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INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY CONGRESS 



FIFTH SESSION 



LONDON : JUNE-JULY 189S 



I^OOEEIDinsrC3-S 



VOLUME ■ 



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INTERNATIONAL 



RAILWAY CONGEESS 



I 



FIFTH SESSION 



LONDON : JUNE-JULY 1895 



PROCEEDINGS 



(Ex<Ta-ii.x6ix Epmoisr) 



VOLUJMLE I 



/ 

BRUSSELS 

•p. WEISSENBRUCH, PRINTER TO THE KING 

45, RUE DU POIN^ON, 45 
1896 



/ 



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HARVARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



RECEIVED THROUGH THE SPECIAL 
LIBRARY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 
VOf^.'T^ OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. 

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In this edition a complete report of the Proceedings is given in English. There 
are, however, certain portions of the Proceedings which it has been found necessary 
to give in two languages. The sectional reports were originally drawn up in most 
cases in French, and accordingly the official French original is here preserved and 
printed in parallel columns, as was done in the daily journal of the meeting. 
Further, in order to economise, the list of delegates and other introductory matter 
has been printed in both languages to serve both for the French and English edition. 
Finally, it has seemed desirable to give certain of the speeches in their original 
j*j: words. Accordingly, the opening and closing ceremonies are reported both in 
French and English. 

L. Wbissenbruch, A. Dubois, 

Secretary President, 

of the Executive Committee, 



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BUREAU CeNtRAL GENERAL OFFICIALS 

D£ LA CmQUIfME SESSION OF THE FIFTH SESSION 



President d^honneur (Honoraiy President) : 

H. R. H. the Prince of Wales. 

President (Acting President) : 

Right Hon. Lord Stalbridge, Chairman of the London and North Western Railway and Pre- 
sident of the Railway Companies' Association. 

Yice^isidents (*) : 

Autriche-Hongrie (Austria-Hungary). •— Aatriohe. — S. Exc. le D'' chevalier 
. L^N VON BiLiNSKi, conseiller intime I. R., chef de section au minist^re I. R. du 

commerce, president de la direction g^n^rale I. R. des chemins de fer de TEtat 

autrichien. 
HoBgrie. — Jules Ludvigh, conseiller minist6riel, membro de la Chambre des magnats, 

directeur-president des chemins de fer de I'Etat hongrois, membre de la Commission 

intemationale du Congr^. 

Belgique (Belgium). — A. Dubois, administrateur des chemins de fer de I'Etat beige, 
president de la Commission intemationale permanente du Congrds. 

Br68il (Brazil). — Roberto Trompowskt Leitao de ALSfEiDA, lieutenant-colonel du g^nie, 
chef de la Commission du minist^re des travaux publics en Europe. 

Chili. — Victor Pretot Freire, ing^nieur, inspecteur technique des mat^riaux en 
Europe. 

CiOngO. — Le major Albert Thys, officier d'ordonnance du Roi des Beiges, administrateur 
directeur g^n^ral de la Compagnie du chemin de fer du Congo. 

Danemark (Denmark). — Tegner, directeur general des chemins de fer de TEtat danois* 

^gypte (Egjrpt). — S. Exc. BoGOS Pacha Nubar, administrateur. 

(1) En vertu de rarticle 12 des statute du CoDgrfts, le premier ddl^u^ de obaque OouYemement est de droit 
Tice-prteident. (Art« 12 of constitution of tbe Congress runs as foUovs : The delegate nominated first by each 
OoTemment is tX'Ofltcio vice-president.) 



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BUREAU G^N^RAL DE LA GINQUI^ME SESSION. 



Espagl^e (Spain). — E. Echegaray, iDg^nieur en chef au ministSre des travaux publics. 

ifitats-nnis d'Am6riqae (United States of America). — James R. Roosevelt, 
secretary of the United States Embassy in London. 

France. — Alfred Picard, inspecteur g^n^ral des ponts et chauss^es, president dc la 
section des travaux publics, de Fagriculture, du commerce et de I'industrie au conseil 
d'Etat, vice-pr6sident du comity consultatif des chemins de fer, vicc-pr6sident de la 
Commission intemationale du Congrds. 

Grande-BretagnCy empire des Indes et colonies (Great Britain, India 
and Ck>lonies) : 

A. Grande-Bretagne (Great Britain). — The Earl Cathcart. 

B. Empire des Indes et colonies (India and Colonies). -— Indes (India). — Col. R. A. 

Sargeaunt,R. E., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., F. J.Inst., director-general of Indian Railways. 
Canada. — Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., G. C. M. G., C. B., High Commissioner for Canada in 

London. 
Natal. — Walter Peace, C. M. G., agent general for Natal in London. 
Aaitralie de TOaest (Western Aastralia). — Sir Malcolm Eraser, K. C. M. G, agent-general 

for Western Australia in London. 
Anstralie du Sad (South Australia). — The Hon. Thomas Platford, agent general for South 

Australia in London. 
Nouvelle-Oalles du Sud (New South Wales). — Edward Miller Gard Eddy, chief commis- 
sioner of the New South Wales Government Railways. 
Nouvelle-Z^Uade (New Zealand). — John Carruthers, Consulting Engineer to the Government 

of New Zealand in London. 
Queensland. — Sir James Garricr, agent general for Queensland in London. 
Tasmanie (Tasmania). — Sir Robert G. W. Herbert, G. C. B., agent general for Tasmania 

in London* 

Italie (Italy). — Le comte Louis Ripa di Mbana, inspecteur g^ntod des chemins dc fer. 

Japon (Japan). — Hikokichi Ijvin, secretaire de legation du Japon ^ Londres. 

Meziiiae (Mexico). — Luis Salazar, ing^nieur. 

Norvig^ (Norway). — C. Pihl, dirocteur pour le d^partement de construction aux 
chemins de fer de I'Etat norv^gien. 

Pays-Bas (Holland). — J.J. van Kerkwuk, membre de la seconde Chambre des Etats- 
G6n6raux des Pays-Bas, membre de la Commission intemationale du Congr^. 

Portugal. — Bento Fortunato de Moura Continho d' Almeida d'E^a, ing^nieur inspecteur 
de 1** classe et membre du conseil des travaux publics et des mines. 

Roumanie (Roumania). — Duga, directeur g^n^ral des chemins de fer de TEtat roumain, 
professeur k TEcole des ponts et chauss^s de Bucharest, membre de la Commission 
intemationale du Congr^ et rapporteur. 

Russie (Russia). — Alexandre Yermolow, conseiller priv6, directeur de la chancellerie 
du ministre des voies de communication. 



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GENERAL OFFICIALS OF THE FIFTH SESSION. 



Serbie (Servia). — Milivoie Yossimovitch, inspecteur g6n6ral des chemins de fer de I'Etat 
serbe. 

Siam. — Xavier Olin, ancien ministre des travaux publics de Belgique. 

SuMe (S'weden). — Le comte Rodolphb Cronstedt, directeur g6ntod des chemins de fer 
de TEtat. 

Suisse- (S'Witzerland). — Johann Tschibmer, inspecteur technique au ddpartement des 
postes et des chemins de fer. 

Tnrquie (Turkey). — Le commandant Ghaub Bey, attache naval de la legation de Turquie 
k Londres. 

Secretaire girUral (General Secretary) : 

Sir Hknry Oakley, general manager of the Great Northern Railway and secretary cf the 
Railway Companies' Association. 



Bureaux des sections. (Officials of the Sections*) 



SBCTIOIV I* 

President. — Richard Jbittblbs, conseiller L et R. aulique, directeur g6n6ral du chemin de 
fer du Nord Empereur Ferdinand d*Autriche, membre de la Commission Internationale du 
Congres. 

Secretaires principaucs. — Dbbrat, ing^nieur en chef des ponts et chauss6es de France, profes- 
seur ^ TEcole nationale des ponts et chauss^, secr6taire g^n^ral de la conmiission de m6thodes 
d'essai des mat^riauz de construction. 

E. Andrews, Resident Engineer, London and South Western Railway. 

Secretaires-rapporteurs, — Demoulin, inspecteur du materiel et de la traction des chemins de 
fer de I'Ouest fran^ais. 

Leslie Robinson, Assiociate Member of the Institution of Ciril Engineers. 

SBcmoiv II* 

President. — Kossuth, ing6nieur, directeur de I'exploitation du deuxidme compartiment des 
chemins de fer de la M6diterran6e (Italie). 

Secretaires prinoipauoo, — Sauvaob, ing^nieur en chef des mines, ing^nieur en chef adjoint 
du materiel et de la traction des chemins de fer de I'Ouest fran^ais. 

Lieut. E. P. C. GiROUARD, Royal Engineers. 

Secretaires-rapporteurs. — de Freminville, inspecteur du materiel roulant au chemin de fer 
de Paris ^ Orleans. 

E. R. Dolby, Associate Member of the Lastitution of Civil Engineers, Member of the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers, Whitworth Scholar. 

WiLDHAeBN, inspecteur principal de la Compagnie Internationale des wagons-lits et des grands 
express europtens. 



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10 BUREAU O^N^RAL DE LA ClNQUlfeME SESSION. 



SEcrioiv III. 

President. — S. Kbrbboz, ing^nieur, president du chemin de fer Vladicaucase. 

Secretaires principavuc, — Francois SchUle, ing6nieur du contrOle au d^partement federal 
des chemins de fer suisses. 

Victor Gerard, Continental Traffic Manager, London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 

Secretaires-rapporteurs, — Favre, chef de la garc maritime de Calais du chemin de fer du 
Nord fran^ais. 

VisiNET, agent de la Compagnie des chemins de fer de I'Ouest fran^ais en Angleterre. 

NiESSEN, agent of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in Cologne. 

Captain Churchward, agent of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in Paris. 

SBCTIOM IV. 

President. — Leon Say, membre de Tlnstitut, vice-president des chemins de fer du Nord * 
fran^ais. 

Secretaires principaucc. — Cornel Tolnay, inspecteur principal k I'inspection g6n6rale des 
chemins de fer et de la navigation au minist^re du commerce de Hongrie. 

C. J. Owens, chief goods manager, London and South- Western Railway, Royaume-Uni. 

Secretaires-rapporteurs. — Guilloux, sous-inspecteur des services administratifs du chemin 
de fer du Nord fran^ais. 

H. H. Spillbr, general Continental agent of the Midland Railway. 

Section v. 

Presidoit. — The Right Hon. Sir Arthur Otway, Bart., director of the London, Brighton 
and South Coast Railway. 

Vice-president, — Gustav Bbhrens, director of the Midland Railway. 

Secretaires principaucc, — Le baron Albert de Fierlant, ing^nieur, chef de service de I'exploi- 
tation A la Soci6t6 g6n6rale de chemins de fer 6conomiques beiges. 

Hon. T. C. Farrer, director of the Midland-Uruguay Railway. 

Secretaires-rapporteurs, — Le Dr. Harry L. Hirschl, secretaire du president de la Soci6t6 
autrichienne-hongroise des chemins de fer de I'Etat. 

Captain Gye, R. N., agent of the South-Eastern Railway in Paris. 



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LISTE G^N^RALE 

DES Dl^Ll^GU^S 



GENERAL LIST 

OF DELEGATES 



«>Ko 



INTRODUCTION 



Dans la liftte des d61^u6ft que Ton (rouvera ci-apr^s, 
nous avons ivi\6 le plus possible les traductions pour 
ne pas grossir cet opuscule. Nous croyons done 
utile de doni.er ici quelques mots d'explication qui aide- 
root les ddl^gu^s k traduire eux-iu6mes les titres qui 
figure nt h c6ii des noms. 



Titres des fonctionnaires des chemins 
de fer anglais et americains. 

Angleterre. — Les admlnistrateurs {direc- 
tors) ajant & leur kdte un president (chairman) et 
un ou deux vice-presidents (deputy chairmen) 
forment le Couseil (Board). Le principal fonc- 
tiounaire est le directeur g^odral (general mana* 
ger) qui, outre la revponsabiiit^ dont il est charge 
en ce qui conceme la direction de la ligne, les 
relations avec le gouvernement et d'autres com- 
pagnies, et toutes les autres n^gociations impor- 
tantes, est sp^cialement a la tdte du d^partement 
du tratic (traffic department) qui r^unit I'exploi- 
tation et le service commercial. 

Directement sous sea ordres il y a : !<> le direc- 
teur en chef des marchandises ou chef du 
ser\ice commercial (chief goods manager) SLvec 
ses aides, le directeur en chef adjoint des mar- 
chandises (assistant goods matutger), le directeur 
des charbons, etc. (mineral manager), le direc- 
teur du service ext^rieur des marchandises (out- 
door goods tnanage^") et les chefs de service 
r^onaux des marchandises (district goods mana- 



In order to save space we have avoided, as much as 
possible, giving translations of their titles in the follow- 
ing list of delegates. We have, however, thought it 
adrisable to add a few words cf explanation below 
which will enable delegates to translate the official titles 
for themselves. 



Official Titles on English and American 
Bailways. 

England. — The directors^ with at their 
bead a chairman and one or two deputy chairs 
men, constitute the Board. The principal offi- 
cer is the general manager, who in addition to a 
general responsibility for the management of the 
line as a whole, for negociations with the Govern- 
ment and other Companies, and all other impor- 
tant matters of policy, is more particularly at 
the head of the traffic departtnent. 



Directly under him are (1) the chief goods 
manager, with his assistant goods manager, 
mineral manager, outdoor goods manager 
and district goods manager; and (2) the super- 
intendent of the line, called also genet^al super- 
intendent and traffic superintendent and very 
frequently superintendent merely, with bis assis- 
tant superintendent, out-door superintendent, 
and district superintendents. 



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LISTE G^N^RALE DES DISliSqU^S. 



gers), et S^ le sarin tendant de la ligne ou chef du 
mouvement (superintendent of the line, general 
superintendent on traffic superintendent, et trte 
fr^qdemment superintendent) avec son adjoint 
(assistant superintendent) son turintendant du 
service ext^rieur (out- door superintendent), et 
ses chefs de service r^ionaux (district superin- 
tendents). 

A la t*te du service de la voie (engineering ou 
permanent u:ay ou way and works department) 
se trouve I'ing^nieur en chef du service de la voie 
et dcs bAtiments (engineer ou chief engineer ou 
civil engineer) II a gdn^ralement sous ses ordres 
an ingenieur en chef de Tentrelien (chief engi- 
neer of open lines), un ou deux adjoints (assis- 
tant engineers) et un personnel d'ing^nieurs 
r^gionaux ou divisiounaires (divisional ou dis- 
trict engineers). 

Outre les ing^nieurs faisant par tie de leur per- 
sonnel, plusieurs compagnies ont un ing^nieur- 
conseil (consulting-engineer), ou une flrme 
d'ing^nieurs-conFeils ii laquelle elles s'adressent 
pour les affaires difficiies ou bien pour les alder a 
rMiger lesdemandes adress^ an Parlement pour 
obtenir la concession de nouvelles lignes k con- 
struire. 

A la tdte du service de la traction et du 
materiel est le chef de la traction (locomotive 
superintendent) ou ingdnieur en chef des con- 
structions m^caniques (chief mechanical engi- 
neer) . II a sous ses ordres un ou plusieurs adjoints 
(assistant locomotive superintendents), unchefdu 
service des ateliers (works manager) et deux ou 
plusieurs chefs de service r^ionaux (divisional 
locomotive superintendents), L'inspecteur en 
chef du materiel roulant (carriage and wagon 
superintendent) est parfois subordonnd au chef 
de la traction et parfois ii en est inddpendant. 

Les au(re8 fonctionnaires supdrieurs (chief 
officers) de la Gompagnie, souvent appelds fonc- 
tionnaires du Gonseil (Board officers) parce qu'ils 
dependent directement du Gonseil, sont les chefs 
de service suivants : le secretaire (secretary) (qui 
est le repr^sentantofficiel de la Compagnie aupr^s 
des tribunaux et qui est rinstrument confidentiel 
du Gonseil), Tavou^ (solicitor), I'agent du domaine 
priv^ (land and estate agent), le chef comptable 
(accountant), le chef du service des magasins 
(store keeper ou stores superintendent), et par- 
fois un chef du service des litres (registrar), un 



At the head of the engineering department, 
also called permanent wiiy department or way 
and toorks department, is the engineer, also 
called chief engineer* and civil engineer. He 
generally has under him a chief engineer of open 
lines, one or more assistant engineers, and a 
slaff of divisional or district engineers. 



In addition to the engineers on their own staff, 
many Gompanics have a consulting engineer or 
sometimes a firm of engineers as consultants, 
who are called in to advise in difficult matters 
and to support applications to Parliament for 
power to construct new lines. 



At the head of the locomotive or rolling stock 
department is the locomotive superintendent, 
sometimes called the chief mechanical engineer. 
He has under him one or more assistant loco- 
mi Hoe superintendents and a toorks manager, 
and two or more divisiorial locomotive superin- 
tendents. The carriage and wagon superin- 
tendent is sometimes subordinate to the locomo- 
tive superintendent, sometimes an independent 
officer. 



The other chief office^^s of the Company, fre- 
quently called Board officers, because they report 
directly to the Board, are the following heads of 
departments : Secretary (the official representa- 
tive of the Company in lawsuits and in dealings 
with the Government and the cont)dentlal ser- 
vant of the Board), solicitor, land and estate 
agent, accountant, store keeper or stores super- 
intendent, and sometimes t*egistrar, cashier, 
and treasurer. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 



13 



caissier {cashiet^) e( un trteorier (treasurer), 
Les fonctionnaires suivants ont aussi des fonc- 
(ions comportant une certaine ind^ndance, bien 
que leurs services soient souTent subordonn^s k 
Tun ou & Tautre des services principauz : le chef 
du service des t^l^rapbes [telegraph ntperinteti' 
dent\ le cbef des services maritimes {marine 
superintendent), I'inspecteur en cbef du service 
des signaux (signal superin'endent) le directeur 
des h6tels et des bufTHs (ho vl and refreshment 
room manager). 

itats-Unis. — Le president du conseil 
d'administration aux ^tats-Unis est g^n^raleroent 
appel^ president (e( non chairman comme eu 
Anglelerre). Parfois, cependant, il y a un chair ^ 
man qui preside les s^nces du conseil, tandis 
qu*il existe aussi un president de la compagnie. 
Le pr^ident a sous ses ordres un ou plusieurs 
vice-presidents t qui sont ou ne sont pas membres 
du conseil. Chacun des vice-presidents est plac^ a 
la tdte d*une ou de plusieurs branches du service. 
Le pr^ident e( les vice-pr^idents sont done les 
principaux fonctionnaires d'un chemin de fer 
am^ricain et ils en repr^sentent le pouvoir ex^u- 
tif. Les principaux services places sous leurs 
ordres sont : 

Le secb^tariat — dirig^ par un secretaire 
(secretary) — a la garde des archives a I'exclu- 
siOn des pieces de comptabilite ; il est charge 
Element de remission, du transfert, etc.» des 
actions de la compagnie. 

La tresorbrie — dirigee par un tresorier 
(treasurer) — a la responsabilite de la caisse et 
du portefeuille, opere les recettes de toute nature 
et fait les payements d^aprds les ordres de tels ou 
(els fonctionnaires oucomites, conformement aux 
reglements. 

Le service db la comptabilite — dirige par 
un chef de la comptabilite (comptroller ou gene- 
ral auditor) — est charge de la tenue de tous les 
registres et des comptes de la compagnie . 

Le chef de ce service est generalement assiste 
par des comptables speciaux des recettes des 
marchandises, des recettes des voyageurs, des 
depenses, etc. (auditors of freight receipts y 
passenger receipts y disbursements ^ etc.), II est • 
d*habitude sous les ordres directs du president ou 
d'un vice pr^ident, mais c'est quelquefois Tun 
des vice-presidents lui-meme et dans ce cas il 



The following officers have also independent 
titles, though their departments are usually 
subordinate to one of the other principal depart- 
ments : Telegraph superintendent, marine 
superintendent, signal supeHntendent, hotel 
and refreshment room manager. 



United States. -^ TIm chairman of the 
Board of directors in the United States is gene- 
rally called president. In some cases, however, 
these two functions are separate. The president 
is assisted by one or more vice-presidents »who 
may or may not be members ot tho Board. They 
each exercise general supervision over one or 
more Departments specially assigned to them . 
The president and vice-presidents are therefore 
the principal executive officers of an American 
railway. The chief departments under them are 
as follows : 



The SBCRBTARiAT — with a secretary at its head 

— has charge of the records of the Company as 
distinguished from the accounts and is chained 
also with the issue, transfer, etc., of the Com- 
pany's shares . 

The treasury — with a treasurer at its head 

— is charged with the custody of the Company's 
money and securities, receives the cash from 
every souri:e and distributes it under the direc- 
tion of such officials or committees^as the regula- 
tions of the Company provide. 

The accounting dbpartmbnt — in charge of 
a comptroller or general auditor — has charge of 
all the books and accounts of the Company. 

He is usually assisted by auditors of special 
departments such as freight receipts, passenger 
receipts, disbursements, etc. He ordinarily 
reports to the president or to a vice-president, 
but in some cases is himself a vice-president and 
reports directly to the Board of directors . 



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14 



LISTE G^NlJUALE DES D^L^GU^S. 



depend directement du conseil d'administration. 

Gd qu'on appelle le servicb du trafig des 
cbemins de fer amiricains ne comprend le plus 
sou vent que Texploitatioa coxnmerciale. II est 
dirigi pnr un cbef du service commercial 
{traffic manager)^ ayant sous ses ordres un 
inspecfceur principal (ou agent g^n^ral) du service 
des marchandises {general freight agent) et un 
inspecteur principal (ou agent g^ndral) du service 
des voyageups {general passenger' agent) avec 
leurs adj jints (assistants) eileurs chefs de service 
divisionnaires {divisional freight and passenger 
agents), Dans quelques cas, c'est un vice-presi- 
dent qui est directemeni a la t^te du service du 
traflc ei parfois il cumale cette direction avec 
celle de Tadminis^ation gto^rale de la com- 
pagnif. 

Lb sbrvick di l'bxploitation ou de la direc- 
tion o^NBRALB {Operating ou general manage- 
ment department) comprend Texploitation tech- 
nique et est dirig^ par un directeur gin^ral 
{general manager), qui est souvent aussi Tun 
des vice-prtoidents. II a la direction g^nerale des 
transport*, du mouvement et de Tentretien de la 
voie, y compris les constructions nonvelles. II a 
sous ses ordres un djrecteur g^ndral adjoint 
{assistant general manager), des chefs d'exploi- 
tation {general superintendents), un ingSaieur en 
chef de la voie {chief engineer), un chef de service 
des tei^raphes (superintendent of telegraphs), 
un ing^oieur en chef de la traction (superintm- 
dent of motive power), un chef de service des 
ateliers {superintendent of machinery), etc. Les 
directeurs d'exploilation sont g^n^ralement 
charges seulementdu mouvement et de Tentretien 
de la voie d'une des grandes divisions du rdseau 
et ils ont sous leurs ordres des chefs de service 
de Texploitation divisionnaires ou r^onaux 
(division superintendents), des chefs de section 
(road masters) ou des ing^nieurs de Tentretien 
de la voie (engineers of maintenance of toay), 
des chefs de d^pdts (master mechanics), des 
Che's du mouvement on agents charges de i'exp^- 
diiion des trains (train despatchers), etc. 

Les chefs du service commercial r^ionaux ou 
divisionnaires sont sous les ordres directs du 
chef du service commercial ou bien des chefs des 
services des marchandises et des voyageurs, et 
non des chef^ de I'exploitation des grandes divi- 
sions. 



Thb traffic dbpartmbnt of American rail- 
ways is usually coneerned only with the commer- 
cial service. Its chief officers are traffic mana- 
ger assisted by a general freight agent and a 
general passenger agent with tlieir assistetnts 
and divisional frjigfu and passenger agents. 
In some cases a vice-president is at the bead of 
the traffic department and often combines that 
duty with that of direction of the operations or 
general management of the company as well. 



Thb operating or general management 
dbpartmbnt is ordiaarily under the charge of the 
general manager, who is in very many cases also 
a vice-president of the company. He has gene- 
ral supervision of the transportation, traffic and 
maintenance including construction. He is 
generally assisted by an assistant general mana- 
ger, general superintendents, chief engineer, 
superintendent of telegraphs, superintendents 
of motive power and machinery, etc. The gene- 
ral superintendents are usually in charge of 
grand divisions of the line with respect to trans- 
portation and maintenance only, being assisted by 
division superintendents, road masters, orengi' 
neers of maintenance of way, master mechanics, 
train dispatchers, etc. 



Division traffic officials usually report direct 
to the head of the traffic department or to the 
heads of the freight and passenger departments 
and not to the divisional general superintendent 
or superintendents. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 



15 



Titres et qualites des fonctionnaires 
des ohemins de fer du continent. 

CSompagnlas privies. — Gomme en Angle- 
terre comme aux J^tats-Uois, le conseil dtadmi' 
nUtration est invesii des pouvoirs les plus 
Mendospour radmiDlstration de la Soci^t^, mais 
i\ dil^e en g^ndral ces pouvoirs k un comiU 
ew^utif permanent de cinq & sep( membres, 
qui font a tour de r6le un service hebdoma- 
daire pour la v^fication de la caisse centrale 
et des titres. Ge comiti d^l^ue & son tour 
ses pouvoirs au direcieur ou directeur giniral 
de la Compagnie qui est Tautoritd charge 
d*exdcater les decisions du conseil ou les ordres 
du gouvernement. 

Le gouvernement a, en g^n^raJ, une action de 
contr61e sur toutes les affaires des compagnies, 
mais r^tendue de cette autorit^ varie de pays 
k pays. 

En France, le contr6Ie du gouvernement est 
exeroi par un directeur du contr61e dee chemins 
de fer au minist^re des travaux publics, qui est 
iodipendant de Tadministration des cheminf de 
fer de T^tat. L'organisation de Tadministralion 
dee chemins de fer de T^tat est exactement sem- 
blable k celle des grandes compagnies, et elle est 
soumise k la mdme surveillance que celles-ci. 
La surveillance de cbaque grand r^seau forme 
elle-mdme un service de surveillance k la tAte de 
laquelle se trouve un inspecteur giniral dei 
mines on des ponts et chaussSes assists de 
quatre inginieurs en chef et d'wn inspecteur 
principal du contrdle de V exploitation commer' 
ciale, ainsi que d*ing^ieurs, de contrdleurs, de 
commissaires de surveillance, etc.» de cbaque 
ligne. 



En Russie, le direcieur de cbaque Gompagnie 
(appel^ aussi directeur de rexploitation)e8t nomm^ 
par le gouvernement sur une liste de candidate 
prisentte par le conseil et il est responsable, 
vis-&-vis du ministre des voies de communis 
ration, de T^tat general de la voie, des onvrages 
d*arf, du materiel, etc. 



Titles and Functions of Bailway Officials 
on the Continent. 

Private lines. — The Board (Conseil d'ad- 
ministration), as in England and in the United 
States, has full control of the management of the 
Gompany, but as a rule it delegates its power to 
a permanent Executive Committee {ComiU ex^' 
cutif) of from five to seven members, one of 
whom attends daily at the office according to a 
rota to examine the cash accounts and share re- 
gisters. The Committee in its turn delegates its 
power to the manager {directeur de la Compa- 
gnie) or general manager {directeur giniral de 
la Compagnie) who is the ei^cuUve officer charged 
with carrying out the decisions of the Board or 
the orders of the Government. 

The Government has, as a rule, supreme con- 
trol over the Company's affairs, hut the extent of 
its authority varies from one country to another. 

In France the Government control over all the 
Railways is exercised by a Railway Comptroller 
in the Ministry of Public Works (directeur du 
contrdle d$$ chemins de fyr au Ministre des 
Travaux publics) who is independent of the 
State Railways administration. The organisa- 
tion of the State Railways is exactly the same as 
that of the great Companies, and it is subjected 
to the same control by the Ministry of Public 
Works as they are. The inspectorate (surveil- 
lance) of each great Company forms in itself an 
Inspecting Department, at the head of which 
there is an engineer having the rank of inspector 
general of the Mines or of the Roads and Bridges 
Department. He has as assistants four chief en- 
gineers (m^^/it«ur« en chef), a principal inspec- 
tor of commercial working (inspecteur principal 
du contrdle de Veaploitation commerciale), and 
a staff of engineers (iny^/tieurx), examiners (con- 
trdleurs) and commissaries (commissaires de 
surveillance). 

In Russia the manager of every Company (also 
called traffic manager) (directeur de VexploUa' 
Hon) is nominated by the Government out of a 
list presented by the Board, and he is responsible 
to the Minister of communications {^oies de com- 
munication), for the maintenance of the perma- 
nent way, works, rolling stock, etc. 



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LfSTE GF5ni5RALE DES DliL^OUiSs. 



En Autricbe et en luHe, rinspeclion g^n^ale 
des chemins de fer est divis^ en cinq sections 
(construclions, mouvement et traction, exploi- 
tation commerciale, gnranties et comptabilit^ et 
administration g^n^rale). 

Ghacune d'elles est dirig^e par tm inspecteur 
giniral assists d* inspect ettrM en chef ou prin- 
cipaux (ober inspectors), dHnspecteurs et de 
commiBsaires , 

En Suisse, le contrAle relive d'une section 
spteiale du minist^re des chemios de fer partag^ 
en deax divisions, Tune administratiTe, I'autre 
technique. A la tdte de chacune de celles-ci 
setrouve un inspecteur aid^ d*ingSnieurs du 
contrdle, etc. 

En Belgique, le coi^rdle 8e fait peu sentir. II 
esteierc6 par Tadministration des chemins de 
fer de T^tat qui est aussi charge de I'octroi des 
concessions nouveiles et de la construction des 
nouvelles lignes. 

En HoUande, ou tous les chemins de fer sont 
exploits par des Compagcies, le contr6le est 
plus s^T^re . 

Mais revenons k Torganisation des compagnies. 
Gelle<^i souffVe quelques exceptions et au chemin 
de fer Hollandais, par exemple, c^est un membre 
du conseil nommd administrateur d4Ugu6 qui 
est le directeur de la Gompagnie, tandis qu'un 
autre membre s'occupe du secretariat et un autre 
du service de la tr^sorerie. 

En Suisse, au lieu du directeur, il y a une 
direction^ ou un comiU de direction, composi§e 
d'un president et de plusieurs memln^eB de la 
direction choisis obligatoirement ou non parmi 
les membres du Gonseil et ayant chacun a con- 
duire un d^partement de I'administration ceu- 
trale. 

En Russie, certains conseils d'administration 
ont fous leur d^pendance directe certains ser- 
vices, par exemple, le service commercial, le 
contrdle, I'^onomat, le contentieux. 

Presque partout, les directions ou les directeurs 
disposent g^n^ralement d'une administration cen- 
trnle (res complete dont les principals subdi- 
visions sont : 

A dministration centrale ; 

Exploitation ; 



In Austria and in Italy, the Railway inspecto- 
rate i8 divided into 5 sections (building, train 
movement, commercial service, guarantees and 
audit, general management). 

Each of these is in charge of an inspector gene- 
ral (inspecteur g4niraT), who has under him 
chief inspectors {impecteurt en chefouprinci- 
paux), inspectors and commissaries. 

In Switzerland, the control is entrusted to a 
special section of the Railway Ministry, which 
has two departments, one administrative and the 
other technical. A t the head of each department 
is an inspector (inspetzteur), assisted by control- 
ling engineers {inginieurs du contrdle), etc. 

In Belgium there is but little control over 
private lines and it is exercised by the State 
Railways Administration, which is responsible 
for granting charters for new lines and for their 
construction . 

In Holland where all the railways belong to 
Gompanies the Slate control is more severe. 

But to return to the organisation of the Gom- 
panies there are some exceptions to the rules 
given above. On the Dutch Railways, for instance, 
n member of the Board is appointed managing 
director (administrateur d6Ugu6)\ he takes 
the place of general manager, while another 
member of the Board takes charge of the secre- 
tary's department, and another of the treasury. 

In Switzerland, instead of a manager (direc- 
teur) there is a managing Gommittee, which con- 
sists of a president and several members of the 
Board, who in some Gompanies must be and in 
others need not be members of the Board, each 
having charge of a department of the Gentral 
Administration. 

In Russia the <« Boards » of s)me Gompanies 
have directly under them certain departments, 
for instance, the traffic, the audit, stores, solici- 
tors' department. 

Almost everywhere the directorates (direc- 
tions) or the general managers (Dirccteurs) as 
the case may be, have under them a very complete 
central organisation. Its principal departments 
are : 

Gentral Administration (AdminUtration cen- 
trale). 

Traffic (exploitation). 



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GENERAL LIST OP DELEGATES. 



17 



Trcmtion et materiel; 

Surveillance (de la voie) et trataux (ou am- 
slructions nouvelles). 

Chacune de ces divisions, appel^es en France 
dis services centraux, a an chef qui a le litre 
d'ing^ieur en chef {chef d'exploitation, de la 
traction^ etc.), sauf Tadministration centrale qui 
est dirig^ par an sea'^taire giniral et qui 
comprend, en outre, un chef du contentieiut^ 
an inspectettr g&niral de la comptahiliUf un 
caUsier en chef, etc. Ces derniers fonction- 
naires dependent parfois directement du comity 
de direction ou exiculif. 



Parfois les services centrauz sont beaucoup 
plus nombreux. La Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn 
( Autriche) a en plus le bureau central, le se^^ice 
commercial, le service financier, le Mervice du 
tnai^el, le service des mines, le service des 
secours le contrdle des recedes el des dipenscs 
et le bureau de la statistique. 



Les services ex^culifs k Text^rieur, appel^ 
en France services rdgionaux^ sont presque 
toujours inddpendanls les uns des tiutres. Cepen- 
dant, cette r^gle n'est pas tout a fait g^n^rale 
et aux chemins de fer Nord-Ouest autricbiens et 
Jonction Sud-Nord allemande, le mouvement, 
Tentretien et la traction Torment des inspections 
sous les ordres d'un scul chef. 

Au chemin de fer de la M^iterran^ (Italie), 
le riseau est divis^, en ce qui concerne princi- 
palement le mouvement et la traction, en deux 
compartiments d eocploitation analogies aux 
grandes divisions des chemins de fer des iStals- 
Unis. Le direcleur g^ndral, r^idant k Milan, 
a sous ses ordres directs, oatre V administration 
centrale, une agcnce commerciale, une division 
technique de Verploitation et une diUgation 
aiipr^ du gouvemcment (a Rome). Les grands 
services centraux tels que celui de Ventretien de 
la voie et m^me de la comptabiliti sont consi- 
der^ dans ces conditions comme des services 



Locomotive and rolling stock (traction et ma- 
t^^iel). 

Way and works or new works {sut-veillance de 
la voie el travaux ou constructions nouvelles) . 

Each of these departments, which in France are 
called • central service • has at its head an official 
with the title of « engineer in chief •• {inginieur 
en chef), traffic manager {chefde t exploitation), 
Iccomotive superintendent (chef de la traction), 
etc., except the central administration, which is 
in charge of a general secretary (secretaire gene- 
ral), and includes further a head of the law de- 
partment(cAtf/'c{t< conten/t^tirr) and a chief accoun- 
tant (inspecteur giniral de la comptabiliti), chief 
cashier (caissier en chef), etc. These latter 
officials are sometimes immediately under the 
executive Committee. 

Sometimes the central departments are much 
more numerous. The Kaiser Ferdinands Nord- 
bahn (Austria) has, in addition to those mentioned 
above, a central office, commercial branch 
(service commercial), financial branch (service 
financier), rolling stock department (service du 
matMel), mines department (set^ice des mines), 
sick and accident i\ind(8crvice des secours), vcadil 
of receipts and expenditure (contrdle des recettcs 
et des d^penses), and statistical office (bureau de 
la statistique) , 

The outdoor executive services (services cx^- 
cutifs) called in Prance district services (services 
rigionaux) are almost always independent of one 
another. However, this rule is not universal, 
and on tlie North Western of Austria and the 
German South North Junction, the train move- 
ment, maiutenaoce of way and works and the 
locomotive departments, are united to form ins- 
pectorates (inxpcctions) each under a single head. 

The system of the Mediterranean of Italy is 
divided, especially so far as train movement and 
the locomotive departments are concerned, into 
two traffic divisions (compartiments d'exploita- 
tion), similar to the grand divisions of the Unitei 
States. The general manager, who has his head- 
quarters at Milan, has under his immediate co!i- 
trol, besides the central administration, a com- 
meicial agency, a technical traffic working de- 
partment, and special representatives to de.il 
with the government (at Rome). The main 
central departments, such as those of the perma- 
nent way, and even the accountants, arc accor- 



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LISTS G^N^RALE DES MLtQU&S. 



^Kterieurs, mais ils out D^annioins eux-m^mes 
leurs chefs de service ex^cutifs aussi bien dans 
le premier compartiment que dans le second. 

Quaot aux litres des fonctionnaires de deuxi^me 
et de troisidme rang, fl est presque impossible de 
les expliquer ou d'en donr.er des Equivalents 
anglais. 

Au chemiu de fer Grand Central Beige, le titre 
d'tng^niear chef de service est un grade qui ne 
comporte nullement la direction d*un service et 
qui ^uivaut a ce que, sur d'autres rteeaux, on 
aj^Ue irig^nieiir principal ou ing^eur en chef. 
Un inspecteur a, -en France, le m6me rang qu*un 
dief de bureau et k T^tat beige ou dans certains 
chemins de fer allemands, celui d'un dief de divi- 
sion. 



£nfin,2;i I'Est^ran^ais, les sous-directcurs de la 
traction s'appeUent inginieurs 0ti chef adjoints 
de la traction, tandis qu'a I'^tat beige ils 8*appel- 
lent mg^ieurs-cn chef inspcciew^ de direction 
de [a traction . 



dingly considered as district or divisional services 
{services extirieurs)^ but for all that they have 
at tfaeir head officials ranking as principal officers 
in both divisions of tlie system {oompartintents). 
As for the titles of the offioers of the 2^ and 
Z^^ class, it is almost impossible to explain them 
or to give their English eqvivalent. 

On the Grand Central Beige the title engineer 
chief of department (ing6nieur chefde service) in 
no way implies that the holder is at the head of a 
department, and is equivalent to what on other 
systems is called chief engineer {ing^nieur enchef 
ou principal). Generally speaking, an- inspector 
(inspecteur) ranks with a chief clerk (chef de 
bui^eau); while on the Belgian Stale Railway, and 
on certain German lines, he has a higher degree 
in order or dignity and ranks as a chef tie divi- 
sion. 

Finally un the Eastern of France the assistaat 
locomotive superintendents are entitled ing^- 
nieurt en chef adjoints de la t7^action, while 
on the Belgian Slate Railway they are called 
ing^ieurs en chef inspccteurs de direction, de 
la traction. 



Chemins 4e Ibr de Tlbtat. — Les chemins 
de fer de TlStat ont sur le continent une impor- 
tance toujours grandissante. £n AUemagne, sur 
44,000 kilometres, £S,0(K) sout exploites par 
r^t; en Autriche-Hongrie, sur 28,000 kilo- 
mitres, 16,000 ; en Belgique, sur 5,400 kilometres, 
8,200 ; en Banemark, sor 2,000 kilometres, 1 ,700 ; 
> en Russie, sur 31,600 kilometres, 23,200 ; en 
Suede, sor 8,500 kilometres, 3,100. 



^En France, comme nous Tavons dejd dit, le 
r^seau d'etat est exactement organise sur le 
models d'une compagnie privee. II poasede done 
un conseil d'administration qui est I'intecme- 
diaire entre le dfrecteur et le ministre.des t ravaux 
publics, et qui a, e peu pr^, les memes pouvoirs 
que le conseil d'une grande compagnie. Un con- 
seil analogue existe en Roumanie, mais le reseau 
d'etat n*y est pas sou mis au contr61e supple- 
mentaire d^une administration distincte; en outre, 
le conseil communique avec le ministre par Tin- 



Sjtate Raili^ays. — The Stale Railways on 
the Continent are constantly increasing in impor- 
tance. In Germany out of 27,280 miles (44,000 
kilometres) 17,360 miles (28,000 kilometres) are 
worked by the State; in Austro Hungary out of 
17,360 miles (28,000 kilometres) 9,920 miles 
(16,000 kilometres); in Belgium out of 3,349 miles 
(5,400 kilometres) 1,984 miles (3,200 kilometres); 
in Denmark out of 1,240 miles (2,000 kilometres), 
i,055 miles (1,700 kilometres); in Russia out of 
19,593 miles (31,600 kilometres) 14,384 miles 
(23,200 kilometi^); in Sweden out of 5,271 miles 
(8,500 kilometres) 1 ,922 miles (3,100 kilometres). 

In France, as has already been said, the State 
system is organised ejEnctly on the same model as 
n private company. Acc<jrdingly it has a Board 
Conseil d' adminisiration) interposed between 
the general manager and the Minister of Works, 
and which has, broadly speaking, the same 
powers as the Board of one of the great compa- 
nies. A similar Board exi!^ts in Roumania, but 
the State Railway system is not there, as in 
France, subjected to iihe additional supervision 
by a sepMute organisation. Further, the Board 



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OENERAL UST OF DELEGATES. 



1« 



term^iaire da directeur g^^al et celtti-ci peut 
en appeler au chef du departeaeDt miaist^iei s*il 
y a divergence de vues. 

A r^tat be1ge» il n'y a pas de directeur g^nd- 
ral; en r^il^, il y en a cinq qui onk le iitre 
d'adnxinislratears et qui dirigent chacun sp^iale- 
ment uq dee services de radminisiration centraie. 
Les directeurs de ces derniers services ont le titre 
de direcUur tt administration ou d'ing^nieur en 
chef directeur d'administratioQ, s'ils soot ingi6- 
nieurs. 

En Hongrie, il y a cinq directions et le chef de 
la premiere (questions g^n^rales et exploitation) 
a le titre de directeur-pr^idenl ; mais, en dehors 
de Tadmiiiist ration des cheminsde fer de T^at, 
il y a encore aupn^s du minisldre du commerce, 
une section des chemios de fer dont Tune des 
subdivisions est rinspection g^ndi ale et la section 
des affaires commerciales s'occupe aussi des tarifs 
de transport. 

D*an(res chemins de fer de I'^iat en Danemaik, 
eu Sn^e. en Norv^ge, en Serhie^eo Finlande.etc, 
ont un directeur g^a^ral avec des pouvoirs 6ten- 
dus ; ma is nous avons eneore i signaler d'une 
mani^re particuli^re les chemins de fer de T^tat 
autrichien^qui ont adopts en partie le principe de 
Tancienne organisation allemande (rteemmkent 
refondue d'une mani^re complete), avec cetle dif- 
ference que les grandes divisions du rteeau en 
dir€cti<ms d' exploiiation sent r^unies sous les 
ordres d'uw pr^ident, chefde la direiAion gAnd- 
vale, ayant aupr^s de lui une administration cen- 
traie asses fortement constitu^ et composde de 
sept divisions dirig^ par des dii^cUxo^s, Les 
m^mes divisious se reproduisent k peu prto dans 
cbaque direction d'exploitation. Pour le service 
ex6culif ext^rieur, il y j^ des seatiotts dUnlretien 
(de la voie), des ateliers , des dipdts de machines 
et des offices d'exploitation, Geux ci n'ont pas et 
n'ont jamais eu une importance analogue iVcelle 
des institutions du m^me nom des chemins de fer 
prussieiis qui ^taienl devenucs de petiles direc- 
tions. Au contraire, ils sont situ^ dans les 
grandes stations et ce sont les chefs deces stations 
qui les dirigent. 

L'organisation des chemins de fer de I'litat 
russe a quelque analogic avec celle de TAutriche. 



communicates with the Minister through the 
general manager, and this latter ofiScial may 
appeal to the Ministry if he differs irom his 
Board. 

On the Belgian State there is no general mana- 
ger. In fact, there are five general managers 
who have the title of directors (4rfm/n<»era/rwrs), 
and each of whom has special charge of one of the 
departments of the Central Administration . The 
managers of these separate departments have the 
title of Lirecteur d' administration^ or where 
they are engineers, the title oi Inginieur en chef 
du^ecteitr d' administradon. 

In Hungary there are five directorates, and the 
chief of the first of them (general and traffic 
questions) has the title of dirccteur-pr^deni 
but in addition to the management of the State 
Railways thene, is also at the Ministry of Gom- 
meroe a railway section (one of whose special 
divisions is a general inspectorate), and besides 
the commercial section of this Ministry deals 
with the question of rates. 

Other State Railways, in Denmark, Sweden, 
^orway, Servia, Finland, etc., have a general 
maiiager {directeur g^^nxl) with large powers ; 
but it is necessary to call special attention to the 
Austrian Stale Railways^ which have partly 
adopted the principle of the original German 
organisation (which has recently been completely 
revolutionised) wUh this difierence : that the 
great divisions of the system or traffic directo- 
rates (directions d^arploitation) are united 
under the orders of a president, chief of the gene- 
ral directorate, having at bis disposal a very 
strongly constituted central staff composed of 
seven divisions, each in charge of a manager 
(directeur). The same divisions are, roughly 
speaking, reproduced in each traffic directorate. 
For the district out-door management there are 
maintenance sections {sections ^CenXreden) work- 
shop sections, engine sheds, and traffic offices. 
These latter do not possess, and never have pos- 
sessed, the same importance as the institutions 
which, till their abolition the other day, bore the 
same name on the Prussian Railways, and which 
had be :ome petty directorates. On the contrary, 
in Austria they are situated at the main stations, 
and the Station superintendents are their headi>. 

The organisation of the Russian State Rail- 
ways is not unlike Ihat of Austria. The local 



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LISTE OISN^RALE DES DELJSQU^S. 



Les directions locales ont plus d'autonomie, bien 
qu'il y ait auprto de chacune d'elles an ddl^^ 
du contrdle de Vempire cbarg^ de Tezamen des 
budgets, des recettes et des d^penses, de la sur- 
veillance de la gestioQ flnanci^re, etc 

L'administration centrale est formde d'un cori' 
teil d* administration compost d'un prtoident, de 
septd^l^^du minisl^re des voiesde commu- 
nication, d un ^k\k^h de chacun des minist^res 
des finances, de I'int^rieur et des domaines de 
r^tat, d'un repr^ntant du contrdle de I'empire 
et de rinspecteur gdn^ral des chemins de fer (plac6 
sous les 01 dres directs du ministre). 

La surveillance des compagnies priv^s est 
confix, sous les ordres du ministre des voies de 
communication, au d^partement des affaires de 
chemins de fcr. Le chef de ce d^partement com- 
pose avec yadjoint(ovL substitut) du ministre, le 
pr^ident de la direction des chemins de ier de 
r^tat, le chef du d^partement des affaires de 
chemins de fer, du minist^re des finances et 
quelques fonctionnaires des diffi^rents ministdres, 
le conseil des affaires de chemins de fer, qui 
doit se prononcer sur toutes les grandes questions 
^onomiques. Les grandes questions techniques 
de construction etde travauz sont, en outre, sou- 
mises au conseil des ing^nieurs, qui estun corps 
permanent et est compost de membres n'ayant pas 
d'autres fonctions. 

Enfin, le minist^re des finances, qui a dans ses 
attributions les questions de tarifs et les grandes 
questions commerciales, a un d^artcment des 
affaires de chemins de fer(au. minist^re des 
finances) pour les dtudier, ainsi q\x*un conseil des 
affaires dc tarifs, II y a en plus un comity des 
tarifs ou les compagnies privto sont representees 
et qui est preside par le directeur du d^rte- 
ment des affaires de chemins de fer du minis- 
tire des finances. 



manager of each line or system (directeur local) 
is more independent, but there is attached to 
each of them an official representing the Imperial 
control {contrdle de r Empire), whose business it 
is to examine the accounts, receipts and expen- 
diture, and generally to supervise the finance. 

The central administration is formed of a 
Board composed of a president, seven represen- 
tatives of the Ministry of Ck>mmunications, one 
representative of the Ministry of Finance, one of 
the Ministry of the Interior and State Domains, 
one representative of the Imperial Ck>nrrol, and 
of the Inspector General of Railways which latter 
official reports direct to the Minister. 

The supervision of the private Companies is 
entrusted, under the orders of the Minister of 
Communications, to the Railway Department; 
the head of this Department (directeur), together 
with the deputy Minister, the president of the 
State Railway directorate, the head of (he Rail- 
way Matters Department from the Ministry of 
Finance and some other officials of various 
ministi'ies compose the Railway Matters Council 
which deals with all important economic railway 
questions. The great questions of works and 
buildings are further under the control of an 
Engineering Council, which is a permanent body 
composed of members who devote their entire 
time to it. 

Finally, (he Finance ministry, which deals 
wilh questions of railway rates and important 
commercial matlers, has also a Railway Matters 
Department, for investigation purposes, as also 
a Council to approve rates. There is also a tariff 
Committee, on which the private Companies are 
represented and which is presided over by the 
head of the Railway Malters Department from 
the Ministry of Finance, 



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GENERAL LIST OP DELEGATES. 



21- 



y. B. — L*ast4{isqtte (•) indiqae qu*un d61^u4 est 
d<JA membre da Congrte ea uoe aatre qualiU, laquelle 
est imprim^e eatre parentheses. Toat nom r«p«t6 n'entre 
plus en ligne de compte poor le oaloul des d^l^tions. 

^ = Insorit sur la liste de presence. 



N, B, — An asterisk (•} means that a delegate is 
already a member of the Congress in some other capa* 
city, this latter being inserted in brackets. Members 
60 marked are not included in the number allowed to, 
their Company. 

^ = Registered as present. 



Hembres de droit. (Ex offioio delegates.) 



A. — COMMISSION LNTERNATIONALE PERMANENTE. 
' (INTERNATIONAL PERBfANENT COMMISSION.) 

President (President) : 
♦A. Dubois, administrateur des chemins defer de I'^tat beige. 

Vice-prisidents ( Vice-presidents) : 
♦Alfred Picard» inspecteur gdn^ral des ponts et chauss^, pr^idenl de la section des (ravaux 

publics, de ragriculfcure, du commerce efc de I'industrie an conseil d'etat de France ; 
♦JuLBS Urbailt directear g^n^ral du chemin de fer Grand Central Beige, pr^ident de la Soci^t^ 
g^n^rale beige de chemins de fer teonomiques. 

Anciens presidents de session, membres permanents (Past Presidents of sessions, 
permanent members): 
FRANgois Blioscbi, s^nateur du royaume d'ltalie (session de 1887); 
4 Alfred Ficard, pr^it^ (session de 1889) ; 
Nicolas db Petroff, lieutenant g^n^ral du g^nie, adjoint du ministre des voies de communication de 
Russie (session de 1892). 

Membres (Members) : 
♦Fredrik Almgren, administrateur des chemins de fer de T^tat suMois; 
♦Barabant, directeur des chemins de fer de TE^st fran^ais ; 

Borgnini, ing^nieur, directeur g^n^ral des chemins de fer de TAdriatique; 
4C. DB Burlet, directeur g^n^ral de la Soci^t^ nationale beige des chemins de fer vicinauz; 
4A11B. Campiglio, ing^nieur, prteident de llJnion des chemins de fer italiens d*int^r4t local, admi- 
nistrateur du chemin de fer du Nord de Milan ; 
Colson, ing^nieur en chef des ponts et chauss^s, maitre des requdtes au conseil d'etat, directeur 

des chemins de fer au minist^re des travaux publics de France; 
De Bmyn, ministre de ragriculture et des travaux publics de Belgique, membre de la Chambre des 
repr^sentants ; 
♦DieUer, vice-pr^ident de la direction du chemin de fer du Gothard ; 
4Daca, directeur g^ndral des chemins de fer de T^tat roumain, professeur a T^cole des ponts et 

chauss^es de Bocharest ; 
4T0NT Datrenz, ing^nieur ci?il, administrateur du chemin de fer Guillaume- Luxembourg; 
♦Sir Andrbw Fairbaim, ancien membre du Parlement anglais, administrateur du Great Northern 

Railway (Angleterre); 
46riolet, vice-president du conseil d*administration des chemins de fer du Nord fran^^ais 
4Hearteaa, directeur du chemin de fer d'OrUans; 



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Q5 LISTE O^N^ttALE DBS DlSufiGUiS. 



♦ Richard Jeitteles, conseiller auliqiie, direcleur g^n^ral du chemin de fer du Nord autrichien 

Empereur Ferdinaad ; ^ 

♦ Louis Lami^gnani, cbef du trafic et du mouvexneni du premier compartiment des chemins de 

fer italtens de la Jf^di terra n^e ; 

♦ Max Eoler von Leber, inspecteur en chef au corps I. R. du Conlr61e des cliemins de fer de 

TAutriche; 
♦Jules Ludvigh, conseiller ministeriel, membre de la Ghambre des Magnats, direcleur-pr^sident des 

chemins de fer de I'lilat hongrois; 
.Mathias Massa, ing^nieur, direcleur g4a6ral des diemins de fer italiens de la M^dilerronde 
♦Noblemaire, directeur des chemins de fer do Paris k Lyon et a la M6di ter ranee : 

♦ Louis DE Perl, conseiller d'Etat actuel, direcleur g^rant de TUnion russe pour les relations Inter- 

nationales des chemins de fer ; 
♦Philippe, inspecteur g^n^ral des lignes Nord-belges ; 

♦ Le baron Prisse, directeur g^rant honoraire du chemin de fer d*Anvers a Gand ; 
♦Ramaeckers, secretaire genial du miaist^re des chemins de fer, poetes et Idlegraphes de Belgique; 

♦ Schaar, administrateur des chemins de fer de Ti^^tat beige; 

♦ B. Soamarokoff, conseiller d'etat actuel, ingenieur, directeur du d^partement des <:hemins de fer 

de Russie; 
♦The Right Hon. Lord Stalbridge, president du cbnseil d'adminislration du London and North 
Western Railway (Angleterre) : 

♦ d& la Tournerie, in^ecteur g^^al dea ponts et chause^s; 

♦van Kerkwijk, membre dc la seconde Chamhre des J^tats-Gto^raux des Pays- Has; 
♦Werchovsky, ing^oieur, conseiller priv^, membre du Conaeil pour les affaires des chemins de fer de 
Tempire de Russie. 

Secretaire giniral [General Secretary) : 

♦ AuouSTB De Laveleye, ingenieur. 

Seci'^taire (Secretary) : 

♦ Louis Weissenbruch, ingenieur aux chemins de fer de I'^tat beige. 

Tr^sorier {Trcaturer) ; 

♦ I^DOUARD Holemans, chef de division aux chemins de for de I'^lat beige. 

Comity de direction de la Commiflsloa interaationale . 
(Executiire CoauniUee of the Intemational CommissUm.) 

Prisideiit : ♦A. Dabois. MemWei : BrioscM, De Bmyn, ♦Sir Andrew Fairbaim, ♦Gno- 
I^t, ♦AuousTE De Laveleye, ♦Ramaeckers. Secretaire : ♦Louis Weissenbrueb. Tr^iorier -. 
♦E. Holemans. 

SerTlces sp^eiaiix da Goatitd. (BxecntiTO Comai^ttee Staff) 

REDACTION DU BULLETIN. (EDITORIAL SUB-COMMITTEE.; 

President : ♦A. Dobois. Membres : ♦Ramaockers, membre du comity de direction; ♦L. We»- 
senbrach. secretaire du comitd de direction. Secretaire de la redaction : ♦A. Hubeiti, inginieur, 
professeur k lUoirersit^ de Bruxelles. 

SERVICE ST^NOGRAPHIQUE. (SHORTHAND STAFF.) 

Lacombl^, chef du ser nee sinograph iqtie k la ClYarabre el am S^nai de Betgiepie, chefdu service; 
♦Dehonl, ♦Demarteau, ♦Hombrecht, ^Tambaar ei^YiXkfy, st^ograghes. 



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GENERAL LIST OP DELEGATK. J 3 



B — SECTION ANGLAISE DE LA COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE. 

(COHMISSIOX I.OCVLE d'0RG4?«ISATI0N POUR LA CINQUI^E SESSrON.) 

ENGLISH SECTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION. 

(local organ islnc committee for the fifth session.) 

, President {Presiknl) : 

♦ Sir Andrew Fairbaim*, director Great Northera Railway (menabre du ComiW de direction du 

Congrfts). 

Vice-president ( f'^ice- President) : 
♦The Viscount £mlyn» depaly chairman Great Western Railway. 

Mcnibres (Members) : 

4G. J. Armytager cliairman, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway; 
♦GusTAV BehrttlS. director, Midland Railway; 

♦ Sir Courtenay Boyle, K . C. B . » secretary of the Board of Trade ; 
♦The Marquess of Breadalbane, K. G., director^ Caledon km Railway; 
♦John Glegfaom, director. North Eastern Railway ; 

♦J. C. Colvill, chairman. Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland ; 
♦Sir Myles Fenton, general manager, South Eastern Railway; 
♦J. S. Forbea, chairman, London Chatham and Dover Railway; 

♦ Lord Claud J. Hamilton, chairman. Great Eastern Railway; 

♦ Fbkdbrick Harrison^ general manager, London and North Western Railway ; 

♦ Hbnbt Lambert, general manager, Great Western Railway ; 

♦O. W. Maclnre» M. P.^ director^ Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway ; 

♦Sir Hbnby Oakley, general manager. Great Northern Railway ; 

♦The Right Hon. Sir Arthur Otway» Bart., director, London Brighton and South Coaat Railway , 

♦Wtndham Portal, chairman, London and Southwestern Railway; 

♦Sir Gborob Rnssell, Bart. M. P.» director. South Eastern Railway ; 

♦Sir Cbarlbs Scetter» general manager, London and Sooth Weatera Railway ; 

^ Jambs Thompson, general manager, Caledonian Railway; 

♦W. Tipping, director, London and North Western Railway; 

^G. H. Tomer, general manager. Midland Railway; 

^The Marquess of Tweeddale» chairman. North British Railway. 

Secretaire (Secretart/) : 

♦W. M. Acwortb. 

Secretaire adjoint (Assistant Sca'eUtry) : 
♦H. H. Orr. 

Gomit^ de directtoii de la seetioii anglaise. 
(BzecutiTe Committee of the Knglish Section.) 

President : ♦Sir Andrew Falrbalm. Membres : ♦The Viscount Emlyn, ♦The Right Hon. Sir 
AsTHDR Otway. Bnrt., ♦G. J. Armytage, ♦G. Bahrene, ♦ w. Tipping. Secretaire : ♦ W. M. Ac- 
worth. Secretaire adjoint : ♦H. H. OlT. 



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24 LISTE OJSnP^RALK DES DliLliQUlSS. 



C. — RAPPORTEURS NOMMfiS PAR LA COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE. 
(REPORTERS APPOINTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ) 

4 J. A. F. Aspinall, chiei meclianical engineer, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway; 

♦W. A8t» conseilier de r^gence, dirccteur des voics et travaux du chemin de fer du Nord autrichieu 

Empereur Ferdinand ; 
^Anvert, ing^nieur attach^ au service central du materiel des chemins de fer de Pari^ a L;on et 

k la M^iterran^ ; 
^Belleroche, ing^nieur chef de service au chemin de fer Grand Central Beige; 
^A. VON Boschaili ing^nieur au chemin de fer du Nord autrichien Empereur Ferdinand; 
4Bricka, ing^nieur en chef de Vexploitation des chemins de fer de I'^tat fran9ais, professeur du 

cours de chemins de fer a T^cole des ponls et chauss^s ; 
^DEBurlet*, directeur g^n^ral de la Socidt^ nationalc beige des chemins de fer vicinauz (membre 

de la Commission Internationale du Congr^) ; 
H. De Backer, directeur g^n^ral de la Soci^t^ g^n^rale de chemins de fer ^conomiques de Belgique. 
Gborobs De Laveleye, membre du conseil d'administration du chemin de fer du Congo ; 
4Daca*, directeur g^n^ral des chemins de fer de I'^tat roumain, professeur k T^cole des ponts et 

chauss^ de Bucharest (membre de la Commission Internationale du Congrd?) ; 
4F. Hanison*, general manager, London and North Western Railway (membre de la section anglaise); 
^y. Herzenstein, ing^nieur des voies de communication de Russie, vice-pr6sident de la Commission 

pour r^tude de la conservation des bois ; 
^Hodeige, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de I'^tat beige ; 

^Hubert, ing^nieur en chef, directeur d'administration aux chemins de ferde T^tat beige; 
4W. Hunt, chief engineer, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway; 
^Kowalski, ing^nieur en chef du service central de Texploitation du chemin de fer de B6iie-Guelma et 

prolongements ; 
4Ht. Lambert*, general manager, Great Western Railway (membre de la section anglaise) ; 
^Max Edlbr von Leber*, inspecteur en chef au corps I. R. du Contrdle des chemins de fer de 

TAutriche (membre de la Commission internationale du Congrds) ; 
P. W. Meik. M. Inst. C. E. ; 
4Luc(BN Motte, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de I'l^lat beige; 
♦ A. C. Humphreys-Owen, M. P., chairman of the Montgomeryshire County Council, director 

Cambrian Railways; 
♦A. C. Park, carriage superintendent, London and North Western Railway ; 
4 DB Perl*, conseilier d*^tatactuel, directeur gdrantdel'Union russe pourles relations Internationales 

des chemins de fer (membre de la Commission internationale du Congr^s); 
4Pl0Cq, ing^nieur, chef de Texploitation de la Soci^t^ g^n^rale des chemins de fer dconomiques fran^ais; 
4 J' Richter, adjoint du directeur de la ligne de Saint-P^tersbourg k Varsovie des chemins de fer de 

riitat russe ; 
4J0SEPH Rocca, ing^nieur, inspecteur de la direction g6n6rale des chemins de fer italiens de la 

M^diterran^; 
4Saboaret, ingdnieur des pouts et chauss^, ingdnieur principal du service central de la voie au 

chemin de fer de Paris & Orleans; 
^EuG. Sartiaux, chef des services dlectriques des chemins de fer du Nord fran^is; 
4Sanvage, ing^nieur en chef des mines, ing^nieur en chef adjoint du materiel et de la traction des 

chemins de fer de I'Ouest fran^is ; 
4LB0N Scolari, docteur en droit, chef de division k la direction g^n^rale des chemin > de fer italiens de 

la MMiterrande ; 
4Terzi, directeur du chemin de fer de Suzzara-Ferrara; 
4 A. M. Thompson signal superintendent, London and North Western Railway ; 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 25 



^G. H. Tomer*, general manager. Midland Railway (membre de la section anglaise); 
^R. H. Twelyetrees, chief goods manager, Great Northern railway ; 
^J. L. WiUdnson, chief goods manager. Great Western Railway ; 

^A. Zanotta, ing^nieur, chef de section au service de Tentretien, surveillance et travaux des chemins 
de fer italiens de la MMiterran^. 

D. — SECRETAIRES-RAPPORTEURS NOMMlfiS PAR LA COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE 
(SECRETARY-REPORTERS APPOINTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION.) 

^Capt. Ghurchward, agent of the London Gbalham and Dover Railway in Paris; 

^Demoalin. inspecteur du materiel el de la traction des chemins de fer de TOaest fran^is; 

♦ E. R. Dolby, Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., M. I. Mech. E. Wh. So. 

^FaYTO, chef de la gare man time de Calais du chemin de fer du Nord fran^ais ; 

^DB FrdmillYille, inspecteur du materiel roulant au chemin de fer de Paris k Orleans; 

^Victor 66rard, continental traffic manager, London, Brighton and South Coast Railway ; 

^GuiUoux, sous- inspecteur des services admin istratifs du chemin de ler du Nord fran^is; 

^Capt. Gye, R. N., agent of the South Eastern Railway in Paris; 

^Le D^ Harbt L. Hirschl, secr^aire du president de la Soci^t^ autrichienne-hongroise des chemins de 

ferdel'^tat; 
^Niessenl agent of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway at Cologne; 
^Lksub Robinson, Associate Member of Institute of Civil Engineers ; 
^Sire, agent de la Compagnie du chemin de fer du Nord fran^is a Londres; 
^H IJ. Spiller, general continental agent, Midland Railway; 
^E. Uytborck, agent of the South Eastern Railway in Brussels; 
^Yisinet, ngent de la Compagnie des chemins de fer de TOuest fran^ais en Angleterre ; 
^Wildhagen, inspecteur principal de la Compagnie internationsle des wagons-lits et des grands 

express curop^ns. 



n. — Hembres d616gu6s par les Gonvernements adherents et les Administrations 

de chemins de fer participantes. 

(Members appointed bj Governments supporting, wd by Railway Administrations 

subscribing to the Congress.) 



A. — D6l£GU£S DES GOUYERNEMENTS ADHERENTS. 
(MEMBERS APPOINTED BY GOYERNMENTS SUPPORTING THE CONGRESS.) 

Argentine (Bepublique) (Argentine Bepublic). 

Minisl^e de VinUrieur, 

Autriche-Hongrle (Austria Hungary). 

Alinistire du commerce d'Autrtche ; 
♦ S. Exc. le D' chevalier L^n von Bilinski, conseiller intime L et R., chef do section au minist^re 
L R. du commerce, president de la direction g^n^rale L R. des chemins de fer de T^lat autrichien. 



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LISTE O^XI^RALE DES D^Ll^GU^^. 



^Max Edler vox LalMr*^ iospecteur ea chef au corps I. R. da conMle des chemins de fer de 
TAutriche (membre de la Commiasioa iniernationale da Congr^ et rapporleui*).. 

Ministire du cotnmcrce de Hongine : 
^ Jules Lndrigh*, conseiller minist^riel, membre de la Chambre des Magnats, direcleur president 

des chemins de fer de I'fitat hongrois (membre de la Commission Internationale du Congres); 
^GoBNBL Tolnay, inspecteur principal a Tinspection g^n^rale des chemins de fer et de la navigation 
an minist^re du commerce. 

Belgrxqut (Belsrioit). 

MinisUre des chemins de fe7% posies et UUgraphcs et chemins de /"«• de C£'at. 
Commission internationals du Congrds : 
^A. Dubois** administrateur des chemins defer de T^tat beige, pr^ident de la Commission inter' 

nationale du Congr^; 
^Ramaeckers*, secretaire general du mtnist^re des chemins de fer, postes et telegraplics, membre 

du comity de direction du Gongrte; 
^Schaar*, administrateur des chemins de fer de T^tat beige, membra de la Commission interna - 

tionale du Congres; 
^ Louis Weissenbruch*, ing^nieur a rAdministration des chemins de fer de TlSlat beige, secretaire 

du comite de direction du Congres ; 
^^DOUARD Holemans*, chefde division a TAdminisiration des chemins deferde F^tat beige, Iresorier 

du comite de direction du Congres. 

Rapporteurs : 
^Hubert*, ing^nieur en chef, directeur d'administration aui chemins de fer de I'^tat beige ; 
^Hodeige*, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de I'^tat beige; 
^LuciBN Motte*, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de T^tat beige. 

Autres diUguH : 
^Dethieu, inspecteur general aux chemins de fer de Tlilat beige; 
^Niels, inspecteur de direction aux chemins de fer de T^tat beige; 
^De BoBSChere, ing^nieur en chef aux chemins de fer de T^tai beige; 
^Gerard, ing^nienr principal aux chemins de fer de T^tat beige ; 
^Bruneel, ing^nleur principal aux chemins d£ fer de I'^tal; bdge. 

Bolivie (BoliYift). 

Minist&re des travaux publics : 

F. Suarez, consul general a Londres. 

Bresil (Brazil). 

Ministdre des travaux publics, du commei'ce et de V agriculture ; 

^Roberto TrompOWSky Leitao de Almeida, colonel du g6nie, chef de la Commission des achats en 
Europe. 

Bnl^iie (Bulgaria). 

MinisUre des travaux publics^ voies et communications. 

Chili. 

Ministire de Vindustrie, des travaux publics et de la colonisation : 
^ ViGToa Pabtot Freire, ing^nieur, inspeetesr technique des matdriaux en Europe. 



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GENERAL LIST OF I>ELBGATES. 27 



CU110 (Odsa). 

Le Tsung-U-Yamen. 

Congo (^at independant da). 

Dipartement dcs affaires ^trangires : 

♦Le nu^r Albbrt Thys, officier d'ordonoance du Roi d«s Beiges^ adminiskaleur direct«ir g^n^ral 
de la Gompagnie du chemin de fer du Congo ; 
GflOBOBS De LaToleyt*) admioistrateur de la Gompagnie da chenuA de fer du Congo (rapporteur) ; 
♦Emilb Delcommone, commissaire de la Gompagnie du chemin de fer du Congo. 

Danemark (Denmark). 

MinUtdre de VinUrieur et des truvaux publics : 
♦Tegner, directeur g^nAral des chemins de fer de I'filat danois. 

igypte (Egypt). 

Adminisiralion des chemins de fer, des tiUgrapkes et duport d* Alexamdrie : 
♦S. Exc. B001108 Pacha Hobar, administrateur ; 

♦ Cotterill, ing^nieur^ sous-chef du service technique. 

Espagne (Spain). 

Ministdre du Fomento : 
♦Don Eduardo Echegaray, ingdnieur-chef. 

£tat8-TJni8 d^Amerique (United States of America). 

Secr^ariat ct^at : 
♦Jamss R. Rooseyelt, secretary of the United States Embassy in London. 

France. 

MinisUre des travaux publics : 

♦ A1.FRBD Picard*, ioapeeteur g^n^raldes ponta et cbauBS^eSy prudent deU aecUon des travaux publics, 

de Tagriculiare, du commerce et de Tindustrie au conseil d'^taii, viceopc^ideat du co nitd con- 
sultatif des chemins de fer (vice-president da la Commiatioo iateroationale du Gongrte) ; 
•#Linder, inspecteur gdndral des pouts et cbauss^es, vice-prteident du conseil gdndral des mines ; 
♦Orsel. inspecteur g^ndral des mines, vice-pr^ident du comity de I'exploitation technique des chemins 
de fer ; 
Goleon*, iog^nieur en chef des ponts etchauss^es, maitre des requdtes au conseil d*^tat, directeur des 
chemins de fer au ministdre des travaux publics (membre de la Commission internationale du Con- 
gr^); 
Aozoay, chef du cabinet du ministre des travaux publics; 

♦ Teissier, auditeur au conseil d*£tat; 
♦L^N Barthou; 

Massieu, inspecteur g^n^ral des mines, charge de la directioa du oootrdledes chamiuade fer da TBat ; 

♦ Salva, inspecteur g^n^ral des ponts et chausi^, charge de la direelion dii C034r61a du cheniia de fer 

daNord; 
♦Holts, inspecteur g^^ral des ponts et chauss^s, charge de la direction du con^rdle des chemins de 
fer de Paris-Lyon*M^iterraiite; 



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^8 LiSTE gi5n^rale des d^liSgui^s. 



^Forestier, inspecteur g6nSral des ponts et chaass^s, chnrgi de la direction du C0Dtr61e du chemm 

de fer alg^rien; 
^Lefebyre, inspecteur g^n^ral des ponts et chauss^s, charge de la direction du contr61e du chemia 

de fer d'Orl^ans ; 
^Le CShatelier, ing^nieur en chef des ponls et cbaussees, charge du service special du contr61e des 

ligaes en construction ou en exploitation dans Paris; 
^ Worms de RomiUy, ing^nieur en chef des mines, attach^ au service du contr61e du r^seau de la 

M^iterran^ ; 
^Resal, ing^nieur en chef des pontd et chauss^es, acj^'oint k la direction des chemins de fer au minist^re 

des travaux publics; 
^Ghesnean, ing^nieur des mines, adjoint a la direction des chemins de fer au minist^re des travaux 

publics . 

RfinisUi*e du commerce , de r Industrie, des posies et des i^Ugraphes : 
'^Alprbd Picard*, ci-dessus d^sign^ (voir Ministire des travaux publics); 
-#Ghaild6ze, directeur du commerce ext^rieur au minisi^re du commerce et de Tindustrie, membre 

du comity consuUatif des chemins de fer; 
Delaunay-Belleville, president de la chambre de commerce de Paris, membre du comild consultalif 

des chemins de fer, directeur g^ndral de Texploitation de I'Exposition universelle de 1900; 
^Derrilld, president du tribunal de commerce de la Seine, membre du comity consultatif des chemins 

de for, directeur g^n^ral adjoint de Texploitation de I'Exposition universelle de 1900; 
-^Ghardon, auditeur de i'^ classe au conseil d'^lat, secretaire adjoint du comity consultatif des 

chemins de fer, secretaire general de I'Exposition universelle de 1900 ; 
^Fontaine, ingdnieur des mines, charge des fonclions de sous-directeur de TOfflce du travail ; 
^Romieu, maitre des requdtes au conseil d'etat, professeur de legislation des chemins de fer a I'^cole 

des sciences politiques; 
^ Andr^ Pelletan, ingenieur, commissaire expert pour la verification des marchandises presentees aux 

douanes ; 
^Goury du Roslan, ingenieur des ponts et chauss^es, deiegue permanent de TOffice du travail ; 
^PeU6, ingenieur des mines, ingenieur adjoint au chef de I'exploilation des chemins de fer de I'^lat; 
^GotUchalk, ingenieur civil, membre du comite consultatif et du comite de Texploitation technique 

des chomins de fer; 
^Pontzen, ingenieur civil, membre du comite de Texploitation technique des chemins de fer; 
•^Lagont, ingenieur en chef des ponts et chaussees ; 
^Debray, ingenieur en chef des ponts et chaussees, professeur a T^cole nationale des ponts et chaussees, 

secretaire general de la Commission des methodes d'essai des materiaux de construction ; 
Flachon, chef adjoint du cabinet du Ministre des travaux publics. 

Orande-Bretagne, empire des Indes et colonies 
(Great Britain, India and Colonies.) 

A. — Grande-BretAene (Gi*eat Britala). 

Ministdve du commerce {Board of Tt^ade) ; 
^ Jambs Bryce, president ; 
>The Earl Gathcart; 

-# The Right Honourable Lord Ballonr of Burleigh; 
♦The Right Honourable A. I. Mundella, M. P., P. R. S.; 

-^Sir Goortenay Boyle*, K. G. B., permanent secretary to the Board of Trade (membre de la section 
anglaise); 
Francis J. S. Hopwood, G. M. Q., assistant secretary. Board of Trade ; 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 29' 



4 Sir Montagu Ommaimey, K. G. M. G., Grown Agontfor the Golooies; 
♦Major-General G. S. Hntchinson, R. E., G. B.; 

♦W. U. Preace, G. B., P. R. S., engineer in chief and electrician to the general post office; 
♦Major P. A. Marindin, R. E., G. M. G., Board of Trade, inspecting officer of railways; 
♦Lieutenant Golonel H. A. Torke» R. E,. Board of Trade, inspecting officer of railways; 
♦Major G. W. Addison, R. E., Board of Trade, inspecting officer of railways ; 
♦Major P. Garde W» R. E.; 
♦Major G. M. G. Bate, R. E.; 

♦ Lieutenant B. P. G. Gironard, R. E.; 

♦ Lieutenant E. H. M. Leggett, R £. 

B, — Empire des Indes et oolonie* (India and Colonies)* 

Secretariat d^at pour Vempire da Indes (Under Secretary of Slate fot^ India) : 
♦Got. R. A. Sargeaont, R. E., Assoc. M. Inst. G. E., P. J. Inst., director general of Indian RaiUays ;_ 
♦J. R. Bell, consulting engineer to the Government of India for State Railways. . 

Dipartemeyit des chemins de fet* et canaitx du Dominion du Canada (Departmait of Railways and" 
Canals of Canada) : 

♦Sir Charles Tnpper, Bart., G. G. M. G., G. B , High Commissioner for Canada in London ; 
♦CoxRADiN P. Just, secretary of the High Commissioner for Canada in London. 

Ministiredes travaux publics de lacolonie du Cap (Public Works Department of Cape of Good Hope), 

Agcnce gin^rale de la colonic de Natal d Londres (Agent general for Natal in London) : 
♦Walter Peace, C. M. G., agent general for Natal in London. 

Agence gindrale de VAustralie de V Quest (Agent general for Western Australia) : 
♦Sir Malcolm Eraser, K. G. M. G., agent general for Western Australia in London. 

Agence ginirale de VAustralie du Sudd Londres (Agent general for South Australia in London) : 
♦The Hon. Thomas Playlord, agent general for South Australia in London. 

Agence ginirale de la colonin de la Noiwclle Gallcs du Sud d Londres (Agent general fur New 
South Wales in London) : 
♦Edward Miller Gard Eddy, Cliief Commissioner of the New South Wales Gavernment Railways. 

Agence gdnirale de la colonic de la Nouvelle Zelande d Londres (Agent general for New Zealand" 
in London) : 
♦John Carruthers, consulting engineer to tlie Government of New Zealand in London. 

Agence gin^ale de la colonic de Queensland d Londres (Agent general for Queensland in Loitdon) :. 
♦Sir Jambs Garrick, agent general for Queensland in London. 

Agence ginirale de la colonic de Tasmanic a Londres (Agent general for Tasmania in London) : 

Sir Robert G. W. Herbert G. C. B., agent general for Tasmania in London. 

Agence g&ndrale de la colonic dc Victoria d Londres (Agent general for Victoria in London). 

Orece (Oreece). 

Minist&t^e de VintMcur, 

ItaUe (Italy). 

Minis fire des travaux publics : 

FRANgois Brioschi*, s^nateur du royaume d'ltalie (membre du comity de direction du Congr^s)- 

♦ Le comte Louis Ripa di Meana, inspecleur g6ndral des chemins de fer ; 



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30 LISTE G^NliRALE DES D^LI^GIJ^S. 



Ottolenghiy inspecteur sup^rieur des chenrios de fer ; 
^ Rossi, inspecteur sup^rieur des chemins de fer; 
^Grosa, inspecleur en chef des chemins de &r. 

Japon (Japan). 

MinisUre des commurrtcations : 

HiKOKicHi Ijuin, secretaire de la legation du Japon a Londres. 

Luxembonrg (Laxemburg). 

Direction gindrale des travaux j^iiblics. 

Hexiqne (Mexico). 

Secretariat des copimunications et des travail publics : 
Luis Salaisar, ing^ieur ; 
^EsTANiSLAO Velasco, ing^nieur, chef du d^partement des chemins de fer. 

Vorvege (Horway). 

Aiinistire des travaux publics : 
♦C. Pihl, directeur pour le d^partement de construclion aux chemins de fer de I'^tat ; 
C. E. Kreftlng, directeur pour led^partement de Sexploitation aux chemins de ferde T^lal. 

Pays-Bas (Holland). 

Minist&re du wattrstaaty du commerce et de Vindttstrie : 
^J. J. Yan Kerkwijk*, membre de la seconde Chambre des ^tats-G^n^roux des Pays-Bas (membre de 

la Commission internatiooale du Gongr^s) ; 
4Siinon(flls), membre du conseil de surveillance des chemins de fer. 

Peron (Pern). 

Minisldre de Viniirieur, de la police et des travaux publics. 

Portugal. 

Ministire des travaux publics, du commerce et de Cindustine : 
^Bbnto Portunato db Moura Continro D'Almeida d^E^a, ing^nieur, inspecteur de i^^ dasse et 
membre du conseil des travaux publics et des mines. 

Bimmanie (Bonmimia). 

Ministire des travctux publics : 
4Duca*, directeur g^ndral des chemins de fer de 11^ tat, professeur a I'liScoIe des ponts et chaussdes 

de Bucharest (membre de la Commission intemationale du Congr^s et rapporteur); 
♦Ch. Drago, chefdc service des ateliers et du materiel aux chemins de fer de I'filat; 
4 A. Gafenco, chef de service aux chemins de fer de T^tat ; 
♦ A. GottesCO, chef de service aux chemins de fer de I'^lat ; 
^C. ManeSCO, ch^de service aux chemins de fer de I'lilat; 
4 A. Saligny, chef de service aux chemins de fer de TJ^tat. 



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aENERAL LIST OP DELEGATES. 31 



Bussie (Sussia). 

Minist&t^e des voies de communication : 

♦ Alexandre Yermoloif, conseiller priv6, directeur de la chancellerie du minislre des voies de com- 

munication; 

♦ Vladimir Werchovsky*, conseiller priv^, ing^nie-ir des ponts et chaussees, niembre du conseil des 

chemins de fer (membre de la Commission iLternationale du Congr^s) ; 

♦ Basile Sonmarokoff*, conseiller d'etat actuel. ing^nieur des ponts et cliaiisfde^, directeur du d^ar- 

tcment des chemins de fer (membre de la Commission Internationale du Congr^s); 

♦ Louis dePci'I*, conseiller d'etat actuel, atlachd au ministdre et g^rant de I'Union russe pour les 

relations internationales des chemins de ier (membre de la Commission intemntionaledu Congr^ 

et rapporteur); 
♦Nicolas Kopytkin, conseiller d'lilat actuel, ingAnieur dee ponts et chauss^p, inspecteur des trains 

imp^aux; 
♦Salkoif, conseiller d'Etat actuel, ing^nieur ; 
♦Jacques Gordldenko, conseiller d'^t^it, inginiettr des ponts et chauss^es, professeur extraordinaire 

a PInslitut des voies de communication de I'Empereur Alexandre I" ; , 

♦ Le colonel Alfrbdiw Wendlich^ ing^nieur militarre, membre du conseil des ing^nieurs da minis- 

t^e des voies de communication ; 

♦ Balthazar Felix Soiiscllinsky, conseiller d'l5lat, ing^nieur attache a la section technique du ddpar- 

tement des chemins de fer; 

♦Sytenko, conseiller d'etat, r^dacteur en chef du Journal oflRciel du minisl^re des voies de communica- 
tion ; 

♦Stanislas de Kouilitsky, conseiller de cour, ing^nieur de cinqui^me classe &u minist^re des voi6s de 
communication ; 

♦Proscouriakoffy conseiller decour, aide du g^raut du laboratoire m^anique de i'lnstitui des ing^- 
nieurs des voies de communication de TKinpercur Alexandre P', ing^nieur des voies de communi- 
cation ; 

♦ V. Herzenstein*, conseiller tilulaire, ingenieur attach^ au rainist^re des voies de communication 

(rapporteur), 

Mitiisl&re des finances. D^partement des affaires de chemins de fer : 

♦Ratkoff-Rojnoff, vice-directeur du d^parlcment des affaires de chemins de fer; 

♦Vilinski, membre du comitd des tarifs du minist^re des finances ; 

♦KhitrOYO, fonctionnaire pour missions sp^ciales du d^partemenfc des affaires de chemins de fer du 

minist^re des finances et reprdsentant de ce mini&t^re a TAdministration des chemins de fer 

de la Couronne. 

Minister e de tintirieuv : 

♦ Nicolas de Zwolinski, conseiller honoraire, fonctionnaire au comitd technique du minisl^re de 

rinl^rieur. 

Serbie (Serbia). 

MinisUre 'les travaux publics : 

♦ MiuvoiK Tossimovitch, iu^pecteur g^n^rul des chemins de fer de I'Etat serbe. 

Slam. 

MinisUre des travaux publics : 

♦ XiViER Olin, ancien ministre des travaux publics de Belgique. 



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32 LiSTE gi5xiJrale DES DlJLliOU^S. 



Suede (Swedes). 

MinitUre de Vintdricur : 

^Le comte Rodolphb Gronstedt, directeur gdn^ral des chemins de fer de T^tat; 
^Predrik Almgren*, admiaistratour des chemius.de fer de I'^Uit su^ois (membre de la Commission 
interuationale du Congris). 

Suisse (Switzerland). 

Dipartemait des postcs et des chemins de fet* : 
^JoHANN Tschiemer, inspecteur technique; 
^Franqois Schftle, ing^nieur du contr6le au ddpartement federal des chemins de fer. 

Tarqnie (Turkey). 

MinisUre du commerce et des travaux publics .* 
^Le commandant Ghalib Bey, attach^ naval h Tambassade imp^riale de Turquie a Londres. 



B. — D^LfiGUfiS DES ADMINISTRATIONS PARTICIPANTES. 
MEMBERS APPOINTED BY ADMINISTRATIONS SUBSCRIBING TO THE CONGRESS. 

Allemagne (Oermany). 

C/icmin de fer Sud-Esf piussicn (260 k., 3 d6l.) : 
Krueger, membre de la direction. 
Chemin de fer de Weimar-G^ra (69 k., 2 dil.) : 
^ Ernst Kohl, directeur, conseiller sup^rieur de construction. 

Argentine (Bepnbliqne) (Argentine Bepnblic). 

lincnos-Ayrcs Great Southern Roilwny (2,255 k. [1,401 milles]. 7 dd! ) : 

^FuANK Parish, chairman ; 
^ JouN Fair, deputy chairman ; 

♦ R. J. Neild, director; 

♦ H. C. Allen, secretary; 

^H. 11. Loveday, traffic superintendent; 

^ James Livesey, M. I. C. E., consulting engineer; 

^A- Giet, accountant London office. 

Central Argentine Railtrgf/ (1,236 k. [768 milUs] 5 del.) : 

♦J. W. Batten, director; 

♦ G. Cooper, director; 

♦ F. Neild, director; 
^Campbell P. Ogilvle, director; 

^R. Campbell Baines, Mole superintendent. 

Bucnos'Ayrcs and Ensenada Pert Raihv ny (206 k [12S millesl. 3 d^I.) : 

CiiARLBS Buchanan Ker, director; 
^William Roberts, director; 
♦T. D. Brooke, secretary. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 33 



G rand chemin de ftr Central Sud'Arniricain (en construction, 2 d^l.) : 

^ Jules Carlier, adminislrateur ; 
A. J. DS LA Fontaine, ing^nieur. 

Antriche-Hong^ie (Austria-Hungary). 

A. — AutPlcho (Austria). 

Chemins de fer de VJUat (8,077 k., 8 d^l.) : 

^S. Exc. le Dr. cheFalier Leon von Bilinski*, conseiller intime f. et R., chef de section au Minist^ro 
L R. du commerce, president de la direction gdn^rale I. R. (d^l^gu^ du gouvernement autrichien). 

^Le Dr. Ferdinand Zehetner, conseiller I. R. aulique, directeur administratif de la direction 
gdu^rale ; 

♦GusTAV Gerstel, conseiller L R. de r^gence, directeur du mouvement de la direction g6n6rale; 

♦ Le Dr. Chevalier Sbvbrin von Kniaziolucki, conseiller de la direction gdu^rale. chef de la section 

pr^identielle de la direction g^nirale; 

♦ Anton Kohnelt, conseiller L R. de rdgence, chef adjoint de la section coramerciale de la direction 

g^n^rale ; 

♦ Victor Schutzenhofer, conseiller \,, chef adjoint de la seclion de la traction de la direction 

g^ndrale; 
Alois Stane, conseiller de la direction gdn^rale, directeur adjoint de la construction de la direction 
g^ndrale; 

♦ Victor von Koloszrary, directeur de Texploitation de la direction d*exploitnlion de Cracovie; 
♦Theodor von Scala, directeur de I'exploitatiou de la direction d'cxploitation de Villach. 

Chemins de fer du Sud de V Autrichc (2,596 k., 8 del.) : 

♦ Son AUesse Ser^nissime le prince Egon Hohenlohe, president; 
♦Oscar SchlUer, directeur; 

Le chevalier Max Bram von Bardany, conseiller L R., directeur do Texploitalion. 

Sociif^ autrirhi^nnc hnngroUc dc* chemins de fer dc VEtat (1,376 k., 5 del ) : 

♦ Le chevalier Theodore de Taussig, pr^ident; 

♦ Le chevalier Rodolphb de Grimburg. conseiller aulique, directeur; 
♦Charles Rimbdck, conseiller du gouvernement, chef du service financier; 

• ♦Celestin Rnbricius, conseiller du gouvernement, clief du service de Texploitalion ; 

♦ Fhanqois Pauer, inspecteur general et chef du service du m;il6riel et de la traction ; 

♦ Le Dr. Harry L. Hirschl*, secretaire (secretaire nippoi leu r). 

Chemins de fer dn Nurd Empcrenr Ferdinand (1,295 k., 5 del.) : 

♦Son Exc. le margrave Albxaxdkr Pallavicini, conseiller intime L et R. et chambellan, president ; 
♦Son Exc. le comle Philipi' Boos-Waldeck und Montfort, conseiller intime L et R. et cha.nibellan, 

vice- president; 
♦Joseph Hdnigsvald, conseiller L et R. de r^gence, adminislrateur; 
♦Alfred von Lenz, administrateur; 

♦ Richard Jeitteles*, conseiller I. et R. auliquc, directeur gdniril (membre dc la Commission inter- 

na lionnle du Congr^s); 

♦ Wilhklm Ast*, conseiller I. et R. de r^gence, directeur des voies et travaux (rapporteur); 

♦ Le Dr. Anton Bezecny, conseiller L et R. de rcgence, secretaire g^niral ; 

♦ Le chevalier Arthur von Boschan*, ingdnieur (rapporteur). 

3 



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34 LISTE Gl^NI^RALE DES D^L^GUlSS. 



Cliemins de fei* Ncrd-Ouest autrichiciis (940 k., 4 d61.) : 

Le Dr. Eiiil Sax, administrateur; 

♦ Le Dr. Alexander Eger, conseiller aulique, directeur; 
^Wenzel Hohenegger, ing^nieur, directeur des travauz ; 
^Le Dr. Max Borowy, secretaire de la direction. 

Jonction Sud-Kord altemande (280 k., 3 del.) : 

^ JoHANN Freihbrr VON Lioblg, administratear ; 
^ Louis LOb, administrateur; 
E. Prinzig, administrateur. 

Chemins de fcr dc Leinhcrti'CzernowUt'Jfriry (581 k., 4 del.) : 

^E. A. Zififer, ing^nicur, president; 
^Lord EusTACB Cecil, administrateur; 

L. M. Rate, administrateur; 
^Max Zinglar, secretaire du bureau de Londres. 

Chemins de f n ^ du Nord de la Bohdme (320 k., 3 del.). 
Chemin de fer de Vi^mne-Aspang (85 k., 2 del.) : 

^ Franz Grftnebanm, vioe-president ; 

♦ Le chevalier Alfred Tuxkler von Treuimfeld, directeur. 

B. — Hongrle (Ilun|$ai*y). 

Oiemins de fer de VEtat (7,395 k., 8 del.) : 

♦Jules Ludvigh*, conseiller ministeriel, membre de la Chambre des Magnats, directeur-prcsident 

(membre de la Commission Internationale du Gongres, deiegue du gouvernement hongrois); 
♦SiGisMOND Thaly, conseiller royal, chef d'exploitation ; 

♦ Emilb Stiffson, inspecteur au service du mouvement ; 

♦ SiGisMOND Abeles, inspecteur au service de la traction ; 

♦ Ferdinand FOrster, directeur de la fabrique de machines; 
Henri Fouquau, secretaire dc la direction. 

Chemin de fer Kaschau-Oderhevg (446 k., 3 del.) : 

Pierre de Ratb, inpenieur, directeur general ; 

♦ Adobjau Hansser, dccteur en droit, inspecteur principal. 

Chemins de fei* ttnis d'Arcid ct de Csanad (325 k., 3 del.) : 

♦ Beni de Boros, conseiller royal, depute au Parlement hongrois, directeur et ingenieur en chef; 

♦ Bela de Vasarhelyi, directeur et administrateur; 

♦ Laszlo de Bohus, directeur et administrateur. 

Chemins de fer de la ratline de Szamos (221 k., 3 del.) : 

♦Alexandre de Schreiber, membre de la direction ; 
SoLTAN de Maleter, directeur. 

Chemin de fer d'inUrH local dit Ssilagysdg (109 k., 3 del.) : 

CoLOMAN de (Solacsy, admioislrateur deiegue; 
Jules de Poscb, administrateur; 
Ambroi^e Nemenyi, administrateur. 



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GENERAL UST OF DELEGATES. 35 



Chemin de fet* de Napy Kihinda d Nafft/'Beoskerek (71 k., 2 del.) : 

L'XTis Deutsche conseilU r de direction ; 

Le Dr. Stefan Kepessy, directeur-rapporteur. 

Chemin de fer de Mohacs-Funfkirchcn (69 k., 2 d6i.) : 

Louis ob Ullmann, directeur g^ndral ; 
Emii£ de Thaly, direckaor de I'exploitatton. 

Chemin de fer de Vinhovce d Brcka (51 k., 2 d6l.) : 

Le chevalier Ernest de Lindheim, admiaistrateur ; 

Coloman de Galacsy*, adminislraleur d6l6gu6 (d616gu6 du chemin de fer d'intertl local du Szilagjsag"). 

Belgique (Belgium). 

Chemins'dc fer de VEtat (3,250 k , 8 d^l.)- 

Commission internationale du Congris : 

^A. Dabois*» administrateur des chemins de ferde Ti^lat beige, president de la Commission interna- 
tionale du Gongr^ (d^l6gu6 du gouvernemcnt beige); 

^Ramaeckers*, secretaire general du minist^re des chemins de fer, posies et tel^graphes, raembre du 
comity de direction du Congr^s (d6l6gu6 du gouvernemcnt beige); . ^ 

#Schaar*, administrateur des chemins de ferde ri^tat beige, membre de la Commission internationale 
du Gongr^s (id.); 

^ Louis Weissenbruch*, ingenieur aux chemins de fer de I'^tat belge» secretaire du comity de 
direction du CoDgr^s (id.); 

^Edouard Holemans*, chef de division aux chemins de fer de Ti^tat beige, Iresorier du comity de 
direction du Congr^s (id.). 

Rapporteurs : 
^Habert*, ing^.iieur en chef, directeur d'administration aux chemins do ferde Fl^^tat beige (id.j; 
^Hodeige*, ingdnieur principal aux chemins de ferde I'l^at belg<e (id.); 
^ LuciBx Motte*, iag^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de TiStat beige (id.). 

Autres diUguis : 
^Detbieu*. inspecteur g6n6ral aux chemins de fer de I'^tat beige (id.) ; 
^Niels*, inspecteur de direction aux chemins de fer de I'^tat beige (id.) ; 
^De Busschere*, ing^nieur en chef aux chemins de fer de T^tat beige (id ) ; 
^Ernest Gerard*, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de ferde I'^tat beige (id ); 
^Bmneel*, ing^nieur principal aux chemins de fer de Tl^tat beige (id j. 

Chemin de fer Grand Central Udge (611 k., 4 d6l.). 

Dd^yuis de droit : 
^ Jules Urban*, directeur general du chemin de fer Grand Central Beige, presixientde la Soci^l^ g^n^al^ 

beige de chemins de fer economiques(vice-pr6sident de la Commission internal ion ale du Congres) ; 
^Eugene Bellerocbe*, ingenieur chef de service au chemin de fer Grand Central Beige (rapporteur). 

Autres diliguis : 
^Montefiore-Levi, s^nateur, president; 

Maurice Urban, ingenieur en chef, directeur ; 
^Charles Le Bon, ing6nieur en chef, directeur; 
^Emilb Spruyt, directeur. 



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3G LiSTE g^niSrale des DiJLiiaiiiis. 



Chcmins de fcr de la Flandre ocddentale (182 k., 3 d^l.) : 

E. Van den Bogaerde, direcleur gerant, chef de l*expIoitation ; 
^ A. Fraeys; ing^nieur, chef da service de la traction et du materiel ; 
^F. Lebbe, ing^nieur, chef da service des voies et travaux. 

Chcmin de fer dn Nor d frauQais {ligncs Nord-belges) (170 k., 3 del.) : 

^Pbilippe*, inspecteur g^n^ral (membre de la Commission internationale du Cx>ngri8j; 

Vallon, administrateur; 
^ Warn, administrateur ; 
^Pi6ron, ing^nieur en chef des ponts et chaussdes, ing^nieur en chef des services aclifs. 

Chen. in de fev de VEst beige (135 k., 3 d^i ) : 

I^DOUARD Despret, pr^ident; 
^Alphonse Matthei, directeur; 
Albert Urban, iog^nieur, chef de service. 

• Chemin de fer du Nord de la Belgique (116 k„ 3 d«^l.) J 

L^ON Orban. president; 
Ferdinand Baeyens, administrateur; 
^OusTAVE Harten, ing^nieur, clief de service. 

Chemin de fcr de V3itre'Sambre-ct-Afcuse (111 k., 3 del.) : 

^William Austin» pr^ident; 

^Edmond LouiSf chef de service ; 

^Charles Hanrez, ing^nieur, chef de service. 

Chemin de fer de Malviet-Tenieusen (68 k., 2 d6l.) : 

♦ Al Van den Broeck, president; 

# Victor Lamquet, directeur gerant . 

Chemin de fer de Braine-le-Comte 4 Oand (65 k., 2 del.) ; 

OusTAVE BoSl. administrateur directeur gdraiit ; 
Louis Bo61, secretaire de la Compagnie. 

Chemin de ferde Chimay (60 k., 2 ddl.) : 

^Dogn^e, administrateur; 
Baillet, directeur. 

Chemin de fcr de Gan'I'EecloO' Bruges (48 k , 2 ddl.) : 

^Alfred Neelemans, administrateur; 
^ Louis Neelemans, directeur gdrant. 
Chemin dc fer de Tonrnai a Jurbisc ct de Landcn A Ilassrh (46 k., 2 del.) j 

^Le D'' Leopold Barella, administrateur; 
^^MiLB Woyard, inspecteur. 
Chemin de fer de Oand d Temeuzen (41 k., 2 ddl.) : 

Jules Gordeweener, administrateur; 
Nestor Wilmart, directeur gdraut. 

Chemin de fer de Uasselt ct Maesei/ch (41 k., 2 d6I.) : 

^LiSoN Collinet, president ; 

^Robert Dresse, secrdbire de la Compagnie. 



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GENERAL LIST OP DELEGATES. 37 



Chemin dc f^ de Liigc-Maestricht (30 k., 2 d6l.) : 

A. Clermont, directeur g^rant. 

Chemin de fer d Anver$ h RoU^dam (21 k„ 2 ddl.) : 

Xavikr NenjeaQ, adminislrateur; 
4L1I0POLD Kirsch, Ing^nteur, cbefde service. 

Chemin de fer de Tcrmonde d Saint-Nicoltt (22 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^Armand Dresse, pr^ident; 

^A. Ancion, membre de la Chambre des repr^entants de Belgique, adminislrateur. 

Chemin de far d'Anvef^'s d Oand (50 k., 2 d*l.) : 

♦Verwilghen-Goris, adminislrateur ; 
^EoouARD PriflSOt directeur g^rant. 

Soci^i nationale des chemins de fer vicinaux (i,i 44 k. , 5 del.) : 

^Frifl, membre de la Chambre des repr^ntants do Belgique, pr^idenl ; 

^C. DE Blirlet*, directeur g^n^ral (membre de la Commission internalionale du Congrds et 

rapporteur) ; 
^A. Lebmn, secretaire g^n^ral. 

Chemins de fer secondaires (Compagnie ginirale des) ^239 k., 3 d^l.) : 

^GusTAVB Michelet, adminislrateur d^l^^; 

♦ P. Lidnart, ing^nieur en chef; 

F. Nonnenberg, ing^nieur en chef. 

Railways 6conomique$ de Liige-Seraing et exfensions (300 k., 3 dAl.) : 

♦Dupont-Rucloax, adminislrateur d6Idgu6; 

♦Paul Bourgeois, directeur; 

4£d. De Ca]rper, directeur de Tezploitalion. 

Soci^U g^iirale de chemins de fer iconomiques (152 k., 3 d^l.) : 

E. Urban, ingdnieur» adminislrateur; 
4G. Komps, ing^nieur, adminislrateur; 
H. De Backer*, ing^nieur, directeur gSn^ral (rapporteur) . 

Compagnie intern, des uoagons'lits et des grands eorpress curopiens (1,298 essieux a voy., 5 ddl.) : 

♦Gborobs Nagelmackers, directeur g^n^ral; 

A. Lecbat, sous-directeur k Paris; 
♦Schroeder, chef de direction; 
♦Gain, ing^nieur en chef; 
♦A. Neef, inspecleur g^n^ral. 

♦Wildbagen*, inspecteur principal (secretaire-rapporteur). 
Compagnie auTiliaire internationale de chemins de /Wr (3,296 essieux a marchaadises, 3 ddl.) i 

♦ Le baron E. db Gienantb, adminislrateur deiegud; 
E. Funck, adminislrateur; 

Gborobs De LaTOleye*, adminislrateur (ddl^gu^ du gouve.^nc ment du Ccnjo el rapporteur). 



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38 LISTK G^NtfRALE DES D^LI':GU6S. 



Bresil (Branl). 

Brazil Great Southern Railway (982 k. [610 milles], 4 d61.) : 

4W1LUAM John Alt, director; 
Henry Raincock, director; 
Laurence A. Williams, secretary. 

Chemin de fer central de la R^p, de$ ^ats- Unit du Brisil (730 k., 4 del.) : 

^Roberto Trompowsky Leitao de Almeida*, colonel du g^nie, chef de la commission des achats en 

Europe (ddl^gu^ da gouvernement br^silien); 
^Arthur Alvim, ing^nieur, anden ingdnieur en chef de la voie. 

Compagnie g^n^ale de chemins de fer hrisilicns (358 k., 3 d^l.) : 

4Th. de J0I7, president; 

♦ A. Dorieux, administrateur; 

4 LioN Fontaine-De Laveleye, administrateur. 

Chemins de fer Sud- Quest br^silient {Compagnie des) (160 k., 3 d^l.) : 

F. Philippson, administrateur; 
A. Foc^eti adminiBtrateor; 
4 A. Sp^e, administrateur. 

The Conde d'Eu Railway (142 k. [88 milles], 3 del.) : 

^Gerard Philipp Toirens, chairman ; 
^ Henry Scott Boys, director; 
♦Frank Silverloch, secretary. 

Great Western of Brazil Rail way (140 k. [87 milles], 3 d6l.) : 

♦ Frank Parish*, chairman (d^6gu6 du Buenos- Ayres Great SouUiern Railway); 

♦ A. P. Toule, vice-chairman; 

♦ Henry Watts, secretary. 

Bulgaria (Bulgaria). 

Chemins de fer de VEtat (.530 k., 4 d*l.). 

Chili. 

Antofagasta (Chili) and Bolivia Railway (924 k. [."374 millosJ» 4 del.) : 

♦ E. M. Underdown, Q. C, chairman. 

Colombie (ColamWa). 

Cartagena Magdalcna Rail way (i06 k. [66 millesj, 3 del.) : 

♦ F. R. Hart, president; 

♦ y. Newson, general European agent. 

Congo (Etat independant du). 

Chemin de fer du Congo (Compagnie du) (80 k,, 2 d^.) : 

♦ Le major Albert Thys*, administrateur, directeur g^niral (d6ldgu6 du gouvernement du Congo); 
♦Jean Cousin, administrateur, memhre du comity permanent ; 

♦ A.J. Wanters. secretaire g^n^ral. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 39 



Sanenmrk (Danmark). 

Chemins de fer do VEiat (1,691 k., 5 d^lj : 

♦ Westergaard, chef du service de rezploitation ; 

^ Basse, ing^nieur en chef du materiel et de la traction ; 

Ernst, ing^nieur en chef adjoint des chemins de fer en construction ; 
♦Rimestad, chef de bureau. 

Chemin de fer de la Fionie mSridionale (76 k., 2 d61.). 
Chemin de fe^* de Lolland-FalMter (72 k., 2 dAl.) : 

C. F. Tietgen, conseiller intime d'etat, president; 
^C. Larsen, chef de Tezploitation. 

Chemin de fer de VEst de Seeland (47 kil., 2 d6l.) : 

C. F. Tietgen*, conseiller intime d*^tat, president (d^l%ac du chemin de fer de LoIIand-Falster) ; 
^J. Hansen, secretaire. 

igypte (Egypt). 

Chemins de fer^de V^tat (1,544 k., 5 d61.) : 

♦ S. Exc. BooHos Pacha Nubar*, administrateur (dei6gu6 du gouvernement egyptien). 
^Cotterill*, ingdnieur, sous-chef du service technique (id.). 

Bspagne (Spain). 

Chemins de fer du Nord de VEspagne (2,949 k., 8 del.) : " 

EmLK Pffireirt, prtsideot du Comity de Paris; 
Rafael Angolo, membre du Comics de Paris; 
Maurice Bixio, membre du GomitS de Paris; 
J. Barat, directeur; 

A. Biarez, iug^nieur en chef du service central a. Paris ; 
Maubicb Pereire. ing^nieur attach^ a la diUgaiion 4 Paris; 
^Michel Sala, ingdokur de la voie. 

Chemin de fer de Madrid d Saragosse et d Alieante (2,672 k., 8 d6l.) : 

GusTAVB Baner, administrateur ;' 

Ctpriano Sbgundo Montesino, direcleur g^n^ral ; 
^Gharlbs Grdbns, directeur g^n^ral adjoint; 

Albert LeYi-Alvares, ingdnieur conseil, secretaire giodral du comity ; 
^Rbn^ Lisle, inspecteur g^ndral des services administratifs et ftnaociers ; 
^Joaquin L. de Letona, ing^nieur en chef de la voie et des travaux ; 
•# Nathan Sftss, ing^hieur en chef de Tesploitation. 

Chemins de fer andahus (883 k., 4 d*l.). 

Chemins de fer de Tarragone d Barcelone et dla F rance ( 718 k , 4 d6l.) : 

Gl AUDIO Planas. directeur g^rant; 

Manuel db Arambnni j Pelayo, mginieiir en chef des ponts et chauss^ d'Espagne, chef de 
Texploitation ; 
^EDUARDoMaristany y Gibert, ing^nieur dee ponts et chaussdes d'Espagne, chef de la construction. 



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40 LISTE G^N^RALE DES DISl^GU^S. 



Chemins de fer dn Madrid'Cac^ts et Portugal et VOuest cCEspagne (Gompagnie d'exploitalion des) 
(505 k., 4 d6l.). 

Chemin de fer de Medina del Campo d Zamora et de Orense d Vigo (893 k., 3 d^I.) • 

4D. DoMiNoo Juan Sanllehy, vice-president; 
4D. Antonio Masso, assistant du conseil. 
Chemins de fer du Sud de VEspagne (150 k., 3 dil.) : 

4Yvo Bosch, president du comity de Paris; 
4^MiLE Goasin, iug6nieur. 

Chemins de fer et mines de San Juan de las Abadesas (119 k., 3 d6i.) : 

Laureano de Larramendi, president; 

RoDOLFO Juncadella, secretaire; 

Domingo Vehil, ing^nieur. 

Chemin de fer de Medina del Campo d Salamanca (77 kiK, 2 del.) : 

Pierre Gaillat, administrateur delegue ; 

Drouin, inspecteur general . 

Chemin de fe^" de Valence et kragon (30 k., 2 del.) : 

H. Peemans, administrateur; 
4 Felix Delhaye, administrateur. 

^tats-Unis d'Amerique (United States of Ameriea). 

American Railway Association (228,465 k. [141,495 milles], 8 del.) : 

^ Henry S. Haines, president American Railway Association and vice-president Plant system ; 

4 Alfred Walter, president Delawarre, Susquehanna and Schuylkill Railroad; 

4 William F. Allen, secretary American Railway Association and manager of the Official Railway 

Guide; 
^ James T. Harahan, second vice-president Illinois Central Railroad ; 
^Charles W. Bradley, general superintendent West Shore Railroad; 
4 John C. Kenly, general manager Atlantic Coast line; 
4 Jacob J. Frey, general manager Atchison Topekaand Santa- Fe Railroad; 
^Theodore Voorhees, first vice-president Philadelphia and Reading Railroad system. 

Southern Pacific Railroad (10,739 k. [6,673 milles], 8 del.) : 

C. P. Huntington, president ; 

G. S. Miles, secretary of the president; 
4C. E. Bretherton, agent in London; 
^E. W. Berryman, agent for steamship lines ; 

A. N. Towne, third vice-president and general manager; 

Jclius KruttSChnitt, general manager Atlantic system; 

Wiluam Hahl, general auditor. 

Louisville and Nashville Railway (7,652 k. [4,755 milles], 8 del.). 
Pennsylvania Railroad (6,387 k. [3,967 milles], 8 del.) : 

^ Frank Thomson, first vice-president; 

^ James McCrea, first vice-president Pennsylvania lines West of Pittsburg; 

4 Theodore N. Ely, chief of motive power; 

4 Jambs L. Taylor, general European passenger agent. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 4 1 



IlUnoU Central Railroad (4,648 k. [2,888 milles], 8 M.) « 

4 Jambs T. Harahan*, second vice-president (ddl^u^ de rAraerican Railway Association); 
4W. Y. Kehoe, secretary of the second vice-president. 

Denver and Rio Grande Railway (2,662 k. [1,654 milles], 8 dil.) : 

4GB0R0B Goppell, chairman of Board of directors ; 
^Edward T. Jeffeiy, president; 

Gharlbs G. Beaman, director and counsel; 

John Lowbbr Welsh, director; 

R. T. Wilson, director; 

Howard GiUiat, Loudon agent. 

New York, New Raven and Hartford Railway (2,403 k. [1,493 milles], 8 d6l.) : 

^Gbarlbs p. Clark, president; 

4 P. S. Curtis, chief engineer; 

4 John Henney, jun., superintendent motive power; 

4G. H. Piatt, general superintendent New Haven system; 

4E. O. Allen, general superintendent Old Golony system; 

4S. A. Gardner, superintendent Fall River line; 

♦G. C. Elwell, engineer maintenance of way, New York division; 

♦J. G. Parker, secretary. 

Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago and Saint-Louis Railway (2,288 k. [1,422 milles], 7 d61.). 

Chesapeake and Ohio Railwai/ (2,148 k. [1,335 milles], 7 ddl.). 

Lehigh Valley Railroad {1,122 k. [1,076 milles], 6 d61.) : 

♦Chas. Hartshome, vice-president; 
^RollinH. Wilbnr, general superintendent; 
♦IsRABL W. Morris, general land agent. 

* Nashville Chattanooga and Saint-Louis Railway (1,547 k. [961 milles], 6 d61.) : 

^J. W. Thomas, jun., assistant general manager ; 
^jABiBS Cnllen, superintendent motive power. 

New Y^h Central and Hudson River Railroad (1,318 k. [819 milles], 5 d*l.) 

Chauncby M. DeptW, president; 

♦ H. Waltbr Webb, third vice-president; 
^JoHN M. Toncey, general manager; 

William Bachanan, superintendent of motive power and rolling stock; 
♦Dudley, engineer. 

New York Ontario and Western Railway (768 k. [477 milles], 4 ddl.) 

4 Joseph Price, vice-president and director; 

♦ Harrt Pearson, director; 
♦Geo. yon ChauYin. 

Fitchburg Railroad (724 k. [450 milles], 4 d6l.) : 

4Hbnrt S. Marcy, president; 
4 William L. Chase, director; 
♦Gborgb Heywood, jun.. director; 
♦D' Gborob Heywood. 



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42 LISTE QENjfiRALE DES DI^LliGUliS. 

Piltsburgh and Westnvx Railway (407 k. [253 milles], 3 d6l.) : 

♦W. H. Addieka. 

Wilmington and Weldon Railroad (322 k. [200 milles], 3 d^l.) : 
^JoHN R. Kenly*, general manager (d6l^6 de TAmerican Railway Association). 
JlfobiU and Birmingham Railway (262 k. [163 milles], 3 d«l.) : 

^Thomas Frame Thomson, director; 

♦ Sir DouoLAS Galton, K C. B., F. R. S., R. E., director; 

♦ Charles Bullbn Waller. 

WeU Virginia Central and Pillaburg Railway (245 k. [1.52 milles], 3 d*l.) : 
♦G. L. Bretz, general manager. 
/Richmond Fredericksburg cmi Potomac Railway (132 k. [82 milles], 3 d^l.). 

Arizona and South Eastern Railrotd (89 k. [55 milles]. 2 d61.) • 
♦James Doiiglas^ president. 
Los Angeles Terminal Railway (80 k. [.50 milles], 2 del.) ; 

♦ Geo. B. Leighton. president; 

D. L. Barnes, consulting engineer. 

Addison and Pennsylvania Railway (66 k. [41 milles], 2 d^.). 

France, Algerie et colonies (France, Algeria and colonies). 

A. — Fi*ttnce. 

Chemins de ftr de I'l&tat (2,743 k., 8 d6l.) : 

♦Bonchard, president; 

♦Lax. administrateur; 

♦Benac, secrMaire g^n^ral; 

♦Matrot, directeur; 

♦Bricka*, Ing^nieur en chef de I'ezploitation (rapporteur); 

♦Fonan, ing^nieur en cbef de la vote et des b&liments; 

♦Parent, ing^nieur en chef du materiel et de la traction ; 

♦Haguet, ing^nieur en chef attache k la direction ; 

♦Javary, ing^nieur des ponts et chauss^s, attach^ a la direction. 

Chemins de fer de Paris d Lyon et d la Midilerran^ (8,607 k., 8 d6l.) : 

♦Noblemaire*, directeur (membre de la Commission internationale du Congr^s); 
♦Amiot, ing^nieur en chef des mines, attach^ k la direction; 

♦ Rene Picard; chef de Tezploitation ; 
♦Berquet, chef de Tezploitation adjoint; 
♦Laayt, sous-chef de I'ezploitation ; 

♦ Chaperon, chef de la 3° division de I'ezploitation ; 
♦Bandry. ing^nieur en chef du materiel et de la traction; 

♦ Mar^chal, ing^nieur principal, chef de la division du materiel; 
♦Kowalski, ing^nieur du service central de la traction; 



♦Anvert*, ing^nieur attach^ au service central du materiel (rapporteur). 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 43 



Chemin de fer de Paris A OrUans (ft^U k., 8 d*L) : 

^Bardouz, administrateur; 
♦Schneider, administrateur; 

Verg^, admioislrateur ; 
♦Heurteaa*, direcleur (membre de la Commission iaternationale du Coogrds) ; 
♦Pader, chef de I'exploitation, ou, k son d^faut, Nigond, chef adjoint de Fexploilation ; 
♦Bri^re, ing^nieur en chef de. la Yoie; 

♦ Garlier, secretaire g^n^ral; 

♦ Solacroap, iag^niear ea chef adjoint da materiel et de la traction; 
♦G. Michel, attach^ au secretariat general ; 



♦ Saboaret*, ing^nieur des ponts et chaussees.ingdnieur principal du service central de la voie (rapporteur); 

♦ db Fr^minviile*, inspecteur du materiel roulant (secretaire ropportear). 

Chemins de fe^^ de VOuest (5,261 k., 8 d6L) : 

4Edw. Blount, administrateur; 

♦ Le marquis du Lan, administrateur; 
Marin, directeur; 

♦Qerc, directeur des travauz; 

♦Molse, ing^nieur en chef de la construction ; 

♦C16raalt, ingenieur en chef du materiel et de la traction ; 

♦de Larminat, chef de Tezploitation adjoint: 

♦Morandiere, ingenieur des etudes; 

♦Sanvage*, ingenieur en chef des mines, ingenieur en chef adjoint du materiel et de la traction 

(rapporteur) ; 
♦Demonlin*, inspecteur du materiel et de la traction (secretaire-rapporteur) ; 
♦Visinet*, agent commercial a Londres (secretaire-rapporteur). 

Chemins de fer de VEst (4,727 k , 8 del.) : 

♦PetSChe, administrateur; 

♦ Le marquis D*Im6coart, administrateur; 

♦Barabant*, directeur (membre de la Commissioa iaternationale d« Gongres) ; 
♦Weiss, chef adjoint de Texploitation ; 

Foagdre, chef du mouvement ; 
♦Lancrenon, ingenieur en chef adjoint du materiel et de la traction ; 
♦Gerhardt, ingenieur de la traction ; ^ 

♦Dofaax. ingenieur principal de la voie. 

CJu^tnins de fer du Nord (3,650k., 8 del.): 

♦ Leon Say, membre de I'lnstitut, vice-president v 

♦Griolet*, vice-president (membre du comite de direction du Congr^s); 

Hottingner, administrateur; 
♦Sire*, agent de la Compagnie a Londres (secretaire-rapporteur); 
♦Marie, chef des services administratlfs; 
♦Agnellet, ingenieur en chef des ponts et chaussees, ingenieur en chef des etudes du materiel des 

voles et des b&timents ; 
♦De Fonhonne, ingenieur principal de la traction; 

♦Kdromn^S, ingenieur principal des ateliers des machines de la Chapelle et d'Hellemmes; 
♦Aomont, ingenieur des ponts et chaussees, ingenieur du materiel des voles; 



♦EuG. Sartianx*, chef des services eiectriques (rapporteur); 



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44 LiSTE oiSniJrale DES D^L^GUliS. 



46ailloaz*, sousinspecteur des services administratifs (secr6Uir«-rapporteur) ; 
^Favre*, chef de la gare maritime de Calais (secretaire-rapporteur). 

Chemin de fer du Midi (3,100 k., 8 d^l.) : 

4AaC0C, president; 

4 Georges Picot, administrateur ; 

♦Blagd, directeur; 

^Maurer, chef de I'exploitation ; 

^Herdner, ing^nieur du service central du materiel et de la traction; 

^Choron, ing^nicur en chef de la voie et des lignes nouvelles; 

Haasser. ingdnieur en chef adjoint de la voie et des lignes nouvelles; 
♦Moffre, ing^nieur des ponts et chauss^s, ing^nieur principal attach^ k la direction. 

Chemin de fer de Ccinture de Paris (171 k., 3 del.) : 

RoBderer, directeur; 
Dubois, sous-directeur ; 
^Hanet, ing^nieur de la voie. 

Chemin de fer de VEst de Lyon (94 k., 2 dM.) : 

Victor StOClet, administrateur; 
LitoN Ulens, administrateur. 

Chemins de fer iconomiques {SocieU g^&rale des) (1,180 k., 5 d^l.) : 

4 Albert EUisson, administrateur; 

4 I^MiLB Level, directeur; 

^Ernest Plocq*, ing^nieur (rapporteur); 

40B0R0ES Level, inspecteur attach^ a la direction; 

4HBNBY Vergd. 

Chemins de fer d^par Cement aux (880 k., 4 d61.) : 

^Zens, administrateur, directeur; 
4G08te, ing^nieur en chef adjoint a la direction ; 
^Chevalier, ing^nieur en chef des travaux et de la surveillance ; 
4 Albert Zens, secretaire de la direction. 

Chemins de fer du Sud de la France (540 k., 4 del.) : 

Joseph Gaj, president; 
Rbn^ Banlant, administrateur dei^gue ; 
. Oboroes Gerbeland, ingenieur adjoint a la direction; 
4 Alfred Ghassin, inginieur, directeur local des tramways de la C6te-d'0r. 

Chemins de fer ^conomiques du Nord (180 k., 3 d61.) : 

^Edouard Empain, administrateur d^l^gu^; 

4 Victor Mestreit, directeur; 

^Armand Ronffart, ing^nieur en chef des Mudes et de la construction. 

Chemins de fer r^gionaux des Bouches-du-Rhdne (178 k. , 3 dil.) : 

Paul Wallerstein, president; 
Delamarre, administrateur; 
^^DOOARD DK Tfaz, admiulstrateur . 

Chemin de fer d^inUrit local du dipartement des Landes (160 k., 3 del.) : 

Glasser, ing^nieur en chef des ponts et chauss^s ; 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 45 



♦Molfire*, ing^nieur des ponts et cbauss^ (ddl^^ de la Gompagnie du chcmin de fcr du Midi fron^is) ; 
4 Plot, secretaire. 

Compagnie Meusicnne de chemins de fer (1.55 k., 3 d6l.) : 

♦Pattm, pr^ident; 

♦ Gantier, ancien eidve de I'lScole polytechnique, administrateur ; 
^Merceron, ing^nieur, directeur. 
Chemins de fn' du PMgord (125 k , 3 d^l.) : 

Case, pr^ident ; 
^ Francois Empain. administrateur; 
De Wandre, directeur. 
SocUU des votes ferrtes du Dauphin^ (oS k., 2 d^l.) : 

]$Mii.B Francq. administrateur d^l^gu^; 
L^oN DeYilaine, ing6nieur. 

Chemin de fer de Saint-QuenHn d Guise (40 k , 2 d^l.) : 
♦Jourdain, administrateur, directeur. 
Chcmin de fer do Gug d Menavcourt ( 36 k., 2 d6\.) : 

.^JuLRS Gayard, president; 
^Rbnb Gayard, adminislrateur. 

CJicmin de fcr de Somain d la frontiire beige (mint's d*An3in) (34 k., 2 ddl.) : 

A. Francois, directeur gdn^ral ; 
DB Forcade, secretaire gdndral . 

Chrmin de fcr de Pilhiviers (Loiret) d Touri/ (Eure-et-Dnre) (31 k., 2 d^l.) : 

L. Ravenez, president; 
4 A. Poidatz, administrateur. 

Chemins dc fer du Calvados (38 k., 2 d6l.) : 

^Orens, ing^nieur, directeur; 
Benoit, ing^nieur, chef de Texploitation . 

Chemin dc fr de Chauny d Saint'Gohain (16 k.,'2 ddl.) : 

Alfred Biver, directeur g^n^rai ; 
^E. Jarriand, sous-chef du secretariat g^u^ral. 

Chemins de fcr a roie itrnite du Midi (10 k., 2 del.). 

B. — Al|$c$i*le (Ali^erla). 

Chemins de fer de t Est alg^icn (887 k., 4 d^L) : 

^Albert Dehajmill, president; 

^OcTAVB Homberg administrateur; 

^Le comte Paul Durriea. administrateur; 

^ Mayer, ingenieur en chef des ponts et chauss^es, directeur. 

Chcmin de fcr de BAne-Guclma ct prolongcmcnts {riseau alg^rien) (794 k., 4 del. j : 

Y comiiris les lignes de Tunisie (^JoS k.)- 

Derds, president; 

Schleminer, administrateur; 
♦Allain-Latiney, administrateur; 
^Alfred Kowalski*, ingenieur en chef du service central de rexploitalion (rapporlnur) 



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Compagnie Franco- Algirienne (700 k , 4 d^.) • 

Manger, president; 

H. Lartigue, admiaistrateur, directeur g^airal ; 
4 Rowan, ing^nieur conseil ; 
^LfOuis Billema, ing^nieur du service central. 

Chemins de fer de Paris d Lyon et d la Miditevran^e {riaeau algSrien) (513 k., 4 d61.) : 

Langel, administrateur ; 
^Michel, ing^nieur en chef du mit^riel fixe et des approvisionnements de la voie; 
4£tienne, ingdnieur attach^ au service central de la voie; 
^Desmnre, direcleur de rexploilntion a Alger. 

Chemins de fa* de V Quest algMen (370 k., 3 d6l ) ; 

4Bordet, administrateur d^ldgu^; 
Peytel, administrateur d^I^gu^ ; 
Cholet, directeur des services de la Compagnie en Alg^rie. 

C. — Colonies. 

Chemins de fey* de Dakar a Saint Louis jSinigat) (2 64 k., 3 d6l ) : 

^finouARD DB Traz*, ing^nieur, president (d6l6gu6 des chemins de fer regionaux des Bouchet-du- 
Rh6ne); 

♦ Alfred Kowalski*, administrateur (d6l^gu6 du chemin de fer de B6ne-0uelma et rapporteur); 
Andrb de Traz, ingdnieur, chef du service central. 

