Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 





■■-';.•■■■■■.■■••:. 








• ■ •'■^'wii,.v<V,- t;_..,~g, •. ^^* •»;... 







c.^^ 



\'^ 



^Oi 



\ 



"b 



t 






n^ 






1^ 



n"^ 



'^^ 



T 



J 



\ 



PBOCEBDIKGS 



lOLOGICAL SOCIETI 



WASHINGTON. 




Volurtie Iir. No. 1. 

(jANUAJtr 5, iS93i to JiTKB I, 1893.) 

[Issued March S, 1S91. j 



PIUCE OF PROCEEDINGS. 



|-ygi. n.No, i 



t Completapjo^. - , 

Vol.lII,No. I 

lyhc above will U' mniletl oh recdpt oS priee. Addru* 

KKANK BENTQN, CorwBjwwdirnj Secretarv, 

DtfarrtKtuI «f Agriculture, 



o 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



WASHINGTON 






•J 




' - ■ 


Voltime III. 


"••IT 


1S93-1896. 


.1 »■ 




J . >t - 




> * 




X> > t < 




« -> t 


WASHINGTON. D. C. : 


•' -• * 


*lJltLISHF.D BY THK SoCIKTY. 


I »- 


1896. 


. < . . w 



Dates of Issue of the Parts of Volume III 

No. I (pp. 1-72), March 8, 1894. 
No. 2 (pp. 73-12S), January 8, 1895. 
No. 3 (pp. 129-194). March 28, 1895. 
No. 4 (pp. 195-292), June 22, 1895. 
No. 5 (pp. 293-341), October, 1896. 



• • ••< 



• •••I 

• ••• ' 

• • • I 



• •• •( 



: 



Publication Committee for Volume HI, 

C. L. Marlatt, L. O. Howard, E. A. Schvvarz, 

C. W. Stiles, W. H. Ashmead, 

• •••• T. N. Gill, F. H. Chittenden. 

• • • 

• • • • • , 

< 

• • • 
••• ••••• 

•• • •,•••• 

• ••••, 

• *• •• •• • 

!•••• 

•.- ••:. 
•••;. .•• 

•••, • • 



••••• • • 

• • •• •, 

•••• •• • 

• • • • • 

•••• • •• 

••••• ••••• 

••••• ••••• 

• • • 

• • • ••, 

•• •• 

• 
•••• 

••••• 

•••• 

*0 0* 

*0 



List of Members Revised to December 1, 1893. 



Active. 

Ashmead, W. H., ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Benton, F., Department of Agriculture. 

Chittenden, F. H., Department of Agriculture. 

Coquillett, D. W., ..... Department of Agriculture. 

Dodge, C. R., ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Fernow, B. E. , ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Gill, T. N., ........ Smithsonian Institution. 

Heidemann, O., Department of Agriculture. 

Holm, T., Department of Agriculture. 

Howard, L. O., Department of Agriculture 

Jones, J. D., ....... Department of Agriculture. 

Kuehling, J. H., ...... 1206 Pennsylvania ave. n.w. 

Linell, M. L., U. S. National Museum. 

Lull, R. S., College Park, Maryland. 

MacCuaig, D., ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Marlatt, C. L., ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Mann, B. P., 1918 Sunderland Place. 

Marx, G., Department of Agriculture. 

Masius, A. G., . . . . Department of Agriculture. 

McGee, W J, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Pergande, T., Department of Agriculture. 

Pratt, F. C, ...... Department of Agriculture. 

Riley, C. V Department of Agriculture. 

Schwarz, E. A., . . . . . . Department of Agriculture 

Smith, E. F., Department of Agriculture. 

Stiles, C. W., Department of Agriculture. 

Sudworth, G. B., Department of Agriculture. 

Swingle, W. T., ...... Department of Agriculture 

Test, F. C, U. S. National Museum. 

Waite, M. B., Department of Agriculture 

iii 



^Ol'hO 



Corresponding. 

Alwood, W. B., . . . Blacksburg, Va. 
Atkinson, G. F., . . Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Angell, G. W. J., . . 44 Hudson St., New York, N. Y. 
Austin, Amory, . . 23 Catharine street, Newport, R. I. 
Baker, C.F., . . . . Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Banks, N Sea Cliff, L. I., N. Y. 

Bethune,Rev. C. J. S., . Port Hope, Ontario, Canada. 

Bolter, A., .... 172 Van Buren street, Chicago, 111. 

Bradford, Geo. D., . .21 Washington Place, New York, N. Y. 

Bruner, L., .... University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Casey, T. L. (U. S. A.), Army Building, New York, N. Y. 

Cockerel 1, T. D. A., . Las Cruces, New Mexico. 

Comstock, J. H., . . . Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Cook, A. J., . . . . Claremont, Cal. 

Cook, O. P., . . . . Huntingdon, L. I., N. Y. 

Cordley, A. B., . . . Pinckney, Mich. 

Davis, G. C , . . . . Agricultural College, Mich. 

Dietz, O., 23 Park Row, New York, N. Y. 

Doan, W. D., .... Coatesville, Pa. 

Doran, E. W., . . . Buffalo Gap, Texas. 

Fairchild, D. G., . . . Zoological Station, Naples, Italj;. 

Fall, H. C, . . . . Pomona, Cal. 

Fernald, C. H., . . Amherst, Mass. 

Fletcher, J., .... Central Exp't Farms, Ottawa, Canada. 

Forbes, S. A., .... Champaign, 111. 

Fox, W.J. , .... Academy Natural Science, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gillette, C. P., . . . . Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Goding,F. W Rutland, 111. 

Goodell, H. H., . . . Amherst, Mass. 

Gossard, H. A., . . Ames, Iowa. 

Graef, E. L., .... 40 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hamilton, J., ... 18 Ohio street, Alleghany, Pa. 

Hargitt, C. W., . . . Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Harrington, W. H., . Post-Office Department, Ottawa, Canada. 

Harris, W. Ross, . . . 4319 McRee avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Hart, C. A., .... Champaign, 111. 

Harvey, F. L., . . . Orono, Maine. 

Healey, J. T., .... Rogers Park, Chicago, 111. 

Henshaw, S., . . . Mercer Circle, Cambridge, Mass. 

Holland, Rev. W. J., . Pittsburg, Pa. 

Hopkins, A. J., . . . Morgantown, W. Va, 

Hubbard, H. G., . . .114 Griswold street, Detroit, Mich. 

Jenks,J. W., . . . . i^Iiddleboro, Mass. 

Johnson, L. C, . . . Meridian, Miss. 

iv 



Johnson, W. G., . . Palo Alto, Cal. 

Kellogg, V. L., . . . Lawrence, Kansas. 

Knaus, W., .... McPherson, Kansas. 

Koebele, A., .... Alameda, Cal. 

Kulszynski, Vladimir. . Cracow, Austria. 

Lintner, J. A., .... Albany, N. Y. 

Luetgens, A., . . . 207 East 15th street, New York, N. Y. 

Lugger, O., St. Anthony's Park, Minn. 

Mally, F. W., . . . Dickinson, Tex. 

Marlatt, F. A., ... Manhattan, Kansas. 

Martin, J., .... Champaign, 111. 

Mengel, L. W., . . . Reading, Pa. 

Montandon, A. L., . Strada Viilor, Filarete, Bucarest, Roumania. 

Morgan, HA., . . . Baton Rouge, La. 

Murtfeldt, Miss M E., Kirkwood, Mo. 

Neumoegen, B. , . . .40 Exchange Place, NewJYork, N. Y. 

Ormerod, Miss E. A., . Torrington House, St. Albans, England. 

Osborn, H., .... Ames, Iowa. 

Patton, W. H., . . . 30 Washington street, Hartford, Conn. 

Popenoe, E. A., . . . Manhattan, Kansas. 

Richardson, W. D. , . Fredericksburg, Va. 

Roberts, C. H., . . . 175 Greene street. New York, N. Y. 

Rolfs, P. H , . . . . Lake City, Fla. 

Rowe, C. H., .... Stanwood Hall, Maiden, Mass. 

Scudder, S. H., . . . Cambridge, Mass.. 

Sherman, J. D., Jr., . .71 East 87tli street, New York, N. Y. 

Skinner, H., . . . . Academy Natural Science, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Slingerland, M. V., . . Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Smith, J. B., .... Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Snow, F. H., . . . . Lawrence, Kansas. 

Stedman, J. M., . . . Auburn, Ala. 

Summers, H. E., . . . Champaign, 111. 

Thorell, T., . . . . Montpellier, France. 

Tourney, J. W., . . . Tucson, Arizona. 

Townsend, C. H. T., . Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica, B. W. I. 

Uhler, P. R., . . . . Peabody Library, Baltimore, Md. 

Vaughan, T. W., . . Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, Mass. 

Washburn, F. L. , . . Corvallis, Oregon. 

Webster, F. M Wooster, Ohio. 

Weed, CM.,. . . . Durham, N. II. 

Weed, H. E., . . . Agricultural College, Miss. 

Wenzel, H. W., . . . 1115 Moore street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wheeler, W. M., . . Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Wickham, H. F., . . . Iowa City, Iowa. 

Williston, S. W., . . Lawrence, Kansas. 

Wolcott, R. H., ... Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Zabriskie, Rev. J. L., . * Waverly avenue, Flatbush, L. I., N. Y. 

V 



PROCEEDINGS. 



Januarys, 1893. 

President C. V. Riley in the chair and 13 members present. 

The following new members were elected : 

Active members — W J McGee, Dr. J. B. Jones, Frederick 
C. Pratt. Corresponding members — W. G. Johnson, Palo Alto, 
Calif. ; J. W. Toumey, Tucson, Arizona ; C. H. Rowe, Maiden, 
Mass., and Wm. H. Patton, Hartford, Conn. 

The Publication Committee reported the publication of No. 3, 
Volume II, of the Proceedings, copies of which were issued De- 
cember 31, 1892. The new Publication Committee was appointed 
by the chair as follows : Messrs. Marlatt, Schwarz, Howard, 
Stiles, and Ashmead. 

The discussion of the annual address of the President had been 
postponed, from lack of time, to the present meeting and was 
opened by Dr. Stiles, who made the following remarks : 

PARASITISM. 
By C. W. Stiles. 

[Author's abstract.] 

Although Dr. Riley, in his interesting address, considered the 
subject of " parasitism " entirely from the standpoint of an en- 
tomologist, it may be well for us, in discussing the subject, to 
draw other groups of organisms besides insects into comparison. 
I would therefore take the liberty of presenting a few remarks 
upon parasitism from the standpoint of an helminthologist. 

Starting with Leuckart's definition of a parasite as '' an organ- 
ism which lives in or upon another organism from which it draws 
its nourishment," I would admit two fundamental ideas in para- 
sitism : firsts the association of two or more individuals, and, 
secondly^ the sponging of nourishment. As might be expected, 
however, if we accept this view (or in fact any other view upon 
the subject) we find numerous gradations between the parasites 
and the free-living animals, so that we are unable to draw any 
sharp line between them. 



Z ENTOMOLOGICAL SOdETY 

Association or symbiosis. Organisms may associate together 
for different purposes and in different degrees of intimacy ; and 
the association may be between different individuals of the same 
(or very closely allied) species, or between individuals of different 
species very widely separated from each other systematically. 

If two individuals, a male and a female of one species, associate 
for the purpose of reproduction, we speak of ^'^ pairing J^ If 
more than two individuals are concerned in this association (a», 
for instance, in the case of bees, etc.) we speak oi '''' colonizing ^ 

But as soon as the two contracting parties belong to natural 
groups more or less widely separated (systematically) from each 
other, we have before us some stage of parasitism. Although 
this holds good as a general rule, the fact that the two individuals 
belong to the same species does not necessarily exclude the asso- 
ciation from the field of parasitism, for we find some remarkable 
examples of "pairing" which have at the same time a certain 
tinge of parasitism about them. For instance, we find in the 
bladder of rats a species of Trichosoma {T. crassicauda) ^ in 
which (as Leuckart has shown) the males live in the uterus of 
the female. Although the female may have a number of males 
in her uterus, this symbiosis is unquestionably a case of pairing 
(polyandrism) ; at the same time the symbiosis is a case of para- 
sitism — more strictly speaking, a case of mutualism. 

At first thought we might suppose that the association between 
individuals of the same species is a more common occurrence 
than the symbiosis of organisms of widely different species ; in 
other words, that fairing is a more common occurrence than 
-parasitism^ but we can convince ourselves that this idea is 
erroneous if we recall that there is probably not one of us present 
who has not, at some time during his life, harbored parasitic 
worms, lice, and fleas ; furthermore, that every one of us at the 
present moment has a large number of species — twenty or more — 
of bacteria in his mouth and upon his skin, and that of each 
species we may harbor hundreds' of thousands of individuals. If 
we need further examples to convince us, we have only to ex- 
amine the first stomach of any ruminant, and we shall find there 
countless hosts of bacteria and infusoria, belonging to numerous 
different species. I would hence make the general statement 
that parasitism in its different grades is a much more general 
occurrence (among the higher animals, at least) than pairing; or, 
in other words, that organisms are associated with individuals of 
other species more than with other individuals of their own 
species. 

Parasitism, In parasitism, I would recognize several different 
grades : firsts fnutuaiism^ in which the symbiosis results in 
mutual benefit to the two contracting parties ; secondly^ commen- 
salism^ in which the symbiosis results in a benefit to one party, 



OF WASHINGTON. 3 

but does not entail any disadvantage to the other party (the host) ; 
thirdly,, true parasitism^ in which there is a benefit to one of 
the parties concerned (/. ^., the parasite), to the disadvantage of 
the other party (the host). Naturally, I do not contend that 
these three grades of parasitism can be separated by sharp lines, 
any more than we can draw a sharp line between animals and 
plants. 

Mutualism, We not infrequently find sponges grown fast to 
the back of a crab. In this symbiosis we can see the first step 
towards parasitism, but this symbiosis, as Looss and others have 
ah'eady pointed out, is mutually advantageous to both the crab 
and the sponge, for the former is thereby more or less concealed 
from view and will thus escape his enemies, while the sponge is 
carried around from place to place and thus furnished with more 
nourishment. Hydra viridis presents another case of mutual- 
ism : here the hydra can utilize the oxygen produced by the 
zoochlorellae, while the latter can utilize the carbon dioxide pro- 
duced by the hydra. 

Commensal ism . The organisms referred to by Germans under 
the term '-'' Raum Parisiten " furnish examples under this head. 
For instance, in the intestinal tract of many aquatic insect larvae, 
we find numerous rotatoria. These organisms, obtain room-rent 
free ; they do not, however, injure their hosts (so far as we can 
observe) .but they feed upon other microorganisms found in the 
same place. The numerous infusoria in the first stomach of 
ruminants would also come under this second grade of parasitism. 

Trzie parasitism. As examples of true parasitism, we can cite 
the tape-worms, the lumbricoid worms, trichinae, etc., etc. That 
this symbiosis is of advantage to the parasites will be doubted by 
no one, for we know that they cannot live and reproduce outside 
of the body of their hosts. The disadvantage to the host may be 
of three different kinds: first, the parasites live upon food which 
should go to the nourishment of the host (cf the adult tape- 
worms, ascarides, Echinorhynchus,^ etc.) ; secondly, they may 
exert pressure upon the various organs and thus cause a me- 
chanical injury, as in the case of echinococcus-hydatids of the 
liver, brain, etc., or Eustrongylus gigas in the kidneys ; thirdly, 
the parasites may form certain chemical products which act in 
various ways upon the tissues, as in the case of the genus Ascaris 
and the pathogenic bacteria. 

Rather than define a true parasite,^ as some persons are inclined 
to do, as an organism which must necessarily live a parasitic life, 
I think it better to follow the majority in accepting the term " ob- 
ligatory parasites " for such organisms, and to include those or- 
ganisms which may or may not live a parasitic life under the 
term " facultative parasites,''^ 

We can make another division of parasites into " temporary 



4 ENTOMOLOaiCAL SOCIETY 

parasites*^ and " stationary parasites ^^ including in the former 
those organisms which visit their hosts only from time to time in 
order to procure food, as Culex^ Qimex^ Dertnanyssus^ etc. 
The ''''Stationary parasites" would include those organisms 
which are with their hosts continuously for the whole or a por- 
tion of their life. In this class we can recognize two subdivisions : 
the'''' periodical parasites** — that is, those organisms which spend 
only a period of their life as parasites, and the permanent para- 
sites — /. ^., those organisms which complete their entire life-cycle 
as parasites. 

As examples of the former, we may cite the genera Mermis Sind 
Gordius^ which spend their larval stages in the body cavity of 
insects, etc., or Nectonema^ which, as H. B. Ward has recently 
shown, is parasitic in fish for a portion of its life. Hypoderma^ 
Cuterebra^ and Gastrophilus would furnish examples familiar to 
entomologists. As examples of permanent parasites^ we might 
cite the Cestodes. 

Among the Nematodes, we find a most striking example of para- 
sitism which must be looked upon as intermediate between the 
periodical and the permanent parasites. I refer to the genus 
Rhabdonema. R. nigrovenosum ^ to take a specific example, is an 
hermaphroditic (? or parthenogenetic) worm which, in alternate 
generations (i, 3, 5, 7, etc.), is an obligatory parasite in the lungs 
of amphibians {Rana^ Bufo), In the 2d, 4th, 6th, etc., genera- 
tions the sexes are separate and the organisms are free-living 
animals. 

Another division of parasites would be (A) the phyto-parasites 
and (B) the zoo-parasites,, and each of these may be subdivided, 
according to whether they are parasitic upon plants or animals. 

Still another division of parasites is implied in Leuckart's defini- 
tion, /. ^., ectoparasites and rndoparasites. 

In helminthology we frequently use the terms pseudo-parasites 
and spurious parasites. Most authors do not make a distinction 
between these two, but include the spurious parasites under the 
head oi pseudo-parasites. It seems to me, however, that there 
is a diflTerence between the two which it will be well to observe. 

Under pseudo-parasites I would include all those organisms 
which as a rule do not live a parasitic life, but which happen by 
chance to get into the body of an animal and live there for a short 
period ; all pseudo-parasites would be facultative parasites, 
although all facultative parasites are not pseudo-parasites. Mos- 
quito larvae, muscid larvae, or species of the genera Gordiua and 
Mermis are occasionally swallowed by chance ; upon coming 
into the intestinal tract, they are capable of living a parasitic life 
for a short time, but after a few days they are either killed and 
digested or they are expelled from the body. Under the term 
spurious parasites,^ on the other hand, I would include : (i) 



OF WASHINGTOlf. 5 

those animals which have been swallowed by chance or purposely 
(for the sake of committing suicide, etc.) but which are not 
capable of taking food while in the body ; these animals are 
generally expelled very soon, or they are killed and partially 
digested. As an example of this sort, I would mention a case 
recorded by Bremser. A woman vomited a Bombinator igneus 
and two years afterwards she confessed she had attempted to 
commit suicide by swallowing this animal wrapped up in a 
membrane she obtained from a butcher. Weiss records a similar 
case. (2) In the spurious parasites I would also include all 
those objects introduced into the body by patients — generally suf- 
fering from hysteria — for the sake of perplexing their physicians. 
One very noted case of this kind is that of a French woman who 
went to her physician time after time to have some "worms" 
extracted from her vagina. A zoologist who examined these 
" worms" was able to show that they were nothing more or less 
than the entrails of fish which the hysterical patient had herself 
introduced into her vagina. Quite a number of similar cases 
have been recorded, and I can here add a case which I believe 
has never been published. It is recorded in the hospital records 

of the 65th U. S. C. T. that F. B was " admitted to hospital 

Dec. 23, 1865 ; complaint, piles ; Feb. 24, 1866, returned to duty ; 
Remark — This man feigned sick with the piles for two months, 
when his deception was detected, he having procured the heart 
of a turkey and introduced it into his rectum to resemble piles." 
(3) Another class of spurious parasites would be those objects, 
such as the pulp-cells of lemons and oranges, which have been 
mistaken for flukes (I had a case of this kind sent to me but a 
short time ago), various portions of plants which have been de- 
scribed as parasites {Diacanthus polycephalus Sti^bel, 1817? 
proved to be fragments of a bunch of grapes), various animal 
structures described as parasites {Physis intestinalis Scopoli is 
a portion of the trachea of a bird ; Sagittula honiinis is the hyo- 
laryngeal apparatus of a bird). (4) A fourth kind of spurious 
parasite would be those " parasites" which exist only in the 
imagination of various persons. As examples, we may cite 
Furia infernalis L., an imaginary worm which is supposed to 
live in the air ; it is said to descend upon the body, bore through 
it, and cause death in a short time. Vermis umbilicalis is 
another imaginary worm, said to live in the umbilicus of children ; 
to diagnose the presence of this fabulous creature it is only neces- 
sary to bind a small fish upon the navel, and in a short time the 
fish will be entirely skeletonized in case the "worm" is present. 
I can hardly leave the subject of spurious parasitism without 
referring to the case of Pastor Doderlein (1697), which is cited 
by all writers as being the most wonderful case of its kind on 
record. His 12-year-old boy is said to have passed a small Por- 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

celHo, After treatment he passed at difterent times the following 
objects: 162 specimens of Porcellio^ 2 worms, 4 scolopendras, 
2 **• springing butterflies,'' 2 ant-like worms, a white Porcellio^ 
32 brown caterpillars, 4 frogs (whenever the boy went near a 
pond, the frogs in bis body croaked !), several toads (the largest 
one had poisonous breath which immediately killed the smaller 
ones), a snake (which started to come out through the boy's: 
mouth, but immediately returned), shoe-nails, half the link of a' 
chain, white and red egg-shells, 2 knife-blades, portion of a 
salve-box, and 2 spikes ! (Quoted from Looss.) 

Another division of parasites, based upon the number of hosts 
required in their life-history, would be : Monoxenous parasites^ 
those parasites which require but one host, and heteroxenous 
parasites^ those which require two difierent hosts at different 
stages of the life-history. 

From the foregoing remarks we see that the study of parasites 
is in reality a study of a fauna ; exactly as one zoologist studies 
the fauna of the seas, another the fauna of lakes, another the 
fauna of mountains or plains, the parasitologist studies the fauna 
or flora of the body. 

To sum up these informal remarks in a table, we can divide 
the parasites as follows : 

■ 

A. Based upon symbiosis and food : 

1. Mutualists. 

2. Commensalists. 

3. True parasites. 

4. Pseudo-parasites. 

5. Spurious parasites. 

B Based upon position : 

1. Ectoparasites. 

2. Endoparasites. 

C. Based upon the animal and plants : 

1. Phjto-parasites : 

«) In or upon animals. 

b) " " " plants. 

2. Zoo-parasites : 

c) In or upon animals. 

d) *' " " plants. 

D. Based upon time : 

1. Temporary parasites. 

2. Stationary parasites : 

a) Periodical parasites. 

b) Permanent parasites. 

E. Based upon adaptation or necessity: 

1. Facultative parasites. 

2. Obligatory parasites. 



OF WASHTNTOTON. 7 

F. Based upon the number of hosts : 

1. Monoxenous parasites. 

2. Heteroxenous parasites. 

In conclusion I will state that the foregoing remarks are, in 
large part, based upon the writings of Leuckart, Looss, R. 
Blanchard, Railliet, Neumann, and others; the division of 
parasites proposed is a combination, with slight modifications, 
of the divisions followed by these authors. 



Mr. Fernow objected to the definition of the word parasitism 
as given by Dr. Stiles, and believed that the definition should 
make it necessary for the parasite to not only obtain its food, but 
also its domicile from its host, which would exclude such animals 
as the mosquito ; and, further, that the parasite should, in some 
stage of its existence, be entirely dependent on or unable to exist 
apart from its host. He would further limit it also by making it 
necessary that the food should be taken from the living host in a 
form ready for immediate assimilation, and which would exclude 
vegetable-feeding animals, whose food would necessarily have to 
go through a more or less elaborate process of digestion. Thus, 
in general, plants only can be parasitic on plants, and animals on 
animals. 

Mr. Hubbard believed, with Mr. Fernow, that the definition in 
question was open to criticism, and was of the opinion that the 
principle of absolute dependence at some stage, mentioned by 
Mr. Fernow, should be present. He gave various examples of 
mess-mates, etc., illustrating this idea. 

Mr. Doran mentioned other cases of parasitism in animals other 
than insects and not referred to bv Mr. Stiles. Some of these 
cases, as pointed out by Mr. Stiles, were association for copulation 
only. In reference to the limitation mentioned by Mr. Fernow, 
viz., that the parasitic relation could only be sustained by mem- 
bers of the same kingdom, as animals on animals, etc., Mr. Stiles 
took issue on the ground that no sharp lines should be drawn* 
separating plants from animals, and gave certain cases where such 
association of plants and animals is certainly parasitic, such as 
ringworm. 

Mr. Fernow replied that for all practical purposes, and in the 
general'estimation, there is a distinct separation of plants from 
animals, and maintained the validity of his former, restriction. 



\ 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Mr. Waite pointed out the advantage enjoyed by the student of 
vegetable parasitic relations from the fact that in this field para- 
sites are always fixed and no difficulty is experienced in determin- 
ing the host, the only subject for question being whether the host 
is living or dead. 

Professor Gill, after referring to the breadth of the subject and 
the impossibility, on this account, of discussing it with any 
degree of minuteness, gave, as his opinion, that plants and 
animals may manifest a parasitic relation with regard to each 
other, and discussed at some length the differences separating 
animals from plants. Speaking of the presidential address, in 
which the true parasites in insects were limited to certain families 
of the Hymenoptera, in the strict sense, he suggested that these 
latter (Chalcidids, etc.) sustain rather an intermediate relation 
between the typical parasite, as the intestinal worm, and such 
insects as the various wasps which stored their nests with spiders. 
The typical pjv'asite, he said, shows a great deviation from the 
normal structure as the result of its parasitic relationship, and he 
pointed out the nature of such modification, especially in the 
Mollusks and Crustaceans, giving a number of interesting illustra- 
tions. He said that parasites occur in all polytypic classes in 
animal life, except, perhaps, the Vertebrata, and in these, in the case 
of fishes, certain forms are pseudo-parasitic, but are not examples 
of very excessive modifications in consequence. A striking exam- 
ple, however, of modification in fishes was illustrated by the suck- 
ing disk of certain forms. Mr. Schwarz was of the opinion that 
Leuckart's system of classification is too widely drawn to apply 
to insects, and should be considered rather as applying to the 
general subject of parasitism wherever manifested. 

Prof. Riley, in summing up and closing the discussion, stated 
that he had been very much pleased with the various facts and 
ideas which the discussion of his address had brought otit, but 
had not been led, by anything that had been said, to change in 
any way the conclusions reached by him ; as, for instance, the 
term parasitism, as applied to insects, on account of the pecu- 
liarity and diversity of the facts, requires special definition. 
With reference to Prof. Fernow's remarks, he stated that it was 
impossible to make a strict and circumscribed definition, because 
in the broad sense all living things are parasitic. He believed 



OF WASHINGTON. V 

that nothing would be gained by broadening the definition, 
and was glad to find that so many of the members agreed 
with the treatment of the subject in the address. 

— Under general notes and exhibition of specimens, Mr. 
Schwarz stated, in connection with his remarks, at the November 
meeting, on the food-habits of the genus Silpha, that our common 
S, lapponica would have to be considered as an injurious species, 
since according to the observations of Mr. H. F. Wickham this 
insect is so injurious to dry salmon in northern British Columbia 
that it is known among the Indians and white settlers as the 
" salmon bug." S. lapponica is universally distributed through- 
out North America but is strictly boreal in the Old World. Its 
distribution is, therefore, just the opposite in this respect from 
that of S. opaca, 

— Mr. Hubbard called attention to the mode of hibernation in 
Chrysomela flavomarginata^ which differs greatly from that 
hitherto observed in North American species of Chrysomela and 
Doryphora, in which hibernation takes place in the imago state. 
Of C. Jlavomarginata examples of the larvae, both young and 
mature, as well as imagos, were found, on May 15, in their 
winter quarters, among the roots of a species of Aster growing in 
the mountains near Glenwood Springs, Colo , at an altitude of 
six thousand feet. 

— Mr. Ashmead presented the following : 

NOTES ON THE GENUS CENTRODORA. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

The genus Centrodora was erected by Dr. Arnold Forster in 
Verb. pr. Rheinl. 187S, p. 66^ to contain an interesting Chalcid 
presenting some characteristics entirely diflferent from any known 
genus in the subfamily Aphellnince, 

In the female, the ovipositor is very long, at least two-thirds 
the length of the sessile, broadly oval abdomen ; the head is trans- 
verse, wider than the thorax, while the antennae are biannulate 
with white. In the n)ale the antennae are 6-jointed, with the scape 
broadened and the front tibiae distinctly thickened. 

Up to the present time only a single species is described, the 
type Centrodora amcena Forster, taken June 3, in a room, on a 
window. 

It is therefore with considerable pleasure that I announce the 
discovery of a new species belonging to this genus in our fauna ; 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

also to be able to contribute something towards the habits of the 
genus. 

This new species is exhibited to-night and was reared by 
myself at Jacksonville, Florida, in October, 1887, from the eggs 
of Clisiocampa americana Harris. 

I submit the following description : 

Centrodora clisiocampae, sp. n. 

$. — Length, 0.6 mm. Polished black; ovipositor about two-thirds the 
length of abdomen, with the tip white; antennae biannulate with white; 
basal two-thirds of front wings fuliginous, the apical third hyaline. 

Head transverse, wider than thorax, antero-posteriorly thin, the vertex 
somewhat acute; cheeks, cl)'peus and trophi yeHowish-white; the tips of 
mandibles black; flagellum subclavate, biannulate with white. 

Thorax subrobust, very little longer than wide, the pronotum visible 
from above as a transverse line, the mesonotum wider than long, with 
distinct parapsidal furrows, the scutellum semicircular, the metanotum 
exceedingly short, scarcely visible from above; anterior wings fuliginous, 
with the apical third hyaline, fringed, the marginal vein long, as \on% as 
the submarginal, the postmarginal not developed, the stigmal very 
oblique, clavate, about one-fourth the length of the marginal; hind wings 
likewise with a long marginal vein and with the apex and hind margin 
with long cilia; legs brown, trochanters, bases of tibiae and tarsi yellow- 
ish-white. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, oval, about as long as the thorax, depressed 
above, convex beneath and terminating in a long ovipositor. 

Hab. — Jacksonville, Florida. 
Types in Coll. Ash mead. 



February 2, 1893. 

Vice-President Ashmead in the chair. Twelve members and 
two visitors present. 

The following persons were elected to corresponding member- 
ship : Rev. J. L. Zabriskie, Flatbush, L. I., and O. F. Cook, 
Huntington, L. I. 

A paper by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, accompanied by the exhibi- 
tion of specimens, was presented by Mr. Schwarz as follows : 

NOTE ON BRATHINUS. 
By Henry G. Hubbard. 

Two species of the genus Brathinus have been hitherto known 
from the eastern United States. Both species range from central 



OF WASHINGTON. 11 

New York to Nova Scotia, and westward into the Lake Superior 
1 egion. That one or both of these should extend their range across 
the continent to the Pacific coast would be entirely in accord with 
the well-known tendency of boreal insects. The discovery of a 
representative of the genus in California would lead one to sus- 
pect a form or climatic variation of one of the Eastern species. 
A careful comparison of the abundant material now at hand 
seems, however, to establish the fact that the Californian Brathi- 
nus which is herein described is specifically distinct. 

Table of Species. 

Maxillary palpi long: 

Last joint of palpus longer than the second joint; 

body glabrous; antennae slender, unicolored nitidus, Lee. 

Last joint of palpus as long as the second joint; 
body pubescent; antennae stout, suddenly en- 
larged and pale at tip. varicornis, Lee. 

Maxillary palpi short : 

Last joint of palpus shorter than the second joint; 

body pubescent; antennae stout, unicolored californicus, n. sp. 

In the foregoing table I have called the maxillary palpus long 
if when directed forwards the second joint passes the mandibles, 
and short if the second joint does not project beyond the mandi- 
bles. 

Brathinus nitidus, Lee. This is our largest and most slender species. 
The body is glabrous, light or dark brown, paler beneath. Antennae very 
long, filiform, joints from the fourth opaque, finely pubescent; the last 
three joints not larger and scarcely paler than the preceding joints. The 
palpi are very long and slender; the first joint very minute, the second 
joint greatly prolonged beyond the mandibles, the third joint half as long 
as the second joint, the fourth joint longer than the second joint. Length, 
5mm. 

Brathinus varicornis, Lee. The smallest species. Elytra with sparse 
fine setae placed in four lines. Legs pubescent. Antennae stout, shining 
toward the base ; from joint four gradually more opaque and more densely 
pubescent, the last three joints suddenly enlarged and pale in color. The 
maxillary palpi are elongate, the second joint passing the mandibles, the 
last joint as long as the second joint. Length, 3.6 mm. 

Brathinus californicus, n. sp- Dark brown, shining; elytra with sparse 
setae ; antennae moderately long, robust, reddish brown ; underside dark 
brown; legs pale testaceous, pubescent; maxillary palpi short, last joint 
stout, fusiform. Length, 4 mm. 

The elytra bear four rows each of short setae, there are no striae, but the 
suture is somewhat elevated throughout its entire length. The thorax in 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

many specimens shows a more or less deeply impressed median line. The 
underside of the body is always as dark as the upper surface, the legs are 
paler than the antennae. The antennae are unicolorous, the first three 
joints shining, the remaining joints opaque, equally setose, growing uni- 
formly stouter towards the tip. 

Lake Tahoe, Cala., numerous specimens; Sisson, Cala., two 
specimens. 

This species is distinguished from B, nitidus and B, varicornis 
by its short maxillary palpi, the last joint of which tapers regu- 
larly toward base and tip, and is but little longer than the preced- 
ing joint. In size it is intermediate between the two Eastern spe- 
cies, and is darker in color than either of them. The underside 
is never lighter than the upper surface, as in dark specimens of 
B. nitidus. The rows of setae upon the elytra and the pubescence 
upon the legs are nearly as in B. varicornis^ but upon the anten- 
nae the pubescence is finer and denser, the joints from the fourth 
outwardly are equally opaque, and the last three joints are not 
suddenly enlarged as in the latter species. 

The sexual characters are not strongly expressed in this genus. 
The penultimate (sixth) segment in the males is prolonged over 
the anal plate, and presents slight differences in the three species. 
The distal edge of this prolongation is frequently sinuate or emar- 
ginate, forming three more or less distinct lobes. 

In B. nitidus this segment is produced in an acute raised point 
with shallow sinuations on the sides. B varicornis has also the 
tip of the sixth segment prolonged in an acute point, but the side 
lobes are wanting. In B, californicus the prolongation is obtuse 
and frequently terminates in three small, nearly equal, elevated 
points separated by emarginations. 

A numerous colony of B, californicus was found at Lake 
Tahoe, in July, 1891, living in wet moss, darkly overshadowed by 
bushes, at the margin of a mountain stream. 



Mr. G. C. Davis, of Agricultural College, Michigan, gave a 
description of the insect collections of that institution. The.se 
collections are especially rich in the orders Lcpidoptera and 
Coleoptera, and are rapidly growing in other orders. The two 
orders named have been largely increased by the purchase of 
large collections of North American insects, notably the Tepper 
collection of Lepidoptera and the Austin collection of Coleoptera. 
A general description of the extent and character of the collec- 
tions was given. Mr. Schwarz said he was glad that a good 



OF WASHrNGTON. 13 

collection had been started by the Michigan Agricultural College, 
and urged the importance of the founding of such collections by 
other similar institutions, few of which have any determined 
insect collections of importance. He said that a portion of the 
Coleoptera collected by himself and Mr. Hubbard in Michigan 
during the years 1875 to 1877 were represented in this collec- 
tion, and that the Neuroptera collected at the same time had 
been sent to Hagen and were now in the Cambridge Museum. 
Mr. Davis, referring to the local nature of the collections, in 
that they included a very good representation of the Michigan 
fauna, spoke more particularly of the richness in insect life of 
the State of Michigan, which he ascribed to the diversified 
topography of that State. Mr. Schwarz said, however, that 
the real reason for this prodigality of insect life is the fact that 
Michigan possesses two faunal regions, viz., the boreal zone 
and the northern limits of the transitional zone. 

— Mr. Howard presented the following paper, illustrating the 
text by the aid of blackboard drawings : 

A PECULIAR STRUCTURAL FEATURE OF THE ELASMIN^. 

By L. O. Howard. 

The subfamily Elasminae, ordinarily placed at the head of the 
tetramerous series of the Chalcididae, has in Europe, according to 
Kirchner's catalogue, five species, all belonging to the genus 
Elasmus. It seems probable from comparison of descriptions 
that these Hye will be reduced to three and perhaps two. From 
the United States I have described five species and have since 
found two more which still remain undescribed. These also be- 
long to the typical genus Elasmus. The subfamily, in fact, con- 
tained but this single genus until, in 1 888, Prof. Riley figured, with- 
out description, a species of a new genus to which he gave the 
name Euryischia, and which is parasitic in Australia upon Les- 
tophonus. The subfamily, therefore, is not extensive. The species 
of Elasmus, however, are difficult of separation. Antennal, 
sculptural, venational, and other characters hitherto used, are of 
little avail in this group. A close study of considerable material 
belonging to this subfamily received from Cambridge, England, 
and which was collected on the island of St. Vincent by Mr. Her- 
bert Smith, has shown a new character which is in itself very 
remarkable, and which enables the ready separation of groups of 
species and of species themselves. The material was found to 
comprise nine new species. 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

The character referred to consists of a pecuhar arrangement of 
specialized spines on the hind tibiae. They are short, sharp, 
broad spines occurring in regular rows, their bases connected, 
forming straight lines or more or less intricate figures. They are 
present in lesser degree upon the middle tibiae, and here in- 
variably form only straight lines. They also occur on the first 
joint of the hind tarsi, and here also form straight lines. Upon 
the hind tibiae, however, they are strikingly evident through an 
almost universal differentiation of color, the tibia itself being 
light and the spines very dark. They occur vjpon the upper ox, 
outer side of the tibiae and in the species which I have examined 
take the following forms : 

I. Two very long ellipses side by side and touching. 2. Three 
longitudinal subparallel wavy lines. 3. A single long ellipse 
occupying the central two-thirds of the length of the tibia, and 
the beginnings of two other ellipses, above and below, each in- 
terrupted by the extremity of the joint. The upper and lower 
loops are joined at tip to the central ellipse, and two outer convex 
lines surround each of these joints. 4. The disk of the tibia 
bears two such ellipses placed end to end, and two half ellipses, at 
top and bottom, being surrounded at junctions by such a row as 
occurs in 3. 5. The disk occupied by three instead of two 
ellipses, and the ends by two loops. 6. The disk is covered by 
a double row of elongate ovals closely applied and arranged so 
that the side bulge of one fills the cavity caused by the meeting 
of the ends of two others. 7. A series of superimposed antique 
figures 5, the dash at the top of one forming the base of the next 
one above. 

Sufficient variations of these arrangements occur and within 
apparently specific limits. This is not a secondary sexual char- 
acter, since it occurs equally in both males and females. No 
similar character has been noticed in any other subfamily of the 
Chalcididae, and it is particularly fortunate that it should occur 
among the Elasmin^, on account of the difficulty in otherwise 
separating the forms. 



Mr. Stiles asked if there was any explanation of the occurrence 
of these spines on evolutional grounds. Mr. Howard replied that 
he had looked into the matter very carefully, and had discovered 
nothing which would lead him to ofier any such explanation of 
their occurrence. Mr. Ashmead stated that Mr. Howard's dis- 
covery is of exceeding interest, on account of the fact that in this 
group the species are very frequently most difficult to separate by 
other available characters. He referred also to the importance 



OF WASHINGTON. 15 

of similar or homologous structures in other families, which are 
of considerable importance in separating the species, as, for in- 
stance, the genus Macrocentrus, in which he finds a peculiar plate 
on the femora, having one or more peculiar spines at the base, 
which varies in different species. He believed, also, that the ar- 
rangement of the spines on the tibiae in other Hymenoptera, as 
Ichneumonidae, etc., will be found of importance in the separation 
of species. Mr. Schwarz said that these peculiar spiny structures 
reminded him very forcibly of similar features in the hind tibiae 
and tarsi of Mordellistena, which are referred to in the writings 
of LeConte and Smith as ridges, and by European authors as 
incisions. These furnish the only characters which can be used 
in the satisfactory identification of species. They occur in both 
sexes, and are usually found covered with pollen, the beetles being 
of a flower-frequenting habit, and these spines are, therefore, 
doubtless of importance as a means of cross-fertilization of plants. 
Mr. Howard stated as a curious coincidence that the Elasmina) 
bear a close general resemblance to Mordellistena. 

— Mr. Schwarz presented the following paper, illustrating it 
with specimens and figures : 

A "PARASITIC" SCOLYTID. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

Parasitism, as defined by Prof. Riley in a presidential address 
recently read before our Society, cannot possibly occur in truly 
phytophagous insects ; but if we take the term in its widest 
meaning, as lately discussed by Dr. Stiles and others (see p. i), 
we find in the life-histories of phytophagous insects various 
phenomena which more or less closely approach parasitism. 

Confining myself to the three great phytophagous families of 
Coleoptera, I do not recall any instances of this sort among the 
Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, but quite a number are known 
among the Rhynchophora. Thus the larvae of Cofturus 
longulus inhabit the galls of Podapion gallicola^ but they are 
mere messmates, and their presence is not detrimental to the 
welfare of the author of the gall. Some of our species of 
Otidocephalus which have frequently been bred from various 
Cynipid galls appear to have a similar mode of life. The larva 
of Conotrachelus posticatus is known to live within certain 
Phylloxera galls on Hickory leaves, and in this case the 
Phylloxeras always perish, probably from starvation, since it can 
hardly be assumed that the Conotrachelus larva is insectivorous. 



16 ENTOMOLOGIOAi. S0(5IETY 

Aplon sordiduni develops in large numbers in the galls of a 
Cecidomyiid on Bigelovia and causes the death of the gall-maker. 
Some of our Anthonomus, viz., A, ceneolus (formerly incorrectly 
referred by n:e to A.Jiavicornis) and A. sycophanta furnish other 
examples of a parasitic mode of life. 

Among the Scolytids no such lai*val parasitism occurs, but it 
has long since been observed that in some species the female 
beetle uses the galleries made by another female, either of the 
same or another species, to enter the wood for a shorter or longer 
distance and then to excavate a separate gallery. Eichhoff men; 
tions several European species in which this habit of taking 
advantage of the work of other individuals of the same or 
diBerent species is known to occur, and among our own species 
I have also observed it. Some years ago I exhibited before our 
Society (see- Proc. i, p. 48) the work of Tomicus ccelatus^ 
where two females had used the entrance hole previously made 
bv a third female. At another time I cut from the solid wood of 
a Walnut the network of a gallery in which two different species 
of Xyleborus {X, fuscatus and pubescens) had developed so 
that it was impossible to decide which species was the original 
author of the burrows and which the intruder. 

In some species of Scolytids this habit is only exceptional, 
while in others it occurs more frequently, and there is a possibility 
that in one or the other species it becomes the rule ; in other 
words, that such species are more or less dependent upon the work 
done by other species and unable to pierce the bark of a tree by 
their own effort. 

I do not know whether or not such '' parasitic " Scolytids exist, 
but there is in our fauna a minute species of Crypturgus, the 
galleries of which, as often as I found them, always started from 
the main gallery of a Tomicus, usually 7". cacographus. More 
extended observations are, however, necessary to decide whether 
or not this is the normal habit of this species. I found it first in 
1S76, near Tampa, Fla., under bark of Piniis palustris^ and in 
subsequent years near Washington, D. C, under bark of P, inops. 
It does not appear to be a very common species, but in the fall of 
1S92 quite a number of the galleries were found, though the 
beetles had in most instances already deserted them. The main 
gallery starts either rectangularly or obliquely from that of the 
Tomicus, at such place where no eggs of the host were laid or 
where the eggs had been destroyed by some predaceous insect. 
The gallery is either tolerably straight or more or less irregularly 
curved and of varying length, the longest measuring about 25 
millimeters. At irregular intervals secondary galleries branch oft 
which are extremely short, not more than 2 millimeters in length, 
so that the larvie appear to be more or less stationary. All 
colonies observed by me were very small, and I never counted 
more than eight larval galleries in one colony. 



OF WASHINGTON. 17 

The species itself appears to be undescribed and is evidently 
the southern representative of Crypturgus fusillus Gyll. {atomus 
Lee. ) which belongs to the circumpolar fauna. It may be briefly 
characterized as follows : 

Crypturgus alutaceus, n. sp. Elongate, nearly cylindrical, moderately 
shining, sparsely and inconspicuously pubescent, pubescence longer on 
head, sides ofthorax and on theelytral declivity; color brown, or yellowish- 
brown, antennae and legs pale. Head distinctly alutaceous, extremely 
finely and obsoletely punctulate. Thorax slightly longer than wide, 
slightly rounded on the sides, greatest width at the middle, surface dis- 
tinctly alutaceous and with sparse, fine, more or less obsolete punctures; 
a smoother median line is feebly indicated. Elytra as wide and nearly 
twice as long as the thorax, more shining than the latter, punctate-striate, 
the striae distinctly impressed with the punctures closely placed and mod- 
erately strong, interstices narrower than the striae, convex and without 
distinct punctures, declivity bimple. Length, 0.9 mm. 

Described from eight specimens from Tampa, Fla., and 
Bladensburg, Md. 

Of nearly the same size and form as C pusillus^ but the latter 
is at once distinguished by the more shining head and thorax, 
the very conspicuous large punctures on the thorax, and the wide 
elytral interstices. 



Mr. Schwarz also exhibited a few Coleoptera which have been 
described as from North America, but have hitherto remained 
unknown or unidentified by American coleopterists. The species 
were as follows : Trimium c/avicomeMsakl.^ found at Portland, 
Or., and Astoria, Or. ; Othius californicus Mannh., found at 
Astoria, Or., and Victoria, Vancouver Island ; and Stenus im- 
fnarginatus Maekl., found at Banff* Hot Springs, Alberta, Canada. 

— Mr. Stiles reported a case of spurious parasitism in the human 
subject. He had received specimens of two larvae, identified by 
Mr. Howard as Ephestla zece^ which were said to have been 
passed by a maiden lady with urine. He said that this was un- 
doubtedly another case of hysteria, a number of similar cases being 
on record. 

— Mr. Schwarz invited the members of the Society to inspect 
three large collections of Coleoptera of considerable local interest. 
The first was a collection made b}' Mr. H. G. Hubbard at Lake 
Tahoe, Cala., in July, 1S91 ; the second, a large collection also 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

made by Mr. Hubbard in the Yellowstone National Park, at Fort 
Assiniboine, Mont., and at Bear Paw Mountains in northern 
Montana, in July and August, 1891 ; and the third, a large collec- 
tion made in May and June, 1892, by Mr. Hubbard and himself, 
in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. 



Thursday, March 9, 1893. 

In the absence of the President and the Vice-Presidents, Mr. E. 
W. Doran was elected to the chair. There were ten members 
present. 

The first paper of the evening was the following, by Mr. Frank 
Benton, and was accompanied with an exhibit of the objects 
described : 

THE CURIOUS DEFENSES CONSTRUCTED BY MELIPONA 

AND TRIGONA. 

By Frank Benton. 

Some twenty years ago Mr. Ed. Drory, then editor of Le Rti- 
cher^ of Bordeaux, France, himself a skilful apiarist and a 
student of entomology, imported from Brazil a large number of 
nests and hives of the Meliponas and Trigonas native to that 
country and bred some of the species for several years, even 
succeeding, by extra precautions, in carrying some of them through 
the winters of his portion of France. Seven species of the 
genus Melipona and four of Trigona were studied by him and 
some of his observations were published in Le Rucher for 1S73 
and 1874^ while his particular study of Melipona scutellaris 
was published by himself in pamphlet form at Bordeaux.* Mr. 
Maurice Girard having visited the apiary of Mr. Drory in the 
autumn of 1S73, and also made some additional observations on 
the bees of two hives of different species of Melipona presented 
by Mr. Drory to the Jardin d*Acclimatation, read before the En- 
tomological Society of France, at three of its meetings held in 
1874, some notes on these bees. Referring to Melipona posfica 
Latr. (^M. dorsalis of F. Smith), he said, June loth, of the hive 
in the Jardin:. ''They have constructed outside, around each 
hole, a very pretty spreading cornet of reddish-brown wax, 
having the appearance of some kind of crepe or stiff lace." | 

* Quelques Observations siir la Melipone scutellaire, Melipona 
scutellaris Latr., par Ed. Drorv, Bordeaux, 1872. 

t Bulletin de la Soci^te-Entomologique de France, 1874, P- ^^ I (Stance 
du ID Juin). 



OF WASHINGTON. 19 

Again, July 22d, he remarks: " The small species, M, dorsalis 
Smith, now has at the entrance of its hive a long, somewhat 
distorted, cylindrical tube of brown wax, 5 or ^6 cm. long and i 
cm. in diameter, ending outside with a reddish spreading 
cornet. * * * * The workers of the other^ ^species, 
Melipona scutellaris Latr., have built of brown wax, granular 
and soft, a sort of a wall which completely closes the large 
entrance hole which was made in the bottom of the wooden box 
that serves as their hive. This work must be intended to protect 
them from the light and to prevent the entrance of insect 
enemies." * At the meeting of the 9th of December, 1874, Mr. 
Girard said : " It is seen in the nest of Melipona scutellaris that 
a tube of wax starts from the entrance-hole and leads to the 
brood-nest, so that the insect traverses it in the same manner as 
the Termites of Landes and Charantes their galleries of sawdust. 
It is the exterior collar of this tube which I have observed around 
the flight-hole of the small species in the Jardin*d*Acclimata- 
tion, M, postica Latr., or dorsalis Smith. It is probable that this 
tube, which is found in the nests of all species of Melipona and 
Trigona, serves to shut out all light from the interior and prevents 
the introduction of insect enemies.'* t 

It is particularly to the opinion expressed in this last sentence, 
as well as on one other, occasion by Mr. Girard, namely, that 
these defenses were constructed for the purpose of preventing 
the entrance of lights that I wish to direct your attention, and 
also to the statement made in all four quotations, that the mate- 
rial of these entrance-tubes is wax. So far as I am aware, no 
one has ever called in question the correctness of these observa- 
tions made, as they were, by one of the former presidents of the 
Entomological vSociety of France, who has himself written a work 
on apiculture which professes, as its preface states, '^ to be a guide 
both scientific and practical,*' and " for apiculturists a clear and 
exact risumi of the natural history and of the technical operations 
connected with the harvesting of the products ; for savants^ a com- 
plete monograph from the entomological standpoint.*' J 

It is true he does not directly state that the tubes or defenses 
constructed by Trigona are of the same material as those made 
by Melipona, but he distinctly states on three different occasions 
that the entrance barriers of the latter are of wax, and when refer- 
ring to Trigona he fails to note any exception. This, it seems to 
me, implies that he considers the nature of the material employed 
in these constructions by each genus the same, as also the purpose 
they serve. Mr. Drory clearly regarded them as built for protec- 

*A/., p. CXL (Stance du 22 Juillet). 

t M. Girard in Annales de la Soci^te ent. de France, 1874, p. 568 
(^ Stance du 9 Ddc, 1874). 

X Les Abeilles, Organes et Fonctions, education et produits, miel et cire, 
par Maurice Girard, Paris, 1878. (See pp. 7-8.) 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

tion against insect enemies, and made no mention of their exclu- 
sion of light from the interior of the nests. Certain observations 
I have made lead me to form conclusions differing somewhat from 
those recorded by Mr. Girard, and I will, therefore, mention 
briefly some of them, as well as show you entrance-tubes and 
combs constructed by bees of these genera that you may judge for 
yourselves as to the materials used in each. 

Melipona. — In 18S3 I was kindly shown by Mr. Drory himself 
his collection of 30 or 40 nests and hives of Melipona and Tri- 
gona — mostly the former. The entrance-tubes and barriers, where 
constructed, were, as far as I could determine, of the same mate- 
rial as the entrance-tube leading from the flight-hole to the brood- 
nest of the hive now before you, contained in the original case in 
which it was imported from Brazil, and which was kindly pre- 
sented to me by Mr. Drory in acknowledgment of specimens of 
East Indian bees I had given to him. This nest or hive is one of 
Melipona scutellaris Fabr. It can be readily seen that consider- 
able diflerence exists between the material of the entrance-tube 
and that of the honey-cells and labyrinthine envelope of the brood- 
nest. I have examined the material of entrance-tubes and cells 
with considerable care, and find that of the tubes to be quite hard 
and brittle at ordinar}' temperatures, under which wax is some- 
what yielding and pliable ; in burning jt gives no odor of wax, 
but rather that of some resinous gum. The tube where it passes 
through the labyrinthine envelope to reach the brood-nest, and 
also where, outside this envelope, honey-cells are attached to it, 
undoubtedly has incorporated in its mass more or less wax of the 
peculiar brown color and soft, almost greasy, consistency charac- 
teristic of the wax of Melipona. But all parts of the tube which 
are separated from the nest proper seem to be composed wholly 
of resinous substances corresponding to the propolis or so-called 
" bee-glue" of our Apis. The nest itself, made up of the store- 
cells, labyrinthine envelope, and within this the brood-combs, is 
built wholly of the " brown wax, granular and soft,*' of which 
Mr. Girard speaks. The two substances seem to me to be similar 
only in color. Being quite familiar with all of the substances 
produced by bees, I feel sure I am not mistaken in identifying the 
material of the entrance-tube proper as corresponding to the 
propolis gathered by our ^/i/^/w^///)?^^, and I am much surprised 
that they should have been confounded. 

