hemispherica. 

(Coelospora. Hall). Clinton Gr. 



Atrypa hystrix. 

Hall. 
Atrypa impressa. 

Hall. Upper Helderberg. 

Atrypa nodostrata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Atrypa reticularis. 

Linnaeus. Lower Helderberg. 

Atrypa var. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Atrypa var. 

Niagara Gr. 

Atrypa speriferoides. 
Eaton. Hamilton Gr. 

Atrypa spinosa. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Camarella ambigua. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Camarella hemiplicata. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Crania dyeri. 

S. A. Miller. Cincinnati Gr. 

Crania hamiltoneniae. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Crania laelia. 

Hall. 

Crania parallela. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Crania scabiosa. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Crania socialis. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 



190 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Chonetes carinatus. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Chonetes deflectus. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Chonetes granuliferus. 
Owen. Coal Measures. 

Chonetes hemisphericus. 
Keokuk Gr. 

Chonetes logani. 

Norwood & Pratten. Waverly. 

Chonetes mesolobus. 

N. & P. Lower Coal Measures. 

Chonetes scitulus. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Chonetes var. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Chonetes setigeras. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Chonetes shumardanus. 

DeKoniuck. Lower Carbiniferous. 

Chonetes syrtalis. 
Hamilton Gr. 

Chonetes verneuilianus. 

Norwood & Pratt. Coal Measures. 

Chonetes yandelliana. 
Hall. Cornifetous Gr. 

Chonetes, species. 
Lower Carboniferous. 

Cryptonella calvini. 

Whitfield. Chemung. Devonian. 

Coelospira hemispherica. 

Hall. Upper Silurian. 

Cyrtina hamiltonensis. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Discina grandis. 

Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. 

Discina lodensis. 

Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. 

Discina kidita. 
Coal Measures. 

Discina media. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 



Discina meekana. 

Whitfield. Coal Measures. 

Discina newberryi. 

Sub. Carboniferous Shale. 

Discina nitida. 
Coal Measures. 

Discina sublamellosa. 
Ulrich. 

Discina tenuistrata. 

Ulrich. 

Discina var. 

Eatonia peculiaris. 

Conrad. Lower Helderberg Gr. 

Eichwaldia reticulata. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Leiorhyncus globuliforme. 
Vanuxem. Chemung Gr. 

Leiorhyncus kellogi. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Leiorhynchus limitare. 
Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. 

Leiorhynchus multicosta. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Leiorhynchus quadricostatum 

Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. 

Leiorhynchus, species. 
Hamilton Gr. 

Leptaena plicatella. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Leptaena sericea. 

Sowerby. Trenton Gr. 

Leptaena sericea, var. (aspera). 

James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Leptobolus lepis. 

Hall. 

Leptocoelia acutiplicata. 

Conrad. Upper Helderberg Gr. 

Lingula belliformis. 
Cincinnati Gr. 

Lingula cuneata. 

Conrad. Medina Gr. 

Lingula densa. 

Hall. Chemung Gr. 



PAUEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Lingula ligea. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Lingula melie. 

Hall. Waverly Gr. 

Lingula mytiloides. 

Sowerly. Coal Measures. 

Lingula norwoodi. 

James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Lingula paliformis. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Lingula punctata. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Lingula quadrata. 

Eichwald. Upper Silurian. 

Lingula riciniformis. 
Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Lingula spatulata. 

Vanuxem. Black Shale Gr. 

Lingula umbonata. 

Cox. Coal Measures. 

Lingula vanhorni. 

S. A. Miller. Cincinnati Gr. 

Lingulella cincinnatiensis. 
Hall and Whitfield. Cin. Gr. 

Meekella striatacostata. 

Cox. Coal Measures. 

Merista lata. 

Hall. Oriskany Sandstone. 

Meristella bella. 

Hall. Lower Helderberg. 

Meristella cylindrica. 

Hall Niagara Gr. 

Meristella laevis. 

Vanuxem. Carboniferous. 

Meristella nasuta. 

Conrad. Corniferous. 

Meristina maria. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Meristina nitida. 

Hall. 

Nucleospira concinni. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 



Nucleospira pisiformis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Orthis bellula. 

James. 

Orthis biforata. 
Schlotheim. 

Orthis biforata acutilirata. 

James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Orthis biforata. 

James. Var. cypha. 

Orthis biforata. 

James. Var. laticostata. 

Orthis biforata. 

VonBuch. Var. lynx. 

Orthis binneyi. 
James. 

Orthis borealis. 

Billings. 

Orthis crassa. 

James. 

Orthis cincinnatiensis. 

James. 

Orthis cyclas. 

James. (Multisecta. Meek). 

Orthis disparilis. 
Conrad. 

Orthis dubia. 

Hall. 

Orthis ella. 

Hall. (Sectastriata. Ulrich). 

Orthis elegantula. 

Dalman. 

Orthis emacerata. 

Hall. 

Orthis fissicasta. 
Hall. 

Orthis hipparionyx. 

Oriskany. 

Orthis hybrida. 
Sowerby. 

Orthis impressa. 
Hall. 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Orthis insculpta. 

Hall. 

Orthis iowensis. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Orthis jamesi. 

Hall. 

Orthis linneyi. 
James. 

Orthis lynx. 

Eichwald. 

Orthis michelini. 

L'Eveille. 

Orthis michelini. 

Hall. Var. burlingtonensis. 

Orthis multisecta. 

James. 

Orthis occidentalis. 

Hall. 

Orthis orbicularis. 
Sowerby. 

Orthis pectinella. 

Conrad. 
Orthis penelope. 

Hall. Hamilton. 

Orthis plicatella. 

Hall. 

Orthis pisum. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Orthis propinqua. 

Hall. 

Orthis resupinoides. 
Cox. 

Orthis retrorsa. 

Salter. 

Orthis scovilli. 
James. 

Orthis subquadrata. 
Orthis testudinaria. 

Dalman. 

Orthis testudinaria. 

James. Var. jugosa. 

Orthis tricenaria. 

Conrad. 



Orthis triplicata. 
Meek. 

Orthis tullensis. 

Orthis vanuxemi. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Pentamerella papilionensis. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Pentamerus galeatus. 

Dalman. Lower Helderberg. 

Pentamerus oblongus. 
Sowerby. Niagara Gr. 

Pentamerus pseudogaleatus. 

Hall. Upper Silurian. 

Pholidops cincinnatiensis. 

Hall. 

Productella lachrymosa. 

Productella spinulicosta. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Productella subaculeata. 

Murchison. 

Productella subalata. 

Productus burlingtonensis. 
Hall. Lower Carboniferous. 

Productus cestriensis. 

Norwood & Pratten. Coal Mean. 

Productus cora. 

D'Orbigny. 

Productus costatus. 

Sowerby. 

Productus flemingi. 

Sowerby. Lower Carboniferous. 

Productus lasallensis. 

Worthen. Lower Coal Measures. 

Productus laevicostus. 

Productus longispinus. 
Sowerby. 

Productus mesialis. 
Hall. Keokuk Gr. 

Productus muricatus. 

Norwood & Pratten. Coal Meas. 

Productus nanus. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Measures. 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



193 



Productus nodosus. 

Newberry. Coal Measures. 

Productus nebraskensis. 

Owen. Coal Measures. 
Productus parvus. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Measures. 

Productus prattenanus. 

Norwood. Coal Measures. 

Productus portlockanus. 

Norwood & Pratten. Coal Meas. 

Productus punctatus. 

Martin. Coal Measures. 

Productus semireticularis. 
Martin. Coal Measures. 

Productus splendens. 

Norwood & Pratten. Coal Meas. 

Productus spinulicosta. 

Hall. Dev. (Productella Spin.) 

Productus symmetricus. 
McChesney. Coal Measures. 

Productus wilberianus. 

McChesney. Coal Measures. 
Retzia evax. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Retzia mormoni. 

Marcou. Coal Measures. 

Rensselaeria ovalis. 

Hall. Oriskany. 

Rensselaeria ovoides. 

Eaton. Oriskany. 

Rhynchonella acinus. 

Hall. Upper Silurian. Niag. Gr. 

Rhynchonella capax. 

Conrad. Trenton Gr. 

Rhynchonella capax. 

Whitfield. Var. perlamellosa. 
Cincinnati Gr. 

Rhynchonella contracta. 

Chemung Gr. ( Stenoschisma 

contractum). 
Rhynchonella congregata. 

Conrad. (Stenoschisma congregata) 

Rhynchonella cuneata. 

Dalman. Niagara Gr. 



Rhynchonella dentata. 

Hall. 

Rhynchonella dotis. 

Hall. (Stenoschisma). Ham. Gr. 

Rhynchonella indianensis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Rhynchonella mutabilis. 

Hall. Lower Helderberg. 

Rhynchonella neglecta. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Rhynchonella nobilis. 

Hall. 

Rhynchonella plena. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Rhynchonella prolifica. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Rhynchonella recinula. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Rhynchonella simplicata. 

Conrad. Lower Helderberg. 

Rhynchonella tennesseensis. 

Roemer. Niagara Gr. 

Rhynchonella tethys. 

Billings. Corniferous. 

Rhynchonella uta. 

Marcou. Coal Measures. 

Rhynchonella ventricosa. 

Hall. Lower Helderberg. 

Rhynchonella venustula. 

Hall. Fully limestone. 

Rhynchonella whitiana. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Rhynchotreta quadriplicata. 
S. A. Miller. 

Stenoschisma sapha. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Stenochisma contractum. 

Hall. Chemung Gr. 

Spirifer acuminatus. 

Conrad. Corniferous Gr. 

Spirifer aranata. 

Oriskany. Sandstone. 



I 9 4 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Spirifer alta. 

Hall. Chemung Gr. 

Spirifer arenosus. 
Conrad. Oriskany. 

Spirifer arrectus. 

Hall. Oriskany. 

Spirifer cameratus. 

Coal Measures. 

Spirifer capax. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer carteri. 

Hall. Waverly Gr. 

Spirifer crispa. 

Hisinger. Niagara Gr. 

Spirifer cyclostomus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Spirifer disjuncta. 

Sowerby. Chemung Gr. 

Spirifer euruteines. 

Owen. Hamilton. Devonian. 

Spirifer forbesi. 

Norwood & Pratten. Burlington Gr. 

Spirifer fornacula. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer granulifera. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer gregarius. 

Clapp. Corniferous. 

Spirifer grimesi. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer hungerfordi. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer leidyi. 

Norwood & Pratten. Chester Gr. 

Spirifer lineatus. 

Martin. Coal Measures. 

Spirifer macrothyris. 

Hall. Corniferous. 

Spirifer marcyi. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer medialis. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 



Spirifer mucronotus. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Spirifer opimus. 

Hall. Coal Measures. 

Spirifer orestes. 

Hall. Chemung Gr. Devonian. 

Spirifer oweni. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer parryana. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Spirifer pennatus. 

Owen. Hamilton Gr. Dev. 

Spirifer planoconvexa. 
Coal Measures. 

Spirifer plenus. 

Hall. Burlington Gr. 

Spirifer pseudolineatus. 

Hall. Burlington Gr. 

Spirifer radiata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Spirifer royissi. 

Keokuk Gr. 
Spirifer tullius. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Spirifer vanuxemi. 

Hall. Lower Helderberg. 

Spirifer vanuxemi. 

Hall. Var. Tentaculites. Silurian. 

Spirifer varicosa. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spirifer whitneyi. 
Hall. Chemung Gr. 

Spirifer zeizac. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Spiriferina kentuckyensis. 
Shumow. Coal Measures. 

Schizocrania pilosa. 
Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Streptorhynchus arctostriat'm 
Streptorhynchus crassum. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Streptorhynchus elongatus. 
James. 



PAL/EOZOIC FOSSILS. 



195 



Streptorhynchus filitextum. 

Hall. 

Streptorhynchus hallianus. 

S. A. Miller. 

Streptorhynchus nutans. 

James. 

Streptorhynch. planocon vexus 
Hall. 

Streptorhynchus subplanus. 

Conrad. 

Streptorhynchus subtentus. 

Conrad. 

Streptorhynchus subtentus. 

Hall. Var. planumbonus. 

Streptorhynchus sulcatus. 
Streptorhynchus tenuis. 

Hall. 

Streptorhynchus vetustus. 

James. 

Strophodonta arcuta. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Strophodonta demissa. 

Conrad. Corniferous. Devonian. 

Strophodonta canace. 

Hall & Whitfield. Hamilton Gr. 
Devonian. 

Strophodonta concava. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Strophodonta hemispherica. 

Hall. Corniferous. 

Strophodonta hybrida. 
Hall. Chemung Gr. 

Strophodonta inaequistriata. 
Conrad. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Strophodonta perplana. 

Hall. Var. nervosa. Hamilton Gr. 

Strephodonta reversa. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Strephodonta striata. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Strophomena alternata. 

Conrad. Trenton Gr. 



Strophomena alternata. 

Hall. Var. alternistriata. 

Strophomena alternata. 

Hall. Var loxorhytus. Meek. 

Strophomena alternata. 

Var. nasuta. Conrad. 

Strophomena arctostriata. 

Hall. (Streptorhyncus.) 

Strophomena fracta. 
Meek. 

Strophomena rhomboidalis. 

Wilckins. 

Strophomena subplana. 

Conrad. 

Strophomena squamula. 

James. 

Strophomena ulrichi. 

James. 

Syntrielasma hemiplicatum. 

Hall. Coal Measures. 

Terebratula bovidens. 

Morton. Coal Measures. 

Terebratula endura. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Terebratula hastata. 

DeKoninck. (Dielasma) Coal 
Measures. 

Terebratula lincklaeni. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Terebratula trinuclea. 

Hall. Warsaw Gr. 

Trematis dyeri. 

S. A. Miller. 
Trematis millepunctata. 

Hall. 

Trematis punctostriata. 

Hall. 

Trematospira quadriplicata. 
S. A. Miller. 

Tropidoleptus carinatus. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Waldheimia vulgari. 



196 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Zygospira cincinnatiensis. 

James. 

Zygospira concentrica. 

Ulrich. 

Zygospira erratica. 

Davidson. Trenton Gr. 



Zygospira headi. 

Billings. 

Zygospira kentuckyensis. 

James. 

Zygospira modesta. 
Hall. 



PTEROPODA. 



Coleolus aciculatus. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Coleolus tenuistriatus. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Conularia formosae. 

Miller & Dyer. Cincinnati Gr. 

Conularia newberryi. 
Winchell. Waverly Gr. 

Conularia subcarbonaria. 
Meek & Worthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Conularia trentoniensis. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Conularia species. 



Conularia undulata. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Hyolithes americanus. 

Billings. 

Tentaculites gyracanthus. 

Eaton. Lower Helderberg. 

Tentaculites richmandensis. 

S. A. Miller. 

Tentaculites sterlingensis. 

Meek and Worthen. 

Tentaculites fissurella. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Tentaculites irregularis. 
Hall. Lower Helderberg. 



GASTEROPIDA. 



Bellerophon bilobatus. 

Sowerby. Trenton Gr. 

Bellerophon var. 

Bellerophon carbonarius. 
Cox. Coal Measures. 

Bellerophon explanatus. 

Hall. 

Bellerophon leda. 

Hall. 

Bellerophon mohri. 

S. A. Miller. 

Bellerophon montfortanus. 

Norwood & Pratten. 

Bellerophon newberryi. 
Meek. Corniferous. 

Bellerophon nodocarinatus. 
Hall. Lower Coal Measures. 



Bellerophon patulus. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Bellerophon percarinatus. 
Conrad. Coal Measures. 

Bellerophon subcrassus. 
St. Louis Gr. 

Bellerophon sublaevis. 

Hall. Sub. Carboniferous. 

Bellerophon, special. 

Coal Measures. 
Bucania bidorsata. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Bucania costata. 

James. 

Bucania expansa. 

Hall. 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



I 9 7 



Callonema bellatum. 

Hall. Corniferous. Devonian. 

Cyclonema bilix. 

Hall. 

Cyclonema bilix. 

Var. fluctuatum. James. 

Cyclonema phaedra. 

Billings. 

Cyclonema pyramidatum. 

James. 

Cyclonema multilena. 

Cyclora depressa. 
Ulrich. 

Cyclora hoffmani. 
S. A. Miller. 

Cyclora minuta. 

Hall. 

Cyclostoma niagarensis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Cyrtolites carinatus. 

S. A. Miller. 

Cyrtolites dyeri. 

Hall. 

Cyrtolites elegans. 

S. A. Miller. 

Cyrtolites mitella. 
Cyrtolites ornatus. 

Conrad. 

Cyrtolites pileolus. 

Hall. Devonian. 

Euomphalus cyclostomus. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Euomphalus decollatus. 

Hall. Cornif. (Disjunctus). 

Euomphalus subrogosus. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Fusispira subfusiformis. 

Hall. 

Holopea macrostoma. 

Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Holopea obliqua. 
Hall. 



Loxonema delphicola. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Loxonema hamiltoniae. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Loxonema nexile. 
Macrochilina altonensis. 

Worthen. Coal Measures. 

Macrochilina hamiltoniae. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Macrochilina hamiltoniae. 

Special. Coal Measures. 

Macrochilina macrostoma. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Macrochilina medialis. 
Meek & Worthen. 

Macrochilina primigenia. 
Conrad. Coal Measurers. 

Macrochilina turritus. 
Whitfield. Coal Measurers. 

Macrochilina ventricosa. 

Coal Measurers. 

Metoptoma rugosa. 

(Stenotheca). Burlington Gr. 

Metoptoma umbella. 

Meek & Worthen. 

Murchisonia augustina. 

Billing. 

Murchisonia bellicincta. 

Hall. Galena Gr. 

Murchisonia gracilis. 

Hall. 

Murchisonia milleri. 
Hall. 

Murchisonia multigruma. 

S. A. Miller. 

Murchisonia perangulata. 

Hall. 

Murchisonia simulatrix. 

Billings. 

Naticopsis altonensis. 

McChesney. Coal Measures. 

Naticopsis gigantea. 

Hall & Whitfield. Chemung Gr. 



198 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Naticopsis humilis. 

Meek. Corniferous. 

Naticopsis nana. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Naticopsis nana. 

Species. Coal Measures. 

Platyceras argo. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Platyceras biserialis. 
Hall. Keokuk Gr. 

Platyceras campanulatum. 

Winchell. Niagara Gr. 

Platyceras carinatum. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Platyceras dumosum. 

Conrad. Upper Helderberg. 

Platyceras equilaterale. 
Hall. Keokuk Gr. 

Platyceras infundibulum. 

Meek & Worthen. Burlington Gr. 

Platyceras quincyense. 
McChesney. Keokuk Gr. 

Platyceras suculentum. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Platyceras thetis. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Platyceras uncum. 

Meek & Worthen. Burlington Gr. 

Platystoma lineatum. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Platystoma niagarensis. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Platystoma peoriensis. 

McChesney. Coal Measures. 

Pleurotomaria beckwithana. 

McChesney. Coal Measures. 

Pleurotomar. bonharborensis. 

Cox. Coal Measures. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis. 
Schumard. Carboniferous Gr. 

Pleurotomaria depressa. 
Cox. Coal Measures. 



Pleurotomaria grayvillensis. 

Norwood & Pratten. Coal Meas. 

Pleurotomaria haydenana. 
Geinitz. Coal Measures. 

Pleurotomaria lenticularis. 

Trenton Gr. 

Pleurotomaria lineata=itys. 

Hall. 

Pleurotomaria ohionas. 

James. 
Pleurotomaria spironema. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Pleurotomaria sphaerulata. 
Conrad. Coal Measures. 

Pleurotomaria subconica. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Pleurotomaria subconstricta. 

S. A. Miller. 
Pleurotomaria sulcomarginata. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Pleurotomaria trophidophora. 

Meek. 

Pleurotomaria umbilicata. 
Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Pleurotomaria ventricosa. 

Oriskany Gr. 

Polyphemopsis peracuta. 
Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Pupa vermilionensis. 
Bradley. Coal Measures. 

Raphistoma tenticulare. 

Emmons. Trenton Gr. 

Straparollus subrugosus. 

M. & W. C. M. (Euomphalus). 

Strophostylus cyclostomus. 
Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Trochonema umbilicatum. 
Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Turbo lineatus. 

(Pleurotomaria). 

Turbo rotundus. 
Corniferous. 

Turbo shumardi. 

Corniferous. (Platystoma). 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



199 



CEPHALOPODA. 



Cyrtoceras constrictostriatum. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Cyrtoceras irregulare. 

Wetherby. 

Cyrtoceras vallandighami. 

S. A. Miller. 

Endoceras proteiforme. 

Hall. Lower Silurian. 

Endoceras, species. 

Niagara Gr. 

Gomphoceras cincinnatiense. 

Ulrich. 

Gomphoceras eos. 
Hall & Whitfield. 

Goniatites discoideus. 

Hall. 

Goniatites ixion. 

Hall. Kinderhook Gr. 

Goniatites lyoni. 

Meek & Worthen. Kinderhook Gr. 

Goniatites oweni. 

Hall. Kinderhook Gr. 

Goniatites rotatorius. 

DeKoninck. Kinderhook Gr. 

Goniatites wilsoni. 
Subcarboniferous. 

Gyroceras bannisteri. 

Winchell & Marcy. Niagara Gr. 

Nautilus buccinum. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Nautilus globatus. 

Sowerby. Coal Measures. 

Nautilus marcellensis. 
Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. 

Ormoceras tenuifilum. 
Hall. Black River Strata. 

Phragmoceras. 

Hall & Whitfield. Niagara Gr. 

Orthoceras aegea. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 



Orthoceras amplicameratum. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Orthoceras bipartitum. 

Hall. 

Orthoceras bebrix. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. (Devonian). 

Orthoceras conica. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Orthoceras constrictus. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. (Devon.) 

Orthoceras constrictus, var. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. (Devon.) 

Orthoceras constrictus, var. 
Conrad. Hamilton Gr. (Devon.) 

Orthoceras crotalum. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. (Devonian.) 
Orthoceras duseri. 

Hall. With Ceramapora beani. 
Orthoceras exile. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 
Orthoceras expansum. 

Meek & Worthen. St. Louis Gr. 