Grande-Bretagne et Irlande (Royaume-Uni). Empire des Indes et Colonies. 
(The TTnited Kingdom, India and its Colonies.) 

A. — Royaume-Unl (Xhe United Kingdom). 

Great Western Railway (4,020 k. [2.498 railles], 8 d^l.l : 

♦The Viscount Emlyn*, deputy chairman (vice-president de b section anglaise); 

♦ A. Hnbbard, deputy chairman ; 
The Earl of Cork, director ; 

Col. the Hon. G. E. Edgecumbe, director; 

♦ W. Robinson, director; 

♦ G. G. Mott, director; 

♦ Henry Lambert*, general manager (membre de la section anglaise ct rappoiteur); 
♦T. J. Allen, superintendent of the line; 

♦ W. Dean, locomotive engineer; 
♦J. C. Inglis, chief engineer; 

♦J. E. Spagnoletti. consulting electrical engineer; 
♦J. L. Wilkinson*, chief goods manager (rapporteur). 

London and North W-stern Railway (3,045 k. [1,892 milles], 8 d^l.) : 

♦The Right Hon. Lord Stalbridgs*, chairman (membre de 'a Coxmissicn ihternati< nale I'u Congr^-;; 
♦J. P. Bickersteth, deputy chairman ; 

T. H. Ismay, director; 

The Right Hon. D. R. Plunket, M. P., director; 

His Grace the Duke of Sutherland, director; 

W. Tipping*, director (membre de la section anglaise); 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 47 



♦ F. Harrison*, general manager (membre de la section anglaise et rapporteur); 
^ Frank Reo, chief goods manager; 

♦ H. Footner, chief permanejit way engineer ; 
^George P. Neele, chief passenger superintendent; 
♦C. A. Park*, carriage superintendent (rapporteur); 
4F. Stevenson, chief civil engineer; 

A. M. Thompson*, signal superintendent (rapporteur); 

♦ F. W. Webb, chief mechanical engineer. 

North Eastern Railway (2,555 k. [1,588 milles], 8 d6l.) : 

Sir Joseph W. Pease, Bart., M. P , chairman; 

♦ Captain the Hon. C. Dnncumbe, deputy chairman; 
♦John Cleghom*, director (membre de la section anglaise} ; 

Sir James Kitson, Bart., M. P., director ; 

♦ Henry Tennant, director; 

♦ Gbobgb S. Gibb, L. L. B., general manager; 

♦J. Wolfe Barry, G. E. C. B.* consulting engineer ; 

♦ C. N. Wilkinson, secretary; 

♦ W. Worsdell, locomotive superintendent. 

North British Railway [2AA\ k. [1,332 milles], 7 d^l.) : 

♦The Marquess of Tweeddale*, chairman (membre de la section anglaise); 

Sir Charles Tennant, deputy chairman; 

J. O. A. Baird, M. P., director; 
♦J. Parker Smitb, M. P., director; 

♦ J. Conacher, general manager ; 
♦Jxo. Gathles, secretary ; ' 
♦James Carswell, engineer; 

♦ M. Holmes, locomotive superintendent. 

Midland Railway {2,092 k. [1,300 milles], 7 dM.) : 

♦ Charles Thomas, deputy chairman ; 

♦ Gustav Behrens*, director (membre de la section anglaise); 
W. U. Heygate, director ; 

♦ H. T. Hodgson, director ; 

♦ G. H. Turner*, general manager (membre de la section anglaise et rapporteur) ; 

♦ T. G. Clayton, waggon and carriage superintendent; 

♦ S. W. Johnson, locomotive superintendent; 

♦ W. D. Langdon, telegraph superintendent; 

♦ J. A. McDonald, chief engineer : 

♦ H. H. Spiller*, general continental agent (secretaire rapporteur). 

Caledonian Railway (1,676 k. [1,042 milles], 6 d6l.). 

J. C. Bolton, chairman ; 

♦ The Marquess of Breadalbane", K. G., director (membre de la section anglaise); 

♦ J. C. Bnnten. director; 

♦ Sir W. W. Hozier, Bart., director; 
Sir Robert Jardine, Bart., director ; 
Wm. McEwan, M. P., director; 
The Hon. G. R. Vemon, director ; 

♦James Thompson*, general manager (membre de la fection angloise). 



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48 LISTE gjSn^rale des diSli^gu^s. 



Great Eastern Railwaif (1,672 k. [1,039 milles], 6 (141.). 



4 Lord Claud J. Hamilton*, chairman (membre de la section anglaise) ; 

Col. W. T. Makins, deputy chairman ; 
♦Sir H. W. Tyler, director; 

♦ W. Birt, general manager; 

-♦F. Gooday, continental traffic manager; 
♦J. Holden. locomotive superintendent; 
♦J. Wilson, engineer. 

Great Northern Railway (1,505 k. [935 milles], 6 d6l.). 

The Right Hon. W. L. Jackson, M. P., chairman; 

♦ Lord Hindlip. deputy chairman ; 

♦ Sir Andrew Fairbaim*, director (membre du comity dc direction de la Commi.ssion internalionale 

et president de la section anglaise du Congrte) ; 
F. W. Fison, director ; 
R. Wigram, director; 

♦ Sir Henry Oakley*, general manager (membre de la section anglaise); 

♦ R. Johnson, engineer; 

•♦P. Stirling, locomotive engineer; 

♦ R. H. Twelvetrees*, chief goods manager (rapporteur). 

London and South Western Railway (1,416 k. [880 milles], 5 d^l.) : 

♦ W. S. Portal*, chairman (membre de la section anglaise); 

♦ Lt. col. the Hon. H. W. Campbell* deputy chairman; 
Captain J. O. Johnston, director; 

A. Scott, director; 

♦ Sir Charles Scotter*, general manager (membre de la section angfaise); 
♦C. J. Owens, chief goods manager; 

♦ B. Andrews, resident engineer. 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (1,094 k. [680 milles], 5 d61.) : 

♦ G. J. Armytage*, chairman (membre de la section anglaise); 
♦W. Tunstill, deputy chairman; 

♦ H. Bright, director; 

♦J. H. Stafford, general n:anager; 

♦J. A. F. Aspinall*, chief mechanical engineer (rapporteur); 

♦C W. Bayley, secretary; 

♦ Wm. Hnnt*, chief engineer (rapporteur) ; 
♦W. B. Worthington assistant engineer. 

Manchester She/^eld and Lincolnshire Railway (1,014 k. [630 mi les], 5 d6l.) : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Whamcliffe, chairman ; 

♦ Edward Chapman, deputy chairman; 

♦J. Maclnre*, M. P., director (membre de la section anglaise) ; 

♦ William Pollitt, general manager; 

♦ Harry Pollitt, locomotive engineer; 

♦ Sir Douglas Fox. 

Great SoulJiern and Western Railway (975 k. [606 milles], 4 d61.) : 

♦J. C. Golvill*, chairman (membre de la section anglaise); 
-♦ Kennett Bayley, engineer in chief; 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 49 



4 Robert G . Golhoan , tra (Be manager ; 
^Hbnrt a. lyatt, locomotiye engineer. 

Great Northern Railway (Ireland) (842 k, [523 milles], 4 d6l.) : 

4 Jambs Gray, chairman; 

4 Thomas RoberUon, general manager; 

W. H. Mills, chief engineer; 
4Hbnrt Plows, secretary. 

Glasgow and South Western Railway (771 k. [481 millesl. 4 d^l.): 

^Sir RjBNNT Watson, chairman ; 

David Guthrie, deputy chairman ; 
^Datid Goopor, general manager ; 
^WiLUAM Molvillo, civil engineer. 

London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (767 k. [477 milles], 4 d6l.) : 

^The Right Hon. Lord Gottosloo, deputy chairman; 

♦ R. Jacomb-Hood, director; 

♦The Right Hon. Sir Arthur Otway*, Bart., director (membre de la section anglaise); 

♦ Allen Sarlo, secretary and general manager ; 

♦Victor Gorard*, continental traffic manager (secretaire-rapporteur) ; 

Midland Great Western of Ireland Railway (743 k. [462 milles], 4 d^l.) : 

Sir Ralph Smith Gnsack, chairman ; 
♦Captain Thomas James Smyth, director ; 
♦Joseph Tatlow, manager; 
♦WiLUAM Gborob Groono, secretary. 

Highland Railway (701 k. [436 milles], 4 d61.) : 
South Eastern Railway (679 k. [422 milles], 4 d6l.) : 

♦Sir Gborqe Rassoll*, Bart., M. P., chairman (membre de la section anglaise); 

H. Cosmo 0. Bonsor, M. P., deputy chairman; 

The Right Hon. Lord Hothfiold, director ; 

Col. J. J. MoUor, director ; 
♦Col. C. F. Sortoos, director ; 

♦ Sir Mtlbs Fonton*, general manager (membre de la section anglaise); 
♦Capt. Gyo*, R. N., agent of the Company in Paris (secretaire-rapporteur); 

♦ E. Uytborck*, agent of the Company in Brussels (secretaire-rapporteur). 

CambHan R nlways ^613 k. [331 milles], 4 del.) : 

J. F. Backloy, chairman ; 
♦C. A. Humphreys-Owon*, M. P., chairman of the Montgomeryshire County Ccuncil, director (rap- 
porteur) ; 
Lord Hb.nry Vano-Tompost, director ; 

♦ Alfred Aslott, secretary and general manager; 
♦Gborob Owon, engineer. 

Great North of Scotland Railway (.509 k. [316 milles], 4 del.) : 

♦ The Earl of Kintoro, director; 

♦ W. Moffatt, general manager ; 

♦ Patrick M. Bamott, engineer in chief; 

♦ William Pickersgill, locomotive superintendent. 

4 



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50 LISTE O^N^RALE DES D^L^GU^S. 



WaUrford and Limerick Railvcay (451 k. [280 milles], 3 <Wl.) « 

♦ Percy B. Bernard, cbairnjan; 

♦ Lord Arthur Batier, director; 
♦John J. Murphy, secretary. 

Belfast and Northern Counties Railway (40 1 k . [849 milles]. 3 d41 . ) * 

Edward J. Gotton, general manager; 

♦ Bowman Malcolm, locomotive engineer, 
♦Berkley D. Wise, civil engineer. 

North Staffordshire Railway (309 k. [192 milles], 3 d61.) : 

Thomas Salt, chairman ; 

♦ W. D. Phillipps, general manager; 
♦J. a. Grosbie Dawson, engineer; 

Gi^eat Northern and Midland joint lines Committee (293 k. [182 milles], 3 d*l.)- 

♦ Sir John Fowler, Bart., consulting engineer; 

♦ Henry Johnson, continental agent; 

Lord DE Ramsey, director Great Northern Railway. 

London, Chatham and Dover Railwa y (285 k, [177 milles], 3 d^l., 

♦J. S. Forbes*, chairman (membrede la section anglaise) ; 

♦ Wm. Forbes, continental and traflSc manager ; 
♦John Morgan, secretary ; 

♦ Capl. Churchward*, agent of the Company at Calais (secretaire-rapporteur); 
♦Niessen*, a^ent of the Company at Cologne (secretaire-rapporteur). 

Funiess Railiray (274 k. fl7i milles], 3 del.): 

♦ Henry Gook, secretary and manager; 

♦ F. J. Ramsden, assistant manager; 
Frank Stileman, engineer in chief. 

Cheshire Lines' Committee (220 k. [137 milles], 3 del.) : 

F. P. CockshoU, superintendent of the line Great Northern Railway; 

♦ J . M . Cook, excursion agent ; 

♦Colonel Hntton director, Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railw«iy. 

Ta/r VaJc Railway (193 k. [120 miUes] 3 del.) : 

Arthur Edward Gnest, chairman; 
R. L. Grant Vassall, deputy chairman ; 
♦A. Beasley, general manager. 

Great Northei*n and Great E-istem RaiUcatf Companies' joint Committee (190 k. [ilS milles] 
3 del.): 

Sir Benjamin Baker, K. C. M. G., consulting engineer ; 
♦J. H. Nettleship, superintendent of the line Great Eastern Railway ; 

Frank C. Shuttleworth, director Great Northern Riilway. 

No9^th London Railway (185 k. [U5 milles], 3 del.) : 

Oscar Leslie Stephen, chairman ; 

The Right Hon. David Robert Plunket*, M. P., director (deiegue du London and North Western 
Railway). 
♦George Bolland Newton, general manager. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 5 I 



Midland and South Western Junction Railway (158 k. [98 millesj, 3 d*l.) : 

^W. E. NicoLsoN Browne, deputy chairman; 
4Sam. Fay, general manager; 
4 Frank Dawes, solicitor. 

Cork Dandon and SouUi Coast Railway (151 k. [91 milles], 3 del.) : 

J . W. Payne-Sheares, J. P., chairman ; 
^E.J 0\-B. Groker, general manager; 
4J* R- Kerr, G E., permanent way engineer. 

London Tilburt/ and Southend Railway ( 131 k . [81 milles], 3 ddl . ) : 

^Aathur L. Stride, member of the losUtufce of Civil Engineer?, managing director ; 

♦H. Cecil Newton, secretary ; 

^Thomas Whitelegg, locomotive superintendent. 

Belfast and County Down Railway (123 k. [76 millei.], 3 d^l.) : 

Thomas J. Brittain, secretary; 
Jambs Pinion, general manager; 
Oeorqb p. Galverwell, engineer. 

Hull Bamsley and West Riding Junction Rail wan/ (118 k. [73 milles], 3 d^l. : 

^Lt. col. Gbrard Smith, chairman; 

4 Vincent Walker Hill, general manager; 

^Matthew Stirling, locomotive engineer. 

Rhymne.v Railway (1 16 k. [72 milles]. 3 dk\ ) : 

4 John Boyle, chairman ; 

^William Austin*, deputy chairman (J^l^ud du chemin de fer de rEnlre-Sambrc-el-Meuse); 

♦John Hudson Smith, director ; 

♦Cornelius Lnndie, traffic manager . 

Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway (109 k. [G3 milles], 3 d^.) : 

♦ Henry Francis Slattery, chairman; 
William Bailey Hawkins, deputy chairman; 

♦Herbert Rhys. Price, secretary. 

East and West Junction and Stratford-upon-Avon, Towcester and. Midland J unction Railway 
(105 k . [65 milles], 3 d^l ) : 
♦Thomas Wilkins, director; 

♦ WiLUAM Merrick, general manager ; 
♦J. F. Burke, chief engineer. 

Clogher Valley Railway (83 k. [52 milles], 2 d6l.) : 

♦ Hugh de Fellenberg Montgomery, J. P. D. L., deputy chairman; 

♦ WiLUAM Irwin, general manager. 

Metropolitan Railway (83 k. [52 milles], 2 del.) : 

J. Bell, managing director; 
O. H . Whissell, secretary. 
Neath and Brecon Rnilwaif (64 k. [10 milles], 2 d6l.) : 



♦John Evan Griffith, general manager ; 
♦Charles Talbot, secretary and accountant. 



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52 LISTE Ql^NliRALE DES D^L^GU^S. 



Metropolilan District Railway (63 k. [39mille8], 2 dM ) : 

4 Alfbbd Powell, manager; 

^Oborob Estall, engineer and locomotive superintendent. 

Tralee and Dingle Light Railway (60 k. [37 milles], 2 d*l.) : 

4R. A. Parkes, manager; 
^OborobE. a. HickBOn, engineer. 

IsU of Man Railway (56 k. [35 milles|, 2 d^l.) : 

40. H. Wood, secretary and general manager; 
4 A. W. Rizon, solicitor. 

Wrexham Mold and Connah*$ Quay Railwa y (56 k. [35 rallies], 2 d^l.) : 

The Right Hon. Hbrbbrt Gladstone, M. P.; 
Stuart Wortley, Q. C, M. P. 

Manche8tef\ She /field and Lincolnshire and Midland Railway Joint Committ ee (51 k. [32 niilles] 

2 dM.). 

Georoe E. Paget, chairman Midland Railway ; 
4 Albxandrr Henderson, director Manchester, SheflBeld and Lincolnshire Railway. 

Barry Railway (47 k . [29 milles], 2 d6l.) ; 

4 Thomas Rob Thompson, director; 
4 Richard Evans, manager. 

Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway (45 k. [28 milles], 2 d^l.): 

Sir John J. Jenkins, chairman ; 
Morgan B. Williams, deputy chairman. 

Liverpool Overhead Railway (10 k [6 milles], 2 d^l.): 

♦G. H. Robertson, director; 

4S. B. Cottrell, M. Inst. G. B., general manager and engineer. 

. Mersey Railway (6 k. [4 milles], 2 dil.) : 

Albert George Kitching, chairman ; 
4FRANas Fox, director. 

Cit// and South London Railway (5 k. [3 milles], 2 d^l.): 

^Thomas G. Jenkin, general manager; 
4 Basil Mott, engineer. 

B. — Empire de» Indes et Ck>lonle» (India and Colonies). 

3ist Tndian Raibjoay (2,927 k. [1,819 milles], 8 d61.) : 

^ Lieutenant-general R. Strachey, R. E. , C. S. I., L. L. D., chairman ; 

Bazett W. Golvin, deputy chairman ; 

Sir James L. Mackay, K. C. S. E., director; 

Sir Alexander M. Rendel, K. G.S. E., consulting engineer; 
4W. S. Rendel, consulting engineer; 
♦ F. E. Robertson, G.S.E., chief engineer; 
^ J. M. Rutherford, general traffic manager; 

H. C. Arbathnott, locomotive assistant to consulting engineer. 



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GENERAL LIST OP DELEGATES. 33 



Atlantic and Lake SupetHar Railway (1,778 k. fi,105 miiles], 6 d61.) : 

4Gha8. Newhouse Annitrong, managing director ; 

4EDOAB N. ArmBtrong, secretary; 

4Wif. Bomside, agent general for the United Kingdom. 

Bengal and North Western Railway (1,217 k. [716 milles], 5 d61.) : 

Lieut.-General C. H. Dickens, C. S. I., chairman; 
4D. J. Robertson, deputy chairman; 

G. Christian, director; 

G. W. Allen, G. I. E., director; 
^Lieut.-CoIonel E. L. Manyat, secretary. 

Quebec Central Railway (246 k. [153 milles], 3 dil.) : 

4 Edward Dent, president ; 
4 Edmund EUinger, director; 
4 Alexander Bremner, director. 

Victoria Sidney Esquimaux and Nanaimo Railway of Canada (159 k. [99 milles], 3 d^l.) : 

Lieut -col. Kane, agent general. 

Victoria Government Railways (4,312 k. [2,679 milles], 8 d6l.). 

Cape Government Railways (3,988 k. [2,478 milles], 8 d6l.). 

New South Wales Government Railways (4,073 k. [2,531 milles], 8 d61.): 

4 Edward Miller Gard Eddy*, Chief Commissioner of the New South Wales Goyemment Railways 

(d^l^gud du gouvernemeat de la Nouvelle Galles du Sud). 
^Paul Bedford Eiwell, electrical engineer of the New South Wales Goyemment Railways. 

New Zealand Government Railways (3,008 k. [1,869 milles], 8 d*l.). 
South Australia Government Railways (2,680 k. [1,666 milles], 8 d^l.). 
Tasmania Government Railways (676 k. [420 milles], 4 ddl.). 
Natal Government Railways (639 k. [397 milles], 4d41.). 

Orece (Greece). 

Chemins de fer de Pirie-Ath^es-Pilopon^e (553 k., 4 d^l.) : 

^Auo. Ctillon, ing^nieur; 

GoMST. D. NiCOlaidi, ing^nieur; 
^ Arthur AlTim* . ing^nieur (d^l^e du chemin de fer Cen tral de la R^publiqut dee ^tats-Unis du Br^il). 

Chemins de fer de Thessalie (204 k., 3 d*l.). 
Chemins de fer cTAUique (76 k., 2 dil ). 

Italie (Italy). 

Chemins de fer MSridionaux (r^eau de VAdriatique) (5,513 k., 8 dM ) : 

Borgnini*, ing^nicur, directeur g^n^ral (membre de la Commission internationale du Gongrto); 
# Le baron Charles de Bottini, inginieur, chef du secretariat g^niral ; 
Charles Ricchiardi, ing^nieur, chef de division au service de la traction ; 



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5i LISTE GliN^RALE DES D^L^U^S. 



4 Louis Alzona, ing^nieur, chef du service du mouremeut et da trafic; 

^Ansano Cajo, ing^nieur, chef du service de Tentretien; 

^Hbnry Plancher, ing^nieur, sous-cbef du service du materiel ; 

4 Henry Cairo, ingdnieur, chef de division au service du mouvement et du trafic ; 

^ Victor Bavastro, inspecteur central, agent commercial 4 T^lranger; 

4Euo6ne Randich, ing^nieur, chef de section principal au service de Tenlrelien. 

Chemim de fev de la M^diterrande (5,225 k . , 8 d6l . ) : 

Massa*, ing6nieur, directeur general (membre de la Commission internationale du Congr^); 

Ratti, ingenieur, vice-direcleur g^ndral; 
♦Kossuth, iogenieur, directeur de Terploitation du deuxi^me compartiment ; ' * 

♦Mantegazza, ingenieur, direcleur de Tentretien ; 
♦Frescot, ing6nieur, direcleur du materiel; 

♦ Gornetti. ingenieur, chef de la traction du premier compartiment ; 

♦Lampugnani*, chef du traftc et du mouvement du premier compartiment (membre de la Commission 

internationale du Congrt^s) ; 
♦Jean Ferrari, ingenieur, chef de Tentretien du deuxidme compartiment; 

♦ Colombo, ingenieur, chef de division a la direction gdn^rale ; 
♦E. Braschi, chefdu contentieux. 



♦ Scolari*, docleur en droit, chef de division a la direction g^n^rale (rapporteur); 
♦Rocca*, iogenieur, inspecteur de la direction g^n^rale (rapporteur); 

♦ Zanotta*, ingenieur, chef de section au service de I'entretien, surveillance et travaux (rapporteur). 

Chemin de fer de la Sidle (1,010 k., 5 d6l.) ; 

♦ Roberto Varvaro, administrateur; j 
Letterio BonamiO, administrateur; 

♦ Le comte Bliglioretti, administrateur; 

♦ Enrico Scialoja, secretaire g^n^ral du conseil d'admiuistralion ; 
♦Charles Grillo, commissaire de la Society. 

Chemins de fer sardes (413 k., 3 d^l.) : 

♦ Epaminonda Segrd, administrateur; 

♦ Francis George Whitwham, administrateur; 

♦ Luioi Conti Vecchi, ingenieur, directeur. 

Chemins de fer du Tessin (265 k., 3 d^l.) : 

J^DouAhD Despret*, president (del6gu6 du chemin de fer de I'Est beige); 
♦Ulisse Hennebuisse, directeur de rcxploitalion; 
♦Joseph CarUer, ing^ieur. 

Chemin de fer du Nord de Milan (227 k., 3 del.) : 

♦ A. Vaucamps, administrateur; 
♦Charles Tbonet, ingenieur, directeur; 

♦ CiisAR Rognoni, ingenieur, inspecteur du service des voies et travaux. 

Chemins de fer de la Sicile occidentale (Palerme-Marsala-Trapani) (200 k., 3 d4l.) : 

♦ F^Liz Karo, administrateur; 

♦ Q. Robbo, administrateur d61dgu6 ; 
♦Jules Cottrau, chefdu secr^^tariat. 



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OENEKAL UST OF DELEGATES. 38 



Chemins de fer secondaires de la Sardaigne (600 k., 4 d^l.). 

^EuG^NB Pollone, secretaire d'adminiairalion ; 
^Charles Busser, ing^nieur des constructions ; 
^Victor Franzi, in^enieur des conskrucfcions ; 
^ Carlo Esterle, ingeaicur, iuspecleur. 

SociMi v4nitienne pour cntreprites ct constructions publiques (572 k., 4 d6l.) : 

^Enrico Cavo, avocat, adniinistrateur ; 
^Bartholomeo Loleo, avocat, admini«trat«ttr ; 
Ferdinando Locatello, ing^nieur, directeur de rexploitation. 

Chemin de fer de VApennin central (135 k., 3 d^l.) i 

^Augusts Moyaux, administrateur d^l^d; 
^Alb^ric Van Overbeke, ing^nieur principal; 
Leon Moyaux, ing^nieur. 

Chemin de fer de Sussara-Ferrara (80 k., 2 d61.) : 

^ A. Spasciani, ing^nieur, pr^ident ; 
^AcHiLLB Zavanella, ing^nieur, administrateur. 



^Tem*, directeur (rapporteur). 

Chemin de fer de Regqio- Emilia (71 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^Le D^ Antonio Toso, administrateur; 
♦ViTTORio Rol, administrateur. 

Chemin de fer de Sassuolo-Modena-Mirandola e Finale (69 k., 2 ddl.) i 

^Leonardo Loria, iDg^tiieur, administrateur; 
^Pacifico Levi^ avocat, secretaire du conseil. 

Chemins de fer secondaires romains (67 k., 2 d^l.) ; 

^QuiLio NayonOi avocnt, administrateur; 
♦Qioyanni Sirambio de Gastiilia. 
Chemins de fer ^conomiques de Bari-Barletta et extensions (65 k., 2 d^.) : 

C. Blanchart, ing^nieur, secretaire ; 
4J. Borel, ingenieur, directeur. 

Chemin de fer de Cr^mone-Mantout (63 k., 2 del.). 

Chemin de fer Central et tramways du Canavise (59 k., 2 del.) : 
^Adolphe Pellegrini) ingenieur, administrateur deiegue. 

Chemin de fer de Turin-Pi ffneroUTorre-PelHce (55 k., 2 d6l.) : 
^Cassinis, ingenieur ; 

♦Pucci- Bandana, ingenieur. 

Chemin de fer de Nuples-Oltaiano (50 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^Antonio Gattoni, administrateur; 
^Angblo Basevi^ ingenieur, administrateur. 

Chemin de fer de Chivasso d Ivrea (33 k., t del.) : 

^Melchior Pnlciano, ingenieur; 
♦ Prosper Peyrou, ingenieur 



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86 LISTE O^N^RALE DES DISliSgUISS. 

Chemin de fer de Modena Vignola (26 k., 2 d61.) : 

4AN0BL0 Guastalla, avocal, president, administrateur d^l^i; 
^Emile Greiner, administrateur. 

Chemin de fer de Colle de Val dElsa Poggibonsi (8 k., 2 d61.) : 

ViTTORio Finzi, president ; 
^Febnand Goortois, administrateur. 

Tt^amways d vapeur interprovinciaux de Milan' Bergame-Cr^mone (164 k., 3 dM.) : 

Isaac Stem, administrateur; 
^Maes, ingenieur, directeur du chemin de fer de Valle Seriana et du tramway de Bergame-Soncino ; 
^Marsal, ing^nieur, directeur des chemins de fer ^conomiques du Biellais. 

Tramways ^ vapeur piimontais (160 k., 3 ddl.) : 

^Charles Dupnich, administrateur; 
4 Oeoroes Sassen, directeur gdrant; 
^OusTAVE Boty, ing^nieur. 

SociiU anonymc nationale de tramways et de chemins de fer (136 k„ 3 d61.) : 

Le baron Gonstanzo Gantoni, prtoident ; 
J. Rusconi-Glerici, ing^nieur, administrateur; 
4AD0LPHB Nathan, ing^nieur. 

Tramway d vapeur de Biella d Vercelli (112 k., 3 d6l.) : 

4Val6re Mabille, president; 

4 Henry Sepulchre, inspecteur g^n^ral; 

^Charles Roberti, secretaire de Tinspection gdn^rale. 

Tramways siciliens (71 k., 2 dil.) : 

LuciBN Gninotte, s^nateur, pr^ident ; 
♦Ropsy-Ghaudron, administrateur. 

Tramways et cliemins de fer iconom iques de Rome, Milan, Bologne, etc. (69 k., 2 dil.) : 

Emilb Steens, administrateur dM^6; 
4LioN Vankeerberghen, administrateur. 

Tramways d vapeur de la province dAlexandrie (69 k., 2 d41.) : 

4 Oust AVE Melotte, administrateur; 
^kiu± Pacco, ing^nieur, administrateur. 

Tramways de TuHn (65 k., 2 d6l.) : 

4J. Jacobs, ing^nieur, pr^ident, administrateur de la Soci^t^ g^n^rale de cliemins de fer ^no- 

miques; 
4 Arthur Gmslin, ingdnieur, directeur . 

Tramways d vapeur de la province de Turin (62 k., 2 d61.) ; 

' 40UID0 Bollero, administrateur ; 
4 Paul Amoretti, directeur. 

Tramways d vapeur des provinces de Virone et VJcence (57 k., 2 d^l.) : 

4 J. B. Alessi, administrateur; 
4E. Wallaert, administrateur. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 57 



Tramways de la province de Florence (45 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^Cbsare Gesaroni, administrateur; 
#Alessandro Panzarasa, ing^nieur dIeciricieQ. 

Tramways florentins (44 k., 2 d^L) : 

#Le baron Albert db Fierlant, ing^nieur, chef de seryice de I'exploitation a la Socidt^ g^a^ralede 
chemins de fer ^conomiques ; 

# Albert Van der Straeten, ing^Dieur, chef de service des voies e( traTauz a la Socidt^ g^n^rale d& 

chemins de fer ^conomiques. 

jyamways d vapeur et chemins de fer iconomxques de la pt*ovince de Pise (4i k., 2 d^I.) ; 

^F. Benedetto Rognetta, inginieur, lieutenant-colonel d'artillerie, pr^ident; 
^Emilb Rognetta, ayocat, secretaire de la prteidenoe. 

Tramways napolitains (15 k , 2 d^l.) : 

4G. Bricourt, administrateur; 

♦ E. Vilers, directeur. 

Union des chemins de fer italiens d^intSrSt local (528 k., 4 dil.) : 

4AMBR00I0 Gampiglio* /president (membre de la Commission interna tionale du Congr^s); 

Pesaro, yice-pr^ident du chemin de fer Suzzara-Ferrara, membre du comity de TUnion ; 
♦Camis, ing^nieur, membre du comity ; 

Augusts Ferrari, prteident du chemin de fer de Novara-Seregno. 

Association des tramways italiens (500 k., 3 d^l.) : 

G. Bianchi, ing^nieur, prteident; 
4E. Radice, ing^nieur, yice-pr^ident ; 
4J. G. Kessels, ing^nieur, secretaire gdndral. 

Luxembourg (Lozemburg). 

Chemins de fer Ouillattme- Luxembourg (257 k., 3 del.) : 

^ToMT Dutrenx*, administrateur (membre de la Conmiission Internationale du Gongr^s); 
^Maurice Letellier, repr^sentant de la Society k Luxembourg; 
J. E. Van de WynckMe, secretaire du conseil. 

Chemins de fer et Miniires Prince Henri (163 k., 3 del.) : 

^ JuLBS Wilmart, administrateur ; 
J. 6. Dupont, ingenieur, directeur; 
E. Diderich, iospecteur chef de service. 

Mexique (Mexioo). 

Chemin de fer de Hidalgo et Nord-Est (210 k., 3 del.) ; 

Horvege (Horway). 

^ Chemins de fer de t&tat (1,510 kil., 6 del.) : 

♦C. Pihl*, directeur pour le departement de construction (deiegue du gouvemement norvegien) ; 
C. E. Krefting*, directeur pour le departement de Tezploitation (id.). 

Chemin de fer de Christiania d Eidsvold (Norsk Hoved Jembane) (68 k., 2 del.). 



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58 LISTE G^N^RALE DES DJ^Ll^OU^S, 

Pays-Bai (Holland). 

A. — Contlnest. 

Chemins de fei^ de V l^tat nierlandais (SocUUpour V exploitation des) (1,567 k , 6 d^l.) : 

J. H. l^rel, eecrttaire ; 
4S. E. Haagsma, chefde division du service de la traction et da mat^iel; 
4H. A. Perk, membre de la Commission militaire permonente des chemins de fer ; 
^H. Spanjaard, iDspecteur principal. ; 

Chemin de fer Hollandais (1,219 k., 5 d61.) : 

R. VAN Hasselt, adminisirateur d^l^^ ; i 

N. H. Nierstrasz, ing^nieur, chef del'exploitation; " | 

^J. A. Roessing van Iterson, ing^nieur en chef de la traction et du materiel; \ 

^De Bruyn. ing^nieur en chef des voies et travaui. i 

Chemin de fer Central n^erlandais (102 k., 3 d^l.) ; j 

^J. W. Verloop, ing^nieur mdcanicien. 

Chemin de fer Brabant septentrional allemand (101 k., 3 d^l.) : 

J. M. Voorhoeye, prisident-directeur ; 
J. B. Zelis, directeur. 

Tramways neerlandais (94 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^S. Hamelink, directeur; 
4K. Van Rijn, commissaire. 
Tramways d vapenr de Breshens-Maldegem (3 6 k,, 2 d61.) : 

^Gerritsen, president ; i 

^Schotel, commissaire. I 

B, — Colonle*. 

Chemins de fer de fjStat aux hides nierlaniaises (1,147 k., 5 del.) 

Compagnie n^erlandaise Sud'Africaine de chemins de fer {ISO k,, 4 d^) : 

R. W. J. G. VAN DEN Wall Bake, directeur; 

J. A. VAN Kretschmar van Veen, administratcur. 

Chemins de fer des Indes nierlandaises 261 k., 3 d6l.) : 

^G. F. Lucardie, administrateur. • 

Chemins de fer de I' Est de Batavia (57 k., 2 d6l.). 

Peron (Peru). 

Lima Railway (32 k. [19 1/2 milles], 2 d6l.) : 

♦ Colonel Lawrekcb HejTWOrth, J. P., chairman and director; 

♦ Sir Henry Gartwright, J. P., director. 

Perse (Persia). 

Chemins de fer et tramways en Pers e {9 k., 2 del.) : 

♦ Fernand Goillon, administrateur d616gu6; 
Gillet, chef de la comptabilite. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DtE LEGATES. 39 



Portugal. 

A. •* C3oiitliieiit» 

Chemins de fer de V£tat (816 k., 4 d6l.) : 

•^G^ndral Jose Joaquim de Paiva Cabrai. Gouceiro, ing^nieur inspecteur; 
•#Le conseiller Joaquim Pirbs de Soaza Gomes, ing6nieur inspecleur; 

♦ Antonio Jos6 Antones NayaiTO, ing6nieur en chef de K® classe; 

♦ Pedro Romano Folque, iog^nieur en chef. 

Chemins de fer portugais {Compagnie royale des) (1,023 k., 5 d61.) : 

H. K. Boyer, adminisfcrateur, directeur; 

Manuel A. u'Espregneira* ing^ieur conseil ; 

Antonio de Vasconcellos PortO, iogtoieur, chef de la construction ; 
♦Joao Febrbira de M6SC[1lita, ing^nieur adjoint du service du materiel et de la traction; 
♦Antonio Garrasco Bossa, ingeaieur adjoint du service de Texploitalion. 

Chemin de fer de la Beira-Alta (253 k., 3 ddl.) ; 

Henry Durangel, administrateur d^ligu^; 

Leon Drouin*, inspecteur gda^ral (d^l^gu^ du chemin de fer de Medina del Campo a Salamanca); 

Le comle de GOQY^a, directeur. 

Chemins de fer portugais {Compagnie nationale dcs) (101 k., 3 d6l.) : 

♦JosB Mesquita da Rosa, president; 

♦ Lo D' Antonio Jos^ Gomos Lima, directeur; 

♦Manuel Emygdio da Silva, ing^nieur couseil de la Compagnie. 

B, — Colonies. 

Chemins de fer de V^tat (451 k., 3 d6l.) : 

♦ Antonio Arthur da Costa Mbndes de Almeida, capitaine du g^nie; 

♦ Anoelo db SarreaPrado, ing^nieur civil; 

♦ Antonio Maria de Avellar, ingdnieur civil. 

Bonmanie (Boumania). 

Chemins de fer de VJ^tat (2,399 k., 7 d^l.) : 

♦Daca*, professeur a I'^cole des ponts et chauss<^es de Buchai'est, directeur g^n^ral (membre de la 
Commission internatipnale du Congr6s, rapporteur et d6l6gu6 du gouvernement roumain); 

♦ Gh. Drago*, chef de service des ateliers et du materiel (ddl^ud du gouvernement roumain); 
♦A. Gafenco*, chef de .service (id.); 

♦ A. Gottesco*, chef de service (id ); 
♦G. Manesco*, chef de service (id.); 

♦ A. Saligny*, chef de service (id.). 

Eossie (Eussia). 

Chemins de fer de V &tat : Lignes Sud-Ouest russes (2,920 k.); liguesde Saint- P^ersbourg i Varsovfe 
(1,288 k.), Nicolas (645 k.), de Pol6ssi6 (1,507 k.), de Samara-Zlatooust et d'Orenbourg (1,504 k.), 
de Syzrane-Viazma (1,368 k.), de LibauRomny (1,271 k.}, de Catherine et de Doneti (1,216 k.), de 
Kharkov-Nicolaiev (1.099 k.j,d'Ourai (1,085 k.),deTran8caucase (1,047 k.), de hi Baltique, de PskoY- 



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60 LiSTE giJnISrale des di5l^oui5s. 



Kiga elduporl de Saiot-P^terebourg (1,034 k.\ da Riga-Orel (1,028 k.)> da Moscou-Koursk el da 
Moscou-Nijoi (991 k.)* de Koursk-Kharkov-Azov (815 k.), de Loio?o-S^bastopol (686 k.) de Varsoyie- 
Tdrespol, de Bresk-Kholm, de Sedletz-Malkine ei de Narev (535 k.)> de Rje?-Viazma (124 k.). de 
Mourom (114 k.)* de Baskountcbak (77 k.), de Riga Toukoum (58 k.), de Joukovo-Akoulitek (45 k.), 
8 + 5+4 + 6 + 64-5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5+5+5+4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 3 
+ 3 + 2+2 + 2 — 97 d^ldgute. 

Administration centrale : 

Paul Wassilevsky, ing^nieur, pr^ideol ; 
^ Nicolas Antochine, ing^nieur ; 

^Alezandrb Plakida. iDg^nieur, chef de la seclion technique; 
4SBROB Grigorieff, ing^nieur; 

^Nicolas B^l^lobsky, ingSoieur, professeur a Tlnstitut imperial des ingtoieurs des voiea de com- 
munication, membre du conseil des ingdnieurs au miniature des voies de communication ; 
4 Nicolas Reitlinger, secretaire a Tadministration de la caisse de retraite. 

Lignes Sud'Ouest russes : 

4 Arthur D'Abramson, ing^nieur, chef du bureau technique du service de la voie et des b&timents; 
^Maximiuen Filonenko, ing^nieur, chef du bureau du service du mouvement; 
♦Jambs P. Maginnifl, ing^nieur. 

Ligpfie de Saint- P^tersbourg d Varsovie : 

4 Paul Rizzoni, ing^nieur, g^rant des ateliers principauz ; 

♦ J. Richter*, adjoint du directeur (rapporteur). 

Ligne Nicolas: 
4 Joseph Tourtsevitz, ing^nieur en chef du service de la voie et des b&timents. 
Ligne de PoUssii : 

♦ Serge Batchmanoff, ing^nieur pour missions sp^iales. 
Ligne de Syzrane'Vicuima : 

Pierre Donmitrachko, ing^nieur en chef du service de la voie et des b&timents. 
Ligne de Libau-Romny : 

♦ VoLDBMAR Grossman, ingdnieur en chef du service du materiel roulant et de la traction. 
Ligne de KJiarkov-NicolaHev : 

4 Nicolas Baldak, ing^nieur en chef du service du materiel roulant et de la traction. 

Ligne du Transcaucase : 
♦Nicolas Alfonsky, ing6nieur en chef adjoint du service de la voie et des bfttiments. 

Ligne de la Baltique, de Pskov-Riga et du port de Saint-Pitersbourg : 

♦ Dbm^rius Ivanoff, ing^nieur en chef du service de la voie et des bAtiments. 
Ligne de Moscou-Koursk et de Moscou-Nijni : 

♦Nicolas Ghaufos, ing^nieur. 
Ligne de Varsovie- Terespol, de Brest- Kholm, de Sedletz-Malkine et de Narev : 

♦ Simeon Skl^vitzky, inginieur, chef du service du mouvement. 
Ligne de Riga-Orel: 

M. P^rdYOznikoff, ing^nieur en chef du service du materiel roulant et de la traction. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. (J { 



Chemins de fer de VEtat de Finlande (2,098 k., 7 d61.) 

^Nordman, directeur de la traction; 
^Frostems, sous-directeur de rentretien; 
^Niklander, sous-directeur du trafic; 
♦EngstrOm, sous-directeur de la traction. 

Chemin de fer militaire transcaspien (1,433 k., 5 d6i.). 

Ligne Koslov- Voron^g<^'Rostov (853 k., 4 del.). 

Chemins de fer Sud-Est ] Xipwg GiHazi-Tsaritzyne (746 k., 4 d61.). 

Ligne Orel-GHazi (308 k., 3 d61.). 

Ligne de Limy (61 k., 2 dM.). 

4 Basils Wr^densky, ing^nieur, directeur-administrateur. 

Ligne de Riazane-Saratov) 832 k., 4 d^l.) : 

J. E. AdadouroY, president; 
M. P. Verschowsky, directeur; 
M. P. F^doroff, directeur; 
W. P. Zonroff, directeur. 

Ligne de Tambov- Kamichine (475 k., 3 d6l.) : 



Chemins de fer de Riazane- 



Ouralsk. 



A. A. Pomeranzoff, directeur-candidat; 
N. N. Isnay, agent du service de commerce. 

Ligne de Pokrovsk-Ourahh (423 k., 3 d61.) : 

♦ D. P. Kandaoaroff, g^rant de la Ck)mpagiie; 
K. N. Lazarew-Stanistchew, ing^nieur en chef. 

Ligne de Rtistchevo-Serdohksk et Atkarsk-Petrovsk (173 k., 3 del.) : 



A A. Dobrowolski. chef de Texploitalion ; 
S. W. Ignatius, chef du bureau technique. 
Chemin de fer de KievVoran^ge (1,768 k., 6 d6l.) : 

N. L. Markoff, president ; 
A.J. Ghennert, administrateur ; 
4S. A. Erine, administrateur; 
J. A. Likhatchey, administrateur suppliant et chef du service commercial; 

♦ S. J. Sack, iug^nieur technologue ; 

♦ D. S. Ivachinzoff, agent de la Soci^t6. 

Chemins de fer de Vladicaucase (1,298 k., 5 d^l.) : 

♦ S. Kerbedz, ing^nieur, president; 

♦ R. Salomd, ing^nieur, chef du bureau d*exploitation ; 

♦ D. Okoniitch, ing^nieur, chef de Texploitation ; 

♦ S. Tcherrinsky, ing^nieur, directeur des ateliers m^aniques; 
V. Goloabieff, ing^nieur. 

Chemins de fer de Moscou-Brest (1,100 k., 5 d^I.) : 

♦ Krapiffka, president ; 
Warscbavsky, administrateur ; 

#Emii.b Daniscbewski, chef de division du commerce et de I'exploitalion ; 



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62 LISTE GliNliRALE DRS D^L^GUlJS. 



^Liamine, ing^nieur des voies de communicalion, Ing^nieur en chef; 
^Pschenetzky, ing^nicur technologue, adjoint du chef de traction . 

Chemins de fer de Moscou-Jaroslav et Arkhangelsk (623 k., 4 d^l.): 

Sava Mamontoff, president ; 

Semen Petrovitch Tchocoloff, ing^nieur de la construction. 

Chemin de fer de Vanovie' Viaine (542 k., 4 d6I.) : 

^Etiennb Zielinski, ing^nieur, administrateur; 
^Alexandre Wasiutynski, ing^nieur attache a la direction ; 
4 Adam Szawtowski, sous-chef du mouvement ; 
^ Louis Woyno» sous-chef du serrice de la traciion. 

Chemins de fer de la Vistule (541 k., 4 (Ul.) : 

^Kozlowski, vice-president; 

^Sendzikowski, ing^nieur, administrateur direcleur; 
^OlkMne, cooseiller priv^, administrateur directeur; 
^Daragane, ing^nieur, directeur de Texploitation. 

Chemins de fer de Dombrova-Ivangorod (487 k., 3 d^I) : 

4 Jean de Bloch, conseiller d'etat actuel, pr^idenl; 

Vladimir de Lachtin, conseiller d'^t, ing^iueur, directeur ; 
^Stanislas Olszewski, ingeuieur. 

Chemins de fer de FasUw ( 304 k , 3 dfel.) : 

♦ L. I. Poliakoff; directeur; 

I. W. Dmry, directeur; 
41. I. GorowitZ* secretaire general de la direction. 

Chemins de fer de Ryhhisk-BologoS (300 k., 3 del.) : 

Alexandre de Pourgold, conseiller priv6 ; 
4 Jacques Outine, conseiller priv^; 
^CoNSTANTiN DE TastchOQlbski, administrateur directeur. 

Chemins de fer de Moscou- Kazane (248 k., 3 del.) : 
4 Alexandre DE Meck» directeur. 
Chemins de ferde (^houia-Ivanovo (201 k., 3 d^I.). 
Chemins de fer de Novgorod (168 k., 3 del.) : 

Paul de Tanciev, president ; 
Alexandre de KozlOYSki, administrateur; 
4Hbnri de Svientzitzki, conseiller d'etat, ihgenieur, directeur. 

Chemins de fer de Novotorchok (137 k., 3 del.). 

Chemins de fer de Saint- PHersbourg-Irlnor ska (37 k., 2 del.). 

Chemins de fer dc Bnrga-Kervo (33 k., 2 del.) : 

C. G. StandertskjOld, ingenieur, directeur- president; 

C. G. Sanmark, surintendant de rAdministrntion des induslries de FinJande, dircct«ur» 



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. GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. <J8 

Chemin de fer de Lodz (88 k., 2 dil.) : 

^JicAN DB Bloch*, coQseiller d'etat actuel, prtoident (d61^gui6 des chemins de fer de Dombrova- 

Irangorod); 
^EoQKNE Kucharski, chef du conlr61e. 

Chemin de fe%- de la ville de Kiev (28 k., 2 dM.) ; 

Brodsky, adminisirateur. 

Chemin de fer de Tsarsko^.'S^lo (26 k., 2 d4l.) : 

L^N Warschawsky, administrateur. 

Premiire SociiU des chemins de fer secondoires en Russia (160 k., 3 del.) : 

BoLBSLAS Jalovietsky, ing^nieur des voies de communicalion ; 
Theodore T^nakieff, ing^nieur des voies de communication; 
^A. Nikitine, ing^nieur en chef. 

Tramwaj/s d'Odessa (20 k., 2 d^l.) : 

^P. Hanunelrath, ing^nieur, secretaire du conseil d'adniinislralion ; 
^Euo^NB Boorson, iog^nieur. 

Tramways de Moscou (9 k., 2 dd.) • 

J. A. Likhatchev*, administrateur (ddl^gu^ du chemin de fer de Kiev-Voron^); 
^Fb. Knanff, administrateur. 

Serbia (Senrla}. 

Chemins de /g>- de VFAat (540 k., 4 d6l.) ; 
^MiLivoiE Tossimovitch*. inspecteur g^udral (d^ligu^du gouTernement serbe). 

Suede (Sweden). 

Chemins de fer de VEtat (3,127 k.^ 8 dtt.) : 

^Le comtc Rodolphb Gronstedt*. directeur g^n^ral (d^l^guS du gouveroeaient suMois); 

^Fredrik Almgren*, administrateur (membre de la Commission interAoUoaaledu Gongv^, d^^u6 du 

gouvernement suMois); 
^Victor Klemming, inspecteur du materiel ; 
♦A. Roos ingdnieur en chef consultant des travaux de la voie; 
^Hbbman Johansson, ing^nieur des Etudes du materiel; 
^G. P. Sandberg, ingdnieur consultant de la voie. 

Chemins de fer de Norsholm- Westervik-Uultsfved (184 k., 3 d61.) : 

^ Major P. Petersson, ing^nieur des ponts et chauss^; 
Capitaine A. G. Stable, ing^nieur des ponts etchauss^es. 

Chemin de fer de Nassi6-0skarshamn (146 k., 3 del ) : 
^Fred. Goslett, directeur g^ndral. 

Chemins de fer de Nora-Karlskoga (130 k., 3 d*l.) : 
^G. GoUett, ing^nieur en chef, chef de Texploitition. 

Chemins de fer de Frdoi'Ludvika et Banghammar-Kloten ( 120 k., 3d^i.) s 
^JoHN Johnson, ing^nieur, directeur g^ndral. 



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^4 LISTE O^N^RALE DES DJ^L^OU^S. 

Chimin de fer de Palsboda-Finspong ct Finspong-Norsholm (85 k., 2 (161.) : 
•# Oscar Kamph, ing^nieur civil, chef de Texploitation. 

Suisse (Switzerland). 

Chemins de fcr du Jura-Simplon (1,052 k . , 5 (161.) : 

•#]£iciLB Golomb, directeur. 

Chemin de fer Central Suisse (394 k., 3 d^l.) : 

W. Heusler, vice-president du comity de direcUon; 
J. Mast, membre du comity de direction ; 
J. Flory, membre du comity de direction . 

Chemin de fer du Gothard (266 k., 3 d6l.) : 

Stoffel, president de la direction ; 
-^Dietler*, vice-president de la direction (membre de la Commission internationale du Congr^s). 

Chemin de fer Suisse du Seethal (46 k., 2 del.). 
Chemin de fer d cr^maillire de VUge d Zermatt (35 k., 2 del.) : 
•#Brnbst Gorrevon. 
Chemin de fer d'Yverdon d Sainte-Croix (24 k., 2 del.) : 

•# Ernest Correvon*, vice-president (deiegue du chemin de fer de Viege a Zermatt) ; 
•#JoHN Landry, administrateur. 

Chemin de fei* de la Vallde de Blrsig (13 k., 2 del.) : 

E. Probst-Lotz, president ; 
^ Arnold Gysin, ingenieur, directeur de Texploitation . 

Chemin de fer de Olion aux Rochers de Nage (8 k., 2 del.) : 

^Georges Masson, president; 
^ Ami Chessex, vice-president. 

Chemin de fer ilectrique de Sissach-'Oelierkinden (3 k., 2 del.). 
Chemin de fer de Lausanne-Ouchg (2 k , 2 del.) : 

^J. J. Mercier de Molin, vice-president; 
^B. Francillon, administrateur. 

Chemin de fer funiculaire de Terr itet-G lion (1 k., 2 ddl.). 

•#AoousTB Dupraz, avocat, administrateur ; 
-# Alexandre Emery, administrateur. 

Tonisie (Tonis). 

Chemin de fer Rubattino (Tunis-Bardo-La Goulette-Marha (42 k., 2 del.) : 
^ Le Prince Ruffo SciUa, administrateur ; 

-♦Francesco Martorelli, ingenieur, inspecteur general des chemins de fer italiens en relraile, geranl de 
la Societe. 



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GENERAL LIST OF DELEGATES. 68 



Torquie (Turkey). 

Chemins de fer orientaux (Compagnie d* exploitation des) (1,264 k., 5 d6l.) • 

Maurice Baner, administrateur, membre du Comity de direction; 

Charles M orawotz, administrateur ; 
^ J. Goldberg, ing^nieur, secretaire g^n^ral ; 
^Le D' G. DE Adler, conseil l^al. 

Chemins de fer ottomans de Beyrouth-Damas-Hauran (250 k. , 3 d6l.) : 

, ^AUain-Laonay*, administrateur (d^l^gu^ du chemiii de fer de Bdne-Guelma) 
^D. P^ronse, ingdnieur en chef des ponts et chauss^es; 
^Weisgerber, ing^nieur en chef des mines. 

TTrufuay. 

Midland Uruguay railway (315 k. [196 milles], 3 d6l.) : 

♦ G. G. Mott*> chairman (d61^6 du Great Western Railway); 
^HoN. J. C. Farrer, director; 

♦ Sir Wm. L. Tonng, Bart., director. 

Venezuela. 

Chemins de fer vinizudliens {Compagnie frangaise des ) (60 k., 2 d61.) : 

♦ Albert Re3maud, administrateur. 



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TABLE ALPHAB&riQUB ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



DES DMXitiGUMlS 

AVEC INDICATION DES SECTIONS 
AUX TRAVAUX DESQUELLES ILS ONT PRIS PART 



OF DBLBGATBS 

INDICATING THE SECTIONS 
THEY ATTENDED 



N. B, — rabtenoa est marquto par trole points (...) dam la demise ooIowm. (... la Mm laat 0*1. mmm tlHil 
tba delegate was not present) 



4i 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^QANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



1 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 



Abbles (Sigismond). 
Abramson (Arthur d') 

ACWORTH (W. M.) . 
Adadourov (J. E.) . 

Addicks(W. H.). . 

Addison (Major G. W.) 

ADLER(leDf Q. de). 

AONELLET 
Alessi (J. B.) . 

Alponsky (Nicolas) 

Allain-Launay . 

Allen (E. G.) . 

Allen (G. W ) . 

Allen (H. C ) . 

Allen (T. J.) . 
Allen (William F.) 



Almeida (Antonio Arthur 
da Ck>sta Mendes de) . 



Chemins de fer de T^tat (Hoogrie) . 
Ghemins de fer de I'^tat (lignes Sud-Ouesl) 

(Russie) 

Section anglaise 

Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk (ligne 

de Riazane-Saratov) (Russie) .... 
Pittsburgh and Western Railway (^tats- 

Unis d'Am^rique) 

Minislfere du Commerce {Board of Trade) 

(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bret. et d'lrlande). 
Ompagnie d*exploitation des chemins defer 

orieotaux (Turquie) 

Chemin de fer du Nord (France). . . 
Tramways a vapeur des provinces de V6rone 

ek Vicence (Italic) 

Chemins de fer de I'fitat (ligne de Transcau- 

case) (Russie) 

Chemins de fer ottomans de Beyrouth 

Damas-Hauran (Turquie) et Chemins de 

fer de B6ne-Guelma (Algdrie) . . . . 
New York. New Haven, and Hartford Rail- 
way (Etats-Unis d'Am^rique) .... 
Bengal and North Western Railway (Empire 

des lodes) 

Buenos- Ayres Great Southern Railway 

(R^publique Argentine) 

Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
American Railway Association (Etats-Unis 

d'Am^rique) 

Chemins de fer de T^tat dans les colonies 

(Portugal) 





1<&5 
5 




1&2 


1, 


2, 3, 4 <& 5 




4 
1<&4 




5 




1 



1,2.3 A 4 
3«fe4 

3<&4 

1 



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ALPBABETICAL INDEX OF DELEOATBS. 



67 



[ 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^ANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SEGTKWS. 



18 



19 

20 
21 



22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 
28 

29 

30 

31 

32 
33 

34 
35 

36 

37 
38 
39 

40 

41 
42 

43 
44 

45 
46 

47 
48 



Almeida d'Eqa (Bento For- 
tanato de Moura Gon- 
tinho D*). 

Almqebn (Fredrik) . . . 



Alt (William John). 
Alvim (Arthur) . 



Alzona (Louis) . 
Amiot. . . . 
Amorbtti (Psattl) 
Anqon (A.) . . 
Andrews (B.) . 



Anqulo (Rafael). 
Antocbinb (Nicolas) 

Arambubu y PBLAYo(Manuel 

db). 
Arbuthnott (H. C.) . . 

Armstrong (Charles New- 
house). 
Armstroxo (Edgar N.). . 
Armttaob(Q. J.) . . . 

Aslett (Alfred). 
Aspinall(J. A. F.). . . 

Ast (Wilhelm) .... 

Aucoc 

Aumont 

Austin (Williani) . . . 

Auvert 



AUZOUY 

Avbllar (Antonio Maria) . 

Babtbns (Ferdinand) . . 
Baioac (Nicolas). . . . 



Baillbt .... 
Bainbs(R. Campbelt) 

Baird (J. O. A.). . 
Bakbb (sir Benjamin^ 



Minisk^re des travaux publics, da commerce 
et d« rindustria (Portugal) . • • • . 

Commission Internationale du Congrte et 

Miniiit^re de rintirieur (Su6de). . . . 
Bmzil Great Southarn Railway (Br^il). . 
Ghemin de fer Gentral de la Rdpublique des 

^tats-Unis du Br^l (Br^sil) et chemiu 

de fer Pir^e-Athtoes-P^opontee (Grice). 
Chemios de fer M^ridionaux (r§seau de 

TAdriatique) (Italie) 

Cbemins de fer de Paris k Lyon ei i la 

BtUditerran^ (France) 

Tramways k vapeur de la province de Turin 

(Italic) 

Cbikmin de fer de Termonde k Saint Nicolas 

(Bdgiquc) 

London and Southwestern Railway (Grande- 

Bretagne) 

Ghemin de fer da Nord de I'Espagne . . 
Administration centrale des cnemins de fer 

de r^tat (Rossie) 

Ghemins de fer de Tarragone k Barceloae 

et k la France (Espagne) 

East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonies) . . . 

Atlantic and Lake Superior Railway (Canada). 

Atlantic and Lake Superior Railway (Canada). 

Section anglaise et Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway (Grande-Bretagne) .... 

Cambrian Railways (Grande-Bretagne) . . 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

CheminH de fer du Nord Emperear Ferdi- 
nand (Aiitricbe) 

Ghemin de fer du Midi (France) .... 

Ghemin de fer du Nord (France). . . . 

Rhymney Railway (Grande-Bretagne) et 
chemin de ler de TEntre-Sambre-et-Mease 
(Belgique) 

Ghemins de fer da Paris a Lyon et a la 
M^iterrante (France) 

Minist^re des traTauxDublics (France) . . 

Ghemins de fer de I'Btat dans les colonies 
(Portugal) 

Chemin de fer du Nord de la Belgique . . 

Ghemins de fer de T^tat (ligne de Kharkov- 
Nicolaiev) (Russie) 

Chemin de fer de Ghimay (Belgique). . . 

Gentral Argentine Railway (RApublique 
Argentine) 

North British Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Great Northern and Great Eastern Railway 
Companies' Joint Gommittte (Grande- 
Bretagne) ' 



1 
3d4 

4 

2d5 

5 

1 

2d3 



ld2 
1, 2, 3, 4 d 5 

1A2 

ld3 

4 
ld4 



5 
2 

id5 

2d4 

4 



Digitized by 



Google 



C8 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DES D^Ll50Ufe. 











aga 

D O P 


NOM. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


49 


Balpocr of BoRLBiOH(The 


Ministire du Commerce (Board of Trade) 






Right Hon. tord). 


(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bretagne et d*Irlandc) 


1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 


50 


Barabant 


Commission Internationale du Congrte et 








Chemins de fer de TEst (France) . . . 


3d4 


51 


Barat(T.) 


Chemins de fer du Nord de TEspagne . . 


... 


52 


Bardant (le Chevalier Max 
Bram von). 


Chemins de fer du Sud de FAutriche. • . 


... 


53 


Bardoux 


Chemins de fer de Paris k Orl^ns (France). 
Chemin de fer de Tournai & Jurbise et de 


4 


54 


Barella (D' Uopold) . . 








Landen a Hasselt (Belgicme) .... 
Los Angeles Terminal Railway (iStats-Unis 


4 


55 


Barnbs (D. L.) . . . . 








d'Am^rique) 


.. • . 


56 


Barnett (Patrick M.) . . 


Great North of Scotland Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


1A5 


57 


Barry (J. Wolfe) . . . 


North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Ministere des travaux publics (France^ . . 


1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 


58 


Barthou (IA)n). . . . 




59 


Basbvi ( Angelo) . . . . 


Chemin de fer de Naples-Ottaiano (Italie) . 
Chemins de fer de I'Etat (ligne de Pol^i^) 


5 


60 


Batchmanoff (Serge) , . 








(Russie) 


1&4 


61 


Bate (Mojor G. M'O.) . . 


Minislfere du commerce (Board of Trade) 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 








d'Irlande) 


l,2d5 


62 


Batten (J. W.) . . . . 


Central Argentine Railway (Rdpublique 








Argentine) 


1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 


63 


Baudry 


Chemins de fer de Paris a Lyon et k la 








M^diterrande (France) 


2 


64 


Bauer (Guslavc). . . . 


Chemin de fer de Madrid A Saragosse et k 




65 


Bauer (Maurice) . . . 


Alicante (Espagne) 

Compagnie d'exploilation des chemins de fer 
orienlaux (Turquie) 


. • . 


66 


Baulant (Ren^). . . . 


Cheminsdeferdu Sud de la France. . . 


• • . 


67 


Bavastro (Victor) . . . 


Chemins de fer m^ridionaux (r^seau de 








I'Adriatique) (Italie) 


3<&4 


68 


Bayley (C. W.) . . . . 


Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


1,2,3*4 


69 


Bayley (Ken net) . . . 


Great Southern and Western Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) ....... 


1, 2<&5 


70 


Bbaman (Charles C.) . . 


Denver and Rio Grande Railway (Etats-Unis 

d'Amerique) 

Taff Vale Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 




71 


Bbasley (A.) 


3, Va 5 


72 


Behrens (Gustav) . , . 


Section anglaise et Midland Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) 

Administration centrale des chemins de fer 


3 


73 


Belelubsky (Nicolas) . . 








de riitat (Rufsie) 


ld2 


74 


Bbll(J.) 


Metropolitan Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 


• • . 


75 


Bell (J. R.) 


Secretariat d'etat pour Tempire des Indes 








(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) .... 


1,2,8&5 


76 


Bbllercchb (Eugene) . . 


Chemin de fer Grand Central Beige (Bel- 








gique). 


2d5 


77 


B^nac 


Chemins de fer del'Elat (France). . . . 


4 


78 


Bbnoit 


Chemins de fer du Calvados (France) . . 




79 


Bednard (Percy B). . . 


Waterfcrd and Limerick Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


2A4 


80 


Bebquet 


Chemins de fer de Paris a Lyon et k la 








M6diterran^ ^France) 


3A4 



Digitized by 



Coogh 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OP DELEGATES. 



69 



lii 


NOM. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^LlSOANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


81 


Behryman (E. W.) . . . 


Southern Pacific Railroad (^tats-Unis d'Am6- 








rique) 


4 


82 


Bezecny (le Df Anton) . . 


Chemins de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 








nand (Autriche) 


4&5 


83 


BlANCHI (G.) 


Association des tramways italiens . . . 




84 


BlAREZ(A) 


Chemins de fer du Nord de TEspagne . . 


. . . 


85 


BlCKBRSTETH (J. p.). . . 


London and North Western Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne). 


2&5 


86 


BiLiNSKi (S. Exc. le Dr. Che- 
valier von). 


Minisl^re du commerce (Autriche) . . , 


3&4 


87 


BiLLBMA (Louis). . . . 


Compagnie Franco-Alg^rienne (Alg^rie). . 


2 


88 


BiRT (W.) . . 




Great Eastern Railway (Grande- Bretagne). 
Chemin de fer de Chauny a* Sainl-Gobaiu 

(Prance) 

Chemins de fer du Nord de I'Espagne . . 


1, 2, 3, 4&5 


89 


BivER (Alfred) . 






90 


Bixio (Maurice) , 




... 


91 


Blagb 




Chemins de fer du Midi (Prance). ; , . 
Chemins de fer ^conomiques de Bari-Barletta 


1<&4 


92 


Blanchart (G.) . 












et extensions ( I talie). 


. . * 


93 


Blocb (Jean oe) . 




Chemin de fer de Lodz et x;hemin de fer de 
Dombrova Ivangorod (Russie) ; . . . 


3&4 


94 


Blount (Edw.) . 




Chemins de fer de TOuest (France) . . . 
Chemin de fer de Braine-le-Comte k Gand 

(Belgique) ....;.... 
Chemin de fer de Braine-le-Comte ^ Gand 

(Belgique) 

Chemins de fer unis d'Arad et de Csanad 


3 


95 


BofiL (Qusteve) . 






96 
97 


Bo£l (Louis) . 




... 


Bonus (Laszlo db) 










(Hongrie) 


5 


98 


BoLLBRo(Guido). 




Tramways a vapeur de la province de Turin 

(Italie) 

Caledonian Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 


K 


99 


Bolton (J. C.) . 






100 


BoNANNo (Lefcterio) 




Chemins de fer de la Sicile (Italie) . . . 




101 


Bonsor (H. Cosmo 0.) . . 


South Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 


. . . 


102 


Boos Waldeck nod Mont- 


Chemins de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 






port (S. Ex. le Comte 


nand (Autriche) 


5 




Philippe). 






103 


Bordbt ...... 


Chemins de fer de TOuest algdrien (Alg^rie). 
Chemins de fer ^conomiques de Bari-Barletta 


4 


104 


Borel(J.) 








et extensions (Italie). .;.... 


5 


105 


BORONINI 


Commission internationale du Congrte et 








chemins de fer miridionanx (r^seau de 








lAdriatique) (Italie). ...'... 


• . . 


106 


Boros (Beni de) . . . . 


Chemins de fer unis d'Arad 'et tie Csanad 








(Hongrie) 


5 


107 


BoRowY(leDf Max). . . 


Chemin de fer Nord-Ouest autriclrien et jonc- 








tion Sud-Nord allemande (Autriche) . . 


4 


108 


Bosch (Yvo) 


Chemins de fer du Sud de I'Espagne . . . 


3 


109 


BoscHAN (le Chevalier Ar- 


Chemins de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 






thur von). 


nand (Autriche) ......... 


1&3 


110 


BoTTiNi(Ie Baron Charles db) 


Chemins de fer mdridionaux (r^seau de 








I'Adriatique) (Italie) 


3<&4 


111 


Boty (Gustave) .... 


Tramways k vapeur pidmontais (Italie) . . 


5 


112 


Bouchard 


Chemins de fer de TElat (France) . . . 
Railways ^conomiques de Likge, Sers^ng et 


4 


113 


Bourgeois (Paul) . . . 








extensions (Belgique) 


2A5 


114 


BouRSON (Eugene) 


• • 


Tramways d'Odessa (Russie) 


2A3 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUB DES Dl^LI^U^S. 



tsss 



NOM. (NAME ) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



115 
116 



117 
118 
119 

120 
121 

122 
123 

124 

125 
126 
127 
128 

129 



130 

131 
132 

133 

134 

135 

136 

137 
138 
139 

140 

141 
142 
143 

144 

145 

146 



BOYBR (H. E.) . . . 
BoTLB (sir Gourtenay) . 



Boyle (John). . . • « 
Boys (Henry Scott) . . . 
Bradley (Charles W.) . . 

Braschi (E.).' . . . . 
BRBADALBANB(The Marqu688 

of). 
Bremxbr (&£.)> • . • 
Brbthbrton (C. E.). 

Brbtz (C. L.) . . • . 

Bricka 

Bricourt (C ) . • . . 

Bri^rb 

Bright (H.) 

Brioschi (Francois) . • . 



BRm;AiN (Thomas J.) 



Brodsky (L.). 
Brooke (T. D.) 



Browne (W. E. Nicolson). 
Brunbbl •••••. 

Br YCB (James) • • • • 

Buchanan (William) . . 

Buckley (J. F.). . . . 
BUNTBN (J. C.) . . . . 
Burke (J. F.) . . • . 

BURLBT (C. de) . , . . 



BURNSIDB (Wm.)> 
BUSSB. . . . 

BussBR (Charles). 



BuTLBR (Lord Arthur) 
Caillat (Pierre). . 
Cairo (Henry) . , 



Compagoie royala des Chemios de ier porta- 
gaia 

Section anglaise et Ministire du eommerce 
(Board of Trade) (Royaume uni de 
Grande-Bretagne et d'lrlande) . . 

Rbymney Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

The Conde d'Eu Railway (Br^ilY . . 

American Railway Association (^tats-Unis 
d'Am^ique) 

Chemins de fer de la M^iterran^e (Italie) 

Section anglaise et Caledonian Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Quebec Central Railway (Canada) . . 

Southern Pacific Railroad (Etats-Unis d'Am^ 
rique) 

West Virginia. Central and Pittsburg Rail 
way (^tats-Unis d*Am6rique) . . • 

Chemins de fer de TlStat (France) . . 

Tramways napoli tains (Italie) 

Chemins de fer de Paris k Orleans (France) 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 
BretagneV 

Comity de direction de la Commission inter 
nationale du Congr^ et Minist^re des 
travaux publics (Italie) 

Belfest and County Down Railway (Grande 
Bretagne) • . 

Chemin de fer de la ville de Kiev. (Aussie) 

Buenos-Ayres and Ensenada Port Railway 
(R^poblique Argentine) 

Midland and South Western Junction Rail 
way (Grande-Bretagne) 

Minist^re des chemins de fer, postes et 
t^l^raphes et chemins de fer de T^tat 
(Betgique) 

Ministere du commerce (Board of Trade) 
(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bret. et d'lrlande). 

New York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road (^tats-Unis d'Am^riqi\e) . ' . ... 

Cambrian Railways (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Caledonian Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

East and West Junction and Stratford- 
upon-Avon Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Commission inlernationale du Congr^s et 
Soci^ld nationale des chemins de fer vici- 
naux (Belgique) 

Atlantic and Lake Superior Railway (Canada). 

Chemins de fer de TEtat (Danemark). . . 

Chemins de fer secondaires de la Sardaigne 
(Italie) 

Waterford and Limerick Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer de Medina del Campo k Sala- 
manca (Espagne) 

Chemins de Ier m^idionaux (r^seau de 
I'Adriatique) (Italie) 



4 
ld4 

5 

1>2,3<&4 
3<&4 

2<&d 
ld2 



3 

ld3 

4 

1 

1,2.3 A 4 



3<&4 
1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 

1&3 
5 



1, 


2. 


3, 4<fe5 




1, 


5 
3 
2<fe5 

3 

2 



3, 4A5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABBTICAJL INDEX OF DELEQATES. 



71 



sis 



NOM. (NAME ) 



ADMINISTRATION DI5l6gANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



147 

148 
149 
150 

151 
152 

153 
154 
155 

156 

157 



158 
159 
160 

161 



162 
163 

164 
165 

166 
167 
168 

169 

170 

171 

172 
173 
174 

175 

176 
177 



Gajo (Aosaoo) 
Gamis. . . 



GAMPBifj.(L^-Col. Ihe Hon. 

H. W.). 
Gampiglio (Ambrogio) . . 



Gantoni (Baron Gonstanso). 
Garbbw (Major P.). . . 



Carlibr 

Garlibr (Joseph) . . . 
Carlibr (Jules) .... 

Carrasco Bossa (Antonio). 

Garruthers (John). 



Garswell (James) . 
Gartwricht (Sir Henrj) 
Gassinis .... 



Gathcart (Ihe Earl). 



Gatblbs (Jao.) 
Cavo (Enricoj 



Cazb 

Cbcil (Lord Eustace) 

Gbrbblaud (Georges) 
Cbsaroni (Cesare) 
Grandee. . 



Chapehon 
GuAPMAN (Edward) 
Ghardon . . . 



Chase (William L.) 
Chassih (Alfred). 
CuADFUsi (Nicolas) 

CuAUviN (Geo. von) 



Gbksneau. . . 
Ghessex (Ami) . 



Ghaaiins de fer m^idionaux (rdaeau de 

TAdriatiqae) (Itelie).- 

Union des chemins de fer iialiens d'intdrdt 

local (Itolie) 

London and South Western Railway (Grande* 

Bretagne) 

Commission intemationale du Congr^s e% 

Unibn des chemins de fer italiens aiaMrM 

local (Italie) 

Soei6t6 anonyme naiionale de tramways et 

de chemins cb fer (Italie) 

Minisi^re du commerce (Board of Trade) 

(Royaume uni de Grande- Bretagne et 

dlHande) 

Chemins de fer de Paris & Orleans (France*. 
Chemins de fer da Tessin (Italie) . . . 
Grand cbemin de fer Central Sud-Am^icaki 

(R^pablique Argentine). 

Compagnie royale des chemins de fer portu- 

gais V . * . 

Agence ffio^ale de la colonic ^e la Noa?sIIe- 

Zdlande a Londres (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonies) 

North British Railway (Gran le- Bretagne). 
Lima Railway (Pdroa). . % . . . i 
Ghemin de fer de Turin, Pignerol Torre- 

Peltice (lUlie) . . . , s . . . 
Minist^re du commerce (Board of Trade) 

(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne el d'lr- 

lande) 

North British Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 
Soci6(6 v^nitienne pour enl reprises et con 

struetions pnbliques fitalie) . . . 
Chemins de fer du Pirigord (France) . 
Chemins de fer de Lemberg-Czeruowitz- 

Jassy (Autriche) 

Chemins de fer du Sud de la France. , 
Tramways de la province de Florence (Italie). 
MiDisl<>re da commerce, de I'industrie, des 

postes et des t^l^aphes (France) . . 
Chemins de fer de Pans a Lyon et k la MMi 

terranie (France) 

Mancliester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Rail- 
way (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 
Ministdre da commerce, de l*industrie, des 

postes et des t^^graphes (France) . . 
Fitchburg Railroad (l5tats-Unisd'Am6rique), 
Chemins de fer du Sud de la France. . . 
Chemins de fer de I'lStat (ligne de Moscou- 

Koursk et de Moscou-Nijni) (Russie) . 
New- York, Ontario and Western Railway 

(^tats-Unis d'Am^rique^ , . . . 
Ministdre des travaux publics (France) . 
Ghemin de f r de Glion aux Rochers de Naye 

(Suisse) 



1 

4&5 

3 

2(&5 



1, 2, 3, 4 d 5 
4 
5 

5 

3d5 



2 

l,2d5 

4 



5 
1, 3A4 



1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 

2* 

4 

2A3 

4 

4 

3(&4 

5 

1, 3d4 

3 
1,2 A3 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DES D^L^UfiS. 






NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



178 
179 
180 
181 

182 

183 

184 
185 

186 
187 
183 

189 
190 

191 
192 

193 
194 
195 

196 

197 

198 
199 
200 
201 
202 

203 
204 

205 
206 
207 
208 

209 
210 

211 

212 

213 

214 



Chsyalibr 

Cholbt 

Choron 

Christian (G.) • . • . 

Churchward (Captain). . 

Clark (Charles P.) . . . 

Clayton (C. G.). . . . 
Cleohorn (John). . . . 

Clerault 

Clerc 

Clermont (A.) .... 

Cockshott (P. P.) . . . 
Colhoun (Robert G.) . . 

Collet (C.) . . . , . 
Collinet (L^o). • . . 

Colomb (iSmile) .... 

Colombo 

Colson 

COLVILL (J. C) . . . . 

CoLViN (Bazett W.). , . 

CONACHBR (J.) . . . . 

CoNTi Vbcghi (Luigi) . . 
Cook (Henry) .... 
Cook (J. M.). . . . . 
Cooper (Dayid) . . . 

Cooper (G.) 

CopPBLL (George) . . . 

Cordewbbner (Jules) . . 
Cork (the Earl of) . . . 

CORNETTI 

Gorrevon (Ernest) . . . 
COSTE 

COTTBRILL 

COTTBSCO (A ) . . . . 

CoTTESLOB (the Right Hon. 

Lord). 
Cotton (Edward T.). . . 

CoTTRAU (Jules). . . . 



Chemins de fer d^rteooentaux (France) . 
Chemins de fer de I'Ouest alg^rien (Alg^rie). 
Chemins de fer du Midi (France). . . . 
Bengal and Norlh Western Railway (Empire 

des Indes) 

London Chatham and Dover Railway 

(Grande- Bretagne) 

New York, New "Haven and Hartford Railway 

(6tats-Unis d*Am6rique) 

Midland Railway (Grande-Bretagne). . . 
Section nnglaise et North Eastern Railway 

(Grande Bretagne) 

Chemins de fer de TOuest (France) . . . 
Chemins de fer de I'Ouest (France) . . . 
Chemin de fer de Li^e-Maestricht (Bel- 

gique) 

Cheshire Lines Committee(Grande-Bretagne) 
Great Southern and Western Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemins de fer de Nora-Karlskoga (Su^e). 
Chemin de fer de Hasselt k Maeseyck (BeU 

gique) 

Chemins de fer du Jura Simplon (Suisse). . 
Chemins de fer de la M^diterran^ (Italie) . 
Commission internationale du Congr6s et 

Minist^re des travauz puhlics (France) 
Section anglaise et Great Southern and 
Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonies) 

North British Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Chemins defer Sardes( Italie), . . . . 
Furness Railway (Grande-Bretagne). . . 
Cheshire Lines Committee (Grande-Bretagne) 
Glasgow and South Western Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Central Argentine Railway (R^p. Argentine^. 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway (Etats-Unis 

d'Am^rique) 

Chemin de fer de Gand ^Teroeuzen (Belgique) 
Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Chemins de fer de la M^iterran^ (Italie) . 
Chemin de fer d'Yverdon k Ste-Croiz et 
chemin de fer de Vi^ k Zermatt (Suisse). 
Chemins de fer d^partementauz (France) . . 
Gouyernement et chemins de ler de I'^tat 

(%pte) 

Minist^re des travauz puhlics et chemins de 

fer de I'^lat (Roumanie) 

London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Belfast and Northern Counties Railway 

(Royaume uni deGr.- Bretagne etd'Irlande) 

Chemias de fer de la Sicile occidentale 

(Palerme, Marsala, Trapani) (Italie) . . 



1,3,4 A 5* 



4 
2 

1&2 
2 

1 



5 

2A3 

1 



3 
1(&2 
3d4 

3 

3d4 
4 



1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 



4<&5 
4d5 



ld5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



73 



J Q oa 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION DEL^GANTE 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



215 
216 

217 

218 
219 
220 

221 

222 
223 

224 



226 

227 

228 
229 
230 

231 
232 

233 

234 
235 
236 

237 

238 
239 

240 

241 
242 



243 

244 
245 
246 
247 

248 



GOTTBBLL (S. B.). . . . 

GoucBiRo (Jose Joaquim de 

Paiva Cabral). . . . 

GoDRTois (Fernand) . . . 

Cousin (Emile) .... 
Cousin (Jean) . . . . 
Crokbr (E. T. O'B ). . . 

Cronstbdt (C® Rodolphe) . 

CaosA 

Crosbib Dawson (J. O.) . . 

CuLLBN (James) .... 

CuLVBRWBLL (GeoFge P) . . 

Curtis (F. S.) . . . . 

CusACK (Sir Ralph Smith) . 

Danisghbwski (Emile) . . 

Daraoanb 

Dawes (Frank) . . . . 

Dean(W.) 

Db Backer (H.). . . . 

Dbbrat 

De Bruyn 

De Bruyn (C.) .... 
De Busscrbre .... 

Db Cuypbr (Ed.) . . . 

Dbhaynin (Albert) . . . 
Dblamarrb 



Dblaunay-Bbllbyillb . 

Db Layblbyb (Auguste) 
Db Lavbleye (Georges). 



Dblcommunb (Emile) 

DBLHAYE(F^lix). . 

'Dbmouun. ... 
Dbnt (Edward) . . 
Depew (Cbauncey M.) 



Dbrvillb . 



Liverpool Overhead Railway (Or.-Bretagne). 

Chemins de fer de I'^tat (Portugal) . . 
Chemin de fer de Colle de Val d Elsa Poggi 

bonsi (Italie) 

Chemins de fer du Sud de I'Espagne . . 
Compagnie du chemin de fer du Congo . 
Cork Bandou and South Coast Railway 

(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bret. et d'Irlande). 
Mini^t^re de I'int^rieur et chemins de fer de 

r^tat(Su6de) 

Minist^re des travauz publics (Italie). . 
North Staffordshire Railway (Royaume uni 

de Grande- Brelagne et dlrlande) . . 
Nashville, Chattanooga and S^-Louis Rail 

way (EtatsUnis d'Aro^ique) . . . 
Belfast and County Down Railway (Royaume 

uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande) . . 
New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail 

way (Etats-Unis d'Am^riquc) .... 
Midland Great Western of Ireland Railway 

(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bret. et d'Irlande) 
Chemin de fer de Moscou-Brest (Russie). 
Chemin de fer de la Vistule (Russie) . . 
Midland and South Western Junction Rail- 
way (Grande-Bretagne) 

Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 
Soci^t^ g^nSrale de chemins de fer dcono 

miques (Belgique) 

Minist^re du cominerce, de I'industrie, des 

posies et des t^ldgraphes (France) . . 
Commission internationale du Congr^ . 
Chemin de fer Hollandais (Pays-Bas) . . 
Minist^re des chemins de fer, postes et MM- 

^phes et ch. de fer de 1'^ tat (Belgique) 
Railways economi^ues de Li^ge-Seraing et 

extensions (Belgique) 

Chemins de fer de I Est alg^rien . . . 
Chemins de fer r^ionauz des Bouches-du 

Rh6ne (France) 

Minist^re du commerce, de I'industrie, des 

postes et des t^l^graphes (France) . . 
Commission internationale du Congr^s . 
D^partement des affaires ^trangeres de I'^tat 

indSpendant du Congo et Compagnie auxi- 

liaire internationale de chemins de fer 

(Belgique). 

D^partement des affaires Mrang^res de I'Etat 

ind^pendant du Congo 

Chemin de fer de Valence et Aragon (Espagne) 
Chemins de fer de I'Ouest (France) . . 
Quebec Central Railway (Canada) . . . 
New York Central and Hudson River Rail 

road (Etats-Unis d'Am^rique) . . . 
Minist^re da commerce, de I'industrie, des 

postes et des t^l^aphes (France). . 



3«&5 
2 

1&5 

4d5 

1 
ld5 

1 

2&3 



3 

1,3 d 4 

3, 4d5 
2 



1 
"i 

1, 3, 4 d 5 

1, 2, 3 d 5 

4 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUB DES D^L^GU^S, 



BfiB 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^LtfOANTE. 
tDELEOATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



249 
250 
251 

252 

253 

254 

255 

256 
257 

258 

259 
260 

261 

262 

263 

264 

265 
266 



267 
268 



269 
270 



271 

272 
273 

274 
275 

276 

277 
278 



Dbsmurb . . . 
Desprbt (Gdouard) 
Dethieu . . . 



Dbutsch (Louis). 
Dbv&s. . . . 
Dbvilainb (L^on) 
DicKBNS (Lt-O^n^nd C. H). 



DiDEBICH (E.). 
DiETLBm . . 



DOBROWOLSKI (A. A.) 



DOQN^ . . 

Dolby (E.R.) 



DouoLAS (James) . 

DouMiTRAGHKo (PieiTe) 

Drago (Th.) . . 

Drbssb (Annand) 

DRBSSE(Roberl). 
Drouin (L^n) . 



Drury (T. W.) 
Dubois (A.) . 



Dubois 
DucA . 



Dudley 



DUFAUX . 

Doncombb ( Caplai 

Hon. C). 
DuPONT (T. B,) . 

DU PONT-RUCLOUX 

DupRAZ (Auguste) 

DuPUicH (Charles) 
DuRANOEL (Henry) 



Uie 



ChemiDS de fer de P«ris i Lyon et k la Midi- 
terran^ (r^au alg(6rieD) 

Chemin de fer de I'Est beige (Belgique) et 
chemins de fer da Tessin (Italie) . . . 

Miniature des cbemins de fer, postes et t^l^ 
graphes et cbemins de fer de I'Etat (Bel- 
giqoe) 

Chemin de fer de Nagy-Kikinda k Nagy- 
Bec8kerek(HoBgrie) 

Chemin de fer de B^ne-Guelma et prokMige- 
ments (rtoeau algirien) 

Socidti des ?oies ferrtes du Dauphin^ 
(France) 

Bengal and North Western Railway (Empire 
des Indes) 

Chemin de fer Prince-Henri (Luxembourg) . 

Connmission Internationale du Congr^ et 
chemin de fer du Gothard (Suisse) . . . 

Chemin de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk (ligne de 
Rtistchevo-Serdobksk et Atkarsk-Pelrovsk) 
(Russie) 

Chemin de fer de Chimay (Belgique) . . . 

Commission Internationale du Congrds (secre- 
taire-rapporteur) 

Arizona and South Eastern Railroad (£tats- 
Unis d'Am^ique) 

Chemins de fer de I'^t (ligne de Syzrane- 
Viazraa) fRustie) 

Minist^e des trayaux publics et chemins 
jle fer de T^tat (Reamanie)i. . ^ . .. 

Chemin de fer de Termonde a Saint-Nicolas 
(Belgique) 

Chemin deler de Hasselti Maeseyck (Belgique) 

Chemin de fer de Medina del Campo k Sala- 
manca (Etpagne) et chemin de fer de la 
Beira-Alta (Portugal) 

Cbemin de fer de Fastov (Russie) .... 

Commission ioternationale du (>)ngr^, Mi- 
nist^re des chemins de fer,. postes et t^l^ 
graphes et chem. de fer de I'^tat (Belgique). 

Chemm de fer de Ceinture de Paris (Prance). 

Commission internationale du Congr^s, Mi- 
nist^re des travaux publics et chem. de fer 
de r^tat (Roumanie) 

New-York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road (Etats-Unis d*Am6rique) .... 

Chemins de fer de TEst (France) .... 

North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Chemin de fer Prince-Henri (Luxembourg) . 
Railways 6conomi<^ue8 de Li^e-Seraing et 

extensions (Belgique) 

Chemin de fer funiculaire de Territet-Glion 

(Suisse) 

Tramways a vapeur Pi6montais (Italie) . 
Chemins de fer de la Beira-Alta (Portugal;. 



d&4 



ld5 



4 
1<&2 

4* 
ld2 

5 



4&5 



1,2&5 
1&3 
2&5 



i,2,3A5 

4&5 
5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



75 



ill 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^ANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS, 



279 

280 
281 



282 
283 

284 

285 

286 

287 

288 

289 
290 

291 

292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 

298 
2'J9 

300 

301 
302 

303 

304 

305 
306 
307 

308 

309 

310 

311 
312 
313 



DUBIBUX (A). 



DoRRiEU (le Qamie Paul) 
DaTRBt3ac(Tony). . . 



EcHEOARAY (Eduardo) . . 
Eddt (Edward Miller Gard). 

Edobcumbb (Col. the Hon. 

C. E.). 
EoER (le D^ Alexander). . 

Elussen (Albert) . . . 

Elwell(C.C.) . . . . 

El WELL ^aul Bedford) 



ELTfTWodoreN.) . 
Embry (Alexandre) . 

Emlyn (the Viscount) 

Empain (Edouard) . 
Empain (Francois) • 

ENOSTRdM 

Brine (S.A.). . . 

Ernst 

EsPRBODEiRA (Manuel A 

Estall (George). • 
EsTBRLE (Carlo) . . 



Etibnnb 



ETLINOER(Edm.). 

Evans (Richard). 



Fair (John) . . . 
Fairbairn (sir Andrew) 



Farrer (Hon. T. C.) 
Favre . • . 
Fay (Sam) . . 



FiooROPP (M. L.) 

Fbnton (sir Myles) 

Ferrari (Auguste) 

Ferrari (Jean) . 
Ferreira de MESQUITA(Joao) 
FiERLANT (le B«" Albert db) 



dO. 



Compagnie g^n^rale de chemins de fer bri- 
siltens (Br^i?) 

Chemius de fer de TEst alg^rien (Alg^e). 

Commission internationale du Congrte et 
chemin de fer Guillaume-Luxembouiig 
(Luxembourg) 

Miniature du fomento (Elspagne) .... 

New S^uth Wales GoYernment (Grande- 
Bretagne et colonies) ...... 

Great We.«tern Railway (Orande-Bretagne) . 

Chemin de fer Nord-Ouest autrichien et 

jonction Sud-Nord allemande (Autriche). 
Soci^U g^n^rale des chemins de ' fer ^ono- 

miques (France) 

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railway 

(^tats-Unis d'Am^ique) 

New Soulh Wales Government Railways 

(Grande-Bretagne et colonies^ .... 
Pennsylvania Railroad (^t.-Unis d'AnH^rique) 
Chemin de fer funicuiaire de Territet-Glton 

(Suisse) .* . . . 

Section anglaise et Great Western Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) ...'.... 
Chemins defer^conomiquesdu Nord (France) 
Chemins de fer du P6rigord (France) . . 
Chemins de fer de TEtat de Finlande (Russie) 
Chemin de fer de Kiev-Voroh6ge (Russie). 
Chemins de fer de TEtat (Danemark) . . 
Compagnie royale des chemins de fer 

portugais 

Metropolitan District Railway (Qr.-Breta^e) 
Chemms de fer secoudoires de la Sardaigne 

(Italie) 

Chemins de fer de Paris a Lyoh el a la Mddi • 

terran^e (r^seau alg^rien) 

Quebec Central Railway (Candda). . 
Barry Railway (Royaume uni de Grande- 
Bretagne et d'Irlande) 

Buenos-Ayres Great Southern Railway 

(R^publique Argentine). ..... 

Commission internationale du Congrto et 

Great Northern Railway (Gr. -Bretagne). 
Midland Uruguay Railway (Uruguay) . . 
Chemin de fer du Nord (France) . . , . 
Midland and South Western Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk (ligne 

deRiazane-Saratuv) (Russie) .... 
Section anglaise et South Eastern Railway 

(Grande-Brelagne) ....... 

Union des chemins de fer italiens d'int^rdt 

local (Italie) 

Chemins de fer de la M^diterrande (I thlie) . 
Compagnie royale des cliem. de fer portugais. 
Tramways florenlins (Ilalie) 



2<&4 



1, 2, 3, 4 <& 5 

4 

5 

1 

2.3A5 
1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 



1,2, 3,4 <& 5 

5 

5 

2<&5 

3, 4d5 



ld2 

1 

1 
1 

4<&5 

4 

1 

5 
3 

3<&5 



1 

1&2 

5 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DES D^L^U^S. 






NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION DISL^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



314 

315 

316 
317 

318 
319 

320 
321 
322 

323 

324 

325 

326 

327 

328 

329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 

335 

336 
337 

338 
339 

340 
341 

342 

343 

344 
345 
346 

347 

348 



FiLONENKo (Maximilien) 

FiNzi (Vitlorio) . . . 

Fison(F.W.) . . . 
Flachon 

Flury(J.) . . . . 
Focquet (A.). . . . 

Folque (Pedro Romano) 

FON BONNE (db) . . 

Fontaine 

Fontaine -Dbla veleyb 

(L^oi) 
Fontaine (A. J. db la) 



Footner (H.) . 

Fokbes (J.-S.) . 

Forbes (Wm) . 
FoacADB (db) 



FORBSTIBR . 

FoRSTBR (Ferdinand) 

FOUAN . . . 
FOUO&RB . . . 

FouQUAU (Henri) 
Fowler (Sir John) 

Fox (Sir Douglas) 

Fox (Francis) . 
Fraeys(A.) . . 



Francillon (B.). 
FRANgois(A.) . 



Franco (Emile^ . 
Franzi (Victor) . 



Fraser (Sir Malcolm) 

Frbire (Victor Pretot) 

Frbminvillb (ob) . 
Frescot .... 
Frey (Jacob J.) . . 



Fbis . . 
Frostbrus 



Chemins de fer de T^tat (lignes Sud-Ouest) 

(Russie) 

Cherain de fer de Golie de Val d'Elsa Poggi- 

bonsi(Italie) 

Great Northern Rail\<ray (Grande Bretagne). 
Minist^re du commerce, de Tinduslrie, dea 

postes et dcs t^l^graphes (France) . . . 

Chem in defer Central Suisse 

Gompagnie des chemins de fer Sud-Ouest 

br^siliens (Br^il) 

Chemins de fer de I'^lat (Portugal) . . . 
Chemin de fer du Nord (France) .... 
Ministers du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 

postes et des t^l^raphes (France) . . . 
C^mpagnie g^n^rale de chemins de fer br6- 

sihens (Br^sil) 

Grand chemin de fer Central-Sud-Am^ricailf 

(R6publique Argentine) 

London and North Western Railway (Graude- 

Bretagne) 

Section anglaise et London, Chatham and 

Dover Railway (Grande Bretagne) . . . 
London, Chatham and Dover Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer de Somain a la fronti^re beige 

(mines d*An2in) (France). . ' . . . . 
Minist^re des travauz publics (France). . 
Chemins de fer de TElat (Hongrie) . . . 
Chemins de fer de TEtat (France) .... 
Chemins de fer de I'Est frangais. . . • 
Chemins de fer de I'^tat (Hongrie) . . . 
Great Northern and Midland Joint Lines 

Committee (Grande-Bretagn^ .... 
Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Rail- 
way (Grande-Bretagne) . . ' . . . . 
Mersey Railway (Grande Bretagne) . . . 
Chemins de fer de la Flandre occidentale 

(Belgique) 

Chemin de fer de Lausanne-Ouchy (Suisse). 
Chemin de fer de Somain k la fronti^e beige 

(France) 

Soc. des voies ferr^ du Dauphin^ (France). 
Chemins de fer secondaires de la Sardaigne 

(Italie) 

Gouvernement de TAustralie de TOuest 

(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) . . . . 
Minist^re de Tindustrie, des travauz publics 

et de la colonisation (Chili) 

Chemin de fer de Paris k Orleans (France). 
Chemins de fer de la MMiterran^ (Italie) . 
American Railway Association (^tats-Unis 

d'Am^rique) 

Socidt^ nationale des Chemins de fer vici- 

naux (Belgique) . 

Chemins de fer de TEtat de Finlande (Russie). 



1 
2 

4 

3, 4d5 

1, 3A5 
4 
3 



3<&5 

1&2 

1 



1, 2&5 
1, 2d5 

1<&2 
4<&5 



3 

4 

Ids 

ids 

2 

id3 

4d5 

1 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



77 



III 

O O 3 

as 'a 5. 


NOM. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^LJ^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


349 


FUNCK(E.) 


Gompagnie auxiliaire Internationale de che- 
mi ns defer (Belgique) 




350 


GlAFENCO(A.) 


Ministdre de» travaux publics et chemins 








de fer de r^tat (Roumanie) 


2d4 


351 


Oain 


Gompagnie internationale des wagons-lits 






• 


et des grands express europ6ens (Belgique). 


2 


352 


Galton (Sir Douglas) . . 


Mobile and Birmingham Raihway (Etats-Unis 






. 


d*Am6rique) 


5 


353 


Gardner (S. A.)- . . . 


New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail- 








way (^lats-Unis d'Am^rique) .... 


3 


354 


GARRicK^Sir James) . . 


Agence f ^n^rale de la colonie de Queensland 
(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) .... 








5 


355 


Gattoni (Antoni) . . . 


Chemin de fer de Naples-Otlaiano (Italie) . 


5 


356 


Gautier 


Gompagnie Meusienne de chemins de fer 








(France) 


5 


357 


Gay (Joseph) .... 


Chemins de fer du Sud de la France. . . 




358 


Gerard 


Minist^re des chemins de fer, postes el 
t^l^graphes et chemins de fer de I'Etat 








(Belgique) 


2 


359 


Gerard (Victor). . . . 


London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) 


3 


360 


Gbrhardt 


Chemins de fer de I'Est (France) .... 


2 


361 


Gerritsbn 


Tramways a vapeur de Breskens Maldegem 








(Pays-Bas) . 


5 


362 


Gerstel (Gustav) . . . 


Chemins de fer derEtat(Autriche) . . . 


3 


363 


Ghalib-Bet (le Com man" 


Minist^re du commerce et des travaux pu- 






dant). 


blics (Turquie) 


2 


364 


Ghennert (Arcady J.) . . 


Chemin de fer de Kiev-Voron^ (Russie) . 


1.4<&5 


365 


GiBB (Georges.). . . . 


North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 


1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 


366 


GiENAMTH (Le baron E. de). 


Gompagnie auxiliaire internationale de che- 








mins de fer (Belgique) 


2«&3 


-367 


Gibt(A.) 


Buenos- Ay res Great Southern Railway 








(R^publique Argentine) 


4 


368 


GiLLBT 


Chemins de fer et Tramways en Perse . . 


■ . . 


369 


GiLLiAT (Howard) . . . 


Denver and Rio Grande Railway (^lats-Unis 
d'Ainirique) 




370 


GiLLON (Aug ) . . . . 


Chemins de fer de Pirde, Ath^nes, P6lopo- 








n6se (Gr^ce) . 


1 


371 


GiROUARD(Lieuin'E. P. C ). 


Minist^re du commerce {Board of Trade) 
(Royaume uni de Gr.-Bretagneetd'Irlande) 








. 2 


372 


Gladstone (The Right Hon. 


Wrexham Mold and Connah's Quay Railway 






Herbert). 


(Grande-Bretagne) 




373 


Glassbr . . . . . . 


Chemins de fer d'inl*r6t local du dipartement 
des Landes (France) 




374 


Goldberg (J.) .... 


Gompagnie d'exploitalion des chemins de fer 








orientaux (Turquie) 


1,3 d 4 


*375 


GoLOUBIEPF(V.). . . . 


Chemin de fer Vladicaucase (Russie). . . 




376 


Gomes Lima (le D' Antonio 


Gompagnie nationale des chemins de fer 






Jose). 


porlugais 


3<&5 


377 


GOODAY (P.) 


Great Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 


3 


378 


GoRDiBENRO (Jacques) . . 


Minist^re des voies de communication 








(Russie) 


ld3 


379 


G0R0WIT2(J.) .... 


Chemins de fer de Fastov (Russie) . . . 


4 


380 


GosLETT (Fred ) . . . . 


Chemin de ferdeNassio-Oskarshamn (Su6de) 


1A2 


381 


GOTTSCHALK 


Minist^re du commerce, de I'industrie, des 








postes et des tMdgraphes (France). . . 


2, 3d 5 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 



TABLE ALPHAB^IQUE DES DI^L^OU^. 



la 

poo 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



382 

383 
384 
385 

386 

387 



388 
389 
390 

391 
392 

393 

394 

395 
396 
397 
398 
399 
400 
401 
402 

403 

404 
405 
406 
407 
408 

409 

410 
411 

412 
413 

414 
415 

416 

417 
418 
419 



GOURT DU ROSLAM . . . 

GouvEA (le Comte db) . . 
Grant Vassall (R. L.) 
Gray (James) .... 

Gr^bus (Charles). . • . 

Greene (Wflliam George) , 



Greiner (EmUe) . . . . 
Grifpith (John Evan) . . 
Griooriefp (Serge) . . . 

Grillo (Charles). . . . 
Grimburo (le Clievaller Ro- 

doipbe db). 
Griolbt 

Grosman (Voldemar) . . 

Grunbbaum (Franz) . . . 
Gruslin (Arthur) 
OuASTALLA (Angelo). . 
Guest (Arthur Edward) 
GuiLLON (Pernand) 

GUILLOUX . . . 

GuiNOTTE I Lucien) 
GuLACSY (Goloman de) . 



Guthrie (David). 

GUYARD (Julesi) . 
GuYARD(Ren6) . 
GYE(Capt.) . . 
Gysin (Arnold) . 
Haaosma (S. E.) 



Haines (Henry S.) 



Hameltnk (S.) . 
Hamilton (Lord Claud J.) 



Hammblrath (P.) 
Hanrez (Charles) 



Hansen ( J ) . . 
Harahan (James T 



Harrison (F.) 



Hart (F. RO . 
Hartbn (Gttstave) 
Hartshorne (Chas.) 



Minist^e du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 

postes et des t^Ugraphes (France) . . . 
Chemins de fer de la Beira-Alta (Portugal). 
Tafl* Vale Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Great Northern Railway (Ireland) (Royaume 

uni de Grande Bretafne et d*Irlande) . . 
Chemin de fer de Madrid k Saragoase et k 

Alicante (Espafme) 

Midland Great Western of Ireland Railway 

(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 

d'Irlande) 

Chemin de ler de Modena- Vignola (Italie) . 
Neath and Brecon Railway (Gr<^*-Bretagne). 
Administration centrale des chemins de fer 

de r^tat (Ruasie) 

Chemins de fer de U Sicile (Italie) . . . 
Scci^t^ autrichienne-hongroise des chemins 

de fer de T^tat (Autriche) 

Commission internationale du Congris et 

chemin de fer du Nord (France) . . . 
Chemins de £er de T^tat (ligne de Libau- 

Romny) (Russie). . 

Chemin de fer de Vienne- Aspang (Autriche) . 

Tramways de Turin (Italie) 

Chemin de fer de Modena-Vignola (Italie) . 
TafT Vale Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Chemins de fer et tramways en Perse . . 
Chemin de fer du Nord (France) .... 
Tramways siciliens (Italie) . . . . ; 
Chemin de fer d'iutdrdt local du Szilagysag 

(Hongrie) 

Glasgow and South Western Railway 

^Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer de Gu& k Menaucourt (Ft ance). 
Chemin de fer de Gufi k Menaucourt (France). 
South Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Chemin de fer de la yall^ de Bimig (Suisse). 
Soci^t^ pour Texploitotion des chemins de fer 

de r^tat nierlandmis (Pays Bas) . . . 
American Railway Association (^tats-Unis 

d'Am6rique) 

Tramways nteriandais (Pays-Bas) . . . 
Section anglaise et Great Eastern Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Tramways d*Odessa (Russie) . . . . 

Chemin de fer de TEntre-Sambre-et-Meuse 

(Belgique) 

Chemin de fer de I'Est de Seeland(Danemark). 
American Railway Association et Illinois 
Central Railroad (^ts-Unis d*Am^rique). 
Section anglaise et London and North Wes- 
tern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 
Cartagena Magdalena Railway (Colombia) . 
Chemin de fer du Nord de la Belgique . . 
Lehigh Valley Ptailroad (^(ats-Unis d*Aiii6- 

rique) 



3<&4 



« 


4 




2<&4 


1, 


3 
2A5 
2,3d4 




1<&3 
4 


1 


2, 3d4 




4d5 




2 
l<ft5 
2<&5 

5 




'5" 

4 



4<&5 
5 

1, 2, 3. 4 A 5 
5 

3 
3 

1<&3 

3<&4 

2<&4 

1 



1, 2. 3, 4 & 5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OP DELEGATES. 



79 






NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION DI5L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



420 Hassblt (R. van) . 

421 Hadbt 

422 Haussbr 

423 Haussbb (Adorjau) 

424 Hawkins (Wttlkm Bailej) 

425 Henderson (Alexandre). 

426 Hennbbuissb (Ulysse) 

427 Hbnnbt (John) 

428 Herbbrt (Sir Robert G. W.) 

429 Hbrdner 

430 Hbbsbnstein (V.) 

431 Hburtsau 

432 Heusler (N.) 

433 Hbyoatb (W. U.) 

434 Heywood (Geoiige) . 

435 Hbywood (Df George J») 

436 Heyworth (Colooel Law- 
rence) . 

437 Hickson (George E. A.) 

438 Hill (Vincent Walker) 

439 Hindlip (Lord) 

440 HiRSCHL (le D' Horry L ) . 

441 HODEIGB 



442 Hodgson (H.C.). . . . 

443 HoHBNEGGBR (Wenzel) . . 

444 HoHBNLOHB (S. A. S. le 
Prince Bgon). 

445 HOLDBN (J.) 

446 HoLEMANS (Edouard) . . 

447 Holmes (M.j 

448 HoLTZ 

449 HoMBKRO (OcU?e) . . . 

450 HdNiosYALD (Joeepb) . . 

451 HopwooD (Francis T. S.) . 



452 HoTBPiBLD (the Right Hon. 

Lord). 

453 HOTTINOUER 

454 HoziBR (sir W. W.) Bart. . 

455 Hubbard (A.) .... 



Chemin de fer HoUandais (Pajs-Bas) . 
Chemin de fer de oeinture de Paris (France) 
Chemins de fer du Midi (France) . . 
Chemin de fer Kaschau-Oderber^ (Hon^ie), 
Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway 

(Grande- Bret agne) 

Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire and 

Midland Joint Committee (Gr.-Bretagne) 
Chemins de fer du T<>ssin (Italie). . . 
New York, New Haveu and Hartford Rail 

way (Etats-Unis d*Am^ri(pie) . . . 
Agence ffto^rale de la colonie de Tasmanie 

(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) . . . 
Qieminsde fer du Midi (France). . . 
Minist^re des voies de communication 

(Russie) . 

Commission internatiouale du Congr^ et 

chemin de fer de Paris a Orltons (France) 
Chemin de fer Central Suisse. . . • 
Midland Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 
FitchburgRailroed(^tats-Unis d^imirique), 
Pitchbur^ Railroad (^tats-Unisd'Am^rique), 
Lima Railway (P^rou) 

Tralee and Dingle Light Railway (Grande 
Bretagne) 

Hull. Bamsley and West Riding Junction 
Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 

Great Northern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Society autrichienne-hongroise des chemins 
de fer de T^tat (Autriche^ 

Minist^re des chemins ae fer, postes et 
til^raphes et chemins de fer de T^tat 
(Belgiquc) 

Midland Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer Nord-Ouest autrichien et 
joDCtion Sud-Nord allemande (Autriche) 

Chemins de fer du Sud de PAutriche . 

Great Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne^ 
Commission Internationale du Congr^s, Mi 
nist^re des chemins de fer, postes et Ui^ 
graphes etchem. de fer de r^tat(Belgique) 
Nixih British Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 
Miniature des travaux publics (Prance). 
Chemins de ler de TEst alg^rien (France) 
Chemins de fer do Nord Empereur Ferdinand 

(Autriche) 

Miniet^re du commerce (Board of Trade) 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 

d'Irlande). . 

South Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Chemin de fer do Nord (France). . . . 
Caledonian Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 



i,3d5 
4* 



2 

i<&5 

4 



1, 3«&4 

4 
1 



id5 

3M<&5 
4 



2A3 
2 

1 
4 

1,2<&3 



4 

1. 2d5 

ld4 

5 



1<&2 



Digitized by 



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80 



TABLE ALPHABliTlQUE DES DliL^OU^S. 



Dp P 


NOM (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
^DELEGATED BY. J 


SECTIONS. 


456 


Hubert ...... 


Minist^re des chemins de fer, postes et 
t^l^raphes et chemins de fer de I'^tat 








(Bei^ique) 


2i&5 


457 


HoBERTi (Alphonse) . . . 


Commission internationale du Congr^ 








(Comit6de redaction du Bulletin), . . 


1<&3 


458 


HuauET 


Chemins de fer dei'^tat (France). . . . 


4 


459 


Humphreys Owen (G. A.) . 


Cambrian Railways (Grande- Brelagne) . . 




460 


HUNT(WM.) 


Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) ^ . . . 


1,2&5 


461 


Huntington (C. P.). . . 


Southern Pacific Railroad (l5tat8-Unis 
d'Amirique) . . • 




452 


Hutchinson (Major General 


Minist^re du commerce {Board of Trade) 






C. S.). 


(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 








d'Irlande) 


1. 2. 3. 4 <& 5 


463 


HurroN (Colonel) . . . 


Cheshire Lines Committee (Gr.-Bretagne). 
Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk, ligne 


5 


464 


Ignatius (S. W.) . . . 








de Rtistchevo-Serdobksk et Atkarsk- 








Petrovsk (Russie) 




465 


Ijuin (Hikokichi) . . . 


Minisl^re des communications (Japon) . . 


4 


460 


lMBcouRT(le Marquis D*) 


Chemins de fer de TEst (France). . . . 


4 


467 


Inolis (J. G.) 


Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 


1,2&5 


468 


Irwin (William) . . . 


Clogher Valley Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 


3<&5 


469 


ISMAY (G. H.) . . . . 


London and North Western Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) 


... 


470 


ISNAV(N. N.) . . . . 


Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk, ligne 
de Tambov- Kamichine (Russie) . . . 




471 


IVACHINZOFF (D. S.) . . . 


Chemin de fer de Kiev Voron^e (Russie). 


4'<&*5 


472 


IvANOFp (Demetrius) . . 


Chemins de fer de TEtat (ligne de la Bal- 
tique, de Pskov-Riga et du port de Saint- 








Pdlersbourg) (Russie) 


1 


473 


Ivatt (Henry A.) . . . 


Great Southern and Western Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) 


1<&2 


474 


Jackson (Ihe Right Hon. 

W. L.) 
Jacobs (T.) 


Great Northern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 


... 


475 


Tramways de Turin (Italie) 


5 


476 


Jacomb-Hood (R.) . . . 


London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 








(Grande Bretagne) 


1<&5 


477 


Jalovietski (Boleslas) . . 


Premiere Soci^tS des chemins de fer secon- 








daires en Russie 


... 


478 


Jardinb (Sir Robert) . . 


Caledonian Railway (GranderBretagne) . . 


. « • 


479 


Jarriand (E ) . . . . 


Chemin de fer de Chauny a Saint-Gobain 








(France) 


4 


480 


Javary 


Chemins de fer de Tfitat (France). . . . 


4 


481 


Jefpery (Edward T.) . . 


Denver and Rio Grande Railway (filats-Unis 








d'Am^rique) 


4 


482 


Jbitteles (Richard). . . 


Commission internationale du Congrto et 
chemin de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 








nand (Autriche) 


1&5 


483 


Jenkin (Thomas C). . . 


City and South London Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


2, 3, 4 A 5 


484 


Jenkins (Sir John J.) . . 


Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne). . 




485 


Johansson (Herman) . . 


Chemins de fer de 1 Etat (SuMe) .... 


1&'2 


486 


Johnson (Henrj) , . . 


Great Northern and Midland joint lines 








Committee (Grande-Bretagne) .... 


3 



Digitized by 



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ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



8t 



Hi 


NOM. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


487 


Johnson (John) . . 


. Chemin de fer Provi-Ludvika et Bangbam- 








mar Kloten (Su^de) 


I,2d3 


488 


Johnson (R.). . . . 


Great Northern Railway (Grande-Brelagne). 


1A5 


489 


Johnson <S. W.). . . 


Midland Railway (GramJe-Bretagne) . . 


2 


490 


Johnston ((^ptain J. G. 


) . London and South Western Railway(Grande- 








Bretagne) 


. . • 


491 


JOLY (Ch. de) . . 


Compagnie g^n^rale de chemius de fer br6- 




492 


JOURDAIN. . . . 


siliens (Br^sil) 

Chemin de fer de Saint-Quentio k Guise 


4 






(France) 


5 


493 


JUNCADELLA (Rodolfo) 


Chemins oe fer et mines de San Juan de las 








Abadesas (Espague) 


• . • 


494 


Just (Conradin F.) .* 


D^partement des chenains de fer et canaux 








du Dominion du Canada 


4d5 


493 


Kamph (Oscar) . . 


. . Chemin de fer de Palsboda-Finspor.g et 








Pinspong-Norsholm (Su^e) ' . . . . 


3 


496 


Kandaoi/ropf (D. P ) 


Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralbk, ligne 








de Pokrovsk-Ouralsk (Russie) .... 


3d4 


497 


Kane (Li€ut.-(Jol.) . 


. . Victoria Sidney Esquimaux and Nanaimo 








Railway of Canada 


. . • 


498 


KAR0(F«lix). . . 


Chemins de fer de la Sicile occidenfale 








(Ilalie) ..... 


1<&2 


499 


Kehob (W. Y.) . . 


Illinois Central Railway (^tats-Unis d'Am^. 








rique) 


ld3 


500 


Kenly (John R.) . 


American Railway Association (^tats-Unis 








d*Am6rique) 


3<&4 


501 


Kepessy (le D^ Stefan) 


. . Chemin de fer de Nagy-Kikinda k Nagy- 
Becskerek (Hongrie) 




502 


Keb (Charles Buchanan 


) . Buenos Ayres and Ensenada Port Railway 




503 


Kerbbdz(S). . .. 


(R6publique Arg.^nline) 

. . Chemin de fer Vladicaucase (Russie). . . 


*3* 


504 


Keromnes . . . 


Chemin de fer du Nord (Prance). . . . 


2 


505 


Kerr (J. R.). . . 


. . Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway 
(Royaume uni de GrandeBretagne et 








d'Irlande) 


1A5 


506 


Kessels (T. O.) . . 


. . Association des Tramways Italians (Italie) . 


5 


507 


Khitrovo . . . 


. . Minislfere des finances (d^partement des 








affaires de chemins de fer) (Russie) . . 


1^5 


508 


KiNTORB (the Earl of) 


. . Great North of Scotland Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


4 


509 


KiRSCH (Leopold; . 


. . Chemin de fer d'Anvers k Rotterdam (Bel- 








gique) 


1A3 


510 


KiTCHiNO (Albert Oeorg 


e) . Mersey Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 


. . . 


511 


KiTSON (Sir Janoes) . 


. . North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 


. . • 


5t2 


Klemmino (Viclorj . 


. . Chemins de fer de TElat (SuWe) .... 


2 


513 


Knauff (Pr.) . . 


. . Tramways de Moscou (Rubsie) .... 


5 


514 


Kniazcolucki (le D' Ch 
lier Severin von). 


eva- Chemins de fer del'^lat(Autriche) . . . 


4 


515 


Kohl (Ernst). . . 


. . Chemin de fer de Weimar G6ra(Allemagne). 


1 


516 


Koloszvary (Victor vo 


s) . Chemins de fer de I'lStat (Autriche) . . . 


3d4 


r>i7 


Kopytkin (Nicolas). 


. . Minist^re des Yoies de communication 








(Russie) 


2 


518 


Kossuth .... 


. . Chemins de fer de la M^iterran^ (Italie) . 


1,2,3.4&5 


519 


KouNiTFKY (S la nib las d 


e) . Minist<>re des voies de communication 








(Russie) 


1,2,3&5 





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83 



TABLE ALPHABliTIQUE DES wJl^GU^S. 



Jil 


KOM. (NAME'O 


ADMINISTRATION DISliSgANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


520 


KowALSKi (Alfred Marie) . 


Chemin de fer de B6ne-<}uelma et prolonge- 
ments (Alg^rie) et chemiD de fer de Dakar 








A Saint-Louis (S*n^al) 


1, 4A5 


521 


KowALSKX (GbarW). . . 


Chemins do fer de Paris k Lyon et & la 








MMUerran^ (Prance) 


2,3&5 


522 


KozLOTsiu (Alexandre ds) . 


Chemins de fer de Novgorod (Rossie) . . 


• • . 


523. 


KozLowsKi (Ladislas) . . 


Chemins de fer de la Vistule (Russie) . . . 


4« 


524 


Krapippka 


Cltemios de fer de Moscou-Brest (Ruasie) . 


1<&4 


525 


Krbptino (C. E.) . . . 


Minist&re de» travnux publics et chemins 








deferder^Uit(Norv#ge) ..... . . 


• • . 


526 


Krbtschmar VAN Vbbn(J. A. 


Compagnie nierlandaise sud-africaine de 






van). 


chemins de fer (Pajs-Bas et ooloniea) . • 


• . . 


527 


.Kruboer 


Clicmins de fer Sud-Esl prussien (Allemagne). 


. . . 


528 


KRUTTSCHNtTT (Jalios) . . 


Southern Pacidc Ruilroad ' (Etats Unis 








d'Amiriqwe) 


... 


529 


KucHARSSi (Eog^rte) . . 


Cbemin de fer de Lodz (Russie) .... 


8d4 


530 


KuHNBLT (Antop) . . . . 


Chemiusde fer del'^tat(Autriche) . . . 


4d5 


531 


KuMPs(G) 


Social* gen^role de chepiinp de fer ^coao- 








miques (Belgiqiie; 


1, 3A5 


532 


Lachtin (VUdiinir db) . . 


Chemins de Jer de DQmbrova Ivangprod 








(Ruasie) 


... 


533 


Laoout . . . . . . 


Minisl^re du commerce,, de finduslrie, des 








postesetdes t^l^raphes (France). . . 


5 


534 


Lambbrt (Hfinry) . . . 


SectioQ aDglaise et Great Western Railway 






J 


(Grande- Bretagne) 


3, 4&5 


535 


Lampdgnani 


Commission internationale du Congrds et 








chemins de fer de la M^iterran^e (Ilalie). 


3 


536 


Lamquet (Victor) . . . 


Chemio de fer de Malines-Temeuzen (Bel- 








gique) 


1, 2, 3 & 4 


537 


Lancrenon 


Chemins de fer de i'Est (France). . . . 


2 


538 


L AN DRY (JoUn) .... 


Chemin de fer d'Y verdon k S^-Croix (Suisse) . 


4d5 


539 


Lanodon (W. D.) . . . 


Midland Railway (Grande- Bretagne). . . 


3 


540 


Larminat (de) . . . . 


Chemins de fer de I'Ouest (France) . . . 


3 


541 


Larrambnoi (Laureabo de). 


Chemins de fer et mines de San Juan de las 

Abadesas (E^pagne) \ 

Chem. de ferde Lolland-Falster (Danemark). 




542 


Larsbn(G.) 


'3' 


543 


Lartioub(H.) • . . . 


Compagnie franco-alg^rienne (Alg^rie) . . 


... 


544 


Lau (le Marquis du). . . 


Chemins de fer de rouest (France) . . . 


2 


545 


Lauobl 


Chemins de fer de Paris-Lyon-M^diterran^ 








(rHeau alg^rien) 


. . • 


546 


Lax ...... . 


Chemins de fer de J'litat (France) . . . 


4A5 


547 


Lazarbw-Stanistchbw (K. 


Chemins de ferde Riazane-Ouralsk (lignede 






N.). 


Pokrovsk-Ouralsk (Russie) 


... 


548 


Lebbe(F.) ..... 


Chemins de fer de la Flandre occidentale 








(Belirique) 


Id2 


549 


Leber (Max Edler von) . . 


Commission Internationale du Congr^ et 








Minist6re du commerce ( Autriche) . . . 


ids 


550 


Lb Bon (Charles) . . . 


Chemin de fer Grand Central Belge(Belgiqiie). 


1 


551 


Lb Brun (A.) .... 


Soci^t^ nationale des chemins de fer vicinaux 








(Belgique) 


id5 


552 


Lechat (A.) 


Compagnie internationale des wagons-Iits et 








des grands express europ^ns (Belgiqoe). 




553 


LeGhatelibr .... 


Ministire des travaux pub ics (France) . . 


2d4 


554 


Lbpbbvrb 


Miniature des travaux publics (France) . . 


3 


555 


Lbooett (Ueaten^ E. H. M.) 


Minisl^re du commerce {Board of TVade) 








(RoyaumeunideGr.-Bretagneeld'Irlande). 


ld5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



83 






NOM. (NAME). 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



556 

557 

558 

559 

560 

561 

562 

563 

564 
565 

566 

567 

568 
569 

570 

571 

572 

573 

574 

575 

576 

577 

578 

579 

580 
581 

582 

583 

584 



LSfOHTON (Geo B.) . . . 

Lbnz (Alfred von) . * . 

LBTBLun (AUnriet) . . 

Lbtona (Joeqtiiii L. Lopez 

de). 
Level (£miU) .... 

Level (Georgat). . . . 

Levi (Padflco) . . . . 

LSvi-Alvares (Albert). . 

Liamine 

LiBBio (Johann Fr«iherr 

von). 
LiAnart(P.) 

Likhatcbev(T. A.). . . 

Lindbr 

LiNDBBiM (le Chevalier Er- 
nest db). 
Lisle (Ren^) 

LivBSBY (James). . . . 

L5b (Loois) 

LocATBLLO (Perdinando) 

LoLBO (Bartholomto) . . 

LoRiA (Leooardo) . . . 

Louis (Edmood). . . . 

LOVBDAT (H. H.) . « . 

LucAEDn (G. F.) . . . 
LuovioH (Jules) . . . . 

Lundie (Cornelius) . . . 
LUUYT 

Mabillb (VaUre) . . . 

Mackay (Sir James). . . 

McCrea (Jamet). . . . 



Los Angeles Terminal Railway (^tats-Unis 
d'Am^riqae) 

Ghemins de fer da Nord Empereur Ferdi- 
nand (Aufcricbe) 

Cbemins de fer Guillaume • Luxembourg 
(Luxembourg) 

Ghemins de fer de Madrid a Saragoaae et 4 
Alicante (Gspsgne) . . 

Soci^M g^n^rale des cbemins de fer teono- 
miques (France^ 

Soci^t^ g^D^rale det chemins de fer ^cono- 
mi^es (France) 

Gbemm de fer Sassuolo-Modena-Mirandola 
et Finale (Itolie) 

Chemin de fer de Madrid k SaragosM e( a 
Alicante (Espagne) 

Chemins de fer de Moscou- Brest (Russie). 

Chemin de fer Nord-Ouest autrichien et 
jonctioQ Sud-Nord allemande (Autriche). 

CompagDie g^n^rale des chemins de fer 
seoondaires (Belg^ique) 

Chemin de fer de Kiev-Voronige et Tram- 
ways de Moscou (Russie) . ... 

Miniature des travauz publics (France) . 

Chemin de fer de Vinkovce a Brcka (Hongrie). 

Chemin de fer de Madrid a Saragosse et k 

Alicante (Espagne) 

Boeoos-Ayres Great Southern Railway 

(RApublique Argentine) 

Chemin de for Nord-Ouest autrichien et 

jooction sud-nord allemande (Autriche) . 
Socidt^ v6DJtienn« pour entreprises et con- 

strucUona publiqoes (Italie) .... 
Soci^te vtoitienne pour entreprises et con- 

utructiotts publiqoes (Italie> • . . . 
Chemin de fer Saesuolo-Modena-Mirandola 

et Finale (Italie) . 

Chemin de fer da TEntre-Sambre-et Meuse 

(Bdgtque) 

Bueoos-Ayres Great Southern Railway 

(R^ttbUqoe Argentine) 

Soci^ dee chemins de fer des Indes n^er- 

landaises 

Gommissioa Internationale du Congr^, Mi- 

nist^re du coaamerce et chem. de fer de 

rlitat (Hongrie) . . 

Rhymney Railway (Grande-Brelagnej . . 
Chemins de ier de Paris k Lyon et k la 

ICMiterraote (France) 

Tramways it vapeur de BieUa k Vercelli 

(Italie) •. . . . 

East Indian Railway (Grande -Bretagne et 

ooloniee) 

Pennsylvania Railroad (^tats-Unis d'Am^- 

rique) 



2db5 
ld2 
3<&4 
1 A5 

5 
3<&5 

5 

1,3 & 4 
4 
5 

2*A8 





3d4 




ld2 




4 




4 




1 




4 




3, 4 & 5« 




5 


1. 


3<&4 
2, 3, 4 & 5 




3 




2&5 


1 


, 2, 3, 4 & 5 



Digitized by 



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84 



TABLE ALPHABIJTIQUE DES D^L^OUfiS. 



lis 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION DSL^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



.SECTIONS. 