Trigona. — During the early part of 1 88 1 I passed several 
weeks on the Island of Ceylon and while there examined about 
a dozen nests of Trigona located where built. These were all 
found in the more open portions of the country None were 
noticed in the denser forest regions, although hollow trees suitable 
for nesting-places were not lacking there. The nests, with one 
exception, were in the hollows of small stubs or branches of low 



OF WASHINGTON. 21 

trees. The single exception was that of a swarm which had 
located in one of the iron posts supporting the porch of a house 
at Kaltura, on the southwestern coast. The only entrance to this 
nest was through a small hole scarcely 5 mm. in diameter in the 
side of the iron post — a hole pi'obably caused by an air-bubble 
when the pillar was cast. The occupants of the pillar evidently 
considered themselves secure within their iron walls, with so 
small an opening for ingress, for they had constructed no outer 
defences. The same thing was noticed in all instances where the 
trees in which the nests were located were tolerably sound and 
the entrance-holes were small. But in several where the 
entrances were 10 mm. to 25 mm. in diameter the bees had built 
a ridge or rim 10 to 15 mm. high around the flight-hole. The 
sticky material used seemed to be a resinous gum, as in the case 
of the entrance-tubes of Melipona, and, like them also, the ma- 
terial appeared similar to the propolis collected by our honey- 
bees. Upon a casual examination I thought gnawings of bark 
had been incorporated into the mass. Under a lens it appears 
to be composed of particles of resin ; it tastes like resin and burns 
like resin or pitch ; it is much harder than wax and is quite 
brittle at temperatures at which wax is soft and more or less 
ductile ; in fact, it shows none of the characteristics of real wax, 
but does «how most of those of propolis as we know it here. I 
am therefore decidedly of the opinion that these entrance-tubes 
contain no wax, but are almost, if not wholly, constructed of 
propolis. The edges of these curious defences were as thin as 
ordinary cardboard, while at the bases where attached to the 
trees they were two or three millimeters thick. In one instance, 
in the jungle near Kaltura, I found a nest located in a sm.all stub 
in which, a little farther down, a colony of ants had also established 
itself. The Trigonae had extended their tubular defence out 
some 20 mm. and then downward, or perhaps in the heat the 
tube had naturally assumed that position, as it had reached a 
length of about 20 cm., the diameter varying from 10 to 25 mm., 
the tube being somewhat flattened. Through this tube the bees 
reached their nest, entering at the lower end, the only opening, 
and I noticed that the arits, usually so ravenous and destructive 
in this as well as other tropical regions, avoided this somewhat 
sticky tube. I carefully removed this tube, portions of which I 
now place t^fore you, and the nest of Trigonae from its lodge- 
ment in the tree and placed it in a small box, and being about to 
proceed eastward took it with me. The insects bore the confine- 
ment of the five days* sea-voyage to Singapore very well. They 
were permitted to fly there a couple of days and then confined 
for three days more on the journey to the Island of Java. Upon 
being released, with a number of colonies o{ Apis mellijica I 
had brought with me, at the Dutch East Indian Agricultural 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

College, near Buitenzorg, these diminutive bees immediately 
went vigorously to work *' cleaning house," and were soon bring- 
ing, in pollen and honey. When the flight-hole was much larger 
than was necessary in order to permit a single Trigona to pass 
in or out, the ants, large and small, were even more troublesome 
than in Ceylon. Individuals from the hives of Apt's mellifica 
(Cyprian and Palestine varieties) which I had brought with me 
also made efforts to get into the nest or hive of Trigonae. The 
latter immediately began the construction of an entrance-tube, 
but did not add to it after I contracted the entrance, and until 
some one disturbed the cover during my absence the small size 
of the entrance with perhaps some aid from the surrounding wall 
of sticky propolis enabled the tiny occupants to hold their fort. 
I found the cover awry one day and ants in full possession. The 
Trigonas had been destroyed and their honey and immature bees 
taken. No honey-bees were seen about the box, but perhaps 
they had helped at the banquet and had taken leave as soon as 
the first course (the honey) had been disposed of. 

As the tubular entrances were only constructed, as far as I ob- 
served, when the flight-holes themselves were rather large, and 
when these were small the bees seemed to be secure without 
such passage-ways, I naturally concluded that the tubes served 
as defences only. Their whole arrangement, combined with the 
labyrinthine envelope of the brood-nest, is well calculated to aflbrd 
considerable security to the stores of these stingless bees, for any 
other insect wishing to reach the honey of the Meliponas or 
Trigonas must needs pass, first of all, the length of the outer 
tube or barrier-wall where such has been constructed, then 
through the narrow entrance past the sentinels, down the inner 
tube into the brood-nest, and thence through the labyrinthine 
passages of the envelope to the outside of the brood-nest where 
the cells for holding honey and pollen are found attached to the 
inner walls of the cavity which has been selected as a home by 
the colony. Once there and gorged with honey the robber 
would have to run the same gauntlet to get out, if indeed he 
could remember his way through the labyrinthine passages, which 
the Meliponas and Trigonas traverse with ease and rapidity. It 
is easily understood that this arrangement also prevents the ready 
escape of the odor of honey which might attract pilferers. 

The bees which I sav/ in nests having no outside entrance- 
tubes did not seem to be incommoded by the small amount of 
light which entered through the flight-hole. Nor are our bees 
of the sister genus Apis. Even Bombus, of which I have often 
had a dozen or more nests at a time in small wooden hives, is 
not apparently disturbed by the light which enters through a 
half-inch hole. Some varieties of our Apis mellifica construct 
corresponding entrance-defences to protect themselves in regions 
where the death's-head moth and wasps are abundant. 



OF WASHINGTON. 23 

These facts lead me to conclude that Mr. Girard is quite in 
error in his opinion that these entrance-tubes are constructed of 
wax, and also equally so in the view that they are for the express 
purpose of shutting out the light. Propolis is doubtless the 
material of the tubes, and they are probably built for defence 
only. 



Some discussion followed on the nature of the substance used 
in the construction of the entrance-tubes and honey-cells, and the 
author was also questioned as to the natural enemies of these 
bees. In reply he stated that one of their enemies seems to be 
the common honey-bee, Apis mellifica^ which robs the nests and 
eventually drives out and destroys the stingless Melipona. Mr. 
Schwarz referred to a paper by Dr. Von Ihering, in which the 
statement was made that the native bees had been almost driven 
out and destroyed in the province of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
by Apis mellifica^ which had rapidly spread over the entire 
district. The bee-moth was also stated by Mr. Benton to infest 
the nests of Melipona, but he was unable to give any facts as to 
the native or original enemies of Melipona except in a general 
way — that they were subject to the attacks of various birds and 
Vespas. That there must be, however, various insect parasites 
which are peculiar to these bees was urged by Mr. Schwarz and 
others. The death's-head moth having been mentioned as an 
enemy of bees, Mr. Schwarz inquired in what way the damage 
from this moth occurred. Mr. Benton stated that it consisted in 
its entering the hives and robbing them of their honey, which 
injury was probably not very extensive, as the moth rarely escaped 
from the hive, but was killed and dismembered by the bees and 
sealed up in the hive in a covering of propolis. Mr. Howard 
queried whether the wax which was known to be abundant and a 
common article of commerce in the times of the Motezumas, 
among the ancient Mexicans, was a product of the native 
Melipona. In answer to a question as to the geographical dis- 
tribution of these bees (Melipona) Mr. Benton stated that, so far 
as he knew, they are limited to the New World and occur in the 
greatest abundance in Southeast Brazil and other parts of 
South and Central America, and in the West Indies. The 
Trigona occurs in Brazil and other tropical countries of South 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

America, also in Mexico, and in the eastern hemisphere, in 
Ceylon, the .Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and also in parts 
of Australia. 

— Mr. Schwarz presented the following, illustrating his re- 
marks by sketches and exhibition of specimens : 

NOTE ON THE OVIPOSITOR OF SOME SPECIES OF 

DONACIA. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

While arranging a collection of North American Donacias I 
noticed that in many females of the subgenus Plateumaris 
(Group D of Mr. Leng*s Synopsis of the DonaciaB of Boreal 
America, in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xviii, pp. 159 ff.) the 
ovipositor is protruded and represents a very conspicuous object. 
In the typical Donacia the ovipositor is never visible, and upon 
dissection it was found that in these species the outer, horny 
sheaths of the ovipositor are but little developed and not capable 
of protrusion. 

In the species of Plateumaris the outer sheaths of the ovipositor 
form two plates, a smaller and narrower dorsal plate and a wider 
and much longer ventral plate. The upper plate is always 
extremely thin and transparent, usually as long as wide, with the 
apical side either subtruncate, or rounded, or feebly triangularly 
produced. 

The ventral plate is usually much longer than wide, with the 
sides parallel at the basal part, thence convergent either obliquely 
or arcuatedly and terminating in an acute point. The rim of 
this plate is slightly thickened, hard and horny, highly polished 
and of a rich umber brown ; the edge itself is extremely sharp 
like that of a knife and finely (in one species coarsely) serrate. 
The middle of the plate from the base to some distance beyond 
the parallel portion is very thin, quite transparent and concave 
at the dorsal surface. , The dorsal plate closly fits into this con- 
cavity and thus protects the inner parts of the ovipositor, which 
can be plainly seen through the transparent outer plates. 

The whole apparatus just characterized evidently forms an in- 
strument admirably adapted to sawing into the tissues of plants, 
and I have not the slightest doubt that in all species of this sub- 
genus the eggs are laid within the stems or roots of plants. The 
ovipositor is exserted at an angle with the tip of the abdomen so 
that the beetle can operate it exactly like a saw moving up- and 
downward. When the ventral plate has sufHciently deeply pene- 
trated into the plant, the apex of the dorsal plate is lifted up, 
which can be readily done on account of the higher rim of the 
ventral plate. The ovipositor proper, guided by the inner 



OF WASHINGTON. 



25 



(lateral) pair of plates, then is pushed through this opening and 
the egg (or the eggs) is thus inserted into the slit. 

It is well known that the imagos of Plateumaris differ in habit 
from those of Donacia : the former occur on palustral plants and 
the latter on truly aquatic plants. The supposed oviposition in 
Plateumaris greatly differs from that of the true Donacia, so far 
as the life-histories of these are known, and would seem to indi- 
cate a corresponding difference in the habits of the larva. 

I am not aware that any similar structure of the ovipositor has 
been observed in other Coleoptera,* and while in several families 
(especially Ceranibycidae) the eggs are inserted into the tissues 
of plants, the ovipositor is at most a piercing instrument, but 
never a saw. 

From an examination of a number of females of Plateumaris 
it can be readily seen that the form of the ovipositor, and more 
especially that of the ventral plate, offers excellent characters 
for the distinction of the species. The material at present at my 
disposal is, however, by no means complete enough to enable me 
to give a synoptic table of the species based upon this character, 
and I confine myself to indicate briefly the various types of this 
structure in the North American species : 

a 






Fig. i. Outer ventral plate of the ovipositor in Donacia (subgenus Plateumaris): 
it, iJonacia, u. sp.?; b, D. ru/a : c, D. eniarginata. 

t 

1st Type. Ventral plate with a prominent, acute tooth on each 
side of the junction of the parallel basal part with the apical part ; 
the latter triangular with the sides straight and finely serrulate ; 
terminal point long and slender, spine-like. 

This type occurs only in Z?. rufa, 

2d Type. Ventral plate without such tooth ; apical part more 
or less triangular, with the sides either straight or arcuate, edge 
finely serrulate ; terminal point acute but not spine-like. 

Most of our species belong here ; specific differences are indi- 
cated by the greater or smaller width of the plate, the longer or 



* The pupae of the Chrysomelid genus Sagra have been found within 
the stems of plants, but 1 had no opportunity of examining female speci- 
mens of this genus. 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

shorter apical portion of the same, the greater or smaller extent 
of the thickened rim, etc. 

'T^d Type. Ventral plate without such tooth ; apical portion not 
triangularly produced but broadly rounded ; edge coarsely ser- 
rate ; terminal point represented by a broad tooth. 

Here belongs a single species which is possibly undescribed. 



— Mr. Schwarz exhibited samples of white and black insect 
pins made by Schliiter of Baden, Germany, and now offered for 
sale by Queen & Co. He said that from a short ej^perience 
these pins appeared to him to be superior in many respects to 
the Klager pins as now obtained in the market. 



April 6, 1S93. 

In the absence of the President, Vice-President Ashm^ad pre- 
sided. Ten members and one visitor were present. 
Dr. Marx presented the following paper : 

DEGENERATION BY DISUSE OF CERTAIN ORGANS IN 

SPIDERS. 

By Geo. Marx. 

A strange example of retrogradation in organs by disuse I have 
noticed among some spiders of the Fam. Drassidae collected in 
the subarctic region of our continent. The genus Gnaphosa is 
known to make no web, their faculty of spinning being con- 
fined to making loose threads in crevices under bark and stones, 
to cocoon covering, and occasionally they issue a drag-line while 
running. 

In the northern region their active life is so short that tiiey 
seem to have no need to use their spinning organs at all, and these 
organs — the external spinnerets as well as the internal spinning 
glands — are apt to retrograde gradually and become rudimentary 
or they are lost altogether. This is the case in our Gnaphosa 
conspersa Thorell, of which I possess specimens in my 
collection from Alaska, Lake Superior, and Lake Klammath, 
Oregon. Here the two superior and the two median spinnerets 
are entirely wanting, while the two inferior spinnerets are fully 
developed. The anatomical change is confined to the absence of 
eleven large glands (either tubuliform or ampulaceae and nine 
median glands), while in the inferior spinnerets there are retained 
three large and about twenty smaller pyriform glands. The 
product of the pyriform glands is the guy-rope or drag-line, while 



OF WASHINGTON. 27 

the tubuliform glands furnish the spinning material for the 
cocoons. Thus we see the males are able to render their walk- 
ing secure by the usual guy-rope, and the females can cover their 
cocoons safely. In consequence, the absence of these organs does 
not interfere with the life of the animals. 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Gill, Ashmead, and 
Schwarz. 

Dr. Marx stated in answer to a question by Mr. Schwarz that 
the AttidaB have the six normal spinnerets, for, although they 
spin no webs, they have occasion to elaborate a good deal of silk 
for their winter quarters. Dr. Marx further stated that he had 
learned from a correspondent near Baltimore that the common 
Phydippus mors i tans had died in large numbers from cold dur- 
ing the past winter, thus showing that the idea he had presented 
at a previous meeting relative to the hibernation of Arctic spiders 
was probably correct. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that he had observed a great mortality 
among the Scolytids affecting pine trees near Bladensburg, Md., 
the principal species being Tomicus cacographus and T. ccelatus. 
Last fall these insects and their larvae were extremely abundant 
in the trees, but at the present time hardly a living individual 
was to be found. Specimens of a coleopterous enemy of the 
species, viz., Hypophloeus parallellus^ are alive at the present 
time, and it may be that the work of this insect accounts in some 
degree for the disappearance of the injurious forms, but he is 
inclined to think that the unusual cold of the past winter was the 
principal cause of the great mortality. Dr. Smith stated that as 
these species occur also much further north, the mortality could 
hardly have been caused by the cold ; to which Mr. Schwarz 
replied that in his opinion a more or less extensive mortality from 
unusual cold must occur occasionally to keep the numbers of the 
beetles within bounds. Mr. Ashmead spoke incidentally of the 
hibernation of a large spider of the genus Attus under the bark 
of trees in Florida. 

— Mr. Ashmead presented the following : 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPALANGIIN^ OF NORTH AMERICA. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

Head large oblong or ovate, often tricornuted in front, the 
occipital line usually complete. Ocelli 3, always present, tri- 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

angularly arranged. Mandibles bidentate at tips. Maxillary and 
labial palpi 2-jointed. Antennae clavate or subclavate, variable 
in the number of joints from 8 to 12. Prothorax usually large, 
well developed, narrowed before or subquadrate. Mesonotum 
usually with short, triangular, convex scapulaB. Scutellum flat 
and sometimes with an impressed cross-line before apex. Wings 
often absent, when present with a marginal fringe, the marginal 
vein most frequently long, linear, rarely short and thickened, the 
postmarginal and stigmal veins usually very short ; hind wings 
narrowed toward base, not lobed, with a distinct marginal vein. 
Abdomen distinctly petiolated, the tip compressed into a horn- 
like point with the ovipositor exserted or subexs^rted. Legs 
rather slender, the tarsi 5-jointed, the claws simple. 

The Spalangiince represent a small group in the family 

Chalcididce ^ section Macrocentri^ that is closely allied to the 

Pirenince and Tridymince^ and in which the occipital line is 

usually complete, the mandibles bidentate, while the antennae 

are never more than 1 2-jointed. 

The group is further distinguished by the very short, well- 
defined parapsides, a distinctly petiolated abdomen, by the 
venation, and by the apex of the abdomen being compressed into 
a small projecting horn-like process. 

Of the five genera here brought together, the parasitism of 
four is known : Isocratus Forst. is parasitic on difierent Aphids ; 
Cerocephala Westw. attacks the larvae of wood-boring beetles, 
belonging to the family Scolytidce\ Chcetosplla Westw. was 
reared from a beetle in seed of Zea mays; while Spalangia 
Latr. is parasitic on Dipterous larvae. 

The difierent genera may be distinguished by the aid of the 
following table : 

Table of Genera. 

Prothorax subquadrate, not or scarcely narrowed anteriorly. 

Head transverse, normal, the antennae i2-jointed, inserted far above 
the clypeus ; marginal vein very short, . . . Isocratus Forster. 
Prothorax long, narrowed anteriorly. 

Head tridentate with deep antennal furrows, a sharp high-pointed 
carina between base of antennae; marginal vein long. 

Head with a long spear-like process ; mandibles very large— three- 
fourths the length of the head; antennae lo-jointed in both 

sexes,* ParalcBsthia Cameron. 

Head without a long spear-like process; mandibles not large. 
Antennae in 9 > 9-> in c? '^ ®^ ii-jointed, Cerocephala Westw. 
Antennae in $ S-jointed ; (^unknown,. ChceiospiiaV^Q^tw, 



♦In Cresson's synopsis the mandibles are said to be three times as long 
as the head, instead of three Jourths as long — plainly a copj'ist's or 
printer's error, but a serious one. 



OF WASHINGTON. 29 

Head smooth, not tridentate, without distinct antennal furrows; 
antennae inserted close to the mouth, in 9 lo-, in (^ 12-jointed, 

Spalangia Latr. 

ISOCRATUS Forster, Hym. Stud., ii, p. 53 (1856). 
Syn. Asaphes Walk., Ent. Mag., ii, p. 151 (1834). 
(Type A. vulgaris Walk.) 

Head transverse, wider than the thorax, with the frons impressed; 

viewed from in front it is subtriangular. Eyes moderate, broadly oval, 

bare. Ocelli on the vertex, triangularly arranged. Mandibles curved, 

bidentate, the teeth rather long, acute. Maxillary and labial palpi 2- 

jointed. 

Antennae clavate, 12-jointed in both sexes, inserted slightly below the 

middle of the face, all the funiclar joints transverse. Thorax sub- 
ovoid, the pronotum large, nearly quadrate; the mesonotum with two dis- 
tinct furrows, the parapsides subconvex, the metanotum small, rugulose. 

Wings hyaline, the margins delicately fringed, the marginal vein shorter 
than the stigmal vein, the former slightly thickened towards apex. Legs 
slender, the tibial bpurs i, i, i, the last pair weak; tarsi 5-jointed. 

Abdomen ovate, depressed above, distinctly petiolated, terminating in a 
small compressed process, the second segment about i^ times as long as 
the third, the following segments short, subequal. 

Only a single species, having several synonyms, is known, as 
follows : 

I. vulgaris Walker. 

Asapkes vulgaris Walk., Ent Mag., ii, p. 152. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., x, p. 114. 
List. Brit. Mus. Chalc. 1846, p. 23. 
Eurytoma aenea Nees, Hym. Ich. AfF. Monog, ii, p. 42. 
Colax aphidit Curt. ^ Jour. Roy. Agric. Soc, iii. 
Pteromalus petiolatus (?) Zett., Ins. Lapp., xiv, p. 332. 
Chrysolampus suspensus Nees, Monog., ii, p. 127. 

altiventris Nees, 1. c. 
Isocratus vulgaris Thoms., Skand. Hym., iv, 208. 

Riley, U. S. Agric. Rep. 1889, p. 35, pi. vi, f. 2. 

(^ $ . — Length, 1.6 to 2.3 mm. Aeneous black and most frequently with 
a decided metallic tinge on the thorax, pleura and coxae; antennae usually 
black, but theflagellum varies from brownish-yellow to brown and black, 
legs, except coxae, brownish-yellow with sometimes the femora and tibiae 
obfuscated; coxae aeneous black or submetallic; wings hyaline, the 
venation pale brownish-yellow, the marginal vein shorterthan the stigmal 
vein, a little thickened at apex. 

The whole surface, except the middle mesothoracic lobe anteriorly 
and the metathorax, is smooth, shining; middle mesothoracic lobe 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

anteriorly feebly punctate, metathorax finely rugose, its pleura with long 
greyish hairs. Antennae 12-jointed, clavate, the funiclar joints transverse. 
Abdomen ovate, petiolate, depressed above, its tip compressed into a little 
point, the petiole about 2^ times as long as thick, rugulose, the ruguosities 
longitudinally directed, or striated ; rest of abdomen smooth polished, the 
second segment the longest — ij times as long as the third, the segments 
after the third short, subequal ; (^ abdomen smaller, more depressed and 
with the tip truncate. 
Hab. — Europe, North and South America, and Australia. 

This species is a common parasite on different species of Aphids ; 
the only exception is a specimen reared by myself from Dactyl- 
opius adonidutn Linn. 

PARAL/BSTHIA Cameron, Biol. Cent. Am., Hymn., p. no. 

(Type P. mandibularis Cam.) 

" Head elongate, broad, produced in front into a spear-head process, 
the apex of which is blunt, and its base produced into a blunt tooth-like 
process. Eyes small, oval, situated on the sides. Vertex with a wide 
and deep furrow extending from behind the ocelli to the antennae and 
carinated in the middle, the keel running down to the centre. Mandibles 
very large, three-fourths of the length of the head, curved, bidentate. 
Antennae 10-jointed, clavate, situated a little below the middle of the head; 
scape shorter than the first two joints of the flagellum, the first joint 
shorter than the second, fourth and fifth shorter and thicker; the rest 
become thicker towards apex. Prothorax large, a little broader than long, 
distinctly separated from the mesothorax, the sides scarcely straight, 
transverse behind, rounded and narrowed in front. Mesonotum rather 
flat above, the scutellum not clearly defined. Metanotum comparatively 
large, closely amalgamate with the mesonotum. Petiole long, curved, 
broader at the base than at the apex, round. Abdomen ovoid, flat, con- 
tracted before and behind ; second segment longer than the next, fourth 
much longer than any of the others ; apical a little shorter than the third. 
Ulna shorter than the marginal branch (which is prolonged a little beyond 
the cubitus); at its junction with ulna is a thickened spot of hairs; the 
marginal branch is provided with projecting hairs; the margins of the 
wings with long cilia. Coxae large, thickened, widely separated; femora 
stout; tarsi longer than the tibiae. 

The female has a stout laterally compressed ovipositor, which is about 
half the length of the abdomen. The head over the mouth is broadly 
incised, the edges of the incision being tooth-like; the front below the 
antennae is produced into a broad keel, which overhangs the mouth-region, 
terminating in a blunt thick tooth." (Cameron.) 

This genus is unknown to me in nature ; the type P. man- 
dibularis Cam. is described from Panama. Mr. Cameron in 



OF WASHINGTON. 3 1 

speaking of it says: '-The affinities of this genus are clearly 
with Theocolax Westw., with which it agrees in the structure of 
the thorax and abdomen and of its wings ; but the enormous de- 
velopment of the mandibles, the very deep and long suture on 
the head, and the greater development of the basal abdominal 
segments sufficiently differentiate the two." 

CEROCEPHALA Westwood, Mag. d. Zool. i., p. (1831). 

(Type C. cornigera Westw.) 

Syn. Theocolax fVes/w., Lond. Edin, Phil. Mag.^ 3d ser.^ t\ p. 127 
{^832). 
Epimacrus fValh.j Ent. Mag.^ /, p. jdg {iSjj). 
Lcesthia Hal.^ Ent. Mag.y i\ p. jjj* (i8jj). 
Sciatheras Riitzh.^ Ich, d. Eorsltns.f ii^ p. 2og (1848). 
Tricoryphus Forst.^ Hymn. Stud.y ii\ p. 2og (^i8j6). 
Head oblong oval, tridentate before from deep antenral furrows and 
a sharp carina between. Ocelli 3, in a triangle. Eyes oval. 

Antennce clavate, inserted away from the clypeus, in the (^ 10- or 11- 
jointed, the last two joints sometimes connate and apparently reducing 
the number of joints; in the $ 9-jointed, the club in the $ sometimes 
jointed and giving a corresponding increase in the number of joints. 
Maxillary and labial palpi short, 2-jointed. 

Thorax long, the prothorax large, triangular, or quadrate, the meso- 
notum with short, triangular scapulae, the scutellum without a transverse 
impressed line before the tip, the metathorax more or less rounded oflf 
posteriorly. 

Front wings fringed, the marginal vein rather long, the stigmal and 
poststigmal veins short. Females often wingless. 

Abdomen suboval or conic-ovate, longly petiolated, the ovipositor ex- 
serted. 

Legs rather stout, hairy. 

Forster, as early as 1856,* united Theocolax with Cerocephala 
and says: Walker hat in dem Ent. Mag., vol. ii, p. 149, Zwei 
Arten angefiihrt, cornigera Westw. und formiciformis Westw. 
Beide halte ich fiir dieselbe Art, die in Bezug auf Farbung und 
selbst auf die Kopfbildung, sowie nicht minder in der Grosse 
bedeutend variirt. Oft sind nicht zwei Exemplare vollig gleich 
gebildet. Der Name cornigera^ als der altere, wiirde beibe- 
halten werden miissen und die Synonymic ware folgende : 

Cerocephala cornigera Westw, ^ Guerin Mag. d. Zool., prem. 
Livr., pi. 4 (1831) c?. 

Theocolax formiciformis Westw, ^ Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag., 
3d ser. i, no. ii, p. 127 (1832) ?. 

♦Hymen. Stud, ii, p. 41. 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Lcesthia vespertina Hal.^ Ent. Mag., i, p. 335 (1833) c? ?. 

JBpimacrus rufus Walk,^ Ent. Mag., i, p. 369 (1833) 9. 

Sciatheras trichotus Ratzb,^ Ichn. der. Forstins., ii, Bd. p. 209, 
(1848) ? alata. 

Notwithstanding this, Thomson, in his SkandinaViens Hymen- 
optera, vol. iv, p. 207 (1875), gives a table of the Spalangiina, 
based entirely on the color, the absence or presence of wings, 
and the smoothness of the mesonotum, in which he again sepa- 
rates Theocolax from Cerocephala and also recognizes the genus 
Tricoryphus Forster, as belonging to the group which was 
originally placed by Forster in his family Cleonymotdce, In my 
studies in the group, I am convinced that color, punctuation, and 
the absence of wings are of no generic value, and I have united 
all of these genera under the older name Cerocephala, 

The three species in our fauna may be separated as follows : 

Table of Species. 

Wingless or with rudimentary wings, 2 

Winged. 

Pale brown disk of mesonotum and scutellum metallic brown. 

Abdomen bronzy black ; head and prothorax with iridescent reflec- 
tions; wings hyaline with a broad brown band beyond the 
middle. 9 Length, i mm., .... C. pttyopkikori^ ^p. n. 
Reddish-yellow or honey-yellow. (^ with a brownish metallic blotch 
across mesonotum and scutellum. 

Abdomen in 9 with the apical half metallic brown, in (^ with a 
brownish transverse band. 

Wings hyaline in (^ with a slight brownish blotch below 
the stigmal vein; in 9 with a larger discal blotch and a 
slight brownish streak below the juncture of the sub- 
marginal with the marginal. Length, 1.5 to mm., 

C. scolytivora^ sp. n. 
2. — Metallic brownish red; mesothorax broad, longitudinally aciculated. 

Length, 2 mm., C. canadensis^ Prov. 

C. pityophthori, sp. n. 

9. — Length, i mm. Pale brown, polished, impunctured; the disk of 
mesothorax and the scutellum metallic brown; the abdomen bronzy 
black; the head and prothorax with iridescent reflections; the tip of the 
antennae black; ovipositor not quite half the length of the abdomen; the 
legs pale brownish-yellow, the posterior femora sometimes metallic. 

Antennae 9-jointed, clavate, moniliform, the pedicel longer than the first 
funicle joint; club large, usually inarticulate, but sometimes with one or 
two indistinct sutures. Wings hyaline with a broad brown band beyond 
the middle ; the marginal vein is longer than the submarginal, the stigmal 
and postmarginal veins very short. 
Hab. — Haw Creek, Florida. 
Types in National Museum. 



OF WASHINGTON. 33 

Described from four specimens, reared by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, 
in April, 1887, from Piiyophthorus consimilis Lee. 

C. scolytivora, sp. n. 

(^ 9' — Length, 1.5 to 2 mm. Reddish-yellow or honey-yellow, highly 
polished, impunctured; in the ^ with a brownish submetallic blotch 
across the mesonotum and the scutellum, and a brownish transverse band 
on the abdomen ; the coxae, trochanters, tarsi, and petiole, white ; antennae 
10- or ii-jointed gradually incrassated toward tips, submoniliform ; wings 
hyaline, except a slight brownish blotch below the stigmal vein ; in the 
9 the apical half or more than the apical half of the abdomen is metallic- 
brown, sometimes with purplish reflections, the ovipositor projects with 
stout valves, its basal half yellow, its apical half black ; the antennse are 
stout, moniliform, 9-jointed, the club usually not jointed; wings hyaline 
with a brown blotch on its disk below the stigmal vein and a much nar- 
rower brown streak below the juncture of the submarginal with the mar- 
ginal ; the marginal vein is longer than the submarginal, the stigmal and 
postmarginal' short, the former oblique and thickened at tip. The eyes, 
in both sexes, are brown, bare, ocelli in a triangle. The head anteriorly 
is tricornuted, the keel between the antennae sharp, triangularly pointed. 

Hab.— South Florida. 

Types in National Museum. 

Described from 16 specimens, reared April 14, i88zj, by Mr. 
E. A. Schwarz, from Loganius Jicus Schwarz, MS., found 
on Ficus aurea, 

C. canadensis Prov. 

Theocolax canadensis Prov., Faun. Hym. Can. ii, p. 809. 

9. — Length, 2 mm. Metallic brownish-red with coppery reflections. 
Antennae kneed after the scape, which is long and lodged in a groove of 
the face, brown, the scape testaceous, the last joints thickened, clavate. 
Prothorax in the form of an elongate collar; mesothorax broad, longi- 
tudinally aciculated before. Rudiments of wings short. Legs testaceous ; 
the extremity of the femora and the anterior tibiae brownish. Abdomen 
thickened at the extremity ; the ovipositor one-quarter the length of the 
abdomen, testaceous, the extremity black. 

Hab. — Cap Rouge, Canada. 

Type in Coll. Provancher. 

Unknown to me. The Abbe says: "Nous ne somme pas 
certain que cet insect soit r^ellement un Theocolax^ ce sont bien 
les antennes de ce genre tel que d^crit par Westwood, mais le 
prothorax n'est pas triangular." 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

CH^TOSPILA Westwood, Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 137. 
(Tyf.e C. elegans Westw.) 

"Caput quadratum antice trilobatum; mandibulae subtrigonae apice 
obliquo 4-dentato (pi. XXV, fig. loa); maxillae lobo apicali membranaceo 
rotundato setoso, palpis maxillaribus 4-articulatis articulis primo et tertio 
brevibus (fig. lob); mentum oblongo-ovale ; labium oblongum in medio 
paullo constrictum apice rotundato, palpis labialibus biarticulatis articulis 
aequalibus (fig. loc); antennae S-articulatse (absque articulis annuliforme- 
bus) articulis 2-7 longitudine fere aequalibus at sensim crassioribus, ultimo 
majori longo-ovali (fig. lod) ; collare semiovale capite angustius; meso- 
noti scutum breve, scutellum magnum; pedunculus abdominalis brevis ; 
abdomen magnum ovale ; alae amplae, setis longis marginatae, vena sub- 
costali trientem costae vix attingente, apice ejus in fasciculum setarum 
erectarum terminato, ramo stigmaticali minuto; pedes graciles." 

Unknown to me. Prof. Westwood further says: "The re- 
markable fascicles of short erect bristles at the junction of the 
subcostal vein with the costa is quite peculiar, and, so far as I 
have observed, does not occur in any other insect. The insect is 
closely allied to Cerocephala, from which it differs in the short 
peduncle to the abdomen and the 8-jointed antennae, these organs 
in Cerocephala being distinctly lo-jointed, the eighth and ninth 
being equal in size to the two preceding joints." 

The type C. elegans is figured 1. c. supra, on pi. xxv, ?i.%, 10, 
and was reared from Zea inays. It is undoubtedly parasitic 
on some Coleopteron living in the corn. 

The peculiar fascicles of short erect bristles to which Prof. 
Westwood calls especial attention is likewise at times present in 
Cerocephala. It is a peculiar feature of Sciatheras trichotus 
Ratz., and is very distinctly shown in his figure of this insect, 
Ichn. der Forstins, Bd. ii, Taf iii, fig. i. Moreover, on page 
209 he has called especial attention to it in the following words : 
" Weit eigenthiimlicher und ganz einzig ist die Verzierung der 
Fliigel-Junktur. Hier steht ein Flausch von feinen Borstchen 
(Fig. a, schwach vergrossert und Fig. 6, jener Flausch in einer 
etwas veranderten Richtung stark vergrossert)." 

The genus appears to me scarcely distinct from Cerocephala. 

SPALANGIA Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins., iv, p. 29. 

(Type S. niger Latr.) 

Head oblong or ovate, anteriorly truncate. Eyes ovate, hairy. Ocelli 
3, in a triangle. * 

Mandibles oblong, bidentate at tips. 

Maxillary and labial palpi 2-jointed. 

Antennce elbowed, inserted at the mouth, 10- or 12-jointed, in 9 clavate 
or subclavate, in (^ filiform, the third joint elongated. 



OF WASHINGTON. 35 

Thorax long, the prothorax long, narrowed anteriorly, mesonotum 
prominent anteriorly, the scapulae prominent, the scutellum flat with a 
transverse impressed or punctate line before the tip, metathorax sub- 
quadrate, the posterior angles obtusely dentate, the dorsum with a medial 
sulcus. 

Wings narrowed basally, the margins fringed ; the marginal vein is 
very long, and the postmarginal and stigmal veins are very short. 

Abdomen ovate, convex, the apex obtuse, ovipositor sub-exserted, short, 
stout, and slightly compressed. 

Legs rather long and slender, the coxae large, compressed, the femora 
most frequently attenuated, tibial spurs i, i, i, the tarsi shorter than the 
tibiae, the intermediate joints very minute, metatarsus anteriorly dilated, 
the posterior tarsi elongate. 

This genus is distinguished at once by the long head, the 
antennae inserted at the mouth, and by the cross-furrow before the 
tip of the scutellum. 

Five species have been recognized in our fauna, only three of 
which are known to me, which may be separated as follows : 

Table of Species. 

Females. 

Blue-black species, 2 

Bluish-green, the tergum with a cupreous band at base, densely 
punctured. 

Wings hyaline, slightly dusky, 5. polita Say. 

Black, more or less bronzed, the thorax rugoso-punctate. 

Wings dusky with brownish nervures, .... 5. csnea Prov. 
2. Mesonotum and scutellum aeneous. 

Head and prothorax with large, close, umbilicate punctures; 
wings hyaline, the marginal vein a little more than half the 

length of the submarginal, ^S. rtigosicollis^ sp. n. 

Head with coarse, distant punctures, the prothorax smooth ; wings 
hyaline, the marginal vein long, . . 5. drosophtlce, Ashm. 
Head and prothorax smooth, impunctured; wings hyaline, the 
marginal vein two-thirds the length of the submarginal, 

5. hcematobicBy sp. n^ 
S. polita Say. Leconte Ed. Say's Works, vol. i, p. 382. 

** Bluish-green; tergum with a cupreous band at base. Inhabits Vir- 
ginia. 

** Body bluish-green, varied with violaceous, densely punctured; front 
grooved to receive the basal joint of the antennae ; flagellum fuscous ; 
wings hyaline, slightly dusky ; scutel somewhat prominent; abdomen a 
little depressed ; first segment brilliant cupreous ; incisures glabrous ; 
terminal segment longer than the others together, forming at tip a nar- 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL SO(5IETY 

rowed, carinated black process for the reception of the tip of the oviduct; 
feet dull honey-yellow. Length $ seven-twentieths of an inch." (Say.) 
Hab. — Virginia. 

Mr. Say further says : 

^' I found this species on the sea beach of Sempuxent Island." 

S. senea, Prov. Add. a la Faun. Hym., p. 200. 

cj^. — Length, 2 mm. Black, more or less bronzed, with the mouth and 
antennae reddish. Antennae very long, filiform, pubescent, the joints 
distinct. Thorax rugoso-punctate, the prothorax very short. Wings gen- 
erally obscured with brownish nervures. Legs brown, more or less red- 
dish. Abdomen with a short and stout petiole, the rest oval, depressed; 
the third segment the largest, polished, shining, rounded at the extremity. 
(Provancher.) 

Hab. — Ottawa (Harrington). 

Unknown to me and probably not a Spalangia. 

S. rugosicollis sp. n. 

9. — Length, 2.5 mm. Blue-black, the mesonotum and scutellum, 
aeneous ; the head and prothorax with large, close, umbilicate punctures ; 
the mesonotum with a large, polished, impunctate space anteriorly, but 
rugoso-punctate posteriorly; the parapsides and scutellum with some 
sparse round punctures ; mesopleura smooth with a fovea at the middle. * 

Legs blue-black, the tarsi, except the last joint and the claws, reddish- 
yellow; the second joint of posterior trochanters is dilated above. 
Scutellum with a transverse row of punctures before the tip. Metathorax 
carinated, the space on each side of the central carina, rugoso-punctate. 

Abdomen oval, the petiole very long, longitudinally striated, the second 
and fourth segments the longest, the latter longer than the second, the 
third about half the length of the second. Wings hyaline, the venation 
brown; the marginal vein is a little more than half the length of the 
submarginal, the postmarginal and the stigmal veins very short, about 
equal, thrice as long as thick. 

Hab. — Missouri. 

Type in National Museum. 

Described from a single specimen. The species seems to come 
nearest to the European S, hirta Hal., but it is decidedly smaller 
and not so distinctly metallic. 

S. drosophilae, Ashm. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xiv, p. 199. 

$. — Length, 2 mm. Blue-black, shining. The oblong, flattened head 
has a longitudinal medial groove, with coarse, distatit punctures and a 
sparse pubescence. Antennae lo-jointed. Prothorax elongate, narrowed 
before; the scutellum is divided by a transverse row of punctures before 
the tip; the metathorax has two lateral longitudinal grooves and its disk 
with a double row of coarse punctures confluent behind. The abdominal 



OF WASHINGTON. 37 

petiole is moderately long, longitudinally striated; the third abdominal 
segment very slightly shorter than the fourth, the second the longest. 
Legs clavate, black, pubescent, the tarsi reddish. Wings hyaline, the 
marginal vein long. 

Hab. — Jacksonville, Fla. ; Savannah, Ga. 

Type in Coll. Ashmead. 

The type was reared by me from a dipterous larva, Drosofhila 
sp., feeding in decaying oranges ; there is also another specimen 
in the National Museum, reared by Dr. Riley, August 29, 1881. 
from a dipterous puparium found by Mr. Howard on rice at 
Savannah, Ga. 

S. hsematobise , sp. n. 

9 . — Length, 2 mm. Blue-black, highly polished, impunctured, except a 
small oval space on the mesonotum just in front of the scutellum; the 
parapsides or shoulders are metallic. The oblong head is smooth, im- 
punctured, with a central longitudinal grooved line. 

Mandibles and palpi black. Antennae lo-jointed (scape, pedicel, 7 
funicle joints and club), subclavate, black; the scape is almost as long as 
the head, slender and cylindrical ; the pedicel long, twice the length of the 
first funicle joint; the second funicle joint is a little shorter than the first, 
the joints beyond to the club quadrate ; club inarticulate and about as long 
as the three preceding joints together. 

The prothorax is about twice the length of the mesonotum, polished, 
except the narrow neck-like process at the juncture of the head, which is 
finely, opaquely rugose. Scutellum large, smooth, with a transverse sub- 
apical impressed line; the post-scutellum is followed by a row of round 
punctures. Metathorax as long as the scutellum, tricarinated, smooth 
and shining. Legs blue-black, the posterior femora aeneous; tarsi above 
fuscous, beneath with a short, dense, pale pujpescence. Wings hyaline, 
strongly iridescent, the venation black ; the submarginal vein reaches the 
costaat about one-third of the length of the wing, its tip a little incrassated ; 
marginal vein long, more than two-thirds the length of the submarginal ; 
the postmarginal and stigmal very short, equal, about thrice as long as 
thick. 

Hab. — Warrenton, Virginia. 

Type in National Museum. 

Described from a single specimen, reared by Dr. Riley Sep- 
tember 13, 1889, from the Horn-fly larva, Hcematobia serrata. 

The paper was briefly discussed by Messrs. Howard and 
Smith, the latter inquiring whether the Spalangia which has 
been reared in this country from cow's dung infested by the 
larvae of the Horn Fly is an imported sjoecies. Mr. Ashmead 
replied that it is new to science, and in all probability a native 
form. 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Dr. J. B. Smith spoke informally concerning the Rabbit Flea, 
giving the results of some studies recently made, stating, how- 
ever, that his remarks were of a purely preliminary character, and 
that he was not prepared to present any formal conclusions. He 
illustrated his remarks by a series of photographs of slide mounts 
of the insect, and called attention to the presence of two long, 
curved, chitinous rods in the abdomen of the male, which, while 
apparently of use in extruding the genitalia, are so inserted that 
it appears they cannot have this function. He further stated that 
a study of the mouth-parts of this flea shows that the oral 
sclerites resemble much more closely those of the Hemiptera 
than those of the Diptera. The piercing organs, instead of being 
articulated to the mentum, pass into the head and are inserted 
into the sucking stomach. Dr. Smith considers that this fact 
must have great weight in the discussion of the systematic posi- 
tion of the fleas, and is convinced that instead of forming a 
family of the Diptera these insects constitute a separate order. 
He is therefore in favor of reviving the order Siphonaptera. In 
further support of this view, he stated that while the metamor- 
phoses of the fleas resemble those of the Diptera in being com- 
plete, the flea larva, as he has been informed by Mr. Pergande, 
differs in important particulars from the normal dipterous type. 
The communication was discussed by Messrs. Stiles, Marx, Gill, 
and Howard. 

Dr. Stiles stated that it is a fact that all fleas leave the body of 
an animal shortly after death. Dr. Marx stated that the piercing 
organs of the fleas are similar in their origin to those of the ticks, 
and that in his opinion the fact that these organs enter the head 
gives them an additional purchase and fits them better for pierc- 
ing the tough skin of an animal. Dr. Gill endorsed Dr. Smith's 
conclusions as to the ordinal rank of the fleas. He spoke of 
Klatsch's classification, and considered that in general too much 
classificatory value has been given to the metamorphoses of in- 
sects. He does not believe in dividing insects into two great 
groups upon metamorphosis alone. He considers the morphol- 
ogy of the adult a much safer guide to a rational classification 
than the method of transformation. As he had shown in a pre- 
vious paper before the Society, complete metamorphosis is an 
acquired rather than a primitive character, and this fact supports 



OF WASHINGTON. 39 

the view that it is of relatively slight importance in classification. 
Mr. Howard expressed himself as of the opinion that the curved 
chitinous rods in the abdomen of the flea must be functional, and 
that if Professor Smith would examine fresh specimens in which 
the muscular tissue had not been destroyed by maceration in 
potash, he would find muscular bands accompanying and partly 
enveloping the rods. Such muscles being found, the extrusive 
function of the rods might be considered proven, however rigid 
the attachment of the anal end to the body walls might seem. 
He asked Professor Smith if he had homologized the piercing 
organs which arise from the sucking stomach, and the latter re- 
plied that he had not. He stated, however, that in the Hemip- 
tera he had been unable to find a satisfactory trace of the labium, 
whereupon Mr. Howard remarked that, supposing these piercing 
organs to be, after all, homologous with those of the mosquito, 
for instance, which arise from the mentum, the flea might with 
some justice be said to have practically swallowed its own labium. 

— Dr. Smith stated further that in his opinion the mouth-parts 
of the insects of the old order Neuroptera deserve investigation. 
He spoke of the Panorpatae or Mecaptera, and stated that he had 
recently examined the mouth-parts of Panorpa and Bittacus, 
showing that the extraordinary elongation is unique ; he had 
noticed an approach to a chela in one of the maxillary sclerites. 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited a specimen of a Pterostichus from 
Montana, showing a curious malformation in the middle tibia on 
the right side. The tibia was double and bore three tarsi. A 
similar fact has been recorded concerning species from other 
countries, but the malformation usually does not extend to the 
tibial spurs, of which there are two, while in the specimen ex- 
hibited by Mr. Schwarz there were four tibial spurs and the tibia 
bore two tarsi. As a general rule, among the Coleoptera, when- 
ever there is extensive malformation of the tarsus the tibial spurs 
are often affected. 

— Mr. Schwarz also spoke of the occurrence of Sfhcerius 
gibbioides as an herbarium pest in San Francisco. He had men- 
tioned this matter before the Society on a previous occasion, and 
recurred to the subject for the reason that he had recently learned 
that the species has spread ffom the Museu"^ of the Academy 
of Sciences into the commercial establishments of the city, feeding 
upon drugs and other stored products. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

— He also exhibited specimens oi Agalissus chamceropis Horn, 
from Biscayne Bay, Florida ; of Metopomata repens Casey, 
found at Portland, Ore., and oi Lapethus discretus Casey, found 
at Astoria, Ore. 

— Dr. Stiles mentioned in some detail a comedy of errors in a 
recent pseudo-scientific paper by a New Jersey author. 



May 4, 1893. 

Owing to a break in the street-car cable, only six members 
of the Society succeeded in reaching the place of meeting. 
Vice-President Ash mead presided. . 

The following paper by Prof C. H. Tyler Townsend was 
read by Mr. Schwarz : 

NOTE ON THE CORUCO, A HEMIPTEROUS INSECT WHICH 
INFESTS POULTRY IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO. 

By C. H. Tyler Townsend. 

There exists in southern New Mexico a Cimicid, known Ijy 
the Mexican name of Coruco^ which is an unmitigated pest of 
poultry in this region. When the insect once gains access to a 
hen-house, it soon swarms in great numbers, infesting the in- 
mates and roosts, and covering the eggs with its excrementa, 
which show as black specks. It is a very difficult pest to ex- 
terminate, and has frequently been known to spread from roosts 
to dwelling-houses, where it proves more formidable than the 
bedbug. This insect also exists in western Texas. 

In a paper published in I^a Naturaleza (2d series, vol. ii, 
1892, pi. viii, 8 figs.). Dr. Alfredo Dug^s has described and care- 
fully figured a similar species, under the name of Acanthia 
inodora^ which infests poultry in the region about Guanajuato, 
Mexico. 

Our species seems to be the same as A, inodora A. Dugfes. 
The following is a brief description of the nymph, made from 
specimens taken from roosts in a hen-house in Las Cruses on 
May 22, 1891. It is designed to show the peculiarities of the 
nymph as compared with the description and figures of the 
adult given by Duges, which correspond quite well with our 
specimens. 

Nymph. — Length, i| to 2J mm.; greatest width, i to i| mm. Pale 
whitish in color during life ; changed by immersion in alcohol to a brown- 
ish color, legs pale yellowish with a brownish tinge, and eyes brown. 



OF WASHINGTON. 41 

General form rather oval in outline from above, flattened; antennae 
4-jointed, first joint short, second longest, third and fourth shorter and 
about equal. Differs from Dug^s' figures of the adult as follows : head 
and thoracic segments gradually broadening posteriorly, each broader 
than the one anterior to it. No signs of wings. Clypeus elongate, 
broadened and truncate anteriorly, rapidly narrowed posteriorly where it 
is set into a median notch of the posterior sclerite of the head, entire, not 
bearing two lateral sclerites. Beak reaching nearly to base of posterior 
legs. Lateral edges of prothorax without any pubescence. Rings of ab- 
domen straight or nearly so transversely, the sutures being nearly straight 
or but slightly and gently curved, none angulate anteriorly on the median 
line. Prothorax about as long as head, other two thoracic segments very 
distinctly shorter; first two abdominal segments much shortened, the 
others about as long as last two thoracic segments and nearly equal in 
length. Abdominal segments 3 and 4 the widest part of whole body. 
Abdomen showing no rounded stigma-like spot on dorsum near posterior 
extremity in any of the specimens. Feet terminated b}' a pair of sharp 
claws, cushions not so much or but little developed. 

Described from four specimens, evidently about two-thirds 
grown. It is possible that this may not be the same as Duges' 
species, but it seems probable that it is. The adult insect is 
larger, and of a light rufous brown color. It does not grow 
quite as large as does the bedbug. 

Dr. Duges mentions applications of vinegar as a remedy, 
doubtless to be applied to the poultry to alleviate the bites as well 
as to deter the corucos from biting. Here burning of sulphur in 
the hen-houses and spraying of kerosene have been tried, with 
doubtful results. About the only way to keep poultry uninfested 
is to keep them entirely out of doors, and not to house them at 
all. The corucos infest and stick to the houses and roosts, 
awaiting the return of the hens at night. They began to appear 
in Las Cruces the present year (1893) before the middle of April. 

I am informed that the corucos often swarm in immense num- 
bers in houses, coming up through the floors and cracks. In 
such cases it is almost impossible to get rid of them, the easiest 
and most economical way being to desert the house. They have 
been known, according to one informant, to swarm in military 
posts in former times in southern New Mexico to such an extent 
that the soldiers were ordered out and formed in two lines, one 
line with brooms to sweep the corucos en masse up against an 
adobe wall, where the other line stood ready with trowels and 
mud and plastered them into the wall alive — a novel but effective 
means of riddance ! 

Discussing this paper, Mr. Ashmead stated that Dr. Duges had 
sent him a specimen of the insect some 8 or 10 years ago, and that 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

he had informed him that it was a new species. Mr. Ashmead 
stated that it was smaller than a true bedbug, paler in color, 
nearly round, and broader in form. He also spoke of the habits 
of the described species of Cimex. Mr. Schwarz expressed the 
opinion that C, inodora is migrating northward since Duges 
described it from Mexico, and had it been abundant in New Mexico 
previously we should have heard of it. He considered the north- 
ward spread of Conorhinus as similar. Mr. C. W. Johnson spoke 
of the habits of the species of Conorhinus which occurs commonly 
in the pine woods of Florida. 

Mr. Schwarz read the following descriptions of Coleoptera : 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO RHYNCHOPHOROUS COLEOPTERA 

FROM SEMITROPICAL FLORIDA. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

Quite a number of the insects, and more especially Coleoptera, 
forming the colony of the Antillean fauna in Florida have of late 
years been described or noticed. Others still remain undescribed, 
and of these the following two are herewith described because 
they represent well-marked genera hitherto not known to occur 
in North America, and because both were found in large number 
of specimens. 

Anchonus fioridanus, n. sp. — Oblong-oval, convex, opaque, black; 
antennae, tarsi, and often also the last ventral segment reddish; the whole 
body more or less coated with a dirt-colored incrustation. 

Beak nearly as long as head and thorax combined, moderately curved, 
very little widening at base, basal constriction obsolete, sculpture varying 
according to sex, upper side with a few inconspicuous bristles; scrobe 
lateral, well-defined, straight, not widening behind and reaching the lower 
part of the eye; antennal scape not quite reaching the anterior margin 
of the eye, funicle very little longer than the scape, eight-jointed, shining, 
with a few grayish hairs; first joint short, about twice as long as wide; 
second joint elongate, as long as the three following joints combined and 
slightly clavate at tip ; joints 3 to 6 subequal, each as long as wide ; joint 7 
slightly wider and distinctly transverse ; joint 8 still wider, well separated 
from the club; club oval, pointed at tip, entirely sensitive and pubescent, 
solid, with no visible sutures. Head usually deeply retracted within the 
thorax, somewhat shining, alutaceous, with a few obsolete punctures; 
eyes flat transverse, coarsely granulated. 

Thorax wider than long, anterior margin feebly tri-sinuate, base trun- 
cate, sides slightly arcuate or almost straight from the base to apical third; 
apical constriction deep and suddenly formed at the sides but obsolete 
dorsally ; surface coarsely and densely cribrate, some of the narrow inter- 



OF WASHINGTON. 43 

stices frequently absent, so that the punctures are confluent, usually in a 
transverse direction ; a few, scattered, short clavate bristles arise from the 
interstices. 

Elytra at base as wide as that of the thorax, more than twice longer than 
the thorax, slighily widening from base to apical third, rather narrowly 
conjointly rounded at apex, declivity steep but not vertical, basal margin 
straight, distinctly elevated, not crenulated ; humeri nearly rectangular, 
not prominent; sculpture very variable, consisting of nine or ten rows of 
moderately coarse and widely distant punctures, of which six rows are 
visible from above and three or four rows on the inflexed portion of the 
elytra, the punctures of these outer rows being larger and more numerous; 
the tenth row, if present, is short and basal ; interstices 3, 5, and 7 more 
or less strongly elevated or subcarinate, the carinae furnished with an 
irregularly interrupted series of round or elongate tubercles; the outer 
carina is continued around the declivity to the suture and forms a well- 
marked subapical ridge ; suture cariniform at the declivity and sometimes 
slightly so on the disk; interstices 2, 4, and 6 usually slightly elevated, 
each being a series (abbreviated before and behind) of tubercles which 
greatly vary in number, prominence, and shape ; a short series of tubercles 
is also visible at the base of the eighth interstice; all tubercles and punc- 
tures bear short, clavate, yellowish bristles. 

Prosternum deeply emarginate in front, anterior coxae closely approxi- 
mate but not contiguous, metasternum coarsely cribrate, metepisterna not 
visible; first abdominal suture arcuated, moderately impressed, the other 
sutures deep and straight; segments i and 2 coarsely cribrate, the latter 
at middle as long as the following three united ; segments 3 and 4 impunc- 
tate, together shorter than the anal segment, which is strongly punctate; 
legs rather slender, sparsely beset with short stiff bristles ; femora hardly 
cliivate, not dentate, coarsely cribrate; tibiae longitudinally carinate, sed- 
ately punctate, with the bristles also seriate, anterior tibiae straight, 
terminal hook longer than the width of the tibia; tarsi short, third joint 
moderately bilobed, claw joint as long as the other joints combined; 
claws slender, fine, strongly divergent. — Length, 4.1 to 5.3 mm. 