Orthoceras fosteri. 

S. A. Miller. 

Orthoceras gregarium. 

Hall. Hudson River Gr. 
Orthoceras halli. 
Orthoceras junceum. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Orthoceras marcellense. 

Vanuxem. Hamilton Gr. (Dev.) 

Orthoceras mohri. 
S. A. Miller. 

Orthoceras multilineatum. 

Emmons. Hamilton Gr. (Dev.) 

Orthoceras nuntium. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. (Devonian.) 

Orthoceras rushensis. 
Coal Measures. 

Orthoceras tenere. 
Hamilton Gr. 



2CO 



PALAEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Orthoceras textile. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Orthoceras transversum. 

S. A. Miller. Lower Silurian. 



Orthoceras turbidum. 

Hall. 

Orthoceras vertebrate. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 



LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 



Ambonychia acutirostrata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 
Ambonychia amygdaelina. 

(Var. Cypricardites amygdaelina). 

Ambonychia bellistriata. 
Hall. 

Ambonychia casii. 
Meek & Worthen. 

Ambonychia costata. 
James. 

Ambonychia orbicularis. 

Trenton period. 

Ambonychia radiata. 
Hall. 

Ambonychia robusta. 

S. A. Miller. Hudson River Gr. 

Allorisma cuneata. 

Swallow. Coal Measures. 

Allorisma curtum. 
Swallow. Permian Gr. 

Allorisma subcuneata. 

Meek & Hayden. Coal Measures. 

Allorisma var. subcuneata. 
Allorisma var. subcuneata. 

Allorisma winchelli. 
Meek. Waverly Gr. 

Amphicoelia neglecta. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Anodontopsis milleri. 
Meek. Hudson River Gr. 

Anomalodonta alata. 

Meek. Species. (Ambonychia). 

Anomalodonta gigantea. 
S. A. Miller. 



Astartella varica. 

McChesney. Lower Coal Meas. 

Astartella vera. 

Hall. Coal Measures. 

Avicula chemungensis. 

Conrad. (Pterinea Chemung). 

Avicula elliptica. 

Hall. (Pterinea Elliptica). 

Aviculopecten carbonaris. 

Coal Measures. 

Aviculopecten clevelandicus. 
Swallow. Coal Measures. 

Aviculopecten coxanus. 

Meek. Coal Measures. 

Aviculopecten indianensis. 
Meek & Worthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Aviculopecten neglectus. 

Coal Measures. 
Aviculopecten occidentalis. 

Shumard. Coal Measures. 

Aviculopecten pellucidus. 
Meek & Worthen. 

Aviculopecten rectilaterarius. 

Cox. Coal Measures. 
Cardiomorpha missouriensis. 

Shumard. Coal Measures. 

Cardiomorpha missouriensis. 
Var. Shumard. Coal Measures. 

Clidophorus fabulus. 
Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Clidophorus planulatus. 

Conrad. Cincinnati Gr. 

Clinopistha laevis. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Clinopistha radiata. 
Hall. 

\ 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



201 



Conocardium subtrigonale. 

D'Orbigny. Corniferous. 

Conocardium subtrigonale. 

Var. Devonian. 

Conocardium ventricosum. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Crenipecten Icon, or leonensis. 
Crenipecten retiferus. 

Shumard. Coal Measures. 

Cucullaea opima. 

Hall & Whitfield. Hamilton Gr. 
S. A. Miller says synonym for Nu- 
cula lirata. 

Cuneamya ampla. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Cuneamya inflata. 

Cincinnati Gr. 

Cuneamya parva. 

S. A. Miller. Cincinnati. 

Cypricardella bellistriata. 

Conrad Species. Hamilton Gr. 

Cypricardella eodon. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. (Proposed 
instead of Microdon, Conrad, 
S. A. Miller. 

Cypricardia recurva. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Cypricarditis haynanas. 
Safford. Cincinnati Gr. 

Cypricarditis quadrangularis. 
Whitefield. 

Cypricarditis amygdalinus. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Entolium avicula. 

Swallow. Coal Measures. 

Grammysia bisulcata. 
Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Grammysia cingulata. 
Hamilton Gr. 

Grammysia circularis. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Grammysia discoidea. 
Hamilton Gr. 



Grammysia nodocostata. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Grammysia obsoleta. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Grammysia secunda. 

Hall. Var. Gibbosa. Ham. Gr. 

Lyrodesma cincinnatiense. 

Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Lyrodesma major. 

Ulrich. (Tellinomya pectuncu- 
loides. Hall. Cincinnati Gr. 

Lyrodesma poststriatum. 

Emmons. 
Macrodon bellistratus. 

Var. Cypricardella. 

Macrodon obsoletus. 
Meek. Coal Measures. 

Megalomus canadensis. 

Hall. Upper Silurian. 

Megambonia jamesi. 

Meek. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis cincinnatiensis. 
Hall & Whitfield. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis concentrica. 

Hall & Whitfield. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis faba. 

Conrad. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis modiolaris. 
Conrad. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis perlata. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Modiolopsis spatulata. 

James. Cincinnati Gr. 

Modiolopsis truncata. 

Hall. 

Modiomorpha alta. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Modiomorpha alta. 

Var. Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Modiomorpha concentrica. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Modiomorpha concentrica. 
Var. Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 



202 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Myalina keokuk. 

Worthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Myalina monroensis. 

Worthen. Upper Coal Measures. 

Myalina swallovi. 

McCheney. Upper Coal Meas. 

Myalina swallovi. 

Species. Upper Coal Measures. 

Myalina subquadrata. 
Upper Coal Measures. 

Nucula bellatula. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula bellastriata. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula lineata. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula niotica. 

Hall. Upper Helderberg. 

Nucula niotica. 

Var. Hall. Upper Helderberg. 

Nucula oblonga. 
Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula oblonga. 
Var. Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula randalli. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. Devonian. 

Nucula truncata. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Nucula ventricosa. 

Hall. Coal Measures. 

Nucula ventricosa. 
Species. Hamilton Gr. 

Nuculites elongata. 

Hamilton Gr. 

Nuculites triqueter. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Nuculites sulcatinus. 

Conrad. Keokuk Gr. 

Nyassa arguta. 

Hall. Hamilton Gr. 

Nyassa hamiltoniae. 
Orthodesma contractum. 

Hall. Cincinnatti Gr. 



Orthodesma curvatum. 

Hall & Whitfield. Cincinnati Gr. 
Orthodesma mickleburghi. 

Whitfield. Cincinnati Gr. 

Orthodesma parallelum. 

Hall. 

Orthodesma rectum. 

Hall & Whitfield. Cincinnati Gr. 

Orthodesma subovale. 

Ulrich. Cincinnati Gr. 

Paracyclas elliptica. 

Hall. Corniferous. (Devonian.) 

Paracyclas elliptica. 

Var. Hall. Cornif. (Devonian.) 

Paracyclas lirata. 
Conrad. (Devonian.) 

Paracyclas lirata. 

Var. Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Paracyclas proavia. 

Goldfuss. Lower Devonian. 

Paracyclas serata. 

Devonian. 

Pinna peracuta. 

Shumard. Coal Measures. 

Pleurophorus subcostatus. 
Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Pleurophorus tripodolphorus. 
Meek. Lower Coal Measures. 

Prothyris elegans. 

Meek. Upper Coal Measures. 

Pseudomonotis hawni. 

(Eumicrotis). Meek & Hayden. 

Pterinea bellilineata. 

Billings. 

Pterinea chemungensis. 
Pterinea demissa. 

Conrad. 

Pterinea elliptica. 

Hall. Trenton Gr. 

Pterinea flabella. 

Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 

Pterinea flabella. 

Var. Conrad. Hamilton Gr. 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



203 



Pterinea insueta. 

Conrad. 

Pterinea mucronata. 

Ulrich. 

Sanguinolites obliquus. 

Meek. Waverly Shales. 

Sanguinolites sanduskyensis. 

Meek. Corniferous. 

Schizodus curta. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Meas. 

Schizodus wheeleri. 

Swallow. Coal Measures. 

Sedgwickia Hnalata. 

Whitfield. 

Sedgwickia neglecta. 

Meek. 

Solenomya radiata. 

Var. Meek & Worthen. 



Solenomya radiata. 

Meek & Worthen. 

Solenomya rhomboidea. 

Coal Measures. 

Tellinomya alata. 

Hall. 

Tellinomya clevata. 

Hall. 

Tellinomya hilli. 
S. A. Miller. 

Tellinomya lineata. 

Phillips. Hamilton Gr. 

Tellinomya obliqua. 

Hall. 

Tellinomya pretenculoides. 

Hall. 

Tellinomya subovata. 
Ulrich. 



Serpulites dissolutus. 
Billings. Trenton Gr. 



ANNELIDA. 



Serpulites jamesi. 
Nicholson. 



CRUSTACEA. 



Acidaspis anchoralis. 

S. A. Miller. Cincinnati Gr. 

Acidaspis crossotus. 
Locke. Cincinnati Gr. 

Acidaspis species. 

Cincinnati Gr. 

Acidaspis trentonensis. 

Hall. 

Asaphus gigas. 

DeKay. Trenton Gr. 

Asaphus megistus. 

Locke. 

Bathyurus extans. 

Hall. Trenton Period. 

Beyrichia chambersi. 

S. A. Miller. 



Beyrichia ciliata. 

Emmons. 

Beyrichia cincinnatiensis. 

S. A. Miller. 

Beyrichia lata. 

Vanuxem. 

Beyrichia oculifera. 
Hall. 

Beyrichia regularis. 

Emmons. 

Calymene callicephala. 

Green. Trenton Gr. 

Calymene niagarensis. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Ceraurus icarus. 

Billings. 



204 



PALEOZOIC FOSSILS. 



Cera.urus pleurexanthemus. 
Cyphaspis christyi. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Cytheropsis cincinnatiensis. 

Meek. 
Cytheropsis cylindrica. 

Hall. 

Cytheropsis irregularis. 

S. A. Miller. 

Dalmanites achates. 

Billings. 

Dalmanites boothi. 

Green. Hamilton Gr. 

Dalmanites breviceps. 

Hall. 

Dalmanites carleyi. 

Meek. 

Dalmanites selenurus. 

Eaton. Upper Helderberg. 

Dalmanites verucosus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Dalmanites, species. 
Homolonutus dekayi. 

Green. Hamilton Gr. 

Illaenus armatus. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Leaia tricarinata. 

Meek & Worthen. Coal Measures. 



Leperditia alta. 

Conrad. Lower Helderberg. 

Leperditia glabra. 
Ulrich. 

Lepidocoleus jamesi. 

Hall & Whitfield. Hudson River. 

Lichas trentoniensis. 

Conrad. 

Phacops bufo. 

Green. Hamilton Gr. 

Phacops rana. 

Green. Hamilton Gr. 

Phillipsia bufo. 

Meek & \Vorthen. Keokuk Gr. 

Phillipsia, species. 
Upper Carboniferous. 

Primitia byrnesi. 
Primitia crepiformis. 

Primitia cincinnatiensis. 

S. A. Miller. 
Sphaerexochus romengeri. 

Hall. Niagara Gr. 

Triarthrus becki. 
Grren. Utica Slate. 

Trinucleus bellulus. 
Ulrich. 

Trinucleus concentricus.. 

Eaton. 



LIST OF TAXABLE INHABITANTS 

IN THE 

TOWN AND COUNTY OF WESTMORELAND, 

(WYOMING, PENN'A,) 

STATE OF CONNECTICUT, 
1776-1780. 



Tax lists have always been justly regarded as among the 
most important data to the historian in writing the records 
of a people or a section of country. And yet we search the 
histories of the Wyoming section of Pennsylvania in vain 
for such lists prior to 1796. The lists of this date were 
published for the first time by Stewart Pearce in his "Annals 
of Luzerne county." His Appendix shows that in 1763 
one hundred and seventeen New England settlers located 
in the Wyoming Valley. Fifty of these, who were slain by 
the Indians in the massacre that year, are all of the number 
whose names are known. At that time no government had 
been established at Wyoming, and the settlers had not 
felt the burden of taxation. From 1769 to 1772 over two 
hundred others, also from New England, settled at Wyo- 
ming. Their names are recorded by Pearce. These were 
also free from taxation. But in 1774, when the town of 
Westmoreland was established as a part of Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, the necessity of taxation was realized, and at a 
town meeting held at Wilkes-Barre, March 2, 1774, for the 
election of officers for the government of the town, the fol- 
lowing were elected Listers, for the purpose of assessing 
property and levying taxes : "Anderson Dana, Daniel Gore, 
Elisha Swift, Eliphalet Follet, Perrin Ross, Nathan Wade, 
Jeremiah Blanchard, Zavan Tracy, Uriah Chapman, Gideon 
Baldwin, Silas Gore, Moses Thomas, Emanuel Consawler, 
John Jenkins, Phineas Clark." How long these remained 
in office is not known, but the following certificate, for which 
I am indebted to the kindness of Oscar J. Harvey, Esq., 
shows the Listers for 1776: 

At the October, 1776, session of the General Assembly of Connec- 
ticut a certificate was received from the Listers of Westmoreland 



2O6 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 

(Wyoming) setting forth that " the Grand List for the town of West- 
moreland,. made on the August Lists for the year 1776, is ^6996, 133." 
This list was "certified by Anderson Dana, Elisha Swift, John 
Jenkins, Jr., Nathan Kingsley, William Williams, William Stark, 
William Hibbard, Aaron Gay lord, John Perkins, Listers." 

Evidently no tax lists prior to 1796 were known to Chap- 
man, and none to Miner except that of 1 78 1 , a copy of which 
was sent to the United States Congress by Mr. Miner in 
1837 accompanying the eloquent and forcible " Petition of 
the Sufferers at Wyoming during the Revolutionary War 
for relief." This list was published by the Government 
in House Report 1032, 25th Congress, 2d Session, Public 
Document No. 336. It was reprinted by the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society in 1895 in my paper 
entitled " The Massacre of Wyoming, the Acts of Congress 
for the Defense of the Wyoming Valley, Penn'a, 1776-1778, 
with the Petitions of the Sufferers by the Massacre of July 
3, 1778, for Congressional aid." On pages 78-83 of this 
publication it will be found, entitled "A true list of the polls 
and estates of the town of Westmoreland, ratable by law 
the 2Oth of August, 1781." The assessment was made by 
"John Franklin, Christopher Hurlbut and Jonah Rogers, 
Listers." It reports the number of polls at Wyoming that 
year over 16 years old at 140 ; live stock 655 ; acres plowed 
999 /^; other land 286^; total land owned 1276 acres, 
silver watches 2, owned by Captain John Franklin and 
Sarah Durkee, each valued at i, 10. 

Some years ago the late Sheldon Reynolds, Esq., dis- 
covered the original Tax Lists of the Town and County of 
Westmoreland for 1776, 1777 and 1778, which he added to 
his private collection of local manuscripts. Shortly before 
his death he had these lists copied for the use of this society. 
They are printed here for the first time, and from copies 
made by myself "verbatim et literatim" We are indebted to 
his family for this privilege. Through the generous act of 
Oscar J. Harvey, Esq., I am permitted to give also a Tax List 
of the Town and County of Westmoreland for 1 780 from a 
copy in his possession. As the demoralized condition of 
this section in 1779 made the levying of taxes extremely 
difficult, nothing was done by the Connecticut authorities 
to accomplish it. This appears from several petitions made 
to the Connecticut Assembly far release from taxation that 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 2O7 

year, one of which I give from the original in Mr. Harvey's 
hands : 

At a town-meeting of the inhabitants of Westmoreland held at 
Wilkes-Barre" Sept. 19, 1780 John Hurlbutt, Esq., being moderator 
and Obadiah Gore "town clerk" it was ''Resolved, That John Hurl- 
butt and Col. Nathan Denison be appointed agents to negotiate a pe- 
tition at the next General Assembly, praying for an abatement of taxes 
upon the present List." 

At the October, 1780, session of the General Assembly of Connecti- 
cut there was presented a "Memorial, dated Westmoreland, Sept. 28, 
1780," and signed by John Hurlbutt, John Franklin, Jabez Sill and 
James Nisbitt, "Select Men, in behalf of themselves and inhabitants." 
This memorial set forth, among other things, the following : " The 
settlement being contracted to a very narrow compass just under 
cover of the garrison our fields very much in common our families 
either in barracks with the soldiery, or soldiers quartering in our houses 
for our protection and safety. * * * These and many other diffi- 
culties (which are tedious to mention) induce us once more to petition 
for an abatement of taxes upon the present List, or in some other way 
to grant us relief." 

At a session of the General Assembly held in February, 1781, it was 
"Resolved, That all the State taxes arising on the List of the year 
1780 in the town of Westmoreland aforesaid be and the same are 
hereby abated." 

These will be more fully given in Mr. Harvey's forthcom- 
ing "History of Wilkes-Barre." The lists of 1776-1780 
cover nine localities, and the summary of the separate lists 
shows the following numbers of Connecticut taxables here 
in those years. They do not contain all the male inhabi- 
tants or property holders under the Connecticut title, as 
some, like the Rev. Jacob Johnson, were relieved from taxes 
for reasons which do not appear. 

CONNECTICUT TAXABLES, TOWN AND COUNTY OF WESTMORELAND. 

1776. 1777. 1778. 1780. 

Wilkes-Barre, 96 96 96 

Kingston, 84 89 89 

Plymouth, . . 71 109 no 

Hanover, 50 79 79 

Pittston, 51 72 70 

Exeter, 36 27 27 

Up the River 57 32 32 

Lackawanna, 26 59 26 

Westmoreland, 8 

Town of Westmoreland, 91, 

479 563 529 



208 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 



Meanwhile Pennsylvania was not idle in levying taxes 
upon her own people in this section. Without recognizing 
in any way the Connecticut titles and landholders, she lev- 
ied taxes on all holders of land under the Pennsylvania 
titles. In the Pennsylvania Archives, 3d Series, Volume 
XIX, printed, but not yet published, under the supervision 
of William H. Egle, M. D., late State Librarian, will be 
found the Lists of State Taxes, Assessment, and Supply 
Tax for Wyoming township, Northumberland county, for 
each year from 1778 to 1789, inclusive. These give full 
names of resident and non-resident landholders, and are 
well worth careful study. None of the names on the Con- 
necticut lists are found on these, so that an accurate estimate 
of the population of the Wyoming section could be readily 
made from the two sets of tax lists. 



PENNSYLVANIA TAXABLES, WYOMING TOWNSHIP, NORTHUMBER- 
LAND COUNTY. 

State Tax, 1778, 1779, 1780. Residents, 56; acres, ; value, ^15,000; 

taxes, . 
Assessments, 1781. Residents, 45 ; acres, 12,896; taxes, ^450. 

" " Non-residents, 31; acres, 26,058, uncultivated; 

taxes, ;86o. 
Supply Tax, 1782. Residents, 31 ; acres, 6,866; taxes, ^218. 

" " " Non-residents, 42; acres, 30,420, uncultivated; 

taxes, ^741. 
Supply Tax, 1783. Residents, 54; acres, 9,741; horses, 61 ; cattle, 

77 ; taxes, ^85. 
Supply Tax, 1784. Residents, 54; acres, 9,741; horses, 61 ; cattle, 

77 ; taxes, ^95. 
State Tax, 1785. Residents, 75; acres, 12,807; horses, in; cattle, 

105 ; taxes, ^26. 
" " " Non-residents, 70, acres, 62,150, uncultivated; 

taxes, ^114. 
State Tax, 1786. Residents, 83; acres, 14,574; horses, 121; cattle, 

117 ; taxes, ^45. 
" " " Non-residents, 65; acres, 65,155, uncultivated; 

taxes, 112. 
State Tax, 1787. Residents, 64; acres, 10,345; horses, 104; cattle, 

102 ; taxes, 22. 

" " " Non-residents, 70; acres, 59,195, uncultivated; 
taxes, ,67. 

HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 



TAXABLES FOR THE 

TOWN AND COUNTY OF WESTMORELAND, 
i776-'8o. 



RATE BILL FOR WILKSBARRE DISTRICT. 

MADE ON THE AUGUST LIST, 1776. 



s. d. s. . d, 

Richardson Avery, 56 1 13 

Richardson Avery, Jr., 21 12 3 

Chriatn Avery, 44 10 1 6 1 

William Avery, 29 16 11 

John Abbot, 32 18 8 

Elias Bixby, 21 12 3 

Thos Brown, , 49 1 8 7 

Jesse Kissel, 33 11 19 8 

James Bedlock, 18 10 6 

Asa Barnham, 29 16 11 

Zebnlon Butler, 90 6 2 12 8 

Elisha Blackman, 60 4 1 15 2 

Stodard Bowers, 30 17 6 

Benjn Bayley, 21 12 3 

Isaac Bonnet, , 61 1 15 7 

Aaron Bower, .... 24 14 

Asa Bennet, 42 1 4 6 

Moses Brown, . . 30 7 17 8 

Joseph Cooper, 27 15 9 

Benjn Clark 23 3 15 

Samuel Cole, 33 19 3 

Elean Cary, 56 10 1 13 

Willm Dorton, 18 10 6 

Wm Dunn, Jn' 43 1 15 1 

Robt Dnrkee, 49 1 8 7 

Anderson Dana, 46 8 1 7 1 

Win Davidson, 29 16 11 

Thomas Durkee, 27 16 16 4 

Daniel Downing, 10 12 1 3 8 

Wm Dunn, 18 10 6 

Douglas Davidson, 27 16 9 

John Foster, 24 14 

Stephen Fuller, 86 2 10 2 

Jonathn Fitch, 18 10 6 

Henry Elliot, 43 1 5 1 

Cornelius Gale, 19 11 1 

Peregreen Gardner, 18 10 6 



2IO WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1/80. 

s. d. 