585 McDonald (J. A.) . . . 

586 McEwAN(Wm.). . . . 

587 Maolurb (J.) 

588 Mass 

589 Maqinnis (James P ) . . 

590 Mahl (William). . . . 

591 Makins (Col. W. E.) . . 

592 Malcolm (Bowman). . . 

593 Mal^ter (SoUan ds) . . 

594 Mamontoff (Sawa) . . . 

595 Manbsco(C.) 

596 Mantboazza 

597 Marcy (Henry S.) . . . 

598 Mar^chal 

599 Maris 

600 Marin 

601 Marindin (Major F. A.). . 

602 Maristaxy y Gibert (Ed.). 

603 Markoff(N. L.). . . . 

604 MARRYAT(Lieut.-Col E. L..) 

605 Marsal 

606 Martorelli (Francesco) . 

607 Massa 

608 Massiku 

609 Masso (Antonio). . . . 

610 Mas.son (Georges) . . 

611 Mast (J.) 

612 Matrot 

613 Matthei (Alphonse). . . 

614 Mauoer 

615 Madrer 

616 Mayer 

617 Meck (Alexandre pE) . . 

618 Meik (P. W.) . . . . 

619 Mbllor (Colonel J. J.) . . 

620 Melottb (Gustave) . . . 



Midland Railway (Grande-Bretagna). . . 
Caledonian Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Section anglaise et Mancheatar, Shield and 

Lincolnshire Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 
Tramways & Tapeur interprovinciaaz de 

Milan-Berffama-Crimone (lUlie) . . . 
Chemins de far de VAXai (lignes Sud-Ouast) 

(Russia) 

Eastern Pacific Railroad (^tats-XJnis d'Am^ 

rique) 

Great Einstern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 
Belfast and Northern Counties Railway 

(Ro^aume uni deGr.-Bretagneetd'Irlande) 
Chemms de fer de la vallte de Szamos (Hon- 

§rrie) 

Chemins de fer de Moscou-JaroslaY et 

Arkhangelsk (Russie) . . ... 

Minist^re des trsYauz pubUcs el chemins da 

fer de T^tat (Roumanie) 

Chemins de fer de la MMiterrante (Italia). 
Fitchbui g Railroad (£tats-Unis d'Am^rique). 
Chemins de fer de Paris a Lyon at A la 

M^iterran^ (Prance) 

Chemin da fer du Nord (France) .... 
Chemins de fer de I'Ouest (France) . . 
Minist^re du commerce {Board of Trade) 

(Roy&ume uni de Grande-Bretagne at 

d*Irlande) 

Chemins de fer de Tarragona k Barcelone et 

k la France (Espagne) 

Chemin de fer de Kiev- Voron^ge (Russie) . 
Bengal and North Western Railway (Empire 

des Indes) 

Tramways A vapeur interprovinciauz de 

Milan- Bergame-Cr^mone (Italia) . . . 
Chemin de fer Rubattino (Tunis-Bardo La 

Goulelte^ Marsa) (Tunisia) 

Commission internationale du Congr^s et 

chemins de fer de la M^iterran^ (Italia). 
Minist^re des travauz publics (France) . . 
Chemins de fer de Medina del Campo&Zamora 

y de Orense A Vigo (Espagne) .... 
Chemin de fer de Glion auz Rochers de Naye 

(Suisse) 

Chemin de fer Central suisse 

Chemins de fer de I'^tat (France). . . . 
Chemin de fer de I'Est beige (Belgique) . . 
Compagnie Franco-alg^rienne (Algjrie). • . 
Chemins de fer du Midi (France). . . . 
Chemins de fer de I'Est alg^rien (Alg^rie) . 
Chemins de fer de Moscou-Kazane (Russie). 
Commission internationale du Congr^s (Rap- 
porteur) 

South Ea&tem Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 
Tramways k vapeur de la province d'Alezan- 

drie (Italie) 



1, 2, 3, 4 d 5 

5 

ld3 

2d5 



3A4 

i 
3<&4 

2 
3,4 <&5 



1. 2, 3, 4 d 
4 

3d5 

5 
3d5 

3 

4 

3d'4 
2<&4 

3* 

4 

4d5 



Digitized by 



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ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



lit 


NOBI. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


681 


Mblvillb (William), . . 


Glasgowand Southwestern Railway (Grandc- 








Bretagne) 


id3 


622 


MsaCBRON 


Compagnie Meusienne de chemins de fer 








(France) 


5 


623 


MsRaER DB MOLIN (J. J.). 


Chemin de fer de Lausanne Ouchy (Suisse). 


4<&5 


624 


Merrick (William). . . 


East and West Junction and §tratford-upon- 








Avon Railway (Grande-Bretague) . . . 
Chemins de fer ^conomiques du Nord (France) 


l,2,3d4 


625 


Mbstreit (Victor) . . . 


5 


626 


Michel (0.) 


Chemins de fer de Paris a Orl^ns (France^. , 
Chemins de fer de Paris & Lyon et a la 


4 


627 


Michel (Jales) .... 








Mddilerran^ (r^eau alg^rien). .' . . 


i 


628 


MicHBLET(Oas(ave). . . 


Compagnie ^^n^rale des chemins de fer 








secondaires (Belgique) .... 


5 


629 


MiouoRETw (le O* Albert). 


Chemins de fer de a Sicile (/(alie) . . . 


4 


630 


Miles (O.S.) 


Southern Pacific Railroad (Etals-Unis 

d'Am^rique) 

Great Northern Railway Ireland (Royaume 




631 


Mills (W.H.) .... 


... 






uni de Grandc-Bretagne et d'Irlande) . . 


. • • 


632 


MoFFA'rr(W.) .... 


Great North of Scotland Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


4&5 


633 


MorPRB 


Chemins de fer d*int^rdt local du (j^arle- 








ment des Landes (France) 


1,2&3 


634 


MOISB 


Chemios de fer de I'Ouest (Finance) . . . 


i&4 


635 


Montepiore L^vi . . . 


Chemin de fer Grand Central Beige . . . 


4 


636 


MoNTESiNo (Cyp. Segundo). 


Chemin de fer de Madrid k Saragosse et & 








Alicante (Bspagne) 


. .• 


637 


Montgomery (Hugh de Fel- 

LENBERO). 


Clogher Valley Railway (Grande:Bretflgne) . 


5 


638 


MorandiArb 


Chemins de fer de I'Ouest (France) . . . 


2« 


639 


MoRAWBTZ (Charltos) . . 


Compagnie d'exploitation des chemins fer 








Orienlaux (Turquie) 


... 


640 


Morgan (John) .... 


London, Chatham and Dover Railway 




641 


Morris (Israel W.) . . . 


(Grande-Brelagne) ....,,. 
Lehigh Valley Railroad (^tats-Lfnis.d'Am^- 


3 




• 


rique) 


4 


642 


MoTT(Bn«il) 


City and South London Railway (Grande- 

Bretagne) 

Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 


9 


643 


M0TT(C.0.) 


C 






et Midland Uniguay Railway (Uruguay). 


2&5 


644 


MoTTB (Lucien) .... 


MinistAre des chemins de fer, postes et 
t^l^aphes et chemins de fer de TEtat 
(Belgique) . . . ^ 








i<&3 


645 


MoYAUX (Augusle) . . . 


Chemins de fer de I'Apennm Central (Italic). 


5 


646 


Motaux(Uod) .... 


Chemins de ferde TApennin Qcntral (Italie). 




647 


MoNDELLA (the Righl Hon. 


Minist^re du commerce {Board of Trade) 






A. I.). 


(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 








d'Irlande) 


2A5 


648 


Murphy (John J.) . . . 


Waterford and Limerick Railway (Grande- 








Bretagne) 


4 


649 


Nagelmackers (Georges) . 


Compagnie internationale des wagons-lits et 








des grands express europ^ns (Belgique) . 
Soci^t^ anonyme nationale de tramways et de 


3d4 


650 


Nathan (Adolphe) . . . 








chemins de fer (Italie) 


i 


651 


Navarro (Antonio Jose An- 

tunes). 
Navone (Guilio) 


Chemins de fer de I'^tat (Portugal) . . . 


4<&5 


652 


Chemins de fer secondaires remains (Italie). 





Digitized by 



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86 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DBS D^L^OU^. 



ill 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



653 
654 
655 
656 
657 
658 
659 
660 

661 

662 
663 
664 

665 

666 



667 
668 

669 
670 

671 
672 

673 



674 

675 
676 



677 

678 

679 
680 
681 
682 



Neef (A.) 

Neele (George P.). . . 
Neblbmans (Alfred). . . 
Neelemans (Louis). . . 

Neild(F.) 

Neild(R. J.) 

Nem^nti (Ambroise) . . 
Nettleship (I. J.) . 

Neujean (Xavier) . 

Newson(F.) 

Newton (George Bolland). 
Newton (H. Cecil) . . , 

NicoLAiDi (Const. P.) . . 

Niels. ...... 



NiERSTKASZ (N. K.). 
NiESSEN 

NiOOND 

Nikitine(A.) 

NiKLANDEB 

NlVKL(J. K.) 

NOBLBMAIllB 

Nonnenbebo (F.) . , , 

NORDMAN 

Nubar (S. Exc. Boghos 
Pacha). 

Oakley (Sir Henry). . . 

OoiLviE (Campbell P.) . . 

Okoulitch (B.) . . . . 

Olin (Xavier) 

Olkhine 

Olszew8K[ (Stanislas) . . 



Compagnie inlernaiionale des wagons-lits et 

des grands express europ^ns (Belgique). 
London and North Western Railway (Orande- 

Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer de Gand-Eecloo-Bruges 

(Belgique) 

Chemin de fer de Gand-Eecloo-Bruges 

(Belgique) 

Central Argentine Railway (R^publique 

Argentine) 

Buenos- Ay I es Great Southern Railway 

(R^publique Argentine) 

Chemin de fer d'int^rdt local du Szilagysag 

(Hongrie) 

Great Northern and Great Eastern Railway 

Companies' Joint Committee (Grande- 

Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer d'Anvers a Rotterdam (Bel- 
gique) 

Cartagena Magdalena Railway (Colombie) . 
North London Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
London, Tilbury and Southend Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemin s de fer de Pir^-Ath^nes-P^lopon^se 

(Or^ 

Minisl^re des cbemins de^ fer, postes et t^l^ 

graphes et chemins de fer de Tljltat (Bel« 

gique) 

Chemin de fer Hollandais (Pays-Bas) . . 
London, Chatham and Dover Railway 

(Grande-Bretaffne) 

Chemins de fer de Paris k Orl^ns (France). 
Premiere Soci^t^ des chemins de fer secon- 

daires en Russie . 

Chemins de fer de I'Etat de Finlande (Russie;. 
Soci^te pour Tezploitatiou des chemins de fer 

de r^tat n^rlandais (Pays-Bas) . . . 
Commission Internationale du Gongrto et 

chemins de fer de Paris a Lyon et k la 

M^iterran^ (France) 

Compagnie g^n^rale des chemins de fer 

secondaires (Belgique) 

Chemins de fer de P^tatde Finlande(Russie). 
Gouvernement et administration des chemins 

de fer, des tdl^raphes et du port 

d'Alezandrie (Egyple) 

Section anglaise et Great Northern Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Central Argentme Railway (Rdpublique 

Argentine) 

Chemin de fer Vladicaucase (RussieJ. , . 
Ministdre des travaaz publics (Siara). . . 
Chemins de fer de la Vistule (Russie) . . 
Chemin de fer de Dombrova-Ivangorod 

(Russie) , , 



1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 

1 

3 
3&4 
4<&5 

1, 2d4 



4 
3 

3, 4& 5 



3<&4 



2 

2<&3 
1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 

2 
3<&4 

4 
i<&4 

2<&3 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



87 



e^M as 
XOSX 



NOM. (Name:) 



ADMINISTRATION D^LlSOANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



683 

684 
6S5 
686 
687 
688 
689 

690 
691 
692 

693 

691 
695 

696 

697 
698 
699 

700 

701 

702 

703 

704 

705 

706 

707 

70S 
709 

710 

711 

712 

713 
714 
715 



Ommanmet (Sir Montagu) . 



Orban (L§on) 
Orens 

Orr(H.H) . 
Orsel. . 
Ottolbnghi . 
Otway (the Right Hon 

Arthur). 
OoTiNB (Jacques) 
Owen (George) . 
Owens (G.J.) . 



Pacco (Aim4) 

Padbr . . 
Paget (G. E ) 

Pai.laticixi (Son Exc 
MargraTe Alexander). 
Panzarasa (Alessandro) 
Parent . 
Parish (Frank) 

Park (C. A.). 

Parker (J. G.) 

Parses (H. A,) 

Pattin . 

Pauer (Francois) 

Payne-Sheabes (T.W.) 

Peace (Waller) . . 

Pearson (Harry). . 

Pease (Sir Jos. W.). 
Peemans (H.) . 



Pelle 

PELLEORfNi (Adolphe) 

Pelletan (Andr*) . 

PEREiRE(Emile). . 
Pbreire (Maurice) . 
Perevoznikoff (M.). 



Sir 



Minisl<>re du commerce {Board of Trade) 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagae et 
dlrlande) 

Chemin de fer du Nord de la Belgique . . 

Chemins de fer da Calvados (France). . 

Section an^laise 

Miui8t(ire dtS travaux publics (Prance) . . 

Minisl^re des travaux publics (Italic) . . 

Section anglaise et London, Hrightoo and 
South Coast Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Cbemins de fer de Rybinsk-Bologoe (Russie). 

Cambrian Railways (Grande-Bretagne) . 

London and South Western Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Tramways a vapeur de ia province d'Aldxan- 
drie (Italie) . 

Chemins de fer de Paris a Orleans (France). 

Manchester, Sheffield and Midland Joint 
Committee (Grande-Bretagne) .... 

Chemins de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 
nand (Autriche) . . . . . 

Tramways de la province de Florence (Italie). 

Chemins de fer de ITiItat (France) ... 

Buenos -Ayres Great Southern Railway 
(Rdpublique Argentine) 

London and North Western Rail^ay'(Grande- 
Bretagne) 

New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail- 
way (6tals-Unis d'Am^rique) .... 

Tralee and Dingle Li^t Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) . 

Compagnie Meusienne de chemins de fer 
(France) . 

Socidtd autrichienne-hongroise des chemins 
de fer de T^tat (Autriche) 

Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 
d'Irlande) 

Agence g^p^rale de la colon ie de Natal 
(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) .... 

New York, Ontario and Western Railway 
(^lats-Unis d*Am6rique) 

North Eastern Railway (Grande-Brelagne). 

Chemin de fer de Valence et Aragon (Es- 
pagne) 

Minist^re du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 
postes et des tdldgraphes (France) . . . 

Chemin de fer central et tramways du Oina- 
vdse (Italie) 

Minisl^re du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 
postes et des t^ldgraphes (France). . . 

Chemins de fer du Nord de TEspagne . 

Chemins de fer du Nord de TEspagne . . 

Chemins de fer de TEtat. ligne de Riga-Orel 
(Russie) 



4 

3d4 

1, 2, 8 <& 4 

3, 4 A,5 

5 
3 



5 
2 
2 

1, 2, 3, 4 <ft 5 



l,3d5 



1, 2, 3, 4 <& 5 
3d4 



dd5 
2<&4 



2A3 



Digitized by 



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88 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DES DI^L^UliS. 






NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^LlSOANTE. 
(DELEGATED BYO 



SECTIONS. 



716 
717 

718 

719 

720 

781 
722 
723 
724 
725 

726 
727 

728 

729 

730 

731 
732 

733 

734 

735 

736 

737 

738 

739 

740 

741 

742 

743 
744 



Perk (H. A). . . . 
Pebl (Louis db) . . . 

PiR0U8E(D.). . . . 

Pbsaro 

Pbtersson (Major P.) . 

P6TR0KP (Nicolas db) . 

Pbtsche 

Pbyrod (Prosper) . . 

Peytbl 

Philippe 

Phiuppson (F.) .... 
Phillipps(W. D) . . . 
PicARD (Alfred) .... 

PicARD (Reo^) .... 

Pickersoill (William) . • 

PicoT (Georges) .... 
PlERON ....... 

PlHL(C.) 

Pinion (James) .... 

PlOT 

Plakida (Alexandre) . . 

Planas (Glaudio) . . . 

Planch BR (Henry) . . . 

PL ATT (C. H.) . . . . 

pLAYFORD(The Hon. Thorn.) 

Plews (Henry) .... 
Ploco (Ernest) .... 

Plunkbt (The Right Hon, 
D. R.). 

POIDATI (A.) 



Soci^t^ pour Texploitation des diemini de fer 

de rdtat n^rlandais (Pay8*Bas) . . . 

Commission Internationale du Congr^s et 

Ministdre des voies de communication 

(Russie) 

Chemins de fer otlomans de Beyrouth- 

DamasHauran (Turquie) 

Union des chemins de fer italiens d*int^rdk 

local (Ilalie) 

Chemins de fer de Norsholm^Westervik- 

Hultsfred (SuWe) 

Commission inlernationnle du Congrte . . 
Cheminde fer de TEst (France) .... 
Chemin de fer de Chivasso a Ivrte (Italie). 
Chemins de fer de TOuest alg^rien (Alg^rie). 
Commission intemalionale du Congas et 

chemins de fer du Nord fran^ais (lignes 

Nord beiges) (Belgique) 

Compagnie des chemins de fer Sud-Ouesl 

br^iliens (Br^sil) 

North Staffordshire Railway (Grande-Bre- 

tagne) 

Commission intemalionale du Congrto, 

Minist^re des travaux publics et Minist^re 

du commerce (France) 

Chemins de fer de Paris k Lyon et k la 

M^literran^ (France) 

Great North of Scotland Railway (Grande- 

Bretagne) 

Chemins de ferdu Midi (France). . . . 
Chemins de fer du Nord fran^ais (lignes 

Nord beiges) (Belgique) 

Ministire des travaux publics et chemins de 

fer de I'Elat (Norv^ge) 

Belfast and County Down Railway (Royaume- 

Uni de Orande-Bretagtie et d'Irlande) . 
Chemins de fer d'int^r^t local du d^partement 

des Landes (France) 

Administration centrale des chemins de fcfr 

de I'Etat (Russie) 

Chemins de fer de Tarragone a Barcelone 

et k la France (Espagne) 

Chemins de fer m^ridionaux (r^seau de 

TAdriatique) (Italie) 

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railway 

(Etats-Unis d'Amirique) 

Agence g^n^rale de TAustralie du Sud 

(Orande-Bretagne et colonies) .... 
Greit Northern Railway CGrande-Bretagne). 
Society g^n^rale des chemins de fer ^cono- 

miques (France) 

North London Railway et London and North 

Western Railway (Orande-Brelagne) . . 
Chemin de fer de Pithiviers (Loiret) a Toury 

(Eure-et- Loire) (France) 



3d5 

3<i4 
3d5 



ld3 
4 



ld3 

4 

3 

2 

4 

3<&4 
ld5 

4 
1&5 



5 
4 

3<&5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



89 






NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^LI5gANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



745 
746 

747 

748 

749 

750 

751 

752 

753 
754 

755' 

756 

757 

758 
759 
760 
761 

762 

763 
764 

765 
766 
767 
768 

769 
770 

771 

772 

713 

774 

775 
776 



Pouakoff(L T.) . 
PoLLiTT (Harry). . 

PoLLiTT (William) . 

PoLLONE (Eugene) . 

POMERANZOFF (A. A.)* 
PONTZEN .... 

Portal (W.S) . . 
PoscH (Jules db) . . 



PouRQOLD (Alexandre de) 
Powell (Alfred). . 



Preece(U. W.). 



Price (Herbert Rhys) 

Price (Joseph) . . 

Prinzio (^douard) 
Prissb (le Baron) 
Prisse (]&Iouard) 
Probst- LoTz (E.). 

Proscouriakoff. 

Pscheketzkt . 
Pocci-Bandana . 

PuLciANo (Melchior) 
Radige(E) . . 
Raincock (Henry) 
Ramaeckbrs . . 



Ramsoen(F. J.). 
Ramsey (Lord de) 

Ranoich (Eugene) 

Rate (L. M.) . 



Rath (Pierre de) 
Ratkoff-Rojnoff 



Ratti . . . 
Ravbnez (L.). 



Chemin de fer de Fasfcov (Russie) . . . 
Biancbesier* Sheffield and Lincolnshire 

Railway (Grande-Brelogne) .... 
Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 

Railway (Grande-Bretogne) .... 
Chemins de fer secondaires de la Sardaigne 

(Italie) 

Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk (ligne 

de Tambov- Kamichine) (Russie) . . . 
Minist^re du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 

postes et des Ul^aphesfFrance). . . 
Section anglaise et Lonaon and South 

Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 
Chemin de fer d'int^r^t local du Szilagysag 

(Hongrie) 

Chemins de fer de Rybinsk-Bulogo6 (Russie). 
Metropolitan District Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

MinisUre du commerce (Board of TYade) 

(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 

d'Irlande) 

Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

New York, Ontario and Western Railway 

(Etats-Unis d'Amirique) 

Chemin dc fer Nord-Ouest autrichien . • 
Commission internntionale du Congrto . . 
Chemin de fer d*Anvers k Gand (Belgique) .. 
Chemin de fer de la valine de Birsig 

(Suisse) 

Minist^re des voies de communication 

(Russie) 

Chemins de fer de Moscou-Brest (Russie) . 
Chemin de fer de Turin -Pignerol-Torre- 

Pellice (Italie) 

Chemin defer de Chivasso & Ivria (Italie) . 
Association des tramways ilaliens (Italie) . 
Brazil Great Soulhern Railway (Br^sil). . 
Commission Internationale du Congr^s^ Mi- 
niature des chemins de fer. posies et t^l^- 

graphes et chem de ferde TiJtat (Belgique) 
Fumess Railway (Grande Bretagne). . . 
Great Northern and Midland joint lines' 

Committee (Grande-Bretagne) . 
Chemins de fer m^ridionaux (r^seau de 

I'Adrialique) (Ilalie). 

Chemins de fer de Lemberg-Czernowitz- 

Jassy (Autriclie) 

Chemin de fer Kaschau-Oderberg (Hongrie). 
Miniature des finances (d^partement des 

affaires de chemins de fer) (Russie) . 
Chemins de fer de la M^dilerran^ (Italie) . 
Chemins de fer de Pilbiviers (Loiret) a 

Toury (Eure-et-Loire) (Prance) . . . 



1,2 A3 
1.2, 3 A4 



2, 3&5 



3A4 



3, 4A5 



1. 


2, 3. 4 A 
1,2&3 

1A4 
1,2 A3 

1 

1 

2A5 

3,4A5 
3 A4 


5 



Digitized by 



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90 



TABLE ALPHABliTIQUE DES B^L^GUfe. 



5il 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



777 

778 

779 

780 

781 
782 

783 

784 

785 

786 

787 
788 

789 

790 

791 

792 

793 

794 

7^ 

796 

797 

798 
799 
800 
801 
802 

803 

804 
805 
806 

807 
808 
809 
810 



Ree (Frank) . . . , 
REirLiNQER (Nicolas) 
Ren DEL (Sir Alex. M.) 
Rendel (W. S,) . . . 



Rbsal. ...... 

Reynaud (Albert) . . . 

RiocHiARDi (Charles) . . 

RiCHTBR (J.) 

RiMBOCK (Charles) . . . 

RiMBSTAD 

RiPA Di Mean A (le O-^ Louis) 
RixoN (A. W.) . . . . 

RizzoNi (Paul) .... 

ROBBO(G.) 

Robert! (Charles) . . « 

Roberts (William) . . . 

Robertson (D. J.) . . . 

Robertson (F. E.) . . . 

Robertson (O. H.) . . . 

Robertson (Thomas) . . 

Robinson (Leslie) . . . 
Robinson iy^\) .... 

ROGGA 

Roederbr 

ROESSIMO VAN ItER80N(T. A.) 

Roonetta (Emile) , . . 
RooNETTA (F. Benedetto) . 



RoGNONi (G6sar) . 
RoL iVifctorio) . 

ROMIEU . . . 



Roos (Alex.) .... 
Roosevelt (James R.) . 
Rop.sy-Chaudron 
Rosa (Jos6 Mesquita da) 



London and North Western Railway (Grande- 

Bnetagne) 

Administration centrale des chemins de fer 

de rstat (Rassie) 

East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonies) . 

East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonies) 

Minisldre des Iravauz publics (France) . . 
Compagnie francaise des chemins de fer 

v^n^sa^lieiis (Veaetaela) . « . . . 
Chemins de fer m^ridionaux (r^seau de 

lAdriatiqae) (Italie) 

Chemins de fer de TEtat (ligne de Saint- 

P^tersbourg a Varsovie) (Russie) . . . 
Soci6t6 autrichienne-hongroise des chemins 

de fer de I'Etat (Autriche) 

Chemins de fer de TEtat (Danemark) . . . 

Minist^e des travaux publics (Italie) 

Isle of Man Railway (Royaume uni de 

Grande-Bretogne et dlrlande) .... 
Chemins de fer de I'Etat (lignes de Saint- 

Pitersbourg a Varsovie) (Russie) . . . 
Chemins de fer de la Sicile occidentale 

(Palerme, Marsala, Trapani) (Italie) . 
Tramways a vapeur de Biella a Vercelli 

(ItaUe) 

Buenos Ayres and Eusenada Port Railway 

(Rdpublique Argentine) 

Bengal and Norlh Western Railway (Empire 

des Indes) 

East Indian Railway (Grande-Bret^gne et 

colonies) 

Liverpool Overhead Railway (Graade-Bre- 

t«gne) 

Great Northern Railway (Ireland) (Royaume 

uni de Grande- Bretagne et d*Iriaude) . . 
Commission intemationale du Congrds (secr^ 

taire- rapporteur) 

Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Chemins de fer de la MMiterran^ (Italie) . 
Cbemin de fer de ceinture de Paris (France] 
Chemin de fer HoUandais (Pays-Bas). . . 
Tramways k vapeur et chemins de fer kcono- 

miqo^ de la province de Pise (Italie). . 
Tramways k vapeur et chemins de fer ^no- 

mimies de la province de Pise (Italie) . 
Chemin defer du Nord de Milan (Italie). . 
Chemin de fer de Reggio-Emilia (Italie). . 
Mintst^redu commerce, de Tindustrie, des 

postes et des t^^aphes (France) . . . 
Chemins de fer de I'Etat (Su6de) .... 
Secretariat d'etat (Etats-Unis d'Am^rique). 

Tramways sicitiens (Italie) 

Compagnie nationale des chemins de fer 

portugais 



1, 2, 3, 4 <ft 5 
4 



1 d2 

1 



3, 4 A5 

4 
4 
3 

5 

2 

3 

5 

1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 

4 

1, 4<&5 

3 

4 

2&5 

4 
4 

"{ 

4 

1 
1 
4 

3, 4 &5 

1 

1. 2, 3, 4 d 5 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OP DELB0ATB3. 



91 



ill 
I'll 


NOM. (NAME.) 


ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 


SECTIONS. 


811 


Rossi 


Miniature des travaux publics (Italic) . . 


2 


812 


RoDFPABT (Armaod) . . 


Chemins de fer ^conoaniques du Nord 








(France) 


5 


813 


Rowan 


Compagnie Franco-Alg^rienne (Alg^rie) . . 


5 


814 


RuBRiaus (G^lesUn) . . 


Soci*td autrichienne hongroise des chemins 








de fer de TElat (Aulriche) . . . . . 


3 


815 


Rusconi-Glerici (J.) . . 


Soci6W anonyme nalionale de tramways et 








de chemins de fer (Italic) 


... 


816 


Russell (Sir George) , . 


Section angiaise et South Eastern Railway 








(Grande- Bretape) 


4 


817 


Rutherford (M.) . . . 


East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 








colonies) 


3 


818 


Sabouret 


Chemins de fer de Paris k Orleans (France). 


1 


819 


Sack(S.T.) 


Ghemin de fer de Kiev- Voron^ (Russie) . 


1,2 A5 


820 


Sala (Michel) .... 


Chemins de fer du Nord de TEspagne . . 


1 


821 


Salazar (Luis) .... 


Secretariat des communications et des tra- 
vaux publics (Mexique) 




822 


Saliony(A.) 


Miniature des travaux publics et chemins de 








fer de TEUt (Roumanie) 


1 


823 


Salkopf 


Minist^re des voies de communication 








(Russie) 


ld3 


^U 


Salome (R.) 


Ghemin de fer Vladicaucase (Russie) . . . 


1.3 A 4 


825 


Salt (Thomas) .... 


North Staffordshire Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Minist^re des travaux publics (France) . . 




826 


Salva 


i'A3 


827 


Sandberg(C. P.) . . . 


Chemins de fer del*Elat(Su6de) .... 


1 


828 


S ANLLEB Y (D. DomiagoJ uan) 


Chemi n de fer de Medina del Campo a Zamora 








y de Orense a Vigo (Espagne) .... 
Chemins de fer de Borga-Kervo (Russie) . 


4 


829 


Sanmark(C. 0.). . . . 


. . . 


830 


Saroeaunt (Col. R. A.). . 


Secretarial d'Etat pour Tempire des Indes 








(Grande-Bretagne et colonies) .... 


4 


831 


Sarle (Allen) 


London, Brighton and Soulh Coast Railway 








(Grande-Bretagne) 


3d4 


832 


Sarrea Prado (Angelo db). 


Chemins de fer de I'Etat dans les colonies 








(Portugal) 


3&5 


833 


Sartiaux (Eugene) . . . 


Ghemin <le fer du Nord (France) . . . . 


2&3 


834 


Sassen (Georges) . . . 


Tramways k vapeur piemontais (Italic) . . 


5 


835 


Sautaqe 


Chemins de fer de TOuest (France) . . . 


2 


836 


SAX(D'Emile) .... 


Ghemin de fer Nord-Ouest aulrichien . . 


. . . 


837 


Sat (Won) 


Ghemin de fer du Nord (France) . . . 


4 


838 


ScALA (Theodor von) . . 


Chemins dc fer de T^lat (Aulriche) . . . 


3 


839 


SCBAAR 


Commission internalionale du Gongri^s, Mi- 
nistdre des chemins de fer, postes et 1616- 
graphes et chem. de fer de I'Etat (Belgique) 

Ghemin de fer de B6ne-Guelma et profon- 








2 


840 


SCHLEMMEB 








gements (r6seau alg6rien) 

Ghemin de fer de Paris 6 Orleans (France). 


• . . 


841 


Schneider (A.) . . . . 


4 


842 


SCHOTEL 


Tramways k vapeur de Breskens-Maldegem 








(Pays-Bas) 


5 


843 


ScHREiBBR (Alexandre de) . 


Chemins de fer de la valI6e de Szamos 








(Hongrie) 


4 


844 


SCBRORDBR 


Compagnie internalionale des wagons-lits et 








des grands express europ6ens (Belgique). 
D6partement des postes et des chemins de fer 


3 


845 


SchOle (Francois) . . . 








(Suisse) 


1<&3 


846 


ScHULER (Oscar). , 


Chemins de fer du Sud de T Aulriche . . 


5 



Digitized by 



Google 



92 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DES DEL^aU^S. 



I si 

D.Op 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



847 
848 
849 

850 
851 

852 

853 
854 
855 

856 

857 

858 
859 

860 
861 



862 

863 

864 
865 
866 



867 
868 



869 

870 

871 
872 

873 

874 

875 
876 

877 

878 



SCHUTZBNHOFBR (VJClor) 

SciALOJA (Barico) . . 
SciLLA (le prioce Ruflb). 



SCOLARI . 

Scott (A.) 



ScoTTER (Sir Charles) 

Seori^ (Epaminonda) 
Sbndzikowski . . 
SspaLCHRE (Henry) r 



Shuttlbworth (Prank C). 

SiLYA (Manuel Einygdio da). 

SiLVKRLOCH (Prank). . . 
Simon iFils) 



Sirs 

Sklbvitzky (Simton) . . 

Slattbrt (Henry Francis). 

Smith (Lieutenant-Colonel 

Gerard). 
Smith (John Hudson) . . 
Smith (J. Parker) . 
Smyth (Captain Thomas 

James). 



Solacroup .... 
SouMAROKOFF (Basile) . 



Souschinsky (Balthasar 

F6lix). 
SonzA Gomes (le Conseiller 

Joaquim Pires de). 
Spaonoletti (J. E.). . . 
Spanjaard (H.) . . . . 

Spasciani (A.) , . . . 
Spee (A.) 

Spiller(H H.). . . . 
Spruyt (Emile). . . . 

Stafford (J. II.) . . . 

Stable (Capitaine A. G.) . 



CheminS de fer de T^tat (Autriche). . . 

Ghemins de fer de la Sicile (Italie) . . . 

Chemin de fer Rubitlino (Tunis-Baixlo-la 
• Goulette Marsa) (Tunisie) 

Chemins de fer de la M^iterran^ (Italie) . 

London and South Western Railway (Grande- 
Bretagnc) 

Section anglaise et London and South West- 
ern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 

Chemins de fer sardes (Italie) 

Chemins de fer de la Vistule (Russie) . . 

Tramways a vapeur de Biella a Vercelli 
(Italic) 

Great Northern and Great Eastern Railway 
Companies joint committee(Gr.-Bretagne). 

Compagnie nationale des chemins de fer 
portugais 

The Conde d'Eu Railway (Br^il) . . . 

Minist^re du waterstaat, du commerce et de 
rindustrie (Pays-Bas) .;.... 

Chemin de fer du Nord (France) . . . 

Chemins de fer de TEtat, lignes de Varsovie- 
Terespol, de Brest-Kholm, de Sedletz- 
Malkine et de Narev (Russie) .... 

Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Hull Barnsley and West Riding Junction 
Railway (Grande-Bretagne) 

Rhymney Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 

North British Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Midland Great Western of Ireland Railway 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 
d*Irlande) 

Chemins de fer de Paris k Orltons (France). 

Commission internationale du Congr^ et 
Minist^re des voles de communication 
(Russie) 

Minist^re des voies de communication 
(Russie) 

Chemins de fer de T^tat (Portugal). . . 

Great Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Compagnie pour Texploitation des chemins 
de fer de I'll! tat n^rlandais (Pays-Bas) . 

Chemins de fer de Suzzara-Ferrara (Italie) . 

Compagnie des chemins de fer Sud-Ouest 
br^iiiens (Brdsil) 

Midland Railway (Grande-Bretagne). . . 

Chemin de fer Grand Central Beige (Bel- 
gique) 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Chemins de fer de Norsholm-Westervik- 
Hultsfred (SuMe) 



2 
3<&4 

4<&5 
4 



3 

3 
1<&4 



3&5 

4 

1<&4 
3 



3<&4 

4 

4d5 
2 
3 



2, 3, 4 & 5 



3d5 


2 


3 
5 


5 
3 


3<&4 


2,3d4 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF UELEGATES. 



93 




ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



879 



8F0 
881 
882 



884 

885 

886 
887 



889 
890 
891 
892 

893 

894 

895 
8% 
897 

898 

899 
900 

901 
902 

9C3 
904 



905 

906 

907 
908 

909 

910 
911 
912 
913 
914 



Stalbridob (the Right Hon. 
Lord). 



Standbrtskjold (C. G ) 
Stanb (Alois) 
Stbens (Emile) . 



Stephen (O. L.) . 
Stbrn (Isaac). . 



Stbvbnson (P.) 



Stiffson (Emile). 
Stileman (Frank) 
l^tBLiNO (Matthew) 

Stirlino (P.) . . 
Stoclet (Victor). 

Stofpel 

Sthachet (Lieut"' gdn^ R.) 

Strambio de Castillia 

(Giovanni) 
Stride (Arthur L.) . . 



SUAREZ(J) 

Sortees ((iolonel C. F.). . 
SOss (Nathan) . . . . 

Sutherland (His Grace the 

Duke of). 
SviENTziTZKi (Henri de) 
Sttenko 



SzAWTowsKi (Adam) 
Talbot (Charles) 

Tanoev (Paul de) . 
Tatlow (Josepli). . 



Taussig (le Chevalier Theo- 
dore de). 
Taylor (James L ). . . 

TCHERVINSKY (S ) . . . 

TcHocoLOPP (Petrcvilcli) . 

Tegner 

Teissier 

Tbnnant (Sir Charles) . . 
Tennant (Henry) . . . 

Terzi 

Thalt (Emile de) . . . 



Commission intemationale da Coogrte et 

London and North Western Railway 

(Grande-Bretagne) 

Chemins de fer de Borga Kenro (Rustie) . 
Chemins de fer de I'^tat (Autriche) . . . 
Tramways, et chemins de fer ^conomiques de 

Rome, Milan, Bologne, etc. (Italie) . . 
North London Railway (Grande- Bretagne). 
Tramways k vapeur interprovinciaux de 

Milan-Bergame-Cr^one (Italie) . . . 
London and North Western Railway (Grande- 

Bretagne). . . 

Chemins de fer de TEtat (Hongrie) . . . 
Furness Railway (Grande-Bretagne). . . 
Hull Bamsley and West Riding Junction 

Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Great Northern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 
Chemin de fer de TEst de Lyon (France) . 
Chemin de fer du Gothard (Suisse) . . . 
East Indian Railway (Grande-Bretagne et 

colonics) 

Chemins de fer secondaires romains (Italie). 

London Tilbury and Southend Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Ministeredes travaux publics (Bolivie) . 

South Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Chemin de fer de Madrid a Saragosse et 6. 
Alicante (Espagne) . 

London and North Western Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Chemin de fer de Novgorod (Russie). . . 

Minist^re des voies de communication 
(Russie) 

Chemin de fer de Varsovie-Vienne (Russie). 

Neath and Brecon Railway (Grande-Bre- 
tagne) * . . . . 

Chemin de fer de Novgorod (Russie). . . 

Midland Great Western of Ireland Railway 
(Royaume uni de Grande-Bretagne et 
dMilande) 

Soci^t^ autrichienne-hongroise des chemins 
de fer de lEtat (Autriche) 

Pennsylvania Railroad (iStats-Unis d'Am^- 
rique) 

Chemin de fer Vladicaucase (Russie). . . 

Chemin de fer de Moscou-Iaroslav et 
Arkhangelsk (Russie) 

Minist^re de Tinl^rieur et des travaux 
publics (Danemark) 

Mmisl^re c'es travaux publics (France) . . 

Norlh British Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Chemin de fer de Suzzara-Ferrara (Italie) . 

Chemin de fer de Mohacs-Funfkirchen (Hon- 
grie) 



Id2 



1.2, 3 A4 
3<&4 



1<&2 



3d4 
4 


1,3*&4 


l'i*5 


2&Z 


3A5 


1<&3 
3&4 



4 

4 

1,2. 3A4 • 
2<&4 



3, 4&5 

2, 3 & 5 
5 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 



TABLE ALPHABETIQUE DES D^LJ^OUJ^S. 



lag! 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



915 
916 
917 

918 

919 

920 
921 

922 

923 
924 

925 

926 

927 
928 
929 
930 

931 
932 

933 

934 
935 

936 

937 

938 



940 

941 

942 

943 
944 
945 
946 

947 

948 



Thaly (Sigismond) 
Thomas (Charles) 
Thomas (J. W.). 



Thompson (A. MJ 
Thompson (James) 



Thompson (Thomas Roe) 
Thomson (Frank) . . 

Thomson (Thomas Frame) 

Thonbt (Charles) . . 
Thys (Albert) . . . 

TlETGEN (C. FO » . . 

Tipping (W.). . . . 



ToLNAY (Cornel). . . 
ToRRBNS (Gerard Philip.) 

Toso (U D' Antonio). . 

ToucEY (John M.) . . 

TOURNEBIB {dE La) . . 

TouRTSEviTZ (Joseph) . 

TowNE (A. N.) . . . 



Traz (Andr^DE). . . . 

Traz (Edouard de) . . . 

Treuimpeld (le Chevalier 
Alfred Tunkler von). 

Trompowski Lbitao db 
Almeida (Roberto). 

Tschibmer (Johann). . 

TUNSTILL (W.) . . . . 

TuppER (Sir Charles) . . 

TORNIB (G. H.) . . . . 



TwEBDDALB (The Marquess 

of). 
twelvbtbees (r. h.) . . 
Tyler (Sir H. W.) . . . 
Ulbns (LAon) .... 
Ullmann (Louis be) , . 

Undbrdown (E. M ). . . 

Urban (Albert) .... 



Chimin de fer de llStat (Hongrie) . 

Midland Railway (Graode-Bretagne). . . 

Nashville, Chaltanooga» and S^-Louis Rail- 
way (^ tats- Unisd'Am^rique) . . . . 

London and North Western Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Section anglaise et Caledonian Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Barry Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . . 

Pennsylvania Railroad (Etats-Unis d'Ami- 
ri(jue) 

Mobile and Birmingham Railway (Etats- 
Unis d'Am^rique) 

Chemin de fer du Nord de Milan (Italie). . 

D^partement des affaires ^trang^res du 
Congo 

Chemin de fer de Lolland-Falster et chemin 
de fer de TEst de Seeland (Danemark) . . 

Section anglnise et London and North 
Western Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Minist^re du commerce (Hongrie) . . . 

Conded*Eu Railway (Br^sil) 

Chemin de fer de Reggio- Emilia (Italie). 

New York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road (Etats-Unis d'Am^rique) . 

Commission Internationale du Congr^s . 

Cherains de fer de I'^tat (ligne Nicolas) 
(Russie) 

Southern Pacific Railroad (^tats-Unisd*Am^ 
rique) 

Chemin defer de Dakar k St-Louis (S«6n^al). 

Chemins de fer r^ionaux des B^uches-du- 
Rh6ne (France) 

Chemin de fer de Vienne-Aspang (Autriche). 

Minist^re des travaux publics, du commerce 
et de TagricuUure (Br*sil) 

D^rtement des poetes et des chemins de fer 
(Suisse) 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

D^partement des chemins de fer et canauz 
du Dominion du Canada 

Section anglaise et Midland Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Section anglaise et North British Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Great Northern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Great Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . 

Chemin de fer de l^Est de Lyon (France) . . 

Chemin de fer de Mohacs Fiinfkirchen 
(Hongrie) 

Antofagasla (Chili) and Bolivia Railway 
(Chili) 

Chemin de fer de I'Est beige (Belgique) . . 



2d3 
3 

1, 2<&3 



1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 
4 

1, 2, 3, 4 A 5 

3d5 

1.2 A 5 

2.3 & 5 



4 
1 
2 
4 

i,2d3 
i 

1&3 



2 

1 A3 

i, 2, 3 A 4 

5 

3 

4 
3 
2 



1 A2 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OP DELEQATES. 



95 



«ss 



•» 



a m 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION DliL^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



949 

950 

951 

952 
953 

954 

955 

956 
957 

958 
959 
960 

961 



962 
963 
964 
965 

966 

967 
968 



970 
971 

972 
973 
974 

975 
976 
977 

978 
979 

980 

981 

982 



Urban (E.) . . 
Urban (Julef^) . 
Urban (Maurice). 



Uytborck 
Vallon . 



Van din Bogaerde (E.) 
Van den Brobc'k (AI.) 



Van dbr SraABtEN (Albert) 
Van db WyNCKELB(J. E.) 

VANE-TEicPKST(Lord Henry) 
Van Hassblt (Robert) . 
Vankeerberghen (Leon) 

VAN Kerkwuk (J.J.) . 



Van Overbekr (Alb^ric) 
VanRyn(K.) ... 
Varvaro (Roberto). . 
Vasabhelyi (B^U de) . 



Vasconcblix)S Porto (Anto- 
nio de). 
Vaucamps(A.) . . . . 
Vbhil (Domingo) . 

Vela SCO (Estanislao) . . 



Vbro£ . . . . . 

VERoi (Henry) . . . 

Verloop (J. W,). . . 
Vernon (Ibe bon. G. R.) 
Verschowsky (M. P.) . 

Vbrwilghbn-Goris . 

VlLBR8(E.) .... 
VlLINSKt 



VlSINBT .... 

VooRHKES (Th^orej 



voorhoevb (j. m.) , 
Wallaert(E.) . 



Wall Bake (R. W. I. C. 

VAN DBN). 



Soci^t^ g^n^ale de chemins de fer ^cono- 

miques (Belgique) . 

Commission Internationale du Congr^s et cbe- 

min de fer Grand Central Beige (Belgique). 
Cbemin de fer Grand Central Beige (Bel- 
gique) 

Sou lb Eastern Railway (Grande-Breta^e). 
Cbemin de fer du Nord fran^ais (lignes 

Nord beiges) (BelgiqueJ 

Cbemins de fer de la Plandre occidentale 

(Belgique) 

Cbemin de fer de Malines - Temeuzen 

(Belgique) 

Tramways florentins (I talie) 

Cbemins de fer Guillaume - Luxembourg 

(Luxembourg) 

Cambrian Railways (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Cbemin de fer HoUandais (Pajs-Bas) . . . 
Tramways et cbemins de fer ^conoraiquea 

de Romo-Milan-Bologne (Italie) . . . 
Commission Internationale du Congr^s et 

Minist^re du walerstaak, du commerce et 

de rindttfitrie (Pays-Bas) . . . . . 
Cbemin de fer dc TApennin Central (Italie). 
Tramways n^rlandais (Pays-Bas) . . . 
Cbemins de fer de la Sicile (Ilalie) . . 
Chemins de fer uuis d'Arad et de Csanad 

(Hongrie) 

Compa^nie royale des cbemins de fer por- 

tugais. 

Cbemin de fer du Nord de Milan (Italie). . 
Cbemins de fer et mines de San Juan de Laa 

Abadesaa (Espagne) 

Secretariat des communications et des tra- 

vaux publics (Mezique) 

Chemins de fer de Paris a Orl^ns (France). 
Society g^n^ale des cbemins de fer ^cono- 

miques (France) 

Cbemin de fer Central n^rlandais(Pajs-Bas). 
Caledonian Railway (Grande-Bretagne) . . 
Cbemins de fer de RiiBzane-Ooralak (ligne de 

Riazane^Saratov) (Russie) 

Cbemin de fer d'Anvers a Gand (Belgique) . 

Tramways napolrtains (Italie) 

Miniature des finances (d^partement des 

affaires de cbemins de fer) (Russie) . . 
Cbemins de fer de I'Oaest (France). . . 
American Railway Association (^tats-Unis 

d'Am^ique) 

Cbemin de fer Brabant septentrional alle- 

mand (Pays-Bas) 

Tramways a vapeur des provinces de V^rone 
« et Viceace (Italie) . . . . . . . 

Compagnie n^erlandaise Sud-Africaine de 

cbemins de fer (Pays-Bas et colonies) . 



1, 2, 3. 4<fe5 
i 



d<i4 

5 



5 

5 

5 

4d5 



3d5 



3, 4<&5 

4d5 
3 

ld4 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 



TABLE ALPHAB^TIQUE DBS D^LlSoU^S. 



3 o a 
zo5. 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^OANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



983 
984 
985 

986 

987 
988 
989 

990 
991 

992 

993 
994 
995 

996 

997 

998 
999 

1000 
1001 
1002 



1003 
1004 

1005 
1006 

1007 
1008 
1009 

1010 

1011 

1012 
1013 
1014 
1015 

1016 
1017 



Waller (Charles Bullcn) 
Wallersteln (Paul) 
Walter (Alfred) . . 



Wandrr(db). . . 
Warschavsky . 
Warschawskt (L^n) 
Waru .... 



Wasiuttnski (Alexandi-e) . 
Wassilevsky (Paul) . , 

Watson (Sir RenDj) . . 

Watts (Henry) .... 
Wautbrs (A. J.). . 
Webb (F. W.) . . . . 

Webb (H. Waller) . . . 

Wbisoerber 

Weiss 

Wbissenbruch (Louis) . . 

Welsh (John Lowber) . . 

Wbndbich (le Colonel Alfred 

de). 
Werchovskt (Madimir) . 



Westbboaard .... 
Wharncliffb (the Right 

Hon. the Earl of). 
WaissELL (G. H.) . 
Whiteleoo (Thomas) 

Whitwham (Fr. George) 
WiaRAM(R.). . 
Wilbur (RoUinH.) 

Wildhaoen . . 

WiLKiNs (Thomas) 

Wilkinson (C N.) 
Wilkinson (J. L.) 
Williams (Laurence A.) 
Williams (Morgan B) 

WiLMART (Jules). . 
Wilmart (Nestor) . 



Mobile and Birmiogbam Railway (^tata- 
Unis d'Am^ique) 

Chemins de fer r^ooaux des Bouches-du- 
Rhdne (France) 

American Railway Association (iStats-Unii 
d'Am^rique) ... 

Chemins de for du P^rigord (France) . . 

Chemins de fer de Moscou Brest (Russie) . 

Chemins de fer de Tsarsko^Selo (Russie'i . 

Chemin de fer du Nord fran^ais (iignes Nord 
beiges) (Belgique) 

Chemin de fer de Varsovie Vienne (Russie). 

Admin {titration cenlrale des chemins de fer 
de riitat (Russie) 

Glasgow and South Western Railway 
(Grnnde-Bretagne) 

Great Western of Braxil Railway (Br^sil) . 

Compngnie du chemin de fer du Congo . • 

London and North Western Railway 
(Grande-Brelagne) 

New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad (iStats Unis d'Amdrique). . . 

Chemins de fer ottomans de Beyrouth- 
Da mas-Hauran (Turquie) 

Chemins de fer de I'Est (France), . . . 

Commission internationale du Congr^, Mi- 
nislere des chemins de fer, postes et tdl6- 
graphes et chem. de fer de I'Eiat (Belgique) 

Denver and Rio Grande Railway (Etats-Unis 
d'Amirique) 

Minist^re des voles de communication 
(Russie) 

Commission internationale du Congi^s et 
Minist^re des voles de communication 
(Russie) 

Chemins de fer de T^tat (Danemark) . . . 

Manchester, Sheffiald and Lincolnshire 
Railway (Grande-Bretagne) .... 

Metropolitan Railway (Grande-Brcla^jne) . 

London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway 
(Grande- fireiagne) 

Chemins de fer sardes (Italic) 

Great Northern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Lehigh Valley Railroad (^tats-Uais 
d'Am^rique) . 

Compagnie internationale des wagons-Iils et 
des grands express curop^ns (Belgique). 

EJast and West Junction and Stratford-upon- 
Avon Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Great Western Ri ilway (Grdnde-Bretagne). 
Brazil Great Southern Railway (Bresil). 

Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway 

(Grande-Bretngne)* 

Chemin de fer Prince- Henri (Luxembourg). 
Chemin de fer de Gand aTerneuzen(Belgique) 



2SiZ 



4 
1 A3 



4 
1 

4 

5 

3 

i 
3&5 

id4 



3. 4 A5 



1 A4 
3 A4 



2A4 
3, 4 &5 



2 A4 

2 

3 
15c 3 

3 A4 



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ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DELEGATES. 



97 



: a a 

J a a 

D o a 
as a£ 



NOM. (NAME.) 



ADMINISTRATION D^L^GANTE. 
(DELEGATED BY.) 



SECTIONS. 



4018 
1019 

1020 

1021 

1022 
1023 
1024 

1025 

1026 

1027 
1028 
1029 

1030 

1031 

1C32 

1033 
1031 
1035 
1036 
1037 
1038 
1039 

1040 
1041 
1042 
1043 

1044 

1045 

1046 



Wilson (J.) . 
Wilson (R. T.) 



Wise (Berkley D.) 
Wood (G. H.) . 



Worms de Romilly . 
Worsdell(W.) . 
worthinoton (w. b ) 

Wortlky (Sluart) 

WoYARD (iSmile). 

WoYNo (Louis) . 
Wr^dbnsky (Basile) 
Yastchembski (Constantin 

df). 
YiiNAKiEPP (Theodore) . 

Yermolofp (Alexandre) . 

Yorkb (Lieutenant-Gulonel 
H. A.). 

Yossimovitch (Milivoie) 
Youle(A. P.) . . . . 
Young (Sir Wm L ). . . 

Zanotta 

Zavanella (Achille) 
Zbhetner (le D' Ferdinand). 
Zelis (J. B.) 

Zens (Albert) .... 

ZESf^iP.) 

ZiBLiNSKi (Etienne) . 
Zipper (E. A.) . . . . 



ZiN'OLER (Max) . 
ZouRO/p (W. L) . . 
ZwoLiNSKi (Nicolas de) . 



Greafc Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Denver and Rio Grande Railway (^tats-Unis 
d'Am6rique) 

Belfast and Norlhern Counties Railway 
(RoyaumeunideGr.-Brctagneetd'lrlande). 

Isle of Man Railway (Royaume uni de 
Grande-Bretagne et d*Irlande .... 

Minist^re des travaux publics (France) . 

North Eastern Railway (Grande-Bretagne). 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (Grande- 
Bretagne) 

Wrexham Mold and Connah's Quay Railway 
(Grande-Bretagne) 

Ghemin de fer de Tournai A Jurbise et de 
Landena Hasselt (Belgiqne) . . . . 

Chemin de fer de Varsovie-Vienne (Russie). 

Gheminsde fer Sud-Est (Russie) . . 

Chemin de fer de Rybinsk-BologoS (Russie). 

Premiere Soci6t6 des chemins de fer secon- 

daires en Russie 

Minist^re des voies de communication 

(Russie) 

Minist^re du commerce {Board of Trade) 

(Royaume uni de Gi'ande-Bretagne et 

alrlande) 

Minist^re des travaux publics (Serbie) . 
Great Western of Brazil Railway (Br^sil) . 
Midland Uruguay Railway (Uruguay) . 
Chemins d^ fer de la M6diterranee (Italic). 
Chemin de fer de Suzzara-Ferrara (Italie). 
Chemins de fer de I'^tat (Autriche) , . 
Chemin de fer Brabant septentrional alle- 

mand (Pays-Bas) 

Chemins de fer d^partementaux (France). 
Chemins de fer d^partemenlaux (France). 
Chemin de fer de Varsovie-Vienne (Russie) . 
Chemins de fer de Lemberg, Czernowilz, 

J assy (Autriche) 

Chemins de fer de Lemberg, Czernowitz, 

Jassy (Autriche) 

Chemins de fer de Riazane-Ouralsk (Ligne 

de Riazane-Saratov) (Russie) .... 
Ministdre de Tintdrieur (Russie) .... 



1&5 

3&5 
2 
2 

1, 2d5 



4 

2 

3 

4&5 



, 2. 3, 4 i& 3 
1,4&5 
5 
3 
1&3 
5. 
4 


*5* 
5 
4 


1&5 


5 



4&5 



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DISPOSITIONS 

STATLTAIRES & REGLEMENTAIRES 

DU C0II6RU INTERNATIONAL DE8 CHEMINS DE FEB (<) 



BUT ET DtFLMTlON. 

Article premikr. — Le Congrds interna' 
tional des cheinvis de fer est une association 
pcrmanente ayant pour but dc favoriser Ics 
progr^s dcs chemins do fer. 

Art. 2. — L* Association se compose d' Ad- 
ministrations de chemins d'Etat ct d'Adminis- 
trations concessioimaires ou exploitantes de 
chemins de fer d'int6r6t public qui ont fait 
acte d'adhesion. 

Les Gouvernements adhi6rant a I'Associa- 
tion se font represent er par des d^l^gues. 

COBIMISSION INTERNATIONALE PERMANENTE. 

Art. 3. — L' Association est repr6sent6e 
par une Commission internationalc qui est 
61ue par le Congres. Cette Commission a son 
siege k Bruxelles. 

Les fonctions dc ses membres sont honori- 
fiques. 

Art. 4. — La Commission est chargee 
d'examiner les demandes d'adhesion des Ad- 
ministrations de chemins de fer faites en con- 
formite des articles 1 et 2 et de statuer h leur 
sujet. Ne seront pas consid6r6es comme Admi- 
nistrations de chemins de fer celles qui n'ont 



'1' Pour les dispositions formant r^glement des ses- 
sions, voir Rp^cialemeni les articles 10 d 16. 



CONSTITUTION 

AND BYE-LAWS 

OF THE INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY COMRESS C) 



OBJECT AND SCOPE. 

1 . — The International Railway Congress 
is a permanent association established to pro 
mote the progress and development of rail- 
ways . 

2. — It is composed of railway administra- 
tions which have formally joined whether 
state or private and either owning or working 
lines for public traffic. 

Goverimaents joining arc represented by 
delegates. 

PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION. 

3. — The Congress is represented by a 
permanent Liternational Conamission which it 

i elects. The office of this Commission is at 
Brussels and its members give their services 
gratuitously. 

4. — It is the duty of the Commission to 
consider and decide upon the application for 
membership of the Congress made by railway 
administrations in accordance with articles V^ 
and 2"**. Administrations whose primary ob- 
ject is not the working of railways will not 



(') For Ihe bye-laws of the sessions see specially 
ailicles 10 to 16. 



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COXSTITIITION AND BY^-LAWS. 



99 



pas en vue I'exploitation de chemins de fer en 
ordre principal. La Commission pent, pour 
ks admissions nouvelles, determiner un mi- 
nimum de deroloppement kilom6trique ou 
d'autres conditions d'admission pour chaque 
cat6gorie de chemins de for {*). 

En outre, la Commission est charg^e d'or- 

m CondiUonA d'admusion arriUei par la Commission 
iiUeniiUonale, dans sa $4 ince du 29 juillet 1893, en 
exicuiion de I'avticle 4 des $:atuts revtsii A Siint- 
PHei-ibourg en JS92, 

I. — Poar pouvoir ^Ire admise k participcr k I'Asso- 
ciatioQ du Cougr^s, loate Administration de chemins 
de fer devra adresser au president de la Commission 
Internationale une demande portant I'engagement de se 
conformer aux prescriptions des statuts. La demande 
de\Ta 6tre accompagnde des documents n^ceasaircs 
poor qu'il soit possible de se rendre compte de la nature 
et de la situation de Tentreprise. 

II. — La demande ne pourra pas dire priw en consi- 
deration : 

!• Si Ic chimin de f^r n'est pas d'int<Sr6t public, c'est- 
4-dire s'll n'a pas donn6 lieu k un acte de concession de 
r«tttorit6 publique comp^tenio (&.moins qu*il p'appar« 
tienne k I'Eiat' et s'il n'a pas ouvert un service public ; 

V Si la traction des v^hicules n'a pas lieu par des 
moyens m^caniques; 

.^ Si rAdminisiration adh^renlc n'a pas en vue I'ex- 
ploitation des chemins de fer en ordre principal, c'cst- 
4-dirc notamment si la partie du capital consacr^e k des 
cbemins de fer n'est pas plus forte que oelle aflTeet^e & 
un autre but (exploitation de services de navigation, de 
tramways & traction par chevaux.d'usines, hotels, etc.); 

4* Si le cliemin de fer n'a pas un d^veloppcment mini- 
mum de 50 kilom^ret pour les lignes k traction par loco- 
motives ordtnaires ou de 25 kilometres pour les lignes 
cxplojt^s parun mode special de traction m(>caniquc. 

Le minimum de 50 kilometres sera appliqnd aux 
lignes mixtee, en faisant entrer en ligne de compte les 
sections k cr^maill^re pour le double de leur longueur. 

Le m^me minimum seranppliqu^ aux lignes en voie 
de construction, avec cette r6^erve que ces lignes ne 
pourront 6tre admises k participcr au Congrfts avant 
d'aroir 25 kilomMres en exploitation par la vapeurou 
iamoiii^ par modede traction ^p^ial. 

III. — Tout chemin de fer admis aprfes la date d»i 
31 aoai 1892 <iui cessera de remplir les conditions pr6- 
c6deDtes« ou tout chemin de fer qui entrera en liquida- 
tion ou en faillite, cessera ipso ftcto de fuire pariie de 
rAssooiatlon- II en sera de m^me de totit chemin de fer 
qui n'a'ira plus payd ses cotisations depuis plus de deux 
exercice«. 

IV', — Tout chemin de fer ayant 6t6 ray^. siir sa 
deraande ou autrement, de la liste des participants au 
Coagrte, ne pourra *lre rdadmis que moyennant le 
p^yeuient des cotisations correspondant aux exeroices 
ecoul^s depuis la derni^re session du Congrfes. 



be regarded as railway administrations. In 
admitting new adherents the Commission may 
lay down for each class "of lines a minimum 
mileage or other qualification (*J. 



Further, it is the duty of the Commission 

'}) Regulations for admission to membership of the Con- 
gress laid dotrn by the Conmlssion on July 29, 1893, 
in accordance tcilh the article / of the constitution 
as amendt'd in Saint- Petcrsburrj in 1892, 

I. — Every Railway Administration desirous of ad- 
mission to membership of the Congress must address to 
the president of ihe International Commission a formal 
application to that effect. The application, which car- 
ries with it an obligation to submit to the rules'ofthe 
Congress, mast be accompanied by such documents as 
may >>e required to establish the nature and position 
of the administration. 

II. — No application can be entertained unless: 

1. The Railway is public, thct is to say (except where 
it belongs to the State), has been authomse 1 by Act or 
charter of the public authority haviogjurisdiciion in the 
matter, and is open f >r pub'ic traffic; 

2. Is worked by mechanical means ; 

3. The Administration applying for admission is pri- 
marily a R:*ilway Administration and more especially, 
the portion of the cap tal devoted to Railway purposes 
is larger than that directed to any other object >team- 
boit services, borsa tramways, mines and works, 
bote's, etc.}; 

4. The Railway has. in the case of lines worked by 
locomotives, a minimum length of 32 miles ;50 kilo- 
metres) or of lines worked by any special means of 
mechanical traction, a minimum length of 16 miles 
;25 kilometres). 

This minimum of 32 miles (50 kilometres) will be appli- 
cable to mixed systems, a section of rack railway being 
reckoned, however, as twice its actual length. 

The stime minimum will apply to lines in course of 
construction, provided however that such lines shall 
not be admitted to membership of the Congress until 
16 miles (?5 kilometres) worked by locomotives or half 
that length worked by special mechanical means shall 
be actually open for traffic. 

III. — Any Railway alinitted to membership after 
August 31/92 which shall cease to comply with the fore- 
going requirem-^nts or any Railway which shall go into 
liquidation or become bankrupt shall ipso faclo cease to 
he a member ol the Congress. The same rule shall apply 
to a Railway which for two years in succession shall 
hare failed to pay its subscriptions. 

IV. — A Railway which at its own request or for any 
other cause has ceased to be a member of the Congress, 
shall before readrais'iion be required to pay up the back 
subscriptions which would have been due from it bince 
the last session of the Congress. 



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100 



DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & RlJOLEMENTAIRES. 



ganiser les sessions du Coiigr«^s, dc d6signer 
les questions k examiner, d'en pr6parer 
r^tude, de faire r^diger et de publicr les 
comptes rendus des debats, dc dresser le 
budget, de fixer les cotisations en conformity 
de Tarticle 17, de suneiller la gestion des 
finances et, generalement, de faire proc6der 
k tous les travaux, 6tudcs et publications 
qu'elle juge utiles dans I'intdrfit de Toeuvre 
poursuivie par T Association. 

Art, 5. — La Commission intcrnationalc 
sc compose des anciens presidents de session, 
membres dc droit, et de 33 mcmbres 61 us. 

Son bureau comprcnd : 1 president, 2 vice- 
pr6sidents, 1 secr6taire general, 1 sccr6taire 
et 1 tr6sorier. 

Les membres 6lus sont, autant que pos- 
sible, choisis dans les difiereutes nationalit6s 
des adli6rents. En aucun cas, il ne peut y avoir 
plus de 9 membres 61us appartenant k la 
mOme nationality. 

Lorsque le lieu de reunion d'une session du 
Congr6s est determine, la Commission Inter- 
nationale peut s'adjoindrc, k litre temporaire, 
des membres choisis dans le pays ou la pro- 
chaine assembl6e doit etre tenue. 

La Commission nomme son secr6tairc et 
son tr^soricr. lis n'ont, en cette quality, que 
voix consultative. 

Art. 6. — La Commission intcrnationalc 
61it dans son sein les membres de son bureau 
dans la premidrc stance qui suit une session 
du Congrds. 

La Commission sc rdunit sur la convocation 
du pi^ident, aussi souvent que I'int^rfit dc 
r Association Texige, et au moins une fois 
par an. 

Elle doit 6tre convoqu6e lorsque cinq dc scs 
membres le demandent. Les stances dc la 
Conmiission sont pr^sidees par le pr6sident. 
En cas d'empOchcment, le pr6sident est rem- 
plac6 par un des vice-presidents. 

Les resolutions de la Commission sont 
prises k la majorit6 dos voix des membres 



to organise the Congress meetings, to prepare 
a programme of questions for discussion and 
be responsible for their preliminary treat- 
ment, to publish reports of the discussions, to 
draw up a balance sheet, to fix, subject to 
article 17, the amount of the annual subscrip- 
tions, to be i^sponsible for the finances and 
generally to set on foot any investigations and 
issue any reports and other publications which 
will in its judgment further the objects for 
which the Congress is established. 

5. — The International Commission is com- 
posed of ex-presidents of the sessions of the 
Congress, who are members ex officio^ and 
33 elected membere. 

Its officers are a president, two vice-presi- 
dents, a general secretary, a secretary and a 
treasurer. 

The elected members arc as far as possible 
chosen to represent the different nations. Un- 
der no circumstance shall any one nation have 
more than nine representatives. 

AVhcn the place of meeting for a session of 
the Congress has been fixed the International 
Commission is empowered to coopt as tempo- 
rary members, ixjpresentatives of the country 
where the meeting is to be held. 

The commission appoints its secretary and 
its treasurer. As such they have no right to 
vote. 

6. — The International Commission at its 
first meeting after a session of the Congress 
elects its president, vice-presidents and gene- 
ral secretary from amongst its own number. 

The commission is summoned by the presi- 
dent to meet when the business of the Con- 
gress requires it, but in any care at least once 
a year. 

Any five members may require a meeting 
to be summoned. The president takes the 
chair, or in his absence one of the vice-presi- 
dents. 

Questions are decided by the votes of the 
majority of members present. If the voles 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYE-LAWS. 



101 



presents. En cas de partage, la voix du nicmbre 
qui preside est pi*6pond6rante. 

Les deliberations de la Commission sont 
constatees par des procds-verbaux. Elles nc 
sont valables que si neuf membres au moins y 
prennent part. 

Si, dans unc premiere reunion, ce nombre 
n'est pas atteint, il pourra 6tre d61ib6r6 k la 
reunion suivante, convoqu6e k quinze jours 
d'intervalle, quel que soit Ic nombre de mem- 
bres presents. 

Art. 7. — Les 33 membres 61us par la 
Commission internationale sont renouvel^s 
par tiers k chaque session. 

Elle fixe, dans sa premidre s6ance aprcs ce 
renouvcllcment, I'ordre de sortie de ses mem- 
bres lors des elections suivantes (*). 

Les membres sort ants sont r661igibles. 

La Commission a, en tout temps, la faculty 
de se completer par la designation provisoire 
de membres choisis parmi les deiegues des 
adherents. Dans ce cas, il est procede k I'eicc- 
tion definitive lors de la plus prochaine ses- 
sion. 

COMITY DE DIRECTION. 

Art. 8. — Dans la premiere s6ance qui suit 
une session, la Commission deiegue sept de 
ses membres, qui forment un Comite de direc- 
tion. 

Le Comite de direction est compose du pre- 
sident, du secretaire "general et de cinq mem- 
bres. 

Le secretaire et le tresorier de la Commis- 
sion y sont adjoints, avec voix consultative. 

Le mandat des membres du Comite de 
direction a unc duree egale k I'intervalle de 
deux sessions du Congres. II pent etre renou- 
veie. 

Le Comite se reunit au moins tons les trois 
mois. H peut etre convoque extraordinaire- 



(1) Dispotilion tranaitoire : Pour la premiere foia. toute 
la Commis&ion internationale sera 61ue k la session du 
Congi^e de 1887. 



are equal the chairman has a casting vote. 

Minutes arc kept of the proceedings of the 
Commission. Nine members are required to 
form a quorum. 

If at a first meeting this number is not pre- 
sent an adjournment of a fortnight shall take 
place, and at the meeting so adjourned no 
quorum is necessary for the transaction of 
business. 

7. — One-third of the 33 elected members of 
the International Commission retire and are 
replaced each session. 

At its first meeting after this replacement 
the Commission settles the order of retirement 
of the rest of the members (*). 

Retiring members are re-eligiblc. 

The Commission has at any time power to 
fill vacancies by the provisional election of 
members who must be delegates. Such 
members hold office till the next meeting of 
the Congress. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

8. — At its first meeting after a session of 
the Congress the Commission nominates 7 of 
its members to form an executive Committee. 

The executive Committee consists of the 
president, the general secretary of the Com- 
mission and five members. 

The secretary and the treasurer of the Com- 
mission are members of the Committee, but 
without the right to vote. 

The members of the executive Committee 
hold office for a period equal to the interval 
between two sessions of Congress. They arc 
re-eligible. 

The executive Committee meets at least 
every three months. It may be summoned 



(») Temporary provUion : At the outset tho vhole of 
the International Commission shall bd elected at tho 
Congress in 1887. 



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102 



DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & Rl^OLEMENTAIRES. 



iiient sur I'initiative du president ou i la 
demandc de trois membres. 

Art. 9. — Lo Comitd est charge sp^ciale- 
nient de TexpC'dition dcs affaires courantes, 
de la gestion des finances, ainsi que do la 
surv^eillunce et de la direction de tous les 
travaux, etudes et publications, de la redac- 
tion du BuUeim^ de la conservation de la 
bibliotheque et des archives. II fait imprimer 
enti^remcnt ou partiellement Ics m6moires 
et les documents destin6s au Congrds qu'il lui 
parait n6cessaire de distribuer pour eclairer 
les discussions. II se tient a la disposition des 
adherents pour leur fournir les renseigne- 
ments spdciaux qui lui seraient demand6s. 

Le Comite nomine et r6voque le personnel. 

L'execution des decisions du Comito est 
confiee a son bureau (*). 

i*) R^glemcnt d'ordre inl&i'ieur du ComiU de direction, 

I et II. — (Voir les articles 8 et 9 des statute.) 

III. — I^ Corait6 se r<iuriit k son local ordinaire, 
rue de Louvain, 11, h Brtixolles, sur convocation du 
president, et, autant que possible, le dernier samedi 
d*un mois. 

En casd*emp6chement du president, le Comit«i d^s'gne 
un de acs membres pour le reroplacer i*J. 
Les convocations Anoncent I'ordre du jour. 

IV. — La presence de trois membres suffit pour ddli- 
bArer valablement. 

LeB proems- verbaux des stonces sont adress^s k tous 
les membres du Comity. 

V. — Les afiTaires soumises au Comitt^ sont trait^es en 
observant la division du travail du Congr^s. (Voir 
article 13 des statute.) 

Les questions importantes sont envo>6es Al'examen 
d'un membre rapporteur. 

VI. — Le Comity peul faire appel au concours des 
sp^clalistes. U pent les r6mun6rer. 

VII. — La eortesr ondance est sign^e par le pr^ident 
ou par le secretaire d^l^gu^ par lui. 

VIII. — Le president, a id<i du sec:6taire du Comity, 
dlrige spAcialement la publication du Butletin, ^tant 
entendu que les articles A ins^er sont toujours soumis ft 
rappr^ciation pr^alable d'un membre d^signo par lui 
pour faire partie du Comity de reaction. 

En cas de diff^rend, TafTaire est soumibe h I'appr^ia- 
tion du Comity de direction. 
Les travaux relaii£i aux questions du programme 

O H. BuuMolM* a m dMgnl dua U ■tenet 4u 27 jMv;ar 18»i. 



specially either by the president on his owa 
authority or on the rcquisition of three mem 
bers. 

9. — The Committee is responsible in paiti- 
cular for the management of cuiTent affairs, 
and financial business; also for superinten- 
ding and managing investigations, reports 
and publications, for the editing of the Bul- 
letin and the care of the library and archives. 
It decides as to printing in whole or in part 
the reports and other documents submitted 
to the Congress, who^'e, circulation it regards 
as necessary to facilitate the discussions. 
It is the duty of the Committee to furidsh to 
members of the Congress such special infor- 
mation as thoy may require. 

The Committee has the right of appointing 
and dismissing the staff. 

The officers carry out the instructions of 
the CK)mmittee ('). 

(M Byelaics oflhe executive commiUee. 

I and II. — (Arts. 8 and 9 of the constitutioo.) 

III. — The Executive Committee meets at its office, 
rue de Louvain, 11, Brussels, wlien summoned by the 
president, as (or as po«>ibie on the last Saturday in the 
month. 

The Committee appoints one of its members to take 
the chair in the absence of the president (*). 

The business lo be transacted is specified in the sum- 
mons. 

IV. — The quorum of the Committee is three. 

Minutes of the meeting are sent to all members of the 
Committee. 

V. — The business of the Committee is divided under 
the same heads as tl>e proceedings of the Congress (see 
ait. 13 of the constitution). 

Questions of importance are referred to some member 
of the Committee for report. 

VI. — The Committee may engage and pay for expert 
assistance. 

VII. — I^ttera are signed by the preeidcnt or by tbe 
secretary acting under his authority. 

VIII. — The president with the assistance of the 
secretary of the Committee is specially reafonsible for 
the publication of the Bulletin, but articles to be inser- 
ted are always previously approved by another member 
appointed by the president to form one of the editorial 
committee. 

In case of difference the matter is referred to the deci- 
sion of the executive Committee. 
Where papers referring to questions on the programme 

(*) Mr. Bvutekwi vu ftppoln!«4 M Ih* sMttBg of JuaMy STjM. 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYE-LAWS. 



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SESSIONS DU CONGRfcS. 



SESSIONS OF THE CONGRESS. 



Art. 10. — Le Congr^ se r6unit tous les 
deux ans. Dans chaque session » il designo le 
lieu et la date dc la session sui\'ante. 

En eas d'empfichement impr^ru, la Com- 
mission int^nationale pent modifier ces dis- 
positions. 

Art. 11. — Ont le droit de prendre part 
aux sessions dii Congr^s : 

l^ Les membres de la Conunission intcrna- 
tionale ; 

29 Les del^u^s d^ign65 par les adh6- 
rents ; 

3<* Les secretaiixis et le tresorier, ainsi que 
les secretaires de section nonmi6s par la Com- 
mission ou par son Comite et charges do 
I'expose des questions du programme. 

Les Gouvernements fixent eux-mSmes Ic 
nombre de leurs d616gu6s. 

Les Administrations de chemins de fer 
peuvent nommer des d^lcgues au nombre de 
8 au plus, suivant I'^tendue de lour r^eau, 
savoir : 

2 d6l6gu6s pour les exploitations ne depas- 
sant pas 100 kilometres, 



10. — The Congress meets every two years. 
At each meeting it fixes the time and place of 
the following meeting. 

In case of unforeseen liindrance, the Inter- 
national Commission jnay alter tho arrange- 
ments. 

11. — The following liave a right to take 
part in the meetings : 

1 . The members of die International Com- 
mission. 

2. Delegates appointed by the adherents. 

3. The secretaries and the treasurer, as 
also the secretaries of the sections nominated 
by the Commission or the executive Committee 
to report on the questions in the programme. 

Governments are entitled to send as many 
delegates as they think proper. 

Railway administrations are entitled to 
nominate 8 delegates as a maximum, accoi> 
ding to the length of their system, as fol- 
lows : — 

For lines not more than 62 miles (100 kilo- 
metres) 2 delegates. 



peuvent 6tre impnin^ directement sous la responsa- 
bilit^ de leurs aateurs. 

II en est de m^me de U st^nofraphie reTue par les 
orateun. 

IX. — Le tresorier tient la comptabiliM des ddpenses 
et des recettes. 

La Commission inlernationale 6tant sp^cialement 
charg^e de surveiller la geslion des finances en vertu 
derarticle 4de8Statuts, 5on secretaire g^n^ral prooMe 
i une T^nncalion de la caisse et des ^crittires a chaque 
stance du ComitA. 

JLes recouvrements de fouds sont fails au noiu de la 
Commission internationato. et les quittances ii talon 
sont Tis6es par le secretaire general de la Commission. 

Le tresorier presenle un etat de la situation de la 
caisse ii chaque seanco du Comite. 

Les fonds product ifs d'interet sont places A la Caisse 
d*df>argoe et de retraite sous la garaatie de I'Etat. lis ne 
peuvent eire retires qu*au nom de la Commission Inter- 
nationale sur deux signatures ; celle du tresorier et 
oeUeda aecietaire general oudu president dela Com- 
mission inlernationale. 

X. ~ Le Comite fixe les traitein3nt8 du persoanel 
dans les limites du budget arrete par la Commission. 



are printed the responsibiii> rests with Ihcir authors. 

The same rule applies to the i^eports of debates revised 
by the speakers. 

IX. — The treasurer keeps accounts of receipts and 
expenditure. 

in accordance with article 4 of the constitution, the 
financial management of the Congress is in the hands of 
the Inlernat'onal Commission. Accordingly at each 
lueeting of the Commilt»e the general secretary of the 
Commission examines tbe receipts and the Toucbers. 

Subscriptions are made payable to the International 
Commission, and the receipts corresponding thereto are 
checked by its general secretary. 

The treasurer submils a summary balaooe sheet ai 
each meeting of the Committee. 

Money other than cash in hand is deposited in the 
government Savings Bank in the name of the Commis- 
sion. Its withdrawal requires two signatures, that of 
the treasurer and that of the general secretary or the 
president of the Commission. 

X. — Within tbe limits of tbe budget Toted by tbe 
Commission, the Committee Axes the salaries of the 
staff. 



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DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & R^GLEMENTAIRES. 



3 delegu^ pour les exploitations ne depas- 
sant pas 500 kilometres, et 

1 d616gu6 en plus par groupc de 500 kilo- 
metres ou par fraction de 500 kilometres en 
plus. 

Art. 12. — A I'ouverture de chaque 
session, le bureau de la Commission intema- 
tionale remplit les fonctions de bureau provi- 
soire, et le Congrds procdde imm6diatcment k 
I'election de son bureau, compos6 : 

I'* D'un ou de plusieurs pr6sidents d'hon- 
neur; 

2® D'un president ; 

3° De vice-presidents ; 

4** Des presidents de section, en conformit6 
de I'article 14; 

5° D'un secretaire general ; 

6® De secretaires. 

Le premier deiegue de chaque Gouveme- 
mcnt est de droit vice-president. 

Tous les membres du bureau sont nommes 
pour une session. 

L'eiection a lieu dans les conditions indi- 
quees k I'articl^lG, alinea 6. 

Les fonctionsMes membres du bureau sont 
determinees par les regies en usage dans les 
assembiees deiiberantes pour la direction des 
debats. 

Art. 13. — A I'ouverture de chaque session 
et apres la formation du bureau, le Ck)ngres 
se divise en sections (voies et travaux, traction 
et materiel, exploitation, questions d'ordre 
general, etc.). 

Un membre pent s'inscrire k la fois dans 
plusieurs sections. 

lie Congres pent aussi constituer des com- 
missions speciales. 

Art. 14. — Chaque section nomme son 
president, son secretaire principal et ses 
secretaires. Les presidents de section sont, de 
droit, membres du bureau de la session. 

Les sections et les commissions so dissolvent 
^ la fin de chaque session. 

Art. 15. — Lus discussions du Congres 



For lines not more than 311 miles (500 kilo- 
metres) 3 delegates. 

And one additional delegate for each addi- 
tional 311 miles (500 kilometres) or fraction 
thereof. 

12. — At the opening of each session the 
officers of the International Commission hold 
office temporarily while the Congress elects 
its own officers as follows : — 

1 . One or more honorary presidents [pre- 
sident d'ho7ineur). 

2. An acting president [president), 

3. Vice-presidents. 

4. Presidents of the difibrent sections in 
accordance with art. 14. 

5. A general secretary. 

6. Secretaries. 

The delegate nominated first by each 
Government is ex officio vice-president. 

All the officers are appointed for the dura- 
tion of the session. 

The election takes place according to the 
rules laid down in article 16, paragraph 6. 

The duties of the officers are those laid 
down by the rules of deliberative assemblies 
for the conduct of their proceedings. 

13. — At the opening of each session, and 
after the appointment of the officers, the Con- 
gress divides into sections (way and works, 
locomotives and rolling stock, traffic, gene- 
ral, etc.). 

A member may enter his name in more than 
one section. 

The Congress may also appoint special 
Committees. 

14. — Each section appoints its own pre- 
sident, its own chief secretary, and its secre- 
taries. The presidents of each section are, 
in virtue of their position, officers of the Con- 
gress. 

The sections and the Committees cease with 
the termination of each session. 

15. — The discussions of the Congress are 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYE-LAWS. 



105 



portent sur les questions inscrites an pro- 
gramme de la session. 

Cc programme est arr^t^ par la CJommis- 
sion intemationale ; il y est tenu compte des 
indications resultant des deliberations du 
pr6c6dent Congr^s et de ses sections. 

La Commission re^it les propositions des 
adherents ; un rapporteur design^ par la Com- 
mission redige un expose sommaire ct sans 
conclusions des elements de chaque question, 
ainsi que Tanalysc des documents qui lui ont 
ete transmis. 

Art. 16. — Les discussions ont lieu en 
fran^ais ou dans la langue du pays oil se tient 
le Congres. Des interprdtes traduisent en 
fran^ais les discours prononces dans unc autre 
langue. 

Les proces verbaux et les comptes rendus 
sont rediges en fran^ais, mais les orateurs 
ont le droit d'exiger la reproduction de leurs 
declarations originales en regard de la tra- 
duction. 

Les discussions ont lieu d'abord en sections. 

Les bureaux des secticms r6digent un 
resume des debats foimulant les diverses 
opinions emises dans la section. Aprds appro- 
bation par la section, ces resumes sont pre- 
scntes k Tassembiec pienidre et inseres dans le 
proces-verbal, en y ajoutant, s'il y a lieu, la 
mention des opinions nouvelles emises an sein 
de I'assembiee pieniere. 

Le Congres n*emet de votes qu'en co qui 
conceme les questions relatives au reglement 
ou se rattachant k Torganisation de I'institu- 
tion. 

Les votes sur ces questions speciales ont 
lieu k la majorite des membres assistant au 
Congres. II est precede au vote par assis et 
leve ; s'il existe un doute sur le resultat du 
vote, il est passe au scrutin. Le vote par appel 
nominal n*a lieu que s'il en est fait la demande 
par douze assistants. 



confined to the questions set down on the pro- 
gramme of the meeting. 

This programme is drawn up by the Inter- 
national ConMnission, with the help of sugges- 
tions made at the meetings of the previous 
Congress and its sections. 

The Commission receives suggestions from 
adherents. The reporter appointed by the 
Commission prepares a brief outline of each 
question without expressing conclusions, and 
also a summary of the contents of the docu- 
ments which have reached him. 

16. — The discussions take place in French 
or in the language of the country in which 
the Congress is held. ' Speeches in any other 
language are ti'anslated into French. 

The minutes and reports are drawn up in 
French, but the speakers are entitled to claim 
that their original words shall be printed 
alongside of the translation. 

The subjects are discussed in the first place 
in the sections. 

The officials of the respective sections draw 
up an abstract of the discussions, setting forth 
the various opinions expressed in the section. 
After receiving the approval of the section, 
these abstracts are submitted to the general 
meeting and inserted in the minutes, there 
being added, if necessary, a statement of any 
new opinions expressed at the general meeting 
itself. 

The Congress does not vote except on ques- 
tions of management or organisation. 



On these special questions the votes of the 
majority of the members present are taken by- 
sitting and rising. If there is any doubt 
the votes arc counted. A call of the roll can 
only be made if at least a dozen members^ 
demand it. 



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DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & Rl50LEMENTAIRES. 



COTISATIONS, 
REVISION DES STATITS, ETC. 

Art. 17. — Lcs frais dcs sessions, de la 
Commission internationale et du Comit6 sent 
k charge d'une caissc alimcnt6e : 

1° Par les cotisations annucUcs des adhe- 
rents; 

2° Par dcs subventions ct autres lib^ra- 
lit6s. 

Les cotisations annuelles des adherents sc 
composent : 

a) Pour les gouvemcments, d'une alloca- 
tion fix^ par eux-mfimcs; 

b) Pour les Administrations de chcmins de 
fer, d'une part fixe de 100 francs, plus une 
part variable proportion uelle k I'etendue de 
leur reseau. Cette cotisation variable, destin^e 
a couvrir le budget de T Association, ne peut 
d6passer 25 centimes par kilometre. 

L'annee socialc commence le 15 avril. 

Art. 18. — Les cotisations donnent le 
droit aux adherents de rccevoir gratuitement 
les comptes rendus des sessions a un nombre 
d'exemplahxjs indiqu6 par le nombre de leurs 
del6gues augments d'une unite. 

Lcs autres publications sent envoj6es aux 
Administrations adh^rentes en raison de leur 
importance, calculec d'aprt^s les bases de 
Tarticle 1 1 , et des abonnements k prix r6duits 
peuvent 6tre accord6s. 

Art. 19. — La Commission internationale 
pr6sente, k chaque session du Congrds, un 
rapport sur radministration des finances. Le 
Congr^s nomme deux conunissaircs charges 
de la verification des comptes. 

Art. 20. — Toute proposition de revision 
desstatuts doit etre pr6sent6e a la Conmiission 
internationale, avec motifs a Tappui, trois 
mois au moins avant Touverture de la session, 
de fa^on k pouvoir 6tre portee par la Commis- 
sion k la connaissance des adherents un mois 
au moins avant cette ouverture. La proposi- 
tion, avant sa prise en consideration par le 



SUBSCRIPTIONS, 
REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION, ETC. 

17. — The ctjst of the meetings of the 
Liternational Commission and the executive 
CoDMnittee are defrayed by a fund formed of : 

1 . The annual subscriptions of adherents. 

2. Subsidies and other casual receipts. 

The annual subscriptions of adherents con- 
sist of : 

a) In the case of governments an amount 
fixed by themselves ; 

b] In the case of railway administrations a 
fixed sum of £ 4 ($ 20), plus a sum propor- 
tionate to the length of the system. This 
variable sum necessary to meet the expenses 
of the Congress may not exceed 2 1,^2 d. 
(5 cents) per mile. 

The financial year begins on the 15th April. 

18. — The subscriptions entitle each adhe- 
rent to receive as many reports of the proceed- 
ings as the number of its delegates, plus 
one. 

Any other publications of the Congress are 
sent to the subscribing administrations in 
numbers based upon their mileage in confor- 
mity with article 1 1 ; and subscriptions may 
be permitted at a reduced rate. 

19. — The International Conmiission pre- 
sents at each session of the Congress a report 
on the financial position. The Congress 
appoints two auditors to pass the accounts. 

20 — Every proposal for a revision of the 
constitution must be submitted to the Inter- 
national Commission with the reasons for its 
adoption at least three months before the date 
fixe J for the opening of the session, so that it 
may be brought by the Commissioii to the 
knowledge of the adherents at least one month 
before that date. No proposition can be taken 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYE-LAWS. 



407 



Congres, doit etre appuyee par la Commission 
ou par vingt-cinq membres. 

Aet. 21. — Les adherents s'efforcont de 
faciliter les reunions du Congrds et la mission 
de la Commission internationale. 



into considei'ation by the Congress unless it is 
supported either by the Commission or by 25 
members. 

21. — The adherents pledge themselves to 
promote the meetings of the Congress and the 
mission of the Intel-national Commission. 



INSTRUCTIONS 



INSTRUCTIONS 



FOR 



MM.lesPrt8ident.,le8 8ecrttaire8priiici- j the PresidenU, Secretaries, Reporters and 
paui. les Rapporteurs etles Secretaires- | g^^^^^^ g^p^^ers of Sections. 

Rapporteurs des sections. 



L'eip6riencc des sessions pr6c6dentes ayant 
montre qu'il 6tait n6cessaire d'apporter uno 
oertaine uniformity dans la marcho et la di- 
rection des discussions des sections, le Comity 
de direction de la Commission internationale 
a cru devoir faire rediger les instnictions sui- 
vantes pour servir de guide k MM. les pr6si- 
dcnts, les secr6taires et les rapporteurs des 
sections. 

I. — Composition des bureaux. 

a) En vertu de rarticlc 14 des statu ts, 
chaque section nomme son president, son 
secretaire principal et ses secretaires. Conmie 
il importe que les,fonctions de presidents et 
dc secretaires principauxsoientequitableraent 
r6parties entre les diverses nationalit^s repr6- 
sent6es au Congres et que les candidats puis- 
sent se preparer k les remplir, la Commission 
internationale soumet k la ratification des 
sections les candidatures choisies k Tavanoe. 



b) La Commission internationale d^signc, 
en outre, un ou plusieurs secr^aires-rappoT' 
tews par section afin d'aider les rapporteurs 



The experience of previous sessions havin g 
shown the necessity of adopting some kind of 
system in the work and discussions of the 
different sections, the Executive Committee of 
the International Commission has deemed it 
expedient to draw up the following instruc- 
tions to assist the presidents, secretaries and 
reporters of sections in cariying out their 
duties. 



1. 



Election of ofhcers. 



a) According to article 14 of the statutes, 
each section shall appoint its own president, 
secretary and assistant secretaries. As it 

• is advisable that tlie functions of the presi- 
dents and secretaries should be fairly dis- 
tributed among the different nationalities 
represented at the Congress, and also that 
candidates should be enabled to prepare 
themselves for carrying out the said functions, 
the International Commission will submit the 
names of candidates selected beforehand, for 
ratification by the various sections. 

b) The International Commission will also 
name one or more sea^etary reporters for each 
section. They will be required to assist tibe 



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DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & RfiOLKMENTAIRES. 



k r^sumcr Icurs exposes dans les deux Ian- 
gues (fran^ais et anglais). 

Le prdsident de chaque section pr6sente k 
la ratification de rasscmbloe la nomination 
des autres secretaires qu'il d6sire s*adjoindre 
commc collaborateurs. 

II. — Usage des langues. 

a) En vertu de Tarticle 16 des statuts, « les 
« discussions ont lieu en fran^ais ou dans la 
•» langue du pays ou se tient le Congr^s. Des 
« interpr^tes traduisent en fran^ais les dis- 
•• cours prononc^s dans une autre langue »» . 

b) En ce qui concerne la o** session, la Com- 
mission internationale a, en outre, d6cid6 que 
tons les discours et les communications en 
fran^ais seraient traduits ou r6sum6s en 
anglais Les secretaires-rapporteurs voudront 
bien, k cet effet, prOter leur concours au pre- 
sident et au secretaire principal de chaque 
section. 

in. — Travaux des sections. 

a) Fiocation de Vordrc du jour de chaque 
section. — Au debut de la session, le presi- 
dent de chaque section determinera, d'aceord 
avec Tassembiee, I'ordre du jour des seances, 
de maniere k fixer, aussi exactement qu'il est 
possible de le faire, le jour ou sera abordee la 
discussion de chacune des questions soumises 
k la section seule ou reunie a d'autres. 

h) Rdsumd du rapport par le rapporteur. ' 
— Pour entamer I'etude d'une question, le 
president donnera la parole au rapporteur qui 
fera connaitre k la section la substance de son 
expose. Le rapporteur est instamment prie de 
ne pas lire son rapport in extenso, mais de le 
resumer d'une maniere concise en insistant 
sur les points principaux qui y sont d6ve- 
loppes et en faisant bien ressortir les opinions 
difi'erentes exprim6es dans leurs reponses au 
questionnaire detailie par les chemins de for 
participant k I'Association ainsi que les con- 



reporters in summarizing their reports in 
French and English. 

The president will submit, for the approval 
of the meeting, the names of other assistant 
secretaries whom he may desire to assist him. 



II. — Languages used. 

a) According to article 16 of the statute?, 
« discussions take place in French or in the 
• language of the country in which the Con- 
«* grass is held. Speeches in any other lan- 
« guagc are translated into French. »» 

b) With regard to the 5^ session, the 
International Commission has decided that all 
speeches and communications in French shall 
be translated or abstracted into English. 
Secretary reporters will therefore accordingly 
afford all the assistance in their power to the 
president and secretary of each section, with 
this object. 

in. — Work of sections. 

a) Arrangement of programme of the 
sittings of each section. — At the opening of 
the session, the president of each section 
shall decide with the approval of the meeting, 
the programme of the sittings, in order to 
Qj., as far as possible, the day when shall be 
discussed each of the questions submitted to 
the section alone or meeting jointly with ano- 
ther. 

b) The reporter's summary of his report, 
— To open a discussion, the president shall 
request the reporter to give the section a 
sunmiary of his report. The reporter is par- 
ticularly requested not to read his report in 
ewtensOf but only to give an abstract of it, 
dwelling on the main points which are enlar- 
ged upon in his report, and laying stress on 
the answei*s given to the detailed list of 
questions by the railway companies who arc 
members of the Congress, calling attention to 
the different opinions expressed by the said 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYELAAVS. 



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elusions propos6es. Pour bien attcindre co 
rdsultat, il conviendra, avant d'6noncer les 
conclusions, de rappeler bridvement les con- 
siddrations gdndrales les plus importantes 
d6j^ indiqudes au cours du r6sum6, afin que 
celles-ci, jointes aux conclusions, constituent 
un tout complet par lui-mSme. Autant que 
possible, le rapporteur ne devra pas parler 
plus d*unc demi-heuix). 

c) Discussion. — Lo r6sum6 de I'expos^ 
6tant termini, le pr6sident ouvrira la discus- 
sion. Si, comme cela arrive asscz souvent, line 
ccrtainc h6sitation se produit parmi les d616- 
gucs presents et si aucun d'eux ne demando 
la parole immediatcment, le president ne se 
hatcra pas de declarer les conclusions adop- 
tees. II s'efforcera, au contraire, de provoquer 
les discussions en attirant I'attention des 
mcmbi'es sur les points du rapport qu'il 
jugera dc nature k soulever des objections, et 
il fcra tous ses efforts pour obtenir des decla- 
rations int6ressantes et des renseignements de 
la part des personncs qu'il soupgonnera avoir 
sp6cialcincnt 6tudi6 la quci-tion. 

Le president vcillcra h ce que les prescrip- 
tions relatives i I'usagc des langucs soient 
obscn'^cs. 

d) Cloture de J a discussion. — En cas de 
discussion sur la duree des dcbats, la cloture 
sera prononc^ par Tassembldc t la majorit6 
des deux tiers, des mcmbres presents. I^ dis- 
cussion 6tart close, les conclusions aiwsi que 
les amondements qui auraient pu y 6tre pr6- 
sent6s au cours des d6bats seront mis aux 
voix et adopt6s a la majority des membres 
presents. 

e) Lecture du rappm-t de section et des pi o- 
jets de conclusions d la s<fance pleniire. — Le 
president ou le secretaire principal de la sec- 
tion aide, s*il y a lieu, par les secretaires, fera 
preceder le texte des conclusions qui doit etre 
soumis aux. deliberations dc I'asscmbiee pie- 
niere, d*un resume da la discussion design6 
sous le nom de rapport dc section. Ce rap- 
port, qui devra refletcr le plus exactcment 



companies and the conclusions to be drawn. 
In order to achieve this object it is advisable 
to begin with a statement of the conclusions 
arrived at, and then to point out briefly the 
more important views already mentioned in 
the summary, so that they may, jointly with 
the conclusions, form a complete statement. 
It is desirable that reporters, should, as far 
as possible, limit their opening speeches to 
half-an-hour. 

c) The discussion. •— When the reporter 
has concluded his remarks, the president 
shall open the discussion If, as is frequently 
the case, the delegates present hesitate to 
come forward and state their views, the pre- 
sident shall not hastily declare that the con- 
clusions are adopted by the meeting. He 
shall, on the contrary, invite discussion by 
calling the attention of those present to certain 
features in the report which he may consider 
open to criticism, and he shall endeavour as 
far as possible to obtain interesting reraai'ks 
and information from delegates present whom 
he may think specially qualified to give an 
opinion on the subject in question. 

The president shall, moreover, see that the 
regulation regarding the languages employed 
is duly obsen'ed. 

dj Closure of the discussion. — A majority 
of two- thirds of members present shall at any 
time have power to declare a discussion at an 
end, should any question arise as to its dura- 
tion. A\'hen a discussion is closed, the 
conclusions and also any amendments that 
may have been proposed, will be put to the 
vote in the ordinary manner. 

e) Presentation of conclusion to the general 
meeting. — The president or the tecTetary, 
with the help, if necessary, of the assistant 
secretaries, shall draw up a lesume of tlie 
discussion (called a sectional rq[)ort) as an 
introduction to the conclusions which arc to 
be submitted to the general meeting. This 
report shall give, as far as possible, tho 
general drift of the discussion and shall indi- 



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DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & RI^GLEMENTAIRKS. 



possible Tallure de la discussion, reproduira 
Ics arguments principaux d6velopp6s et indi- 
quei-a les personnes qui les ont fait valoir. 

Le rapport de section a une grande impor- 
tance parce qu'il tient lesmembres del'assem- 
bl^ gen6rale qui n'ont pas assistd aux 
stances de section au courant de I'otat de la 
question. S'il est bien fait, si, sans 6tre trop 
d6velopp6, il resume d'une manicre nette et 
concise I'ensemble de la discussion, il peut, 
dans bien des cas, 6viicr qu'un d6bat 6puis6 
se renouvelle inutilcment en s<Sance pleni^re. 

II est bien difficile, sinon impossible, de 
tracer le plan precis d'un tel travail. 

On trouvera dans les comptes rendus des 
sessions ant^rieures de nombrcux exemples 
de rapports redig6s avec grand talent et pei- 
gnant admirablement la physionomie des dis- 
cussions. Mais la plupart d'entre eux rdsument 
les opinions sans citer les noms des personnes 
qui les ont 6mises. L'assembl6e pl^niere a 
cependant le droit d'etre compldtcment eclair6c 
sur ce qui s'ost pass6 en sections. 

Nous proposerons le modele suivant : 

QUESTION XIII-B DE LA 3« SESSION. 

INFLUBNCE QUE PBUT AVOfB, SUR LES CONDITIONS 
KCONOMiQUKS DB l' EXPLOITATION, l'aUOMENTA- 
TION DU TONNAGE DES WAGONS A MARCHAN- 
DISKS. 

Rapports des 2^ et S^ sections rdunies. 

« Le rapporteur, Mr. Pol Leftivre, fait ressortir 
la tendance assez g^n^ralc des Administrations 
de cliemins de fer en Autriche, Allcmagne, Hol- 
lande et Suisse, k augmenter la capacite de leurs 
wagons plats et, particuliorement, a porler de 10 
a 15 tonnes, par voie de transformation, la capa- 
city de leurs wagons d^couverts a deux essieux. 
U rapporle ce fait que I'Elat prussien a trans- 
form6 2,260 wagons a houille de 10 tonnes en 
wagons de 12.5 et de 15 tonnes avec une d6pen.se 
de 38 fr. 93 c. (£ 1-10-10) par wagon. Dans ces 
conditions, la rdforme ne peut raanquer, d'apros 



cato the principal arguments used, with the 
names of the speakei*s. 

The sectional reiK)rt is of great importance, 
as it will keep those members who have been 
unable to attend all the meetings of the sec- 
tions informed on the matter under discussion. 
If this report is carefully drawn up, not too 
burdened with detail, but giving a concise 
and general idea of the discussion, it will in 
many cases avoid, in general meeting, the 
useless discussion of a subject which has been 
fully threshed out. 

It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, 
to draw out an exact plan of a task such as 
this. 

In the proceedings of former sessions will 
be found numerous examples of reports, 
drawn up with great ability, which reproduce 
admirably the character of the discussions. 
Most of the reports, however, state tlie 
various opinions without appending the nami^ 
of their authors. The general meeting should 
certainly be informed of all that has taken 
place in sections. 

The following is submitted as a specimen : 

QUESTION XIII-B OF THE Z^ SESSION. 

THB EFFECT WHICH THB INCREASE IN THE TONNAOB 
OF GOODS WAGONS WOULD HAVE ON THB COST OP 
RAILWAY WORKING. 

Reports of the S'^d and S^'f^ sections^ meeting 
jointly, 

- The reporter, Mr. Pol Leievre, demonstrates 
that Railway Administrations in Austria, Ger- 
many, Holland and Switzerland, generally tend 
to increase the tonnage capacity of their lowsided 
goods wagons, and especially to convert their 
10-ton into 15-ton 4 wheeled open goods wagons. 
He states that the Prussian Stat« Railways have 
converted 2,2()0 10-ton coal trucks into 12 1/2 
and 15-ton at a cost of £ 1 10 10 (38 fr. 93 c ) per 
truck. Under these circumstances, he considers 
that the conversion cannot f.u'l to be an advanta- 
geous one, the old 10-ton wagons being used as 



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CONSTITUTION AND BYELAW'S. 



Ill 



le rapporteur, d'etre avantagease, Ics anciens 
wagons de 10 tonnes ^tant utilises comme par le 
pass£ sans grand iDConvdnient Iorsqu*ils ne trou- 
▼ent pas uu chargement de 15 tonnes. En re- 
Tanche, quand on obtieat de raliment pour 
15 tonnes, on con^oit tout ce que Ton peut gagner, 
par tonne, au point de Tue des defenses de con. 
struction et dVntretien du materiel, des d^enses 
de manu ten lion, de ctassement ek de triage, de 
traction, etc. La capacil6 par tonne des voies de 
service est ^alement augment^e dans une forte 
proportion. 

- Une note pleinc d'int^ret de M. Ely, I'ing^- 
nieur en chef de La traction du Pennsylvania 
Railroad, mon trait qu'en Am^ique on nvait ^(^ 
beaucoup plus loin, le tonnage de 80 tonnes y 
dtant adopts depuis longtemps pour les wagons a 
houille. II en est r6sult6 une reduction de 566 ki- 
logrammes (1,245.2 livres) a 368 kilogrammes 
(809.6 livres) du poids mort par tonne offerte 
(31.8 p, c.),.de 566 fr. 75 c. (£ 22-8-11) a 
373 francs {£ 14-15-10} de la depense de construc- 
tion par tonne de capacity (33 8 |). c), de 48 
(i8"8) a 26 (10"2) centimetres de la longueur par 
tonne offerte (45 . 6 p. c . ). 

- Mr. Frescot (Mdditcrranee italienne), dont la 
Compagnie a cependant depuis longtemps des 
wagons de 12 tonnes, a objects in Taugmentation 
de ce tonnage que, dans Rtat acluel des r^gle- 
ments, les lignes sccondaires de son r6seau ne 
pourraient supporter le poids de 12 1/2 tonnes 
par essieu dont pourraient les charger des wagons 
de 15 tonnes a deux essieux. Son Administration 
a cherch6 cependant adiminuer le poids mort des 
wagons par Temploi de I'acier. 

- Plusieurs orateurs ont ensuite parl6 tour a 
tour pour et conlre la r6forme : d6favorable 
lorsque le Irafic est plus sp^cialement agricole 
ou sujet a Iransbordement, d^pres les uns ; utile 
pour le trade des matieres pond^reuses et sans 
effet nuisible dans le cas coatraire, d'apr^s les 
aulres. 

• Citons parmi les tdmoignages favorables, 
ceux des chemins de fer boUandais (Mr. Verloop) 
et nisses. 

•• Mr. Kerbedz, vice-president du chemin de fer 
Vladicaucase, a fait connaitre que raugmenlation 
de la capacity avait parfaitement r6us6i sur son 
r6seau, grftce a quelques a vantages accord^s aux 
cip^iteurs. Mais Tassembl^e a 616 impressionn^e 



before, without any inconvenience, when a 15-ton 
load is not forthcoming. On the other hand, 
when the 15- ton loads can be obtained, the 
resulting economy per ton is obvious, not only 
from the point of view of construction and main- 
tenance of the rolling stock, but also of handling, 
classification, sorting, haulage, etc. The ton- 
nage capacity of the lines is also materially 
increased . 



« In a very interesting note Mr. Ely, chief ol 
motive power of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
showed that in the United States they had gone 
still further, a tonnage of 30 tons having been 
adoptel for coal trucks, which resulted in the 
following reductions : — 

- From 1,245 2 lbs (566 kilograms) to 809*6 lbs 
(368 kilograms) dead load per ton (31*8 p. c), 
from £ 22 8-11 (566 fr. 75 c.) to £ 14-15-10 
(373 francs) in construction cost per ton capacity 
(33-8 p. c), and from 18*8" (48 centimetres) to 
10*2" (26 centimetres) in tbekngth per ton capa- 
city (45*6 p. c). 

•• Mr. Frescot (Mediterranean Railway, Italy), 
whose company adopted i 2-ton wagons long 
ago, nevertheless objected to an increase in ton- 
nage on account of the regulations at present in 
force fur their secondary lines, which he added 
were such that the latter could not support the 
weight of 12 12 tons per axle which would follotv 
upon the adoption of 15- ton wagons His com- 
pany sought, he added, to diminish the dead 
weight by the use of steel. 

•» Several speakers then followed, taking oppo- 
site views to one another, some opposing the 
chapge where IraflBc is chiefly agricultural or 
subject to transhipment, others favouring the 
transformation for bulky goods traliic and consi- 
dering it harmless where traffic is not bulky. 

• The Dutch Railways (Mr. Verloop) and the 
Russian were favourable to the change. 

«• Mr. Kerbedz, Deputy Chairman of the Vladi- 
caucasus Railway, pointed out that an increase 
in the tonnage capacity of wagons had worked 
very successfully on his Company's line, thanks 
to certain advantages offered to consignors. A 



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112 



DISPOSITIONS STATUTAIRES & R^iaLEMENTAIRI!:S. 



par an discours de Mr. A. Sarliaux, inginieur en 
chef de rexploitation du Nord frangais, meUant 
«n doute la possibility de la transformation des 
wagons de 10 tonnes de son r6seau en wagons de 
15 tonnes, et declarant que cette r^forme serait 
contraire aux d^sirs du commerce. 

«• L'assembl^e 8*est done born^e k admettre le 
projet de conclusions suivanfc, qu*eile soumet k 
TassenibUe pUni^re : 

PROJET DE CONCLUSIONS. 

• En raison des conditions essentiellement 
-•* difl<§rentes qui r^issent le trade des diTers 
» rdseaux» il n'est pas possible d'indiquer une 
u r6gle g^n^rale pour fixer le tonnage a donner 
« aux v^hicules a marchandises en vue de r^ali- 
•■ ser les meilleures conditions ^conomiques de 
-• rexploitation. 

•• II incombe aux services chargte de la con- 
■• struclion du materiel, de rechercher tous les 
- moyens ayant pour but de diminuer le poids 
« mort dans des proportions compatibles avec la 
M nature du trnfic, avec la s^uritd et avec un bon 
• entretien. • 



speech by Mr. A . Sartiaux, general manager of 
the Northern of France, was very effective. 
Mr. Sartiaux doubted if it would be possible to 
convert iO-ton into 15-ton wagons on his line, 
and declared that such a change would not meet 
business requirements . 

«• The meeting therefore confined itself to 
passing the following resolution, which was sub- 
mitted to the general meeting : — 

CONCLUSIONS PRESENTED. 

«• In consideration of the different conditions 
« under which various railway companies work 
«• their lines, it is impossible to lay down any 
<* general law governing the tonnage of goods 
- wagons with a view to economical working. 



« The Departments connected with the con- 
« struction of rolling stock should seek, by -all 
- possible means, to reduce the dead weight of 
H wagons, so far as is compatible with the kind 
« of traffic, with safety and with proper mainte- 
« nance. •• 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE 

L* 2( Jain 1««5, k a hum* d« ratevi*, 

DANS U SALLE DES C^R^MONIES DE L'INSTITUT 



Le prince de Galles ayant accepts de faire 
Touverture de la 5® session en qualit6 de pre- 
sident dlionueur, prend place sur I'estrade, 
ayant k sa droite Mr. Bryce, le president du 
« Board of Trade », et i sa gauche Mr. Dubois, 
le president de la Commission intemationale. 
Sur I'estrade se trouvait aussi la suite du 
prince, ainsi que les deux vice-presidents de 
la Commission, les membres du comit6 ex6- 
cutif de la Commission permanente, les mem- 
bres du bureau de la section anglaisc, Lord 
Stalbridge, president de la Railway Compa- 
nies' Association, ct Sir Henry Oakley, secre- 
taire. 



Le prince de Galles, dont I'arrivee est 
accueillie par de vifs applaudissements, s' ex- 
prime en ces termes : 

I 

« Messieurs, 

« Je m'acquitte aujourd'hui d'une mission 
aussi agr6able qu'importante en proc6dant k 
Touverture de la cinquidme session du Con- 
gr6s des chemins de fer. Je remplis cette 
tftche au nom de la Reine, qui prend rint6r6t 
le plus vif ^ la discussion do questions qui 
touchent de si prfe aux int6r6ts de ses Etats. 
Je la remplis ^galement en mon nom per- 
sonnel, heureux de Toccasion qui m'est offerte 
d'adresser ici aux administrations dc chemins 



OPENING CEREMONY 



Jane 26, 1895, at three o'clock, In the 



RECEPTION HALL AT THE IMPERIAL INSTITUTE 



The Prince of Wales graciously con- 
sented, as honorary president, to formally 
open the Fifth Session of the Congress. 
Mr. Bryce, president of the Board of Trade, 
was seated on the right of His Royal Highness 
on the platform ; Mr. Dubois, president of the 
International Commission, being seated on the 
left: the two vice-presidents of the Commis- 
sion, the members of ihc Executive Com- 
mittee of the Permanent Commission; the 
president, vice-president, and secretary of the 
English Section; Lord Stalbridge, president, 
and Sir Henry Oakley, secretary of the Rail- 
way Companies' Association, being also on 
the platform near the Prince. 

The Prince op Wales, whose arrival was 
enthusiastically welcomed, expresfed himself 
as follows : — 

« Gentlemen, 

tt I have to discharge to-day the very plea- 
sing and the very important duty of declaring 
open the Fifth International Railway Congress. 
I fulfil this duty on behalf of the Queen, who 
takes the greatest interest in the discussion of 
matters so closely afibcting the welfare of her 
dominions. I do so on my own behalf, being 
glad of the opportunity of expressing my deep 
appreciation to the Railway authorities, both 
at home and abroad, for their unfailing cour- 

8 



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H4 



OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



de fer de I'Angloterre et de T^tranger, tous 
mes remerciements pour I'in^puisable obli- 
geance avec laquellc dies m'ont toujours faci- 
lity mes nombreux voyages. Et, enfin, je 
remplis cette tAche au nom des grandes com- 
pagnies de chemins de for de ce pays, dont la 
gestion est confine k un groupe d'hommes de 
la plus haute competence et du pins grand 
talent et qui m'ont demand^ de vouloir bicn 
fitre leur interprdte en c«nte occasion. Je sou- 
haite done la bienvenue en Ai^leterre, ber- 
ceau des chemins de fer, aux d6l6gu6s des 
Etats du continent et, chose unique jusqu'i 
present dans les annales du Congr^s, a ceux 
des deux Ameriques. {AppJcntdissemetits.) 

- Soixante-dix ans se sont tH^oul6s depuis la 
construction de notre premier chemin de fer, 
entre Stockton et Darlington. Cinq ans plus 
tard, en 1830, fut inauguree dans des cir- 
Constances qui prirent un caract^re tragiquc, 
la premiere ligne ouvcrte au transport des 
voyageurs sous lo contrOle du Parlement et 
avec un capital souscrit par le public. Cette 
int^ressaute solennit6, riche de promesses 
pour Tavenir, fut attristoe par un accident 
qui eut pour consequence la mort de M Hus- 
kisson. Pendant les soixante ann6es qui 
suivent, les chemins de fer se sont d6velopp6s 
dans le monde entier, et la r6ujdon de ce jour 
montre bien I'int^rOt que nous inspire cette 
Industrie remarquable qui, plus que toute 
autre, a provoqud Taccumulation des richesscs 
et I'extension du commerce du monde, et qui 
a puissamment contribue k rcsserrer les liens 
d'amitie entre les nations et k 6tablir la bonne 
entente univorselle. 

« L'institution du (V)ngr6s des chemins de 
fer a 6t6 fondle en 1885, un assez grand 
nombre dTiommes appartenant aux chemins 
de fer les plus importants ay ant 6t6 r6unis k 
I'occasion du jubil6 des chemins de fer beiges. 

« Des Fessions ont 6t6 tenues depuis k Milan 
en 1887 et k Paris en 1>^89, ct la demi^re qui 
s'est r6unie k Saint-P6tersbourg en 1892 res- 
tera inoubliable par I'accueil splendide qui 
fut fait aux d61egu6s et le puissant patronage 



tcsy, and for the facilities which they have 
invariably afforded me on the occasion of my 
many journeys ; and I perform it finally in 
the name of the great Railway Companies of 
this country, which are governed by a body 
of gentlemen of the highest ability and skill, 
who have asked mo to be their spokesman on 
this occasion. I welcome to England, the 
birthplace of railways, the delegates from 
the Continental States, and representatives, 
I think for the first time in the history of 
these congresses, from the two continents of 
America. [Ajyjrjlause.) 



*« Nearly seventy years ago the first railway 
that was constricted in the world — that 
between Stockton and Darlington — was 
opened. Five yeai^ later — in 1830 — under 
circumstances of the most tragic kind, the 
first railway com^tinicted under parliamen- 
tary powers, and by money publicly sub- 
scribed, was inaugurated for passenger trafiic 
between Manchester and Liverpool, and a 
ceremony of gixiat interest and of greater 
promise was marred by the lamentable acci- 
dent which led to the death of Mr. Huskisson. 
In the sixty years which have since elapsed 
the development of railways has progressed 
throughout the world, and we have fitly met 
here to-day to show our interest in that cele- 
brated industry which, probably more thau 
any other, has enhanced the wealth and fos- 
tered the commerce of the world, and l^s 
tended to promote international friendship 
and universal goodwill. {Cheers.) 

« The Railway Congress had its origin in 
1885, when a number of leading railway men 
met in Brussels to celebrate the jubilee of the 
Belgian railways. 

" Sessions have since been held in Milan 
in 1887, and in Paris in 1889, and the last 
Congress, which assembled in St. Petersburg, 
in 1892, was made memorable by the splendid 
hospitality and great encouragement given t<> 



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OPfiNINO CBREUONT. 



as 



%ui lui fut accord^ par feu I'empereur de 
Russie. (Applaudissements.) Je crains, mes- 
sieurs, que nous ne puissions vous offrir ni 
les beauts de Tltalie, ni les {daisirs de Paris, 
ni la reception magnifique qui a caract^ris^ la 
reunion pr6c6dente ; mais nous pouYons vous 
montrer Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff et 
Crewe, ces grands centres industriels qui, je 
respire, vous offi^iront d' utiles enseignements 
et des exemples d'un travail fdcond. 

« Je me permets de dire m6me cela k nos 
amis des Etats-Unis (pays qui possdde plus de 
la moitie du d^veloppement kilom6trique du 
moude entier), ainsi qu'aux reprdsentants des 
Indes et de nos colonies, qui ont aidd au 
d6veloppement des chemins de fer avec une 
activity et un succ^ qui moritent les plus 
chaudes felicitations. Le programme des dis- 
cussions, si intdi'essant qu'il soit pour ceux 
qui, comme vous, sont comp^tents dans tons 
les details techniques, aura egalement de 
Tattndt pour le public. 

•» Vous aurez k examiner non seulement le 
probl^me de Tacc^l^ration de la vitesse des 
trains de voyageurs, mais encore les moyens 
d'augmenter le confort par Tusage des voi- 
tures k intercirculation et par le perfection- 
nement du chauf^e et de r6clairage. Vous 
aurez Egalement k examiner les moyens 
d'augmenter la security des voyageurs par 
les per£ectionnements apport^s aux signaux, 
par les enclenchements de& aiguilles, le 
calage des ponts toamants, etc. 

« La traction dlectrique vous pr6sente un 
champ relativement peu eiplor6 jusqu'ici. 
Enfin, en vous occupant des chemins de fer 
^conomiques, vous serez en mesure de nous 
foumir des renseignemonts sur une question 
dont Tint^rSt va croissant dans notre pays, et 
qui, ea ce moment, est soumise aux delibera- 
tions de notre Parlement. 

« Dans retude de toutes ces questions, vous 
apporterez non seulement votre grand savoir, 
; voos serez, j'en suis convaincu, mus par 



it by the late lamented Emperor of Russia. 
{App!cM$e,) Gentlemen, I fear that we can- 
not promise you the beauty of Italy, the gaiety 
of Paris, or the magnificent reception which 
was accorded to you on the last occasion 
upon which you met ; but we can show you 
in Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, and Crewe 
great centres of industry, from which I hope 
you will be able to derive useful knowledge, 
and in which you will be able also to see 
examples of the most beneficial work. 

« I venture to say this even to our friends 
from the United States (a country which owns 
nearly half the railway mikiagc of the world) 
as well as to the representatives of India and 
our colonies, who have helped forward the 
work of railway development with a speed 
and a success which I think deserve the utmost 
commendation. [Applaiise,) The programme 
of discussions, interesting as it is to those 
who, like yourselves, know how to appreciate 
technical details, will be of interest likewise 
to the public. 

" You will be asked to consider not only 
the acceleration of passenger trains, but the 
means of promoting the comfort of passen- 
gere by the use of vestibule or corridor cars, 
and by improved methods of heating and 
lighting. You will be also asked to consider 
arrangements for adding to the safety of the 
travelling public in such matters as signal- 
ling, interlocking, and the security of bridges. 



« Electrical traction will present a field 
for your inquiries as yet comparatively unex- 
plored, and on the subject of light railways 
you will be able to give us information on a 
question which is of growing interest in this 
country, and in the discussion of which our 
Parliament is at present engaged. 

u To all these subjects you will bring, not 
only profond knowledge, but a desire, I am 
sure, to exchange information which must 



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116 



OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



le d^ir d'6changer des cnseigncments dont 
tous cenx qui prcndront part & vos discus- 
sions feront grand profit. 

*» Permettez-moi, pour finir, de vou» sou- 
haiter une fois encore la bienvenue au nom 
de notre Souvcraine, au nom des compagnies 
anglaises et en mon nom personnel, et d'ex- 
primer le desir sincere de voir cette session 
servir non seulement a reculer les limites des 
conuaissances techniques, mais encore k cr6er 
de nombreuses ct durables amiti^ dont les 
annees k venir feront connaStre tout le prix. r 
( Applaudissemefits vifs et prolong^s . ) 

Mr. Dubois, prudent de la Commission 
intei^iationale peimanetite : 

« Mon SEIGNEUR, 

«♦ Que ma premiere parole exprime notre 
gi^titude envers Votre Altesse Royale, qui 
nous fait rhonneur insigne d'inaugurcr notre 
session, et qui daigne nous marquer ainsi le 
prix qu'Ellc attache k I'institution du Congress 
des chemins de for et rint6r6t qu'Elle porte 
a SOS travaux. Nous oflfrons k Votre Altesse 
Royale I'hommage rcspectueux de notre pro- 
fonde reconnaissance et nous serions heureux 
que cet hommage adrcss6 k I'hdritier du 
trOne pdt remontcr jusqu'a I'Auguste Souve- 
raino qui, depuis cinquante-huit ans, preside 
aux destines do la grande nation k laquelle 
nous devons aujourd'hui une large et cordiale 
hospitalite. 

** Le gouvernement de Sa Tr^ Gracieuse 
Majoste, qui a bien voulu nous accorder son 
puissant patronage, a droit aussi k nos remer- 
cienients. Je prie M. le pr^ident du Board 
of Trade de vouloir bien accepter ceux que 
j'ai rhonneur do lui adresser. 

« Lorsque la proposition fut faite a Saint- 
P^tcrsbourg, on i892, de tenir k Londres la 
.'session suivanto du Congr^s, cette propo- 
t*ition, k laquelle les d616gu6s anglais, don- 
ntirent un appui aussi chaleureux qu'em- 
presse, fut approuv6c par un vote unanime et 



be of advantage to all ii?ho take part in jour 
discussions. 

•« Let me, in conclusion, once more wel- 
come you on behalf of the Sovereign, the 
railway companies, and myself, and express 
the earnest hope that this Congress may be 
the means, not only of extending scientific 
and technical knowledge, but of founding 
also many pleasant and enduring friendships 
which will be valued in years to come. * 
{Loud and prolonged applause.) 



Mr. Dubois, president of the Permanent 
International Commission : — 

»♦ Your Royal Highness, 

« My first words must express our grati- 
tude to your Royal Highness for doing us the 
signal honour of inaugurating our Session and 
of condescending to show in this manner the 
value your Royal Highness attaches to the 
institution of the Railway Congress and the 
interest your Royal Highness takes in our 
work. We would express to you the res- 
pectful homage of our profound gratitude, and 
we shall be happy if this homage addressed 
to the heir to the throne reaches the August 
Sovereign who has for fifty-eight years pre- 
sided over the destinies of the great nation to 
which we are indebted to-day for their gene- 
rous and cordial hospitality. 

« The govenmient of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty, which has been good enough to lend 
us its powerful support, has also a claim on 
our gratitude. I would beg the president of 
the Board of Trade to accept the thanks which 
I have the honour of expressing to him. 

« When it was proposed at St. Petersburg 
in 1892 to hold the next session of the Con- 
gress in liOndon, the English delegates sup- 
ported the motion in a manner as cordial as 
it was sincere, and the resolution was passed 
unanimously and, I might almost say, with 



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OPENING CEREMONY. 



117 



en quelquc sorte d*acclaination. II ne pouvait 
en 6trc autrement, car la proposition r6pon- 
dait v^ritablement k un d6sir iutime de tous 
les adeptes du Congr^s. Ne devait-il pas ^tre 
dans les vceux de tous de so voir, un jour 
prochain, r^unis familialement dans ce pays 
que Ton a souvent appelS le berceau dos che- 
mins de fer, et dans lequel, depuis pi>^ de 
trois quarts de si^le, les ing^nicurs du monde 
entier ont pu venir a toute 6poque recucillir 
des enseignements pr6cieux sur la construc- 
tion et Fexploitation des voies fcrr6es? 

« Et puisquc j'6voqne en ce moment le 
souvenir do cettc mission d'dducAteurs qu'ont 
rcmplic les ing^nieurs anglais, puis-je me 
permettre d'aj outer quelques mots person- 
nels? A moi qui suis Beige, et qui dois k 
cette quality la part que Ton m'a fait Thon- 
neur de m'attribuer dans la gestion d'une 
oeuvre beige par ses origlnes et par son foyer 
permanent, 11 m*est agr^able de rappeler 
dans cette circonstance solennelle ce que 
durent k I'Angleterre les hommes d*Etal et 
les ing^nieurs qui, sous Timpulsion d'un 
grand prince que la Belgique v^ndre et dont 
TAngleterro aussi garde la m6moire, entre- 
prircnt 11 y a soixante et quelques ann^ de 
doter leur patrie d*un ensemble de voies 
ferries. La Belgique reconnaissante s'est 
associ^ avec cmpressement aux manifesta- 
tions grandioses et touchantes k la fois qui 
ont marqu6, il y a quatorze ans, la c616bra- 
tion du centenaire de I'illustre George Ste- 
phenson. 

« C*est avec une grande satisfaction et une 
confiance absolue que la conmiission com- 
men^a la preparation de la cinquidmc session. 
Elle ne tarda pas k trouver un grand allege - 
ment de sa tache dans le concours plein d'ini- 
tiative, de ddvouement et de g6n6rosit6 que 
lui apporta une section locale d'organisation 
constitute par TAssociation des compagnies 
de chemins de fer du Royaume-Uni et form6e 
de leurs repr6sentants pris parmi les plus 
autoris^. Cette section fut compl6t6e par 
radjouction d'un d6iegu6 du Board of Trade 



acclamation. It could not be otherwise, 
for, in fact, the proposal answered to the 
cherished desire of all the leading spirits of 
the Congress. Was it not natural that it 
should be the wish of all to meet one day in 
familiar intercoui'se in the country which has 
often been called the cradle of railways, and to 
which for nearly three-quarters of a century 
the engineers of the whole world have always 
been able to come and learn invaluable lessons 
both in the construction and in the working of 
railways? 