Male. — Beak shorter, less curved, coarsely, subseriately punctate 
throughout; antennae inserted at apical fourth, first two ventral segments 
broadly concave, last ventral slightly sinuate at middle of apex. 

Female.— Beak longer, more curved, coarsely punctate only at base, 
punctures much sparser and finer apically; antennae inserted at apical 
third, abdomen not concave, last ventral segment rounded at tip. 

A strictly maritime Curculionid which occurred in great 
abundance at Cocoanut Grove, Fla., on the inner shore of Bis- 
cay ne Bay, under deep layers of seaweed. It belongs unquestion- 
ably to Anchonus as defined by Schonherr and Lacordaire, and 
seems also to be included in the same genus as restricted by J. 
Faust (Deutsche Ent. Zts., 1892, pp. 17 ff.). I failed to identify 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

the Floridian species with any of the numerous Anchonus de- 
scribed from the Antillean region, but it seems closely related to 
A. aspericollis Suffrian from Cuba. 

Loganius ficus, n. sp. — Cylindrical, shining, nearly glabrous above, 
piceous ; antennae pale, legs reddish-brown or paler. Head widely but not 
deeply concave, the concavity limited each side by a straight, more or less 
obtuse, supraorbital ridge, feebly shining, finely, not densely, punctulate, 
each puncture bearing a yellowish appressed hair; clypeus broadly emargi- 
nate with the anterior edge shining, impunctate; eyes greatly transverse, 
more than three times wider than long, flat, notemarginate, rather coarselj 
granulate. Antennal scape much longer than the funicle, curved, strongly 
but gradually clavate ; funicle seven-jointed: first joint distinctly trans- 
verse, narrowly attached to the second joint and with the apical angles 
rounded ; joints 2-7 closely united, very small, greatly transverse, very little 
increasing in width, each bearing, in either sex, on each side a very long 
pale seta; club large, strongly compressed, much longer than the funicle, 
oblong, broadly rounded at tip, on both sides pubescent and with three 
greatly curved sutures, first suture more narrowly rounded than the two 
outer ones. 

Thorax slightly longer than wide, gradually widening from the apex to 
basal fifth, thence slightly narrowing to base; anterior margin broadly 
arcuated ; base truncate, finely margined ; hind angles obtuse, nearly 
rounded, lateral marginal line acute and entire; a very slight apical con- 
striction ; surface not pubescent (except, in some specimens, a few hairs 
along the lateral marginal line), shining, moderately sparsely punctate, 
punctures larger and denser anteriorly and on the sides, smaller and sparser 
on basal portion of the disk. Scutellum small, rounded, not depressed. 

Elytra at base as wide as that of the thorax, slightly longer than the 
thorax, basal margin not elevated; glabrous at base and on the disk, with 
a few short seriate bristles on the sides and on the declivity ; anteriorly 
with regular rows of moderately coarse punctures ; at the sides the striae 
are feebly impressed ; interstices wider than the striae, with regular rows of 
punctures, which are either slightly or not at all smaller than those of the 
striae; declivity simple, moderately convex, the striae deeply impressed, 
the interstices convex, each with a row of tubercles. 

Underside sparsely pubescent; anterior coxae widely separated, the pos- 
ternum between them triangular, with the tip rounded off; flanks of 
prothorax concave and smooth at middle; metasternum finely densely, 
abdomen more coarsely punctate ; sutures of ventral segments deep and 
straight. 

Legs short and stout; femora and tibiae compressed, the former widen- 
ing apically, the latter not denticulate at outer margin ; front tibiae of equal 
width throughout, outer apical angle prolonged into a moderately long 



OF WASHINGTON. 45 

uncus, which is bent inwardly and acute at tip,* middle and hind tibijE 
distinctly widening from base to apex, hind tibiaj slightly narrower than 
the middle tibiae; tarsi slender, as long as the tibiae, third joint very little 
wider than the second joint and hardly bilobed, fourth joint very small, 
claw joint as long as the rest of the tarsus. — Length, 2.1-2.3 nini- 
Locality : Key West, Fla. 

Described from many specimens which I found, in April, 1887, 
under the bark of Ficus aurea^ the colonies being so crowded 
that nothing can be said of the nature of the galleries. The 
sexual differences are rather feeble : in the male the supraorbital 
ridge is stronger and more acute, the antennal club larger, and 
the hairs of the funicular joints are longer. 

The species represents a group of Hylurgini (Le Conte) new 
to our fauna, viz., the Camptoceri (groupe Camptoc^rides, 
Lacordaire ; subtribus Camptoceridae, Chapuis), which is well 
characterized by the form of the antennae and anterior tibiae. 
The genus Loganius was very briefly diagnosed by Chapuis in 
his Synopsis des Scolytides, but a full description has never been 
published, so that it is not possible to decide whether or not the 
above-described species is congoneric with the type of the genus 
L, Jiavicornis from Cumana, Venezuela. 

The insect resembles some of our smaller species of Scolytus 
not only in superficial characters, but also in the structure of the 
front tibiae, and should be placed at the head of the Hylurgini, 
immediately following the tribe Scolytini. In the nature and 
arrangement of the funicular hairs there is an unmistakable re- 
semblance between Loganius jicus and Thysanoes Jimbricornis. 



Mr..Ashmead spoke briefly of the remarkable subtropical 
fauna of Florida, and Mr. Schwarz defined accurately the Antil- 
lean fauna 1 belt. 

— The following notes on Hymenoptera by Mr. William H. 
Patton were read by the Secretary : 

NOTES UPON WASPS. I. 

By Wm. Hampton Patton, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Steniolia edwardsii Cress. (Syn. S, duplicata Prov.) 

The markings vary in position and extent without any varietal 
difl?erences worthy of a separate name. 

*In freshly hatched individuals the inner and outer edges of the front 
tibiae are fringed with a row of fine setae, which are usually lost in the 
older specimens, while the setae on the middle and hind tibiae are stronger 
and more persistent. 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

IsoDONTiA AZTECA Sauss. (Syn. S. (/.) macrocephala Fox, 
'*Ent. News"). 
This species occurs in California and Florida, as well as in 
Mexico and Pennsylvania. 

Chlorion c^ruleum, var. ^rarium. 

Chlorion cerarium Pttn. (1S79). 

A male specimen from Indian River, Florida (Dr. Wittfeld) 
shows this to be a color variety of cceruleum. This specimen 
has minute dots of blue scattered irregularly over the body. The 
spiracles on first segment are not elevated. The median pieces 
of the claspers are lighter colored than in the typical form. But 
in all structural characters the two agree ; the eighth ventral seg- 
ment forming an isosceles triangle, the other segments with their 
margins straight. 

A variety occurs showing the blue to change into green. 

Gastrosph^ria is but a section of Harpactopus ; its type 
\_G, anthracina Qo%\.2i=^ Sphex subfuscatus Dahlb. ; now 
Harpactopus subfuscatus (Dahlb.)] differs from the type of 
Harpactopus \_Sphex cegyptia Lepel. == ^. crudelis Sm. = ? 
Sphex pensylvanica Linn. ; now H. cegyptia (Lepel.)] in 
nothing except the smooth thorax and the form of clypeus. The 
mistaken reference of pensylvanica led to the suggestion of its 
relationship with Sphex of the S, ichneumonea section. 

The characters of the genus appear to be : Sharp tubercle on 
postscutellum ; second cubital cell higher than its width on the 
cubital ; abdomen globose, short, first segment perpendicular on 
the petiole. 
Pepsis hesperiae, n. sp. 

Violet-blue, thorax violaceous black; antennae orange, three basal joints 
in female blackish, the third and base of fourth verging to brown, two 
basal and base of third (at least above) in male black. Wings yellowish- 
ferruginous; the base and margin blackish, more broadly in the male. 

Groove on second ventral segment deep in female, moderate or indis- 
tinct in male. 

Male. — Fourth ventral segment with two dense tufts of bristles each 
side of apical middle, their apices curled inward ; Fifth, hairy on apical 
middle, the margin scarcely sinuate; Sixth, deeply sinuate in the mid- 
dle; each side of sinus near apex a stout, blunt, posteriorly and inwardly 
directed spine; Seventh, filling sinus; Eighth, elongate, flat, without 
tooth, apex truncate, sides parallel. Claspers: sagittae curved, S-shaped, 
apex inwardly beaked, almost hooked, shorter than the two slender sim- 
ple median pieces; outer pieces little longer, simple, a little flattened, 
the base narrower, the apex subangular. 

Size of P. ccerulea. 

Habitat.— ^ow?iy, San Diego Co., Calif. (Dr. F. E. Blaisdell). 

Resembles P, marginata in the color of wings and in its 



OF WASHINGTON. 47 

slender body ; but distinguished by its pale antennae and the 
male ventral characters. In P. marginata male the fourth ven- 
tral segment has a simple line of bristles. 
Pepsis sommeri Dahlb. 

Violet-blue, antennae black; abdomen verging to green in the male. 
Wings red with dusky margin, the apex subhyaline; base of wings, more 
broadly in the male, black. First abdominal segment, especially in the 
female, short and broad ; groove on second ventral segment deep in the 
female, moderate in the male. 

Male. — Fourth ventral segment simple, without bristles; fifth, not 
hairy, margin scarcely sinuate; sixth, like preceding species; seventh, fill- 
ing sinus, polished, a minute sinus in middle; eighth, with a transverse 
median ridge bej'ond centre, the sides of the ridge connecting with oblique 
carinae extending forward to the sides of the segement at the base; apex 
thinner, polished, bent downwards at a right angle and its tip forming two 
rounded lobes separated by iin equal sinus. 

Claspers : sagittae flat, much curved, apices pointed below and contigu- 
ous, a minute tooth near base within, sagittaj equal in length with the two 
flattened, parallel median pieces, the median pieces curved dorsad and 
pointing downward at apex; outer pieces little longer, flat; hairy apex 
little thickened and subobtusely pointed. 

Size of P. ccerulea. Habitat. — Poway, Calif. (F. E. Blaisdell). 

Differs from P. ccerulea in fuscous wing margin and in eighth 
segment. Body is less slender than in P. marginata » 



In discussing this communication Mr. Ashmead said that he 
had identified Pepsis marginatus^ one of the species referred to 
by Mr. Patton, in a collection made by Mr. Cordley in New 
Mexico. He had previously received it also from the same 
locality. 

— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

SYNOPSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF TOX- 

ONEURA say; 

By Wm. H. Ashmead. 

The Braconid genus Toxoneura was described fifty-eight 
years ago by Thomas Say, in the first volume of the Boston 
Journal of Natural History, 1835, page 258. 

Although quite a characteristic genus, it yet remained for years 
unknown to our entomologists.. 

In 1865 Mr. E T. Cresson, in his paper entitled "On the 
Hymenoptera of Colorado Territory," redescribed it under the 
name of Tenthredoides with one species Zl seminiger. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

A few years afterwards, however, he recognizes his mistake, 
and in 1873, in the Canadian Entomologist, vol. v, p. 54, 
acknowledges the synonym and gives an excellent synoptic table 
of the species known to him at that time in the North American 
fauna. 

In this paper he enumerates 12 species, 8 being described for 
the first time, and, of these, four were from Mexico. He also 
gave valid reasons for believing Say was wrong in placing his 
Bracon populator in this genus. 

Cresson here recognizes the original spelling of the genus 
Toxoneuron^ but in his " synopsis," 1886, changes it to Tox- 
oneura^ but without giving his reason for doing so. As this 
change seems to have been universally followed, I have not 
thought it worth while to restore the original name. 

Toxoneura has now been made the type of a subfamily, Tox- 
oneurince^ and a position assigned it between the Ichnetttince and 
the Helconince, It appears to me, however, that this is an un- 
natural position, as it has no affinities whatever with these 
groups. All its affinities are entirely with the ^gathidince and 
the Microgasterince ; the structure of the abdomen closely re- 
sembles many forms in the latter, while all its other characters, 
except venation (although here, too, there is still a resemblance to 
some exotic forms) , are those of the former. 

If the genus is not referred to the subfamily Agathidince^ in 
my opinion the Toxoneurifice should, at least, be placed next 'to 
them. 

Comparatively little is known of our species. Messrs. Riley 
and Howard have recorded in Insect Life, vol. iii, page 60, the 
rearing of Toxoncura minuta Cr., at Kirk wood, Mo., from a 
Tineid Gelechia prunifoliella Chambers, found on Peach, 
while I have in my own collection a specimen of Toxoneura 
tihiator Say reared from a Lepidopterous Leaf-roller on Black 
Locust. 

Although this is all we know of the habits of our species, it is 
quite evident the genus is parasitic only on Lepidopterous larvae. 

Below I give a synoptic table of the species found in our 
fauna north of Mexico, and describe three new forms : one from 
Florida, 1^, Jloridana^ in my collection, and two, T, pluto and 
T, calif ornica^ from California, in the U. S. National Museum : 

Table of Species. 

Body not entirely black 2 

Body entirely black. 

Wings black or fuliginous. 
Vestiture black. 

I^egs entirely black T. pluto, sp. n. 

Vestiture pale or grajish. 



OF WASHINGTON. 49 

Legs black; anterior knees and tarsi honey-yellow 

or pale; tibial spurs white T. minuta Cr. 

Legs black; anterior legs, except coxae and tro- 
chanters, yellowish-red; tibial spurs on middle 

and hind legs black T. floridana, sp. n. 

Legs, except the coxae, trochanters, and base of 
femora, reddish-yellow ; hind tarsi fuscous ; large 

species T. californica, sp. n. 

Legs, except the coxae and trochanters and the 
hind tarsi, which are black, reddish-yellow; 

smaller species T. explorator Say. 

Wings hyaline, the apex fuliginous. 
Legs black; anterior pair, except base, honey- 
yellow T. apicalis Cr. 

Legs black; anterior tibiae and tarsi, base of middle 
tibiae, their tarsi, and an annulus at base of hind 

tibiae, white or pale yellowish T. tibiator Say. 

2. Black; head, pro- and meso-thorax and anterior legs 

flavo-ferruginous T. thoracica Cr. 

Head and thorax black; abdomen fulvo-ferrugi nous ; 
anterior margin of clypeus and legs, except coxae and 

trochanters, ferruginous T. abdominalis Cr. 

Reddish or orange-yellow. 

Head, antennae, metathorax, and pleura black; 

stigma black T. seminigra Cr. 

Head mostly sanguineous; pleura beneath and meta- 
thorax black; stigma yellow T. viator Say. 

(O Toxoneura pluto, sp. n. 

$.— Length, 7.5 mm. Black, highly polished, covered with a sparse 
pubescence; mandibles and palpi black; antennae 42-jointed; a little 
longer than the body ; *scutellum with a punctate frenum; metathorax 
areolated and coarsely rugose; mesopleura with a large crevate furrow; 
wing black, a white spot at origin of first transverse cubital vein, and 
another at apex of the second abscissa of radius and including the base 
of the third abscissa and the apex of the second transverse cubital. Abdo- 
men depressed, the basal segment the largest, bisulcate; ovipositor 
scarcely exserted. 

Hab. — Los Angeles, California. 
Type in National Museum. 
(2) Toxoneura minuta Cress. 

Toxoneuron minutum Cr. Can. Ent. v, p. 67. 
Toxoneura minuta Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 
9. — Length, 2.5 mm. Black, shining, faintly punctate, sparsely se- 
riceous; wings subfuliginous, iridescent, the stigma and nervures daik 
brown or blackish, with the second submarginal cell a little shorter than 
the first; legs black, tibial spurs white; anterior knees, their tibiae, four 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC^IETY 

anterior tarsi, except tips and middle knees, pale yellowish; abdomen 
oval, the ovipositor prominent. 

Hab. — Illinois, Missouri. 

Type in Coll. American Entomological Society. 

This species has been reared by Miss Mary Murtfeldt, at Kirk- 
wood, Mo., from Gelechia prunifoliella. 

(3) Toxoneura fioridana, sp. n. 

(^. — Length, 7 mm. Black, polished; tips of mandibles and anterior 
legs, except coxae and trcchanters, alone yellowish-red ; trophi and middle 
and hind legs, except a piceous tinge on the knees of middle legs, entirely 
black ; tibial spurs on middle and hind legs black. 

Head impunctate; eyes pubescent; clypeus with a median furrow; 
thorax trilobed, the middle lobe triangular; metathorax coarsely rugose, 
with a large central area ; wings blackish fuliginous, the stigma and nerv- 
ures black, the second abscissa of radius scarcely more than twice as long as 
the first. Abdomen oblong-ovate, depressed, the first segment about as 
large as the second and third united, the second shorter than the third, 
with the sutures between deeply impressed, the following segments shorter 
but about equal in length. 

Hab.— Jacksonville, Fla. 

Type in Coll. Ashmead. 

(4) Toxoneura californica, sp. n. 

$.— Length, 6 mm. Polished black, sparsely punctate; metathorax 
and mesosternum rugose, the former not areolated; mandibles and palpi 
black; abdomen subcompressed, the ventral valves large, prominent, 
plow-share shaped. Antennae 27-jointed, shorter than the body. Wings 
subfuliginous, the first abscissa of radius less than one-third the length of 
the second, the second transverse cubital and the second abcissa of radius 
at their junction hyaline. Legs, except coxae, trochanters and base of the 
femora, reddish-yellow; hind tarsi fuscous. 

Hab. — Los Angeles, California. 

Types in National Museum. 

Allied to T. explorator Say, but much larger ; the ovipositor 
shorter, scarcely projecting beyond the apex ot abdomen, the face 
and clypeus more strongly punctate, while the wings are paler 
at base. « 

(5) Toxoneura explorator Say. 

Bracon explorator Say. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., i, p. 259. 
Toxoneuron explorator 'Lqc. Ed. Say, ii, p. 710; Cress. Can.Ent., 

v., p. 67. 
Toxoneura explorator Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 
9 . — Length, 3.75 mm. Black, polished ; mandibles, at the middle, rufo- 
piceous; palpi piceous ; face shining, sparsely microscopically punctate; 
antennje 29-jointed; thorax with smooth impressed parapsidal furrows; 
metathorax rugose. Wings subfuliginous, the stigma large, the second 
abscissa of radius a little more than twice as long as the first. Legs, ex- 



OF WASHINGTON. 51 

cept the coxae, trochanters, and posterior tarsi, which are black, reddish- 
yellow; the middle femora is sometimes black at base. Abdomen com- 
pressed, black, shining; the ovipositor very prominent, nearly half the 
length of abdomen. 

Hab. — Indiana, Missouri, and Colorado. 

A single ? is in the National Museum, bred August 12, 1881, 
from an unknown Tortrix, 

(6) Toxoneura apicalis Cr. 

Toxoneuron aptcale Cr. Can. Ent. , v, p. 68. 
Toxoneura apicalis Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 

(^. — Length, 5mm. Black, shining, clothed with a very short dull 
pubescence; sutures of mesothorax not crenulated; metathorax with 
strongly developed elevated lines ; wings hyaline, the apex fuliginous, leav- 
ingbaseofmarginal and of second cubital cells hyaline; nervures and stigma 
black; legs black; anterior femora, except base and their tibiae entirely, 
bright orange-yellow; intermediate knees slightly tinged with testaceous. 
(Cresson.) 

Hab. — Illinois. 

Unknown to me. 

(7) Toxoneura tibiator Say. 

Bracon tibiator Say. Long's Second Exped., ii, p. 322. 
Toxoneuron tibiator Lee. Ed. Say., ii, p. 710; Bost. Jour., i, p. 
259; Cr. Can. Ent., v, p. 68. 
9 . — Length, 5mm. Black ; wings hyaline, fuscous at apex ; the nervures 
stout, dark brown ; legs black ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi, base of middle 
tibise, their tarsi and an annulus at base of hind tibiae, white or pale 
yellowish. Abdomen oval, depressed. 

Hab. —Atlantic coast from Florida to Canada, and west to Kansas. 

Not rare in the Eastern States. In my collection is a single 
specimen reared some years ago by Mr. C. L. Marlatt, at Man- 
hattan, Kansas, from a Lepidopterous Leaf-roller on Black Locust. 

(8) Toxoneura thoracica Cr. 

Toxoneuron thoracicum Cr. Can. Ent., v, p. 68. 

(^ 9* — Length, 5 mm. * Black, shining; head, prothorax, mesothorax, 
spot beneath tegulae, and anterior legs, except coxae, trochanters, and base 
of femora, pale ferruginous; spot on cheeks beneath, mouth, more or less 
of clypeus, and a spot between ocelli and eyes in (^ black; wings uni- 
formly blackish-fuliginous, nervures and stigma black; metathorax with 
strongly developed elevated lines, forming an ovate central area. 

Hab. — Codova, Mexico, and Arizona. 

Type in Coll. American Entomological Society. 

The specimen from Arizona is in my collection, obtained 
through a collector. 

(9) Toxoneura abdominalis Cr. 

Toxoneuron abdominale Cr. Can. Ent., v, p. 68. 
Toxoneuron abdominalis Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

$. — Length, 7 mm. Polished black, but sparsely minutely punctate; 
face and clypeus more closely punctate; clypeus anterior, posterior orbits, 
legs, except coxae, trochanters, and hind tarsi, which are black, and the 
abdomen entirely pale sanguineous or yellowish-red; sheaths of oviposi- 
tor black; wings fuliginous, the stigma and nervures black; second sub- 
marginal cell longer than the first; metathorax rugose, areolated. 

Hab. — Illinois, Missouri. 

(10) Toxoneura seminigra Cr. 

Tenthrcdoides semintger Cr. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iv, p. 291. 
Toxoneuron seminignim Cr. Can. Ent., v, p. 69. 
Toxoneura seminigra Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 

(^ 9* "Length, 7 to 7.5 mm. Yellowish-red, shining; head, antennae 
breast, metathorax, coxae, and trochanters black; wings blackish-fuscous; 
metathorax coarsely rugose. 

$. — Head black, smooth, and polished, slightly pubescent; narrow 
inner and broad outer orbits, and basal margin of the clypeus, rufous; 
antennae entirely black; thorax yellowish-red, smooth, and polished; 
mesothorax with two approximate black dots, sometimes confluent on the 
extreme margin, sometimes concealed by the head ; pectus and the pleura, 
except the broad anterior margin, black; space on each side of the scu- 
tellum obliquely striated, its lower margin flat, polished and black, as well 
as the space on each side of the postscutellum ; metathorax black, opaque, 
coarsely rugose, the disk having a longitudinal ovate excavation sur- 
rounded by a well-defined carina; tegulae yellowish-red, bordered behind 
with black. Wings uniformly blackish-fuscous ; nervures black ; lower 
margin of the first submarginal cell, two dots at tip of praediscoidal 
cell, and a furcate line at tip of second submarginal cell where it joins the 
marginal, hyaline. Legs yellowish-red, the coxae and trochanters black, 
the four posterior taisi and tips of the femora within more or less dusky. 
Abdomen about as long as the thorax, broadly ovate depressed, polished, 
yellowish red, basal segment, orange-yellow, with a more or less distinct 
black mark on the prominent dorsal middle; valves of the ovipositor ro- 
bust, black. 

(^. — Resembles the female, but the antennae are as long as the body and 
the abdomen more depressed, less broad, and obtusely rounded at tip. 

Hab. — Colorado. (Cresson.) 

Types in Coll. American Entomological Society. 

All the specimens of this species I have seen were taken in 
Colorado. 

(11) Toxoneura viator Say. 

Toxoneuron viator Say. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., i, p. 258; Cr. 

Can. Ent., v, p. 67; Lee. Ed. Say, ii, p. 710. 
Toxoneura viator Cr. Syn. Hym., p. 230. 
9. — Length, 6.2 mm. Sanguineous; antennae, vertex, face below 
antennae extending almost to clypeus and including base of cheeks, meso- 
pleura, pectus, and metathorax, black. Thorax polished, feebly micro- 



OF WASHINGTON. 53 

scopically punctate, the furrows crenulate ; antennae 29-jointed; meta- 
thorax rugose, areolated. Wings fuliginous, with the costa and stigma 
yellowish, the other nervures robust, black, the second abscissa of radius 
fully three times as long as the first. Legs sanguineous, with the coxae 
and trochanters black, the posterior tarsi dusky. Abdomen depressed, 
broadly oval, smooth ; the ovipositor prominent, with black sheaths. 

Hab. — Western States. 

Not rare. 



— Under the head of *' Short Notes and Exhibition of Speci- 
mens," Mr. Heidemann exhibited a new Capsid from the vicinity 
of Washington. He had tentatively placed it among his Acantho- 
corinae, but upon closer examination he found it to be a true Cap- 
sid, and considered it to be a new genus near Fulvius of Stal. 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited specimens of the Floridian Go7ionotus 
lutosus^ and remarked that the species is apparently identical with 
the previously described Anchonus angulicollis Suffr., upon 
which Mr. J. Faust has lately erected the genus Nemosinus. The 
name of the insect should, therefore, be Gononotus angulicollis 
Suffr. It was placed by Dr. Le Conte in the Calandridae, while 
according to Faust it forms, with Cotaster and some other genera, 
a group of Curculionidae allied to Plinthus and Pissodes. 

— Mr. Johnson spoke of having collected a specimen of Ant ho- 
charis genutia in the vicinity of Washington on the 30th April* 
He had been much pleased at this capture, as the species is ex- 
tremely rare near Philadelphia, where he resides. Mr. Schwarz 
remarked that this butterfly is peculiar in that it occurs only upon 
the range of hills immediately outside of Washington, never being 
found in the country beyond or in the city within this range. 



June i, 1893. 



Fifteen members present. The President, Prof. Riley, in the 
chair. Mr. Donald MacCuaig, chief clerk Department of Agri- 
culture, was elected an active member, and President H. H. 
Goodell, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, was elected 
a corresponding member. 

Dr. Geo. Marx read the following paper : 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE WHIP- 
TAIL SCORPION. 

By Geo. Marx. 

At the December, 1891, meeting of this Society I read a short 

report on some observations on the life-habits of Thelyphonus 

giganteus which I had made during twenty-one months in which 

I had a specimen of this species under daily study in a glass jar 

(containing moist sand) on ray office desk. 

I stated that it was born at or about October i, 1890; when 
about one year old it shed its skin for the first time. In January, 
1 89 1, it shut up the entrances to its subterraneous abode for 
hibernation, which period lasted about three months. The 
specimen did not fall into a dormant state during this time, but 
stood quietly in its cavern, sensitive to the slightest disturbance, 
like a horse in a stable. [ promised then that I would at a 
future meeting report further observations on this interesting 
Arachnid, and to-night I beg leave to narrate the final chapter in 
its life-history. 

After December, when I made the first report, it continued to 
do well and occupied its time catching roaches, in which occupa- 
tion it acquired a remarkable talent, and also by rebuilding its 
subterraneous galleries, which I purposely destroyed every two 
weeks for the purpose of giving the little prisoner some exercise. 
In the pursuance of this work the animal went about with the 
greatest indolence. It was funny to see it stand before the little 
excavation, stare in it, feel around it with its long palpal or 
antennae-like forelegs and hesitate until it shoved a pellet of 
moistened sand between its palpi, then retreated backward out 
of the excavation and carried the sand to the farthest corner. 
Thus it lived on, in peaceful mind and healthful body, until Oc- 
tober 2, 1892, or precisely two years after its birth, when it shed 
its skin for the second time. It had now grown to 30 mm., a 
gain of 12 mm. in this year, and its color had changed to that of 
an adult — that is, uniformly very dark brown, the sclerites cover- 
ing the body altogether. 

Foreseeing the severity of last winter, it went into winter 
quarters a month earlier than in 1 891, but opened the entrance 
again on the 2d of January and several times in February and 
finally abandoned its burrow altogether on March 4. It stayed on 
the surface from this date, notwithstanding the severe cold which 
prevailed. I set its jar near the radiator during the night. 

About this time it commenced to behave strangely, for it stood 
in one place and stuck its head into the cool sand, apparently 
su Bering from headaches. It finally died March 14, 1893. 



OF WASHINGTON. 55 

In the discussion Mr. Schwarz stated that he was much 
interested in the account of preparation of winter quarters, since 
some time ago he was at Tampa, Florida, during a very cold 
spell, and failed to observe anything resembling hibernation on 
the part of Thelyphonus. He found them under logs as usual, 
and they were as active as during the summer. Dr. Marx stated 
that the specimen which he observed was also active when 
disturbed, and in that respect could not be said to be hibernating. 
In answer to a question by Mr. Howard, he stated that the young 
possess none of the acid secretion which is so characteristic of 
the adult. Prof. Riley asked whether a reasonable explanation 
of the function of the whiptail had been offered. There was no 
answer to this question, and Dr. Marx remarked that the tail is 
thicker in proportion to its length in the young than in the adult. 

— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

NOTES ON THE FAMILY PACHYLOMMATOID^. 

By Wm. H. Ashmead. 

The subject of my remarks to-night relates to a small but ex- 
ceedingly rare and interesting group of the Hymenoptera, com- 
prising up to the present time but two genera and two species, 
that have occasioned considerable conflict of opinion among 
systematists, both as regards their relationship and their position 
in our present system of classification. 

The two peculiar insects that have occasioned such a combat 
of opinion among Hymenopterists present the following charac- 
teristics : 

Ophioniform ; head transverse, wider than the thorax, with 
large eyes and large prominent ocelli ; clypeus subacutely pro- 
duced with a median carina ; mandibles short, narrow, curved, 
and bifid at tips ; maxillary 4-jointed, filiform pilose ; labial 
palpi 3-jointed, filiform. Antennae 13-jointed, filiform, shorter 
than the body. Thorax short, ovoid, convexly elevated anteriorly, 
the collar not being visible from above ; no parapsidal furrows ; 
metathorax short, oblique, delicately areolated. Legs long, 
slender, the posterior pair the longest, their coxae long and cyl- 
indrical, their tarsi thickened, especially the basal joint, which is 
always as long or longer than all the following joints united ; 
tibial spurs i, 2, 2. Abdomen much as in the Ophionid genus 
\Limneria^ attached to metathorax above insertion of hind coxae, 
subcompressed, with the first and second joints very long, forming 
a long petiole ; third and fourth segments shorter, subequal ; all 
following segments very short. Wings with two submarginal 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

cells, one recurrent nervine and the stigma long, narrow, lanceo- 
late ; otherwise as in many Braconids. 

It was in 1825 that Mr. L. A. De Br^bisson discovered these 
insects, captured in Germany, and upon which, in the Encyclo- 
p^die Methodique, vt>l. x, p. 23, he founded the genus Paxy- 
lomma^ now changed to Pachylomma^ naming the two species 
Paxylomma buccata and P» Cremieri respectively, and placing 
the genus among the Ichneumonidce, 

The next two authors to treat of the genus were Latreille and 
Haliday, and they removed it to the family Evaniidce, 

In 1S34 Nees von Esenbeck, in his well-known Monograph, 
vol. i, p. 28, redescribed Pachylomma buccata under the name 
Hybrizon latibricola^ placing it in the family Braconidce^ be- 
tween the genera Aphidius and Perilitus, 

A year later, 1835, Wesmael, in his work on the Belgian 
Braconidae (Nouv. Meth.,4&c., Brux., p. 90), also treats of it as a 
Braconid genus. 

Westwood, five years later, or 1S40, in his *' Introduction," vol. 
ii, p. 53, treats of it under the family Evaniidce^ and in fig. 74, 
no. 17, gives an enlarged figure of P, buccata. 

While treating of it under the Evaniidce he remarks, however, 
as follows : "The genus Paxylomma Br^bisson, placed by Latreille 
and Haliday in this family, as well as Stephanus^ appear rather 
to belong to the Ichneumones adsciti^ or at least to constitute 
the links between them and the present family," and in his 
Generic Synopsis, at the end of the volume, has placed it with 
the Braconidce^ among the Polymorphi, with Euphorus^ Macro- 
centrus^ &c. 

Three years later, BrullcS in Histoire Naturelle des Insectes 
Hymenopteres, tome iv (1S43), p. 482, treats of the genus under 
the Braconidcc^ but says, '^ On ne connait qu'une seule espece de 
ce group, qui semblenait se rapporter beaucoup mieux aux Ich- 
neumonides de la division des Ophion^ qu*a aucun groupe de 
Braconides," but finishes by remarking : ''Nous laissons nean- 
moins ce groupe dans la familie des Braconides a cause de 
Tabsence de la seconde nervure recurrente." 

In 1848 Ratzeburg in his "• Die Ichneumoniden der Forstin- 
secten Band, ii, p. 53," treats of both species, placing the genus 
with the Braconidcc and giving us, for the first time, some infor 
mation respecting their habits. Fourteen years later Dr. Arnold 
Forster, who was probably the greatest systematic worker among 
the parasitic Hymenoptera, in his "• Synopsis der Familien und 
Gattungen der Braconen," published in 1862, made Pachylomma 
the type of his subfamily 13, or the Pachylommatoidae, and sub- 
divides the old ^enus into two, as follows : 



OF WASHINGTON. 57 

Basal joint of hind tarsi twice as long as the four follow- 
ing joints united ; the first branch of radius shorter 

than the second Eurypterna Forst. 

(Type Pachyl. cremieri Br^b.) 
Basal joint of hind tarsi scarcely one-third longer than 
the four following joints united; the first branch of 

radius much shorter than the second Pachylomma Breb. 

(Type P. buccata Br^b.) 
Notwithstaning the concensus of opinion in favor of the group 
belonging to the Braconidce by such authorities as Nees, West- 
wood, Wesmael, and Forster, the latest writer on this family, the 
Rev. T. A. Marshall, in his " Monograph of the British Bra- 
conidae," 1885, evidently holds different views and makes no 
reference to the group, except in the following curt sentence : 
" Excluding Forster's Pachylommatoidce^ as belonging to the 
Evaniidce^ we will treat the Braconidce under six divisions, each 
including a number of subfamilies." He then follows with his 
tables, and has accepted, as subfamilies, all of Forster's families, 
except the Pachylommatoidce , 

During my visit to Berlin, in the winter of i889-'90, I saw for 
the first time, in the Royal Berlin Museum, a specimen of Pachy- 
lotnma buccata^ and at once recognized its relationship to a Bra- 
conid in the U. S. National Museum, which I had only a short 
time previously described as Wesmaelia rlleyi^ in the subfamily 
Euphorince, 

At the time of my drawing up the description I did not feel 
entirely satisfied that it was properly placed, and remarked as fol- 
lows : " This remarkable insect agrees with the definition of this 
genus, but seems out of place in the group, and appears more 
closely allied with the group Aphidiince^ where it may ultimately 
be placed." 

That it was anything else than a Bracon, however, never once 
entered my mind, and now, after four years' study in the family, I 
am convinced the Pachylommatoidce are Braconids, and should 
be considered as a subfamily allied to the Euphorince and the 
Aphidiince and of equal rank. 

The mere fact that the abdomen is attached to the metanotum 
some distance above the insertion of the hind coxae is in itself 
not sufficient, in my opinion, to separate the group from other 
Braconids, especially as a few other Braconids show this charac- 
ter to a still greater degree. For example, the genus Cenoccelius 
Haliday (which equals Aulacodes Cress. = Laccophrys Forster 
= Capitonius Brull^ = Promachus Marshall) has the abdomen 
attached far up on the metathorax as in the genuine Evaniids. 

I propose, therefore, to accept Forster's family Pachylomma^ 
toidce as a subfamily in the family Braconidce^ and as our species, 
so far discovered, do not fit exactly into the two European genera. 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

I have here erected a new genus for their reception under the 
name Eupachylomma, 

The three genera may be separated as follows : 
First joint of hind tarsi twice as long as the four follow- 
ing joints united 2 

First joint of hind tarsi scarcely one-third longer than 
the four following joints united, or of an equal length. 
Second submarginal cell longly petiolated, the radius 

divided into three divi-ions Pachylomma Brdb. 

Second submarginal cell sessile, at the most subsessile, 

the radius divided into two divisions Eupachylomma Ashm., g. n. 

2. Second submarginal cell sessile, the radius divided 

into two divisions Eurypterna Forst. 

Pachylomma De Brebisson. 

1 8 25. Paxylomma De Br^b. Enc. Meth., x, p. 23. 
1834. Hybrizon Nees. Monog., i, p. 27. 
1862. Pachylomma Forst. Syn. d. Fam. und Gatt. d. Brac- 
oniden, p. 247. 

(Type P. buccata De Br^b.) 

(i) Pachylomma buccata De Brebisson. 

Paxylomma buccata De Breb. Enc. M^th., x, p. 23. 

Cal. Ent.Mag., i,p. 343 ; id., iii, p. 22 ; West w. Intro., 

ii, p. 136, ?i%, 74, 17. 
Hybrizon latebricola Nees. Mong., i, p. 28. 
Pachylomma buccata Ratzb. Die Ichn. d. Forstins., Bd. 

ii, p. 53 ; Forst. Verh. d. n. Ver., xix, p. 247. 
Hab. — Europe. 

Eupachylomma Ashm., gen. nov. . 

( Type Wesmaelia rileyi Ashm.) 

Differs from Pachylomma De Br^b. principally in the vena- 
tion of anterior wings, the radius having but two branches, the 
cubitus being interstitial with the apex of the first branch of 
radius and strongly curved outwardly from the base, while the 
second abdominal segment is much longer than the first (the 
petiole) and the spurs of hind tibiaj are also longer. 

Two species are known to me, separated as follows : 
Head and thorax black, abdomen piceous, nearly black; 
clypeus, trophi, two basal joints of antennae, and four 

anterior legs whitish; hind legs yellowish E. rileyi Ashm. 

Head black; thorax, suturjs of abdomen, and base of 
fourth segment luteous; rest of abdomen, three stripes 
on mesonotum, small spot on scutellum, and the meta- 

thorax brown E. flavocincta, sp. n. 

(i) Eupachylomma rileyi Ashm. 

Wesmaelia rt'leyt Ashm. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, p. 641. 



OF WASHINGTON. 59 

9. — Length, 2 to 2.2 mm. Black, smooth, shining; face and meso- 
sternum piceous ; clypeus, trophi, first two joints of antennae, tegulae, and 
four anterior legs whitish ; abdomen shaped as in Limneria^ piceous, 
nearly black, with sutures i, 2, and 3 pale. 

Head transverse, much wider than thorax, three times as wide as thick 
antero posteriorly; eyes large, occupying the whole side of the head; 
ocelli in a triangle, large, prominent, whitish or pale, the lateral nearer 
to each other than to tlie eye; clypeus subtriangularly produced. Thorax 
short ovoid, convexlj- elevated anteriorly, the collar, or pronotum, not vis- 
ible from above ; mesonotum smooth, witho.it furrows ; metathorax short, 
obliquely declining and delicately areolated. Wings hyaline, iridescent, 
with the stigma and nervures light brown; stigma narrow, acuminate ; 
marginal cell narrow, acutely lanceolate, terminating much before the 
apex of wing; first abscissa of radius straight, forming with the second 
abscissa a right angle; cubital nervure interstitial with the first branch 
of radius, submedian cell a little shorter than the median. Legs long 
and slender, the hind pair being much longer than the others, their coxae 
long and cylindrical, and their tarsi thickened the basal joint being as 
long as the four following joints united ; middle legs with their femora 
longer than the tibiae, the latter only a little longer than the tarsi. 

Hab. — Lafayette, Ind. 

Types in National Museum. 

Originally described from specimens in CoIL National Museum, 
labelled No. 124,* July 28, '' Coll. C. V. Riley," but no record of 
its habitat or rearing could be found.. Since this paper was read, 
however, among some Hymenoptera sent me by Prof. F. M. 
Webster for determination, was a single specimen bearing the 
same number and date, and on writing to Prof. Webster about it 
he informs me that all the specimens were bred by him at Lafay- 
ette, Indiana, from an Aphid. 

This rearing is interesting and virtually substantiates and con- 
firms my views in regard to the position the gioup should occupy 
in the family Braconldce, 

(2) Bupachylomma fiavocincta, sp. n. 

r^. — Length, 4.1 mm. Head black, polished; face below rufopiceous; 
clypeus, mandibles, palpi, first two joints of antennae, tegulae, four an- 
terior legs, and hind coxae yellowish-white; flagellum dark brown ; thorax 
luteous. three stripes on mesonotum, a small spot on scutellum and 
metathorax brown, the latter obsoletely areolated, rest of thorax smooth 
polished. Wings hyaline, the stigma and venation brown; cubitus in- 
terstitial with first branch of the radius or nearly so. Abdomen twice as 
long as head and thorax united, brown, the sutures broadly and a large 
spot at base of fourth segment luteous or pale yellowish ; venter luteous 
with some brown markings; second segment much longer than the first, 
both finely, longitudinally aciculated ; fourth segment shorter than the 



60 ENTOMOLCK+ICAL SOCIETY 

third, the third very little longer than half the length of second; follow- 
ing segments very short. 

Hab. — Arlington, Virginia. 

Collected by myself in 18S9 on Arlington Heights, along the 
banks of the Potomac. 

EuRYPTEKXA Forster. 

1S62. Syn. d. Fam. und Gatt. d. Braconen, p. 247. 
(Type Pachylomma cremieri De Breb.) 

(1) EURYPTERNA CREMIERI Forster. 

Paxylomma cremieri De Breb. Enc. Meth., x, p. 23. 
Pachylomma cremieri Ratzb. Die Ichn. d. Forstins., ii, 

Eurypterna cremieri Forst. L. c. supra, p. 247. 
Hab. — Europe (Germany). 

This species has been taken among ants {Forwica) and is sup- 
posed to be parasitic upon them. 

RopRONiA Provancher. 

t886. Add. et Corr. a la Fn. Hym. du Can., p. 154. 
(Type R, pediculata Prov.) > 

(l) RoPRONIA PEDICULATA PrOV. L. C, pp. 1 54, 406. 

Hab. — Ottawa, Canada (Harrington). • 

This genus is unknown to me, but, judging from the description 
and the figure of the wing, I believe it will be found to belong in 
this group. Abbe Provancher originally described it as a Bracon 
in the subfamily Aphidiince, but subsequently removed it to the 
Heloi'ince in the family Proctotrypidce. 



The paper was briefly discussed by Messrs. Riley and 
Howard. 

— Mr. Benton presented the following communication : 

THE DEATH'S-HEAD MOTH IN RELATION TO HONEY- 
BEES. 

Bv Frank Bp:nton. 

West wood states in vol. ii, p. 367, of his work on insects that 
the Sphingid moth Acherontia atropos is the largest European 
lepidopterous insect. It is not, however, confined to Europe 
alone, but is found even more abundantly in North Africa and 
Western Asia, my own experience with it having been mainly 
acquired in Tunis, Syria, and Cyprus. 



OF WASHINGTON. 61 

The general characteristics of the moth are sufficiently striking; 
to make it readily recognizable. The length of body is 65 mm., 
or about 2^ in. ; wing-expanse, 115 mm., or 4^^ in. The general 
color is a dark velvety brow^n. The markings of the back of 
the thorax, dark brown and orange colored, present such a re- 
semblance to a skull as to have led to the popular name, Death's- 
Head Moth. The abdomen is dark brown, each segment bear- 
ing a quadrangular blotch of yellow on either side of the dorsal 
line. The anterior wings are dark brown, marked with irregu- 
lar black stripes and a lighter blotch of buff color toward the 
outer edge ; the posterior wings orange yellow with two trans- 
verse bars of black — the outer one broader and less well-defined 
than the inner one. 

The larvae of this moth are n)ost frequently found feeding on va- 
rious species of Solanum, as the potato, bitter-sweet, etc., but they 
will also feed upon jasmine {Jasminum officinales^ thorn-apple 
{^Datura stramonium) ,, ^\.c. It is only the imago, which ap- 
pears the latter part of summer, that does any damage to honey- 
bees — this damage being not to the bodies of the bees themselves 
except incidentally when the moth attempts to escape their at- 
tacks when it is caught pilfering their honey or attempting to 
do so. 

But before taking up this part of my subject some reference to 
the note uttered by the moth will be of interest, especially as by 
this means the moth is said to terrify the bees. It is a shrill 
stridulation often loud enough to be heard at least ten or twelve 
rods away. 

"It is somewhat strange," says Henry Edwards in hisect 
Life. vol. ii, p. 13, that in this age of entomological research 
the means by which the sound is produced by this species is yet 
unknown, comparative anatomists being considerably at variance 
in their opinions on the subject." Rt^aumur and Roesel have 
attributed it to friction produced by the labial palpi. Passerini 
(Osservazioni, Pisa, 182S) located the sound in the head of the 
insect, where there is a cavity connected with its spiral tongue. 
De Johet and Vallot (L'lnstitut, 1S34, p. 4) think the sound is 
due to the sudden impelling of air by means of the wings, 
against the scales at the base of the latter. Lorey and Goreau 
think it is due to the expelling of air through orifices in the sides 
of the abdomen, which openings are covered with fine hairs. 
Westwood points out that this cannot be so, as other Lepidoptera 
having these holes are mute. Kirby and some others state that 
the larva produces a squeaking sound when captured. These are 
but a few of the manv references which have been made bv cnto- 
mological authorities to the strange sound produced by this 
Acherontia — a sound whose production is still something of a 
mystery. This noise, so exceptional with Lepidoptera, together 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

with the great size of the insect and the grotesque representation 
of a skull on its back, have led to much superstition and terror 
concerning it among»the peasants of some countries of Europe, 
most of them regarding it as a harbinger of evil. 

But it is more particularly as an enemy to the honey-bee that I 
wished to refer to this insect ; hence, with these few general 
references to its striking peculiarities, I will proceed with that 
portion of the subject. 

I think it was the blind naturalist F. Huber who, in 1804, first 
called attention to the depredations of this moth in connection 
with the honey-bee. The moth is very fond of honey and ap- 
proaches the entrances of the hives just at nightfall and attempts 
to gain entrance. It is at this hour that the workers are most on 
the alert for enemies. The field-bees have all returned home, 
and in front of the populous hives numbers of them may be seen 
clustered about the entrances. The' Death's-Head Moth poising 
a moment before the entrance of such a hive soon sees that it 
would be a hopeless task to gain admittance there. The workers 
exhibit signs of great excitement, numbers of them running to- 
ward the edge of the alighting-board and some even darting 
toward the moth. Should the moth alight it will be instantly 
seized by the nearest bees, the contented, continuous hum of 
the hive ceases at once, and a sharp, quickly and frequently 
uttered note of alarm calls forth additional defenders of the hive 
as fast as they can pour through the exit. The moth redoubles 
its efibrts, uttering constantly its peculiar cry of terror. Should 
the moth escape, as it is very likely to do on account of its great 
strength and the violent fluttering of its powerful wings as well as 
the confusion which its note seems to occasion among its enemies, 
the oft'ender is certain to leave the apiary at once. If a less 
populous hive having a large entrance should be attacked, and 
the moth succeed in gliding in without encountering guards, it 
will regale itself with the contents of a number of honey-cells, 
though the report which Huber gave, to the eftect that it would 
suck up a tablespoonful of honey at one time, seems rather over- 
drawn. The moth runs great risks for the sake of this sip of 
nectar, as the chances are greatly against its ever getting out 
alive. Even though the colony be weak, still some workers are 
likely, in the summer season, to be on all combs which contain 
honey, and once the alarm has been given the intruder is soon 
compassed about and is quite sure to become so confused as to be 
unable to regain the hive entrance. Having finally despatched 
the moth with their stings, the bees commence to denude the 
wings and body of all scales and pubescence, frequently biting off 
legs and antennae, nor do they leave it until they have completely 
skeletonized the wings and removed all internal organs, leaving 
merelv the chitinous frame of the insect intact, as shown in the 



OF WASHINGTON. 63 

specimen herewith exhibited, which I took from a hive in Syria. 
This they usually glue fast to the bottom of the hive. 

The bees of Oriental and North African countries when lo- 
cated in hives having large flight-holes, especially if the latter 
are somewhat circular in outline, build from the upper inner 
edges of the orifice a descending apron, composed of propolis 
and beeswax, which nearly closes the entrance; sometimes these 
are multiplied and overlap somewhat loosely, making passages 
rather labyrinthine in character; or, again, when the entrance is 
wide but only half to three-fourths of an inch high numerous 
pillars or portions of a solid wall reach from the top of the 
entrance to the bottom-board, rendering it more difficult or im- 
possible for enemies, especially large-bodied ones, to force their 
way in. 

Though I have found the remnants of as many as four Death's- 
Head Moths in one old hive, still I do not consider it a serious 
pest even where it is most plentiful. I cannot see why it would 
not thrive and multiply should it be accidentally introduced 
here, since climatic conditions are not unfavorable for it and its 
food-plants are abundant. 

The remedy which the apiarist should adopt against this moth 
in localities where it is abundant is very simple and naturally 
suggests itself to one who considers its mode of attack. It is 
merely to make the entrance to the hive as low as possible with- 
out interfering with the ingress and egress of the bees — that is, 7 
to 8 mm. or about /)^ of an inch. This will at the same time 
keep out many of the marauding Vespidae, mice, snails, etc., and 
lessen the chances for the wax-moth to get in. The Death's- 
Head Moth will then do no more harm than to create a dis- 
turbance now and then at the hive entrance, and kill a few 
workers by the fluttering of its wings when it ventures near 
enough to be assailed by the bees. 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Stiles, Schwarz, Riley, 
Gill, Chittenden, Marx, and Howard. Dr. Stiles criticised the 
popular name of " Death*s-Head Moth" since, in his opinion, 
the thoracic makings have no resemblance to a skull. Prof. 
Riley stated that in some "specimens the resemblance to a skull is 
quite marked, but that the form of the markings varies con- 
siderably in different individuals. Mr. Schwarz expressed some 
surprise at the activity of the bees during the evening, when this 
moth flies, but was informed by Messrs. Benton and Riley that 
during warm weather the bees are very active at night. Prof. 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Riley, in reference to the noise made by the moth, stated that 
although he had not given it much personal attention he im- 
agined that the patagia have something to do with it. Dr. Gill 
expressed himself as of the opinion that it will be very easy to 
solve the question as to how the sound is produced by comparing 
the insect with closelv allied forms which are silent. Prof. Riley 
stated that this had already been done by many older authors and 
contended that it is by no means an easy problem to solve, since 
the noise only occurs during extreme activity on the part of the 
insect. He stated that the sound produced by Culex is equally 
difficult to locate even by comparison with noiseless allied 
species. Mr. Howard was under the impression that he had 
noticed a slight squeak with certain North American Sphingidae, 
and in this Messrs. Riley and Chittenden were inclined to agree 
with him, although neither was positive. Prof. Riley further 
spoke of his pleasure in rearing this moth when a boy in France. 
He had not found it during his early boyhood in England, where 
it was very rare at that time. Mr. 'Benton stated that the species 
is growing more abundant in England, and Dr. Marx referred to 
the fact that it was formerly a serious pest to the potato crop 
alons: the Rhine in Germanv. 

— Prof. Riley read the following: 

FURTHER NOTES ON LACHNOSTERNA. 

By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

There has been a general impression, from the previous studies 
of Lachnosterna, that there is a certain chronological sequence 
in the occurrence of the different species. The great partiality 
of these insects for the tender foliage of young oaks, especially 
recently transplanted trees, is well known and has been fully at- 
tested in our previous discussions. 1 have had some difficulty in 
preventing the utter defoliation of three young oaks (^^uercus 
palustris) which were transplanted from the nursery a year ago 
last fall, and on the evening of the very first day of May, which 
happened to be warm and quiet, the beetles appeared for the first 
time. A number which I took on that occasion showed that the 
specimens represented four well-known species, namely, Z. 
hirticula^ L, arcuata^ L. micans^ and L, fraterna* They 
were abundant in the order of their naming, hirticula being the 
earliest and the most active in flight, arcuata next most 
abundant, while but a single specimen oi fraterna was taken. 



OF WASHINGTON. ' 65 

These insects continued throughout the month, whenever the 
weather was warm and cahn enough to permit of their flight, 
and at the close of the month another lot preserved showed the 
same preponderance of hirticula and arcuata and about the 
same relative proportion of micans^ but instead oi fraterna a 
single specimen of hirsuta was taken. Thus during the month 
of May these species occurred simultaneously and continuously. 

By carefully picking off and shaking down two or three times 
between S and ii o'clock, I had no great difficulty in substan- 
tially preserving the foliage of the trees named. During the 
present month there will undoubtedly be a sequence of the 
species, but in far less abundance and with no essential injury to 
the foliage. I have a suspicion that the habit which our oaks, in 
the District at least, manifest, of putting out a secondary vigorous 
growth in the month of June or later, has been acquired as a con- 
sequence of the very general eating-off of the terminal young 
growth in the beginning of the season by Lachnosterna. How 
very difficult these insects are to deal with when the question is 
one of a large number of trees has been indicated the present 
spring by the experience of Mr. D. H. Rhodes, who has charge 
of the tree-planting in the grounds at Arlington. He had a very 
large number of young maples set out from the nursery and very 
many of them have been ruined by these beetles, and the meas- 
ures he could adopt failed to prevent their onslaught. 

I had a curious experience with the first lot I preserved. They 
were thrown into an old cyanide bottle, the cork of which was 
not very tight, and the cyanide in which was more or less inop- 
erative. The bottle was lined with blotting-paper and the 
beetles — just exactly two dozen specimens — chewed the paper up 
into a triturated mass, some of them retaining life up to the third 
week. This was a rather singular experience, considering that 
in empty bottles the beetles would perish in as many days, and I 
have little doubt that the blotting-paper saturated with cyanide 
and thus kept moist helped to preserve life in these insects in this 
instance, a result which one would hardly have anticipated from 
its well-known deadly effects upon insects generally. 



NOTES ON COCCIDiE. 
By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

MODE OF HIBERNATION EFFECTS OF SEVERE COLD — VIVIPAR- 
ITY — REMEDIES. 