Daniel Gore, 48 

Rezin Geer, 27 

Obediah Gore, 39 16 

James Green, 25 

James Gould, 26 

Elias Green, 36 

John Garret, 107 4 

John Hageman, 18 

Simeon Hide, 33 2 

Joseph Hageman, 21 

John Hide, 21 

Samuel Hutchins, 50 

Matthew and John Hollenback, 50 

Thomas McClure, 18 

Houlet Hazen, 53 

Robt Hopkins, 26 

Azel Hide, 21 

Gamal Irasdel, 18 

Wm Judd, 35 

Ebenr Lane, .... 18 

Solomon Johnson, 18 

Thos Neal 22 

Martin Nelson, 18 

Wm Nelson, 26 

Aaron Pixby, 24 

Thos Pickard, 21 

Ebenzr Parks, 41 

Wm Parker, 72 

Junta Preson, 18 

Ebenr Philips, 22 

Thos Porter, 76 

Jeremiah Ross, 77 

Jacob Shufelt, 29 

Josiah Stansbnry, 130 

John Staples 55 10 

John Staples 29 

Josiah Smith, 18 

Joseph Staples, 42 

Isaac Smith, 24 

Adonijah Stansbury, 18 

James Stark, 100 10 

Isaac Smith, Jun* 21 

Wm Stark, 45 12 

Asa Stevens 42 

Darius Snafford, 39 

Jabel Sell 95 10 

Elihu Waters, 18 

Ephraim Wheeler, 23 

John Williams, 24 

Jonathan Weeks, 36 

Thos Williams 32 6 

John Wheeler, 18 

Peter Wheeler, 34 

Edward Walker 37 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 211 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Jonathan Weeks, Jr., 35 1 5 

Willm Warner, 35 8 1 8 

Philip Weeks, 37 4 1 1 9 

Abel Yorrenton, 24 1 14 



KINGSTON DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d' 

James Atherton, 105 00 313 

Asahel Buck 33 19 3 

James Atherton, Jr., 18 10 6 

Kichd Brockway, 26 15 2 

W'n Buck, 27 15 9 

Aholiab Buck, 31 1 1 7 

Asa Brown, 40 1 3 4 

Benjn Budd, 56 1 12 8 

Thos Bennet, 80 2 6 8 

Jeremiah Baker, 25 14 7 

John Bass, 22 12 17 

Henry Bush, 30 17 6 

Kingsly Cumstock, 29 16 11 

Samuel Cummins, ... 48 1 8 

Elias Church, 78 2 5 6 

Gideon Church, .21 12 3 

Amasa Cleeland 30 17 6 

Nathan Denson, 36 1 1 

Amos Draper, 44 1 5 8 

Geo. Drorrance, 75 12 2 4 1 

Jo" Dorrance, 41 15 1 4 5 

Thos Foxen, 21 12 3 

Stephen Fuller, Jr., 37 1 1 7 

Win Gallop, 40 1 3 4 

Lemuel Gunston, 24 14 

Asa Gore, 38 11 1 2 6 

Obadiah Gore, 68 18 2 3 

Silas Gore, 25 14 7 

Saml Gordon, 21 12 3 

Peter Harris, 29 16 11 

Dothick Huit, 24 14 

Levi Hicks, .....42 1 4 6 

Jno Hammond 30 17 6 

Dudly Hammond, 21 12 3 

Elijah Harris, 24 14 

Eglon Hatch, 28 16 4 

Amariah Hammond, 26 15 2 

Ezekl Hamilton, 26 15 2 

Esther Eollet . 9 5 3 

Benj. Follet, 7 4 1 

Elipt Follet 25 14 7 

John Fish, 31 18 1 

Asel Jeroms, 32 18 8 

Willm Kellog, 81 2 7 3 

Kob* Mclntire, 18 10 6 



212 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. s. d. . s. dv 

Winches* Mathewson, 87 2 10 9 

Jesse Lee, 37 1 1 7 

James Legget, 54 1 11 6 

Nathl Landon, 64 4 1 17 6 

Peter Low 108 3 3 

Seth Marvin, . . . . 18 10 6 

John Murpy 22 12 10 

Phineas Parce, 24 14 

Noah Pettebon, 65 1 12 1 

Timo Pierce, 35 1 5 

Ezekiel Pierce, 21 12 3 

Jno. Perkins, 76 2 4 4 

Isaac Philips, 24 14 ft 

Juo. Pearce, 20 11 8 

Ashbel Robinson, . . 27 15 & 

Elias Roberd, Junr 24 14 

Elias Roberd, . . 66 1 18 ft 

Tirao Rose, 32 18 & 

Elijah Shoemaker, 55 1 12 1 

Benjn Skiff 47 1 7 5- 

Jno. Smith 46 1 6 10 

Wm H. Smith, 18 10 6 

Timo Smith, 24 1 14 

Lockwood Smith, 26 15 2 

Benedick Satterly, 51 8 1 10 I 

Wm Searls, ... 18 10 6 

Luke Sweatland, 51 1 9 9 

Constant Searls,, 44 1 5 8 

Jedeh Stevens, 51 1 9 9 

Thos Stodard, 33 19 3 

Rosel Stevens, 22 12 10 

Ebenr Skiner, 25 14 7 

Joshua Steveus, 25 14 7 

Elisha Swift, 55 1 12 1 

Parshal Terry, 84 2 9 

Lebbeus Tubbs 70 2 10 

John Tubbs, 25 14 7 

Parshal Terry, Jnnr, 21 12 3 

Isaiah Walker, 21 12 3 

Parker Willson, 29 16 11 

Israel Walker, . 37 1 1 7 

Aziag Yale, 36 1 1 



PLYMOUTH DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d, 

Amos Amesbury, 21 12 3 

Aoahel Atherton, 50 1 9 2 

Caleb. Austin, 8 4 8 

Samuel Ayrea, 30 1 17 6 

James Bedlock, 31 18 1 

Joshua Bennet, 30 17 6 

Henry Burny 45 1 6 3 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 213 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Coleman, 20 11 8 

Wm Churchill, 41 1 3 11 

Jeremiah Coleman, 71 2 1 5 

Jnan Churchill 21 12 3 

Thos CaBcadden 24 14 

Gilbert Dentou, 34 19 10 

Benj" Cole, 70 6 2 1 

Daniel Denton, 21 12 3 

Danl Colton, 18 10 6 

Frederick Eveland 39 00 1 29 

Daniel Finch, Sen., 18 10 6 

James Frisby, 27 15 9 

John Franklin 30 17 6 

Jonathan Foreitt, 25 14 7 

Philip Goss, 39 1 2 9 

Bazubel Gurny, 50 1 9 2 

Solomon Goss, 22 12 10 

Nathal Goss, 62 1 10 2 

Joseph Gaylord, 25 14 7 

Charles Gaylord, 18 10 6 

Justus Gaylord, 88 8 2 11 8 

Aaron Gaylord, 22 12 10 

Philip Goss, Junr 32 18 8 

Zachv Hartziff, 18 10 6 

Benjn Harvey, 123 3 11 9 

Tim Hopkins, 25 14 7 

Silas Harvey 18 10 6 

Thos Heath, 40 1 34 

Jonathan Hunlock 39 1 2 9 

Wm Hnrlbnt, 22 12 10 

John Heath, 61 1 15 7 

Crocker Jones, 22 12 10 

Beuj Kilbon, 11 6 5 

Kutus Lawrence, 54 1 11 6 

Ephraim McCoy, 22 12 10 

Nicholas Manvil 41 16 1 4 5 

David Marvin, 60 1 15 

Matthew Marvin 01 00 07 

James Nesbet, 26 15 2 

Jonathn Prichard, 30 17 6 

Noah Pettebone, 21 12 3 

Samuel Ransom, 63 1 16 9 

Josiah Rogers, 62 1 16 2 

Perin Ross, 56 4 1 12 10 

Daniel Robards, 16 9 4 

Hezekiah Robards, 22 12 10 

James Robards, 24 14 

Ebenr Robards 22 12 10 

Elisha Richards, 38 1 2 2 

Wm Reynolds, 35 1 5 

Thos Sawyer 45 1 6 3 

Simon Spalding, .... 29 16 11 

Oliver Smith, 50 I 9 2 

Wm Steward, 26 15 2 



214 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Obadiah Scott, 33 19 3 

Dauiel Sharwood, 30 17 6 

Robt Spencer, 18 10 6 

John Tilbury, 38 00 1 22 

Matthias Vanhorn, 43 1 5 1 

Asaph Wbittlesey, 30 17 6 

John Van Wy, 30 17 6 

Samuel Williams, 37 1 1 7 

Wm White, 33 16 9 19 9 

Rulus Williams, 49 4 1 8 9 

Elihu Williams, 46 1 6 10 

Nathan Wade, 18 10 6 

HANOVER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Prince Alden, 36 1 1 

Major Alden, 24 14 

Eber Andrews, 22 12 10 

Jeremiah Bigford, 30 17 6 

Isaac Bennet, Jr., 66 1 18 6 

Peleg Barret, 18 10 6 

Isaac Campbell, 34 19 10 

John Commer, 68 1 19 8 

James Cook, 36 1 1 

Peleg Cook, 24 14 

Nathl Davenport, 46 6 1 16 10 

Samuel Downer, ... 3 1 19 

Saml Ensign 38 1 2 2 

John Ewing, 28 16 4 

James Forsith, 24 14 

John Franklin, 32 18 8 

Andrew Freeman, 44 1 5 8 

Rozel Franklin, 23 13 5 

Isaac Fritchet 65 1 17 11 

Daniel Franklin, 18 10 6 

Wait Garrat, 29 16 11 

Titus Henman, 22 12 10 

Nicholas Huffman, 63 1 16 9 

Ebenezer Hibbard, 23 13 5 

Wm Hibbard, 38 00 1 22 

Cyprian Hibbard, 36 1 1 

Richard Inman, 40 1 3 4 

Elijah Inman, , 52 10 1 10 8 

David Inman, 34 10 1 2 

W" Jamison, , 21 12 3 

Robtt Jamison, 18 10 6 

John Jamison, 26 15 2 

John Jackson, 21 12 3 

Wm M. Karrachan, . . 21 12 3 

James Lasly, 37 1 1 7 

George Lukes, 62 1 16 2 

Edward Lester, 37 1 1 7 

John Morris, ... 52 1 10 4 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1/80. 21$ 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Benjn Potts, 21 12 3 

Lt Lazs Stuart, 21 12 3 

Wm Smith, 72 2 2 

Levi Spencer, . . 18 10 6 

James Spencer, 29 16 11 

Solomon Squre, 30 17 6 

Edward Spencer, 92 2 13 8 

Caleb Speucer, 46 1 6 10 

Benjn Shaw, 46 1 6 10 

John Sharar, 33 19 3 

Capt Lazs Stuart, 102 2 19 6 

Eobt Young, 21 12 3 

PITTS TOWN. 

s. d. . s. d. 

Noah Adams, 30 17 6 

Daniel Allen, 47 1 7 5 

Isaac Adams, 47 1 7 5 

James Brown, Jr., 18 1 10 6 

James Brown, 40 1 3 4 

Jeremiah Blanchard, 40 1 3 4 

James Bagly, 40 1 3 4 

Isaac Baldwin, 72 2 2 

Ishmael Bennet, 21 12 3 

Caleb Bates 34 19 10 

David Brown, . . 19 11 1 

Kufus Baldwin, 18 10 6 

Samuel Billings, 59 1 14 5 

Thos Cooper, 23 13 5 

Daniel Cass, 35 1 5 

Eber Crandal, 21 12 3 

John Carr, 22 12 10 

Barnabas Gary, 27 15 9 

Timothy How 22 12 10 

Abraham Harding, 55 1 12 1 

Thos Harding, 33 19 3 

Benjn Hempsted, 24 14 

Richard Halsted, 81 2 7 3 

Stephen Harding, 25 14 7 

Isaiah Halsted, 25 14 7 

Jeremiah Hogeboon, 18 10 6 

Eton Jones, 24 14 

Joseph Leonard, 21 12 3 

Obediah Murson, .... 78 2 5 6 

James Moore, 24 14 

Ebenr Marcy 31 18 1 

Samuel Millord, 21 12 3 

Timothy Pierce, 22 12 7 

Jonathan Parker, 40 1 3 4 

John Ryon, 21 12 3 

Michael Rood, 30 17 6 

David Sanford, 21 12 3 

Solomon Strong, 33 10 19 7 



2l6 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

s. d. . s. d. 

Aaron Stark, 27 15 9 

Elijah Silsbry, '25 14 7 

Sarunel Slater, Jr., 40 1 3 4 

Saml Slater, 46 1 6 10 

John Stafford, 27 15 9 

Ephraim Sanford, 34 19 10 

Wn Shay, 27 10 16 1 

David Smith, 50 00 1 92 

Zach Squire, 26 15 2 

Elear West, 30 17 6 

Willm Williams, 51 1 1 9 

Just's Wording, 29 16 11 

John Wording, 22 12 10 

Nath" Williams, 22 12 10 

EXETER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Nathan Albeen, 21 12 3 

Joseph Baker, 39 1 2 9 

Saml Brown, 39 1 2 9 

Silas Benedict 36 1 1 

Dani'l Cambel, 50 1 9 2 

Manassa Cady, 20 11 8 

Stephen Gardner, 28 16 4 

John Gardner, 26 15 2 

Peter Harris 34 19 10 

Stephen Harding, 71 2 1 5 

Stephen Hardine, Jr., 25 14 7 

Lemuel Harding, 52 1 10 4 

James Headwell, 64 1 17 4 

Benjn Jones, 69 2 3 

Nathan Jones, 30 17 6 

Thos Joslin, 19 11 1 

Dani'l Ingersol, 24 14 

Nathl Johnson 23 13 5 

Jno Jenkins, 108 10 3 3 4 

Timothy Keyes, 35 1 5 

Willm Martin, 55 1 12 1 

Wm Pickard, 19 11 1 

Thos picket 44 o 1 5 8 

Joseph Slocum, 7 4 1 

Jacob Syne, 26 15 2 

Jno. D. Shoemaker, 23 13 5 

Elisha Scovel, 41 1 3 11 

Ebenr Searls, 28 16 4 

Levi Townsend, c . 49 1 8 7 

Isaac Trip, Esq., 68 1 19 8 

Job Trip, 26 15 2 

Job Trip, Jr., 18 10 6 

Preserved Taylor, 55 1 12 1 

Philip Wintermute, 62 1 16 2 

Jno Wintermote, 18 10 6 

Philip Wintermute, Jr., 30 17 6 

Richard West, 23 13 5 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 217 

UP THE RIVER. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Frederick Arper 50 1 12 8 

Philip Bender, 37 1 1 1 

Prince Bryant, 21 12 'A 

Jacob Bowman, 60 1 15 

Adam Bowman, fi8 1 19 8 

Elijah Brown, 24 14 

Philip Back, 28 16 4 

David Bigsby 24 14 

Jacob Brunner 26 15 2 

Joshua Beebe, 22 12 10 

Cole 18 10 6 

Nicholas Depne, 31 18 1 

Josiah Dewey 22 12 10 

John Depue, 71 2 1 5 

Jno Dewit 48 1 8 

Stephen Ferrington, 34 19 10 

Frederick Frank 46 1 6 10 

Fox, 51 1 9 9 

Lemuel Fitch, 24 14 

Edward Hicks, 46 1 6 10 

Gosper Hopper, 55 1 10 4 

Reuben Herrington, 28 16 4 

Andrew Hickman, 40 1 3 4 

Geo. Kentner, 38 1 2 2 

Nathan Kingsley, 33 0193 

John Laraby, 38 1 2 2 

Isaac Laraway, 46 1 6 10 

Eead Malory, 36 1 1 

Zebn Murcy, 26 15 2 

Thos Millord, 40 1 3 4 

Thos Millord, Jr 18 10 6 

Ben& Will Pauling, 93 2 14 3 

Nicholas Philips, 54 1 11 6 

Abel Palmer, 30 17 6 

Jchabod Phelps, .21 12 3 

Elijah Phelps 54 1 11 6 

John Stephens, 46 1 6 10 

Frederick Smith, 25 14 7 

Huldrick Shout, 30 17 6 

Henry Simmons, 54 1 10 4 

Bostion Strope, 36 1 1 

Coonrad Searls, 43 1 5 1 

John Secord 92 2 13 8 

James Scovel, 114 3 6 6 

Jacob Sage, 22 12 10 

Peter Secord, 62 1 16 2 

Ephraim Tyler, 25 14 7 

Isaac Van Alstine, 24 14 

Old Vanalstine, 36 00 1 1 

James Vanalstine, 24 14 

Frederick Vanderlip, 36 1 1 

Isaac Van Volkenbroug, 86 2 10 & 



2l8 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 17/6-1780. 

. s. d. . s. d 

Hendrick Winter, 50 1 9 2 

Elisha Wilcox, 34 19 10 

Henry Windecker, 37 1 1 7 

Abram Workman, 70 2 10 

John Williamson, 25 14 7 

Thos Wigton, 25 14 7 

Amos York, 57 1 13 3 

LACKAWAY DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

John Ainsly, 46 10 1 7 2 

Hezekiah Bingham, 24 14 

Roger Clark, 40 1 3 4 

Uriah Chapman, Esq., 56 1 12 8 

Asa Chapman, ...3 1 9 

James Dye, 21 12 3 

Stephen Edwards, 12 7 

Capt. Eliab Farnham, 53 1 10 11 

David Gates, 27 15 9 

Nathl Gates, 3 1 9 

Samnel Hallet, 22 12 10 

Jonathan Haskell, 77 2 4 ' 11 

Zadock Killom, 77 2 4 11 

Ephraim Killnm, 34 19 10 

Stephen Killum, 28 16 4 

Jacob Kimbol, 98 2 17 2 

Jno. & Wm Pellet, 61 1 15 7 

Amos Park, ... 26 15 2 

Zebnlon Parish, 41 1 3 11 

Stephen Parish, 21 12 Z 

Isaac Parish, 19 11 1 

William Pellet, 18 10 6 

Silas Park 18 10 6 

Nathan Thomas, 18 10 6 

Enos Woodward, Jr., 24 14 

Elijah Winter, 35 1 5 

CASHETON. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Joel Strong, 29 16 11 

FOURFOLD FOR THE TOWN OF WESTMORELAND, 
Anno 1776. 

. s. d. . s. d, 

James Cole, 144 4 4 

Eobt Frazer, 156 4 11 

Samuel Freeman, . . 72 00 2 20 

Daniel Gore, 72 2 2 

Nicholas Huffman, 77 2 2 8 

Thos Levensworth, 48 00 1 80 

Phineaa Nash, 185 5 7 11 

Jno. Shaw, 256 7 9 4 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 2IQ 



RATE BILL FOR KINGSTON DISTRICT, 

ON AUGUST LIST, 1777. 



. s. d. , s. d. 

James Atherton and James Atherton, Jr., . Ill 80 5 11 5 

Asahel Atherton, 33 1 3 

Isaac Baldwin, 57 2 17 

Benjn Budd, 57 2 17 

John Bass, 24 1 4 

Henry Bush 31 1 11 

Aholiab Buck, 48 2 8 

Willm Buck, 42 2 2 

Asa Brown, 10 10 

Thos Bennet, 101 5 1 

Wm Baker, 24 1 4 

Eiohard Brockway, 43 9 3 

Asahel Buck, 23 1 3 

David Bixby, 21 00 1 10 

Robt Campbell, 18 18 

Samuel Cummins, 43 2 3 

Amaziah Cleeland, 28 1 8 

Elias Church, 56 2 16 

John Cumstock, 41 2 1 

Elnathan Cary, 74 3 14 

Wm Crooks, 7 7 

Peleg Cnmstock, ^ . 22 1 2 

Geo. Dorrance, 74 14 3 14 8 

John Dorrance, 47 06 2 7 4 

Henry Decker, 22 1 2 

Joseph Disberry, , 23 1 3 

Amos Draper, 42 2 2 2 1 

Isaac Downing, 27 1 7 

Nathan Denison, 44 2 4 

James Divine, 48 2 8 

Esther Follet, 24 16 1 4 9 

Thos Foxen, 18 18 

Peter Finch, 4 4 

Isaac Finch, 21 1 1 

Daniel Finch, 60 3 

Stephen Fuller, Jr., 37 10 1 17 6 

John C. Fox, 26 1 6 

Elipht Follet, 33 1 13 

Gabril Ferguson, 21 1 1 

Wm Gallop, 50 2 10 

Hallet Gallop 19 19 

Lemuel Gustin, 89 4 9 

Samuel Gordon, 19 00 19 

Charles Gillet 24 1 4 

Silas Gore, 29 1 9 

Asa Gore 45 2 5 



220 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

s. d. s. d. 

Obah Gore, Esq., 92 12 4 12 7 

Peter Harris, 30 4 1 10 3 

Elijah Harris, 25 1 5 

William Hammond, 18 18 

Lebbeus Hammond, 33 1 3 

Dauiel Hewet, 18 18 

Christopr Hnrlbut, 21 1 1 

Dethiok Huit, 33 1 3 

John Hammond, 28 1 8 

Oliver Hammond, 18 18 

Daniel Ingersol, 34 1 1-1 

Josiah Kellog, & Eldad Kellog, .... 43 2 30 

Nathal Landon, 73 16 3 13 10 

Peter Low, 94 4 14 

Jesse Lee, 3:{ 1 13 

James Legget, 51 2 11 

Winchester Mattheson, 50 12 2 10 7 

Robt Mclntire, 18 18 

Ezekiel Pierce, 28 8 1 6 5 

Timothy Pierce, 29 8 1 9 5 

John Pierce, . , 14 14 

Noah Pettebone, 58 6 2 18 4 

John Perkins, 76 14 3 16 9 

Timothy Rose, 18 18 

Ebenr Skinner, 9 9 

Wm Stephens, 24 00 1 40 

Constant Searls, 32 1 12 

Willm Searls 23 1 3 

Thos Stoddard, 37 1 17 

Joshua Stevens 2'i 1 2 

Lockwod Smith, 35 1 15 

Widow Swift, 9 9 

Jedidiah Stevens, 36 1 16 

Elijah Shoemaker, 54 2 14 

Luke Sweatland, 32 1 12 

Parshall Terry, 82 10 4 2 6 

Uriah Terry 57 2 17 

Lebbeus Tubbs, 52 2 12 

Nathl R. Terry, 21 1 1 

Ichabod Tuttle, 32 1 12 

Isaac Vanorman, 33 1 13 

Isaac Underwood, 21 1 1 

Stephen Whiton, 35 1 15 

Ozias Yale, 40 18 2 11 

WILKES BARRE. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Christopher Avery, 55 14 2 15 9 

John Abbot, 36 4 1 16 3 

Wm Avery, 34 1 14 

Richardson Avery, 43 12 2 3 7 

Jonathan Avery, 131 11 

Benjn Bayley, 59 10 2 19 6 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1/80. 221 

3. d. s. d. 