« And while I am reminded of the position 
which English engineers have aljvays held as 
pioneers, may I be allowed to allowed to add 
a few personal words? To me, who am a 
Belgian, and who owe to that fact the place of 
honour which has been conferred on me in the 
administration of a work which is Belgian 
both in its origin and in its permanent home, 
it is pleasant to remember on this memorable 
occasion how great was the debt owed to 
England by the statesmen and engineers who, 
under the guidance of a gi'eat king, whom 
Belgium reveres and whom England has not 
yet forgotten, undertook some sixty years 
back to endow Belgium with a complete sys- 
tem of railways. Belgium in gratitude joined 
with eagerness in the splendid, and at the fame 
time touching, demonstrations which fourteen 
years ago marked the celebration of the cen- 
tenary of the illustrious George Stephenson. 



u It was with great satisfaction and abso- 
lute confidence that the Commission began the 
preparations for the fifth session. The Com- 
mission at once found its task greatly light- 
ened by the energetic, unselfish, and generous 
support given by the local organising Com- 
mittee which was appointed by the English 
Railway Companies' Association, and com- 
posed of some of its most influential mem- 
bers. The local Committee was completed 
by a representative of the Board of Trade, and 
it appointed as its secretary the author of 



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et elle choisit conune secretaire Fauteor de 
publications sur Ics railways anglais et ^cos- 
sais qui sont honorablemeut connues dc tous 
les homines de chemins de fer. 

« Nons avons 6t6 heureux de voir plac^ k 
la tCte de la section locale un des membres 
Ics plus aim^ de la Commission pennanente, 
Tun de nos coop^rateurs de la premidre heure 
ct de tous les instants qui porte dignement un 
nom c^ldbre dans Thistoire de Tindustrie et 
de la science. 

« La Commission, mettant t profit les lemons 
dc rexp6rience et se conformant k des d^sirs 
qui ont 6te g6n6ralement manifesto, a res- 
trcint pins qu'on ne Tavait fait jusqu'ici le 
nombre des questions k d^battre au cours de 
la session. 

« Les discussions qui ont ^t^ pr^pardes par 
des rapports bien 6tudi6s, dus k des sp^cia- 
listes d'une competence 6prouv6e, pourront 
dds lors recevoir touto I'ampleur dont elles 
sont susceptibles. Elles foumiront, nous en 
nourrissons I'espoir, des contributions impor- 
tantes k la solution des probldmes nombreux 
et complexes que soul^Tcnt la construction et 
Texploitation des voies ferries. 

•« Au nombre des questions qui m6ritent 
le plus d'attirer I'attention, je citerai celles 
qui ont pour objet : 

« Le renforcement des voies ; 

« La construction des ponts m^talliques; 

- Les locomotives k grande vitesse; 
« La traction dlectrique; 

" Les signaux ; 

u Les manoeuvres et les manutentions dans 
Ics gares; 

» Le r^glement international des reclama- 
tions; 

" La generalisation du systeme decimal; 

»* Les facilites k accorder aux lignes k faible 
ti-afic; 

'• L'affermage des lignes secondaires. 

- Ainsi les assises de Londres auront et6 
largement fructueuses k regal de leurs devan- 



works on the Railways of England and Scot- 
land which eveiy railway man knows and 
values. 

« We rejoiced to see placed at the head of 
the Local Suction one of the most esteemed 
members of the permanent Committee, our 
earliest and most constant supporters, one 
who worthily upholds the dignity of a name 
famous in the history of industry and of 
science. 

u The Committee, profiting by the lesson of 
experience, and conforming to the wishes 
which have been generally expressed, has 
restricted the number of questions for dis- 
cussion on this occasion beyond what has been 
the case heretofore. 

« The carefully considered reports contri- 
buted by specialists of acknowledged compe- 
tence will accordingly receive the most ex- 
haustive discussion which their subject may 
require. They will furnish, we venture to 
hope, important contributions to the solution 
of numerous and complex problems which 
arise in the construction and woiidng of rail- 
ways. 

•« Among the questions which deserve spe- 
cial attention I will mention the following : — 

« The strengthening of the permanent way. 

« The construction of iron bridges. 

« Express locomotives. 

« Electric traction. 

•* Signals. 

« Methods of station working. 

« International rules for the settlement of 
disputes. 

a The universal adoption of the decimal 
system. 

« The relaxation of normal requirements 
f<Mr light railways. 

« Their working by leasing Companies. 

« Thus the London meeting will have been 
as fruitful as its predecessors in Brussels, 



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OPBNINO CSBBMONY. 



119 



cidres de BraxeUes, Milaa, Paris et Saint- 
P6ter&bourg» et nous aimous & pcnser qu'il 
nous sera pcrmis d'en clore le proc^verbal 
eu y inscrivant ce t^moignage : 

" Par dix annees d'efforts, de travaux 
poursuivis avec z6le, m6thode et perseverance, 
le Congr^s des chemins de fer a dement re 
sa raison d'etre et prouve sa vitality. II a sa 
place aujourd'hui marquee en bon rang 
panni les institutions qui servent utilement 
la cause du |H*ogr^ et de la civilisation ; il 
vivra. il est indestructible! *> 



Mr. Brycb, 

a AlTBSSB ROTALKy MTLORDS 
Ct BfBSSlBURS, 

** S. A. R. le prince de Galles a souliaite 
la bienvenue .aux d61^u<^ du Congr^ dans 
dcs termes dont la cordiality doit nous avoir 
tous frapp^. Ge n'est pas un mince honneur 
pour le Congress que Fh^ritier du trOne qui, 
j*ose le dire, s'ost toujours associ^ d'unc fa^on 
si intime pour le plus grand bien du pays ti 
toutes les entreprises et ^ toutes les solen- 
nit6s nationales, ait daign6 accepter d'etre le 
president d'honneur de cette session et dc, 
marquer, par sa presence, la sjmpathie qu'il 
porte a Tinstitution du Congr^. (Applaudis- 
semerUs,) Son Altesse Rojale a dit tout ce 
qu'il fallait dire pour exprimer les sentiments 
de sympathie et d'inter^ avec lesquels ceux 
qui, dans cc pays, out la conscience de la 
grande importance des questions de chemins 
de fer, prendront part a vos deliberations. 

•« Nous reconnaissons toot Tint^rdt et la 
valeur, pour nous-mi&mes et pour tous les 
pays» de reunions dc personnes de la plus 
baote competence qui viennent 6changer les 
r6sultats d'une exp^ience consomm^ acquise 
dans ks conditions les plus varices. 

<« Le v^itable art ot la vraie science sont 
toujours g^^reux. Ge qui distingue Thomme 



Milan, Paris and St. Petei^burg, and we 
venture to hope that in closing our report we 
shall be justified in writing this epitaph upo* 
it: — 

- By ten years of effort, of aealous, metho- 
dical and persevering work, the Railway 
Congress has justified its existence and proved 
its vitality. It has to^y a recognised and 
honoured position among those useful insti- 
tntions which serve the cause of progress aad 
civilisation; it will live; it is indestructible. » 



Mr. Brtce, 

« May it please youe Rotal Hiohnb8S, 
MT Lords, and Grntlbmbn, 

«« His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales 
has welcomed the delegates to this Congress 
in terms whose cordiality must have impres- 
sed you all. It is no slight honour to this 
Congress that the Heir to the Throne, who, 
if I may be permitted to say so, has so closely, 
and with so much benefit to the country, asso- 
ciated himself with all undertakings and occar 
sions of national interest, has honoured the 
Congress by becoming its honorary president, 
and given it the countenance of his presence 
and sympathy on this occasion. (Applause.) 
His Royal Highness has said all that need be 
said to express the sentiment of sympathy and 
interest with which those who in this country 
are aware of the great importance of railway 
questions view and will follow the delibera- 
tions of this Congress. 

•« We recognise not only the int^^ts but 
the value to ourselves, and to other countries 
not less, of gatherings of this nature gather- 
ings of experts, where the fullest knowledge 
is brought together, and where the results of 
the ripest experience gained under a variety 
of conditions are interchanged. 

" True science and true art are always gene- 
rous. The note of the scientific man, as well 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



scientifique aussi bien que I'artiste, qui s'est 
d6vou6 k son art parce qu'il Taime, c*est qu'il 
d^ire faire partager ies connaissances qu'il 
possSde pour augmcnter le fonds conunun et 
pour faire faire un pas en avant au progrds 
g6n6ral. 

« Aux d^l^u^s strangers qui sont ici i^unis 
j'ose dire — et j'ose le dire non seulement en 
mon nom personnel mais au nom de celui, 
quel qu'il soit, qui pourrait occuper la posi- 
tion de president du Board of Trade — que 
le gouvernement de Sa Majesty fera tous ses 
efforts pour rendre leur visite k la fois 
agr^able et int^ressante. (Trds bieti.) lis 
trouveront bien des choscs dignes d'attirer 
leur attention dans Ies chemins de fer de la 
Graude-Bretagne, bien qu'il ne soit pas dou- 
teux que la situation de nos railways ne soit 
relativement un peu moins importante qu'il 
y a trente ans, quand notre premiere 6re de la 
construction des chemins de fer tirait ^ sa fin. 
Nous avons donn6 le signal du depart et main- 
tenant on pent admettre quo nous avons ter- 
mini la construction ou presque termini la 
construction de nos grandes ligncs principales. 
D'apr^ Ies meilleurs chifires que j'ai pu 
obtenir, le capital total engage dans Ies che- 
mins de fer de la Grande Bretagne est de 
25 milliards de francs (1 ,000 millions de livres 
sterling), soit d'un sixitoe du capital total 
engage dans Ies chemins de fer du monde 
ontier. Le nombre de voyageurs transport's 
annuellement dans ce pays est, en chifires 
ronds, de 900 millions, le nombre de tonnes 
transporfes annuellement est de 330 millions 
(325 millions de tonnes anglaises), le nombre 
d'employ^s de chemins de fer est k peu pr^ 
de 400,000. Notre kilometrage total est seule- 
ment de 34,000 kUometres (21,000 milles). 
tandis que celui de toutes Ies possessions de 
Sa Majesty Britannique est de 113,000 kilo- 
metres (70,000 milles) et celui du monde 
entier est do 644,000 kilometres (400,000 
milles), dout k peu prds la moiti6 se rapporte 
aux Etats-Unis et k I'Amerique du Nord, 
comme vous I'a dit Son Altesse Royale. La 



as of the artist who follows his art because 
he loves it, is that of wishing to communicate 
the knowledge he possesses to enlarge the 
general store and to advance the general pro- 
gress. 

« To the Foreign delegates who are here pre- 
sent I will venture to say that so far as Her 
Majesty's Government can (and this I will 
venture to say on behalf of whoever may 
occupy the position of president of the Board 
of Trade) Her Majesty's Government will do 
its best to make their visit both pleasant and 
profitable. {Hear, hear,) They will find much 
that is interesting in British Railways, 
although no doubt the position of British 
Railways is relatively somewhat less impor- 
tant than it was 30 years ago, when our first 
great era of railway construction was drawing 
to its close. We had the start, and now we 
may be taken to have completed- the making, 
or nearly completed the making, of our great 
trunk lines. According to the best figures I 
have been able to obtain, the total capital 
invested in British Railways is about one 
thousand millions sterling (25,000,000,000 
francs) being about one sixth of the total 
capital invested in railways in the world. 
.The number of passengers carried, speaking 
again in round figures, annually in this 
country is 900,000,000 ; the number of tons 
carried annually is 325,000,000 (330,000,000 
metric tons); the number of the railway 
employes is about 400,000. Our total mileage 
however is only 21,000 miles (34,000 kilo- 
metres) as against 70,000 miles (1 13,000 ki- 
lometres) in the whole of Her Majesty's Domi- 
nions, and as against 400,000 miles (644,000 
kilometres) in the world at large nearly one 
half of which, as your Royal Highness has 
submitted, is to be found in the United States 
and North America. Britain is a compara- 
tively small area, and our lines are short if 
they be compared with some of the great lines 
of Russia, or that great Canadian Pacific lino 
which nearly reaches 3,000 miles (4,800 kilo- 



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OPENING CEREMONY. 



121 



Qrande-Bretagne est un pays comparative- 
ment petit et nos lignes sont peu 6tendaes si 
on les compare k quelques-unes des grandes 
lignes de la Russie ou au Grand Canadian 
Pacific, qui atteint presque 4,800 kilometres 
(3,000 milles). C^>endant nous pouvons mon- 
trer ici k nos visiteurs Grangers quelque 
chose qui sera plein d'int^r^ pour eux ; nous 
pouvons Icur montrer des travaux de g6nie 
remarquables, tels que le grand pont du 
Forth et Ic tunnel de la Severn ; nous pouvons 
leur montrer un service des trains singuMre- 
mont complet et bien organist, qui donne des 
facility qui ne sont donn6es nulle part k une 
population tr^ dense et qui, j'ose Taffirmer, 
combine la vitesse et la s6curit6 a un degr6 
qui n'a pas 6t6 atteint jusqu'ici. Et je n'omet- 
trai pas de remarquer, k propos de la s^u- 
rit6, que dans ce pays le gouvemement et les 
compagnies de chemins de fer se sont beau- 
coup occupy de la question de la s6curit6 
du personnel des chemins de fer et que nous 
esp^rons que cette question qui, sans aucun 
doute, a toutes les sympathies ^trang^res, 
comme elle a la sympathie de la Grande-Bre- 
tagne, aura une place dans vos discussions. 
« Si nous avons beaucoup de choses k vous 
montrer, nous avons aussi bien des choses k 
apprendre de nos visiteurs strangers. Des 
systSmes divers d'exploitation sont repr^sent^s 
ici. 1-41 France, pareiemple, bieA que la plu- 
part de ses chemins de fer soient dans les 
mains de compagnies privies, a vu son gou- 
vemement prendre une part active dans les 
progr^ de ses chemins de fer. En Russie, 
Texploitation des chemins de fer appartient 
presque enti^rement k I'Etat. En Italic, les 
chemins de fer ont 6t6 affermds par I'Etat et 
ferment des entreprises privt^. L'Autriche- 
Hongiie a essayd les deux syst^mes et sera 
capable de nous donner des renseignements 
pr6cieux sur leurs resultats. 

- D'un autre c6t6, laBelgique, aussi bien que 
la France et Tltalie, pourront nous enseigner 
beaucoup de choses hautement int6ressantes 
et importantes relativement k la question k 



metres). Nevertheless we can show our 
foreign visitors something here which will be 
full of interest to them. We can show them 
remarkable engineering works, such as the 
great Forth Bridge and the Severn Tunnel ; 
we can show them a sing^arly complete and 
highly organised service of trains which gives 
facilities not elsewhere given for a very 
dense population, and which I think I may 
say combines speed with safety in a manner 
hitherto unprecedented. And I will not omit 
to notice, apropos of the question of safety, 
that in this country we have been much occu- 
pied, both the Government and the Railway 
Companies, with the question of the safety 
of the railway work people, and that we hope 
that that question which I have no doubt 
engages foreign sympathy, as well as it does 
British sympathy, will find a place among 
your deliberations. 



« If we have much to show, we have also, 
gentlemen, much to learn from our foreign 
visitors. Various systems of railway manage- 
ment are represented here. France, for 
instance, although most of her railways are in 
the hands of private companies, has seen her 
government take a very active share in the 
work of railway development. In Russia, the 
railway management nearly entirely belongs 
to the State. In Italy, the railways have been 
leased by the State as private undertakings. 
Austria-Hungary is trying both schemes and 
will be able to give us valuable information as 
to their results. 



« On the other hand from Belgium, as well 
as from France and Italy, we may leani 
much that is highly interesting and important 
upon the question to which your Royal 



I 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



laquelle Voire Altesse royale a fait allosion^ 
celle de^la construction et dc rexploitatioa 
economiques des chemins dc for lagers, les- 
quels poftrront non seolement donner quelqae 
aide a ragriculture, mais aussi faire quelque 
chose pour activer la vie dans nos villages et 
pour essayer d'introduire dans les bourgs et 
les distiicts ruraux de uotrc pajs quelques- 
unes des industries actuellement trop concen- 
tr6es dans nos grandes villes. La Suisse, avec 
son bureau international de chemins de fer 
qui prononce des s^itences sur les litiges 
entre les chemins de fer^ pourra nous donner 
un ezanple de la mani^re dont une institution 
de cette esp^ce pourrait fonctionner dans un 
but plus industriel et plus commercial. Non 
seulement les Etats-Unis pourront nous cnsei- 
gner beaucoup de choscs utiles, en ce qui con- 
ceme la traction 61ectrique, qui j a atteint, 
je pense, un phis grand developpement que 
partout autre part de ce cOte dc I'Atlantique, 
mais nous aurons aussi beaucoup de rensei- 
gnements int^ressants k obteiiir des hommes 
qui sont k la te^te de ces grands reseaux de 
chemins de fer qui traversent, sur plus de la 
moitie de sa profondeur, le grand continent 
et qui ont des relations fr^quentes et souvent si 
d^licates avec les autorites civiles des districts 
qu'ils parcourent et sur la prosp6rite desquels 
ils ont une influence si directe. Quelques-unes 
de ces questions, Votre Altesse Rojale et vous, 
messieurs, vous ne les trouverez point k I'ordre 
du jour du Congr^s; cependant, elles sont, je 
pense, pleines d'inter^t pour nous et nous pro- 
fiterons dc Toccasion que nous donne la pr6- 
sence des d6l6gu6s strangers pour apprendrc 
quelque chose sous ce rapport. Nous profite- 
rons de Toccasion que nous donne la reunion 
de tant de gens capables et experiment's pour 
nous faire ouvrir les tr6sors de renseigne- 
ments que chaque contree pent nous appor- 
ter. 

« Ce que les chemins ont fait a la fois pour 
les convenances privees et le plaisir de chacun 
de nous, ainsi que i»our la prosperity com- 
merciale de nos pays respectifs, mes paroles 



Highness has referred, — the question ot 
cheaper construction and the woriLing of 
lig^ railways, which may not only give 
some measure oi aid to agricultarc but nay 
also do something to quicken life in our Til- 
lages, and to endeavour to bring some of 
the industries, now too much concentrated 
in great towns, into the villages and rural 
districts of our country. Switzerland again 
with its lutemational Railway Bureau, which 
is engaged in the settlement of railway con- 
troversies, may give us an example of how an 
international system of that kind may be 
worked in a wider industrial and commercial 
field. From the United States we may learn, 
not only a great deal that is valuable with 
regard to electric traction, which has been 
carried to a higher point there I think than 
anywhere on this side of the Atlantic, bat we 
shall also have many interesting data from the 
gentlemen who are in control of those great 
railway systems which stretch more tinn half 
way across the great continent, and which 
are brought into frequent and scmietimes very 
delicate relation with die civil authorities of 
the districts they traverse, and whose pros- 
perity they so materially affect. Some of these 
topics, your Royal Highness and genUemcHi. 
will not be found in the Agenda of the Con 
gress ; nevertheless they are, I think, full of 
instruction for us, and we shall value the 
opportunity which the presence <rf foreign 
delegates will give us of learning something 
about them ; we shall value the opportunity 
which the meeting of so many capable and 
experienced men affords of learning what 
stores of knowledge eadi country has to con- 
tribute. 



« How much railways have done both for the 
private convenience and pleasure of all of us, 
and for the commercial prosperity of our res- 
pet^tive countries, it needs no words of mine to 



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OPSNING GBKEMONY. 



123 



sendent insufBsantes pour le dire, maU 
j'aurais voulu, si poesiblc, m*6tendre un peu 
8ur les r^sultAts futurs du d6veloppement des 
ciiemins de fer. Le sujet cepend&nt est trop 
vaste. L'accroissement de mojens de commu- 
uication par terre, qui sont d^ja rapidcs et 
6conoiniques, ont chang6 toutes les traditions 
du commerce, de la politique et de la civilisa- 
tion sous toute& ses formes. II y a un vers d'un 
fameux po^te axKuen qui m'a frapp^ et dans le- 
quel il est question des fils du dieu du feu qui, 
eu errant des routi^^, ont dompt6 la terre ; et 
nous pouvons dire, messieurs, que dans la 
d^midre moiti6 de cc sitele les routes de fer et 
les enfants du dieu du feu out change la face 
de la terre. Ik ont cr66 un ^orme d^veloppe- 
ment du trafic et non seulement du toafic par 
terre, mais aussi du trafic maritime; car en 
apportant k bon march6 les mati^res pre- 
mieres et les objets manufacture au bord de 
fat mer, ils ont accru immensemcnt le develop- 
pement des transports par eau. lis ont permis 
aux peuples civilises de connaltre beaucoup 
mieux qu'ils ne pouvaient le faire auparavant, 
les caradSres et los mceurs les uns des autres 
et de prouver plus compldtement comment le 
bien-^tre de chacun est li6 au bien-6tre de 
tous. Dans llnde, ils ont fait beaucoup, ils 
font et ils feront encore davantage pour 
efl&cer ces distinctions de caste qui y etaicnt 
devenucs plus fortes que les diffei'ences de 
nationality en Europe. lis ont ouvert TAfrique 
qui 6tait, il j a peu de temps, inexploree et 
inconnue ; ils p^n^rent dans les deserts de 
I'Asie; ils ont rendu le monde entier d'au- 
jourd'hoi ▼irtuellement plus 6troit que celui 
que connaiflsaient nos anc^tres il y a vingt 
ana. 

t Votre Altesse Royale et vous, messieurs, 
vous tronverez ces rSsultats bien vastes et il y 
en a que Ton ne pent encore apcrcevoir qu'i 
moitie paroe que nous ne pouvons les perce- 
voir que comma un mirage k travers les brouil- 
lards dfi Taveiiir; mais ils ajoutcnt de la 
dignity et de Timportance m^me k ces details 
de Tart de Ting^nieur et de la conduite du 



say. But I should have liked, had it been 
possible, to dwell a little upon the wider and 
further results of railway extension, — the 
subject, however, is too vast. The growth 
of a means ol land communication which is 
at once rapid and cheap has changed all the 
traditions of conunerce, of politics of govern- 
ment, and I may say, of civilisation in all its 
forms. There is a striking line in a famous 
ancient poet in which he speaks of the sons of 
the Fii^ God who in making roads have made 
the wild earth tame; and we may say 
gentlemen, that within the last half cemury 
iron roads and the children of the Fire God 
have changed the face of our earth. They 
have induced an enormous development of 
trade, and not only of land trade but of ocean 
trade also ; for the cheap bringing of the pro- 
ducts and of manufactures to the sea board 
has inmiensely increased the development of 
water carriage also. They have enabled the 
civilised Peoples to know, far better than 
they previously could, the characters and 
habits of life of one another, and to realise 
more fully how the welfare of each is bound 
up with the welfare of all. In India they 
have done much, and are doing, and will do, 
still more to break down those distinctions of 
caste which there have been even stronger 
than the differences of nationality in Europe. 
They are opening up Africa, so lately unexplo- 
red and unknown; they are penetrating the 
deserts of Asia ; they are making the whole 
great world of our time virtually smaller than 
that little world which our ancestors knew 
20 centuries ago. 



•» These, your Royal Highness and Geji- 
tlemen, ai*e vast results; they are results 
which are still only half perceived as they 
loom on as through the mists of the future : 
but they add dignity and importance even 
to those details of engineering and traffic 
management with which the sections of this 
Congress will be concerned; and they make 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



tralic dont les sections du Congr^ auront k 
s'occuper ot ils nous font percevoir quellcs 
consequences immenses ct d'une port6e consi- 
derable peuvent avoir dans les sidcles k venir 
les eflforts que vous faites et les efforts qui 
«eront faits par cette vaste armee de travail- 
leurs du chemin de fer du monde entier que 
les membres du Congrt^ repr6sentent. 

•* Messieurs, je n'ajouterai qu'un seul mot. 
-Ces grands r6sultats que nous pr6voyons nous 
-font admirer votre habilet6 et votre 6nergie ; 
ils nous associent intimement k vos vis6es et k 
vos aspirations. lis nous donnent d'autant plus 
de raison de nous r6jouir de vous voir parmi 
nous dans la capitale de Tempire britannique, 
•et de vous souhaiter de tout notre coeur le 
succ^s et la prosperity de votre oeuvre. « (Ap- 
jalaudissements,) 

(S. A, R.le prince de Galles se retire avec 
sa suite; VassembUe, debout, Vaccompagne 
de ses applavdissements dans tm mouvement 
unanime de respectueuse sympatkie.) 

Quelques instants apr^s, la stance est re- 
jprise sous lapr^idence de Mr. Dubois. 



Mr. Dubois propose la nomination de Lord 
Stalbridge conmie president et de Sir Henry 
Oakley comme secretaire general de la ses- 
sion. [Acclamations.) 

[Lord Stalbridge, accompagnd de Sir Semy 
Oakley, prend place au bureau.) 

Lord Stalbridge. — « Messieurs, je ne 
veux pas abuser de vos moments, car apres 
les eioquents discours de S. A. R. le prince 
-de Galles et du president du « Board of Trade « , 
il me reste peu de chose k vous dire, si ce n*est 
de vous souhaiter la bienvenue au nom des 
chemins de fer anglais. Dejd. ils Tout fait, Tun 
<:omme occupant le rang le plus eieve dans ce 
pays, et le president du Board of Trade au 
nom du gouvemement. C'est au nom d'un 
interet prive que les Compagnies de chemins 



us feel what immense and for reaching ('>onso- 
quences may in the centuries to come hang 
upon the efforts you are making, and hang 
also upon those which are being made by that 
vast army of railway workers throughout the 
world whom the delegates here present repre- 
sent. 

« Gentlemen, I will say only one word 
more. While these consequences which we 
foresee lead us to admire your skill and your 
energy, they associate us very closely with 
your aims and your aspirations, and give us 
further reasons for rejoicing to see you here 
among us in the capital of the British Empire, 
and for wishing, as we heartily wish to-day, 
success and prosperity to your labours. » [Ap- 
plause.) 

[H. R. H. the Prince of Wales left the 
Hall amidst applause^ accompanied by his 
suite, all present tisitig.) 

A few minutes afterwards the proceedings 
were continued u/ider the presidency of 
Mr. Dubois. 

Mr. Dubois proposed the nomination of 
Lord Stalbridge as acting president, and of 
Sir Henry Oakley as general secretary of the 
session. [Check's.) 

[Lord StalbHdge took the chair, accompa- 
nied by Sir Eenry Oakley.) 

Lord Stalbridge. — « Gentlemen, — 
I will detain you but a very few moments, for 
after the eloquent speeches of his Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales and the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, to which you have 
just listened, little remains for me to say, ex- 
cept to welcome you on behalf of the railway 
companies of this country. You are assured 
of your welcome from those two gentlemen 
— the highest in the land and the President 
of the Board of Trade as representing the 



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128^ 



de fer le font k leur tour, de tout coeur, k 
votrc aniv6e a Londres. 



« Je sais que ce n'est pas k mes qualit^s per- 
sonnelles que je dois Thonueur d'occuper le 
poste 61ev6 que vous avez hien voulu me con- 
fer aujourd'hui, mais parce que j'ai 6t6 choisi 
par mes collegues comme repr^sentant un 
chemin de fer que j'ose appcler Tun des pre- 
miers du pays, siuon du monde eutier. 

« Mes pr6d6cesseurs, dans ce fauteuil, ont 
toujours 6t6 des hommes renommes pour des 
connaissances techniques plus ^tendues que 
je ne puis pr6tendre poss6der; leurs noms sont 
bien connus dans les annales de I'exploitation 
des chemins defer; mais, comme vous le savez 
bien, en Angleterre les administrateurs de 
chemins de fer ne sont pas choisis k cause de 
lours connaissances des details techniques, 
mais pour d'autres raisons. Pour les details 
techniques de I'exploitation des railways, 
nous nous reposons sur ces hommes habiles, 
experts dans la profession, sur lesquels nous 
devons nous reposer et qui sont capables de 
nous assister, et auxquels nous confions 
Texploitation technique du r^seau entier. 
C'est sur leur intelligence et leur 6nergie 
que nous nous reposons, et j'ai la confiance 
que dans les visites et dans les excur- 
sions que vous allez faire, vous pourrez 
juger par vous-m6mes de leur talent et de 
leur habilet6; car vous pouvez 6tre assures 
d'une chose, c'est que rien ne sera n6glig6 
par les compagnies de chemins de fer pour 
faire votre s6jour dans cette ile aussi intdres- 
sant et aussi agr^able que possible. (Applau- 
dissemefits.) Vous ne devez pas nous en vou- 
loir si le temps n'est pas parfait, parce 
que, comme vous le savez, I'Angleterre est 
proverbiale pour I'inconstance de son climat. 
En ce moment, nous avons certainement du 
beau temps, et je crains que dans ce bfttiment 
vous ne trouviez qu'il ne r^ne une chaleur un 
peu plus forte que cello k laquelle beaucoup 



Government — and the railways companies,, 
as being in this country a private interest, now 
welcome you most heartily on this your first 
appearance in London. 

« I feel that the honourable position in which 
you have been good enough to place me to- 
day is not owing to any special knowledge or 
ability of my ovna, but it is in consequence of 
my having been elected by my colleagues to 
take the chair of one which I think I may 
modestly call, at least one of the leading rail- 
ways of this country, if not of the world. 

« My predecessors in this chair have always- 
been famous for more technical knowledge 
than I can pretend to possess; their names 
are well known in the annals of railway 
working ; but, as you are very well aware, in 
England directors are not chosen on account 
of their knowledge of technical details, but 
they are chosen for other reasons. For the 
technical details in the working of the rail- 
way we depend upon those able gentlemen 
experts in the profession on whom we must 
depend, and to whom we look for the actual 
technical working of the whole line. It is 
upon their skill and energy that we depend, 
and I trust that in the visits and excursions 
you will shortly make you will be able to 
judge for yourselves of their skill and ability ; 
for you may rest assured of this : that nothing 
shall be wanting on the part of the railway 
companies to make your stay in this Island as 
interesting and as agreeable as possible. [Ap- . 
plctuse, ) You must not blame us if the weather - 
is not perfect, because, as you are aware,. 
England is proverbial for the fickleness of her 
climate. At present we are having certainly 
fine weather, and I am afraid that in this 
building you may feel it a little warmer than 
even some of you, gentlemen, are accustomed 
to; but still I trust that the weather will be 
such as to render your excursions over our 
country agreeable and pleasant. 



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de Yous, messieurs, no sont acoootum^s ; 
j'esp^re, cependant, que le temps sera tel 
qu'il rendra vos excursions ^ travers Ic pays 
agr^ables et amusantes. 

« Comme vous Fa tr^ bien dit Mr. Bryce, 
nous sommes fiers d*avoir 6t6 le berceau de 
la locomotive ; car je pense qu'il est univer- 
sellement admis que George Stephenson, s'il 
n'a fait aucune decouverte remarquable, a 6t6 
le premier k adapter la vapeur aux besoins 
de la locomotive, si Ton peut s'exprimer ainsi, 
et Ton nous pardonnera de tirer quelque 
fiert6 de ce que ce don fait ^ la civilisation 
soit dCl k I'esprit inventif d'un Anglais ; mais 
les Anglais se r^jouissent surtout de ce que ces 
r6sultats bienfaisants ne sont pas rest^s con- 
fin^ dans leurs lies, et de ce que le monde 
civilis6 tout entier a profits des fruits de son 
g6nie, de son 6nergie et de sa perseverance, en 
presence des grandes difficult6s de I'^poque. 
Maintenant, bcauceup de nos amis strangers 
admireront, j'ose le dire, la haute pression k 
laquelle les railways anglais sont tou jours 
exploites. S'il est une chose que les Anglais 
voudraient pouvoir faire et ne peuvent faire, 
c'est de femier les portes d*une station cinq 
ou dix minutes avant le depart du train, ce 
qui est une coutume trds fr6quente k T^tran- 
ger; mais vous verrez les gens arriver a la 
gare au dernier moment avant I'heure du 
depart reglementaire, avec leurs bagages et 
tout le restc; toutefois, I'habitude et I'habilete 
de nos employes permettent de faire face ^cela 
et je pense que vous serez surpris de la pono- 
tualite avec laquelle nos trains les plus char- 
ges quittent leur point de depart dans la me- 
tropole et dans les autres grandes villes k 
rheure reglementaire. 

« Je voudrais vous exposer quelques faits 
relatifs aux chemins de fer anglais et que 
Mr. Bryce n'a fait qu'efflcurer. Je voudrais 
etablir une comparaison et je suis a memo de 
le faire avec les resultats d'il y a cinquante 
ans. Cette comparaison entre 1843 et 1893 
merite bien d'attirer quelques instants votre 
attention. Mr. Bryce a dit que Ic nombrc de 



u Now, as Mr. Bryce has truly said, we pride 
ourselves upon being the home of the locomo- 
tive; for I think it is universally admitted 
that George Stephenson was the one man wbo 
without making any remarkable discovery, if 
one may say so, was the one to adapt steam 
for locomotive purposes; and it is a pardon- 
able pride with us that this boon to civilisa- 
tion sprang from the brain of an Englishman . 
But Englishmen rejoice in the knowledge that 
its beneficent results are not confined to these 
Islands, but that the whole civilised world 
has shared in the fruits of his genius, energy, 
and perseverance, in the face of great difficul- 
ties at the time. Now many of our foreign 
friends will I dare say admire the high pres- 
sure at which English railways are always 
worked. If there is one thing more than 
another that Englishmen would like to do and 
cannot do, it is to shut the doors of a station 
five or ten minutes before the train leaves, 
which is very frequently the habit abroad; but 
you will see people come up to the station at 
the very moment before the train is advertised 
to leave, with their baggage and everything 
else ; but habit and custom and the skill of 
our employes is enabled to deal with that, 
and I think you will be surprised at the 
punctuality with which our heavily loaded 
trains leave the termini and stations in the 
Metropolis and other large towns at the 
advertised moment. 



« I should like to lay before you a few facts 
on which Mr. Bryce touched lightly with 
regard to English Railways. And I would 
just compare them, and I am enabled to do so, 
with what was the result exactly 50 years ago . 
The comparisons between 1843 and 1893 are 
well worthy of your attention for a few mo- 
ments. Mr. Bryce said that the number of 



^, 



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iil 



voyageups da Royaume-Uni est i peu pr6s de 
900 miUions, mais il a compl^cment oubli^ 
qu*^ c6t6 de ces 900 millions de voyageors, 11 
n'y a pas moins de 1,574,000 cartes d'abon- 
nement finises pour des parties plus ou moins 
longues de Tannte, chacune desquelles, 
d'aprds notre estimation, est employee en 
moyenne 250 k 300 fois ; de telle sorte que 
si vous voulez bien multiplier 1,574,000 
par 250 et ajouter le rfesultat aux 900 mil- 
lions, vous aurez une id^ r6elle du nombre 
de voyageurs que nous transportons dans ce 
pays. (Applaudissements.) 

u Lcs recettes du trafic des voyageurs se sont 
(deviyes k 757,925,000 francs {£ 30,317,000); 
le tonnage des marcbandises (je parie de Tan- 
nde 1893) s'est 61ev6 k 298 millions de tonnes 
(293,290,000 tonnes anglaisos), avec une re- 
oetU'. do 1 ,024,850.000 francs (£ 40,994,000); 
vous voyez ainsi que notrc trafic des marcban- 
dises rapporte k peu pr^ 250 millions de 
francs (£ 10 millions) de plus que notre 
trafic des voyageurs. Les recettes totales des 
chemins de fer du Royaumo-Uni, y compris 
les rentes et les recettes diverges, se sont 
6lev6es il 2.015,797,300 francs (£80,631,892) 
ct les d^penses d'exploitation (Hit atteint 
1,142,377,975 francs (£ 45,695,119), ou 
57 p. c. des recettes totales; la difference, 
repr^s^itant la recette nette, s'est §lev6e k 
873,419,325 francs (£ 34,936,773), ce qui 
e^:^t suffisant pour payer en moyenne un 
int^rdt annuel de 3.59 p. c. da capital. Le 
nombre total de kilometres parcourus par 
les trains dans le Royaumo-Uni a 6t6 de 
519.452,460 (322.841 ,802 miUes) et le nombre 
total de machines poss^dd par les differentes 
ccmipagnies dtait de 18,032. de telle sdrto que 
diaqoe machine a parcouru en moyenne 
29,806 kilomdtres (17,903 milled dans Tan- 
ode ; OQ peat dire aussi que si Vtm additknme 
los parcours effectu6s par toutes lcs machtnes 
CQ quarante minutes on obtient un parcours 
total dgal au tour du monde. Ce sont des 
chifires considerables, mais ils sont insigni- 
fiant£ si nous les comparons k ceux des che- 



passengers in the United Kingdom was some 
thing like 900,000,000 but there he totally for- 
got that besides those 900,000,000 passengers 
there were no less than 1,574,000 season 
tickets issued for varying periods during the 
year, each of which vras, according to our 
computation, used between 2o0 and 300 
times; so that if you will kindly multiply 
1,574,000 by 250, and add that to the 
900,000,000 you wiU then have a real idea 
of the number of passengers that we do carry 
in this country. (Applause ) 

u The recoi pts for passenger trafiic amounted 
to £ 30,317,000 (757,925,000 francs); the ton- 
nage of goods and mineral traffic (I am speak- 
ing of the year 1893)amounted to 293,290,000 
tons (298,000,000 metric tons), the receipts 
from which amounted to £ 40,994,000 (1,024 
millions 85(»,000 francs) ; so that you will see 
that our goods traffic brings in more by some 
£ 10.000,000 (250.000,000 francs) than our 
passenger traffic in this country. The total 
receipts of the railways in the United King 
dom. including rents and other items amounted 
toJB 80,631,892 (2,015,797,300 francs) and 
the working expenditure came to £ 45,695, 119 
(1,142,377,075 francs) or 57 per cent of the 
total receipts. The balance representing the 
net profit amounted to £ 34,936,773 (873 mil- 
lions 419,325 francs), or sufficient to pay on 
an average 3 59 per cent per annum on the 
paid up capital. The total niunber of miles 
travelled by trains in the United Kingdom 
was 322,841,802 (519,452,460 kilometres); 
and the total number of engines possessed by 
the various companies was 18,032 so that 
each engine ran on the avei*age 17,903 miles 
(29,806 kilometres) in the year. Taking the 
whole of the engines collectively it may be 
said that they run once round the world in 
every forty minutes. Those arc large 
figures, but if we look at the nulways of the 
civilised world, why those figures are absolu- 
tely dwai'fod. Some three or four years ago 
it was oomputed that the amount of money 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



mins de fer du monde civilis^. On a calculi, 
il y a trois ou quatre ans, que le capital engag6 
dans les chemins de fer du monde 6tait appro- 
ximativement de 150,000 millionB de francs 
(6,000 millions sterling), et que les recettes 
de I'exploitation 6taient k peu prds do 
12,500 millions de francs (500 millions ster- 
ling) par an. Le total du kilom6trage dcs 
railways du monde nous a 6t6 donn6 par 
Mr. Bryce ; je ne vous en rcparlerai done plus, 
mais il y a un fait curieux, c'cst qu'il y a 
dans le monde environ 120,000 locomotives 
en feu, et si Ton peut admettre que chacune 
d'dlles parcourt en moyenne 32,180 kilo- 
metres (20,000 milles) par an, nous obtien- 
drons un parcours de 3,861,600,000 kilo- 
metres (2,400,000,000 milles) par an, soit 
vingt-six fois la distance entre la terre et le 
soleil. Ces chiflfres sont absolument trop 
grands pour que I'intelligcnce humaine 
puisse les saisir. Mais on doit s'6merveiller 
que tout ce d6veloppement de I'industrie des 
chemins de fer a et6 Toeuvre d'unc seule gene- 
ration, car c'est un fait peu douteux qu'il y a 
encore beaucoup de personnos qui peuvent se 
souvenir d'avoir voyage en coche ou en dili- 
gence avant I'existence des cliemins de fer. 
L*un des vice-presidents du London and 
North Western Railway, Mr.Cawkwell, avait 
23 ans lorsque le chemin de fer de Liverpool 
t Manchester, le premier railway ouvert au 
transport public des voyageurs, fut inaugur6 
en 1830. Mais il y a un autre sujet auquel 
Mr. Bryce a fait allusion et sur lequel jo vou- 
drais vous donner quelques chiflfres, et, s*il y 
a un sujet et s'il est un motif pour lequel les 
hommes qui sont charges de I'exploitation des 
chemins de fer en Europe ou au dehors 
peuvent s'adresser de legitimes congratula- 
tions, c'est que grftce au genie inventif de 
leurs ingenieurs et t la multiplication des 
appareils de signaux et d'enclenchements 
construits dans un but de s6curite, les acci- 
dents qui ont coOte la vie k des voyageurs sur 
les chemins de fer ont ete, dans les demieres 
annees, reduits prcsque au minimum. 



invested in the railways of the world was 
approximately six thousand millions sterling 
(150,000 millions of francs), and that the traf- 
fic receipts were nearly five hundred millions 
sterling (12,500 millions of francs) per an- 
num. The total mileage of the railways of 
the world Mr. Bryce has given you, so I will 
not go over that again ; but this is a curious 
fact : that there are in the world about 
120,000 locomotive engines in steam, and if it 
may. be assumed that each of those runs on 
the average 20,000 miles (32,180 kilometres) 
in the year we shall get a train mileage of 
about 2,400,000,000 of miles (3,871,600,000 
kilometres) in the year, or 26 times the dis- 
tance between the Earth and the sun. These 
figures are almost too vast for the human 
intellect to grasp ; but the most marvellous 
reflection is, that all this development of rail- 
way enterprise has been the work of a single 
generation ; for it is an undoubted fact that 
there are many persons living who can remem- 
ber travelling by coach or stage wagon before 
the railways existed. One of rhe Deputy 
Chairmen of the London and North Western 
Railway, Mr. Cawkwell, was twenty-three 
years of age when the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway, the first public passenger 
railway made, was opened for traflSc in 1830. 
But there is another subject to which Mr. Bryco 
alluded, and on which I should just like to 
give you a very few figures, and that is, that 
it there is one legitimate subject of congratu- 
lation amongst those who are responsible for 
the working of railways whether in Europe 
or abroad, it is, that owing to the inventive 
genius of their engineers, and the multiplica- 
tion of the signalling and interlocking ap- 
pliances designed for safety, the loss of life 
amongst passengers travelling by railway has 
been reduced in recent years to almost a 
minimum. 



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« Dans Tannde 1870, sur les chemins de fer 
du Royaume-Unt, il a 6t6 tu6 un voyageur 
sur 4,700,000 et il a 6t6 bless6 un voyageur 
sur 280,000 par des accidents de trains; 
en 1893, malgr6 le grand accrolssement de la 
Vitesse des trains et rencombrement plus 
grand des chemins de fer provenant de I'aug- 
mentation du trafic, il n'a 6t6 tu6 qu'un voya- 
geur sur 8,237,000 — c*est-i-dire k peu prte 
la moiti6 — et il n*a 616 bless^ qu'un voya- 
geur sur 715,000. II est done un fait que, s'il 
faut en juger seulement par la statistique, 1^ 
oH un homme est le plus en s{lret6, c'est dans 
une voiture d'un train express. 

« Mainteuant, messieurs, je vais enfin arri- 
ver k la comparaison promise. Cinquante ans 
auparavant, en 1843, treize ans apr^s Tou- 
verture du premier chemin de fer public, 
les recettes de Texploitation des chemins do 
fer du Royaume-Uni, au lieu d'etre de plus 
de. 2,000 millions de francs (80 millions ster- 
ling), comme en 1893, 6taient seulement de 
112 1/2 millions de francs (4 1/2 millions 
sterling) k pcu pres. Le nombre de tonnes 
transportdes n'^tait pas not6 t cette 6poque, 
mais le nombre de voyageurs 6tait d'enviix)n 
23 1/2 millions. Le capital d6pens6 pour tons 
les chemins de fer ouverts au trafic k cette 6po- 
•que etaitde 1,637,500,000 francs (65,500,000 
sterling), et le kilom^trage des chemins de 
fer, qui s'eldve aujourd'hui a 32,200 kilo- 
metres (20,000 milles), 6tait aloi^ de moins 
de 3,220 kilometres (2,000 milles). 

« Telle est la comparaison rapide qu'il m'a 
6t6 possible de vous donner pour la deruiere 
p^riode de cinquante ans ; mais qui pent pre- 
voir cc que Thomme qui aura I'honncur 
d'occuper dans cinquante ans le poste que j'ai 
en ce moment, sera mis i m^mc dc vous dire? 
Prendra-t-il un ballon pour quitter son fau- 
teuil ou montera-t-il dans un train marchant 
k la Vitesse de 240 kilometres (150 milles) k 
rheure et quel seraie moteur futur du monde? 
Actuellement, pour autant que les ing6nieurs 
puissent le dire, I'eiectricite semble destin^e 
a, jouer un r6le trds important sous ce rapport; 



« In the year 1870 on the railways of the 
United Kingdom, 1 passenger in about 
4,700,000 was killed, and 1 in about 
280,000 was injured by accidents to trains; 
but in 1893, notwithstanding the great 
increase in the speed of the trains, and the 
more crowded state of the railways arising 
from the growth of traffic, only 1 passenger in 
every 8,237,000 was killed — that is, nearly 
half what it was before — and 1 in 715,000 was 
injured. It is a fact that, judging from sta- 
tistics alone, the safest place that a man can 
be in is in a carriage on an express train. 

« Now, gentlemen,I would just give you this 
comparison : that just 50 years Jigo, in 1843, 
thirteen years after the opening of the first 
public railway, the total traffic receipts on the 
railways of the United Kingdom instead of 
being more than eighty millions sterling 
(2,000 millions of francs), as they were in 
1893, were only about four and a half millions 
(112 1/2 millions of francs). The number of 
tons carried was not at that time recorded, 
but the number of passengers carried was 
about 23 1/2 millions — the paid up capital of 
all the railways at that time opened for traffic 
was 65 1/2 millions sterling (1,637,500,000 
francs) and the mileage of the railways which 
has now grown to 20,000 miles (32,200 kilo- 
metres) was then less than 2,003 miles 
(3,100 kilometres). 

u Such is the short comparison Iliave been 
able to give you for the last 50 years ; but 
who can tell what the gentleman who will 
occupy the honourable position, which I at 
this moment hold, 50 years hence will be 
enabled to say ? Will he take a balloon then 
to leave this place, or will he go on the rails 
at the rate of 150 miles (240 kilometres) 
an hour, or what will be the future motor 
of the w^orld ? At present, so for as engi- 
neei's can say, electricity seems to be bound 
to play a very important part with regard 
to that; but with regard to that, what is to 

9 



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OUVERTURE SOLENNELLE. 



mais k ce propos, quelle sera la force motrice, 
si vous me permettez d'employcr co mot, qui 
produira r^leotricite ? Sera-ce encore Ic char- 
bon ? Nous constatons que la consommation du 
charbon dans ce pays s'accroit avec une 
grande rapidity. Je trouve qu'en 1854, qui est 
la premidre ann6e pour laquellc on ait recueilli 
des statistiqucs completes k oo sujet, Textrac- 
tion totale du charbon dans le Royaume-Uni 
6tait de 65,696,000 tonnes (04, 66 1,000 tonnes 
anglaiscs). En 1893, I'ex tract ion totale a 6t6 
de 166,954,000 tonnes (164,325,000 tonnes 
anglaises). Eh bicn, je suis heinxiux de vous 
dire que nous ne sommes pas inquiets en ce 
moment do la diminution de nos gisements de 
charbon ; il n'cst point douteux que dans les 
pays qui ont dt6 ouverts rt'x*emment, — je fais 
plus particuliOrement allusion au Japon, — 
de vastes mines de charbon ont et6 trouvees, 
et au fur ot a mesuro que le monde s'onvrira 
davantage, on d(^couvrira qu'il y a encore des 
d6p^>ts ignoi'os de charbon, qui est, en somme, 
du soleil en bouteille pour Tusage futur du 
monde. 

** Les chemins de fer, comme vous le savez, 
messieurs , 6tondent i^artout de nouvelles 
lignes. L'Afrique presentera, sans aucun 
doute, prochainement, avaut que de nom- 
breust^ ann^es se soient ecoulecs, le mOme 
aspect, sous le rapport des chemins de fer, 
que le continent americain prej^ente actuel le- 
nient. II est certain que ces reunions du 
Gjngres, si utiles qu'elles aieiit 6te dans le 
pass6, seront encore plus utiles dans I'avcnir, 
et que vos deliberations aideront materielle- 
ment k Textension des chemins de fer, qui, 
pour autant que nous puissions le dire a 
rheure actuelle, sont la grande force civilisa- 
trice du monde, car partout ou Ton voit appa- 
raitre la civilisation, un chemin de fer la 
pr(^6de ou la suit. [Api^lavdissements ) 

« Je suis certain que les deliberations du 
Tongres n'auront pas une importance moindre 
que cclles des precedents. J'ai la confiance 
que vous tirerea quelque profit des excursions 
qui ont did soigneusement organ ip^cs en vue 



be the motive power (if I may use that 
word) to produce electricity? Is it to be coal? 
because we find that the consumption of coal 
in this country is increasing very rapidly. 
I find that in 1P54, which is the earliest ycai' 
for which complete mineral statistics were 
recorded, the total output of coal in the 
United Kingdom was 64,661 ,000 tons (65 mil- 
lions 696,000 metric tons). In 1893, the 
total output was 164,325,000 tons (166 mil- 
lions 954,000 metric tons). Well, I am 
glad to say that we are not anxious at this 
moment as to the diminution of our deposits 
of coal ; but there is no doubt that in coun- 
tries which have been opened up lately, — I 
can allude more particularly to Japan — large 
coal fields have been found; and the moiv 
that the world is opened up the more it will 
be found that there are deposits of coal, 
which is really bottled sunshine when all is 
said and done, in various parts of the world 
stored up for the future use of the world. 



•* Raiiwajrs as you know, gentlemen, aix* 
increasing everywhere. Africa will shortly 
present, before many years are over, the same 
aspect of Railways over it, doubtless, that the 
American continent presents now ; and thert' 
is no doubt wlmtever that these congress 
meetings, useful as they have been in the past, 
will be still more useful in the future, and 
that your deliberations will aid materially in 
the spi*ead of railways throughout the world, 
which, so far as we can tell at this present 
monnent are the great civilising power of the 
world ; for wherever civilisation is found to 
go a railway is bound either to precede or 
follow. [Applause.) 



« I feel certain that the deliberations of 
this session will not be of less importance 
than those which have preceded it. I trust 
that you will take advantage of the excursions 
which have been carefullv laid out for vou to 



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OPENING CERKMOXY. 



131 



de-vous faire voir nos grands centres do I'iu- 
dustrie des chemins de fer, et j'espere, quaud 
nous nous s6parerons, que les d61egnes c^m- 
porteront un bon souvenir de Thospitalite des 
Compagnics du Royaume-Uni. Je puis vous 
assurer que nous ferons tout ce qui ei?t pos 
sible pour rendre voti-c visite agr^able, et 
j'espere le prouver. 



*• J*ai maintenant un autn? devoir k i*emplir, 
c'est de prier les del6gues presents de sc 
rendre dans les locaux dos sections pour y 
elire leurs presidents et faire les premiers 
pas necessaires pour inaugurer leurs tra- 
vaux. » [Apjjiatidisseryients.) 

Mr. Dubois. — « Les membres du Conji:i*6s 
sont pries de se rendre dans leure sections 
re?pcctives pour y proceder a la nomination 
du president et des secretaires principaux de 
chacune des sections. » 

— La stance est levee a 4 lieu res. 



SCO our gixjiit centres of railway industry, 
and I trust that when wc meet to say good 
bye some ten days or a fortnight hence I shall 
find that theixj has been a feeling of satisfac- 
tion expressed by the delegates generally ai 
the reception which they have been accorded 
by the railway companies of this country; 
I can assure you that we shall do our bes^ 
to make your visit pleasant and agreeable, 
and I trust it will pro\'e so. 

« I have now only one other duty to per- 
form, and that is to ask the delegates present 
to adjourn to their various rooms, and there 
to elect their Presidents and lay the steps for 
the future business of this Congress. » [Ap- 
plause.) 

Mr. Dubois. — The membei^ of the Con- 
gixiss are requested to adjourn to their va- 
rious sections for the purpose of electing the 
President and principal secretaries of each 
section. 

— The proceedings terminated at 4 o'chx-k. 



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132 



ORDRE DU JOUR DES SECTIONS. 



Ordre du jour des sectionG 



SECTION I. 

voies et travaux. 
(way and works.) 



SECTION II. 

TRACTION ET MAT^IRL. 
LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING-STOCK 



Laodi, l"Juillet 
(Monday, July 1) 



' Matin, 10 heures . . 
^ {JUotming, 10 o'clock). 

' Apr^midj, 2 heures. 
, (A/ternoon, 2 o'clock^. 



I. Renforcement des voles. 
(Strengthening of Permanent 
Way.) 

I. Renforcement des voiee. 
((strengthening of Permanent 
Way.) 



v. Chaudi^res. 
(Boilers.) 

v. Chaudiferea. 
(Boilers.) 



Mardi.Sjuillet . 
(Tuesday, July 2) 



McUin, 10 heures . . ) 
I {Morning, 10o*elockj. i 



Ap'^-midi, 2^eures. 
(Aflemoon, 2 o'clock). 



I. Renforcement des Toies. 
(Strengthening of Permanent 
Way.) 



II. Points sp6ciauz de la Toie. 
(Places in Permanent Way, Ac) 



VI. Locomotives des trains A grand 

▼itesse. 
(Express Locomotives.) 

VII. Voitures des trains & grand 

Vitesse. 
(Express Rolling-stock.) 
Avec Id tectum III, dcmt la taile dt 

tSancfs plinidret. 

( WUh Section III, in East Conferens 

Hall.) 



Mercredi, 3 juillet. Matin, 10 heures . . 
(Wednesday, July;<, Morning, lOoVlock) 



II. Points spteiaux de la voie. 
(Places m Permanent Way, &c) 

III. Bifurcations. 
(Junctions.) 



VII. Voitures des trains- 4 grand 
Vitesse. 
(Express Rolling-stock). 
! Avec la section III, dant la salle n' I 
— Salle dea chemint de fisr ioono 
miquet. 
( With Section III, in Room No. i 
Light Railxoay Room.) 



Jeudi, 4 Juillet . . 
(Thursday, July 4) . 



' Matin, 10 heures. . 
I (Afom^n^, 10 o'clock). 

' Apris-midi, 2 heures 
/A/te»*noon, 2 oclock). 



\ IV. Ports metallic ues. 
I (Metallic Bridges.) 

J Stance rl^ni^re. 
\ (General Meeting.) 



j VIII. Traction 61ecirique. 
I (Electric Traction.} 

( Stance pl^ni^re 
I (General Meeting.) 



VendredL-^ juillet . 
(Friday, July 5) . . 



Matin, 10 heures . . 
[Morning, 10 o'clock). 



Aprit-midl, 2 heures. 
(A/lentoon, 2 o'clock). 



XVI. Syst^me decimal. 
(Decimal System). 
A^>ecla section! V, dans la salle n' /2. 
( With Section I V, in Room No. 12.) 



\ Stance pl*ni*re. 
( (General Meeiiog.) 



IX. Acc^l(iration des transports d 
marcUandises. 
(Acceleration of Merchandise. 
At^c la section III, dans la salle det 
siances pUnUres. 
f I With Section III, in East Conferenc 
' Hall.) 

Stencepl^ni^re. 
(General meeting.) 



Samedi, 6 juillet. Matin, 10 heures . . 
(Saturday, July 6, Morning, 10 o'clock) 



IV. PonU m^talliques. [Suite et 

nn.^ 

(Metallic Bridges). {End.) 



VIII. Traction ^lectriiue. {Suite f 
fin.) 
(Electiic traction). {End.) 



Lundi. 8 juillet . 
(Monday. July 8) 



Matin, 10 heures . . ^ 
{Morning, 10 o'clock . j 



Aprils mid/, 2 heures. 
(Afternoon, 2 o'clock). 



( Stance pl^ni^re. 
\ (General Meeting.) 



XX. Freins des chemina de fer ^a 
I nomiques. 

(Brakes for Light Railways.^ 
I A fee la section V, dans la salle n" i 

( With Section V, in Room /fo. 3 



\ Stance pl^ni^re. 
\ (General Meetit g.) 



Mardi, P Juillet, Mntin . . 
^Tuesday, Ju»y 9, Morning). 



[ 10 heures . i 
) (10 o'clock) i 

. ) 11 Vj heures } 
f (11.30 o'clock,! 



S^nce pl^ni^re. 
(General Meeting.) 

Stance decl6ture. 
(Closing Ceremony. ) 



Stonce pl^ni^re. 
(General Meeting.) 

S^ncedecl6ture. 
(OluFiiig Ceremony ) 



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PROGRAMME OF THE SECTIONAL MEETINGS. 



133 



Progrramme of the Sectional Meetings.) 



SECTION III. 

EXPLOITATION. (TRAFFIC ) 



XI. Siirnanx. 

(Siffnals.) 

XI. Sl^aux. 
(Signals.) 



X. Manceuvres de gare. 
(Station Working.) 

VII. Yoitures destraios 4 grande Vitesse 
(Express Rolling-stock.) 
I Avee la tecUon II, dant la $alle det 
I M^fuyn plini&ret, di h.SO. 

' {WUh Seetkm 21. in Eatt Conference 
Hally at 3 M o'clock.) 



Vn. Volturesdeatrainsiigrande Vitesse. 

(Express Rolling-stock.) 
Avte la section II, dant la talle n* 8. — 
, Salle det chemlns de fer iconomiquft. 
{WUh Section II. in Room No. 8, Light 
Railway Room.) 



\ X Manoeuvres de gaxe.(.Su//« et /Cn.) 
\ (Station Working). {End.) 



Stencepltoifere. 
^Genera! Meeting.] 



IX. Acceleration ties transports de mar- 

chandises. 

(Acceleration of Merchandise.) 

Avecla teclion II. dans la talle det 

sijnces plinUrea. 

[ WUh Sictton II, in East Conference 

Hall.) 

Stoncepieni^re. 
^General Meeting.' 



XI I. Factage et camionna^e. 
(Cartage and Delivery.) 



XV. Cadran de vingt- q latre beures. 

(Tbe Twanly-four Hoors' Day.) 

Awe ia tection I V, dans la talle det 

sianc*^ vUniiret: 

' ( With Section I V. in East Conference 

Hall.) 

seance pieni^re. 
(General Meeting.) 



{ seance pieniere. 
\ (Oeneral Meeting ) 

\ seance de cldtnre. 
\ (Closing Ceremony.) 



SECTION IV. 

ORDRR GENERAL. (GENERAL.] 



XIII. Organisation. 
(Organisation.) 

XIV. Reglementdeslitiges. 
(Setaement of disputes.) 



XVIIB. Facilltes k accorder aux che- 
mins de fer k foible traflo. 
(Relaxation of requirements.) 
Atec la section V, dans la salle det 
, s^xnces pl4niires. 

( With Section V, in Batl Conference Hall. 



I XVII-B. Facilii^s k accorder aux cbe- 

i mins de fer k faible traflc. 

) (Relaxation of requirements.) 

\ Avec la section V, dant la talle det 

I stances pliniires. 

[ ( With Section V, in East Conference Ball.^ 

\ seance pieni6re. 

\ (General Meeting ) 



XVI. Systems decimHl. 
(Decimal system.) 
Avec la section I, dans la salle n* 12. 
( With Section I, in Room Ifo. IS.) 



I seance pieni^re. 
' (General Meeting.) 



r XVII-A. Aftinents de transports. 

(Contributive traffic.) 

Avec la section F, dans la salle des tSanoes 

pl4nUres. 

[ ( WUh Section V, in East Conference Hall.) 



XV. Cadran de vingt-quatre heares. 
1 (The Twenty-four Hours' Day). 

} Avec la section III. dans la salle des 
k sAancsA plinidret. 

[ With Section III, in Eatl Confei-en 
[ Hall.) 

I seance pieniere. 
! (General Meeting ) 



, Siance nieniere. 
(Oeneral Meeting.) 

I seance de cl6ture. 
! (Closing Ceremony.) 



SECTION V. 

GHEMINS.de fer tCONOMIQUES. 

(light railways.) 



XIX. Dep6ts des cbemins de ferecono* 
miques. 
(Light Railway Shops.) 
XIX. Depdts des chemins de fer econo- 
rolques. 
(Liffht Railway Shops.) 



XVIIL Aifermage de I'exploitation des 
cbemins de fer eeonomiques. 
(Leasing.) 



XVIII. Affermage de I'exploitation des 
chemins de fer eeonomiques. 
(Leasing.) 



XVII-B. Facilit6s k accorder aux che- 
mins de fer k faible traflo. 
(Relaxation of requirements.) 
Avecla section I V, dans la talle det 
fiances pUni^ret. 
{With Section IV, in East Conference 
Hall.) 



I XVII-B. Facilite^ k accorder aux che- 

I mins de f^r k faible traflo . 

,' (Relaxation of requirement?.) 

\ Avec la section IV, dins la s%lle det 

I tiancet ptSni^es. 

I ( With SectionI V, in East Conference Hall.) 

\ seance p! en ie.-e. 

I 'General Meeting.) ^^^^ 



XVIII. AflTermage de I'exploitation des 
chemins de fer eeonomiques. 

[Fin). 
(Leasing.) [End.) 

seance pieni^re. 
(General Meeting.) 



! XVII- A. A ffluentsde transports. 
(Contributive traffln.) 
Avecla section IV, dans la salle des 
stances pUniires. 
(With SectionI V, in East Conference Hall.) 



XX. Freins des chemins de fer eeono- 
miques. 
(Brakes for Light Railways.) 
Avec la section II, dans la salle n* S. 
( With Section II, in Room Ao. *.) 



I seance pie niere. 
(General Meeting.) 



, seance pieniftre. 
(General Meeting ) 

seance de cl6lure. 
(Closing Ceremony.) 



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LI8TE DE8 DOCUMENTS 

publics en vue de la cinqaidme session. 



LIST OF THE PAPERS 

published for the Fifth Session. 



.«<,>^o 



I. Ordre de publication (As issued). 



fil 


NUMKRO 

de la question. 

(NUMBBR 

of the question.} 


TITRE DE LA QUESTlOiN. 

[TITLE OF THE QUESTION.) 


DOCUMENTS. 


Irii. 

(»r«in 




En fran^ait Jn French) : || 


1 


V 


Chaudiferes, foyers et tubes & fumte 
dea locomotives. 


Expose, par Mr. Ed. Sauvage. 


IMt 


V 


Cbaudi^rea. foyers et tubes k Aim^e 
des locomotives. 


Addenda, par le m^me. 


9 


XX 


Frei ns des ohemi ns de fer 6coaoniquea. 


Expose, par Mr. Pk)cq. 


5 
4 


III 

XIX 


Bifurcations 


— par Mr. A. Zanotta. 

- par Mr. Terzi. 


Depots des chemins de fer 6conomique». 


A 


XI 


Signaux 


1" expose fpays de langue non anglalse}, par 
Mr. Lucie a Motte. 


a 


xni 


Organisation des services .... 


I" expose (pays de langue non anglaise), par 
Mr. G. Duca. 


7 


XV 


Cadran de ringtquatre beures. . . 


Expose, par Messrs. Scolari et Rocca. 


8 


II 


Points sp^ciaux de la voie .... 


— par Mr. Sabouret. 


» 


XVI 


Systfeme d^imal 


— par Mr. Wilkinson. 


10 




L*histoire. Torganisation et les r^sul- 
tats du Congr^s international des 
c)it>min8 de fer. 


Note, par Mr. A. Dubois. 


*■ 


xiir 


Organisation des services .... 


2* expose (pays de langue anglaise), par Mr. Fred. 
Harrison. 


fS 


XVI I- A 


Affluents de transports et chemins de 
fer k faible traflc. 


Expos*, par Mr. H. De Backer. 


13 


X 


Mnnceuvres de gare 


£• expos* des littAraa A et B, (paysde langue an- 
glaise), par Mr. George H. Turner. 


** 


XI 


Signaiix 


2" expo3*(pay8de langue anglaise), par Mr. Thomp- 
son, 

1- note par Mr. Raynar Wilson. 










2» note par TAdministration des chemins de f«*r 
de la MMiterrande ^Italic). 


IS 


XIV 


R^glement des lillges 


Expos*, par Mr. Louis de Perl. 
Note, par Mr. Chas. J. Owens. 


IC 


XVHI 


AfTermage de I'exploitation des che- 
mins de fer ^conoaaiques. 


Expos*, par Mr. C de Burlet. 
Note, par Mr. W. M. Acworth. 


17 


I 


Renforoenent des voies en vue de 
{'augmentation de la vitesse des 
trains. 


f expos* :peys de langue anglaise), p' Mr. W. Hunt. 

1*' expos* {p&ys de langue non anglaise), par 
Mr. W. Ast. 






Addenda an 2* expos* (pays de langue anglaise), 
par Mr. W. Hunt. 



N. B. - 



Le numirotage dM tir«s k pmrt fnn^ah et oelai des tir6t k part anofmto tout iHMresU. 



(The numbering of the 



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LIST OF THE PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIFTH SESSION. 



435 



A^M so 

iif 



num6ro 
de la question. 

(number 
of the question.] 



TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 

(TITLE OF THE QUESTION.) 



DOCUMENTS. 



Irii 

(lr««i) 

Suite 
i13. 



19 

90 
21 



84 



IX 

IV 
X 

vir 

XVII-B 



VIII 



XII 



VI 
XI 



XVIT-B 
X 



ForjDoIflire A. 

— B. 

- C. 



— E. 

— O. 



Maneeuvres de gare , 



Aec616raiion da transport .des mar- 
cliandises. 

Construction des ponts mdtalliques . 

Manoeuvree de gare ....... 



Voitures des trains & grande vitesse. 

Faoilitte & aooorder auz ohemlns de 
tbt a faible trafle. 



Traction dloctrique. . 



Factage et camionnage 



Locomotives des trains It grande 
vitess 

Sigoaux 



Facility & accorder aus chemins de 
fer & faible trdflc. 

Bffanosavres de gare 



Le dATeloppement des (Aemins de fer 
dans le Dominkm da Canada. 

Les bris des rails d'acler 

L'entretien oouraat des traverses 
mdtalUques compart k celui des 
traverses an bois. 

I^a dur^ des traverses en bois des 
difTdrentes essences non inject^es 
ou injecttes d*apr6s les divers pro- 
c6dfb». 

Les foyers das looomotivea .... 

Les chaudidres des locomotives . . 

Le graissage des v^hiculea .... 



Bxpoad du litt^ra A (pays de langue non anglaise}, 
par Mr. J. de Riohter. 

1" note sor le litt<^ra A, par rAdministration des 
chemins de fer m^ridionaux (r^seau de I'Adria- 
tique. 

. Exposd, par Mr. H. Lambert. 

Expos6, par Mr. Max Edler von I^ber. 

1*' expose da litt^ra B (pays de langue non an- 
glaise), par Messrs. Eug. Sartiaux et A. von 
^oschan. 

Expos*, par Mr. C.-A. Park. 

Expos*, par Measrs. A.'C. Humphreys-Owen et 
P.-W. Meik. 

l'^ note, par Mr. E.-A. Ziffer. 

2* note, par le mdine. 

Expos*, par Mr. Auvert. 

l" note, par TAdministration des chemins de fer 
de I'Ooest fran^ais. 

V note, par I'Adroinistration du cherain de fer 
du Nord. 

3* note, par Mr. Ernest Gerard. 

Expo?*, par Mr. Tvelvetrees. 

l** note, par rAdminislration des chemins de f^r 
de I'Etat beige. 

2* note, par I'Administration des chemins de fer 
de rOuest fran^ais. 

Expos*, par Mr. John-A. Aspinall. 

3* note, par Mr. Theo.-N. Ely. 
4* — par I'American Railway Association 
(Meaars. A.-W. BuUivan et F.-A. Delano). 

5* note, par Mr. Robert Pitcairn. 

©• — par Mr. A.-T. Dice. 

3« note, par Mr. Thomas«C. Farrer. 

l** note sur le litttoa B. par Mr. Wilbelm A&t. 

2» — sur le litt*ra B, par TAdmlnistration des 
chemins de fer du Nord Empereur Ferdi- 
nand. 

Note, par I'honorable Sir Charles Tupper. 

Expos*, par Mr. Bricka. 
Expos*, par Mr. Kowalski. 

Expos*, par Mr. V. Herzenslein. 



Expos*, par Mr. Hodeige. 
Expos*, par Mr. Belleroche. 
Expos*, par Mr. Hubert. 



N. B. — U MimiroUoa dM tirit k park UrMfali «t mW dM IMt & pwi Mflalt toat dNMraata. 
teMraU Ittiiet In Frenoh and Enfllith It not ttw tame.) 



(m 



«f tilt 



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436 LISTE DES DOCUMENTS PUBLIlSS EN VUE DE LA CIKQUIEME SESSION. 





NDMBRR 

of 
the question. 

(nuu£ro 
de la question.) 


TITLE OF THE QUESTION. 

(TITRE DB LA QUESTION.) 


DOCUMENTS. 


inf.) 




liiE«flM(Eiiaiifllalt): | 


f 


XX 


Brakes for light railways 


Report, by Mr. Piocq. 
Addenda, by the same. 


S 


V 


Boilers, fireboxes and tubes. . . . 


Report, by Bir. Ed. Sauvage. 


s 


XVI 


Decimal system 


— by Mr. J.-L. Wilkinson. 


4 


XIX 


Light railway shops 


- by Mr. Terxi. 


» 


XV 


The twenty-four hours day , . . . 


— by Messrs. Scolari and Rocca. 


6 


XIII 


Organisation 


2"' report (for English speaking countries), by 




7 


X 


Station working 


2" report on parts A and B (for English speak- 
ing countries), by Mr. Turner. 


8 


XI 


Signals 


r* report (for English speaking countries), by 
Mr. Thompson. 










1** note, by Mr. Raynar Wilson. 


9 


I 


Strengthening of permanent way in 
view of increased speed of trains. 


2" report (for English speaking countries), by 
Mr.NviUiam Hunt. 


fO 


VI 


Express locomotives 


Report, by Mr. Aspinall. 


fl 


11 


Pl!ice8 in permanent way requiring 
special attention. 


— by Mr. Sabouret. 


18 


XIII. 


Organisation 


1" report (for non English speaking countries), by 
Mr. Duca. 


IS 


VII 


Rolling stock for express trai qs . . . 


Report, by Mr. C.-A. Park. 


14 
18 


III 


Junctions . . • . 


— by Mr. Zanotta. 
Note, by Mr. A. Dubois. 


of Uie International Railway Con- 
gress. 


16 


IX 


Acceleration of transport of merchan- 
dise. 


Report, by Mr. H. Lambert. 


17 


XII 


Cartage and delivery 


Report, by Mr. Twelvetrees 

1** note, by the Belgian State Railways Adminis- 
tration. 

2" note, by the Western Railways of France Ad- 
ministration. 


18 


XI 

(See also N* 8) 


Signals 


!•• Report (for non English speaking countries), 
by Mr. Motte. 










2^ note, by the Mediterranean Railway Company 
(Italy). 








3" note, by Mr. Theo.-N. Ely. 

4»k ~ by the American Railway Association 
(Messrs. A.-W. SuUivan and F.-A, Delano). 

5* note, by Mr. Robert Pitcairn. 

6* - by Mr. A.-T. Dice. 



separate 



- Le nsm^rotaos det tirfo k part flr«R9als et esivi dee tirit 
issues in Frenoli and English Is not the same.) 



k part anglais son dHMrents. (The ssmbering of the 



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LIST OF THE PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIFTH SESSION. 



13T 



Hi 

m 



mJBCBBR 

of 
the question. 

(NUMftRO 

de U question.) 



TITLE OF THE QUESTION. 

(TITRE DE LA QUESTION.) 



DOCUMENTS. 



19 

91 

S8 
IS 



XVUA 
> XIV 
XVIU 

IV 
X 
X 



97 



I 
XVIIB 



VIII 



XIV 

(See also N' 8). 



Light feeder lines. 
Settlement of disputes 



The working of light railways by lea- 
sing companies. 



Construction and tests of metallic 
bridges. 

Station working. (Methods of aoce- 
lerating the shunting of trucks.) 

Station working. (Employment of me- 
chanical and electrical appliances 
in shunting.) 



Canada. 

Strengthening of permanent way in 
view of increased speed of trains. 

Relaxation of normal requirements for 
light railways. 



Electric traction. 



Settlement of disputes . 



Report, by Mr. De Backer. 

— by Mr. de Perl. 

— by Mr. de Burlet. 
Note by Mr. M.-W. Acworth. 
Report, by Mr. Max Edler von Leber. 



1** report on Part A (for non English speaking 
oountries), by Mr. J. de Richter. 

1** report on Part B (for non English speaking 
countries), by Messrs. Eug. Sartiaux and A. von 
Bosehan. 

!•* note, on Part B. by Mr. Ast. 

2^ — — by the Administration of 

the « Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn » (railway). 

Memorandum, by the Hon. Sir Cbaries Tupper. 
Report, by Mr. Ast. 



Report, by Messrs. Humphreys-Owen and P.-W. 
Meik. 

!•• note, by Mr. E.-A. ZifTer. 

2-- - _ 

3" — by the Hon. Thomas C. Farrer. 

Report, by Mr. Auvert. 

1*» note, by the Western of France Railway. 

2"' — by the Northern of France Railway. 

3" — by Mr. Ernest Oerard. 

Note, by Mr. Chas. J. Owens. 



N. B. — Le nam^reUoe det tirte & part fraR9alt et celBl det UrU k part anglais soot difr^rente. (Ths numbsrlsg of th» 
separate issues In Frenoh and EnoHsli is not the samo.) 



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138 LISTE DES' DOCUMENTS PUBLIES EX VUE DE LA CINQUIEME SESSION. 



n. Dans Tordre des questions. (As the questions are inserted in the agenda 

for discussion.) 



WJMftRO 

de 
la ^estioD. 

(NUMBER 

Of the 
question.) 


TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 
(TirLE OF THB QUESTION.) 


DOCUMENTS. 


ANKftB BT PAGB 

du 
Bulletin. 

[YEkR ANP PAGE 

of the 
BulMin,) 


I«UM«SO 

du 
iir* k part. 

of the separate 
i^sue.) 






En frsH^alt (tn RrMOh) : 






I 


Renforcement de« voles en 
vue de Taug mentation de la 
vitesae des trains. 

(Strengthening of permanent 
way in view of Hie increased 
speed of trains.) 


2* expose (pays de langue anglaisc}, par 
Mr. W. Hunt. 

!•' expose (pays de langue non anglaise), par 
Mr. W. Ast. 

Addenda aa t* expos* (pays de langue an- 
glaise}. par Mr. W. Hunt. 

m EmUMi (En anvfate) : 


1896, vol. IX, 
p. 1037. 

1895, vol. IX, 
p. 1161. 

1896, vol. IX. 
p. 1898. 


17 
brun (brown). 

Id. 
M. 






2^ report ifor Knglish speaking countries), by 
Mr. William Hunt. 


1896, vol. IX, 
p. 1113. 


9 
red (rouge). 






Addenda to ilie 2" report (for English speak- 
ing countries;, by the same. 


1895, vol. IX. 
p. 1910. 


Id. 






l" report (for non English speaking coun- 
tries), by Mr. Ast. 


... 


25 
red (rouge). 




• 


En frangait (in Franoh) : 






II 


Points sp^ciaux de la voie. . 

(Places in perroaneot way re- 
quiring special attention.) 


Expose, par Mr. Sabouret 

to EnflRsli (En anglalt) : 
Report, by Mr. Sabouret 

En franyait (In Freneh) : 


18K, vol. IX, 
p. 473. 


8 
brun (brown). 

11 
red (rougo). 


III 


BiAircations 

(Jonctions.) 


Expos*, par Mr. A. Zanolta 

In Enflllth (En anglais) : 
Report, by Mr. Zanotta 

En franfalt (In Frsnoh} : 


1894, vol. VIII, 
p. 959. 


3 

brun (brown). 

14 
red (rouge). 


IV 


Construction et ^preuves des 
ponts m^talliques. 

(Construction and testa of me- 
tallic bridges.) 


Expos6, par Mr. Max Edler von Leber . . 

In Enflllth (En anfllalt) : 
Report, by Mr. Edler von Leber 

En fran^alt (In Freneh) : 


1895, vol. IX, 
p. 1635. 


20 
brun (brawn). 

22 

r«d (rouge). 


V 


Chaudiferes, foyers et tubes i, 
fumde des locomotives. 

(Boilers, nre-boxes and tubes.) 


Expose, par Mr. Ed. Sauvage 

Addenda 4 Texpos^ par le m6me 

In Engllth (En anfllalt) : 
Report, by -Mr. Ed. Sauvage 

En fran9alt (In Frtnoh) : 


1894, vol. VIII, 
p. 641. 

1896. vol. IX, 
p. 589. 


I 
brun (brown). 

\bi$ 

MM aoavntan 
(«ltbeat«mr). 

2 
red (rouge). 


VI 


Locomotives des trains A 
grande Vitesse. 

(Express locomotives.) 


Expos*, par Mr. Jo^n A.-F. Aspinall . . . 
In Enflllth (En anfllalt) : 


1895, vol. IX. 
p. 2321. 


20 

brun (brown). 






Report, by Mr. Aspinall 


1895. vol. IX. 
p 1369. 


10 
red (rougo). 



N. B. — Le numiroUfle det tirfo k part ftran9ale et otiul dtt tirit k part anglalt tont dllMrentt. 
iMuet In Franoh and Engntk It not the tame.) 



(The nuRiktring of tho toparata 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF THE PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIFTH SESSION'. 



139 



KUMtaO 




/^ 


ANN^B ET PAGE 


mmteo 


de 






du 


du 


laqHeslioD. 


TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 


DOCUMENTS. 


Bulletin. 


tire k part. 


(XUMBBR 

of the 


(TITLB OP THB QUESTION.) 




iYSAR AND PAQB 

of (he 


(itUMBBR 

of thy separate 


question.} 






BuUelin.) 


issue.) 






Ea fhui9art (In French) : 






VII 


Voitures des trains a grande 


Expose, par Mr. C.-A. Park 


18^, vol. IX. 


22 




Vitesse. 




p. 1975. 


brun (brown). 




(Rolling-stock for express 


la EoflMi (El) wi|:ate) : 








trains.) 


Report, by Mr. C.-A. Park 

En frm^alt (la Frweh) : 


1895, vol IX, 
p. 1847. 


13 
red (rouge). 


Vlil 


Traction 6lectrique. . . . 


Expoae, par Mr. Auvert 


1895, vol. IX, 


24 




(Electric traction. 




p.?035. 


brun (brown). 






\** note, par rAdminisiration des ohemins de 
fer de rOaest fran<:ais 


1^95. vol. IX, 


Id. 






p. 2147. 








2«not**, parl'Administratlon du chemin defer 


1895, vol. IX. 


Id. 






du Nord frangais. 


p. 2196. 








3* note, par Mr. Ernest Gerard 


1895, vol. IX, 
p. 2202. 


M. 






la EnilWi En anglalt] : 










Report, by Mr. Auvert * . . . 




27 

red (rouge). 






]•• note, by the Western of France Railway. 


... 


Do. 






2" — by the Northern of France Railway. 




Do. 






3-* ~ by Mr. Ernest Gerard 


... 


Do. 






En ftran^alt (In Frtnoh^ : 






MJL 


Acceleration des transports 


Expose, par Mr. H. Lambert 


189\ vol IX, 


19 




de marchandises. 




p. 1735. 


brun (brown). 




(Acceleration of transport of 


to EHUtii (En anflalt) : 








merchandise.) 


Report, by Mr. H. Lambert 

En fk-an9ai« (In French) : 


1895, vol. IX, 
p. 2215. 


16 
red (rouge). 


-x 


Manoeuvres de gare : 


*• expose des litt^ras A et B (pays de langue 
aoglaise), par Mr. George-H. Turner. 


1895. vol. IX. 


13 




LitUra A. 


p.70:. 


brun (brown). 




Moyens d»«cc41*rer lea ma- 


1" expose du liitera A (pays de langue non 
anglaiae), par Mr. J. de Rich^er. 


1896, vol. IX. 


18 




noeuvres de gare. 


p. 1563. 


brun ^brown). 




Litldra B. 


r* note sur le liti^ra A. par rAdminifitration 
descheminsdefer Mehdionaux {ou reseau 


1895. vol. IX, 
p. 1632. 


Id. 




Emploi des moyens m^cani- 


adriatique). 
1" expose du littera B ipavs de langue non 








qiies et 61ectriques dans les 
manoeuvres de gare. 


1895, vol. IX. 


21 




(Station working : 


anglaise), par Messrs. Eug. Sartiaux et 
A. von Bosehan. 


p. 1783. 


brun (brown). 




Part A. 


!'• note aur la lUtera B, par Mr. Wilhelm Ast. 


1894, vol. VIII, 


29 




Methods of accelerating the 




p. 4. 


brun (brown). 




shonting of trucks in sta- 


2* — par rAdministration des cbemins de 


1895. vol. IX. 


Id. 




tion working. 


fer Nerd Empereur Ferdinand . 


p. 2499. 






Part B, 










Employment of mechanical 


In Englleh (En anglai.) : 








and electrical appliances in 
station working.) 


2" report (for English speaking countries), by 


1896, vol IX, 


7 




Mr. Turner. 


p. 766. 


red (rouge'. 






!•• report on Part A (for non English speaking 




23 






nountri«s), by Mr. de Richier. 




red (rouge). 






I" report on Part B (for non English speaking 


... 


Do. 






oouniriea). by Measrit. Eug. Sariiaux and 
A. von Bosehan. 


















l* note on Part B, by Mr. Ast 




Do. 






2^ — — by the Administration of 




Do. 






the • Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn - Railway. 







It B. ' Le mraifrotaae dat tirte k part fNmfals et celul des tiris k part anglais tent ditrerenU. 
Icevet In Frenok and Englleh le not the eame.) 



(The nnmbering of the separate 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 LISTE DBS DOCUMENTS PUBLICS EN VUE DE LA CINQUI^ME SESSION. 



KUMteO 






ANNte rr PAQB 


IfUMteO 


de 






du 


do 


la question. 


TITKE DB LA QUESTION. 


DOCUMENTS. 


Bulletin. 


tir«4p*K. 


(tfOMBBR 

of the 


(titlb op the question.) 




TBAR AND PAOB 

oftlie 


(NUMBER 

of the separate 


question.) 






BulUftin.) 


issue.) 






En frmn^ait (in Frenek) : 






ULl 


Signaux 


1*' expose (pays de langue non anglaise), par 
Mr. Lumen Motte. 


1891. VOL Vlir, 


5 




(Signals.) 


p. 1042. 


brun (brown). 




t* expose (pays de langue anglaise}, par 


1895. vol. rx. 


14 






Mr. Thompson. 


p. 824. 


brun (brown^. 






1" note, par Mr. Raynar Wilson 


18W,ToLVIir. 

p. 804. 
1805, vol. IX, 


Id. 






2* note, par 1* Administration des chemins de 
ferdela M^diterran«e(ItaUe). 


Id. 






p. 378. 








3«note, parMr.Th6o.-N.Ely 


1805, vol. IX, 
p. 2421. 


27 

brun (brown) 






4* note, par 1 American Railway Association 


•18l«. vol. IX. 






(Messrs. A.-W. SuUivan et FrM6ric-A. De- 
lano). 


p. 2436. 








5* note, par Mr. Robert Pitcairn 


1806. vol. IX. 
p. 2588. 


Id. 






©• note, par Mr. A.-T. Dice 


1895.^ IX. 
p. 2622. 


Id. 






In EhIMi (En anflait) : 










2^ report (for English speaking oountrles;, by 


1806. vol. IX, 


8 






Mr. Thompson. 


p. 881. 


red (rouge). 






l*»notc,byMr.Raynar Wilson 


1894. vol. VIII, 
p. 805. 


Do. 






1** repoK^r non English speaking countries). 




18 








red (rouge). 






2' note, by the Mediterranean Railway 
Company (Italy). 


„ 


Do. 














3"* note, by Mr. Theo.-N. Ely 


18Ki.vol.IX. 


Do. 






4ih — by the American Railway Association 
(Messrs. A.-W. Sullivan and F.-A. Delano) . 


p. 2447. 
1805. vol. IX. 


Do. 






p. 2461. 








5«> note by Mr. Robert Pitcairn 


1896. vol. IX, 


Do 






6«i - by Mr. A.T. Dice 

En fran9ais (In FrMMk) : 


p. 2988 

1896. vol. IX, 

p. 2624. 


Do. 


n^n 


Foctage et camionnage . . 


Expos*, par Mr. Twelvelrees 


1895, vol. IX, 


25 




(Cartage and delivery.) 


1'* note, par 1' Administration des chemins de 
fer de PEtat beige. 


p. 2243. 
1896, vol. IX. 


brun (brown). 
Id. 






p. 2267. 








2* note, par I'Administration des chemins de 


1895, vol. IX. 


Id. 






fer de rOuesl firanQais. 


p. 2278. 








In Enfllith (En anflait) : 










Report, by Mr. Twelvetrees 


1896. vol. IX. 


17 






1** note, by the Belgian State Railways Admi- 


p. 22 3. 
189&. vol. IX, 


red Oroug«). 






nistration. 


p 2305. 








2^ note, by the Western Railway of France 


18», vol. IX, 


Do. 






Administration. 


p. 2317. 








En fran9alt (In Frenob) : 






n^ni 


Organisation des services . . 


1 " expos6 (pays da langue non anglaise), par 


1896. vol. IX. 


6 




(Organisation.) 


Mr. G Duca. 


p. 141. 


brun (brown). 






2* exposA (pays de langue anglaise), par Mr. 


1895. vol. IX. 


11 






Fred. Harrison. 


p 613. 


brun (brown). 






In Englisk (En anglais) : 










2'* report (for English speaking countries), by 


1895. vol. IX, 


6 






Mr. Fred. Harrison. 


p. 636. 


red (rouge). 






1** report (for non English speaking countries\ 


... 


12 






by Mr. Duca, 




red (rouge). 



■. B. — U Mimirotafls dsi tlrfo k part fran^alt st eslnl des tir^s k part anglais sont dHTirsnts. 
issaes In Frsnob and Engllsli Is not tke same.) 



(Tke Mmbsring ef ths ssyarato 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OP THE PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIFTH SESSION. 



IW 



IfUMftBO 

de 
laqueation. 

(kumber 

oftbe 

question.) 



TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 
(TITLB OF THE QUESTION.) 



DOCUMENTS. 



UXHtE ET PAGE 

du 
Bulletin. 

[TEAR AND PAGE 

Of the 
BuUetin,) 



numAro 

du 

tM4part. 

(kumbbr 

of the separate! 

issue.) 



lUV 



HLVl 



ICVII-A 



XVU B 



icvni 



R^lement des litiges . 
(Settlement of disputes.) 



Cadran de vingt-quatre beures 
(The twenty- four hours day.) 



Systfeme decimal. 
(Decimal s]rstem.) 



Affluents de transports. 
(Light feeder lines.) 



Facilit^s h accnrdcr aux cho- 
mins de fer & faible trade. 

(Contributive traffic.) 



AtTermage de I'exploitation des 
chemiiis de fer 6conomiques. 

(The working of light railways 
by leasing companies.) 



En fhui9ais (In Frsnoli) : 

Expose, par Mr. Louis de Perl 

Note, par Mr. Cbas. I. Owens 

In EnfllMi (En anflalt; : 

Report, by Mr. de Perl 

Note by Mr. Clias. J. Owens 

En fk'Ufals (in Frsnoli) : 
£xpos6, par Messrs. Scolari et Rocca . . . 

In Enansh (En anglais) : 
Report, by Messrs. Scolari and Rocca . . . 

En franpals (In Frsnoli) : 
Expose, par Bir. J. L. Wilkinson . . . . 

In Engllsli (En anlals) : 
Report, by Mr. J.-L. Wilkinson 

En fran^als (In Frsnoli) : 
Expose par Mr. H. De Backer 

In Enittsh (En anflals) : 
Report, by Mr. de Backer 

En fran9ais (In Fronok) : 

Expose, par Messrs. A. C. Humphreys-Owen 
et P.-W. Meik. 

1** note, parMr. E.-A. Zifflsr 

f — par le mdrae .,..•.... 

3* — par Mr Thomas C. Farrer. . . . 

In Enflllth (En anjlals) : 

Report, by Messrs. A.-G. Humphreys-Owen 
and P.-W. Meik. 

I" note, by Mr. E. A. Ziflfer 

J^ - — 

3" — by the Hon. Thomas C. Farrer . 

En fkiin9alt (In Frsnoli) : 
Expos6. par Mr. C. de Burlet. . . . 
Note, parMr. W.-M. Acworth . . . 

In English (En anflalt) : 

Report, by Mr. de Burlet 

Note, by Mr. W.-M. Acworth. . . . 



1806, vol. IX. 

P.93J. 
1891. vol. VIII. 

p. 902. 



1896. vol. IX, 
p. 903. 



1896, vol IX. 
p. 434. 



1895, vol. IX, 
P.4U1. 

1895. VOL IX. 
p. 501. 



1806. vol. IX. 
p. 656. 



1806. vol. IX, 
p. 1918. 

1894, vol. VIII, 
p. 229. 

1894, vol. VIII, 
p. 711. 

1V95. vol. IX, 
p. 2545. 

1895. vol. IX, 
p. 1947. 



1805, vol. IX. 
• p. 25^. 



18», vol. IX, 

p. 9M 
1694, vol. VIII, 

p. 798. 



1891, VOL VIII, 
p. 799. 



15 
brun (brown), 



20 
red (rouge). 

28 
red (rouge). 



brun (brown), 



red (rouge). 



brun (brown). 



red (rouge). 



12 
brun (brown), 

19 
red (rouge). 



23 
brun (brown). 

Id. 

Id. 

28 
brun (brown), 

26 
red (rouge). 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



16 

brun thrown). 
Id. 



21 
red (rouge). 



1. B. — Ls namireUoo dss Urte k part fhuifals st oslnl des Uris k part anglais sont tfHT^ronU. 
IssEss la Frtnob aatf EnfHsli Is not the same.) 



(Ths numksrtog of tke ssparato 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 LISTE DES DOCU.MEXrS PUBLTI^S EN VUE DE LA CINQUIEME SESSION. 



numAro 

de la 
qneetioa. 

(nummr 

of tb« 

quesUon.) 


TITRE DE L.V QUKSTION. 

(TITLE OK THE QUESTION) 


DOCUMENTS. 


ANNfeE ET PAGE 

du 
Bitlletin. 

VBAK AND PAGE 

of the 
Bulletin.) 


NCMftRO 

du 
tir6 d part. 

(numbkr 

of the separate 

issue.) 


ILK 


D^pdls des chemins do fcr 
j^conomiques. 

(Light railway shops.; 

Frcinsdes chemins de fer^«;o- 
nomiques. 

(Brakes for light railways.) 

L'histoire, rorgani.salion el U»s 
r^sul'ats du Congres inter- 
naiional des chemins de fer. 

^The history, oreanisai ion and 
results of the Iniernational 
Railway Congress.l 

Lo d^veloppement des che- 
mins de fer dans le Domi- 
nion du Canadii. 

(Railway progress in the Do- 
minion of Canada.) ' 


En frmn9«it (In Franoh) : 
Expoa*, par Mr. Ter» 

Hi EnglMi (En anHato) : 
Report, by Mr. Terzi 


1895. vol. IX. 
p. 133. 

1894, vol. VIII. 
p. 916. 

1895. vol. IX, 
p. 380. 

18K. vol. IX, 
p. 511. 

1806. ^ol. IX, 
F.2471. 

1895. 'vol. IX, 
p. 2485. 


4 

bruni brown). 

4 
red (rouge). 

2 

hrun 'brown). 
Id. 

1 
red^uge). 

10 
brun ^browp}. 

15 
red'.rouge). 

30 
brun (brown) 

24 
red (rouge). 


En fran^ait (In Fi-Mioh) : 

Expos(^, par Mr. Plocq 

Complement & rexpos<i, par le m6me . . . 

In EnglMi ;En anflalt) : 

Report, by Mr. Plocq 

Addendum, by the same. ....... 

En fhui9«It (In FrMOh) : 
Note, par Mr. A. Dubois 

In Enf Hsh (En anflaii) : 
By Mr. A. Dubois 


En firanfais (In Frenoh] : 
Note, par Thonorabto Sir Charles Tupper . 

In EnglMi (En anglau; : 
By the Hon. Sir Charles Tupper 



ANNEXE 

au question- 
naire. 

(APPENDIX 

to the list 
of questions 

for 
discussion.) 


TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 
(TITLE OK THE QCESTION.) 


DOCUMENTS. 


ANn£B BT PAGE 

du 
Bulletin. 

(year and PAGE 

of the 
Bulletin.) 


NUMftRO 

du 
tird k part. 

(NUMBER 

of the separate 
issue.j 


A. 


Renseijrnemenls techniques 
sur les bris des rails d'aoier. 

^Technical information on the 
breaking of steel rails.) 

Renseignements techniques 
8ur I'entretien courant des 
traverses niAtalliques com- 
part acelui des traverses en 
bois. 

(Technical information on the 
current cost of metallic 
compared w»th wooden slee- 
l pers.) 


En ffan^alt (In Frenoh) : 

Rapport, par Mr. Bricka 

Traduction anglaise non encore publi^e. 
(English translation not yet ready ) 

En fhinfalt (In Frenoh) : 

Rapport, par Mr. Kowalski 

Traduction anglaise non encore pubU6e 
(English translation not yet ready.) 


1895, vol. IX, 
pag.580. 

1895. vol. IX. 
pag. 3169. 


31 
brun (brown). 

32 

brun (brown). 



N. 8. — U nnm^oUfo iet tlrte 4 part fran^ait tt oalni das tir<t k part anflait sont iHTirants. (The nomlMring of the tapanita 
issues In Frenoh and English It not the same.) 



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LIST OF THE I'APEBS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIFTH SESSION. 



143 



ANNEXB 

[au question- 
naire. 
(appendix 
to the list 
jof questions 

for 
discussion.} 



TITRE DE LA QUESTION. 
(title of IHK UUESTH)N.) 



DOCrMENTS. 



ann6e kt page 

du 

Bulletin 

'YEAR AND PAGE 

of the 
Bulletin.) 



NUM^RO 

du 
tir6 k p&it. 

fNUMBBR 

of Uie separate! 
issue.) 



H 



Renseignements techniques 
sur la (iur^ dos travel ses 
eu bois des diff^rentes es- 
sences non inject«Jes ou in- 
ject^es daprtfes les divtrs 
proc6dis. 

(Technical information on the 
life of wooden sleepers of 
different kinds, not pickled 
or pickled according: to va- 
rious procesves.) 



Renseignements techniques 
sur les e^sieux coudt^s des 
locomotives 

(Technical information on lo- 
comotive crank axles.) 



Renseignements techniques 
sur les foyers des locomo- 
tives. 

(Technical information on lo- 
comotive dre boxes.) 



Renseignements techniques 
sor les cbaadi^res des looo- 
motives. 

(Technical information on lo- 
comotive boilers.] 



Renseignements techniques 
sur le graissage des v*hi- 
cules. 

(Technical Information on the 
lubrication of rolling stork.) 



Renseignements techniques 
sur les machines de ma- 
noeuvres. 

(Technical information on 
shunting engines. ' 



En fTMfait (In Frenoh) : 
Rapport, par Mr. V. Herzenstein . . . 
Traduction anglaise non encore publide. 
^English translation not yet ready.) 



En fran9ait (In Fr mwli ) : 

Les renseigneme^ ts recueillis 6iant tr^s in- 
complets, ceite question n*a pas iXA Lrait*^. 

(As the information colleeiad on this qaeaiion 
was very incomplete, it was not dealt 

with.) 



En fran9alt (In Frsnoh; : 

Rapport, par Mr. Hodeige 

Traduction anglaise non encore public. 
(English translation nol yet ready.) 



En franfilt (In fyaiioh) : 

Rapport, par Mr. Belleroche 

Traduction anglaise non encore publiie 
(English translation not yet ready.; 

En fran9alt (In Frenoh) : 

Rapport, par Mr. Hubert 

Traduction anglaise non encore public. 
English translation not yet ready.) 



En franfals [In Frenoh) : 

Les renseignements recueillis *tant tr*s in- 
oomplets, cette question n'a pus 6i^ trait^e. 

(As the information collected on this question 
wns very incomplete, it was not dea t with.) 



En fran^als (ta Frmmlh) : 



Les renseignements recueillis 4tant tr^s in- 
complets, cette question n'a pas 6t4 Uraitde. 



Renseignements techniques 

sur le mouvement du per- | 

Bonnel dans les difT^tents , 

pays. (.\s the information collecled on this question 

(Technical Information on the ^'^^ ^«y incomplete, it was not dealt with.) 

movement of the staff in 

different countries.) 



1805. vol IX, 

pag. ?S89. 



1895. vol. IX, 
p. 2027. 



1895. vol. IX. 
p. 3077. 



1895. vol. IX, 
p. 1793. 



33 
brun (brown! 



brun (brown) 



35 
brun (brown) 



36 

brun(l)rownj 



N. B. — Le Mm4roU|e f tirU k part fran^alt et oelui dot tir<t k part anglais tont dHfirsnU. (The numhering of the ssparate 
issHes in Freneli and Engliili Is not the same.) 



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Google 



QUESTIONS 

S0UMI8E8 AUX DISCUSSIONS DE LA 5* SESSION. 



1« SECTION. — VOIES ET TRAVAUX. 

I. — ReNFORCEMENT I»ES VOIES EN VUE DE l'aUG- 
MENTATION DE LA VITESSE DES TRAINS. 

Module de Toie k adopter pour les ligaes par- 
courues par des trains de grande vitesse. Renfor- 
cement graduel de la resistance des voies exis- 
taotes, de mani^re k permettre Taugmentation de 
la Vitesse des trains : 

A. Profil du rail. Determination des efforts 
dynamiques support6s. Rdsultats d*experiences. 

B. Conditions de fabrication et nature du m^- 
kil des rails. Comparaison de Tacier mou avec 
I'acier dur. Acier produit : par le proc^de acide 
au convertisseur Bessemer ; par le procdde basique 
au convertisseur ; par Tun ou I'autre procide au 
four Martin. 

C Liaisons des rails. Fatigue support^e par 
les eclissages . Construction du joint qui assure 
le mieux la resistance uniforme de la vole dans 
toutes ses parties : rails a coussinets et rails 
Vignoles . 

D. Traverses : quality, dimensions, ecarte- 
ment. 

E. Ballast : nature, conditions d'etablissement. 

Rapporteurs, pour les pays de langue 
non anglaisCy Mr. Ast (\V.), conseiller de 
regence, directeur des voies et Iravaux du 
chemin de fer du Nord-Empereur Ferdinand 
d'Aulriehe, a Vienne, et 

Pour les pays de langue anglaise, Mr. 
Hint, ingenieur de la voie du Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Raihvav, a Manchester. 



QUESTIONS 

FOR DISCUSSION AT THE FIFTH SESSION. 



I«t SECTION. — WAY AND WORKS. 

I. — Strengthening of Permanent in View 
OF THE Increased Speed of Trains. 

Type of permanent way suited for lines traver- 
sed by trains a t high speed . Gradual strengthen - 
ing of existing roads so as to permit of an 
increase in the speed of trains : 

A . Section of rail. Calculation of the strains 
imposed by the rolling load. Results of experi- 
ments. 

B. Mode of manufacture and nature of rail- 
metal. Comparison of sofl with hard steel. 
Steel produced : (1) by the acid process in the 
Bessemer converter; (2) by the basic process in 
the converter ; (3) by either process in the Martin 
furuace . 

C. Rail connections. Fatigue of fish plates . 
Construction of joint best calculated to secure 
uniform strength of the road throughout. Rails 
laid in chairs, and Vignoles rails. 

D. Sleepers, their quality, dimensions; and 
distance apart. 

E. Ballast, the various descriptions and me • 
thods of laying. 

Reporters, for non English speaking 
countries, Mr. Ast (W.), Chief Engineer, 
Kaiser Ferdinand's Nordbahn of Austria, 
Vienna, 

For English speaking countries^ Mr. 
Hint, Chief Engineer, Lancashire and York- 
shire Railway, Manchester. 



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QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AT THE FIFTH SESSION. 



145 



II. — Points sp^ciaux de la voie. 

Moyensa employer pour supprimer le ralen- 
tissement des trains rapides et ^viter les chocs au 
passage des points sp^iaux de la voie (courbes 
de faible rayon, pentes de grande longueur, 
aiguilles abordtes par la pointe, traverse, passa- 
ges a niveau, ponts tournants, etc.). 

Rapporteur : Mr. Sabouret, ingenieur 
des ponts et chaussees, ingenieur principal 
(lu service central de la voie an chemin de 
fer de Paris a Orleans, a Paris. 

III. — BiFl'RCATIONS. 

Conditions les plus favorables de construction 
des bifurcations sur les voies de^ trains rapides 
en vue d'^iter absolument les ralentissements . 
Meilleures dispositions k adopter pour les ai- 
guilles et les traverse. Moyens les plus efficaces 
de mainteoir la vitesse des trains en supprimant 
la surdl^vation dans les courbes des bifurcations. 

Rapporteur : Mr.ZxsoTtk (A.), ingenieur, 
chef de section au service de Tentretien, 
surveillance et travaux du chemin de fer 
de la Mediterranee (Italie), a Milan. 

IV. — Constriction et ^prei:ves des ponts 

Ml^TAUJQUES. 

A . Quelles sent les quantit^s de m^tal raises 
et a mettre en OBUvre dans les ponls de chemins 
de fer en tenant comple des prescriptions en 
vigueur dans les diff^rents pays! 

B^ Quelles sont la nature et la valeur des 
proc^is des difll^rentes Administrations de che- 
mins de fer pour les ^preuves initiales et pour les 
^preuves p^riodiques des ponts m^talliques? 

Quelle est Timportance r^elle que Ton doit 
attribuer k ces ^preuves, et peutK)n les regarder 
comme un moyen experimental pour ^tablir les 
conditions effectives de solidity et le degrd de 
siirete des constructions susdites? 

Rapporteur : Max Edler von Leber, in- 
specteur en chef du corps I. R. de la sur- 
veillance g^n^rale des chemins de fer de 
TAutriche, au ministere du commerce, a 
Vienne. 



II. — Places in Permanent Way requirinc 

SPECIAL ATTENTION. 

Means to avoid the necessity of expresses 
slackening speed, and to prevent shocks in passing 
special points, such as sharp curves, long and 
sleep gradients, facing points, rail-crossings, 
road-crossings, swing bridges, &c. 

Reporter, Mr. Sabouret, Principal Engi- 
neer, Orleans Railway, Paris. 



III. — JrNCTIONS. 

Best method of constructing junctions upon 
express lines so as absolutely to avoid slackening 
speed. 

Best arrangements of points and crossings. 

The most efficacious means of maintaining the 
speed of trains while abandoning super-elevation 
at j unction-curves . 

Reporter, Mr. Zanotta (A.), Divisional 
Engineer, Mediterranean Railway of Italy, 
Milan. 



IV. — Construction and Tests of Metallic 
Bridges. 

A. What are the quantities of metal used and 
required to be used in railway bridges, according 
to the regulations in force in different countries? 

B. What are the nature and value of the 
methods adopted by the different railway adminis- 
trations for the original and the subsequent 
periodical testing of metal bridges ? 

C. What is the real value of these tests , and can 
they be regarded as practical means of settling 
the actual state of repair and the margin of safety 
of the above-mentioned structures ? 

Reporter, Max Edler von Leber, Principal 
Inspector of the Railway Control Depart- 
ment of Austria, Ministry of Commerce, 
Vienna. 



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440 QUESTIONS SOUMISES AUX DISCUSSIONS DE LA CINQUIEME SESSION. 



2^ SECTION. 
TRACTION ET MAT^.RIEL. 



V. -— ClIAl IHfeRF.S, FOYERS KT TIBF.S A FIMI^E 
DF.S LOCOMOTIVES. 

A . Chaudi^res e( foyers en acfer. EfTorts sup- 
port's en service ek conditions de reception des 
t61e8. 

B. Tubes A fum^en fer. Moyens d'6viter les 
fuites aux plaques tubulaires. 

C. Action nuisible exerc'e par les eaux d'ali- 
mentation sur les chaudi^res et les tubes. Sys- 
f mes d'6pu ration. 

D. Programme d'essais relatifs a la production 
de la vapeur, savoir : 

R^ultats donn^ par les tubes suivant leur 
diam'lre, leur longueur, leur syst^me^leur dispo- 
sition dans la chaudi're et le m'tal dont ils sont 
form^ ; 

Essais sur Tinfluence du volume de la boite a 
fum^ et des difTi^rentes formes des cbemin^s et 
des pare-6tincelles ; 

Ebsais sur les divers syst^mes d'^happemeut; 

Essais sur I'influence que peut avoir la vitesse 
sur la production de la vapeur . 

Rapporteur : Mr. Sai vage, ingenieur en 
chef des mines, ingenieur en chef adjoint 
du materiel et de la traction des chemins de 
fer de I'Est fran^ais, a Paris. 

VI. — Locomotives i»es trains 

A r.RAM>E VITESSE. 

Type de moteur a vapeur le plus favorable aux 
grandes vitesses. 

Emploi des hautes pressions et application du 
principe compound . 

Distributions perfection n^es et tiroirs 'quili- 
hr6s. 

Conditions de construction des locomotives en 
vue de diminuer la grandeur des efforts dyna- 
miques exerc's sur la voie. Influence, k ce dernier 
point de vue, de la disposition compound. 

Rapporteur : Mr. Aspinai.i,, ingenieur en 
chef de la traction du Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway, a Horwich, Lancashire. 



a"** SECTION. ^ LOCOMOTIVES 
AND ROLLING STOCK. 



V. — Bon.ERS, FlRE-Ro\ES AND Tl RES. 



A. steel boilers and fire-boxes. Strain to 
which they are subjected in use, and conditions 
on which the plates are accepted . 

B. Iron tubes. Means of preventing leakage 
at the tube plates. 

C. Injurious effect of the feed water on the 
boilers and tubes. Systems of purifying. 

2>. Synopsis of experiments as to the produc- 
tion of steam, viz. : — 

Results obtained with tubes according to their 
diameter, length, system, arrangement in the 
boiler, and the metal of which they are made. 

Experiments as to the influence of the capacity 
of the smoke-box, and the different forms of chim- 
neys and spark-arresters. 

Experiments with the various forms of blast- 
pipe. 

Experiments as to the effects of speed on the 
production of steam . 

Reporter, Mr. Sauvage, Assistant Loco- 
motive Engineer, Eastern Railway of 
France, Paris. 



VI — Express Locomotives. 



Type of engine most suitable for high speeds. 

The use of high pressure, and application of 
the compound principle. 

Improvements in distribution and balanced 
slide-valves. 

Engine- building regarded from the point of 
view of diminishing the strains of the permanent 
way . The effect from this latter point of view 
of the compound principle. 

Reporter, Mr. Aspinall, Chief Mechanical 
Engineer, Lancashire and Yorkshire Rail- 
wiiy, Horv^ich, Lancashire. 



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QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AT THE FIFTH SESSION. 



147 



VII. — VoiTt'RES DKS TRAINS 
A GRANDE VITESSE. 

(2^ cl S^ sections reunies.) 

Type de voi lures pour les trains a grande 
vilesse et pour les trains a long parcours. Train 
flexible et continu. Perfectionnements apport^ 
aux dispositions int^rieures. Divers modes de 
chauffage et d'^lairage. 

Rapporteur : Mr. Park, chef du service 
lies voilures du London and North Western 
Railway, a Wolverton. ^ 

VIII. — Traction ^lectrique. 

litude g^n^rale de la traction Mectrique. 

Rapporteur : Mr. At vert, ingenieur atta- 
che ail service central du materiel du che- 
min de fer de Paris-Lyon-Mcditerranec, 
a Paris. 



VII. — ItOLLlNfi STOCK FOR KxPRESS TrAINS. 

(2^ and 3''^ Sections combined.) 

Type of rolling stock for express trains, and 
long journeys. Vestibule trains. Improvements 
in internal arrangements. Various modes of 
heating and lighting. 

Reporter, Mr. Park, Carriage Superin- 
tendent, London and North Western Kail- 
way, Wolverton. 

VIII. — Electric Traction. 

The general question of electric traction . 

Reporter, Mr. Acvert, Engineer in the 
Rolling Stock Department of the Paris and 
Lyons Railway, Paris. 



5- SECTION. -~ EXPLOITATION. 



IX — Acceli£ration ues tr.vn sports 

DE MARCIIANDISES. 

(2^ et 3* sections reunies,) 

Influence de la vitesse des transports sur les 
depenses de traction et Tutilisation du materiel, 
d'une part, sur Tefiectif du materiel et le d^ve- 
iuppement des installations Axes, d'autre part. 

Rapporteur : Mr. La.mbert, direcleur 
general du Great Western Railway, Pad- 
dinglon, Londres, W. 

X. — Manoelvres de gare. 

A . Moyens d^acc^l^rer les manoeuvres de gare 
et les manutentions des marchandises. Disposi- 
tions des gares de formation. 

Rapporteurs pour les pays de langue 



5"» SECTION. — TRAIT IC. 



IX. — Acceleration of Transport 
OF merchandise. 

(2*^^ and S''^ Sections combined.) 

Influence of speed upon of the expenses of 
haulage, and the utilisation of rolling slock, on 
the one hand, and on the other hand, upon the 
number of vehicles and the amount of accommo- 
dation and plant required. 

Reporter. Mr. Lambert, General Mana- 
ger, Great Western Railway, Paddington, 
London, W. 

X — Statio.n Wokkix.. 

A, Methods of accelerating the shunting of 
trucks and handling of merchandise. Arrange- 
ment of sorting sidings. 

Reporters for non Enrjlish speaking 



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148 QUESTIONS SOUMISES AUX DISCUSSIONS DB LA CINQUI^ME SESSION. 



non anglaisey Mr. Hichter (J.), adjoint du 
directeur de la ligne de Sainl-Petcrsbourg 
a Varsovie des chemins de fer de I'Elal 
riisse a Sainl-Pelersbourg, et 

Pour les pays de langue anglaisc, 
Mr. Ti RNER, direcleiir general du Midland 
Hallway, a Derby. 



countries, Mr. Richter(J.), Assistant Super- 
intendent of the State Railway from St. Pe- 
tersburg to Warsaw, St. Petersburg ; 

For English speaking countries, Mr.Tia- 
.>ER, General Manager, Midland Uaihvay, 
Derby. 



B. Emploi des moyens m^caniques et ^^lec- 
triques pour acc^l^rer la manutenlion des mar- 
chandises et les raancRuvres de gare . 

Rapporteurs pour les pays de langue 
non anglaise, Mr. Sartiaiix(Ei](;.), chef des 
services electriques du chemin de fer du 
Nord, a Paris, et Mr. von Boschan (A.), 
ingenieur au chemin de fer du Nord-Empe- 
reur Ferdinand d'Autriche, a Vienne; 

Pour les pays de langue anglaise, 
Mr. Turner, directeur general du Midland 
Railway, a Derby. 



XI. 



SiGNAUX. 



Perfectionnements r^cents dans les appareils de 
block-system et d'interlocking-systemy ootam- 
ment au point de vue de T^conomie des installa- 
tions. 

Signaux dans les tunnels. 

Moyens a employer pour 6viter les collisions 
aux points dangereux des lignes rapides en cas de 
francbissement des signaux a I'arr^t. 

Remplacement du langage des couleurs par 
celui des formes g^m^triques en vue d'^viler les 
dangers provenant du daltonisme ou du ddfaut 
d'acuit^ visuelle. 

Rapporteurs pour les pays de langue 
non anglaise, Mr. MorrE (Licien), inge- 
nieur adjoint au chef de service des voies 
et travaux du chemin de fer de I'^tat 
beige, a Namur, et 

Pour les pays de langue anglaise, 
Mr. Thompson, chef du service des signaux 
du London and North Western Railway, 
a Crewe. 



B. Employment of mechnnical and electrical 
appliances in shunting and marshalling. 



Reporters for non English speaking 
countries^ Mr. Eugene Sartiaux, Electrical 
Engineer of the Northern of France Rail- 
way, Paris, and Mr. von Boschan (A.), 
Engineer, Kaiser Ferdinand's Nordbahn, 
Vienna ; 

For English speaking counlries.Mv Tur- 
ner, General Manager, Midland Railway, 
Derby. 



XI. — Signals. 



Recent improvements in block and interlocking 
apparatus, chiefly from the point of view of 
economy in initial outlay. 

Signals in tunnels. 

Methods of preventing collisions at points of 
danger on express hues, in case of over-running 
stop signals . 

Replacement of colour signals by geometric 
form signals, in order to avoid the dangers 
arising from colour-blindness or defective vision. 



Reporters for non English speaking 
countries, Mr. Motte (Lucien), Engineer, 
Belgian Slate Railway, Namur ; 



For English speaking countries, 
Mr. Thompson, Signal Superintendent, 
London and North Western Railway, 
I Crewe. 



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QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AT THE FIFTH SESSION. 



1i9 



XII. — Factage et camionnage. 

Organisation du service de factage et de camion- 
nage pour la remise et la prise a domicile des 
marchandises a exp^ier par chemin de fer. 

Rapporteur ; Mr. Twelvktrees, dirceteur 
du service des marchnndises du Greul 
Norlhern Railway, King's Cross, Lon- 
dres, N. 



4« SECTION. — ORhRE GENERAL. 



XIII. — Organisation des services. 

Organisation des services d'administration cen- 
trale et des services ezt^rieurs sur les divers 
r^seaux des difll&rents pays. 

Rapporteurs pour les pays de latu/ue 
non anglaise, Mr. Duca, directeur gene- 
ral des chemins de fer de Ffilat roumain, 
professeur a Tecole des ponts et chaussees, 
a Bucharest, et 

Pour les pays de lanijue anglaise, 
Mr. Harrison, directeur general du London 
and North Western Railway, Euston, Lon- 
dres, N. W. 

XIV. — RfeGI.EIIENT IiKS LITIGES. 

R^lement des litiges qui se produisent entre 
les Administrations des chemins de fer a I'occa- 
sioo du transport des marchandises. 

Rapporteur : Mr. de Peri., eonseiller 
d'Etat, directeur gerant de TUnion russe 
pour les relations internationales des che- 
mins de fer, a Saint-Pelersbourg. 

XV. — Cadran de vingt-qlatre helres. 
(3^ et 4^ sections reunies.) 

Introduction dans les horaires de la numera- 
tion continue des heures de 1 & 24 et de la divi- 
sion de Theure en 100 grades, j^tat de la question. 
Applications partielles dans les diffi&rents pays. 



XII. — Cartage .vnd Delivery. 

Organisation for the collection and delivery of 
goods and parcels consigned by railway. 

Reporter, Mr. Twelvetrees, Chief Goods 
Manager, Great Northern Railway, King's 
Cross, London, N. 



ith SECTION. — GENERAL. 



XIII. — Org.inisation. 

Organisation of the central administration, and 
outdoor staff on the various systems of different 
countries . 

Reporters for non English speaking 
countries, Mr. DrcA, General Manager, Rou- 
manian State Railways, professor at the 
tiCoXe des ponts et chau.ssees, Bucharest; 

For English speaking countries, 
Mr. Harrison, General Manager, London 
and North Western Railway, Euston, Lon- 
don, N. W. 

XIV. — SeTTLEMEM of DlSPlTES. 

Rules for settlement of differences arising be- 
tween Railways with respect to goods traffic. 

Reporter, Mr. de Perl, Privy Counsellor, 
Chief of the Foreign Trallic Department, 
Russian Railway Union, St. Petersburg. 



XV. — The Twenty-four iioirs I)a\. 
(3^^ and 4^^ Sections combined.) 

Introduction in the time-tables of continuous 
reckoning from 1 to 24 hours, and of the division 
of the hour into 100 parts. Present state of the 
question. Partial adoption in different countries. 



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150 QUESTIONS SOUMISES AUX DISCUSSIONS DE LA GINQUlfiME SESSION. 



Avantages pour le public e% pour le service. La 
modification des cadrans des horloges serait-elle 
n^cessaire, at dans I'affirmative commeut devrait- 
elle se faire ? 

Rapporteurs : Messrs. Scolari (L^on), 
docteiir en droit, inspecteur principal de 
la direction generate des chemins de fer de 
la Mediler ranee (Italic), ct Rocca (Joseph), 
ingenieiir, inspecteur de la direction gen4- 
rale du meme chemin de fer, a Milan. 

XVI. — SvSTfeME DECIMAL. 

fjre ct 4*^ sections reunies.) 

Generalisation de I'adoption du syst^me decimal 
dans les calculs relatifs auz constructions et a 
Tezploitation des chemins de fer. 

Moyens de favoriser Tintroduclion du syst^me 
metrique des poids et mesures dans les pays oil 
il n'est pas en usage. 

Rapporteur :Mr.\Vii.Ki>soN, dirccteur du 
service des marchandises du Great Western 
Railway, Paddington, Londres, W. 



5« SECTION. 
CHEMINS DE FER ECONOMIQUES. 



XVII — Affluents i»e transports et che- 
mins DE FER A FAIBLE TRAFIC. (# Ct 5^ SCC- 

lions reunies.) 



A. Chemins dc fer ^conomiques a/fluents. 
Moyens employes par les Administrations des 
grn:idcs lignes pour faciiiter Tetablissement ou 
Texploitation des chemins de fer ^conomiques 
affluents. 

Rapporteur : Mr. De Backer (H.), dircc- 
teur general de la Societe generate de che- 
mins de fer economiques de Belgique, a 
Bruxelles. 

D. FaciliUs d accorder aux chemins de fer 
d faible trafic. Facilit^s qui pourraient 6tre 



Advantages to the public, and to the railway 
service . Would the alteration of existing clocks 
be necessary, and if so, how could it best be 
accomplished ? 

Reporters, Messrs. Scolari (L^on), Chief 
Inspector of the Mediterranean Railway of 
Italy, and Rocca (Joseph), Engineer and 
Inspector of this Railway, Milan. 



XVI. — Decimal System. 
fi»' and 4"* Sections combined.) 

General adoption of the decimal system in caU 
culations relating to the construction and working 
of railways. 

Method of facilitating the introduction of the 
metric system of weiglits and measures in thoso 
countries where it is not already in use. 

Reporter, Mr. Wn.klnson, Chief Goods 
Manager, Great Western Railway, Padding- 
ton, London, W. 



m SECTION. — LIGHT RAILWAYS 



XVII. — Contributive Traffic and relax- 
ation OF NORMAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LiClIT 

Railways. (4^'^ and 5^h Sections combi- 
ned ) 

A. Light feedet' lines. Method adopted by 
the great Railways to encourage the building or 
working of light feeder lines. 



Reporter, Mr. De Racker, General Mana- 
ger of the Relgiun General Economic Rail- 
way Society, Rrussels. 

B. Relaxation of nortnal requirements for 
light railways. In the case of light railways 



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QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AT THE FIFTH SESSION. 



151 



accord^es par les aufcorites'^gouvernementales 
pour favoriser r^iablissement e( Texploitation 
des chemins de fer a faible trafic, sans qu'il en 
resalte d'i neon v^n lent au point de vue de la s^u- 
rit^. 

Rapporteurs : Messrs. A. C. fluMPnREYS- 
OwEN, membre du Pnrlement anglais, pre- 
sident du Conseil du comle de Montgo 
merj'shire, administraleiir des Cambrians 
Uailways, et P W. Meik, membre de I'ln- 
stiUit des ingenieurs civils, Londres. 

XVIII. — Affermage de l'expi.oitation 

DES CHEMINS DE FER I^COiNOMlQUES. 



what relaxation can be made by the Government 
in its normal requirements for construction and 
working without risking the public safety ? 



Reporters, Mr. Humphreys Owen, M. P., 
Chairman of the Montgomeryshire County 
Council, Director of the Cambrian Rail- 
ways, and Mr. P. W. Meik, M. Inst C. E., 
liondon. 



XVIII. — The Working; OF l.ir.nx Raii.wws 
BY Leasing Companies. 



Quels 8ont les pays ou Taffermage a ^te appli- 
que f Quelles sont les conditions auxquelles il a 
dte accord^, et quels sont les rteultats utiles que 
Ton en a retires t 

Rapporteur : Mr. de Burlet, dirccteur 
general de la Sociele nationale beige des 
chemins de fer vicinaux, a Bnixellcs 

XIX — D6p6ts des chemins de fer 

^CONOMIQUES. 

Faut-il placer le d6p6t principal au milieu 
ou k Tune des eztr^mit^ de laligne? 

Rapporteur : Mr. Terzj, directeur du 
chemin de fer de Suzzara-F'errara, a Ser- 
mide (Italic). 

XX — FrEINS des CHEMINS DE FER 

l^X.ONOMIQUES. 

(2^ et 3^ sections reunies ) 

^tude des divers .syst^mes de freins appliques 
aux chemins de fer ^conomiques. Conditions 
techniques et conditions de s^curit^. 

Rapporteur : Mr. Plocq, ingenieur, chef 
de Texploitation de la Society generale des 
chemins de fer economiques, a Arras, 
France. 



In what countries has the system of leasing 
light railways been adopted ? On what terms 
are such leases granted and with what practical 
results ? 

Reporter, Mr. de Buri.et, General Mana- 
ger of the Belgian National Light Railway 
Society, Brussels. 

XIX. — Light Railway Shops. 



Should the principal shops be in the middle or 
at one end of the line ? 

Reporter, Mr. Terzi, Manager of the 
Railway from Suzzara-Ferrara to Sermide, 
llalv. 



XX. — Brakes for Light Railways. 
(2'^^ and 5^^ Sections combined.) 

Account of the different kind of brakes in use 
on light railways. Their respective advantages 
both from the technical and from the public 
safety point of view. 

Reporter, Mr. Plocq, Superintendent of 
the General Light Railway Society, Arras, 
France. 



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152 OUESTIONS SOUMISES AUX DISCUSSIONS DE LA CINQUI^ME SESSION. 



AIVIVE1K.E. 



APPEIVDIIK.. 



RENSEIGNEMENTS TECHNIQUES 

a recueillir conform6ment aux formulaires 
adopt^s par le Congr^s sun : 

A. Lks bris des rails d*acibr, par Mr. Bricka, 
ing^nieur en chef de la voie el des bfttiments des 
chemins de fer de I'^tal fran^ais, professeur du 
cours de chemins de fer a T^cole des ponts el 
rhauss^s, a Paris. 

B. L'ENTRBTIBN COURANT DBS TRAVERSES ME- 
TALLIQUBS COMPARE A CBLUI DBS TRAVERSES BN 

B0I8, par Mr. Kowalski, ing^nieur en chef du 
service central de Texploilalion du cheroin de fer 
de Bdne-Guelma, a Paris. 