General experience indicates that most of our Coccidae hiber- 
nate in the ^%% state, yet there is no uniform rule in this respect 
and I have been somewhat interested the past year in noting the 
hibernating habits of a few species that have come under my own 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

notice. Chionaspis euonymi^ which has been extremely in- 
jurious to the Euonymus japonicus in this city, and which 
attacked certain fine plants in my own garden, is a difficuh 
species to deal with by virtue of the fact that it is so irregular in 
breeding. Last year I became aware of its occurrence on my 
own plants too late to deal with it effectually. Experiments 
made during the autumn and winter of i892-'3 with the ordinary 
kerosene emulsion 4 or 5 times diluted only destroyed but a 
small portion of the mature females, but a much larger propor- 
tion of the immature scales. A curious thing about this partic- 
ular species is that there is continuous hatching throughout the 
summer at no regular intervals, and that even as late as frost 
larvai will be still hatching. Moreover, the females hibernate in 
various stages of development. No eggs will be found under the 
females during winter, and one might almost be led to suppose 
that it is viviparous. From about the middle of May, however, 
the eggs begin to be produced, a few only from each female, and 
these continue to hatch over quite a period. 

An experience which I had last summer is interesting as indi- 
cating the migratory power of the young larvae. I had planted 
in the spring a vigorous specimen of Euonymus scandcns against 
the stone wall of my front porch. This is about ten feet from 
the nearest standard Euonymus which was infested, and there is 
a flower bed nearly three feet wide, besides three strips of grass 
sod, and a gravel walk four feet wide between the two. I know 
that the young Euonymus scandens was perfectly free from 
insects, and yet by midsummer I noticed that the insects swarmed 
upon it— so much so that it was practically killed down this past 
winter. The young larvjt must have persistently crawled this 
distance, a large number of them reaching the climbing Euony- 
mus — v^'hether instinctively wending their way in that direction 
or whether others were scattered in all directions and lost I did 
not ascertain. It is very doubtful if they could have been carried 
over in such numbers by other insects, especially as ants are 
seldom seen on the Euonymus, and that the wind played no part 
in the distribution may be justly inferred from the fact that the 
climbing plant was in a northwesterly direction from the other, 
a direction in which the winds are rare in summer, as they are 
far more often from the west or southwest or else from the north. 

The Maple Scale, Aspidiotus tenebricosus^ was exceedingly 
abundant two years ago and, as many of the members are aware, 
the Park Commissioners severely pruned and cut down many of 
the trees along some of our principal streets and whitewashed the 
trunks, with a view of checking or destroying it. This treat- 
ment, as I know from examinations made both by others as well 
as myself, did not kill the insects, as they continued to breed last 
year on all the new growth. Observations on this species also 



OF WASHINGTON. 67 

indicate that it is viviparous and hibernates in the mature female 
form. The most interesting fact connected with it, however, is 
that the very severe and exceptional cold of last winter seems to 
have killed it out, as, so far, Messrs. Pergande, Schwarz, and 
Chittenden, who have examined the subject for me, report that 
they have found no living specimens; 

In this connection I may also give a little experience with 
Chionaspis furfur us ^ the well-known Scurfy Scale of Pyrus 
trees. This proved in my own garden extremely fatal to a hedge 
of Pyrus japonica^ when allowed to multiply, and experiments 
with kerosene emulsion only \ diluted showed that comparatively 
few of the perfect scales in autumn or winter, while the leaves 
are off the plant, are destroyed by it. It becomes necessary, 
therefore, to attack it in the young or newly hatched larva state. 
Fortunately the larvae hatch quite uniformly about the middle of 
May, and the kerosene emulsion diluted in 5 times its bulk of 
water proved, when carefully applied, thoroughly effectual, 
without any injury to the plants. Where, however, it was re- 
peated two or three times upon the same plant it caused a drop- 
ping of the foliage and a blackening of the more tender growth, 
yet the plants are not materially injured and will undoubtedly 
put forth fresh shoots and foliage. But a single treatment has 
been effectual in killing every individual scale. 

In connection with the hibernation of the species mentioned I 
have been led to go over my own earlier records on the hibernat- 
ing habits of the family, as also over the records of the Division 
of Entomology. I have compiled the facts contained in Prof. 
Comstock's article in his own report as U. S. Entomologist for 
1880. From these data it will appear that no general rule can 
be formulated, and that we not only have species in the same sub- 
family hibernating either as larvae or in stages intermediate be- 
tween the larva and adult, but in the adult female form and in 
the ^%%^ and that some species will be found in all these different 
stages of development dining the winter. The fact remains, 
however, that in the armored scales the great majority, in more 
northern latitudes, hibernate in the ^%'g state. 

Summary of Records. 

Diaspinse. — Aspidiofus obsciirus Comst. — On ^uercus phellos. The notei 
indicate that in the District of Columbia this species hibernates in both 
the larva and adult states. No eggs have been observed. 

Aspidiotus tenebricosHs Comst. — Maples; D. C Viviparous; hiber- 
nates as adult female. 

Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst. — On Apple and a number of other 
deciduous fruit trees; California. Specimens examined in December, 
1879, showed that the mature females were hibernating, and that with 
some of them were found a few eggs and recently hatched larvae. There 



68 E^OMOLOGIOAL SOCIETY 

were also younger females in different stages of development. Others 
examined October, 1880, showed that all the females were living and that 
the younger larvae were present, but no eggs were found. The species 
thus seem to hibernate in the mature female conditi.)n and to be both 
oviparous and viviparous. 

Aspidiotus auratitii Mask. — Cal. .Both oviparous and viviparous; 
Hibernates as adult female. 

Aspidiotus rapax Comst. — On Euonymus, Orange, etc.; Florida and 
California. Observations made from March to the end of June indicate 
that this species hibernates in the adult female, in the q%% state, or as re- 
cently hatched larvie. 

Aspidiotus sabalis Comst. — On Palmetto; Florida. The records indi- 
cate that this species hibernates both in the adult female and larva states. 
Mature males were also observed March 23, 1883, but no eggs are recorded. 

Aspidiotus ancylus Pum. — On various species of trees; District of 
Columbia. Hibernates as half-grown female and as male larva, the male 
appearing in March and April ; eggs unknown. 

Aspidiotus, n. sp. — On Camellia; California. Hibernates in the adult 
state, but numerous eggs are found the latter part of the winter. 

Aspidiotus, n. sp. — On Japanese tea-plant; California. Hibernates in 
the adult female state, the eggs being produced the latter part of the 
winter. 

Diaspis boisduvalli Sign. — On Livingstonia; D. C. Adult females 
with eggs and younger females in different stages, male pupae and adult 
males, were all observed as late as November 12. 

Diaspis lanatus Morg. and Cckl. — On Peach ; Florida. Mature females 
hibernate without eggs; eggs are, however, found during the latter p.irt 
of June, probably of the second generation. 

Diaspis voscb Sandb. — On Rose, etc.; D. C, Florida, California. 
Specimens received from Florida February 20, 1880, embraced adult and 
partly grown females, adults with numerous eggs, some of which were 
hatching. Males were at the same time swarming. By April 20 adult 
females and eggs were still present, though the males were absent. 
Specimens of the same species received from California February 7, 1881, 
showed that the females were about half-grown and the males fully devel- 
oped. The same species from Washington, examined March 6 of this 
year C1893), showed adult and half-grown females, the majority, however, 
being in the ^^^ state. 

Diaspis carueli Targ.— On Juniperus, etc.; J). C. Hibernates in the 
adult female state, no eggs having so far been found. 

Chioiiaspis pinifolii Fitch. — On Pine. Oviparous; hibernates in the 
^%% state. 

Chionaspis biclavis Comst. — On Camellia; D. C. Oviparous; appears 
to be a continuous breeder. 

Chionaspis quercus Comst. — On Oak; California* Oviparous; hiber- 
nates as partly grown female, or as adult female, though the male larvae 
and pupa; have been observed as late as August. 



OF WASHINGTON. 69 

CAioftas^i'.^ fraxtnt Sign. — On Ash ; England. Oviparous; hibernates 
in the egg state. 

Chionaspis^ n. sp. — On Black Cherry; New York. Oviparous; hiber- 
nates in the ^gg state. 

Ckionaspis, n. sp. — On Cornus ; D. C. Probably hibernates in the adult 
female form. Specimens examined June 9, 1881, contained numerous 
eggs. 

Chionaspis^ n. sp. — On Dwarf Apricot ; Japan. Oviparous; hibernates 
in the ^g% state. 

Mytilaspts, n. sp. — On Myrtus barometrica\ D. C. Oviparous; hiber- 
nates in both e%g and larva state. 

Mytilasph^ sp. — On Ulmus purpurea \ D. C. Oviparous; hiber- 
nates in the e.%g state. 

Mytilaspis^ n. sp. — On Yucca; D. C. Oviparous; hibernates in the 
egg state. 

Mytilaspis^ n. sp. — On Camellia japontca\ Georgia. Oviparous; prob- 
ably hibernates in the egg state, as eggs were found as late as August 25. 

MytilaspiSs n. sp. — On Celastrus scandens ; Virginia. Oviparous; 
probably hibernates in the egg state, these being found late in summer. 

Lecano-diaspini. — Asierodiaspis qnercicola Bouchd. — D. C. ; hiber- 
nates in the adult female state ; eggs not observed. 

Asterodtaspispustulans Cockl. — On Hibiscus, etc. ; Florida. Oviparous ; 
hibernates in the egg state. 

Lecaniini. — Ceroplastes florideusis Comst. — On Orange, etc. ; Florida. 
Oviparous; hibernates as adult; eggs hatching from middle of February 
until end of April. 

Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comst. — On Orange, etc. ; Fl<:)rida. Ovip- 
arous ; winter habit not observed. 

Lecanium hesperidum Linn. — On various plants; D. C. Viviparous; 
breeds continuously. 

Lecanium p la ty cert V2ic\i. — On Platycerum alcicorne ; D. C. Vivip- 
arous; hibernates as adult female, though a few recently produced larvae 
were noticed in December. Probably breeds continuously. 

Lecanium tulipiferce Cook. — On Magnolia, etc.; Florida; D. C. Vi- 
viparous. At Washington the species hibernates in the larva state; in 
Florida all stages have been observed duripg the winter. 

Lecanium hemisphcericum Targ. — On various plants ; D. C. Oviparous ; 
hibernation not noticed. 

Lecanium olete Bern. — On various plants; D. C. Breeds continuously. 

Lecanium, sp. — On Acacia decurreus ; D. C. Viviparous; larvae of all 
stages were observed as late as December 8, 1880. 

Lecanium^ sp. — On Red Bay, Persea caroliucnsis ; Florida. Vivip- 
arous ; hibernates as adult. 

Lecanium, sp. — On Elm. Oviparous; hibernates as partly grown larva. 

Lecanium, sp. — On Fraxinus; D. C. Oviparous; hibernates as larva. 

Zr^c««/»»»,'sp.-T-On Grape; California. Oviparous; hibernates as adult 
female. 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCEETY 

Lecattium^ sp. — OnCeltis; D. C. Oviparous; hibernates as larva. 

Lecanium, sp. — On Mesquite; Arizona. Appears to be viviparous; 
numerous larvae were issuing from scales received June 20, 1882 

Lecanium^ sp. — On Osage Orange ; Utah. Oviparous ; winter habit not 
observed. 

Lecantum^ sp, — On Oak; D. C. Probably hibernates as partly grown 
larva. 

Lecauiuffi, sp.— On ^uerctis laurifolia; Alabama. Oviparous; dead 
females filled with eggs received April 18, 1881. 

Lecanium^ sp. — On Pear; California. Oviparous; hibernates in the 
^%% state. 

Lecanium^ %p. — On Peach ; D. C Oviparous; hibernates in the imago 
state. 

Lecanium, sp. — On Sagaretia michanxii ; So. America. Oviparous; 
hibernates probably in the imago state; scales filled with eggs examined 
May I, 1885. 

Pulvinariini. — Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathv. — This and all other 
species of tlie subfamily studied are oviparous and hibernate in the 
partly grown female state. In Florida the females commence ovipositing 
in March, while further north oviposition does not take place until May. 

Kermesini. — Kermes galliformis Riley. — On Oak; widely distributed. 
Oviparous; mode of hibernation not positively ascertained, though prob- 
ably as adult females. 

Kerrnes^ sp. — On ^uercus obtustloba ; Texas. Oviparous; hibernates 
probably in adult female, eggs hatching being received May 17, 1882. 

KermeSy sp. — On J^itercus niger ; Missouri. Oviparous; hibernates in 
the larva state. 

KermcSj sp. — On .^uercus tinctoria; New York. Oviparous; hiber- 
nates probably as larva. 

Kermes^ sp. — On Live Oak; California. Oviparous; hibernates in larva 
state. 

KenneSj sp. — On J^uercus obtusiloba : Texas. Oviparous; hibernates 
probably as adult female, as larvae were just hatching May 18, 1882. 

Dactylopiini.— Z^rtc/y/^?////.^ destructor Comst.~On Orange, etc. ; Florida 
Oviparous; breeds continuously. 

DactylopiuSf sp. — On Roots of Clover. Oviparous; hibernates in adult 
and egg states. Taken June 10, 1S80; eggs hatched from January 31 to 
February 3. 

Dacty lop ius loftgijiiis Covn%\.. — On hot-house plants ; D. C. Viviparous; 
breeds continuously. 

Dactylopius^ sp. — On Maple. Oviparous; hibernates in the egg state. 
Dead females and eggs found March 16, 1881 ; larvae hatched March 28. 

Dactylopius^ sp. — On Sycamore; D. C. Oviparous; hibernates in 
partly grown larva state. Dead females and eggs were found September 
18, 1873 ; eggs hatched September 23. 

DactylopiuSy %p. — On grass; D. C. Oviparous; hibernates apparently 



OF WASHINGTON. 71 

in all stages. Adult females, eggs, and immature specimens in all stages 
were found October 22, 1881. 

Acanthococcini. — Cerococcus g'uefcus Comst.— On Oak; Arizona. Ovip- 
arous; hibernates in the egg state. Scales received Januarv, 1874, con- 
tained numerous eggs, which commenced hatching March 18, 1874. 

(lossyparia ulmi Groif. — On Elm ; D. C This species appears to be 
oviparous and hibernates in the larva slate. 

Eriococcnsi azalece Qovci9,\..—On Kz?i\e2i\, D. C. Oviparous; hibernates 
in all stages. 

RhizococcHS qtiercns Comst — On Live Oak; Florida. Oviparous; 
hibernates in all stages. Among specimens received March 29, 18S2, were 
mature females, partly grown females, joung larvai, eggs, and fully 
developed males, which seems to indicate that there are two or more 
generations each year. 

Rhizococcus araucarioi Comst. — On Araucaria ; California. Oviparous ; 
the eggs were probably deposited in August or September. It hibernates 
probably as partly grown larva. 



In discussing these several communications Mr. Doran stated 
that at one time he had kept a Scarabaeid beetle for five days in 
a bottle containing fresh cyanide, and that at tlie expiration of this 
time it was apparently as healthy as ever. Mr. Schwarz stated 
that in his opinion the species of Lachnosterna are much longer 
lived than suppo.sed by Prof. Riley. Instead of dying in three or 
four days, he thinks that they normally live for several wrecks. 
Dr. Marx stated that on May 10 he received a male and female 
Centrums vittatus from Baltimore and placed them separately 
in dry bottles. The male died in five days, but the female is still 
alive, having given birth to numerous young. In this case the 
longevity is plainly influenced by maternity. Mr. Howard 
thought that the influence of Prof. Riley's cyanide was far from 
being proven, and suggested that if the check bottles had con- 
tained an equal amount of moistened blotting-paper the compar- 
ative results might have been dift'erent. In regard to the instance 
of the travelling of the young of the Chionaspis, he thought that 
this was rather to be explained by the accidental portage of many 
individuals by flying insects and by English sparrows, every- 
where so abundant. Mr. Ashmead stated that from observations 
in Florida he was convinced that ants have a great influence in 
the carriage of bark-lice to a distance. Prof. Riley stated that no 



72 KNTOMOLO(4lCAL SOCIETY 

English sparrows nest on his grounds and that he had not 
one upon liis Euonynius bush. He had carefully considered all 
possible means of transit and had concluded that the young 
must have crawled the entire distance to have appeared so sud- 
denly and in such numbers upon a previously uninfested plant. 
He further stated that there are no ants whatever upon the bush 
and that he had never seen ants attending Chionaspis euonymi^ 
on account of the lack of honev dew. Mr. Ashmead stated that 
ants undoubtedly do attend and transport young DiaspinsB, and 
that although the honey dew is comparatively slight it is still 
present with these forms. 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited a remarkable species of Rhodobasnus 
which he had found alive at Fortress Monroe, Va., in May of the 
present year. It diHers strikingly from any species yet found in 
North or wSouth America, to which countries the genus is" re- 
stricted. It is a question whether the insect was brought to that 
locality by some of the vessels participating in the naval review 
which occurred a short time previously, or whether it may be 
called a Nortli American insect. The coast region from the 
capes nearly to Florida, he stated, is practically still terra incog- 
nita to entomologists, so that the form may possibly belong to 
our fauna. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



List of Members « , ■• 1 

AwiMSAD, Ww. H.; NoKfconthcgeimtCemrodsn,/): A Synopi-U o^ 
Ihe Spalangiiii:^ of Noitb Ainerico, 371 Sj-nofKU ofUiaNiMtli 
American Species 0/ Toioneura Snj. 47 ; N»l«fc nn the Pftmlly 

PachylomniBtoida > .•..■. " 

ButruN, PftAKK: Tb? cuiifiu^ Deienset «>iiMriicrc,(l liy MeClpooiiari:! 

Trlgoija, 18; Ttif OuatliVhCHt) Moth In relatlnnla Honev Dec ^o 

HOWAAO, L. O, r A poculinr Hmcluml Feature wf tlie Ela*mhi«-. >ji 

HuiiDAftD, H. G. 1 Mote on BrKiltiims ^ to 

Makx. Cao. : Ue{;ene ration b^ Otsui« of ccH«in Organs in Si)ijifar>( 
361 Continuation of tb« Li(e-hittocy of tlie Whip>tii)t Scar. 

plon , ;™„^.Ll,. .5* 

PattOn. Wm. U. ^ Notes upon Wasps «. -. „.« -fj' 

ItlLKr, C, v.! PutHierKotesonL«choo«tefnn,fi4!MpIWJinCoc!wd» fij 

ScnwABZ, E- A, ! A " Parasitic " SoQlylid. IJ ; NolM OR t6» OvI- * 

poaitor of ittxae species of Donacin (iliuiilratBd)) 34 ) Doacrfp- 

tion of tno RbynctiopborgUs ColMpUtra from Sfcmi-Inipiat 

FloFJda ..,.--.. ......-, „....,. 1-T. ■■-* *J 

StILIw, C, W. : PnriisitUm „ .,„.. r 

Tvymseoiii C. H. T. ; Nntc ou the Coriteo, n Mera![iiefDii* luect 

which inf(!Bt» Potittr)r in SouUiaro Kew Mexico.. 40 



PKOOEEDJNGS 



iNTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



WASHINGTON. 




Volume tU, MO. 2. 

(OcrOfi^K 5, 1S93, to Fbbhoarv i, iSy.).) 

[ISSU6D j*KUABY 8. 1^.] 



{•vnMatn n rm avsm 



PRICE Of PRt)CEEE>INGS. 



^i^7*^'' 



> Come 
Vbt. II. N 



3- 



' CompleiefNot, i 



The ntiuvc will he malM on receipt dI prioc AddrcH ^^ 

FRAKK BENTON, CrirmpaivdingSeciTUryi '^fl 

W«tiiag1on, -D, C. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



October 5, 1893. 

• 
President C. V. Riley was in the chair and 12 members and 

2 visitors present. 

The following new members were elected : 

Active — R. S. Lull, of Maryland Agricultural College. Cor- 
responding — W. D. Doan, Coatesville, Pa. ; J. L. Healey, 
Rogers Park, 111. ; H. C. Fall, Pomona, Cal. ; H. F. Wickham, 
Iowa City, Iowa ; L. W. Mengel, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mr. Schwarz read the following paper : 

ADDITIONS TO THE LISTS OF NORTH AMERICAN TERMI- 
TOPHILOUS AND MYRMECOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

I — Termitophilous Species. 

Platycholeus leftinoides Crotch. — A number of specimens 
were obtained by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, in July, 1891, at Lake 
Tahoe, Cala., in a colony of Termopsis angusticollis within 
the stump of a large pine tree ; other specimens, found by Mr. 
A. Koebele in California with the same host, are in the U. S. 
National Museum. The general appearance of this remarkable 
Silphid indicates a parasitic or inquilinous mode of life, and I 
have no doubt that it is a true termitophilous species. 

Microcyftus testaceus Lee. — A specimen was found by Mr. 
H. Ulke near Washington, D. C, under bark of a dead pine 
tree. No white ants were seen near by, but the tree bore evi- 
dence of having been inhabited by them. Another specimen was 
found by myself many years ago under similar circumstances at 
New Smyrna, Fla., in the month of June. This would seem to 
prove that, as it is the case with myrmecophilous inquilines, at 
least some termitophilous species do not accompany immediately 
the termites when these are changing the location of their nests. 

What, in my list of termitophilous Coleoptera (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., I, p. 161), I have called "true nests" of Termes 
Jlavipes is a rather misleading term, and requires some explana- 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

tion. I intended to designate thereby colonies in which, at the 
proper season, eggs or very young larvae are found, or from 
which the swarms of winged individuals issue. That such colo- 
nies, which are quite abundant, are only temporary habitations 
is proven by the fact that they do not contain any egg-laying 
females. The eggs are, therefore, carried into them by the 
workers from other colonies of a more permanent nature, and 
which should be considered more properly as the " true nests." 
Such colonies are extremely rare, or, perhaps, only difficult to 
find, but hitherto only supplementary queens, /. ^., egg-laying 
individuals with long wing-pads (sexually advanced female 
pupae), or egg-laying individuals with short wing-pads (sexually 
advanced female larvae), have been found in them. A true 
queen, i, <?., an egg-laying female imago with wing-stumps, has 
never been found, and is probably never developed in Termes 
Jlavifes^ a fact which would be well in accord with the wander- 
ing habit of this species. 

2 — Myrmecophilous Species. 

Species belonging, in my opinion, to the class of accidental 
visitors in ants' nests and which have been found or recorded 
since the publication of my paper on Myrmecophilous Coleoptera 
(Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., i, 1890, pp. 237-247) are not enumer- 
ated in the following list. The occurrence of Tachys incurvus 
in large number of specimens in the hills of Formica schaufussi 
and exsectoldes as observed at several localities is of interest, but 
may be explained by the fact that the earth of which these hills 
are constructed retains always a considerable amount of moisture 
which, during periods of vsevere drought, is naturally greatly at- 
tractive to these beetles. 

F^istiger fuchsi Brend. — Found by Mr. H. F. Wickham with 
Creftiastogaster lineolata^ at Williams, Ariz. (Psyche, 6, 
1892, p. 321). 

Fiistiger californicus Brend. — Specimens of the ant with 
which this species was found by Mr. A. Koebele near Los An- 
geles, Cala., prove to be Creniastogaster lineolata,* 

Adranes n. sp. — Many specimens were found by Mr. H. G. 
Hubbard in a colony of Lasius rubripes at Lake Tahoe, Cala., 
July 12, 1 89 1. The species agrees in size and color with A, 
lecontei., but the males are at once distinguished by the absence 
of the triangular metasternal ridges and by the much shorter 
spine at the base of the middle femora. I have seen other speci- 



* For the determination of the ants mentioned in this list I am indebted 
to Mr. Theo. Pergande. 



OF WASHINGTON. 75 

mens in the cabinet of Mr. H. Ulke, collected by Mr. Titus 
Ulke in the Black Hills of South Dakota, with a Lasius claviger, 

Tyrus corticinus Cas. — Numerous specimens were found by 
Mr. Hubbard and myself with JRormica sanguinea * in a de- 
cayed pine log above Alta, in the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah, 
at an elevation of about 10,000 feet. 

Ctcnistes pulvereus Lee. — Found with JRormica schaufussii 
at Tucson, Ariz., by Mr. Wickham (Psyche, 6, 1892, p. 321). 

Arianops amblyoponica Brend. — This blind species, the 
largest Pselaphid in our fauna, was originally described from 
specimens found by Rev. Jerome Schmitt, near Beatty Station, 
Pa., in colonies of Amblyopone serrata. In June, 1893, -^^^ 
Hubbard and myself found a considerable number of specimens 
in the mountains of North Carolina, at Retreat and Round Knob. 
They occurred in deep layers of vegetable mould, in company 
with other blind species of Coleoptera (Anillus, Pinodytes). A 
few specimens of Amblyopone serrata were found under the 
same conditions, but the beetles were more numerous than the 
ants. 

Batrisus ferox Lee. — A single female specimen with ex- 
tremely small eyes was found by Mr. Theo. Pergande with Am- 
blyopone serrata near Washington, D. C. B , juvencus of my 
former list has to be referred to B, ferox, 

? Myrmecochara n. sp. — The species mentioned in my list 
from Lake Tahoe, Cala., has been found by Mr. Wickham at 
Canon City, Colo., with Solenopsis debilis (Psyche, 6, p. 321). 
It is incorrectly referred by him to the genus Gyrophaena. 

Lispinus, — Some of the more convex species are so constantly 
found with ants in old stumps or under bark that they are possibly 
to be included in this list. Thus L. prolixus was found abun- 
dantly by Mr. Titus Ulke with JRormica obscuripes in the Black 
Hills, S. Dak. ; L, Icevicauda is equally common with Campono- 
tus pennsylv aniens at Grand Ledge, Mich., and a third species 
wrhich is distributed in cabinets under the MS. name L, cara- 
boides Fauv. was found in large numbers with JRormica san- 
g-uinea var. at Alta, Ut. 

Emphylus americanusl^ec. — ^A number of specimens occurred 
writh Formica sanguinea var. in a rotten log near Alta, Utah. 

Ulster subopacus Lee. — A single specimen was found under 
a stone in a colony of Formica fusca^ race subcenescens^ at 
Tenino, Wash., early in July. 



♦I am informed by Mr. Pergande that this is not the typical F. san- 
gvinea^ which has not yet been found in North America, but one of the 
sub-species or races which will shortly be described by Mr. C. Emery. 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Hetcerius morsus Lee. — Found by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell 
at West Cliff, Colo., April 23, in a " nest of a brown ant, appar- 
ently, without doubt Formica fusca L." (Ent. Mo. Mag., 26, 
1890, p. 158). 

Hetcerius hornii Wickh. — This species, which is unknown to 
me, was described by Mr. Wickham i^Pysche^ 6, p. 322) from a 
specimen found with Formica schaufussi^ at Cheyenne, Wye, 
in May, 1889. 

Hetcerius tristriatus Lee. — This is a common species from 
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific States, and seems to live with 
all species of Formica occurring in that region. The following 
hosts were ascertained by Mr. Hubbard and myself : Formica 
subcenesceus (Glenwood Springs, Colo., May 15), F, obscuri- 
pes (Tenino, Wash., May 30), F, schaufussi (Ft. Assiniboine 
and Helena, Mont., in April and May). 

Hetcerius n. sp. — A very small species allied to H, brunni- 
pennis was found by Mr. Hubbard and myself just as widely 
distributed and having the same hosts as H, tristriatus. Upon 
uncovering colonies of Formica subcenesceus at Glenwood 
Springs we repeatedly observed that an ant seized with its man- 
dibles the beetle and carried it into the safe retreat of the subter- 
ranean galleries. 

Cremastochilus crinitus Lee. — This is extremely abundant 
throughout northern Utah, in the plains as well as in the moun- 
tains to an altitude of about 7,000 feet, and it is a common sight to 
see specimens being dragged about by ants. Formica obscuri- 
pes and F, fusca have been ascertained as hosts. Normally, the 
upperside of the beetle is furnished with long hairs, but in most 
specimens found the hairs have been eaten off by the ants, usu- 
ally completely so. The excretion which is so eagerly sought 
for by the ants issues from a pair of glands at the inner side of 
the anterior thoracic angles and another pair of glands situated 
beneath and within the posterior angles. That exuded from the 
latter source is very copious, and, if a specimen of the beetle is 
for some time not attended to by ants, it accumulates as a honey- 
colored, sticky mass at the base of each elytron. 

Saxi?ns saucia Lee. — Several larval eases were found under 
stones in colonies of For7nica subcenesceus at Glenwood Springs, 
Colo., May 15, 1891. The larva3 were full grown at that time, 
and two imagos were bred from them about three weeks later. 
The dirty brown cases are slightly bulging behind and have no 
longitudinal ridges. 

Cosclnoptera vittigcra. — Larval cases were quite abundant 
among colonies of Forf?nca s?ibcenescens at Glenwood Springs, 
Colo., May 15, 1891. Two specimens of the beetle were bred 



OF WASHINaTON. 77 

therefrom and belong to the variety with abbreviated elytral vitta. 
The cases are darker in color than those of the preceding species, 
nearly cylindrical in shape and furnished dorsally with a few 
straight, irregularly interrupted or abbreviate, ridges. 

Coscinoptera dominicana, — A single larval case entirely dif- 
ferent from that figured by Dr. Riley* was found under a stone 
in a weak colony of Camponotus melleus at Mt. Vernon, Va., 
April 13, 1S93. It is of a bright clay color corresponding 
with that of the surrounding soil, quite cylindrical in shape and 
externally smooth and without any trace of longitudinal ridges. 
Upon opening the case a few weeks later the perfect beetle was 
found dead within it. The great difference in form and sculp- 
ture of the larval cases made by the same species is certainly very 
remarkable and induces me to abstain from a comparison of the 
larval cases of the two preceding species with those found and 
described from Colorado by Mr. T. D. A. CockerelLf In the 
larval case found at Mt. Vernon the larva had evidently prepared 
to enter the chrysalid state ; for the margin of the anterior open- 
ing had been enlarged into a broad rim which was firmly glued 
to the under surface of the stone, and a short distance above this 
rim the larva had tightly closed its case by a circular lid. 



In answer to a question by Prof. Riley, Mr. Schwarz stated 
that the Chrysomelid cases received by Prof. Riley from Montana 
probably belonged to C. dominicana and were all more or less 
provided with longitudinal ridges. He stated, further, that these 
cases are very fragile and require very careful handling to pre- 
vent breakage, and that some of the specimens collected by him 
were entirely destroyed on account of this extreme fragility. He 
stated, also, that one of Prof. Riley's specimens, received from 
Morrison, from Arizona, was a distinct form. He was convinced 
that the larvae of all the species of this genus are myrmecophilous 
in habit. 

Prof. Riley was greatly interested in the wide difference be- 
tween the cases of Coscinoptera dominicana figured by him 
and those exhibited by Mr. Schwarz — differences apparently due 
to the varying nature of the soil of which they were constructed, 
one form being in a clay soil and the other in a soil containing 

* Sixth Rep. Ins. Mo., p. 127. 

fEntom. Mo. Mag., 27, 1891, p. 190; see also Riley & Howard, Insect 
Li/ey 4, 1891, p. 148, and Dr. John Hamilton, /. c, 1892, p. 268. 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

considerable humus; and he drew attention to the futility of 
attempting to base specific differences on structures of this kind, 
which are so apt to be divergent, depending on the surrounding 
conditions, the same species adapting itself to changed environ- 
ment and constructing widely different structures. 

Dr. Marx said that if ant-feeding insects were included in 
mrymecophilous species, the large Arachnid, Solpugo, should 
be classed among them. He described its method of feeding on 
ants at some length, based on the observations of Mr. Gustav 
Eisen in Lower California, and those of Mr. Caspar Butcher in 
Texas. Mr. Schwarz stated that these. Arachnids are abundant 
in the West but are always nocturnal in habit, and observations 
such as those described by Dr. Marx could be made only with 
great difficulty. 

— Mr. Marlatt presented the following paper : 

NEURATION OF THE WINGS OF TENTHREDINID^. 

By C. L. Marlatt. 

In the first study of any group of insects in which the neuration 
plays an important part in classification, one is apt to be dis- 
couraged by the varied and conflicting terminology of the veins 
and cells, in the description of which scarcely any two authors 
agree. To increase the difficulty, it frequently happens that an 
author's system has to be picked up from random descriptions 
without the aid of any full and adequate explanation in connection 
with figures. These last, also, are absolutely necessary to the 
correct understanding of the names, because of the frequent use 
of the same terms for distinct things by different writers. 

Two of the later European writers on the Tenth redinidae, 
Cameron and Andr^, have, however, given very careful and full 
explanations, leaving little to be desired in this respect, and have 
practically coincided in a very satisfactory terminology which 
harmonizes, also, as well as could be with older systems. Konow 
has given a rather imperfect explanation of the system which he 
has followed, and which is based on that of the older German 
authors. The importance of Konow's recent work in the Ten- 
thredinidae gives value to certain features of this terminology, 
which will be exphiined later on. 

The American writers have generally followed Norton and 
Cresson, whose terminology, though good, lacks completeness, 
and is at a disadvantage on account of its divergence from the 
accepted system of Europeans. Still, if we had only to deal with 



OF WASHINGTON. 79 

American insects, it might be well to continue to follow these 
writers, but the time is passed when new spbcies can be described 
without reference to foreign literature, not only because many 
species will be found to be common to the old and new worlds, 
but others, especially those affecting cultivated plants once re- 
stricted to one or the other hemisphere, are being or will be by 
the agency of commerce more and more widely distributed. 
Comparisons with foreign descriptions will therefore, in the future, 
have to be the rule, and it will be easier now than later to har- 
monize our characterizations with those of European writers. 
This will not necessitate the introduction of a new and strange 
terminology, for the accepted European systems are not, after all, 
so widely divergent from Norton's, and will be found, with a few 
important exceptions, to differ on account of additions rather than 
changes. 

Of the later important European writers on the Tenthredinidae, 
Cameron, Andr^, and Konow, I have most closely followed the 
first, introducing, in fact, few and unimportant changes and some 
few additions of parts not designated by him. 

I have given preference to Cameron's system of nomenclature, 
because I believe it to include the terminology most often used 
and because his extensive monograph in English will be more fre- 
quently referred to by American students than Andre's, in which, 
however, the system followed differs only in minor and, in gen- 
eral, unimportant particulars. For a full synonymy of the termi- 
nology employed by all the older European writers, the excellent 
lists furnished by Cameron and Andr6 may be referred to. The 
system here adopted is illustrated, with explanations accompany- 
ing, in Fig. 2. 

The names of veins and cells in anterior and posterior wings 
correspond, except that in the posterior wings the ist cubital (8) 
is usually called the upper discal, the lower discal being num- 
bered (lo) in the figure, and the cells numbered (ii) and (12) 
are the ist and 2d posteriors. 

The only important divergence from Cameron is the addition 
of the terms axillary for nei*ve {f) of the posterior wings which 
also sometimes occurs as a rudiment in the anterior wing ; and 
the designation of cell (2) as sub-costal rather than humeral. 

Andre's system differs only in the following particulars. Of 
the veins : j is called posterior ; k^ transverse brachial ; p^ mar- 
gino-discoidal, and s and /, medio and transverso discoidals. Of 
the cells, (i) is the brachial and (2) costal. 

In the system of Crcsson and Norton, so far as the veins have 
been designated, there are but two changes, viz., {k) is the mar- 
ginal and (/) transverse marginal ; with the cells (2) is the median, 
(3) sub-median, (6) marginal, (8-1 1) sub-marginal, and (15 and 
16) apical. 



80 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC^IETY 




Fig. 2. — Neuration of Tenthredinid wings. See text for description (original). 

The Veins. 



a, costal. 
b^ sub-costal, 
c, median. 
d^ anal. 
e^ accessory. 



Longitudinal Veins, 

y, axillary. 
g^ inferior. 
h^ radial. 
/, cubital, 
y, sub-discal. 

Cross Veins, 



k^ transverse costal. 
/, transverse radial. 
/«, ist transverse cubital. 
//, 2d 

f^ basal. 



q^ 1st recurrent. 



r, 3d 



u 



s, ist transverse median. 



u 
u 






u 



(( 



/, 2d 

^^, transverse lanceolate. 



1, costal. 

2, sub-costal. 

3, median. 

4, lanceolate. 

5, anal. 



The Cells. 

6, radial. 

7, appendiculate. 

8 to 1 1 , I st to 4th cubitals. 

12 to 14, ist to 3d discals. 

15 and 16, 1st and 2d posteriors. 



Konow, in an incomplete characterization in his earliest paper,* 
indicates the following differences ; In the case of the veins c^ 
is either median or discoidal ; d^ brachial ; c, humeral ; p^ discoidal 

♦ Deutsche Ent. Zeit., XXVIII, 1884, Heft II, p. 306. 



OF WASHINGTON. 



81 




cross-nerve ; s and /, areal and anal cross-nerves, and u^ humeral 
cross-nerve. With the cells, the few that are referred to in the 
anterior wings agree with my system ; in the posterior wing the 
lanceolate cell (4) is strangely enough called the anal cell. 

The most important of the cells on classificatory grounds is 
the lanceolate cell of the anterior wings, which is peculiar also 
to the Tenthredinidae. It assumes in different genera three dis- 
tinct types, each presenting variations of value, i . It is petio- 
late^ as in Nematus, Fig. 3, (i), when the accessory vein joins 

the anal vein and terminates re- 
motely from the base of the latter. 

2. It is contracted when the 
accessory vein coalesces with the 
anal for a distance at the centre, 
called contracted when widely so 
as in Hylotoma, Fig. 3 (2), or 
subcontracted when narrowly so 
as in Pachy protasis. Fig. 3 (3). 

3. It is open when the accessory 
vein extends independently to the 
base of the wing without meeting 
the basal — simple or without cross- 
vein — as in Selandria, Fig. 3 (6) ; 
with oblique cross vein as in 
Dolerus, Fig. 3 (4) ; and with 
straight cross vein as in Tenthredo, 

Fig. 3 (5)- 

Next in importance are the 
radial and cubital cells of the anterior wings — the former never 
more than two, but sometimes with an appendiculate cell, and 
the latter never exceeding four nor less than three. In the hind 
wings the discal cells are of the most importance — their number, 
when present, and relative size giving good characters. The 
lanceolate cell (Konow's anal cell) also occurs in two distinct 
forms, viz : either with the accessoiy vein received a greater or 
less distance in front of the transverse median {s) or interstitial 
with this cross vein. 

With the veins the more important features are in the cross 
veins, their number and position relative to each other and the 
cells which they join. Of the longitudinal veins it may be noted 
that the costal extends entirely to the apex of the wing and in- 
cludes the peculiar enlargement called the stigma, the size and 
shape of which latter affords good generic and specific characters. 
On the hind wing, near the middle of this vein, occur a number 
of minute hooks which clasp the thickened hind border of the 




Fig. 3. — Different types of lanceolate cell 
in Tenthredinidae. 



See text for de- 



scription (original). 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

anterior wings and serve to connect the two in flight. The clear 
spots or " bullae " of Walsh, which sometimes occur particularly 
on the veins of the anterior wings, have not proven of veiy great 
value in the separation of species. 

Considerable variation will be found in the venation within 
generic limits, and even in some cases in the same species, but a 
little experience will soon enable one to properly refer such 
specimens. That the absence or presence of any particular vein 
is abnormal will usually be indicated by the position of the 
other veins and the character of the venation as a whole. 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Ashmead, Riley, and 
Howard, Messrs. Riley and Ashmead suggesting one or two 
changes in nomenclature, and Mr. Howard calling attention to 
the comprehensive system of numeral designation of veins pro- 
posed by Redtenbacher and based upon evolutional studies. He 
urged the adoption of this system by specialists. 

— Prof. A. D. Hopkins, of West Virginia, presented short notes 
upon, and finely executed drawings of, certain "timber worms'* 
which produce the so-called pin-holes in the solid wood of various 
trees, and are thus very injurious. The species discussed and 
exhibited were the following: i, larvae of Hyleccetus lugubris 
from chestnut ; 2, larvae of Serrofalfus striatus from black 
spruce ; 3, larvae of Eufsalis minuta from oak, and which is 
much more injurious than has hitherto been supposed ; 4, an un- 
known Coleopterous larva with a curiously formed anal segment, 
greatly injurious to oak and chestnut timber, which is identical 
with an unbred larva figured and described by Prof. Riley in his 
6th report on the insects of Missouri (Fig. 32), where it is sug- 
gested that it may be the larva of the genus Strongylium. Prof. 
Hopkins also exhibited very fine specimens of the work of an 
Agrilus (probably billneatus) which appears to be the primary 
cause of the wide-spread dying of the chestnut trees. In one of 
these samples the galleries had been completely filled up by a new 
growth of hard wood. 

In the discussion of this paper, Mr. Schwarz stated that he was 
greatly interested in the undetermined larva which had been figured 
by Prof. Riley in his sixth report, and suspected to belong to the 



OF WASHINGTON. 83 

genus Strongylium, but stated that some doubt as to this reference 
arises from the fact that all the species of Strongylium are much too 
large for any of the larvae so far found. Mr. Schwarz also called 
attention to the frequent confusion by collectors of Serropalpus 
and Lymexylon, describing the distribution of the two genera, 
the first being confined to the northern and the second to the more 
distinctively southern States in range. Specimens of the two 
genera were also exhibited. 

Dr. Riley was greatly interested in the burrow of the Agrilus 
exhibited by Mr. Hopkins, which had become filled up with a 
growth of liber so as to make the burrow a raised ridge, and, from 
its serpentine course, gave it somewhat the appearance of a ligni- 
fied snake. In connection with this he referred to the very curious 
so-called lignified snake from Brazil, which was exhibited in 
Europe some years ago, and which was so natural in appearance 
as to deceive several European writers, but which was really but 
another example of the burrow of an insect afterwards filled up 
by a woody growth like the one exhibited. Mr. Hopkins stated, 
in connection with the work of this insect, that the tree in which 
the specimen was obtained was in a dying condition, but was 
evidently being killed by the attacks of the Agrilus, which affects 
living and growing trees rather than those already injured or in a 
dying condition, as is sometimes thought. 



November 2, 1893. 

President Riley in the chair, and twelve members present. 
Mr. Heidemann presented designs for a seal for the Society. One 
of the designs was adopted, and Mr. Heidemann was urged to 
engrave it upon wood. Upon motion, a vote of thanks was ex- 
tended to Mr. Heidemann for his voluntary services in this mat- 
ter. 

— Prof. Riley read the following : 

NOTES UPON BELOSTOMA AND BENACUS. 

By C. V. Riley. 

It is well known that for many years the commoner species of 
our so-called "electric light bug" was generally referred to 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Belostoma grande^ and, further, that of late years it has come 
to be known that this was not the true grande^ and that the com- 
monest species we have belongs to Stal's genus Benacus and is 
Say's griseus. This is undoubtedly the common species in this 
section and throughout the larger portion of the United States, 
and has received a number of different names, as haldemanus 
Leidy, harpax Stal, ruficeps Dufour, distinctum Dufour, 
angustatum Guer. The Belostoma is a relatively rare form, 
judging from the material in the National Museum, and has also 
received various names, as impressum Haldeman, litigiosum 
Dufour, and obscurum Dufour, all of these being synonyms 
given in Uhler's list. Stal established the genus Benacus in 1861 
in " Oversigt Vetenskaps-akademiens Forhandlingar," XVIII, 
Stockholm, upon Belostoma haldemanutn Leidy, which was 
described in 1847 (Journal Acad. Phil., New Series I, page 59). 
StaPs diagnosis is as follows : 

Belostoma Latr. "Femoribus anticis subtus sulcatis. Arti- 
culo basali tarsorum anticorum secundo multo breviore.'* 

Benacus Stal. " Femoribus anticis pro receptione tibiarum 
hand sulcatis; tarsis anticis articulis aequilongis.*' 

Both characters are obvious upon careful examination, but I 
may add that the front femora of Belostoma are bisulcate their 
whole length, and that the front tibiae are deeply unisulcate. The 
two sharp edges of the tibiae fit into the two furrows of the femur 
when folded together. Benacus has, on the contrary, both 
femora and tibiae rounded. The two genera, as exemplified by 
these two common species, are otherwise very similar and easily 
mistaken for each other. Benacus on the average is somewhat 
larger in size and with the body more distinctly widened at the 
basal third. The paler coloring of the side margins of the thorax 
and the median vitta are, as a rule, more distinctly relieved and 
more or less ferruginous. Ventrally there are usually two sub- 
lateral black stripes. The legs are usually unicolorous and the 
hind tibiae and tarsi are more expanded than in Belostoma. I 
notice also that in Belostoma, in all the species represented in 
the National Museum collection, the middle and hind tibiae are 
usually spotted or banded. All the mere colorational characters, 
however, vary considerably, and realizing the great variation and 
especially the great sexual differences that occur in many of the 
aquatic Ileteroptera, which is particularly exemplified in Rheu- 
matobatcs rlleyi\ it occurred to me that the supposed generic 
differences might possibly be sexual. This suspicion appeared 
to me all the more plausible from the fact that, in looking over 
the literature at hand, I could not find that the sexual differences 
had been pointed out. I was, therefore, quite interested in ascer- 



OF WASHINGTON. 



85 



taining what the sexual differences in these large Belostomatidie 
were, and have recently had specimens of Benacus softened and 
dissected witli a view of ascertaining. These examinations show 
conclusively that both sexes occur in Benacus proper, and that 
the differences between the two genera are, therefore, not sexual. 
The only external indication of the sexes is that the tip of the 
abdomen in the male is whole, while in the female it is slightly 
notched, and with a small thorn on either end of the notch. 
There is no difference in the length of the long appendages 
nor in their shape, but the genital hooks and the cerci of the 
male are well pronounced and are replaced in the female by mere 
plates. Specimensillustrat- 
ing these structures are here- 
with exhibited. Seven 
species of Belostoma are 
recognized by Uhler from 
the United States and the 
West Indies, while in the 
genus Benacus we have but 
the one species. Say de- 
scribes his Belostomagrisea 
as "beneath with three black- 
ish vittse," This points to 
Benacus, and Uhler has so 
included it in his check list. 
Otherwise Say's description 
would not indicate which of 
the two insects he had refer- 
ence to. Stal took Say's 
species to be the northern 
species of Belostoma {sensu 
stricto) and therefore kept 
Leidy's name haldemanus 
for Benacus. I once sent 
specimensof^ewocwj^wew^to Prof. Montandon, who corrected 
the name to Benacus haldemanus, evidently accepting Stal's de- 
termination. Packard in his " Guide to the Study of Insects," 
page 537, mentions the two species as follows: '•'•Belostoma 
kaldemanum Leidy is not uncommon in our waters. It is 3J 
inches in length and has black patches on the under side of 
the body, while in B. grisea Say the under side is unspotted." 
The first reference is undoubtedly to Benacus griseus, and the 
second to Belostoma americanum. I refer to Packard because 
his statement indicates how very generally the two insects were 
confounded by entomologists, so that even in our leading Guide 




86 



ENTOMOLOGICAL 800IETT 



the structural differences were overlooked. It is evident that tlie 
insect figured by me in the American Entomologist (Vol. I, 
Fig. io6) and in the Ninth Report on the Insects of Missouri 
(Fig. 33) as Belostoma 
grandis was really Bena- 
cus g-riseus, and the eggs 
figured (Fig. 33} in con- 
nection with the former 
speciesj, as probably belong- 
ing to it, evidently belong- 
to the latter, judging from 
dissections recently made. 

In figures 4 and 5 the 
differences in the femora 
and tibiie between the two 
genera are illustrated, as also 
the genitalia of both sexes. 
The femoral grooves of Be- 
lostoma seem to vary some- 
what in intensity with dif- 
ferent individuals, and more- 
over the two grooves in the 
same individual vary some- 
what in width. An impor- 
tant feature in this species 
not previously mentioned is the smooth cavity or pit on the 
inner border of the coxa where it articulates with the femur, 
UK shown in figure 4, a. It is against this surface that the 
tarsal claw impinges when the tibia is closed upon the femur. 
With Benacus there is no sign of this articulating facet, the 
inferior surface of the coxa remaining convex and roughened 
as shown in figure 5. The. outer and upper end of the 
clypeus in Benacus is velvety and dark-colored. In the ma- 
jority of specimens of Belostoma this spot is lighter in color, 
and only occasionally velvety in appearance. The genitalia 
of the two forms, when a large series is examined, are very 
close in structure, as shown in the figures. After examination, 
however, of a large number of specimens, the distinctions indi- 
cated in the drawings 4, c and 5, e seem to be reasonably constant 
in the male sex, while the differences shown between 4, c and 5, b 
are largely caused by the protrusion of the central organ. The 
figures represent a dorsal view, after the wings and the dorsal 
plates of the .ibdomen have been removed, while the lines be- 
tween the appendages indicate the tip of the abdomen, and of 
the lateral expansions, beneath. 




OF WASHINGTON. 87 

In the discussion Mr. Gill said that the Chicago contention 
arose in a discussion on the transmissibility of acquired charac- 
ters. He had mentioned the fact that he had, on a summer's 
evening, picked up one of a large number of these water-bugs on 
the Washington streets, and had found it to be Belostdma. A 
few nights later he picked up another and found it to be Benacus. 
He then examined some fifty or more and found them all Bena- 
cus. He wished to know whether the two species occur simul- 
taneously or whether they follow each other in point of time of 
flight. He further said, in regard to Prof. Riley's reference to 
Belostoma as atnericanum and to the family as Belostomatidae, 
that, in his opinion, such names should be considered as feminine 
nouns and not neuters ; that in the Latinization of the Greek 
noun it should take on the customary gender of its Latin termi- 
nation. Prof. Riley said that on the whole he agreed with Prof. 
Gill on this point, but that he had simply followed the custom 
of the purists. Mr. Schwarz, however, dissented, and thought 
that the Greek gender should be preserved. Mr. Schwarz also 
called attention to the peculiar noise which these insects make in 
flight, which resembles that of an electric battery. He also said 
that in their marvellous power of flight they are unique in the 
whole order Hemiptera. The hind wings are vevy weak, and 
the fore wings are therefore strongly functional in flight and pos- 
sibly cause the noise by rubbing against some other part. 

Mr. Ashmead stated that he had taken Benacus griseus and 
Belostoma annulifes together in numbers in Florida. He 
thinks that Belostoma americanum^ as a rule, however, flies 
earlier in the season than Benacus. Mr. Heidemann stated that 
he had found both species on the same night in Washington, but 
that Benacus was the more abundant of the two. Mr. Howard 
said that he had seen both species taken on the same night, and 
that one or both fly abundantly in New Orleans in the month of 
December. Mr. Schwarz stated that Dr. Hessel of the Fish 
Commission had told him that since the introduction of the elec- 
tric light in the streets of Washington these bugs have become 
much more numerous in the fish ponds near the monument, 
showing that the lights of the city have probably attracted them 
from a wide area and concentrated them in the nearest water 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

ponds. Mr. Schwarz further asked whether any one had ever 
seen one of these bugs rise again after falling to the pavement, 
and whether any one had noticed them in the morning in the same 
numbers in which they occurred at night. In other words, what 
becomes of those individuals which fall to the pavement? Dr. 
Gill said he had noticed the insects most abundant at the lights 
nearest the fish ponds and gradually diminishing about lights 
further away. Mr. Schwarz said that in his experience electric 
lights are much less attractive to insects now than when they 
were first introduced. He believes that the insects are gradually 
becoming accustomed to the lights. Prof. Riley said that this 
statement, if true, is of extreme interest, as it involves the ques- 
tion of the heredity of the knowledge that it is injurious to the 
species to fly to the light. In reference to the flight, it w^as ex- 
traordinary only because of the size of the species, since all the 
Heteroptera use their hemelytra in flight. 
— Prof. Riley also read the following paper : 

THE EGGS OF CERESA BU^ALUS Fab. AND THOSE OF C. 

TAURINA Fitch. 

By C. V. Riley. 

In the fifth report on the insects of Missouri, page 121, I have 
described and figured the eggs and egg-punctures of what was 
then considered to be the Buffalo Tree-hopper, Ceresa bubalus 
Fab. The egg-punctures there described consisted of a row of 
more or less straight, slightly raised slits in the bark, in each of 
which is an oval, dark-colored ^%%* I described and figured 
various stages of the insect which was reared from these eggs, 
and which was determined from the only bred and somewhat 
undeveloped individual as belonging to this species. Of late years 
the eggs of this species have been described and referred to by 
several Western writers, especially by our fellow-member, Mr. 
Marlatt, who published a full and illustrated account of them as 
observed by him in Kansas, and calls attention to the en*or in 
my own account above referred to (Trans. Kans. Ac. Sc, Vol. 
X, pp. 84-5, 1885-6). The eggs and egg-punctures as there 
figured are quite different from those which I illustrated and 
described, and agree with others which I have been familiar with 
for many years but never reared. An explanation of this dis- 
crepancy is, tliQrefore, very desirable. 

Careful comparison of my bred material with the material in 



OF WASHINGTON. 89 

the Museum, in connection with Fitch's own types, and some ex- 
aminations of the last ventral segment that have been made for 
me by Mr. Ashmead, explain the apparent discrepancies, and 




the insect which I reared is in reality Fitch's taurina and not the 
typical hubaius. The latter is a larger insect, with broader 
body and especially with broader prothoracic parts and more 



prominent prothoracic horns. The last ventral segment has 
a distinct, simple, median, rather acute notch, and is very 
little longei- than the two preceding segments united, the 



90 



ENTOMOLOaiOAL SOCTETT 



emargination rather acutely triangular and extending about 
half way or a little more than half way, to the base of the 
segment ; the posterior mai^n obliquely truncate to the rounded 
hind angle, not sinuate ; the valves shorter than the middle tibiae. 





Fio. f—CirH^ 



In taurina the prothoracic horns are less prominent, the last ven- 
tral segment is a little longer than the three preceding segments 
united, the emai^nation extending to the basal one-fifth and very 




V at its origin. The hind margin from here is rather deeply 
and broadly sinuate, with the hind angles well rounded. The 
differences between some of the smaller specimens of buhalus and 



OF WASHHTQTON. 



the larger specimens of taurina are not very noticeable at first. 
The slits of this Ceresa taurina Fitch were mistaken by him for 
the crescent cuts o£ the Plum Curciilio, while he very strangely 
describes the eggs of what we know now belong to CEcantkus 
niveus, or the Snowy Tree-cricket, as of the Ceresa bubalus. I 
am familiar with various other kinds of small egg-punctures in the 
twigs of various plants, undoubtedly of species belonging to the " 
MembracidEe or Fulgoridie, but have reared and identified the 
parent only in the case of Pceciloptera [Orminis'] j 
Say and Enchenopa binotata 
Say, the punctures of this last 
being hidden with a white, waxy, 
ribbed covering, ^hich, as al- 
ready pointed out (Am. Nat., 
XV, p. 574, July, 1881), wa. 
referred by Fitch, in his col- 
lections, to Dorthesia. 