Colo Zeb Batler, 63 00 3 30 

Thos Brown, 44 2 4 

Isaac Rennet, 37 1 17 

Asa Bennet, 39 1 19 

John Brown, 23 1 3 

Gideon Baldwin, 24 1 4 

Elisha Blackman, .. 63 6 3 3 4 

Nathan Bullock, 90 4 10 

Geo. Copper, 28 1 8 

W Cooper, 27 1 7 

Joseph Cooper, 21 1 1 

Samuel Cole, 45 2 5 

Eleazer Cary, 52 10 1 12 6 

Nathan Cary, 21 1 1 

Jarile Dyer, 71 3 11 

Robt Durkee, 21 1 1 

Jabez Darling 22 1 2 

David Darling 27 1 7 

Anderson Dana, 58 16 2 18 9 

W Dorton, 21 1 1 

Daniel Downing, 55 18 2 15 11 

Wm Dun, Jr., 19 19 

Thomas Dann, 22 1 2 

Shadrack Darby 51 2 11 

Henry Elliot, 54 2 14 

John Elliot, 19 19 

Joseph Elliot, 21 1 1 

Stephen Fuller, 104 12 5 4 7 

Jabez Fish, 36 4 1 16 3 

Elisha Fish, 29 4 1 9 3 

Jonathan Fitch, 21 1 1 

John Foster 6 6 

Obediah Gore, Jr., 15 16 15 9 

Daniel Gore 42 7 2 2 4 

Cornelius Gale, 21 1 1 

James Green, 39 1 19 

John Garret, 58 2 18 

Rezin Ge*r, 24 1 4 

Darius Hazen 21 1 1 

Zeruiah Hazen, 44 10 2 4 6 

John Holienback, 225 11 5 

Samuel Hutchinson 25 1 5 

Joseph Huhbard, IS 18 

Saml Hutchinson, Jr, .18 18 

John Hide 21 1 1 

John Hageraan, 41 2 1 

Enoch Jndd, 18 18 

Wm Judd \ 8 6 4 6 

Azariah Ketcham, 21 1 1 

Benjn Kelly, 27 1 7 

Solomon Lee, 18 18 

Tbos McClner, 300 30 

Wm Parker, 24 00 1 40 

Tho Porter, 33 6 1 13 4 



222 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

s. d. s. d. 

Daniel Roseorans 12 12 

Widow Ross, 64 3 4 

Wn Rowley, 21 1 1 

David Reynolds, 18 18 

Isaae Rodes 18 18 

Darius Spofford, 65 3 5 

Joseph Shaw, 36 1 16 

Benjn Shaw, 25 1 5 

Wm Start, 52 2 19 

Josiah Smith, 19 i 

Joseph Slocum, 25 1 5 

Wm Hooker Smith, 68 3 8 

Aron Start, 27 1 7 

Asa Steveng, 45 2 5 

John Smith, 61 12 3 1 7 

Josiah Stansbrough, 240 12 

Jabez Sell, 89 3 6 4 9 2 

Elizabeth Start, 72 4 3 12 3 

Joseph Staples, 51 2 11 

John Staples, 3 3 

Isaac Smith, 6 6 

James Staples, 31 10 1 11 6 

Samuel Staples 21 1 1 

John Truesdell, 34 1 14 

Gama G. Trnesdell, 29 00 1 90 

Job Tripp, 25 1 5 

Justus Worden, 29 1 9 

John White 21 1 1 

Jonathn Weeks, 10 10 

Jonath" Weeks, Jr., 34 1 14 

Philip Weeks, 36 1 16 

Peter Wheeler, 28 1 8 

John Williams 26 1 6 

Thaddeus Williams, 44 10 2 4 6 

Daniel Whitney, 61 10 3 1 6 

James Wilton, 28 1 8 

Flavius Waterman 25 1 5 

William Warner, 31 1 11 

Elihu Waters 21 1 1 

PLYMOUTH DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . a. d. 

Samnel Andrews, 21 1 1 

Samuel Ayers, 46 13 2 6 8 

Mary Baker 16 10 16 6 

James Bedlock, 43 10 2 3 6 

Joshua Bennet, 40 11 2 6 

Nathan Beech, 52 2 12 

Bull & Goodwin, 700 70 

Benjn Cole 57 6 2 17 4 

Jonathan Center 26 1 6 

Joshua Coleruan, 21 1 1 

John Colwell 19 19 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 223 

. s. d. . s. d. 

John Coleman, 36 1 16 

Jesse Coleman, 9 9 

Wm Churchill, 44 14 2 4 9 

Thos Cascadden, 81 4 1 

James Cole 40 2 

Jeremiah Coleman, 59 14 2 19 9 

Jonathan Churchill, 20 14 1 9 

Jeremiah Coleman, Jr., 300 30 

Richard Dodson, 27 1 7 

John Dodson, 34 1 14 

Gilbert Denton 23 1 3 

Thomas Dodson, 21 1 1 

James Dodson, 18 18 

Joseph Dewey, 18 18 

Frederick Eveland, 24 00 1 40 

Hugh Forgeman, 48 2 8 

Jeha Fish 34 1 14 

Jonth Forsith, 41 2 1 

John Franklin, Jr., 34 1 14 

Robert Fraser, 22 1 2 

Joseph Gaylord, 24 12 1 4 7 

Aaron Gaylord 32 1 12 

Justus Gaylord, 59 8 2 19 6 

Philip Goss, 58 12 2 18 7 

Solomon GOBS, 27 1 7 

Philip Goss, Jr. 40 2 

Natbal Goss, 33 1 13 

David Goss, 19 19 

Thomas Heath, 34 16 1 14 9 

James Hopkins, 35 16 1 15 9 

Timothy Hopkins, 15 4 15 3 

Jonathan Hnnlock, 45 10 2 5 6 

Geo. Herriga 27 1 7 

William Hurlebnt, 21 00 1 10 

Andrew Herrigo, 18 18 

Benjn Harvey, 91 4 11 

Jacob Holdrin, 28 00 1 80 

Silas Harvey, 36 12 1 16 7 

John Heath 6t 3 1 

Zach. Hartziff, 57 2 17 

Saml Jackson 61 3 1 

Samuel Jackson, Jr., 18 18 

Thos Kitchen 21 1 1 

Benjn Kilbourn, . 30 1 10 

Stephen Lee, 79 3 19 

Zebulon Lee, 18 18 

Wm Landon, 52 2 12 

Rufns Lawrence, 35 1 15 

David Linsy, 21 1 1 

Thos Levensworth, 20 1 

Gid Marshall 76 3 16 

Nicholas Manvil, 23 1 3 

Samuel Marvin, 24 1 4 

David Marvin, 43 4 2 3 2 



224 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. . d. . g. d. 

Uriah Marvin, 19 19 

Ephraim McCoy, 6 6 

Phineas Nash, 38 15 1 18 9 

James Nesbet 39 4 1 19 3 

Wm Nelson .21 1 1 

Daniel Owen 21 1 1 

Jonathan Otis, 18 18 

Peter Pue, 28 1 8 

Noah Pettebone, Jr., 36 14 1 ; :> 9 

Elisha Parker, 24 1 4 

Giles Permon, 21 1 1 

James Parker, 37 1 17 

Junia Preston, 22 1 2 

Nebemiah Parks, 7 7 

Perin Ross, 56 2 16 

James Roberts, 32 16 1 12 9 

Daniel Roberts, 40 9 2 6 

Hezekiah Roberts, 35 11 1 15 6 

James Roberts, 18 18 

Josiah Rogers, 37 4 1 17 3 

Benjn Reed, 28 1 8 

Jonah Rogers, 40 2 2 1 

Mary Roberts, 29 7 1 9 4 

Wm Reynolds, 43 10 2 3 6 

David Reynolds, 10 10 

Elisha Richards 41 12 2 1 6 

Samuel Ransom, 68 10 3 8 6 

Wm Steward, 72 3 12 

Simon Spalding 11 11 11 6 

Benedick Satterly, 37 8 1 17 5 

Daniel Sherwood, 39 1 19 

Oliver Smith, 48 2 8 

Obeliah Scott, 44 2 4 

Solomon Squire, 38 1 18 

Jacob Slye, 34 1 14 

Peter Stevens 22 1 2 

Thomas Sawyer, 42 2 2 

Daniel Trask, 21 1 1 

Matthias Vanlone, 42 00 2 20 

John Vanuy, 37 4 1 17 3 

Rnfus Williams 46 16 2 06 9 

Elihu Williams, Jr., 26 - - 

Willm White 37 6 1 17 4 

Asaph Whittlesey, 27 8 1 7 5 

Nathan Wade, 40 2 

Samuel Williams, 24 1 4 

John Wilson, 66 4 3 6 3 

Jesse Washbourn, 30 1 10 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 22$ 

HANNOVER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . . d. 

Prince Alden, 33 1 13 

Wm Armstrong, 18 18 

Robt Alexander, 47 2 7 

Peleg Barret, 21 1 1 

Daman Beef, 29 1 9 

Gideon Burret, 18 18 

John Bony, 24 1 4 

Stephen Burret, 26 1 6 

Isaac Booth, 24 1 4 

Gideon Booth, 24 1 4 

James Brink 24 1 4 

Isaac Bennet. Jr., 35 1 15 

Jeremiah Bickford, 45 Q 2 5 

Henry Burny, 52 6 2 12 

Aron Bowen, 18 18 

Stodard Bowen, 24 1 4 

James Cook, 48 2 8 

James Corkindale, 18 18 

John Cornmer 73 3 13 

Kingsly Cumstock, 31 1 11 

Jonathan Cory, 100 5 

Jenks Cory, 40 2 

Christr Cortright, 33 1 13 

Eli;.ha Cortright, 32 1 12 

John Corlite 24 1 4 

Isaac Campbell, 33 1 13 

James Cochran, 18 18 

Charles Carrell, 26 1 6 

Alexander Campbell, 18 18 

Wn Hesson, 18 18 

Samnel Davenport, 4 4 

Nathal Davenport, 88 4 8 

John Eising, 35 1 15 

Isaac Fitchet, 66 3 6 

Andrew Freeman, 41 2 1 

James Forsith 37 1 17 

Eoswell Franklin, 36 1 16 

John Franklin, 24 1 4 

Elias Green, 35 1 15 

Nathanl Howard 22 1 2 

Samuel Howard, 22 1 2 

Cyprian Hibbard, 36 1 16 

Titns Henman, 43 2 3 

Willm Hibbard, 44 2 4 

Ebenr Hibbard, 25 1 5 

Nathan Howel, 19 19 

John Hutchins, 22 1 2 

Israel Inman, 21 1 1 

Richd Inman, .... 64 3 4 

Elijah Inman, Jr., 38 1 18 

David Inman, 19 19 

John Jacobs, 22 1 2 



226 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. s. d. , .. d. 

Samuel Ensigne, 3 3 

Rob* Jamison, 76 3 16 

John Jamison .35 1 15 

Wm Jamison, 21 1 1 

George Liqners, 67 2 17 

Edward Lester, 21 1 1 

Eben Lane, 18 18 

Conrod Lines, 71 3 11 

James Lasly, 40 2 

George Mack, 27 1 7 

Jacob Morris, 59 2 19 

Wm Me Characan, 30 1 10 

Benjn Potts, 18 18 

Josiah Pell, 48 2 8 

Wm Randall, 18 18 

Capt Lazs Steward, 137 16 6 17 9 

Lazs Steward, Jr., 39 1 19 

James Spencer, 32 1 12 

Edward Spencer, 83 4 3 

Wm Smith, Jnr 42 2 20 

James Stevenson, 18 18 

Caleb Spencer, 98 4 18 

Wm Smith, 30 1 10 

John Sharar, 25 1 5 

John Tilbury, 44 2 4 

Lines Spencer 26 1 6 

John Walker, 24 1 4 

Adam White, 12 12 

Robt Youngs, 27 1 7 

JaphetUtley, 24 00 1 40 

PITTSTOWN DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

James Bagley, 34 1 14 

John Ryon, 5 5 

Zachry Squire, 31 1 11 

Capt j er h Blanchard, 51 2 11 

Joseph Leonard, 22 1 2 

Eton Jones, 22 1 2 

Francis Philips, 22 1 2 

Isaac Finch, 43 2 3 

Elihu Cary, 36 1 16 

Isaac Baldwin, 31 1 11 

Wm Shay, 33 8 1 13 5 

Barnabas Cary, 28 1 8 

Joseph Cary, 31 1 11 

Rufus Baldwin, 18 18 

John Scott, 56 2 16 

Daniel Cash 31 1 11 

Joseph Sprague, 33 1 13 

Nathl Williams, 8 8 

Isaiah Halsted, 35 1 15 

James Lewis, 29 1 9 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 227 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Saml Slater, Jr., 43 00 2 30 

Danl St. John 31 1 11 

Richd Halstead, 53 2 13 

Levi Hix 69 2 19 

Isaac Adams, 34 1 14 

Ephraiiu Sanford, 44 00 2 40 

Caleb Bates, Esq., 34 1 14 

Samuel Miller 55 2 15 

Squire Whittaker, 41 2 1 

Abraham Harding, 28 1 8 

Noah Adams 34 18 1 14 11 

James Moore, 24 1 4 

Eleazr West, 41 2 1 

James Brown, 41 16 2 1 9 

Daniel Allen, 22 00 1 20 

Isaac Allen 21 1 1 

Thos Angel, 38 1 18 

Ebenr Marcy, 26 1 16 

Samuel Slater 75 16 3 16 9 

Zebulon Marcy, 26 1 6 

Riohd Jones 33 1 13 

Alexander Macky, 45 2 50 

Elijah Silsby, 26 6 1 6 4 

David Sanford, 31 1 11 

David Allen 19 19 

Willm Benedick, 23 00 1 30 

Joseph Thomas, 39 1 19 

Timothy Howe, 21 1 1 

Amy Willcox, 23 1 3 

James Moore, Jr., 24 1 4 

William Williams, 34 1 14 

Timothy Pearce, 23 00 1 30 

John Carr 27 1 7 

Thos Hardin, 40 2 

John Stafford, 28 1 8 

Wm Stark, 25 1 5 

Aron Stark, 27 1 7 

Increase Billings, 36 1 16 

John White, 21 1 1 

Solomon Lee, 18 18 

Justus Worden, 29 1 9 

Geo. Cooper, 28 00 1 80 

Esqr Isaac Tripp, 67 40 3 72 

Job. Trip ....60 3 

Tbos 22 1 2 

Thos Christy, 42 00 2 20 

Silas Benedick, 42 2 2 

Justus Picket, 25 1 5 

Timo Keyes, 60 10 3 6 

Thos Picket, 28 1 8 

Preserve & John Taylor, 69 00 3 90 



228 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

UP THE RIVER LIST. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Wm Pawling, 85 4 5 

Elisba Willcox 43 2 3 

Thos Willcox, 21 1 1 

John Thorington (pro Herrington), .... 21 1 10 

Reuben Herrington, 21 1 1 

Frederick Smith, 23 1 3 

Elijah Brown, 28 1 8 

John Pensler 6 6 

Frederick Anker, 38 1 18 

Abel Palmer 31 1 11 

Michael Showers, 30 1 10 

Nathan Kingsly, 32 1 12 

Benjn Eaton, 73 3 13 

Benjn Skiff, 35 1 15 

Capt Robt Carr 38 1 18 

Lemuel Fitch, 38 1 18 

Richd Fitz Gerald, 27 00 1 70 

Minor Robbius, 18 18 

Benjn Marcy, 28 1 8 

Elijah Phelps, 85 4 5 

Joseph Winkler, 18 18 

Ezer Curtis, 18 18 

Amos York, 48 2 8 

Ichabod Phelps, 23 1 3 

James Wells 13 13 

Ishmael Bennet, 74 3 14 

Isac Falkenburg, 45 2 5 

Bastion Strope, 34 1 14 

Gart Vanderbarrack, 30 1 10 

James Vanalstine, 24 1 4 

Isaac Laraway, 55 2 15 

Old Vanalstiue, 9 9 

Isaac Vanalstine, 24 1 4 



EXETER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

John Jenkins, Esq., 123 00 630 

Elisha Scovil 96 4 16 

Capt Stephen Harding, 82 4 20 

Wm Martin, 57 2 17 

David Smith, 61 3 1 

Chris' Wiutermoot, 74 3 14 

Philip Wintermoot, 24 1 4 

John Wintermoot, 23 1 3 

Peter Harris, Jr., 40 2 

Benjn Jones, 45 10 2 5 6 

Joseph Baker, 33 1 13 

James Headsal, 131 00 6 11 

John D. Shoemaker, 27 00 1 70 

Mauassa Cady, 20 1 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 17/6-1780. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Ricbd Tozer, 41 2 1 

Richd West, 41 2 1 

Juntis Jones, 21 1 1 

James Sutton, 25 1 5 

James Finn, 38 1 18 

John Gardner, 26 00 1 60 

Stephen Gardner, 35 1 15 

Saml Morgan, 31 1 11 

Thos Joslin 19 19 

James Newton, 18 18 

Saml Tozer, 38 1 18 

Stephen Harding 23 1 3 

Lem. Harding 26 1 6 

Nathan Bradly, 20 1 



LACKAWACK DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Jonathan Haskell 81 4 1 

Jacob Kimbol, 86 4 6 

Abel Kimbol 27 1 7 

Walter Kimbol 24 00 1 40 

Moses Killum 25 1 5 

Zadock Killtim, 56 2 16 

Ephraim Killum, 32 1 12 

Ames Park, 28 1 8 

Jepthah Killum 33 10 1 13 6 

Elijah Witter, 45 2 5 

Silas Park. Esq., 32 1 12 

Hezekiah Bingharn, 37 1 17 

Enos Woodward, 38 1 18 

Uriah Chapman, Esqr 56 2 16 

John Killnm .43 2 03 

Zebulon Parrish, 43 2 03 

Jasper Edwards, 45 2 05 

Enos Woodward, Jr., 27 00 1 70 

John Ainsly 56 2 16 

Capt Eliab Farnham, 46 2 6 

James Dye, 22 1 2 

Nathl Gates, 21 1 1 

Roger Clark 38 1 18 

David Gates, 38 1 18 

Joel Strong, 29 1 9 

John Pellet, Jr., . 49 2 9 

W Pellet, 35 1 5 



230 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 



MEMORANDA ON LAST PAGE OP ORIGINAL. 

. s. d. 

Received of Elijah Scovel, 2 

Lt-beus Tubbs, 3 12 

Philip Goss, 1 5 6 

James Nesbet, 18 

John Jameson, 19 10 

Elijah Inman, 1 9 

Philip Weeks, 1 10 

*John Whites acct., \ 1 2 3 

Wm Stark. f 

Phineas Nash, 8 9 

Perrin Ross, 16 

Thos Josliu, 1 11 

Stevenson, .. 6 

10 

MEMORANDA ON LOOSE SHEET. 

. s. d. 

Isaac Baldwin, Esqr 57 

Lemuel Gustin, 50 

Thos Bennet, 20 

Jonn Avery, 100 

Benjn Bayley, 20 

Doc' Dyer, 50 

Door Derby, 30 

John Hollenbaok .200 

John I lauiainuu, 20 

Darria Spofford, 20 

Wn H. Smith, 50 

Josiah Stanboroueht, 180 

Jonn Cory, . . 20 

Jenks Cory, 10 

Nathnl Davenport, 18 

Richard Inman, 20 

Caleb Spencer, 10 

Thos Cascadden, 54 

Perin Ross, 20 

Wm Stewart, 50 

Nathan Wade, 10 

Ishmael Bennet, 50 

Eton Jones, 40 

James Divine, 20 



* John Whites name erased. 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 23! 

RATES FOR NOV. 1 st , 1778. 



KINGSTON DISTRICK, 1777. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

James Atherton and 1 Ill 8 5 11 5 

James Atherton, J an' ( 

Ashael Atherton, 33 1 13 

Isaac Baldwin, 57 2 17 

Benjn Budd, 57 2 17 

John Bass, 24 1 4 

Henry Bush, 31 1 11 

Aholiab Buck, 48 2 8 

William Buck, 42 2 2 

Asa Brown, 10 10 

Thomas Bennet, 101 5 1 

William Baker, 24 1 4 

Richard Brockway, 43 2 3 

Asahel Buck, 23 1 3 

David Bixby, 21 1 1 1 

Robt Campbell, 18 18 

Samuel Commins, 43 2 3 

Amaziah Cleveland, 28 00 1 80 

Elias Church, 56 2 16 

John Comstock, 41 2 1 

Elnathan Cory, 74 3 14 

Wm Crooks 7 7 

Peleg Comstock, 22 00 1 20 

George Dorrance, 74 14 3 14 9 

John Dorrance, 47 6 2 7 5 

Henry Decker, 22 1 2 

Joseph Desberry, 23 1 3 

Amos Draper, 42 2 2 2 2 

Isaac Downing, 27 1 7 

Nathan Denison, 44 2 4 

James Divine, 48 2 8 

Esther Follet, 29 16 1 4 10 

Thos [Foxen] 18 18 

Peter Finch 4 4 

Isaac Finch 21 1 1 

Dani'l Finich, 60 3 

Stephen Fuller, Junr 37 10 1 17 5 

John C. Fox 26 1 6 

Eliphalet Follet, 33 1 13 

Garit Ferguson, 21 1 1 

Wm Gallup 50 2 . 10 

Hallet Gallup 19 19 

Lemuel Gustin, 89 4 9 

Samuel Gordon, 19 19 

Charles Gillet, 24 1 4 

Silas Gore, 29 1 9 



232 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

s. d. . s. d. 