C. La DUR^E DBS TRAVBR8B8 BN BOIS DBS DIFF&- 
RENTES ESSBNCES NON INJECTEES OU INJBCT^BS 

d'apb6s les divers procbd^s, par Mr. V. Her- 
ZENSTKIN, ing^nieur des voies de communicalion 
da Russie, vice-pr^sidenl de la Commission pour 
r^tude de la conservalion des bois, u Saint- 
Pdtersbourg. 

D. Lbs essieux couDite dbs i^comotivbs (*), 
par Mr. HoDEiGE, ing^nicur principal auchemin 
de fer de T^lat beige, k Bruxelles. 

E. Les foyers dbs locomotives, par Mr. Ifo- 
DKIGE, pr^iW. 

F. Les chaudibrbs dbs logomotivbs, par 
Mr. Belleroche, ing^nieur chef de service an 
chemin de fer Grand Cenlral Beige, a Bruxelles. 

G. Lb oraissage dbs vi^iculbs, par Mr. 11 f- 
BERT, ing^nieur en chef, directeur d'administra- 
tion au chemin deferde Tj^tal beige, & Bruxelles. 

H. Lbs machines db manceuvrbs (*}, par Mr. 

llODElGE, pr^lU. 

I. Le mouvement du personnel dans lbs 
DiFp^RBNTs PAYS (M, par Mr. G. DE Laveleye, 
membre du conseil d'adminisfcralion du chemin de 
fer du Congo, k Bruxelles. 

(1) Les renseignements recueillis «Un( trfes incora- 
plel*, cclle question n'a pas 6iA traits. 



TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

collected in conformity with the forms 
adopted by the Congress : 

A. Tub breaking of stbel rails, by Mr. 
Bricka, chief engineer of the French Slate Rail- 
ways, professor of railway engineering^ at the 
Ft!cole des ponts el chausste, Paris. 

B. The current cost of metallic compared 
WITH wooden sleepers, by Mr. KOWALSKI, 
chief engineer of the Bona Guelma railway, 
Paris. 

C. The life op wooden sleepers of dif- 
ferent kinds, not pickled or pickled aocording 
to various processes by Mr. V. IIerzenstein, 
engineer of ways and communications, vice- 
president of the Commission for the study of the 
preservation of timber in Russia, St. Peters- 
burg. 

D. Locomotive crank axles ('), by Mr. 
HoDEiGE, chief engineer, Belgian State Railways, 
Brussels. 

E. Locomotive pire-boxks, by Mr. lloDEifiE, 
aforesaid . 

F. Locomotive boilers, by Mr. Belleroche, 
chief engineer. Grand Central Railway of Bel- 
gium, Brussels. 

O. Lubrication of rolling stock, by Mr. 
Hl'BERT, chief engineer, Belgian State Railways, 
Brussels. 

H. Shunting engines (»), by Mr. IIodeic.e, 
aforesaid . 

/. The movement of the staff in different 
countries (*), by Mr. G hE Lavei.eye, director 
of the Congo Railway, Brussels. 



(1} As the information collected on ibis question was 
v«ry incomplete, it was not dealt with. 



-«-»c.^yu>« > 



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r SECTION - WAY AND WORKS 



PRELIMINARY MEETING 
Held on June 26, 1895, at 430 p. m. 



Mi.LudYighj member of the International Cotmnissioi}, look the chair provisionally 
and spoke as follows : — 

Gentlemen, the International Commission of the railways Congress have appointed 
me to preside at the election of the officers for the !•' Section. 

By the Commission's wish I propose that you choose as your president 
Mr. Jeitteles, aulic councillor and general manager of the Northern of Austria. 

You are aware, gentlemen, that this great railway Company is one of the most 
prosperous and one of the best managed undertakings in Austro-Hungary. The 
selection of its illustrious general manager will be of real assistance to your discus- 
sions, especially because, in the investigations upon one of the most important ques- 
tions in your programme, '^ the question of strengthening the permanent way in view 
of the increased speed of trains ", his Company has been of the greijtest help in 
lightening the labours of its chief engineer, Mr. Ast, who will give you a summary 
of his striking report with his usual ability. {Hear! Hear!) 

Mr. Jeitteles thereupon look the chair and said : — 

Gentlemen, I feel highly tlattered at the very kind way in whicti you have been 
good enough to approve the selection of myself. I can assure you I appreciate the 
compliment and you may count on my doing my very best. 

I propose that the other officers of the section shall be the following : — 

Principal secretaries. — Mr. Debray, ingenieur en chef des ponts et chauss^ de 
France, professeur k TEcole des ponts et chausstes, secretaire general de la commis- 
sion des m6thodes d'essai des mat^riaux de construction. 

Mr. Edmund Andrews, resident engineer, London and South Western Railway. 

Secretary reporters. — Mr. Demollin, engineer. Western of France Railway. 

Mr. Leslie Robinson, Associate member of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

— This being adopted, the meeting adjourned. 



II 



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1" SECTION. — WAY AND WORKS 



QUESTION I 



STRENGTHENING OF PERMANENT WAY 

IN VIEW OF THE 

INCREASED SPEED OF TRAINS 



Type of permanent way suited for lines traversed by trains at high speed. 
Gradual strengthening of existing roads, so as to permit of an increase 
in the speed of trains. 

A. Section of rail. Calculation of the strains imposed by the rolling load. 

Results of experiments. 

B. Mode of manufacture and nature of rail-metal. Comparison of soft 

with hard steel. Steel produced (^) by the add process in the Bessemer 
converter; (2) by the basic process in the converter; (5) by either process 
in the Martin furnace. 

C. Rail connections. Fatigue of fish plates. Construction of joint best 

calculated to secure uniform strength of the road throughout. Rails 
laid in chairs, and Vignoles rails. 

D. Sleepers, their quality, dimensions, and distance apart. 

E. Ballast, the various descriptions and methods of laying. 

Reporter for English speaking countries^ Mr. FIunt, Chief Engineer, f.ancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway. ^ 

Reporter for non English speaking countries, Mr. Ast, Chief Engineer, Kaiser Ferdi-gr 
nand^s Nordbahn. 



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QUESTION I 



CONTENTS 



Pages. 
2ml |»epoi'l for F^iiglish speaking counlrles , by Mr. Wii.i.iam Hi nt. See the Bul- 
letin of April 1895, p. 1115, and the separate issue No. 9, in red covers.) . . I — 5 
Adden<la lo the 2"*' report for English speaking counlries), by Mr. W. Hint. 
,See tbe Bulletin of June 1895, Pari I, p. 1910, and the separate issue No. 9, 

in red covers. I — 79 

1^^ report (for non-English speaking countries), by Mr. \V. Ast. ^See the separate 

issues Nos. 25 anil 29, in red covers.] I — 91 

Sectional discussion I — 245 

Sectional report I — 289 

Discussion at the general meeting . . ... I — 289 

Conclusions I — 291 

Appendix : Diagrams showing the condition of the tracks obtained by means of 

the mechanical indicator, bv r. II. Diih.ey .... I — 502 



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2"** REPORT (FOR ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES) 

By William HUNT 

CHIBF BNaiNBBR OF THB LANCA8HIRB AND Y0RK8HIRB RAtLWAT, MANCHB8TBR 



With a view of ascertaining the practices of British, Irish, American, Indian, 
African, and Australian Railways, the. reporter prepared a list of questions in 
reference to the subject of this report. 

This list of questions was issued by the Brussels Commission of the Congress to 
such Companies as are members of the Congress, and in addition, the reporter 
issued the same list to twelve Railway Companies in America with whose practices 
he considered it might be desirable for the Congress to become acquainted ; of these 
twelve, six have replied. 

It was requested in the list of questions that the replies to them might have 
reference only to lines on which there are services of express trains travelling at a 
minimum speed of 40 miles (64 kilometres) per hour. Three of the Indian, two of 
the African, and one of the Australian lines replied that no advantage would have 
resulted from their answering the questions, inasmuch as there are no services of 
express trains travelling on their lines at the speed specified. 

Three Railways in the United Kingdom have not replied to the questions 
at all, and two have stated that they do not propose to reply, their mileage being 
only small. 



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The replies which have been received are from : — 

13 Railways in England and Wales, viz. : 
Cambrian. 
Furness. 
Great Eastern. 
Great Northern. 
Great Western. 
Lancashire and Yorkshire. 
London Brighton and South Coast. 
London and North Western. 
London and South Western. 
Mi^nchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire. 
Midland. 
North Eastern. 
South Eastern. 

4 Railways in Scotland, viz. : 
Caledonian. 

Glasgow and South Western. 
Highland. 
North British. 

2 Railways in Ireland, viz. : 

Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 
Great Southern and Western. 

6 Railways in America, viz. : 
Chesapeake and Ohio. 
Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. 
Illinois Central. 
Lake Shore and Michigan. 
Pennsylvania. 
New York Central and Hudson River. 

1 Indian Railway, viz. : 
East Indian. 

1 Australian Railway, viz. : 

New South Wales Government Railways. 

In order that the practices of the different Companies and Administrations may 



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be the more readily compared with each other, the reporter has compiled from the 
above answers 10 statements which form appendices to this report. In these appea- 
dices the actual wording of the replies as received has not been adhered to, but the 
substance of them is believed to be correctly recorded. The reason for not adhering 
strictly to the actual wording of the replies was to enable the practice of any 
Railway to be more easily compared with that of others. 

In addition to these statements, this report is accompanied by 30 plates, 
illustrating the type of permanent way used by those Companies and Administra- 
tions, who have answered the questions addressed to them. 

It should be noted that both statements and the plates show the latest standard of 
each Company so far as the United Kingdom is concerned. These latest standards 
are not in use at present over the whole of the several systems, but in their renewals 
the Companies are gradually introducing them. 

The replies received from the American Railways give various weights of rails on 
their several lines, but do not state whether the Companies are going to raise 
everything up to the highest standard, or intend to continue the use of the lighter 
section of rails on branches of their lines. 

It must be understood that the remarks in this report apply only to the 
27 Companies and Administrations who have replied to the questions addressed 
to them. 

Types of permanent way. 

As regards the type of permanent way, it would appear from the replies received 
that the railways in the United Kingdom are almost universally adopting bull- 
headed steel rails, keyed into chairs fastened to transverse sleepers by means of 
treenails, spikes, or screws, or combinations of these fastenings. The type of 
permanent way adopted in America by the Companies who have answered the 
questions consists of flat-bottomed rails resting directly on transverse sleepers, and 
fastened to them principally by means of spikes. 

The only engineers who have in their replies expressed any opinion as to the 
types of permanent way, are the engineer of the Great Northern Railway of Ireland, 
and the engineer of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. The 
former gentleman, who uses both types of permanent way, expresses himself as 
follows : — 

« As the steel rail is immediately in contact with the sleepers, the result is a very 
smooth running road, at the same time there is no doubt that our steel bull-headed 



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6 

road with the chairs keyed inside, is far superior, stronger, more permanent, and 
better in every way than any flange railroad > 

and the latter gentleman, writing on the American type, says : — 

« Rails supported in « chairs » have been out of date in this country for many 
years past, the Vignoles type, or « flange » rail, as it is termed in this country, 
having proved immeasurably superior in service and economy on American 
railroads .» 

Strengthening of permanent "way. 

With regard to the strengthening of permanent way so as to permit of an 
increased speed of trains, the Railway Companies in the United Kingdom have, 
over a long series of years, been gradually increasing the weight of their rails, and 
the weight and bearing area on the sleepers of their chairs, but from the informa- 
tion which the reporter has received, most of the principal Companies do not 
contemplate any further strengthening of the roads, as their latest standards of 
permanent way are fully capable of taking the highest speeds that can be obtained 
with the present rolling stock. The Great Western Railway Company, however, 
state that greater strength of the permanent way could be obtained by increasing 
the weight of the rail» and the bearing area of the chair, which should be made 
with a wider jaw to provide for a larger key. The London and South Western 
Company strengthen their road on sharp cun^es and down steep inclines by intro- 
ducing an additional sleeper under each pair of rails. 

The American Railways have been and are evidently strengthening their rails 
with a view to suit high speeds, but none, except the New York Central and 
Hudson River Railroad Company, state that they intend to further strengthen their 
road with a view to still higher speeds. 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

A. — Rails, etc. 

(See statement A.) 

The section of rail usually adopted is the steel bull-headed rail, the bull-head 
being much larger than the bottom member, to allow for wear and tear, the 
bottom member being made sufficiently strong, after allowing for oxidation, to 
form with the top member when worn down a sufficiently strong girder to carry 
the rolling load. 



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In England the weight of the rails varies from 80 to 92 lbs. (39 1/2 et 45 1/2 kilo- 
grammes par mdtre), in Scotland from 77 to 90 lbs. (38 et 4i 1/2 kilogrammes par 
mMre), and in Ireland from 74 to 85 lbs. per lineal yard (36 1/2 et 42 kilogrammes 
par m^tre). (There are some rails weighing 100 lbs. to the yard (49 1/2 kilogrammes 
par m^tre) but these are few in number.) With the exception of the Great Western, 
whose rails are 32 feet long (9"74), and the London and North-Western Company, 
who are adopting a standard length of 60 feet (18°'29}, the length of rail adopted by 
English Companies is 30 feet (9^14). In Scotland and Ireland the standard length 
of the rails is also 30 feet (9"14), with the exception of the Caledonian and Great 
Northern of Ireland, who use rails 32 feet and 26 feet long (9"»74 and 7"92) 
respectively. 

No absolute weight per yard appears to be adopted to which rails may be worn 
down before being renewed, the general condition of the whole of the materials 
forming the permanent way, and other vaying circumstances, being taken into 
consideration in determining when the road should be renewed. The renewals, 
when they take place, are usually in long lengths, and the material recovered, when 
not too far worn, is utilized for the repairs and sometimes renewals of branch 
lines, loop lines, and sidings. 

As regards the calculations of the strains imposed on rails by the rolling load, as 
the various stresses cannot be ascertained sufficiently accurately to enable a rail to 
be designed on the same scientific principles as a girder would be, it is considered 
by English engineers that close and careful observations of the effects produced 
upon the road by the rolling loads which pass over it is the best means of deter- 
mining the size and shape of the rail. 

B. — Mode of manufacture and nature of rail metal. 

(See statement B.) 

From the replies received, it is clear that most of the Railway Administrations 
have their rails rolled from steel manufactured by the Bessemer acid process, 
although some of them return the Bessemer process without stating whether it is 
the acid proces or the basic process. The only Companies who, in their specifica- 
tion, permit the use of the basic process, are the Manchester Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire, and the North Eastern. 

The London and North Western, the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire, 
the Caledonian, and the North British Companies have a specification for the 
Siemens Martin acid process. 



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8 

With reference to the testing of rails, all Companies, except the Cambrian, test 
their rails by blows produced by various weights falling from various heights on 
various lengths of rail supported on bearings from 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches (0^914 k 
1"067) apart. The amount of permanent deflection varies in each case in propor- 
tion to the weight used and the height from which that weight is dropped. 

Some Railway Companies, in addition to this, test the rails as girders, suspending 
dead weights from the centre, and specifying the deflections which will be allowed 
under the test of certain weights. 

The chemical tests do not appear generally to form part of the specification for 
rails, only four Companies giving a more or less detailed specification of the chemical 
analysis. The Great Northern Railway of Ireland state that they test their rails 
chemically, but do not give particulars of their requirements. 

The breaking weight in tons per square inch (par centimetre carre) is only specified 
by five Companies. The extension per cent, is only specified by three Companies, 
and the contraction of area per cent, is only specified by one Company. 

It appears, therefore, from these returns, that the Railway Companies mainly rely 
on the falling weight test to determine the quality of the rail manufactured for 
them. 

As to the relative merits of hard and soft steel, only five Companies give any 
information, and of these five, four lean to the use of mild steel as being less liable 
to fracture and therefore ensuring a greater measure of safety. 

C. — Rail connections. 

(See appendix C.) 

The form of joint universally adopted in the United Kingdom is a suspended one, 
the rails being connected by two fish plates bolted together through the rails by four 
fish bolts. 

With the exception of the Great W^estern and London and North Western Railways, 
whose fish plates are 20 inches (508 millimetres) long, all the Companies adopt a 
fish plate 18 inches (457 millimetres) long. Much longer fish plates than these were 
in use some years ago, but there seems to be a general opinion that the fish plates 
should be as short as possible in order to bring the chairs and sleepers at the joints 
as near together as possible, and in reply to the question as to whether this form of 
joint gives satisfaction, 16 out of 19 Companies state that it does. 

As to the shape of the fish plates in use, they may be divided into two classes, viz., 



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9 

plates whose depth is the distance between the top and bottom flange of the rail, 
and plates in which the depth is increased to the underside of the bottom flange, 
and even deeper, in some instances underlapping the rail. The sections of this class 
of fish plate are shown in the book of diagrams. 10 Companies use the former 
class, and 9 Companies use different sections of the second class. There are no 
suggestions as to how the joint could be improved. 

All the Railways (so far as their bull-headed rails are concerned) support the rails 
in chairs fastened to transverse sleepers, using various kinds of fastenings. The 
Great Northern Railway of Ireland for their flat bottom rails, and the Great Southern 
and Western Railway of Ireland, fasten their flat-bottomed rails direct to the sleepers 
by means of fang bolts and spikes. 

The weight of the chairs used by the different Companies varies considerably, the 
smallest weight being that of the South Eastern Railway, 37 lbs. (16.78 kilo- 
grammes) the heaviest being that of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway which 
weighs 56 lbs. (25.40 kilogrammes). 

The bearing area of the chair on the sleeper also varies considerably, the smallest 
area being that of the South Eastern Railway, viz. : — 70 square inches (451.2 cen- 
timetres carr^s), the largest being that of the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway which has a bearing area of 117 square inches (754.8 centimMres carr^s). 

The only Companies who place felt between the chair and the sleeper throughout 
their systems are the Cambrian and the London and North Western Railways. The 
London Brighton and South Coast Railway use it in special tunnels where the noise 
is excessive. No other Company uses a packing of any kind between the chair and 
the sleeper. 

The pattern of the chair on each side of the joint used by any Company is the 
same as that of the rest of the chairs in the road. 

The number and kind of fastenings for attaching the chairs to the sleepers varies 
with almost every Company. The details are given in appendix C. 

D. — Keys and sleepers. 

(See statement D.) 

Of the eighteen Companies who use the chair road, eleven of them use oak for 
their keys, two use teak and oak, one teak only, one fir, one pine, and one elm. 
Eight Companies compress their keys, and ten do not. All the Companies are keying 
on the outside of the rail except the Furness Railway, but they are now gradually 
adopting outside keying. 



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10 

Baltic red wood is the timber most generally used for sleepers, although some 
Companies use Memel, Riga red wood, Scotch fir, red pine. Every Company 
creosotes its sleepers. 

The lengths of sleepers are 8 feet H inches or 9 feet (2"718 ou 2"743), and the 
breadth 10 inches (254 millimetres) amd the thickness 5 inches (127 millimetres). 

The distance apart of the sleepers on the several lines is shown in the accom- 
panying plates. 

Although metal sleepers have been put down in places, notably on the London 
and North Western Railway, they do not seem to have found favour with the Railway 
Companies of the United Kingdom. The London and North-Western Railway have 
not put any down since 1888; the Great Eastern and London and South Western 
Companies have experimented with a few, but are not continuing their use. 

E. — Ballast. 

(See statement E.) 

The ballast used by the various Companies, details of which are given in appen- 
dix £', varies according to the locality through which the lines pass. The bottom 
ballast generally consists, in districts where it can be obtained, of large hand-packed 
stones, but where this cannot be obtained, slag, burnt clay, and ashes are used. 
For top ballast various materials are used, viz. : — Broken stone, gravel, slag, 
chippings, ashes, and cinders screened and unscreened, and Thames gravel; the best 
material in each district consistently with economy being obtained, so as to get the 
best drainage possible. 

The practice of laying ballast above the level of the top of the sleeper varies a good 
deal. Details are given in appendix E. 

Amerioan, Indian, and Australian Rail-ways. 

Al. — Section of rail. 

(See statement Ai,) 

The section of rail usually adopted by the six Railway Companies in America, 
who have answered the questions, and by the East Indian Railway, and New South 
Wales Government Railways, is a flat bottom rail with bull head. The area of the 
bottom member is somewhat stronger than need be, considering the rail as a girder, 
being apparently so made to distribute the weight of the traffic over as large an area 
of the sleeper (or « tie » as it is called in America) as possible. 



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I 

n 

The weight of the rails varies from 60 lbs. to 85 lbs. per lineal yard (30 et 40 kilo- 
grammes par mfttre), but the New York Central Railway have laid down for trial a 
certain length of road with rails weighing 100 lbs. per lineal yard (49 1/2 kilogrammes 
par m^tre). The result of this trial will guide them as to what weight of rail they 
will adopt in the future. 

As to the length of rails used, the standard length is 30 feet (9"14), but the Penn- 
sylvania Railway have used 60 feet (IS'^aO) rails, though they do not say whether they 
intend to continue them or not. Rails of 60 feet (18"*29) length are also in use on a 
portion of the New York Central and Hudson River Railway, where their engineer 
writes, « This length promises well, with the prospect of a substantial economy in 
maintenance of way expenses ». 

As with the English Railways, these Companies, as a rule, do not fix an absolute 
weight per yard to which the rails may be worn before being renewed, but the New- 
York Central Railway gives a minimum, a medium, and a maximum weight of rails 
at which they should be renewed, and the New South Wales Government gives the 
weights to which the rail are worn down. 

Bl. — Mode of manufacture and nature of rail metal. 

(See appendix Bi,) 

Six Companies specify that the steel from which the rails are rolled shall be 
manufactured by the Bessemer process, two out of the six specifying the acid 
process. The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad do not specify any parti- 
culars by which the steel from which the rails are rolled is to be manufactured. 
The East Indian Railway prefer the Siemens acid process. 

As far as tests go, the six American Railways do not subject their rails to any 
bending test. The Chesapeake and Ohio and the Illinois Central Railroads test the 
steel, however, from which the rails are rolled, by hanunering two test pieces into 
bars which, when cold, must bend to an angle of 90 degrees vdthout breaking. 
The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad purchase the rails under a five years 
guarantee. 

The East Indian and New South Wales Government Railways adopt the falling 
weight tests, similar to those used by the English Railways. They also test the 
rails as girders with suspended weights. 

The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company specify a chemical 
test. 



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12 

The New York (icntral and Hudson River Railroad and the New South Wales 
Government have also a breaking weight in tons per square inch (par centimetre 
carr6), that of the former being from 49 to 58 tons per square inch (l.k 27 
9.13 tonnes par centimetre carr^), and that of the latter being 44 tons per square 
inch (6.93 tonnes par centimetre carre). The elongation in the case of the New 
York Central and Hudson River Railroad is from 6 to 12 per cent., and the New 
South Wales Government Railroad 14 per cent. 

It is clear from the returns that the American Railways prefer a hard steel to a 
mild one, as giving a longer wear. 

CI. — Rail connections. 

(See statement CI.) 

Three of the American Railways state that they use suspended joints, and the 
other three use supported joints. In two instances, viz., the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway, and the New York Central and Hudson River Railway, the 
joint is supported by a transverse sleeper centrally underneath it. 

The East Indian and the New South Wales Government Railways use suspended 
joints. 

The fish plates on the American Railways vary from 20 inches to 38 inches long. 
(508 et 965 millimetres). Four of these Railways have long fish plates with six fish 
bolts. The other two use short fish plates 20 inches and 24 inches (508 et 610 milli- 
metres) long with four fish bolts. 

The East Indian Railway uses fish plates 22 inches (559 millimetres), and the 
New South Wales Government Railways use for their flat bottom rails, fish plates 
18 inches (457 millimetres) long, and for their bull-headed rails, fish plates 
20 inches (508 millimetres) long, each with four fish bolts. 

On the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad, and the New York Central and 
Hudson River Railroad the rails are laid with broken joints, that is, the joints in one 
rail being opposite the centre of the other rail in its road. 

Six of the Companies consider their joints are satisfactory. The Lake Shore and 
Michigan Railroad do not consider the joint satisfactory, stating « a joint fastening 
which is as strong as the rail is required ». The Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
state that their joint is not universally satisfactory, and they suggest an improvement 
by shortening the fish plates. The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad 
throw out a suggestion that joints should be abandoned altogether, and some form 



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13 

of compound continuous rail substituted for them, but so far as the reporter can 
ascertain this has not been tried. 

The American Railways fasten their rails to the sleepers in various ways, by 
spikes, clips, and screws, details of which are given in appendix C i. 

The bearing area of the rails on the sleeper varies from 36 to 50 square inches. 
(232.3 et 322.6 centim^res carr^s). 

The iron chairs used by the East Indian Railway are 30 lbs. (13.61 kilogrammes) 
weight, having a bearing area on the sleeper of 86 square inches (S54.8 centimetres' 
carr^s); on the New South Wales Government Railway, where bull-headed rails are 
used, the weight of the chair is 48 lbs. (20.41 kilogrammes), and the bearing area on 
the sleeper 108 square inches (696 centimMres carris). 

On both these last mentioned lines the chairs on each side of the joint are of the 
same pattern as the rest. 

Dl. — Keys and sleepers. 

(See statement Dl.) 

Keys are of course not used on the American Railways. 

Keys of teak are used on the East Indian Railway, and teak and cedar on the New 
South Wales Government Railways. On the first-named line the keys are not com- 
pressed, but on the latter they are. Both Railways key on the outside of the rail. 

The wood used for the sleepers, as will be seen by the appendix, varies with the 
locality. Neither of the Railways creosote their sleepers. 

The length of the sleeper varies from 8 feet to 9 feet 6 inches (2"438 et 2'»896), 
the breadth from 8 inches to 10 inches, and the thickness from 5 inches to 7 inches 
(127 et 178 millimetres). 

£i. — Ballast. 

(See statement El,) 

The American, Indian, and Australian Railways; like the English Railways, adopt 
for bottom ballast, broken stone, gravel, or sand according to the locality. The 
top ballast varies in thickness from 5 inches to 12 inches (127 et 305 millimetres), 
and consists principally of gravel, crushed stone, cinders, or slag. 



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I 

14 



STATEMENT A. — Rails. 



D 



QUESTIONS. 



Kn^lflind 



Cambrian 

(PI 1.) 



Fnmess. 

(PI. 2.) 



Great Eastern 

(PI. 3.) 



2 
8 

a 
b 



Weight of rail . . 



Per yard . 
Par mMre. 



Length 

Holes for fish bolts : 

a) Number 

b) Shape ....... 

c) Distance apart from centre to 

centre of holes .... 

d) Distance firom end of rail to 

centre of nearest hole. . 



Is the line relaid when the rails 
wear down to minimum weight 
per yard? 



If so, give weight 



Is line relaid when rails wear down 
to minimum thickness of top flange 
or minimum depth over all ? . . 

If so, give thickness or depth . . . 



Have you made use of rails of unu- 
sual length, 60 feet (iS'Bld) or 
upwards) 



If so, state object and what result 



HO lbs. 
39 1/2 kilog 

30 feet (9»14). 

Four. 
Round. 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill.). 

2 1/8 inches (54 mill.) 



80 1/2 lbs. 
40 kilog. 

30 feet (9"14). 

Four. 
Elongated. 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill ) 

2 1/8 inches (54 mill.). 



No attention is paid 
this, but renewed when| 
required 



'Relaying of line is ruled 
by the position, gra-l 
dient, amount of traffic,, 
etc. 



On viaducts* only. 



No. 



85 lbs 
42 kilog. 

30 feel (9»14). 

Four. 
Oval. 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill.) 

2 5/8 inches (67 mill.) 



Relaying is carried on 
year by year all over 
the system at varioas 
points wherever requi • 
red. Judging by this it 

fives an average life of 
4 to 24 years. On the 
suburban lines, and at 
or near the London ter- 
mini, where the traffic 
is very heavy, pails 
have been taken out at 
a much shorter life 
than this. 



No. 



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15 



Great Northern. 
fPl. 4.) 



Great Western. 

(PI. 5.) 



Lancashire 
and Torkshire. 

(PL 6.) 



London, Brighton 
and South Coast. 

(PI. 7.) 



London 
and North Western. 

(PI. 8.) 



85 lbs. 
42 kilog. 

30 feet (9-14). 

Four. 
Oval. 

1/2 inches (114 mill.). 

3/16 inches (58 mill.). 



92 lbs. 
45 1/t kilog. 

32f6et(9'»74). 

Four. 
Oval. 

5 inches (127 mill). 

2 7/16 inches (62 mill.). 



\ 



Dependent on (he 
moant of traffic, and > 
life of rails. 



As a rule it may be taken 
that with from 15 to 
20 years of average 
traffic, a rail loses 15 
to 20 per cent, of its 



86 Ibi. 
42 i/2 kilog. 

30 feet (g-^U). 

Foiir. 
Oval. 

4 1/8 inches (105 mill ), 

2 7/8 inches (73 mill ). 



Approximate minimum 
weight 66 lbs. per lin- 
eal yard (32 1/2 kilog. 
par mdtre), provided 
the other component 
parts of the permanent 



weight, and is takenl - ^^ ^^^ • -.^flj^- ^♦i„ 
OQtlnd used in sidings) ^«y.«''«.'" sufficiently 
or goods lines, the 



No. 



fittingH and sleepers 
being removed at the 
same time, and like- 
wise used again. 



No. 



good order to allow of 
them being so worn 
down, if not the whole 
road is taken out and 
the unworn rails used 
for sidings. 



No. 



84 lbs. 
41 1/2 kilog. 

30 feet (9«14). 

Four. 
Oval. 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill.). 

2 1/2 inches (64 mill.). 



Top flange. 

When 1/2 inch (12.7 
mill.) has been worn 
off. 



No. 



80 lbs. and 90 lbs. 
39 1/2 et 44 1/2 kilog. 

30 feet and 60 feet 
(9«14 et 18-29). 

Four. 
Circular. 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill.) 

2 3/8 inches (60 mill.) 



|No weight is arbitra- 
rily fixed. The nature 
of traffic, the condi- 
tion of sleepers and 
chairs, and the de- 
mand for second-hand 
rails for repairs, are 
taken into considera- 
tion, as well as the de- 
formation and weight 
of the rail. 



60 feet (1S°»29) is the 
standard length, shor- 
ter raib are also used. 

Fewer joints . 



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I 

16 



STATEMENT A. - Rails. (Continuation.) 



i 

a 

g 

2r 




Eo^laod 


aod '^Vale** {Continuation,) 




London 
and 


Manchester 
Sheffield 


mdland. 


North Eastern. 


Senth EMtern. 




Sonth WesUrn. 

(PI. 9.) 


and Lineobishire. 

(PI. 10.) 


(PI. 11.) 


(PI. 12.) 


(PI. 13.) 


1 


Per yard, 87 lbs. 


86 lbs. 


85 lbs. 


90 lbs. 


82 lbs. 


Per mMre, 43 kilog. 


48 i/J kilog. 


42 kilog. 


44 l/« kilog. 


40 1/2 kilog. 


2 
8 

a 


30feet(««14). 


30 feet (9»14). 


30feel(9«14). 


d0ftet(9»14). 


30ieet (9»i4). 


Four. 


Four. 


Four. 


Four. 


Fo«r. 


h 


Oval. 


Oval. 


Oval. 


Oval. 


OlMll. 


c 


4 1/2 inches (114 mill). 


4l/tiiKibes(114mill.). 


4 l/t inches (114 mill.) 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


4 5/8iQcb68(ii7imU. 


d 


2 inches (51 mill.). 


2 5/8 inches (67 mill.). 


2 S/16 inches (58 mill.). 


2 7/20 inches 
(60 mill.). 


26/l6inchM(59«mU. 


4 
5 

6 

7 


No such standard pre- 
vails. The necessity 
for relaying any sec- 
way is determined by 

) the general condition 
of all its component 
parts, coupled with 
the amount and class 
of traffic which passes 
over it. 


Yes. 

72 lbs. per yard. 
(36 l/t k. par mMre). 

Thin top flangte. 

Top flange worn to 

thickness of bottom 

flange. 


The length of time 
which our rails can 
remain in the road 
varies so largely that 
it is almost impossible 
to give any satisfac- 

^ fory information on 
the subject. The aver- 
age life of Steel rails 
in our main lines ap- 
pears to be something 
like 20 to 21 years. 


Yee. • 

70 lbs. par yard 
(34i/tk.parm«re). 

n 


Yes. 

Average, 70 lbs. pet 
yard(d4 1/2 kilog. pal 
m^tre). 

Yes. 

4 5/8 inches to 4 7/t 

inches 
(117 A 124 mill.). 


■ 


No 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


L 


» 


• 


- 


w 


• 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 



Scotland* 



Caledonian. 

(PI. 14.) 



Glasgow 

and 

South Western. 

- (PI. 15.) 



Highland. 

(PI. 16.) 



North British. 

(PI. 17.) 



Ireland. 



Great Wor th^m 
of Ireland. 

(PI. 18 ek 19.) 



Great Sonthem 

and 

Western. 

(PI. 20.) 



90 lbs. 
44l/2kilog. 

32f€et (9-74). 

Four. 
Oral. 



4 10/16 in^dies 
(117 miU.). 

2 5/i6 inches 
(59mfll.). 

No weight is arbi 
trarily fixed, but 
generally wear 
down to 70 lbs. per 
lineal jard (34 1/2 
kilog. par metre) 
If, however, state 
ofballast and slee- 
pers require re- 
newal, the railsl 
wonld be taken' 
out whether they 
are worn down to 
70 lbs. (34 1/2 kil. 
par mMre) or not. 



No. 



90 lbs. (44 ijt kilog,). 
— Only one section 
is now used, but there 

iare still different sec- 
tions in use, which 
are being repl»oed 
b^ ibe fltandara sec* 
lM>n when wovn out 

30 feet (9«14). 



Four. 
OTal 

45/8inche8(117inilL), 

2 3/8 indies (60 mill.) 



76 1/2 lbs. (38 kil.)| 
Double-headed . 

77 and 80 lbs. (38 
et 39 1/2 kilog.). 
Bull-headed. 



30feet(9«14). 



FVour. 

Round. 



4 5/s inches 
(117 mill.). 

2 7/32 inches 
(56 mm.). 



The line is relaid whea 
the rails are worn so 
that they are consi- 
dered too weak, to 
carry the traffic. 

The rails which come 
out of the main line'oteei -^ih 
when relaying weigh /^rf/J*i^^^ 
from 68 lbs. (32 1/2 ^"*^ ^^'^ 
kilog.) to 72 lbs. per 
yard(36 1/2 kilog. par 
m^tre\ and we con- 
sider that they should 
not be used any ligh- 
ter than this. 



substi- 
iron. 



84 lbs. 
(41 1/2 kilog.). 

30 feet (9»14) 

Four. 
Oral. 



ISteel Bull-headedj 
)85 lbs. (42 kilog.).! 
\ Steel Iflat-bottom 
ed,79bB.(39k.). 



26 feet (7«92). 

Four. 
Elongated. 



4 inches 
(102 mill.). 

2 7/16 inches 
(68 mill.) 

There is no fixed 
minimum weight 
per yard when line 
must be relaid. 



No. 



No. 



There is no fixed 
/ minimum thick- 
ness when line 
must be relaid . 



No. 



4 inches 
(102 miU.). 

2 15/16 inches 
(75 mill.). 



All old iron rails 
taken up when 
much laminated, 
worn, and crack 
ed, and relaying 
with new steel 
rails carried out 
in long continuous 
lengths. 



No. 



741ba. 
(36 1/2 kilog.). 

30feet(9«14). 

Four. 
Oyal. 



4 inches 
(102 mill.). 

2 5/16 mches 
(59 mill.). 



We have no fixed 
rule as to when 
this should be 
done. 



No. 



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I 

18 





STATEMENT B. — 


Manufacture and testing of rails. 






QUESTIONS. 


EQ§;laiiicl 


CSambrian. 


Fnrness. 


Great Eastern. 


Great Northern. 


D 
2 




(PI. 1.) 


(PI. 2.) 


(PI. 3.) 


(PL 4.) 


f 


By what process in (he steel for 
rails manufactured T 










a 


a) Bessemer acid .... 


Bessemer acid . 


Bessemer acid . 


Bessemer. 


Bessemer acid. 


6 


h) Siemens Martin acid . . 


, 


« 


« 


t» 


c 


c) Basic in Siemens Martin 












hearths 


«• 


« 


«* 


» 


2 


To what tests are rails subjec- 
ted before acceptance! 










a 


a) Bending 


Nospeciflcation. 


3feet6inches(l»067) 


A rail to be placed, bull-head 


5 feet (1">524) lengt 








length to be cut from 


uppermost, on bearings 
3f.6inch.(l«»067)apart. 


placed on solid iro 








rai s, and placed on 


supports, having soli 








supports 3 feet (914 
mill.) apart, and 


Weight of 18 tons (18.289 


foundations 3 f . 6 in 








tonnes) to be suspended 


(l'»0rt7) clear apart, aft 








shall then receive a 


from centre, deflection not 


shall then receive sac 








blow from a weight 


to exceed3/8 of an inch (9.5 


cessive blows from 








of 1 ton (1,016 ki- 


mill.) after weight has been 


weight of 1,120 Ibt 








log.), falling from 


on half-an-hour. permanent 


(508 kilog.) falling 
height of 10 f. (3»048, 
Rails not to break be 








a height of 20 feet 


set after removal not to 








(6«n09) without 


exceed 1/8 of an inch (3.2 








breaking, and with- 


mill.) The same rail pla- 
ced bull-head uppermost 


fore or under the thir 








out a permanent de- 


blow,nor take a permai 








flection of more than 


on bearings 3 f. 6 in (1»067) 


ent set after the fin 








3 inches (76 mill.). 


apart must bear two blows 
from ball weighing 1,800 
lbs. (816 kilog.) from 1 
height of 8 leet (2>»438) 
without breaking, and with- 


blow exceeding 1 3/ 
inch (35 mill.). 




















out deflecting more than 












1 inch (25 mill.). 




6 


6) Caiemical 


No specification. 








c 


c) Tension : 
Breaking weight in tons per 




> None specified. 


None specified. 


None specified. 




unit of area 


100 tons (101. 5I 1 










tonnes) placed 












half-way bet- 












ween bearings 






' 






of3 feet 6 inches 












(1-067). 










Extension per cent .... 












Contraction of area, per cent . 










3 


Particulars as to the relative 




* 








merits of Hard and Soft steel. 


n 


» 


• 


1 










Digitized by VnO^ 


ogle 



19 



and ll^ales* 



Great Westarn. 

(PI. 5) 



Lancashiro 
and Torluhire. 

(PI. 6.) 



London, Brighton 
and Sonth Coast. 

(PI. 7.) 



London and North Western. 

(PI. 8.) 



igoto from which rails are made to be 
»8t of best steel for the purpose, made 
^m EngUsh or Spanish hoematite ore and 
charcoal spi^eleisen. 



feet length (i»524) to be cut off one rail 
Irom each cast. This to be placed bull 
lead upwards on two iron supports having 
lolid foundations, with centres 3 feet 
) inches (1"067) apart, then subjected to 
)low8 from a falling iron weight of i ton 
1,016 kilog.) without fracture or deflection 
^ond the following : — First blow 7 feet 
t"l34) initial deflection 7/8 inch to 1 1/4 
inch (22 & 32 mil.), second blow 20 feet 
[Wm\ toUl deflection 3 inches to 4 i/4 
inches (76 k 108 mill.)- If the rail after the 
Rcond blow has not deflected 3 inches 
f76 mill.) it is to be subjected to a 
third blow with the same weight from 
I tall of 12 feet (30^658), the deflection 
tfter the third blow to be not less than 
1 1/4 iaches(108 mill.). 



irbon . . . from '40 to *50 per cent 
iUcon ... — -10 to '06 — 
langaoese . . — '95 to '85 — 
olphur as low as possible, not to exceed 

*08 per cent, 
boflphoms as low as possible, not to 
exceed '08 per cent. 



Not lets than 40 nor more than 48 tons 

per square inch 
f not less than 6.3 tonnes nor more than 
7.56 tonnes per centimetre carr6. 



ot less than 20 per cent, in 2 in. (51 mill.). 
Not given. 



Bessemer acid. 



Bessemer acid. 



5 feet length (1»524) 
placed bull-head up- 
permost on perfectly 
Arm bearers 3 feet 
6 inches (1b067) 
apart must bear one 
blow from a weight 
of one ton (1,016 
kilog.), falling a 
height of 20 feet 
(6 m 096), without 
fracture, the per- 
manent set not to be 
less than 2 l/2 in. 
(48 mill.) nor to 
exceed four inches 
(89 mill.). 



A rail to he placed 
head uppermost on 
iron bearings 3 feet 
6 inches (l'n067) 
apart to receive two 
blows from a weight 
of 1 ton (1.016 kil.) 
falling a height of 
20feet(6B096),with* 
out causing greater 
permanent deflec 
tion at first blow 
than 17/8 inches (48 
mill.), or than 3 1/2 
inches (89 millim.) 
at second blow. 



None specified. 



Bessemer acid. 
Siemens Martin acid . 



Rails placed on bearings, centres 3 feet 
(914 mill ) apart, and shall then receive a 
blow from a weight of one ton (1,016 ki- 
log.), falling a height of 20 feet (6'»096), 
when the permanent deflection shall not 
be less than 3 inches (76 mill.). 



Bbssbmbr acid 


SiBMSNS Martin 


STBBU 


ACID STBBL. 


Per oenc. 


Per cent. 


Carbon. . -20 to -40 


•25 to -50 


Silicon. 'Trace to 10 


•01 to -25 


Sulphur . "Ol to *10 


•05 to -10 


Phosphorus *01 to 10 


•05 to -15 


Manganese 25 to 1*25 


:25to 1-25 


Iron. . .99*53 to 9805 


99-39 to 97-75 


100*00 100*00 10000 10000 



None specified. 



30 to 35 tons per square inch, 
(4.72 to 5.51 tonnes per square centim.) 



About 15 per cent, on lengths of 10 inches. 
About 22 per cent. 

A rather sofl steel is used to insure a 
greater measure of safety. 



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20 



STATEMENT B. — Manufacture and testing of rails. (Continuation.) 



EngloDd and IValea. (Continuation.) 



LondoB aod 
SooUi W«it«ni. 

(PI. 9.) 



MflBCnOStOT) Sll6fu6id 

•Bd LincolttflUre. 

(PI. 10.) 



(PLtt) 



Forth Eastern. 

(PI. 12.) 



South Eastern. 

(PI. 13.) 



Bessemer acid. 



12 feet (3«^58) length 
placed on bearings 
3 feet (914 mill.)apart 
must bear a blow from 
a weight of 1 Ion 
(1,(H6 kilog.) fiiiling 
from a height of 20 f. 
(6»096). Permanent 
eet not to be less than 
1 5/8 inch (41 mill ) 
or more than 1 7/8 in 
(48 mill.) 



c \ None specified. 



We endeavour to se- 
cure rails which, 
while being hard (to 
resist wear), are not 
brittle. 



By all processes. 



5 feet (1"524) length placed on 
solid iron bearings 3 feet 
6 inches (I'^OGT) clear apart, 
and shall then receive blows 
fromaweightofl0cwts.(508ki 
log. ) falling a height of 10 feet 
(3M)48). Rails not to break 
before or under the third blow, 
nor take a permanent set after 
the first blow exceeding 1 3/8 
inch (35 mill.). 



Per cent 

Carbon to be from . *3 to *45 
Silicon not to be more than 06 
Phosphonn — 06 

Sulphur — 

The onlj metals shall be iron] 
and manganese. 



Mild steel less liable to fracture 



Bessemer acid. 



Rail placed on bearings 
3 feel 6 inches (i°»067) 
apart, must not deflect 
more than a quarter of 
an inch (64 mill.) with 
a weight of 20 tons 
(20,320 tonnes) suspen- 
ded from tiie centre. 

Rail placed on bearings 
3 feet 6 inches (1*067) 
apart to receive two 
blows from a weight of 
one ton (1.016 fcilog.) 
falling 12 feet (3"»658) 
without breaking or 
deflecting more than 
3 inches (76 mill.). 



None specified. 



Bessemer acid with 

haematite iron. 
Bessemer basic pro< 
cess with Cleveland 
iron. 

Rails to be placed on 
bearings 3 feet (914 
mill.) apart, and 
shall then receive 
two blows from a 
ball weighing one 
too (1,016 kilog.), 
falling a height of 
5feet(ln>524). Not 
to show any signs 
of fracture, and per- 
manent deflection 
not to exceed one 
inch (25 mill.). 



Rail not to contain 
less than 0' 45 per 
cent, of carbon. 



Bessemer acid. 



A short length of rail 
placed on bearings 
3 feet (914 mill.) 
apart must on first 
blow from a weight 
of 1 ton ri,016 kilog) 
faUing 14 f . (4"267) 
not have a greater 
permanent set tiiaji 
2 1/8 inches (54 mill.) 
or more than 3 1/2 
inches (89 mill.) at 
the second blow. ' 
£lach test rail must 
bear reversing and 
straightening under 
the 1 ton (1,016 ki- 
log.) weighl fidling 
14 f . (4n267) at each 
Mow. 



None specified. 



None specified. 



No data. 



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I 

21 



Scotland. 



Caledonian. 

(PI. 14.) 



South Wefl«ni« 

(PI. 15.) 



fligliland. 

(PI. 16.) 



North BriUsh. 

(PI. 17.) 



Ireland. 



Great Northern 
of Ireland. 

(PI. 18 et 19.) 



Great Southeni 

and Western. 

(PI. 20.) 



Bessemer, Siemens, or 
other equally appro- 
ved proeess. 



Each rail placed on 
bearings 3 feet (914 
mill.) apart, shall bear 
a weight of 40 tons 
(40.640 toaoes) ^U3 
pended midway be 
tween those bearings 
without a grreater de- 
fleetioa thaa 3/8 in«h 
(9.5zmll.), aitdwith 
oat any permanent 
deflection ailer the 
load has be«R on for 
one hour. AJso two 
blows from a weight 
of 1 ton (1,016 kilog.) 
lalliog a height of 
12 feet (3-658) with- 
out breakia^ or more 
deflection than i inch 
(25 mill.) for each 
blow. 



None specified. 



Bessemer aj^d* 



Not less than 15 feet 
(4»572) length of rail, 
placed on bearings 3 f. 
(914 mill.) apart, shall 
bear weight of 40 tons 
(40.640 tonnes) sus- 
pended midway be- 
tween these bearings 
without greater deflec- 
tion than 3/8 inch 
(9.5 mill.), and with- 
out any permanent de- 
fleetioa after the load 
has been on for oae 
hour. Also two blows 
from a weight of 1 ton 
(1,016 kilog.) falling 
a height of 12 feet 
(3°»658) without break- 
ing, or more deflec- 
tion than 1 1/4 inch 
(32 mill.) for each 
blow. 



We prefer steel for rails 
to he of the hard side. 



Bessemer. 



A. rail to be placed bull- 
head uppermost on 
bearings 3 feet 6 inch. 
(1"»067) a{)art, must 
bear a weight of 20 
tons (20.320 tonnes) 
midway between the 
bearings without per- 
manent deflection, and 
3d tons (36.580 tonnes) 
wi^out fracture. 

A rail placed on two 
sujuporta, 3 feet (914 
mill.) apart, must 
stand two blows from 
an iron ball weighing 
1 ton (1,016 kilog.), 
falling upon it from a 
h^ht of 20 f (6«K)96) 
wiraout breaking, and 
without a greater per- 
manent set than 3 1/2 
inches (89 mill.). 



Bessemer acid. 
Siemens acid. 



A rail placed on 
bearings 3 f. 8 in. 
(1«118) apart, 
must bear one 
blow from a 
weight of 1 ton 
(1,016 kil.) fall- 
mg a height of 
45 feet (4^572; 
without deflec- 
ting more than 
2 1/2 inches (64 
mill.), aad with* 
out showing any 
Imperfections. 



30 tons per square inch ^ 

(4 . 72 tonnes per square 

centimetre) 

of sectional area. 



None sped Aad. 



Bessemer acid. 



A rail placed on 
bearings 3 feet 
(914 mill.) apart 
must bear a 
weight midway 
between the bear- 
ings of 23 teas 
(23.370 tonnes) 
without perma- 
nent set, and 35 
tons (35.560 ton- 
nes) without brea- 
king. 

A rail placed on 
bearings 3 feet 
(914 mill.) apart, 
must bear three 
blows from a ball 
weighing IScwt. 
(944 kilog.), fal- 
ling from a height 
of9feet(2'»743), 
without deflec- 
ting nK)re than 
3 inches (76 mil). 

Detail not given. 



Bessemer acid. 



A rail placed on 
bearings 3 f. (914 
mil.) apart must 
bear a weight of 
23 t. 23.37 1.) with- 
out permanent set, 
and a weight of 
35 tons (35. 360 1.) 
without breaking, 

A rail placed on 
bearings 3 feet 
(914 mill.) apart 
must bear three 
blows from a ball 
weighing I ton 
(1,016 kilog.) fal- 
ling a height of 
9 feet (2'a743) 
without deflec- 
ting more than 
3 inches (76 mill.). 



32 to 39 tons / NonespeciAed. 
per square inch. 
(5 04 to 6-1 It. 
persquare cent ) 

16 to 23. 



Not taken. 

Soft steel rails less 
liable to fracture 
in the line. 



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STATEMENT C. — Rail connections. 



QUESTIONS. 



Cambrian. 

(PI. i.) 



Fnmest. 

(PI. 2.) 



Great BaBtam. 
(PI. 3.) 



7 
8 

9 
a 
10 

11 

12 

13 
U 



15 



Is the rail suspended or supported in a 
joint chair or on sleepers? .... 
Fish plate : 

Length 

Depth 

Thickness 

Weight of each 

Fish bolts : 

Number 

Size 

Weight including nut and washer 

(where used} 

Description of fish bolt 



Description of nut (and washer if any) 



Are holes in fish plates square or circular, 
punched or drilled? 

Does the form of joint used give satis&c- 
tion? 

If not, in what respect is improvement 
required with a view to securing uni- 
form strength of road throughout ?. 

How are rails secured to sleepers? 

With chairs on wood sleepers. . . 

Weight of chair ? ... ... 

Is felt or other material placed between 
chair and sleeper ? 

Are the chairs on each side of the joint of 
the same pattern as the rest ? If not, 
give particulars 

Full partiailars of mode of attachment of 
each chair to sleeper 



Full particuUirs of mode of attachment of 
fiat-bottomed rail to sleeper. . . . 



Suspended. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 
4 7/8 inches (124 mill.). 

13/16 inch. (21 mill.). 
20 l/« lbs. (9.30 kilog.). 

Four. 

4 inches (102 mill.} 
by J9/32 inch. (23 mill.), 
lib. 9 1/4 02.(0.716 kilog.) 
Cup headed, with square 

shoulder at head end. 



Ordinary square nut with 
differential thread, no 
washer. 



Square— punched. 



Yes. 



Yes. 

42 lbs. (19.05 kilog.). 

101 1/2 square inches 

(654.8 cent, carr^s). 

Felt. 



Yes. 
2 fang bolts and 1 spike. 



Suspended. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 

4 15/16 inches (125 mill.). 

3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

20 lbs. (9.07 kilog.). 

Four. 
4 inches (102 mill.) 
by 7/8 inches (22 milU). 
1 3/8 lbs. (0.624 kilog.). 
Eureka patent cup headed, 
with square shoulder at 
headend. 

Ordinary square nut and 
round washer. 



Sc(uare in one plate, and 
circular in the other 
Punched . 

Yes. 



Yes. 

45 lbs. (20.41 kilog.). 

116 square inches 

(748.4 cent, carrte). 

No. 



Yes. 

Two 7/8 inch (22 mill.) cup 
headed spikes and two 
compressed oak treenails. 



Suspended. 

18 inches (457 mOl ). 
4 7/8 indies (124 mill.] 

13/16 inch. (21 mill). 
21 1/2 lbs. (9.30 kilog.] 

Foot. 

4 inches (102 mill.] 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 
1 1/2 lb. (O.eS kilog.). 
Chip headed withi 
shoulder at the ~ 



ithsqittxi 
headeai 



Ordinary scpiare nuts ai 
no washers. 



Square. — Pancbed. 



Tes. 



Yes. 
43 lbs. (19.50 kilog > 

98 square inches 
(632.3 cent, cmrrfe). 

No. 



Yes. 

Two iron spikes 5 i/tii 
ches (140 milL) by :^ 
inch (22 mill.), and t« 
solid treenails. 



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I 

S3 



EnKlamd and l?Vale». 11 


Great Northern. 


Great Western. 


Lancashire 
and Yorkshire. 


London, Briahton 
and South Coast. 


London 
and North Western. 


(PI. 4.) 


(PI. 5.) 


(PI. 6.) 


(PI. 7.) 


(PI. 8.) 


Sospended. 


Suspended. 


Suspended. 


Suspended. 


Suspended. 


18 inches (457 miU.). 


20 inches (508 mill.). 


18 inches (457 mill.). 


18 inches (457 mill.). 


20 inches (508 mill.). 


3 1/4 inches (83 miU.). 


3 1/4 inches (83 mill.). 


3 3/8 inches (86 mill.). 


6 7/8 inches (175 mill.). 


5 1/4 inches (183 mill.). 


linch(25iniU.). 


13/16 inch (21 mill.). 


7/8 inch (22 mill.). 


29/32 inch (23 mill.). 


7/8 inch (22 miU). 


l3l/tlb8.(6.i2kilog.). 


14 lbs. (6.35 kilog.). 


14 lbs. (6.35 kilog.). 


29 lbs. (13. 15 kilog.). 


27 1/4 lbs. (12.36 kilog.). 


Poor. 


Four. 


Four. 


Four. 


Pour. 


i 1/2 inches (114 mill.) 


4 1/8 inches (105 mill.) 


4 1/4 inches (108 mill.) 


4 1/2 inches (114 mill.) 


4 inches (102 miU.) 


by 7/8 inch. (22 mill.). 


by 15/1 6 inch. (24 mill.). 


by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 


by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 


by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 


21b8,(0.9ikilog.) 


1-87 lb. (0.85 kilog.). 


17/8 lb. (0.85 kilog.). 


11/2 lb. (0.68 kilog.). 


11/2 lb. (0.68 kilog.). 


Steel—both cup and 




Cup head, with square 


Square head fitting into square 


Square head. Shape of fish 


square headed, with 


with pear-shaped 
shoulder at head end. 


shoulders at head end. 


recesses in one of the fish 


plate prevents head turn- 


square shoulders at 




plates. 


ing while bolt is being 


the head end. 








screwed. 


Lock nuts are used. 


Lock nuts, with 


Ibbotson's patent nut. 


Hexagonal nut with Orover's 


Steel nut. 


Those patented by 
Messrs. Ibboleon and 


differential threads. 


Flat circular washer. 


patent washer. 


No washer used. 










\he Patent Nut and 










Boll (>), respectively, 










are equally preferred. 










Square— punched. 


Pear-shaped-punched . 


Square in one plate, 

circular in the 

other^punched. 


Circular — punched . 


Circular— punched. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


No — but we know no 
better one. 


Yee. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


46 lbs. (20.87 kilog.). 


46 lbs. (20.87 kilog.). 


56 lbs. (25.40 kilog.). 


44 lbs. (19.96 kilog.). 


45 lbs. (20.41 kilog.). 


103*6 square inches 


107*5 square inches 


116 square inches 


112*8quare inches 


107 square inches 


(668.4 cent. carrAs). 


(693.5 cent. carrAs). 


(748.4 cent, carris). 


(732.6 cent. carr^). 


(690.3 cent, carries). 


No. 


No. 


No. 


Only in special tunnels 
where noise is excessive. 


Yes— tarred felt. 


Yes. 


Y«j. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


2 wrought iron spikes, 


Two 7 1/2 inches (190 


2 iron spikes, and 


Three hollow treenails with 


Two iron spikes 6 inches 
(152 mill.) long and 13/16 


aod 2 oak treenails. 


mill.) by 13/16 inch. 


2 wood treenails. 


spikes 6 inches (152 mill.) 




(21 mill.) fang bolts. 




long, 23/32 inch (18 mill.) 
diameter at head, tapering to 
5/8 inch (16 mill .) diameter 
at the end, which is specially 
formed to give it a hold in 
the sleeper. 


mch (21 mill.) diameter 
and two galvanised sleeJ 
screws 6 l/2 inches (165 
mill.) long by 13/16 mch 
(21 mill.) diameter. 


' 


m 


» 


^ 


<• 



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I 

24 



STATEMENT C. — Rail connections. {Continuation.) 



England and l^ales. (Continuation.) 



London 
and South Western. 

(PI. 9.) 



Manchester, Shef- 
field & Lincolnshire. 

(PI. 10.) 



Midland. 

(PI. 11.) 



North Eastern. 

(PI. 12.) 



South Eastern. 

(PI. 13.) 



8 

i 

m 
10 

11 

12 
18 
14 



SospMKled. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 

4 11/16 inches (119 mill.). 

3/4 inch (19 mill.). 
201b8.(9.07kik)g.). 



Four. 

4 1/8 inches (105 mill.) 
by 13/16 inch (21 mill.). 

1 1/4 lb. (0.57kilog.). 

Wrought-iron cup beaded 
with square shoulder at 
head end 

Ordinary square iron nut 
and plain washer. 

Square in one plate and 
circular in the other — 
punched. 

If fish plates could be 

i strengthened cheaply ana 
efficiently, •• Occasional » 
breakages of plates might 
be reduced still lurther. 

Yes. 
46 lbs. (20.87 kilog.). 

97 square inches 

(625.8 cent. carr6s). 

No. 

Yes. 

Three hollow toenails 6 

inches (152 mill) by 1 i/8 

inch (29 mill.) with 

wrought-iron spikes 6 1/8 

inches (156 mill.) by 5/8 

inch (16 mill.). 



16 



Soflpeoded. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 
3 3/8 inches (86 mill.) 

1 inch (25 mill.). 
14 lbs. (6.35 kiloflr.). 



Four. 

4 3/8 inches (111 mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill ). 

17/8 lb. (0.850 kilog.) 

Steel. Gup beaded 

with square shoulder 

at head end. 

IbboUoo's patent 
lock nut and ordinary 

washer. 

Square with rounded 

corners, punched. 



Yes. 



Yes. 

51 lbs. (23.13 kilog.). 

117 square inches 

(754.8 cent. carrAs). 

No. 

Yes. 

2 spikes and 2 oak 

treeoails. 



Suflpeaded. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 
3 1/2 inches (89 mill.). 

1 inch (25 mill.). 
16 lbs. (7.26 kilog.). 



Four. 
4 3/4 incheii (121 mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 

1 1/2 lb. (0.68 kilog.). 

Steel. Gup beaded, with 
pearshaped shoulder. 



Ibbotsoa's lock nut. 
Pear-shaped^4rilled. 

Yes. 



Yes. 

50 lbs. (22.68 kilog.). 

102 square inches 

(658.1 cent, carrte). 

No. 

Yes. 

2 cup-headed wrought iron 
spikes, 6 5/8 inches (168 
mill. J long by. 7/8 inch (22 
mill.) diameter. 
2 oak treenails, 6 l/S inches 
fl65 mill.) long by 1 1/4 inch 
(32 mill.) diameter, the top 
2 inches (51 mill.) length 
tapering out to 1 1/2 inch 
(38 mill.) diameter. 



Saapeoiled« 

18 inches (457 mill.). 
3 1/4 inches (89 mill.) 

i inch (25 mill.). 

13 1/2 lbs. 
(6.12 kiU)g.). 



Four. 

4 1/4 inches (108 milU 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill.) 

11/2 lb. (0.68 kilog) 

Gup headed with 

square shoulder at 

head end. 

Ordijoary square iron 
nut. Washer used in 
special cases only. 

Square in one plate, 
and circular in the 
other. Puiiched. 

Yes. 



Yes. 
40 lbs. (18.40 kilog.). 

108 square inches 
(696 cent, earrte). 
No. 
Yes. 
Two twisted spikes 
in opposite corners. 
1 inside and 1 out- 
side. 



Saspeadwl. 
18 inches (457 mill ). 
3 3/8 inches {S6 mill.)- 

7/8 inch (22 mill.). 
13 lbs. (5.W kilog.). 



Four. 
4 inches (102 miU.) 
by 3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

11/4 lb. (0.57 kilog.). 

Square head. Shape of 
fish plate prevents Bead 
turning while boU is 
beii^^ screwed. 
Ordinary square out 
ti¥l washer. 

GirottUr — pujiched. 



Yes. 



Yes. 

37 lbs. (16.78 kilog.). 

70 square inches 
(451.2 cent, earrte). 
No. 
Yes. 
Two wrought iron spi- 
kes within two hollow 
oak treenails. 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



25 



Scotland* 



Ireland* 



Caledonian. 

(PI i^) 



Glasgow and 
South Western 

(PL 15.) 



Highland. 

(PI. 16 ) 



Iforth British. 

,Pl. 17.) 



Great Nerthern 
of Ireland. 

(PL 18 et 19.) 



Great Southern 
and Western. 

(PI. 20.) 



Suspended. 

18 Inches 
(457 mUl.). 
4 7/8 indits 
(124 mill.). 

13/16 inch 

(21 mill.). 

22 lbs. 

(9.98 kilng.). 



Pour. 
1 1'4 inches (108 
mill.) by 7/8 inch 
{22 mill). 

1 1/t lb. 
(0.68 kilog.). 
Heel cup headed 
vith shoulders at 
bead end. 

Ordinary square 
nut. 

Wshapedinone 
plate and circular 
m (he other. 

Yes. 



Yes. 

46 Um. 

(20.87 kilog ). 

105 inches 
877.4 cent, carris) 

No. 

Yes- 
spikes 5 3/4 in- 
ches (146 miU) 
by 7/8 inch (22 
mill.). 



Suspended. 

18 inches 
(457 mill.). 
3 l/S inches 

(89 mill.). 

7/8 inch 

(22 mill.). 

12 1/4 lbs. 

(5.55 kilog.). 



4 1/8 



Four, 
inches 



(105 



mill.) by 7/8 inch 
(22 mill.). 
1 lb. 7 oz. 
(0.65 kilog.) 
Soft steel cup hea- 
ded, oval shoulder 
at head end. 

Ordinary square 
nut. 

Oval in one plate 
and circular in 
the other. Pun- 
ched. 

Yes. 



Yes. 

44 lbs. 

(19.96 kilog.). 

103 square inches 

(664.5 cent, carris) 

No. 

Yet. 

Four spikes each 
6 inches (152 mil I.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 
mill.). 



Su.spended. 

18 inches 

(457 miU.). 

2 15/16 inches 

(75 mill.). 

3/4 inch 

(19 miU.). 

10 lbs. 

(4.54 kilog.) 



Four. 
4 inches (102 mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 
mill.). 

1 3/4 lb. 
(0.79 kilog.). 
Gup headed, pear- 
shaped shouluers. 



Ibbotson's patent 
nut and washer. 

Pear-shaped 
punched. 



Yes. 



Yes. 

40 lbs. 

(18.14 kilog.) 

71*773 squ. inch 

(463.1 cent.carr.). 

No. 

Yes. 

On curves, 3 spikes 

in each chair. 

Straights^ 2 spikes 

in each chair. 



Suspended. 

18 inches 

(457 mill.). 

3 inches 

(76 mill.). 

3/4 ^nch 

(19 mill.). 

11 lbs. 

(4.99 kilog.). 



Four. 
4inches(102mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 
mill.). 

1 lb. 3 oz. 

(0.54 kilog.). 

Cup headed with 

square shoulders 

at head end. 

Ordinary square 
nut. 

Square in one 

plate and circular 

in the other. 

Punched. 

Yes. 



Yes. 
40 lbs. 
(18.14 kilog.). 
98 square inches 
(632.3 cent.carr^s) 
No. 
Yes. 
Two malleable 
iron spikes 6 in- 
ches (1.52 mill.) 
by 15/16 inches 
(24 mill.) diame- 
ter with cu]> 



Suspended. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 

Bullhead rail, 4 3/16 inches 

(106 mill ). Flat-bottomed 

rail, 4 1/2 inches (114 mill.). 

3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

For bull-headed raits 17 l/t 
lbs. (7.94 kilog.). For flat- 
bottomed rails, 19 l/2 lbs, 
(8.85 kilog ). 

Four. 
4 1/8 inches (105 mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 

1 lb. 5 oz. (0 60 kilog.). 

Gup headed, pear-shaped 
shoulder at head end. 



Hexagonal nut. 
No washer used. 

Pear-shaped — punched. 



Yes. 



Yes, for Bull-beaded rails. 
39 lbs. (16.76 kilcg.) 

87 square inches 

(561.3 cent, carr^s). 

No. 

Yes. 

3 cup-headed spikes, with 

square shoulders at cup 

end, 6 inch (152 mill.) by 

7/9 inch (22 mill.) diameter 

at head, tapering to 3/4 inch 

(19 mill.) at end. 



fang 
i«Bd 



For flat-bottomed rails, rails 
fastened to sleepers in the 
centre of the rails by 2 fan] 
bofts Mid eltps, at «adi 
of the rail by 1 fan^ bolt, 
at one end of the rail by a 
fang bolt inside, and at the 
other end by a fang bolt in- 
side the road. The remaining 
14 fastenings being spikes. 



Suspended. 

18 inches (457 mill). 

4 3/8 inches 
(HI mm.). 

J/4 inch (19 mill.). 

15 lbs. 1 01. 
(6.80 kilDg.). 



Four. 
3 1/2 inches (89 mill.) 
by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 

i lb. 1 1/2 oz. 

(0.458 kilog.J. 

Gup headed with 

square shoulder at 

head end. 

Ordinary nut. 
No washer used. 

Square— punched. 



Nocbaics. 



Kails fastened to slee- 
pers with 9 fang 
bolts (6 outside rail 
and 3 inside), and 
13 spikes (5 outside 
the rail and 8 inside) 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



26 



STATEMENT D. — Keys and sleepers. 



J5 



QUESTIONS. 



Eosland 



Cambrian. 

(PI. 1.) 



FurneM. 

(PI. 2.) 



Great Eastern. 

(PI. 3.) 



Keys. 

What wood is used? 

Is it compressed? 

Particulars of metal keys, if used. . 
Are rails keyed on inside or outside?. 

Sleepers-'wood. 

What kind of wood is used? . . . 

Are sleepers creosoted, or treated 
with other antiseptic I . . . . 

Dimensions : 

a) Length 

b) Breadth 

c) Thickness 

Are they placed in the road heart 
side or waney side upwards? . . 



Oak. 
Yes. 

«* 
Outside. 



Teak. 



No. 



I niide-but outside keying 
is now being adopted, 



Baltic redwood. 



Creosoted. 



9 feet (2n»743). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Waney side upwards. 



Baltic redwood. 



Creosoted. 



8 feet 11 inches (2-718). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Waney side upwards. 



Oak. 



No. 



Outside. 



Baltic redwood. 



Creosoted. 



8 feet 11 inches (2-718). 



10 inches (254 miU.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Digitized by 



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I 

27 



and "Wtklem* 

Great Northern. 

(PI. 4.) 



Great Western. 

(PI. 5.) 



Lancashire 
and Yorkshire. 

(PI. 6.) 



London, Brighton 
and South Coast. 

(PI. 7.) 



London 
and North-Westem 

(PI. 8.) 



Fir. 
Yes. 

m 

Oulside. 



Oak. 
Yes. 

Outside. 



Baltic redwood fir. 



Creosoted. 



8 feet 11 inches (2n»718). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Heart side upwards. 



Memel. 



Creosoted. 



9feek(2'»743). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Majority-wanejr side 
upwards. 



Pine. 



Yes. 



Outside. 



Oak. 
Yes. 

« 
Outside. 



Oak. 
Yes. 

Outside. 



Baltic. 



Creosoted. 



9feet(2°'743). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Heart side upwards. 



Baltic redwood. 



Creosoted. 



9 feet (2»743). 



10 inches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.) 



Wanejr side upwards. 



Red pine or 
« Pinus sylvestris « 

Creosoted. 



9 feet (2-743). 



lOinches (254 mill.). 



5 inches (127 mill.). 



Waney side upwards. 



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I 

28 



STATEMENT D. — Keys and . sleepers. (Continuation.) 



s 
s 

a 

D 




Borland 


and l?Valeft« (Continuation,) 




Loodon and 
itoslk WMlern. 

(PI. 9.) 


IfanchesUr 

Sheffield 

and Lincolnshire. 

(PI. 10.) 


Midland. 

(PI. 11.) 


Mortk Eastern. 

(PL 12.) 


SooUi EaataiB. 

(PI. 13.) 


1 


English oak. 


Elm. 


Oak. 


Oak. 


Heart of oak. 


2 


Yes. 


Yes. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


8 


«i 


- 


f* 


m 


- 


4 


Outside. 


Outside. 


Outside. 


Outside. 


Outside. 


6 


Baltic redwood fir. 


Baltic red woe d. 


Memel. 


Riga redwood and 
Scotch fir. 


Baltic redwood. 


6 

7 
a 


Greosoted. 


Creosoled . 


Creoaoted. 


Greosoted. 


Greosoted. 


9 feel (2«743). 


9 feet (2'"743). 


9 feet (2«743). 


9 feet (2»743). 


9 feel (2-743). 


b 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


10 inches (254 mill.) 


V 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


5 inches (127 mill ). 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


8 


Waney side upwards. 


Heart side upwards. 


Heart side upwards. 


Heart side upwards. 


Waney side upwards. 



Digitized by 



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Aootland. 



Ireland. 



Gal«doiiiaa. 

(PI. 14.) 



Glasgow and 
South Western. 

(PL 15.) 



Highland. 

(PI. 16.) 



North British. 

(PI. 17.) 



Great NMthem 
of Ireland. 

(PI. 18 and 19.) 



Great Southern 
and Western. 

(Pi. 20.) 



Oak. 

No. 

«» 

Outside. 



Baltic redwood. 
GreoBoted. 



8 feet 11 inches 
(2»718). 

10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(lt7 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards. 



Teak and oak . 



No. 



Outside. 



Baltic Ffdwood 
Creosoted. 



8 feet 11 inches 

10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(127 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards. 



Teak. 



No. 



Outside. 



Scotch fir 
and larch . 



Creosoted . 



9feet(2'»743). 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(127 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards. 



Oak and Took. 



No. 



Outside. 



R^ pine 
and Scotch fir. 



Creosoted. 



9 feet (2'n743). 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(127 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards. 



Oak. 



No. 



Inside. 



No keys used on 
this line as there 
are no chairs. 



Baltic dr. 



Creosoted. 



8 feet 11 inches 

(2-718). 

10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(127 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards . 



Baltic redwood. 



Creosoted . 



9feet(2»743.). 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 

5 inches 
(127 mill.). 

Waney side 
upwards. 



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I 

30 



STATEMENT E. — Ballast. 



QUESTIONS. 



Ea^lani 



Cambrian. 

(PL 1 ) 



Forness. 

(PI. 2.) 



Great Eastern. 

(PI. 3.) 



Material adopted for bottom ballast . 



Pitched stone. 



Stone or slag. 



Burnt ballast, topped 
with good rough graTel 



If stone, what mesh T 



Depthof bottom ballast . . . . 

If cinders, whether screened or not. 
Materials used for top ballast . . . 



Thickness of top ballast .... 

Is the top ballast laid above the top 
of the sleeper, and if so, to what 
extent? . .' 



What advantages are found to result 
from the use of the material selected 
for ballast t 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Not screened. 

Gravel or refuse from 
lead mines. 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Top of sleeper in middle. 
Top of rail on outside. 



Gravel good. Ashes 

better. 

Refuse of lead mines best 

in preserving sleepers. 



2 1/2 inches (63 mill.). 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Cinders generally. 



7 inches (178 mill.). 



Yes. 1 inch (25 mill.) 



Firmness, dryness, and 
absence of dust. 



12 inches (305 mill ). 



GkM)d rough gravel 

to pass through a 2 inch. 

(51 mill.) ring. 



Finished height to be 
level with top of rails. 



Digitized by 



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31 



and l^ales. 

Great Northern. 

(PI. 4.) 



Great Western. 

(PI. 5.) 



Lancashire 
and Yorkshire. 

(PI. 6.) 



London, Brighton 
and Sonth Coast. 

(PI. 7.) 



London 
and North Western. 

(PI. 8.) 



Broken stt>ne in stone 

districts. 
Burnt clay elsewhere. 



Stone and slag, 
according to locality. 



2 inches (51 mill.). 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Not screened. 

Glean gravel or hard 
well burnt ashes. 



9 inches (229 mill.). 



Yes. 2 inches (51 mill ). 



Better dramage. 



Smallest, 3 inches 
(49 mill.) cube; largest, 
6 inches (98 mill.) cube. 

i2 inches (305 mill.). 



Screened. 

stone, and slag, and 

gravel, according 

to locality. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



Sometimes about 

4 inches (102 mill.) on 

outside, and 1 l/s inch 

(38 mill.) on inside. 



Hand - packed stones , 
9 inches (229 mill.) 
deep, capped with 3 in- 
ches (76 mill.) of ashes 
wherever the stones 
can be obtained, and 
where these cannot be 
obtained.hard clinkers 
capped with ashes. 



12 inches (305 milU). 

Not screened. 
Ashes. 



9 inches (229 mill). 



No. 



Ease of running. 



Chalk or broken stone. 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Gravel . 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



About 3 inches 
(76 mill.) above. 



Broken stone , slag , 
cinders , gravel , as 
may be most readily 
and economically ob- 
tained. 



Any size up to the depth 
of the bottom ballast. 



From6inch.(i52mill.) 
to 9 inches (229 mill). 

Generally screened. | 

Broken stone , slag , 
cinders, gravel, as 
raav be most readily 
and economically ob- 
tained. 

9 inches (229 mill ). 



No. 



Digitized by 



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I 

32 



STATEMENT E. — Ballast. [Continuation.) 



Engliind and "Wales. (Continuation.) 



London and 
Sooth Wottarn. 

(PI. 9.) 



Manchester, 

Shemeld 

and Lincolnshire. 

(PI. 10.) 



Midland. 

(PI. ii.) 



North Etstern. 

(PI. 12.) 



Sonih Eastern. 
(PI. 13.) 



Dry Inmpchidk, rough' 
ly broken stone, or 
coarsed stony ballast. 



9 inches (BSSTmill.). 



Gravel orThames river 
ballast and in West of 
England stone ballast, 
broken to pass through 
2 inch (51 nill.) ring. 



9 inches (229 mill.). 



Not much above 
sleeper. 



Stone bottom more 
suitable than gravel 
where obtainable, as 
it facilitates drainage. 



Stone pitching 9 in- 
ches (229 mill.) thick. 



Hand pitched. 



9 inches (229 mill.). 



Selected engine ashes. 



Ditto. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



Yes. 
3 inches (76 mfll.). 



Very good drainage and 
preservation of mate- 
rials. 



Slag or stone. 



Hand-pecked, 8 in- 
ches (203 mm.) 
deep. 



11 inches (279 mill ). 



Clean sharp gravel 
ashes, slag chip- 
pings, or granite 
chippings. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



No. 



Good drainage. Ab 
sence of dust (with 
slag). 



Ashes, stone, or 
gravel. 



2 inches (51 mill.). 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Not screened. 



Coke ballast from fur- 
naces, cinders. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



Level with the top of 
theelMper. 



Cinder ballast gives an 
easy running road, is 
economical , drains 
easily , is packed 
easily, and does not 
set. 



Ballast (\iD4creeBedJ 
rough hillastorotbei 
available malerial 



6 inches to 12 iochd 
(152 a 305 mill ). 



Loco cinders, unscree- 
ned. 



Sea beach aiul Thamd 
river gravel. 



6 inches to 12 iocbo 
(152 a 305 mill.}. 



About 5 inches 

(127 mill.) above Ifav 

sleepers. 



Better preservation 4 
the ideeperaao^ keys, 
and additional stea^ 
diness of the perzu^ 
nent way . 



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I 

33 



Aoollao«f. 



Ireland. 



Caledonian. 

(PI. 14.) 



CHatgowand 
Sonth Western. 

(PI. 15.) 



ligfaland. 

(PI. 16.) 



North British. 

(PI. 17.) 



Great Northern 
of Ireland. 

(PL 18 et 19.) 



Great Southern 
and Western. 

(PI. 20.) 



Jlag, bottom of 
ballast, 21 iaches 
(533 miU.) below 
rails. 



Slag. 



No. 



roood to be sui a 
ble, and best to be 
|ot. 



Iron slag 



2 1/4 inch 
(57 mill.) ring. 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 



Iron slag. 



5 inches 
(127 mill.). 



Level with top of 
sleeper. 



The road is kept dry 
and easily packed 
up with iron slag 
ballast.and the bal- 
last lasts a very 
long time . 



Clean hard gravel 
or broken stone. 



Not exceeding 
4 inch. (102 mill.), 



12 inches 
(305 mill.). 






Clean gravel or 
broken metal not 
exceeding 2 in- 
ches (51 mill.) 
mesh. 



6 inches 
(152 mill). 



No. 



Good drainage and 
firmness of road. 



All kinds. 



Stone pitching. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



Screened, 



Oravel, broken 
stone and cinders. 



1 foot 3 inches 

(381 miU.) 

to 1 foot 6 inches 

(457 mill.). 



Ballast laid to nn 
derside head of rail 
and channelled in 
centre of sleeper. 



Oood drainage of 
permanent waj. 



Stone. 



2 inch (51 mill.) 
ring. 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 



Qravel. 



10 inches 
(254 mill.). 



No. 



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34 



STATEMENT Al. 



Rails. 



ADM 



QUESTIONS. 



Chesajpeaka 
and Ohio. 

(PI. 21.) 



Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy. 

(PI. 22.; 



niinois central. 

(PI. 23.) 



Lake shore & Hi- 
chigan Sonthern. 

(PI. 24.) 



Par mfetre. 
Weight- of rail. 

Per yard . 

Length 

Holes for fish bolts : 

a) Number 

h) Shape 

c) Distance apart from centre 

to centre of holes. . . 

d) Distance from end of rail 

to nearest hole . . . 
IS line relaid when rails wear down 
to a minimum weight per yard ? 



31 kilog. 

75 lbs. 

30feet(9'«14). 

Six. 
Circular. 

5 inches (127 mill.) 

1 15/16 inches 
(49 mill.}. 



37 kilog. 

75 lbs. 

30 ieet (0«14). 

Six. 
Circular. 

5 inches (127 mill.). 

2 3/8 inches (60 mill.) 

No minimum weight 



34 1/2 a 37 kilog. 

Drawings dat** 1894 show 70 lbs. 

and 75 lbs. per lineal yard. Pre-' 

vious dates show lighter sect"'. 

30 feet (9°»14). 

Pour. 
Circular. 

41/2 inches (114 mill.). 

2 13/64 inches (56 mill.). 

No minimum weight. 



35 kilog. 

71 lbs. 

30 feet (9»14). 

Four. 
Circular. 

6 inches (152 mill. 

2 15/16 inches 
(74 mill.). 



If^so, gite weight. 



It line relaid when rails wear 
down to minimum thickness 
of top fiange or minimum 
depth over all ? 



If so, give thickness and depth . 

Have you made use of rails of 
unusual length, 60 feet (18>»19) 
or upwards ? 



If so, state object and with what 
result 



Rails are renewed 
when necessary, 
in judgment ol 
engineer. 



No minimum 
thickness or depth. 



No minimum thickness or 
depth. 



We relay when raili 

) become too roughs 

too badly worn td 

make smooth track. 



No. 



No. 



No. 



No. 



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35 



rica. 



Inclitt* 



A.u»tralla« 



New Tork Central and Hndson River. 

(PL 25-26 and 27.) 



Pennsylvania. 

(PI. 28.) 



East Indian. 

(PI. 29.) 



New Sonth Wales 
Government Railways. 

(PI. 30 and 31,) 



32, 34 1/2, 37, .39 1/2 and 49 l/t kilog. 

65, 70, 75, 80 and 100 lbs. 

30 feet (9'ni4). 

Six. 
Circular. 

5 6/10 inches (142 mill.). 

2 7/10 inches (69 mill.). 

No. U has not been found practicable with us 
to wear rails down to the so-called residual 
section. We renew rails whenever the surface 
becomes rough from uneven wear, and the 
section not stiff enough for the traffic loading, 



Three rates of wear are noted, « minimum », 
« medium «• and « maximum ». 

Minimum wear is upon level, straight line, 
and with rails of 65 lbs., 70 lbs. and 75 lbs. 
(32. 34 1/2 et 37 kilog. par m^tre). Sections 
become rough when the loss of metal reaches 
6 to 8 per cent, per yard. 

Medium wear is upon gradient, straight lines, 
the rails becoming rough, and are renewed 
when the loss of metal reaches 6 to 10 per 
cent, per yard. 

Maximum wear is upon gradients combined 
with curvature, and the rails are renewed 
when the outer rail of the curve has from 3/8 
to 1/2 inch (10 k 13 mill.) side wear while the 
vertical wear reaches hardly one-half as much. 

From 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch (6 a 10 mill.) on the 
head, and from 1/32 inch to l/l6 inch (O^^S 
a l«««a6) on the base. 

Not as yet. The use of greater lengths than 
30 feet (9™14) is only in the experimental 
stage, and is under trial and consideration. 
60 feet (18™29) lengths seem to promise well, 
with prospect of substantial economy in 
maintainence of way expenses. 



1875 Standard, 30 kil. 
1887 Standard, 42 kil. 
1889 Standard, 34 t/2k. 
1875 Standard, 60 lbs. 
1887 Standard, 85 lbs. 
1889 Standard, 70 lbs 
30 feet (9"»14) . 

Six. 
Circular. 

First to second 5 in. (127 mill.), 

second to third 6 in. (152 m.) 

115/16 inch (49 mill.) 

Yes. 



Varies. 



42 kilog. 

85 lbs. 

30feet(9«14). 

Four. 
Oval. 

6 inches 

(152 mill.). 

2 7/8 inches 

(73 mill.). 



Governed by wear of top of rail . 



With the old 
rails the ends 
go. No new 
rails worn 
out yet. So 
far , there - 
fore, we have 
not fixed any 
minimum 
weight. 



Yes. We have used 60 feet 
(18»29) rails. 



To save joint material, but found 
them heavy to handle ; if, how- 
ever, difficulty of handling can 
be got over and improved service 
in Sue road can be proved, think 
60 feet (18™29) none too long 



No. 



Bull-headed rails, 39 1/2 kilog. 

Flat-bottomed, 39 l/2. 35 1/2 and 

30 kilog. 

Bull-headed rails, 80 lbs. 

Flat-bottomed, 80, 71 1/2, and 

60 lbs. 

30 feet (9'»14). 

Four. 
Circular. 

41/2 inches (114 mill.). 

2 3/8 inches (60 mill.). 

Yes. 



80 lbs. (39 1/2 kilog.). Bull-headed. 

No information . 
80 lbs. (39 1/2 kilog.). Flat-botto- 
med rails to 70 lbs. (34 l/2 kilog.). 
71 1/2 lbs. (35 1/2 kilog.). Flat-bot- 
tomed rails to 65 lbs. (32 kilog.). 
60 lbs. (30 kilog.) Flat-bottomed 

rails to 56 lbs. (28 kilog.). 

General condition of rails taken 

into consideration . 



No. 



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STATEMENT BL — Manufacture and testing of rails. 



QUESTIONS. 



Chesapeake & Ohio. 

(PI. 21.) 



Chicaao, Bur- 
lington & Quincy. 

(PI. 22.) 



Illinois central. 

(PI. 23.) 



Lake Shore & Mi- 
chigan Southern. 

(PI. 24.) 



By what process is the steel for 
rails manafaetured.f 

a) Bessemer acid . . . . 

b) Siemens Martin acid . . 

c) Basic in Siemens Martin 

hearths ..... 
To what tests are rails subjected 
to before acceptance f 
a) Bending 



Bessemer. 



No 



specific 



Rails themselves not tes 



b) Chemical • 



c) Tension ..... 

Breaking weight | squ. inch, 

in tons, per . . j cent. car. 

Extension, per cent . . 

Contraction of area, per cent 

Particulars as to the relative 

merits of hard and soft steel . 



ted, but the steel from 
which thej are made is 
tested as follows : Two 
test pieces 4 inches 
(102 mill.) long, 3 inches 
by 3 inches (76 mill, by 
76 mill.} from the firstV 
and last mgots run. Each ' 
of these are drawn out at 
one heat by hammering 
to bars l,'2 inch (3.23 cent, 
carrte) square. When 
cold, ttiis bar must bend 
to an angle of 90 degrees 
without breaking. 



Rails not subjected 



Bessemer acid. 



Bessemer. 



to any physical test, 
but they are purcha- 
sed under a five years' 
guarantee, and alU 
rails that fail, oij 
become unduly worni 
or battered within\ 
the five years, are) 
replaced by the ma- 
nufacturers, who 
also have to bear the 
cost of replacing the 
rail8,and theexpensel 
of delivering themi 
along the line. 



Rails themselves nottes- 



Carbon, as high as pnossi- 
ble, on heavy sections, 
not to exceed .50 per 
cent. 



ted, but the steel from 
which they are made is 
tested as follows : Two 
test pieces 4 inches 
(102 mill J long. 3 inches 
by 3 inches (76 mill, by 
76 mill.) from the first i 
and last ingots mnY 
Each of these are drawn 
out at one heat by ham- 
mering to bars 1/2 inch 
square (3.23 cent, car- 
r6s). When cold, this 
bar must bend to 
angle of 90 degrees 
without breaking. 



Usual mill tests 
only. 



Much prefer hard sted 



Use aa hard a rail r« 
can be got witboat 
being brittle. 



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I 

37 



rica. 



Indie 



Australia. 



New York Central & Hudson River. 
(PI. 25-26 and 27.) 



Pennsylvania. 

(PI. 28.) 



East Indian. 

(PI. 29.) 



New South Wales 
Governifient Railways. 

(PI. 30 and 31.) 



Bessemer acid. 



No beading test. 



Bessemer. 



No bending test 



• Carbon • determination for every -heat, •» 
and at leas t two complete analyses per day. 





80 lbs. 


100 lbs. 




(391/ak.J. 


(49Vsk.). 


Carbon 


•55 to -60 


•65 to -75 


Silicon 


•10 to 15 


•10 to -15 


Manganese . . . 


'80 to 1-00 


•80 to 1^00 


Sulphur not to 






exceed . . 


•069 


•069 


Phosphoms not 






tot exceed . . 


•060 


•060 


Rails having car- ) 






bon below will 


•55 


•60 


berejected . . 






Railshavingcar- 






bon above will 


•65 


•75 


be rejected . . ) 






49 to 58 tons per square inch. 


7.72 A 9.13 tonnes per cent 


. carr*. 


6 to 12 per cent. 




9 to 25 per ceot. 





Rails tested chemi 
cally, but details 
not given . 



Hard tough steel now re(niired to sustain 
prevailing traffic • wheel loading » with 
a bigfa • elastic Hmit • lo prevent taking 
• permanent set ». At the present time 
our bigh carbon raits are carrying relati- 
vely much heavier traffic loads than for< 
merly lorn earboa niU did. 



Prefer Siemens Martin. 



Rail to be placed on iron 
bearings, 3ft. 6in . (1«067) clear 
apart. Deflection not to exceed 
3/8 of an inch (10 mill.), after 
a weight of 28 tons (28 . 450 ton- 
nes) has been suspended from 
the centre for half an hour. No 
permanent set after removal 
of weight. Same rail suppor- 
ted as before, to receive two 
blows from a weight of a ton 
(1,016 kilog.) falling a height 
of 25 feet (7«>62). Permanent 
set from first blow not to exceed 
2 1/2 inches (63 mill.) total 
deflection, after both blows not 
to exceed 5 inches (127 mill.) 
The rail must then be broken 
by further blows, when it must 
have a perfectly souftd and 

. homogeneous fracture. 



Not specified. 



Bessemer. 



Portions of the rails 4 feet 6 inches 
(l"»37i) long on same bearings, to 
carry a suspended load of 25 tons 
(25.4 tonnes) with a permanent 
set not exceeding 1/4 of an inch 
(6 mill.). 

Piece of rail 4 feet 6 inche8(l™372) 
long, placed on iron bearings 
3 feet 6 inches (l'n067) clear apart, 
to receive three blows from the 
weight of a ton (1,016 kilog.) 
falling 6 feet (l«n829) ; the defiec- 
tion from these three blows to be 
not less than 3 l/t inches (89 mill.) 
and not more than four inches 
(t03 mill ). It is then to receive 
two more blows from a height of 
12 feet (3»n66), the deflection from 
these last two blows to be not less 
than 8 l/t inches (216 mill ), nor 
more than 10 inches (254 mill.). 
No chemical test specified. 



44 tons per square inch. 

(6.93 tonnes per cent. carr6.) 

14 per cent. 

38 per cent. 

Although, as stated above, the drop 
test is relied upon, the flgmres here 
given show the average quality of 
steel supplied for rails for this 
colony, and they are found to wear 
satisfactorily, while the number 
of fractures is moderate. 



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38 



STATEMENT CI. -- Rail connections. 



s 



QUESTIONS. 



Chesapeake and Ohio. 

(PI. 21.) 



b 
c 
d 

3 
a 
b 
c 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
a 
b 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



16 



Is the joint suspended or supported in a joint chair or on 
sleepers? 

Fish plate : 

a) Length. ... . 

6) Depth * 

c) Thickness 

d) Weight 

Fish bolts : 

a) Number ... 

b) Size 

c) Weight 

Description of fish bolt 

Description of nut (and washer if any) 

Are holes in fish plates square or circular, punched or drilled? 

Does the form of joint used give satisfaction? • . • • 

If not, in what respect is improvement required with a view 
to securing uniform strength of road throughout? . . . 

How are rails secured to sleepers ? 

a) Wood sleepers with chairs 

b) Wood ditto without chairs 

Weight of chair 

Baseofchaira..a.i„ . . . .' • j S".^" rVW. 
Is felt or other material placed between chair and sleeper? . 

Are the chairs on each side of the joint of the same pattern as 

the rest? If not, give particulars 

Full particulars of mode of attachment of chair to sleeper . 

Full particulars of attachment of each flat-bottomed rail to 
sleeper 

Bearing area of flat-bottomed rail on j ^^^^ ^^^^^ ' ' 
sleeper in ( centimetres carr^. 



Suspended. 



34 inches (864 mill.). 
3 1/4 inches (83 mill.). 

3/4 inch (19 mill.). 
29 lbs. (13.15 kilog.). 



Six. 

3 7/8 inches (98 mill.) by 3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

1'30 lbs. (0.59 kilog.). 

Gup headed, with oval shoulder at head end. 

Hexagonal nut with washer. 

Inside plate, round. Outside plate, oval. 

Pimched. 

Yes. 



Yes. 



No chairs used. 



By two spikes, 5 l/2 inches (140 mill.) 
by 9/16 inch (14 mill.). 

41 5/8 inches. 
268.6 centimetres carr^s . 



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America* 



39 



Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. 

(PL 22.) 



Illinois Central. 

(PI. 23.) 



Supported on sleepers. 
The rails are laid with broken joints, t. e. joints on one line 
of rails are opposite the centre of the rail of the other 
line. A splice bar fire inches long (of same section as fish 
plates) is bolted to the centre of each rail opposite the joint 
on the other line of rail. These splices are bolted to the rail 
with one 7/8 inch (22 mill.) bolt and spiked to the tie with 
one spike on each side. 

38 inches (965 mill.). 
3 1/2 inches (89 mill.). 

5/8 inch (16 mill.). 
32-3 lbs. (14.65 kilog.). 



Six. 

4 inches (102 mill.) by 7/8 inch (22 mill.). 

1 1/2 lb. (0.68 kilog). 

Square head, shape of fish plates, prevents head turning 

when bolt is being screwed. 

Hexagonal nut. 

Round. 

Yes. 



Yes. 



No chairs used. 



By two spikes, 5 l/2 inches (140 mill.) by 9/16 inch (14 mill.), 

38 1/2 inches. 
248 .4 centimetres carr^s. 



Supported. 



20 inches (508 mill.). 

3 19/32 inches (91 mill.). 

7/8 inch (22 mill.). 

19 lbs. (8.62 kilog.). 



Four. 

4 inches (102 mill.) by 3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

1 lb. each (0.453 kilog.). 

Cup headed, with oval shoulder at head end . 

Square nut, - Verona » lock nut. 

Circular in one plate and oval in the other. Punched. 

Yes. 



Yes. 



No chairs used. 



By two spikes, 5 i/2 inches (140 mill.) 
by 9/16 inch (14 mill,). 

75 lbs. rail, 38 1/2 incies. 

70 lbs. rail 37 incijes. 

37 kilog. rail, 248.3 cent. carr^. 

34 1/2 kilog. rails, 238.7 cent, carres. 



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STATEMENT CI. — Rail connections. [Continuation.) 



America. (Continuation.) 






Lake Shore and Michigan 
Sonthem. 

(PL 24.) 



New Tork Central and Hudson River. 

(PI. 25-26 and 27.) 



Pennsylvania. 

(PI. 28.) 



I 9 

a 

b 

10 

11 

12 
13 

14 



15 



Supported. 



24 inches (610 mill.). 

3 1/2 inches (89 mill.). 

3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

20 1/2 lbs. (9.30 kilog.). 



16 



Four. 

3 3/4 iochM (95 mill.) 

by 3/4 inch (19 mill.). 

•82 lbs. (0.37 kilog.). 

Cup headed with oval shoulder 

at head end. 

No washer used. Differential 

Thread on bolt. 

Inside plate oval; outside plate 

circular. 

Not in all respects. 

A joint fastening which is as 

strong as the rail is required. 



Yes. 



No chairs used. 



By two spikes, 5 1/2 inches 
140 mill.) by a/l6 inch (14 mill.). 



245.2 millimetres carr^. 



38 inches. 



Supported on three sleepers, the centre one 
centrally under the joint. The rails are 
laid with broken joints, t.^., joints on one 
line of rails are opposite the centre of the 
rail of the other line. 

36 inches (914 mill.). 
3 3/4 inches (95 mill.) to 4 3/4 inches(121 mill.) 
9/l6inch(14mill.)8teel,5/8inch(16mill.)iron. 



Rails 66 



70 



75 



Iba. per yard 
or 32 J 2 34 Va 37 ^ 



80^ 

Td* 
391/, 



491/s 



Suspended. 



34 inches (864 mill.). 

3 1/8 inches (79 mill.). 

Varies from 3/4 inch to 1 i/i 6 inch. 

(19 mill, et 27 mill.). 
28 4/10 lbs. in steel (12.88 kilog.) 



Fisholates . 



54 



kilog. per metre 
58 64 i/ a 64 i/ i 

"lbs. 



8i) 



lbs. per pair 
or 241/a KV^ 29 1/4 291/4 361/4 



kilog. per pair 
Six. 

4 1/8 inches (103 mill.) by 3/4 inch (19 mill.) 

diameter. 

1 lb. 1 3/4 02. (0.503 kilog.). 

Cup headed with square shoulder 

at the head end. 

Square nut, no washer used. 

Square in one and round in the other. 
Punched. 
Gives great satisfaction. 
Only by discarding all so-called joints alto- 
gether and adopting some form of com- 
pound continuous rail. 

Yes. 



No chairs used . 



Four clips and screws to the sleeper on each 
side or joint. Intermediate fastenings, two 
5 inches (125 mill.) by 5/8 inch (16 mill.) 
screws . 

Rails . . . . C5 70 75 80 100 



Six, 

4 1/4 inch (108 mill.) by 3/4 inch 

(19 mill.). 

96/100 of a lb. (0.435 kilog.). 

Gup headed with oval shomder 

at head end. 

Square nut and washer, 1/4 indi 

(6 mill.) section split ring. 

Oval. Punched. 

Not universally. 
Shorten the splices. 



Yes. 



No chairs used. 



By two spikes 5 1/2 inch (140 mill 
by 9/I6 inch (14 mill.). 



232.3 centimMres carr^. 



kilog. per metre 
40 Va 41&/B 428/4 45 4^lh 



square inches. 
261.3 26 8.5 ^ 7 5.8 290 3W.4 

centim. carrte 



86 inches. 



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I 

41 



India. 



East Indian. 

(PI. 29.) 



i^natralia. 



New South Wales CrOTemment Railways. 

(PI. 30 and 31.) 



Suspended 



22 inches (559 mill.). 
4 1/4 inches (108 mill.). 
31/32 inch (24 l/« mill.). 

28 1/2 lbs. (12.9 kilog.). 



Suspended . 



For 80 Ibi. (39 Vs kllog. par m«tre) 



18 inches (457 mill.). 

3 inches (16 mill.). 

13/16 inch (21 mill). 

10 1/2 lbs. (4.76 kilog.). 



' Four. 

4 3/4 inches (121 mill.) by 7/8 inch 

(22 mill.). 

1-58 lb. (0.72 kiloff.) 

(quare headed, shape of fish ijlate prevents 

iKad turning when bolt is being screwed. 

Hexagonal head with washer l/S inch 

(3.2 mill.). 

Circular. 

As good as any other. 



Yes. 

30 lbs (13.61 kilog.). 

H6 square inches. 

554 . 8 centimetres carrte. 

No. 

Yes. 

Tvo spikes, 6 7/8 inches (175 mill) by 

3/4 lAd) (19 mill.). 



322.6 centimetres carr^s. 



50 inches. 



Pour. 

4 l/S inches (105 mill.), by 7/8 inch 

(22 mill.). 

1-28 lb. (0.581 kilog.). 

Cup headed, with oval shaped shoulder 

at head end. 

Hexagonal nut. 



For 80 ib*. (39 Vs kilog. par in«tre) 



20 inches (508 milk). 
3 3/8 inches (86 mill.). 
15/16 inch (24 mill.). 

16 1/4 lbs. (7.37 kilog.). 



Four. 

4 7/8 indies (124 mill.) by 7/8 inch 

(22 mill.). 

1-47 lb. (0.667 kilog.). 

Square headed, shape of fish plates 

prevents head turning when bolt is 

screwed up. 

Square nut. 



Washers not used till fastenings are worn, when Qrover^ washers are used 
Oval. Ponched. Circular. Punched. 



Yes. 



Yes. 



By two 7/8 inch (22 mill.) spikes. 



Yes. 



Yes. 



45 lbs. (20.41 kilog.). 

107*89 syinre inches. 

696.1 centimMres carr6s. 

No. 

Yes. 

Four holes are provided in each chair, 

but only two spikes are used, and 

these are placed diagonally. 



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STATEMENT DL — Keys and sleepers. 



QUESTIONS. 



A^tne 



Chesapeake 
and Ohio. 

(PI. 21.) 



Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy. 

(PI. 22.) 



Illinois central. 

(PI. 23.) 



Keys. 

What wood is used ? 

Is it compressed t 

Particulars of metal keys, if used .... 
Are rails keyed on inside or outside? . 

Sleepers- wood . 
What kind of wood is used ?..... 

Are sleepers creosoted, or treated with other 
antiseptic? 

Dimensions : 

Length 

Breadth 

Thickness 

Are they placed in the road heart side or 
waney side upwards ? 



None used. 



None used. 



None used. 



White oak generally, 
also chestnut, oak, lo- 
cust, walnut. 



No. 



8 feet 6 inches (2™59). 



9 inches (228 mill.). 



7 inches (178 mill.). 



Waney side upwards. 



Oak. 



No. 



White oak and cypress. 



No. 



8 feet and 9 feet 
(2»438 et 2»743). 



8 feet (2«438). 
8 inches (203 mill.). 
6 inches (152 mill.). 
Waney side upwards. Waney side upwards. 



8 inches (203 mill.;. 
and upwards. 

6 inches and 7 inches 
(152 and 178 mill.) 



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43 



rieci. 



India* 



A^natralla. 



Lake Shore 

and 

Michigan Southern. 

I (PI. 24.) 



New- York Central 

and 

Hudson River. 

(PI. 25-26 and 27.) 



Pennsylvania. 

(PI. 28.) 



East Indian. 

(PI. 29.) 



New South Wales 
Government Rys. 

(PI. 30 and 31.) 



None used. 



None used. 



None used. 



Wliite and burr oak. 



No. 



8feet6inche«(2«»59). 



8 inches (203 miU.). 



7 inches (178 miU.). 



Our ties are hewn on 
two sides only. 



Oaks,yellow pine, chest- 
nut, yellow cedar , hem- 
lock and tamarack. 



No. 



8feet(2»438). 



9 inches (229 mill.) 
average. 

6 inches (152 mill.). 



Heart side upwards. 



White oak. 



No. 



8 feet 6 inches (2»59). 



7 inches (178 mill.) 
and upwards. 

7 inches (178 mill.). 



Teak. 
No. 

w 

Outside. 

Sftl and Deodar. 

No. 

9feet6inches(2«»896), 
10 inches (254 mill.). 
5 inches (127 mill.). 



Wane^ side upwards 
If laid heart side up- 
wards they split more, 
and water gets in and 
rots them. 



Teak and cedar. 
Yes. 

w 

Outside. 

Iron hark. 

No. 

9feet(2»743). 

10 inches (254 mill.). 

5 inches (127 mill.). 

Waney side upwards. 



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I 

44 

STATEMENT EL— Ballast. 



QUESTIONS. 



Ame 



Chesapeake 
and Ohio. 

(PI. 21.) 



Qiicago, Burlington 
and Qnincy. 

(PI. 22.) 



Illinois Central. 

(PI. 23.) 



Material adopted for bottom ballast . . . 

If stone, what mesh ? 

Depth of bottom ballast 

If cinders, whether screened ornot? . . . 

Material used for top ballast 

Tliickness of top ballast 

Is the top ballast laid 8ft>oye the top of sleeper, 
and if so, to what extent ? 



What advantages are found to result from the 
use of the material selected for ballast?. . 



Broken stone and 
gravel. 



10 inches (254 mill.) at 
centre of road, increas- 
ing in thickness to- 
wards side. 



Stone or gravel. 



9 inches (229 mill.) at 
centre of road, increas- 
ing to 14 inches (356 
mill.) at sides. 



Stone or gravel. 



2 1/2 inches (63 mill.) 



10 inches (254 mill.) 



Qravel. 



No answer, but accord- 
ing to diagram about 
6 mches (152 mill.). 



No answer, but shown 
oo diagram to be iavcl 
with top of sleeper. 



Stone and gravel. 



6 inches (152 mill.) 



Shown on diagram to be 
slightly above top of 
sleeper. 



Stone or graveL 



8 inches (203 mill.). 



Yes, 3 to 4 inches (76 a 
102 nitl.) at oeo%e. 



Digitized by 



Google 



4S 



rica. 



Lake shore 

and 

Michigan Southern. 

(PI. 24.) 



New- York Central 

and 

Hudson River. 

(PI. 25-26 and 27.) 



Pennsylvania. 

(PI. 28.) 



India. 



East Indian. 

(PI. 29.) 



Australia. 



New South Wales 
Government Rys. 

(PI. 30 and 31) 



Clay or sand. 



Gravel. 



Not given. 



Shown on diagram to 
be level with top of 
sleeper ak centre of 
road, and 5 inches 
(127 mill), below top 
of sleeper at each end. 

An elastic roadway, eco- 
nomically maintained. 



Stone. 



4 inches to 6 inches (102 
a 152 mill.) Spawls. 

6 inches (152 mill.) 



Not screened. 



Crushed stone gravel. 
Cinders, or blag. 



12 inches (305 mill.). 



Level with top of 
sleeper. 



Oushed stone ballastaf- 
fords better drainage, 
decreases wet rot of 
sleepers, and obviates 
frost « heaving « of 
track in winter, and 
affords firmer bearing 
to the sleepers. 



Large stones. 



5 to 8 inches (127 a 
203 mill.) in diameter. 

8 inches (203 mill.) 



Stone. 



1 3/4 inch cubes 
(26.81 cent, cubes). 



Stone that will pass 
throM^ a 2 1/2 inch 
(63 mill.) ring. 

About 5 inches 
(127 mill.). 



Top of sleepers at cen 
tre, bottom of sleepers 
at ends. 



Gives ,a solid road bed 
and affording good 
drainage preserves the 
ties. 



No distinction between 
bottom and (op ballast. 



Varies from the under- 
side of the head of the 
rail to the underside 
of the chair. 



Better life of sleepers 
and running than ei- 
ther brick or kunkur, 
the only alternatives 



Stone. 



4 inches (102 mill.). 



9 inches (229 mill.). 



Oaly a small tfuaatit} 
has been used, and 
theee have been scree 
ned. 

Principally Hardslone 
broken to a 2 1/2 inch 
<63 mill.) gauge. 

12 inches (305 mill.). 



2 1/2 inches (63 mill.). 



It provides efficient 
drainage, does not pul- 
verize under the bea- 
ter, preserves the align- 
ment of the road and 
gives a firm and elas- 
tic bed, and conse- 
quently minimises cost 
of maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 



PLATES 



Plate 1. Cambrian Railway. 

— 2. Furness Railway. 

— 3. Great Eastern Railway. 

— 4. Great Northern Railway. 

— 5. Great Western Railway. 

— 6. Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 

— 7. London Brighton and South Coast 

Railway . 

— 8. London and North Western Railway. 

— 9. London and South Western Railway. 

— 10. Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire 

Railway. 

— 11 . Midland Railway. 

— 12. North Eastern Railway. 

— 13. South Eastern Railway. 

— 14. Caledonian Railway. 

— 15. Glasgow and South Western Railway. 

— 16. Highland Railway. 



Plate 17. North British Railway. 

— 18 et 19. Great Northern Railway 

Ireland . 

— 20. Great Southern and Western Rail- 

way. 

— 21 . Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. 

— 22. Chicago Burlington and Quiucy Rail- 

road. 

— 23. Illinois Central Railroad. 

— 24. Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 

Railroad. 

— 26, 26 aud 27. New- York Central and 

Hudson River Railroad. 

— 28. Pennsylvania Raibroad. 

— 29. East Indian Railway. 

— 30 et 31. New South Wales Government 

Railway. 



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I 

79 



ADDENDA 

TO THE a-*" REPORT (Kon engush speaking countries) ON THE QUESTION OF 
STRENGTHENING OF PERMANENT WAY IN VIEW OF INCREASED SPEED 
OF TRAINS (SURJECT I OF THE LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AT 
THE FIFTH SESSION OF THE CONGRESS) 

By WiLUAM HUNT 

CHIRP BNGINEBR OP TUB LANCASHIRE AND YORKSHIRE RAILWAY 



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80 



APPENDIX A. — Rails. 



QUESTIONS. 


Enflpland. 


America. 


Australia. 


London Tilbury 


Atchison Topeka 


South Australian 




and Southend Railway. 


and Santa Fe. 


Railways. 




(PI. 32.) 


(PI. 33 and 34.) 


(PI. 35.) 


( Per yard . 
Weight of mil . . ] 

( Per metre. 


72 lbs. 
(35l/2kilog.) 


52. 56, 66, 67 and 71 lbs. 

(26. 28. 32 1/2, 33 et 
35 kilog.) 


80 lbs. 
(39 1/2 kilog.) 


Length 


24 feet(7™31). 


30 feet (9'nl4). 


30 feel (9™14). 


Holes for flsh bolts : 








a) Number 


Four. 


Some four some six . 


Pour. 


b) Shape ...... 


Slotted. 


Oval. 


Oval. 


c) Distance apart from centre 
to centre of holes . . . 


4 1/2 inches (114 mill.). 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


5 1/2 inches (140 mill.). 


d) Distance from end of rail 
to centre of nearest hole. 


2 1/4 inches (57 mill.). 


2 3/8 inches (60 mill.). 


2 5/8 inches (67 mill.). 


Is the line relaid when the rails 
wear down to minimum weight 
per yard ? 

If 80, give weight 

Is line relaid when rails wear down 
to minimum thicknes«« of top 
flange or minimum depth over all ? 


No. 
Minimum depth over all. 


No special rules for rene- 
wal. — They are made 
as required by circum- 
stances. — Traffic and 
load being considered. 


^ No definite rule. 


If so, give thickness or depth . . 


From .5 3/16 to 4 11/16 
inches (132 to 119 mill.) 




1 


Have you made use of rails of unu- 
sual length, 60 feet or upwards % 


No. 


No. 


No, 


If so, state object and what result. 


• 


- 


» 



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81 

APPENDIX B. — Manufacture and testing of rails. 



QUESTIONS. 


England. 


America. 


Australia. 


London Tilbury 


Atchison Topeka 


South Australian 




and Sonthend Railway. 


and Santa Fe. 


Railways. 




(PI. 32.) 


(PI. 33 and 34.) 


(PI. 35.) 


By what process is the steel for 








rails manufactured f 








a) Bessemer acid .... 


Bessemer. 


' Bessemer acid. 


Bessemer acid. 


b) Siemens Martin acid. . . 


<• 


w 


- 


c) Basic in Siemens Martin 








hearths 


•» 


m 


•• 


To what tests are rails suhjected 








to before acceptance t 








a) Bending . . . . . . 


5 feet {l'n524) length pla- 


No special tests. Rely 


Rail placed on supports 




ced un solid iron bear- 


or reputation of manu- 


3 feet (0™918) apart and 




ings 3 feet 6 inches 


facturer. 


to receive from blows 




(1"067) apart shall then 




from a weight of 13 cwt 




receive successive blows 




(660 kilog.) falhng from 




from a weight of 1,800 




a height of 10 to 16 feet 




lbs (816 kilog.) falling 




(3«>05 k 4">88) without 




a height of6 feet (1^83). 




fracture. Also to bear 




Rails not to break be- 




a weight of J5 tons 




fore or under third blow 




(15,250 kil.)for lOmi- 




nor take a permanent 




nutes without perma- 




set after first blow ex- 




nent deflection. 




ceeding 1 5/8 inches 
(41 mill ). 




• 








b) Chemical 


»• 


« 


•» 


c) Tension : 








Breaking weight in tons, per 








square mch 


•* 


" 


" 


Extension per cent. . . . 


- 


" 


- 


Contraction of area, per cent. 


n 


«t 


" 


Particulars as to the relative 








merits of hard and soA steel. . 


n 


No experience with 
hard steel. 


n 



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82 



APPENDIX C. — Rail connectioDS. 



QUESTIONS. 



Kngland* 



London Tilbury 
and Sonthend Railway. 

(PI. 32.) 



Americti. 



Atchison Topeka 
and Santa Fe. 

(PI. 33 and 34.) 



AustraliH. 



South Australian 
Railways. 

(PI 35.) 



Is the rail suspeuded or supported 
in a joint chair or on sleepers? . 

Fish plate : 

Length 

Depth 

Thickness 

Weight of each 

Fish bolts : 

Number 

Size 

Weight including nut and 
washer (where usedj 

Description of fish bolt. . . . 

Description of nut (and washer if 
any) 

Are holes in fish plates square or 
circular, punched or drilled? . 



Suspei^ded. 

18 inches (457 mill.). 

4 1/2 inches (114 mill.). 
7/8 inch (22 mill.) 
18 lbs (8.16 kilog.). 

Four. 



4 inches X 7/8 inch. 
(102 X 22 millimetres). 



1 1/2 lb. (0.68 kilog.). 



Gup headed with square 
shoulder. 



Ordinary square nut. 
No washers. 



Square in one plate 
circulare in the other . 



Mainly supported 



4 hole plates 23 inches 
(584 mill). 6 hole plates 
38 inches (965 mill.). 



3 1/8 inches (79 mill.). 
3/4 of an inch (19 mill.). 



38 inches (965 mill.) plates 
34 3/4 lbs (15.75 kilog.). 
23 inches (584 mill.) 
plates. 21 lbs (9.53 kil.) 



Four and six. 



4 inches X 3/4 inch. 
(102 X 19 millimetres). 



1 lb (0.45 kilog.). 



Cup headed with rounded 
shoulder. 



Ordinary hexagonal nut 
next fish plate with 
square nut outside. 



Square in one plate and 
elliptical in the other. 



Suspended. 

21 1/2 inches (546 mill.). 

6 3/4 inches (172 mill.). 

7/8 inches (22 mill.). 

24.81 (11.28). 

Four. 



4 1/4 inches X 7/8 inches. 
(108 X 22 millimetres) 



1 1/2 lb (0.68 kilog.). 



Gup headed with square 
shoulder. 



Ordinary hexagon nut and- 
Grovera washer. 



Oblong, punclied. 



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83 



QUESTIONS. 



Englnud. 



Lcndon Tilbury 
and Southend Railway. 

(PI. 32.) 



America. 



Atchison Topeka- 
and Santa Fe. 

(PL 33 and 34.) 



i%.ustrMllH. 



South Australian 
Railways. 

(PI 35) 



Doies (he form of join I ' used give 
satisfaction ? 



If not, in what respect is impro- 
vement required with a view to 
securing uniform strength of 
road throughout ? . . . . 

How are rails secured to sleepers ? 

With chairs on wood sleepers . 



Weight of chair ? 



Base of chair («*I^^^«'"^^« • 
*'**^*" i centimetres square. 

Is felt or other material placed 
between chair and sleeper ? . 

Are the chairs on each side of the 
joint of the same pattern as the 
rest? If not, give particulars . 

Full particulars of mode of attach- 
ment of each chair to sleeper . 



Pull particulars of mode of attach- 
ment of flat-bottomed rail to 
sleeper 



Yes. 



Partial. 



Yes. The special form of 
deep flange to fish plates 

- insures the necessary 
strength to the plates 
while allowing the ad- 
joining sleepers to be 
brought near enough 
together to give the re- 
quired support. 



This problem has not yet 
been solved. 



Yes. 

43 lbs (19.5 kilog.). 

98 square inches 
(632.3 square cent.). 

No. 
Yes. 



. Wrot iron spikes 5 1/8 
inches (130 mill.) long 
under the head 3/4 inch 
(19 mill.) diameter. 



None used . 



By spikes detail not given. 



None used. 



By 12 fang bolts and 12 
spikes on the outsides 
of the rails and by 24 
spikes on the inside of 
the rails. 



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84 



APPENDIX D. — Keys and sleepers. 



QUESTIONS. 


Eiifi;l«iii<1 . 


i%.inerlcH. 


AufitrallM. 


London Tilbury 


Atchison Topeka 


South Australian 




and Southend Railway. 


and Santa Fe. 


Railways. 




(PI. 32.) 


(PI. 33 and 34 ) 


(PI. 35) 


Keys. 








What wood is used? .... 


Oak. 






Is it compressed? 


Yes. 






Particulars of metal keys, if used . 


. 


^ None used. 


None used. 


Are rails keyed on inside or out- 
side? 


Oulftide. 






Sleepers- wood. 








What kind of wood is used ? . . 

Are sleepers creosoted, or treated 
with other antiseptic? . . . 


Bahic redwood. 
Some. 


Oak. Pine and cedar. 

Pine is treated with chlo- 
ride of zinc, tannin and 
glue. Others not treated. 


Red gum, sugar gum, 
Jarrah and Karri hard- 
woods. 

No. 


Dimensions : 








Length 


9 feet (2'n743). 


8feet(2«"438j. 


8feet6inches(2»591). 


Breadth 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


8 inches (203 mill.). 


10 inches (254 mill.). 


Thickness 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


7 inches (178 mill.). 


5 inches (127 mill.). 


Are they placed in the road heart 
side or waney side upwards? 


Creosoted sleepers waney 
side upwards. Un creo- 
soted sleepers some one 
side and some the other. 


No special care in this 
respect. 


No distinction made. It 
is not necessary with 
Australian hardwoods. 



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85 



APPENDIX E. — Ballast. 



QUESTIONS. 



Knfflaiicl. 



AmerlCM. 



Atititrnlia. 



London Tilbury 
and Southend Railway. 

(PI. 32 ) 



Atchison Topeka 
and Santa Fe. 

(PI. 33 and 34.) 



South Australian 
Railwa3r8. 

(PI. 35.) 



Material adopted for bottom ballast. 



If stone, what mesh ? . . 
Depth of bottom ballast . 



If cinders, whether screened or 
not? 



Material ased for top ballast . 



Tliickness of top ballast 



Is the top ballast laid above the top 
of the sleeper, and if so, to what 
extent? 



What advantages are found to 
result from the use of the mate- 
rial selected for ballast? . . . 



Burnt clay chalk, brick 
and stone rubble. 



No restriction. 
9 inches (229 miH.\ 



Pit gravel-chalk always 
covered with gravel or 
clinkers. 



Average 21 inches 
(534 mill.). 



Yes. 
4 inches (102 mill.). 



The materials adopted for 
bottom ballast both acts 
as drain and keeps clay 
from getting soft and 
squeezing up into top 
gravel rendering it dirty 
and wet. 

Clinkers are most efficient 
at ends of sleepers to let 
water escape freely from 
sides of top ballast, 
chalk for top ballas^t is 
used principaly at out- 
side ends of .«;leepers. 



Stone. 

2 inches ring (51 mill ). 
10 inches (254 mill.). 



Cinders, gravel slag 
burned clay and stone. 



6 inches (152 mill.). 



No. 



Cinders and burned clay 
give easiest riding track . 
Slag and rock more 
durable. 



Broken limestone or quar- 
ry stone generally,river 
gravel occasionally. 



2 1/2 inches (63 mill.) ring. 



6 inches (152 mill.) in 
level districts, 9 inches 
(229 mill.; hilly dis- 
tricts. 



Same as for bottom ballast. 



7 inches to 8 1/2 inches 
(178 to 216 mill.). 



Yes. 
3 inches (76 mill.). 



Good drainage and a good 
elastic bed. 



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PLATES 



Plate 32. London, Tilbury and Southend Railway. 

— 33 and 34. Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe. 

— 35. South Australian Railways. 



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REPORT (FOR ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES) 



By M. W. AST 



IMPERIAL ROTAL COUNCILLOR AND CHIBP ENOINBBR OP THE EMPEROR FERDINAND 
NORTHERN RAILWAY OP AU8TRU 



INTRODUCTION. 

The enormous development of railway travelling during the last decade has pro- 
duced growing requirements on the part of the public with regard to the speed and 
convenience of travelling. The following table shows the highest speeds attained by 
express trains in different countries : 



COUNTRY. 


SECTION 

OP 

LINE. 


Length 

of 
Section. 


MEAN SPEED. 




— 1 


Speed according 

to 
time table-stop- 
pages 
excluded. 


Approximate 

speed 
after deducting 

time lost 

in starting and 

stopping. 


Maximum 

speed 
authorised 

or 
recorded. 


KUom. 


Miles. 


Per 

kilom. 


Hour 
miles. 


Per 
kilom. 


Hour 
miles. 


Per 

kilom. 


Hour 
miles. 


Austria .... 


Vienna*Lundenburg . 


83 


51-50 


67-2 


42-0 


70 


43-6 


90 


55-9 


Italy 


Piaoenza-Modena . . 


110 


68-0 


68 


42-3 


72 


45-0 


80 


49 7 


Germany. . . . 


Berlin-Wittenberg . 


159-4 


99-0 


. 82-5 


51-3 


84 


52 2 


90C) 


55-^ 


Holland .... 


Amsterdam -Hague . 


61 


37-9 


72 


44-7 


79-5 


49-4 


90 


55-9 


Belgium .... 


Brussels-Ostend . . 


120-9 


75-1 


72-5 


45-0 


81-5 


50-6 


100 


62-1 


France .... 


Paris-Amiens . . . 


131 


81 41 


81-9 


50-9 


83-4 


51-8 


120 


74 6 


£ngland. . . . 


London-Orantham . 


169 


igS'O 


83-3 


51-S 


84-6 


52-6 


120 


74-6 


(•) Maximum alU 


)wed by law. 










1 



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The actual speeds are thus shown to be high, yet one hears everywhere the opinion 
discussed (without saying however on what it is based) that they do not meet the 
requirements of the traffic and it is announced that an English railway is preparing a 
locomotive capable of drawing trains at the speed of 160 kilometres (99 miles) per 
hour. Academic discussion has even taken place, as to the possibility of obtaining 
speeds of 200 kilometres (124 miles) per hour or more. On the other hand the 
shortening of the duration of the journeys obtained by means of these high speeds 
has not prevented the public from being more and more exacting with respect to the 
comfort of the carriages. Considering that our trains are composed partly of 
sleeping, of dining, and of drawing-room cars, we ought not to be surprised that, 
the dead weight per passenger is now two or even three times the amount that it was 
in former years. On the other hand whilst the accx)mmodation of the carriages has 
been improved and the speed of the trains increased, fares have been put into 
operation which have facilitated travelling, as a result of which we have a 
considerable increase in the number of express trains and a very extraordinary 
increase in the gross tonnage. 

Under these circumstances the management of the railways has everywhere been 
obliged to modify the constnjction of the permanent way, and the working of the 
line, so as to enable them to procure quicker, cheaper, and more comfortable tra- 
velling for the public than in earlier years, and that with the same safety and 
the same economy. 

To do this it is first necessary to consider the permanent way and its construction, 
the wheel loads, and the relation between the permanent way and the rolling stock. 

The International Railway Congress, recognising the importance of these ques- 
tions, has, from the first, made them the object of its careful consideration. (See 
appendix VIII.) 

The construction of the permanent way has especially been the subject of reports 
and discussions having for object the study of its different materials, and considering 
them not only singly and together, but also in the relation which the permanent way 
and live load bear to each other. 

The present paper is one which answers a question put by the Congress. It is a 
new link in the chain of evidence resulting from research on the state of affairs set 
forth above. 

The following question bearing on the complex study of the relations between the 
permanent way and the rolling stock, which is one of the subjects under inve^tiga* 
tion can be thus stated : 



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How far does the usual practice of laying pennanent way answer the actual requi- 
rements, and further, how can the present method of construction be adapted to 
satisfy the increasing demands on its strength ? 

The Commission of the International Railway Congress has put this important 
question in the programme of the meeting which will b held in London in 1898, 
and has stated it as follows : • 

« Type of permanent way suited for lines traversed by trains at high speed. 

« Gradual strengthening of existing roads so as to permit of an increase in the 
speed of trains. 

a A. Section of rail. Calculation of the strains imposed by the rolling load. 
Results of experiments. 

« B. Mode of manufacture and nature of rail-metal. Comparison of soft with 
hard steel. Steel produced : (1) By the acid process in the Bessemer converter ; 
(2) by the basic process in the converter; (3) by either process in the Martin furnace. 

« C. Rail connections. Fatigue of fishplates. Construction of joint best cal- 
culated to secure uniform strength of the road throughout. Rails laid in chairs, and 
Vignoles rails. 

(( D. Sleepers, their quality, dimensions, and distance apart. 

(c E, Ballast, the various descriptions and methods of laying. » 

The International Commission has entrusted the author with the task of studying 
this vast question and rendering an account to the fifth session, embodying commu- 
nications and results of observations received from the managements of the Conti- 
nental railways who have joined the Congress. 

In the earlier and preliminary studies of this question the conviction has been 
forced upon us that, in its present state, no exact solution can be found. 

The difficulty arises from the impossibility of separating the road from the loco- 
motive. The equilibrium between the stress and the resistance of the permanent way 
can be determined within the limits of the latter. But the stresses can be increased 
not only intentionally but also accidentally and unexpectedly beyond such limits. 