On referring to my scrap-books 
and notes, it seems that the first 
record of the oviposition of C 
bubalus was in a short reply to 
a correspondent published by 
Prof. Cyrus Thomas in the 
Prairie Farmer of February 
5, 1876, in which a brief descrip- 
tion is given of the nature of the 
egg-punctures of an insect which !.| 
was identified as belonging to the 
same family as C. bubalus, if 
not to the same genus, but sup- 
posed to be distinct on account of 
their difference from the punc- j 
tures of bubalus as wrongly 
determined by me. At the time 
I had several notesof earlier date 
on similar punctures, and having 
submitted the drawings of them 
to Prof. Thomas, he recognized his punctures asidentical with those 
now known to be of bubalus. My first specimens of these were 
received Nov. iz, 1875, from Uriah McCall, Manchester, O., 
who found them on Apple, Pear, and Quince. My notes 
describe the punctures as follows: "Ordinarily there is a pair 
of simple slits, the adjacent parts slightly swollen, each slit 
leading to a row of, on an average, 10 eggs just under the 
bark, the anterior or outer ends converging toward the middle. 
The individual eggs are i ,3 mm. long by one-fourth as wide, pale 




(a^rUarlan). 



^a!^g^o, 



92 ^ ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

amber colored, with the anterior end somewhat more opaque. 
The wood around the eggs, as usual, is discolored. Sometimes 
there is but a single slit, sometimes but a single ^gg<, in cases 
where the parent had evidently been disturbed. Sometimes a 
double pair are found close together." I received similar punc- 
tures also from Dr. Lintner, from Pennsylvania, March 29, 1877, 
and have also described in my notes punctures similar to the 
above, which, however, are confined to a single crescent, differ 
in the number and size of the eggs, and undoubtedly are deposited 
by some closely allied but distinct species. I introduce for com- 
parison Mr. Marlatt's figure of the eggs and punctures which ac- 
companied his first careful description of these, and his original 
identification of the author of the slits. I also reproduce figures 
piC. taurzna and C, ^2^^a/?^^ to bring out the imaginal differences 
between the two species which are so easily overlooked.* C. 
taurina is now to be associated with the egg-punctures which 
have previously been assigned to buhalus by most writers on this 
insect, following my reference to it in the Missouri report. I 
also here reproduce my original figures of the egg-punctures, 
preliminary stages, and adults, which illustrated my original 
article. 



— Professor Riley, under the head of " Notes from ' Sunbury,' " 
showed a young sycamore tree transplanted on his grounds in a 
perfectly healthy condition last spring. In the course of the 
summer this tree was girdled by Chrysohothris femorata^ the 
eggs of which must have been laid in the summer. The pupae 
were all formed and the beetles will issue next spring. He also 
showed a yearling shoot of ash which had sprung up from an old 
stump that had been cut down the present season. It was ovipos- 
ited upon by Trochtltum syringce the present summer and the 
adults began to issue the first of October. Both of these species, 
then, are sometimes shorter-lived in the larva state than is usually 
supposed. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that he had noticed the adults of Trochilium 



* Subsequently to the reading of this paper these two figures, the first of 
which was in preparation while I was yet in charge of the Division of 
Entomology, have appeared in Insect Ltfe^ Volume vii, No. i, pp. 8-14, 
and are here reproduced by the courtesy of the Honorable Assistant Sec- 
retary of Agriculture. 



OF WASHINGTON. 93 

issuing from ash trees on the streets of Washington in September. 
He thought that there are two broods in this species. Mr. Ash- 
mead stated that he had reared two annual broods of a Sesiid 
from oak galls in Florida. Mr. Ashmead further discussed the 
note on Ceresa, and gave in full the synonymy of C. uniformis 
of Fairmaire. He called attention to the excellent character for 
the separation of species in the last ventral segment of the female, 
w^hich varies in the intensity and form of a central indentation of 
the hind margin. 

Dr. Gill, apropos of the difference in the sexual organs and 
their use in separating species, asked as to the difference in the 
genitalia of Belostoma and Benacus. Dr. Riley stated that, curi- 
ously enough, the differences in this respect between these two 
forms are slight. 

Mr. Ashmead and Mr. Schwarz further discussed this point, 
agreeing that in many groups whole families occur in which the 
sexual characters are uniform, while in others they are very vari- 
able and afford criteria for the separation of species. 

Dr. Stiles stated that in the worms the genital characters are 
the main ones in use. He said that in the Strongylidae, for in- 
stance, all classification was, until recently, based on the bursa 
of the male. He now finds that the spicule affords a good char- 
acter, and in fact all through the Nematodes where workers are 
lost on all other characters this spicule can be relied upon. 

Mr. Schwarz asked about the females, and Dr. Stiles replied 
that it is dangerous to determine the females specifically. The 
labia of the vulva afford some characters, but the determination 
of species takes place mainly through association with the male. 

Dr. Gill stated that in the Helicidse we have an illustration of 
the value of sexual characters. Helix hortensis and H, nemo- 
raits vary greatly in color, but in the color of the shell lip they 
are constant, that of hortensis being invariably white, and that 
of nem oralis brown, and this character is coincident with certain 
genital modification. In fact, in the genitalia of this group we 
have the best criteria for classification. Dr. Stiles asked as to 
the reason for these sexual variations. Dr. Gill said that they 
might be the coefficients of evolution, /. ^., that these variations 
might perpetuate varieties owing to structural difficulty in copu- 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

lation between the unlike forms. Dr. Riley followed up this 
idea but thought that these differences are not to be used so im- 
plicitly in classification. He was of opinion that they might be 
considered to be varietal in most cases, and the beginnings of 
species rather than absolutely distinguishing species. 

Dr. Gill thought that the question as to what constitutes a 
species is far from being answered. As a postulate, however, 
he believes that we may found a species uj>on any character that 
is absolutely constant. Where, however, we have absolute con- 
necting links the forms cannot be considered as more than sub- 
species. 

— Under the head *' Short notes and exhibition of specimens" 
Mr. Schwarz, in connection with a note in the last number of 
JEntomological News referring to Dr. R. Thaxter's work on the 
Laboulbeniacese, exhibited specimens of a Pterostichus from 
North Carolina which shows on the right elytron a veritable forest 
of these parasitic plants. 

— Mr. Ashmead showed a species collected in Florida of the 
African genus Amplicotes, a Fulgorid. He also referred to 
another case where in the Hymenoptera an African genus pos- 
sesses a representative in Florida. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that in the Coleoptera such cases are known 
and referred to Argopistes, a Halticid resembling a Coccinellid, 
which occurs in Africa and which has a representative in sub- 
tropical Florida. 

— Mr. Heidemann exhibited certain new Capsids, comprising 
one new genus and two new species, and stated that he had been 
making a special collection of the Capsids affecting Locust, 
Linden, and Walnut the present season. 



December 7, 1893. 

President Riley in the chair, and eighteen members and one 
visitor present. 

The following new members were elected : Active — G. B. 
Sudworth. Corresponding — Robert H. Wakott, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 

The election of officers for 1894 resulted as follows: Presi- 



OF WASHINGTON. 95 

dent, Wm. H. Ashmead ; Vice-Presidents, Theodore Gill and 
C. L. Marlatt; Recording Secretary, L. O. Howard; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, F. H. Chittenden ; Treasurer, E. A. Schwarz ; 
additional members of the Executive Committee, George Marx, 
B. E. Fernow, and C. V. Riley. 

The delivery of the annual address of the outgoing President, 
Prof. C. V. Riley, was postponed for one month. 

— The first paper of the evening was by Mr. C. L. Marlatt, en- 
titled " Revision of the genus Pontania^ Costa, with Descriptions 
of New Species." The relationship of this genus, which is a 
subdivision of the old genus Nematus, was explained, and its 
characters pointed out. A list of seventeen species which will 
belong to it in the North American fauna was given, and the 
prominent characters which may be used in the classification of 
these species and in their differentiation were explained. The 
genus includes small species of the old genus Nematus of gall- 
making habits, so far as known, and include the well-known 
species salicis- pomum and pisum making the common leaf -galls 
of the willow. Seven of the species are new. In answer to a 
question by Prof. Riley, Mr. Marlatt pointed out the salient 
characters separating the genus Pontania from Euura, the species 
of the latter genus, in gall-making habit, being closely allied to 
the former. 

— ^Mr. Chittenden presented, by title, the following paper : 

ON THE HABITS OF SOME LONGICORNS. 
By F. H. Chittenden. 

The notes which follow are based on the writer's personal ex- 
perience, and the dates of rearings given are, for the most part, 
as in nature. In very many instances the material from which 
the species herein mentioned were reared was gathered but a few 
days before the transformation of the insects and kept in an un- 
heated room. 

In referring to published records the observer's name is men- 
tioned for authority, as most of these records are to be found in 
Dr. A. S. Packard's report on forest insects (Fifth Report U. S. 
Ent. Comm.) and that of Mr. A. D. Hopkins (Bull. 33, W. 
Va. Agl. Expt. St.). Other records are given in articles by 
Dr. C. V. Riley and Dr. J. L. LeConte in the third volume of 
the American Entomologist. 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Parandra hrunnea Fab. — This is one of the most omnivo- 
rous of longicorns. Living, as it evidently does, chiefly in 
decomposing w^ood, it infests both deciduous and coniferous trees. 
In my notes its occurrence is recorded under the bark of oak and 
apple; in cherry wood i^Prunus cerasus)^ just beneath the 
tightly-clinging bark, and on willow {Salix alba)^ deeply buried 
in the rotten wood. Mr. W. H. Ashmead has recently shown me 
specimens taken under the bark o£ maple. I have also seen 
specimens found under bark of elm and basswood, and Mr. M. 
L. Linell informs me that he found it in abundance in the 
hollow trunks of Ailanthus glandulosus growing in the streets 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. At Spring Lake Beach, L. L, it occurred 
under bark of pitch pine {^Pinus rigidd),' Dr. LeConte also 
states that the'species of this genus live under pine bark (Class. 
Col. N. A., pt. II, p. 280). Others have recorded as food- 
plants: beech (Horn), ash (Riley), and Tilia americana 
(Townsend). At Washington, D. C., I have taken it at lights 
during the second week of June. At Ithaca, N. Y., it appeared 
in July. 

Callidium cereum Newm. was reared from the wood of 
chestnut ( Castanea dentatd) on two occasions : at Ithaca, N. Y., 
May 14, and at Clifton, N. J., May 30, occurring also in June. 

JElafhidion villosum Fab., under which name I include also 
parallelum Newm., has most often been noticed as infesting 
oak and hickory ; Haldeman has recorded chestnut and Abies ( I ) ; 
apple, plum, and grape have been added by Dr. Riley, and 
peach and walnut by Professors Cook and Hopkins respectively. 
To this I may add that I have reared the species from pruned 
twigs of quince, locust, red-bud (^Cercis canadensis^ ^ and from 
trimmed ends of twigs of Osage orange (^Madura aurantiacd). 
In past years I have seen pear trees very extensively pruned by 
this insect ; also the climbing bitter-sweet ( Celastrus scandens) . 
More recently I have ascertained that this or allied species attack 
almost every woody plant that grows. In the vicinity of Wash- 
ington the genus Elaphidion is not so abundant as in most 
northern localities that I have visited, but pruned twigs of various 
trees and shrubs are of frequent occurrence, among which I have 
noted spice-bush {Lindera benzoin)^ Sassafras officinale^ 
sumach (^Rhus glabra and typhina^. 

It has been noticed that this, as well as related species, does 
not always prune the twig in which it lives, but I do not remem- 
ber to have seen mention of the fact that the insect sometimes 
remains in the proximal end of the limb attached to the tree, 
while the severed end is as often found empty, thus reversing the 
usual order of affairs. 



OF WASHINGTON. 97 

The species is evidently parasitized by Bracon eurygaster 
Brull^. 

Phyton pallidum Say is one of the species mentioned by Dr. 
LeConte as having bred from hickory. It lives also in Cercis 
canadensis^ passing its earlier stages under the bark and appear- 
ing as a beetle in the latitude of Washington during the latter 
part of June and continuing till toward the close of July. 

Curius dentatus Newni. also breeds in Cercis canadensis^ 
appearing abroad in this neighborhood early in July. 

Molorchus himaculatus Say was reared from dead twigs and 
branches of ash i^Fraxinus americana)^ dogwood {Cornus 
Jlorida)^ Cercis canadensis^ and from the larva found in a wild 
maple sprout. The adult insects abound on flowers of different 
species of Prunus, Cornus, Viburnum, et, aL^ in New York 
State,- occurring in May and June ; about Washington, also, in 
April. This is included in the list of hickory species by Dr. 
LeConte, and, according to Glover, infests also walnut. 

Rht)palophora longipes Say is not uncommon in Maryland 
and Virginia near Washington. May 2T a few sections of 
branches of red-bud were gathered from which the beetle was 
reared May 24, others issuing early in June. It also occurs in 
July, frequenting the flowers of Ceanothus americanus and Hy- 
drangea arhorescens. 

Xylotrechus colonus Fab., a general feeder, partial to oak, 
maple, and hickory, was reared on two occasions from chestnut, 
June 8—14. It is parasitized by the rare Ichneumonid, Xylonomus 
ri ley i A^hm,^ a single example of which was reared June 15, 
Rosslyn, Va. 

Neoclytus erythrocepkalus Fab. is one of our most polypha- 
gous species, having seemingly no favorite food-plant. I have 
reared numerous specimens, always in about equal abundance in 
trunk and branch, from Cornus Jlorida^ tulip (^Liriodendron 
tulipifera) ^ locust (^Pobinia pseudacacia) ^ Cercis canadensis^ 
hickory, and grape-vine, and have observed the adults on oak 
and apple, usually copulating and in such abundance that there 
could be no doubt as to the meaning of their presence. At 
Washington the beetle occurs from the last of April till toward 
the end of July. 

Individuals reared from locust were from twigs kept two years 
indoors. In dogwood the larval galleries are very extensive, the 
younger larva evidently passing a considerable portion of its 
time under the bark, afterward penetrating the solid wood, which 
is still more extensively bored. The pupal cell is often placed 
in the centre of a large twig, the larva having previously excavated 
an exit-hole to the bark. 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOOIBTT 

It is also said to infest elm (Hubbard), persimmon, maple, 
willow, and peach (Hopkins). 

In the dogwood great numbers of Braconid cocoons were 
noticed in the larval galleries of this Cerambycid . Such of these 
as were gathered and carried to maturity produced Bracon eury- 
gaster Br., previously recorded by me as a probable parasite of 
JElaphidion villosum Fab. The large Clerid beetle Chariessa 
pilosa For St. was reared from pupae taken under similar con- 
ditions, and probably preys on the Neoclytus larvae. 

Cyrtophorus verrucosus Ol. — I have reared this species from 
a chestnut limb, the imago issuing in confinement, March i8, 
Ithaca, N. Y., and have found the beetle in its pupal cell in a 
decaying and badly bored beech {Fagus atropuniced) at the 
same place, March 29. At South Woodstock, Conn., the imago 
was again taken from its pupal cell in recently dead, hard -wood 
of European linden {^Tilia europcea) . Specimens also occurred 
at Ithaca in April on dying locust, and it probably infests this 
tree. It has also been obtained by Dr. J. Hamilton and others 
from the rough bark of oak, by Dr. F. Hadge from quince and 
by J. G. Jack from Prunus pennsylvanica. 

This is one of the exceptional longicorns which sometimes 
mature in the fall and remain in the pupal chamber till spring. 
It is an early spring arrival, frequenting the flowers of the dog- 
woods from the date of their blooming, and continuing till late 
in June. 

Euderces ptctpes Fab. — A specimen was bred from a dead 
chestnut twig at Ithaca, N. Y., July 20. Larvae, without doubt 
of this species, were observed under bark of this twig March 22, 
over two years previous to this rearing, and this individual had 
therefore consumed at least three years in completing its trans- 
formations — a retardation in development undoubtedly due to the 
unnatural dryness caused by indoor breeding. The imago fre- 
quents the flowers of dogwood, elder, wild parsnip and carrot, 
and others, occurring in June and throughout July. 

In spite of the abundance of the Lepturini, both in individuals 
and species, particularly in our northern states, very little is 
known of their larval food-habits further than a few records of 
some of the more common species. Several are known to pass 
their larval existence in old and decaying wood, and it is not 
probable that they are very discriminating in taste. Hence it 
would not be surprising to find some species in the group that 
breed indifferently in both deciduous and coniferous trees. 

Leptura vagans Ol. — Larvae, together with the dead imago 
in its pupal chamber, were cut from old and decomposing wood 
of bitter-nut hickory, Hicoria minima ( Carya amara) , at 
Ithaca, N. Y., in December. About this time Dr. A. E. Brunn 



OF WASHINGTON. 99 

discovered in dead birch wood a larva which agreed perfectly 
with the above. This larva, at the time of its coming into my 
possession, was much shrivelled and fast drying up. My own 
specimens having died, I placed this larva, by way of experi- 
ment, in the hollow cavity of a hickory twig pruned by Ela- 
phidion. The Leptura thrived in this improvised home and 
transformed to imago June 1 1 . The imago also occurs in July, 
frequenting the flowers of chestnut. 

Cyrtinus pygmceus YidX^. occurs rather commonly between 
New York city and Washington on locust, hickory, and box- 
elder (^Negundo negundo). On the last-mentioned tree nu- 
merous small holes were noticed in the terminal twigs on which 
the imagos were resting or crawling, and which were without 
doubt made by them in exit. Dr. J. B. Smith found this species 
under similar circumstances on oak (-fi'/^Z. ^/w., vi, 137), and 
Mr. Schwarz has reared it from locust (Pr. Ent. Soc. Wash., 
II, 73) ; hence I feel no hesitation in placing hickory and box- 
elder on the list. About Washington the beetles have been 
noticed during June and July. 

Acanthoderes quadrigihbus Say breeds in box-elder, all of 
the galleries seen, in a large trunk, being in the main longitudinal 
and situated immediately under or very near the bark. This 
species was bred by LeConte from hickory, and, according to Mr. 
Schwarz, attacks also oak, beech, and hackberry. It is parasitized 
by a large Braconid, evidently Bracon, the empty cocoons only 
having been found. 

Leptostylus parvus Lee. occurs near Washington, on box-elder 
and tulip, having been beaten from dead branches, in about equal 
numbers, in the latter part of June and first of July. 

Leptostylus biustus Lee. — ^June 1 7 my attention was attracted 
by a series of sharp, ticking sounds emanating from some jars of 
tw^igs in my apartments. The sound continuing, it was traced 
directly to its exact source on a twig, which, on removing the 
bark, disclosed, much to my surprise, a longicorn pupa with 
which I was unfamiliar. Subsequently other portions of the 
twig were decorticated, resulting in the discovery, June 20, of 
Leptostylus biustus in all its stages ; the imago, however, had 
not fully matured and could not have issued until two or three 
days later. 

This ticking sound resembled in every particular that made by 
Liopus cinereus Lee, which I had always, and correctly, 
attributed to the larva. That such a sound can be also produced 
by a pupa I do not remember to have ever seen recorded. To 
me this is a subject of sufficient interest to invite further inquiry. 
The larva of Liopus cinereus certainly produces this sound, as 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

does the pupa of Leptostylus hiustus; now the question is, how 
is it produced, and for what reason, and by what stages in dif- 
ferent species? 

Of other records, Dr. Riley mentions the rearing of this long- 
icorn " from a dried-up pomegranate,*' and Mr. Hubbard, in his 
bulletin on "Insects affecting the Orange" (p. 174), has given 
an account of its breeding under the bark of orange. 

Leptostylus macula Say breeds in almost all kinds of decid- 
uous trees and shrubs. I have reared it from larvae found under 
the bark of beech, chestnut, maple, butternut, and sumach, and 
have beaten specimens from the following trees in such abund- 
ance as to lead to the belief that they are all food-plants : box- 
elder, tulip, oak, and Carpinus. Mr. W. H. Harrington also 
records hickory, and Mr. Geo. E. Brackett, apple (Prac. Ent., 
I, 19), as food-plants. At Ithaca the beetles occurred in 
greatest abundance from the latter part of June till the middle of 
July. Around Washington I have noticed imagos as early as 
May 5, and as late as July 26. The duration of the pupal state 
of two individuals observed was from fourteen to sixteen days. 

Leptostylus collaris Lee. — I have noted the occurrence of 
what I take to be this species on chestnut on several occasions, 
the larvae living under the bark, and the imago occurring, in the 
vicinity of New York city, throughout July and until August 8, 
the latter a rather late date for a Cerambycid. 

Liopus variegatus Hald. was reared from hackberry ( Celtis 
occidentalism , and from box-elder, being especially abundant on 
the latter tree. Five or six examples were beaten from a single 
dead branch of chestnut at Navesink, N. J., and a similar num- 
ber from dead locust, and it probably breeds in both trees. A 
larva found under box-elder bark in April transformed to pupa 
May I, and to imago May 17, which would give sixteen days as 
the duration of the pupal state. In the hackberry, which grew 
within a few yards of the box-elder, the beetle developed more 
than two weeks later than in the latter, the first specimen not 
appearing until May 30. Another did not pupate until June 4, 
and allowing sixteen days for the pupal period, the imago issued 
June 30. The cause of this difference was not due to food- 
plants nor to the age of the wood, but obviously to the fact that 
the box-elder was prostrate, moist, and exposed to the sun, while 
the hackberry was standing, dry, and constantly shaded. At 
Washington all stages are to be found during the last two weeks 
of May, the imago appearing as early as May 11, and continuing 
throughout the month of June. 

Two enemies of this Cerambycid have been observed : an 
Tchneumonid parasite, Ephialtes irritator Fab., which lives 



OF WASHINGTON. 101 

externally on the larva; and Tenebroides corticalis Melsh., the 
larva of which was detected in the act of devouring the Ceram- 
bycid pupa in its cell. 

JLiopus punctatus Lee. was reared from Cornus Jlorida^ the 
imago being first noticed May 14 in its pupal chamber, and con- 
tinuing in this neighborhood to July 3. According to Mr. Hop- 
kins, this species also infests plum. 

JLepturges symmetricus Hald. was reared from the larva 
found under the bark of a trunk of dead hackberry ( Celtis 
occidentalis) . One larva transformed June 2 and became an 
imago June 12, thus passing ten days as pupa. Latest capture 
of imago, July 1 1 . 

A Braconid parasite, Cenocceltus rubriceps Prov., was reared 
from this species June 17. 

Lepturges signatus Lee. breeds in the limbs of Cercis cana- 
densis^ beginning its transformations to pupa toward the close of 
April, the imago appearing about Washington in May and con- 
tinuing throughout June. It also infests beech (Hopkins). 

Lepturges querci Fitch, as its specific name would indicate, 
was originally taken by its describer on oak. I have reared it 
writh the preceding species from red-bud. May 28, and beaten it 
from the twigs June 11. At Ithaca, where I reared it from 
hickory, specimens were found as late as July 21. I have reared 
with this species a Braconid which Mr. W. H. Ashmead iden- 
tifies as Calyptus magdalis Cr. 

Ecyrus dasycerus Say. was also reared from twigs of red-bud 
May 31. This specimen was kept until June 17, remaining, as 
far as could be seen, inactive during the entire time. The insect 
itself is heavy in conformation, and sluggish, as its appearance 
would indicate. It stridulates, after the manner of its kind, 
loudly and slowly. I have beaten this species from the twigs 
of tulip and locust at Rosslyn, Va., from May 23 to June 27. 
It is one of the species bred by LeConte from hickory. 

Eupogonius vestitus Say. — A pupa was found in a twig of 
Cornus Jlorida near Washington May 6, from which the beetle 
issued May 25. The pupal stage is evidently long in this in- 
stance, probably not far from three weeks. I have also beaten 
specimens from chestnut at Ithaca, June 30 to July 1 1 , and Dr. 
Riley records as food-plant, hickory, and Mr. Hopkins, walnut. 

Dysphaga tenuipes Hald. — A single specimen of this anoma- 
lous species was reared from Cercis canadensis May 23. The 
imago, with its long wings and undeveloped elytra, flies freely 
with a humming or buzzing sound like a bee. It has short legs 
and runs slowly. When held it stridulates feebly for its size. 

Haldeman, who described this species in 1845 (Pr. Ac. Nat. 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Sci. Phil., Ill, 1 26) , says : " The larva inhabits detached branches 
of the genus Carya (hickory), the perfect insect appearing in 
May in S.E. Pennsylvania." Glover states that it also infests 
walnut. Although half a century has .elapsed since the insect 
was described, it is still extremely rare. It has been recorded 
also from southern New Jersey ; my specimen was obtained on 
the Virginia shore of the Potomac, and we may safely infer that 
the species also inhabits the intervening territory of Maryland, 
Delaware, and the District of Columbia. 



— Mr. Howard presented the following paper, illustrating it 
by black-board drawings : 

NOTE ON THE MOUTH-PARTS OF STENOPELMATUS. 

By L. O. Howard. 

Dr. Packard, in his " Review of the Systematic Position of 
the Orthoptera in Relation to other Orders of Insects," gives, 
with some detail, the relative characters of the typical insects 
throughout the order Orthoptera, but does not seem to have ex- 
amined Stenopelmatus, a striking and somewhat aberrant form. 
A recent examination made of the mouth-parts of a single speci- 
men indicates that the sclerites approach most nearly to those 
of Anabrus, as might have been expected. The submentum is 
represented by a transversely oval chitinous sclerite in the mem- 
branous wall of the gula. The mentum is a large rhomboidal 
sclerite whose transverse diameter exceeds its length. The ligula 
is slightly divided at tip and the paraglossae are hairy and mov- 
able. The palpiger is indistinctly differentiated. The maxillae 
in particular resemble those of Anabrus. The cardo is large and 
proceeds at right angles from the ligula. The stipes is inserted 
at right angles upon the tip of the cardo. The palpifer is small 
and indistinctly separated by a suture. The subgalea is narrow 
and weak. The lacinia is very large and strong and furnished 
with two teeth, the apical one being still further dentated into 
one large and one small tooth. The inner edge of the body of 
the lacinia is densely bristly. In the galea was exhibited a 
strange asymmetry which is my main object for referring to this 
insect. The right galea is stout, well rounded, and its tip is 
evidently functional as a masticating or piercing organ since its 
point is composed of dense dark-brown chitin. The left galea, 
on the contrary, becomes flattened and subfoliaceous at its tip, 
which appears almost membranous, is yellowish in color and 
evidently not at all fit for the same purpose as its mate. The 
labrum is very large and very movable, almost half as long as 



OF WASHINGTON. 103 

the mandibles, and reaches quite to the tip of the mandibles 
when closed, capping them, in fact. 

An examination of the collection of the National Museum shows 
that this galear asymmetry is abnormal. The normal galea is 
apparently midway between the two which I have described. It 
lacks the piercing black tip of the right one, and is rounder and 
solider than the left one. 



— ^Prof . Fernow called the attention of the Society to a new 
insecticide w^hich has appeared within the last year and is being 
extensively advertised under the name Antinonnin. He gave a 
brief description of the composition of the substance a.nd men- 
tioned the range of its use as an insecticide agent, as claimed by 
its manufacturers. He stated that as diluted for application it 
would cost about one cent per gallon, and that it was held to be 
a specific for practically all forms of insect life, subterranean in- 
sects included, as well as vermin, field mice, etc. 

Mr. Marlatt said that the Division of Entomology of the 
Department had been familiar with this substance for upwards of 
a year, and that samples of it had been placed on exhibition with 
the other patented insecticides at the recent exposition at Chicago. 
In answer to a question by Prof. Riley, Prof. Fernow stated that 
the only insects against which experiment had actually proved it 
to be effective were Lofhyrus pini and Liparis monacha^ and 
that for extensive forest use it was in the case of these and other 
species impracticable on account of the impossibility of obtain- 
ing sufficient water to dilute it with ; but that for more limited 
operations, as for garden or orchard work, this objection would 
not apply. 

Prof. Riley thought that some of our insecticides, of which 
practical use had demonstrated the usefulness and general avail- 
ability, such as kerosene emulsion, would be found preferable to, 
and much less expensive than, the substance mentioned by Prof. 
Fernow, and he stated as a further argument for the use of kero- 
sene emulsion the fact of its very stimulating effect on the root- 
growth of plants, in the case of subterranean applications. He 
said that similar stimulating action seemed also to follow the 
application of the Bordeaux mixture, which fact he had particu- 
larly noticed in the treatment of the grape and the potato. Mr. 



104 BNTOMOLOGIOAL SOCIETY 

Waite suggested that there was still, however, a chance for 
doubt as to the actual stimulating effect of the Bordeaux mixture 
for the reason that there might be fungi on the plants w^hich had 
been overlooked, and which this treatment counteracted, resulting 
in a more vigorous growth of the plant. Mr. Swingle, referring 
to the use of the same (Bordeaux) mixture, stated that the matter 
had been studied by a German investigator who had come to the 
conclusion that the substance had a stimulating effect on the 
chlorophyll of the plant, not by actually penetrating the leaves, 
but simply by what was known as chemio-tactic action. The 
subject was being further studied, and the action of the Bordeaux 
mixture would undoubtedly soon be satisfactorily explained. 

— The following paper by Mr. A. D. Hopkins was read by 
the Secretary : 

NOTES ON THE DISCOVERY OF A NEW SCOLYTID, WITH 
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES. 

By A. D. Hopkins. 

On my way home from the October meeting of the Society I 
btopped in Raleigh county. West Va., on Oct. 6, for the purpose 
of making some observations in the white pine and chestnut for- 
ests of that region. On the following day I discovered the gal- 
leries of a Scolytid in the otherwise uninjured sap-wood of living 
white oak trees. The frequent occurrence of these injuries, and 
the finding of a Scolytid new to me in the galleries, led to an 
investigation of the trouble, which has resulted in the develop- 
ment of some very interesting facts regarding the species, its 
habits, and the injuries resulting from its attack. 

My first impression was that the Scolytid was Corthylus 
punctatissimus ^ but upon my return to the station, and com- 
paring it with examples of this species, I found that it possessed 
differences which I believed to be sufficient to distinguish it as 
another species. It cannot be C spinifer^ described by 
Schwarz, on account of the absence of the spine on the antenna 
of the male, and, as it appears to differ from the South American 
species mentioned by Eichhoff in his " Descriptio Tomicinorum, 
1879," I have decided that it is a new species, which I have 
named and will here briefly describe as follows : 

Corthylus columbianus n. sp. — Structure and general appearance of 
male and female, same as pujictatissimus. Differs from this species, how- 



OF WASHINGTON. 105 

ever, in the following characters : Head of female faintly and sparsely 
punctured in front. Elytra declivity of male and female provided each 

side with small tubercules ; suture elevated. Middle and hind tibia with 

« 

four teeth near tip. Length, 4 mm. Described from two perfect males 
and parts of four females. From white oak, chestnut oak, and beech. 
Types in Collection West Va. Experiment Station. 

In punctatissimus the head of the female is found to be deeply and 
coarsely punctured in front. Declivity of elytra, plain. Middle and hind 
tibia with only three teeth near tip. 

One of the interesting facts regarding this species I have de- 
scribed is its apparent preference for perfectly healthy sap-wood 
of living trees, in w^hich to excavate its galleries and brood- 
chambers. The entrance to the galleries thus excavated in a 
young, growing tree is, the subsequent year, covered over by a 
growth of wood, and as the tree continues to grow, layer after 
layer of wood is formed over the first until the tree reaches ma- 
turity, when the injury will be deeply buried in the heart- wood. 
The common occurrence of injuries thus caused throughout the 
wood of old oak trees is evidence that this species, or one having 
the same habit, has been for centuries more or less common in 
our forests. In fact, some very early dates of insect injuries in 
America may be obtained by counting the annual growths wrhich 
have formed over the entrance to galleries occurring near the 
heart of large trees. 

\ have not yet met with injuries dating back to the time of 
Columbus, but it appears possible that brood-chambers may yet 
be found in some of our ancient oaks that were excavated by a 
Corthylus in the fifteenth century. 



— The following, from Mr. Hopkins, was also read by the 
Secretary : 

NOTES ON FOOD HABITS OF CORTHYLUS PUNCTATIS- 
SIMUS. 
By A. D. Hopkins. 

During an excursion to the Dells of the Wisconsin with mem- 
bers of A. A. A. S. on August 19, 1893, I found Corthylus 
punctatissimus^ adults and pupae, frequent in their brood-cham- 
bers at base of small bushes of dogwood {Cornus sp.), hazel 

( Corylus americand) , and sassafras, and on September 6, near 
Evansville, Indiana, I collected the same species in water-beech 

(^Carpinus caroliniand) ^ sugar tree {^Acer saccharinutn)^ and 

iron wood {Ostrya virginica). 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

In every case the broods were found in the base of the plant, 
just beneath the ground. The plants were, as a rule, either dead 
or dying from the injury. It; would, therefore, appear that the 
species chooses a great variety of host-plants. 

I have also found that this species does not necessarily kill the 
plants attacked, for I find their galleries near the heart of living 
sassafras bushes of considerable size, where the entrance is cov- 
ered over by a number of annual growths of wood. 



— Mr. Heideman laid before the Society a fine series of Ly- 
gceus turcicus lately collected by himself in the vicinity of 
Washington, D. C, and which conclusively proved that the ex- 
tent of the bifid red spot on the vertex as well as the color of the 
claws, which may be either entirely black or red anteriorly, are 
quite unstable characters. In a recent paper (Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belgique, 37, 1893, P* 399) ^^* ^* L* Montandon had maintained 
that Z. turcicus Fabr. and L, kalmii Stal were two good 
species, but distinguished the same solely by these color differ- 
ences. The series exhibited rendered it quite evident that the 
two forms could not be separated specifically. Prof. Uhler and 
Mr. Distant had also arrived at the same conclusion. 

Mr. Ashmead stated that his study of the coloration of these 
forms had led him to the same conclusion, which Prof. Riley 
further sustained from his own observations. 

— Mr. Ashmead exhibited a large and handsome Chalcidid, 
which he stated was a species described more than 100 years ago 
by Fabricius as Chalcis cyaneus^ but which had been lost to 
science until he had very recently recognized it among some Bra- 
zilian material. He stated that the species belongs to the genus 
Chryseida Spinola, and that Westwood had also described two 
species belonging to this genus, but had failed to recognize their 
true affinities, and had erroneously placed them in the subfamily 
Perilampinae, instead of in the subfamily Eurytominae, in which 
they properly belong. He stated that the species bears some 
resemblance to the genus Axima. 

Mr. Howard quite agreed with Mr. Ashmead in the refer- 
ence of this genus to the subfamily Eurytominae, and stated that 
its intermediate position between the subfamilies Aximinae and 
Eurytominae furnishes a connecting link between these subfami- 



OF WASHINGTON. 107 

lies, and indicates very conclusively that Axima should not be 
accorded subfamily rank, as has been done by Cameron, but is 
properly placed in the subfamily Eurytominae. 



January ii, 1894. 

Ten members were present. On taking the chair. President 
Ashmead made a few remarks appreciative of the honor which 
the Society had conferred upon him in electing him its chief 
officer for the year. 

The following letter from Mr. A. D. Hopkins was read : 

With reference to the scolytid, Corthylus columdianus Hopk,^ 
mentioned in my communication to the December meeting of the 
Society, you may say at this meeting, which I understand is to be 
held on the nth, that I have recently found evidence of injuries 
apparently caused by this species which, according to the num- 
ber of annual rings formed over the entrance, was produced 
thirteen years before Columbus discovered America (1479). 
This evidence was found in a tulip log in which the galleries 
were quite common, dating from the time mentioned up to the 
year (1892?) the log was cut. 

I have also found the galleries, evidently of this same scolytid, 
in maple and basswood. — A. D. Hopkins, Morgantoivn^ W. 
Va.^ January 10^ J8g4, 

This letter was discussed by several members. Mr. Fernow 
was particularly struck by Mr. Hopkins* find, because the past 
summer he had been hunting high and low for a 400-year-old 
tree. 

Messrs. D. W. Coquillett and E. A. De Schweinitz were 
elected active members, and Prof. Jerome McNeil, of Fayette- 
ville. Ark., a corresponding member. 

The resignation of Mr. F. H. Chittenden as Corresponding 
Secretary was read, and, on motion, accepted. Mr. Frank Ben- 
fon was elected to fill the vacancy. 

The retiring President, Prof. C. V. Riley, then delivered his 
annual address : 



108 ENTOMOLOGIOAL SOCIETY 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 



LONGEVITY IN INSECTS, 
With some unpublished Facts concerning Cicada septendecim. 

By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

Friends and Fellow-members : 

The question as to the necessity of death, which has been more 
or less ingeniously discussed in past centuries by philosophers 
and physicians, has acquired in recent years an added interest 
from the scientific point of view by virtue of some of the curious 
theories and experiments of Dr. Brown-Sequard, and of Weis- 
mann's theory of the immortality of the germ-cell, and the re- 
sultant immortality of the zoospores or unicellular organisms. 
To be a little more specific as to Weismann's theory, it involves 
the continuation from the very beginning of life upon our planet 
of the germ-cell, and in controverting Vines' argument, that it is 
absurd to say that the immortal substance can be converted 
into mortal, he takes particular pains to distinguish between what 
he considers to be the confusion between two distinct ideas, viz., 
immortality and eternity. The immortality which he refers to 
of unicellular beings, and the reproductive cells of multicellular 
beings, is not absolute, but potential. He uses the word " im- 
mortal " to indicate not a substance, but a certain form of motion 
— a force. It is the property of fission, then growth by assimi- 
lation, then fission again, in the physical nature of protoplasm, 
which he calls immortality. It is, in other words, a purely 
biologic conception which he distinguishes from the immortality 
or eternity of non-living or inorganic matter, which is without 
beginning and without end. The distinction borders upon the 
metaphysical, but it is well to bear it in mind in discussing 
Weismann's views. 

In line with this theory of the immortality of the germ-cell, 
Weismann has devoted a very interesting chapter, in his general 
work on heredity, to the question of the duration of life in differ- 
ent species, and quite ingeniously endeavors to show that death 
is by no means necessary. His premises are substantially these : 
The duration of life varies, and is by no means fixed in different 
kinds of organisms, but there is a correlation between longevity, 
or the duration of life in the individual of any particular species, 
and the risks which it runs in its struggle for existence, and its 
fecundity. In other words, the slowest-breeding animals, cceteris 
paribus^ will, on the whole, prove the longest-lived, while the 
most prolific will be most ephemeral in individual existence. 
Further, he argues, with the ingenuity that characterizes his 



OF WASHINGTON. 109 

writings, that death has resulted in the evolution of life, not as an 
abstract necessity, but as an adaptation — an incident beneficial to 
the species through the agency of natural selection. It has been 
found more useful to the species that the individual shall perish 
and perpetuate the type in its offspring than for the individual 
continuously to exist, death being in one respect the instrumen- 
tality which nature has employed to produce an infinite variety of 
forms and an increased complexity of structure vv^hich the past 
and present history of life upon our planet exemplify. In short, 
while death has almost universally been looked upon as inherent 
in organic nature, Weismann, to use his own words, believes that 
this explanation is invalid, and considers death not as a primary 
necessity, but as an adaptation secondarily acquired. The un- 
limited existence of individuals would be a luxury without cor- 
responding advantage, and the power of multiplying indefinitely 
was lost when it ceased to be of use. 

It is not my purpose in this connection to discuss the deeper 
question of the necessity or non-necessity of death in the abstract ; 
for, however ingenious Weismann's presentation of this part of 
his subject may be, most persons will accept his own conclusion 
that the problem is, for the present, insoluble, and that it is the 
quest after perfected truth, not its possession, that falls to our lot. 
Upon the second phase of the problem, as to whether the dura- 
tion of individual life has been regulated by the conditions sur- 
rounding, and the necessities of, the species, there are numerous 
facts in nature which seem to justify the theory ; also many 
which seem to disprove it and to indicate that other factors have 
been concerned in regulating such individual life. In the data 
given in his notes Weismann draws very largely from entomology, 
and a brief consideration of the subject of the duration of life in 
insects, and of its bearing on the views indicated, may prove 
profitable and suggestive, and permit me to introduce some un- 
published facts in the life-history of what is generally conceded 
to be our longest-lived North American species, viz.. Cicada 
septendecim Linn. 

Weismann brings together a series of the best established facts 
which he has been able to gather, making no claim, however, to 
have included even most of those which are scattered through 
the enormous mass of entomological literature. He purposely 
confines his consideration to the life of the imago or adult insect, 
z'.^., the reproductive state, though I think that by so doing he 
very materially lessens the value of his data as bearing on his 
theories, especially as in other classes of animals he includes the 
whole life of the individual. The life of the larva should not 
be excluded. Neither does he reckon the time spent in the torpid 
condition, believing that it should not be reckoned with the active 



110 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

life of the species, there being no more in this condition than a 
vita minima^ with the reduction of assimilation to its lowest 
point. 

Longevity in Insects generally. 

Let us, therefore, glance at the salient facts connected with the 
longevity of insects, as presented in the temperate zone, consid- 
ering the subject by orders : 

Hymenoptera. — In the Aculeate section of this order there 
is seen to be very great irregularity. In almost all the solitary 
species the term of individual life is limited by the year. This 
is essentially true of those species which are known to produce 
but one generation annually, in which case, as in the various 
species of Anthophora, Melissodes, etc., the hibernating period 
is usually in the larva state. In species which produce more 
than one generation annually, the term of life is shortened, espe- 
cially in the. imago. Except, however, where the species hiber- 
nates in the larva or pupa state and this adolescent condition is 
thus prolonged in dormancy or partial dormancy, these solitary 
members of the Aculeate section undoubtedly live longest in the 
adult state. 

Among the social species, the subject becomes much more 
complex, but in most of the social wasps the impregnated females 
survive the winter, start the colony unaided in the spring, and 
themselves perish during the latter part of the summer. With 
the bees, this is also very largely true of most of the genera, but 
in Apis mellijica^ the only species which has been at all care- 
fully studied, the queen is known to live at least three years, 
though the drones perish either naturally or by violence with the 
waning summer, and the workers in the height of the season do 
not average an individual life of more than three months. The 
maximum life of the worker, including the hibernating season, 
is about eight months. With the ants there is great variation in 
the different genera and species, though the great majority resem- 
ble somewhat the social bees in hibernating for the most part as 
adults. It is well known that the females are longer lived than 
the workers, though the exact experiments of Lubbock show that 
these last in some species may live for at least six years, while a 
queen of Pormica fusca which he kept in an artificial formicary 
attained the age of thirteen years. This is certainly a term of 
life for an adult insect beyond what we might expect, and even, 
perhaps, beyond what occurs in nature, since the artificial char- 
acter of Lul)bock's nests may have had something to do with the 
prolongation of the individual life, and on the whole the life of 
the adult in the Aculeate Hymenoptera, even when we include 



OF WASHINGTON. Ill 

the parasitic families, is the longest, and that of the larva the 
shortest. 

In the Cynipidae or Gall-flies we have again every variation, 
though the larval life is usually long compared w^ith the life 
of the adult, which, on the average, is brief. This may be said 
to be the rule with species producing summer and autumn 
galls on the firmer textures, whereas the opposite is true of 
spring forms on the more succulent parts of plants, the same 
species, in alternate generations, often representimg both condi- 
tions. I have known of many remarkable instances of the pro- 
longation of the life of the individual in hard woody galls under 
unnatural conditions of dryness, in a number of cases the larva 
being carried over two or three years and then ultimately trans- 
forming, while in other cases the adult retained life for two 
years, unable to issue from its bonds. In one case, that of an 
undescribed species of Callirhytis i^C, fruticola Riley MS.), 
where the gall, occurring in the acorn, is as hard as a stone, the 
larva retained life for a period of six years ; yet in all these cases, 
under normal circumstances with the softening and rotting, of the 
w^oody tissue on the moist ground, the individual life would 
hardly have been extended beyond the year. 

In the parasitic families it is difl[icult to say whether more 
species hibernate as adults or as larvae or as pupae ; but in what- 
ever state the winter is passed, the other states are all of relatively 
short duration, and we have here again, frequently in the same 
genus, species which produce one and others which produce more 
than one annual generation, though it is very generally true that 
the longevity of the parasite is dependent on the character of its 
host. 

In the Terebrantine Hymenoptera we have again a great 
majority of the forms limited in life duration by the recurring 
year. In the Uroceridae — for the most part wood-borers — one 
annual generation is produced, and the winter is passed in the 
larva state, the life duration of the adult not exceeding three 
months. In all cases of this kind the larva lives longer than the 
adult. In the Tenthredinidae we find great variation, the individual 
life varying according as there are one or more generations annually. 
Yet in no case, so far as known, does any species normally ex- 
ceed a year in individual life duration, while the great majority 
have an adult existence of but a few weeks, with a larval exist- 
ence of a much longer period. Most of the species hibernate in 
the cocoon, either above or below ground, and in the ultimate 
larva state, transforming to the true pupa in early summer, only 
a few weeks prior to the issuing of the adult. 

CoLEpPTERA. — In this Order, viewed as a whole, the larval 



112 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

life is generally prolonged, while that of the adult is limited to a 
few weeks or, at farthest, a few months. This is essentially 
true of all those species which, in the larva state, bore within the 
trunks or branches of trees, as in the Cerambycidae and allied 
families, and of those which feed upon the roots of plants under- 
ground, as in the Scarabaeidae and various genera of the Chrys- 
omelidae, and of the Rhynchophora. It is more or less true of 
those species which feed upon dung and decaying vegetation, and 
of the great bulk of the Carabidous section of the predaceous 
forms. Yet, even in these cases, the term of larval life, under 
normal conditions, rarely exceeds three years, and more often not 
quite one. With the great bulk of the leaf -feeding species, 
however, we have, on the contrary, hibernation for the most part 
in the adult state and the larval period correspondingly short- 
ened ; whereas in the parasitic forms, irrespective of the families 
to which they belong, we have a mode of life dependent upon 
that of the host, and the adult is generally very short-lived as 
compared with the larva. This last manifests, indeed, a varying 
power to live in some instances in a quite remarkable manner, 
even without food. The habits of the triungulin in the Meloi'daB, 
and the very ephemeral existence of the male of the Stylopidae 
as compared with that of the female, are illustrations in point. 
But no rule can be formulated as to the Order, because there 
sometimes occur in the same genus species which are two- or 
many-brooded, and species which are single-brooded annually, 
as also species which hibernate either in the larva or in the imago 
state. 

In this Order, again, great adaptability to circumstances is 
indicated by the few obsei*vations and experiments that have 
been made. Thus, as I have shown in the Tenebrionidae and 
Dermestidae (Am. Nat., May, 1883, Vol. xvii, pp. 547-48), 
the larvae will, where food is withheld, linger for a term of 
years and develop the power of moulting more frequently than 
they would normally have done if they had had an abundant 
food supply. There are many recorded cases of such prolonga- 
tion of life in the Ptinidae and the Cerambycidae, when confined 
in dry wood made up into furniture, and almost every ento- 
mologist has had experience of such cases. O. Nickerl has 
recorded in his Beitrage zur Kenntniss vom Lebensalter der 
Insekten (Stett. Ent. Zeit. 50, 1S89, pp. 155-163) that a female 
specimen of Carahus auratus found July 28, 1884, was fed 
and kept in confinement, and lived until June 21, 18S9, or 
nearly five years, having hibernated five times. He believed 
that the specimen was not impregnated, and that the nor- 
mal larval life is two years. A female specimen of Calosoma 



OF WASHINGTON. 113 

sycophanta found in May, 1877, survived three winters, the 
winter rest lasting seven months. A specimen of Cetonia Jlort- 
cola (sex not stated) found hibernating October 5, 1S46, was 
kept alive until May 23, 1849. It was fed throughout the whole 
year and did not become torpid during the three winters of its 
existence. A Buprestid beetle ( Capnodes tenebrtonts) was kept 
alive from May 13, 1888, to April 28, 1889, being active during 
the winter. Seven specimens of Blaps mortisuga were kept 
alive five years in a tin box, dying during the extreme cold of 
the sixth winter. On the contrary, all his attempts to keep the 
common Stag Beetle of Europe {JLucanus cervus L.) alive longer 
than a few weeks failed, as the specimens never lived beyond 
August. L. von Albrecht Weiss records some observations on 
the life of the impregnated Hydrophilus piceus L. which he 
kept alive in confinement from February to October of the same 
year (Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1889, p. 343). J. H. Rouzet in a "Note 
sur la longevity de la vie dans Blaps " (Anna/es Soc, Ent, de 
Erance^ 1856, Bull. p. 4) records having kept a number of 
Blaps fat idica in a tightly corked closed vessel from the winter 
of 1849-50 to November, 1855, when the last one died without 
having fed on the bodies of his associates. Boisduval {Annales 
Soc, EnL de Erance 1853, ^^^' P« 64) mentions that a Bupres- 
tid beetle, undetermined, had lived as larva " at least twenty 
years within a piece of furniture," and Al. Laboulbene, in the 
same number, remarked on a Hesperophanes, the larva of which 
must have lived ten years in the wgod of a chair. Henry Baker, 
in the Philosophical Transactions, 1740, Vol. 41, pp. 441-8, re- 
cords some experiments showing that Blaps mortisuga lived 
three years without food. In all cases like these the conditions 
of life were abnormal, and the same species, under normal cir- 
cumstances, would doubtless have performed all their life functions 
and perished in much less time. It is even questionable whether 
any beetles in the imago state live longer than one year under 
natural conditions which permit the normal exercise of their life 
activities. 

Lepidoptera. — In this Order there is less variation in the term 
of life, as I do not know of a single species where the individual 
can be said to exist, under normal conditions, beyond a single 
year. While a certain number of the species hibernate in the 
adult or in the larva state, the great bulk of them hibernate 
either in the Q^'g or in the pupa state. In the butterflies proper the 
more common method with those which are monogoneutic is that 
the longest or winter period is passed in the pupa or chrysalis 
state ; but some of the more cosmopolitan species live longCvSt as 
adults, the last generation produced developing exceptional vitality, 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

and either braving the inclemencies of the top of Mount Wash- 
ington, as in the case of CEneis, or literally burrowing under any 
shelter that may offer on the ground, even where the thermome- 
ter sinks to 40° and 50° degrees below zero, as in the case of 
Vanessa anttopa ; or deliberately congregating and migrating 
in vast bevies, as in the case of our Milkweed Butterfly, Anosia 
plexippus. Where the winter is passed in the early larval 
stages, it may be without special winter protection (Apatura, 
etc.) or in a special hibernaculum (Limenitis, etc.). 

In the Heterocera the longest period of individual existence is 
usually in the pupa condition, in which most of the species pass 
the winter. Yet a number in different families are known to 
hibernate in the adult state, probably a larger number in the egg 
state, and a goodly proportion in the larva state. In some species 
in warmer latitudes, as, for instance, in the notorious Leucania 
unipuncta^ the winter may be passed in any one of these states. 
Again, also, species in the same family may be one-, or two-, or 
many-brooded. In some of the Sphingidae and Noctuidae the 
adult, especially in the monogoneutic forms, is endowed with 
great vitality, and feeds and propagates during most of the grow- 
ing season, while in others the life of the adult is short and 
ephemeral, this being more particularly true in the Bombycidae. 
Departures from these normal conditions in the Order we might 
expect to find in those species which, in the larva state, bore into 
the trunks and roots of trees, or which feed on woollen goods, 
dry vegetation or stored products, or which are sub-aquatic. For 
Jiere there is some reason to believe that under conditions of uni- 
form temperature and dryness the species may be prolonged in 
the larva state, even though active, beyond a single year. Pro- 
doxus decipiens in the stems of Yucca is a case in point, as the 
larva has been known to live for five years and yet transform. 

Hemiptera. — In the Heteropterous division of this Order we 
have, as a rule, the longest period of individual life in the adult, 
which is ordinarily the hibernating form. The Heteroptera ex- 
hibit great tenacity of life, especially in the adult condition ; yet 
there are few records of experiments to indicate whether they 
could be made to survive the single year which limits the exist- 
ence of the vast majority of the species. While so many hiber- 
nate as adults, yet a certain number pass the winter in the t,gg 
state, and the two forms of hibernation are not infrequently met 
with in the same family, or even genus. Aquatic forms, and 
those which live under the bark of trees, or in other more or less 
protected situations, may be found in all stages at almost all 
seasons of the year, and, in default of experiment, it is diflScult 
to judge of the individual life period. That these insects are 



OF WASHraGTON. 115 

capable of extended individual life prolongation there is good 
evidence, and this is particularly the case with those which are 
partially parasitic or infest other animals. Thus the common 
Acanthia lectularia will survive in almost any state for more 
than a year under conditions which retard development. 

In the Homopterous division we find great variation in the life 
of individuals. In the Membracidae and the other families which 
are, when once out of the ^%%^ active throughout life, the winter 
is passed in the ^^^ state — rarely in the adolescent states. The 
same is essentially true of the Aleurodidae, though there are a 
number of exceptions. In the Psyllidae the winter is more often 
passed in the adult state, the exceptions being few. In the 
Aphididae, where alternation of generation and parthenogenesis 
complicate the question, the adults, nevertheless, are, as a rule, 
ephemeral. The great majority of the species hibernate in the 
^SS state. The gall-making species are, in the active states, 
longest lived in the stem-mother, which hatches from the winter 
egg and founds the gall in spring, while the true-sexed individuals 
are born for no other purpose than the production of the impreg- 
nated ^%%^ are short-lived and are often incapable of feeding. The 
great variation in this respect which may obtain, however, is well 
exemplified in the Phylloxerinae, in which, of the many species 
which occur in America, especially upon our hickories, we have 
every variation from those which produce practically but one 
generation annually, and w^hich thus live individually for nearly 
a year, to those species v-'hich are reproduced agamically through- 
out the growing season and produce the sexed individuals and 
the winter-egg only as winter approaches. The number of these 
agamic generations varies according to the species. In the Coc- 
cidae, also, the majority of the species hibernate in the ^^^ state, 
but, as I have shown in recent notes before the Society, there is 
the greatest irregularity, and the dormant period may be passed 
in all stages of growth and in a variable manner in the same 
species. (Proc. Ent. Soc, Washn., in, p. 65.) 