Asa Gore 45 2 5 

Ohadiah Gore, 92 12 4 12 7 

Peter Harris, 30 4 1 10 3 

Elijah Harris 25 1 5 

Wm Hammond, 11 11 

Lebbeus Hammond, 33 1 13 

Daniel Hewet, 18 18 

Dothick Hewet, 33 13 

Christopr Hnrlbut, 21 1 1 

John Hammond, 28 1 8 

Oliver Hammond, 18 18 

Daniel Ingerson, 34 1 14 

Josiah Kellog & \ 43 2 3 

Eldad Kellog. / 

Nathel Landon 73 16 3 13 10 

Peter Low, 94 4 14 

Jesse Lee, 33 1 13 

James Legget, 51 2 11 

Winchester Matthewson, 50 12 2 10 7 

Eobert Mclntire, 18 18 

Ezekiel Pierce, 29 8 1 9 5 

Timothy Pierce, 29 8 1 9 5 

John Pierce, 14 14 

Noah Pattebone, 58 6 2 18 4 

John Perkins, 76 19 3 16 9 

Timothy Rose, 18 18 

Pershal Terry, j ... 82 10 4 2 6 

Uriah Terry 57 2 17 

Lebbeus Tubb, 52 2 12 

Nathel Terry 21 1 1 

William Stephens 24 1 4 

Ebenr Skinner 9 9 

Constant Searles, 32 1 12 

Wm Searls, 23 1 3 

Thos Stodard, 37 1 17 

Joshua Stevens, 22 1 2 

Widow Swift, 9 9 

Lockwood Smith, 35 1 15 

Jedediah Stevens, 36 1 16 

Elijah Shoemaker, 54 2 14 

Luke Sweatland, 32 1 12 

Ichabod Tuttle, 32 1 12 

Isaac Vanorman, 33 1 13 

Isaac Underwood, 21 1 1 

Stephen White, 35 1 15 

Ozias Yale, 40 78 2 11 

WILKSBARRY DESTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Christopr Avery, 55 14 2 15 9 

John Abbot 36 4 1 16 4 

W" Avery, 34 1 14 

Richardson Avery, 43 12 2 3 1 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 233 

s. d. s. d. 

Jonathan A very 131 6 11 

Benjn Bayley, 59 10 2 19 6 

Col. Zehn Butler, 63 3 3 

Thomas Brown, 44 2 4 

Isaac Bennett, 37 1 17 

Asa Bennet, 39 1 19 

John Brown, 23 1 3 

Gideon Baldwin, 24 1 4 

Elisha Blackman, 63 6 3 3 4 

Nathan Bullock, 90 4 10 

Geo. Cooper, 28 1 8 

William Coper 27 1 7 

Joseph Crooker 21 00 1 10 

Samuel Cole, 45 2 5 

Eleazer Cary, 52 10 2 12 6 

Nathan Cary, 21 1 1 

Jarib Dyer 71 3 11 

Robt Durkee, 21 00 1 10 

Jabez Darling 22 1 2 

Darid Darling 27 00 1 70 

Anderson Dana, . 58 16 2 18 9 

William Dorton, 21 00 1 10 

Dani'l Downing, 55 18 2 15 11 

W Dunn, Junr 19 19 

Thomas Dunn, 22 1 2 

Shadrack Darby, 51 2 11 

Henry Elliot, 54 2 14 

John Elliot, 19 19 

Josep Elliot 21 1 1 

Stephen Fuller, 104 12 5 4 7 

Jabez Fish, 36 4 1 16 2 

Elisha Fish 29 4 1 19 2 

Jonathan Fitch, 21 1 1 

John Foster, 6 6 

Obadiah Gore, Junr 15 16 15 10 

Daniel Gore, 42 7 2 2 6 

Cornelius Gale, 21 1 1 

James Green, 39 1 19 

John Garret, 58 2 18 

Rozin Geer 24 1 4 

Darius Hazen, 21 1 1 

Jeremiah Hazen, 44 10 2 4 6 

John Hollenbaok, 225 11 5 

Samuel Hutchiuson, ' .... 25 1 5 

Joseph Hubberd 18 18 

Samuel Hutchenson, Jr., 18 18 

John Hide 21 1 1 

John Hageman, 41 2 1 

Enoch Judd, 18 18 

W Jndd 48 6 2 8 5 

Azariah Ketcham, 21 1 1 

Benjn Kelly, 27 1 7 

Solomon Lee, 18 18 

Tho McCluer, 3 3 



234 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

William Parker, 24 1 4 

Thos Porter 33 6 1 13 4 

Daniel Rosecrance, 12 12 

Widow Ross, 64 3 4 

William Rowley, 21 I 1 

David Reynolds 18 18 

Isaac Rodies, . 18 18 

Darius Spofford, 65 3 5 

Joseph Shaw, 36 1 16 

Benjn Shaw, 25 1 5 

William Start, 52 2 12 

Josiah Smith, 19 19 

Joseph Slocum, 25 o 1 5 

Wm H. Smith, 68 3 8 

Aaron Start, 27 1 7 

Asa Stevens, 45 2 5 

John Smith 61 12 3 1 7 

Josiah Stanbrough, 240 00 12 

Jabez Sills, -. 89 3 6 4 9 3 

Elizabeth Start 72 4 3 12 3 

Joseph Staples 51 2 12 

John Staples, 3 3 

Isaac Smith 600 60 

James Staples, 31 10 1 11 6 

Samuel Staples, 21 1 1 

John Truesdell 34 1 14 

Gamaliel Truesdell, 29 00 1 90 

Job. Trip, 25 1 5 

Justus Worden, 29 1 9 

John White 21 1 1 

Jonathan Weeks, 10 10 

Jonathan Weeks, Junr 34 1 14 

Philip Weeks, 36 1 16 

Peter Wheeler, 28 1 8 

John William, 26 1 6 

Thaddeus William, 44 10 2 4 6 

David Whitney, 61 10 3 1 8 

James Wigton, 28 1 8 

Flavins Waterman, 25 1 5 

William Warner, 31 1 11 

Elihu Waters, -21 1 1 



PLYMOUTH DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Samuel Andrews, 21 1 1 

Samuel Ayres, 46 13 2 6 8 

Mary Baker, 16 10 16 6 

James Bedlock, 43 10 2 3 6 

Joshua Bennet, 40 11 2 7 

Nathan Beech 52 2 12 

Bull & Goodwin, 700 70 

Benjn Cole, 57 6 2 17 4 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 235 

s. d. s. d. 

Jonathan Center, 26 1 6 

Joshua Coleman, 21 1 1 

John Colwell, 19 19 

John Coleman, 36 1 16 

Jesse Coleman, 9 09 

Wn Churchill 44 14 2 4 

Thos Cascadden ....81 4 1 

James Cole 40 2 

Jeremiah Coleman, 59 14 2 19 9 

Jonathan Chnrchill, 20 14 1 9 

Jeremiah Coleman, Jr., 300 30 

Kichard Dodson, 27 1 7 

Gilbert Denton, 23 1 3 

Thos Dodson, 21 1 1 

James Dodson, .18 18 

John Dodson, 34 1 14 

Joseph Dewy, 18 18 

Frederick Eucland, 24 1 4 

Hugh Forgeman, 48 2 8 

Jehu Fish, 34 1 14 

Jonathan Forsith, 41 2 1 

John Franklin, Jr., 34 1 14 

Kobt Frazer, 22 1 2 

Joseph Gaylord, 24 12 1 4 7 

Aaron Gaylord 32 1 12 

Justus Gaylord, 59 8 2 19 5 

Philip Goss, 58 12 2 18 9 

Solomon Goss 27 1 7 

Philip Goss, Junr 40 2 

Nathnl Goss, 33 1 3 

David Goss, 19 19 

Thos Heath 34 16 1 14 10 

James Hopkins, 35 16 1 15 10 

Timothy Hopkins, 15 4 15 3 

Jonathan Hunlook, 45 10 2 5 6 

George Herraga, 27 1 7 

Andrew Herraga, 18 18 

Wm Hurlebut, 21 1 1 

Benjn Harvey, 91 4 11 

Jacob Holdrin, 28 1 8 

Silas Harvey, 36 12 1 16 7 

John Heath 61 3 1 

Zack. Hartziff, 57 2 17 

Samuel Jackson, 61 3 1 

Sam ael Jackson, Junr 18 18 

Thos Kitchin, 21 1 1 

Benjn Kilbourn, 30 1 10 

Stephen Lee, 79 3 19 

Zebulon Lee, 18 18 

William Landon, 52 2 12 

Rufns Larrance, 35 1 15 

David Linsly 21 1 1 

Thos Levensworth 20 1 

Gad Marshall, 76 3 16 



236 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 

. s. d. . . d. 

Nicolas Manvil, 23 1 3 

Samuel Marvin, 24 1 4 

David Marvin, 43 4 4 2 3 3 

Uriah Marvin, 19 19 

Ephraim McCoy, 6 6 

Phineas Nash, 38 15 1 18 9 

James Nesbet, .39 4 1 19 3 

Wm Nilson 21 1 1 

Daniel Owen, 21 1 1 

Jonathan Otia, 18 18 

Peter Pue, 28 00 1 80 

Noah Pettebone, Jr., 36 14 1 16 9 

Parker Elisha, 24 1 4 

Pennon Giles, 21 1 1 

James Parker, 37 1 17 

Junia Preston, 22 1 2 

Nehemiah Parks, 7 7 

Perin Ross, 56 2 6 

James Roberta, 32 16 1 12 9 

Hezekiah Roberts, 35 11 1 15 6 

Dani'l Roberts, 40 9 2 6 

James Roberta, 18 18 

Josiah Rogers, 37 4 1 17 3 

Benjn Reed, 28 1 8 

Jonah Rogers, 40 2 2 1 

Mary Roberts, 29 7 1 9 4 

William Reynolds, 43 10 2 3 6 

David Reynolds 10 10 

Elisha Richards, 41 12 2 1 7 

Samuel Ranaon, 68 10 3 8 6 

Wm Steward, 72 3 12 

Simon Spalding 11 11 11 6 

Benedk Satterly, 37 8 1 17 5 

Daniel Sharwood, 39 1 19 

Oliver Smith, 48 2 8 

Obadiah Scott, 44 2 4 

Solomon Squire, 38 1. 18 

Jacob Stye 34 1 14 

Peter Stevens, 22 1 2 

Thos Sawyer, 42 2 2 

Daniel Trash, 21 1 1 

Matthias Vanlone, 42 2 2 

Rufus Williams, 46 16 2 6 9 

Elibu William, Jr., 26 1 60 

Elibu Williams, 50 10 2 10 6 

William White, 37 60 1 74 

Asaph Whittlesy, 27 80 1 75 

Nathan Wade 40 2 

Samuel Williams, 24 1 4 

John Willsons 66 4 3 6 3 

Jesse Washbourn, 30 1 10 

John Vanuy, 37 4 1 17 3 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 237 



HANOVER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. 

Prince Alden 33 

Willm Armstrong, 18 

Roht Alexander, 47 

Peleg Barret, 21 

Daman Beef, 29 

Gideon Barret, 18 

John Bony, 24 

Stephen Barret, 26 

Isaac Booth, 24 

Gideon Booth, 24 

James Brink, 24 

Isaac Bennet, Jr., 35 

Jeremiah Bickford, 45 

Henry Barny, 52 

Aaron Bowin, 18 

Stodard Bowin, 24 

James Cook, 48 

James Corkindale, 18 

John Commer, 73 

Alexd Campbell, 18 

Kingsly Comstock, 31 

Jonathan Cory, 100 

Jenks Cory, 40 

Christopher Cortright, 33 

Elisha Cortright, 32 

John Carlile, 24 

Isaac Campbell, 33 

James Cochran, 18 

Charles Cerll 26 

William Casson, 18 

Samuel Devenport, ...--.. ... 4 

Nathel Devenport 88 

John Ening, 35 

Isaac Fitchet, 66 

Andrew Freeman, 41 

James Forsith, 37 

Roswell Franklin, 36 

John Franklin, 24 

Elias Green 35 

Nathl Howard, 22 

Cipprian Hubbard, , . 36 

Wm Hibbard, 44 

Titus Henman 43 

Ebenr Hibbard, 25 

Nathan Howel, 19 

John Hutching, 22 

Israel Inman, 21 

Richard Inman 46 00 

Elijah Inman, Jr., 38 

Elijah Inman, 64 

David Inman, 19 



238 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 

. s. d. . s . d. 

John Jacobs, 22 1 2 

Samuel Engines, 3 3 

Robard Jamison, 76 3 16 

Jobn Jamison, 35 1 15 

Wm Jamison, 21 1 1 

George Liquers, 57 2 17 

Edward Lester, 21 1 1 

Ebenezer Lane, 13 18 

Conrad Lines 71 3 11 

James Lasly, 40 2 

George Mack, 27 1 7 

Jacob Morris, 59 2 19 

Win McCarracan, 30 1 10 

Benjn Potts 18 18 

Josiah Pell, 48 2 8 

Wm Randall, 18 18 

Capt. Lazarus Steward, 137 16 6 17 9 

Lazarus Steward, Jr., 39 1 19 

James Spencer, 32 1 12 

Edward Spencer, 83 4 3 

Wm Smith, Junr 42 2 2 

James Stevenson, 18 18 

Caleb Spencer, 98 4 18 

Wm Smith, 30 1 10 

John Sharar, 25 1 5 

John Silbury, 44 2 4 

Levi Spencer, 26 1 6 

John Walker 24 1 4 

Adam White, 12 12 

Robert Youngs, 27 1 7 

Japhet Utley, 24 1 4 



PITTSTOWN DISTRICT. 

s. d. . s. d. 

Isaac Adams, 34 1 14 

Duke Adams 34 18 1 14 11 

Daniel Allen, 22 1 2 

Isaac Allen, 21 1 1 

Thos Angel, 38 1 18 

David Allen, 19 19 

Increase Billings, 36 1 16 

Silas Benedick 42 2 2 

Wm Benedick, 23 1 3 

James Bagly, 34 1 14 

Capt. Jeremiah Blanchard, 51 2 11 

Isaac Baldwin, . 31 1 11 

Rufus Baldwin, . \ 18 18 

Caleb Bates, Esqr 34 1 14 

James Brown, 41 16 2 1 10 

Elihu Cary, 36 1 16 

Barnabas Cary, 28 1 8 

Joseph Cary, 31 1 11 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 17/6-1780. 239 

. s. d. . a. d. 

Daniel Cash, 31 1 11 

John Carr 27 1 7 

George Cooper, 28 1 8 

Thos Christy, 42 2 2 

Isaac Finch 43 2 3 

Isaiah Halstead, 35 1 15 

Richard Halstead, 53 2 13 

Levi Hise, 59 2 19 

Abraham Harding, 28 00 1 80 

Timothy Howe, 21 1 1 

Thomas Hardin, 40 2 

Eton Jones 22 1 2 

Richard Jones, 33 1 13 

Timothy Keyes, 60 10 3 6 

Joseph Leonard, 22 1 2 

James Lewis, 29 1 9 

Solomon Lee, 18 18 

Samnel Miller, 55 2 15 

James Moors, 24 1 4 

Ebenezer Marcy, 26 1 6 

Zebulon Maroy, 26 1 6 

Alexander Mackey, 45 2 5 

James Moore, Jr., 24 00 1 40 

Francis Philips, 22 1 '2 

Timothy Pierce, 23 00 1 30 

Justus Picket, 25 1 5 

Thos Picket 28 1 8 

John Ryon, 5 5 

Elijah Silsby, 26 16 1 6 

Zachariah Squire, 31 1 11 

Wm Shay, 33 8 1 13 6 

John Scott, 56 2 16 

Joseph Sprague, 33 1 13 

Samnel Slater, Junr 43 00 2 30 

Daniel St. John 31 1 11 

Ephraim Sanford, 44 2 4 

Samuel Slater, 75 16 3 15 10 

John Stafford, 28 1 8 

Willm Stark, 25 00 1 50 

Aaron Stark, 27 1 7 

David Sanford, 31 1 11 

IiaacTripp, Esq., 67 4 3 7 3 

Job Tripp, 60 3 

Preserved & John Taylor, 69 00 3 90 

Thos Taylor . 22 1 2 

Joseph Thomas, 39 1 19 

John White, 21 00 1 10 

Nathl Williams 800 80 

Squire Whitaker, 41 2 1 

Eleazer West, 41 00 2 10 

Amy Willcox 23 00 1 30 

William Williams, 34 1 14 

Justus Worden, 29 00 1 90 



240 WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1/76-1780. 



EXETER DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

Joseph Baker 33 1 13 

Nathan Bradley, 20 1 

Manassa Cady, 20 1 

John Gardner, 26 1 6 

Stephen Gardner, 35 1 15 

Capt. Stephen Harding, 82 4 2 

Stephen Harding, 23 1 3 

Samuel Harding, 26 1 6 

Peter Harris, Jun* 40 2 o 

James Headsall, 131 6 11 

Justis Jones, 21 1 1 

Thomas Joslin, 19 19 

John Jenkins, Esq., 123 00 630 

Benjn Jones, 45 10 2 5 6 

James Linn, 38 1 18 

Samuel Morgan 31 1 11 

James Newton, 18 18 

Willian Martin, 57 2 17 

Elisha Scovel, 96 4 16 

David Smith, 61 3 1 

John David Shoemaker, 27 1 7 

James Sntton, 25 1 5 

Samuel Tozer, 38 1 18 

Richard Tozer, 41 2 1 

Christopher Wintimot, 74 3 14 

Philip Wintermot, 24 1 4 

John Wintermot, 23 1 3 

Kichard West, 41 2 1 



LACKAWACK DISTRICT. 

. s. d. . s. d. 

John Aynsly, 56 2 15 

Hezekiah Bingham, 37 1 17 

Roger Clark, 38 1 18 

Uriah Chapman, Esq., 56 2 16 

James Dye, 22 1 2 

Jasper Edward, 45 2 5 

Capt. Eliab Farnam, 46 2 60 

Nathel Gates 21 1 1 

David Gates, . . \ 38 1 18 

Jonathan Haskall, \ 81 4 1 

Jacob Kimbol, . . \ 86 4 6 

Abel Kimbol, . . .\ 27 1 7 

Walter Kimbol, . . V 24 1 4 

Zadock Killam, . . 56 2 16 

Moses Killam, 25 1 5 

Jepthah Killam, 33 10 1 13 6 

Ephraim Killam, 32 1 12 

John Killam, 43 2 3 

\ 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 



241 



s. d. s. d. 

Capt. Zebulon Parrish, 43 00 2 30 

John Pellet, Junr 49 2 9 

William Pellet, 35 1 15 

Amos Park, 28 1 8 

Silas Park. Esq., -32 1 12 

Joel Strong, 28 1 8 

Elijah Witter, 45 2 5 

Enos Woodward, 38 1 18 

Enos Woodward, Junr 27 00 1 70 



" A TRUE LIST OF THE POLLS AND ESTATE OF THE TOWN 
OF WESTMORELAND RATABLE BY LAW ON THE 2OTH OF 
AUG' A. D. 1780." 

. 

Ayres, Saml., 35 

Atherton, James, 14 

Atherton, James, Jr., ... 39 
Butler, Col. Zebn .... 72 
Bidlack, Mehitable, ... 10 
Bailey, Benj" ... . . 24 
Brookway, Richard, ... 33 

Bullock, Nathan, 28 

Burnham, Asahel, ... 9 

Bennet, Asa, 51 

Bennet, Isaac, 39 

Buck, Wm., .. .... 27 

Brown, David, 6 

Bennet, Solomon, .... 42 

Bennet, Ishmael, 24 

Blanchard, And .... 21 

Cady, Manasaeh, 58 

Corah, Jonathan, 46 

Comstock, John, 26 

Comstock, Peleg, 21 

Cary, Nathan, 35 

Cook, Nathl 18 

Church, Gideon, 6 

Chapman, Asa, 18 

Denison, Col. Nathan, . . 31 

Durkee, Sarah, 9 

Denton, Daniel, 5 



s. s. 

Elliot, Joseph 40 

14 Fuller, Capt. Stephen, . . 85 

Fitch, Jonathan, 41 10 

4 Franklin, John, Esq., ... 25 4 

Fitzgerald, Derrick, ... 18 

Fish, Joaunah, 8 

Frisbie, James, 33 

Gore, Lieut. Obadh . . 18 10 

Gore, Daniel 45 10 

Gore, Widow Hannah, . . 23 

Gale, Cornelius 24 

Gore, Widw Elizabeth, . . 7 10 

Holenback, Matthew, ... 21 

Hagerman, John 21 

Hurlbutt, John, Esq., . . 62 

Hurlbutt, Christr .... 26 

Hide, John 24 15 

4 Harris, Elisha, 21 

Harding, Henry, 9 

Hagerman, Jos 24 

Hopkins, Timothy, .... 6 

Inman, Elijah, 36 10 

Inman, Eichard, 31 

Ingersol, Daniel, 30 

Jackson, Wm., 35 

Jemison, John, 53 10 

Joslin, Thomas, 21 



242 



WESTMORELAND TAX LISTS, 1776-1780. 



Jenkins, Jn ...... 3 

Jones, Crocker, 29 

McCluer, Thos 4 

Mateson, Elisha, 6 4 

Nelson, Wm 15 

Nisbitt, James, 33 

Neill, Thos 34 o 

O'Neal. Jno 18 

Park, Thos is 

Pierce, Phinehas, .... 5 

Pell, Josiah 29 5 

Pensyl, Widw Mary, ... 4 

Pierce. Widw Hannah, . . 4 10 

Eansom, Widw Esther, . . 19 

Keed, Thos 18 

Rogera. Jonah 61 

Ross, Wm 54 4 

Ross, Widw Maraey, ... 11 4 

Ryon, John, 5 10 



s 

Spalding, Capt. Simon, . . 15 4 

Slocum, Giles, 30 

Spencer, Caleb, 54 4 

Sanford, David, 31 

Sntton, James, 18 

Saterly, Elisha, 7 4 

Smith, John, 10 

Smith. Wm., 3 

Sill, Jabez, 62 

Tillbury, John 47 

Thomas, Joseph, 27 

Tracks, Wm., 39 

Upson, Widw Sarah, ... 27 

Underwood, Isaac, .... 21 

Williams, Wm., 21 10 

Warner, Wm., 28 

William, Nathl 8 

Yerington, Abel, 21 



OBITUARIES. 