The fact that, in a locomotive, the moving parts cause vibration, due to the want 
of uniform rigidity throughout the road, renders still more complex the relation 
which exists between the stress due to the moving load and the resistance of the line. 

Hence, in considering this question, it is necessary to take into account not only 
the facts relating to the permanent way and its different parts, but also those relating 
to the description and make of the vehicles, especially the locomotives, and further 
those which concern the number and weight of the trains, and their speed. 



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Moreover it is first necessary to consider how the permanent way offers a resistance 
to the loads it has to carry. As a criterion of the facts concerning this last point, 
we can, on the principle that the best constructed lines are those that are least 
expensive to repair, state that the first things to be taken into account are the fre- 
quency of repairs, the amount of time devoted to those repairs, and the cost of the 
labour. 

It is necessary to recognise at the same time that the cost of labour, skilled or 
unskilled, varies in different countries, for it is impossible to have workmen of the 
same intelligence wherever we go, so that information concerning the rate of wages, 
or the standard of salaries, does not by itself sufiice for the object in view. 

Finally we must not forget that on certain lines we meet with improvements in 
the permanent way that are but little known elsewhere, and also that some railway 
managements are acquainted with results of experiments and observations, which 
might be of the greatest use for our purpose, and about which it is desirable to 
possess full information. 

To obtain the requisite information about the matters referred to above, we have 
been obliged to enquire on many points from different railway authorities ; but to 
avoid fruitless work, we have specified that replies should only be sent about such 
lines as are used for express trains. 

These considerations have induced us to put the questions which are printed as 
an appendix, to the different railway managements in Europe asking them to be 
good enough to reply to them fully. 

SECTION I. 

Examination of the replies forwarded by the various railway managements. 

Sixteen important railway Companies, representing roughly 12,300 miles 
(20,000 kilometres) worked by express trains, send us information on the following 
points : 

(1). The amount of wear and stress produced by trafiic. 

(2). The construction and arrangement of locomotives and rolling stock. 

(3). The construction of the permanent way. 

(4). The cost of maintenance, and frequency of repairs. 

(5). Experiments concerning the behaviour under different conditions of the per- 
manent way, and of its parts. 

(6i. Arrangements for strengthening the permanent way. 



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As we are not able to fully reproduce the information sent to us by the different 
railways, we have in some cases made extracts from their books of rules and regula- 
tions, and we have been obliged to replace some of the figures by their mean value 
in drawing up our tables. 

To facilitate comparison we have compiled a table of those facts which appear to 
us the most important. 

When several types of permanent way were described by one Company, we 
always took as their standard the most recent one, even when it had only been 
applied to short lengths of the line. 

An examination of the information sent us shows that on the lines to which it 
refers, the speed of the express trains varies from 25 (40 kilometres) to 50 miles 
(80 kilometres) per hour and that the annual number of trains run, of every descrip- 
tion, varies from 4,000 to 31,000, and of express trains from 900 to 3,600. 

The wear and tear on these lines consequently varies between very wide limits, 
which render simple comparison between the types of construction chosen, and 
the measures adopted, almost impossible. 

In considering the different systems of constructing the permanent way, it is 
necessary also to take into account the construction and arrangement of the 
locomotives and of the rolling stock. 

The facts about these different points are shovm systematically in appendix IX, 
where they are condensed into a table which permits us to take in at a glance the 
information we have received from the different managements respecting the facts 
and figures for rolling stock and trains used on their lines. 

This table shows us that the load on the crank-axle of the most heavily weighted 
of the different locomotives. Which actually t<ike the express trains on the lines men- 
tioned, is between 12.3 tons (12.6 tonnes) French St<ite, and 15.55 tons (15.8 tonnes) 
Gothard railway; the total weight of these locomotives is between 34.4 and 65 tons 
(35 and 65 tonnes); they have 6 to 10 wheels, and the maximum distance apart of the 
coupled wheels is 9 feet 10 inches (3 metres). 

The majority of these engines have four wheels coupled, and a four-wheeled 
leading bogie. 

In some 8 wheeled locomotives the leading and trailing wheels are simply car- 
riers, the four coupled wheels being placed in the middle. 

The Belgian State railways arc almost the only lines which work a road with 
heavy gradients by means of 6 wheel coupled engines, having leading wheels with 
radial axle-boxes. 



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These engines, like the new locomotives of the Northern Railway of France, have 
inside cylinders, whilst all the other engines described have outside cylinders. 

The weight of the locomotive and tender varies from 54.1 to 83.3 tons (55 to 
84.6 tonnes). 

There are from 30 to 76 carriage-wheels on the express trains that these engines 
draw, with a gross weight of 98.4 to 196.8 tons (100 to 200 tonnes). 

The coaches have 4, 6 or 8 wheels. Those with 8 wheels are bogie-carriages. 

The greatest distance between centres of the wheels in the 4-wheeled coaches is 
19 feet 4 1/4 inches (5.9 metres), and the greatest weight per pair of wheels is 
7.87 tons (8 tonnes). 

On comparing together the data given relating to the types pf locomotive and the 
speed attained it appears that the railways which have a standard maximum weight 
of from 13.78 to 16.55 tons (14 to 15.8 tonnes) per pair of wheels, are those which 
have expresses running at a mean speed of more than 37.3 miles (60 kilometres) per 
hour on a road With unfavourable gradients. 

Rails and sleepers. — We will next consider whether these higher speeds cannot 
be obtained except by constructing locomotives with a greater weight per pair of 
wheels, and we will compare the statements regarding the construction of the per- 
manent way with a view to its wear and strain. 

In the tables in appendix I and II the size of the principal parts (rails, sleepers, 
joints) of the lines of the different railways that have sent in a report are given ; and 
we have divided them into two groups according to whether the weight per pair of 
wheels of the engines which draw the expresses is above or below 13.78 tons (14 tofts). 

The figures shown in the table as the denominator un4er the headings « height », 
« moment of inertia » and « moment of resistance » are those which correspond to 
the condition of the material when worn down to the point at which it is condemned. 

The table shows us that on some lines where they have a weight on the wheels of 
from 6.15 tons (6.25 tonnes) to 6.89 tons (7.00 tonnes) they use rails the weight of 
which is between 66.5 lbs per yard (33 kilograms per metre) and 85.7 lbs per yard 
(42.5 kilograms per metre), with a moment of inertia between 20.73 and 30,27 square 
inches per square inch (863 and 1,260 square centimetres per square centimetre) 
and a moment of resistance between 8.24 and 12.19 cubic inches (135 and 200 cubic 
centimetres). 

Lines which have a load on the wheels of more than 6.89 tons (7 tonnes) use rails, 
the weight of which is between 72.6 and 104.8 lbs per yard (36 and 52 kilograms 



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per metre), with a moment of inertia between 23.94 and 42.50 square inches per 
square inch (997 and 1,769 square centimetres per square centimetre) and a moment 
of resistance between 9.08 and 14.65 cubic inches (148.3 and 240 cubic centimetres). 

This shows a general tendency to increase the weight of rails beyond 80.6 lbs 
per yard (40 kilograms per metre). 

As a rule the rails are of cast steel'made either by the Bessemer or by the Martin 
process. 

In the Vignoles rails the tensile strength is not less than 34.9 tons per square inch 
(5,500 kilograms per square centimetre) and sometimes attains 42.5 tons per square 
inch (6,700 kilograms per square centimetre). 

Ther elongation varies from 20 to 14 per cent. 

The steel of the rails used on the Egyptian railways has a tensile strength of from 
42.5 tons per square inches (6,700 kilograms per square centimetre) to 45.7 tons per 
square inch (7,200 kilograms per square centimetre) with an elongation of 
11 per cent. 

The steel of the double-headed rails is usually harder than that of the Vignoles 
rails, and the managements employing this section of rails state that* their tensile 
strength is between 44.4 tons per square inch (7,000 kilograms per square centi- . 
metre) and 57.1 tons per square inch (9,000 kilograms per square centimetre) with 
an elongation of from 4 to 11 per cent. 

There is a tendency to use hard steel with a very high limit of elasticity. 

The majority of the railways use wooden sleepers. Two only make use of sleepers 
made of soft steel, with a tensile strength of from 28.6 tons per square inch 
(4,500 kilograms per square centimetre) to 30.5 tons per square inch (4,800 kilo- 
grams per square centimetre). 

The bell-shaped supports of the rails of the Egyptian railways are being replaced 
by sleepers. 

The sizes of the sleepers used vary considerably. 

Their length varies from 7 feet 10.5 inches (2.40 metres) to 8 feet 11 inches 
(2.72 metres), averaging 8 feet 6.4 inches (2.60 metres). 

The width varies between 7.9 and 11.8 inches (20 and 30 centimetres), the average 
being 9.8 inches (25 centimetres). 

The characteristic of the cross-section ^ 8 varies between 0.97 and 2.63 lbs 
per square inch (2.85 and 7.7 kilograms per square centimetre). 

The statements made by the managements show a marked tendency to increase the 
length of the sleepers. 



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The standard English sleepers are the longest, with a length of 8 feet 44 inches 
(2.72 metres); and the Egyptian railways are putting down sleepers of the same 
length as an experiment. 

We find no particular tendency to increase the width of the sleepers ; but, on the 
contrary, we do find that in some cases there is a tendency to use narrower 
sleepers and more of them. 

Space between sleepers. — The number of sleepers used depends on their distance 
apart, which is an important factor in the construction of the line. 

In laying down new lines intended for express trains the space varies from 2 feet 
4.5 inches (72.3 centimetres) to 3 feet 27 inches (98.4 centimetres); the av/erage 
distance being 2 feet 8.7 inches (83 centimetres). There is a distinct tendency to 
decrease this distance, this being recognised as the best way for obtaining greater 
strength and stiffness in the rails and joints and their attachment to the sleepers. 

Securing rails to sleepers. — In the grea^r number of cases the rails are fastened 
directly to the sleepers. There arc only four cases where the rails are not directly 
secured to the sleeper. The securing of the rails to the sleepers is always done by 
either straight spikes or dog-spikes or more generally by screwspikes {tire- fond); 
the last method is finding increasing favour. 

In the case of iron sleepers the rails are secured with plates and cheese head bolts. 

Most of the managements using Vignoles rails interpose a foundation-plate 
between the rail and the sleeper. This plate has generally parallel faces when used 
for wooden sleepers, but when iron sleepers are used it is always wedge shaped to 
give the rail its proper inclination. 

One management states that it uses slabs of tarred felt to protect the surface of the 
sleeper supporting the rail. 

In this case special importance is attached to the use of three screw-spikes. 

Two managements have given up the use of foundation-plates; one nails its 
Vignoles rails directly on to the wooden sleeper, the other fixes the rails directly to 
the steel sleeper, which has been previously bent to suit the inclination of the rail. 

The managements who do not fix the rails directly to the sleepers use cast-iron 
chairs with wooden or iron keys, and use double headed rails only. 

The Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn and some other railways belonging to the German 
Railway Union, with the intention of keeping separate the attachment of the Vignoles 
rails, are using experimentally tension-plates and cramp-plates {plaques it mdchoires) 
together with flat plates and cheese head bolts or screw-spikes (tire-fond) (fig. 4). 



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One Italian Railways informs us (Revue ginirale, Sept. 1894) that, on a line used for 
heavy traffic, they are adopting a fastening for the Vignoles rails consisting of cast- 
iron chairs and wooden keys. 

Cramp-plates used by the Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn for Vignoles rails. 




Fig. 1. 



There is no doubt, and it has been frequently proved, that when the speeds are 
very high, the direct attachment of the rails to the sleepers with or without founda- 
tion plates \s> not sufficient. 

We can see, on reading the information supplied to us, that the managements 



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attempt to counteract this disadvantage of direct attachment by increasing the 
number of points of attachment. 

If we compare an old-fashioned system of laying the rails in which they were fixed 
with two dog-spikes or screw-spikes 3 feet 2*6 inches apart (98 centimetres) with 
a more recent system in which the rails are fixed by means of four screw-spikes on 
sleepers 2 feet 4.3 inches (72 centimetres) apart, we notice that for each -621 mile 
(4 kilometre, there are in the first case 1,091 points of attachment with 2,182 dog- 
spikes or screw-spikes and in the second case 1,500 points of attachment with 
6,000 screw-spikes. 

If we consider that this increase in the number of points of support has resulted 
in a reduction of the span of the clear part of the rail, we come to the conclusion 
that this latter method has consequently reduced the stress sustained by the separate 
points of attachment, in a manner which is similar to the former but more 
complete. 

As regards the system of fixing by means of cast-iron chairs, there is a tendency 
to increase the weight of these chairs, and to diminish the space between the 
sleepers. 

The principle is the same as that of increasing the niunber of screw-spikes or 
dog-spikes. 

In the older methods of construction with sleepers spaced at a distance of 3 feet 
2*6 inches (98 centimetres) apart, the high stresses caused by the passing of express 
trains were accompanied by great pressure of the rail on its supports which the old 
fashioned light chairs where unable to bear. 

The authorities have attempted to meet these increased stresses resulting from 
pressure on the rail by increasing the strength of the chairs, and, at the same time, 
by bringing the sleepers closer together, to give the rails more support, and to reduce 
the intensity of the pressure on the ballast. 

Special methods of fixing the rails. — The railway managements have sent some 
information on some special methods of fixing the rail with the purpose of main- 
taining the exact gauge during the passing of expresses on curves of less than 
547 yards (500 metres) radius. 

We find in these statements the following methods given : 

The « Seidle » cross tie, the use of which has given good results on the Austro- 
Hungarian State Railways, and which constitutes a means of making a connection 
between the two sets of rails. 



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The use of wooden cleats bussing up against the head of the rail and spiked to 
the sleeper on the outerside of the curve to prevent canting. 

The use of an increased number of sleepers and screw-spikes at the curve 
itself. 

The use (in the case of Vignoles rails) of chairs or foundation plates on some or all 
of the sleepers. 

In order to prevent the displacement of the track on gradients and on curves^ 
pieces of wood forming a longitudinal connection between the sleepers, or also 
wooden posts driven in at the outer ends of the sleepers at the curves arc used on 
the Pistoia-Bologna section in Italy. 

In curves of small radius with the rails laid in chairs it is preferable to replace 
the ordinary wooden keys with iron keys and also with keys like those of Barbarofs 
system. 

The managements are unanimous in the opinion that in curves of more 
than 847 yards (500 metres) radius special measures for fixing the rails are 
unnecessary. 

FisH-jfOiNTS. — In appendix III is a table showing the information we have received 
from the different managements in reference to the pattern of their fish-joints when 
laying down new sections of line. 

The ends of the rails are in evfery case joined together with fish-plates, at a point 
between two sleepers. 

Most of these are made of angle or channel section. Only two managements 
still use on the inside of the rails flat fish plates. 

Most managements use fish-plates of the same shape both inside and outside the 
rails. 

With the Vignoles rails the fish-plates generally overlap the two sleepers, and 
their length is from 1 feet 61 inches (460 millimetres) to S feet 71 inches (800 mil* 
limetres). 

There is a marked tendency to increase the length of these fish-plates. The 
weights given are between 9*5 lbs (4*3 kilograms) and 48*5 lbs (22 kilograms). 
They are generally made of very mild or medium mild steel having a tensile 
strength of from 28*5 to 34 8 tons per square inch (4,500 to 5,500 kilograms per 
square centimetre) and an elongation of 15 to 20 per cent. 

The fish plates are fixed by bolts, usually 4 in number; some managements use 
5 and one even uses 6. 



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The diameter of the bolts varies from 0-748 into 1-004 inch (19 to 25-8 milli- 
metres). 

The majority of managements use bolts of 0-984 inch (28 millimetres) 
diameter. 

This method of uniting rails by means of fish-plates and bolts is generally recog- 
nised as unsatisfactory; and consequently attempts are made in all directions to 
improve on this method. 

The defects of this method are first shown by the sleepers on each side of 
the joint sinking more into the ballast; for this reason it has been proposed to 
make these sleepers wider, in order to reduce the space between them to 13 inches 
(33 centimetres), and to use at these places sand as ballast. 
• It has been observed that when a vehicle passes over a joint the rail which 
is being left is subjected to a greater amount of toi'sional stress than the 
other. 

Experien(^ having shown that a better joint results when rails are fixed according 
to the « Hcindl » method, one management has experimentally fixed tension plates 
to the sleepers between which the joint is situated ; thus, in this case, adopting 
Heindl's method. 

The frequent breakage of the fish-plates has caused managements to increase the 
section of the fish plates and to substitute for fish-plates of flat section some of 
angular section. 

They have attempted to counteract the wear on the fish-plates by the use of harder 
metal, and by increasing the bearing surface by enlarging the head of the rail, and 
the bearing surfaces of the fish-plates, and by lengthening the latter. 

Here we must specially mention the strong form of fishjoint used on the Belgian 
State Railway in which the lower surface of the fish-plate coincides with the under 
surface of the rail, in such a way that it is supported on the sleepers, and gives a 
great width of bearing surface to the joint. The fixing of the fish-plates on to the 
sleepers is made by means of screw-spikes passing through holes drilled in the 
angle thereof. In this way the fish-plates act as a sort of bridge supporting the 
rails. 

The Western Railway of France are now trying experimentally a system of 
supported joints. 

In this method a long chair is used, bridging the space between the two sleepers 
at the rail joint. The rail ends are secured to each other and to the chair by a fish- 
plate and six bolts (fig. 2). 



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Fish-plates on the Western of France. 



..7.i».. 



Elevation. 



...Wk 



Fig. 2. 



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Special constructions at the kish-joints. — Several plans have been submitted 
for countei acting the creeping of the rails. Most of them are intended to make the 
two sleepers more rigid by a junction piece, and some even by the use of inter- 
mediary sleepers tied together. 

We include among these plans : 

(1). That of the Italian Mediterranean Company in which two plates joining the 
two sleepers are used with satisfactory results. 

(2). That of the Society of the Austro-Hungarian State Railways consisting of 
uniting the longitudinal sleepers to the transverse sleepers immediately adjoining 
them, either by means of an iron plate and an angle iron placed like a St. Andrew's 
Cross, or by means of several iron plates placed parallel to the line. The Belgian 
State Railway recommends a similar method of joining a number of sleepers by 
iron rods. 

Another method is to bend the angled part of the fishplate so that it either draws 
up tight against the side of the chairs, or of the sleepers, or of the foundation plate. 

It has been proposed to rivet angle-irons to the rails which would be fixed to one 
or two intermediary sleepers by means of dog-spikes or screw spikes. 

It should be mentioned that the use of an increased number of sleepers is recom- 
mended as a means of lessening the creeping of the rail. 

We may conclude that the tendency to creeping will be decreased as we 
improve the method of making the rail joints and of securing the rails to the 
sleepers. 

Super-elevation of the rails and widening of the track at curves. — In considering 
the advantages of the above arrangements we have also to consider the arran- 
gements for super-elevation and increase of gauge. 

The different managements however vary so greatly in their practice that no satis- 
factory general conclusion can be arrived at. 

We find that 6.3 inches (160 millimetres) is the maximum supei-elevation, and 
1.1 inch (28 millimetres) the maximum increase of gauge and as minimum we find 
nil in both cases. 

It is to be noted that the railways which use the latter method (nil), allow more 
clearance than is the case, for example, with the German and Austrian railways. 
(Vide 3rd Congress, Report on questions Vill and IX/7.) 

Maintenance of permanent way. — The maintenance of the permanent way is 
carried out by two methods, either by repairing when reported necessary, or by 



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examination at stated intervals. Neither method is sufficient by itself, each requir- 
ing to be supplemented by the other. 

In both cases strict attention is given to keeping the rails in their correct relative 
position. 

The reports referring to the frequency of repairs show a dependence on the 
amount of the traffic, and on the age of the line. The general inspection of the 
road ought to take place at intervals of from one to two years. 

In the method of repairing when the line is noticed to require it, each section of 
the line ought to be adjusted at intervals of from five to eight montlis. Most railways 
do this twice a year. 

The cost of adjusting the track and the amount of labour required for this purpose 
vary, according to the statements we have received, within large limits. The 
figures given show that the annual outlay for each yard of the line varies from 
1.76 d. to 3.52 d. per yard (0.20 to 0.40 franc per metre) and the labour from .15 
to .40 of a day. 

No direct comparison is, however, possible. It can be stated that the regular 
system is more costly than the reporting system ; also that the cost increases with 
the age of the rails and with increase of traffic, but also depends on the general 
question of curves and gradients and largely on the method of construction 
adopted. 

On the other hand the expenses are affected to an appreciable extent by the 
ballast, by the amount of bearing surface of sleeper per unit length of rail, and by 
the intensity of the pressure on the ballast due to the weight of the traffic. 

In the table appendix II we have made calculations respecting the lines that have 
supplied us with information regarding the total number of sleepers per mile of 
road. We have assumed the sleepers to be bedded over a portion of their length 
only ; i. e. for a length on the inside of each rail equal to the length projecting 
beyond the rail. 

The total varies from 5.91 to 10.63 square f?et per yard (600 and 1,080 square 
metres per kilometre) : the average for the lines where the weight on the wheel 
does not exceed 6.89 tons (7 tonnes) is 6.89 square feet per yard (700 square metres 
per kilometre) and for those where the weight is more than (7 tonnes) the average 
is 7.32 square feet per yard (744 square metres per kilometre). 

It appears that those lines which have the least amount of sleepers buried per 
mile are those which have the heaviest costs for repairs. 

However is it impossible to establish any definite direct relation between these 



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two items, because there are as already mentioned, so many other important cir- 
cumstances which affect the cost of repairs. 

Information about the construction of lines belonging to the German Railway 
Union. — To complete the consideration of the present stale and future tendencies 
of the practice of permanent way construction, we have to refer to the transactions 
of the fourteenth meeting of the Engineers of the German Railway Union; the 
conclusions then arrived at have also been published in the Bulletin of the Railway 
Congress, volume VIII, n*» 5. May 4894, p. 347-348. 

The general conclusion arrived at was that the following arrangements were 
adequate for loads not exceeding 13.78 tons (14 tonnes) per pair of wheels and for 
speeds not exceeding 56 miles (90 kilometres) per hour : 

Rails weighing 66.S lbs. per yard (33 kilograms per metre). 

With sleepers 31.5 inches (80 centimetres appart). 

Rails weighing 70.5 lbs per yard (35 kilograms per metre). 

With sleepers 36.4 inches (90 centimetres) apart, such sleepers to be 7 feet 
10.5 inches to 8 feet 10.3 inches (240 to 270 centimetres) long and 5.90 per 
0.98 inch (15 x 25 centimetres) in section with foundation plates, or else iron 
sleepers weighing from 121.2 to 143.2 lbs (55 to 65 kilograms). But although 
such arrangements suffice, for business reasons it is considered advisable to use 
stronger forms even at present. 

And since then the authorities of the Prussian State Railways have decided to use, 
on their main lines, rails weighing 82.6 lbs. per yard (41 kilograms per metre) the 
transverse section of which has a moment of resistance of 11.77 cubic inches 
(193 cubic centimetres) and sleepers measuring 8 feet 10.3 inches per 10.2 inches per 
6.3 inches (270 centimetres x 26 x 16) spaced 33.1 inches (84 centimetres) apart. 

The State Railways of Saxony use rails weighing 92.1 lbs per yard (45.7 kilo- 
grams per metre) with a moment of resistance of 14.8 cubic inches (242 cubic 
centimetres) placed on sleepers 8 feet 2.4 inches (2.5 metres) long and 2 feet 8.5 inches 
(82.5 centimetres) apart. 

The Wurtemberg State Railway has recently used experimentally rails weighing 
87.7 lbs per yard (43.5 kilograms per metre) laid on metal sleepers (Heindl system) 
which are 8 feet 103 inches (2.7 metres) long and 2 feet 5.5 inches and 2 feet 
7.5 inches (75 and 80 centimetres) apart respectively. 

Strength of permanent way. — All the managements who have furnished us with 
information on the question we are now considering, inform us that their new 



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system of laying the road, already partly carried out, and which they intend to use 
in the future for renewals, will satisfy the requirements of considerable traffic for 
many years to come. 

It is only on lines with heavj' gradients and sharp curves where increase of the 
load on the wheels is contemplated that not only the fish-joints will have to be 
strengthened, but also some of the other portions on certain sections of the road. 

In order to determine a good type of road for express traffic it is necessary 
to compare the different types of permanent way and their various parts. 

The expert who has to decide between such different methods which answer all 
requirements, will be guided by the principle that the best construction of line is 
that which costs the least for maintenance. 

Elsewhere a proof is given that it is impossible to make a comparison based on 
this principle from the materials at our disposal. 

Another method which allows us to compare different systems of construction 
reduced to a common basis is by way of theory. 

Although a theoretical examination does not give us an absolute measure of the 
ciipabilities of a line, we may still use it to compare different methods of construc- 
tion, and we may admit, other things being equal, such as the ballast, and the 
depth the sleepers arc buried, that the amount of the strains imposed on the rails 
and sleepers, and the compression of the ballast is approximately that which can be 
deduced from formulae. 

We will now consider to what extent the present status of theoretical analysis, 
and observations made on rails, allow us to determine whether the methods 
adopted by the Administrations in strengthening their road are satisfactory, and 
how such methods may be improved in the future. In doing this we must refer to 
question V-A of the fourth session of the International Congress, There are given 
methods of calculation which permit us to allow for modifications of shape in the 
principal parts of the construction of a railway. 

We have since then applied this method of calculation to the comparison of the 
different lines laid on cross sleepers, and we refer the members of the Congress to 
our paper {Bulletin, p. 3, 1898, vol. IX) entitled « The sleeper and its bearing on the 
ballast ». 

In that paper we attempt by a detailed calculation to establish the part played by 
the sleeper and its bearing on the ballast in the strength of the line, and also to 
determine a standard sleeper. We also show the limiting conditions between 
which the engineer has to keep. 



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We shall follow the lines of the above mentioned papers in an attempt to deter- 
mine (with the material at our disposal) the effect of the shape and arrangement of 
the different most essential parts of the track ; and we shall also take into considera- 
tion the fact that the demands on the strength of the permanent way are not merely 
dependent on the wheel load by itself but also on the distribution of this load and 
the arrangement of the sleepers. 

Theoretical investigation ok the information slpplied by the administrations. — 
With the information before us we have examined the construction of the lines and 
we have compiled some figures which serve to exemplify the amount of resistance that 
the line can offer to the stresses produced by the dead v^eight of the locomotives used 
on that particular line. 

The difference between the figure representing the resistance calculated in this way, 
and that which corresponds to a strain on the different parts equal to the limit 
of elasticity constitutes a margin of safety intended in the first place to ensure the 
necessary resistance to the live loads and to the increased stresses due to increase of 
speed. 

In the second place this margin of safety has to allow for the gradual decrease of 
strength that the road suffers through the continual wear and tear of the materials, 
particularly the rails and ballast, under the action of the trains. This may become 
very considerable. 

In comparing the different ways of constructing the line, one ought not only to 
consider it when its material is new, but also when continual weiir has brought it 
to the extreme limit at which it may be safely used. 

When laying down a new line it will always be possible to have ballast such that 
the resistance of the line may be indicated by a coefficient of ballast K =- 180.6 
(C -= 5). For this the foundations may be of inferior quality but must be properly 
drained. Higher coefficients of ballast may possibly be attained if the sub-soil be 
either rocky or very firm, or by recourse to the interposition of stonework. Such 
coefticients can only be considered admissible on special sections of the road. 

During the working of the line the elasticity and firmness of the ballast dimin- 
ishes continually by reason of the deterioration undergone by its particles. 

This deterioration is brought about just as much by the effect of the traffic (and 
work required) on the line as by atmospheric agencies. We shall take into account 
in our calculations this reduction in the resistance of the ballast by giving its coeffi- 
cient its least value, viz : K = 108.4 (C = 3). 



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When considering the shape of section of the rail we must not lose sight of the 
fact that the head suffers a continual loss of material owing to wear. 

This loss, which may be as much as from 0354 to 0*472 inch (9 to 12 milli- 
metres), sensibly reduces the section of the rail, and has a marked effect on the 
strength of the rail and other essentials of the whole road. 

In making our calculations we have taken note of this fact. The figures are given 
both for new rails and for those that have arrived at the limit of their wear in the 
table ; the respective figures being separated by a division line. 

The resistance of the different parts of the permanent way depends largely on the 
quality of their material. 

In making the calculations we have assumed the materials to be of average 
quality, and accordingly we have taken as the value of the modulus of elasticity of 
the metal of the rails and metal sleepers E = 24,170,000 and for wooden sleepers 
B' = 1,422,000 (= 1,700,000 and 100,000 respectively). We have also assumed the 
sleepers to be only partially embedded between the rails and completely embedded 
outside. 

It follows that more favourable conditions should give higher figures for the 
resistance of the line. 

The results thus calculated for the dead load due to the heaviest express locomo- 
tive are given in the table showing the strains in each component part of the road. 

Pressure on the rails. — In order to determine the figures which influence the 
rigidity of the line and of its fastenings, the stress on the rail is of special importance. 

I have shown above to what extent this stress depends not only on the load but 
also on its distribution and on the spacing of the sleepers. In the calculations 
made I have considered each case individually from its different aspects and thus 
have obtained the maximum on the rail. 

If we compare the different values of this pressure P on the rail shown in the 
table Appendix IV, we find that with worn rails P is between 3*235 tons 
(3-287 tonnes) and 3850 tons (3*912 tonnes) on lines where the weight on the wheel 
does not exceed 6*89 tons (7 tonnes) and that P is between 3105 and 4*691 tons 
(3 155 and 4*766 tonnes) on lines where the weight of the wheel is more than 
6.89 tons (7 tonnes). 

A point to be specially noticed is the fact that the lower limit of the pressure P can 
in the case of the greater wheel loads become equal or even inferior to that on 
lines with wheel loads of 6*89 tons (7 tonnes) or less, and this fact shows 



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clearly the influence of the method of construction of the road and the distribu- 
tion of the wheel loads. 

The minimum pressure on the rail is found on those lines where the ratio of the 
distance between wheel centres to the space between the sleepers is 4*1 or even 3'4. 

In those cases in which the smallest pressures have resulted the factor 7=3- 
is of importance and the increase of this ratio results in reduced pressure. 

In general we may conclude that on a line with heavy rails and the sleepers 
closely spaced (that is where the value of B is great) it is advantageous, so far as the 
road is concerned, to use locomotives having a considerable distance between wheel 
centres. 

Strain in the rails. — On lines where the weight on the wheel does not exceed 
6*89 tons (7 tonnes) the strain in the rails when new is between 6-350 and 
8*254 tons per square inch (1,000 and 1,300 kilograms per square centimetre) and 
in the rails when worn between 7156 and 9*334 tons per square inch (1,127 and 
1,470 kilograms per square centimetre). 

On lines on which the wheels are more heavily loaded, the strain when the rails 
are new is between 5828 and 8.585 tons per square inch (918 and 1,352 kilograms 
per square centimetre) and between 6*666 and 10*09 tons per square inch (1,050 and 
1,589 kilograms per square centimetre) when the rails are worn. As an average we 
may take 7*320 and 8*203 tons per square inch (1*153 and 1*292 kilograms per square 
centimetre). 

This strain represents about one-third of the limit of elasticity of the material. 

In the majority of the lines regarding which we have received information, the 
sleepers have such a great resisting moment that the strain only averages 825 lbs 
per square inch (58 kilograms per square centimetre) that is one-fourth of the 
limit of elasticity of the material. 

We have thus a large margin of safety which is however necessary on account of 
the rapidity of deterioration of the wood. 

For iron sleepers the strain on the material when the rails are worn is between 
7*435 and 7 817 tons per square inch (1,171 and 1,231 kilograms per square centi- 
metre). 

In the case of worn rails the sleepers sink to a depth of between 154 to 
0.256 inch ('39 and 65 centimetres). But if we leave out of consideration the 
St-Gothard Railway which has sleepers of varying section and to which consequently 
the above reasoning cannot readily be applied, the sleepers sink from 0*154 inch to 



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2J4 inch (-39 to -57 centimetres) with a mean of 189 inch ('48 centimetres); that 
is between narrow limits. 

The corresponding pressure on the ballast (again not considering the case of the 
St-Gothard Railway) is between 16'8 and 24*46 lbs per square inch (4.46 and 
4 -72 hilograms per square centimetre), averaging 20*48 lbs per square inch 
(4-44 kilogram per square centimetre); this is 72 p. c. of the 28-44 lbs per square 
inch (2 kilograms per square centimetre), taken as the limit. 

The theoretical examination of the existing methods of construction that we have 
just made enables us to give the following results : 

(4). On lines where the weight on a pair of wheels is less than 43*78 tons 
(44 tonnes) rails with a large base and a maximum weight of 70*8 lbs per yard 
(38 kilogrammes per metre) can be used for a heavy traffic with high speeds, provided 
that the sleepers are of sufficient size and not laid too far apart. 

(2). On lines where the weight on a pair of wheels exceeds 43*78 tons (44 tonnes) 
and increase in the weight of the rail beyond 70.5 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per 
metre) seems necessary with a resisting moment of the rail of 9*46 inch (480 centi- 
metres), and these heavier rails should be used in conjunction with substantial 
sleepers closely spaced. 

(3). On lines where the rails are heavy and the sleepers closely spaced, the use of 
locomotives with the axles well apart and the leading and trailing wheels not very 
heavily loaded appears advantageous in relation to the wear of the line. 

Strains in thb fish-plates. — In table appendix V we have set out, for the lines 
devoted to express traffic that we have received information on, the strains in the 
fish-plates calculated according to the theory of D' Zimmermann, which is laid down 
in the report on question V-A of the International session of Congress held at 
SaintrPetersburg. 

But as this theory is based on the hypothesis that the length of the fish-plates does 
not exceed the distance between the sleepers at the fish-joint, a state of affairs which 
we only find on the lines mentioned under the n^ 4, 6 and 7 in the table, we shall 
nevertheless apply this to the other types of permanent way where longer fish-plates 
are used, in order to obtain an idea, if only an approximate one, of the stress 
upon them. 

The fish-plates that we have taken for our calculation have together a resisting 
moment of between 24 and 60 p. c. of the resisting moment of the rails they are 
used to unite; it follows from this that, on the lines we have considered, the fish- 



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plates work at a tensile strain of between 8*071 and 21*23 tons per square inch 
(1,271 and 3,343 kilograms per square centimetre) even under a dead load of 6*8 to 
7*7 tons (6,900 to 7,800 kilograms). 

The lines on which the fish-plates have the least strain are those shown under the 
n°' 1 and 2/fr, which only have a maximum weight on the wheel of 6*8 tons 
(6,900 kilograms). 

With regard to the fish-plates n© 2/ft, it must be noticed in their favour that the 
sleeper is of very strong section, I -= 184*3 square inches X square inch (I = 7,672 
square centimetres x square centimetre); that the space between sleepers at the 
fish-joint is small, 18*7 inches (47*4 centimetres); and that the fish-plate is long 
28*7 inches (73 centimetres). The ratio of the moment of resistance of the two fish- 
plates to that of the rail is comparatively high (48 p. c). 

The system of fish-plate which according to our calculations shows the worst 
results is thai given under n^ 7 which carries a maximum wheel load of 7*38 tons 
(7,500 kilograms). In this case the sleepers are very weak, I ^^ 107*5 square inches 
X square inch (4,475 square centimetres x square centimetre); the spac^ between 
the sleepers at the fish joint is large, 23*62 inches (60 centimetres); the fish-plates 
are short, 17*72 and 21*26 inches (45 and 54 centimetres) respectively; and the resist- 
ing moment of the two fish-plates is only 21 p. c. of that of the rail. The Company 
in question is already adopting stronger fish-plates. 

Here we again find (and this has already been stated in the report on question V-A 
of the International Congress at Saint-Petersburg) that the strength of the fish-plate 
does not only depend on the construction of the fish-plate itself (that is on its abso- 
lute resisting moment and its length) but also on the other members used in the 
construction of the line, such as the size and spacing of the sleepers, and a suitable 
ratio between their resisting moment and that of the rails. 

Mode of manuufactuke and nature of rail metal. — We do not find in the replies 
sent us by the Administrations sufficient information to enable us to definitely give 
the best mode of manufacture and the most suitable class of material. 

In our reply to question V-A of the Saint-Petersburg session of the Congress we 
have mentioned those points which seem to us of importance in this relation, in 
particular we have drawn attention to the fact that no one class of the tests usually 
applied can of itself give us complete information on all the properties affecting 
the safety and durability of the rail. 

In order to obtain a well founded opinion on the quality and reliability of the rail 



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it is necessary to compare the results of the different mechanical tests with those 
obtained by chemical analyses. 

The way the rail behaves depends not only on its mechanical properties thus as- 
certained but also on the greater or less degree of homogeneity of the metal. 

We have also said that in determining the proper hardness for the rails, we must 
not lose sight of the reciprocal action between the wheel and the rail, and conse- 
quently it would be better to use rails of steel of the same hardness as that which 
has been found best for the tyres. 

The replies of the managements show us that material of very different breaking 
strength is used. 

The Austrian, Italian, Gothard, Belgian State, and Dutch railways use rails with 
a breaking strength of 34*92 to 42'54 tons per square inch (55 to 67 kilograms per 
square millimetre) with an elongation of from 15 to 20 p. c. On the other hand, the 
French railways and Egyptian Railways use rails having a breaking strength of 
4i-45 tons per square inch (70 kilograms per square millimetre) to 50*80 tons per 
square inch (80 kilograms per square millimetre) and even 62*23 tons per square 
inch (98 kilograms per square millimetre) with an elongation of from 10 to 15 p. c, 
and some even with an elongation of 1 to 4 p. c. 

We will simply state that there is a tendency to give the preference to hard steels 
of high tensile strength. It is important that when such rails are used the material 
should not be brittle. 

The excellent results to be obtained with such rails seem to be substantiated by 
observations made on the Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean, Orleans, and Egyptian 
Railways. 

We can here add that at the last meeting of the engineers of the German Railway 
Union held at Strasburg in 1893, it was said from the information received from the 
different lines belonging to the Union, that hard steel rails offered a greater resis- 
tance to the wear and tear, but are more liable to fracture, particularly if their elon- 
gation is small and if the material they are composed of is not sufficiently pure and 
not enough work has been put on it. 

We shall be in a position to give a more precise answer to this question when we 
have obtained some results of the inquiry set on foot by the German Union, 
especially with regard to the quality of the materials. 

The information supplied us by the managements with regard to steel rails does 
not permit us to draw any definite conclusion as to the merits of either Bessemer or 
Martin $teel made by either the basic or acid processes. 



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It is worthy of notice that the large majority of the managements use rails made 
by the Martin process or by the acid Bessemer process. 

Only two managements also use rails of Thomas steel obtained in the converter by 
basic process. 

This is due to the fear that it is more difficult to obtain hard rails of uniform qua- 
lity by the basic process than by the acid one. 

This point, which already has been alluded to by M. Bricka in his report on frac- 
ture of rails road at the Paris session of the International Congress of 1889 VII-B is 
again raised in a communication that has been sent us by the Paris-Lyons and 
Mediterranean Railway Company. 

The report of the Strasburg meeting of 1893 to which we have already alluded 
seems to put the facts thus : « Such information as we have at present leads us to 
think that the Bessemer or Martin steel rails are more satisfactory than those of 
Thomas steel ; but at the same time the present state of knowledge does not enable 
us to decide how far this may be due to difference in the nature of the steel, or to the 
amount of work put on it, or to the care exercised in the manufacture of the rails. » 

In our opinion the managements should next devote their attention to the eluci- 
dation of this question by giving us careful and trustworthy statistics. 

Experiments to determine stresses due to rolling loads. — The International 
Railway Congress has repeatedly urged the necessity of recording observations, and 
of making special experiments to determine the nature and extent of the stresses 
due to rolling loads on the rails. 

At the meeting held at Milan, the Belgian State Railway communicated the results 
of some experiments made for this object. The Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean 
Railway published the results of comprehensive experiments in the Revue des 
chemins de fer of 1887-1889; these were considered of sufficient importance to be 
quoted in the reply to questions IV and V-A at the fourth session held at Saint- 
Petersburg. 

The statements of the managements show that since then they have not made, or 
at all events have not published, any further observations on this subject. 

The management of the Kaiser Ferdinand's Nordbahn has considered the methods 
and appliances to be used to observe the phenomena attending high speeds and 
resultant heavy stresses and they have come to the conclusion that there is no 
method as good as, let alone better than the photographic one. 

Up tothe present the work in this direction has only been carried as far as the 



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design and construction of a recording apparatus for making these experiments. 

It would be beyond the scope of this paper to give a detailed description of this 
apparatus and the results that have been obtained from it; we only draw attention 
to it in the hope that we may induce managements to make similar experiments by 
the method indicated. 

We cannot, however, omit giving several of the actual diagrams which show the 
movement of the rail-ends at the fishjoint (appendix VII, plates 1-6). 

This we do in order to show how extremely sensitive and accurate the instrument 
is; but without analysing the result obtained. 

The greatest difficulty to overcome was to arrange our apparatus in such a way 
that it was unaffected by vibrations. 

Two ways of doing this were tried, each proving equally satisfactory. 

One way consisted of making a completely isolated platform on a foundation 
29 feet 6 inches (9 metres) deep, and built with layers of felt between the bricks. 

The other method consisted in making a solid wooden frame supported on four 
piles. To protect these piles as much as possible from the effects of the vibrations 
the foundations were laid in deep pits. 

This erection served as a stand for the camera. 

Highly polished metal edges were fixed to the points of which we wished to 
observe the movement; by this means we obtained a sharp image on the sensitised 
plate. A millimetre scale is fixed by the point to be observed, which being photo- 
graphed gives the necessary scale on the plate. 

The plate is only exposed through a narrow vertical slit. 

This plate receives a uniform motion behind this slit by means of a clock-work 
movement thus continually exposing a fresh ray on the plate. 

A record in the form of a continuous line is thus obtained. 

In this way we obtained a diagram completely analogous to those hitherto 
obtained by the lever apparatus, the only difference being that in this the lever is 
replaced by a ray of light, and the roll of paper by a sensitised plate. 

The apparatus had to be made of fairly large size in order to admit of the record 
of the movements being made to a magnified scale. 

The plates measured 512 x 14-17 inches (13 x 36 centimetres). 

The figures (3) and (4) show the arrangement of the mechanism used to move the 
plates. 

The front elevation figure 3 clearly shows the narrow slit through which the 
rays of light pass, and also the movable frame which carries the sensitised plate. 



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Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 
Photographical apparatus for recording the deflections of (he rend. 



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The back view figure 4 shows the way the clock-work mechanism is attached to 
the camera. 

The electro-magnetic mechanism is also shown which is governed by an inde- 
pendant clock movement and which alternately covers and uncovers part of the slit. 
By this means the seconds are marked and the speed thus recorded. 



SECTION 11. 

Type of line to be adopted for trains running at very high speed. 

A. — General considerations. 

When we consider the question : cc What are the principles which determine the 
construction of permanent way which is to oflFer sufficient resistance to the stresses 
set up by trains running at high speed, we come to the conclusion that at present we 
can give no definite answer. 

Actual practice shows that some modes of construction of the line on different 
systems allow of high speeds; nevertheless it is scarcely possible to decide that the 
construction of existing lines answers this purpose either taken as a whole, or consi- 
dered in detail. To decide how far we may copy these to obtain a satisfactory 
method of construction can only be determined when the results obtained in actual 
practice are further confirmed by the analytical method of examination. 

But when we attempt to apply such a method of analysis and to combine the 
results of experiment and theory, we are met by the difficulty that these results and 
more particularly those which are obtained from mathematical formulae do not 
allow us to definitively obtain the influence of the velocity of movement on the 
stress on the rail and do not enable us to calculate directly the dimensions relating 
to the permanent way. 

Existing formulae. — The only formulae in which the speed enters as a factor are 
those which take into account the centrifugal force set up when the train is running 
round a curve. 

Horizontal centrifugal force. — Only when the road is curved does a horizontal 
centrifugal force come into play. It has been attempted to counteract this by giving 
superelevation to the outer rail. This as is well known produces a number of 
disadvantages. Hence the question of superelevation cannot yet be considered defi- 



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118 

nitely settled. We can even show theoretically, and several cases have confirmed 
this view in practice, that in many cases in which superelevation is at present 
applied it is quite unnecessary. 

Vertical centrifugal force. — Formulae have previously been given which take 
into account a vertical centrifugal force on straight aiid curved lines. This force is 
due to the bending of the rails between consecutive sleepers as the vehicle passes 
over them. They consequently have to travel over an elastic curve which they cause 
by their own movement. These formulae take into account the increase of the 
stress on the rail due to the speed, and this is important, because having regard to 
the preponderating influence of the vertical load on the rail when making our cal- 
culations, they contain at least one factor which depends on the speed. 

Only these formulae are useless because the wheels of the vehicle do not follow 
exactly the elastic curve of the rail. They take a different path which would be 
parallel to the surface of the rail if it were not for the fact that other factors which 
cause the wheel load to vary intervene. 

Formulae for dead loads and live loads. — Nevertheless the formulae which are 
used in the case of dead loads may also be employed in the case of live loads if we 
substitute for the wheel pressure on the rail due to the dead load the value of this 
figure in the case of the moving load. 

In making these calculations the momentary value of the wheel pressure due to 
live loads is taken as a static load. The value of this pressure varies during the 
movement of the wheel and we must base our calculations on its maximum value. 
The question thus reverts to the determination of this maximum and in this case we 
are considering to what extent it depends on the speed. 

Influence of the speed. — The changes in the load on the wheel are due to the 
oscillations and other disturbing movements of the engine and carriages. 

The speed has to be considered in this connection because the higher it is, the 
more rapid are the variations of the load. 

A large increase in the load can even take place; as for example when the blows 
follow each other so quickly that the oscillation caused by one blow is not com- 
pleted before the next blow is given and the directions of the successive blows 
coincide. 

Theoretical research does not appear to have touched on this point; at least no 
published research on this subject is generally known. We have thus here an 



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existing instance of the influence of speed that should be taken into account in our 
calculations for the permanent way, but which till now has not been considered in 
the formulae. 

The determination of this maximum pressure of the wheel is rendered still more 
uncertain by the effect which these variations produce in the reaction of the rail due 
to the momentary pressure; for these are mutually interdependent. 

Reactions of the permanent way. — The permanent way offers, as we know an 
elastic support to the vehicles moving over it. It yields under the load to an extent 
which, as can be seen approximately in practice, is proportional to the load if this 
latter be kept within certain limits. A special calculation shows also that although 
with a given, load the total amount of this yielding varies with the rigidity of the 
construction of the permanent way and with the elasticity of the ballast, it remains 
nearly the same for an individual road, both when the load is directly over a sleeper 
or supported on the rail between two consecutive sleepers. 

If the load were always constant in magnitude while in motion the sinking of the 
road would be the same at each point consecutively covered. The path that the load 
would then actually nove in, would be in a line below the normal surface of the rail, 
but always parallel to it, and that without regard to the variations in level of the 
original road. This is the case which we have cited as an example above. 

But as the amount of the pressure is variable, the sinking of the line will at each 
point be proportional to this amount and hence will vary just as much as the 
amount of the pressure does. 

There will not be as in the preceding case uniform sinking under each wheel of 
the vehicle, but it will vary and be above and below the average. The actual path 
of the wheel will no longer be in a line parallel to the surface of the rail, but will 
be in an undulating line and the vehicle will rise and fall while moving in exact 
accordance with the alterations of level now obtained. 

This rising and falling of the vehicle produces oscillations in its suspended part, 
which again react and affect the pressure of the rails. This reciprocat increase of 
the sinking of the road and of the variations of the load does not continue in defini- 
tely, but as in all similar cases there is a definite limit. The effect of the speed 
should here be considered just as we have considered its effect in the case of the 
wheel pressure of the locomotive, but in this case it is greater, sinc^ here the action 
on the road must be taken into account. 

Determination of the effect of speed on the maximum load. — The great influence 



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which the speed has on the maximum load obtained during movement (or the 
so-called dynamic action of the live load) has herewith been clearly described as to 
its nature but, unfortunately, not as to its quantity. But this is the very factor we 
require in order to be able to construct a road, which shall not only satisfy the 
requirements on it but also shall be of rational construction. 

The dynamic action of the vehicles and the amount of the sinking of the track 
and the variations in this amount arc considered in detail in the report V. A. of the 
Saint-Petersburg session of the International Railway Congress, but without definite 
consideration of the effect of the speed. On that occasion we gave estimated values 
for the amount of the dynamic action, and we gave certain formulae enabling the 
calculation for the permanent way required to be made, due consideration being 
given to the elasticity of the ballast which would allow us to establish a method of 
constructing a line as soon as the amount of the maximum load is known. 

We have shown that the maximum load depends on how much the permanent 
way yields, on the method of construction of the rolling stock, especially of the 
locomotives, and on the speed. The amount of yielding of the road is confined 
within fairly narrow limits, and its quantitative determination can be made in each 
individual case with sufficient accuracy. This, by itself, does not enable us to 
determine the amount of the maximum load. 

Thus when we wish to establish a suitable method of construction ot road with 
consideration to the speeds of the live load we are always confronted by a problem 
not yet solved. 

The only way of overcoming this (Mfficulty consists in estimating the highest 
value of the possible or probable maximum load; and consequently one is obliged 
to construct a line which in most cases is stronger than is really necessary. 

Relation between the expenditure on rolling stock and on permanent way. — Here 
we should remark that the rolling stock and the permanent way taken together form 
a single means of transport. 

In order to obtain the best construction of the latter it is necessarj^ that the 
relation which the cost of the rolling stock and its maintenance and the cost of the 
permanent way and its maintenance together bear to the capacity of the whole should 
be a minimum. Rolling stock which is built and kept in repair at the lowest 
possible cost nearly always necessitates a permanent way more costly both in con- 
struction and maintenance. On account of the great length of the road its expenses 
may become so considerable that it is worth while to determine in each individual 



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case whether the total expenses as set forth above are actually a minimum. 
The work a permanent way has to do constantly increases. Speeds are increased, 
more express trains are run and their weight is increased. Locomotives, unfor- 
tunately, are very often constructed so that their cost for given conditions as to 
power is as small as possible. Further it is necessary to make the permanent way 
stronger than is absolutely necessary because, the maximum load being only esti- 
mated, a large margin of safety must be allowed. We thus arrive at the fact that 
great demands are made on the strength of the* road ; the question then arises how 
far such demands may be extended. 

Highest attainable limit of the strength of the permanent way. — When this 
question is considered the following conclusion is arrived at : the strength which 
can be givtn to the road has a highest possible limit; roads of strong build at 
present are not much below this limit. 

There are two factors w^hich chiefly necessitate this result : first the necessity of 
using such materials as we have to hand for the ballast and foundations so far as 
these are unworked, and second the width of the gauge of the line, which is abso- 
lutely unalterable. 

The results of experiments made for the purpose show that neither the ballast 
not the foundation should where loaded take a higher pressure than 28*44 to 42*66 lbs 
per square inch (2 to 3 kilograms per square centimetre). If the lower value 
p = 28*44 lbs per square inch (2 kilograms per square centimetri> the ballast will 
last for a comparatively long time; and the cost of maintenance of the road, which 
has a better life, is not too heavy. 

The extent of the surface which transmits the pressure to the ballast depends on 
the area of the lower faces of the sleepers, which transmit the pressure from the rails 
to the ballast. 

The maximum pressure of the rail depends on the maximum momentary wheel 
pressure due to the train, and on the stiffness of the rail. 

The stiffness of the rail must be taken into consideration because the load is 
transmitted to other sleepers than those which directly support the load on the rail. 

Calculations on this point show us however that when the stiffness is uniformly 
increased the increase of its utility for this purpose becomes rapidly smaller and 
smaller. In a rail of about 90*7 lbs per yard (45 kilograms per metre) the limit is 
reached; any further increase in the stiffness of the rail has practically no effect in 
distributing the load over more sleepers. 



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When the maximum pressure is attained we can find no means of distributing it 
over a larger number of sleepers unless indeed we are willing to use rails of mon- 
strous construction ; to give them the form of a girder, or use that construction in 
which the rails are fixed to girders resting on the sleepers. These can scarcely be 
considered rational methods of construction consisting as they do of very stiff con- 
tinuous girders resting on elastic supports. These far fetched ideas which are the 
result of an imagination that has been allowed to run riot, are prohibited by reason 
of their expense. 

A better means of distributing the load on the greatest possible number of slee- 
pers, and also on the greatest possible surface of the ballast, is to reduce the space 
between the sleepers, and to increase the area of the supporting surfaces. 

These two measures have however their limits; the first, because sufficient space 
must be left in order that the sleepers may be packed; the second, because the width 
of the sleepers cannot exceed a certain amount in order to make good packing pos- 
sible and also because the suitable length of the sleepers depends on the gauge of 
the track. If the length of the sleepers exceed a certain limit the pressure of the rail 
will cause the extremities of the sleepers to rise, and consequently excessive length 
does not add to the carrying power. By a provisional calculation we can determine 
the resisting capacity of the strongest line capable of being constructed on an ear- 
then foundation, using th'^ possible values given below. The resistance of the bed of the 
sleeper is measured by the coefficient of ballast K (C) which is the pressure per unit of 
area producing Compression of the ballast to the extent of 1 inch (1 centimetre). 
The experiments have shown that K (C) is between 108*4 and 288-9 lbs per square 
inch (3 and 8 kilograms per square centimetre). We can conclude that in by far the 
greatest number of cases the highest value of K (C) attained will be 180-6 lbs per 
square inch (8 kilograms per square centimetre); for higher values of K (C) are only 
met with in cases of exceptionally firm or rocky foundation On the other hand with 
a comparatively inferior sub-soil we may take K = 180*6 lbs per square inch 
(C = 5 kilograms per square centimetre) provided that this sub-soil has been well 
drained, and that we have a sufficiently thick layer of ballast. 

The sleepers are assumed to be 11*81 inc)ies == h (30 centimetres) wide and 
8 feet 10*3 inches = 2 / long (270 centimetres). The product of the moment of 
inertia and the modulus of elasticity will be approximately E'l' = 10^ - 2*73 lbs 
X square inch (ET = 8 x 10^ kilograms x square centimetre) assuming the sleepers 
to be spaced at a distance of 23*62 inches (60 centimetres). 

The rails will have a moment of inertia of about 1 =43*24 square inches x square 



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inch (I = 1,800 square centimetres y square centimetre). This corresponds to the 
section of the heaviest rail that can be used with economy. 

If we designate the wheel pressure by W (G) the pressure P in tons (in tonnes) of 
the rail on the sleeper which is directly under the load is approximately = 0'5\V 
(0*3G) in the case of a vehicle having its axles near together. In the case of a vehicle 
having its axles far apart we may take P = 0*4 W (0*4 G). 

The grestest pressure jt^^ on the ballast per unit of area is calculated from the for- 
mulae or tables that we find in the Paper on « The Sleeper and its bearing on the 
ballast ». We find there that when t = 11-81 inches (b = 30 centimetres) / = 4 feet 
5.2 inches (/ = 13S centimetres) and-^ = 2*73 lbs x square inch (8 kilograms 
X square centimetre) and P = 1 ton (1 tonne) Pr in lbs per square inch (kilogram 
per square centimetre) has the following values : 

For sleepers partially packed ' 

K = 108-4 (C = 3). ....;>, = 4-30S P. {pr = 0-298 P.) 

K = 288-9 (C = 8) pr== 4-696 P. {pr = 0-32S P.) 

K = 180-6 (C = 5) pr = 4-478 P. (p, = 0-31 P.) 

On substituting for P the values given above 

p, = 4-478 X 1 S'J I W {pr = 0-31 X\'a\ G) 

that is to say|?r= 1'791 W (012 G) when the axles are wide apart and|?r= 2-239 W 
(0*16 G) when the axles are close together. 

Upr is not to exceed 28-44. lbs per square inch (2 kilograms per square centi- 
metre) we get accordingly 

W maximum — p~ =-- 15-88 tons (G max. == ^j^ =~- 16-7 tonnes) 
and W maximum = ^^ =^ 1270 tons ^G max. = (j^ = 12*5 tonnes) 

For sleepers partially packed the pressure of the wheel may thus attain 12*70 
or 1588 tons (12-5 or or 16*7 tonnes) according to the distance the axles are apart. 

If the weight on the wheel in a state of rest is 6*89 tons (7 tonnes) it is possible 
that when in a state of motion it may increase to 1-8 or 2*4 times this amount. 

The effect of the speed is intensified as the movement becomes more jerky and 
irregular. 

A permanent way constructed as solidly as the one we are considering will allow 
the weight of traffic and more particularly the speed to be considerably increased if 
locomotives are used which do not produce great variations of wheel pressure. On 



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the other hand Jf uxiiuulable locomotives are used at bifh speeds the limil of ra$is* 
tance of the permanent way js verysoon reached. This is shown in the case of several 
existing railways of strong construction whavethe cedt of iinaiatenance is great in 
places. 

How far we can increase tha demands made on tbe.pemoanent way more parlieu* 
larly when we consider the syhject of increased speed of a line constructed according 
to the systems in use at present cannot be esactly determined for the reasons pre- 
viously given. But it is clear that the limit of this increase is not much beyond the 
Qxiating demands. 

The necessity of keeping to the usual systems followed in the construction of the 
lines, at least for some time to come, requires us to determine with care the most 
suitable dimensions in full detail. 

A considerable increase of traffic and of speed will only be attainable if the loco- 
motive are so constructed that the permanent way does not have by itself to provide 
for this increase. 

Of course we do not assume that the value calculated above for the maximum 
pressure due to the live load will actually represent the real numerical value. The 
values assumed for the coefficient of ballast, and the greatest pressure that can be 
allowed on the ballast, are of themselves too indefinite to allow us to obtain such 
precision. 

As a matter of fact roads of weaker construction than the one we have based our 
calculations on, arc used with heavy trains, locomotives with several coupled 
wheels, and at high speeds. And this is continued as long as the state of repair 
will allow it. But a railway can certainly not be considered properly constructed 
when the traffic on it can only be worked with excessive repairs ; and it is from this 
point of view that we must consider the value we have found above by calculation as 
the highest limit of the serviceable capacity of a line. 

Adjusment of the tiuck. — So far we have not taken into consideration the adjust- 
ment of the line ; this is however of great importance when we wish to introduce 
higher speeds. 

Lines with heavy gradients necessitate the use of locomotives of great adhesion; 
such can be obtained by several coupled wheels placed close together. 

The bad effects of such locomotives on the line have already been considered, and 
it has been pointed out that they increase notably with high speeds. If we cannot 
avoid heavy gradients on certain sections, the only thing to be done is to travel over 



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these heavy gradients and the adjoining easier sections at a slower speed ; and to 
change Ihe locomotive as soon as possible. 

It is quite as important to avoid sharp curves. 

These necessitate much super-elevation which of itself is bad for the road because 
U Jesuits in aja unequal distribution of the loads on the two wheels on each jslde of 
the vehicle. The length of the curve of transition and consequently the gradient 
presented by the outer rail, cannot in practice exceed certain limits; particularly not 
when reverse curves are close together. 

For instance with a speed of only 37*3 miles (60 kilometres) per hour a transition 
curve of 76*6 yards (70 metres) long is passed over in about 4 seconds; the full 
amount the vehicles is tilted on account of the superelevation is thus attained in 
this exceedingly short time, in fact almost With a jerk. The suspended part of the 
vehicle thus receives a violent transverse movement which results in the inside rails 
having to bear a greater load than that directly due to the difference in the elevation 
of the rails. If the curve is not very long, the reaction produced by the return of 
the outer rail to its proper level takes place while the oscillations of the vehicle due 
to the first jerk have not yet ceased. If it happens that the fresh oscillations due 
to the return movement are produced at such time as to be in the same direction as 
the former ones, it follows that they have an increased effect. 

The alternations in pressure first on one rail and then on the other will become 
yet larger when reversed curves are too close together. 

The intensity of the oscillation of the vehicles, and the variation of the pressure 
on the wheels, consequently depend of the distance between the transition cunes 
and on their respective lengths. 

When the speeds are increased these two lengths are, so to speak, relatively 
reduced ; they ought therefore to have their length proportioned to the increase of 
speed, if the harmful effects are to be redeced to an absolute minimum. Besides 
the effects that we have just described, the curves produce injurious movements in 
the vehicles by reason of the change of their direction ; here also the influence of 
the speed is exerted in a manner analogous to that described above. 

It is probable that in general the super-elevation of the rail is too great. 

This is shown not only by theory and experiments, but also by practical experience 
obtained in some particular instances. It appears that we may accept as a fact that 
curves of more than 437 yards radius (400 metres), and without any superelevation 
may be passed with safety at speeds of about G3.1 miles (100 kilometres) an 
hour. 



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B. — Special propositions. 

Special statements for the type of line to he traversed by trains at high speed. 

From the preceding considerations we can deduce the following points with 
regard to the method of constructing a line, to satisfy the requirements of heavy 
traffic and high speeds. 

Ballast and foundation. — The engineer is limited in his choice of ballast and 
foundation ; both of them should be as good as local conditions will allow. 

By draining the foundations, and using a sufficiently thick layer of ballast, a 
coefficient of ballast of at least K = 180*6 (C = 5) can be obtained. 

The ballast must consist of material free from earth, and must resist disint^ra- 
tion through pressure as much as possible. In most cases a ballast can be obtained 
having a resistance of about 28*44 lbs per square inch (2 kilogrammes per square 
centimetre). 

It is advisable to use a thickness of ballast not less than 11*8 inches (30 centi- 
metres) under the lower surface of the sleepers. Of this at least 5*9 inches (15 cen- 
timetres) should be of material capable of being well packed. 
. The thickness ought to be increased when the formation is soft and if the 
sleepers are more than 2 feet 7;5 inches (80 centimetres) apart. 

When the formation can not be sufficiently protected from moisture, and in con- 
sequence also becomes soft under the ballast, it is necessary to have the depth of 
the ballast under the sleeper equal to the clear space between the sleepers; in this 
way the local driving of ballast into the formation, which is so injurious, is 
prevented. But it is advisable to choose, for the construction of the road, one for 
which the coefficient K amounts to 108*4 (C = 3). 

It is to be remembered that, whatever the method of construction of the road 
may be, the amount it can stand becomes seriously reduced when the live load of 
the vehicles produces a pressure on the ballast amounting to more than 28*44 lbs 
per square inch (2 kilogrammes per square centimetre). In this the maintenance 
becomes considerably more costly, because such pressures produce a partial 
destruction of the ballast which first becomes noticeable at the sleepers next to the 
joint. 

' Sleepers. — Roads intended for express traffic require the use of long sleepers of 
corresponding width. 



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127 

I have described elsewhere in detail the advantages of the longer sleepers, and 
have drawn attention to the fact that they make a better support for the rail and 
give it the largest possible bearing surface on the ballast. These advantages result 
in the fact that'lines laid with such sleepers give easier running, and the best results 
from the point of view of maintenance. 

It is in England especially that experience of this has been chiefly gained, for the 
sleepers there are as a rule of standard dimensions : length 8 feet H inches 
(2-72 metres), width 10 inches (0-2S4 metre), thickness 5 inches (0*127 metre); the 
section is rectangular. As a result of this experience, wooden sleepers for lines 
intended for an express service of trains are recommended to have the following 
dimensions : length 8 feet 10*3 inches (2-70 metres), width 10*24 inches 
(0-26 metre), thickness S 51 inches (0*14 metre); the latter dimension being thus 
increased to allow for the length of the dog-spikes or screw-spikes for Vignoles rails. 
Iron sleepers should have the same length and width as wooden ones. The cross 
section to be adopted should be such that the product of its moment of inertia by the 
modulus of elasticity divided by 10^ should not be less than 1*71 (that is to say, 

To prolong the life of the sleepers they should be treated with some suitable 
substance, preferably creosote, and steps should be taken to avoid cutting away the 
surface of the sleeper where the rail is supported. 

Resistance D. — The resistance D which the sleeper opposes to being forced into 
the ballast is a quantity proportional to the product of the area of the lower surface 
of the sleeper by the coeflScient of ballast. 

The amount of this resistance, which affects the rigidity of the road, will in the 
case of the sleeper proposed above = 21.5 tons ins (D = 8,600) if the coefficient of 
ballast K = 108-4 (C =3). 

Space between the sleepers. — The space between ^he sleepers is an important 
factor in the construction of the line. On the one hand it influences the carrying 
capacity of the rail, and on the other hand, in ainjunction with the spacing of the 
wheels of the vehicles, it modifies the pressure on the rail and consequently the 
pressure on the ballast. The spacing of the sleepers also determines the number of 
surfaces bearing on the ballast, and the number of points at which the rails are 
secured to the sleepers. 

The diminution of the space between the sleepers is limited by the necessity of 



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Iflmervinp efficient room between ttie' sleepers to aHvw them to^ be pro|^rly 
peeked. 

If, in aceordanee with the requirements of practice, we adopt 19*68 inohee 
(M' centimetres) as the minimum clear space, and if moreover we consider it desim 
able to have sleepers 10*24 or 11*81 inches (S6 to 30 centimetres) wide for lines^on 
which the traffic is- heavy it follows thait tiie distance from centre to centl*e of 
the sleepers should be about 2 fieet 7 1/2 inches (80 centimetres) except at the 
jointa. 

M a joint thie distance should be reduced to 19*68 inches (50 centimetres) (i). 

Rails. — In our choice of rails the principal things to consider are : the size and 
shape of the cross section, the strength of the material, and finally the length of the 
rail. Lines for express trafic should be made either of bullheaded or of Vignoles 
rails. 

Symmetrical double headed rails cannot be recommended. 

Section op rail. — (a). The cross-section of the rail shoufd have a sufflcieitt 
moment of resistance, to ensure adequate carrying power, and a sufficiently great 
moment of inertia to give adequate stiflnesSr 

(b) The cros&-section of the rail should be large enough to allow the necessary 
carrying power to the rail when in its most worn condition. It follows that we 
should allow as much additional material in the head of the new rail as will be 
worn away during its expected life by the expected traffic. This results in an 
increase of about 10 to 12 p. c. in the weight of the rail, of about IT to 23 p. c; 
of its moment of inertia, and of about 10 to 20 p. c. of its moment of resis- 
tance. 

(c) If the maximum stress on the rail dae to all ftictors aflbcting it (such as the 
dead load, the construction of the rolling stock, the speed attained, etc.) we should 
not allow the maximum strain in the outer fibre to exceed the utmost limit of 
elasticity as determined by bending tests. 

But when we only know the dead load due to the heaWest motors we cannot allow 
the maximum tension of the outer fibre produced by this dead load to exceed one- 
third of this utmost limit of elasticity. 

This latter case is the more usual one. Dead loads producing a maximum strain 
of 7*00 to 8* 28 tons per square inch (1,100 to 1,300 kilograms per square centi- 

(^ See answer to question- V-A of the s^sion in Saint-Petersbourgr, p. 163. 



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t 

metl^) in Ih^ outer fitire of the cross section are thus permissible as the utmosti 
limit of elasticity of the material usually employed for rails i^ between' 21-89 andl 
24-76 tons per mfmre inch (8^400 an* 3; 900 kilograms per square centimetre). 
In the case of double headed rails which are generally made of stronger material'! 
the permissible strain is proportionately higher .^ 

(d) The Administrations of the lines on which, under favourable conditions of 
working, the load on the wheel is equal to or less than 6*89 tons (7 tonnes) and on 
which the speed does not much excised 49*7 miles (80 kilometres) per hour, have^ 
informed us that some lines constructed with rails of less than 80*64 lbs per yard 
(40 kilograms per metre) have given good results, although, in some cases, the cost 
of maintenance has been greater. 

The cross-sections of these rails have a moment of inertia of 20*73 to 22-85 square 
inches x square inches (863 to 951 square centimetres x square centimetres) and a^ 
moment of resistance of 824 to 897 cubic inches (136 to 147 cubic centimetres). 
The cross-section of such rails if worn down about 0*4 inches (10 millimetres) has 
then a moment of inertia of 16-82 to 18-38 square inches x square inches (700 to 
765 square centimetres x square centimetres) and a moment of resistance of 6*90 
to 7-57 cubic inches (113 to 124 cubic centimetres); the maximum stress of the outer 
fibre will then be 8 25 to 9*33 tons per square inch (1,300 to 1,470 kilograms per 
square centimetre). 

We can conclude from these facts that the use of motors having greater wheel 
pressures on roads so constructed would cause a considerable increase of the cost 
of maintenance. 

For wheel pressures of 7*38 tons (7,500 kilograms) and upwards we therefore 
should adopt a construction of road having rails weighing more than 80*64 lbs per 
yard (40 kilograms per metre). 

{e) If we are obliged, by reason of an increase in the weight on the wheel, or in the 
speed, to strengthen the section of the rail, we should consider whether there is not 
a possibility of still further increase of wheel pressure or of speed during the life of 
the proposed new rail. In this case it is advisable to adopt a rail of such cross- 
section that a simple measure, such as an increase in the number of sleepers, will be 
sufficient to enable it to satisfy these higher demands. 

From this point of view the new cross-sections of the French and Belgian Railways 
which correspond to a weight of 88*70 to 1008 lbs per yard (44 to 50 kilograms 
per metre) seem justified. This is shown in the subsequent table. 



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The IncrMsed wheel load being : 

In tons 

In *^ 



The distance between centres of 
sleepers can be reduced to : 



In inches 
In cm. . 



When a normal sleeper is used, 
and R is Uken as 106'4 : 

In tons per inch .... 
C being = 3, in kg. per cm. 

The saperstnicture getting more 
stifftaess there is an increase in. 

Hence, as B = Dy : 

In tons per inch .... 
In kg per cm 



W : 
G : 



The bending moment : 
^_y-h 0-875 



2/ + 5 



X WXa 



«=^^^x«x-. 



B = 



M : 

M ■• 



And OS : 



In tons X inches. . . . W X « = 
In kg X cm G X « = 



In tons X inches. 
In kg X cm . . 



M i 

M : 



The limit of tensile strength al 
lowed being : 

In tons per square inch . 
In kg per square cm . . 

The moment of resistance required 
of the cross section must be : 

In cubic inches .... 
In cubic cm ..... 



7-382 
7.500 



31-50 
80 



21-50 
8,600 



64-50 
25.8r^ 



0-352XWXa 
0.352XGXO 



232-5 

600,000 



Allowing 16 per cent for wear : 

In cubic inches . . 
In cubic cm . . . 



Tbe moment of resistance of the 
cross section of the new rail is : 



In cubic in . 
In cubic cm 



Z-. 

W : 



16 0/0 : 

16 o/o = 



W. 



So that the mean is. 



81-84 
211,200 



8» 
1.300 



9-92 
162 



1 59 
26 



11.51 
188 



7-874 
8.000 



29-53 
75 



21-50 
8,600 

3-5 



75-» 
30,100 



0-361 X WXa 
0-364 X G X a 



232-5 

600,000 



S2-62 
218,400 



8-25 
1,300 



10-26 
168 



1-64 
27 



11-90 
105 



8-366 

8,500 



27-f6 

70 



21-50 
8,600 



86-00 
34,400 



0-375XWXa 
0-375XOXa 



230-6 
.595,000 



86-45 
223,100 



8-25 
1,300 



10-48 
171 



1-68 
27 



12-16 
196 



8-858 
9,000 



25-98 



21-50 

8.600 

4.5 



96-75 
38,700 



0-384XWXa 
0-384 X G X o 



230-1 
504,000 



88-35 
228,100 



8-25 
1,300 



10-71 
175 



1-71 
28 



12-42 
203 



Zi = 12 cubic in.; Wi = 196 cubic cm. 



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131 

Consequently a rail which is to carry a greater load than 7*38 tons (7*5 tonnes) 
and, which after an increase in the number of sleepers is to carry a load of 8*86 tons 
(9 tonnes) should have a moment of resistance of 11 96 cubic inches (198 cubic 
centimetres) and its weight should be 84*7 to 92*7 lbs per yard (42 to 46 kilo- 
grams per metre) for sections similar to those in our table. 

These rails will satisfy the requirements of the traffic that we have supposed, 
assuming that the dynamic actions due to motion and speed will not produce a 
wheel pressure of more than three times that due to the dead weight. 

In fixing on the section of the rail we ought to take into account whether the 
line is principally for light passenger trains drawn by engines with their axles 
fairly far apart, and with leading and trailing wheels not coupled, and possibly 
with inside cylinders, or whether the line has a heavy goods traffic necessitating the 
use of heavy engines with a large number of wheels close together. Thus in each 
case it is better to select a section of rail suited to the individual case than to attempt 
to generalise. 

As in the case of double headed rails there is a higher value for the strength at 
the elastic limit, the resisting moment of the cross-section of the rail (hence the 
weight of unit length of rail) may be reduced in proportion. 

Form of cross-section of the rails. — The form of the cross section of the rail was 
considered in the discussion of question V-A at the session of the International Rail- 
way Congress at Saint-Petersburg. We refer to this for the conclusions arrived at. 

Length of rails. — The most suitable length of rail has been found to be about 
39*27 feet (12 metres). In order to reduce the number of joints the length of 
the rail should certainly not be less than 29*48 feet (9 metres). Nor should it 
exceed 49*09 feet (18 metres) or else the spaces necessarj' for expansion become 
too large; and the handling necessary in .laying rails or changing them becomes 
excessive. 

Material of the rails. — Rails should be made of hard steel in order to prevent 
too rapid wear. The degree of hardness that can be allowed is governed by the 
condition that the material should be as homogeneous as possible; also by the 
degree of perfection to which the processes of rolling have been brought particu- 
larly in respect to the form of cross-section; we also must avoid using steel which 
is too brittle. 

The tensile strength and elongation bear relation to the hardness. 



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Let ^ lbs per sqdiu^ inch (kilogfamiB per sqtlane centimetre) be the tensile' strength 
at the limit of elasticity of the mcitttl and let E be the oDivesponding modulus of 
elasticity. The extension of the metal is dependant on the value of the dxpres- 
sion (^). If 3 per cent represents the extension, 3 will be proportional tb the 
mmiber (•^). If we are given the section, the distance between the supports, and 
the manner of loading the rail, we can determine the safe load ; that is to say the 
capacity of the rail for carrying dead load will be proportional to <i, the deflection 
or flexibility will be proportional to (7o, and the permissible dynamic strain (that 
is its capacity for work) proportional to <x^. 

A relation exists between the increase of tensile strength and the diminution 
of the elongation, the numerical ratio of which we do not know, but we can in* 
each case that occurs determine the two values. 

If a ratio existed here, the strength of the rail would increase in proportion to the 
tensile strength of the material, the flexibility would remain constant; and the 
amount of work the rail was capable of would increase proportionately. 

But as the relation between increase of tensile strength and decrease of elonga- 
tion is not a constant ratio, if the tensile strength of the rail is increased the capac- 
ity for carrying dead load, the flexibility, and the capacity for work will vary in 
another way. These are to be determined in each given case according to the 
values for <t, <t$, and (t*o. 

Analogous relations between tensile strength and elongation exist at the point of 
fracture, although not so simple as the preceding ones; in particular we do not 
have the proportions mentioned between the capacity for carrying dead load, the 
flexibility, and the capacity for work, and a-, o-S, and 0-38 respectively. If in these 
expressions a- and o respectively represent the tensile strength and the elongation at 
the breaking point we have now in place of those simple ratios more complex rela- 
tions which have not yet been sufficiently studied. 

It is none the less true however that the capacity for carrying dead load, the flex- 
ibility, and the capacity for work increase with o*, 0*0, and a^o but not in a constant 
ratio. 

We find in actual practice cases where ^ is between 31*75 and 60'95 tons per 
square inch (3,000 and 9,600 kilograms per square centimetre), and is between 20 
and 10 per cent; in most cases ^ is between 508 and 762 tons per square inch 
(80,000 and 120,000 kilograms per square centimetre) and ^*o between 18,140 and 
30,230 tons per square inch X tons per square inch (45 X 107 and 75 X 75 X 107 
kilograms per square centimetre X kilograms per square centimetre). 



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133 

The Swiss railways in their speciflcatioiifl^ for rails make a condition that 
«t5 = 571 '8 tons per square inch (90,000 kilograms per square centimetre). On 
this" assumption the following scales are obtained for permissible elongations for 
various hard metals of good tensile strength : — 

r. (jS == S71-5 tons per square inch (90,000 kilograms per square centimetre). 

If (7 in tons per square inch (in tonnes per square centimetre) = 

31-75 34-92 38-10 41-27 44-45 47-62 50-80 5397 

(5-0) (5-5) (6-0) ^(6-5) (7-0) (7-5) (8*0) (8-5) 

Then o (in percentages) = 

18-0 16-4 150 13-9 129 12-0 H-2 10-6 

Whence we get for the product <t*5 tons per square inch x tons per square inch 
(tonnes per square centimetre x tonnes per square centimetre). 

18,140 19,950 21,770 23,580 25,400 27,210 29,020 30,840 

(450) (495) (540) (585) (630) (675) (720) (765) 

If we assume the rigidity to remain constant (in as much as it depends entirely on 
the material) increase of tensile strength will be attended by increased capacity for 
work and hence there will be greater security against deformation and breakage. 

If we now take the lowest value of this latter me^asure of security, that is that 
given by a material of a tensile strength of 31*75 tons per square inch (5,000 kilo* 
grams or 5 tonnes per square centimetre) with an elongation of 18 per cent we can 
keep 0"*^ = 18,140 tons per square inch x tons per square inch (460 tonnes per 
square centimetre X tonnes per square centimetre); and we then get the following 
table of results : 

II. <T*o == 18,140 tons per square inch x tons per square inch (450 tonnes per 
square centimetre x tonnes per square centimetre). 

If (T in tons per square inch (in tonnes per square centimetre) = 

31-75 34-92 38-10 41-27 44-45 47-62 5080 53-97 

(5-0) (5-5) (6.0) (6-5) (7-0) (7-5) (8-0) (8-5) 

Then 8 (in percentages) = 

18-0 14-9 12-5 10-6 9-2 8-0 7-0 6-2 

Hence we get a^ in tons per square inch (tonnes per square centimetre). 
571-5 520-6 476-2 4384 4090 381-0 355-5 3346 
(90-0 82'0 75-0 69-0 64-4 60-0 56-0 527) 



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134 

When the capacity for the work is constant and a is increased the deflection dimi- 
nishes and the rigidity increases. 

A rail which is not very rigid will bend rather than break when it is accidentally 
submitted to an excessive load. 

The contrary will happen when it has great rigidity. Hence it is reconmiended 
that a harder metal being chosen (with greater tensile strength) it should have an 
elongation between the values for S given in the tables, or in other words the per- 
missible limits of this elongation are found in the two tables; for instance a steel 
rail with a tensile strength of 3810 tons per square inch (6,000 kilograms per 
square centimetre) should have an elongation of 12*8 to 15 per cent. 

Similar tables can be drawn up for every value of <xo. 

We must take into account the capabilities of the works on which we depend for 
our supply of rails, and must adopt in consequence a greater or less value of the 
product of the tensile strength and the elongation ao. We can deduce from this 
product tables giving the values of <j and o corresponding to each other for the same 
capacity for work for diflferent hardnesses of material ; these values of o correspon- 
ding to the resistances 9 that these steels have at the limit of elasticity. 

The higher values of the actual strain in the rail, such as 8*21 to 10.09 tons per 
square inch (1,293 to 1,589 kilograms per square centimetre) are for double headed 
rails, which have a smaller moment of resistance for their cross-section, but are 
made of material of better quality. 

Under these conditions we ctn take a strain under the dead load not exceeding 
one-third of the limit of elasticity as permissible. 

For wooden sleepers the strain is taken between the sufficiently wide limits of 
(T == 644 and 1,268 lbs per square inch (45*3 and 89*2 kilograms per square centi- 
metres) it being assumed that the rails have been weakened by the wear. 

The means of fastening the rail. — When the speed is increased the lateral 
pressure which is exercised by the moving vehicles on the road increases to a very 
considerable extent. It becomes necessary in this case to increase, in the same 
proportion, the resistance produced by the fastenings. It has been recognised that ii; 
is necessary, in order to increase this resistance to increase the number of fastening 
points or to strengthen or improve the method of fastening. This is especially the 
case with Vignoles rails. 

The fastenings of Vignoles rails. — An increase in the number of fastening 



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135 

points is already obtained by the fact that on lines intended for express traffic 
we must have an increased number of sleepers. 

Moreover if, instead of two dog-spikes or screw-spikes for each half sleeper (which 
was formerly the general practice) three or four are used, the necessary increase in 
the resistance of the rail to canting or lateral displacement is obtained. A further' 
means of strengthening this resistance is to interpose a bed — or foundation — 
plate between the rail and the sleeper. This method results in distributing the 
pressure of the rail over a larger supporting surface, and also tends to unite the three 
or four means of attachment into one whole. 

Another means of strengthening the method of fastening is to replace the dog- 
spikes by screw spikes, especially when these are made on the system laid down by 
Michel {Revue giniraky June 4893, page 337). 

The lateral pressures produced by high speeds are particularly felt on curves. 
To prevent the canting of the rail angle irons supporting the head of the rail are 
placed on some of the sleepers, holding down plates with bolts and packing plates 
are used, or even cast-iron chairs in which the rails are fixed by means of wooden 
keys. The two latter methods of fastening, in which the rails are not fixed 
directly to the sleeper, and in which the holding down plates or the chairs are 
secured to the sleepers by means of dog-spikes or better still screw spikes seem to 
be the best way of overcoming the horizontal pressures caused by the live loads. 

The attachment of double headed rails. — When double headed rails are used it 
has always been customary to secure them with wooden or iron keys to cast iron 
chairs. 

The increase of ispeed of the trains, and the consequent increase of pressure on the 
rail and also of the lateral pressure has made it necessary to strengthen the chairs. 
In England a minimum weight of 40 lbs (18 kilograms) for each chair has actually 
been fixed officially. Here again we obtain additional strength in the attachment 
by diminishing the space between the sleepers; in other words, by increasing their 
number. 

Fish-joints. — No system of fish-joints, however applied, can effect the complete 
union of the successive lengths of rail. As it must be possible for the rail to alter 
its length in accordance with variations of temperature it is impossible to have a 
system of fish-joints capable of transmitting the horizontal components of the 
tensions in the rails. 

The fish-joints are only capable of transmitting vertical pressures; this results in 



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1&6 

cau8iug the two adjacent rail-^^eAda io fall and to rise assimultaneou&ly and as aeariy 
equally as possible. 

£very serviceable fisb-jciint sfaould do this to the greatest posaihle extent. 

From the information forwarded w by the AdnuAislrtlionfi with regard to <iah^ 
joints we make the foUow^gaumttary : 

(1). The suspended joint is pre£N*able to the supported one. 

It is better if the line passing through the joints of the two rails is at right 
angles to the direction of the road, than oblique to it; i. e. broken joints are 
inferior. 

(2). If possible, wider sleepers are to be used at the joint and the distance 
between them is to l>e reduced to 19.7 inches (50 centimeires) or less. 

(3). Both fish-plates should be of strong angular section and their joint crosc* 
section should have a large moment of iner6a, in order to give considerable stiffness 
to the joint ; for this reason it is advisable to give them an additional bend at the 
bottom. 

(4). When determining the cross-section of the rail, we should take care to have 
the head of the rail of such size as to offer an increased surface of support for the 
fishplates ; and the angle this surface makes with the horizontal should not become 
too great. 

The use of a heavier rail necessitates the use of a more substantial fish-plate. 

(5). It is recommended to increase the length of the fishplates and to use 6 bolts 
instead of 4. 

(6). The diameter of the bolts is generally to be taken as 0.98 inch (2.5 centi- 
metres) and the « Grover » washer is recommended as the best means of preventing 
the nuts from working loose. 

(7). An attempt should be made to improve the system of joints by using better 
material for the fishplate itself, and by giving more care to its manufacture. 

(8). It is of much importance to counteract the pernicious effect on the rails at the 
joints by employing a stronger method for fixing the rail to the sleepers adjoining 
the joint. For this purpose chairs and holding down plates are used ; also angular 
fish-plates screwed to the sleepers adjoining the joint. 

(9). It is advisable to fill up with packing the spaces that are formed between the 
rails and the fish-plates. 

(1). The system of joints used should give sufficient protection against creeping 
of the rails. 

To effect this it is recommended to make the lower ibent portion of the angular 



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;187 

fish-plate J)utt]ac;aiQ^ thiB two aleep^i^s at the joint, or else Ho let the lower angle of 
the fish-plate take i^gaiast tbe,foun<)ation orbed-plate. 

SEOriON III. 
Strengthening of the permanent way. 

If the existing pef manent way shows itself too weak for the stresses produced hy 
the trains, or if it does not answ^ the requirements of an intended increase in the 
traffic, it will.be necessary to strengthen it. 

When it is found that I'econstruction in order to make the line stronger is neces- 
sary, the question should be considered wheth^ it would be better to replace the 
existing method of construction by an entirely new one, or whether the -successive 
strengthening of various parts of it will be sufficient. 

In order to reply to this question it will be necessary to make a detailed exam- 
ination of the static condition of the present method ot construction and its relation 
to the requirements to be met. This examination should show clearly whether the 
various component parts of the superstructure or which of them do,or do not,satisfy 
the requirements as far as capacity for carrying load and rigidity are concerned ; it 
will show which parts, if any, have to be strengthened or entirely replaced. 

in answering this question its economical side should receive due consideration. 

If the examination results in establishing that* it is justifiable to strengthen the 
line, all the principles set forth for the construction of a new line should be 
decisive. 

For strengthening the road we might in particular have recourse to the following 
methods : 

(1). Improvement of ballast. 

This constitutes the most effective means of giving greater firmness to the road. 

The condition of the ballast is dependent on that of the sub-soil, and to improve 
it, it is necessary : — 

(a). To ensure that the sub-soil is completely drained. 

{b). To have the proper amount and size of the ballast suited to the nature of the 
sub-soil. 

(c) To use a hard ballast completely permeable by water. 

The combination of all these measures will result in raising the value of the co- 
efficient of ballast. In consequence, other things being equal, the sinking of the 



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138 

sleepers in the ballast will be diminished and the stiffness will be increased. Hence 
the strains of the material of the rail and of the sleeper will be diminished. 

(2). Replacing the sleepers. 

In the case of older constructions which require strengthening the sleepers are 
generally of wood. This material has undergone deterioration where it has been 
subjected to pressure by the mechanical actions of the rail and of the means of 
attachment continued during a series of years ; in some cases even partial destruc- 
tion has taken place. Atmospheric agencies have induced decay. When a road 
has got into this condition some sleepers will already have been replaced. The rails 
are then irregularly supported by new sleepers and by sleepers partly worn, and 
consequently the amount they will sink will vary. 

This state of affairs will result in producing higher strains in the materials of 
the superstructure, so calling into play different reactions of the line on the ve- 
hicles, which reactions, again, increase still further these stresses. 

When a line in this condition has to be dealt with, the complete renewal of the 
sleepers on entire sections is advisable. The first point to be decided in such a 
case is the nature of the sleepers to be used. 

If we simply wish to strengthen the superstructure, retaining the old partially 
worn rails, we ought to continue t© use the economic system of wooden sleepers, but 
we must consider what dimensions these should have. 

In former times the only functions of the sleepers that were recognised were those 
of serving as a support to the rail, and of receiving the means of fastening; the 
impoiiance of the sleepers in distributing the load on the ballast was not appre- 
ciated at its full value, and those that were used had neither sufficient length nor 
width. 

When it is intended to proceed with the reconstruction of a line, which is to be 
efficiently strengthened, it will in cases be necessary, as shown in the note « The 
Slepeer and its Bearing on the Ballast » to use sleepers of another type 8 feet 
10.3 inches (2.70 metres) long and 10.24 inches (26 centimetres) or more wide. . The 
use of such sleepers will result in a greater rigidity of the road and will reduce the 
stresses on the rails and on the ballast. 

Exceedingly good results are obtained with a reconstruction when bad parts of 
the ballast are renewed and improved at the same time that such new sleepers are 
put in. 



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(3). Increase of tlie number of sleepei's. 

In older systems of construction the space between the sleepers was often rather 
considerable and spaces of 3 feet to 3 feet 4 inches (92 to 103 centimetres) are fre- 
quently to be found. These methods of construction may have sufticed for vehicles 
of small wheel load and speed, even when lighter rails were used. 

Since then the growth of the wheel load and the increased wheel pressure due to 
the dynamic action of express traffic, has not only required a rail of greater capacity 
for carrying load, but also an increase in the area of the surface of the rail bearing on 
the sleeper, in order to better distribute the higher pressure on the ballast obtained 
by the higher wheel pressures. 

With this aim an especially efficient means consists in increasing the number of 
sleepers per rail, which amounts to diminishing the distance between them. 

As has been previously established, the resistance of the rails to deflection is 
directly proportional to the moment of inertia of their cross-section and to the 
modulus of elasticity of their material, but is inversely proportional to the cube of 
distance between the sleepers. 

a' 

Consequently, the resistance of the rail will be increased if the distance between 
the sleepers is diminished. The resistance varies inversely as the cube of the 
distance between the sleepers. 

In certain cases, the reduction of the space between the sleepers can lead to an 
increase in the resistance of the rail, to an extent which could otherwise only be 
obtained if the cross-section of the rail were largely increased at a disproportionately 
excessive cost. 

But it is not only the resistance of the rail which gains by this measure; the 
increased number of the sleepers and the increase in consequence of the area of 
support on the ballast result in a considerable increase in the stiffness of the road, 
and in a considerable diminution in the cost of the maintenance of the superstruc- 
ture. 

Attention has been drawn elsewhere to the unfavourable action exercised on the 
rail by motors with axles close together. It has been shown that in cases where a 
very gi*eat load is, owing to the shortness of wheel-base, only distributed over a short 
piece of rail, the proper distribution of pressure on the ballast can only be obtained 
by one means, viz. increasing the number of sleepers* 



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140 

In America, where very heavy rolling slock with a great number of wheels often 
close together is used, this measure had to be adopted. Roads constructed with so 
called « Goliath » rails weighing 100 lbs per yard (50 kilograms per metre) are even 
laid on sleepers 24 inches (60 centimetres) apart. 

This method of increasing the strength of the road by reducing the distance 
between the sleepers appears to be specially advisable in the case of mountain 
railw^ays, on which locomotives of eight or more wheels are often used for heavy 
trains. 

(4). Improvement in the method of fastening the rails. 

When an older construction of permanent way is to be strengthened to render it 
capable of carrying express traffic it will generally be necessary to renew and 
increase the means of fastening. When the renewal of the sleepers is undeilaken 
at the same time that the superstructure is strengthened, the replacement of the 
fastenings is au obviously consequent step. 

More particularly instead of the old method of using dog-spikes, screw-spikes alone 
will be used on a line used for express traffic. Also, in order to relieve the sleeper 
and the screw-spikes or spikes every sleeper will be protected by a bed-plate, and 
the number of the fastenings will be increased to correspond to the increased 
strength required. 

(5). Improvement of the joints. 

Joints on the more modern roads are justly considered the weak point. All 
the more is this the case with an old and worn road, where the fish-plates as 
well as the rails have already suffered through traffic. To strengthen such a road 
with a view to carrying express traffic will therefore require particular care in the 
improvement of the fish-joints. 

When an otherwise strong road has weakened joints it becomes necessary to 
strengthen these to make it serviceable. This has given rise to the use of the 
following special measures : — 

(a). On the older-constructed lines weak, flexible fish-plates and bolts with a 
diameter of less than 0787 inch (20 millimetres) are generally used. The greater 
demands made by the traffic necessitate fish-plates of a stiffer cross-section and bolts 
of the larger diameter of 0-866 to 0*984 inch (22 to 2S millimetres). 

The use of bolts of this size necessitates enlarging the holes in the rails. 

(b). In consequence of the heavy wear and tear that takes place in the fish-plates 



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141 

and in the rails at the points marked a, a', b, V in the sketch here given (tig. 6)» the 
joints become prematurely worn out owing to tlie formation of gaps. 

Now if new fish-plates are applied this will only improve matters at the points 
marked as far as the fish-plate is concerned, but the damaged points in the rail are 
unaltered. It is necessary to fill up these gaps, whether of the rails alone or of the 



::M: 



I o o o o I 
> H '^a' 

Fig. 6. 

old fish-plate as well if these are kept in use. For this purpose, the packing pieces 
proposed by me and shown in the diagram (fig. 7) are used. 

This packing is made of different thicknesses as required according to the size of 
the gaps and is fixed into the joint so as to become part of it, and so restore the 
original conditions for a time. 

When this packing in turn becomes worn or the gaps are increased, it will only be 
necessary to change the packing. 

(c). Coiiard has proved that when, on lines laid on the Vignoles system, a wheel 
passes over a joint, the rail which is being left suffers a greater torsional stress 
than the other ; the effect of this torsion is to raise the end of the first rail rela- 
tively to the end of the second, so that the wheel falls from the first rail on to the 
second. Through these repeated shocks the rail ends suffer injury which in many 
cases is sufficient to make renewal necessary although the rails are otherwise in 
good condition. 

In my opinion, the method in which Vignoles rails are fixed by dog-spikes or 
screw-spikes is insufficient to counteract this tendency to torsion . Greater resistance 
to this tendency will be obtained by a more rigid method of fastening such as 
chairs, tension-plates, or holding-down plates, and by such means the blows duQ 
to passing vehicles will be reduced. 

My earlier observations extending over a period of 10 years showed me that in the 
case of a road laid with iron sleepers according to the « Heindl » system (which 
employs tension- plates, cramp-plates, and bolts), the joints were more satisfactory 
than those on other roads where the rails were fixed to the sleepers by means of 
spikes or screw-spikes. 

These observations induced me to experiment on various sections of line carrying 



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Welding plates for old permanent way constructions on the Emperor Ferdinand 

Northern line. 



feSffi^»6- 






■ -■J>^'-^ ,^-»L,,.^ 






feK-"7- 




A ■ 

6^ (Qi^ I dtp, ^t*tfieMia^i 




-4 1W- — 4-- 

Afi . . .... 0,o69 • 

jt_. . .... o,o5* . 



External view of the complete arrangement (1 in 6) 








Fig. 7. 

Explanation op Frbnch terms : S^clion transversale = cross secUon (1 in 3). L'^ais^eur de» fburrw'«$ etl 
tuivant le ca«s the plates have a thickness varying. Poidi approximatif de la fournire*r= approximate weight 
of the plate. 



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143 

heavy traffic, which were twenty years old, and also on several new ones. Tension 
plates were fixed to the two sleepers adjoining the joint and the « Heindl » system 
was used there while the ordinary me! hod of fastening was retained for the 
remaining sleepers. 

The results, obtained by this somewhat strange construction were so favourable 
that I have recommended its application to strengthen the superstructure of a line 
dating from the seventies for which Bessemer rails of excellent quality had been 
supplied. 

(d). In order to prevent creeping of the line, the joint is generally connected 
with the fastening points adjoining it. In the case of new fish-plates, it is 
advisable to let the lower flanges of the angular fish-plate come down far enough to 
take against both edges of each of the bed plates on the sleepers adjoining the 
joints. Or, instead of this forked arrangement, the flange of the fish-plate can be 
made to bear at its two extremities against the side of the sleepers. 

Other arrangements which are used for the same purpose have been shown 
elsewhere. 

I may add that in the case of joints provided with tension plates a much 
slighter tendency to creeping is observed owing to the more complete securing of 
the rail, accompanied by diminished movement of the sleepers. Indeed, there is 
but little tendency to creeping in all systems of superstructure where a better means 
of fastening has been adopted. 

In the table appendix VI, a special instance is taken which sets forth the results 
obtained by the application of the means suggested above (1-4, section III) for streng- 
thening the road and shows how the stresses on the line and its strength are affected. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

The question under investigation consisted in setting forth the means to be 
adopted for strengthening the superstructure of the permanent way desirable in 
view of increased speeds. But to absolutely determine the type of construction for 
a road suitable for high speeds is impossible, because the increased stresses due 
only to increased speed have not, either by theory or experiment, Been determined 
with a sufficient degree of accuracy. 

Our investigations could only be based on the stresses due to increased dead 
loads, which can be calculated ; but the influence the speed has in increasing these 
stresses could only be determined qualitatively and not quantitatively. 



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We have thus only been able lo compare, under the assumption of a constant 
wheel pressure, ihe large mass of data supplied to us by the Administrations 
concerning the types of permanent way on sections carrying heavy traffic, and to 
what extent they have proved to be satisfactory. Yet we may, in spite of the 
different methods of construction used, observe a remarkable agreement in the 
capability of the road, in those cases where the demands on it and the resistance 
are in equilibrium. On the other hand, the very different behaviour of types of 
permanent way of equal value when subjected to the influence of motors built 
in different ways gives us a relative measure for the influence which is exercised by 
the method of construction of the motor (when this is at rest) on the requirements 
made on the road. 

From this point of view, we were compelled to recognise the fact that the per- 
manent way is a construction for a definite purpose, which has fixed limits deter- 
mined by its elements and by the nature of the materials of which they consist. 

Moreover, we were compelled to recognise the fact that there is no definite type of 
permanent way for lines intended for an express traffic. 

It certainly will be necessary to remember when laying down roads for such 
traftic that the continual grov^^th of the requirements made for increase of speed 
and of comfort calls for increased power of traction. This in its turn results in 
greater stresses on the road due to the vertical and horizontal pressures. 

Such roads used for express traffic will accordingly require greater resistance 
and greater stiffness, and the fastenings should also be increased in number and 
jn strength. 

In considering how far such measures are to be extended, it has to be borne in 
mind that the types of permanent way as they have been developed up to date do 
not have the desirable property of being able to be adapted to the varying require- 
ments of the traffic; when these demands are increased beyond certain limits, the 
cost of maintenance is the first to suffer, and then the safe working of the traffic 
is endangered. 

Some Administrations allow for this fact, by keeping the requirements of the 
traffic with regard to load and speed within definite limits that are not exceeded. 
Others construct roads to have a maximum of resistance, and strengthen the whole 
construction or parts of it to the greatest practically attainable limits, and thus 
the road is furnished with a power of resistance in excess of present requirements. 

When investigating this, special importance was attached to the necessity 
of considering the structure as a whole, and to the fact that it is useless to 



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145 

strengthen one part of it when the other parts have reached the limit of their 
strength. 

In this investigation, the sleeper and the ballast are of primary importance, and 
it was established that an increase in the weight of the rail and in the moment of 
resistance of its cross-section is only justifiable when it is accompanied by an 
increase in the number of sleepers which receive the pressure and transmit it to 
the ballast. 

It has been established in this investigation that a road of maximum capacity will 
have approximately the following elements of construction : — 

The ballast should have a thickness of not less than 15-75 inches (0*4 metre) 
consisting of readily permeable material resting on dry sub-soil, so that even under 
less favourable conditions such as wet weather, etc., the ballast will still have a 
coeflScient K = 108-4 (C - 3). 

Sleepers of wood or mild steel should be 8 feet 10*3 inches (2*7 metres) long, 10*24 
inches (0'26 metre) wide on their lower face, and should have a cross-section such 
that iJjT^ 5 and should allow the rail to be firmly fixed. 

Rails should be of a homogeneous hard and tough steel; they should be 9*84 to 
13'12 yards (9 to 12 metres) long and have a cross section whose moment of resis- 
tance is about 12*20 cubic inches (200 cubic metres). 

The space between the sleepers should not exceed 19*69 inches (0*50 metre) at the 
joint and 31*50 inches (0.80 metre) over the rest of the rail. The further reduction 
of the latter dimension allows, for greater wheel pressures, the use of 7*87 or 
8*86 tons (8 or 9 tonnes); but this method is open to objections. 

The transverse forces increased by higher speeds should bo provided for by 
increasing the number of the fastenings (of the rail to the sleeper) to 3 or 4 in each 
case, and by correspondingly strengthening these by the use of screw-spikes, bed- 
plates, chairs, etc.; also by improving and strengthening the fish-joints. 

A road thus constructed in which all the dimensions and arrangements are based 
on theory and experience, will offer the maximiun resisting capacity that it is prac- 
tically possible to obtain. 

That this maximum is not much in excess of the resistance which is obtained in 
roads constructed on methods at present in use has been shown above; indeed, in 
some methods of construction the size and arrangement of certain parts go beyond 
those here proposed. 

The great cost of maintenance which is met with, shows that the requirements 
due to the traffic have reached or exceeded the limit of the power of resistance. 



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146 

Steps to be taken for dealing with greater requirements are already being discussed 
or prepared. 

There are no means of strengthening the lines in such a way as to satisfy such 
demands, resulting as they do in exceeding the natural limits of the capacity for 
resistance ; for an increase in the number and size of the sleepers combined with an 
increase in the weight of the rail, is not justifiable from the economic point of view; 
and the most efficient method, namely increasing the gauge of the line, is out of the 
question. 

The only course left open then is to iinprove the method of eonsti^uction of the 
locomotives. 

It is in the power of the locomotive superintendent to utilise to the greatest 
possible extent the capabilities of the line for adhesion and traction by constructing 
locomotives which with increased wheel pressure shall show decrease in dynamic 
action. 

With regard to this, it was shown that locomotives with six wheels coupled are to 
be avoided ; that wheels should not be too close together; that leading and trailing 
wheels should be lightly loaded ; and that inside cylinders should be adopted ; these 
are the measures which give the most favourable conditions for the permanent way, 
and allow the wheel pressures to be increased. 

In offering this report for discussion at the fifth meeting of the International 
Railway Congress, we express the opinion that it should deal only with the general 
principles contained in it, while each Administration should determine for itself to 
what extent it can with advantage apply these principles. 



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147 



APPENDIX 



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150 



APPEN 



Fish-Joints. 



Table giving dimensions 



NAME OF RAILWAY. 



French 
State. 



Paris- 
Orleans. 



Company 

of 

the Austro- 

Hungarian 

Slate 
Railways. 



Kaiser 
Ferdinands 
Nordbahn. 



Austrian 
Southern. 



Load on locomotive wheels 



(tons) . 

(kg.) . 



6*89 tons (7 tonnes) and under. 



6-16 
0,250 



6-45 
6,660 



6-79 
6,900 



6-79 
6,900 



6 89 
7,000 



Section of fish-plate 




Length of flsh-plate 



Moment of inertia I . 



, Moment of resistance { 



Weight of flsb-plates . 



(ins.) , 
(mm.) , 

; (ins.) . 
(mm.) . 



inner (sq. ins. X Bq. ins.) 
I outer(5q. ins.Xsq-ins.)* ) 

I inner(8q.cm.X8<l.cni>)- j 
outer(8q. cm. X8Q. cm.), j 

inner (Z cub. ins.). . 
\ outer (Z cub. ins.). . 

I inner (W cub. cm.) . 
outer (W cub. cm.) , 



outer 



(lbs.) 
(kg) 
(lbs.) 
(kg.) 



Class , 



1. 

g 1 Tensile strength . 



Number of bolts 



& I Diameter . 



(tons persq. in.) , 



(kg. per sq. cm.). 



(ins.) . 
(mm ). 



18-81 
783 
6-&3 
111 9 

Per pair: 
41-9 lbs. 
(19 kg.) 

Cast steel. 



0-9S4 
25 



II 



17-92 ;, 



746 



Per pair : 
41-9 lbs. / 
(19 kg.^. 



Medium hard 
steel. 



0984 
25 



III 

18-50 
470 

23-23 

590 

3-08 
6-77 

1281 

281-9 

J 51 
309 

247 

507 

15-9 
7-2 

24-3 
11-0 

Wrought 



0-748 
19 



II 



III 

19 69 
50D 

21-77 
553 

3 46 
5-09 

143 9 
232-7 

1-56 
2-75 

25-5 
45 

15-9 
7-2 

19-2 
8-7 

Steel casting. 

26-2 
b7-4 

4130 
5900 



III 

21-65 
550 

5323 

590 

I 46 
5-81 

61 
242 

0-91 
2-68 

14-9 
44 

10-4 
4 7 

20-7 
94 

Soft Bessemer 
steel. 



0-866 
22 



0-866 
22 



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151 



DIX III 



and material of flBh-joints. 













- 












Egyptian. 


French 


Dutch. 


Meridionftl 


French 


Belgian 


Paris-Lyons- 


French 


St-Gothard. 






Western. 




Adriatic. 


Southern. 


State. 


Mediterranean 


Northern. 






Over 689 tons (7 , tonnes}. 1 




6 89 


6 94 


7-18 


7-37 


7-38 


7-38 


7-67 


7-66 


7-68 




7,000 


7,060 


7,300 


7,490 


7,600 


7,600 


7,636 


7,676 


7,800 




n 


IV 


U 


II 


I 


II 


11 


II 


II 




U 


lY 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 




Jl-65 


18-11 


„. 


28-94 


21-26 


28-74 


31-49 


25-59 


23-62 




530 


460 




735 


540 


730 


800 


650 


600 




21-65 


18-11 


... 


28-94 


17-72 


28'U 


31-49 


25-59 


23-62 




550 


460 




735 


450 


730 


800 


650 


600 




3-81 


8-71 




3-16 


11-83 


7-29 


4-40 


... 


4-70 




3-81 


8-71 


... 


3- 16 


7-09 


4-46 


... 


4-70 




158-5 


362-6 


... 


131-7 


491 


302-7 


185-7 


... 


195-6 




15S5 


362-6 


... 


131-7 


295-3 


1^-7 


... 


195-6 




1-78 


3-12 


..• 


1-52 


... 


2-83 


2-00 


... 


2-11 




1-78 


3-12 


... 


1 52 


... 


2-73 


2-00 


... 


2 11 




29-2 


51-1 


.*• 


24-9 


... 


46-3 


32-7 


..• 


34-5 




29-2 


51-1 


... 


24-9 


... 


44-7 


32-7 




34-5 




20-7 


17-6 




22-0 


95 


48-5 


34-0 


... 


22-0 




9-4 


8-0 


... 


10-0 


4-3 


22-0 


15-4 


... 


10-0 




20-7 


17-6 


, , 


220 


18-1 


46-3 


34-0 


... 


22 i) 




0-4 


80 


.... 


10-0 


8-2 


21 


15-4 




10-0 




St«€l. 


... 


... 


Martin steel. 


Hard steel. 


Good iron 
or soft steel. 


Steel. 


... 


... 




28-5 






31-7 




22-2 


... 


... 


... 




34-8 


^ 




... 


28-5 


... 








4500 






5000 




3500 




... 


... 




5500 


••• 


... 


... 


4500 


... 


... 


... 




4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 




1-004 


0-984 


... 


0-9S4 


0-787 


0-984 


0-984 


0-864 


0-934 




25-5 


25 




25 


20 


25 


25 


25 


25 



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152 



APPEN 
TABLE giving the itreM and resiitance of 



NAME OF RAILWAY 



Fjrench Slate. 



Paris- 
Orleana. 



Company 

ofUw 

Austro- 

HuDgariao 

State 
Raihraya. 



Ix»ad on locomotive vheeU. 



(tons) 
(kg.) 



6*8P tons (7 tonnea) and imder. 



6-75 
6^60 



d'4d 
6,660 



6 70 
6,900 



Ifaterial of sleeper. 
Class of rail 



I Moment ) 
of 
inertia. ) 



Section of rail . 



Moment \ Z 
of 
resistance. / W 



CoefScient of ballast . 



tsq. Ins. ] 
sq. ins. ) 



so. cm. 

X 
sq. cm. 



(cub. ins.) 
(cub. cm.) 



i: 



Distance between sleepers (centre to centre). . 



(ins.) 
(cm.) 



B = 



6EI 



/ tons \ 
V lus. / 



Quantities used 

in 

calcurations. 



(-^) 

\ cm. / 

D = (n) K X ft X ' C JfBL.') 
\ ins. / 

= (n) C X b X « (-J^^") 
V cm. / 






Iron. I Wood. 
Bullheaded. 

30-27 



»-83 

1»0'9 

970 

10-00 
8-73 

164 
143 

106-4 
3 

3l-« 

82 

58-27 
4*-87 

23303 
17947 



19-70 



7880 



2-96 
1W 



21-61 



8646 



2-70 
207 



Wood. 
Bullheaded. 

29-35 



23-83 

1221-6 
992 

• 9 32 
830 

1S2-7 
136 

lOS-4 
3 

32-22 

81-86 

56-79 
4601 

22715 
18400 

20-67 

8270 

2-75 
2-22 



Wood. 
VlgDoles. 

2073 
16 77 

663 
696 

8-24 
6-90 

135 
113 

106-4 
3 

33-86 



34-60 
2803 

13840 
11210 

25-62 
10eN6 

1-350 

1094 



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I 

1S3 



DIX IV. 



tbe permaiieiit way due to a dead load. 



Aostrian 
Sontbern. 


EgypUan. 


French 
Western. 


Dutch. 


Meridional 
Adnatic. 


French 
Southern. 


Belgian 
State. 


Paris- 

Lyons- 

Mediterra- 

nean. 


French 
Northern. 


St-Oothard. 




1 


Above 680 tons (7 tonnes). 




089 
7,000 


669 

7,000 


e 94 
7,060 


7-18 
7,300 


7-37 
7,490 


7-38 
7,600 


7-88 
7.600 


7-61 
7,636 


7-66 
7,676 


768 
7,800 




WoMt 
Vignolet. 

22-44 

17-97 

S34 

74» 

8-76 
7-31 

143-5 
120 

108-4 
3 

34-66 
88 

34» 

27-96 

13080 
11184 

21-« 
8566 
1-63 

-rar 


Wood. 
Vignolet. 

34*53 

27-60 

1437-5 
—1149 

It- 19 
10-31 

199-7 
169 

108-4 
3 

32 13 
81-6 

67-46 
53-97 

26086 
21589 

2t-60 

9on 

t-97 
■**« 


BoUhesded. 

30-36 
23-78 

1263*6 
990 

10-36 
9-09 

169-7 

149 

108-4 
3 

29-45 
74-8 

77-00 
60 32 

30797 
24129 

23-63 

9414 

3-27 
■2-56- 

- 


Wood. 
Vignolet. 

28-15 
21-21 

1085 
883 

9-58 
8-73 

157 
143 

108-4 
3 

36-42 
98-5 

31-96 

2831 

13063 
11326 

23 60 
9440 
1-48 


Wood. 
Vignoles. 

24-21 
18-71 

1008 
779 

9-26 
7-38 

157-7 
121 

108-4 
3 

33 86 
86 

40-41 
31-12 

16165 
12447 

21-58 

8632 

1-87 
1-44 


Wood. 
tj«B«lrl«tl 

23-94 

17-99 

996-7 

749 

9-08 
7-20 

148-8 
118 

108-4 
3 

38-74 
08-4 

26 67 

20 00 
10670 
8002 

24-86 

9945 

1-07 
0-80 


Wood. 
Vignoles. 

42 50 
33-56 

1789 
1397 

14 65 
12-20 

240 
200 

108-4 
3 

31 50 
80 

88 12 
09-61 

35242 

27811 

24-41 

0764 

3-61 
2-85 


Wood. 

Vignoles. 

38-07 
31 61 

1585 
1316 

13-61 
11 71 

223 

192 

108-4 
3 

28-46 
72-3 

107-00 
81 80 

42791 
35517 

18-15 

7261 

5-S'9 
4-89 


Wood. 
Vignoles. 

38-10 
29 60 

15861 
1232 

12-50 
10 13 

204-8 
166 

106-4 
3 

31-50 
80 

' 79 00 
61-37 

31598 
24544 

22-94 

9176 

3-44 
2-67 


Iron. 
Vignoles. 

39-40 
90-46 

1640 
1268 

13-55 
10 86 

222 

178 

106-4 
3 

31-89 
81 

78-70 
60 6) 

31477 
24237 

18-57 

7426 

4-24 
3-26 





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134 



NAME OF RAILWAY 



Flinch State. 



Paris- 
Orleans. 



Company 

of the 

Austrb- 

Hungarian 

State 
RaUways. 



6'bP tons (7 tonnes) and onder. 



Load on locomotive wheels. 



t (tons) 
I (kg.) 



e-js 

6,260 



6-46 
6,660 



6-70 
6,000 



Maximum pressure of rail 



Bending moment 



J 



I (tons) 
(kg.) 
(inch tons) 



Rail. 



Sleeper. 



Stress 9 



Bending moment M' 



Stress «r 



Maximum pressure on ballast . . p 



I (kg.Xcm.) 

(tons per sq. in.) 
;kg. per sq. cm.) 

(inch tons) 
(kg.Xcm.) 

(lbs per sq. in.) 
(kg. per sq. cm.) 

(lbs per sq. in.) 
(kg. per sq. cm. J 

(ins.) 



10 



Maximum sinking in ballast . 



J 



I (cm.) 
(per yard) 



iin working days 
( (per metie) 
((in pence per yard) 
in money < 

I (kreutzers p. metre) 



3K)Q 
3»5 

3»7 

09-70 
65-51 

179900 
169100 

697 
7-51 

1097 
1182 

14 15 
14-31 

36530 
36090 

17510 

ms 

1!31 

gO-8 
210 

1-46 
1-48 

103 
193 



3-tll 



3302 

38-23 

61-01 

176100 
105200 

6-8? 
7-34 

1074 
1156 

17-03 
17-23 

43960 
44480 

724 




0165 



3-303 
3-394 

3418 
3449 

71-70 
63-15 

1S065 
175000 

7-70 
8-21 

1212 
1293 



40027 
46446 

791 
801 

558 
56-3 

19 8 
20-1 

1 39 
1-41 

0181 
177 

0-46 
0-47 



3-6SJ 
3-743 

3742 

3804 

67-77 
62-96 

171492 
162550 

8-07 
9 13 

1270 
1438 

16-77 
17 06 

43300 
44040 

8^4 
818 

56-5 
575 

18-6 
18 8 

1-31 
1-32 

0-173 
0173 

0-44 
0-44 

0-165 

018 

2-74 

15 



Digitized by 



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188 

















Paris- 






Austrian 
Southern. 


Egyptian. 


French 
Western. 


Dutch. 


Meridional 
Adriatic. 


French 
Southern. 


Belgian 
State. 


Lyons- 
Mediterra- 
nean. 


French 
Northern. 


St-Gothord. 




Above 6-89 tons (7 tonnet). 


1 


e 89 


6-89 


6-94 


7-18 


7-37 


7 38 


7-38 


7-61 


7-66 


768 


7,000 


7,000 


7,060 


7,900 


7,490 


7,600 


7,500 


7,036 


7.076 


7,800 


3-6» 
3-©0 


3-137 
3-301 


3-051 
3221 


3-880 
4-104 


3-916 
3-980 


4-075 
4-600 


3-813 
3-846 


3-014 
3-106 


3-301 
3-488 


3-947 
3-978 


3749 


3183 
3355 


3101 
3273 


3943 
4171 


3979 
■-k)45" 


4141 
4766 


3875 
3906 


3063 
3155 


3356 


4011 
4013 


3912 


3544 


72-35 


77-80 


73-40 


77-42 


78-41 


77-94 


86-32 


86-23 


86-42 


92-88 


68 34 


73-79 


69 37 


73-36 


73-34 


72 66 


80 94 


83-42 


81 60 


87-88 


186754 
176380 


200803 
1.0460 


189430 
179044 


199M0 
189310 


202T78 
180300 


201179 
187550 


220200 
208900 


215300 


223065 

210695 


239720 
2j!68U0 


8-» 


6-39 


7-00 


8-08 


8-47 


8-50 


5-83 


6-34 


6-92 


6-86 


«-33 


7-16 


763 


8-41 


9-93 


1009 • 


■ 6-67 


7-12 


8-06 


8-09 


1301 
1470 


1006 
1127 


1116 
1202 


1273 
1324 


1334 
1564 


1352 
1589 


918 
1060 


998 
1121 


1089 
1269 


1080 
1274 


15-57 


15-63 


15-50 


19-33 


19 28 


22-12 


18-31 


15 02 


16-03 


17-86 


16*25 


16-45 


16-45 


20-45 


19-60 


23 90 


18-46 


15 46 


16-94 


18 00 


40177 
41940 


40342 
42463 


4om 

42452 


49900 
52780 


49775 
50600 


57100 
61700 


47250 
47640 


38760 
3990O 


41374 
43714 


46100 
46470 


795 


613 
6i4 


878 
926 


728 
T70 


903 
917 


1135 
1225 


1259 
1269 


735 
757 


670 
707 


lft51 
1666 


794 


»0 
68*5 


431 

e-3 


61-7 
t36-l 


50-2 
541 


63-5 
W-5 


79-8 
861 


88-5 
892 


51-7 
53-2 


47- 1 
40-7 


1161 
1171 


»-5 


17-4 


L5-6 


20-6 


228 


22-2 


19-5 


208 


17 9 


27-4 


24-5 


182 


16-5 


21-8 


23-0 


23-0 


19-6 


21-5 


18-9 


277 


1*65 
1-72 


1-22 
1-28 


1-10 
1-16 


1-45 
1-53 


1-60 
1-62 


1-49 
1-62 


1-37 
1-38 


1-46 
1-51 


- 1-26 
1-33 


1-98 
1 96 


0-217 


0-161 


0146 


189 


0-209 


0-197 


0181 


0-193 


0-166 


0252 


0-224 


0169 


0-154 


0-201 


213 


0-213 


181 


0-197 


173 


0-256 


0-55 
0-57 


0*41 
0-43 


037 
0-39 


048 
51 


0-53 
0-54 


050 
~54- 


0-46 
0-46 


0-49 
' 0-50 


0*42 
0-44 


0-64 
0-65 


0-183 


. 


. 


0-183 


0-329-0366 


. 


0-137 


. 


0-183 


. 


020 


. 


. 


0-20 


0-36-0-40 


. 


0-15 


. 


0-20 


. 


915 


• 


. 


7-32 


• 


• 


3-44 


. 


. 


. 


50 


• 


• 


40 


33 


• 


18 8 




• 





Digitized by 



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stress on fish-plates. 



APPEN 
TaUa giving the 



NAME OF RAILWAY. 



Company 

of the 

Austro* 

Hangar isn 

State 
Railways. 



Kaiser Ferdinands 
Nordbahn. 



CLASS OF RAIL 



Vignoles. 



Vignoles. 

Short fish- 
plates. 



Maximiun load on wheel of locomotive . . 
Moment of inertia -I 
Moment of resistance 
Width 6. . . 



Rail. 



Sleeper . 



Oater fish-plate 



Inner flsli-plate .. 



8 



Half length I . . 
Moment of inertia I 
Length .... 
Weight .... 
Moment of inertia 
Moment of resistance 
Length .... 
Weight .... 
Moment of inertia 
Moment of resistance, 
Maximum . . 



Space between sfee- ] 
pers centre te-een- \ At fish-Joint, 
ter i 



Next to the fish-Joint 



Coefficient efBaUtar 



Stress according 
Ziromermann . 



J 



f JUtShe outer. 



(tons) . 
(kg.) . 



fsq. in. X sq. in) • 
(sq. cm. Xsq. cm.) 

Z (cub. ins.). . . 
W (cub. cm.) . . 



J fins.) 
I (cm.) 



(sq. in. X 8q. in.) . 
(sq. cm. X ^- cro )• 






[sq.in.Xiq.in.) . 
.sq. cm. X tq. cm.). 

(cub. cm.J . . . 
(cub. cm.) . . . 



! &i: 



(lbs.) 
(kg.) 



(sq. in. X sq. in.) • 
(sq. cm. X iq* ciD<}* 



Z (cub. in.) . 
W (cub. cm.) 



(ins.) 
(cm.) 



n 



(cm.) 



\ c = 



(tons per sq. in.) . 
^kg per sq. cm.) . ] 

(tons per sq^ in.) . | 



I 
Note. — The French Sc>ut iwrn i« adopting a stronger fish-plate; but the dimensions are not stated 



(kg. per sq. cm.) . | 



619 
6000 

»-73 
863 

8-J4 
135 

11-8 
30 

49-2 
125 

147-2 
6125 

»-2 
5©-0 

24-2 

11-0 

6-78 
281*94 

309 
50-7 

185 
47-0 

15-8 
7-2 

308 
128*14 

1-51 
24*7 

33-8 
86 

20-3 
51-6 

31-6 
80-4 

108*4 
289-0 

3^ 

8 

U-64 
8-75 

1833 
1378 

10-86 
8- 17 

1711 
1286 



6*79 
6000 

2>-85 
061 

8-97 
147 

10-2 
26 

53-1 
135 

184-3 
7672 

21*7 
55-3 

191 
8-7 

560 
232-7 

2*75 
45-0 

19*6 
50-0 

15-8 
7-2 

3*46 
143-9 

1-56 
25-5 

30-7 
78 

18-7 
47-4 

29-7 
75-5 

lOS-4 

289-0 

3 

T 
n-70 

8-67 

1843 
1366 

12-74 
9-44 

2007 

1487 



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DIX V. 

stren on fish-plates. 



H 


Austrian 


Egyptian. 


French West. 


Meridional 


French 


Belgian State. 


Paris-Lyons- 


St-Gothard. 




Southern. 






AdriaUc. 


Southern. 




Mediterranean. 






Vignoles. 


Vignoles. 


Double headed. 


Vignoles. 


Double headed. 


Vignoles. 


Vignoles. 


Vignoles. 
Iron sleepers. 




6-89 

Km 


68-9 
-7000 


*^6-94 

7050 


7-37 
-7^90 


7-38 
7500 


7-38 
.7500 


7-51 
, 7635 


■ • 7-68 •* 
7800 




934 


34-54 
1437-5 


30-36 
1263 6 


24-22 

1008 


23-95 
996-7 


42-50 
1769 


37-86 
1585-5 


3941 
1640 




8T6 
143-5 


12-19 
199-7 


10-36 
169-7 


9-26 

151-7 


9-08 
148-8 


14-65 > 

240 


-^ 13-61 
223 


13-55 
222 




10-2 
26 


9-8 
25 


10-2 
26 


9-4 
24 


10-8 
- 27-5 


11-0 
28 


7-8 
20 


8-6 
21-9 




47-2 
120 


51 1 
130 


53-1 
135 


51-1 
130 


53-1 
135 


51-1 
130 


51-1 

130 


49-2 
125 




153.2 
6380 ' 


168-8 
7081 


104-9 
4368 


131-9 

5488 


107-5 
4475 


'U ■ 


135-2 
5695 


5-51 
229 




23-2 

59-0 


21-6 
56-0 


181 

460 


28-9 
73-5 


17-7 
45 


28-7 
73-0 


31 4 

80-0 


23-6 
60-0 




20-7 
9-4 


20-7 
9-4 


17-6 
6-0 


22 

10 


11-6 
5-3 


46-2 
21 


33-8 
15-4 


22 

10 




5-82 
242 


3-81 
15S5 


8-72 
362-6 


317 
131-7 


1-43 

59-6 


7-10 
.295-3 


4-47 

185-7 


4-70 
jg66 




2-68 
44 


1-78 
29-2 


312 
51-1 


1-52 
24-9 


0-96 
15-5 


2-73 
44-7 


200 
32-7 


2-11 
34-5 




21-6 

550 


21-6 
65-0 


18-1 
46-0 


28-9 
73-5 


20-2 
M-0 


' 730 


31-4 - 
• 80«0 


23-6 

60-0 




10-3 
4-7 


20-6 
.9-4 


17-6 

8-0 


22 

10-0 


9-4 
4-3 


48-4 
220 


33-8 
154 


22 

10-0 




1-47 
61 


3-81 
158-6 


8-71 
302-6 


3-16 
131-7 


1-43 
59-6 


7-27 
302-7 


4-46 
185-7 


4 -.70 . 