On the whole, therefore, it may be stated that the Hemiptera 
generally close the active individual life within a single year, and 
that the chief exceptions are to be found in the Heteropterous 
division among the species which have become household tenants 
with man, or among those which have a hypogean lai-val life. 
They show every variation, also, from a term of a few days or 
even hours, to a term of 9 or 10 months, and from single- to 
many-broodedness . 

Larval Life of Cicada septendecim. 
The Cicadidae offer the most notable exceptions, and, as 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

intimated at the outset, I take this occasion to put on record 
a few facts in reference to the larval life of Cicada seftendecim 
and the tredecim race thereof, the exceptional nature of its 
longevity justifying somewhat fuller consideration in this con- 
nection. It is the only species of its family the larval habits of 
which have been studied with sufficient care, and it is, therefore, 
impossible to say just how exceptional it is as compared with 
other members thereof. As the majority of these recur annually 
over the whole extent of their range, their length of life has been 
assumed to be bounded by the year. But the same is true of 
many other insects, notably certain Coleoptera, e, g,^ Lachnos- 
terna, which are known to require nearly three years for the full 
life-cycle, and more careful study in future will doubtless reveal 
the fact that other species of Cicada live several years as larvae 
underground. Having written so fully of Cicada septendecim 
in past years,* it is unnecessary to repeat here the many interest- 
ing facts connected with it, my design being to bring out a few 
points which bear on the subject of this address, or which serve 
either to correct or to render more complete what has already 
been published, as, also, to give more extended circulation among 
entomologists to certain experiments which may be watched by 
others in the future. 

Few insects are more characteristically North American than 
this, and few have been more fully written about or have more 
fully interested the public. There is, therefore, a certain appro- 
priateness in dealing with it af the close of the quadricentennial 
celebration of the landing of Columbus upon our shores, for 
while we become accustomed to annually-recurring phenomena, 
and are interested in the periodical recurrences of any particular 
species of insect, our interest increases proportionately to the 
length of the period intervening between such periodical appear- 
ances. A little sentiment is justified in connection with the dif- 
ferent recurring broods of this insect, because they enable us to 
go back in thought centuries in the past and picture the woods 
in any particular locality resounding with its peculiar song. 
Thus, Brood XII, which will appear this year, has its largest 
distribution in New York and New Jersey, but reaches down to 
the National Capital, and the ancestors of this very brood, six 
generations back, commemorated, in their noisy way, the found- 
ing of Washington in 1792; while the preceding generation, 
seventeen years before, made the woods vociferous during the 
battle of Bunker Hill. Coetaneously, in 1894, will also appear 

* See more particularly ist Rep. Ins. Mo., 1868, pp. 18-42; Rep. of the 
Entomologist, Ann. Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. for 1885, pp. 207-343; and 
Bull. No. 8, Div'n Ent. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1885. 



OF WASHINGTON. 117 

an extensive 13-year brood, the brood which, in 1868, first gave 
me the opportunity of establishing and defining the tredecim as 
contradistinguished from the septendectm race. 

The fact that thirteen years and seventeen years, respectively, 
are required for the full development of this insect, according to 
the race, is thoroughly established on chronological data, one of 
the seftendecim broods having been observed every seventeen years 
since 1 7 1 5 . Nevertheless, there is chronic skepticism as to the facts, 
especially on the part of Europeans not familiar with the Ameri- 
can literature upon the subject. Anomalous and exceptional 
facts in natural history very generally provoke such skepticism. 
While, therefore, there has never been any doubt in the minds of 
intelligent entomologists, it has always struck me as desirable to 
give experimental proof of the fact that this insect remains under- 
gi-ound during the seventeen-year and thirteen-year periods allotted 
to it, according to race, minus the two brief months of its imaginal 
or winged existence. This was all the more necessary because 
of the difficulty of rearing the larvae in confinement, and of fol- 
lowing any one particular individual throughout its development. 
Nevertheless, a number of individuals are easily traced by repeated 
diggings under certain trees where the larvae are known to have 
entered the ground abundantly in any particular year. This ex- 
perimental proof I have endeavored to obtain ever since the year 
1868, when I followed in St. Louis county, Missouri, the exten- 
sive tredecim brood which appeared there that year. The ob- 
servations which I made there, and others made by an agent 
specially instructed, Mr. J. G. Barlow, of Cadet, Mo., for the 
tredecim race, and similar observations made here at Washington 
for the seftendecim. race, with the assistance of Mr. Th. Per- 
gande and Mr. C. L. Marlatt, have permitted me to follow the 
larval life from year to year with great care, so far as the first 
twelve years are concerned, and with less care and continuity for 
the subsequent years. The development during these later years, 
however, has been followed with sufficient accuracy by the study 
of individuals from different broods, the age of which was chro- 
nologically known. 

The cases of retarded or accelerated development in this species 
are remarkably few, considering the immense numbers in which 
the insects appear during their stated years. A few stragglers 
are sometimes heard the year before or the year after the regular 
appearance, but so rarely as to make the regularity all the more 
striking. It is, indeed, difficult to explain these exceptionally 
long periods of larval life in this species, or the great regularity 
in development through some eight degrees of latitude, on any 
theory of advantage to the species not possessed by other species 



118 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

of the family. Yet the relatively greater numbers in which the 
species occurs indicate that it has some advantage over them, and 
this may possibly rest ia the total absence of parasites which so 
long a subterranean life insures to the larva. The imago is softer 
and more feeble than is that of most species of the genus, and is 
more easily captured by a host of enemies, and this fact may also 
have significance, and would comport with Weismann's theory. 

The probabilities are that the species is a very old one, and 
that the underground life-periods of the two races have become 
firmly fixed through heredity. In this connection, and as bear- 
ing on their possible susceptibility to changed climatic condi- 
tions, I would call particular attention to the experiments which 
I made and recorded in 1885, where the eggs from a septendecim 
race and a tredecim race were interchanged as to localities (Rep. 
Entomologist, U. S. Dept. Agr., for 1885, pp. 254-257), as it 
is to be hoped that those living in the neighborhood of the marked 
trees under which the eggs were placed will observe and record 
the results between the years 1898 and 1902. 

Thysanoptera. — In this sub-order there are few recorded 
observations as to length of life. Most of the species that have 
come under my obsei*vation produce several generations annually, 
continuing to breed through the summer, and, under greenhouse 
conditions, even through the winter. Normally the winter is 
passed in the adult state, and there is no record of any individuals 
living beyond a single year, while the average limit of life is 
probably but two or three months. 

DiPTERA. — In this order, with its remarkable variety of forms 
and great diversity of life-habit, we have a corresponding diver- 
sity in individual longevity. It would require too much space 
even to indicate the habits of the different families, and it will 
suffice to state that, with very few exceptions, the insects of this 
Order are also limited to a single year in individual life, and that 
the larger number, or those which produce more than one gene- 
ration annually, have a still more limited life duration. There 
are, nevertheless, some remarkable exceptions among the para- 
sitic forms. In the great majority of species the longest period 
is passed in the larva state, and it is in this state chiefly that 
hibernation is had. Yet between the extremes of long larval and 
brief imaginal life, as illustrated in the Q^stridae, and extended 
imaginal life with the larval career so abbreviated that it is passed 
before birth, as in the Hippoboscidae, we have examples of every 
variation, though the law of compensation is as manifest here as 
in the other Orders, and where the imago persists beyond the 
average length the larval period will be generally shortened, and 
vice versa. No exact records of the duration of life among the 



OF WASHINGTON. 119 

Bat-flies have come under my notice, but we are justified in in- 
ferring that, just as in the case of the fleas, they are, under con- 
ditions adverse to development, capable of surviving for a much 
longer period than are the non-parasitic families. 

Orthoptkra. — What Weismann records under this order (in 
which he includes Termes, Ephemeridae, Libellula, and Lepisma) 
of Gryllotalpa, Gryllus, Locusta, and Acridium, is essentially 
true of the Order as a whole, namely, that the species are annual, 
existing on the average about half the year in the active condi- 
tion, maturing the latter part of the growing season, and perishing 
soon after the eggs are laid or upon the approach of winter. As 
I have expressed it in treating of Caloptenus spretus^ they are 
born with the coming of the leaves in spring and perish with 
their fall in autumn. The Acrididae, for the most part, hibernate 
in the ^^<g state. Yet there are numerous exceptions, and we 
may have, in the very same region and under like conditions, 
eggs laid early in the growing season and hatching in midsum- 
mer, and the mature insect developing in autumn and passing the 
winter in a more or less active condition, as in Acridium ameri- 
canutn; or we may have them hibernating in different stages of 
development as larvae or pupae, as in the numerous species of 
Tettix and in the Stenobothri. 

Among the crickets the species are for the most part single- 
brooded, and those which live in the ground hibernate in various 
stages of development, while tree crickets invariably pass the 
winter in the ^^'g state, and, together with the Mantes and Walk- 
ing-sticks, with the Locusts, Grasshoppers, and Katydids, hatch 
in spring and perish in autumn. The Cockroaches, on the con- 
trary, which so frequently breed in and around human habitations, 
show less regularity in development, and are more or less active 
throughout the year, with a longer individual life-period than in 
any of the other sections. In the sub-order Dermaptera, or Ear- 
wigs, we have, again, creatures which are fond of breeding near 
human habitations, and the adult is known to live for the best part 
of the year, but normally not to extend beyond the year. 

Neuroptera. — Considering this old Order by its more modern 
sub-divisions, it may be said that in the Odonata the larval life 
is the essential part of the life of the individual. Among the 
Dragon-flies none of the species hibernate in the adult state, and 
most of them have an adult existence of but a few weeks, or at 
most two or three months, living for the rest of the year, more or 
less actively, as larvae in the water. The same is true of the 
Trichoptera, or Caddis-flies, also of the Neuroptera proper, as 
exhibited in the Ant-lions and Mantispas. In the Hemerobiidae, on 
the contrary, we have species which produce more than one gener- 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

ation annually, and in which the larval life, being for the most* part 
predaceous and dependent upon Aphides, is greatly shortened, 
while the life of the imago is prolonged, many of the species 
living through the winter in this state. Thus, we have, again, in 
the same family the two extremes. In the Platyptera vsre have in 
the Termites or White Ants an illustration of the influence of the 
social habit and organization on longevity very similar to that 
which we find among the social Hymenoptera ; for here, also, 
while the workers are for the most part limited within the year 
in their life duration, it is well known that some of the soldiers 
live for a longer period, while the queens or fertile females live 
for several years. So in the Bird-lice, or Mallophaga, the para- 
sitic habit has produced a distinct change, and we find species 
breeding continuously upon our domestic animals and upon birds, 
the limitation of individual life hard to define, but showing great 
elasticity according to conditions. To some extent this is true of 
the Psocidaj, or at least of those species which are most frequently 
met with around houses. It is well known that some of these 
live for a long time in wainscoting, and, while no exact records 
are at hand, there is every reason to conclude that development 
is irregular,* and that individual life may be abnormally prolonged 
under conditions of low temperature and dryness. 

In the Plecoptera, or Stone-flies, we have an annual life quite sim- 
ilar to that of the other aquatic Neuroptera. Among the Epheme- 
roptera, or May-flies, we have a most striking illustration of the 
shortened existence of the adult, which, in some species, lasts for 
but a few hours, and, in most, for but a few days. Finally, in 
the Thysanura, w^e have no strict dividing line between the 
adults and the earlier stages, and the species have no regular 
breeding periods. Many of them have a life not extending be- 
yond a few months, while others, as in Lepisma, doubtless, 
occasionally survive more than one year. 

Spiders, Ticks, Mites. — As to the spiders, Dr. Marx informs 
me that he knows of no experimental facts of any consequence 
bearing on their longevity. The same rules apply to them as to 
the bulk of the Hexapods. The great majority of them are 
limited in individual life to the single year and hibernate in the 
egg state. The deviations, as in Hexapods, will be found in 
those species which live in tunnels underground or have become 
joint tenants with man in his abodes. The trap-door spiders 
and some of the species which winter in our cellars often 
extend individual life beyond the year. Like all predaceous 
articulates, they have developed great sustaining power under 
adverse food conditions. 

The same general conclusions may be applied to the Ticks, 



OF WASHINGTON. 121 

though here we have experimental evidence of remarkable life 
persistency under abnornal conditions, as I have known a speci- 
men of Ar^as reflexus to remain alive in a corked vial without 
food for some five years, moulting repeatedly during the period. 
So with the Mites they have developed a most remarkable 
adaptability to environmental requirements, the parasitic and 
gall-making forms exhibiting long resting periods alternating 
with periods of rapid multiplication ; while some of the soft- 
bodied, non-parasitic forms are able to assume a Hypopus pro- 
tecting mail which permits a long period of quiescence until cir- 
cumstances again favor activity and reproduction. 

Retardation in Development. 

The subject of retardation in individual development is inti- 
mately bound up with the question of longevity. The annals of 
entomological literatare are replete with instances of such retarda- 
tion, and, in this connection, I will content myself with a refer- 
ence to some of the more common instances, especially to those 
that have come under my own personal observation. In the ^^^ 
state the instances of retardation of development, under normal 
conditions, are few, as the period passed in the ^^'g and the time 
of hatching are very uniformly and regularly controlled by me- 
teorological and physical conditions, especially that of tempera- 
ture. Where eggs are laid in summer or autumn by monogo- 
neutic species, there is sometimes shown a tendency to hatch the 
same year, and thus produce a second annual generation, and 
the converse of this is true, and such facts are more particularly 
noticeable in species like the semi-domestic Sericaria mori^ in 
which the number of generations has been influenced by man 
and has not become fixed through long periods of natural propa- 
gation. Yet, when the natural conditions are in any way inter- 
fered with, the almost unlooked-for power of adaptation is well 
illustrated by the somewhat exceptional case of the eggs of 
Caloptenus spretus to which I have drawn attention in several 
publications, especially in 1881 (Amer. Nat., 1881, pp. 1007- 
1008), where it is shown that eggs of this insect which were 
laid in the autumn of 1876 and covered by a layer of clay and a 
plank sidewalk, thus precluding the issuance of the young, re- 
mained latent four years longer than they normally would have 
done, freely hatching during the spring of 1881, when the side- 
w^alk was taken up and removed. 

Retardation in the larva state is rarely witnessed among leaf- 
feeding forms, though even here there will be great variation in 
the relative time of development of the individuals of a given 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

brood, and where the species is polygoneutic I have not infre- 
quently noticed that certain individuals of the spring brood vv^ould 
beget one further generation during the year, w^hile others would 
beget two. In some instances, also, especially where there is 
summer or autumn dormancy (Phyciodes, Apatura, etc.)? a cer- 
tain portion of a brood will be retarded and go over till the en- 
suing year, while the balance will develop and transform the 
same year. It is, however, among the larvaB which live beyond 
the growing season of the year, as in most of the species of wood- 
and stem-boring and root-feeding Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, 
as also those which feed on dead and dry animal or vegetal mat- 
ter, as shown in considering the Coleoptera, that cases of accel- 
eration and more particularly of retardation have been observed. 

The Heteroptera and Homoptera, the Mallophaga, the Spiders 
and the Ticks, also show, as we have already seen, a remarkable 
tendency to retardation, especially in the adolescent stages. 

In the pupa state there is less opportunity or occasion for devi- 
ation from the normal habit of the species, and yet the literature 
of Lepidopterology furnishes more particularly very many in- 
stances of belated pupal development, or of. instances where an 
individual in a given brood has passed on to a second or third 
year in the cocoon, while other individuals have developed and 
given out the imago at the normal period. This has happened 
frequently in my own rearings of insects, and particularly in the 
Bombycidae, and there are innumerable recorded cases by others. 

In the imago state the cases of retardation are numerous, but 
almost always in connection with abnormal conditions. Thus, 
as we have seen, they chiefly refer to hard-shelled insects like 
beetles, which have been kept in confinement without food and 
measurably protected from the influence of the weather. The 
most marked cases of this kind are of wood-boring beetles, es- 
pecially Longicorns and Ptinidae, which are known to have 
existed alive in wood very many years after the wood had been 
made up into household furniture. 

Influence of prolonged Cold on Retardation. 

Just how long the dormant state in insects, especially in the 
pupa state, could be extended by continuous cold, it would be 
dilficult to tell ; but experiments have been made, especially by 
Mr. William H. Edwards, in this country, which indicate not 
only that this state may be very materially prolonged beyond 
the normal period, but that the results of such prolongation 
almost justify the belief that, in those species which withstand 
extremely low temperatures — which, to use a common expres- 



• OF WASHINGTON. 123 

sion, may be frozen solid — there would seem to be hardly any 
limit to the continuation of this condition. Another interesting 
fact, worth mentioning in this connection, is that when artificial 
cold is brought to bear upon summer broods of chrysalides, the 
effect is noticeable in the character of the resultant imago, sea- 
sonal dimorphism being in many ways directly attributable to 
the influence of temperature. 

^ Summary. 

From the above statement of the more salient facts on this 
subject — a superficial selection from the immense number that 
might be cited — certain conclusions are justified. In general, it 
may be said that the great majority of insects, like annual plants, 
have their individual lives limited by the year, and that the con- 
ditions that determine which of the four states — ^gg, lai-va, pupa, 
or imago — shall occupy the longest period, are extremely difl^cult 
to formulate. Temperature and food -supply undoubtedly influ- 
ence and control the length of the life-cycle ; for insects strikingly 
exemplify the principle that the individual life is shortened in 
proportion as its activities are accelerated, and lengthened ac- 
cording as these are inactive or dormant. But whether the 
shortened or lengthened period of the normal or annual life- 
cycle of the insect shall be in the egg^ the lai-va, the pupa, or the 
imago state, depends on conditions which we certainly cannot 
formulate. All that we can say is that there is a correlation be- 
tween the protracted life in any one state and the more ephemeral 
existence in the other states. Thus the great majority of annual 
insects in the temperate zone hibernate in the larva state, which 
covers, on the average, from one-half to three-fourths of the 
year. But, as we have seen, the number of cases where the 
dormant period is passed either in the egg^ the pupa, or the 
imago state, is very great, and hibernation in all these states takes 
place not infrequently among species of the same family, of the 
same genus, or even among individuals of the same species. 

These remarks remain .essentially true for those species which 
produce more than one annual generation. These not only hi- 
bernate in different states, according to the species, but there is 
more or less irregularity in the same species, which may some- 
times hibernate in the imago, the pupa, the larva, or even in the 
egg state. Even a portion of the same brood of larvae, hatching 
from the eggs of a single parent, as we have just seen in Phyci- 
odes, etc., may go into lethargy in midsummer and not transform 
to the pupa state and give out the imago until the ensuing sum- 
mer, while the other portion will pass through their transforma- 
tions and continue their life functions the same year. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

In respect of those insects which require more than one year 
to undergo their full life-cycle, we have seen that it is very gen- 
erally the rule that the long-lived period is the larval, and that 
the duration of the imago, pupa, and egg states is relatively brief. 
This general rule has no exceptions of consequence that I can 
recall. Nevertheless, within the same genus, and particularly 
within the same family, different species vary greatly in the period 
of individual life, and this, too, where the habits are essentially 
similar. ^ 

The one fact that stands forth more prominently than another 
in this consideration of the subject of longevity among insects is 
the great variability, not only in the individuals of the species, 
but particularly in the different species of a given family. We 
are also impressed with the power of prolonging life in the indi- 
vidual under abnormal conditions which many insects exhibit. 
The facts of entomology are thus quite significant in their ap- 
plication to Weismann's views as to the influence of natural 
selection on the duration of individual life, and few will question 
the general conclusion that the length of life has, in the main, 
been fixed in each case by the necessities of the species — in other 
words, it is, as Weismann has argued with the higher animals, 
very largely dependent on the necessities of life. 

This adaptation is more particularly noticeable in the compen- 
satory adjustments between the lengths of life in different states 
of the individual development, and in this particular Weismann, 
as I have already hinted, is weak in confining his attention to 
the life of the adult, because it is in contemplating the whole 
life-cycle that he might have found his strongest support for the 
theory that natural selection has, in the main, influenced lon- 
gevity. For nothing is more certain than that, with insects, 
where, as is more often the case, the vicissitudes of the imaginal 
life are such as to make it precarious, we find it to be brief, w^ith 
a correspondingly lengthened period of larval existence ; whereas, 
in the rarer cases where the vicissitudes of the active larval life 
are such as to give great risk to the species, this state is the ab- 
breviated, and either the pupal or imaginal the extended one, in 
time. 

Thus I am of the opinion that the length of life in insects has 
been, in the main, regulated by natural selection, acting upon 
individual variation for the benefit of the species. I say in the 
main, because I believe that Wcismann's chief fault is that he 
does not sufiiciently recognize the limitations of natural selection ; 
and I believe that the same limitations must be recognized in its 
application to longevity which have been recognized by myself 



OF WASHINGTON. 125 

and others in its general application to the formation of species.* 
Natural selection has undoubtedly operated in the past, and is 
still operating, to fix more or less absolutely the limit of individual 
insect life in any particular state, according to the necessities of 
life in a particular species in relation to its environment and to 
other organisms. But the recognition of this fact does not ex- 
plain why, in two species of the same genus, under like condi- 
tions, the one should hold its own, by producing a single annual 
generation, equally as well as the other, which produces two or 
more ; nor does it explain why different species in the same genus 
or the same family should differ in length of life under like con- 
ditions. For we may justly argue that what was essential in the 
one case would be essential in the other. It is preferable, it 
seems to me, to recognize the limitations of natural selection, and 
to view life, especially insect life, as possessing inherent powers 
of adaptability and variability. Adaptivity, exhibited by the 
individual and confirmed or fixed by descent, is powerfully influ- 
enced by natural selection. Variability cooperates with adap- 
tivity, and gives full scope to natural selection in fixing useful 
qualities, but it also manifests itself in lines which are not neces- 
sarily essential and in which natural selection plays little or no 
part ; nay, further, in lines that are purely fortuitous. 

These I believe to be general truths in evolution, and they are 
just as applicable to the subject of longevity as to the subject of 
structure and habit ; and it is only by recognizing these limita- 
tions of natural selection that we can get at the true meaning of 
longevity in animals or of the phenomena of life generally. In 
short, nature is kaleidescopic, and no single law that we may 
formulate, however important or however wide its application, 
vsrill explain all her varied manifestations. No gown can be 
made " all-sufliicient " to fit an unlimited subject. 



The address was discussed by Messrs. Fernow, Schwarz, Ash- 
mead, and Riley. Mr. Fernow said that a comparison between 
plants and animals in the matter of longevity can hardly be made, 
since in plants the functional parts are renewed, while in animals 
they remain the same. Theoretically, a plant may never die. 
Weismann's idea of immortality is misleading, as generally 
stated, since the reproductive cell alone is immortal — the individ- 



* Address before the section of Biology, A. A. A. S., Vol. xxxvii, 
1888, '* On the Causes of Variation in Organic Forms;" " Some Inter- 
relations of Plants and Insects," Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash., 1892, vii, pp. 
81-104. 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

ual is not. In his opinion, we have not enough facts as yet to 
generalize to the best advantage. 

Mr. Schwarz, in speaking of the longevity of insects, men- 
tioned the fact that entomologists, in general, live in the tem- 
perate zones, vv^here circumstances are unfavorable to a regular 
development. In tropical regions no marked irregularities in 
climate and moisture interrupt the steady and regular life devel- 
opment. Our ideas would undoubtedly be changed if lengthy 
observations were made in the tropics. 

Prof. Riley asked whether any one knew of any cases of more 
extended longevity in insects than in the 17-year Cicada and the 
13-year Ant mentioned by Lubbock — that is, aside from the re- 
tarded beetles mentioned in the address. No such instances were 
cited by members. 

Mr. Ashmead mentioned the fact that last summer he found 
in a nest of Pelopaeus which was two or three years old a number 
of puparia of a small Dipterous insect. The puparia were dry 
and hard. He put them first in water and then into a box, and 
in two or three weeks found that nearly all had hatched. All of 
the adults, however, had aborted wings. He thought that the 
same puparia might have remained in this condition for several 
years, until finally the wasp cells would fall to pieces, w^hen the 
puparia might reach some moist spot favorable to the issuing of 
the adult. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that it is probable that other species of 
Cicada will be found to have long lives in the larval state. He 
stated that careful collecting of the rarer species, labelling with 
annual date, and continued for a term of 20 years or more, will 
probably show that this is the case. 

Prof. Riley stated that he thought this quite possible, but, in 
his opinion, it would not be remarkable if no other species were 
found to approach this long life. His main interest in the ques- 
tion arises from the study of Weismann*s views. In plant life 
we may have an indefinite continuation of what is ordinarily 
called the individual, but, properly speaking, the plant is not 
an individual. Without complexity and death we should not 
have had progress, but an infinite multitude of unicellular organ- 
isms would have existed for all time, according to Weismann. 



OF WASHINGTON. 127 

With this aspect of the question he was inclined to agree, although 
he expressed himself as dissenting from the idea of the immor- 
tality of the germ cell. In fact, Weismann himself has been 
obliged to recede from this position and has confined the immortal 
element to the idioplasm of the germ cell. That the duration 
of life is determined by natural selection, and, in fact, that death 
is, or was, brought about by natural selection, is, however, very 
reasonable. He reviewed Weismann's objections to the old 
theory of the relation between bulk and longevity, and spoke of 
the' shortening of life by domesticity in animals as the evidence 
of the influence of natural selection. He also brought up the 
point of fecundity and its influence on longevity. 

Mr. Fernow insisted upon the omission of all teleological 
features in discussing these questions. Survival, in his opinion, 
exists not on account of teleological aggressiveness on the part 
of a chooser, but on account of what may be called the accident 
of parental characters. There is no necessity for any species — 
existence is an accident. 



February i, 1894. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and Messrs. Riley, 
Benton, Marx, Gill, Stiles, Marlatt, Schwarz, Coquillett, Hub- 
bard, Wait, Heidemann, and Howard were present. 

Dr. Stiles presented a petition to Congress, originated by the 
Society of American Naturalists, for the purpose of securing 
the removal of duty from scientific apparatus. On motion, the 
Corresponding Secretary was directed to sign one of the forms 
on behalf of the Society, and forward it to the Hon. H. Cabot 
Lodge, U. S. S. 

— The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Mr. T. D. 
A. Cockerell upon the Hymenoptera of Jamaica, in which Mr 
Cockerell listed all of the species of this order found by him to 
occur upon the Island of Jamaica, and generalized as to the 
character of the Hymenopterous fauna, calling attention to such 
of the genera and species as are common to Jamaica and North 
America or the other West Indian Islands. 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

In discussing the paper Mr. Hubbard said that the Evania 
mentioned by Mr. Cockerell might have been introduced into 
Jamaica with domestic cockroaches from shipboard, but that, 
curiously enough, he found this same species in a mountain cave 
in the interior of the Island of Jamaica, and in an unsettled dis- 
trict. It was there parasitic upon a peculiar cave cockroach. 
Comparing specimens with others which he obtained in Florida, 
he could find no differences, and he thinks, therefore, that the 
species may be indigenous to Jamaica, and that, perhaps, it has 
been carried from that Island to other portions of the world. ' 

Mr. Schwarz criticised Mr. Cockcrell's paper on the ground 
that the material collected by the author was far too scanty to 
warrant generalizations. He found the same fault with the paper 
by Mr. Cockerell, recently published in the Transactions of the 
American Entomological Society, on the Coleoptera of the mid- 
Alpine region of Custer county, Colorado, in which several hun- 
dreds of species recorded from the same region and elevation had 
been overlooked. The number of species common to Jamaica 
and the United States must be much larger. In the Coleoptera, 
for instance, which vSalle and Fleutiaux have described from the 
Island of Guadeloupe, more than 50 out of about 500 are com- 
mon to the United States. So with the Coleoptera of Cuba, and 
even of Venezuela. 

Prof. Riley agreed with Mr. Schwarz, and spoke at some little 
length concerning the undesirability of generalizing on insuffi- 
cient grounds. Mr. Ashmead agreed with the preceding speakers 
as to the superliciality of the paper. Of the genera mentioned 
by Mr. Cockerell as found in Jamaica and not in the United 
States, all but 3 or .| are well known in the United States. With 
the parasitic Hymenoptera it is altogether too early for even the 
best informed entomologist to attempt to generalize on questions 
of distribution. Mr. I loward spoke briefly of the character of the 
parasitic IIymen()})tcra collected by Mr. Herbert Smith upon the 
Islands of St! Vincent and (irenada, showing a fair proportion 
of characteristic genera and a very large proportion of probably 
characteristic sj^ecics. 

Dr. (iill said tliat Mr. Cockerell might have been influenced 
in his conclusions, or in his tlesirc to reach conclusions, by 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



CaiTTEKDKN, p. H. 1 On the Habits of tomeLongicoriiB -^..„ 

Hopkins. A. D. ; Notes on the ditcovery of r new Scoljlidi ivJlh 
brief description of the apecics of, 104; Notes on Fqoi hnbils 
of Corthjilui punctatiKflimus , .. 

HtrwAsn. L. O. : Note od the Mouth-parte of StenopelmAliu 

MAM.ATT, C. I" ■ Neuration of the wingg of Tcnthredlnliliii (illuR- 
Intted) «.u.^ 

RiLBV, C, V. : Notes upon BeloBtonia and BenxeuB <<llu«tnite<}j, S3; 
The eggs of CeresA bubalue Fub, and those of C, tauilnik Filch 
(illutlmted), 88; Annual Address of tlie Piestdent: Langerj^ 
ill lOBectw r.. ■....•.■•».< .• 

SCUWARZ. E. A. ; Additions to tho ILsti of North Amcrlaui Tenni- 
tophtluuK and M/nnecophlloui Colooptem >...■»■ 



PROOEEDTNGS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



WASHINGTON. 




VoltxmB IIJ. Nti. 3. 

(February i, 1S94, to Deckmbeb 6. 1894,) 
[tssireo MArcu 38, iSiji.] 



PRICE OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Vol. I, Complete (Nos. 1-4; $3 00 

Vol. II, Complete CXos. 14) 4 25 

Vol. Ill, No. 1 75 

«' *» »• 2 75 

" *' " 3 75 

The above will be mailed on receipt of price. Address 

FRANK BENTON, Corresponding Secretary, 

Department of Agriculture ^ 

Washington^ D. C. 



^^ 



OF WASHINGTON. 129 

the interesting distribution of the terrestrial Mollusks of 
Jamaica. There are many more land shells in Jamaica than 
in North America, and many peculiar genera are common to the 
West Indies and Central America. On the Island itself almost 
every mountain and valley has its limited fauna. This is the case 
with Hayti and others of the West Indies w^hich are mountainous 
in their character, and, in fact, it is characteristic of all old 
established archipelagoes, like the Philippines for instance. Mr. 
Hubbard stated that the land shells of Jamaica have been studied 
with particular care. When he visited the Island 20 years ago 
the study of land shells was almost the only department of natural 
history, aside from botany, which was receiving attention. 
Therefore the shells have become much better known than other 
elements of the fauna. The fauna of Hayti, however, is much 
less known. Dr. Gill said that Mr. Hubbard was quite right, 
and that the impetus to the study of land shells in Jamaica was 
originally given by Mr. C. B. Adams, an American naturalist 
who visited the Island about i854-'55, and whose enthusiasm 
was caught by a number of resident observers. Hayti, more- 
over, has been much better explored by naturalists than is gener- 
ally supposed, while the Molluskan fauna of Cuba is even better 
known than that of Jamaica. 

— Mr. Hubbard presented the following paper : 

THE OVIPOSITION OF MELITARA PRODENIALIS WALKER. 

By H. G. Hubbard. 

The depredations of this Phyticid moth upon cacti of the genus 
Opuntia have had for several years an exceptional interest to me, 
as I have under observation in my garden at Crescent City, Fla., 
a considerable number of species of these interesting plants, and 
owing to the attacks of the larvae of Melitara many of the more 
delicate species, including most of our native Floridian Opuntias, 
cannot be grown successfully in that locality. I have observed 
that our most widely distributed species, Opuntia vulgaris^ is 
so much subject to their attacks that large clumps of the plant 
are rare in the interior of Florida, and are to be found only near 
the coast or upon small islets in the inland lakes. And thus a 
plant which would otherwise probably form one of the most strik- 
ing objects in the flora of the State is held in check and reduced 
to insignificant clusters and scattered isolated pads which are sel- 



- c. 



rvT.'i!:»i,':»ti3CAi scKnin 






I- •- 









\ - 



^ . : — ■-*:'-- \ -: 



■--I. i 



rtcr :i.r-mii. sizt and iifv«- 1:- Drdduce 

:i~i.'! ;r C*»'L''..*jir Cin unci t- ist-w here. 

: :v'V. t"^- r "^I'maiiJ- tiit-TL. u^ elsewhere. 

T:is ;a— ■; n: MeiiiiiTi: mine- ii ijd 

::: •■ t:i: :wci*.. wdTKiiix: ii. r(»mj»ar.le*'. 

:::: .i:*::n£:;nu-.t o: nmc. aiic: exc:uvai- 
;:;£ i::*" y\i^i tiu siiiciou^ riiic*. I tiBalh" 
:: :-j: -^t i:u jaismiliar^ t-'inr: tht next 
• :' ::. i: -.aTinu-aestn.iztTvt pr:ices?iei» 

•:■ ^. ::^ ar^niJiioi nz iht pi'.r: i::- 




- • •-'■ . ik^^ • «%«.« 1 M . "iJ * ft I • •« 

::-.. rr.:::-"!ii'"n ii irit 

.:>■ -;":v.',r .i:'.iir tri: 



..•, ■••«••. •■ :•■ • — 

> ~ I. >n:r_:. 
- •* . -».-•-■ «^ . p ■* * I- 

•. . • » ■ . . . ' »- 

.!:•. \ "Ml^ III*"': 
■•••- ■•"'-t*'i<r 1 

« a. - .« «i 1 I - l_ ft 

'-■ 4ft ••■ft> 



OF WASHINGTON. 131 

joints, and, as if designedly to make the resemblance more decep- 
tive, the top egg is rounded and slipped a little to one side, form- 
ing a most perfect head with projecting jaws. When the forming 
embryos begin to darken in color, and are seen through the trans- 
parent shells, then the mimic worm becomes truly life-like, with 
mottled segments and a black head. The egg-stick is always 
attached to the true leaves or to the spines of Opuntia. They are 
straw-colored when fresh laid. Forty-five or fifty eggs may be 
counted in a single stick, but the moth frequently deposits short 
sticks consisting of a few eggs only. I have seen occasionally 
four or five eggs laid in a short stick, and in that case the cater- 
pillar-like head is not apparent and the moth probably left the 
work unfinished because of some disturbance during the opera- 
tion. As the various species of Opuntia vary much in the length 
of their spines and true leaves, these unfinished sticks often escape 
notice among the spines of the long-leaved species, and this re- 
semblance to the spines and spiny leaves of the plant may have 
been the original raison d'etre of the mimicry, which has, how- 
ever, been elaborated by the moth in her finished work, on our 
short-spined Opuntias at least, and has at last produced a mim- 
icry of a mimicry by copying a mimicking caterpillar. 

The eggs are laid at night, and the operation of depositing them 
has not been observed. It must, however, be a wonderfully in- 
teresting performance. The egg-stick shown in the drawing is 
80 mm. long. The separate eggs are cylindrical and measure 2 
mm. in length by 7 mm. in width. The surface is beautifully 
reticulated with wavy raised lines anastomosing obliquely. The 
eggs are cemented together with a brownish glue which, under 
the pressure exerted upon the mass, is squeezed out at the sutures 
between each two eggs in the stick and hardens there, forming a 
ring or collar which always adheres to the egg beneath when two 
eggs in the stick are separated. It sometimes has the appearance 
of a circle of spinules, owing to the corrugations of the surface 
upon which it is moulded. 

The young larvae of Melitara prodemalls^ on hatching from 
the eggs, feed for a time externally upon the bud-like leaves of 
Opuntia. When they become larger and stronger they cut 
through the silicious skin of the pads. The wounds made by 
them in the plant exude a gummy liquid, and a scab-like crust is 
formed. Under this the larvae live in companies, large or small, 
according to the size of the plant, until they are about one-third 
grown. After this they burrow deeply into the substance of the 
succulent stems. The larvae, as long as they live upon or near 
the exterior of the plant, are light brown in color, but after they 
burrow into the pulp and approach their full size, they attain a 



132 



KNTOMOtOGIOAL SOCIBTT 



most beautiful dark-blue color. In pupating they form a long 
loose cocoon of yellow silk, which is concealed somewhere 
about the Opuiitia clump, usually under a prostrate pad. 

There are two broods during the year. Moths issue in June 
or July, and again in October. The eggs from this last generation 
hatch in the fall, and the young winter as larvae, less than one- 
third grown, in the wounds which they have made in the succu- 
lent pulp. They continue to feed during warm weather, and 
are not killed by severe frost, surviving even when the juices 
with which they are surrounded are congealed to solid ice for 
more than twenty-four hours. The moth is nocturnal. During 
the day it hides among the detritus of the Opuntia clump. In 
this situation its neutral coloration is highly protective, and the 
ditRculty of detecting it among the dry and twisted fragments of 
the plant is rendered still greater by the peculiar position it 
assumes when resting. With its wings closed and bent sharply 
downwards, while the abdomen is curved upwards between the 
slanting wings, if discovered at all, it is more likely to be taken 
for a dead than a living insect. 




in«h— sU 


the Kgmeim, dor 
nauiriJsiM. 


»i 


view'; 


The 
pupa, 


accompany 11 
and cocoon ■ 


ig 


cut 
s dr 






presenting the moth with its larva, 
m by Miss L. Sullivan, under the 

sion of Prof. C. V. Riley, from material collected by 

at Crescent City, Fla., in 1882. 



Mr. Howard asked if the top egg, /, e., the one laid last, 
the first to liatch, as is the case with the eggs of Grapta 



OF WASHINGTOK. 133 

and G. interrogationis , Mr. Hubbard replied that he had not 
observed the hatching of the eggs, but that he suspected that this 
method is followed, since in egg-sticks preserved in alcohol he 
observed that the embryo is further advanced in the top eggs. 

Dr. Gill asked if there is any especial modification of the ovi- 
positor. He thought there must be such a modification to en- 
able the moth to lay such a peculiar ^^^ mass. Mr. Hubbard 
said that no such modification had been found. Mr. Schvsrarz 
stated that the moth is much shorter than the q^% mass, and that 
in his opinion the stick must have been bent and afterwards 
straightened by either the moth or its own erectile power. Prof. 
Riley thought that a membranous extensile ovipositor might 
exist by which the act of oviposition could readily be accom- 
plished. Mr. Ashmead thought that the abdomen itself might 
be sufficiently telescopic to produce the result. Dr. Stiles 
thought that the necessary pressure to produce the compact stick 
might be brought to bear in the ovarian tubules. Prof. Riley, 
on the contrary, considered that the string was produced by 
purely external mechanical effect. Dr. Stiles, in reply, said that 
the eggs of insects as well as other animals are undoubtedly given 
their shape to a considerable extent while still in the ovary, in 
which Dr. Gill agreed with him. Mr. Howard said that the 
masses must represent the ripe products of several ovarian 
tubules, and that these could hardly be joined together until 
after they had passed down the oviduct proper beyond the en- 
trance of the accessory glands, the secretion from which joined- 
them together, and, in fact, produced a stick. 

Mr. Schwarz asked if the cactus plants could not be saved 
easily by the examination of the plant and picking off the egg- 
sticks. Mr. Hubbard replied that he had saved a number of 
choice plants in this way, but that it was a very considerable 
task, and that during the month of May the plants had to be 
gone over every morning. Some varieties of Opuntia, he said, 
are so tliick skinned that the young larvai cannot penetrate them. 
Occasionally, however, larvae are found in these varieties, having 
entered by means of artificial punctures or wounds. 

Prof. Riley stated that he had reared the moths many years 
ago in St. Louis. It is the largest Phycitid which we have, and 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

in his opinion there is little to be wondered at in the length of 
the egg-chain. The moth might readily balance itself upon the 
spines and drop the string of eggs until the lowest one touched 
and adhered to the epidermis of the pad. 

Mr. Hubbard stated that the spines of those varieties of the 
plant which are most frequently attacked are from 8mm. to 1 2mm. 
in length. 

— Mr. Schwarz presented a paper entitled : 

SOME NOTES ON MELSHEIMER'S CATALOGUE OF THE 
COLEOPTERA OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

The quaint little book published in i8o6 by the Rev. Fred. Val. 
Melsheimer as the first part of an intended general catalogue of the 
insects of North America is now very rare, and not more than 
three or four copies are known to exist in the United States. It 
is briefly referred to at various times both in European and Ameri- 
can literature, and a longer notice of it has been published by Dr. 
Hagen in his fascinating article on the Melsheimer family and the 
Melsheimer collection (Can. Ent. i6, 1884, p. 192). As a cat- 
alogue the book never had any scientific value, since most of the 
species enumerated are only manuscript names,* still it contains, 
in my opinion, some points of interest which deserve to be rescued 
from oblivion. 

Melsheimer was not a mere collector of specimens, but paid 
considerable attention to the food habits and mode of occurrence. 
The many hundreds of species which he sent to his friend, Prof. 

A. W. Knoch, of Brunswick, Germany, were evidently accom- 
panied by numerous notes, and only a few of these (and certainly 
not the most interesting ones) were published by Knoch in his 
"Neue Beytrage," etc. (1801), or referred to by Illiger. In 
Melsheimer's Catalogue we still find many names of Coleoptera, 
derived from those of the food-plants, and it is certainly to be 

* Dr. Hagen says that of the 1,363 species onlj 205 are now surelj known, 
but from the copy of the catalogue before me I find that more than twice 
that number can be identified. This copy, kindly presented to me by Mr. 

B. P. Mann, is that used by F. V. Melsheimer, and contains numerous 
manuscript corrections and additions, partly made by the author and partly 
made by his eldest son, the Rev. J. F. Melsheimer, the correspondent of 
Thomas Say. The latest of these additions dj^tes from the year 1825. A 
few notes and an index, written previously to 1834, are from the hand of 
Dr. F. E. Melsheimer. 



OF WASHINGTON. 135 

regretted that only a few of them could have been retained. 
The following are some examples: No. 143, Bostrichus fini 
(= Tomicus fini Say) ; No. 305, Hispa arundinis (= Ste- 
nispa metallica Fabr.) ; No. 307, Hispa castanece pumtlce 
(= Odontota nervosa Panz.) ; No. 421, Chrysomela alni 
(^ Lina scrip ta Fabr.) ; No. 459, Altica rhois (= Orthaltica 
copalina Fabr.) ; No. 549, Galeruca salicis (= Galerucella 
decora Say) ; No. 572, Curculio castanece pumilce (= Balani- 
nus rectus Say) ; No. 616, Curculio quercus (= Copturus 
quercus Say) ; No. 695, Anthribus agarici quercini (= Cra- 
toparis lunatus Fabr.) ; No. 709, Clerus rosarum (= Clerus 
rosmarus Say) ; No. 745, Stenocorus sambuci (^=^ Desmocerus 
palliatus Yovst,) ; No. 775, Saperda juglandis albce (= Onci- 
deres cingulata Say) ; No. S09, Callidium juglandis (== Ba- 
thyle suturalis S2Ly) ; No. 1157, Carabus herbivagus (= Har- 
palus herbivagus Say). Many other names of a similar 
character cannot be interpreted with any reasonable degree of 
certainty. 

Foot-notes to two coprophagous Lamellicorn beetles refer to 
the time of appearance : Scarab ceus volvens (= Canthon Icevis 
Dr.) is called : ^^Icetus mitioris coeli nuntius" the harbinger 
of a milder sky; while Scarabceus tesselatus (^^= Aphodius 
serval Say) is said to be ^^veris prcenuntius sed fallax,^* 
Another foot-note to No. 159, Anthrenus museorum (= A, 
varius Fabr.), gives, so far as I know, the oldest description, 
published in America, of a Coleopterous larva. The description 
consists of only five words: ''''Larva Jlavida^ setacea^ fasciis 
nigris^^^ but it must be conceded that the general appearance of 
the larva is well characterized thereby. 

It is well known that Melsheimer had in his cabinet many 
European and other exotic species of Coleoptera which he re- 
ceived from Prof. Knoch. Many of these specimens ^were, no 
doubt, without names and locality labels, and a few of these were 
many years afterwards described as North American beetles by 
Dr. F. E. Melsheimer. But after a careful perusal of the Cata- 
logue I fail to find evidence that F. V. Melsheimer erroneously 
credited to our fauna any foreign species. Some erroneous de- 

♦ This is a good observation and refers to the swarming of this Aphodius 
during the first warm days in February or March, which are usually fol- 
lowed by severely cold weather. In the latitude of Washington, D. C, it 
is my experience that A. inquinatus has the habit of thus swarming during 
the first spring-like days of the year, while A, serval is abundant during 
the last warm days of autumn. I am informed, however, that in other 
localities farther north the latter species is flying about in the first warm 
days of spring. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

terminations were caused by confusion with closely allied Euro- 
pean species, ^.^., Anobium fertinax {^Hadrobregmus carU 
natus Say), Altica urticce {=Efitrix cucumer/s Harr,) ^ AU 
tica oleracea {^Haltica chalybea 111.), etc., but I have not the 
slightest doubt that all other species identified (no doubt, by Knoch) 
with European species were collected by Melsheimer in Penn- 
sylvania. A few of these deserve special mention : No. 533 is 
Crioceris asparagi^ whose striking coloration precludes an 
erroneous determination. This record of the occuiTence of the 
Asparagus beetle in North America at the beginning of this cen- 
tury has been entirely overlooked, but it seems probable that the 
disastrous invasion of this species which took place about 60 
years later on Long Island, N. Y., and which has been treated 
of by Dr. Fitch in his 8th Report, was due to a second importa- 
tion from Europe. 

No. 50, Onthofhagus nuchicornis^ is, no doubt, the type of 
the species subsequently described by Dr. F. E. Melsheimer as 
O, rhinocerus^ the occurrence of which was denied by Halde- 
man and LeConte, until, many years afterwards, it was found 
again at various places in the northeastern States (see Mr. S. 
Henshaw's note in Can. Ent., 19, 1887, p. 160), and also in 
Pennsylvania. 

No. 178 is Lictus {Lyctus) striatus^ to which, as a synonym, 
is added Z. canaliculatus. Whether or not the L. striatus 
described by the younger Melsheimer is identical with the L, 
striatus of the Catalogue I cannot decide, but so much appears 
to be certain that our commonest species of Lyctus, so often 
referred to in our economic literature as the "powder-post 
beetle " and usually named in collections Z. striatus,, is an intro- 
duced species, and I fail to distinguish it from European speci- 
mens of Z. canaliculatus in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum. 

Not the least interesting feature of the Catalogue are Melsheimer's 
references to economic entomology. As a matter of course the 
list of injurious Coleoptera was not as formidable at the beginning 
of this century as it is now. Some of the most destructive species 
had not yet been brought over from Europe at that time, and 
many of our native species were not so injurious then as they are 
now. They are simply enumerated in the Catalogue, and some 
of them {e, g,^ Chrysobothris femorata) are not mentioned at 
all ; or at least they cannot be recognized among the manuscript 
names. The scientific names of those species which Melsheimer 
considered as especially injurious are accompanied by the popular 
names, while foot-notes refer to the nature of the damage or 
even — in two instances — recommend remedial measures. It may 



OF WASHINGTON. 137 

be justly doubted, however, whether these recommendations did 
much good, since they were given in Latin and printed in a book 
which never had any circulation. 

No. 77 is Melolontha subsfinosa Fabr., Rose-Bug {^^Ma- 
crodactylus subsfinosus). Before Melsheimer became aware 
that this species had been described by Fabricius he had given it 
the significant name Melolontha polyphaga, A foot-note in- 
forms us: " Habitat prcectpue in rosarum Jloribus quos mi^ 
sere destruit. No remedy is suggested here, and the feeling of 
utter helplessness against the ravages of this beetle is very well 
rendered by the word ^^ misereJ* 

No. 440 is Altica segetum^ Earth-Flea (= Chcetocnema den- 
ticulata 111.). The foot-note : " Destruit segetes tempore au- 
tumnali" is of considerable interest, because, until quite recently, 
no species of Chaetocnema have ever been referred to as injurious 
to cultivated plants. In fact, this particular species is never 
mentioned in our economic literature, but since it is extremely 
abundant and undoubtedly feeds on graminaceous plants I have 
no doubt of the correctness of Melsheimer's statement. 

No. 545 is Galeruca cucumeris^ Cucumber-Fly {j^Diabro- 
tica vittata). Foot-note: ^^ Pestis hortorum: pellitur oleo 
resinoso (Tar) et sulphur e,^^ The larva and larval habits re- 
mained unquestionably unknown to Melsheimer, and the remedies 
suggested were intended to be used against the beetles. That 
dusting with flowers of sulphur had some effect maybe conceded, 
but how the ^'^ oleum resinosum" had to be applied to the vines 
or to the beetles, I cannot explain. 

No. 589 is the Plum Curculio, Curculio ( Conotrachelus) 
nenuphar^ to which Melsheimer had given the name C per- 
sicce. In a foot-note he informs us : ^^ Habitat in Malo persica^ 
larva sub corticeJ^ It would seem strange that Melsheimer was 
unacquainted with the true larval habit of the Curculio, but so 
much is evident that his note is not the result of observation ; it 
simply reflects the notion prevailing at that time among the farmers 
of York county. Pa. But this note has a history : Harris, in the 
first edition of his Treatise (p. 67), simply translates it: "The 
Rev. F. V. Melsheimer remarks in his Catalogue that this insect 
lives under the bark of the peach tree." In the second edition 
of his work Harris entirely drops the theory of the subcortical 
larval life of the Curculio, but it was taken up again by Fitch and 
Walsh. The former, who had never seen a copy of Melsheimer's 
book, considerably magnifies and overrates the importance of this 
note (3d Rep., 52, p. 351) : "Fifty years ago, one of the best 
authorities in our country upon a topic of this kind. Rev. F. V. 
Melsheimer, of Pennsylvania, stated," etc. Walsh, who never 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

saw Melsheimer's book nor the first edition of Han*is, even out- 
does Fitch by alluding (Am. Ent., I, p. ii) to Melsheimer's 
note as a " statement of this most accurate naturalist." 

No. 670 is Rhynchofhorus ( Calandra) granaria^ Weevil. 
Foot-note : " Pellitur calce viva; " C oryzce is also mentioned 
under No. 672, and with this the Curculio exoticus (No. 628) 
is probably identical, which is said to be ^^ allatus in oryza,^^ 
The value of the remedy given may be justly questioned, but 
since this note is attached to C granarius 1 infer that this was 
at that time the commoner species, whereas now C. oryzce is the 
prevailing sj>ecies. 



Prof. Riley expressed himself as greatly interested in the paper. 
Concerning Melsheimer's note upon the Plum Curculio, he said 
that Melsheimer's statement was by no means totally incorrect, 
since Conotrachelus breeds in Black Knot. Mr. Schwarz, how- 
ever, stated that neither Harris, Fitch, nor Walsh, in their state- 
ments, could possibly have meant anything else than that the in- 
sect breeds in the healthy twig, and Dr. Riley said that even that 
statement might be, to a certain extent, correct, and that he had 
seen the present year many oviposition marks not only in pear 
fruit but upon pear twigs. Mr. Waite stated that he had noticed 
the present season a very extensive oviposition in pear fruit. 

— Dr. Marx, under the head of exhibition of specimens and 
short notes, showed an enlarged figure of a remarkable spider 
from Lower California. It belongs to the Oonopidae, a. well- 
known tropical family, and is the only spider known to him to 
possess a sclerite between the coxa and the sternum. This char- 
acter is co-ordinated with undivided dorsal and ventral plates, and 
the species has, moreover, only two spinnerets. Mr. Schwarz 
suggested that this coxal character might have been overlooked 
in other described species of the same family, and the note was 
further discussed by Messrs. Gill, Riley, and Ashmead. 

— The Corresponding Secretary exhibited two photographs sent 
in by Mr. A. D. Hopkins, and which indicated the holes and 
stains made by Corthylus colutnbianus in the 400-year-old tulip 
tree mentioned in his communication at the January meeting. 

— Mr. Ashmead exhibited specimens of JSudoxinna trans- 
versa Walker, a peculiar Chalcidid from Brazil, which had been 



OF WASHINGTON. 139 

placed in the subfamily Chalcidinae by Westwood, and which he 
himself considers to be a Eurytomine. He also showed a Dia- 
priine from Brazil, which has a remarkable pronotal projection, 
and for which he proposes to erect a new genus, Notoxoides, on 
account of the superficial resemblance of the form to the cole- 
opterous genus Notoxus. 

— ^Mr. Hubbard exhibited specimens of the Colorado Potato- 
Beetle, collected atFort Assiniboine, Montana, hundreds of miles 
from fields of cultivated potatoes. The only potatoes grown at 
that point occur in a small patch at the fort, and these are not 
touched by the insects, which breed exclusively upon a wild 
Solanum growing on the mounds of the prairie dogs. The dogs 
remove all other vegetation from the mounds, but this Solanum 
remains. These beetles have, therefore, not come in contact 
with the cultivated potato, and yet show no variation from the 
form now common in the East. * 



February 28, 1894. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and there were also 
present Messrs. Uhler, Schwarz, Gill, Stiles, Marlatt, Benton, 
Marx, Sudworth, Heidemann, Fernow, Kuehling, Dodge, Test, 
and Howard. There were also present, as guests of the Society, 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, of Oxford University, England ; Prof. Les- 
ter F. Ward, Hon. Chas. W. Dabney, Jr., Dr. Frank Baker, Prof. 
W. H. Dall, Prof. F. H. Knowlton, Mr. F. A. Lucas, Mr. B. 
T. Galloway, Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, Mr. Richard Rathbun, 
Mr. Francis E. Leupp, and Mr. Filibert Roth. 

President Ashmead introduced Prof. E. B. Poulton, who ad- 
dressed the Society. The object of his paper was to bring for- 
ward a series of illustrations of recent work upon the uses of 
colors to insects in the struggle for existence. 

First, as regards Colors for Concealment, two examples were 
shown of a method of illustration for popular audiences. An 
insect is first represented upon some plain background, and then, 
in a second slide, in its appropriate environment, the slides being 
so painted and arranged that the insect appears upon the screen 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

in the same place in both, the environment alone undergoing a 
change. In this way the meaning of the color and shape be- 
comes particularly clear. 