BY WESLEY K. WOODRUFF, HISTORIOGRAPHER. 



COL. SAMUEL HENRY STURDEVANT. 

In the death of Col. Samuel Henry Sturdevant, which 
occurred at his home on North Washington street, this 
city, February 24, 1898, Wilkes-Barre lost an honored and 
a useful citizen. These two adjectives are often used in our 
speech, and often, let us acknowledge, misapplied. But 
justly used as they are used here, they convey an epitome 
of remembrance well worth the while of any man. 

Colonel Sturdevant was a native of Braintrim township, 
Wyoming county, and he was born March 29, 1832. He 
came of Revolutionary stock, and his great-grandfather 
was a Revolutionary soldier, from the first echoes of mus- 
ketry at Lexington. It was here that he entered the Con- 
tinental Army as orderly sergeant, and he did not leave the 
army until the British had evacuated New York. The sub- 
ject of this sketch remained at the public schools of his 
township until he was -thirteen years old ; then he entered 
Wyoming Seminary and took a thorough course there. Then 
he spent two years, or until 1851, in the lumber business, 
chiefly operating in the vicinity of Harvey's Lake and with 
the firm of Hollenback, Urquhart and Sturdevant. In 1853, 
November 9, he married Leah, daughter of John Urquhart. 
The children were : John Henry, George Urquhart, Samuel 
H., Jr., Winthrop Ketcham, Robert, Ellen Urquhart, Flor- 
ence Slocum and Ruth. Of these Winthrop, Florence and 



244 OBITUARY. 

Ruth are dead, and the beloved wife also preceded her hus- 
band to the final rest. 

After a few years in business there came to Samuel H. 
Sturdevant the call of his country, and he did not fail. He 
was mustered into the United States army August 3, 1861, 
as commissary of subsistence. A year later he was attached 
to Slocum's Brigade of the Sixth Army Corps, and he soon 
afterward became chief commissary of the left grand divis- 
ion of the Army of the Potomac, attached to General Slo- 
cum's staff of the Twefth Corps and with the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel. In 1864 he was chief commissary of the 
Army of Georgia with the rank of colonel. He was mus- 
tered out in October, 1865. Colonel Sturdevant saw a great 
deal of the severest fighting and the hardest general service. 
He was at the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and a number of 
lesser engagements. It often fell to his lot to endure hard- 
ships and to pass through great dangers in the discharge of 
his duty, but those who knew him thoroughly learned to 
know that he quailed before nothing that had "duty" marked 
upon it. He was not merely a faithful officer his soldier 
life, to use the expression of a veteran who knew, was "lus- 
trous with many brilliant achievements." There are those 
who do their duty as well as they know how, and there are 
t^hose who know how. Colonel Sturdevant both knew how 

>and he did it. 

i This might apply and did apply as well to his business 
life as to his life as a soldier. After the clash of arms had 
ceased he returned here to resume "the trivial round the 
common task." And his career was destined to last some- 
what longer than the allotted tie of one generation, even 
after the interruption of the war thirty years and more of 
hardwork, which he always enjoyed ; thirty years and more 
of success justly won; thirty years of unsullied integrity. 
There was never a stain upon his honor or his word. His 



OBITUARY. 245 

was one of those rare natures that does not reveal itself at 
once nor to all alike. To appreciate him one had to know 
him, and a better knowledge always added to the apprecia- 
tion. And yet it could scarcely be said that the few had a 
monopoly of his friendship. He had many friends because 
he was by nature a friendly man, but the best and rarest 
qualities of his nature lay deeper. Few of the atmospheres 
of that sweet word home have ever been sweeter than the 
atmosphere of his home. The children, loved and loving, 
went their several ways into the world, but the old home 
was always their home, the dearer because of their less fre- 
quent visits. And sorrow came to it in the death of beloved 
children and of the wife who was always the queen of his 
heart. After that blow the days seemed rather to be en- 
dured than enjoyed, and yet he always maintained that 
refined cheerfulness and that sympathy that comes from 
suffering when the spirit is strong to bear and patient. And 
as a Christian his life was encompassed about with charity 
of word, of deed and of thought. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 
December, 1896, was a director of the Pennsylvania and 
Massachusetts Lumber Company, was president of the Har- 
vey's Lake Transit Company, was a member of and for a 
considerable time chaplain of Wilkes-Barre Lodge of Elks, 
and a Mason. 

His loss is a hard one for the community, the church and 
the social life to fill, and for the home it is impossible to fill. 



246 OBITUARY. 

CAPTAIN LAZARUS DENISON STEARNS. 

Captain L. Denison Stearns, commanding Company B, 
9th Regiment Infantry, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 3d Brig- 
ade, 3d Division, First U. S. Army Corps, died at his home 
in Wilkes-Barre, Tuesday morning, September 6th, 1898, 
at ten minutes past ten, of typhoid fever, while on sick 
leave. He was a son of Major and Mrs. Irving A. Stearns; 
was born in Wilkes-Barre December 27th, 1875, and had 
spent nearly all of his life in his native city. His early 
education was gained at the Harry Hillman Academy, 
Wilkes-Barre, and he prepared for college at Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover, Mass., graduating from Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale University, in the class of 1896. On coming 
home he began work at once as a coal inspector for 
the Susquehanna Coal Company, and afterwards was on 
the Engineer Corps of the same company. He early was 
imbued with a strong desire to enter the military service, 
and had received instructions in military tactics at Yale. 
He enlisted as a private in Company D, 9th Regiment, Na- 
tional Guard of Pennsylvania, February 4th, 1897, and on 
the 1st of July of that year was chosen second lieutenant 
of Company B. The whole division of the National Guard 
of Pennsylvania having been ordered into camp at Mount 
Gretna, Pennsylvania, by the Governor, in response to the 
first call for troops by the President, for the war with Spain, 
Lieutenant Stearns left Wilkes-Barre with his command 
April 27th, 1898. On May 4th he volunteered for the war, 
on the field at Mount Gretna. The captain of his company 
(Stewart L. Barnes) being disqualified for entering the U. S. 
service on account of age, Second Lieutenant Stearns was 
unanimously chosen by the men to command the company, 
and was mustered into the service of the United States, 
with his company, at Mount Gretna, on May nth, 1898. 
He was the youngest officer of his grade and command in 



OBITUARY. 247 

the First Army Corps, to which his regiment was assigned 
at Camp George H. Thomas, Chickamauga Park, Georgia, 
on arriving there May 2Oth, 1898. 

Captain Stearns was by nature a soldier; although trained 
to peaceful pursuits, the science of tactics was instinctive 
with him. He came from a line of ancestry, some of 
whom were distinguished for their military capacity. His 
great-grandfathers, Elijah Shoemaker and Col. Nathan Den- 
ison, were soldiers of the Revolution, and participated in 
the Wyoming Massacre, the former being killed in that 
awful struggle. Captain Stearns' paternal grandfather was 
Judge George W. Stearns, of Ontario county, New York, 
and his maternal grandfather was Hon. Lazarus D. Shoe- 
maker, of this city. 

Captain Stearns was in camp at Chickamauga, Ga., with 
his regiment until August Hth, when he was called home 
to attend upon his father, Major Stearns, who was suffering 
from a pulmonary affection of a serious nature. Typhoid 
fever was prevalent in the camp at this time, and no doubt 
the seeds of this dread disease were in his system at the 
time of his departure for home. He remained at home a 
few days, and his father improving, he decided to return to 
Chickamauga, where his regiment was preparing to remove 
to Lexington, Kentucky. His desire to be with his com- 
mand when changing station, that he might look after his 
men, rendered him careless of his own physical condition, 
and on the 2ist of August he departed for the South, ar- 
riving at Chickamauga on the 23d. The regiment left 
Chickamauga Park on the 25th, bivouacking at Rossville, 
Tennessee, that night, arriving at Lexington, Kentucky, 
Saturday, August 27th. The fever was upon him, no doubt, 
before he left Glen Summit, where his family was then stay- 
ing, but he would not yield to what he thought was a tem- 
porary indisposition. A rally, after he arrived at camp, was 
succeeded by almost a prostration, and on Sunday, August 



248 OBITUARY. 

28th, he was brought home from Lexington, Ky., by Gov- 
ernor Hastings on a hospital train which the Governor had 
provided to bring the sick of the Pennsylvania regiments 
from the camps at Chickamauga and Lexington. The hos- 
pital train arrived at Wilkes-Barre August 3Oth, at 10 
o'clock A. M., and a week later he lay dead one of the 
precious lives sacrificed that there should be no halt in 
American devotion to the interests of humanity, of progress, 
human liberty and righteousness. Death claimed many a 
shining mark as a result of this war with Spain, but none 
more lustrous than Captain Lazarus Denison Stearns. 

As an officer of the regiment he was universally esteemed 
by the command, and his own men were devoted to him. 
During his illness here there was a constant train of vis- 
itors and a stream of messages asking for news of his con- 
dition. His youth, his brilliant future, his fine physical 
manhood, all seemed to draw sympathy, and the thought 
that the end might be near was almost too sad to entertain. 
Lying desperately ill himself, he still thought of some of his 
stricken companions, and asked after them with much so- 
licitude; that seemed to be a key-note to his .character 
forgetfulness of self, and thought for others. Universally 
beloved, it was in the bosom of his own family that he was 
the devoted son and brother, the thoughtful child, dutiful 
and sympathetic, and later, as was proved, strong to bear 
and patient to suffer. 

Though just on the threshold of a useful and active man- 
hood, with his college days as a pleasant memory to look 
back upon, his character was in some respects well matured. 
He was the soul of honor, and no one ever knew him to do 
anything mean or small. He had nothing of narrowness in 
his disposition. He had an innate nobility, which was fos- 
tered always by the attrition with men, for he chose good 
companionship. He had a liberal mind, that frowned not 
on such amusements as the young people enjoy, but he had 



OBITUARY. 249 

also a well defined power of knowing himself, and of being 
careful always to use and not abuse recreation and pleasure. 
All who came in contact with him were impressed by the 
unmistakable marks of a fine nature, and a nature full of 
manliness and nobility. These were striking traits, and 
they manifested themselves when he had scarcely entered 
upon his teens. 

He was industrious and faithful in business just because 
it was his nature to be faithful and true to whatever he un- 
dertook, and his business career, had he been spared, would 
have been a most creditable and no doubt brilliant one. 

Here in his native town he was a great social favorite, 
and a leader in many of the affairs that go to make up the 
sum of relaxation and of pleasure in the hours given to such 
occupation. He was a member of the Country Club, the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society since 1895, and 
of the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution. 
The qualities that distinguished his bearing among friends 
were always exemplified in his military routine. He was a 
strict disciplinarian, though always from the sense of duty, 
and he always had the well being and the comfort of his men 
near his heart. 

It is remarkable that one so young leaves behind such a 
maturity of the best traits, both in social and business life. 
Memory stands tearful and pitying where so short a time 
ago radiant Hope had seemed to stretch forth her hands. 
These mysteries of life and death are always present, but 
always baffling solution. 

His was the patriotism of the real kind. He gave up 
everything that makes life worth living. Others did, of 
course ; but somehow, as Nathan Hale stands out when we 
recall the Revolution, so does Captain Stearns when we 
think of the Spanish-American war. 



25O OBITUARY. 



ISAAC LONG. 

On the morning of Tuesday, September 13, 1898, Isaac 
Long, an honored citizen of Wilkes-Barre, passed away sud- 
denly and without warning at his home on South Franklin 
street. 

On Monday evening, the day's work well over, Mr. and 
Mrs. Isaac Long sat together and enjoyed the respite from 
the cares that infest the day. When the hour of retiring 
came there was no sign that there was so soon to be a 
blight upon the household. Before twelve hours had passed 
Mr. Long lay dead. 

His birthplace was Pretzfeld, Bavaria, the year 1833 and 
the day February 22, a date peculiarly dear to the patriotic 
American. His parents were Louis and Sarah Long. He 
came to this country when just entering upon his teens, and 
here in this city he settled with relatives. For a decade he 
attended school here, and then in 1857 he went to Philadel- 
phia, where he entered the lace and embroidery business, 
and later on embarked in the manufacture of umbrellas. In 
1874, after an absence from here of seventeen years, he 
came back again and bought out the carpet and dry goods 
store of James Sutton on the north side of Public Square. 
Here he built up a splendid business, and when the Welles 
Building was finished he took half the first and second 
floors, and as his room and accommodations grew, so also 
grew his custom. His establishment came to be one of the 
best known in the east. 

In 1863 and during his residence in Philadelphia he was 
married to Miss Dora Rosenbaum. She had been a former 
resident of Wilkes-Barre. She survives with two daughters, 
Mrs. Charles Gimble, of Philadelphia, and Mrs. Sarah Stern, 
wife of Harry F. Stern, engaged in the printing and litho- 
graphic trade in Philadelphia. Another daughter, now de- 



OBITUARY. 251 

ceased, was the wife of Abram Marks of this city, who is 
associated with the firm. There were three surviving sis- 
ters Mrs. Isaac Langfeld, who died a few days after his 
death, and Mrs. Julia Wertheimer, both of Philadelphia, and 
Mrs. Seligman Burgunder of this city. The only brother 
of the deceased was Jonas Long, whose name is perpetuated 
here in the business firm of Jonas Long's Sons. 

In the death of Isaac Long this community loses one 
of its most prominent business figures. Concerning ac- 
tual years of residence and the position of his establishment 
in the mercantile world, perhaps it is safe to say that 
Wilkes-Barre has never had a more representative mer- 
chant. Mr. Long was one of the citizens of this city who 
have added to its reputation abroad and who have made it 
what it is. His hand had been for long years upon the pulse 
of trade. He had established a very unusual trade, and 
had been enabled thereby to prosper and to bring into his 
life those things that help to make the pathway pleasant, 
especially so when the younger years are past and gone. 
But though reaping unusual prosperity himself, he had 
always been of the kind who shared their prosperity with 
others. He shared it with the city. He was, at the inception 
thereof, the president of the Board of Trade, and he held 
this office for several years thereafter. He gave to the en- 
terprises that promised to add to the prestige and the pros- 
perity of the city. He was one of those first appealed to 
for any prominent object involving the welfare of this mu- 
nicipality. Thus giving of his time and his interest and his 
personal effort, he shared his prosperity with the commu- 
nity, and taking this wide horizon of view he really increased 
his own progress. He shared his prosperity with the less 
favored. Kind and charitable by instinct, he was always 
appealed to by the cry of distress, and he was one of the 
most generous of givers to all the best established local 
benefices of the city the Hospital, the Home, and others 



252 OBITUARY. 

and he gave largely in other ways and in cases of indi- 
vidual need and distress. 

He shared his prosperity with his friends. In the elegant 
home which had become a possession of the past decade he 
was the spirit of hospitality and good cheer, and here he 
loved to greet his friends, and here indeed they loved to 
greet him. 

He shared his prosperity with his employes. All of them 
felt that his interests were theirs too. They were always con- 
siderately treated, and when in distress many of them knew 
and felt how much of a friend he was to them. In the store, 
when the news came, the feeling of consternation and of 
heartfelt grief was sad to witness. 

He shared his prosperity with public institutions and with 
individuals, both in the gifts of the pocket and the gifts of 
the heart. And he was a consistent giver and a constant 
giver, and better than all, perhaps, when one considers the 
ill-judged charities that often do more harm than good, Mr. 
Long was a wise giver. 

A man of the finest and noblest of principles always, he 
had, somehow, as the years advanced upon him, seemed to 
feel more and more the fellowship and the brotherhood of 
man. He was always one of the most prominent in any 
and all good works. He was freely consulted, and his 
opinions were of weight and influence. 

If one should look for the secret of his business success 
it would very likely be found in the fact that he was a man 
of unswerving integrity and unerring judgment. In all 
things it was remarkable about Isaac Long, how he lost sight 
of the merchant in the man. He was a successful merchant, 
to be sure, but he was a man beyond all a man of ideas, 
of heart, of the broadest intelligence, of the deepest sympa- 
thies. 

Though not a native of this country, Mr. Long came 
here at such an early age that his habits, his traits, his na- 



OBITUARY. 253 

ture, were thoroughly American. American achievements 
he regarded as part of an inherited glory that legitimately 
belonged to him, and he was proud of his adopted country. 
No one born on this soil and with American ancestry of 
long years could have been more thoroughly in sympathy 
with American institutions than Mr. Long, and he was one 
of the best products of all that makes up American* citizen- 
ship. This was exemplified particularly when he returned 
from his last trip to Europe. He was a keen observer, and 
he made many observations while away that were worth 
listening to and thinking over. He was able to see clearly 
just where we were in advance of Europe, and like the 
honest man that he was, he did not neglect to note one or 
two matters wherein we might learn from the standard set 
abroad. But the preponderance was so much in our favor, 
he used to say, that he was as glad to get back again as a 
homesick child. 

To sum up the analyses of his gifts and of his character, 
I am led to think that nothing coulfi be more eloquent than 
the opinion I have so often heard expressed from many 
different sources : "It would scarcely be possible to say too 
much of his splendid manhood and noble character." This 
expression is the essence of appreciation, and of sincere 
regret at his loss. 

To have lived thus to have graven his name on the 
hearts of so many of God's creatures was not this surely 
enough to have strived for, even if he had not filled out the 
allotted three score and ten. It is a result that many thou- 
sands seek to accomplish and which many seek in vain. 
There could be no sweeter picture drawn of the joys of the 
home than that which might be drawn of this household. 
The departure of the children, the eldest daughter's death, 
the marriage of the others these left gaps in the happy 
family circle but that drew closer the husband and wife, and 
together they passed along life's pathway devoted sincerely 



254 OBITUARY. 

each to the other and happy in having each other. Their 
son in law lived with them, and the three formed a home 
community of rarest grace. The interruption came without 
warning. That home circle is broken and there is grief 
where there was once content and joy. But not only has 
the home suffered ; the city, the community, the friends, the 
church to which he belonged all are the poorer for his 
departure. 

Mr. Long was elected a member of the Wyoming Histor- 
ical and Geological Society February 8th, 1886. 



OTHER MEMBERS LATELY DECEASED: 

RESIDENT. 

AUGUSTUS STOUT VAN\VICKLE, died June 8, 1898. 
LORKN M. LUKE, died October 14, 1898. 
H. BAKER HILLMAN, died January 29, 1899. 
WILLIAM PENN RYMAN, died July 31, 1899. 
Miss RUTH E. RYMAN, died August 18, 1899. 
MRS. MARY FRANCES PFOUTS, died November 8, 1899. 
CAPT. CALVIN PARSONS, died January i, 1900. 
EDWARD STROUD MORGAN, died March i, 1900. 

CORRESPONDING. 

COL. JOHN FRANKLIN MEGINNESS, Williamsport, Pa., died Nov. n, 1899. 
HON. FRANLIN GEORGE ADAMS, Topeka, Kansas, died 1899. 

HONORARY. 

CHARLES J. STILLE, LL. D., President Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

died August 12, 1899. 
REV. EDWIN GRIFFIN PORTER, President New England Historical and 

Genealogical Society, died February 5, 1900. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1900. 



PRESIDENT, 

HON. STANLEY WOODWARD. 

VICE PRESIDENTS, 

REV. HENRY LAWRENCE JONES, S. T. D., 

HON. JACOB RIDGWAY WRIGHT, 

COL. GEORGE MURRAY REYNOLDS, 

REV. FRANCIS BLANCHARD HODGE, D. D. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN, 

REV. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 

RECORDING SECRETARY, 

SIDNEY ROBY MINER. 

TREASURER, 

FREDERICK CHARLES JOHNSON, M. D. 

TRUSTEES, 

HON. CHARLES ABBOTT MINER, SAMUEL LEROI BROWN, 

EDWARD WELLES, RICHARD SHARPE, 

ANDREW FINE DERR. 

CURATORS, 

PALAEONTOLOGY PROF. JOSHUA LEWIS WELTER. 
MINERALOGY WILLIAM REYNOLDS RICKETTS. 
ARCHAEOLOGY HON. JACOB RIDGWAY WRIGHT. 
NUMISMATICS REV. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN. 

HISTORIOGRAPHER, 

WESLEY ELLSWORTH WOODRUFF. 

METEOROLOGIST, 

REV. FRANCIS BLANCHARD HODGE, D. D. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE, 

REV. HORACE EDWIN HAYDEN, 
WILLIAM REYNOLDS RICKETTS, 
MISS HANNAH PACKARD JAMES. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



HONORARY. 



William H. Egle, M. D. 
Mrs. A. J. Griffith. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, LL. D. 
Rev. Samuel Hart, D. D. 
Charles J. Hoadly, LL. D. 



Rev. Henry H. Jessup, D. D. 
Rt. Rev. J. M. Levering, D. D. 
"Rev. Edmund Griffin Porter, M. A. 
Prof. G. C. Swallow, LL. D. 
Ethelbert Warfield, LL. D. 



CORRESPONDING. 



*Hon. F. G. Adams. 

E. M. Barton. 

T. V. Braidwood. 

Capt. Henry Hobart Bellas, U. S. A. 

D. L. Belden. 

Maynard Bixby. 

R. A. Brock, F. R. H. S. 

Philip Alexander Bruce. 

George Butler. 

Pierce Butler. 

Capt. John M. Buckalew. 

Gen. John S. Clark. 

Gen. Henry M. Cist. 

Rev. Sanford H. Cobb. 

Rev. David Craft, D. D. 

D. M. Collins. 

Samuel L. Cutter. 

John H. Dager. 

Gen. W. C. Darling. 

Gen. Wm. Watts H. Davis. 

Rev. S. B. Dod. 

Rev. Silas H. Durand. 

Elnathan F. Duren. 

George M. Elwood. 

Prof. William Frear, Ph. D. 

Hon. John G. Freeze. 

George W. Fish. 

Frank Butler Gay. 

Granville Henry. 

William Griffith. 