0*91 
14-9 


1-78 
29-2 


3-12 
51-1 


1-52 
24-9 


0-95 
.15-5 


2-83 
.46-3 . 


2-00 
32-7 


2-11 
34-5 . 




34-6 
88 


321 

81-6 


29-4 
74-8 


33'8 
86 


387 
98-4 


31-5 
8p 


38-5 
72-3 


31-9 
81 - 




20- 1 
51 


22-7 
57-6 


23-6 

600 


24-2 
61-4 


23-6 
60 


23-8 

60-4 


21*5 
54-G 


f3-4 
34 




31-0 
78-7 


?:i 


25-2 
640 


29-7 
75-5 


^•6 
98-0 


27-6 
70 


23-6 
60 


24-7 
62-8 




106-4 


106-4 


106-4 


106-4 


108-4 


■108-4 


108-4 ' 


108-4 




289-0 


289-0 


289-0 


289-0 


289-0 


289-0 


289-0 


289-0 




3 

8 

15-62 
11 36 


3 

15-82 
11-33 


3 

10-78 
8-94 


3 

..8 

18-72 
13-45 


3 

8 

21-22 
15-18 


3 

8 

12-50 
9-83 


3 

^. - « - . 

16-45 
12-69 


3 

8 

13^75 
10-85 




2460 
1788 


2492 

1784 


1697 
1408 


2949 

2118 


3343 
2389 


1963 
1548 


2590 
1999 


2165 
1708 




11-69 

8-50 


15-K 
11-33 


1078 
8-94 


18-72 
13-45 


21-22 
15-18 


12-46 
9-73 


16-45 
12-69 


13-75 
10-85 


a 


1841 
1338 


2492 
1784 


1697 
1408 


2949 
2118 


3343 
2389 


1963 
1532 


»90 
1999 


2165 
1708 



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I 

188 



APPEN 



Table ihowing sinking of sleepert , itreisas on rails and sleepers, and pressure on ballast, in diffasnt 
section corresponding to a moment of inertia I = 213*2 sq. in. x sq. in. (887*5 



PARTICULARS OF SLEEPERS. 



STATE 

OF 

PERMANENT WAY 

TO BB 

STRENGTHENED. 



Halflength 
of 

sleeper, 



I 



I 



Width 

of 
sleeper. 



Moment 

of 
inertia. 



X . 



Moment 

of 

resistance. 



Coefllcient 

of 

ballast. 



W 



c^* 



Distance 
between 
sleepers. 

Centre 
to 

centre. 



Lotd 

OD 

▼beels 



Existing permanent way requiring to be 
strengthened 

Strengthened by means of ballast . . . 

Strengthened by substitating sleepers of 
new normal pattern 

Combination of methods Z and 3 . . . 

Strengthened by increasing the number of 
sleepers • 

Combination of methods t and 5 . . . 

Combination of methods 3 and 5 . . . 

Combination of methods 2^ 3 and 5. . . 



47-25 



53- 16 



4715 



53-16 



120 



135 



120 



135 



9-84 



10-24 



9-84 



10-24 



26 



132-3 



184-3 



132-3 



184-3 



5606 



7672 



5608 



41-37 



55 22 



41-37 



678 



905 



678 



7672 



55-22 906 



106-4 
180-7 

106*4 
180-7 

106-4 
180-7 
106-4 
180-7 



35*4 



dJ^: 



90 



78 



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6-89 



Tm 



I 

io9 



DIX VI. 



gystemi of inpentruetiure with raili weighing 71 Ibi per yard (86*2 kilog. per metre) with a erofi 
sq. em. x eq. cm) and a moment of resistance Z =^ 8*31 cub. in. (W = 186*2 cab. cm,). 



Preunre 


Maximam 


BENDING MOMENT AND STRESS. 




of 
rail. 


sinking 

of 
sleeper. 


On the raU. 


On the sleeper. 


on 
ballast. 


M 


^ 


u' 


a' 


H 


1 


S 


i 


li 


h 

Hi 


la 
1* 


14 


a 


(4 


li 
3^ 


H 






3cao 

3-9W 

3-778 
4-290 

3-587 
3-674 
3-634 
3-826 


3719 
'1054 

3839 
43G9 

3643 
3733 
3692 
3887 


0-»4 
0-149 

0172 
01« 

0-219 
0-137 
0-166 
O-106 


0-5683 
0-3771 

0-4376 
0-3065 

05570 
0-3472 
0*4209 
0-2751 


76-73 
0759 

71-19 
63-18 

73-83 
65-37 
68-78 
60*96 


198032 
174445 

183740 
163077 

190576 
168716 
177599 
157334 


9-J3 
8*13 

8-57 
7-60 

8-88 
7-87 
8-28 
7-34 


1454-0 
1280-8 

1319-0 
1197-4 

1399-0 
1238-7 
1304-0 
1155-2 


15-38 
16 34 

20 05 
21-99 

1508 
15-06 
19-31 
19-61 


39708 
42175 

51808 
56761 

88921 
38838 

49628 
50614 


834 
885 

814 
892 

816 
815 
784 
796 


58-6 
622 

57-2 
627 

57-4 
57-3 
55-1 
56'9 


24-25 
28-82 

18-67 
21*94 

23-77 
24*69 
17*96 
19-56 


1-7049 
1*8855 

1-3128 
1-5425 

1-6710 
1*7360 
1-2627 
1*3756 



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APPENDIX VII 

Diagrams showing the movements of the rail-ends 
and of the peg to which the scale is fixed at the 
fish-joint during the passage of a train. 



BEILAGE VII 

Diagramme der Eiosenknngen der Schienenenden 
nnd des Fflookes. bei Befahren des Stosses 
dnroh einen Zug. 



^ "^••••O at-io^ 




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II o;2 

sill 
sup 

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mi 

"II 17 

I £* 6 

Ill's 
Sals 

I --is 

e) <e :q ;* 

la's* 

5 c II 
•< II » . 

P! • C -'5. 

M •* - e 
§ ^" II ?, 

^ II (^ II 
m 



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H »*• H ^* 



* ^ ^ ^ 5 



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106 

APPENDIX VIII. 

Bibliography. 

Gompte rendu gto^ral of the International Railway Congress. 

I. — Biiisseh Session 1885, 

Question I Types des voies ferr^s Report by Mr. Lebon. 

n. — Milan Session 1887 («). 

Question II Traverses m^talliques Report by Mr. A.-M. Kowalski. 

— IV Entretien des voies Report by Mr. L. Pi^ron. 

— VI Voies tris fatigu^es Report by Mr. Siegler. 

m. — Pains Session 1889 (»). 
Question I-A Quality du m^tal des rails Report by Mr. Bricka. 

— I-B. .... Usure des rails d'acier Report by Nfr. L. de Busschere. 

— I I-A .... Comparaison des voies a double bour- 

relet et des voies Vignoles Report by Messrs. Bemelmans et 

Bruneel. 

— II-B .... Fixation des rails Vignoles aux traver- 

ses en bois Report by Mr. Hohenegger. 

— II-G .... ^clissage des rails . Report by Mr. Pi^ron. 

— II-D .... Lignes parcourues par des trains ra- 

pides Report by Mr. Jules Michel. 

— VII-B . . . Les bris des rails Report by Mr. Bricka. 

— VIl-G . . . L'entretien des voies m^talliques. . . Report by Mr. Kowalski. 

IV. — St, Petersburg Session 1892 (*). 
Question III Entretien des voies Report by Mr. F. Bruneel. 

— IV Effort des bandages sur les rails . . . Report by Mr. V. Klemming. 

— V-A .... Relation entre la voio et le materiel 

roulant Report by Mr. W. Ast. 

— VI Voies des trains rapides Report by Sir O. Findlay. 

— VI II- A . . . Les bris des rails et Tusure des rails 

d'acier Report by Messrs. Bricka et de Bus- 

schere. 

— VIII-B . . . L'entretien couran Ides-traverses m^tal- 

liques Report by Mr. Kowalski. 

— VIII-C . . . Les traverses en bois ....*... Report by Mr. V. Herienstein. 

— IX Passage dans les courbes 

A. Materiel roulant Report by Messrs. Lancrenon et 

J. Morandiere. 

B . Voie Report by Mr. G. du Bousquet. 



Bulletin de la Commission Internationale dn Congrte des chemins de for, vol. VIII, 
N<> 5, May 1894, p. 347, 348. «• Les progr^s de la technique de Texpioitation des chemins de fer alle- 
mands dans les derni^res ann^. •* Meeting of the German Railway Technical Verein held at Strasbufg 
in June 1893. Question 4 of group I : Strengthening of the track. (Versteerkung des Geleises.) 

(1) The articles referred to all appeared also in the Bulletin du CongrH. 



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I 

167 



APPENDIX IX. 



(Sxuninary of the Eeplies of the Managemente belonging to the Congrese 
to the questions aeked.) 



We now proceed to give a summary of the most important data received in answer 
to our questions; arid we desire to express our sincere thanks to the different Man- 
agements for the trouble and care they have taken in giving us this infoi*mation. 

Preliminary note. 

Description of railways here taken into consideration : These questions only refer to 
railways on which there is a regular service of trains travelling at a speed of more than 
31 '07 miles (50 kilometres) per hour. 

I. — Name of the railway. 

1*^ Name of the lifie^ or of the section of the line. 

The name of the line or of the section of the line to which the following facts apply is to be 
clearly stated. 

2n«* Number of tracks. 

It is to be stated » whether the line has one, two or more tracks. 

3"i Length, 
The length in use for traffic should be stated. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Total mileage, 293-7 miles (472*7 kilometres); single line, 
53-2 miles (85-6 kilometres) (18 p. c); double line, 240 5 miles (387 1 kilometres) (82 p. c). 

Priyileged Austro-Hongarian State Railway Go. — Total mileage, 438*7 miles (706 kilometres); 
single line, 196*7 miles (316*6 kilometres) (45 p. c); double line, 242*0 miles (389*4 kilometres) (55 p. c). 

Austrian Southern Railway. ~ Total mileage, 1,053*7 miles (1,695*5 kilometres); single line, 
630*4 miles (1,014*6 kilometres) (60 p. c); double line, 423* 1 miles (680*9 kilometres) (40 p. c). 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — Total mileage, 1,761*6 miles (2,835 kilometres); single 
line, 1,359*5 miles (2,188 kilometres) (77 p. c); double line, 402*01 miles (647 kilometres) (23 p. c.) 



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I 

168 

Italian Mediterranean System. — Tolal mileage, 1,511 -7 miles (2,432*9 kilometres); single line, 
899-0 miles (1,446-8 kilometres) (59-5 p. c); double line, 612-7 miles (986*1 kilometres) (405 p. c). 

French State Railways. — Total mileage, 1,463-9 miles (2,356 kilometres); single line, 1,212*3 miles 
(1.951-9 kilometres) (83 p. c); double line, 251 -1 miles (,404 'i kilometres) (17 p. c). 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — Total mileage, .535-6 miles (862 kilometres); double 
line, 530*6 miles (854 kilometres) (99 p. c ); single line, 4*97 miles (8 kilometres) (1 p. c). 

French Southern Railway. — Total mileage, 295*7 miles (476 kilometres); double line, 295*7 miles 
(476 kilometres) (100 p. c). 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — Total mileage, 361*6 miles (582 kilometres); double line, 361*6 miles 
(582 kilometres) (100 p. c). 

(The management remarks in its letter sent in reply to the questions that a speed of at least 34*17 miles 
(55 kilometres) is authorised throughout its system.) 

French Northern Railway. — Total mileage, 369*1 miles(594 kilometres); double line, 3691 miles 
(594 kilometres) (100 p. c). 

French Western Railway. — ToUl mileage, 2,815*4 miles (4,530-9 kilometres); single line, 
1,667-8 miles (2,683*6 kilometres) (59 p. c); double line, 5,147*8 miles (1,847*3 kilometres) (41 p. c). 

Belgian State Railways. — Total mileage, 474*2 miles (763*3 kilometres); double line, 474*2 miles 
(763*3 kilometres) (100 p. c). 

Dutch Railway Go. — Total mileage, 17*9 miles (28*8 kilometres); double line, 17-9 miles (28*8 kilo- 
metres) (100 p. c). . 

Egyptian Railways. — Total mileage, 514-5 miles (828 kilometres); single line, 863*5 miles (585 kilo- 
metres) (71 p. c); double line. 151*0 miles (243 kilometres) (29 p. c). 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — Total mileage, 799*6 miles (1,286*7 
kilometres); single line, 92*8 miles (1494 kilometres) (116 p. c); doable line, 706*6 miles (1,137*3 kilo- 
metres) (88*4 p. c). 



II. — Tba-ffic on thk lines. 

1"* Class of train. 

The different classes of trains which run on the line are to be given here : — passenger trains : — 
express, through, stopping, and mixed; goods trains i — fast and slow; besides these, special 
passenger trains and special goods trains for certain materials (such as slate, chalk, stone, coal, 
ore, farm produce, etc.). 

Vide 3'-^. 

2"** Average composition of trains, and construction of vehicles. 

A sketch for each sort of train, showing the average composition, gross weight, weight per 
wheel, and space between each pair of wheels, etc., is to be given. 

Vide appendix X. 

What is the method of construction adopted for the engines and carriages of express trains? 



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169 

a) Locomotives : fixed leading wheels or bogie, relative position of wheels to the fire*box, 
number and position of cylinders (inside or outside). 



Kaiier Ferdiliaildf Nordbalui. — * Bogie, four-ocupled wheels, driving axle in front of fire-box, 
coupled axle under fire-box, two outside cylinders. . 

Prmleged Austro-Hangarian State Railway Co. — Leading and trailing wheels with radial axle 
boxes, the trailing axle under the fire-box, driving and coupled axles in front of fire-box, two outside 
cylinders. 

AoBtriail Sonthem Railway. — Bogie, four-coupled wheels, the coupled axle under the fire-box, 
two outside cylinders. 

Gotbard Railway. — Three types : i*^ Bogie and six-wheels coupled, the third axle under the 
fire-box ; 2^^ bogie and four-wheels coupled, coupled axle behind the fire-box ; 3*"** six-wheels coupled, the 
third axle under the fire-box. The compound locomotives of type i*^ have in some cases three, in others 
four cylinders. Those of the other two types have two outeide cylinders. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — Three types : 1*' Leading wheels, four-coupled wheels 
driving axle in front of the fire-box^ coupled axle under the fire-box; 2^^ bogie, driving and coupled wheels 
as in type 1*^; Z"^ six- wheels coupled (position of cylinders not stated). 

French State Railwasrt. — Fixed leading wheels, four-coupled wheels, all axlee in front of flre-box« 
two outside cylinders in front of the leading axle. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railwasrs. — Since the winter of 1893-94, only locomotives 
converted into bogie engiiies have been used for expresses. They have four-wheels coupled, one axle 
in front of, the other behind, the fire-box, and two outside cylinders. (See note of Mr. Baudry, on 
the conversion of express engines P.-L.-M. into bogie engines, 1894, January number of the Revue 
gin&rale), 

French Southern Railway. ~ The leading axle has horn blocks inclined at i ip 16, allowing a 
transverse play of 5/8 inch (16 millimetres); four-wheels coupled, one axle in front of, the other behind, 
the fire-box. Two outside cylinders placed nearly equally between the leading and drivhig axles. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — Locomotives without bogies, with eight wheels, the middle four of which 
are coupled, the leading and trailing axles are provided with inclined horn blocks so as to allow transverse 
play. The engines have generally two outside cylinders. 

French Northern Railway. — Bogie, and four-wheels coupled; the driving axle in front of, the 
coupled axle behind, the fire-box. In some types the latter axle is under the fire-box. Most of the types 
have two cylinders; two types of compound engines have four cylinders. 

French Western Railway. — Since 1889, the locomotives have had bogies, and the fire-box comes 
down between the coupled pairs of wheels. Inside cylinders above the bogie. 

Belgian State Railways. — Two types : i*^ On level roads a pair of leading wheels with radial boxes, 
four intermediary coupled wheels, and the trailing axle under the fire-box, two inside cylinders; %^^ on 
lines with steep gradients, a pair of leading wheels with radial boxes, six-wheels coupled, the third axle 
under the fire-box, two inside cylinders. 

Dntch Railway Co. — Bogie, four-wheels coupled, two inside cylinders. 

Egyptian Railways. — One pair of leading wheels^ four-wheels coupled, the driving axle in front 
of, the coupled axle under the fire-box. 



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Russian State Railwasrs (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — Compound bogie engine, with four 
driving wheels ; fire-box placed between the two pairs of coupled axles, two outside cylinders. 



b) Passenger carriages : number and distance apart of the wheels; rigid axle-boxes, radial 
axle-boxes or bogies. Types of wheels and nature of the materials entering into their construc- 
tion, and arrangement of the springs. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Two types : 1*^' Intercommunication carriages with six-wheels ; 
distance between axles, 14 feet 9 1/8 inches -f 14 feet 9 1/8 inches = 29 feet 6 1/4 inches (4*5 metres 
-|- 4 '5m etres »» 9 metres); radial axle-boxes. The middle axle has longitudinal play. 2"*^ Intercommuni- 
cation carriages with four wheels; distance between axles, 15 feet 6 5/8 inches to 18 feet 1/2 inch (4-74 to 
5-5 metres). Fixed axles. Both types have wheels with wrought iron spokes, and are fitted with 
laminated springs with adjustable supports. 

Priyileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Co*. — Three types : 1*^ Four-wheeled carriages 
having a lateral play of 3/4 inch (20 millimetres) to each side; distance between axles, 16 feet 7/8 inch to 

17 feel 5/8 inch (4*9 to 5*2 metres); 2"<* four-wheeled carriages with radial boxes; distance between 
axles, 18 feet 1/2 inch (5*5 metres); 3^ six- wheel coaches with radial boxes; distance between axles, 
11 feet 5 5/4 inches -f 11 feet 5 3/4 inches = 22 feet 11 1/2 inches (3 '5 metres -f 3*5 metres 
= 7 metres). Wheels with wrought iron solid bodies, or with wrought iron spokes; wheels of Martin 
cast steel, cast under pressure, tyres of Martin steel. All the carriages are carried on laminated 
suspension springs by intermediary oval links, or suspension links inclined at 45^ to the horizontal. 

Austrian Southern Railway. — Two types : i*^ Carriages with four- wheels with fixed axle-boxes. 
Axles 15 feet 9 inches (4*8 metres) apart; 2**^ carriages with four wheels, with radial boxes, axles 

18 feet 8 1/2 inches (5*7 metres) apart. Wheels with wrought iron spokes, or wrought iron solid bodies, 
with axles and tyres of cast steel. The springs are arranged with adjustable suspension links. 

French State Railwasrs. — Two types : 1>* in two express trains from Ghartres to Bordeaux, eight- 
wheeled bogie carriages are used. Distance between bogies, 36 feet 1 inch (11 metres); space between 
bogie axles, 7 feet 10 1/2 inches (2*4 metres); 2°<i on the other lines, and for all other trains, four-wheeled 
carriages, with fixed axle boxes, and axles 12 feet 3 1/2 inches (3*75 metres) apart. The wheels have 
cast solid bodies. (No information is given as to arrangement of springs.) 

French Southern Railway. — All the passenger carriages are four wheeled, with axles from 14 feet 

9 inches to 19 feet 1/4 inch (4*5 to 5'8 metres) apart. The axles are fixed; but at the same time some 
transverse and some longitudinal play is allowed by the horn plates to the axle-box. 

The wheels have solid bodies with tyres fixed by • Mansell i* rings. The axles and bodies are of iron, 
the tyres of steel. The suspension springs rest on top of the axle-boxes, they are attached to the frame 
by twin tie-rods. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — Two types : 1'^ Pour-wheeled carriages with axles 18 feet 1/2 inch 
(5*5 metres) apart; 2°<^ eight-wheeled carriages on two bogies; distance between centres of bogies, 36 feet 

10 1/2 inches (11-24 metres). 

French Northern Railway. — Four-wheeled and also eight-wheeled carriages. Distance between 
axles, 8 feet 8 1/4 inches to 18 feet8 1/2 inches (2*65 to 5-7 metres). 

French Western Railway. — The carriages have four- wheels, always with ^xed axle-boxes; space 
between the axles generally 12 feet 4 inches (3*76 metres); in the case of newelp coaches, 18 feet 1/2 inch 
and 19 feet 4 1/4 inches (5*5 and 5*9 metres). 



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171 

The wheels have solid iron bodies, the tyres and the axles are of sleel. The spring?, fixed to the top ol 
the grease-box, are attached to the vehicles by means of inclined links. 

Belgian State Railwasrt. — Two types : 1>^ Six- wheeled carriages; distance between axles, 11 fee 

5 3/4 inches + 11 feet 5 3/4 inches = 22 feet 1 1 1/2 inches (35 metres + 35 metres = 7 metres); 2"'^ eight- 
wheeled carriages on two bogies 29 feet 10 inches (9*1 metres) apart from centre to centre; space between 
the axles of the bpgie, 7 feet 2 5/8 inches (2 2 metres). Wheels either with spokes or with a solid body 
of iron plate corrugated. The bosses are of iron, and the tyres of steel. The six-wheeled carriages 
have ordinary laminated springs; rubber blocks are interposed between the under frame and the body. 

In the bogie carriages, the bodies.are supported on the bogies by means of springs normal to the 
longitudinal axis of the carriage. 

Dutch Railway Co. — Two types : 1*^ Six-wheeled carriages with corridors at the side; first and last 
axle 26 feet 3 inches (8 metres) apart; 2^*^ six-wheeled carriages with first and last axle 22 feet 11 1/2 inches 
(7 metres) apart. 

Egyptian Railways. — Two types -. 1«' Four-wheeled carriages with axles 10 feet 11 7/8 inches 
(3 35 metres) apart; 2'»<* six- wheeled carriages with axles of from 10 feet + 10 feet »» 20 feet (3 05 metres 
+ 3 05 metres — 6-10 metres) to 11 feet 5 3/4 inches + 11 feet 5 3/4 inches = 22 feet 11 1/2 inches 
(3*5 metres + 35 metres = 7 metres) apart. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — There are no special carriages for 
express trains. The carriages used on express trains are six-wheeled ; distance between axles = 10 feet 

6 1/4 inches + 10 feet 6 1/4 inclies = 21 feet 1/2 inch (3202 metres + 3202 metres = 6404 metres). 
Iron wheels with spokes ; the springs are hung in the usual way. 



c) Method of coupling (draw-gear). 



Kaiser Ferdinands NOrdbahn. — Old stock : screw coupling with hook and safety-chains (in 
accordance with the technical conventions of the Association of Qerman Railway Managements). New 
slock : double screw couplings, without safety chains. 

Privileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Co. — All the new locomotives have screw couplings 
with springs. 

The draw-gear of the older carriages is made with screw couplings after the manner of the standard 
coupling of the Association, and with two safety chains; on the new carriages, without safety-chains, it 
is made by means of a screw coupling. 

Austrian South Railway. — Screw couplings and safety-chains. 

French State Railways. — The coupling is made by means of a draw hook and two safety chains. 

French Southern Railway. — The coupling is made by means of an ordinary coupling and two 
safety chains. The carriages are provided with four spring-bufTers. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — The coupling is made by means of a draw-hook acting on a draw -spring, 
which has an initial pressure of 2*36 tons (2,400 kilog.). 

French Western Railway. — The vehicles carry two spring-buffers and are drawn by means 
of a screw coupling acting on a draw -spring. Besides this Uiey arc provided with two safety chains at 
each end. 

Belgian State Railways. ~ The ordinary coupling is made by means of a screw coupling and two 
safety chains. The draw-springs and buffer springs ai'c laminated. 



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Dutch Railway Co. — The couplings are made in accordance with khe technical confentiona of the 
Association of German Railway Managenients. 

Riusian State Railways (St. Petersborg to Warsaw). — Ordinary seraw eoapliogs plaetd in ttie 

longitudinal axis of the carriages, with safety chains at each side. 



3"^ Annual average traffic on lines, classified according to hind of train. 
Average actual speed in miles (and kilometres) per hour. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. 

SPBBD on DUTFBRBrr SBOnOIfS. 

MUes. KUom. 

Expreeses 30*8 39-8 495 64-0 

Special expresses 29*8 34*9 48 56*2 

Passenger (ordinary) 21'2 24*9 34-2 40'1 

Special passenger (ordinary) 21*224-9 34*2401 

Fast goods 19-2 20-4 30*9 32-9 

Ordinary goods 11*2 13*5 18*121-8 

Ck)al 11-2 13*5 18 1 21*8 



MbanCV.). 



Miles. 
35*5 
32*9 
24-0 
24*2 
19*6 
11*9 
12*3 



KUom. 
571 
52*9 
38*6 
389 
31*5 
19-2 
19-8 



PriYlleged Anstro-Hongarian State Railway Co. 



Spebd on 
MUes. 

Orient-Bxpreas 30 

Expresses 28*0 37*9 

Ordinary passenger 21*7 28*0 

Local 18*6 21-7 

Slow passenger 16*2 

Mixed 17*4 

Fast goods 12*4 22*4 

Ordinary goods 12*4 17*4 



taonoMS. 
KUom. 

58 
45-61 
35-45 
30^ 

26 

28 
20-36 
20-28 



Maiif (v.). 
MUes. KJlom. 

86*0 58 



i6*2 
17*4 



26 
28 



Austrian Sonthem Railway. 

SpBBD Olf DIPPKIUSNT SUOTIONS. 

MUes. KUom. 

Expresses 23*0 34*8 37-56 

Ordinary passenger 18*0 25*5 29-41 

Mixed ,. . . . 14 3 24*8 23-40 

Faatgoods. 9-9 18*0 16-29 

Ordinary goods 8'7 18*0 14-29 



MsAif (V.). 
BCiles. KUom. 



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Meridional Railway Adriatic System. 
The average speeds are given including stops. 

Spbrd on diffbrsnt sections. 



Expresses 

Through 

Semi-through 

Ordinary passenger .... 

Mixed 

Ooods also carrying passengers . 
Goods 



Miles. 
24-2 40-4 
21- i 34-8 
18*6 28-6 
14-9 230 
130 18-6 
9-9 19-3 
6-2 13-0 



Kilom. 
39-65 
34-56 
30-46 
24-37 
21^ 
16-31 
10-21 



MB4N (V.). 

Miles. Kilom. 

40- 1 64-5 

29-5 47-5 



15-8 
13-4 
101 



25-4 
21-5 
16-2 



French State Railways. 



Expresses . . . 
Ordinary passenger 
Mixed .... 
Light .... 
Goods .... 



MUes. KUometres. 
37-3 600 



29-5 
12-4 



French Sonthem Railway. 



Fast expresses (Rapides). 
Ordinary expresses • . 
Ordinary passenger . . 

Mixed 

Goods 



47-8 
42-3 
360 
311 
18-6 



Paris-Orleans Railway. 

Miles. 

Fast expresses (Rapides) 46*6 

Ordinary expresses, passenger and mixed 31*1 37 3 

Ooods 15*5 



47-5 
20-0 



KUomeirts. 
77 
68 
58 
50 
30 



KUometres. 

75 

50-60 

25 



French Northern Railway. 

The average speed of the trains reaches its highest point, 54*7 miles (88 kilometres) an hour, on the 

section of line between Greil and Amiens, and ialls to 40*4 miles (65 kilometres) an hour between 
Boulogne and Calais. 

French Western Railway. 

Miles. Kilometres. 

Past expresses (Rapides) 43*546*6 70-75 

Ordinary expresses 40*4 43'5 65-70 

Ordinary passenger 28*0 37*3 45-60 

Mixed 24-8 3M 40-50 

Express goods 311 37*3 50-60 

Fastgoods 18*6 24*8 30-40 

Ordinary goods 12*4 18*6 20-30 



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Dutch Railway Co. 

Miles. Kilometres. 

Expresses 410 660 

Through 395 63-5 

Ordinary passenger 28*8 46-3 J Including 

Light 16-5 26-5 I stops. 

Egyptian Railways. 

SpBBD on DIFFBRBRT SBCTIONt. MbAN (V). 

Miles. Kilom. Miles. Kilom. 

Expresces 236 37 3 38-60 321 517 

Rassian State Railways. 

Miles. Kilometres. 

Fastest expresses and mail 33*5 54 

Ordinary mail and passenger 26*1 42 

Mixed 20-5 33 

Goods, military and workmen's; 15*5 25 

The annual number of trains in each direction; for double lines, the annual number of tt^ains 

running on the down line I to be given (from to. . . .) and the number of trains on the 

up line II. 

Note. — The Managements not having, for the most part, furnished us with entirely sepai ate 
statements about the traffic on the line in both directions, we have given here the mean number 
of trains Z which have travei-sed every mile (kilometre) of each section (vide I) per year. 

If for a given section of the line, and for the different kinds of trains running on it : — 

h "o The length of the line in miles (kilometres); ^ 

2 = The average number of trains which have run over the length of line A; 

V =3 The average speed, 
we find for a number of different sections of the line the mean : — 

S (A; 2 (^ . A) 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. 

On dipfbrbnt sbctions. Mban (Z). 

Expressw 1460-2190 1531 (17-5 » o) 

Special expresses 11-57 45 ( 0*5 <>/o) 

Passenger (ordinary) 1555-4380 1807 (20'6 ^/o) 

Special passenger (ordinary) 18-54 44 ( 0-5.®/o) 

Fast goods 0-1460 964(11-0%) 

Ordinary goods 1530-1959 1675 (19-1 «/o) 

Coal 0-3289 2692 (30-8 o/p) 

8758 (100 o/o) 



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Privileged Anstro-Himgarian State Railway Go. 

The entire line (vide I) has been traversed. 
On diffbrbnt sbctions. Mban (Z). 

Expresses 0-1682 927 (20*4 o/o) 

Ordinarj passenger 730-4230 1523 (33*6 •/o) 

Slow passeugw 0-1220 93 ( 20 o/o) 

Mixed 0-365 18 ( 04 «/o) 

Goods 889-4552 1976 (43 6 Wp ) 

4537 (100 o/,) 

Besides these, these sections of line have been partially traversed by the following trains : — 

Expresses 0-393 \ 

Ordinary passenger 3184/ The mean cannot 

S'ow passenger 0-19^^ "^ "!?.St^„" ^''^ 

Mixed trains 0-730 \ given. 

Goods trains 0-6013 j 

Meridional Railway Adriatic System. 

On difkbrbnt sbctions. Mban (Z). 

Expresses . 0-730 139 ( 2*5 <>/.) 

Through 730-1460 1044 (191 •/o) 

Special passenger 2-"l 22 ( 04 «/«) 

Ordinary and semi -throiigh trains 730-4380 1859 (34*1 o/o) 

Mixed 0-2555 755 (13*9 »/<5) 

Goods also carrying passengers 0-874 180 ( 3-3 o/o) 

Goods 155-3410 1004 (18-4 o/o) 

Specialgoods 21-1306 451 ( 8'3 o/o) 

5454 (100 o/o) 

French State Railways. — Total number of trains for the different sections, 2,227 to 16»709. 
No information as to kinds of trains. 

French Sonthern Railway. — In 1893, the section between Bordeaux and Langon of the Bordeaux- 
Gette line has been traversed in each direction by about 7,400 trains. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — On an average each line is annually traversed by 10,950 trains. 

French Western Railway. 

On DIFFrfRBNT SBCTIONS. MBAN (Z.). 

Past expresses (Rapides) 730-4380 2054 ( 6-6 o/o) 

Ordinary expresses 1825-6935 3581 (11 '5 o/o) 

Through 365- 9855 3938 (12-6 «>/o) 

Ordinary passenger 1460-12045 3982 (12-8 <>/o} 

Light 0-8030 3563 (11-5 o/o) 

Parcel trains 365- 4380 2258 ( 7-3 o/o) 

Goods 2J90-17520 1 1756 (37-7 Q/o) 

31132 (100 o/o) 
Besides these, some pick-up goods trains, of which the number is not given, have been run over different 
sections. 



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Dutch Railway Co. 

Mban (Z.}. 

Exprcsacs 3650 (21-75 o/o) 

Through 3650 (21-75 «/o) 

Ordinary passenger 3650 (21-76 •/©) 

Light stopping 2190 (13*05 ^o) 

Past goods 2555(16-2 ojf^) 

Goods 1095 ( 6-5 o/^) 

16790 (lOO' o/o) 
Egyptian Railways. 

On different sections. Mean (Z.) 
Expresses 182-1065 665 

The nnmher of trains on the sections with most traffic is, for 1893» as follows :•— 

Expresses 212-1066 

Ordinary passenger 509'-2052 

Mixed 365-380 

Goods 455-4412 



Russian State Railways. 

Numher of trains for the year 1893 : — 

Expresses^ imperial, special for private persons and on Company's service 

Expresses and fast mall trains 

Ordinary mail and passenger 

Mixed 

Gkx>ds> military and workmen's 



322 

1273 

5252 

1095 

32736 

40678 



4*^ Wear of the line due to the action of the brakes. 

Information is to be given with regard to the average length of line that is traversed by trains 
of each sort with the brake on, together with the average number of wheels braked and the 
weight on them. 



French Southern. 

On the average, one stoppage takes place in the case of :— 

Expresses every 31*1 miles (60 kilometres). 

Fast — 12-4 — (20 — ). 

Ordinary passenger and mixed — 3*7 — ( 6 — ). 

Goods _« 5-6 _ ( 9 _ ). 

In order to stop passenger trains, it is necessary to apply the brakes for about 547 yards (500 metres) ; 
in the case of mixed and goods, about 876 yards (800 metres) Express, fkst and ordinary passengers 
are furnished with continuous brakes; mixed and goods have (including tender) 12 wheels braked. 



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Frenoh Weslem Railway. — The wmt on the rails at the stations where all the trains stop is on 
an average twice, at a maximum four or six times, as great as on the other parts of (he line, and on 
these other parte the wear aTerages 0*295 to 0*345 inch (0*75 to 0*80 millimetre) per 100,000 trains. 



Ill* — Construction of tbb pbrmanbnt way. 
1* Rails. 
The following are to be given : — 

The cross-section of the rail (flat bottomed, symmetrical and unsymmetrioal double headed). 
The moment of inertia I = sq. in. X aq. in. (Ii ■» aq. cm. X aq. om.). 

The moment of resistance Z = — = cub. inch (W «= — = cub. cent.). 

Length of rails L » feet (L » metres). 

Depth of rails h ^ inches (h = millimetres). 

I*^ 5?_ Jf ' Portion of ntutrl .!«{»"== !"t"? " ^^^\ 
I ^^J7T1_ (Ji ' ^* ^ inches (1% = millimetres). 

Weight of rails W= lbs per yard (0 =- kg. per metre; 



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179 

Metal : class and process of manufacture [acid or basic ; Martin steel). 

Tensile strength F s tons per sq. in. (<= kg. per sq. cm.) 

Contraction of area . . . C = per cent. 
Elongation D^ per cent. 

Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. 

(F. . . 34 9 42-5 (5,500 6,700) j ,. 

C. . . 20-5 53-3 } , according 

^ j^ K «M» I *o manufacturers tests. 

u, . . 14*0 z6 1 

Priyileged Austro-Himgarian State Railway Co. 

( P 349(5,500) 

Bessemer steel i j. .k 



Martin steel 



Anstrian Sonthem Railway. 

( F 4-19(6,600) 

• • i D 



17 



Gothard Railway. 

^ . . , ,. I F(«Tertge) . 41-3(6,500) 

Basic steel produced in converter. | d (average) 20 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. 

, .^ „ ^ .. . , i F (average) 35-6 (5,600) 

Acid Bessemer or Martin steel. | j^ (average) 20 

Italian Mediterranean System. 

Acid Bessemer or Martin steel ( F 34*9 381 (5,500-6,000) 

also iron. j D (above) 18 

Sicilian Railway. 

Only steel manufactured by the Bessemer or Martin process. 



\ F 
Basic Bessemer { j. 



French State Railways. 

F 44-5 50*8 (7,000-8,000) 

(about) 8 

F 47-6 (7.500) 



Acid Bessemer ^ j. .. 

Iron 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. 

^^ ,. , , ( F (average) 44-5(7,000) 

Martin steel j j. ^2 



French Sonthem Railway. 

Hard steel produced by the acid J F . . 49 5 622 (7,800-9,800) 
Bessemeror Martin process. ( D . . 4-15 



1 ^ ' TiK ^ ' '^^ ' 1 Manufecturer's tests*. 



Paris- Orleans Railway. 

F 44*5 50-8 (7,000-8,000) 



, ., ^ , IF 44*5 » 

Acid Bessemer steel • • • • } r> 15-10 



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I 

180 

Franoh NoithMrn Railway. 

„ w •• .» 1 J P 45-4(7.150) 

Bessemer or Martin steel . . J t\ i»;.4n 

French Western Railway. 

Bessemer or Martin Steel acid ( F, at least 44-5 (7,000) 

and basic. \ D, at least 8 for a length of 394 inches (10 cm.). 

Belgian State Raihraya. 

Steel ; class not specified* but it must | F at least 38*1 (6,000) 

satisfy these conditions :— { D ...... at least 13 

Dntch Railway Co. 

4 F 39-4 (6,200) 

• • ' • j D 19-5 



Bessemer steel 



Egyptian Railways. 



F 39-4(6,200) 

Hild or Beesemer steel . . . { C 37 

, D 85 

Iron 

IF 42-5-47 (6,700-7,400) 

Bassemer steel | G 23 

/ D 14 

!F 44'5-45-7 aOOO-7.200) 

G . 14 

D 11 

There is no intention of substituting Martin or Thomas steel for the Bessemer. 



2^ Sieep&rs, 

The material should be named. 

(In the case of iron or steel sleepei*8 the tensile strength F and the elongation D should 
be given.) 

The cross section. 

Weight per sleeper to -b p(>un4s (g "" kilograms). 

Width of under surface h mm inches (b — centimetres). 

Thickness A >= inches (h =s centimetres). 

Length Z = feet (I = metres). 

Moment of inertia I| = sq. in. X sq. in. (!« « sq. cm. X sq. cm.). 

Moment of resistance Zi = — i = cub. in. (W* « —- « cub. cent.). 

-1 .--..,' 



h I 



U-/» — 



i(j Position of neutral J yi' = inches (Z/ «» centimetres). 
l// axis . . • . \ yj wm inches (l^' = centimetres). 



L..i/; 



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I 

181 



KaiMT Fdrdinandi Nordbaha. 

Oak treated with chloride of zinc. 



,/i\ 



^^l *. h. L Ii. Zi(W,),y,'(;i0.yi'(^';. 

Old section y Y -^j^ ^ 826-8 12-20 6-30 7-87 193-00 55-10 3-51 2-79 

!-— 3/--- (102-9) (31) (16) (2-4) (8034) (903) (89) (7-1) 



'^ 284-4 10-23 6-30 886 184-30 55-22 3 33 2 97 




New section .... -^I— ^ — » (129-0) (26) (16) (2-7) 07672) (905) (8-47) (7-53) 
Privileged Austro^Hiuigariaii State Railway Co. 

Oak / is \ / /j \ 176-4 about 11-81 5-91 8-20 147-12 4673 315 276 

(80) (30) (15) (2-5) (6125) (766) (8) (7) 






Anstriaii Sonthern Railway. 

Oak, larch» and beech . The two latter are impregnated with sulphate of copper or chloride of zinc . 
Intermediary sleepers :— 






w(p). 

J 147-7-180-8 

, ^*^ I (67-82) 

^ ] ^ ( 106-0-160-9 

// \ \ ^^"^ . . • • j (49.73) 

n^rj f „ , J 143-3-160-9 

\ Beech . . . . | ^^g.^gj 

Sleepers at (Ish- joints : — 

178-6-220-5 



ft. K I. Ii. 


Zi(Wx). vi'ClA y,' {«,'). 


10-28 6-30 7-87 158-27 


43-75 8-51 2-79 


(26) (16) (2-4) (6380) 


C717) (8-9) (7-1) 



Oak 



(81-100) 

■ I 



m\ i 132-3-198-4 I 11-81 630 7-87 19553 5711 343 2-87 

< Larch 



U-»?— J f « ^ ) 169-7-198-4 

'^ » Beech . . . . | 



^ \ ) .... J (60-90) ( (30) (16) (2-4) (8140) (936) (8*7) (7-3) 

"9-7-198- 

(77-90) 

Gothard Railway. 

28-21 (4450) 



« ^ . . . , ( P = ^'21 (4450) ) . 

Soft, basic metal }d=,27 1 ^^®'**® 

^^^ %D{g). 6. h. I, Ii. Zi(Wi). yif(/i 

"^*%j^ 147-2 8-62 3-35 8-20 5*50 2-42 1-08 .. 

■^^'y-* (66-8) (21-9) (8-5) (2-5) (229) (39-7) (2-733) (5-767) 

/-V"-^ 147-2 3-78 5-35 8-20 14-77 4-81 228 3-07 

Deep section < A^'^ (66*8) (9'6) (13-6) (2-5) (616) (78*8) (5-8) (7-8) 



v>{g). 6. ^. J. Ii. Zx(Wi). yif(/i'). yaU/,-). 

Standard section . . . / ^., V$ *^'7'2 8-62 335 8-20 5*50 2-42 1-08 2-27 



Y$*6 



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182 



Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. 



Onk 



Oak 



Oak 





24^ 


3-" 


{tO)ff. b. h. /. 

176 3 9 45 5-51 8-53 
(80) (84) (14) (2-6) 

Italian Mediterranean Ssrstem 


Ii. 
131-84 

(5488) 

L. 


Z,(W,). 

47-84 

a84) 


2-76 
0) 


2-75 
0) 








W[ff). b, h, I. 

176-3 9-45 5-51 8-53 
(80) (24) (14) (2-6) 


Ii. 

131-84 

(.1488) 


Z,{W,). 
47-84 
(784) 


vi' di':. 

2-76 

0) 


2-75 

0) 


!• 


^24- 


4i' 








Sicilian Railway. 
















U7(p). b, h. I, 
At least. At least. 
Not given. 9-05 512 8 53 
(23) (13) (2-6) 


Ii. 

10116 

(4211) 


Zi(Wi). 

39-54 
(648) 


2-56 
(6-5) 


yi'(V> 


1 




\-i 


2-56 


K- 


^2Z 




(6-5) 



French State Railways. 



1>^ SoA mild steel sleepers 



*J^/^ 



;*- 2ros. 



w 'g), 
127 8 
(58) 



b, 

946 

(24-05) 



3-15 

(8) 



I, 
8-20 
(2-5) 



F = 28-5 (4500) 



) = 20 

li. 
4 04 
(168) 



Z,(W,\ 
1-83 
(30) 



At least. 

96 2-19 

(2-447) (5-553) 



2»*» Oak . 



Q"5 



I4r 






3*'^ Fir : 



•/# < ^^#'-5o•; rz«-/9.; rJ^-j/^ 



wtp). &. h. U I,. Z,{W,). y,'(/iO. ya'(V). 

Notgiven. 8 66 551 8 53-8*86 12083 4381 2-76 275 

(22) (14) (2-6-2-7) (5030) (718) (7) (7) 

Do. 906 5-91 8-53 886 155-40 52-66 295 2-% 

(23) (15) (2-6.2-7) (6469) (863) (7'5) (7-5) 

Do. 10-63 5-91 8-53-8-86 15632 4979 314 276 

(27) (15) (2-6-2-7) (6508) (816) (7-97) (7-03) 

Do. 10-24 5-91 8-53-8-86 15000 47-65 3-15 276 

(26) (15) (2-6-2-7) (6245) (781) (8) (7) 



Do. 12-20 6-10 8-53-8-86 15218 43*44 3*50 260 

(31) (15-5) (2-6-2-7) (6335) (712) (8-9) (6-6) 



Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. 



Oak and beech . 



-zT^ 



Ii- 



Not given. 



b. 

7-87 
(20) 



h. 
5-91 

(15) 



8-53 

(2-6) 



Ii. 
135-12 
(5625) 



Zi(W,). 
45-77 
(750) 



vi'('i'). v»(V). 
2-95 2-96 

(7-5) a-5) 



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183 



Oak and fir. 



French Southern Railway. 



Sections of oak sleepers 



mm f2 



mm I? mm 1/ 

(^ (^ (23 

r 2*^2e'\ i22 '25 w Y21 ^23^ 



Sections of fir sleepers . 



mm 13 



1Z 



ra7-52 



mv\.n 



fI?Tji;, i22.24'\^ \Z2'24'Y 



mm. /J 




For the average sleeper ; 



Oak 



Fir 



176-3 

(80) 



(70) 



9-84 

to 
11-81 
(25) 

to 
(30) 



/). 
4-72 

to 
512 
(12) 

\Jb 
(13) 



t. 
8-53 

to 
8-86 
(2-6) 

to 
(2-7) 



107-50 
(4475) 



Z, (W,). 



43-69 
ai6) 



2-36 

to 

2-56 

(6) 
to 

(6-5) 



2-36 

to 
2 56 

(6) 

to 

(6-5) 



Paris-Orleans Railway. 



Oak 



75 



vi{g\. 



h. 



r- 22 -\r 



Not given. 866 5-91 8-86 148*65 
(22) (15) (2-7) (6188) 



Zi(Wi). y',(i',). y',(r^. 

50-34 2-95 2-96 

(825) a-5) (7-5) 



French Northern Railway. 



Oak and beech creosoted. 



b, 

10-24 

(26) 



h. 
512 

(13) 



I. 
8-53 

(2-6) 



French Western Railway. 

l«t Wooden sleepers ; oak and beech. Oak sleepers from heart not creosoted; those with sap wood are 
creosoted, as are all beech sleepers. 



Rectangular from heart. 






With sap wood 



Half round 



« -22 -T 

h- 26 -^ 



w{g). 



^ o 






ft. 


/*. 


L 


Ii. 


Z,(Wx). 


v'i{r,). 


y'«(<'3). 


8-60 


5-51 


8-86 


120-83 


43-81 


2-76 


2-76 


(22) 


(14) 


(2-7) 


(5030) 


(718) 


(70) 


(7-0) 


10-23 


5-12 


8-86 


104-94 


39-78 


2-48 


2-64 


(26) 


(13) 


(2-7) 


(4368) 


(652) 


(6-3) 


(6 7) 


11-81 


512 


8-86 


95-21 


36-49 


2-51 


2-61 


(30) 


(13) 


(2-7) 


(3963) 


(598) 


(6-37) 


(6-63) 



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I 

184 

2nd Metal sleepers ; since 1889, 5,000 sleepers have been on trial. 

w{g), b. h. I, Ii. Zx(W,). y'l (/',). v'a(ra). 

1123*4 \ 

(56) 7-99 315 8-20 400 1-74 085 8 30 

lo.^' iwith8e«.ch.i«. .) ^(f^J ) ^'''^ («> («-5) (166-6) (28-5) (8-16) (5-84) 

Belgian State Railways. 

Wood, of half round section ; a certain number are partially flattened at the top surface. 

w(y). >. h. I. Ii. Z,(Wi). y'i(zv. v',(f',) 

! ( 187-4 about ) 

Belgian oak . | ^g^^ / ^^.^^ g.^^ g.53 ^^.^ gg.gg 3.^^ g.^^ 
Foreign ck . j '^^^ \ ^""^ <"> (*•«> ^*'^^ ^^ (^'^^ <^-«> 

Dutch Railway Go. 

1*1 Metal sleepers, soft mild steel : F == 30*4 (4,800) 

Intermediary sleepers I SJ | 8-53 

Sleepers at fish joint J ..^. \ ' 

2nd Wooden sleepers ; oak and red fir. 

U){g). b. n, L Ii. Z,(W,). y',«',). v',(/'J. 

( . 176-4 
Oak. 



jS ^«*- • • } (80) ( 10-23 5-91 8-53 175-65 5949 295 295 

]:rzfzi'- j j^^fl^ J i54-3 I (26) (15) (2-6) (7312) (975) (7-5) (7-5) 

Egyptian Railways. 

!•( Wooden sleepers for flat-bottomed rails ; Baltic and Turkish fir. Turkish and Austrian oak . 
Intermediary sleepers. 

«>a/). b. h. I. ii. Zi{WiV y'lU'i). !»',(«',). 

r"^_^^: ' i37-3 1000 5-00 8*92 10416 41-68 250 2-50 

(62-3) (25-4) (12-7) (2-72) (4336) (683) (6*35) (6*35) 



Baltic fir creosoted . 



Turkish fir . 



Oak 



m 



131-1 9-84 5 91 8-53 16890 5717 295 295 
(59-5) (25) (15) (2-6) (7031) (937) (7-5) (7-6) 



^^^-^ 180-8 9-45 6-51 8*53 13183 4784 276 276 
(82) (24) (14) (2-6) (5488) (784) (7-0) (7-0) 



2^ Cast-iron pot sleepers for double-headed rails . — Diamettr, 22 ' 05 inches (0 - 56 metre). Weight, 
114-6 lbs (52 kllog.) each. 



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i88 

8^ Steel cross sleepers. Up to Ihe present iime none of these have been used. In 1893 some steel 
sleepers were ordered for a piece of line 3*7 miles (6 kilomilres) long from Boyenval, Ponsard A C®, of 
Paris. These are to be 8 feet (2*45 metres) long, and are to weigh 167*5 to 169*7 lbs (76 to 77 kilog.) 
each. The steel is to have a tensile strength of 28*57 to 31 *75 tons per sq. inch (45 to 50 kilog. per sq. 
millimetres), with a maximum elongation of 22 ^/o on a length of 7*87 inches (200 millimetres). The 
limit of elasticity to be between 15*24 and 19*05 tons per sq. inch (24 and 30 kilog. per sq. millimetre). 
These sleepers have not yet been delivered. 



Rasdaii SUie Railway! (St. PaUrtburg to Warsaw). 



Kr! 



Type 11. ^i^ wUf). b, h. L I,. Z,(W,). y',(/'i). y',(l',: 



Slee^rs at fish 




^JTA Not given. 811 701 875 24080 67-67 3*56 8*43 



i^^' v .i^-j («<>•«) (^''•8) («««'0 (*<^^) (**<») i^'^) («-'3f8) 



Tn»i«- 




Notgiven. 701 701 8*75 215*60 60*22 3-58 3*41 



Intermediary ( '^r ) (17-8) (17-8) (2*667) (8974) (987) (9-09) (8*67) 

sleepers. Wi/»-A 

Note, — On the St. Petersburg-Oatchina section, which is 27*84 miles (44*8 kilometres) long, all the 
sleepers are of type n® 11 ; on the rest of the line, the sleepers next the suspended fish joints are of type 
No. 11, and the intermediary sleepers are of type No. 12. 



3^ Attachment of rails to sleepers. 

It should be stated whether the rails are fixed directly to the sleepers, or by means of chairs, 
chair^plates, bed or foundation plates, wedges, etc.; also how the rail is fixed to the sleeper or to 
the intermediary piece (dog-spikes, screw-spikes, clips, etc.) and how, in the latter case, the 
intermediary piece (chairs, plates, etc.), is fixed to the sleeper (spikes, screw-spikes, screws, 
treenails, bolts, etc.). 

Kaisar Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Bed plates are interposed between the rail and the sleeper. 
Since 1893, wedgQ shaped plates are used. The rails are fixed to the sleeper by two dog-spikes on the 
ovtside, and a torew^spike on the inside. Since 1893, ohair-platee have been used which are fixed to the 
sleepers by four dog-spikee, the sleepers in this ease not being adied. A wedge is Intei^posed between 
the rail and the aleeper, and the rail is Axed to the ehair^lat^ by meant of two bolts and nuts and dips. 

The use of these chair-plates is limited to the two or four sleepers adjoining the fish-joint. 

Pririlegad Anttro-HlUigariaB State Railway Co. — Bed plates are invariably interposed between 
the rails and the sleepers ; one screw-spike is used on the inside, and one or two dog-epikes on the outside. - 
The packing-platee are not fixed directly to the sleeper. 

Aostrian Sonthem Railway. — The rail rests directly on the sleeper in some cases, in others on 
bed-plates. The rail and the bed-plate are fixed to the sleeper by means of dog*spikes. 

0elliar4 Railway. — The rails rest directly on the melal sleepers (without plates), and they are 
fixed by means of two bolts and clips. < 



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186 

Meridional Railway Adriatic System. — The rail rests on the sleeper with an iron bed-plate 
interposed, and is held by means of dog-spikes (two per bed-plate). 

ItaUan Mediterranean Ssrstem. — As a rule, the rails rest on a bed-plate. Rails and bed-plates are 
fixed to the sleepers by means of dog-spikes. 

Rails of the present normal type 39*4 feet (12 metres) long are held by means of screw-spikes; there are 
two per bed-plate. 

In type V^, however, rails section A and 19*7 and 29 '5 feet (6 and 9 metres) long, the bed-plate on 
the sleepers next the fish-joint has three holes, and three fastenings are used. 

In type I, rails section A and 39*4 feet (12 metres) long, double tie-plates are used at the fish-joints, 
which firmly unite the two sleepers between which they are placed, and are fixed to them by means of six 
screw-spikes. 

Sicilian Railway. — The rail rests on the adzed sleeper with an ordinary bed-plate interposed. 
Rail and bed-plate are fixed to the sleeper by means of two dog-spikes. 

French State Railways. — I. Bull-headed rails of 80*6 lbs per yard fiO kilograms per metre). 
— The rails are secured in the chairs by oak or steel keys; the chairs rest directly on the sleepers (oak, 
pine, or steel). 

The chairs are fixed : !■' to wooden sleepers by three screw-spikes. In the case of two of these screw- 
spikes, conical wooden bushes are interposed between the screw-spike and the holes in the chair to prevent 
their becoming oval ; 2°<^ to steel sleepers by two bolts . 

II. Symmetrical double-headed rails of 76*6 lbs per yard (SS kilograms per metre), — The 
method of attachment is the same, with the exception that the chairs are fixed to the sleepers with only 
two screw-spikes. 

III. Double-headed rails of the • Charentes » type of 70*6 lbs per yard (Zk» kilograms per 
meire), — Secured as in case II. 

IV. Flat-bottomed rails of 70*6 lbs per yard ^^35 kilograms per metre). — The rails rest 
directly on the sleepers and are fixed with two galvanised steel screw-spikes. 

ParisLyons-Mediterranean Railway. — The fiat-bottomed rail 39*4 feet (12 metres) long is sup* 
ported on 18 sleepers by bed-plates, each fixed by four screw- spikes. 

See note of M. Jules Michel, « On the attachment of rails to wooden sleepers. The question ol screw- 
spikes n (June 1893 number of the Revue g&n^rale des chemins de fer), and *>■ On the stability of rail- 
roads. Experiments on the resistance of difierent parts of the road to vertical forces «> (May 1885 number 
of the Revue gin^ale). 

French Sonthem Railway. — The rails rest on cast iron chairs secured to the sleepers by screw- 
spikes. The rails are held in the chairs by oak keys, or by steel keys oi the « David » pattern. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — The rails rest on cast iron chairs secured to the sleepers by three 
screw-spikes. 

French Northern Railway. — The rails bear directly on the sleepers which are adzed to receive 
them. A layer of tarred felt 0* 2 in . (.5 millimetres) thick is interposed between the metal and the wood. 
The rail is fixed to each sleeper by means of three screw-spikes. Alternate sleepers have two screw-spikes 
outside and one inside, and one outside and two inside . 

French Western Railway. •— The double-headed rails are keyed into the cast-iron chairs, which 
aie fixed to the sleepers by means of screw-spikes. 

The same plan is adopted for lines taking a heavy tra£Bc that are laid with Vignoles rails. On Vignoles 
roads less heavily worked the rails are fixed directly to the sleepers by means of screw-spikes, and chairs 
are only used on sharp curves (see par. No. 4 infra). 

In the newer methods of laying these difierent systems hardened cast steel keys are used, which have 
the advantage of maintaining a constant pressure independent of the temperature, and of the state of 
moisture of the atmosphere. 



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187 

Id the case of metal sleepers, the chairs are cast on havlag a lug on each side which holds the sleeper as 
the casting contracts; in addition to which the chair is secured by the cast iron filling up holes of 
0*98 inch (25 millimetres) diameter drilled in the sleeper. 

Belgian State Railways. — The rail rests on the sleeper by means of bed-plates. The rail is fixed 
to the sleeper by means of screw-spikes which pass through the bed-plate. 
There are no bed-plates on the sleepers next to tlie fish-joint (suspended joints). 

Dutch Railway Go. — a) Metal sleepers, — The bent sleepers receive the rail directly. They are 
fixed by means of hooks {crapattds) (Vautherin system), there are two of these on the inside and one on 
the outside; the two former are fixed with steel keys. On the straight sleepers, the rails rest on packing- 
plates which give the rail the desired inclination. They are fixed by bolts and clips. 

b) Wooden sleepers, — The rail rests directly on the sleeper, and is fixed with dog-spikes. 

Egyptian Railways. — Of the 321*87 miles (518 kilometres) laid with Viguoles rails up to the end 
of 1893, there are 29*82 miles (48 kilometres) which are provided with bed-plates. On the other 
292*1 miles (470 kilometres), the rail rests directly on the sleepers (Turkish oak or fir). Bed-plates were 
introduced in 1893, and for the future they will be used on all new lines and for renewals. 

The Vignoles rails are fixed to the sleepers by means of two screw-spikes. 

Where Baltic fir sleepers are employed, two and three screws-pikes are used alternately, except that 
three are used on the sleepers next the fish-joints. 

The double-headed rails are fixed to the cast-iron pot-sleepers by means of wooden or spiral iron keys, 
and between each pair of pot-sleepers there is a tie-rod which is held by spring keys. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — On the whole extent of the principal 
double line between St. Petersburg and Oatchina, 27*84 miles (44*8 kilometres), the rails rest on the 
sleepers by means of bed-plates, and the rail is fixed to each sleeper by four dog-spikes. On the rdst of the 
St. Petersburg and Warsaw line, particularly between the stations of Gatchina and Warsaw, and on the 
Landvarovo and Wergebolowo section, the mils are placed directly on the intermediary sleepers, and 
secured by two dog-spikes 5*90 inches (150 millimetres) long. 

Bed plates are used on the sleepers next the fish joints, and the rails are then fixed wilh four dog-spikes 
5*90 inches (150 millimetres) long. 



4^^. Methods of attachment in special cases , particularly on curves. 

Particular arrangementB, if any, to which recourse is had to increase the resistance to the 
lateral stresses (such as additional parts, head supports, etc.) are to be specially mentioned. 



Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — No special arrangements are provided at curves of large 
radius on lines traversed by trains running at a higher speed than .SI '07 miles (50 kilometres) per hour. 
On the line from Bologna to Pistoia, which has heavy gradients and sharp curves and which is traversed 
by trains running at 24*85 miles (40 kilometres) per hour, drawn by very heavy locomotives, blocks of 
wood are used to counteract the lateral displacement of the road . These blocks bear at one end against 
the rail or the end of the sleeper, and at the other end against a wall built at the side of the line. Stakes 
of wood are also used, which are driven into the subsoil, and against which the ends of the sleepers press 
on the outer edge of the curve. 

French State Railways. — When double-headed rails rest on longitudinal sleepers (bridges, 
pits, etc.), they are fixed with special chairs having four holes. No special method is used for curves. 
On certain lines, however, metal keys are preferred to wooden ones for use on curves- 



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188 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — The curves have a radius of not less than 
24 '85 chains (500 metres), and no special measures are taken. 

French Southern Railway. — Up to the present, no special measures have been taken for fixing the 
chairs to the sleepers. At curves of small radius a pattern of chair, with a large base with thr^ holes 
for screw-spikes, is now being tried with a view to preventing lateral displacement of the rail. 

French Northern Railway. — On curves of small radius, Barbarot keys are being used to increase 
the resistance to canting of the outer rail . 

French Western Railway. — On lines laid with chairs, no special metliod is employed. When 
Vignoles rails are attached directly to the sleepers, the line is strengthened in the case of sharp curves, of 
24*85 chains (500 metres) radius or less, by using chairs on the fourth and seventh sleeper in each length 
of rail. 

Belgian State Railways. — The lines laid with rails weighing 114*6 lbs (52 kilograms) behave 
very \vell when their resistance to canting is considered. (The rails are laid without any inclination.) 

Dntch Railway Go. — With iron sleepers no special steps are taken to support the heed of the rail. 
On roads with wooden sleepers, where the curves are sharp, wooden struts or supports are sometimes 
used. 

EgjTptian Railways. — On curves of more than 24*85 chains (500 metres) radius it is not ^nerally 
considered necessary to take special measures for strengthening the line. On two curves of which the 
radius is only 19*88 chains (400 metres), additional screw-spikes are used because the line had spread from 
4 feet 8 * 45 inches to 4 feet 8 * 88 inches (1 ' 434 to 1 • 445 metre) . 

In the superstructure on pot-sleepers, all the pot-sleepers on curves are provided with tie-rods. For the 
last ten years, all the pot-hleepers in use have been provided with tie-rods. 

No other special methods are employed. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — On curves of 27 • 5 chains (553 • 4 metres) 
radius and less, additional spikes are used on some intermediary sleepers. 



5^^ Fish-joints, 



Method of fastening flat fish-plates, angular fish-plates, and bridge fish-plates. 
Number and diameter in inches (millimetres) of the fish-plate bolts. 
Holes in fish-plates, whether punched or drilled. 

Metal of the fish-plates : — 

Weight W = pounds (G = kilograms). 

Length i = inches (/ = millimetres). 

Moment of inertia U — sq. in. X sq. in. (Ij = sq. cm. X sq. cm.) 

Moment of resistance Zj = — r; = cub. in. (Wj = 7-7; = cub. cm.) 

•^/ ^ . . , , . I yi" = inches (/i" = millimetres). 

l.J i. «. Position of neutral axis \ 1, > x. nn w * ( 

^^ J ^y // ^ yj" = inches (/»" = millimetres). 

Tensile strength F = tons per sq. in. (F = kg. per sq. cm.). 

Reduction of area C per cent. 

Elongation D per cent. 



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489 

Kaisar Perdinands Nordbahn. — The outside fish-plate has two flanges; the inside one, only one. 
The fish-holts are foar in numher and 0*87 inch (22 millimetres) in diameter. Since 1894, the holt 
holes are drilled. The fish-plates are of mild steel. 

W(G). J.' I^- Z5(WJ. yi"(/ifO. y«''(VO. 

^_. «x. w \ 1918 21-77 5-59 2-75 204 187 

Ontside fish-plate . . j ^3.^ ^^3^ ^^3^.^ ^^^.^^ ^.^.^^ ^^^.^.^ 

i5-87 19-68 3-45 1-56 2-22 1-45 



Inside one . . . . , ^^.^^ ^.^^^ ^^^3.^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^.^^ ^^.^^ 

F 26-22 to 37-46 (4130 to 5900) J 

C 27.7 to 57*5 > According to manufacturer's tests. 

D 18 5 to 28-0 ) 

Note. — In the attachment made with chairs and packing-plates fish-plates with six bolts are also 
used. Their length is 28*74 inches (730 millimetraa). The outside lish-plate weighs 27*28 lbs 
(12-4 kilognuDs); the inside one, 23*32 lbs (10*6 kilograms). 

Privileged Anstro-Himgarian State Railway Co. — The outside fish-plate has two fianges, the 
inside fish-plate one. There are lour bolts, and their diameter is 0*748 inch (19 millimetres). The fish- 
plates are of wrought iron. 

W(G). /. Ij. ZaCWa). yi'' (/,":. ys":/i"). 

Outside 24*25 2323 677 3*09 218 1*96 

(11-0) (590) (281*94) (50*7) (55*6) (49*9) 

Inside 15*87 18*50 308 1*51 2*04 1*39 

(7-2) (470) (128*14) (24*7) (51*9) (35*5) 

Anstrian Southern Railway. — The outside fish-plate has two flanges ; the inside one is flat. Pour 
bolts ; diameter * 866 inch (22 millimetres) . Fish-plates of soft Bessemer steel . 

W(G). I. iv ZjfW,). ifi"(^"). y«"(^";. 

20*76 28*23 5*81 2*69 2*16 1*86 



Outside . . . ) ^.^jj p^j pg^jj (4^j p^.gj (^^.gj 

J 10*36 21*66 1*46 ' 0*91 1-61 1-61 

^°"**®- • • • ( (4-7) (550) (61) (14-9) (41*0) (41*0) 

Gothard Railway. — Simple angular ^mmetrical fish-plate. Four bolts; diameter 0*984 inch 
(25 millimetres). The bolt holes are punched. 

W(0). w i^ Z,(Wj. yi"(ii").. y»"{V^ 

2205 23-62 4*70 211 224 157 

(10; (600) (195*6) (34-5) (56-75) (39*75) 

Per flsh-plat«. Per fish-plate. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic system. — Simple angular symmetrical fish-plates. Two types, 
one with five holts, the other with four. Diameter of bolts in both cases, 0*984 inch (25 millimetres). 
The bolt-holes are drilled . Fish-plates of Martin steel . 

W(0). l. I,. Z,(W,). yi"(/i"). y,"(V'). 

22*05 28*94 316 1*52 2*07 1*48 

(10) (735) (131*7) (24*9) (52*79) (37*51) 

19-8 25*51 2*84 1*40 201 1-42 

(8-7) (648) (118*2) (23*0) (51*22) (36*18) 

Per flsb-plate. Per fltth-plate. 



Typel 
Type 2 



F = 31*7 (5000). 



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190 

Italian Mediterrandan System. — Simple angular symmetrical fish-plates . Of section A there are 

three types. No. 2, 1 FG, and V^. Of section B there is one type, M. Type No. 2 has five bolts, the rest 
have four, of 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) diameter. For some years past the fish-plates have been of 
mild steel. 

W(«). I- h' Zs(W,). y,"(i,"). y»"(V'). 

\ 2805 28-93 316 1-52 207 1-47 

^O'^' ' • • } (10) (735) (131-7) (24-9) (52-79; (37-51) 

i 17-63 19-21 4-92 2-04 2*41 1.92 

^ ^^ • • • • I (8) (488) (205) (33-4) (61-35) (48-90) 

i 19-84 24-96 340 161 2-11 1-45 

\ (9) (634) (141-6) (26-4) (53-61) (3689) 

j 1918 25-51 2-84 1-40 201 1*42 

**•*•••/ (8-7) (648) (118-2) (23-0) (51-22) (36-18) 

Sicilian Railway. — Simple angular symmetrical fish-plates. Four bolts, diameter 0-98 inch 
(25 millimetres). Bolt-holes are drilled. Fish-plates made of wrought-iron of the best quality. 

W(G). I. u, Za(W^^. y"i(/i'0. y",(V'). 

17-63 19-21 4-92 2-04 241 1-92 



^"^^^*^® • * • ( (8) (488) (205) (33-4) (61-35) (48-90) 

J 24-25 27-95 492 204 2-41 1-92 

^°^*^*- • • • I (11) (710) (205) (33-4) (61*35) (48*90) 

Specified tensile strength F = 21-6 (3400). 

French State Railways. — The bull-headed rails of 80-6 lbs per yard (40 kilograms per metre) 
are joined by simple angular fish-plates of cast steel. The weight of a pair offish-plates is 41*8 lbs 
(i 9 kilograms) . There are. four bolts, 098 inch (25 mill.) in diameter. The holes are drilled or punched. 

The moment of inertia of the pair of fish-plates is 18*81 sq. inches X s^- inches (783 sq. cent. X sq. cent.) 
and the moment of resistance 7*26 cubic inch (119 cubic centimetres). The symmetrical rails weighing 
76-61 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per metre) are joined by fiat fish-plates. The weight of the pair 
is 23-76 lbs (10 -8 kilograms). The fish-plates are held together by four bolts 0*98 inch (25 milli- 
metres) in diameter. 

The holes are either drilled or punched . 

The moment of inertia of the pair is 5-60 sq. inches X sq. inches (134-4 sq. cent. X sq. cent.) and the 
moment of resistance 2*32 cubic inches (38 cubic centimetres). 

The symmetrical rails weighing 70-61 lbs per yard (35 kilograms per metre) of the • Charentes «« type 
are joined by flat fish-plates weighing 19*8 lbs (9 kilograms) the pair, and four bolts 0-94 inch (24 milli- 
metres) in diameter . 

The Vignoles rails weighing 70'dl lbs per yard (35 kilograms per metre) are joined by fiat fish-plates 
weighing 22*4 lbs (102 kilograms) the pair, and four bolts 0-98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — Suspended fish-joint. Simple angular symmet- 
rical fish-plate, of steel; angle bearing on bed-plates and fastened to sleepers by four screwsp-ikes. 
There are six bolts of 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) diameter. 

W(G). /. I,. Za(WJ. y,"(/i"). Vt"W% 

33*95 31-49 4*46 200 2*25 1-42 

(15-4) (800) (185-7) (32-7) (57-16) (36-15) 

Per flsh-plate. Per Hsh-piate. 

French Southern Railway. — Two types of fish-joints : 

l«*iiy. On the greater part of the system, two flat symmetrical fish-plates of hard steel, with four bolls 
0*787 inch (20 millimetres) in diameter. The holes are drilled ; 



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191 

2wUy. Inside fish-plate flat; outoide fish-plate increasing in strength towards the bottom. The fish- 
plates are of steel, and there are four bolts 0*787 inch (20 millimetres) in diameter. 



!»' type. 



Outside . 
Inside. . 
Outside , 



I 



W(G). 


I. 


11-68 


17-71 


(5-3) 


(450) 


9-46 


21-26 


(4-3) 


(540) 


18-07 


17-71 


(8-2) 


(450) 


9-46 


21-26 


(4-3) 


(540) 



2-86 1-89 1-51 • 1-51 

(119^ (31) (38-5) (38-5) 

Per pair. 

11-8 



2-> type .... j g.^ g^.gg (49^) 

Inside. . . I ^^.gj ^^^^ j Per pair. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — Fish-plates of steel of medium hardness having an angular shape, of 
whicH the angle curves under the rail. Four bolts 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 



O = 41-88 (19) 
U =17-92 (746) 



I per pair of fish-plates. 



French Northern Railway. — Inside and outside angular fish-plates having a length of 25*59 inches 
(650 millimetres), fastened by four bolts 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 

French Western Railway. •— (1) Bull-headed rails. Deep fish-plates on both sides, with four 
bolts 0-98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 

(2) Symmetrical double-headed rails. Flat fish-plate on the outside; deep one on the inside; four 
bolts 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 

(3) Vignoles rails. Flat fish-plate on the outside; deep one on the inside; four bolts 0-87 inch 
(22 millimetres) in diameter. 



The bolt-holee are drilled iu each case. 



W(G). I, It. Zi(Wj). 



(i). 



, ^ . ., j 17-63 18-11 8-71 312 

) ""*"^* ( (8-0) (460) (362-6) (51-1) 

f Inside | 



(2). 



(3). 



Outside . 
Inside. , 
Outside . 
Inside. . 



17-63 1811 8-71 3'12 

(8-0) (460) (362-6) (51-1) 

9-92 17-71 1-43 0-91 

(4-5) (450) (59-5) (14-9) 

16-68 18-H 8-41 302 

(7-57) (460) (349-9) (49-3) 

8-87 17-71 1-60 0-97 

(4-025) (450) (66-5) (15-9) 

17-48 18-51 6-22 241 

(7-930) (470) (258-8) (39-5) 



Belgian State Railways. — The fish-plates are regular and made of mild steel or good iron . The 
bolt-holes are drilled. There are four bolts 0*98 inch (25 millimetres) in diameter. 

W(G). I. Ij. Zj(W5). yi"!/,";. va"(V). 

46-29 28-74 7-09 273 260 1-44 

(21) (730) (295-3) (44-7) (66-1) (36-7) 
48-50 28-74 7-27 2-82 2-57 1*47 

(22) (730) (302-7) (46-3) (65-4) (37-4} 



Outside 
Inside . 



( Minimum for steel 28-6(4500) \ 

^ "^ I Minimum for iron 22*2(3500) f . 

j Minimum for steel 20 .' ^P®^*"^- 

"* ( Minimum for iron 20 j 



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192 

Dutch Railway Co. — As a general rule, and oa curves particularly, angular fish-pUtas aie 
On some p^rte of the lines, flat tish-plates are still uaed . The boles are drilled ; there are four bolts . 

Egyptian Railways. — Types 1 and 2 : flat fish-plates made of steel are used on both sides. 

Type 3 : flat fish-plates made of iron are used on both sides. 

Type 4 : Hat fish-plate qn the inside, angular fish-plate on the outside . Both made of steel . 

Type 5 : angular fish-plates made of steel on both sides. 

In each case there are four punched bolt-holes; the bolts used are 0*87 to i'OO inch (22*2 to 25*5 milli- 
metres) in diameter. 

F = 28-5 to 34-9 (4500 to 5500) ) 

C — at least 30 [ Specified. 

D — 20 to 28 1 



Types 1 and 2. 
Type 3. . . . 



Outside 



Type 4. . . 



Inside 



Type 5. 



W(G). 
10-47 
(4-75) 



20-72 
(9-4) 

20-72 
(9-4) 



I. 
17-91 
(455) 



21-65 

(550) 
19-68 
(500) 
21-65 

(550) 



1-25 
(52-4) 
1-63 
(67-9) 
3-81 

(158-5) 
207 

(86-6) 
3-81 

(158-6) 



0-83 
(13-6) 

1-01 
(16-6) 

1-78 
(29-2) 

i-26 
(20-6) 

1-78 
(29-2) 



1-51 

(38-5) 
1-61 
(41) 
213 

(54-23) 
1-65 

(42 00) 
2- 13 

(54-23) 



1 51 

(38-5) 
1-61 
(41) 
1-36 

(34-77 
1-65 

(42-00) 
1-36 

(34-77) 



Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The fish-joint is made as follows :— 

a) Two angular fish-plates of rolled iron 22 '992 inches (584 millimetres) long and 0-709 inch (18 milli- 
metres) thick, weighing 18*05 lbs (8*19 kilograms) each. The bolt-holea are punched. 

b) Four bolts 4*37 inches (111 millimetres) long, 0*866 inch (22 millimetres) in diameter; weight, 
1 * 21 lb (0 ■ 545 kilogram) each . 

c) Two bed-plates 7 inches (178 millimetres) long, 7 inches (178 millimetres) wide, 0*551 inch 
(14 millimetres) thick, and weighing 7*22 lbs (3*276 kilograms) each. 

d) Bight spikes 5*91 inches (150 millimetres) long, 0*59 X 0*59 inch (15 X 15 millimetres) in section, 
and weighing 0-75 lb (0*262 kilogram) each. 

In order to prevent the nuts from working loose, washers of hardened material, according to the Mitens 
system, are used of late. The holes in the bed- plates are drilled . 



6^ Ballast and subsoil. 
The nature of the ballast and its quality are to be described* 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — The ballast on 19 p. c. of the line is gravel not screened ; on 
53 p. c. the ballast is screened gravel from a river-bed or gravel-pit and on 28 p. c the ballast is of 
broken stone. 

Privileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Go . — Broken stone or pit gravel. The pit gravel 
is unsatisfactory as it offers too little resistance to the displacement of the superstructure. 
In a great many cases, it was necessary to add sand. 



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193 

Aastrian Southern Railway. — Ordinary pit gravel or river gravel, and broken stone. 

Gothard Railway. — The ballast and the subsoil in general leave little or nothing to be 
desired. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic Ssrstem. — The ballast is composed of river gravel, screened 
pit gravel or of broken stone. 

Italian Mediterranean System. — Scre<ened gravel and broken stone. The question cannot be 
answered exactly on account of the number of different conditions existing on different sections of the 
line. 

French State Railways. — The ballast varies on different sections and even on the same section. 
It is sand, gravel or broken stone. The sand is partly shingle and is taken from quarries in the vicinity 
of the line. The gravel comes either from the sea- shore, or from the beds of rivers (Loire, Sevres, etc.), 
or from old river-beds. 

The broken stone is flint granite or limestone, and comes from quarries situated near the line. It is 
crushed until small enough to pass through a mesh of 2'36 inches (6 centimetres). Before being used, it 
is freed from earthy matter, foreign substances, and broken pieces less than 0*78 inch (2 centimetres) 
at their smallest dimension. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — The ballast preferred is broken stone. 

French Southern Railway. — The ballast is as a rule composed of gravel and pure sand, freed 
from earthy matter, all stones which are more than 3*15 inches (8 centimetres) in" their widest part 
being. removed. 

Stone broken small enough to pass a mesh of 2 '36 inches (6 centimetres) is also used on certain 
sections. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — Ballast of river sand, pit sand or broken stone. 

French Northern Railway. — The ballast used is that which can be obtained in the locality in 
which it is required ; hard, not glassy slag ; angular stones either by themselves or mixed with fine 
gravel; hard broken stone; in all cases a ballast which after a time become firm and consolidated, and 
yet allows the water to drain through it. 

French Western Railway. — The choice of ballast is usually governed by the position of the 
quarries . Sand, either screened or unscreened, is used as ballast mixed with gravel and broken stone ; 
but preference is given to hard limestone, crushed and passed through a 2*36 inches (6 centimetres) 
mesh. 

Belgian State Railways. — The ballast generally used is broken stone, preferably sand-stone and 
porphyry which is obtained as a waste product in making pavingstones . 

Dutch Railways . — The ballast is composed of a bed of pure sand, on top of a layer of gravel 
3-94 to 5*91 inches (10 to 15 centimetres) thick. 

Sg]rptian Railways. — In Egypt there is, properly speaking, very little line laid on actual ballast. 
The Benha-Ismailia line (21*75 miles [35 kilometres] double line, 49*7 miles [80 kilometres] single line) 
is the only one on which a definite bed of ballast has been used. For each yard (metre) of the single 
line, 25 "83 cubic feet (0*8 of a cubic metre) of gravel has been used. 

All the rest of the system is laid on the natural soil with the exception of about 37*28 miles 
(60 kilometres) of double line which has a foundation of sand and broken stone. 

Russian State Railway (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — On the whole line, the ballast consists 
of coarse quartz mixed with plenty of gravel. On the section from St. Petersburg to Galchina, the bed 
of the ballast is covered by broken stone so as to prevent the formation of dust by trains. 



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194 

The thickness of the ballast under the bottom of the sleepers is to be stated. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — 3-94 to 9-45 inches (0 1 to 0*24 metre). 

Austro-Hnngarian Privileged State Railway Go. —9-45 inches (0-24 metre). 

Austrian South Railway. — 11-81 inches (0-30 metre). 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic Ssrstem. — The thickness of the ballast is about 19-68 inches 
(0*5 metre) of which 9 84 inches (0-25 metre) is below the sleeper. 

Italian Mediterranean System. — About 7*87 inches (0-2 metre), 

French State Railways. — The thickness of the ballast beneath tlie bottom of the sleeper yaries. 
At present, it Is 8*66 to 9*84 inches (0*22 to 0'25 metre) for wooden sleepers; for metal sleepers, it is 
15-74 inches (0 40 metre). 

French Southern Railway. — 7-87 inches (0*20 metre). 

Paris-Orleans Railwajrs. — At least 11*81 inches (0-30 metre;. 

French Northern Railway. — The formation level is 19*69 inches (50 centimetres) lower tiian the 
upper surface of the rail. 

French Western Railway. ~ 9-84 to 11*81 inches (0*25 to 0-30 metre). 

Belgian State Railways. — Average 13*38 inches (0*34 metre). 

Dutch Railways. — On those parts oi the line where the road is not laid on pure sand, the formation 
level is 23*6 inches (60 centimetres) below the upper surface of the rail. 

Egsrptian Railways. — 3*94 inches (0*10 metre). 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — 14*33 inches (0*364 metres). 



Facts relating to the ballast and subsoil, considered with regard to their dryness and draining 
properties. 

Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Subsoil almost everywhere impermeable; dry on all the 
embankments and in most of the cuttings. 

Privileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Co. — The dmining-away of the water it not 
restricted by earthen banks. On damp clay soils ditches filled with rubble are provided for draining. 

Austrian Southern Railway. — The subsoil must always be kept dry. Special arrangements 
for draining are provided where the conditions are unfavorable. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — The quality of the ballast and its hardness vary 
much, as an attempt is of course made to use the gravel or stone found in the vicinity of the line. 
The nature of the subsoil is also very variuble. 

French Southern Railway. — The subsoil is of very variable quality, it is composed, according 
to circumstances, of loam, clay, loamy sand, or rock. 

French Northern Railway. — When the subsoil is clayey, the depth of the ballast is sometimes 
increased. But generally it is better to improve the sub-soil by drains, rubble and deep trenches. 



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I 

195 

French Western Railway. — Th« want of permeabilitj in Ibe subsoil can be remedied by using 
broken and not weathered hard stone (scree) or by screened gratel, especially if the formation level has 
been previously drained. 

Belgian State Railways. — The ballast of broken stone is perfectly permeable and helps to give 
the road stability and resistance . The thickness of the ballast is increased if the sub-soil is wet. 

DHtch Railway Co. — For a length of line of about 6*21 miles (10 kilometres), the sub-soil is 
sandy ; on (he rest of the line, it contains turf. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The quality of the ballast is 
recognised to be better than that on other Russian Railways. The ballast is perfectly permeable and no 
attempt has been made to replace it by ballast of better quality. The subsoil of the northern part of 
the line, that is to sdy, from St. Petersburg to the .371"^ mile (560^ verst), consists principally of 
clay; on the southern part, that is to say, from the 37 1"^ mile (560^^ verst) to Warsaw and Werge- 
bolovo, the subsoil is chiefly sandy. 



Resistance to compression. 



French Northern Railway. — No experiments have been made on this subject, but it is consi- 
dered that the resistance of the ballast used is sufficient . 

French Western Railway. — No experiments have been made on this subject, but with the 
materials used as ballast, a good resistance it obtained as soon as the road hat become properly settled. 



Whether the different linet have chiefly embankments or cuttings. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordhahn. — 76 p. c. of the line consists of embankments, 24 p. c. of 
cuttings . About a quarter of the cuttings are damp. 

Privileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Go. — The embankments predominate greatly. 

Austrian Southern Railway. — Embankments and cuttings succeed each other, 

French Northern Railway. — The total length of cuttings is about the same as that of the 
embankments . 

French Western Railway. — The predominance of embankments or cuttings varies on different 
sections of the line. 

Dutch Railway Go . — The embankments are much the more numerous. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — 29 p. c, cuttings. 71 p. c. 
ei'ibank meats. 



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106 

L^ttffth of tads in ftet (metres), and distance bettoeen sleepers in inches (fniiHyhetres). 
(Best indicated by sketches.) 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. 

^ - 12 sleeper5.2^53ft(^^i?)_^ ^ _ 16 sleepers.^lOlfl i/£Jm) _.^^ 

1925* »73 I 9 " 3071 1 29 73 1925 j 1 9-25 j 29-57 ; 13 x 31 89J E9 57 1 9 25j 

j._ 175leepers410Htf/i>J>/;._,. 

192^2878! 14-. 2973|2878!9-25i 

III i ' 

PriTileged Anstro-Hnngarian State Railway Co. 

^Jlsleepers.2953fL(^-^^;_ 

Iiaoe! 31-66 I 8 1 33-86! 31-66! 1008 
(256)T8di) Ts"86O)*l8O4r0 

Anstiian Southern Railway. 

.J2 sleepers.32-82ft(/^-^/5';^ 



i9-96! 30-99! 9x 3-^65; 30-99^9-961 
&Ji(7a7J*lfx~mj^l2d2j7253) 

Gothard Railway. 

,,-. Id Sleepers. 39 37 ft (Z^^^j--:, 

|6-58j24-73i 29-55; 11 « a-69l 2953] 24-7316-58 ■ 



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I 

lOT 



Heridioiial Railway. AMatio System. 

J. -11 sleepers 2553ft (^«_^ ^.UsleepersmifillfM* 

1120112973; 8x3^ i^29Wrai ilZO/JSJSO j 11x3504j3l-5(} ilZO/' 

ml^ssr 18-860) ^^(755/ W tsoimnihSdormJ^QoS 

Italian Mediterranean System. 

No. 1 group, profile A. 
Type No, 2, Steel, 



r - J1 sleeper5^53il. (dOmi., ^ _ . Zslopens. 1969ft {60m) ., 

Type No. ?. Iron. 
7 spaces, sleepers under ends. 

, nbn.(6M)^ 

I I 



!3150!4H-3-31_|31-50j 

1. Type F'. 5tee/. 1. Type. Steel. 



|12«7_3 j8_x 33_86 [295] 120jJ iKOljSJSO • 7.3819 i 31-50 i)2«i 

1. Type. S(ee/. 

;.J4sleepers.3937fi./7i'/2w;_.^ 

!_ j 

:n62i3?89 I 11*3504 ;31 89 |M2! 



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198 
Type F', SUel. 

.10sleepers.29-53ft.(5(?/»)_.^ 



;)V93; 32-95 ; 7»3780 _! 3295 \n9b\ 

Type F'. Steel or iron, 
7 spaces, sleepers under ends. 

n-6B^(e.0m)—. 



: £4-44! 3fr22.' 38-20 1 3859 ; 38 20j 36-22 124-41 1 

No. 2 group, profile B. 
Type H. Steel, 

^-I3sleepers3937ftf/^-^/;zj_^ 



■ jl_2-01 |29^3j 10 x^;38 1 29 33 112-01 1 
m}(745ni0>3d0} (74S)%05) 

Type M, Steel or iron. 



7 spaces, sleepers under ends. 7 spaces, sleepers under ends. 

^- _ JWr (60ml_^ i 20-676 f^ 5;77J , 



I29-53! 5x354312953! 1^25 59 [378O^4^0-I_6|_40-95| 40 J6I^^ 
»; (5'~900n75dj (650) O60) Q020)mmil020m0)(650) 

French State Railways. 
Bull-headed rails, 80*6 lbs per yard (40 kilograms per metre). 

^14sleepers.36^9fl mm) - . ^ J2sleepera36M i///?/^;. -^ 

iIl-811 2717 1 11 x32-29 ! 2717^11 8_l] jll -81 i 5110 19x38-59 ! 51-10 jljjlj 
"0001630)^01^620) ^(690rm m (^30^ ' 980)'^ (790J^M 



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499 
Bull-headed rails, 76-6 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per metre). 

u-6sleef3ers.I8-05ft/J-5/^ 



11-81 I 5x38591 11-81 

— Jt_ 



(300) (5>t380) (300) 

Bull-headed rails of 76*6 lbs per yard (58*0 kilograms per metre). 

^_7s)eepers.)8^ft(^-5/;7y__^ ^_12 s\e&pers.ism.(110fn) -^ 

I ' I I I 

Ifl^I 29-53 14x3347! 29^3 ;n-81i ill-8]!3110 ! 9-^38 59. 13110 1 1]-811 

)^m^^'8^ ^^jW Yo^9oJ V3^ sdofi/mdoo) 



■■n 
I 



jllWj 27-56 itlx^K;23|27_56]J1-fflj 
W/?i»y ff/'8I8iS/ tFOOrisOO) 

Bull-headed rails of 70*6 lbs per yard (35*0 kilograms per metre). 

w__Zsleepers21-33fLr(?-5;n|-^ 
!m1MT4^^1^TMTMi 

Vignoles rails. 

I I 

;tl81 !(5x_38-70!MI \ 
l3m'^J61'm^T30^ 

Paris-Lyont-Medltarranean Railway. 

J 18 sleepers l%^l{\.(nOm) _. 

jia63 : 23«i 23-631 2f81 \ 25-59 j 18-36 ! 1* 2845 1 18-36 ! 25 59l 24 81 1 25(531 2363', 10-63j 



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1 

soo 



Fi«ndi Sontheni Railway. 

, 12 s]eepers.3609fi.(///?^j ^ 

il18li 3&aj38aiMi383i 3&!»i2«2i385B{3B55j5&74l38S8|38«lll-81 ! 



j 14 sleepers. 5603l»f;/%j_ .., 

These modes of laying the road are used : 
!•* On steep inclines ; 
2"<* On sharp curves. 

The two sleepers in the centre of the rail are, like those at the flsh^ot, placed 23*6 inches (60 centi- 
metres) apart, so that when a 36*09 feet (11*0 metres) rails breaks, it can be replaced at once by two of 
18'05 feet (5*5 metres) thus : 

, 6 ^^tmxs 1805 i{SSni) . 

I ! 

\m i 58-58 1 SaSftj 5874! 38-58 j 38-58 j 11-81 ! 

Paris-Orleans Railway. 

«._ \^ sleepers. 56X»ft|Z?^/77J.4 

il1-8i; 2717 J 11x32-291 271 7 111-81! 

French-Nortiieni Railway. 

|. - Jb^\^^m7tmm.) ^ 

i9-45i 23-63 j 29-93 j 11 * 31-50 j 29-33| 23-65| 9-4^ 



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I 

20i 
French- Weatarn Railway. 

u-...18s!eeppr5.33-37ft {EOm) 4 

(3001 (640rf7' 670^(749 [7''67^ (64(f(500) 

;. _ _ _ 15 5leepers.59.37ft [mm] ^ 

Ilia! 2835! 5x32-68!32_84| 32W^5^3268|2835iJ1_8l! 

-__ J2 sleeper5.2624ft (Q-Om.) . 

I I 

Ill;6l|^33j4'>;26_38 |28-55i 4^2638 !25-99|11-811 

mi6a%^6Tor(72^1f''67ci*^m^ 

Bull-headed rails. 

^ 10 sleepers 26-24fL ((9-^y;zj ^ 

ilia! 28-35! ^«33-47i3406!3^3347i2835|]181l 

Vignoles rails." 
Belgian State Railways. 

; 12 5leepers.29-53 ft (dOm) , ^ _<5sleepers.l9 69fi/^/?;wy_ .- . 

!ll-81i 2756|2756|7^3j_50^;275,6 12756 \m\ jflffli 27-56 i5_''5I;50_ i 27-5tjjl^ 

MfToonym %6oo) '(70or(7o^m "homi^ is '^dooj ^mwo) 



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Type 1 and 2, cast iron 
pot sleepers. 



Dutch Railway Go. 

u. ll5ieepprs32I5f[,f5<9/77;_^ 

Egyptian Railways. 
Type S, wooden sleepers. 



Type 4y wooden sleepers. 



J±e^Mi04/n)^^ ^.8s\e^m.l644^ J0slf«pe?s26-25ft. /3-/fe^ 



1 15 00: e^SZOOiMU 



Type 4, used on curves equal 
to or more than 23-61 chains 
{400 metres) radius. 

ill5leepers^6-251t^-fi^ 



Roads with wooden sleepers. 

Type 5, used on curves less 
than 23-61 chains (400 me- 
tres) radius. 

j.l5sleepprs3937ft/»]^ 



(285) (HoSie) (285) 



l^&Ef{d>'825T(285T 

Type 5, used on curves more 
than 23-61 chains (400 me- 
tres) radius. 

l285f~a5'^762r(286f 



Rnssian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). 



1110(^2900 i^8^5_2;00_i2^00J11_OOi 

mHmf(d^8i2df(756^'}(mi} 



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203 

IV. — Maintenance op the permanent way. 
l»t Frequency of repair. 

It is to be stated bow ofcen on an average each line is adjusted; especially whether this is 
with the object of bringing the line to its proper kvel or to its proper direction. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — For the lines taken all together, the permanent way is on an 
average adjusted tvtice a year, principally with the object of bringing the line to its proper level. 

Privileged Anstro-Hnngarian State Railway Co. — Omitting small repairs 25 to 30 p. c. of 
the whole line is adjusted every year, so that each part of the line is thoroughly acjy'usted once every 
three years, or at the least once every four years. 

Austrian Sonthem Railway. — As a general rule those sections of the line used for express 
traffic which are thoroughly adjusted last for two years. 

Meridional Railway, Adriatic System. — Since iS92, the practice of general insi)ections has 
been in force . The interval between one of the inspections and the next is one or two years depending 
on the amount of the traffic on the line. 

It must not be forgotten that in spite of this there are always some small repairs to be done. 

French State Railwasrs. — The repair of the permanent way is carried out by general periodic 
inspection. 

The general inspection begins each year on March 15^** or later, and is continued without interruption 
until the hot weather sets in, up to June 15^^ at least. It is recommenced on September i"^ to the 15^^^ 
and is continued until November ib^^ at least. During the period fixed for it, the general inspection 
is carried on without interruption as far as possible from one district to another. At the beginning of 
each inspection, the work is begun at the point where the preceding inspection leil off. 

At the general inspection, the line is put into perfect order in such a way that it may remain as long as 
possible without requiring further attention. 

The length of time of a complete revision and for carrying out the various works connected with it 
vary according to the length of time the line has been made, and the traffic on it. In every case, the 
sleepers which would come to their limit of wear within the year, the chairs and the screw-spikos which 
are no longer of use, and the tish-plate bolls whose threads are worn, are replaced ; the straightening of 
the rails and the packing of the sleepers is attended to with care, and they are rclaid wherever the 
levelling or stability of the road may require it ; the ballast is also cleared of all weeds which may be in it. 

French Northern Railway. — The line is repaired under the system to which the name flying 
inspection is given, it is impossible to say how many times a year it is rectified. 

If we use the method of general inspection, the interval for this is 1, 2, and also 3 years, according 
to the age of the road, the method of its construction, and the amount of traffic on it. 

French Western Railway. — The system known as Hying inspection is used. 

It consists of repairing the road at isolated points, or on parts of a greater or less length, when defects 
of a certain degree of importance come into existence either accidentally or in the regular way. 

It is not easy to say how often on an average each line is adjusted in a year. The number of times 
is very variable, and depends on the amount of the traffic, the longitudinal section of the line, the age 
of the materials, the quality of the ballast, the nature of the subsoil, etc., etc. 

In general, we have only to restore the line to its proper level at the fish-joiats which sink more tlian 
the rest of the line. 

On certain gradients of great length the direction of the line has to be frequently re-established. 



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204 

Belgian State Railwajrt. — The genei-al acljustment has on on average to be luade once a year. 
It is undertaken with the object of adjusting the line to its proper level, and at the same time to the 
right direction. 

Dutch Railway Co. — At least twice a year. 

The additional work is principally with the object of adjusting the level. 

Egyptian Railways. — Owing to the absence of a ballast-foundation and to the high level of the 
water in the trenches at the side, the road very easily loses its level and shape ; this also depends on the 
locomotives that are used. 

It is impossible to give any particular information on this point. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The permanent way is adjusted and 
renewed as required ; a complete repair of the whole system, or by seetloni, it never made. 

There are no statistics giving the exact number of repairs per unit distance per year, but we can 
assume on the whole that the repairs on the gradients are executed not less than three times a year, 
namely in the spring, when sleepers are changed, and in the autumn; the reestablishing of the line in 
its proper direction is done at least four times a year. 



2°^ Cost of repair. 

The annual cost of repairing the road is to be given per yard in pence and in number 
of days* labour required (per metre in kreutzers and days). 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Mean : 1*902 d., 0-137 day (wages, material for road 
excluded). 

Privileged Aastro-HoBgarian State Railway Go. — Mean : 2*743 d., 165 day (wages, 
all material excluded). 

Austrian Southern Railway. — Cost for renewal : 9-144 d., 0*183 day. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — Mean : 6-035 d., 0*329 to 0-366 day. 

French State Railwasrs. — The expenses of repair yary on different sections between 2*743 and 
1 1 • 702 pence per yard (0 - 305 and 1 - 348 franc per- metre) . 
From the data given it is impossible to deduce the mean. 
No information is given as to the number of days. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — No information with regard to the cost of main- 
tenance, and the number of days work required. 

[The total costs for maintenance, exclusive of renewals, supervision, and wages in general have been 
a 437.4 s. 3 d. per mile (6,850 francs per kilometre), or on an average 4 s. 11*62 d. per yard. In this 
figure. Is. 1*17 d. per yard may be taken as the cost of the labour, maintenance and renewal of the 
road and works and of the tools required.] 

French Northern Railway- — It is estimated that on an average at the chief revision 6*5 to 
7*6 y.irds (6 to 7 metres) are adjusted per man per day; and that taking into account the occasional 
repairs also uecesi^ary this will amount to about 5*5 yards (5 metres) per man per day. This is 
excluding the repairs to subsoil and the renewal of the ballast or of the superstructure. 



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205 

French Western Railway. — The repairs are as a rule carried out by gangs consisting pf four 
plate-layers in charge of a foreman. Each gang has to repair 2 '48 miles (4 kilometres) of double line 
or 3*73 miles (6 kilometres) of single line. Besides these repairs the gangs have to keep the fences in 
order, clean out the ditches, to look after the fixed apparatus at the stations in their district, to do the 
fogging, and to look after the timber yards . 

The importance of this service varies much on the different lines; extra men are added to the gangs at 
various times of the year. 

A foreman receives on an average £ 48 (1,200 francs) a year, a plat« -layer £ 36 (900 francs) a year. 

Belgian State Railways. — Mean : 3-292d ,0137 day. 

As an average we may reckon that one man per 0*62138 mile (1 kilometre) can do the ordinary repairs 
of a double line. The men work in gangs composed of four men for every 2*48 miles (4 kilometres) 
of road. 

The average wage of the plate- layers composing the gang is 22*9 pence per day (fr< 2*40); that of 
the foreman 24 * 8 to 26 7 pence per day (fr. 2 • 60 to fr. 2 • 80). 

Dutch Railway Co. — Mean -. 8-230 d., 183 day. 

(There is one plate- layer per 0*9321 mile [15 kilometre] of single line.) 

Egyptian Railways. — Mean : 5*303 d., 0*302 day. 

(The total of the wages and salaries of the inspectors, foremen, plate-layers, smiths, and other men 
employed by the day in the maintenance and repair of the whole line and of the sidings.) 

The total expense in the service of the line for maintenance and repair including the bridgis, station- 
buildings, servants* houses, is 20*30 pence per yard. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The average annual expense for the 
whole line for the last three years, 1891, 1892 and 1893 :— 

a) Workmens' wages £ 35,208* 8 s. 9 d. 338.001 roubles. 

6) For packing ballast 5,755*10 s. 5 d. 55,253 — 

cj For renewing sleepers 33,068* 8 s. 9 d. 317,457 — 

d) For renewing rails 35,267* 5 s. 10 d. 838,566 — 

e) For repairing fish joints 7,821- 9 s. 2d. 75,086 - 

^) For adjusting ballast where driven into subsoil 1,559 15 s. 10 d. 14,974 -^ 

Total for the year. . . £ 118,680* 18 s. 9 d. 1,139,337 roubles. 

Besides the expense of £7,821*9 s. 2 d. (75,086 roubles) for the repair to the joints (replacing those 
which are worn out;, on an average during the years 1891, 1892 and 1893, £ 16 592 3 s. 9 d. 
(159,285 roubles) per year were spent for the replacement of flat fish-plates by angular fish-plates. 

The annual expense per yard of the line may be estimated at £ 4.17 s. 11 d. (47 roubles per metre) 
for labour and materials. 



V. — SUPPLEMBNTARY INFORMATION. 



!•* Curoet and gradients. 



Super-elevation and widening of the gau^e applied ; results of observations and trials made to 
determine whether they are satisfactory. 



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206 

Note. — In the following formulae : — 

a =. super-elevation in incboi. 
(H = — in metres.) 

{h = — in millimotres.) 

p = widening of gauge in inches. 
(e = — in millimetres.) 

7 = diFtance between centres of rails in inches. 
{5 = — — in metres.) 

8 = gauge of line in inches. 
(S = — in metres.) 

E = maximum speed in feet per second. 
(C = c 2= — in metres per second.) 

(c = — in kilometres per hour.) 

(<7 = acceleration due to gravity, 9-81 metres.) 
i = radius of cui ve in chains. 
(R = — in metres.) 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn, — The super->elevakion is determined hj the formula : — 



f-y 



("-r4) 



< X 2124 

but it may not exceed 4*92 inches (125 millimetres). 
The widening of the gauge is as follows : 

If ^ is : then ,i is : (If R is : tiien e is 

7-46 to 12-43 110 150 to 250 28 

12-43— 1615 102 250— 325 26 

1615— 19-88 0-94 325—400 24 

19-88— 23-61 0-87 400— 475 22 

23*61- 27-34 0*79 475— 550 20 

27-34- 31*07 0-71 550— 625 18 

31-07-34*80 0-63 625—700 16 

34-80—39-76 0*55 700— 800 14 

39-76-47-22 . 0*47 800— 950 12 

47-22—54.68 039 930 — 1,100 10 

54.68—64-62 0-31 1,100—1,300 8 

64-62— 74-56 024 1,300—1,500 6 

74*56-87-00 016 1,500-1,750 4 

87*00—99*42 008 1,750 — 2,000 2 

Above 99-42 0*00 Above 2,000 0) 

At the commencement of the curve, tlie full supcr-elevalion and the full increase of the gauge should 
have been attained. 
These super-elevations and widenings have on the whole proved satisfoctory. 
In 1891, experiments have been begun on super-elevation according to the formulae : — 



'■»X; (»-^) 



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207 

and on widening of gauge accoitling to the formnln : — 

/5 = 0001458 - 0-0005898 i^ ic i- ^^'^ffZ,^' -l 

\ <c7,(,'0U / 

Privileged Aaitro-Hongarian State Railway Go. — Tlio super-elovniion is determined by the 
formula : — 



« = 002'77344 X 7 ( H « 001177 X ^) 



but it may not exceed 5'7i inches (145 millimetres). 
The widening is determined by thp formula : 

^ 26 035 rtooo-r / i3,302 ,. .... , \ 
/S a= — 5 0*3937 U «= — ^r 10 miUimelres] 

but it may not exceed i * 18 inch (30 millimetres). 

With this arrangement, the wear of the rails, and particularly the inner one, at the curves, seems 
romparativellr large; a reduction in the super-elevation and a decrease in the widening seem to be 
indicated. 

Austrian Soathern Railway. ~ The super-elevation is slightly greater than tliat shown by the 
formula : — 



<2124 I" g.Rl 



?X2i24 

but it may not exceed 5*91 inches (1.50 millimetres). ' 
The widening of the gauge is as follows : 

If { is : then ^ is : (If R is : then e is 

7-46 to 13*92 1*02 150 to 280 26 

14 91—17*40 0-94 300— 350 24 

18-64— 22*37 0*79 375— 450 20 

24-85- 32*31 0*63 500— 650 16 

34-80—44 74 0*47 700— 900 12 

49 71-62*14 0*31 1,000—1.250 8 

74.56—87-00 0*16 1,500—1,750 4 

Above 99*42 00 Above 2,000 0) 

The latter rule has only been in use for the last year. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic system. — The :ui>er-elevation is determined by the formu\i : — 



''~?X2124 


I" 


~ g.Vil 




it it may not exceed 5*51 inches (140 millimetres). 
The widening of the gauge : 








If J = or < 19 88 . . len,^ = 0*59 
19*88 to 24*85 . . . = 0*39 


(IfR 


-= or < 400 . . 
400 to 500. . 


. thene =« 15 
. . . = 10 


24*85 to 32*31 . . . =r 0*20 
> 32.31 = 00 


500 to 6.50. . 
> 650 . . . 


. . . = 5 
. . . « C) 



The ordinary gauge is 4 feet 8*89 inches (1-445 metre). 



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I 

208 

Italian Mediterranean System The supar-elevation is determined by the formula : 

but it may not exceed 5*51 inches- (140 millimetres). 
The widening of the gauge : 

If J < 19-88. . . .then^=« 0.59 (IfR<400. . . . . then <f = 15 

19-88 to 24-85 . . . = 0-39 400 to 500 =-10 

24-85 to 32-31 . . . = 20 500 to 650 =- 5 

> 32-31 « 000 >650 = 0) 

The ordinary gauge is 4 feet 8*89 inches (1*445 metre). 

French State Railways. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula : — 

where V = 50 when c is > 45*57 and < 54*68 

(r is > 50 and < 60) 
and V = 60 when s = or > 54 '68 i 

(r = or > 60) * 

On double lines Ihe super-elevation calculated from this formula is : — 

1»» Reduced by one-fourth in curves situated on a rising gradient of at least 1 in 143 (7 millimetres per 
metre), when the beginning of these curves is at least 546* 8 yards (500 metres) from the beginning of the 
gradient; 

2°<^ Increased by one-fourth in curves situated on a falling gradient of at least 1 in 143 (7 millimetres 
per metre). * 

One half of the super-elevation is attained at the commencement of the curve. The elevation begins 
48 * 1 yards (44 metres) before the commencement of the curves when the super-elevation does not exceed 
3*94 inches (10 centimetres) and 72*2 yards (66 metres) when it does exceed this amount. 

Experiments are being made to ascertain whether it would not be better to have two-thirds of the super- 
elevation at the commencement of the curve, and to attain this by giving the rails an inclination of 1 
in 667 (15 millimetre pei* metre). 

The keys which secure the rails to the chairs are driven in the down direction of the gradient. 

The gauge is the same on curves a^ on straight parts of the road. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula :— 

. = 2-147 Xf (h = ^; 

but it may not exceed 5-91 inches (150 millimetres). 

(See note of Mr. Jules Michel on measures taken to facilitate running round curves. Revue g^n^rale, 
December 1893.) 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula ; — 

a = 0-02781 X J (h= 5:0^81') 

On curves the gauge is widened 0.39 inch (10 millimetres). 

French Northern Railway. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula :— 

«-i957X| lH = i^) 



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where n »> 0*04 for lines used for slow (rains; 

0*05 — trains of medium speed ; 

• 075 — expresses . 

These toper-elevations seem to answer yery well. 
The widening of the gauge : 

If i is 22-37 to 12*43 then p ^ 0*39 (If R is 450 to 250 . . then e == 10 
< 12.43 « 0*59 ( < 450 « 15) 

French Western Railway. — Super-elevation : on embankments the rail at the side of the slope is 
raised 0*79 inch (2 centimetres). In addition the outer rail is raised on curves by the amount determined 
by the formula : 

« = 00278 X 7 (h -= 0.153 ^j 

The toper-elevation muti eqmmenoe at least 100 a (100 H) before the beginning ^f the eurve and must 
attain its full extent on the straight part of the line. It has not been considered necessary to widen the 
gauge on curves. 

Belgian State Railways. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula :— 

""^iX 2i«^ 

In addition the following formula : — 

105*68 



(-^) 
i"-"^) 



has been used as an experiment to give the « standard «* super-elevation. 

This « standard » super-elevation is increased by one-fourth for all curves round which trains of a 
higher speed than 37*28 miles (60 kilometres) per hour ruu; it is reduced by one-fourth for all curves 
where the speed does not exceed 24 '86 miles (40 kilometres) per hour. 

The super-elevation adopted is called the » practical *• super-elevation; in no case may it exceed 
5*91 inches (150 millimetres). 

Since 1887, the Belgian State has entirely abolished widening the gauge in curves of a radius equal to 
or greater than 24*85 chains (500 metres) laid with rails weighing 104*8 lbs per yard (52 kilograms 
per metre). 

The same is the case at places where a line branches off at a radius of 22*37 chains (450 metres) or 
more. 

Dutch Railway Go. — Super-elevation : 

The speed is where { and « (where R (and ^ 

reduced to equals applied is equals) applied is) 



0*988 


248*50 


0*51 


5,000 


13 


0*985 


198*80 


0*63 


4,000 


16 


0*98 


149*10 


0*83 


3,000 


21 


0*97 


99*42 


1*18 


2,000 


30 


0*96 


74*56 


1*57 


1.500 


40 


0*94 


49*71 


2*24 


1,000 


57 


0*925 


39*76 


2*76 


800 


70 


0*9 


29*82 


3*46 


600 


88 


0*88 


28*45 


3*98 


500 


101 


0*85 


19*88 


4*21 


400 


107 


0*8 


14*91 


5*47 


300 


139 



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210 

The widening of the gauge : 

If { is 49-71 to 19-88. . Ihen .5 == 0*20 (If R is 1,000 to 400 . . then e = 5 
19 88 to 14 91. . . .= 39 400 to 300 . . . . = 10 

14-91 to 7-46. . . . == 0-83 300 to 150 . . . . == 21) 

Egyptian Railwa3r8. — The super-elevation is determined by the formula : — 

but it may not exceed 6*30 inches (160 millimetres). 

The full amount of super-elevation is required at the commencement of the curve; and the inclination 
of the outer rail to obtain this result may not exceed i in 200 (5 millimetres per metre). 

Up to the present there has been no widening of the gauge at curves. 

Rnssian Stato Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The super-elevation is determined by 
the formula :— 



: = 0030145 X'j (h = 1!:^) 



On all main lines, it is now assumed that < = 68 (r «= 74*67). No experiments have been made to 
determine the accuracy of the formula. 

The full super elevation of the outer rail is continued throughout the curve; the raising of tHe outer 
rail is begun 1,000 a (1,000 h) before the commencement of the curve. 



Movement of rails on gradients. Creeping. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — On double lines creeping generally takes place on both roads in 
the direction the trains travel; on single lines in the direction in which there is the greater number of 
and more heavily loaded trains; it is immaterial whether the gradient is rising or falling. 

On curves the inner roils generally move in the same direction as the outer rails, and generally in the 
same direction as the trains, or in the direction of the heavier traffic. 

The greatest rale of movement observed (after one year) has been 10*24 inches (260 millimetret) for 
one year. The greatest absolute movement has been 16*54 inches (420 millimetres) in 7 years. 

The greatest displacement of a flsh-joint relatively to the one on the opposite rails has been 12 21 inches 
(310 millimetres) in 6 years. Creeping has been frequently accompanied by enlargement of the gauge 
up to 276 inch (7 millimetres) . 

The fish -joint usually remained during the creeping in its normal position relative to the two sleepers 
adjoining it. 

In most cases some of the dog-spikes have bad their heads bent and even broken off by the displace- 
ment ; some angular fish-plates have also been torn out, principally on iron bridges. In a great many 
cases, and particularly on heavy gradients on a double line, it has been noticed that the lower flanges of 
the angular fish-plates have mounted the bed-plates near them. 

As a rule, the sleepers next the sleepers adjoining the fish-joint have also been displaced from their 
normal position. 

When the movement had reached a certain point, steps bad to be taken to improve the rood (replace 
the sleei)ers at the joint to their proper position, force back the rails, or put in dog-spikes differently, 
replace standard rails by those used for curves). 



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The creeping of Ibe rails is less on sleepers packed wiUi a ballast of broken stone Ihan on tlia^^o packed 
with a ballast composed of gravel from a rirer or gravel-pit. 

Austrian Soathern Railway. — In many case?, very considerable creeping tackcs place on heavy 
gradients. The movement is counteracted by the use of angular fish-plates, but these arc not quite 
sufficient when the gradients are steep. For this reason the rond must often be adjusted. A trial o< 
broken joints answered fairly well, but on steep* inclines the movement was not prevented. 

Italian Mediterranean Ssrstem. — No precise observations have been made with regard to the 
creeping on gradients; it is however reduced to a nearly negligible amount by the different methods of 
attachment in use (dog-spikes on the two sleepers near the joint, and fish-plates which bear against the 
tie-plates which are firmly fixed to each other). (Vide III, 3.) 

French Northern Railway. — The rails creep in the direction of the trains which pass over them, 
and in addition in the downward direction of the gradient. 

The repairs executed at the regular inspection prevent the creeping from becoming excessive. 

French Western Railway. — To counteract creeping, the inside fish-plate is made long enough 
lo enable its extremities to bear against the base of the chairs on the sleepers adjoining the fish-joint. 

Belgian State Railwa3r8. — On the steep gradients of Luxemburg, it was necessary at some places 
to add a third screw spike to the fish-plate on each sleeper adjoining the fish-joint in order prevent creep- 
ing. At gradients the middle part of the rail is secured by two means of attachment per 29*53 feet 
(9 metres) rail. 

Any creeping would thus afTect four sleepers, and on the steepest gradients the road is immoveable. 

Dntch Railway Go. — The rails creep in certain places, particularly where there are iron sleepers. 

Egyptian Railways. — No particular observations have been made on creeping on gradients; tlie 
question is treated generally. The importance of creeping in Egypt is shown by the fact shat the subject 
is always under consideration ; and also by the methods adopted in different types of superstructure 
to counteract it. 

In Egypt the creeping of the rails invariably takes place in the direction of the traffic, and both rails 
creep; the right-band rail moves from two to five times faster than the left-hand rail. No exception to 
this rule has been observed ; nor has any difference due to curves, gradients, or direction of the line, been 
determined . 

The creeping is as a rule greater in summer than in winter. 

On a single line, with traffic in both directions, creeping is very much more noticeable than on a 
double line. 

48S4 type of road laid with pol-slrepers. — The creeping of the rail is very great on this type of 
road when wooden keys are used . 

For the right-Kand rail a movement of 0*866 inch (22 millimetres) per month has been recorded and on 
soils which have little resistance it has been as much 1*969 inch (50 millimetres). 

Spiral keys which were used alternately with wooden keys, did not prevent creeping ; but when spiral 
keys only were used the creeping was prevented sufficiently. 

These "are now used exclusively on the 87*0 miles (140 kilometres) of double lino between Birket-el-Sab 
and Alexandria. 

VignoUt rails, 4889 type. — The system adopted to arrest the creeping of the rails (check-keys 
fixedat the extremity of the rail) has been found unsuitable and ineflective. On one point where the 
ballast was of sand, the displacement has reached 1*378 inch (35 millimetres) in a month. Elsewhere 
where the ballast is of gravel, the displacement of the rails on this type of road in u period of 25 months 
has been at the rate of 0*315 to 0*591 inch (8 to 15 raillimetresj per year for the right-hand rail and 
to 0-315 inch (0 to 8 millimetres) for the left-hand rail. 

The extent of the creeping naturally depends to a great extent on the nature of the ballast employed 



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aud on the care with which the screw-spikes have been screwed up. The use of packing plates increases 
the eflBciency of the screw-spikes and prevents the rail from being forced into the sleeper. 

Vignoles rails, 489S type. — The angular fish-plates and angular stops have during five months 
checked creeping. It is however necessary to continue these experiments. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — With respect to creeping the road 

behaves in a satisfactory way on the gradients. 



2"*^ Materials of the superstructure. 

Results of observations made with regard to the use of hard or soft metal (rails, fish-plates). 
Influence of the process of manufacture of the metal. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Since 1891, some trials have been made on the behaviour of the 
rails. No results have as yet been determined. Trials, begun in 1895, are being made on the beha- 
viour of the fish-plates . 

Privileged Anstro-Hungarian State Railway Go. — A hard, elastic, tenacious metal gives the 
best results. 

Austrian Southern Railway- — The whole of the material of the superstructure is of Martin 
steel only. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System . — Material of the same strength having always been 
used for the different parts of the superstructure, no opportunity has arisen to determine the effect of 
different degrees of hardness. 

Italian Mediterranean System. — The necessity has been recognised of not using too soft metal 
for the rails so as to prevent the wear of the head of the rails, and to prevent the rails taking a set 
between the points of support. 

French State Railways. — The rails actually in use are exclusively made of cast steel, manufac- 
tured either by the Siemens-Martin, or by the Bessemer process. The steel must be of the best quality, 
with fine grain, dense, hard, and tenacious, capable of being hardened ; it should contain more than 
0*3 p. c. of carbon, and less than O'll p. c. of phosphorus. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — Experience has sliown that hard but not brittle 
steel which is required for rails can only be prepared in the Siemens-Martin furnace. 

The Thomas process (removal of phosphorus) gives a material which is too soft and contains 
large blowholes; consequently it wears away much more rapidly than steel produced by the acid 
process. Thus, for instance, fifty raits ol dephosphorised steel were taken up after six years and 
three months service; the average wear of the head was 0*575 inch (14 "6 millimetres). 

The rails of acid steel which had previously been in the same place had been in use for nine 
years and a half, and their average wear was 0*472 inch (12 millimetres). 

The best material for fish-plates is steel of a medium degree of hardness, so tdat they may wear 
away quicker than the rails which are more difficult to replace and more expensive ('). 

French Southern Railway. — Hard steel is exclusively used for the manufacture of rails and 
fish-plates. This metal behaves very well and wears slowly. 

(1). Rev%i€ giniralt, August 1880; A. Hallopbau, ■ Note on the quality of steel for rails and their acee s ao ri es •>. * 



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Pftris-Orleans Railway. — U has been noticed that the head of rails of steel of a medium 
degree of hardness flatten out under the action of the traffic. Nothing of this sort happens with 
rails of hard steel. 



French Northern Railway. 
not yet sufficient data. 



No opinion can as yet be formed on this subject, as there are 



French Western Railway. — As a rule, rails of hard metal are used ; however, rails weighing 
88*7 lbs per yard (44 kilograms per metre) of specially soft steel were laid down in 1891 in the . 
tunnel of Pissy-Poville (1 mile 650 yards, 2,204 metres) on the line from Paris to Havre. 

But these rails have been in service too short a time for an interesting conclusion to be drawn 
from the observations on them up to the present. 

Belgian State Railwa3r8. — No trials have been ntade on this subject. 

The rails are of steel of a medium degree of hardness. The » bridge •• flsh-plates are of soft steel 
or of iron. 

EgS^ptian Railwajrs. — A higher tensile strength than 44*4 to 47*6 tons per square inch (70 to 
75 kilograms per square millimetre) is not specified even in the case of Yignoles rails weighing 84*7 lbs 
per yard (42 kilograms per metre). 

Breakages happening during unloading, while being laid down, or afterwards have been extremely 
rare, and the proportion has not exceeded 1 per 40,000 rails since 1889. 

The analyses of some broken rails seem to indicate that the breakages are due to wrong propor- 
tions of the chemical constituents, such rails contained 0*56 p. c. of silicon instead of 0"06 p. c, 
as specified by the conditions. These defective rails have very probably been made with the first 
ingot of the charge which is often of a different composition. To detect such in order to test them, 
and if necessary reject them, it has been determined to specify in future that the rails are to be 
stamped with the number of the ingot. 

Of about 5,000 double-headed rails ordered in 1891, several hundred were used for points and 
crossings; and a great number have been found to be too hard to be worked with tools or cut up 
into lengths. 

The analysis of the rails on their delivery was as follows : — 



Phosphorus 054 per cent. 

Manganese 1*449 — 



Carbon 0*375 per cent. 

Silicon 0064 — 

Sulphur 058 — 

The tensile strength was 39*4 to 40*0 tons per square inch (62 to 63 kilograms per square mil- 
limetre). 

The limit of elasticity was 24*1 to 27*3 tons per square inch (38 to 43 kilograms per square 
millimetre). 

The elongation was 24 to 25 p. c. on a piece 1*97 inch (5 centimetres) long. 

The reduction of area was 37 to 38 p. c. 

The analysis of several of the rails found to be too hard to be used for points gave the following 
results : — 



Manganese 2' 139 per cent. 

Arsenic 0*021 — 

Copper 0-071 — 



Carbon 0*615 per cent. 

Silicon 118 — 

Sulphur 059 — 

Phosphorus 053 — 

Tensile strength, 53*3 to 54 tons per square inch (84 to 85 kilograms per square millimetre) 
Elongation, 1*6 to 3 p. c. on a piece 1*97 inch (5 centimetres) long. 
Reduction of area, to 5 p. c. 



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There is then every reason to believe that we have had on our line w'nce 1891 a large number 
of double-headed rails having a tensile strength of 54 '0 tons per square inch (85 kilograms per 
square millimetre). 

The number of breakages due lo the loading or happening during the laying has been insignifi- 
cant; it does not reach more than one in 4,000. 

No breakage has been caused by the action of the trains. 

No other material than soft Bessemer steel has been tried for fish-plates during the last ten years. 



3*^^ Fish-joints. 

Results of observations on fish-joints, especially comparative data as to different methods of 
construction, and as so dififerent materials with the same construction. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn.^— There are only data with reference to the old type B used 
from 1872 to 1886. 

Statistics show that the rails are more apt to break near the fish-joint when this becomes slack 
owing to the wear of the fish-plates. 

Out of the total number of rails broken the proportion that was broken (of type B) near the 
fish-joint was : — 

19-6 p. c in 1888. 

27-5 — in 1889. 

32-4 — in 1890. 



51-8 p. c in 1891. 

33 1 — in 1892. 

39-5 - ^ in 1893. 



In 1893. packing-pieces were introduced with the object of filling up the slack between the fish- 
plates and rails. 

This fiUing-up has been considered necessary on 37,440 joints out of a total of 149,758, or on 
25*2 p. c; and the following packing pieces have been used : — 

119,746 packings 0394 inch (1 millimetre) thick. 

60,646 — 0591 — (1*5 — • ) — 

6,265 — 0-0787 — (2 — ) — 

Or altogether 186,657 packings, or on an average about 5 pieces per fish-joint, of a mean thick- 
ness of 0- 0472 inch (1*2 millimetre). 

Privileged Anstro-Hnngarian State Railway Go. — The defects of the suspended fish joint 
in use show themselves by the settling of the sleepe.rs next the fish-joint. 

The raising of these entails somewhat considerable expense. 

Experiments have been made with sleepers next the fishjoint bedded in sand, but we cannot give 
any verdict as to the result of the experiment. 

Gothard Railway. — The type of fish-joint in use has always been considered unsatisfactory, 
and will be replaced by a stronger method of construction as soon as one giving better results can 
be found. It has been attempted with some success to remedy Ibc defects of the fish-joints by placing 
the sleepers next the joint closer together; although these sleepers could only be packed from one side 
they are as well bedded as the others. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — In order to prevent creeping, it was found necessary 
to use angular fish-plates with notches for the dog-spikes instead of flat fish-plates. 



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Italian Mediterranean Sjrstem. — it has been observed thai at the joints lliere is a noticeable 
amount of wear of the contact-surfaces of the fish-plates, particularly in the middle. Hence during the 
last year or two it became necessary. 

The wear mentioned above — although much less in propoition — is nevertheless always appreciable. 

French State Railwajrs. — It has been noticed that broken joints give less good results than the 
usual arrangement. 

French Sonthem Railway. — In order to increase the strength of the fish-joints, stronger fish- 
plates have been introduced (See par. 5. Section III) ; the results, however, cannot yet be determined, 
the adoption of this type being too recent. 

French Northern Railway. — Strong fish-plates are indispensable for obtaining a good fish-joint, 
but it is not to be expected that absolute rigidity can be obtained by the use of strong fish-plates alone. 
The fish-plate can support the rail, but cannot form one whole with it. 

It is expected that full rigidity can be obtained by bringing the adjoining sleepers close together, and 
packing them very well. 

It is for this reason that in the new system of superstructure the distance of the sleepers from cenlre to 
centre, adjacent to the fish -joint, has been reduced to 18 90 inches (48 centimetres). 

French Western Railway. — A system of fish-joint with support has been tried experimentally 
and appears to be satisfactory. This consists of a cast chair screw-spiked to the sleepers next the 
fish-joint ; the two rail ends are supported on this chair. One steel fish-plate with six bolts secures the 
rail ends to the chair. Definite results have not yet been obtained owing to the short time this fish-joint 
has been in use. 

Datch Railway Go. — The angular fish-plates give satisfaction, and are gradually replacing the 
flat fish-plates. 