Then illustrations proving the derivation of the colors of cer- 
tain caterpillars from the chlorophyll of their food-plant were 
brought forward. The green or brown ground color of the 
larva of Tryfhcena pronuba was proved to depend upon the 
chlorophyll of the leaves or upon the yellow etiolin, closely re- 
lated to chlorophyll. When, however, larvae were fed upon 
the mid-ribs of the leaves, containing neither chlorophyll nor 
etiolin in an available form, the power of producing such ground 
color was wanting. 

Other illustrations showed some of the methods by which the 
transparent spots and patches are formed on the wings of Lepi- 
doptera in resemblance to holes in dead leaves, either by the loss 
of scales, as in Kallima, or by reduction of the scales to hairs, as 
in Attacus. 

Recent experiments upon the modification of the colors of 
lepidopterous larvae by their colored surroundings were then 
shown. These experiments have been conducted during the 
past summer (1893). ^^^ lai*vae of Odontoftera hidentata 
fed upon the same food-plant and, surrounded by twigs of vari- 
ous natural colors, possessed the power of resembling these lat- 
ter. When the twigs were covered with lichen, the larvae 
possessed the power of developing green spots, resembling the 
lichen. This part of the experiment was new, such suscepti- 
bility having never been previously proved to exist. The same 
proved to be the case with Gastropacha quercifolia^ in which 
the lichen produced gray patches upon the larvae. In all these 
larval color changes the result is due to the effect of light, not 
food. 

As regards Warning Colors, two examples from Portchinski's 
recent work were shown, the first proving that the attitude 
assumed by the distasteful moths of the genus Spilosoma are 
such as to display warning colors to enemies. The second ex- 
ample was the wonderful case of the pupa of Limenitis populi^ 
which is so marked and colored as to appear to have been 
wounded. 



OF WASHINGTON. 141 

As regards Mimicry, Col. Swinhoe's recent work upon a 
group of butterflies related to Hyfolimnas bolina was shown by 
illustrations. These butterflies, when traced over the whole of 
their range as far as it is at present known, were found to mimic 
the local and unpalatable Euploea, or in the case of Celebes and 
Africa, the local Danais. In Africa both males and females are 
invariably mimetic. On the other hand, in Asia and the Malay 
Archipelago, as a rule, the females only are mimetic. The 
closely-related Hypolimnas mistppus always accompanies Da- 
nais chrysippus^ and its female invariably mimics this butterfly. 

Another series of illustrations proved that the loss of scales by 
transparent-winged Lepidoptera during their first flight is due to 
the rudimentary form of the stalk by which the scale is attached 
and of the socket into which it fits. In the case of one moth 
which was a more perfect mimic of a hymenopterous insect 
than another, the scales which fall off are more rudimentary, and 
support the view that the more perfect mimic has passed through 
a longer history of change than the less perfect one, thus allow- 
ing the useless scales to become more degenerate. 

Illustrations of the larval form of a Membracid insect which 
mimics the leaf-carrying ants of tropical America were then 
brought forward, and it was seen that the leaf is represented by 
the flattened dorsal part of the body of the Homopteron. 

Finally a series of illustrations was given, showing the loss of 
decorative coloring in the males of certain day-flying moths as 
the females become progressively degenerate — the degeneracy of 
one sex and loss of color in the other reaching their climax in 
the genus Psyche. 

Upon the conclusion of the address, which was warmly ap- 
plauded, Mr. Fernow congratulated the Society upon the oppor- 
tunity which it had had of listening to what was probably the 
broadest and most interesting paper which had been presented 
before it since its organization. He moved a hearty vote of 
thanks to the lecturer. The motion was seconded by Mr. How- 
ard, and carried unanimously. The hour for adjournment had 
nearly arrived upon the completion of the lecture, and there was 
no time for specific discussion, but brief remarks of a general 
character were made by Prof, Ward, Dr. Dall, Mr. Fernow, 
and Prof. Poulton. 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

April 5, 1894. 

President Ashmead in the chair, and Messrs. Benton, Chitten- 
den, Gill, Linell, Coquillett, Schwarz, De Schweinitz, and 
Heidemann were also present. 

The following paper was read by the Corresponding Secretary 
in the absence of the author : 

FURTHER NOTE ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE OVIPOSITOR 

IN HYMENOPTERA. 

By C. L. Marl ATT. 

Having recently, through the kindness of Mr. Howard, ob- 
tained a living specimen of Pimpla conqulsitor Say, I under- 
took to settle a point in the structure of the ovipositor, as out- 
lined in previous communications before the Society*, which I 
had not established to my own satisfaction, owing to the impos- 
sibility of determining the relation of the parts from dried museum 
specimens. In examining the living insect the motions of the 
parts could be witnessed under a hand-glass, and the structure 
and joints, which before could only be surmised, definitely differ- 

fentiated. The point in doubt in the previous 
\ studies was the manner of union of the inner 
branches of the spicula (see a, a, and ^, Fig- 
ure 8). As previously described by me, each 
spiculum sends off an inner branch near the 
base, and these branches I had previously sup- 
posed united in forming a loop of uniform 
size throughout. In the case of Pimpla, at 
least, in the living specimen, it was seen that 
these branches, instead of being united in one 

Fig 8— Bases of s i uia P^^^^? ^^^ Connected by a sort of subsidiary 
of ovipositor of /^/w>/a cross-piccc, or osciUatiug lever, ^, in the ends 
conquisttor (ongina >. ^£ ^j^j^^j^ ^[-^^y ^j-g joined in a sort of ball- 
and-socket joint, so that with the alternate motion up and 
down of the spicula during the action of the ovipositor, either in 
attempting to sting or in oviposition, the ends of what may be 
called the spicule-cross-bar move alternately up aftd down in a 
manner similar to the motion of a steamboat's walking-beam, 
except that the central support of the walking-beam is lacking. 
The hyaline integument, which forms the outer covering of the 

* I. Notes on the Genus Metopius, etc., Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. ii, 

p. lOI. 

2. A study of the Ovipositor of Hymenoptera, 1. c, p. 201. 



OF WASHIN<3^T0N. 143 

oviduct, joins this cross-bar, and also fills the space between each 
branch and its corresponding spiculum. The alternate motion 
of the spiciila would seem to require just such a subsidiary sclerite, 
and I have no doubt that something homologous with it will be 
found to occur in the case of most hymenopterous insects. 

The see-saw motion of the spicula could be easily seen to result 
from the partial rotation of the spicule plates (shown in part at 
upper corners of figure), in alternation, on the supports of the 
ovipositor. 

Mr. Heidemann exhibited specimens of the following species of 
interesting and rare Hemiptera, found near Washington, D. C. : 
A^bedus ovatus Stal., Zaitha anura H. Schf., Anibrysus pudi- 
CMS Stal., Hygrotrechus robustus Uhl., Hygrotrechus fro- 
ductus^ Brachymetra albinervis Am. & Serv. 

— Mr. Schwarz presented the following : 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PINE-CONE-INHABITING SCOLYTID. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

The discovery of a Scolytid infesting pine cones is due to Mr. 
W. H. Harrington, whose observations were first published in 
Dr. Packard's Report on Forest Insects, p. 8io, and subsequently 
in Can. Ent., 23, 1891, p. 26. The insect is doubtfully referred 
by him to Dryoccetes affaber or D. autographus^ and seems to 
have been collected near Ottawa, Can. What, no doubt, is the 
same species was observed some years afterwards by Dr. John 
Hamilton at Sparrow Lake, Ont., and a short note is published 
by him in Can. Ent., 25, 1893, p. 279. Dr. Hamilton, as well 
as Prof. A. D. Hopkins, to whom specimens were submitted, 
came to the conclusion that the species was both specifically and 
generically different from D, affaber. Having lately seen speci- 
mens bred from pine cones by Dr. Hamilton, I recognize in them 
a species which, in 1S77, was sent by Mr. Hubbard and myself, 
with many other Lake Superior Scolytids, to Dr. LeConte, and 
named by him Dryoccetes affaber. It is evident that a confusion 
of numbers or specimens must have taken place, but, strangely 
enough, this confusion seems to have spread to various other col- 
lections. The reasons why this species has not been described 
by LeConte in the Michigan List or any subsequent publication 
I cannot explain. 

I offer herewith a description of the species, bei ng solely tempted 
thereto by the interest attached to its life-history ; for, as far as I 
am aware, there is no other Scolytid known which normally de- 
velops within the cones of pine trees. 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Pityophthorus coniperda «. sf, — Body cylindrical, less elongate, shin- 
ing, sparsely beset with rather long, erect and serrate hairs; color black, 
mouth-parts, antennae, and tarsi reddish testaceous, tibiae often reddish. 

Head more or less retracted into the thorax, very shining, furnished, 
in both sexes, with but a few hairs, sculpture varying according to sex, 
but always with a broad, smoother median spacer eyes large, acutely, but 
not deeply emarginate in front; antennal scape straight, gradually thick- 
ened apically; funicle 5-jointed : first joint obconical, slightly longer than 
wide at tip, second joint as long as wide, arising from a very thin base, 
joints 3-5 transverse, extremely short and closely connate; club large, 
ovate, longer than the funicle, on both sides shining and sparsely pubes- 
cent, fringed with moderately long hairs, and divided by two nearly 
straight sutures into three nearly equal parts. 

Thorax almost as wide as long at base, greatly narrowing apically (when 
viewed from above), front margin obliquely truncate each side, but not 
angulate at middle, base straight, margined, side margin acute from the 
base to apical third ; surface much more densely hairy than the head, the 
hairs mostly suberect, anterior half rather densely but not very strongly 
tuberculate, concentric arrangement of the tubercles not much evident; 
median tubercle obsolete ; posterior half strongly and densely muricately 
punctured, a smooth median line of larger or smaller width extends from 
the middle to near the base. 

Elytra at base as wide as the thorax, conjointly rounded at tip, pubes- 
cence sparse, long and erect, sculpture consisting of regular rows of mod- 
erately coarse, not closely-set, punctures, the first row, and often one or 
two of the outer rows, slightly impressed posteriorly; first and second in- 
tervals very sparsely uniseriately punctured, sometimes nearly smooth, the 
other intervals with regular series of punctures so that the interstitial 
series can hardly be distinguished from the striae; narrow basal margin 
of elytra irregularly punctured; declivity moderately steep, at middle 
slightly flattened, hardly retuse and notsulcate, smooth, veryshining, trav- 
ersed by a fine, elevated subsutural stria, which is either crenulate or 
slightly tuberculate, and limited externally by a tuberculated ridge which 
is the contmuation of the second elytral interval and which is accom- 
panied, internally, by a row of punctures. 

Anterior tibije with a narrow base and more strongly dilated apically 
than in the typical Pityophthorus, without tarsal groove, outer edge fringed 
with rather long, moderately dense hairs and furnished, at apical third, 
with two strong teeth, the outer one being terminal ; middle and hind tibiae 
with the teeth less strong and fringed with hairs on inner and outer edges. 

Male : Head smooth, except scattered punctures near the eyes, and with 
a flattened tubercle on the clypeal margin which is continued posteriorly 
for some distance as a feebly elevated ridge. 

Female: Head with small scattered punctures which become stronger 
and denser at the sides; without clypeal tubercle and elevated ridge. 

Length : 2.7-3.3 "i"i- 



OF WASHINGTON. 145 

Described from several specimens collected by Mr. H. G. Hub- 
bard and myself at the following localities: Marquette, Mich., 
July 3, 4, and 30; Eagle Harbor, Mich., June 9; Cambridge, 
Mass., November 11; Fortress Monroe, Va., June 17. I have 
also seen specimens from the States of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

This species differs from the generic description of Pityoph- 
thorus as given by Eichhoff (Ratio, etc., p. 173) in the structure 
of the antennae and the anterior tibiae, but since several other 
North American species described as Pityophthorus — even after 
removal of those which belong to Bedel's genus Pityogenes — pre- 
sent notable structural differences, it would be premature to erect 
a new genus for an isolated species. Superficially the species is 
at once recognizable from its large size, its less elongate form and 
the structure of the elytral declivity. 

Since I have never found this Scolytid in situ I am unable to 
add anything to the knowledge of its life-history. 



Mr. Schwarz pointed out an interesting feature in the history 
of the Otiorhynchid Aramigus fulleri, A single specimen, 
found at Cambridge, Mass., by the late Mr. Edw. Burgess, is in 
Mr. Henshaw's collection, but in 1875 and subsequent years it 
suddenly made its appearance at many widely distant localities 
in North America. On the Atlantic slope it occurred usually 
in greenhouses, rarely outdoors, from Massachusetts to Georgia, 
being evidently transported from place to place by nursery stock, 
but since a number of years it has entirely disappeared, except 
at some isolated localities in the South. In Canada it appeared 
likewise in greenhouses, and was still present in 1890. In Cali- 
fornia it occurred outdoors, and was still present in 1892. The 
species does not belong to the fauna of the Atlantic slope, nor 
to the Pacific fauna, but since it is evidently an American insect 
its original home is, in all probability, the central region where 
allied species and genera occur. We would thus have a case 
analogous to the invasion of Doryphora decemlineata. Some 
of the original specimens of Aramigus fuller i were received 
by Mr. A. S. Fuller from Montana, in 1875, unfortunately with- 
out further particulars regarding mode of occurrence, but neither 
in that State nor in Kansas and Colorado or further South the 
species has ever been found outdoors since that time. 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited a larval skin of the Dermestid beetle 
Cryptor hop alum triste which^ with the enclosed living pupa of 
the beetle, had been found early last spring, among insect remains, 
within a hollowed twig of a tree near Alexandria, Va. He stated 
that the larvae of Cryftor hop alum have, no doubt, the same habits 
as those of Anthrenus, except that they do not enter our houses, 
and that they had not been found before simply because they were 
mistaken for Anthrenus larvae. The larvae of these two genera 
are very closely allied, and, judging from the only larval skin 
available for comparison, he had found that the larva of Crypto- 
rhopalum superficially differs only in that the hairs of the body, 
and more especially those forming the anal brush, are much 
shorter and less numerous than in Anthrenus. 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited pieces of the bark from a sapling 
of a Paper Mulberry (^Broussonetia papyrifera^^ which showed 
at various places an abnormal growth, consisting of ridges, blis- 
ters, and tubercles which produced the resemblance to an incip- 
ient Black-knot. The excrescences occurred always above or 
around such places where a female of the Scolytid Phlceotribus 
frontalis was constructing her gallery beneath the bark, and 
resulted, evidently, from the irritation caused by the working of 
the beetle. The galleries of Phlceotribus were by no means com- 
pleted, and had evidently been commenced only a few days ago, 
so that the excrescences of the bark had been formed within a 
remarkably short time. Mr. Schwarz said that no other tree was 
known to him that reacted in a similar way against the attacks of 
Scolytids. He also alluded to a paper recently read by Mr. 
Waite before the Biological Society, in which the author had 
pointed out that the paper mulberry was more frequently infested 
by knots, hexenbesen^ and other kinds of abnormal gi'owth than 
any other tree. 

— He also remarked upon an improvement in the mounting of 
some small beetles, as invented by Mr. Hubbard, illustrating his 
remarks by the exhibition of various specimens ; as usually 
mounted on cardboard triangles, a portion of the sternum is hid- 
den from view, but in the present examples the tip of the triangle 
had been bent obliquely downward, and the beetle is attached to 
it only by its episternum, thus leaving the sternum free for ex- 
amination and study. 



or WASHINGTON. 147 

— Mr. Schwarz also exhibited specimens of the Staphylinid 
Oxyforus j-punctatus^ and called attention to the remarkable 
secondary sexual characters presented by the male. In this sex 
the right mandible is greatly enlarged and deformed at apex, and 
the upper margin of the posterior thoracic angles is sharply turned 
upward and forms a kind of flap which overhangs a deep excava- 
tion at the angle itself. Nothing similar to these characters is 
seen in any other species of Oxyporus in our fauna. The abdo- 
men has no pubescent spot, and the left mandible in both sexes is 
armed with a small tooth a little before the middle. In the female 
the right mandible is simple, and the peculiar excavation of 
the thoracic angles is merely indicated. 

— Dr. Gill asked concerning the relative size in the different 
sexes among insects. Mr. Ashmead replied that, as a rule among 
the Hymenoptera, the female is larger than the male, but in the 
Australian genus Thynnus the male is much larger than the 
female. Mr. Schwarz stated that among Coleoptera, with com- 
paratively few exceptions, mentioning the Lucanidae and certain 
Rhynchophora, the female was the larger, and Mr. Linell re- 
marked that in those species of Scarabeidae the males of which 
are furnished with horn-like processes on the head or thorax 
this sex is larger than the female, whereas among those species 
the males of which do not possess such processes the female is 
the larger of the two. Dr. Gill stated that probably the greatest 
disparity between the sexes occurred in the fur seal, the males of 
w^hich weighed from seven to eight hundred pounds, whereas the 
w^eight of the female did not exceed one hundred and fifty pounds. 



May 3, 1894. 



President Ashmead in the chair, and resident members Ben- 
ton, Chittenden, Coquillett, Fernow, Gill, Heidemann, Howard, 
Linell, Marlatt, Riley, Schwarz, Stiles, and Test also present. 
The following corresponding members were also present : Prof. 
P. R. Uhler, Dr. John Hamilton, Prof. A. D. Hopkins, and 
Mr. H. G. Hubbard. 

The following were elected Corresponding members : Rev. 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Jerome Schmidt, Beatty, Pa. ; Mr. David M. Little, 40 Chestnut 
St., Salem, Mass. 

Professor Riley presented some notes on Margarodes and ex- 
hibited two necklaces made of so-called " ground pearls," one 
from Montserrat, the other from Jamaica, the former being com- 
posed of larger specimens. The ground-pearls are Coccidae of 
the genus Margarodes Guilding. He described the finding of these 
insects in the ground at Montserrat by himself and Mr. Hubbard 
in February, and detailed further observations by himself upon 
the same insect in Barbadoes and Jamaica. He read a review of 
the literature and explained at some length his views as to the 
formation of the shell. The communication was discussed by 
Messrs. Hubbard, Uhler, Howard, Stiles, and Riley. Mr. Hub- 
bard stated that he had started to make a list of the plants on 
the roots of which Margarodes was found, but they proved to be 
so numerous that he concluded it would be more feasible to make 
a list of the plants on the roots of which the insects do not occur. 
They are found in all soils, from hard volcanic soil to the sand 
of the sea-beach. The activity of the adult insect was vouched 
for by Mr. C. A. Barber, superintendent of agriculture in the 
Leeward Islands, in conversation with Mr. Hubbard. Mr. Hub- 
bard himself had found damaged adults. The broods he found 
to be well defined. He thinks that the shell of the insect may 
be compared with the shell of the turtle, and that it is composed 
of infiltrated cast skins. The larval skin splits, and is shoved up 
at the apical end, forming a cap, and the previous exuvia are 
pushed further out and to each side, making a succession of caps 
and four side tubercles. The filaments, he thinks, are of wax, 
and he has seen them pushed out more than the length of the 
insect. The shell is apparently chitinous. When placed in 
strong sulphuric acid it turns black in two days, but if the acid 
is diluted ever so slightly it does not produce the blackening 
effect. 

Professor Riley considered the shell to be largely a secretion 
from definite pores, and that this secretion is, by the pressure of 
the earth, formed into plates something as in Vinsonia and Cero- 
plastes. Mr. Howard stated that the difiiculty with this theory 
is that the secretion of Vinsonia and Ceroplastes is wax, whereas 



OF WASHINGTON. 149 

these plates in Margarodes are chitine. He stated that, in his 
opinion, the lai'val exuviae form a small proportion of the shell, 
as he had not been able to find, upon close microscopic examina- 
tion, in any one shell more than two of the scales which showed 
the larval rostrum. 

In reply Professor Riley said that the last speaker must remem- 
member that all Coccid secretions are not wax ; that even in 
Vinsonia the glass-like lateral secretion is of very different char- 
acter from the dorsal waxy tuft. Mr. Uhler emphasized this 
point, and spoke of the varying character of Coccid secretions. 
Mr. Hubbard said further that in the empty shells small frag- 
ments of chitine, trapezoidal in form, and 30 to 40 in number, 
are found. This fact he considers very significant in connection 
with the formation of the shell. Dr. Stiles considered it essen- 
to cross-section the shells, but said that this would be very diflfi- 
cult to do. He advised a combination of the Whitman wax 
method with the Heider gum-mastic method, and offered to per- 
form the sectioning if specimens were given him for that pur- 
pose. 

— Mr. Hopkins read a paper entitled : 

NOTES ON THE HABITS OF CERTAIN MYCETOPHILIDS, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF EPIDAPUS SCABIEI, SP. NOV. 

By A. D. Hopkins, 

(Entomologist, West Virginia Experiment Station). 

The rearing of Epidapus and of species of Sciara from scabby 
and diseased potato tubers, in 1891, led me to undertake some 
investigations for the purpose of determining the relation of this 
class of insects to the so-called potato-scab. Some of the facts 
so far obtained will, I trust, be of sufficient scientific interest to 
present to this Society as a contribution to the knowledge of the 
somewhat neglected family Mycetophilidae. 

The authorities Osten Sacken, Schiner, Winnertz, and others, 
refer to Mycetophilids, or fungus-gnats, as a class or family of 
insects the larvae of which inhabit and feed upon fungi, decom- 
posing vegetable matter, animal manures, and like substances. 
In a recent work, entitled ''An Account of British Flies," by 
Theobald (Vol. i, 1892, p. 105), the author says : " If , as men- 
tioned in a former page, they do a certain amount of damage to 
mushrooms, the amount done is small compared with the benefits 



150 ENTOMOLOGIOAL SOOTKCT 

derived from their existence. The larvae of these gnats act as 
scavengers ; not only do they do away with rotting fungi, but 
they cause these often injurious productions to putrefy and become 
scarce by their destruction." 

There are a few records of species of Sciara inhabiting living 
vegetable matter, but it appears that these observations have not 
been so substantiated as to leave no doubt in the minds of Osten 
Sacken and others regarding their correctness. Therefore, even 
if Sciara species have frequently been met with in injuries to 
vegetation during the investigation of such troubles, the observer, 
after referring to the best authorities on the habits of this class of 
insects, would more than likely fail to detect their true relation 
to the injury, and blame it to fungi, or to some other insect inhab- 
iting the same wound. It would be natural to conclude that they 
were present merely for the purpose of feeding in the diseased 
and decaying matter. This, in connection with the fact that the 
theory, with reference to insects being the cause of the potato- 
scab, having been universally discarded, it would appear, has 
served to remove all suspicion from the so-called fungus-gnats 
as having anything to do with causing the blemish. 

Had I the opportunity of examining the literature with refer- 
ence to Mycetophilidae and the diseases and blemishes of potato 
tubers when the investigations were begun, I have no doubt they 
would have been discontinued before any important results were 
obtained. I would have concluded, like others, that the insects 
were merely feeding on decaying substance. As it was, I had 
determined all of the principal facts with reference to the habits 
of the insects and their relation to the injury before I was enabled 
to examine any really important literature upon the subject. The 
observations, including my own, with reference to Sciara inhab- 
iting potato tubers may be briefly stated as follows : 

At least seven species of Sciara have been bred by European 
entomologists from what were supposed to be decaying potato 
tubers. Mr. Walsh, when State Entomologist of Illinois, found 
the larva of a Sciara inhabiting potato-scab, which he suspected 
of causing the trouble. I have observed the larvae of a Sciara 
and an Epidapus feeding on the living, healthy tissue of potato 
tubers, and ^ have obtained conclusive evidence that they are 
capable of causing, and actually do cause, conditions which in 
one stage would be recognized as potato-scab, and in a more 
advanced stage would be recognized as a form of potato-rot. 
When we consider, in connection with these facts, that the so-called 
potato-scab occurs in all countries where the potato plant grows ; 
that fungus-gnats are also common in the same countries ; that 
all of the conditions recognized as being favorable to the devel- 
opment and promotion of the scab are equally favorable for the 



OF WASHINGTON. 151 

presence and attack of the insects, it is convincing evidence, to 
me at least, that a large percentage of tiie trouble heretofore 
attributed to diseases, and other causes, may he brought about by 
the attack of one or more species of so-called fungus-gnats. 




Fig. 9.— Work of Eftdafta irailn* 

The species which I have found to be especially instrumental 
in causing injuries and conditions which would be recognized as 
the potato-scab blemish is a new and interesting Epidapus, for 
the generic determination of which I am under obligations to Dr, 
S. W. Williston. I take this occasion to present a full descrip- 
tion and figures of the species in its different stages of transfor- 
mation, under the specific name of Epidapus scabiei, and the 
common name Potato-scab Gnat. 

In order to have better authority than my own limited knowl- 
edge of Diptera, I submitted the descriptions and drawings to 
Dr. Williston, who has kindly revised the more important 
descriptions, especially that referring to the wing.t 

• Observation 651611. — Tuber taken from barrel in cellai: Nov. 18, 1893. 
It had recentlj' been attacked by larvie, which had apparently entered 
through the stetn. (Engraving from photograph, showing character of 
tuber Jan. 25, 1894. at which time it would have been recognized hj the 
caEual observer as ordinary potato-rot.) 

1 1 wish also to acknowledge, in this connection, the kindness of Mr. 
L. O. Howard, Dr. J. A. Lintner, and Prof. S. A. Forbes, for extrecti 
from works not in our library, and for other special favors. 



bZ ENTOMOLOGICAL BOCEETT 

Epidapus scabisi Hopkins, sp. nov. 

(The Potato-scab Gnat.) 

Order Diptera; Family MvcktopIIilid* ; Subfamily Sciarin£. 




Male : Length, i to 1.5 mm. General color, duslcy. Head round, dark, 
pubescent above and on sides, hairs pointing forward. Eyti, hlacli (purple 
in baUam). situated near front part of the head, widely separated aboie, 
margins converging near mouth-parts, with about 75 round, prominent 
cornese in each eye, and with a few short hairs projecting from between 
the cornex. Ocelli, three, of equal size, arranged in a triangle on vertex, 
anterior one nearly in line with posterior margin of eyes. Palpi, thick, 
cone-shaped, curved upward, joints obscure, with truncaled pubescent lip; 




also a few long hairs. Proboscis, small, obscure. Antennx three-fourths 
the length of the body, i6-jointed, all of the joints covered with short, 
stiff hairs pointing towards the tip; first and second joints, large; first 



OF WA8HINOTON. 



joint, cup-Bhaped ; second, round and somewhat larger than the lirEt; 
third, oval, with petiole at both ends; Tourth to eleventh inclusive, 



t by a short, smooth petiole; 
anas wide as the head, 
I the side; scutellum 
nd with hairs on tip. 
a and trochanter together 



m. They vary greatly 



oblong, each joined to the one succeeding it 

last joint without petiole. Thorax, dark ; me 

with a few short hairs above and larger t 

prominent, projecting over base of metano 

Legs long, pale, covered with short hairs; i 

nearly as long as femur; femur, tibia, and tarsus of about equal length; 

front tibia with one small spur on tip; middle and hind tibia v 

small spurs, second one olten obscure. 

Wings: length .5 to 1.5 mm.; v 
in breadth and length in different specimens, the 
larger portion (about 80 percent.) have very short 
wings, scarcely extending beyond the second and 
third segments of the abdomen, while others h.ive 
the wings projecting almost half their length be- 
j'ond the tip of the abdomen; anterior and pos- 
terior margins with long hairs, the surface mi- 
nutely hairy; hyaline with rainbow reflections; 
the usual veins of the anterior part much thickened ; auxiliary obscure, 
if not obsolete; the first vein terminates in the costa at some dis- 
tance before the middle of (he wing, the third vein at a considerable 
distance before the tip; the thickened costa continuous beyond the 
tip of the third for a distance equal to about half its penultimate sec- 



Shotl wma of male ei 




lion; the third vein arises near the end of the first at ai 
second section, which is continuous with the anterior cross-vein, or rather 
with the thickened portion of the fourth vein, for the anterior cross-vein 
i» wholly obsolete, the prefurca of the fourth vein arising enactly from 

the beginning of the second section of the third vein; first and tiiird veins 



154 



ENTOMOLOGICAL 800IETT 



with hairB; fourth, fifth, and sixth veins very delicate; furcation of the 
fourth vein very long; the fifth and sixth veins arise independeotlj' from 
the stout vein at the basal third of the wing. 

Halteres long, pale at base; knob dark, bearing a few long hairs. 

Abdomen slender, with seven segments, each one with a rectangular, 
pubescent dark space on the dorsal and ventral aspect; sutures, smooth 
and pale; a narrow, smooth space along the sides. Second to sixth seg- 
ments show a pair of pale stigmata. Genitalia ; claspers or forceps, 
pubescent, without claws. 

Ftmate: Length i to 2 mm. Color lighter than male. Wings and 




halteres obsolete. Head dark, round from 1 
side; eyes, small, appear round from above, 
being truncated next to the mouth-parts ; 
beneath, with about 40 cornere. Ocelli sa 
boscis somewhat larger than in the mate, 
tips extend to anterior suture of first abdomi: 
and thicker than in male, with shorter petioli 
Thorax short, width of head; meso-thor 
conical as seen from above; the scutellum co 
across the base of the meso-thorax. 

Legs shorter than thosu of male; otherwis 

Abdomen, with seven segments, much ex 

eggs are deposited, the sutures forming wide, 

pubescent rectangular spaces on the segment 

smooth space along the sides. After the egg: 



ibove, slightly flattened from 
differ from those of male in 
widely separated above and 
me aa male. Palpi and pro- 
Antennx short, 16-jointed; 
inal segment; joints shorter 

rax with p.trallel sides, not 
impressed, forming a margin 

se the same. 

(tended or incrassate before 
lale bands between the dark 
, and with a wide, pale, and 
are deposited the abdomen 



OF "WASHmOTOK 



155 



is much contracted, being slender, dark, and without pale bands. Tip, 
attenuated; not necessarily decurved. Genitalia, pubescent. Lamellae 
free, anterior oblong, flattened; posterior round, flattened. 

Egg : Length .25 mm. ; white, oblong. 

Larva: Length 4 mm.; width .5 mm.; body, white, with jet-black 
head. 

Head (dorsal aspect) as wide as it is long. Occipital lines approach 
each other beyond the middle, and join in a lanceolate point at the pos- 
terior margin, with three minute shining spots like ocelli arranged along 
the outside of each line, and one on the inside about the middle. 




Fig. 16, — Epidapui scabiei. Left figure, head of larva, dorsal view, greatly enlarged, a, 
ocelli, bt antenna, c, homy frame of labrum. d, labrum. Right figure, ventral view, 
a, mandibles, showing position when closed. 



Antennae short, fleshy, cone-shaped, and transparent; situated at base 
of mandibles, and at anterior end of occipital lines. Ocelli just above 
base of antennae. Labrum large, projecting beyond tip of maxillae; 
fleshy, transparent, with black horny frame at base. 

Ventral aspect shorter than dorsal. The horny plates (genae) are 
joined by narrow strips at the posterior margin, and at the middle, leav- 
ing an open cordate space one-third the length of the head. There are 
also two small open or light spaces in the trophi ; one rectangular between 
the cardinal pieces of the maxillae; the other triangular, situated between 
the base of the maxillae. A small V-shaped, horny piece, probably a 
rudimentary labium, separates these two small open spaces, and joins 
together the cardinal pieces of the maxillae at their base. Maxillae large, 
flattened, horny pieces, with rudimentary palpi in a pale spot at their tips; 
inner edge serrated, with four large and two small teeth; outer edges 
thickened, with two dark, longitudinal elevations and a pale spot posterior 
to the palpi. When closed, they conceal the mandibles and a greater 
part of the labrum. 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETT 

Mandibles black, with four teeth, the first and second large and fitting 
together when they are closed : the third smaller, and situated above the 
other three; tlie fourth at right angles with the lirst, on the same level, 
and pointing back. The teeth of the mandibles come together just above 
the four larger teeth in each of the maxillas, thus forming, as it were, a 
double set of mandibles. Body cylindrical, elongated, smooth, shining, 
and transparent, showing distinctly the internal canal. Slightly thicker 
in the middle than at each end. With twelve segments, sutures and itig. 
mata obscure. 

Puftt .- Length i to i mm. ; white, changing to dark 
before the imago emerges. Appears to have nine 
abdominal segments, the eighth and ninth encasing 
the genitalia. Abdominal segments pubescent above 
and below. The legs are applied to the breast. An- 
tennae joined in front, bent around the eyes, and lying 
between the legs and the iving-pads. As viewed from 
the side, the base of the antenna projects in an obtuse 
point. Two acute conical horns in front, each bear- 
ing a long bristle; also two similar horns without 
bristles just in front of the prothoracic stigmaj the 
latter being small protuberances situated a little above 
the base of the wing-pad. Seven abdominal stigmata 




n the si 



iwed from above 






rt-n, nipple. 



sTdiai..™: ^^"P^*^ projections, ^ .. ^ . „ » . 

abdominal (or the genital segment) 
bears two triangular, Hattened horns on each side 
above, and two fleshy, short protuberances, like pro- 
legs, beneath. 

The female pupa is distinguished from the male by 
its large size and by the eyes only, since, remarkable 
as it may seem, the wing-pads are quite as distinct on 
the female pupa as on that of the male. The pupre 
before me are sufficiently advanced to show the female 
organs through the transparent pupa-skin. After the 
pupa is a day or two old, the eyes are distinctly seen ; 
those of the female being much smaller, rounded above 
and truncated next to the mouth-parts, while the eyes 
of the male pupa are larger and more ovale, the mar- 
gins converging next to the mouth-parts. 



Described from ii large series of live, alcoholic, and balsam 
specimens, bred from tubers reared from specimens collected 




OF' WASHINGTON. 



157 




Fig. 19. — Work q{ Epidapus scabiei. 



in the greenhouse. Types in collection of West Virginia Ag- 
ricultural Experiment »Station. 

Habits. 

The adults are very rapid in their movements, abruptly stopping 
and starting at short intervals. The short-winged males seldom 
attempt to fly, but like the wingless females, when alarmed, con- 
ceal themselves in the soil, or in the substance infested by them. 
The long- winged males 
under the same condi- 
tions escape by flight. 
The females are some- 
times seen to leap like 
fleas. They readily move 
about through loose 
earth, and have been 
observed to go into the 
soil for considerable 
depth. They deposit 
from twenty to thirty 

eggs, which hatch in five to six days. The larvae move about 
freely through damp soil and in the substance on which they 
are feeding, and, at times, they are quite active. They may 
occur singly or in great numbers, massed together in the sub- 
stance infested by them. They appear to spin a web wherever 
they go, and if the substance upon which they are feeding 
is exposed to the light they will quickly spin a web over 
the surface in order 
to conceal t h e m - 
selves beneath i t . 
Under f a v o r a b le 
conditions, they will 
cease feeding i n 
seven or eight days 
after they are 
hatched, and, after 
wandering about for 
a short time, they 
proceed to make a cocoon, apparently of silk, in the soil, 
or in the outer portion of the substance inhabited by them, 
and in about three days they change to pupae, the adults 
emerging in three or four days after. The female commences 
to deposit eggs in five to six days after she emerges, and usually 
dies soon after performing this duty. Thus it will be seen that, 
under favorable conditions, a brood or generation may develop 
every twenty to twenty-five days. 




Fig. 20. — Work ol Epidapus scabiei. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

This species has been reared from potatoes obtained from 
different sections of our State (West Virginia) and from seed 
tubers received from Philadelphia. It has also occurred in the 
new greenhouse at the station in great numbers during the past 
winter, and was reared from ordinary potting soil, from stable 
manure, and was found common in all stages in the mushroom 
bed in the greenhouse. 

That the larvae will feed upon and develop from eggs to pupae 
in the healthy substance of the potato tuber there can be no 
doubt, since I have repeatedly demonstrated the fact by transferring 
the eggs and young larvae to slight wounds in the skin of the 
tubers ; also by placing healthy young tubers with infested ones 
in the breeding jar. That the wounds inhabited by" them are not 
necessarily extended by the action of fungi or bacteria is evident 
from the fact that a wound which is being rapidly extended by 
the larvae . will cease to enlarge and commence to heal, or form 
cork cells, as soon as all of the larvae are removed. 

Figs. 19 and 20 (Experiment 6520a) show result of 
scarified tuber placed in breeding-jar with tuber infested with 
larvae. Experiment commenced March 3, 1894. The initials 
A. D. H. were made with the point of a needle, by just breaking 
through the skin of a healthy tuber. On March loth large 
number of larvae were feeding in the wounds. On March 15th 
the larvae had entered deeply into the substance (Fig. 20) ; 
photographs and drawings made and experiment ended. Speci- 
mens as illustrated preserved in alcohol. 

Dr. Williston, to whom I sent specimens of this species, refers 
to it, in a letter dated March 20, 1894, ^^ follows : 

" The form is of especial interest, as the male has been 
heretofore unknown. But a single species of the genus is known 
(^Efidapus venaticus Haliday), and that has been rarely seen. 
I have gone over the subject very carefully, and have no doubt 
whatever but that it is a true Epidapus. Schiner and Winnertz 
both thought that the female was a wingless Sciara, but the male 
offers sufficient characters to distinguish the genus in itself." 

The long wing of one form of the male would place the 
species with the Sciara, but the difference in the mouth-parts 
and genital organs, antennae, tibial spurs, and tarsus are 
sufficiently distinct to separate it from Sciara. 

The only difference I find from Schiner's description of 
Epidapus is in the palpi, which are referred to by him as having 
four joints. In the large series of examples examined, I have in 
every case utterly failed to find a jointed palpus, but, instead, the 
inverted cone-shaped organ described and figured. However, I 
am not ready to say that the joints are obsolete. 

The fact that a large percentage of the males have short wings, 



OF WASHINGTON. 159 

while others have very long ones, is of interest. I have reared 
and taken these short- winged forms under the most favorable 
conditions for the full development of the wings, yet we often 
find all of them with short wings. I also find the long-winged 
forms developing under unfavorable conditions. What seems 
most remarkable, however, is that in a large number of specimens 
reared from eggs taken from a jar, in which all of the males 
apparently had short wings, all of the males hatching from the 
eggs had long wings. 

Three species of Sciara have been bred from potato tubers 
during the investigation referred to. One of them was deter- 
mined by Dr. Williston as Sciara aliata. Another he deter- 
mined as probably a new species, which I will refer to, 'in this 
connection, as Sciara species No. i. I have recently reared the 
other species, which I will mention as Sciara species No. 2. The 
larvae of species No. i were found to have similar habits to 
those of Epidapus scabiei^ and can scarcely be distinguished 
from them, except that the Sciara larvae are larger. The 
abundance of this species in flower-pots in the greenhouse and in 
windows and flying in the open air indicates that it must be quite 
common. 

Sciara species No. 2 was reared from tubers showing the 
characteristic injuries caused by Epidapus and Sciara species No. 
I . The larvae and pupae were found in the dead tissue, but the 
larvae were not observed, like the others, to feed on the living 
tissue. 

With the mass of evidence resulting from the extensive modern 
investigation of the so-called potato-scab and the potato-rot, 
which goes to prove that all forms of both these troubles are due 
to parasitic fungi and bacteria, together with the fact that the 
insect theory, with reference to their cause, has, it would appear, 
been universally discarded by European and American investi- 
gators, it would seem the height of presumption upon my part 
to claim that these insects are the cause of certain forms of both 
scab and rot, or at least what are recognized as such. 

While I admit that one or more forms of the so-called potato- 
scab may be due to the action of fungi, and that the true potato- 
rot is a fungous disease, I am confident that there are forms 
heretofore recognized as scab and rot which are not due to 
fungous disease, but are the direct result of the attack of insects 
belonging to the family Mycetophilidae and to the genera Sciara 
and Epidapus. 

MoRGANTOWN, West Va , May /, i8g4. 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

The paper was briefly discussed by Messrs. Riley and Gill. 
Professor Riley asked whether it was necessary to make a wound 
in the potato before the larva would feed upon it. Mr. Hopkins 
replied that this was necessary with old potatoes, but that the 
larvae do not need an artificial orifice in feeding upon sound young 
potatoes. Prof. Riley remarked that the statement that the ento- 
mologists had abandoned the idea that scab is caused by insects 
was incorrect. He thought that no one insect is concerned in 
the work. Several larvae are in the habit of wounding potatoes, 
and just as the so-called scab upon apple is variously caused, so 
does scab upon potatoes arise from several different causes. Mr. 
Hopkins said that he had been misapprehended, and that mycol- 
ogists — Thaxter and Bolle, for instance — had contended that 
the insect theory must be abandoned. Mr. Gill asked how long 
the scab is in developing. Mr. Hopkins replied that the feeding 
period of the larva is about seven days. It may work a short 
time and produce a scab of one appearance, or it may work a 
longer time and produce a larger and more serious scab. It may 
also work until the potato is practically destroyed, and resembles 
one affected by an advanced stage of rot. The true potato- rot, 
however, has a very offensive odor, whereas potatoes destroyed 
by these larvae have no such odor. No mould or rot sets in 
while the insects are at work, but when they cease feeding both 
mould and decay set in. 

— Professor Riley exhibited a series of West Indian Termites, 
comprising Eutertnes morio and E, rippertii^ the latter having 
been found in Jamaica. He briefly distinguished the species 
and said that he had opened more than forty nests. He showed 
that there is no regularity in the sexed occupants, some of the 
nests being queenless while others had several queens. Some- 
times the queen would be without escort, and sometimes she 
would have two or more males. 

— Mr. Benton exhibited a nest and living specimens of a 
Melipona, possibly M, favosa^ ordinarily known as the Bottle 
Bee of the West Indies, which had been brought home by Mr. 
Hubbard from the Island of Montserrat. These were actively at 
work and Mr. Benton explained the structure of thp hive. Some 
little excitement was caused by the exhibition of a colony of free 
live bees until it was remembered that the Meliponae are stingless. 



OF WASHINGTON. 161 

June 7, 1894. 

The President, Mr. Ashmead, in the chair, and Messrs. Riley, 
Schwarz, Coquillett, Marx, Sudworth, McGee, Stiles, Johnson, 
Pergande, Heidemann, Fernow, Benton, De Schweinitz, Chit- 
tenden, Waite, Linell, Pratt, Gill, Howard, Marlatt, Kuehling 
present. Mr. Clias. Palm, of New York city', was elected a 
corresponding member. 

President Ashmead made some brief remarks, congratulating 
the Society upon having attained its one hundredth meeting and 
upon its prosperous career and prospects. 

— The Recording Seci*etary, Mr. Howard, read the following : 

A REVIEW OF THE WORK OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

During the First Ten Years of its Existence. 
By L. O. Howard. 

It is so true and self-evident as to be almost trite that those 
exalted personages who have charge of the destinies of nations 
should be thoroughly informed in the history of the nations which 
they govern, in order to be best fitted to control their future intelli- 
gently and successfully. It is equally true that it behooves the 
individual to pause at certain periods of his career and indulge in 
retrospect — to weigh his past actions and their results ; to indulge, 
it may be, in regrets, vain in semblance, but instructive and use- 
ful in their possible influence upon his future. So, since this 
Society, which we have all helped to build up, has worked steadily 
away for ten years without a stop, this one hundredth meeting 
affords us a chance to look back over what we have done 
and to acquaint ourselves with the results and with the means 
by which they have been brought about, and such a review of our 
uneventful but steadily prosperous career it has fallen to me to 
prepare. 

For several years before the foundation of this Society there had 
been a strong feeling among the few of us associated in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture that an entomological society was almost a 
necessity, and in February, 1884, Dr. Riley, Mr. Schwarz, and 
the writer drew up the call which resulted in the founding of the 
' * Entomological Society of Washington." The prime mover and 
person with whom the idea really originated was Professor Riley. 

The meeting for organization was held at Professor Riley's 
house, February 29, 1884, and was attended by Dr. W. S. Bar- 



162 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

nard, Mr. Albert Koebele, Judge Lawrence Johnson, Mr. B. P. 
Mann, Rev. Dr. J. G. Morris, Prof. C. V. Riley, Dr. A. J. 
Shaffirt, Mr. E. A. Schwarz, Mr. A. H. Stewart, and Mr. L. 
O. Howard. Letters were read fi'om Capt. T. L. Casey, Mr. 
C. R. Dodge, and Prof. John Murdock. That Nestor of North 
American entomology. Dr. J. G. Morris, occupied the chair. 

Salient events in the history of the Society have been almost 
entirely lacking. We have worked steadily along, making no 
particular noise in the world. We have been satisfied with a 
small beginning and in a slow but steady improvement, believing 
that the safest method is to feel our way slowly and establish 
ourselves upon solid ground as we proceed. There is little, then, 
in our history except a recital of those slow steps and a grouping of 
dry figures. We met for a while in the lecture-rbom of the 
National Museum, through the courtesy of Prof. Baird and Prof. 
Goode, but the desirability of introducing the social element soon 
forced itself upon us, and the ease with which this could be 
accomplished with so small a society was so apparent that at the 
close of the second year the meetings began to be held at the 
houses of members. The three preliminary meetings for organi- 
zation were held at Professor Riley's former residence, 1700 13th 
street, and the seventeen meetings immediately succeeding were 
held in the Council Room of the National Museum. The change 
just indicated was signalized by the eighteenth regular meeting, 
which was, upon invitation, held at the residence of Dr. Marx. Dr. 
Marx was followed in regular order by Messrs. Howard, Schwarz, 
Smith, Heidemann, and Mann, and these six members, together 
with Professor Riley, took turns in entertaining the Society 
up to the thirty-eighth meeting, when Dr. Fox entered the 
list of hosts. The 626 meeting was held at Mr. C. R. Dodge's 
and the 70th and three later meetings at Mr. Fernow's. When 
the 76th meeting was reached the so-called " bachelor members " 
of the Society, having accepted for so many months the 
hospitalities of the married members, entertained the Society at 
Faber's Hall, and this they have done three times since. Mr. 
Ashmead acted as host at the 84th meeting and Professor Gill at 
the 99th. The list, then, stands as follows : National Museum, 
17 ; Professor Riley, 14 ; Mr. Schwarz, 12 ; Dr. Marx, 12 ; Mr. 
Howard, 9 ; Mr. Heidemann, 8 ; Dr. Fox, 8 ; Mr. Smith, 4 ; Mr. 
Mann, 4 ; Mr. Fernow, 4 ; the "bachelor members,*' 4; Mr. 
Ashmead, 2 ; Mr. Dodge, i ; Dr. Gill, i. Out of this whole list 
Dr. Fox's hospitality stands out, since he was a member of the 
Society for a comparatively short time and yet entertained it on 
no less than eight occasions. In corresponding proportion 
Professor Riley, Dr. Marx, and Mr. Schwarz follow close behind. 
All of the annual meetings have been held at the residence of 



OF WASHINGTON. 163 

Professor Riley, with the exception of that for 1892, which was 
held at Mr. Howard's. Too much cannot be said in support of 
the semi-social feature which the Society has introduced in its 
meetings. It would be difficult to estimate the influence which 
this move has had upon the success of the Society, but it must 
have been great. Scientific men of other societies who have 
attended our meetings, and who have, in fact, joined our ranks, 
have said that the Entomological Society of Washington is the 
livest society in the city and that its meetings are the most 
interesting. 

Our present plan, however, is possible only with a small 
society and cannot be followed by an organization having an 
average attendance of much more than 20. 

This brings me naturally to a consideration of the attendance 
at our meetings. I find that at the 99 meetings which we have 
held there has been a total attendance of i ,090 and that the 
average attendance at each meeting has, therefore, been 1 1 . The 
highest number attending any one meeting was at the 97th, when 
we were addressed by Professor Poulton, of Oxford, England, 
when 27 persons were in attendance. The smallest number at 
any one meeting has been four. If we take it right through the 
whole ten years, this attendance has been very satisfactory, since 
we began with a resident membership of 17, several of whom 
took a very slight interest in the subject and never attended a 
single meeting, and since we have now a resident membership of 
about 30. 

Our list of non-resident or corresponding members was begun 
by the removal of resident members from Washington, and it 
was not until 1893 that a special effort was made to increase this 
list. At that time letters were written to a number of entomol- 
ogists, suggesting that they might consider it advantageous to join 
the Society, and as a result our corresponding list now numbers 
S6, including nearly all of the most prominent entomologists in 
this country and a number from other parts of the world. The 
total number of members of all classes who have been connected 
w^ith the Society, either as residents or correspondents, reaches 

133- 

The standing of a society, however, must be judged not by the 

number of its members, but by the character of the papers pre- 
sented before it and by the comparative number of its members 
w^ho have taken an active part in its discussions. In these re- 
spects our Society need not fear comparison with other work- 
ing societies. A careful analysis of the facts as displayed in our 
minutes shows that 47 persons have read papers before the 
Society, having presented 341 more or less formal communi- 
cations. Ninety-four persons have exhibited specimens and many 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

have presented short notes. Of the 341 formal papers, all of 
which have been published, either in full or by abstract, in our 
proceedings, 257, or more than ^, have been read by 9 members, 
viz., Messrs. Schwarz, Riley, Howard, Marx, Smith, Ashmead, 
Townsend, Marlatt, and Lugger. We need not look far for the 
most prolific member of the Society. Every one present could 
pick him out without a suggestion from me. Mr. Schwarz has 
read 65 papers before the Society, or more than ^ of the whole 
number of papers presented. He has averaged about f of a paper 
at every meeting. Not very far behind him comes Professor 
Riley with 49 papers. Frequent absence from Washington, no 
doubt, accounts for the fact that Professor Riley does not head 
the list. He has, however, nearly made up for these absences 
by activity when present, and on one occasion he read no less 
than four papers at the same meeting. Following Professor Riley 
come Mr. Howard with 37 papers. Dr. Marx with 33, Dr. Smith 
with 23, Mr. Ashmead with 15, Mr. Townsend with 13, Mr. 
Marlatt with 12, and Professor Lugger with 10. Dr. Fox in the 
comparatively short term of his membership read six papers, and 
Mr. Hubbard has read the same number. Mr. Heidemann has 
presented five, and Mr. Hopkins, with an active interest in the 
Society which other neighboring corresponding members should 
imitate, has also presented five. Mr. Mann, Judge Johnson, 
Mr. Banks, and Mr. Fernow have each presented four papers. 
Dr. Horn, Mr. Dodge, Mr. Ulke, Professor Uhler, Mr. Chittenden, 
and Dr. Stiles have each presented three papers. Captain Casey, 
Mr. Pergande, Mr. Sherman, Dr. Bergroth, and Mr. Benton 
have read two each, while Dr. Barnard, Professor Murdoch, 
Professor Osborn, Mr. Liebeck, Mr. Coville, Baron Osten 
Sacken, Mr. Linell, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Mally, Professor 
Summers, Dr. Gill, Professor Doran, Professor Poulton, Mr. 
Cockerell, Mr. Davis, Mr. Masius, and Mr. Webster have read 
one each ; making a grand total of 341 , or an average of from three 
to four papers at every meeting which the Society has held. 

It is in the character of the papers presented that our Society 
differs rather widely from any other entomological society in 
existence, so far as I am able to judge, and the most distinguish- 
ing feature, when we glance over the list of papers as a whole, lies 
in the fact that the habits of insects, their life-histories and trans- 
formations, and topics of wider range have engaged our attention 
to a much greater extent than bare, systematic papers. It has 
resulted from this fact that our proceedings are widely read and 
are found to be of more general interest than the publications of 
other societies. A well-known entomologist, writing to the 
Corresponding Secretary in acknowledgment of the receipt of 
one of the numbers of our proceedings, stated that he picked it up 



OF WASHINGTON. 165 

after dinner and only laid it down at midnight having read care- 
fully every word within its covers. Can you imagine that any 
entomologist, no matter how strong his interest in the subject, 
could keep himself from falling asleep over the pages of the 
publications of any of our contemporary societies after a hard 
day's work and a good dinner ? 

Of the papers read 107 have treated of the habits or transfor- 
mations of insects ; 24 have treated of the geographical distri- 
bution of insects or of the characteristics of the insect fauna of 
more or less restricted regions; 13 may be classified under the 
head of economic entomology ; 9 have delt with bibliographical 
topics ; 9 can be classified only as general papers, including a 
variety of topics ; 9 have been devoted to the consideration of 
some one or many phases of parasitism ; 6 have been biographical 
in their character ; 5 have been devoted to questions of technique ; 
4 have considered insect physiology ; 4 have treated of the insect 
faunas of certain plants ; 4 have been devoted to evolutionary 
topics as evidenced in entomology ; 3 have discussed collecting 
methods ; 3 have touched upon insect products ; questions of 
synonymy have received treatment in 2 papers ; the relations of 
flowers and insects have been discussed in 2 ; poisonous insects 
in 2 ; cave insects, the edibility of insects, the relations of birds 
and insects, and mimicry have been treated in i paper upon each 
topic. One paper has been historical in its character. The 
seasons of insects have been treated in i paper, and i paper has 
been given before us on the subject of Nematodes. 

Among the orders of insects, we have paid the most attention 
to the Coleoptera. Messrs. Schwarz, Riley, Smith, Lugger, 
Horn, Ulke, and Linell are responsible for this preponderance 
of coleopterological papers. In all, 91 papers relating to this 
order have been read. Second in rank comes the order 
Hymenoptera. Messrs. Aslimead, Marlatt, Riley, Pergande, 
and Howard, with one or two others, have presented 58 papers 
referring to this order. The order Lepidoptera has been pre- 
sented by 36 papers, which were mainly presented by Messrs. 
Smith and Riley, although Messrs. Lugger, Marlatt, and Schwarz 
are also represented in this list. Upon the insects of the order 
Hemiptera we have listened to 22 papers. On Diptera 19 papers 
have been read. Upon Orthoptera 7 papers have been read, and 
upon Neuroptera and Pseudo-Neuroptera 4. There has been 
a very large number of papers presented upon different phases 
of the study of the Arachnida. The Society has been fortunate 
in possessing among its members so eminent a student of this 
group as Dr. George Marx. He and his co-laborers, Messrs. 
Fox and Banks, have read 49 papers upon this class, and to this 
fact is due the presence upon our list of corresponding members 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

of the names of Thorell, of Montpellicr, and Kulszynski, of 
Cracow. 