P. C. Gritman. 

Francis W. Halsey. 

Stephen Harding. 

David Chase Harrington. 

A. L. Hartwell. 

Christopher E. Hawley. 

Edward Herri ck, Jr. 



Walter F. Hoffman, M. D. 

Ray Greene Huling. 

Hon. W. H. Jessup. 

John Johnson, LL. D. 

John W. Jordan. 

Rev. C. H. Kidder. 

Rev. C. R. Lane. 

S. T. Lippencott. 

Dr. J. R. Loomis. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason. 

Hon. John Maxwell. 

Mrs. Helen (Reynolds) Miller. 

Edward Miller. 

Madison Mills, M. D., U. S. A. 

J. M. McMinn. 

Millard P. Murray. 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

John Peters. 

James H. Phinney. 

Rev. J. J. Pearce. 

Bruce Price. 

William Poillon. 

S. R. Reading. 

J. C. Rhodes. 

J. T. Rothrock, M. D. 

H. N. Rust, M. D. 

William M. Samson. 

Lieut. H. M. M. Richards. 

Mrs. Gertrude Griffith Sanderson. 

Prof. B. F. Shumart. 

W. H. Starr. 

Col. William L. Stone. 

Thomas Sweet, M. D. 

S. L. Thurlow. 

Samuel French Wadhams. 

Maj. Harry P. Ward. 

Abram Waltham. 



* Died 1900. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



257 



LIFE MEMBERS. 
By payment of JlOO. 



Miss Lucy W. Abbott. 

Thomas Henry Atherton. 

Miss Emily Isabella Alexander. 

George Reynolds Bedford. 

Mrs. Priscilla (Lee) Bennett. 

Miss Martha Bennett. 

Robert Packer Broadhead. 

Samuel LeRoi Brown. 

William Lord Conyngham. 

*Hon. Eckley Brinley Coxe. 

*Hon. Edmund Lovell Dana. 

*Edward Payson Darling. 

Thomas Darling. 

Mrs. Alice (McClintock) Darling. 

Andrew Fine Derr. 

*Henry H. Derr. 

Mrs. Kate (Pettebone) Dickson. 

Dorothy Ellen Dickson. 

Hon. Charles Denison Foster. 

Alexander Farnham. 

Mrs. Sarah H. (Wright) Guthrie. 

Henry Harrison Harvey. 

Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden. 

*H. Baker Hillman. 

Miss Amelia B. Hollenback. 

John Welles Hollenback. 

Andrew Hunlock. 

*Charles Farmer Ingham, M. D. 

Edwin Horn Jones. 

Ralph Dupuy Lacoe. 

Edward Sterling Loop. 

Charles Noyes Loveland. 

*William Loveland. 

*William Ross Maffet. 

Andrew Hamilton McClintock. 

*Mrs. Agusta (Cist) McClintock. 

Hon. Charles Abbott Miner. 

Charles Howard Miner, M. D. 

Sidney Roby Miner. 

Lawrence Myers. 

Abram Goodwin Nesbitt. 

George Francis Nesbitt. 

Mrs. Esther (Shoemaker) Norris. 

* Deceased. 



Rev. Nathan Grier Parke, D. D. 

*Charles Parrish. 

Mrs. Mary (Conyngham) Parrish. 

Mrs. Ella (Reels) Parrish. 

Calvin Parsons. 

Maj. Oliver Alphonsa Parsons. 

Francis Alexander Phelps. 

*John Case Phelps. 

Mrs. Martha (Bennet) Phelps. 

*John Reichard, Jr. 

Dorrance Reynolds. 

Schuyler Lee Reynolds. 

*Sheldon Reynolds. 

Ferdinand Vandevere Rockafellow. 

William Penn Ryman. 

Theodore F. Ryman. 

Miss Elizabeth Montgomery Sharpe. 

Miss Martha Sharpe. 

Miss Mary A. Sharpe. 

*Richard Sharpe, Sr. 

Richard Sharpe, Jr. 

Mrs. Sally (Patterson) Sharpe. 

Miss Sallie Sharpe. 

Charles Jones Shoemaker. 

Miss Esther Shoemaker Stearns. 

Miss Jane A. Shoemaker. 

*Hon. Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 

Levi Ives Shoemaker, M. D. 

Thomas Kirkbride Sturdevant. 

*John Henry Swoyer. 

Lewis Harlow Taylor, M. D. 

Percy Rutter Thomas. 

Miss Sallie B. Thomas. 

John A. Turner. 

Raymond Lynde Wadhams. 

Edward Welles, Sr. 

Edward Welles, Jr. 

George Woodward, M. D. 

*Mrs. Emily L. (Cist) Wright. 

Harrison Wright, 3d. 

George Riddle Wright. 

Hon. Jacob Ridgway Wright. 

Mrs. Margaret M. (Myers) Yeager. 



The Life Membership fee of one hundred dollars is always invested, the interest only 
being used for the annual needs of the Society. The life member is relieved from the pay- 
ment of annual dues, is entitled to all privileges of the Society, and by the payment of his 
fee establishes a permanent memorial of his name which never expires, but always bears 
interest for the benefit of the Society. 



2 5 8 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



Miss Carrie M. Alexander. 

Charles Henry Alexander. 

William Murray Alexander. 

Felix Ansart. 

Herbert Henry Ashley. 

Mrs. Mary S. (Butler) Ayres. 

Robert Baur. 

Gustav Adolph Baur. 

Col. Eugene Beauharnais Beaumont, 

George Slocum Bennett. [U. S. A. 

Stephen B. Bennett. 

Charles Welles Bixby. 

James H. Bowden. 

Miss Ella Bowman. 

Mrs. Isabella W. (Tallman) Bowman. 

John Cloyes Bridgman. 

Mrs. Frances (Bulkeley) Brundage. 

Elmer Ellsworth Buckman. 

Ernest Ustick Buckman, M. D. 

J. Arthur Bullard, M. D. 

Pierce Butler. 

Edmund Nelson Carpenter. 

Walter Samuel Carpenter. 

Edward Henry Chase. 

Phineas M. Carhart. 

Sterling Ross Catlin. 

Rollin Chamberlin. 

Frederick M. Chase. 

Herbert Conyngham. 

John Nesbit Conyngham. 

Mrs. Bertha (Wright) Conyngham. 

Mrs. Mae (Turner) Conyngham. 

Edward Constine. 

Joseph David Coons. 

Frederic Corss, M. D. 

Johnson R. Coolbaugh. 

James Martin Coughlin. 

Alexander B. Coxe. 

John M. Crane. 

Hon. Alfred Darte. 

Hon. Stanley W. Davenport. 

Harry Cassell Davis, Ph. D. 

Mrs. Louise (Kidder) Davis. 

Arthur D. Dean. 

Mrs. Harriet (Lowrie) Derr. 

Chester Derr. 

Benjamin Dorrance. 

Miss Anne Dorrance. 

Col. Charles Bowman Dougherty. 

John R. Edgar. 

Mrs. Ella (Bicking) Emory. 

William Glassel Eno. 

Barnet Miller Espy. 

Mrs. Augusta (Dorrance) Farnham. 



George H. Flanagan. 

Alexander Gray Fell, M. D. 

Daniel Ackley Fell, Jr. 

George Steele Ferris. 

James H. Fisher. 

Mrs. Mary Jane (Hoagland) Foster. 

Henry Amzi Fuller. 

Mrs. Minnie (Strauss) Galland. 

Thomas Graeme. 

Maris Gibson, M. D. 

Mrs. Annette (Jenkins) Gorman. 

Byron G. Hahn. 

Harry Hakes, M. D. 

Hon. Gaius Leonard Halsey. 

Mrs. Mary (Richardson) Hand. 

Hon. Garrick Mallery Harding. 

Maj. John Slosson Harding. 

Charles D. S. Harrower. 

Mrs. Jennie (DeWitt) Harvey. 

Laning Harvey. 

Miss Mary Harvey. 

J. H. W. Hawkins. 

William Frederick Hessell. 

Miss Josephine Hillard. 

Lord Butler Hillard. 

Tuthill Reynolds Hillard. 

Mrs. Josephine (Wright) Hillman. 

John Justin Hines. 

Rev. Francis Blanchard Hodge, D. D. 

S. Alexander Hodge. 

F. Lee Hollister. 

Miss Elizabeth Waller Horton. 

Missouri B. Houpt. 

John T. Howell, M. D. 

Miss Augusta Hoyt. 

Abram Goodwin Hoyt. 

Edward Everett Hoyt. 

Miss Anna Mercer Hunt. 

Charles Parrish Hunt. 

Charles P. Knapp, M. D. 

Miss Lucy Brown Ingham. 

William Vernet Ingham. 

Miss Hannah Packard James. 

Frederick Charles Johnson, M. D. 

George D. Johnson. 

Mrs. Grace (Derr) Johnson. 

Rev. Henry Lawrence Jones, S. T. D. 

Edwin T. Long. 

Albert H. Kipp. 

Frederick M. Kirby. 

Ira M. Kirkendall. 

George Brubaker Kulp. 

John Laning. 

William Arthur Lathrop. 



ROLL OF MEMBERSHIP. 



259 



Elmer H. Lawall. 

George W. Leach, Sr. 

Woodward Leavenworth. 

Charles W. Lee. 

George Chahoon Lewis. 

Otis Lincoln. 

Charles Jonas Long. 

Mrs. Dora (Rosenbaum) Long. 

William Righter Longshore, M. D. 

Miss Elizabeth Loveland. 

George Loveland. 

Mrs. Katherine (Searle) McCartney. 

William Swan McLean. 

Thomas R. Martin. 

Granville T. Matlack. 

Col. Asher Miner. 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Ross) Miner. 

Benjamin Franklin Morgan. 

Charles Morgan. 

*Edward Stroud Morgan. 

Jesse Taylor Morgan. 

Eugene Worth Mulligan. 

Charles Francis Murray. 

Abram Nesbitt. 

Mrs. Anna (Miner) Oliver. 

Miss Frances J. Overton. 

Miss Priscilla Lee Paine. 

Samuel Maxwell Parke. 

Justin E. Parrish, 

Mrs. Sarah C. Parsons. 

Joseph Emmett Patterson. 

Miss Anna Bennett Phelps. 

Jacob S. Pettebone. 

*Mrs. Mary Francis (Sively) Pfouts. 

Frank Puckey. 

John W. Raeder. 

William Lafayette Raeder. 

Col. George Nicholas Retchard. 

Abram H. Reynolds. 

Benjamin Reynolds. 

Hon. Charles Edmund Rice. 

Mrs. Eluabeth (Reynolds) Ricketts. 

Col. Robert Bruce Ricketts. 

William Reynolds Ricketts. 

Eugene A. Rhoads. 

Mrs. Anna B. (Dorrance) Reynolds. 

Col. George Murray Reynolds. 

John Butler Reynolds. 

Pierce Butler Reynolds. 

Mrs. Stella (Dorrance) Reynolds. 

Hon. Jacob Roberts, Jr. 

Robert Patterson Robinson. 

Miss Elizabeth H. Rockwell. 

Arthello Ross Root. 

William F. Roth, M. D. 



Leslie S. Ryman. 

*Miss Ruth E. Ryman. 

Mrs. Wm. Penn Ryman. 

John Tritte Luther Sahm. 

John Edward Sayre. 

Rev. Marcus Salzman. 

Christian H. Sharer. 

Charles William Spayd, M. D. 

Rev. Levi L. Sprague, D. D. 

Capt. Cyrus Straw. 

Seligman J. Strauss. 

Maj. Irving Ariel Stearns. 

Mrs. Clorinda (Shoemaker) Stearns. 

Addison A. Sterling. 

Walter S. Stewart, M. D. 

John F. Shea. 

Harry Clayton Shepherd. 

William Carver Shepherd. 

Mrs. Lydia (Atherton) Stites. 

Archie Carver Shoemaker, M. D. 

Robert Charles Shoemaker. 

William Mercer Shoemaker. 

Hon. William J. Scott. 

Hon. George Washington Shonk. 

William Stoddart. 

Dr. Louise M. Stoeckel. 

Theodore Strong. 

Edward Warren Sturdevant. 

Miss Ella Urquhart Sturdevant. 

William Henry Sturdevant. 

William H. Taylor. 

William John Trembath. 

James A. Timpson. 

Mrs. Ellen Elizabeth (Miner) Thomas. 

Prof. C. O. Thurston. 

Miss C. Rosa Troxell. 

Alexander H. Van Horn. 

Rev. F. vonKrug, D. D. 

Burton Voorhis. 

Mrs. Esther Taylor Wadhams. 

Mrs. F. D. L. Wadhams. 

Moses Waller Wadhams. 

Ralph H. Wadhams. 

Frank W. Wheaton. 

Rev. Henry Hunter Welles, D. D. 

Henry Hunter Welles, Jr. 

Mrs. Stella H. Welles. 

Joshua Lewis Welter. 

William D. White. 

Morris Williams. 

John Butler Woodward. 

Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Wesley Ellsworth Woodruff. 

E. B. Yordy. 

Dr. H. Newton Young. 



Died 1900. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE LIBRARY AND CABINETS 
OF THE SOCIETY, FOR THE YEAR 1899. 



Academy of Science, Chicago, 111. 

Atherton, Thomas H. 

Anthony, A. R. 

Alabama State Geological Survey. 

Alexander, Miss C. M. 

American Numis. and Archseolog. Soc. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Museum Natural History. 

American Philosophical Society. 

Amherst College. 

Baur, Robert. 

Butts, Benjamin. 

Bennet, S. B. 

Buckalew, Capt. J. M. 

Bridgman, John C. 

Brymer, Dr. Douglass, Toronto. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Capwell, W. H., Dallas, Pa. 

Corey, D. P. 

Conn. Academy Arts and Sciences. 

Colonial Dames of Pennsylvania. 

Columbia College, N. Y. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Chase, E. H. 

Cist, Gen. H. M. 

Dawson, Hon. G. M. 

Dana, Charles E. 

Drummond, Hon. J. H. 

Drown, Thomas M., LL. D. 

Daniell, B. H. 

Darling, Gen. C. W., Utica, N. Y. 

Daughters Am. Rev., Washington, D. C. 

Dauphin Co. Historical Society, Pa. 

Delaware Historical Society. 

Dexter, Prof. F. B., Yale University. 

Egle, Dr. W. H., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

Franklin and Marshall College, 

Town Clerk, Fitchburg, Mass. 

Goodwin, John S. 

Green, Samuel A., LL. D. 

Hastings, Hon. Hugh, Albany. 

Harvard University, Mass. 

Hart, Theodore. 

Hibbs, Wm. H. 

Hayden, Rev. Horace E. 

Historical Society, Chicago, 111. 

Hollenback, J. W. 



Hunton, Rev. W. L. 

Ingham, Miss Mary. 

Ingham, Miss Lucy. 

Ingham, William V. 

Ipswich Historical Society, Mass. 

Iowa Geological Survey. 

Iowa Historical Department. 

Iowa Historical Society. 

Iowa State University. 

James, Dr. T. A., Ashley. 

James, Miss H. P. 

Johnson, Dr. Frederick C. 

Jones, Edward Horn. 

Tones, Rev. Dr. H. L. 

Jordan, John W., Phila. 

Kansas Historical Society. 

King, Col. Horatio C., New York. 

Kipp, A. H. 

Kittocktinny Historical Society. 

Lacoe, Ralph D., Pittston. 

Lebanon Co. Historical Society. 

Loop, E. Sterling. 

Longshore, Dr. E. R. 

Long Island Historical Society, N. Y. 

Long, Mrs. Isaac. 

Lancaster Co. Historical Society. 

Lundy's Lane Hist. Soc., Ontario. 

Maine Genealogical Society. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

Manchester Geolog. Society, Eng. 

McCartney, Mrs. K. S. 

McClintock, A. H. 

Milwaukee Museum, Wis. 

Mexico Geological Institute. 

Michigan Geological Survey. 

Missouri Geological Survey. 

Minnesota Historical Society; 

Minnesota Geological Society. 

Minnisink Historical Society, N. Y. 

Miner, Sidney R. 

Miner, Hon. C. A. 

Missouri Historical Society. 

Monroe, W. S., Stanford University. 

Moravian Historical Society, Pa. 

Morgan, Jesse T. 

Nebraska Historical Society. 

New Brunswick Natural Society. 

New England Hist. Gen. Soc., Mass. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



26l 



New London Historical Society, Conn. 

New York Geneal.-Biog. Soc. 

New York State Library. 

North Indiana Historical Society. 

Nova Scotia Institute of Science. 

Ogden, Charles S. 

Oberlin College, Ohio. 

Ohio Arch.-Hist. Society. 

Oneida Historical Society, N. Y. 

Ontario Historical Society. 

Osterhout Free Library. 

Parke, Rev. N. G., D. D. 

Parrish, G. H., Estate. 

Parsons, Maj. O. A. 

Passadena Academy Science, Cal. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Pa. Society Sons of the Revolution. 

Pennsylvania State College. 

Pennsylvania Secretary of State. 

Pennsylvania State Library. 

Pennsylvania University. 

Presbyterian Hist. Soc., I'hila. 

Philadelphia Library Co. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 

Reynolds, Col. G. M. 

Rhode Island Hist. Soc., Providence. 

Roanoke College, Va. 

Richardson, W. H. 

Rhone, Mrs. D. L. 

Royal Society, History and Antiquities, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
Ryman, Win. Penn. 
Schantz, F. J. F., D. D. 
Sharpe, Miss Elizabeth M. 
Sharpe, Miss Sallie, 
Smock Hon. John S. 
Scranton Public Library. 
South Dakota School of Mines. 
Sparks, W. E. 
Smith, A. DeW. 
Saward, F. E. 
Shoemaker, Dr. Levi Ives. 
Smith, Samuel R. 
Stearns, Maj. I. A. 
Sturdevant, E. W. 
Steever, Edgar Z. 
Smithsonian Institute, Wasbing'n, D. C. 



Stock, H. H. 

Taylor, Dr. Lewis Harlow. 

Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

Tubbs, Hon. Charles. 

Troutman, G. H. 

Tisch, Louis. 

Tillinghast, C. B., Boston, Mass. 

Tioga Point Hist. Soc., Athens, Pa. 

Topsfield Historical Society, Mass. 

Toronto University, Toronto, Col. 

University of New York, Regents. 

U. S. Archive Department. 

U. S. Bureau of Education. 

U. S. Bureau of American Republics. 

U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 

U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

U. S. Fish Commission. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

U. S. National Museum. 

U. S. Patent Office. 

U. S. State Department. 

U. S. Navy Department. 

U. S. Sup't of Public Documents. 

U. S. Surgeon General. 

U. S. Treasury Department. 

Warfield, Pres., E. D., LL. D., Easton. 

Welles, Edward, Wilkes-Barre. 

Weir, Miss Mary C. 

Wiseman & Blatner, Wilkes-Barre. 

Wagner, Dr. E. C. 

West Virginia Geological Survey. 

Washington Geological Society. 

Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Wilcox, William A. 

Williams, Hon. Morgan B. 

Winchell, Dr. N. H. 

Wilkes-Barre Law Library. 

Wilkes-Barre Evening Leader. 

Wilkes-Barre Record. 

Wilkes Barre Times. 

Wright, Hon. H. B. Estate. 

Wright, Hon. Jacob Ridgway. 

Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Woodruff, W. E. 

Wyoming Historical Society. 

Yale University Library. 

Yordy, E. B., Wilkes-Barre. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



WYOMING HISTORICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Proceedings and Collec- 
tions. Vols. 1-3. Wilkes-Barre, 1858-1886. Three vols., 8vo. pp. 
315+294+128. #10.00. 

CONTENTS. 

Vol. I, No. I. Mineral Coal. Two lectures, by VolneyL. Maxwell. 1858. 
pp. 52. 2d ed., 1858 ; 3d ed., 1860, pp 52 ; 4th ed. Wilkes-Barre, 1869. 
pp.51. #1.00. 

Vol. I, No. 2, Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, February II, 1881 ; 
Minutes; Reports of Treasurer; Cabinet Committee ; Committee on Flood 
of 1865; "A Yankee Celebration at Wyoming in Ye Olden Time," by 
Steuben Jenkins. 1881. pp. 58. Out of print. 

Vol. I, No. 3. Proceedings for the Year ending February II, 1882; List of 
Contributors; Communication of John H. Dager (of gauge readings at 
Wilkes-Barre bridge for 1880) ; Incidents in the Life of Capt. Samuel H. 
Walker, Texan Ranger, by Gen. E. L. Dana. 1881. pp. 58. #0.50. 

Vol. I, No. 4. A Memorandum Description of the Finer Specimens of 
Indian Earthenware Pots in the Collection of the Society. By Harrison 
Wright. 1883. pp. IO. Seven heliotype plates. $l.oo. Out of print. 

Vol. I, No. 5. List of Palaeozoic Fossil Insects of the United States and 
Canada, with references to the principal Bibliography of the Subject. Paper 
read April 6, 1883, by R. D. Lacoe. 1883. pp. 21. #0.50. 

Vol. I, No. 6. Proceedings for the Year ending February II, 1883; List of 
Contributors ; Meteorological Observations, February l882-January, 1883, 
by Gen. E. L. Dana. pp. 70. $0.75. 

Vol. I, No. 7. Isaac Smith Osterhout. Memorial. 1883. pp. 14. 

Vol. I, No. 8. Ross Memorial. General William Sterling Ross and Ruth 
Tripp Ross. 1884. Two portraits. 1858-1884. 8vo., pp. 17. $1.00. 

Vol. I. Title page. Contents. Index, pp. xi. 

Vol. 2, PART I. Charter; By-Laws; Roll of Membership; Proceedings, 
March, l883~February, 1884; Report of the Special Archaeological Com- 
mittee on the Athens locality, by Harrison Wright ; Local Shell Beds, by 
Sheldon Reynolds ; Pittston Fort, by Steuben Jenkins ; A Bibliography of 
the Wyoming Valley, by Rev. H. E. Hayden; Calvin Wadhams. 