Eg3rptian Railwasrs. ~ We have lately adopted angular fish-plates. The increased rigidity of the 
joints which results from this is very considerable. Another advantage due to the angular fish-plates is 
the diminution of creeping. (See section V, 1 .) 



4^*' Special cotistructions . 

Special constructions to increase the resistances to longitudinal and transverse stresses, and 
their efficiency (tie-rods, outside supports for the head of the rail, broken joints, etc.). 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — Apart from the chair-plates, described in section III, 3, by 
which it is attempted to procure a better method of attachment, a reduction of canling of the rail, and 
also an increase of resistance to the lateral forces, other special constructions are not used. 

Privileged Anstro-Hnngarian State Railway Go. — Several methods have been tried exi^ri- 
roenlally to prevent creeping. Sleepers next the fish-joint have been secured to the adjoining sleepers by 
a fastening of the shape of a St. Andrews' cross ; flat iron plates, or angle-irons placed parallel to the 
direction of the road, have been used to connect the ends of the sleepers. 

The first arrangement has given entirely satisfactory results on a gradient of 1 in 28*6 (35 milli- 
metres per metre) on a local line with heavy trafiic on the down grade. 

The second arrangement has also given good results in several instances. 

To keep the gauge to standard the • Seidl ^ cross-tie has been used experimentally and has also given 
good results. 



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French State Railways. — On lines where the rails are bid on longitudinal sleepers, these latter 
are connected by means of U-shaped iron tie-rods to increase the resistance to lateral stresses. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — The adoption of two pairs of tie-plates for a rail 
39*4 feet (12 metres) long, to increase the resistance to the longitudinal displacement. 

French Southem Railway. — To increase the resistance to lateral stresses the Company have 
placed on the lines used for express trains and heavy traffic, two additional sleepers per 36*1 feet 
(ii metres) length of rail on curves of less than 19*88 chains (400 metres) radius, and on gradients of 
1 in 50 {20 millimetres per metre) or more. 

The distance between the sleepers has thereby been reduced from 38 '58 to 32' 17 inches (980 to 817 mil- 
limetres). The Company also uses chairs with a broad base weighing 31*96 lbs (14*5 kilograms). 

In order to prevent lateral displacement of the outer rail on curves, a trial is being made of a chair 
with a broad base, having three holes for screw-spikes. 

French Western Railway. — No special method of construction beyond that of strengtheuing the 
fish-plates is used. In certain cases, however, the lateral displacement has been counteract«d sucooss- 
fully, in the case of double roads, by connecting the sleepers of the two roads with tie-rods. 

It has also been attempted to increase the resistance of the sleepers to lateral movement by driving 
wooden blocks into the ground at their extremities. 

Belgian State Railways. — Check-plates have been used to counteract creeping. 
Another method of successfully overcoming the longitudinal stresses consists in joining together a 
series of sleepers by iron tie-rods . 

Dutch Railway Go . — Tie-rods are not used ; on some curves, wooden stakes are used . 



5*^ Behaviour of the superstructure. 

Statements showing whether the line answers the requirements of the traffic, or whether it is 
intended to modify its construction as a whole, or in detail ; giving reasons and particulars. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — The existing superstructures are sufficient for the actual requi- 
rements (weight on the wheels, 6*89 tons (7 tonnes); maximum speed, 49'71 miles (80 kilometres). 

The modifications which have taken place up to the present (see section V-7) have been caused by th« 
increased amount of necessary repair, by the rapid wear of the road, and by the increased number of 
fractures of the rails. Their principal object is to bring about a reduction in the expenses of mainte- 
nance, and an improvement of the fish-joints; these are recognised generally in all methods of construc- 
tion of superstructure as the weak point. 

Privileged Anstro-Hongarian State Railway Go. — The superstructure fully answers the afttuai 
requirements. Some small modifications only are contemplated, and are intended to improve the 
bedding of the sleepers. 

Austrian Southern Railway. — The road of the newest standard with two bed-plates per sleeper, 
answers all the conditions required by the increased speed oi the trains. At the present time, no 
further modifications are contemplated. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — The present superstructure fully satisfies all requi- 
rements of the traffic. 

Italian Mediterranean System. — The methods described above are quite satisfactory on lines 



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that have easy gradients, or not too Iieavy a traffic. But it is recognised that they are not strong enough 
for lines used for fast trains, with a heavy traffic, and on which there are steep gradients and long 
tunnels. 

It is for these reasons that a stronger method of construction will be tried shortly in the long tunnel 
of Ronco, where the conditions of traffic and gradient are severe. 

Prendl State Railways. — In order to meet the increased weight of the locomotives, a commen- 
cement was made in 1892 to replace the rails weighing 76*6 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per metre) by 
rails weighing 80*6 lbs per yard (40 kilograms per metre). At the same time, the number of sleepers 
has been increased on lines with express trains by one per rail of 18 feet (5 '5 metres), and two per rail 
of 36 feet (11 metres). 

For the same reason, the surface of the base of the chairs has been increased, and the number of the 
screw-spikes has been raised from two to three, in order to distribute the pressure ol the chair on the 
sleeper at uniformly as possible. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — No modifications are in contemplation. 

French Southem Railway. — The road answers very well for the traffic that it takes; no modifi- 
cation of the present system is contemplated. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — The road described is expected to resist a heavy traffic for a long 
time. 

French Northern Railway. — It is not expected that the method of superstructure described will 
require alteration. 

Whether this is a solid and lasting road (as is hoped) cannot be determined till seferal yeara have 
elapsed. 

French Western Railway. — For lines, or sections of lines traversed by express trains and used 
for heavy traffic, bull-headed rails 39*37 feet (12 metres) long and weighing 88 '7 lbs per yard (44 kilo- 
grams per metre) have been adopted. These rest on eighteen sleepers generally, or in exceptional 
cases on fifteen. 

This is based on the following considerations : 

lo The weight on a pair of wheels of the locomotive has risen from 10*83 tons (11 tonnes) to 12*80 
(13 tonnes) and even to 14 *76 tons (15 tonnes) ; 

2® The speed of the express trains has risen from 37*28 miles (60 kilometres) an hour to 43*50 and 
46 '61 miles (70 and 15 kilometres) an hour, and the drivers in order to make up lost time are allowed to 
run up to 55*93 miles (90 kilometres) an hour; 

3«> The steel rails wear uniformly, and the amount of wear may attain 0*591 inch (15 millimetres) 
without necessitating their condemnation. 

The thickness of the head of the rail has been increased by 0*472 inch (12 millimetres) to allow for 
wear. 

An amount of wear of 669 inch (17 millimetres) can therefore be allowed without being injurious 
insteadof 0*197 inch (5 millimetres) on the original rails of 78*1 lbs per yard (38*75 kilograms per 
metre). 

On the other hand, reversing the steel rail which has come to its extreme degree of wear, is no longer 
possible, hence the adoption of the bull- headed section. 

The section of the new rails allows us to use the same chajrs as those used with the rails weighing 
78 ' 1 lbs per yard (38 * 75 kilograms per metre). 

Belgian State Railways. — The road laid with rails weighing 104*8 lbs per yard (52 kilograms 
per metre) answers the requirements of a very heavy traffic, especially on the line from Brussels to 
Antwerp, and from Brussels to the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. 

No modification is contemplated. 



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Dutch Railway Co. — At present, there is no intention of modifying the superstructure; the roud 
sa(isf)es the requirements of the traffic. 

Egyptian Railwa3r8. — The construction of the road laid with pot-sleepers and spring keys has 
adequately answered the requirements of the traffic. Without ballast it forms a good road, easy to keep 
in order and giving smooth running. Its higher cost, estimated in 1888 at t 329 and in 1891 at t 302 
more per mile than that of the 1889 type of Vignoles roads, is the chief reason for their disuse. Pot- 
sleepers are not suitable on damp soils, or where a gravel ballast is necessary. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersburg to Warsaw). — The type of road in use on this line 
fully satisfies the requirements of the traffic . No change is contemplated. 



6*^ Dynamic action of the trains. 

Elesults obtaioed in everyday practice, or from special experiments (lateral and vertical 
forces). 

Methods and apparatus used to determine the forces exerted on the superstructure by the 
vehicles. 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — See ante, account of experiments for determining photographi- 
cally the movement of the rails. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — Vide Goiiard on experimental researches on the 
conditions of stability of lines laid with steel rails {Revue ginirale, October and December 1887, 
July 1888, and September 1889). 

Belgian State Railwa3rs. — Vide the communications on experiments concerning the flexibility of 
the road made by M. Huberti. (Account of the proceedings of the International Railway Congress, 
volume 3, question XXXIII, page 13.) 



7*^ Measures taken to gite existing lines greater capacity. 

Is it proposed, in view of an increase of speed in the immediate future, to strengthen the 
superstructure, or to alter the method of construction of the vehicles? 

What methods of construction have already been adopted, and with what result? 



Kaiser Ferdinands Nordbahn. — A higher speed than 55*92 miles (90 kilometres) an hour is not 
permitted by law, so that at present there is no reason to think of measures to be.taken to make a 
higher speed possible. 

Up to the present the measures adopted to give existing lines the requisite resistance are as follows : 

i*^ The number of sleepers has been raised from eleven to twelve for rails 29 52 feet (9 metres) long, 
which reduced the space between the sleepers to 2 feet 6*71 inches (78 centimetres). (See section III-7.) 

2^^ The sleepers employed are 8 feet 10*3 inches (2*7 metres) long, instead of 7 feet 10*5 inches 
(2*4 metres). (See section III-2.) 



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These two measures will diminish the sinking of the sleepers mto the ballast and hence a firmer road 
and a smaller cost of maintenance will result. 

3^*^ The use of wedge-shaped bed-plates in order to avoid the necessity of adzing the sleeper, thus 
tending to the preservation of the latter. (See section III-3.) 

4^^ The adoption of a standard length for the rails of 41 feet (12*5 metres), instead of 29*52 feet 
(9 metres), in order to reduce the number of fish-joints. 

5^b The use of chair-plates to increase the supporting surface, and improve the attachment of the rails 
to the sleepers, in order to obviAe the injurious torsion that the rail experiences at the fish-joint. (See 
section III-3.) 

6^ The use of fish-plates of a harder mild steel in order to reduce the wear of the bearing surfaces of 
the fish-plate to a minimum. 

7*^ Drilling instead of punching the bolt-holes, in order to strain the metal as little as possible, and 
thus reduce jbhe chance of breakage. 

8^^ Increasing the diameter of the bolts from 0*748 inch to 0*866 inch (19 to 22 millimetres). 

9^^ Increasing the length of the fish-plates, and in consequence, the number of the bolts from four to 
six per fish-joint, in order to obtain a better contact between the rail and the fish-plate, and obtain more 
useful service from the latter. (See section III-5.) 

10^^ In the case of superstructure with chairs and plates, to make the inner fish-plate take against the 
clip-plate so as to resist creeping more effectually and to prevent the bending of the bolts. 

1 1^1* The use of packing pieces in the case of the fish -joints which have become loose. (See section V-3.) 

Results showing the success of the measures have not yet been determined. 

However, an advantageous result has already been obtained by incr«>asing the number of sleepers, 
as the number of those becoming loose has been decreased, and the cost of maintenance has been reduced . 
It is intended to use fish-plates of a somewhat stronger section; both fish-plates to bear against the 
plates (wedge shaped and chair-plates), which will give a maximum resistance to creeping. This, however, 
has not yet been carried out. 

Meridional Railway. Adriatic System. — On some sections, the number of sleepers per rail 
has been raised from 10 to 11 for lines having rails 29*52 ft. (9 metres) long, and from 13 to 14 for lines 
with rails 39*37 A. (12 metres) long. 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. — The adoption of bogie-engines for express trains. 
{Revue ginirale, January 1894.) 

The locomotives of the 1879 type with two coupled axles in front of the fire-box and with leading and 
trailing wheels, have been converted into bogie-engines with the driving axle in front of the fire-box and 
the coupled axle behind it. 

The boiler was shortened, the diameter of the boiler tubes was increased, the fire-box and the 
cylinders were brought nearer the centre of gravity; the wheel base was lengthened. 

All these modifications combine to increase the steadiness of running, and to diminish the lateral 
stresses. 

The weight of the locomotive in running order has been diminished by 1' 132 ton (1,150 kilograms). 
The shortening of the boiler has been accomplished without reducing its output or increasing the 
consumptionof fuel, by the substitution of tubes of 2*559 inches (65 millimetres) external diameter for 
those of 1*969 inch (50 millimetres) external diameter. 

These converted locomotives have reduced the time from Paris to Marseilles 535*7 miles (862 kilo- 
metres) by 14 to 56 minutes. 

The average speed is 38 * 96 miles (62 * 7 kilometres) to 39 * 48 miles (63 * 53 kilometres) per hour. The 
load is 206*7 tons (210 tonnes). Perfectly smooth running is obtained, even up to a speed of 
71*46 miles (115 kilometres) per hour. 

Paris-Orleans Railway. — The management in its letter of reply to the questions asked gives the 
following information. 



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Putting on one side, the Vignoles rails weighing 60 '5 and 72*6 lbs per yard (30 and 36 kilograms per 
metre), which we are gradually doing away with; the standard road on our system is one with symme- 
trical double-headed rails weighing 76/6 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per metre) with a suspended 
fish-joint, and chairs weighing 20*94 lbs (9 5 kilograms) each. 

Before 1884, the length of the rails was 18 feet (5*5 metres) carried on six sleepers. Since 1884, we 
only use rails 36 feet (11 metres) long, and we have 2,485 miles (4,000 kilometres) of single line laid 
with them. The rail of 36 feet (11 metres) rests on twelve sleepers. 

In 1889, we adopted a new type of strengthened superstructure, y^ith bull-headed rails weighing 
84*7 lbs per yard (42 kilograms per metre) and a chair of 83 '6 lbs (18 kilograms). 

The strengthened chair fits the ordinary rail weighing 76*6 lbs per yard (38 kilograms per metre); 
, the strengthened rail fits our ordinary chairs used for rails weighing 76*6 lbs per yard (38 kilograms 
per metre). 

Both types of road were described in the Bevue giji^ale des chemins de fer for July 1892, in an 
article which gave the reasons relating to the stronger construction. 

This type of strengthened superstructure will be gradually substituted for the old type on our main 
line from Paris to Bordeaux (361*7 miles [582 kilometres] of double line). 

We change the chairs independently of the rail when we renew the sleepers. "We hate up to the 
present put in heavy rails on half the line, and heavy chairs on a fifth of it. 

We have also put in the strengthened form of superstructure at certain special points, such as large 
tunnels and long iron bridges. 

The fact of the two types being interchangeable allows us to make local additions to the strength of 
the line. We thus apply the heavy rail with the ordinary chair on certain sections at a gradient, where 
the number and weight of heavy trains descending the gradient with the brakes on cause exceptional wear. 

We also use the heavy chairs and ordinary rails on sharp curves of 19 * 88 chains (4(X) metres) radios 
and less on gradients. Also we have recourse to a third method of strengthening the road, viz, 
increasing the number of sleepers. 

At the present time, we have 1,101 miles (1,772 kilometres) of single line provided with seven sleepers 
instead of six per rail 18 feet (5*5 metres) long. 

We do not intend to carry this system of strengthening the road atiy farther; it intriMluces considerabto 
extra cost for maintenance. 

French Western Railway. — As already stated, the construction of the line has been streng- 
thened by substituting bull-headed steel rails weighing 88*7 lbs per yard (44 kllogrtfns per metre) for 
symmetrical double-headed steel rails weighing 78 ' 1 lbs per yard (38 * 75 kilograms pet metre). In 
addition, methods for strengthening the fish-joints are being considered. The fish-joint described in 
section V, 3, is the first step in our experiments. 

Belgian State Railwa3r8. — The type of road with a rail 104*8 lbs per yard (52 kHogtams 
per metre) having gpreat resistance, there has been no occasion to consider this question up lo the 

present. 

Butch Railway Co. — No changes are intended in the near future either in the permanent 
way, or in the construction of the locomotives. 

Egyptian Railways. — No steps have been taken to increase the resistance offered by the roftds 
laid with pot-sleepers, but our Administration has decided to completely renew the iS8 \ft miles 
(207 kilometres) of double line between Cairo and Alexandria, and the work has been already begtln. 

Vignoles rails weighing 84*7 lbs per yard (42 kilograms per metre) with two angular fiah-plates 
at each flsh-jolnt, will be employed. The toad will be ballasted with gravel or brdien stontf 
3*937 to. 5 -906 inches (10 to 15 centimetres) thick under the sleepers. 

The sleepers will be chiefly oak from Asia Minor or Turkey. Judging from the 12*48 mil«8 
(20 kilometres) of road already renewed (April 1894) with Vignoles rails weighing 84*7 lbs per yard 



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I 

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(42 kilograms per metre), this type of road will perfectly answer all the requirements of necessary 
stability, even if the speed of the trains and the weight of the locomotives should be increased 
materially. 

Russian State Railways (St. Petersbnt^ to Warsaw). — At present, there is no intention to 
allow a greater speed for the trains, and in consequence the construction of the permanent way or 
the locomotives will not be modified. 



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222 



APPENDIX X. (BEILAGE X) 

Average make up of trains. 
(Dorchschnittliche Zafiammensetzang der Zngsgamitaren.) 



EXPLANATION. 

^^ , , , ,^^ ( ^ Nunil>ers of cars of eath kind. The figures 

Stuckzanl Wagon ) . ^, ,.^ i. i. u t 

, , „, ^^ < above the different cars miow now manv of 

Anzahl Wagen / ^u i • i i.i, ^u i. • 

^ ( the kind there are on the tram. 

Richtung von Wien == From Vienna. 

— nach == Towards Vienna. 

Gcpftckswagen = Luggage van. 

Postambulaiizwagcn = Postal car. 

Gekuppelter Postambulanzwagen ...==« — Twin travelling post office. 

Packmeisterswagen = Parcel van. 

Gedeckter Outer wagen = Covered goods wagon. 

Offener Giiterwagen = Open — — 

Schlaf wagen = Sleeping car. 

Milch wagen = Milk van. 

Fleischwagen = Meat van. 

Kohlenwagen . =« Coal wagon. 

Speiscwagen = Van for market produce. 

Achsdriicke === Axle load. 

Leere Wagon = Empty wagons. 

Beladenc Wagen = Loaded — 

Radstand = Distance between axles. 

Im Mittel === Average. 



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223 



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Express goods trains. 






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P 

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Locomotive and Tender. . 


Gross tonnage : 
Ex Vienna, 


Wagons 


Locomotive and Tender . . 


TotaL . . 
Tovxirds Vienna, 


Wagons 



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Total. 
Goods trains. 



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75-9 tons (77-2*' 

347-3 — (3530^1 

423-2 tons (4302*) 

75-9 tons f77-2*) 

390-8 — (397,1*) 

466-7 tons (474-3*) 



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18 



Locomotive and Tender . 


Gross tonnage : 

Ex Vienna, 


Wagons 


Locomotive and Tender . . 


Total. . . 
Towards Vienna. 


Wagons ; 



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62-2 tons (63-3*) 
590-5 — (600-1*) 

652-7 tons (663-4*) 



62-2 tons 
874-4 — 



Total. 



(63-3*) 

•(888-5*) 



936-6 tons (951-8*) 



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Coal trains. 



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^0? Vienna. 
LocomotiTe and Tender. ..... 62-2 tons 

Wagons^ .'C ,r • • 

Total. . 



(03-3^) 
405-2 — (411-9^) 
467-5 tons (475-2^) 



Towards Vienna. 

Locomotive and Tender 62 2 tons 

Wagons 

Total. . 



(63-3^) 
900.6!-- (915-1^) 
902-8 tons (978-4^^ 



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Wagons . 



Gross tonnage : 

and Tender 72-5 tons (73 7') 

121-8 - (123-8') 

Total. . . 194-3 tons (197'.5') 



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II. — Austro-Hungarian State Bailway. 

Express trains. 
9-10 wagons with 4 or 6 wheels : 

Distance between j 4 wheeled carriages 1 6- 1 8 ft . 

axles. ( 6 wheeled carriages 1 1 -4 H- 1 1 •4=22-8ft. 

Axle load 5-43-6-06 tons 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 70 -8- 71-71 tons 

Wagons 104-4-124 98 — 

Total. . 
Ordinary passenger trains. 



(4 9-5-5 m) 

(3-5 + 3 5=-7-0in) 

(5-53-6-17*) 

(72 0- 72-87*) 
(106-1-127-0*) 



175-2-196-69 tons (178-M99-87*) 



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11-16 wagons with 4 wheels : 
Distance between axles . . . 11-4-16 It. (3- 5-4-9»i^ 
Axle load 4-59-5-68 tons (4-68-5-78*) 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender . 530- 72-5 tons (53-9- 7287*) 
Wagons 99-4-171-6 — (101-0-174-4*) 

Total. . . 152-4-244-1 tons(154-9.247-27*) 



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7-18 wagons with 4 or 8 wheels : 

Distance between j 4 wheeled . . 
axles. I g 

Axle load 



11 -4-16 ft. [3-5.4-9m) 

.^^r.n. i.^^oxt 4-2-4-9 ft. 
17.20-6 ft. (5-2.6-3)| ^^.3^.^^ 

3-09-406 tons (3-15.4-14*) 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 53-0- 53-87 tons (53 9- 54-75*) 

Wagons 68-7-106-78 -~ (69-9-108 5*) 

TotaL . . 121-7-160-65 tons (123-8-163-25*) 

Mixed trains. 

20-30 wagons with 4 wheels : 

Distance between axles 11-4-16 ft. (3"5-4*9«n) 

Axle load 4-5-5-6 tons (4-6-5-17*) 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tendar 59-5- 67-2 tons (60-6- 68-3*) 

Wagons 168-0-306-0 — (177-8-31 10*) 

Total. . . 227-5-373-2 tons (238-4-379-3*) 



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Express goods, goods, coal trains, etc. 



37-55 wagons with 4 wheels : 

Distance between axles 8- 2-14- 7 ft. (2-5 .4-5m) 

Axle load 4-37- 5-01 tons (4-45^- 11*) 

Gross iQBnage : 

Locomotive and Tender .... 59'64- 70-9 tons (60-6- 72* l») 
Wagon 366-79-501 -9 — (372-7-510P) 

Total. . 



426-43-572-8 tons (433-3^2'2*) 



m. 



Southern of Austria. 

No data. 



IV. — Gothard Railway. 

No information was given on the make up and tonnage of the trains. 



Types of express locomotives. 



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V. — Italian Meridional. Adriatio SyBtem. 



Express trains. — Milan-Bologna-Rome. 



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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 72-7 tons (73*9*) 

Wagons 98-4 — (100 0') 

Total. . . 1711 tons (173-9*) 



Express trains/ fast and medium. 



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1-3 goods wagons. 

( Passenger cars. 



Axle load 



( Goods wagons . 



4-75 tons (4-84*) 
4-47-6-405 — (4-55S6-575*) 



Gross tonnage : 



Locomotive and Tender 
Wagons 



Total. 



56-23- 72-92 tons (^7-15- 74*1*) 
56-58-1 19-28 — (57-5 -126-6*) 

1 12-81-192-20 tons (114 65-200-7*) 



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1-3 goods wagons. 

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4-75 tons (4-84*j 



Goods wagons. 4-47-6-405 — (4-555-6-575<) 

Gross tonnage : 
Locomotive and Tender. 56-23- 72-92 tons (57-15- 74 1*) 
Wagons 56-58-119-28 — (57-5 -126-6*; 

Total. . . 112-81-192-20 tons (114-65-200-T) 



Omnibus-trains. 



5-9 passenger cars. 
4-8 goods wagons. 



Axle load.} 



( Passenger cars. 



4-75 tons (4-84*) 



(Goods wagons. 4-47-6-405 — (4-555-6-575<; 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender. 48-3-7168 tons (49-1- 72-84*) 

Wagons 83-45-187-31 ^ (84-8-192-33*, 



Total. . . 131-75-258-99 tons (133 9-265' 17*) 



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5-9 passenger cars. 

4-8 goods wagons. 

» . , , ( Passenger cars . . 
Axle loads. \ ^ 

( Goods wagons. . . 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender . . . 48-3 - 71-68 tons (491- 72-84*) 
Wagons 83-45- 187-31 — (84-8-192 33*) 

Total. . . 131 •75-258-99 tons (1339-265 17*) 

Mixed trains and fast goods trains, 
carrying passengers. 

Mioced trains. 
4- 8 passenger cars, 
5-13 loaded goods wagons. 
1- 7 empty goods wagons. 

i Passenger cars ... 4*75 tons (4'84*) 

Loaded goods wagons. 4 -47-6 -405 — (4-555-6 -575') 
Empty goods wagons. 3 14 — (3*205*) 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender .... 50*3- 78*34 tons (51-2- 79-6*j 
Wagons 109.1-288-66 — (1109-293 3*) 

Total. . . 159 4-367-00 tons (162-1-372 9*) 

Goods traiyis carrying passengei^s, 

2- 7 passenger cars. 
10-36 loaded goods wagons, 
1- 9 empty goods wagons. 

/ Passenger cars . . . 4*75 tons (4*84*) 

Axle loads. < Loaded goods wagons. 4.47 6 405 — (4 -555-6 -575*) 
( Empty goods wagons. 3*14 — (3-205*) 

Gross tonnage : 
Locomotive and Tender .... 50*3- 78-34 t^ns (51-2- 796*) 
Wagons 154 8*589 37 — (157-3-598 9*) 

Total. . . 205- 1-667-71 tons (208-5-678-5*) 






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3-20 empty goods wagons : 

Loaded goods 

wagons . . . 4-47-6-405 tons (4-655-6-575*) 
I Empty goods 
^^ wagons ... 3- 14 — (3-205*) 



Axle loads ' 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender. . 50 3- 84-3 tons (51*2- 85 7*) 
Wagons 225-9-6691 — (229-6-680-5*) 

Total. . . 276-2.754-0 tons (280-8.766-2*) 



VI. — Meditemtnean of Italy, 

No information sent. 



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Sioiliftn Railway Company. 

No information sent. 



Vni. — French State Railways. 



Express trains with bogie carriages. 









iiU 



'\lVi M-rs-i *-5s4 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 54-3 tons (56-2*) 

Wagons 104-3 - (1060*) 

Total. . . 158-6 tons (161-2*) 



Ordinary express trains. 



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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 54*3 tons (55-2*) 

Wagons 80-7 - (820*) 

Total. . . 1350 tons (131-2*) 



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73-5 tons (74-7M 
178 71 — (181-7*) 

252-21 tons (256-4*) 



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238 
XII. — Northern of Prance. 

The following patterns have been chosen from among our locomotive designs : — 

Express locomotives. 



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1280 1415 HitO 

J650 IVBB 1255. 

1 1810 1532 15 281 

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Xin. — Wertem of Prance. 
Pattern of the most powerful express locomotive in use. 



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XIV. 






lis* 21 n 






u> JO « a e g £ 

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Belgian State Railways. 
Ex'press trains. 



6-10 wagons. 
Distance between axles : — 



6 wheeled 
8 wheeled 



/ 



11-4+114 = 22*8 ft. (3-5 + 3-5 -^ 7 m) 
29-8— (9-1 rw) 
7-2 — (2-2 m) 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender. . . 81-92 83-22 tons (83-25- 84-56*) 

Wagons 92-5 -166-32 — (94-00-1 69-00*) 

Total. . 



Ordinary passenger trains. 

8-11 wagons : 108-2-178-8 tons (110-18P) 

Light trains. 

5-8 wagons : 49-2-75-7 tons (50-77') 



174-42-249-54 tons (177-25-253-56*) 



Goods trains. 
22-32 wagons : 269'65-434-03 tons (274-441*) 

Railway service trains. 
11-18 wagons : 12006-351-35 tons (122^57*) 



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XV. — Dntch Railway Company. 



H 



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Express trains. 

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Locomotive and Tender 
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Gross tonnage : 



A A ii cS 4.^4. 

eo 00 ;«: -^ 9 ^ ^ 



} 51 < 



Total. 



74-88 tons (76.1*) 
139 25 — (141.5^) 

21413 tons (217.6*) 



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Through passenger trains. 
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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender. 67 41 tons (68.5*) 
Wagons 129 60 — (i3L7t) 

Total. . . 1970 1 tons (200.2*) 



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Ordinary passenger trains. 



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JO 90 



Gross tonnage : 



Locomotive and Tender .... 63 27 tons (64.3*) 
Wagons 91-32 — (92.8*) 



Total. 



154-59 tons (157.1* 



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Omnibus trains. 



¥4lUi€Mi^ 






o--<p 



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Gross tonnage : 



Locomotive and Tender 
Wagons 



Total. 



4014 tons (40.8*) 
51-36 — (52.2*) 

91-50 tons (93.0*) 



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Express goods trains. 
25 wagons. 

Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender . 67 41-74-58 tons (t>8*5-76-li) 



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Goods trains. 
50 wagons. 

Gross tonnage : 
Locomotive and Tender .... 62-09 tons (63-1*) 

XVI. — Egyptian Railways. 



Express trains. — Cairo-Alexandria. 



II 



£:JiuMi^'*^- 



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fK(?rt?) ri^.(i>.A ^.■^•(^ H^.-A-<J^ fH-<t>-^ 



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315*31S« 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 64.9 tons (66^) 

Wagons 109-24 - (111^) 

Total . . 174-14 tons (177^) 

Express trains. - Cairo-Isma'ila. 



]i 









x^ x^ 



rh(^ fr)-4>A m^-fh 9~-ft>-c|) — fr)"-4--0 Cf>--<jf--(j) 



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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 649 tons (66') 

Wagons 118-59 - (121-50') 

Total. . . 183-49 tons (187-50') r\r\c^\o 
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Express trains. — Cairo-Girgueh. 
/ / / 



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r~iii^i:]l^lF^ I ^ II ^^ II /g^ II -^^11 -^^ 

(i) g^F^ 6-^<b 4-fj> 4»-fK ^-A^..^ (t>....^..<K 4>-.4..-4 fi--^ (^-.-(b.-^ 

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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 64-9 tons (66') 

Wagons 21809 — (221 •6') 

Total. 



282-99 tons (287-6*) 



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Local trains. 



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Mixed trains. 
/ / 



P315|3'f5« 

i i k i i 

64-0 tons (66-0*) 
173-70 >^ (176-5') 

238-6 tons '242 5*) 







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Goods trains. 



64-9 tons (66*) 
269-75 - (274-1*) 

334-65 tons (340-1*) 




4 g> 4— -4 



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2 ?* 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 64 -9 tons (66*) 

Wagons 503-9 — (512*) 



Total. . . 57P-8 

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XVII. — Russian State Railways. 



Express trains. — St. Petersburg- Viertzebolovo. 



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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 85*23 tons (86-6*) 

Wagons 111-66 — (11346*) 

Total . . 196-89 tons (200 06*) 



Express trains. — St. Petersburg- Vilna. 

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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 85*23 tons (86-6*) 

Wagons : 201-61 — (204-86*) 

TotaL . . 286-84 tons (291-46*) 



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Express trains. — St. Petersburg- Warsaw. 

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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 57*57 tons (58-5*) 

Wagons 7014 — (71-28*) 

Total. . . 127-71 tons (129-78*) 

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Passenger trains. — St. Petersburg-Warsaw. 
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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 55.33 ^^^ ^^^,^^,^ 

^^^"' 216-89 - (220-38*) 

. 273-22 tons (278 34*) 



Total. 



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Mixed trains. 
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— Bielostok-Warsaw. 



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Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender 57-57 tons (58-5«) 

^"^""^ 178-13 - (180-1*) 

Total. . . 235-70 tons (238-6t) 



fl. 



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Goods trains. 






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i»381 ^ 

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i«3-81 



Gross tonnage : 

Locomotive and Tender . 57*66 tons (5859*) 
Wagons 531-4 — (540-00*) 

Total. . . 58906 tons (598-59*) 



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245 



SECTIONAL DISCUSSION 



July 1, 1895, at 10 a. m. 



President : Richard JEITTELES 

Mr. Ast, repoi^ter for non-English speaking countries. (In French.) — The require- 
ments of the travelling public as to speed and comfort make it the duty of Adminis- 
trations to investigate with the greatest care what measures ought to be taken to 
satisfy these wants and still maintain the principles of economy and safe working. 
Before all things they must consider the manner in which the permanent way is 
laid, the construction and weight of engines, and not forget the relations which the 
road and the load on it bear to one another. 

The International Railway Congress has previously taken up these subjects and 
reports written by extremely capable engineers have to a great extent helped to 
solve the question. 

The question which appears first on this session's programme is of the highest 
importance. 

Having been called upon by the International Commission to report on what has 
been done by Administrations in other than English speaking countries, 1 have 
endeavoured to solve the following problem : — 

** To what extent does the ordinary construction of the permanent way, on lines 
** upon which trains travel at high speed, fulfil present requirements, and by what 
** means can it be modified to satisfy increased requirements? " 

My duty, according to the wording of the question as adopted by the International 
Commission, was to define a system of permanent way suitable for lines traversed 
by fast trains, and to show methods of gradually strengthening existing roads so as 
to permit of an increase in the speed of trains. 

The section and composition of the rail, the rail connections, the sleepers and 
ballast must therefore all be taken into consideration. 

1 have found the field well prepared by the former discussions of this Con- 
gress. 

I studied the information contained in the Congress publications and I was led 
to analyse them. To this 1 have added my own personal experience and embodied 



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246 

the whole in two notes published in the Bulletiri under the following titles : 
'* La question de la superstructure, '* and ** Les traverses de chemin de fer et leur 
assise**. 

In these two notes, 1 have endeavoured to show that it is impossible to strengthen 
the permanent way beyond a certain limit. 

The boundary line is, to begin with, drawn by it being necessary to use 
certain definite materials for ballast and foundation, and secondly by the dimen- 
sions and number of the sleepers, which are limited by the gauge of the line 
and because they must be laid far enough apart to allow of their being properly 
packed. 

The note on ** Les traverses et leur assise *' is intended to point out the great 
importance of sleepers and how they are laid in railway construction. 

The table giving information on the relative resistance of sleepers shows that for 
fifty sleepers in use the coefficient of resistance varies as one to ten and that the 
length of Ihe upper surface of sleepers varies as one to two. 

The point is of all the more importance in that the pressure of the ballast corres- 
ponds with the dimensions of the sleepers and how the latter are distributed, and 
in that it is the pressure on the ballast which is what primarily affects the cost of 
maintaining the permanent way. 

If it be admitted that a good road is proved so by maintenance being easy and 
cheap, we arrive at the conclusion that in the construction of a good line it is above 
all necessary to thoroughly investigate the principles that govern the arrangement 
of the sleepers and ballast. 

These principles are discussed in the two above-mentioned notes which, so to 
speak, constitute an essential part of my report. As they contain the theoretic 
principles accepted at the present lime, it remains for us to consider the results of 
practical experience. 

With this object in view, I sent out a detailed list of questions to Administrations 
affiliated to the Congress on the construction of and strain on main line permanent 
way, and upon how it stands traffic. 

A large number of Administrations have sent in very full information and I look 
upon it as a very pleasant duty to tender them my most hearty thanks. 

This information I have put together in the appendices to my report, and I must 
express my sincere regret that the time at my disposal has not allowed me to 
derive therefrom all the advantage which a more profound analysis would have 
enabled me to secure from different points of view. 

It is somewhat difficult to find any common basis upon which to compare 
methods of construction, for these differ according to the conditions under which 
they exist. 

I had to give up the idea of basing my comparison on cost of maintenance, 
especially as several of the replies on this point were incomplete. 

I was obliged therefore to confine myself to comparing the different methods of 



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247 

permanent way construction and their principal elements, and to take as a basis 
their theoretic carrying capacity. 

The information received in reply to the detailed list of questions does not 
enable one to draw any definite conclusions upon what a typical permanent way 
should be. 

In fact, the methods of construction employed by the different companies vary 
extremely, and most striking differences exist in the figures supplied on the weight 
of the rails, the number of the sleepers, the dimensions of the latter, the area of the 
packing, etc. 

At first sight one might be tempted to think that the figures were proportioned 
to the strain on the road, but a closer investigation shows this not to be the case. 
In the same way we find great differences in the way the rails are fastened to the 
sleepers. 

If we analyse the various methods of construction, we find that where double- 
headed rails are used there is a tendency to increase the weight of the chairs; 
where the Vignoles rail is used there is tendency to increase the number of fasten- 
ings and to give the preference to screw-spikes rather than bolts. 

The use of chairs and saddle-plates for Vignoles rails must also be noted. 

From the replies of the Administrations it is not possible to deduce that the 
double-headed should be preferred to the Vignoles rail. 

Among the measures recommended to ensure secure fastening of rails on curves 
we must in the first place note increase in the number of sleepers. 

The joints are still recognised as the weak point of a road and no essentially novel 
method of construction has been described. 

To prevent creeping some Administrations suggest means tending to make several 
sleepei*s hold together firmly by using flat bars of iron. 

Nor do the replies we have received entitle us to draw any conclusions on the 
qualities and manufacture of steel ; the specifications of the different Administrations 
vary within wide limits and the breaking strain required varies from 35 to 62 tons 
per square inch (55 to 98 kilograms per square millimetre). 

We also find a marked tendency to use hard steel exclusively instead of soft steel 
in the manufacture of rails. 

1 have in vain sought to arrive at a definite conclusion as to the experience 
derived from the use of rails manufactured by the Bessemer process, the basic pro- 
cess and by either of the two processes in the Martin furnace. 

However it must be observed that most railways use steel manufactured either by 
the Bessemer acid process or by the Martin furnace process. It would be a good 
thing if the Congress were to deal especially with the specifications for rail 
manufacture. 

No new experiments have been made since the last Congress to determine the 
dynamic action of vehicles which has often been discussed at our meetings. 

In order to compare the methods of constructing the permanent way as described 



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248 

to us, I have examined them in detail and estimated the strain on the constituent 
parts produced by a stationary load corresponding to the engines running on the 
lines in question. 

The results so obtained concerning the strain on and resistance of the elements 
of the permanent way allow of our instituting a certain degree of comparison and 
of our forming an idea of the manner in which these roads act under a passing 
train. 

From this investigation we may draw the following conclusions : — 

For lines traversed by express trains running at 50 miles (80 kilometres) an hour 
and with loads on an axle of as much as 14 tons, the use of rails weighing from 
65 to 70 lbs per yard (32 to 35 kilograms per metre) will suflSce. 

On lines where the load per axle for express trains exceeds 14 tons and where an 
increased load and speed have to be provided for, rails weighing 80 lbs (40 kilo- 
grams) and upwards must be used. 

In any case one must have sleepers of suflSciently large dimensions, sufficiently 
close-spaced to allow of the rails being securely fastened, the strain on the rail and 
the pressure on the ballast being decreased and maintenance being easy and econo- 
mical. 

After this preliminary investigation I have been able to attack the essential 
question, namely the determination of the rules which ought to be laid down in the 
construction of a typical road for lines used for express traflic. 

At first sight it would appear that this problem could not be solved if we take 
into consideration the great variation in the circumstances peculiar to each line. 

However, after mature consideration, I think we must face the fact that the 
requirements of traffic are ceaselessly increasing and that they will still go on 
increasing. 

This being so, it must be acknowledged that the permanent way of the future 
ought to be invariable and capable of coping with the unceasing development of 
traffic. 

On the other hand, it has been shown that the limit of the carrying capacity of 
roads does not much exceed the capacity of the ordinary roads as they are at 
present. 

These two propositions being granted, I think I am justified in formulating as 
a suggestion based on this idea thai the typical road ought as far as possible to be 
capable of coping with the maximum capacity that can be readied. 

1 base this conclusion not only on the resolutions which have been accepted upon 
this question at previous sessions, but also on the information lately furnished by 
affiliated Administrations. 

The object of an elaborate analysis on these points was to bring together the 
component parts of the permanent way in such a manner as to constitute an 
organic whole with a uniform capacity. 

If the meeting agrees with my views, I propose that we should decide that the 



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249 

principles in constructing a permanent way which is as near the limit as can prac- 
tically be attained should be as follows : — 

** 1'* A layer of readily permeable ballast with a minimum thickness of 
** 15^/4 inches (40 centimetres) resting on a perfectly drained subsoil; 

a 2nd Wood or steel sleepers 8 feet 10 inches (S^TO) long and 10 V4 inches 
'* (26 centimetres) broad at their base. The section of the sleeper must be such as 
*' to allow of the rail being securely fastened. 

** The adoption of a uniform type of sleeper as in England would be highly 
** desirable. 

'* 3"* Kails to be of homogeneous, hard and tough steel, from 30 to 40 feet 
** (9 to 12 metres) long, and with a section whose moment of resistance should be at 
** least W == 12*20 cubic inches (200 cubic centimetres). These rails should 
** weigh 80 lbs per yard (40 kilograms per metre) or more; 

'* 4th [f suspended joints are used the sleepers at the joints should not be more 
*• than 19 ^Vie inches (50 centimetres) apart and the distance between the sleepers 
** should nowhere exceed 31 ^/g inches (80 centimetres). 

** The result of such spacing would be that not only would there be the necessary 
** means for secure fastenings, but provision would also be made for the strain on 
** the rail and pressure on the ballast within reasonable limits. 

** In sections with curves of small radius or with steep gradients, where the loads 
** per axle amount to from 8 to 9 tons, the American method of still further 
** increasing the number of sleepers will be followed ; 

** 5^*» In the attachment of rails to sleepers, two essentially different types of road 
** must be dealt with, the Vignoles and the double-headed rail. 

** With increase of speed, the strain on the fastenings increases very rapidly and 
** special attention must be paid to this point on express lines. 

'* It cannot be denied that with regard to this no better method of fixture can be 
** found than a strong chair. It would therefore seem logical to try to find some 
** method of fastening Vignoles rails in some similar way, either by saddle-plates 
** (tie-plates — plaques de serrage) or by increasing the number of screw-spikes; 

** 6'^ So far no absolutely satisfactory method of consti'ucting the joints has been 
** found. 

" Experience has, however, shown that the injurious effects on the joints can be 
* * decreased by making the rail more rigid and improving the methods of fixation. * * 

The above typical permanent way is by no means all that could be wished. It has 
been carried out on many lines, and I wish to point out that except in certain cases 
we can advance no further and that the resistance of such a road almost attains the 
limit which can be attained in practice. 

We must therefore turn to Ihe mechanical engineer whose business it will be to 
try and increase the power of his locomotives without increasing the strain on the 
permanent way. (Cheers.) 



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Mr, Hunt, reporter for English speaking countries (i). 

Types of permanent way. — As regards the type of permanent way, the railways 
in the United Kingdom are almost universally adopting bull-headed steel rails, 
keyed into chairs fastened to transverse sleepers by means of treenails, spikes or 
screws, or combinations of these fastenings. The type of permanent way adopted 
in America consists of flat-bottomed rails resting directly on transverse sleepers 
and fastened to them principally by means of spikes. 

Strengthening of permanent way. — With regard to the strengthening of perma- 
nent way so as to permit of an increased speed of trains, the railway Companies 
in the United Kingdom have, for some years past, been gradually increasing the 
weight of their rails, the weight and the bearing area on the sleepers of their chairs, 
and shortening the spaces between the sleepers ; but most of the principal Com- 
panies do not contemplate any further strengthening of the roads, as their latest 
standards of permanent way are fully capable of taking the highest speeds that can 
be obtained with the present rolling stock. 

So far as the permanent way of the Lanca§hirc and Yorkshire Railway Company 
is concerned, I consider it fully capable of taking safely trains at a speed of 100 miles 
(160 kilometres) per hour, when the road is straight, or on curves with large radii. 
I do not think it at all likely that any speed in excess of this will be reached in the 
future, inasmuch as the weight and dimensions of the locomotives necessary for 
attaining higher speeds would be such as to involve the strengthening of many of 
the iron underbridges, the enlargement of the overbridges and tunnels now in 
existence, and the partial reconstruction of portions of the railways themselves to 
ease the sharper curves; the cost of which would be prohibitive. 

The American railways have been and are evidently strengthening their rails 
with a view to suit high speeds, but none, except the New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad Company, state that they intend to further strengthen their road 
with a view to still higher speeds. 

As to the permanent way itself, I propose now to deal with the detailed questions 
in the order given in the instructions given by the Brussels Commission so far as 
they relate to railways in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Bails. — The section of rail usually adopted is the steel bull-headed rail, the 
bull-head being much larger than the bottom member, to allow for wear and tear, 
the bottom member being made sufficiently strong, after allowing for oxidation, to 
form with the top member when worn down a sufficiently strong girder to carry 
the rolling load. 

In England, the weight of the rail varies from 80 to 92 lbs, in Scotland from 
77 to 90 lbs, and in Ireland from 74 to 85 lbs per lineal yard. There are some rails 
weighing 100 lbs to the yard, but these are few in number. 

{*) This speech is an abstract of Mr. Hunt's report, but the parts marked with two vertical 
lines are new. 



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251 



The weight of the rails on the Lancashire and Yorkshire line is 86 lbs per lineal 
yard, and I am of opinion that this weight need not be increased, as it is desirable, 
in relaying the road, that the w hole of its constituent parts should be relaid toge- 
ther, and nothing would be gained by having a rail which would outlive the sleeper. 

No absolute weight per yard appears to be adopted to which rails may be worn 
down before being renewed, the general condition of the whole of the materials 
forming the permanent way, and other varying circumstances, being taken into con- 
sideration in determining when the road should be- renewed. The renewals, when 
they take place, are usually in long lengths, and the material recovered, when not 
too far worn, is utilised for repairs and sometimes renewals of branch lines, loop 
lines and sidings. 

The rails on the Lancashire and Yorkshire line wear down on the average at the 
rate of about one pound per annum, and could be safely left in the main line for 
about 20 years, but inasmuch as the total length of sidings on this line is 70 p. c. 
of the main, a large quantity of material is required for repairing their sidings. 
The main line road is never left in long enough to wear down to the minimum safe 
weight, as it is considered better, when repairs are required for sidings, to take out 
of the main line the materials for the repairs of the sidings, replacing them with 
new^ road. By this means, the main line is always kept in first class order. 

As regards the calculations of the strains imposed on rails by the rolling load, as 
the various stresses cannot be ascertained sufficiently accurately to enable a rail to 
bo designed on the same scientific principles as a girder would be, it is considered 
by English engineers that close and careful observations of the effects produced upon 
the road by the rolling loads which pass over it | will disclose its weakest parts, and 

I a tolerably accurate judgment can be thereby formed as to the extent to which it is 
desirable to strengthen it. 

Mode of manufacture and nature of rail inetaL — From the replies received, 'it is 
clear that most of the railway Administrations have their rails rolled from steel 
manufactured by the Bessemer acid process, although some of them return the 
Bessemer process without stating whether it is the acid process or the basic process. 
The only Companies who, in their specification, permit the use of the basic process, 
are the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire and the North Eastern. 

The London and North Western, the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire, the 
Caledonian, and the North British Companies have a specification for the Siemens- 
Martin acid process. 
I I have had no personal experience in steel rails rolled from steel manufactured 
by the Basic process since 1884, when we bought a few of them. These rails were 
unsatisfactory, and most of them had to be taken out of the road after only a little 
over five year's wear, the defects being chiefly in the webs cracking in a straight 
fracture extending for some 5 to 10 feet in length. 

The Basic process admits of the use of an inferior iron ore for the manufacture 
of the steel, but this process may have been improved since 1884. 



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I The Siemens-Martin process is too expensive to be used for manufacturing steel j 
for rails. 

With reference to the testing of rails, all Companies, except the Cambrian, test 
their rails by blows produced by various weights falling from various heights on 
various lengths of rail supported on bearings from 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches apart. 
The amount of permanent deflection varies in each case in proportion to the weight 
used and the height from which that weight is dropped. 

Some railway Companies, in addition to this, test the rails as girders, suspending 
dead weights from the centre, and specifying the deflections which will be allowed 
under the test of certain weights. 

The chemical tests do not appear generally to form part of the specification for 
rails, only four Companies giving a more or less detailed specification of the che- 
mical analysis. The Great Northern Railway of Ireland state that they test their 
rails chemically, but do not give particulars of their requirements. 

The breaking weight in tons per square inch is only specified by five Companies. 
The extension per cent is only specified by three Companies, and the contraction of 
area per cent is only specified by one Company. 

It appears, therefore, from these returns, that the railway Companies mainly rely 
on the falling weight test to determine the quality of the rail manufactured for 
them. 

As to the relative merits of hard and soft steel, only five Companies give any 
information, and of these five, four lean to the use of mild steel as being less liable 
to fracture and therefore ensuring a greater measure of safety. 

The steel used for the rolling of rails should neither be too hard nor too soft. 
Hard steel is brittle and consequently liable to break on the road, and also damages 
the wheel tyres when they are skidding or partially skidding on the rails, and of 
course, too soft a steel would wear out too quickly. 

A rail with a proportion of carbon of -3 to -4 p. c. giving a tensile strain of about 
40 tons per square inch, will meet all requirements. 

Rail connections, — The form of joint universally adopted in the United Kingdom 
is a suspended one, the rails being connected by two fish-plates bolted together 
through the rails by four fish-bolts. 

With the exception of the Great Western and London and North W^estern Rail- 
ways, whose fish-plates are 20 inches long, all the Companies adopt a fish-plate 

18 inches long. Much longer fish-plates than these were in use some years ago, but 
there seems to be a general opinion that the fish-plates should be as short as possible 
in order to bring the chairs and sleepers at the joints as near as possible, and in 
reply to the question as to whether this form of joint gives satisfaction, 16 out of 

19 <>)m panics state that it does. 

As to the shape of the fish-plates in use, they may be divided into two classes, viz., 
plates whose depth is the distance between the top and bottom flange of the rail, 
and plates whose depth is increased to the underside of the bottom flange, and 



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even deeper, in some instances underlapping the rail. The sections of this class of 
fish-plates are shown in the book of diagrams. 10 Companies use the former class, 
and 9 Companies use different sections of the second class. There are no sugges- 
tions as to how the joint could be improved. 

I have had no personal experience in the use of the deeper fish-plates, as I have 
never tried them. I consider that if our fish-plates, filling between the top and 
bottom flanges of the rail, are kept tight up to the underside of the bull-head and 
the top of the lower member of the rail, it is the best form of joint that can be used. 
All the railways (so far as their bull-headed rails are concerned) support the rails 
in chairs fastened to transverse sleepers, using various kinds of fastenings. The 
Great Northern Railway of Ireland for their flat-bottomed rails, and the Great 
Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, fasten their flat-bottomed rails direct to 
the sleepers by means of fang bolts and spikes. 

The weight of the chairs used by the difierent Companies varies considerably, the 
smallest weight being that of the South Eastern Railway, 37 lbs, the heaviest being 
that of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, which weighs 56 lbs. 

The bearing area of the chair on the sleeper also varies considerably, the smallest 
area being that of the South Eastern Railway, viz. , 70 square inches, the largest 
being that of the Manchester Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway which has 
a bearing area of H7 square inches. 

The only Companies who place felt between the chair and the sleeper throughout 
their systems are the Cambrian and the London and North Western Railways. The 
London Brighton and South Coast Railway use it in special tunnels where the noise 
is excessive. No other Company uses a packing of any kind between the chair and 
the sleeper. 

The pattern of the chair on each side of the joint used by any Company is the 
same as that of the rest of the chairs in the road. 

The number and kind of fastenings for attaching the chairs to the sleepers varies 
with almost every Company. 

Keys and sleepers. — Of the eighteen companies who use the chair road, eleven 
of them use oak for their keys, two use teak and oak, one teak only, one pine and 
one elm. Eight Companies compress their keys, and ten do not. All the Compa- 
nies are keying on the outside of the rail, except the Furness Railway and the Great 
Northern Railway of Ireland, but the former are now gradually adopting outside 
keying. 

Baltic red wood is the timber most generally used for sleepers, although some 
Companies use Memel, Riga red wood, Scotch fir, red pine. Every Company 
creosotes its sleepers. 

The lengths of sleepers are 8 feet 11 inches or 9 feet and the breadth 10 inches 
and the thickness 5 inches. 

The distance apart of the sleepers on the several lines is shown on the plates. 
Although metal sleepers have been put down in some places, notably on the 



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234 

London and North Western Railway, they do not seem to have found faVour with 
the railway Companies of the United Kingdom. The London and North Western 
Railway have not put any down since 1888; the (ireat Eastern and London and 
South Western Companies have experimontcd with a few, but are not continuing 
their use. 

Ballast, — The ballast used by the various Companies, details of wliich are given 
in appendix Eofthe report varies according to the locality through which the lines 
pass. The bottom ballast generally consists, in districts where it can be obtained, 
of large hand-packed stones, but where this cannot be obtained slag, burnt clay, 
and ashes are used. For top ballast various materials are used, viz : — 

Broken stone, gravel, slag, chippings, ashes and cinders screened and unscreened, 
and Thames gravel ; the best material in each district consistently with economy 
being obtained, so as to get the best drainage possible. 

The practice of laying ballast above the level of the top of the sleeper varies 
a good deal. 

With reference to the American, Indian and Australian railways, as I have had 
no experience in the use of these types of permanent way, 1 do not feel justified 
in expressing any opinion upon it, but I have no doubt there will be delegates, 
in the room, for these countries who will willingly give the meeting explanations 
as to their experiences in the types of road adopted by them. 

The President. (In French.) — Question 1 is a very wide one and I think we ought to 
confine the discussion within limits as far as possible. 

As you will have noticed the reporters have not dealt with rails laid oii metallic 
sleepers ; they have especially brought before us the track in ordinary use, namely a 
line laid on wooden sleepers, suitable for express trains. 

As regards speed there are marked differences between the two reporters who 
deal respectively with non-English speaking countries and English speaking ones. 

Mr. Ast has told us that on the continent trains travelling at 50 miles (80 kilo- 
metres) an hour are regarded as .very fast trains and that a speed of 75 miles 
(120 kilometres) is never exceeded. 

On the other hand, Mr. Hunt has told us that in England and America trains run 
at much higher speed, such as 100 miles (160 kilometres) an hour and even more. 
(Laughter.) 

Mr. Ast has defined for us in his report what in his opinion may be looked upon 
as a typical permanent, way, but though it has been adopted in several countries it is 
ilot perfection, and he wishes you to recognise the fact that the resistance of this 
typical road approaches the limit that can be attained in practice and that except in 
ccKalti cases we can make no im.provement upon it. 

Mr. Hunt, on the other hand, asserts that the typeof road almost universally adopted 
by the railway Companies of the United Kingdom is suitable for trains running at 
very high speeds. He believes that it would bo supcrfiuous to strenglheii the road 



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with a view to increased speed, which latter does not depend upon the permanent 
way, but upon the locomotive engineers. 
It is then upon these two points that discussion should first bear. 

Mr. von Leber, Austrian Ministry of Commerce. — I should like to ask Mr. Hunt, 
the English reporter, to be so kind as to explain to me the following points. 

1** Mr. Hunt told us that he prefers a « mild >^ steel for the rails, and on the con- 
tinent we prefer a hard steel. It would be well to define what I mean. The steel 
which is mentioned in Mr. Ast's papers has a breaking strain of often as much as 
51 tons per square inch (80 kilograms per square millimetre). 

That is a hard steel. I should like Mr. Hunt to define what he means by a 
•* mild "steel. 

2"** Mr. Hunt further told us that the rails on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Rail- 
way have been 20 years in use without being changed. It seems to me that this is 
quite too long. 

S'^ Then again I should like to ask Mr. Hunt if you really have in England a speed 
of 100 miles an hour. The greatest speed at which we travelled on the excursions 
was 72 miles, 1 think. 

4^*» Mr. Hunt told us that the tunnels were not large enough for increasing the size 
and weight of the engines; it would be a very good thing if the Congress would 
recommend that the weight of the epgines should be increased no further ; I have 
alluded to this in my report. 

Mr. Petsche, Eastern of France Ry. (In French.) — I also intended to ask Mr. Hunt 
if a speed of 100 miles (160 kilometres) was really a fact? 

Mr. Himt. — What I said with regard to the use of steel was that too hard a steel 
would not do, because it is brittle and liable to break the road, and also that too 
hard a steel would cut the wheel tires too much and damage them. At the same 
time it would be out of the question to use too soft a steel, because then the rails 
would wear out too quickly, and 1 think I gave the quality of steel containing from 
0"3 to 0*4 p. c. of carbon as one that would meet the requirements of railways. 

Mr* von Ubec. (In French.) — It must be remembered that at previous sessions 
the Congress expressed the opinion that the hardest steel procurable should be 
used. I attach great importance to Mr. Hunt's reply for upon it depends whether 
the tires shall wear the rails rather than the rails wear the tires. On this point 
there is a kind of rivalry between permanent way and locomotive engineers. 

I do not regard the question as so simple as Mr. Hunt does. Since our last 
meeting it has made no progress. I also beg Mr. Hunt to say whether rails really last 
20 years on English roads. 

Mr. Hunt. — With regard to what I have said about the rails lasting for 20 years, 
I have already explained that at the average rate at which our rails wear down, that 
is to say a lb per yard per year, they would last with safety 20 years; but then I 



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256 

think I went on to say that in the case of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway we 
have so many sidings to repair that instead of letting the rails live out their full life 
on the main line we took them out of the main line to repair the sidings, and repla- 
ced them on the main line with new rails; so that we never do wear them down to 
20 years, because our requirements for sidings do not permit of our doing it. 1 see 
that when the traffic is not so heavy we have taken out steel rails which have been 
in 22 years, but never on the fast running lines. 

With regard to the speed of 100 miles per hour I think I said that I thought that 
on the straight portions of our lines, and where the curves are the flattest, it would 
be safe to run on that permanent way at 100 miles an hour. I did not say that we 
had ever attained to that speed. I rather inferred from what Mr. Aspinall is saying 
in his paper in another section, that he could not construct a locomotive of suffi- 
cient power to run, certainly not beyond that speed, and possibly not up to it, that 
would pass through our existing tunnels and bridges; and therefore that is the 
reason why English engineers have come to the conclusion that it would not be 
necessary to further strengthen their road. 

The President. — What is the maximum speed in England? 

Mr. Hunt. — I have myself timed some of the trains on our line up to 75 miles 
an hour; that is only on the down gradient though. 

The President. — Is that the maximum? 

Mr. Hunt. — That is the maximum that I have ever noticed. I do not think that 
there has been any record of anything higher then that. I think I have answered all 
the questions. 

Mr. Michel, Paris-Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. (In French.) — I should like to 
observe that there is nothing impossible about rails lasting for 20 years on main 
lines. On the line between Paris and Marseilles, 500 miles (800 kilometres) long, 
there are at present on about 250 miles (400 kilometres) of rails which were laid 
more than 20 years ago and they are still in very good condition. And yet the traffic 
on this road is very heavy and several fast express trains run upon it. It is true 
that the rails have in some places been withdrawn, not because they were all 
worn out, but because it was deemed advisable to strengthen certain points on the 
road such as long gradients of 1 in 200 (5 millimetres per metre) and steeper. 
Besides from time to time we required rails for sidings and for lines in stations and 
tunnels which had to be removed with as little delay as possible on account of 
their being worn. If such exceptional points of the road be excluded twenty years 
is not to be regarded as an excessive time for rails to last, as Mr. von Leber seems 
to think, provided the steel used is of good quality. 

Mr. Hunt tells us in his report that some Companies use 60 foot rails. 1 should 
like to know whether this has proved satisfactory. Does not the distance which 
there must be between the joints cause disadvantages? 



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257 

Mr. de Kounitsky, Russian Ministry of Communications. (In French.) — I should 

like to ask Mr. Hunt two questions : 
i»* What is -really the greatest load on one axle in an English locomotive; and 
2nd What is the greatest load on one axle in a locomotive taken into account when 

designing and calculating the cross section of rails in England ? 

Mr. von Boschan, Emperor Ferdinand's Northern of Austria Ry. (In French.) — 
I endorse what Mr. Michel has just said on the life of rails. There are on the 
railway I represent 16 miles (25 kilometres) of line laid between 4868 and 1872, 
which are still in excellent condition. The rails weigh 63 lbs per yard (31-5 kilo- 
grams per metre). When they are taken up it is not because, as in the case referred 
to by Mr. Michel, they are worn, but with a view to strengthening the road. Our Com- 
pany now uses Bessemer steel rails weighing 70 lbs per yard (35 kilograms permetre). 

Mr. JohnBon, Great Northern Ry. — I should like to confirm Mr. Hunt's remarks 
with regard to the life of our rails. I took up last year rather a long length of 
steel rails which had been down nearly 20 years, and which were on the fast running 
part of our line between Grantham and Peterborough, where we often attain a speed 
of 72 miles an hour. Those rails were made by the Ebbw-Vale Company in Wales. 
In those days the ingots from which rails were rolled were well hammered under a 
steam hammer, and I have always been of opinion that if a good rail is required 
labour must be put into it. I am sorry to say that rails of that quality are not made 
to-day, for in most rail mills the steam hammer is not to be found, at any rate it is not 
used upon ingots which are intended to be rolled into rails. These particular rails 
1 had tested chemically, and they contained about -4 of carbon, and the analyst who 
tested them said that they were very dangerous rails to put down and were likely to 
break. I told him that they had been down 20 years and that therefore they must 
have been good rails. I tried in purchasing rails last year to get the same chemical 
constituents put into the rails; and the makers all, to the extent of half a dozen or 
more, put an extra £ 1 a ton on to the price to give me these chemical constituents, 
and I failed to buy the rails so constituted. The rails were purchased this year at 
something like £4.10.0 a ton. Of course the makers of rails cannot put much work 
into rails at that ridiculous price, and 1 am very much afraid that the rails now 
being put into the roads will not wear anything like 20 years. 

lb. Petsche, Eastern of France Ry. (In French.) — The life of a rail depends 
primarily upon the traffic. On our system we have rails which have carried 
300,000 trains and are still comparatively little worn — scarcely Vs ^^^^ (3 or 
4 millimetres). We use 60 and 89 lbs rails (30 and 44 kilograms) and put the joint 
sleepers as close together'as possible — even as near as 16 Vt inches (42 centimetres) 
from centre to centre. In this way, we succeed in keeping our lines a long time in 
good condition and without any apparent imperfection at the joints. 

The FresidoHt. — A gentleman has asked Mr. Hunt if the 60 foot rails have given 
satisfaction? 



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Vf. Sunt. — I have no personal knowledge &s to whether the London and North 
Western Railway Company are satisfied with the 60 foot rails ; but I take it that they 
are, because they are continuing to use them. You will find in 'a table in the 
appendices to my report that they are the only Company who have adopted that 
length of rail. 

The President. — Is there any gentleman connected with the London and North 
Western Railway Company who can tell us whether they are satisfied with the 
60 foot rails? 

Lieutenant Leggett, B. E., Board of Trade, Great Britain. — I have had some 
experience, as I'epresenting the Board of Trade, of seeing the rails of this length on 
the London and North Western Railway,, and I may say that the Company are extre- 
mely satisfied with the manner in which the rails can be laid in. It is possible for 
four men to lay in one of these rails in about three minutes from the time the old 
rail is taken out to the time the new rail is put in and keyed up to about every third 
sleeper and fished with two bolts instead of four. That is to say, the road for the 
load has been sufficiently good for the traffic to pass over it at the rate of 15 miles 
an hour, in three minutes, and the manner in which the vehicles travel over this 
road in its finished state is also considered extremely satisfactory. 

The President. — Do you know what is the space between the two rails? 

Lieutenant Leggett, B. B. — For expansion it is necessary to allow from Vs to ^/^e 
of an inch, according to the temperature. 

Mr. Wasiutynski, Warsaw-Vienna Ry. (In French.) — Reference has been made to 
the life of a rail and to its chemical composition, but so far the question of the 
metal's resistance has been neglected. 

What astonishes me is that as a rule in England no tests are made to estimate the 
tensile resistance but only the breaking strain. On the continent, the resistance of 
the metal is above all things tested. 

I should very much like to know the component parts of the rail of which 
Mr. Johnson speaks, possessing it would seem extraordinary qualities of resistance. 

We know all the facts with regard to the tensile resistance and breaking strain 
and chemical composition of the rails manufactured on the continent. We have 
inserted in our specifications minute particulars as to the tests these rails must 
undergo and yet they are generally far Inferior to the English rails of which we have 
just heard, spite of the fact that the latter are accepted with much less exacting 
formalities. There must be some secret in manufacturing a rail which can last 
22 years under the conditions mentioned. What is this secret? 

Mr. Belelubsky, Russian State Ry. (In French.) — I understand from Mr. Hunt's 
report that most railway Companies in English speaking countries roll their rails 
of Bessemer steel which appears to be much better, especially than basic steel. 



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239 

We ought to investigate the question of the composition of the metal, for, as 
a contrast to what Mr. Hunt has told us, I may mention that in Russia we manu- 
facture a great many rails of Basic-Martin steel and the results obtained are very 
satisfactory. 

If the method of manufacture has lately altered, that is due to a most marked 
tendency in favour of using hard steel and because we have altered our specifi- 
cations as to hardness by requiring the presence of 0*45 p. c. of carbon. 

We have made tensile tests compulsory instead of only taking into consideration 
the breaking test. Accordingly it is of great importance to know whether Basic- 
Martin steel should be abandoned, and this question ought to be cleared up. As I 
have just said, Russian experience, ftu* from condemning its use, is in favour of it. 

Mr. Bietler, (iothard Ry. (In French.) — What we have heard is extremely 
interesting. I may even be allowed to say that I attach more importance to an 
interchange of opinions derived from our experience than to the resolutions wc 
shall pass. 

We have been talking of the length of rails, and I am surprised at learning that 
in England the length attains 60 feet (18'"29). It would be interesting to know 
for actual fact whether these have proved satisfactory, and whether such a length 
may be accepted as practicable. We must not lose sight of the fact that an increase 
in length of rail leads to decrease in the number of joints which are the weakest 
points of a line. The subject is then of great importance. 

I accordingly beg the meeting to be kind enough to express an opinion as to 
whether a length of 60 feet (18™29) can be recommended. 

Again, we have spoken of the life of a rail. W^hat was said on this point was 
received by me, representing as I do a railway with long tunnels and severe gra- 
dients, the Gothard railway I mean, with a certain amount of reserve. 

The information supplied us on this point cannot in my opinion carry much 
weight, unless supported by data as to the conditions of the line to which it refers 
and by statistics as to the working of the line. The statistics requisite to enable 
us to compare lines which are not directly comparable to one another are not 
forthcoming, and therefore it is difficult to form an opinion on the information as 
to the life of rails. 

I am convinced that if the rails of which Mr. Michel has spoken were laid in the 
St. Gothard tunnel they would not last more than iO or 12 years. 

The life of a rail undoubtedly also depends on its section, and this ought to lead 
us to discuss a point which up till now has been neglected, namely the relation 
between the weight of a rail and the strain upon it. As you will have seen in reading 
Mr. Ast's excellent report, the Gothard railway uses engines the load on the driving 
wheels of which is from 15 to 16 tons and consequently the strain upon our line 
is very great. I should, however, add that the number of such engines is smalU 
jand the new engines which are now being designed will probably not be so 



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260 

heavy. However a load of 7 */? tons on each wheel may be regarded as normal. 
Mr. von Leber, Austrian Ministry of Commerce. (In French.) — Let us hope so. 

Mr. Dietler. (In French.) — Our rails weigh 93 and 97 lbs per yard (46 and 
48 kilograms per metre), but are not so heavy as the « Goliath » rails, used in 
Belgium, which weigh lOS lbs (52 kilograms). The 97 lb (48 kilograms) rail is 
used in tunnels and the 93 lb (46 kilograms) rail on the other parts of our system. 
If the moment of resistance of our 97 lb rail is compared with that of the Goliath 
rail it will be found to be the same. I should be very glad if our friends from 
Belgium would be good enough to tell us something about their experience of these 
105 lb rails so that we may know whether there is any other gain than increased 
resistance to be derived from their heavier rail. We should like to know also if 
it is true that these rails wear out very quickly. It has been stated that the large 
size of the raiFs head interferes with its manufacture and that this is why it wears 
quickly. 

We required our rails to possess a high moment of resistance and therefore their 
height is 5 ^ Vie inches (0"145) and their base 5 Vs inches (O^ISO). In this way, we 
procure a high moment of resistance. 

The increased weight of our rails is justified on various grounds. In the first 
place, the sulphuric acid in our tunnels, which is produced by the coal burnt in our 
engines, helps to oxidise the rails very quickly. This is the cause of our using 
97 lb (48 kilograms) rails in our tunnels instead of the 93 lb (46 kilograms) rail used 
on other parts of our line. Secondly, as I have said, our engines are very heavy. 

With regard to speed, our gradients are long and very steep — e. g. , 1 in 40 (25 milli- 
metres per metre) — and going down we have no hesitation in running at high speed, 
but 37 miles (60 kilometres) an hour may be regarded as our maximum. On the 
comparatively level parts of our line, there are few straight pieces long enough to 
allow of the maximum speed attainable by our engines being reached. On the 
contrary there are stiff curves of 14 and 15 chain radii (280 and 300 metres). 

It is important to know at what speed these parts of the road can be traversed. 
We think it depends not only on the construction of the permanent way, but also on 
the make of rail. For my own part I believe a speed of 43 V2 niiles (70 kilometres) 
or even 50 miles (80 kilometres) can be safely reached, provided that the permanent 
way be stable and the base of the rail be proportionate to its height. Probably 
for this reason the Americans have decided that the height of their rail shall be equal 
to its base. 

These are, gentlemen, the few questions which I wish to ask in reference to the 
rail itself. 

There are other points in the matter of permanent way upon which we want 
information from the experienced men belonging to this section, but for the 
present, in order to confine myself within the limits suggested by our president, 
I shall bring my remarks to a conclusion. 



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261 

I must, however, add one word on the methods of strengthening the road. One 
very eflScient method is doubtless to increase the number of the rails' supports. In 
regard to this I may say we use 17 sleepers to a length of 39 feet (12 metres) and at 
the joints the distance between the sleepers is as little as 13 ^/^ inches (350 milli- 
metres). You will see that we have neglected no means at our disposal with a view 
to strengthening our road. 

Mr. W. Hoheneggtr, North West Austrian and South North German Junction Ry. 
(In French.) — It seems to me, gentlemen, that the only point of difference between 
Mr. Michel and Mr. Dietler is that of the life of a rail. Neither of them have told us 
what they look upon as the ordinary life of a rail, and I hope they will be good 
enough to enlighten the section on the point. 

The Gothard Company procures rails from all parts of the world, and it is 
important to know what stipulations the Company lays down in its specifications. 

Mr. Dietler. (In French.) — In the tunnels, the short life of our rails is due to rust ; 
in the open line, our rails last as long as anywhere else. 

Mr. Michel. Paris-Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. (In French.) — When speaking of 
how long rails last, of course I was not referring to rails at stations which are so 
much exposed to friction, nor yet to rails in tunnels which suffer from moisture and 
smoke. On the contrary, I expressly stated that these wore out more rapidly. 

In reply to Mr. Hohenegger, the coefficient of resistance required by the Paris- 
Lyons-Mediterranean specifications is as a minimum 44 ^/^ tons per square inch 
(70 kilograms per square millimetre) and the elongation of */2 inch (12 millimetres). 

The factories supply us with steel which generally has a resistance of from 
46 to SO tons per square inch (72 to 78 kilograms per square millimetre). 

Mr. W. Hohenegger. (In French.) — Messrs. Michel and Dietler have just asserted 
that rails deteriorate in tunnels owing to rust. This is only a side issue about 
which we ought not to waste time. 

From what we have heard we may come to the conclusion that the long life of 
rails in France is due to the good quality of metal used and to good construction of 
the constituent parts of the permanent way. 

Mr. John M. Toucey, New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. — We have 
had a very interesting discussion and a great many points of interest have been 
raised this morning with which we have had to deal. Of course some things have 
been discussed here with which we have not met. 

With regard to Mr. Johnson's experience of rails, our first experience in steel rails 
was in 1867, 1868, 1869 and 1870, from the firms of John Brown and Barrow of 
this country. They were all hard steel and we got excellent results from those rails. 
They were light in weight compared with what wc are using now. We started with 
a 60 lb steel rail, 30 feet in length. Now we are up to 100 lbs. 

There has been a gradual increase in perfecting the manufacture of rails in the 



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United Stales. We get almost as good a rail now without hammering the ingots as 
we did with hammering. The traffic upon our line, of course, most of you are 
familiar with; it is extremely heavy. Our cars and engines are heavy, and we have 
found it necessary to increase the weight of rails to meet the increased weight of the 
traffic, so that we are getting up gradually to 100 lbs on the main line for our pas- 
senger trains, and we are running on that line a speed varying from 60 to 100 and 102 
and even 105 miles an hour. Gentlemen seem to think that that cannot be true, but 
nevertheless it is the fact. The Empire State Express train makes its run of 440 miles 
daily at a speed of about 53 miles an hour; but when we are delayed, we arc 
compelled to increase the speed, to make up the lost time; we are seldom late in 
arriving at the terminus, and if we do lose time a speed of from 80 to 100 miles per 
hour is frequently attained. I have some statistics here, and I will read you the 
speed of the train as it goes along, and this is the average speed every day : 
62-07 miles, 67-6, 76*27, 6923, 6923, 66*17, 60, 62-07, 64.28, 6428, 61 60, 64-28, 
66-6, 72, 72, 72, 69*23, 76*6, 78*26, 73*47, 76*6, 76*6, 80, 80, 80, 81*8, 76*6, 83*7, 
78*26, 80, 81*8, 100, 88, 83*7, 102*86, 78*26, 78*26 The weight of the cars is 
328,950 lbs, of the engine and tender 204,000 lbs, and the weight of the load 
33,000 lbs. The total weight of the train, therefore, is 565,950 lbs. Our goods 
trains average 50 cars of 30 tons each and 2,000 feet in length with a locomotive 
engine weighing 60 tons, and we make a speed of from 20 to 30 miles an hour as 
necessity requires. There are other American roads that can do the same thing. 

As regards the rails, we have gradually increased the hardness of the rails from 
about 30 points up to 50 or 60 points of carbon. We find that we saved money by 
that, and that it was a great advantage in having a hard rail. Originally the Ame- 
rican manufacturers would not make a rail higher than 30 points, or 35, but it was 
so soft that its life was only 5 or 6 years. With the original Barrow rails we 
could count on 15 yenrs service with tlie traffic that we had at that time. At the 
present time, however, with the traffic that we have and the heavy rail that we have 
got, we are not in a position to state exactly what the life of the rail will be, but 
we calculate 20 years. The joint question has been discussed here. We use a fish- 
plate, the weight of which is about 80 lbs per pair. Our rails now consist of two 
kinds, 80 lbs to the yard, and 100 lbs to the yard, the fish-plating being about 
36 inches in length with six bolts. We have no suspended joint. We tried that 
some years ago, but the detlection was so great that we had to abandon it. Now we 
use the 36 inch fish-plate with three ties; tlie centre tie being under the joint. We 
lay the joints in the manner we call ** broken "; that is, they are not opposite 
each other. We use an indicator car, running it on the line, so as to see what 
the deflections are in the track. With these 100 lb and 80 lb rails, and this 
long fish-plate taking three lies there is hardly any deflection perceptible at 
the joints; it is quite as smooth at the centre of the rail as at the joint. So we have 
come to the conclusion that the long fish-plate of 36 inches with three ties, and the 
centre one taking the joint, is the best. 



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I would like to say that our chief engineer, Colonel Katte, wa3 unable to come, but 
he has sent one of his associates, Mr. Dudley, who is here, and he has had the entire 
experience of rolling these rails, specifications and everything, and if you would like 
to hear him, Mr, Dudley will explain the whole thing to you, 

Mr. P, H. Dudley, New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. — In the 
manufacture of a rail at the present time the first object that we try to secure is a 
sound ingot. The percentage of carbon in the ingot does not make so much differ- 
ence as the form in which we can hold the carbon, We desire to have a large per- 
centage of the carbon in the form of hardening carbon, not simply cement carbon. 
That gives us the better wear. 

For the 80 lb rails we use from 0*45 to 0*55 of 1 p. c. of carbon, — 0*15 to 0*20 
of 1 p. c. of silicon, and from 1 p. c. to 1'20 of manganese. The phosphorus is 
limited to 006 of 1 p. c. The above composition gives a large percentage of the 
carbon in hardening form, and gives a very solid ingot. 

For the 100 lb rails we increase the carbon up to 60 of 1 p. c. and carry the 
manganese from about 1-iO to 1*20 p. c, and the silicon from 015 to 0*20 of 1 p. c. 
The ingots are about fifteen inches square at the base, and the steel instead of rising 
at the top of the ingot actually settles, and we have ingots which are smooth and 
solid on the top end. These ingots are without a trace of blow holes and are very 
sound. The rails are all tested by the drop test with supports three feet apart; for 
65 to 70 lb rails, the drop is 2,000 lbs falling 16 feet, producing a deflection of about 
1*8 to 2 inches for our standard quality. For 75 to 80 lb rails the drop is 2,000 lbs 
falling 20 feet. The standard of deflection for the 80 lb rail is loo inch, which 
indicates a steel of about 120,000 lbs tensile strength and elastic limits from 65,000 
to 70,000 lbs. The latter is more important than the tensile strength. 

As regards the stiffness of the 80 lb rail suspended on supports 30 feet apart, 
100 lbs deflects it *^^/iooo ^^^i^ ii^^h. The modulus of elasticity for that steel is 
29,500,000 lbs per square inch. Lowenng the carbon in the steel, the modulus of 
elasticity drops. 

It has been very carefully ascertained that the higher the grade of the steel the 
higher is the modulus of elasticity. 

The deflection for the 100 lb rail with supports 30 feet apart is ^^/looo of ^^^ i^^^h 
— that is for a 100 lb rail 6 inches high, base 5 V2 inches, — and is 80 p. c. stiflfer 
than the pioneer 80 lb rail which was originally put in on the New York Central 
and Hudson River Railroad. 

The percentage of elongation of the rails under the 20 feet drop is from 14 
to 18 p. c. when the rail is placed on the side, and when the weight is dropped upon 
the head the elongation is about 5 p. c. The second blow will only increase it 
to 7 or 8 p. c, straining it in other places. 

We have an indicator car to run over the track to record the deflections of the rails 
on diagrams (see Appendix). This car also sums up into feet and inches per mile 



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264 

all the undulations in the rails and gives us the condition of the steel. So the 
officials of the railroad can see the condition of every mile, and see whether it is 
possible to improve the track by labour or whether they must renew the steel. 

We find that the minimum undulations on a 100 lb rail are about 1 foot 9 inches 
per mile and that is as low as it is possible for the trackmen to surface the track, and 
on the 80 lb rail it is 2 feet 6 inches. As a result in the New York Central and 
other Roads in the last ten years, they have reduced the undulations of the rails per 
mile to the lowest limits and the tracks now are as smooth as it is possible to make 
them, for each section of the rail. To do this, however, required many important 
changes in the manufacture of the rails, making them much smoother than for- 
merly. (See in the Appendix the description of the diagrams.) 

Mr. von Lenz, Emperor Ferdinand's Northern-Austrian Ry. (In French). — I should 
like to know from representatives of Companies which have lines with severe 
gradients or stations very close together, for instance a line, such as that from 
Paris to Marseilles or ** the Metropolitan ' ', whether observations have been made on 
the effect of instantaneous brakes such as the Westinghousc, Smith, etc., on the life 
of rails. 

The President. — As it is getting late, I would suggest that we adjourn. {Agreed.} 

— The meeting adjourned at 12-4S p. m. 



July 1. 1895, at 2.15 a. m. 

Mr. d'Abramson, Russian State Railways. (In French.) — I find on page 121 
(English edition) of Mr. Ast's report the following passage : — 

The stiffness of the rail must be taken into consideration because the load is transmitted 
to other sleepers than those which directly support the load on the rail. Calculations on 
this point show us however that when the stiffness is uniformly increased, the increase of 
its utility for this purpose becomes rapidly smaller and smaller. In a rail of about 90 lbs 
per yard (45 kilograms per metre), the limit is reached ; any further increase in the stiffness 
of the rail has practically no effect in distributing the load over the sleepers. 

On the other hand, we read on page 129 (English edition) as follows : 
From this point of view, the new cross sections of the French and Belgian railways which 
correspond to a weight of 92 to 100 lbs per yard (46 to 50 kilograms par metre) seem justi- 
fied. This is shown in the subsequent table. 

This seems somewhat contradictory. 

At the St. Petersburg meeting, the Congress agreed that there was a tendency 
towards increasing the weight of rails ; this tendency still seems to exist. 

I should therefore like to hear the opinion of our Belgian friends on the ** Goliath " 
rail which they use. 



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1 

Do they think of using rails weighing more than 105 lbs (52 kilograms) or do they 
share Mr. Ast's views in that this is too heavy? 

Mr. de Bnsschere, Belgian State Railways. (In French.) — In reply to the questions 
asked this morning by Mr. Dietler and now by Mr. d'Abramson, I must first state 
that our 105 lb (52 kilograms) rails give satisfaction. They provide a good road and 
personally I have no fault to find with them except that they cost more than is 
necessary. No doubt so far as stability is concerned a rail weighing 80 or 90 lbs 
(40 or 45 kilograms) would have been heavy enough, but the Belgian Administra- 
tion wished to have a large margin for wear. This can, with the Goliath rail, go 
as far as an inch (25 millimetres) and this was the main inducement for adopting 
the type. 

The wear of this rail has already been discussed at the St. Petersburg meeting. 
I then stated that the crossings, diamond and acute, wore out rather quickly, and 
that at many places they had to be renewed after two years and even less. 

The attention of the foundries which supplied them was called to the circum- 
stance and they are trying to find methods of manufacture which will prevent rails 
at crossings from wearing out faster than in the ordinary road. I hope they will 
meet with success, but only time can show us positively how far we may expect satis- 
factory results. 

Mr. Mantegazza, Mediterranean of Italy Ry. (In French.) — I should like to ask the 
meeting what it regards as the best type of permanent way for main lines to adopt. 

As you are aware we have long tunnels on our line, the Mont Cenis, Ronco des 
Giovi, Sella, etc. 

We work lines which do not belong to us. In the Ronco tunnel the Government 
had 73 lb (36 kilograms) Vignoles rails laid ; in four years, the track had to be 
relaid. 

We have had to take to chair-rails, and their dimensions are as follows ; height 
5 Vs inches (0150), 2 ^^/^e inches (0072) for the upper and 3 V^ inches (0090) for the 
lower head. This rail weighs 90 lbs (45 kilograms) and has proved satisfactory. 
What I specially want to know is whether we ought to give the preference to chair- 
rails rather than to Vignoles in long tunnels where oxidation is to be expected. 

We are. in the habit of giving the rails in tunnels a coat of paint to protect them 
from rusting. Now they can be painted much more quickly if the rail is on chairs 
and on this account a chair-rail would appear to offer advantages not possessed by 
the Vignoles. I offer this as a suggestion to the meeting and should be pleased to 
hear the opinion of those present. The rails could be easily changed — a by no 
means unimportant point — for the longest interval between the trains is two hours. 

The President. (In French.) — The question still under discussion is the weight of 
rails. Will any delegate give us any information on the subject? The reporter 
for the continent thinks there is nothing to gain by increasing the weight beyond 
90 lbs (45 kilograms). 



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266 

Mr. Saboniet, Paris and Orleans Ry. (In French.) — Gentlemen, the resolutions 
proposed tend to arrive at some relation between weight of rail and speed of trains 
that the road can bear. 

It has been said that rails weighing from 70 to 80 lbs (35 to 40 kilograms) suit 
speeds of from SO to 56 miles (80 to 90 kilometres) an hour ; on the other hand, it 
has been stated that heavier rails, i. e. exceeding 80 lbs (40 kilograms), must be used 
on roads which will have to stand speeds greater than 62 miles (iOO kilometres) an 
hour. These statements seem to be rather expressions of opinion than deductions 
from facts. 

Indeed, if I take as an instance what happens in France, I find on the one 
hand that some Companies who run very fast trains — their speed reaches 
74 and 87 miles (120 and 140 kilometres) an hour — use 60 lb (30 kilograms) 
Vignoles rails. 

These Companies have trains booked at speeds of 62 miles (100 kilometres). 

On the other hand, we find that other Companies which use 77 lb (38 kilograms) 
rails hesitate to exceed 62 miles (100 kilometres) an hour. The explanation is 
mainly the stability of the engines. This is why I think it would be unwise to 
acknowledge that there was a fixed relationship between the minimum weight of a 
rail and the maximum speed it could stand. 

Mr. Agnellet, Northern of France Ry. (In French.) — There is a line on the North- 
ern of France laid with 60 lb (30 kilograms) Vignoles rails upon which run trains 
which often exceed 62 miles (100 kilometres) an hour. The track will remain as it 
is for a long time yet, but we are gradually exchanging these rails for ones weigh- 
ing 90 lbs (45 kilograms), because we recognise the fact that though, as it is at 
present, the line is suitable for heavy traffic, not only as regards tonnage but also 
speed, it is costly to maintain and is wanting in stability. 

The 90 lb (45 kilograms) rail has been adopted in order to get a strong, stable line, 
capable of bearing increased speed. I think that a line with 60 lbs (30 kilograms) 
rails if well maintained can carry a great deal of traffic; but for the sake not only of 
easier running but of reducing maintenance expenses also, it is preferable to use 
90 lbs (45 kilograms) rails. 

The niunber of sleepers is a very important factor; for lines carrying the import- 
ant expresses, 16 sleepers seem advisable for a 90 lb (45 kilograms) rail measuring 
39 feet (12 metres); for lines carrying trains of moderate speed, 14 or 15 sleepers 
may be enough. 

Mr. Belelubsky, Russian State Railways. (In French.) — Mr. Ast states on 
page 145 (English edition) of his report : Rails should have a cross section whose 
moment of resistance is about i2*20 cubic inches (200 cubic centimetres). 

This implies that with rails of similar weight different moments of resistance and 
degrees of stability may be obtained. 

In Russia, with lighter rails their section is constructed to offer greater resistance. 



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267 

Accordingly, I agree with Mr. Sabouret that 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails can stand 
high speeds, and this depends essentially on the moment of resistance. 

Mr. De Bussohere, Belgian State Railways. (In French.) — On page 124 (English 
version) of Mr. Ast*s report we find the following passage : — 

A railway can certainly not be considered properly constructed when the traflfic on it can 
only be worked with excessive repairs; and it is from this point of view that we must 
consider the value we have found above by calculation as the highest limit of the serviceable 
capacity of a line. 

So Mr. Ast agrees with Mr. Agnellet, for Mr. Ast is also of opinion that for a road 
to be good it is not sufficient that it allows of trains running fast; it must also not 
cost too much to maintain. 

We have lines in Belgium which stand very heavy trafiic and, though they are 
excellent so far as stability is concerned, they cost a great deal to maintain and we 
are trying to reduce maintenance expenditure by strengthening them. 

Mr. Agnellet. (In French.) — Observations now being made on our railway give 
us reason for believing that increased weight of rail means considerable economy 
in maintenance expenses. 

Mr. von Leber, Austrian Ministry of Commerce. (In French.) — I do not think 
Mr. Ast's meaning has been quite grasped. He is supposed to want to establish 
a relation directly between speed and weight of rail. This is not quite the case. 

Mr. Ast has discussed three cardinal points : 1'*, Speed; 2"**, weight of rail, ai^d 
3"*, load per axle. The last is very important and I may incidentally mention that 
in Austria and Germany the load does not exceed 14 tons. 

Taking these three points into consideration, Mr. Ast has expressed the opinion 
that an 80 lb (40 kilograms) rail was heavy enough to stand a speed of 80 miles 
(80 kilometres) per hour. 

If you specify the weight per yard, the engineer will of course design the section 
of rail so as to obtain the best result possible. 

There can be no doubt of that. 1 am drawing the attention of the meeting to the 
exact signification of Mr. Ast's deduction which it seems to me has not been clearly 
understood. 

Mr. Dietler, Gothard Ry. (In French ) — I beg to thank Mr. De Busschere for the 
information he has given us. 

According to him, the 103 lb (52 kilograms) rail is successful, but no inconve- 
nience would arise if it were lighter. 

I may inform the meeting that Swiss engineers formally investigated this point 
with a view to recommending a typical strong rail for lines with heavy traffic. 
They came to the conclusion that for lines with the heaviest traffic a quite satis- 
factory line could be constructed with rails not exceeding 05 lbs (47 kilograms) 
in weight. They arrived at this after due consideration not only from the technical, 



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but also from the economic point of view, a side of the question which has so far 
not been discussed here. 

So they thought that a 98 lb (47 kilograms) rail — the heaviest rail we use — 
was incontestably the least costly, granted that it lasts longer — consequently the 
annual sinking fund is not so great — and moreover this considerably reduces 
expenditure on maintenance. Thus the cost, including interest on capital, is lower 
and in all respects the 93 lb (47 kilograms) rail seems to meet requirements most 
efficiently. 

I have thought that what we have heard to-day from those representing different 
countries only bears out this conclusion. 

However, I think Mr. Ast's conclusion is rather too wide, for he suggests that the 
weight should be between 70 and 93 lbs (3o and 46 kilograms). 

Having regard to what has been said during this discussion we might raise the 
minimum and take 80 lbs (40 kilograms) instead of it. We should then say that 
a rail for a line carrying very heavy traffic ought to weigh between 80 and 95 lbs 
(40 and 47 kilograms). 

Mr. von Boschan, Emperor Ferdinand's Northern of Austria Ry. (In French.) — 
I should like to draw Mr. Dietler's attention to the exact bearing of Mr. Ast's con- 
clusions. 

The reporter has drawn a definite distinction between lines traversed by trains 
running at 50 miles (80 kilometres) an hour with axle loads not exceeding 14 tons, 
and lines where trains run at speeds greater than 50 miles (80 kilometres) and axle 
loads exceed 14 tons. This accounts for the suggested difference in the weight 
of the rails. In the former case, that is on lines where the important expresses 
do not run and which do not carry very heavy traffic, he thinks 70 lb (35 kilograms) 
rails are suitable; in the second case he recommends rails weighing 80 lbs (40 kilo- 
grams) and upwards. 

Mr. Mantegazza, Mediterranean of Italy Ry. (In French.) — I do not see why we 
should specify the weight of the rail, for in my opinion it is not upon the weight 
that quality depends. A road may be quite good with a comparatively light rail 
if enough sleepers are used. What ought above all to be settled is how the metal 
should be utilised so far as the section of the rail is concerned. These remarks 
apply to lines which do not carry heavy traffic. However, for lines which carry 
the important expresses and rolling stock with 15* ton axle-loads I think the weight 
of the rails should exceed 73 lbs (36 kilograms). 

The President. (In French.) — I must ask you to keep the discussion within 
limits. 

The reporter is of opinion that for lines upon which trains run at 50 miles 
(80 kilometres) an hour as a maximum, and the axle load does not exceed 14 tons, 
70 lb (35 kilograms) rails meet all requirements. On the other hand, he thinks that 
as soon as this speed and load are exceeded a heavier rail must be used and its 



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269 

weight may reach as much as 90 lbs (45 kilograms). According to him, there 
is nothing to be gained by exceeding this. 

Mr. Mantegazza. (In French.) — Who says so? 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — The reporter. 

The President. — The importance of this question will not escape you. 

Mr. Hantegazza (In French.) — By combining the respective advantages of the 
double-headed and Vignoles rail, we might get a line on chairs with rails not 
exceeding 90 lbs (45 kilograms). This is what we have done in the Ronco tunnel. 

Mr. von Leber (In French.) — It is all a question of expense. 

Mr. Bruneel, Belgian State Railways (In French.) — I cannot agree with the reso- 
lution proposed by the reporter, Mr. Ast, as to the weight of rails. We cannot 
decide that it shall be looked upon as going too far if we use rails exceeding 90 lbs 
(45 kilograms) in weight for roads carrying very heavy traffic. 

In arriving at the conclusions proposed, Mr. Ast relies mainly on theoretic 
grounds and on calculations supported, it is true, to a certain extent by the results 
of experience. My opinion, gentlemen, is that a limit in the weight of rails cannot 
be based on calculations only and that, though theory may carry weight in fixing 
a minimum, it cannot lead to determining a maximum weight which is not to be 
exceeded without being considered excessive. 

But I believe I am much nearer agreeing with Mr. Ast on this point than would 
appear at first sight. For I read on page 143 (English edition) of the report before 
us the following passage : — 

But to absolutely determine the type of construction for a road suitable for high speeds 
is impossible, because the increased stresses due to increased speed have not, either 
by theory or experiment, been determined with a sufficient degree of accuracy. 

This opinion is expressed elsewhere in other words, for instance on page 107 
(English edition), where Mr. Ast states that :— 

A theoretical examination does not give us an absolute measure of the capabilities 
of a line. 

One of the most important factors in the strain on a line is the dynamic force 
caused by abnormal shocks which increase considerably as the engines run faster. 
Upon this point we only possess approximate hypotheses which can only be 
regarded as near the mark and do not seem to me sufficient justification for fixing 
a maximum weight for rails. 

So then the Congress cannot formally decide that 90 lbs (48 kilograms) should 
be an extreme limit that may not be exceeded. This weight is only the result 
of theoretic calculations based on uncertainty and no such absolute conclusions 
can be drawn from it. 



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Why then allow as a maximum 90 lbs (45 kilograms) and .not 93 or 97 lbs 
(46 or 48 kilograms) like the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Company, or even 
105 lbs (52 kilograms) like the Belgian State Railways? 

The section ought to agree rather with the English reporter, Mr. Hunt, who 
says on page 7 : — 

As regards the calculations of the strains imposed on rails by the rolling load, as the 
various stresses cannot be ascertained sufficiently accurately to enable a rail to be designed 
on the same scienUfic principles as a girder would be, it is considered by English engineers 
that close and careful observations of the effects produced upon the road by the rolling 
loads which pass over it is the best means of determining the size and shape of the rail. 

I think that this is the truth and that we ought to trust rather to facts than to the 
results of mathematical formulae, for these can only very roughly allow for 
abnormal strains which to such a large extent affect the strain on the component 
parts of the permanent way. 

Accordingly I suggest to the section that they should not fix any extreme limit, but 
that they should rather confirm what the Congress has already often affirmed in 
rather a vague way perhaps — but wc all know why the conclusions of the Congress 
are sometimes vague — that the permanent way ought to be strengthened in pro- 
portion to the loads it has to carry, to the amount of traffic and to the speed of 
the trains. 

Were we to fix the maximum at 90 lbs (45 kilograms) as proposed by Mr. Ast, 
we should be criticising, unjustly perhaps, the measures taken by the Paris-Lyons 
and Mediterranean, and by the Belgian State who have 97 and 105 lb (48 and 
52 kilograms) rails respectively. 

I think I am justified in urging that 90 lbs (45 kilograms) — a weight which after 
all depends for acceptance upon theoretic considerations checked, it is true, by coef- 
ficients whose value we cannot gauge — should not be accepted as an absolute maxi- 
mum which cannot be passed without extravagance. 

Mr. Ast, reporter, (In French.) — It is very difficult lo give an exact figure. Each 
Administration can make its roads taking into consideration the circumstances of 
working them. But when it is a question of making a typical road, a line calcu- 
lated for the fastest expresses, the following question should be put : will not 
circumstances require a further increase of the axle-load or a further increase 
in speed? 

It is to meet this possibility that wc ought to recommend that the section of the 
line should be such that, by some simple means such as additional sleepers, the rails 
may be able, if need be, to stand greater strain. 

Experience teaches us that the rail with a moment of resistance equal to 12'20 cubic 
inches (200 cubic centimetres) is a rail whose weight exceeds 80 lbs (40 kilograms). 

I beg you, gentlemen, to look at the typical instances I have given in my report and 
I feel convinced that you will adopt my proposals. 



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271 

Mr. Wasitityiuiki, Warsaw-Vienna Ry. (In French.) — We have just been told 
thai a relation can be established between weight of rail, axle load and speed. 
I grant this. But I think that the rail's section, upon which depends how the 
substance forming it is utilised, must be specified. Weight does not always coincide 
with resistance. 

Besides I think the weight of a rail is subordinate to the spacing of the sleepers and 
that it would be a good thing to specify what the spacing is. 

The President. (In French.) — Do not let us discuss the spacing of sleepers just 
now. We will deal with that later on. 

Mr. Wasiutynski. (In French.) — Still, sir, I think we must discuss it, for other- 
wise the relation between weight of rail, axle load and speed will be arbitrary. 

The President. — I think, gentlemen, the general discussion should be considered 
closed. The principal secretary, Mr. Debray, will submit for your deliberation a 
motion based upon the remarks already made which may serve as a groundwork for 
discussion. 

Mr. Debray, pnncipal secretary. (In French.) — The following is the motion to be 
considered :— 

" 1*'. The section agrees that, where necessary, express trains at a speed of from 
" 62 to 74 V2 n^iJ^^s (100 to 120 kilometres) can run over a line laid with 60 lb 
*• (30 kilograms) rails, but for various reasons and specially with a view to decrease 
" expenses, heavier rails are preferable; 

it 2"''. The weight of rails for express lines depends upon the type of permanent 
** way, the speed of the trains, the methods of construction and the running of the 
" rolling stock; 

*' S^**. For an axle-load of 14 tons and a maximum speed of 50 miles (80 kilo- 
** metres) an hour, 70 lb (35 kilograms) rails are heavy enough; 

*' 4"*. If the axle-load is greater or the speed higher, heavier rails — up to 90 lbs 
•* (45 kilograms), — should be used; 

** 5"*. A heavier rail than 90 lbs (45 kilograms) does not seem at present to offer 
•* sufficient advantage to justify the increased prime cost. " 

A delegate. (In French.) — I request that a slight alteration may be inserted. 
I propose that the words if a road is well maiiitained be substituted for where 
necessary. 

We must avoid wording which would censure Administrations using 60 lb 
(30 kilograms) rails. 

Mr. Debray. (In French.) — It is of course understood that all lines are well 
maintained and so there is no use in saying it. 

Mr. Bell, Indian Government Railways. — May I ask whether the resolution is to 
refer to flat-footed rails or to double-headed rails? I take it the mere expression 



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40 OP 80 lbs per yard, conveys but little meaning when two different classes of 
rails, one with chairs, and the other without, are in question. 

The President. — That is the difficulty of which I spoke this morning. There are 
two different systems. There is the system of Vignoles and there is the English 
system. Have you any objection to the answer? 

Hr. Bell. — Roughly speaking, sir, I hold that you should add at least 10 p. c. 
to the weight of rail when you speak of the flat-footed Vignoles which compares on 
all fours with a given double-headed rail. 

The President. (In French.) — Still practice shows that trains can run at 62 miles 
(100 kilometres) an hour on 60 lb (30 kilograms) Vignoles rails. 

If this is feasible on Vignoles rails, it is still more so with double-headed rails of 
the same weight. 

Mr. Agnellet, Northern of France Ry. (In French.) — As worded the motion takes 
no count of the number of sleepers. Now this factor cannot be disregarded. As the 
successive supports of the road are not always of equal value the exact stability of a 
rail cannot be estimated. Nevertheless the spacing of the sleepers is most intimately 
connected with the stability of a road. 

To be suitable for express trains a line laid with 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails 
must have its sleepers close together and they must lie on first class ballast. On 
the Northern of France, there are now 10 sleepers per 60 lb (30 kilograms) rail, 
26 feet 2 inches (8 metres) in length and there will be 11 soon. 

There can be no doubt that express trains can run on a road laid with 60 lb 
(30 kilograms) rails. Still it would be well to lay stress on the wording of the 
motion by stating that very good ballast is necessary and the sleepers need to be 
close-spaced in proportion as engines are heavy and speed high. 

Mr. Briere, Paris and Orleans Ry. (In French.) — Gentlemen, it appears to me that 
several points which must be taken into account have escaped discussion. First 
of all a great deal depends upon curves. An instance has been given of express 
trains running over 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails. I believe the line in question has 
only a few curves of very large radii, exceeding 40 chains (800 metres). If I am 
mistaken I hope some one will correct me. Curve radius must be taken into 
account. 

Secondly, we must not neglect the type of engine used. I am again referring 
to the line we have been considering and I find some very interesting points about it. 

The engines in use upon this line have been exceedingly carefully devised. It has 
been no light task to succeed in running trains at 62 and 69 miles (100 and 110 kilo- 
metres) an hour over 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails. 

At the outset there were difficulties, but fortunately there exists in this Company 
the most perfect harmony between the locomotive and permanent way departments. 



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The moment these fast trains began running it was found that the permanent way 
was getting injured . What followed ? 

The locomotive department, instead of making diflSculties, set to work at its 
engines and investigated the play of their axles. Some slight alterations were made 
and the engines were made less rigid. Since then the permanent way has been all 
right. If on the contrary the locomotive department had persisted in retaining the 
type of engine, I think I am justified in asserting that either the engines would have 
had to be discarded or the permanent way would have had to be altered. 

Allow me, gentlemen, to add one word more. 

I believe that the cause of the special stale of affairs of which we have heard lies, 
not in figures which explain little, but in this harmony which exists between the two 
departments. 

An engine whose leading axle carries 16 or 18 tons may do no harm to the 
permanent way, while one with only a 14 ton load may prove disastrous to the same 
permanent way. 

The whole matter is of serious import and the difficulty in solving the question 
ought to make us show great reserve in accepting a mathematical formula. 

Calculations which may apply to one line, to such and such traffic, such a speed 
or such an engine will not apply to another line with similar traffic but using 
engines of a different pattern. 

As you are aware, the action of engines on the permanent way is still a mystery. 
It is undoubtedly one of the questions most deserving of attention from railway 
engineers and unfortunately one of the least investigated. 

Wheo the locomotive department is building a new engine, one thing only is 
regarded : to make it very powerful. But no heed is taken as to what effect the 
engine will have upon the permanent way. If only one was built at a time and 
trials were then made it would be less serious, for it would at once be found that 
improvements must be made upon it so as to spare the permanent way. (Jnfortu- 
nately once the new pattern has been passed a whole series is built. It is only after 
they have been working some time that the destructive effects are recognised and it 
is found that the permanent way is not sufficiently resistant. 

Then, instead of altering the engine, fault is found with the permanent way; it is 
strengthened, re-strengthened and re-strengthened ever again. 

This would be unnecessary if only the engineer would remedy the defect in his 
engine without, however, sacrificing power. Why not graciously request the loco- 
motive department to discover means to make some improvements in new types of 
engines which should result in making them less destructive to the permanent 
way? Would not this generally do away with the question of strengthening the 
road? 

I hope, gentlemen, you will excuse the length of my speech, but I have tried to 
show you that we ought to be very careful in our expressions of opinion, for so far 
as engine-running is concerned, there can be no absolute rule. (Cheers.) 



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J74 

Mf. Aft, reporter. (In French.) — I want to say a word or two in reply to 
Mr. Wasiutynski, who has touched upon the spacing of sleepers. 

As I have said in my report, the spacing and number of sleepers are more or less 
dependent on the carrying capacity of the rail. These details only affect the pres- 
sure on the ballast When a line is laid down, whether with light or heavy rails, 
the smaller the distance between the sleepers the less the pressure on the ballast and 
the more favourable it is to economy in maintenance. 

The length of sleepers is a factor which should also be considered in its relation 
to the position occupied by the wheels of the vehicles, for this position modifies 
the load on the rail and the pressure on the ballast which depends on this load. 

Mr. Debray, principal secretary. (In French.) — The President bids me propose an 
alteration which will meet the principle pointed out by Mr. Bri^re. The alteration 
consists in changing the order of the paragraphs. 

We should commence with this one : — 

*' The weight of rails for express lines depends upon the type of permanent way, 
'* the speed of the trains, the methods of construction and the running of the 
** rolling stock. " 

If we take this first we shall meet the views of permanent way engineers without 
arousing hostility among locomotive engineers. 

Mr. von Leber, Austrian Ministry of Commerce. (In French.) — This would mean 
nothing. In passing a motion like this, we are accepting a truism. 

Mr. Debray. (In French.) — But immediately after would come the following : — 

** The section agrees that, given favourable circumstances, express trains at a speed 
** of from 62 to 74 V2 miles (100 to 120 kilometres) can run over a line laid with 
** 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails, but for various reasons, and specially with a view to 
" decrease expenses, heavier rails are preferable. " 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — That is what we ought to begin with. (Latighter.) 

Mr. Debray. (In French.) — Then would come §§ 3, 4, and 5 in the order I read 
them just now. 

H. Briere, Paris and Orleans Ry. (In French.) — I think it is a mistake to say 
nothing about curve radii. 

The Preiident. (In French.) — We ought as far as possible to look at things from 
a general point of view and confine ourselves to putting on record the result 
of actual experience. 

We have been told on the one hand that trains do run at speeds of from 62 to 
69 miles (100 to HO kilometres) an hour over 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails. On the 
other hand, we are Informed that we can trust a 70 lb (38 kilograms) rail for lines 
that are to carry trains running at from 56 to 62 miles (90 to 100 kilometres) an hour. 



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278 

Finally where the axle-load exceeds 14 tons and speed 62 miles (100 kilometres) we 
may go up to 90 lb (45 kilograms) rails. 

These are the limits given us and within which the discussion ought, I think, to 
be kept without going into points which only concern individual Companies. 

Mr. Ait, reporter. (In French.) — We have been told that the Northern of France 
accepted 90 lbs (4o kilograms) as the weight of rails. 

The Prosident. — Yes, but they still use 60 lb (30 kilograms) rails. 

Mr. Agnellet, Northern of France Ry. (In French.) — The Northern Company is 
gradually changing from 60 to 90 lb (30 to 4S kilograms) rails. 

The President. (In French.) — The Company to which I belong works main lines 
with heavy traffic and regards it as unnecessary to use a rail weighing more than 
70 lbs (38 kilograms). 

Mr. Fonan, French State Railways. (In French.) — I think it would be better 
not lo decide upon any exact figure as to the weight for rails. 

Mr. Ast says in his conclusions that a 90 lb (48 kilograms) rail is the most suitable 
for express lines, but has no intention of finding fault with the use of a lighter rail. 

Moreover, the various French railway Administrations are endeavouring to 
improve the stability of their lines, to increase the weight of the rails laid on lines 
upon which trains run at SO miles (80 kilometres) an hour and to make the weight a 
minimum of 80 lbs (40 kilograms). I therefore think it would be better to submit 
to the section the following resolution : — 

'* The section is of opinion, due account being taken of the other elements of the 
** permanent way and the construction of the rolling stock, that there is a general 
** tendency, whether it be with the object of increasing the stability of the road at 
** present or to meet future traffic requirements, to increase the weight of rail on 
*' lines with expresses at over 80 miles (80 kilometres) an hour to a minimum of 
** roughly 80 lbs a yard (40 kilograms per metre). ** 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — I do not think we can accept Mr. Fouan's resolution 
as it stands. It is impossible to say that 80 lbs (40 kilograms) is a minimum when 
it is a fact that in many countries, and in Austria especially, 70 lb (38 kilograms) 
rails are used with speeds of 86 miles (90 kilometres) an hour. Mr. Bri6re said 
just now that on some railways the locomotive and permanent way departments 
work in harmony to the great advantage of the service. Unfortunately this is not 
the case everywhere. 1 agree with Mr. Bri6re that this good understanding ought 
always to be maintained between the two.departments. 

Mr. Bri^re thinks we should take special notice of sharp curves. This does not 
seem to me necessary. It is quite understood that the limits we are suggesting only 
refer to lines in normal circumstances. It is evident that very fast trains cannot 
run on lines with exceptional curves. 



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Mr. Briere. (In French.) — That is a mistake as proved by the fact that the 
Orleans runs three trains each way daily at a speed reaching 50 miles (80 kilometres) 
an hour over a line with curves of 15 chain radius (300 metres). {Cries of: Vote^ 
vote.) 

The President. — I think the section is desirous of closing the discussion. 

Mr. Fonan. (In French.) — In order to satisfy Mr. von Leber, I have struck out 
the words '* a minimum of" from my resolution. We shall therefore fix neither 
minimum nor maximum and we avoid condemning either rails under 80 lbs (40 kilo- 
grams) or rails over 90 lbs (45 kilograms), the Belgian Goliath rail and the 95 lb 
(47 kilograms) rail of the Paris and Lyons. 

The President read Mr. Fouan's resolution as follows : — 

** The section is of opinion, due account being taken of the other elements of the 
** permanent way and the construction of the rolling stock, that there is a general 
'* tendency, whether it be with the object of increasing the stability of the road at 
** present or to meet future traffic requirements, to increase the weight of rails on 
'* lines with expresses at over 50 miles (80 kilometres) an hour to roughly 80 lbs a 
•* yard (40 kilograms per metre). '* 

— This was unanimously adopted and the meeting adjourned at 4-30 p. m. 



Jnly 2, 1895, at 10 a. m. 

The President. — I suggest, gentlemen, that we take up Mr. Ast's separate con- 
clusions one by one. (Agreed,) 

*• !•'. A layer of readily permeable ballast, at least 15 ^/^ inches (40 centimetres) 
" in thickness, resting on a perfectly drained sub-soil. " 

Mr. De Busschere, Belgian State Railways. (In French.) — Does this mean that 
there ought to be 15 ^1^ inches (40 centimetres) of ballast underneath the sleepers? 
(Interruption.) It seems to me important to be clear on the point. 

Mr. von Leber, Austrian Ministry of Commerce. (In French.) — No. It is the 
total thickness. 

Mr. De Busschere. (In French.) — The English railways accept two feet as the total 
depth of the permanent way, and this depth corresponds to a depth of ballast of about 
15 ^/4 inches (40 centimetres). 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — We understand 15 ^j^ inches (40 centimetres) to 
be the total depth. 

Mr. Briere, Paris and Orleans Ry. (In French.) — I am confident that on the French 



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lines the depth of the ballast below the sleepers never exceeds 9 ^/g inches (28 centi- 
metres). 

Xr. De Bnsschere. (In French.) — It is different in England. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — We cannot accept the word ** minimum " in this reso- 
lution. If we were to accept the principle that the ballast must be at least 
15 3/4 inches (40 centimetres) in depth, every railway Company in France would 
be obliged to alter its road. I also think it would be better to speak of depth 
below the sleeper. In France, we are accustomed to ballast above the sleepers, so 
that the resolution would have to read not 18 ^[4 inches (40 centimetres), but 
id ^Is inches (SO centimetres). The really important thing is the depth below the 
sleeper. There remains the question whether a precise figure should be fixed. 
I do not myself think it is advisable, but if the section attaches importance to the 
point I must beg that the resolution may be altered to read '* a minimum of from 
7 "^/g to 9 "^Is inches (20 or 25 centimetres) " instead of 15 ^/4 inches (40 centimetres). 

I suggest therefore that the paragraph should read as follows : — 

** A layer of readily permeable ballast, from T^jsioQ ^8 inches in depth below 
** the sleeper as a minimum, resting on a perfectly drained subsoil. " 

Mr. A«t, reporter, (In French.) — I accept the suggestion. 

Mr. J. E. Bell, Indian Government Railways. — It appears to many of us that the 
depth of the rail, the depth of the chair below the rail and the depth of the sleeper 
below the chair all form elements in that elasticity which supplements the elas- 
ticity which the ballast opposes to the rigidity of the solid ground below. Hence 
to merely count the depth of the ballast from the underside of the sleeper as a 
constant, allows variation in the total elasticity of the road and omits a very large 
number of the elements which are essential to that elasticity which is required. 
That is our position; that it would be better to count from the top of the rails to 
the bottom of the ballast as a constant. In the case of the Vignoles rail, we 
certainly lose something by omitting the chair and some suitable difference must 
be allowed where you use thicker sleepers and where you use thinner. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — This would be impossible, unless we were to fix 
separate figures for Yignoles and for double-headed rails. 

Mr. Demonlin. (In French.) — It is precisely because a greater depth of ballast is 
used with the Yignoles rail that Mr. Bell has made the suggestion. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — I am clear that we must only take into consideration 
the depth of ballast below the sleeper. 

Mr, Petsche, Eastern of France Ry. (In French.) — The French roads have only 
7 "^/s inches (20 centimetres) under the sleepers, and they are excellent. 

Mr. W. Hohenegger, Austrian North West and South North German Junction 



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Railway. (In French.) — It must not be forgotten that the depth of ballast has to 
be different with steel sleepers. 

The President. — It is understood that we are not dealing with steel sleepers. 
The reporters have only discussed wooden sleepers. 
I will read you the proposition made by Mr. Bell. He says : — 

'' It is better to count the requisite depth of the ballast from the top of the rail to 
** the bottom of the ballast, for the Vignoles rail with light sleepers has a very 
** much less elastic bed than a double-headed rail with chairs, so that by increasing 
'* the elastic depth you substitute in effect a certain quantity of ballast tor the defi- 
** ciency in elasticity. " 

Mr. W. Hohenegg^er. (In French.) — I do not agree with Mr. Bell. Counting the. 
depth of the ballast from the bottom of the rail is objectionable because certain 
Austrian Administrations lay their lines so that the base of the rail is 1 ^/i6 inch 
(4 centimetres) above the sleeper. The best plan is to define the depth of the ballast 
below the sleeper. 

Mr. d'Abramson, Russian State Railways. (In French.) — I agree that we cannot 
accept Mr. BelFs proposal. To do so would only confuse the issue. 

— Mr. Bell's proposal was put to the vote and rejected. 

— Mr. Bri6re's proposal being supported by the reporter was accepted. 
The President. — Mr. Ast's second conclusion is as follows : — 

a 2nd Wood or steel sleepers at least 8 feet 10 inches (J^TO) in length and 
*' 10 V4 inches (26 centimetres) broad at the base. The section of the sleeper must 
** be such as to allow of the rails being securely fastened. 

'* The adoption of a uniform type of sleeper as in England would be highly 
*• desirable. " 

Mr.W. Hohenegger. (In French.) — We must not, I think, push too far the length 
of sleepers. Almost all continental railways use sleepers of 7 feet 10 inches or 
8 feet 2 inches (2'"40 or 2'"t)0) in length. The reporter proposes 8 feet 10 inches 
(2"70). I cannot agree and I think we must be satisfied with 8 feet 2 inches (2"50}. 

Mr. Petsche, Eastern of France Ry. (In French.) — I also think that 8 feet 10 inches 
(2»70) is excessive. Further I consider that a width of 9 ^/^ or 9 ^8 inches (24 or 
25 centimetres) gives an excellent road. I suggest 9 Vf inches (24 centimetres) 
instead of 10 V4 inches (26 centimetres). 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — It has been decided that we are not to deal with 
steel sleepers. Accordingly the words must be struck out of the resolution. 

Mr. d'Abramson. (In French.) — I protest strongly against fixing the length of 
sleepers at 8 feet 10 inches (2°*70). The sleepers that we use in Russia are only 



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8 feet 2 inches (2"S0) long, but the wood of which they are made is 4 V? inches 
(114 millimetres) bigger than that used in western Europe. 

The President. — There are two proposals, the one to flx the length at 8 feet 
10 inches (2°»70) and the'other to fix it at 8 feet 2 inches (2«»S0). 

Mr. d'Abramsos. (In French.) — I object to fixing any figure. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — I should like to know what is meant by the words 
** uniform type of sleeper ". 

The President. — The reporter proposes to adopt as in England a standard section. 

Mr. Ast, reporter. (In French.) — T beg you to observe that I have been asked to 
lay down the requirements for an ideal permanent way. Accordingly I have asked 
you to fix : (1), the thickness of the ballast at a minimum of 7 ^s to 9 ^s inches 
(20 to 28 centimetres) (2), the length of the sleeper at 8 feet 10 inches (2'»70), and 
its breadth at 10 ^4 inches (26 centimetres). 

I feel bound to press upon the section the adoption of these proposals. 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — It is an ideal railway then that we are discussing. 

Mr. Ast. (In French.) — It is impossible to construct an ideal road with the 
sleepers at present in use. 

Mr. Petsche. (In French.) — I confess I see danger in accepting Mr. Ast's proposals 
unconditionally. 

We are really settling what an ideal road ought to be and how it should differ 
in the dimensions of its component parts from the existing roads that have been 
tested by long experience. There is danger in saying ** the road of the future 
is so and so " for the resolutions of the Congress carry great weight. 

We, French engineers, are largely controlled by our Government, and you can see 
therefore that it is impossible for us to accept a decision that a road suitable for fast 
express traffic must have sleepers 8 feet 10 inches (2"»70) in length, resting on a bed 
of ballast 15 2/4 inches (40 centimetres) thick. We cannot accept it because a long 
experience has shown us that roads resting on 7 ^s inches (20 centimetres) of ballast 
with sleepers 8 feet 2 inches to 8 feet 8 inches (2'»80 to 2"65) long and 8 ^Vio to 

9 "^/g inches (22 to 28 centimetres) broad are perfectly capable of carrying very heavy 
trains at speeds of 75 miles (120 kilometres) an hour. 

It would also be a mistake to insist on a uniform type of squared sleepers as in 
England, where the sleepers are commonly of pine. 

In France and most of the countries of western Europe, oak or beech wood 
sleepers are used and they cannot be regularly squared up without excessive cost. 

To adopt the resolution would be contrary to the practical spirit which should 
guide our deliberations. 

The President. — I think, I shall meet the wishes of the section if I put to the vote 
he diiferent portions of Mr. Ast's second conclusion separately. 



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Mr. Ast proposes to fix the length of the sleepers at a minimum of 8 feet 10 inches 

(S'-TO). 

— An amendment proposes 8 feet 2 inches (2"50). 

— The amendment was accordingly put to the vote and adopted. 

The President. — Mr. Ast proposes to fix the breadth at 10 V4 inches (26 centi - 
metres). Mr. Petsche proposes 9 V2 inches (24 centimetres) as an amendment. 

— The amendment was adopted. 

The President. — Finally, Mr. Ast proposes to say : — 

'* The adoption of a uniform type of sleeper as in England would be highly 
desirable. " 

Mr. Petsche. (In French.) — As I have said, the possibility of adopting a uniform 
type depends on the nature of the wood employed. 

— The paragraph was put to the vote and rejected. 

The President. — M. Ast's third conclusion reads as follows : — 

** 3"*. Rails to be of homogeneous hard and tough steel from 29 V2 to 39 V3 feet (9 to 
** 12 metres) long and with a section whose moment of resistance should be at least 
*< W = 200. These rails should weigh 80 lbs per yard (40 kilograms per metre) 
** or more. " 

Mr. Debray. (In French.) — The section decided yesterday that the weight of 80 lbs 
(40 kilograms) was not to be considered a minimum. The matter was discussed 
and it seems to me impossible to re-open a question that has been decided. 

The President. — This portion of the conclusion goes out, as the section has 
already settled the question of weight. 

Mr. von Leber. — The term moment of resistance which occurs in the conclusion 
that has just been read is not exact. It should be coefficient oftlie moment of rests- 
tance, what the Paris Congress called modulus of inertia, in other words, the 
quotient of the moment of inertia divided by the distance of the fibres subjected to 
the greatest strain from the neutral axis. 

1 may mention that in the English translation of the report the expression 
moment of inertia is wrongly used to denote this coefficient. 

The question we are discussing is complicated. We must consider the loads and 
the lengths of wheel-base. If yoii speak of the modulus of inertia, in other words 
of the moment of inertia divided by half the height of the rail, the question is sim- 
plified, for you only consider the resistance of the rail. 

Mr. Belelubsky, Russian State Railways. (In French.) — 1 agree in thinking that 
the expression moment of resistance is not accurate. It would be better to use the 



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phrase modulus of inertia and to put the words moment of resistance in brackets 
after it. I further think that it would be convenient to fix the moment of resist- 
ance at 200, which is the basis of Mr. Ast's calculations. 

Mr. von Leber. (In French.) — As soon as ever you speak of load per axle it 
becomes necessary to consider the section of the rail, while if you confine yourself 
to giving a modulus of inertia it is a mere question of geometry. 

The President. — The proposal is that the rails shall be of hard steel with a 
moment of resistance of at least 200. 

Mr. W. Hohenegg^er. (In French.) — The expression moment of inertia implies that 
the section of the rail is already known and implies accordingly a large section. 
When a given axle load has to be carried, a rather small section must be adopted 
and the sleepers placed closer together. 

Mr. Belelubsky. (In French.) — The table inserted at page 130 (English edition) 
of Mr. Ast's report shows the moment of resistance corresponding to the weight 
on the wheels. The table gives the result of calculations made ac(X)rding to the 
weights on the wheels and the space between the sleepers. Once we fix the space 
between the sleepers we obtain immediately the moment of inertia. 

The President. — I would call your attention to the fact that Mr. Ast's fourth con- 
clusion deals with the spacing of the sleepers. 

Mr. Sabooret, Paris and Orleans Ry. (In French.) — Mr. Hunt mentioned that the 
English Companies are accustomed to fix their rail sections not by abstract calcu- 
lations but by experience. 

The introduction in our conclusions of questions of moment of inertia looks like 
a criticism of the English system which has given good results. Would it not be 
simpler to leave out this limitation to which certain Companies might object. 

Mr. Bell. Indian Government Railways. — Does the moment of resistance in 
question refer to old or new rails? 

The President. — New rails. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.)— I suggest that all reference to the moment o inertia be 
omitted. 

Mr. Sabouret. (In French.) — What are we to understand by the words ** steel, 
uniformly hard and resisting "? 

The President. — It means a homogeneous substance. 

Mr. Sabonret. (In French.) — It might have a different meaning. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — I propose to say a ** hard and homogeneous substance". 

Mr. Sabonret. (In French.) — This is contrary to the English practice. 

The President. — The English members will give their opinion. 



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Mr. Petsche. (In French.) — We might say ** homogeneous rails of suitable 
hardness". {Lauglitet\) 

The President. — The proposal is that the rails shall be made of steel. 

Mr. Briere. (In French.) — It may suit a Company to wear out the rails rather 
than the tires. 

We cannot ask the locomotive and carriage departments to make their tires of 
soft steel so as not to injure our rails. 

Our English colleagues who are present do not seem to regard the question as of 
importance and in fact it can only be decided practically by each Company for itself. 

Mr. Bell. — i would suggest to the section that it should decline to express any 
opinion as to the exact degree of hardness or elasticity in the material of the rail, 
and confine itself for the present to the decision that it should be homogeneous. 
(Hear! Hear!) 

Mr. Werchovsky. (in French.) — A decision to this effect would not be in accord- 
ance with that taken at previous Congresses. You must at least add the words 
** not brittle". (Xoise and interruption.) 

The President. — is the section in favour of Mr. Bell's proposition? [Cries of : Yes^ 

Yes.) 

The President. — The next question is : Should any figure be given for the moment 
of resistance? 

Mr. Bell. — It was less my wish to omit all reference to the question of hardness, 
than to say that we do not think the time ripe for pronouncing a definite opinion 
on the point. This is a little different from merely omitting the question of hardness 
altogether as if we had not considered the point. 

I would definitely reserve our opinion both on hardness and on elasticity. 

Mr. Wasiutynski, Warsaw-Vienna Ry. (In French.) — I should like to draw atten- 
tion to the fact that in previous sessions rails of hard steel have been recommended. 
Now apparently the opinion is that soft steel is