PART II. Proceedings, May 9, i884-P"eb n, 1886; Archaeological Re- 
port, by Sheldon Reynolds ; Numismatical Report, by Rev. Horace Edwin 
Hayden; Palaeontological Report, by R. D. Lacoe; Mineralogical Report, 
by Harrison Wright; Conchological Report, by Dr. Charles F. Ingham; 
Contributions to Library ; Rev. Bernard Page, by Sheldon Reynolds ; 
Various Silver and Copper Medals presented to the American Indians by 
the Sovereigns of England, France and Spain, from 1 600 to 1800, by Rev. 
H. E. Hayden ; Fossils from the lower coal measures near Wilkes-Barre, 
by E. W. Claypole ; Wyoming Valley Carboniferous Limestone Beds, by 
C. A. Ashburner; Obituaries, 1886. pp. 294. Illustrated. #3.00. 



PUBLICATIONS. 263 

Vol. 3. In Meraoriam. Harrison Wright, A. M., Ph. D. ; Proceedings of 
the Society ; Biographical Sketch, by G. B. Kulp ; Literary Work, by 
Sheldon Reynolds, M. A. ; Poem, by D. M. Jones ; Luzerne County Bar 
proceedings; Trustees of Osterhout Free Library Resolutions ; Historical 
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Vol.4. Proceedings, 1893-1898; Reports of officers ; Memoir of Sheldon 
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S. Reynolds ; *Addresses by President Woodward ; The Yankee and 
Pennamite in Wyoming Valley; The Bell of the Old Ship Zion, Rev. N. 
G. Parke, D. D. ; The Connecticut Charter and Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Rev. W. G. Andrews, D. D. ; Marriages and Deaths in Wyoming 
Valley, 1826-1836; Obituaries of Members ; *Charter, By-Laws and 
Officers, 1858-1899; Officers and Members, 1899; Portraits; Papers 
read, 1858-1899. 8vo., pp. 243. Plates. Wilkes-Barre, 1899. $3.00. 

Charter, By-Laws and Officers, 1858-1899; Members, Papers, 1858-1899; 
Contributors, &c., 8vo., pp. 36. Wilkes-Barre, 1899. $0.25. 

Vol. 5. Proceedings, 1898-1899; Reports of officers; Rev. John Wilher- 
spoon, D. D., Mrs. C. E. Rice ; The Defence of the Delaware River in the 
Revolutionary War, Capt. H. H. Bellas, U. S. A. ; *The French at Asy- 
lum, Rev. D. Craft, D. D. ; *The Early Grist-Mills of Wyoming Valley, 
Hon. C. A. Miner; *Lacoe Collection of Palaeozoic Fossils; Lists of Tax - 
ables, Wyoming Valley, 1776-1780; Obituaries; Officers and Members, 
1900; Contributors. 8vo. pp. 264. Plates. Wilkes-Barre, 1900. $3.00. 

Sketch of the Society, by C. B.Johnson. Reprinted from the Sunday News- 
Dealer, Christmas edition. Wilkes-Barre, 1880. 8vo. pp. 7. 

Report of a Committee of the Society on the early Shad Fisheries of the North 
Branch of the Susquehanna River, by Harrison Wright, Ph. D., chairman 
In U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin. 1882. pp. 352-359. $I.oo. 

A circular of inquiry from the Society respecting the old Wilkes-Barre Academy. 
Prepared by Harrison Wright, Ph. D. Wilkes-Barre, 1883. 

The Old Academy. Interesting sketch of its forty-six trustees. Harrison 
Wright, Ph. D. Broadside. 1883. #0.25. 

Circular on Life Membership. 1884. 410., p. I. 

Circular on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Erection of Luzerne County. 

Hon. Hendrick Bradley Wright. By Geo. B. Kulp. Wilkes-Barre, 1884. 
8vo., pp. 12. No title page. Reprinted for the Society from Kulp's 
Families of Wyoming Valley. 

Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. By George B. Kulp. Wilkes-Barre, 1884. 
8vo., pp. lo. Reprinted for the Society from Kulp's Families of Wyoming 
Valley. 

A biographical sketch of the late Hon. Edmund Lovell Dana, President of 
the Osterhout Free Library, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. By Sheldon Reynolds, 
M. A., Secretary. Prepared at the request of, and read before the direct- 
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Geological Society Sept. 13, 1889. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1889. 8vo., pp. II. 

Coal, its Antiquity. Discovery and early development in the Wyoming Valley. 
A paper read before the Society July 27, 1890, by Geo. B. Kulp, Histo- 
ridgrapher of the Society. Wilkfes-Barre, 1890. 8vb. pp 1 . 27. $0.56. 



264 PUBLICATIONS. 

The Massacre of Wyoming. The Acts of Congress for the defense of the 
Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, 1776-1778; with the Petitions of the 
Sufferers by the Massacre of July 3, 1778, for Congressional aid. With 
an introductory chapter by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, M. A., Corre- 
sponding Secretary Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 8vo., 
pp. 119. Printed for the Society. Wilkes- Harre, Pa., 1895. $1.50. 

Notes on the Tornado of August 19, 1890, in Luzerne and Columbia countries. 
A paper read before the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society De- 
cember 12, 1890, by Prof. Thom;is Santee, Principal of the Central High 
School. 8vo., pp. 51. Map. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1891. $1.00. 

In its new home. The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society takes for- 
mal possession of its new quarters. Address of Hon. Stanley Woodward. 

Pedigree Building. Dr. William H. Egle. 1896. pp. 4. 

The Yankee and the Pennamite in the Wyoming Valley. Hon. Stanley 
Woodward. 1896. pp. 4. 

The Frontier Forts within the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. A report of 
the commission appointed by the State to mark the Forts erected against 
the Indians prior to 1783, by Sheldon Reynolds, M. A., President of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Read before the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society December, 1894. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
1896. 8vo., pp. 48. Illustrations. $I.oo. 

The Frontier Forts within the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna 
River, Pennsylvania. A report of the Commisssion appointed by the State 
to mark the Frontier Forts erected against the Indians prior to 1783, by 
Captain John M. Buckalew. Read before the Society October 4, 1895. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1896. 8vo., pp. 70. Illustrations. $l.oo. 

Bibliography of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., 1896. 8vo., pp. 4. 

The Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Lititz, Penn'a, during the Revolution- 
ary War, by |ohn Woolf Jordan. A paper read before the Society, April 
10, 1896. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1896. 8vo., pp. 23. 

The Palatines ; or, German Immigration to New York and Pennsylvania. A 
paper read before the Society by Rev. Sanford H. Cobb of Albany, N. Y. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1897. 8vo., pp. 30. $0.50. 

John and Sebastian Cabot. A Four Hundredth Anniversary Memorial of the 
Discovery of America, by Harry Hakes, M. D. Read before the Society 
June 24, 1897. Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1897. 8vo., pp. 14. #0.40. 

An Address by Mrs. John Case Phelps, on the occasion of the erection of a 
monument at Laurel Run, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, September 12, 
1896, to mark the spot where Capt. Joseph Davis, and Lieutenant William 
Jones of the Pennsylvania Line were slain by the Indians, April 23, 1779, 
with the Sketch of these two officers by Rev. Horace Ed,win Hayden, M. A. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1897. 8vo., pp. 41. #1.00. 

The German Leaven in the Pennsylvania Loaf. Read before the Society 
May 21, 1897, by H. M. M. Richards. 8vo. pp. 27. Wilkes-Barre, 1897. 

$0.50. 

A Honduras Trip, Hon. J. Ridgway Wright, 1898. pp. 10. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



The Lists of Taxables, Members and Contributors, being arranged 
alphabetically, are not Indexed. 



Abbatt, II, 21. 


Bradford, 54, 55, 69. 


Consawler, 205. 


Abbott, 12, 22, 122. 


Branner, 170, 171. 


Conyngham, 137. 


Adams, 37, 38, 76. 


Breed, 46. 


Cooley, 83. 


Adonijah,. 28. 


Breese, 142. 


Coon, 142. 


Alden, 126. 


Brevost, 95, 104, 105. 


Cooper, 122. 


Alexander, 15, 82, 120. 


Brodhead, 22. 


Coray, 135. 


Ambler, 138. 


Brown, 9, 12, 144. 


Cornwalhs, 68, 69, 72. 


Appleton, 125. 


Buckingham, 135. 


Corss, n, 14, 21, 153, 


Arthur, 8. 


Bull, 50, 51. 


163. 


Ash. 127. 


Burgoyne, 53. 


Cortright, 1 60. 


Ashburner, 17, 170, 171. 


Burgunder, 251. 


Courtright, Ii8. 


Ashley, 95. 


Burr, 33, 35, 45. 


Coxe, 15. 


Atherholt, 140, 141. 


Butler, 114, 128, 129, 


Craft, 11,75. 


Atherton, 122, 123. 


137. *44, 145- 


Crisman, 127. 


Atwood, 48. 


Buzzard, 104. 


Cromwell, 28. 


Ambrey, 105. 




dishing, 8. 


Ayres, 10, 15. 


Cadwalader, 49. 






Caldwell, 53. 


Dana, 15, 23, 128, 205, 


Babb, 136, 140. 


Callot, 79. 


206. 


Baldwin, 205. 


Campbell, 131. 


Darling, 22. 


Barber, 138. 


Carey, 118, 119, 128. 


D'Autremont, 87, 95, 96, 


Barnum, 122, 136. 


Carles, 105. 


106, 107, 108. 


Barnes, 246. 


Carpenter, 137. 


Davis, 7, 8, 14, 21, 33, 


Bartholomew, 142. 


Carr, 117. 


35- 


Beaujolais, 103. 


Cato, 43. 


Dean, 20. 


Beaulieu, 106. 


Cervera, 15. 


De Blacons, 104. 


Beaumont, II, 12. 


Chamberlan, 108. 


Dei trick, 10. 


Becdelliere, 97, 104. 


Champlain, 75. 


De Kalb, 50, 70. 


Bedford, 22. 


Chapman, 112, 113, 114, 


Delano, 122, 127, 128, 


Behee, 127, 128. 


116, 125, 205, 206. 


134- 


Bellas, 47. 


Chew, 49. 


De la Roue, 99, 104. 


Benjamin, 117. 


Cicero, 42. 


De Liancourt, 91, loo. 


Bennet, 22, 23, 122. 


Cist, 10, 20. 


De Maudit, 58. 


Bergen, 134. 


Clark, 205. 


De Mauld, 104. 


Bidlack, 132. 


Clarke, 122. 


De Nemours, 107. 


Bingham, 79. 


Clarkson, 94. 


Denison, 114, 207, 247. 


Birney, 82. 


Claypole, 17. 


De Noailles, 77, 78, 79, 


Blanchard, 205. 


Clayton, 55. 


80, 83, 87, 88, 90, 94, 


Blacons, 104. 


Clinton, 48, 69, 70, 72. 


99- 


Blimber, 42. 


Coffrin, 126, 132. 


Denton, 131. 


Bonham, 141. 


Coleman, 131. 


Derr, 9, 12. 


Boulogne, 81, 86, 88, 89, 


Coligny, 75. 


De Seybert, 99. 


9 2 > 95- 


Colin, 104. 


Dickens, 29. 


Bowman, 8. 


Conrad, 131. 


Dickinson, 33, 35, 45. 



266 



INDEX. 



Dickson, 7. 
Dill, 44. 
Dodge, 107. 
Donop, 50, 55, 57, 58. 
Dorrance, II, 23, 142. 
Drake, 148. 
Draper, 122. 
Driesbach, 118, 131. 
Du Coudray, 50. 
Dulong, 104. 
Dunn, 8l. 
Du Pont, 107. 
Durkee, III, 206. 
Dyer, 119, 

Edwards, 33, 35, 45. 

Egle, 10, 14, 15, 21, 208. 

Ellis, 58. 

Eno, 10, 

Erskine, 72. 

Evans, 8. 

Eyre, 54. 

Farnham, 22. 
Faulkner, 132, 133. 
Fell, 136. 
Finlay, 33, 35, 45. 
Fisher, 12. 
Fitch, 128, 148. 
Fleury, 63, 64, 65, 67. 
Flick, 118. 
Follet, 205. 
Forsyth, 82. 
Fowler, 138. 
Fox, 82, 107. 
Franklin, 38, 50, 51, 76, 

126, 206, 207. 
Frederick, 145. 
Fromenta, 105. 
Froude, 27. 
Fuller, 116, 117, 133, 

138- 

Gage, 49. 
Galloway, 49. 
Gangloff, 143. 
Gardner, 136. 
Garretson, 131, 
Gates, 44, 53. 
Gaylord, 82, 83, 87, 143, 

206. 

Gibson 94. 
Gilbert, 98. 
Gimble, 250. 



Gladestone, 29. 
Gordon, 88, 121, 122, 

124. 
Gore, 105, 114, 115, 116, 

117, 128, 205, 207. 
Gould, 136. 
Graeme, 8, 15. 
Gray, 135. 
Greeley, 15. 
Greenawalt, 130. 
Greene, 56. 59, 60, 61, 

62, 66, 69. 
Griffith, 163. 
Grubb, 134, 135. 

Hadsall, 135. 
Hallock, 136. 
Halsey, 15. 
Hamilton, 169. 
Hammond, 94. 
Hancock, 37, 87, 141. 
Harrison, 148. 
Hartsouf, 139, 140. 
Harvey, 7, 14, 133, 134, 

148, 149, 205, 206,207. 
Hayden, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 

13, 18, 22, 23, 208. 
Hazlewood, 49, 50, 51, 

53, 62. 67, 70. 
Heilprin, 17, 22, 167. 
Heraud, 97. 
Herman, 102. 
Hibbard, 206. 
Hicks, 140. 
Hillard, 146, 147, 149. 
Hillegas, 49. 
Hodge, 9, 12. 
Holgate, 140. 
Hollenback, 74, 81, 83, 

85,86, 89, 96,99, no, 

113,115,116,117,118, 

119, 121, 141, 144. 
Home, 33. 

Hornet, 98, 107, 109. 
Hoops, 8 1, 84, 85. 
Hopkins, 148. 
Horton, 147. 
Houghton, 141. 
Howe, 50, 52,53,55,60, 

62, 70. 

IIowell, 57, 69. 
Hoyt, 135. 
Huff, loo, 109. 
Hughes, 142. 



Hunt, 23. 
Huntington, 69. 
Hurlbut, 128, 206, 207. 
Ingersoll, 94. 
Ingham, 1 6, 17 25, 178. 
Inman, 129. 

Jay, 42. 

Jefferson, 39, 76. 

Jenkins, 114, 205, 206. 

Jessup, 95. 

Jogues, 75. 

Johnson, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 

14, 19, 24,29,43,125, 

207. 
Jones, 8, 9, 10, II, 12, 

22, 51, 147. 
Jonson, 102. 
Jordan, 14, 15. 

Keating, 77, 87, 96, 105. 
Keller, 172. 
Kingsley, 206. 
Knox, 27, 28, 68, 70. 
Kosciusko, 50, 51. 

Lacoe, 9, 10, 13, 17, 18, 

22, 177, 178. 

Lafayette, 69, 78, 79. 

Lamb, 68. 

La Porte, 98, 100. 

Laporte, 88, 107, 108. 

Langfeld, 251. 

La Prerouse, 90. 

La Roue, 99, 104. 

Lee, 123, 127. 

Le Fevre, 95, 97, 100, 

108, 109. 
Lesley, 171. 
Liancourt, 91, IOO. 
Lincoln, 10. 
Linsing, 58. 
Little, 142, 143. 
Loomis, 145. 
Long, 8, 10, 12, 14, 250. 
Loop, 10, 22. 
Loveland, 12, 22. 
L'Overture, 77, 104. 
Lowe, 58. 
Lowenstein, 148. 
Lutz, 141. 

Maffet, 23. 
Maitland, 71. 



INDEX. 



267 



Mallery, 137. 
Manville, 142. 
Marshall, 142. 
Martin, 131. 
Marvin, 116, 117. 
Mathers, 141. 
Matlack, 12. 
Mayer, 15. 
McAlpin, 145. 
McCall, 95. 
McClintock, 22, 23. 
McGowan, 161. 
McLane, 71. 
Mercer, 50. 
Mesinger, 130. 
Meylert 95. 
Mifflin, 50, 52. 
Miller, 20, 88, 104. 
Miner, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 
20, 22, in, 112, 113, 

II4,Il6,Il8, 119, 120, 

124, 149, 205. 
Minnegerode, 56, 58. 
Montgomery, 29. 
Montpensier, 103. 
Montressor, 50, 60, 62, 

63, 71. 

Montule, 104. 
Montullo, 96. 
Mordecai, 146, 147. 
Morgan, 130. 
Morris, 77, 8l, 83, 87, 

92, 94, 148. 
Morton, 70. 
Murfy, Il8, 136. 
Murphy, 122. 

Napoleon, 79. 
Nemours, 107. 
Newcomb, 55. 
Newton, 32, 33. 
Nicholson, 77, 93, 94. 
Nisbitt, 207. 
Norris, 7. 
Noailles, see De Noailles. 

O'Brien, 18. 
Oint, 127. 

Pain, 136. 
Paine, 15. 
Palmer, 21. 
Parke, 7. 
Parker, 146. 



Parrish, IO, HO. 


Rummerfeldt, 82. 


Parsons, 9, IO, II, 12, 


Rush, 40, 51. 


20, 22,23, I2 5- 


Russell, 63. 


Peale, 42. 


Ryman, 12. 


Pearce, 13, 115, 116, 126, 




132, 133, 205. 
Periault, 89. 


Sartain, 15. 


Perkins, 157, 206. 
Peters, 66. 
Pettebone, 142. 
Petty, 130. 


Sax, 137. 
Scharar, 22. 
Scheilinger, 107. 
Schooley, 141. 
Scott, 8, 15, 21. 


Phelps, 23. 
Philippe, 103. 
Phillips, 118, 139. 
Pickering, 149. 
Pierce, 8. 
Placons, 91. 
Plumb, 128. 


Scovill, 13. 
Scureman, 143. 
Seybert, 99. 
Seymour, 51. 
Shafer, 141. 
Sharpe, 9, 12, 22. 
Shea, 12. 


Pool, 1 02. 
Porter, n, 13, 21, 23. 
Potosky, 1 06. 
Polter, 5 3, 6 1, 62. 
Price, 122. 


Shepherd, 157. 
Shewfeldt, 82. 
Shirley, 48. 
Shoemaker, 7,9, 15,137, 


Proctor, 50. 
Pruner, 128, 129. 


138, 139, 247. 
Shupp, 132, 133. 
Simms, 55, 118. 


Pugh, 134. 
Pulaski, 69, 70. 
Putnam, 50. 


Skinner, 82, 87. 
Slocum, 15. 
Smith, 28,42,43,50,51, 




60, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 


Ramsay, 43. 


132, 133, 143- 


Ransom, 131, 132. 


Solomon, 28. 


Raub, 142, 143. 


Spalding, 82, 86. 


Read, 64. 


Spayd, 8. 


Reed, 53, 61, 69. 


Sprague, 112. 


Reese, 141. 


Stanburrough, 113, 114, 


Regnier, 97, 105. 


115, 116, 125, 150. 


Reynolds, 9, II, 12, 13, 


Stanley, 8. 


14, 15, 16,17,24,25, 


Staples, 119. 


178, 206. 


Stark, 206. 


Rice, 27, 143. 


St. Clair, 70. 


Richards, 147. 


Stearns, 8, lo, n, 14, 23, 


Ricketts, 9, 12, 18, 23, 


243- 


177. 


Sterling, 148. 


Roberts, 131, 132. 


Stern, 250. 


Robespierre, 78, 79, 106. 


Stewart, 107. 


Robinson, 136, 145. 


Still, 207. 


Rochambeau, 79. 


Stirling, 54. 


Rogers, 206. 


Stockton, 34. 


Romage, 127. 


Stone, 21, 98. 


Roset, 1 1 8. 


Strong, 136. 


Rosenbaum, 250. 


Stroh, 1 1 8. 


Ross, 22, 82, 87, 88, 129, 


Sturdevant, 8, 9, 10, 15, 


205. 


22, 243. 


Rothrock, 127. 


Sullivan, 81. 



268 



INDEX. 



Sutton, 115, 128, 135, 

250. 

Swetland, 139, 140, 143. 
Swift, 205, 206. 
Sybert, 104. 

Talleyrand, 1 06. 
Talon, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 

85,7, 88, 90, 91,92, 

96, 97, 100, 101, 105, 

108, no. 
Taylor, 8. 
Thayer, 63, 67, 68. 
Thomas, 10, 22, 120, 145, 

146, 205. 
Thompkins, 122. 
Thouars, 89, 90, 91, 92. 
Thurston, II. 
Tillbury, 133, 134. 
Tinsley, 131. 
Toner, 97. 
Tower, 8l. 
Town, 86. 
Towner, 32. 
Townley, 82. 



Tracy, 205. 
Treat, 63. 
Trucks, 143. 
Turner, 22. 
Tuttle, 138, 139. 
Tyson, 118, 122, 136. 

Varnum, 56, 61, 62, 63, 

64, 65, 68, 69. 
Von Krug, 12. 

Wade, 205. 

Wadhams, 8, 12, 136. 

Waller, 1 1 8, 119. 

Walsh, 148. 

Wansey, 79. 

Warburton, 31. 

Warfield, 14. 

Warner, ill. 

Washington, 37, 50, 55, 
61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 
68, 69, 73, 75, 76. 

Wayne, 65, 66. 

Weld, 102. [91, 105. 

Welles, 9, 10, 12, 22,82, 



Welter, 12, 1 8, 22, 23. 

Witherspoon, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 31, 32, 33. 34, 35, 
36,37, 38,40, 4i,42, 
43, 44, 45, 46. 

Whitney, 87, 119. 

Will, 54. 

Williams, 137, 206. 

Willing, 79. 

Wilson, 69, 145. 

Woodruff, 8, 9, 12, 14. 

Woods, 44. 

Woodward, 7, 8, 9, IO, 

II, 12, 13, 15. 

Wright, 9, 10, 12,15,16, 
17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 

110,113,118,119, 120, 
121, 123, 124, 125, 
132, 134, 143, 178. 

Yingst, 134. 
Yost, 147. 
Young, 113. 

Zeisberger, 15. 



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