The lack of systematic papers is evidenced by the fact that in 
running over our Proceedings I notice descriptions of but 95 new 
species and 13 new genera. The absence of papers of this 
character undoubtedly adds to the readability of our Proceedings, 
but it is a question whether a more frequent publication of careful 
work of this character would not establish for the Proceedings a 
more ready sale. Most entomologists are systematists, and the 
possession of copies of the descriptions of all species in the group 
which one is studying is almost a sine qua non to one w^ho is 
working upon classification. 

Upon this point it may be stated that the majority of the active 
members of the Society are entomologists by profession. Our 
Proceedings offer a channel of publication for notes of the 
character indicated above, but these notes by no means comprise 
even a large proportion of the working output of the contributors. 
Their economic results find space in the publications of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, while the results of their systematic 
labors are published in the Proceedings of the U. S. National 
Museum or in the transactions of learned societies. Our own 
Proceedings would be overwhelmed with matter of a systematic 
character had we the means to publish more extensively, and this 
brings us to the question of funds. 

We have published in all, in the ten years of our existence, 
785 pages, and this has cost us $1,457.43, as I am informed by 
the Treasurer, Mr. Schwarz, who has drawn up for me the 
figures which I shall now use. The cost of printing has been 
divided as follows : 

April 6, 1886, Vol. I, No. I, 
March 19, 1888, " 2, - - 

April 6, 1889, '' 3, . - 

June 6, 1890, '' 4, - - 

Volume I complete, - - - - 

April 8, 1891, Vol. 2, No. i, 
July 2, 1892, '' 2, - - 

January, 27, 1893, '' 3^ " - 

July 19, 1893, '^ 4, - - 

Volume II complete, - _ - 

April 6, 1894, Vol. 3, No. i, 

Total Proceedings, ----- $1,457.43 



$52.58 




146.88 




128.25 




207.25 




. 


$534-96 


$273.27 




216.35 




157.00 




144.00 




- 


$790.62 


$131.85 


131.85 



OF WASHINGTON. 167 

Printing has naturally been the main expense of the Society. 
The other expenditures have amounted in all to $65.06, or an 
average of about $6 per year. Of this amount the Society's 
share in the publication of the Joint Directory of the Scientific 
Societies of Washington has, in the three years in which we have 
been represented, consumed nearly $32. The total amount 
which has been collected since the Society started has been 
$1,643.76, of which, as above stated, $1,457.43 has been ex- 
pended for publications and $65.06 for other expenses, leaving 
a balance of $121.27 ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ treasury. Of this amount 
$770.69 was contributed for the specific purpose of publication, 
voluntarily and by a comparatively few members of the Society, 
and the balance was derived from dues and the sale of Pro- 
ceeding, — $630.14 from dues and $235.49 from sale of Proceed- 
ings. • 

The great need of the Society at the present time is a permanent 
publication fund of from $10,000 upwards, and members are 
earnestly requested not to lose a single opportunity to press the 
importance of such a donation to science in particular, and to the 
world at large, upon chance millionaires of their acquaintance. 
This reminder may seem somewhat farcical, but I happen to 
know that one enthusiastic member has already approached two 
men of large means, without, I am sorry to say, accomplishing 
the result. He has retired from each encounter filled with the idea 
that the average millionaire is poorer than the average govern- 
ment clerk. 

So long, however, as this country possesses men of the stamp 
of Smithson, Rockafellar, Stanford, Clark, Cornell, Jesup, and 
many others who might be mentioned, the Society need not 
despair. 

Who knows but a clause may be found in the will of some one 
of the men who are already active members of our Society, which 
will put us upon a firm financial basis? We are not looking for 
ward to the demise of any of our wealthy members, and hope 
that they may be with us for many years to come. When, how- 
ever, full of years and full of honor, they prepare themselves for 
the inevitable end, let us hope that, while the claims of family 
must be paramount, a little slice of their accumulated riches may 
be left to the struggling organization upon which they -have shed 
the lustre of their names. 

This one hampering question of means settled, the Society 
possesses within itself the qualities of strength, vitality, and ability 
which will, without doubt, place it among the foremost ento- 
mological organizations of the world. 



168 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

— ^Mr. Pergande read the following : 

ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE HABITS OP 

AMMOPHILA GRYPHUS SM. 

By Theo. Pergande. 

Since my observations on the habits of this species, published 
in the Proc. Ent. Soc. of Washington, Vol. II, No. 2, June 27, 
1892, I was fortunate to meet this species again in the same 
locality and to note a few more of its characteristics while in the 
act to provide for its future offspring. 

On the twenty-ninth day of September, while leisurely walking 
up hill on the same slope where the first observation was made, 
and while near the top of this slope, I noticed suddenly, in a 
rather sandy section, which was almost bare of vegetation, save 
a few isolated tufts of grass or a few other plants, one female 
of this species, running briskly about, with her head quite close to 
the ground, as if in search for something of more than usual inter- 
est. After travelling about twenty feet, in a more or less straight 
line, stopping here and there to investigate the surface of the soil 
and its surroundings, she came to a perfectly bare spot, where she 
stopped for a few moments and scratched the surface slightly, so 
as to form a very shallow depression, after which she commenced 
to retrace her steps in a somewhat roundabout way, describing 
in her wanderings an elongated ellipse, stopping again here and 
there to investigate the surroundings, till she reached a bare spot in 
the vicinity of an oak, where a larva of Heterocampa sub- 
albicans was stretched out on the sand, dead to all appearances, 
though perfectly fresh, as if but recently killed, and which, no 
doubt, had been stung and temporarily deposited on the sand 
until it could be disposed of. After finding it again, she straddled 
it, took hold of it not far from the head and travelled with her 
load in an almost direct line to the spot which she had marked 
previously. Arriving at her destination, she laid down the larva 
and commenced in earnest to dig a hole for its reception ; the 
whole operation lasting but a few seconds. After finishing the 
chamber, she came out, took hold of the larva, dragged it to its 
destination at the bottom of the chamber, and remained with it 
for about two minutes ; after emerging again, she remained in 
front of the opening for a moment and uttered a jsound like 
"ched ched," then took a small pebble, rolled it into the opening 
and scraped a little sand after it ; another pebble was added and 
more sand scraped in, the insect uttering meanwhile the same 
sound. After this, the hole was gradually filled up and the sand 
tightly pushed in, till full, when the remaining material was 



OF WASHINGTON. 169 

carefully scraped over the entrance so that scarcely a trace of her 
work was left, the whole operation lasting about twelve minutes. 
After this was done, she left, but I caught her. 



— In a paper entitled " Observations on the mating of queens of 
Afis mellifica^^^ Mr. Frank Benton alluded to the great interest 
w^hich ancient naturalists manifested in regard to reproduction 
among bees and the mystery surrounding the subject, and cited 
the views of Swammerdam, De Braw, Reaumur, Huber, and 
other noted investigators of bee-life during the past century. 
He described experiments made by Reaumur and Huber to secure 
artificial fertilization of queens. This was followed by a brief 
statement of the facts as now known regarding the flights and 
mating of queens of various races of Apis mellijica^ especial 
mention being made of the view universally accepted at this time 
that the queen mates but once during her life. In proof of the 
error of this view, Mr. Benton quoted from his note-book for 
1886 the records, unpublished as yet, of two queens bred by him 
in Cyprus which he had watched closely and which mated the 
second time ; and he also cited a record published in the Deutsche 
illustrierte Bienenzeitung for August, 1893, by K. Befort, 
wherein it was stated that a certain queen had mated twice, 
the second time two days after the first. Mr. Benton believed these 
three observations were made with sufficient accuracy to prove 
beyond doubt that queens do in some instances mate twice, not- 
withstanding the fact that for a half century or more the opposite 
view has been held. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Riley, Benton, Gill, 
Schwarz, and Pergande. Professor Riley stated that with the 
bottle-bee of the West Indies two or three or even five eggs 
are enclosed in each cell and that all but one of these must 
perish. Mr. Benton said that with Melipona all of the eggs are laid 
in cells, which are sealed before the larvae hatch, but in the hive- 
bee the cells remain open even to the end of the feeding period and 
the workers remove the superfluous eggs. Dr. Gill remarked upon 
Mr. Benton's ability to recognize individual queens and asked 
whether he could explain how he did it. Mr. Benton replied that 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

it was very hard to say. It is a question of general appearance, 
size, color, shape, actions, and other points combined to produce 
an individual. Mr. Scnwarz asked whether there is a double 
mating among the ants. Mr. Pergande replied that the queens live 
several years, but nothing is known as to whether they mate 
more than once. In his belief a single mating suffices. Mr. 
Schwarz stated that with the white ants all observers agree that 
no one has ever seen a copulation. This must take place within 
the nests, and the queens are so long-lived that there must be sev- 
eral matings. 

— Mr. Schwarz spoke on the composition and extent of the 
Coleopterous fauna of Alaska in connection with Dr. Ham- 
ilton's recently published catalogue. He gave an outline of 
the history of the entomological exploration of that country, 
commenting more especially upon the thoroughness of the 
Russian explorations in the earlier half of the present century. 
The greatest number of the species, as described or enumerated 
in ount Mannerheim's well-known "Contributions," form 
an extremely well-defined division of the boreal faunal zone, 
the extent of which is much larger than it has hitherto been 
accepted by entomologists. As a result of a short trip undertaken 
by Mr. H. G. Hubbard and Mr. Schwarz in 1892, through parts 
of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, Mr. Schwarz 
stated that along the coast range of Oregon and Washington this 
Alaskan fauna still predominates, so that the number of species 
said to be peculiar to Alaska must be greatly reduced. This 
fauna extends from the base of the peninsula of Aliaska into 
northern California, ks southernmost representatives occurring in 
the more elevated portions of the Santa Cruz Mountains. It 
occupies the narrow strip of the coast range region, which, 
north of Puget Sound, is broken up into numerous islands, and 
the western slope of the Cascade Mountains south to a point not 
yet definitely ascertained, but probably not attaining the Columbia 
river. It is very rich in characteristic species which do not occur 
elsewhere. Another faunal region includes the peninsula of 
Aliaska, the Aleutian Islands, and the southern part of the west 
coast of Alaska. It extends to the Asiatic side of Behring Sea, 
but contains but few characteristic species. The fauna of con- 



OF WASHINGTON. 171 

tinental Alaska, although but little explored, does not appear to 
possess any species peculiar to itself and is plainly only a westward 
extension of the boreal fauna of North America and in no way 
different from the fauna of the Rocky Mountain system or 
that of the Lake Superior region. 

This paper was discussed by Dr. Gill, who stated that the distri- 
bution mentioned by Mr. Schwarz is somewhat reinforced by 
the distribution of other animals, and that it was also somewhat 
variant. Mollusks and fishes of Alaska are European and 
Siberian, and same may be said of certain of the mammals. Mr. 
Schwarz added that the Alaskan fauna constitutes a well-marked 
faunal region of the country, comprising one peculiar family, the 
u^gialitidaB, and a host of genera and species which do not occur 
elsewhere. 

— Mr. Schwarz also read some remarks on the West Indian 
sugar-cane borer {Xyleborus perforans Woll.) and dwelt upon 
the difficulties in ascertaining whether or not this species really 
occurs in the United States. The females of quite a rmmber of 
species of Xyleborus are utterly indistinguishable, for the present 
at least, and reliable determination can only be made from the 
males, which are very rare and difficult to obtain. He had never 
seen in North American collections a male which exactly 
corresponded with that of X. perforans^ and the description of 
X. retusicollis Zimm. leaves some doubt regarding its identity. 
Eichoff's X. ajffinis is said to be identical with X, perforans^ but it 
is doubtful whether the type of the male of A. ajffinis came 
from the West Indies or the United States. As a peculiarity 
in the history of X. perforans^ Mr. Schwarz pointed out the 
sudden and simultaneous appearance of the species in the sugar 
plantations throughout the West Indies. ' The cultivation of 
sugar-cane in the West Indies is very old, but until quite recently 
nothing was heard of the attack of the beetle on sugar-cane in 
any of the islands. 

This communication was briefly discussed by Messrs. Riley 
and Howard. Dr. Riley said that the sudden appearance of the 
sugar-cane borer was probably due to the general introduction of 
the ribbon-cane from Ceylon or some other East Indian point. 

— Under the head of short notes and exhibition of specimens, 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Prof. Riley announced the breeding of perfect females of 
Margarodes and stated that this rearing showed the synonymy 
of Margarodes with Porphyrophora. The female is active and 
crawls out of the ground. The male, however, has not yet been 
reared. Further confirmation of the ideas which he expressed 
concerning the formation of the scale at the last meeting has been 
found as pores of a specialized character have been observed 
through which the scale material is probably secreted. Two 
forms of the female have been observed, — the one not forming a 
nidus of wax-like secretion ; the other encloses itself like a 
mealy-bug and lays eggs. He has also received specimens of 
another species from South America since the last meeting. 
Some further discussion ensued on the male of Porphyrophora 
and the probable male of Margarodes. 



October ii, 1894. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and there were also 
present Messrs. Riley, Schwarz, Waite, Chittenden, Linell, 
Stiles, Hubbard, Patten, Marlatt, Heidemann, Marx, Dodge, 
Coquillett, Mann, Gill, Fernow, and Howard. 

The following new bembers were elected : Active, J. D. 
Patten, 3033 P St., West Washington; corresponding, C. E. 
Chambliss, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, and 
Dr. A. B. Griffiths, 12 Knolles Road, Brixton, London, Eng- 
land. 

— Mr. Marlatt presented the following note : 

ON THE FOOD-HABITS OF ODYNERUS. 

By C. L. Marlatt. 

Early in October, 1894, while making some observations on 
certain insects affecting the black locust, Robinia fseudacacia^ 
my attention was attracted to the peculiar actions of a small spe- 
cies of Odynerus. The insect was observed to examine, appar- 
ently with some care, the sewed-together leaves of the locust, 
which contained, or had contained, the larvae of Pempclia 
gleditschiella. The little wasp eventually rested for a moment 
on the upper surface of one of these tied- together leaves, seemed 
to make a careful examination, and then immediately ran to the 



OF WASHINGTON. 173 

under side, where examination showed that it was vigorously 
biting through the lower leaf. In a very few seconds it had cut 
a small opening, something less than J inch in diameter, seized 
the Pempelia larva and gave it a few turns between its man- 
dibles, immediately taking flight. Examination of the tree showed 
that nearly every one of these tied-together leaves, of which there 
were many, had from one to two of these irregular holes in the 
under surface, undoubtedly indicating the very thorough manner 
in which the tree had been worked by these or other Odyneri. 
All of the Odyneri provision their cells with the larvae of small 
Lepidoptera, or in some cases the larvae of leaf-eating Coleoptera 
and of sawflies. A very curious case is mentioned by Westwood, 
in which an Odynerus was seen to adopt a peculiar method to 
secure a Tortricid larva. He says that the wasp was seen 
to thrust its sting into one end of the roll made by a little leaf- 
roUer, and then to run immediately to the opposite end to see if 
the larva had been thus frightened from its quarters. It is a very 
reasonable supposition, in view of these observations and the 
known habits of the group, that the smaller species, at least, of 
Odynerus prey very largely on the larvae of Microlepidoptera, 
particularly those in the leaf-tying or leaf-rolling groups. 



The note was discussed by Messrs. Riley, Ashmead, and 
Schwarz. Professor Riley said that the habit must be nearly 
universal, since examination of the cells of Odynerus shows that 
as a rule they store up Tortricid larvae. Mr. Ashmead discussed 
the habits of the genus in general, and said that he had found in 
the cells of this wasp the cocoons of Meteorus and Microgaster. 
The larvae which spun these cocoons, however, must have been 
parasitic upon lepidopterous larvae stored up by the wasp. This 
is an indication of the difficulty of ascertaining the true host of 
certain parasites. Mr. Schwarz said that the Odynerus the cells 
of which are found in the old burrows of Anthophora around 
Washington always stores Tortricid larvae. 

— A paper by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, entitled " Some Obser- 
vations on the Distribution of the Coccidae," was read by the 
acting Corresponding Secretary. It was discussed by Mr. 
Schwarz, who said that, on account of the ease of commercial 
distribution of the insects of this family, it is now almost too late 
to generalize on the natural geographical distribution of the 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

group. Where we collect species in uninhabited regions, or at 
least in countries as yet undisturbed by civilization and cultivation, 
we may reasonably assume them to be indigenous ; but in most 
localities any species discovered may have been introduced. 
— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

NOTES ON THE GENUS LIOPTERON PERTY. 

By Wm. H. Ashmead. 

The genus Liopteron was described by Dr, M. Party, in his 
sumptuous work " Delectus animalium articulatorum, etc.," pub- 
lished during the years i83o-'34, with one species, L, com- 
pressum ; and for forty years this was the only representative of 
the genus known. In 1837, in Guerin's Magazine de Zoologie, 
Prof. John O. West wood redescribed the genus and its type, and 
erected the genus Peras for a new and closely allied form with 
a single species, P, nigra. 

Again, in 1874, Westwood, in his " Thesaurus Entomologicus 
Oxoniensis,'* treats of the genus Liopteron and now adds eight 
new species to the genus, viz., Liopteron abdominale^ L, 
apicale^ L. bifasciatum^ L, clavicorne^ L, fuscicorne^ L, 
nigripenne^ L, subpetiolatum^ and L, unifas datum. 

Since this appeared, Mr. Peter Cameron, in Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, in the part published in 1883, added one more species 
to the genus, L, westwoodii^ and the first species to be described 
from North America, all the others having come from the 
Amazon region in Soutli America. 

Up to the present time, therefore, only ten species are known. 

In Mr. H. Herbert Smith's collection of South American 
Chalcididae, now in my hands for determination, several species 
of this rare genus were discovered, three of which are apparently 
undescribed, and the present paper is the outcome of a study of 
this material. 

Prof. Westwood considered Liopteron and his genus Peras 
to be closely allied to the genus Anacharis Dalman, and late 
authorities have followed him in these views, Dalla Torre, in his 
recent catalogue, having placed the genus in the subfamily 
Anacharinae. 

A careful study of the Herbert Smith material, mentioned 
above, convinces me Liopteron represents quite a distinct group, 
and possibly an ancient phyla of the Cynipidae from whence 
originated some of the Chalcididae {JSurytoma^ etc.), and I 
believe it should be kept separate from the other parasitic 
Cy nip idee. 

In the shape of the head and abdomen (in some species), and 



OF WASHINGTON. 175 

in the coarse sculpture of the thorax, it recalls many forms to be 
found in the family Chalcididce^ in the subfamilies Eurytomince 
and the Chalcidince^ and it may possibly be the stem from 
whence some of these forms originated. 

I shall enter more particularly into the subject in my mono- 
graph of the North America Cynipidae, a work upon which I 
have now been engaged for several years, and at present shall 
give merely a table of the subfamilies of one section of the 
family, as follows : 

Section I — Cryptogastri Ashmead. 

Table of Subfamilies. 

Abdomen short, globose or semiglobose, the second segment the long- 
est 3 

Abdomen ovate, compressed or subcompressed, often longly petiolated, 
the apex usually pointed. 

Scutellum cupuliform, /. e., with a cup-like elevation on its disk 2 

Scutellum not cupuliform, of ordinary shape, or grooved, spined or 
cone-shaped, and usually foveated at base. 

Abdomen subsessile or with a short petiole, the second segment shorter 
than the third. 

Second abdominal segment not prolonged dorsally, not tongue- 
shaped Subfam. I. — Figitinae. 

Second abdominal segment prolonged ' dorsally, or tongue- 
shaped Subfam. II. — Onychiinae. 

Abdomen with a long petiole, the second segment somewhat longer 
than the third. 

Petiole attached to the meta thorax between the hind coxae ; fourth 
segment not longer than either the second or third. 

Subfam. Ill— Anacharinae. 
Petiole attached to the metathorax far above the hind coxae ; fourth 
segment much longer than either the second or third. 

Subfam. IV — Liopterinae. 

2. Second abdominal segment always the longest and usually occupying 

most of the surface ; hind tibiae with two spurs . Subfam. V — Eucoelinae. 

3. Scutellum rounded, smooth, convex; hind tibiae with one spur. 

Subfam. VI — Allotriinae. 

Subfamily IV — Liopterin^. 

This subfamily contains but two genera, which may be separated 
as follows : 

Table of Genera, 

Discoidal nervure interstitial with the median nervure; (^ antennae 
14 — 9 13-jointed Liopteron Perty. 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Discoidal nervure not interstitial with the median nervure, issuing from 
the transverse median nervure; (^ antennae 13-jointed (? unknown). 

Peras Westw. 
LlOPTERON PerTY. 

1833. Delect, anim. artic. Brasil, p. 140. 

1837. Westwood, in Guer. Mag. and Zool., No. 179. 

1874. Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 132. 

(Type L. compressum Perty.) 

The following table will assist in determining the species 
known at present : 

Table of Species, 

Body mostly rufous, the abdomen sometimes black 4. 

Head and thorax black, abdomen rufous.. 3. 

Body black. 

Wings black, tinged with purple L. nigripenne Westw. 

Wings dusky, the submarginal cell nigro-fuscous...L. compressum Perty. 

Wings hyaline or subhyaline, sometimes maculate or fasciate. 

Legs rufous 2. 

Legs black. 

Scutellum truncate posteriorly and sinuate medially, the angles 

subtuberculate. 

Anterior wings with a transverse fascia just beyond apex of 

marginal cell and extending to middle of wing; petiole of 

abdomen about 4 times as long as thick.. .L. clavicorne Westw. 

Anterior wings with the extreme base, apex, and the submarginal 

cell dusky, no fascia; petiole of abdomen about 4^ times as 

long as thick L. fuscicorne Westw. 

Scutellum posteriorly subtruncate, not sinuate medially. 

Anterior wings nearly hyaline, their apex faintly but somewhat 

broadly dusky ; petiole about 2^ times as long as thick. 

L. subpetiolatum Westw. 

Wings hyaline, with the base and apex dusky, venation in middle of 

wings yellowish ; scutellum bituberculate at apex. 

L. apicale Westw. 
Wings subfuscous, maculate with hyaline. 

Scutellum truncate posteriorly and slightly sinuate medially; legs 

entirely black; petiole about 5 times as long as thick; antennae 

14-jointed, as long as the body, much incrassated toward apex. J 

L. fenestratum sp. n. 

Wings fuscous, with apical one-third and a band extending through 

the basal half of marginal cell to nearly the hind margin, hyaline; 

legs black, but with the anterior and middle tarsi piceous-brown ; 

scutellum subbidentate posteriorly; body of abdomen not long, 

obtuse or truncate at apex, the petiole about 4 times as long as 

thick L. tarsale 8p. n. 



OF WASHINaTON. 177 

2. Scutellum posteriorly bidentate or obtusely bituberculate ; body of 

abdomen short, subcompressed, the petiole long. 
Wings hyaline, with two transverse fuscous bands. 

L. bifasciatum Westw. 
Wings hyaline, with a single broad transverse band beyond the 
middle L. unifasciatum Westw. 

3. Abdomen much compressed, produced into an acute point at apex as 

in Euryioma ; petiole very long ; legs black. 

Wings smoky, with the basal one-third and a broad band across the 

disk fulvo-ferruginous L. abdominale Westw. 

4. Abdomen black; anterior coxse, trochanters, the hind legs, except 

tarsi, the pectus and metathorax behind black; wings hyaline, with a 

large smoky macula toward apex L. westwoodii Cam. 

Abdomen and legs entirely rufous ; wings hyaline, with a broad fascia 
across the disk of wings; the basal half of marginal cell and the disk 

of wing directly beneath it, hyaline L. rufum sp. n. 

Liopteron fenestratum sp. n. 

(^. — Length 6 mm. Entire body, except head in front and the cheeks, 
black, shining, clothed with long, sparse, whitish hair, denser on cheeks 
and legs; head and thorax coarsely rugose, with deep, large punctures; 
head with a sharp carina between antennae, the face and cheeks honey- 
yellow; antennae 14-jointed, strongly incrassated toward tips, a little 
longer than the body, the first four joints of flagellum long, cylindrical, 
very nearly equal, the second very slightly the longest joint, the fourth 
thicker, the joints from fourth are shorter and somewhat rapidly increase 
in thickness, so that the last eight joints form a long fusiform club ; 
thorax with three complete grooved lines, but somewhat obscured by 
the coarseness of the sculpture, the collar anteriorly abruptly truncate, 
the superior margin sharp, the anterior face polished; scutellum 
obtusely truncate posteriorly, not tuberculous; wings fuscous with 
hyaline spots ; abdomen clavate, the petiole long bisulcate above, about; 
two-thirds as long as the body of abdomen, the latter oblong, subcom- 
pressed, smooth and polished, except the three short apical segments, 
which are pitted with coarse punctures. 

Hab. — Santarem. 

Described from i (?, collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. 

Liopteron tarsale sp. n. 

9. — Length 5 mm. Agrees with L. /enestra^um in stature and sculp- 
ture, but the entire insect, except the anterior and middle tarsi, is black; 
anterior and middle tarsi piceous-brown ; antennae 13-jointed, subclavate, 
two-thirds the length of body, the first flagellar joint only two-thirds the 
length of the second ; the mesopleura are polished, with a large depression 
just beneath the tegulse covered with an Oppressed pubescence, below 
this is a deep longitudinal furrow terminating in a little curve behind; 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

the mesosternum is finely punctate near the insertion of middle coxae ; 
scutellum bituberculoue posteriorly ; wings fuscous, with the apical one- 
fourth, basal two-thirds of marginal cell and a spot in the discoidal region, 
hyaline ; abdomen with a long petiole bisulcate above ; body of abdomen 
oblong, subcompressed, obtusely rounded behind, not pointed, the three 
short apical segments smooth, not punctate, but fimbriate with whitish 
hair. 

Hab. — Santarem. 

Described from i 9, collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith, in 
month of February. 

. Liopteron rufum sp. n. 

9 . — Length 6 mm. Rufous, clothed with sparse, glittering white hair ; 
head with a sharp carina between antennae, the face finely punctate ; 
antennae i3-jointed, subclavate, about as long as the head and thorax united, 
blackish toward tips, the first flagellar joint two-thirds the length of the 
second, the latter the longest joint except the large oblong termhiai 
joint; third flagellar joint a little longer than the first, the joints beyond 
imperceptibly shortening and broadening to the last joint, the last joint 
is oblong and twice as long as the penultimate ; thorax coarsely sculptured, 
the scutellum truncate posteriorly, the hind angles subtuberculous ; 
wings hyaline, with a broad fuscous band across their disk, extending 
from basal vein to beyond apex of the marginal cell, but the basal half of 
the marginal cell (or a little more) and a large spot on the hind margin 
of wing directly opposite the marginal cell are hyaline; abdomen shaped 
as in L. tarsale. 

^. — Length 4.5 mm. Agrees with $, except in the usual sexual differ 
ences and in having the disk of the mesonotum dusky : antennae T4-jointed, 
longer than the body, black, with only the two basal joints rufous, the 
flagellum only slightly thickened at apex, the first joint less than two- 
thirds the length of the second, the following joints very gradually, 
decreasing in length to the last; the last three abdominal joints are fimbriate 
as in 9> hut all are punctate toward apex; otherwise the abdomen is 
smooth and highly polished. 

Hab. — Chapada . 

Described from i c?, i ?, collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith 
in November. 



— Mr. Schwarz presented certain notes on an insect pest, 
Hippclates piisio^ in the Southern States. This is a small fly 
of the family Oscinida, which, during the summer months, 
swarms in great numbers in many of our Southern States, almost 



OF WASHINGTON. 179 

solely in regions which have a sandy soil. It is particularly 
abundant in Florida, and is annoying to oian and animals from 
the fact that it is attracted to eyes and to the natural open- 
ings of the body, as well as to sores. During his two recent trips 
through the South, Mr. Schwarz endeavored to ascertain the life- 
history of the species, but without success. Judging from the 
habits of all other Oscinidae, it must be a leaf or stem miner. 
The possibility of this insect carrying disease germs was 
brought out by the speaker. 

These notes were discussed by Messrs. Stiles, Riley, Howard, 
Hubbard, and Marlatt. Dr. Stiles said that the Bureau of Animal 
Industry had received complaints from the South of the annoyance 
caused to animals by this fly, but that he had made no investi- 
gation of the species. He was impressed by the possible im- 
portance of this insect as a conveyer of contagion. Professor 
Riley spoke of the curious fact that this extremely common insect, 
which he himself had often seen in his journeys through the 
South, was not mentioned in entomological literature. It was, 
however, another exemplification of a very common state of affairs. 
Referring to the habit which the insect has of gathering in the 
corners of the eye of human beings, he suggested that eye- 
diseases in particular would be conveyed by the insect. He 
spoke of the extraordinary prevalence of ophthalmia among the 
Egyptians and other eastern people, and suggested that this 
disease was spread by the agency of dipterous insects. Mr. 
Howard referred to a recent article by an eminent English army 
surgeon in an English review, in which this very subject is treated, 
and the medical man expresses himself as of the opinion that flies 
are largely responsible for the spread of this particular eye disease 
in Egypt. Mr. Hubbard said that in Florida a serious disease 
of the eyelid is often prevalent. It is known as " sore-eye '' and it 
becomes absolutely epidemic from time to time. He feels certain 
that this Hippelates carries the disease, since it is well known that 
even the use of the same handkerchief will convey the disease 
from a sore-eyed person to a healthy one. He has known it to start 
with a single individual and run through an entire school or 
community, and he thinks Hippelates alone accounts for the rapid 
spread. Moreover, the irritation caused by the fly greatly aggra- 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

vates the disease, which becomes very serious, the patient seldom 
recovering entirely from it, but being affected by weak eyes ever 
afterwards. He also had made efforts to ascertain the life-history 
of the fly, but without success. He is of the opinion that if the in- 
sect is really an above-ground leaf-miner its work would have been 
noticed by him, as, on account of the great numbers of the flies, the 
work of the larvae must be very extensive and readily seen. Mr. 
Marlatt said that he had been similarly annoyed by a fly of the 
same general appearance around Washington. He thought that 
the attractiveness of the moisture of the eyes and of sores would 
indicate that the larva is perhaps saprophagous in its habits and 
may be found in decaying vegetation. The question of the 
northern range of the fly having been called up, Mr. Ashmead 
stated that he had found it in the vicinity of Jacksonville. Mr. 
Howard said that a very minute fly swarms in extraordinary 
numbers about the eyes of domestic animals in the vicinity of 
Washington during the summer months. This insect is also 
probably an Oscinid. He had collected specimens and en- 
deavored to determine them, but without success. It is another 
instance of an extremely common insect which does not seem to 
have attracted the attention of entomologists. 

— Under the head of exhibition of specimens, Mr. Howard 
showed two scale-insects which he had collected on the summit 
of Onteora Mountain, in Greene county, N. Y. One was the 
common scurfy bark-louse of the apple, Chionaspis furfurus^ 
which he found in great abundance upon mountain ash ; and 
the other was an undetermined Lecanium which affects the striped 
maple {Acer fennsylvanicum) to such an extent that hardly a 
twig of this little maple can be found which is not partially 
covered with this scale-insect. The most interesting thing about 
it was that he failed, among the thousands of specimens seen, to 
find one which was living ; all had evidently been killed by a 
fungus disease. The female scales carried the fruiting form of 
the fungus, while the male scales were simply destroyed by 
the mycelium.* 

* This fungus was subsequently determined by Mr. A. F. Woods and 
M. B. Waite as Cordyceps clavatula (Schw.) Figures and description will 
be found in Journ. New York Micr. Soc. I, 4, April, 1885. 



OF WASHINGTON. 181 

This note was discussed by Messrs. Marlatt, Riley, and 
Waite. Mr. Marlatt stated that the division of Entomology had 
recently received a Lecanium scale fi*om California on prune 
which had apparently been destroyed by a fungus. The cor- 
respondent suggested the practical use of the fungus to destroy 
other scales. Examination by Mr. Galloway, however, showed 
that the scales were filled by the mycelium of a smut fungus, 
genus Fumago, which itself is an enemy to plants, and it was by 
no means certain that the fungus had killed the scales. Mr. 
Waite had examined the specimens referred to by Mr. Marlatt, 
and substantiated his statement. Dr. Riley said that in the East 
Indies, and the West Indies as well, a fungus is known which is 
destructive to Lecaniids, and in Ceylonese and Indian reports a 
suggestion as to the practical use of it has been made. He had 
noticed it abundantly in the West Indies during a recent journey. 
The fungus presented a very similar appearance to that exhibited 
bv Mr. Howard. 

— Professor Riley exhibited specimens of the supposed larva of 
Lymexylon sericeum and a HyleccEtus which had been men- 
tioned by Mr. Hopkins in a communication before the Society 
last spring. He referred to his figure of an undetermined larva 
in the Sixth Missouri Report, which was identical with the 
chestnut timber worm discussed by Mr. Hopkins, from which 
Mr. Hopkins later reared Lymexylon sericeum. Owing to the 
fact that this larva differs radically from the well-known European 
larva of Lymexylon navale^ he suspected that there had been 
some mistake. Possibly Mr. Hopkins has made an error in his 
rearing, but if this is not the pase he is of opinion that L. 
sericeum will prove, upon careful examination, to be distinguish- 
able generically from the European L. navale. While visiting 
Dr. Meinert in Copenhagen, the latter showed him a larva of 
very similar appearance which had been received from Venezuela, 
from which the beetle was reared, which had been erroneously 
named as Hyleccetus braziliensis^ but it proved not to be a true 
Hylecoetus. 

In discussing this note, Mr. Schwarz agreed with the speaker 
that Z-. sericeum. will prove not to be congeneric with Z. navale. 
The larvae, he stated, of the Lymexylonidae have never been 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

carefully examined except for the mere external characters. If 
we look for resemblances in the more obscure parts, what seem 
to be distinguishing characters will be more nearly harmonized. 
Dr. Riley agreed with Mr. Schwarz in his last remark, and 
stated that if, for instance, we examine the larvae of Brenthis and 
of Eupsalis, we shall find differences which emphasize the separ- 
ation of these two genera. 

— ^Mr. Hubbard presented some unelaborated notes on the 
fertilization of the tropical Aroids, showing that a Nitudulid 
beetle, Macrostola lutea^ accomplishes partial cross-fertilization 
and complete self-fertilization with these plants. He illustrated 
his remarks by the exhibition of specimens and drawings of the 
plant, and showed that the plant adapts itself to the easy entrance of 
the first pair of beetles, which bring with them pollen from a 
different plant, thus bringing about partial cross-fertilization. 
The offspring of these beetles, to the number of several hundreds, 
live within the spathe and accomplish self-fertilization of the 
plant. After the entrance of the first pair of beetles, a fungus 
disease attacks the spot of entrance upon the spathe and, by in- 
creasing, facilitates the exit of the next generation of beetles.* 

— Professor Riley also exhibited what he considered to be a 
diurnal termite with faceted eyes, which he considered might 
confirm old Smeathman's observation upon a species of African 
Termites which he represented as travelling by day and 
resembling ants upon the march, an observation the accuracy of 
which had been seriously doubted. The specimen which he ex- 
hibited had been given him in Europe, and had been captured in 
Natal by daylight by Haviland. Mr. Scliwarz suggested that 
the specimens exhibited might not be termites but Embiids. 
Mr. Heidemann exhibited certain new and interesting Capsidae, 
Coreidae, Lygaeidae, and PentatomidaB, which he had found during 
the summer in the vicinity of Washington. 

— Mr. Ashmead exhibited a large box of fig-insects, many of 
which were typical. He had been accumulating the material for 
some years and had specimens received from Dr. Mayr of 



♦An article upon this subject by Mr. Hubbard is published in /wjec/ 
Life, Vol VII, No. 4. 



OF WASHINGTON. 183 

Vienna, Mr. E. T. Atkinson of Calcutta, and Messrs. Hubbard 
and Schwarz from Floyida. He said that the group is still in a con- 
fused condition, and that many of the forms were undoubtedly 
Toryminae and Pteromalinae, and either parasitic or inquilinous 
in figs. The true fig-insects are comparatively few in number. 



November i, 1894. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and Messrs. Schwarz, 
Chittenden, Heidemann, Hubbard, Linell, Patten, Waite, Ben- 
ton, Marlatt, Stiles, Gill, Riley, Fernow, and Howard were 
also present. 

Mr. H. G. Barber, of the University of Nebraska, was elected 
a corresponding member. 

— Dr. Gill presented a paper on a remarkable new family of 
crabs. He stated that he thought himself justified in presenting 
this paper before an entomological society, since, in his opinion, 
the Crustacea are more closely related to the Insecta than are the 
Arachnida. He exhibited plates and descriptions of Archeoplax 
notofus^ new genus arid species, described by Alcock and Ander- 
son in the Natural-history Notes of the Investigator. This remark- 
able new crab was taken taken off the coast of Coromandel at a 
depth of 150 to 200 fathoms. Dr. Gill pointed out several extra- 
ordinary features which, in his opinion, justified the erection of a 
new family for the form. He proposed the new generic name 
Retropluma, on account of the preoccupation' of Archeoplax, 
and the new family RetroplumidaB. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Howard, Riley, and Hub- 
bard. Mr. Howard stated that he had voted against the recep- 
tion of the paper by the program committee on the ground that, 
however loose the definition of the word "entomology" may be, it 
was generally understood to refer to the class Insecta, and that 
the scope of this class is so enormous that the tendency of the 
Society should be to contract rather than to expand in the range 
of topics considered at its meetings. The admission of papers 
on Arachnida had been, from the beginning, largely a matter of 
courtesy and precedent. Dr. Gill argued that entomology should 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

apply to the whole group Arthropoda. Mr. Schwarz agreed 
with the ideas advanced by Mr. Howard, and stated that 
arachnologists had affiliated with entomological societies largely 
because they were so few in number, and because there were no more 
nearly related associations of specialists. Dr. Riley said he had 
been much interested in Dr. Gill's paper, and particularly in the 
point brought out that the hind legs have apparently developed 
into breathing organs, referring to the somewhat similar state of 
affairs with Chauliodes and Eristalis, where anal pedal organs 
had been modified into branchial organs. Mr. Hubbard ex- 
pressed himself as not surprised at the modification just men- 
tioned, since the modification of stylets into branchiae with larval 
insects is common. He called especial attention to the larvae of 
the Adephagous series of the Coleoptera and their possession 
of branchiae which in related land forms are stylets. He referred 
also to a similar state of affairs in the larvae of Amphizoa and 
Pelobius. He prophesied that when the newly hatched larvae of 
Coleoptera are well known it will be found that this change 
takes place quite frequently. 

— Mr. Hubbard exhibited specimens of the larvae, pupae, and 
adults of a dipterous insect, determined by Mr. Coquillett as a 
species of Drosophila, which he had found living in the larval 
state in the mouth of the common land-crab on the Island of 
Montserrat, B. W. I. He found the pupae of the same insect 
on the inner side of one of the maxillary lobes of the crab. The 
larva was rather remarkable in its side projections. 

Dr. Gill discussed the probable species of crab referred to by 
Mr. Hubbard, concluding that it was Cardisotna quamhami. 
Mr. Howard asked as to the normal food of these crabs, with a 
view to determining the probable origin of this messmate habit 
on the part of the Drosophila larvae. Mr. Schwarz asked for an 
explanation of the rapid movements of the larvae in the crab's 
mouth. Mr. Hubbard replied that it was a swimming movement, 
assisted by the lateral projections of the larva. Dr. Gill pointed 
out that these larvae were probably not stationed in the mouth of 
the crab, but in the branchial cavity. 

— Under the head of exhibition of specimens. Dr. Riley showed 
a Curculionid which he found recently injuring certain aquatic 



OF WASHINGTON. 185 

plants in the Missouri Botanic Gardens. The plants were a Sal- 
vinia and Azolla caroliniana. He found cocoons of the beetle, 
but only one injured larva. This larva looked like that of Phy- 
tonomus. The cocoons are spherical, composed oi a dense, gluey 
substance, somewhat disguised by cut leaves. They are perfectly 
impervious to water, although submerged in many instances. 
The beetle he believed to be Stenopelmus rujinasus^ which, 
according to Dr. Le Conte, is widely distributed in North Amer- 
ica. Dr. Riley's St. Louis specimens are larger and darker than 
a series in the IsTational Museum, from southern California, and 
probably form a distinct variety, possibly a new species. 



December 6, 1894. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and the other members 
present were : Messrs. Gill, Marlatt, Benton, Schwarz, Hubbard, 
Linell, Vaughan, Test, Heidemann, and Coquillett. Prof. A. D. 
Hopkins, of Morgantown, W. Va., a corresponding member, 
w^as also present. 

Richard Heymons, Ph. D., of the University of Berlin, Berlin, 
Germany, was elected a corresponding member. 

The election of officers to serve during the ensuing year then 
took place. On motion of Mr. Hubbard, seconded by Mr. 
Schwarz, the Secretary was instructed to cast a ballot for the 
re-election of all the present officers. 

— The following paper, by Prof. Herbert Osborn, was read by 
Mr. Benton : 

THE PHYLOGENY OF HEMIPTERA. 
By Herbert Osborn, Ames, Iowa. 

For some time it has seemed to me that the current classifica- 
tions of Hemiptera are ver}^ far from representing the true phy- 
logeny of the families of this group, and the present paper, giving 
substantially the views I have stated to my advanced classes in 
entomology for the last two or three years, is an attempt to 
express what seems a more rational relationship between these 
families. The scheme adopted by Uhler and Comstock may be 
considered as representative of the current ideas, and comparisons 
may be conveniently made with their systems in this discussion. 



186 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



The subdivision of the order into the three suborders Parasita, 
Homoptera, and Heteroptera, with the Parasita placed as the 
lowest, while possibly representing the comparative rank in organ- 
ization, is entirely unfounded in phylogeny, and it seems to me 
that the proper relationship of these suborders is to place the 
Homoptera as the first division, as it includes the more general- 
ized types, and the Heteroptera as the secondary division, and to 
consider the Parasita as simply a degraded branch of the Hete- 
roptera, having its origin near the group of families represented 
by the Acanthiidae. Such a view as to the Parasita is, indeed, 
expressed by Uhler, though not adopted in his classification.* 
With reference to the generalized features of the Homoptera as 
compared with the Heteroptera, it may be objected that such 
specialized forms as contained in some of the families should out- 
rank the Heteroptera. The wing structure being certainly of a 
mor^ primitive type, and the position of the head, while in some 
cases apparently very much specialized, seems to me, on the whole, 
to correspond more nearly with the generalized Orthoptera and 
Pseudoneuroptera, or, it might be said, also with the Physopoda, 
which possibly is the modern representative of the ancestral form 
of Hemiptera. The development of the scutellum in Heterop- 
tera may be looked upon as of importance, and the horizontal 
position of the head, with the beak arising anteriorly, while it 
may appear at first sight to be more generalized, will, I think, 
from careful comparison with other groups, be recognized as the 
derivative form. The relationship of these special divisions I 
would represent by the following diagram : 




.^^ 



In the division of Homoptera the current system of placing the 
Coccidae as the lowest, and, presumably, the simplest group, is 
certainly a wide departure from the facts as apparent in the com- 
parative study of the groups. If we separate the division Homop- 
tera into two subdivisions, Sternorhynchi and Auchenorhynchi, 



♦Stand. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 209. 



OF WASHINGTON. 187 

which is evidently the most fundamental basis of separation pre- 
sented in this suborder, there seems to be every reason to con- 
sider the Sternorhynchi as the derivative form and the Auchen- 
orhynchi as the basal form. The position of the rostrum upon 
the sternum, or, more properly, the coalescence of the rostrum 
with the sternum, must certainly be considered as a more special- 
ized condition than the free form and, in fact, the derivative form, 
the consolidation of the rostrum with sternum being the result 
of the close approximation of beak and sternum resulting from 
their food habits. This division includes the families Psyllidae, 
AphididaB, AleyrodidaB, and Coccidae, and if we arrange them 
with reference to their successive steps of departure from the 
generalized form, or the form most nearly approaching the 
Auchenorhynchous type, it seems to me they would be placed in 
the order named, the Coccidae being evidently the more special- 
ized or the most extreme form, and their apparent simplicity being 
only the degradation or reduction resulting from the habit of per- 
manent attachment to the food-plant so general in this group. 
It is true that in each of these families we find extremely special- 
ized forms, but in looking at the more generalized ones of each 
group there is no inconsistency in the idea of their developing 
from the single primary stem. 

The other division, beginning with those forms which have the 
most generalized condition of wing venation and body structure, 
would commence with the Cicadidae and follow the ascending 
order which is given in the current systems. It is true that the 
CicadidaB are themselves a specialized group, particularly in the 
forms possessing musical organs, but in their approach to the . 
Psyllidae in wing venation and structure of the head and thorax 
they seem on the whole to present more generalized characters 
than can be found in any of the other families of the Homoptera. 

The Membracidae, except in extremely specialized pronotum, 
are easily seen to be related to the Cicadidae and naturally take 
their position next to them. The Fulgoridae, while possessing 
specializations of the head, are in thoracic structure and venation 
more generalized than the remaining families, and while possess- 
ing many highly differentiated sub-groups, may very probably be 
interposed between the preceding families and the Jassoid division. 
The Cercopidae in development of scutellum and in texture of 
elytra, as well as in the specialization of the tibiae, show charac- 
ters of rather high rank, and, if placed as subordinate to the Jas- 
soidea, they must at least be considered as a branch of nearly equal 
or parallel rank. The Jassoidea, separable into the Bythoscopidae 
and Jassidae proper, may, on the whole, be considered as the 
most highly organized of the series, and as somewhat equivalent 



188 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



branches, the Bythoscopidae being in some respects extremely 
specialized, while the Jassidae are subdivided into nearly equal 
branches, Jassinae and Tettigoninae. The relations of all these 
groups can be expressed in the following diagram : 








The Heteroptera have in like manner been arranged more w^ith 
reference to convenience than upon a phylogenetic basis, the 
strictly aquatic forms being made to occupy the lowest position, 
and the series passing from these to the semi-aquatic, littoral, 
terrestrial, and arboreal — a plan which does not seem to me to 
correspond in any sense with the probable line of descent. It ap- 
pears evident, even upon a very hasty examination of the group, 
that the aquatic forms are descendants of non-aquatic forms and 
that the derivation of the non-aquatic and terrestrial forms from 
the aquatic groups is out of the question. Not only does the 
structure of the groups oppose such an idea, but, on any theory 
of the origin of the Hemiptera from the simpler groups of insects, 
we must assume that they connect with the non-aquatic groups. 
It is only necessary to mention the specialized condition of the 
antennae in the whole series of Cryptocerata and the extremely 
specialized mouth-parts of Corisidae to show the nature of the 
morphological evidence, and to attempt to find a generalized 
aquatic ancestral form, to see the force of the latter argument. 
It may be in place to call attention further to the general fact that 
all aquatic insects are such by secondary adaptation and trace 
their ancestry to terrestrial forms, just as certainly, I believe, as 
that all aquatic mammalia, such as whales, seals, &c., trace their 
ancestry to terrestrial forms. 

The more probable line of descent is that the strictly aquatic 
forms are descended from semi-aquatic forms, and these from 
non-aquatic or littoral species, aijd in some such generalized form 
as may be represented now by the Saldidae we may find the stock 



OF WASHINGTON. 



189 



from which the group is branched, one line becoming more 
aquaCic and reaching the extreme of specialization in this direc- 
tion, in such groups as Nepidae, Notonectid^, and Corisidse, tl\e 
other branch furnishing the terrestrial and arboreal families, while 
they seem a generalized oHshoot. We have further the carniv- 
orous division Reduviids, which presents extreme branches in 
Nabidse and Emesidx. 

As already mentioned, the Pediculidte may be considered a 
retrograde branch connected with this portion of the Heteropter- 
ous stem. These relations mav be exhibited as follows : 




While not expressing details in relation of sub-groups, this 
sketch will call attention to the characters and plan which seem to 
me must be recognized in arriving at a correct expression of rela- 
tionship. So far as catalogues or linear arrangements are iieces- 
sary, the present system may be retained without great change, as 
no linear arrangement can express correctly the relations stated. 



In the discussion Dr. Gill sakl that he considered the Homop- 
tera to be the forms from which the Heteroptera were derived. 
The aquatic forms were evidently derived from the terrestrial, 
and should not be placed in a group by themselves, but should be 
distributed among the families of terrestrial Hemiptera, with 
which they are severally the most closely rel.ated. Mr, Schwarz 
fully agreed with the speaker to the latter proposition, and 
instanced the absurdity of placing all of the aquatic Coleoptera 



190 ENTOMOLOGHOAL SOCIETY 

in a single group. Mr. Marlatt asked if the Psyllidae are not 
more nearly related to the Coccidae than they are to the Cica- 
didse, adding that the Psyllid larva by its broader form and less 
distinctly segmented abdomen more nearly resembles that of the 
Coccidae than it does the larval Cicadid. Mr. Schwarz did not 
agree with this view of the case, stating that, with the exception 
of the fossorial legs, the Cicada larva does not differ in any 
marked degree from the larva of the Psyllidae. 

Mr. Ashmead considered that the wingless Parasita, or the Pe- 
diculidae, are the oldest forms, representing the stem from which 
sprang the Homoptera in one direction and the Heteroptera in 
another. In the Homopterous series he would place the Coccidae, 
which are winged in the male sex only, next to the wringless 
Parasita, to be followed by the Aleyrodidae, and these by the 
Aphididae. He mentioned a dimorphic species of Aphis which 
in its early stages very closely resembles an Aleyrodid. In the 
Heteroptera Mr. Ashmead would place the Cimicidae next to the 
Parasita, following them with the Anthocoridae, Tingitidae, &c. 
Omitting some of the families, the two suborders of the Hemip- 
tera would be arranged in an ascending series as follows : 

f Cicadidse, 

f Coccidae, Aleyrodidae, Aphididae, Psyl->{ Jassidae, Membraci- 
lidae. L dae, Fulgoridae. 

, Polyctenidae, Cimicidae, Tingitidae, Reduviidae, Nepidae, Sal- 
L didae, Galgulidae, Neocoridae, Corisidae, Notonectidae. 

Mr. Ashmead also spoke of the impossibility of arranging all 
of the families of Hemiptera in a linear series, since it not infre- 
quently happened that two of the families were so closely and 
equally related to a third group as to make it quite evident that 
both of them sprang directly from the latter. 

Dr. Gill did not think that parasitism of itself indicates rela- 
tionship, but was of the opinion that the wingless parasites had 
been derived from winged ancestors. He would not locate the 
Parasita in either the Homoptera or the Heteroptera, but would 
be inclined to erect a separate suborder for their reception, 

— The following paper by Mr. Howard was read by Mr. 
Benton : 



OF WASHINGTON. ^ 191 

ON GOSSAMER SPIDERS' WEB. 
By L. O. Howard. 

It will be remembered that at the meeting of this Society held 
November 3, 1892, Dr. George Marx presented a paper with the 
title '^On Spiders' Web," the text of which was the receipt of a 
curious substance, from one locality in California and one in 
Florida, which had rained down over a considerable section of 
the country during rain-storms. Dr. Marx concluded, after a 
careful chemical and microscopical examination, that this sub- 
stance was composed of the massed-together strands of gossamer 
spiders' web. 

Since that date I have received further samples of this same 
substance, which was collected during the same 1892 storm at 
Gainesville, Fla., and within the past few weeks have been in 
correspondence with Mr. J. B. Lembert, of Yosemite, Calif., 
about a phenomenon which he has described to me at great 
length, and which throws some light on the subject of Dr. Marx's 
communication . 

-It seems that in the Yosemite Valley, over the crest of the 
southern wall, there is a series of arches of silken substance 
which Mr. Lembert shows is spiders' web.* These arches are 
of yearly occurrence. The most noticeable are two, one over 
the Bridal Veil Fall, is fully one-third of a mile in width and 
about twelve hundred feet in height and reaches from the Leaning 
Tower on the west side across in a graceful arch to the east side, 
and is fastened there to the brush, shrubs, and trees that surmount 
the top of the Three Graces. The second extends over the gorge 
between Sentinel Rock on the west side and the ridge on the east 
side over which the Glacier Point trail is built. At this point all 
the shrubs, bushes, and trees are webbed about in such a manner 
that the trunks of the largest trees are but faint shadows, while 
limbs and foliage resemble a glistening mass of crystal. In the 
midst of this mass are bunches of rolled-up web that are as white 
as cotton and quite thick. When the mass is disturbed by a 
gentle breeze it moves throughout its entire length with a graceful, 
undulating motion. It is four thousand feet above the floor of 
the valley and fully a mile wide at its base. Mr. Lembert shows 
that the wind which sweeps up the gorge is an important factor 
in this arch-work. When the spider launches out on his gossa- 
mer thread he is carried upwards until the current has lost its 



♦ The only specimen which Mr. Lembert has sent on as probably being 
concerned in the construction of this web is a species of Pardosa, but pos- 
sibly many species are concerned in the work. 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

strength. The pressure is upwards in every direction to the sum- 
mit of the gorge. There a western current of air is met which 
causes, in all probability, the impingement of these hundreds of 
thousands of gossamer strands upon a given space of greater or 
less dimensions. I wrote to Mr. Lembert asking for specimens, 
but, on account of its inaccessible location, he was able to get 
only a small sample, which I exhibit herewith. 

The note is of interest as showing the fact that there are local- 
ities where the webs of gossamer spiders are massed together to 
an extraordinary amount. Mr. Lembert says that the arches 
recur year after year. What becomes of them.? They are 
plainly blown away by the winter storms. They are excessively 
light ; the distance to which they could be carried is indefinite, 
but it is perfectly conceivable that they might be carried for enor- 
mous distances, either directly by the wind or in dense clouds ; 
and that they should be precipitated with rainfall from heavy 
clouds at almost any distance from the point of origin is per- 
fectly within the bounds of possibility, and even probability. I 
have little doubt that the California and FloriSa falls were brought 
about in this way. Perhaps the California falls may have come 
from one of these very arches, although Vallecita, the locality 
from which Dr. Marx received his specimens, is three hundred 
miles south of Yosemite. 



In discussing this paper Mr. Schwarz read an abstract of Mr. 
J. Muir*s work on the Sierras of California, in which this well- 
known mountaineer vividly describes as follows what he pro- 
nounces the most magnificent of all storm phenomena : " Silvery 
banners of snow dust attached to the peaks of the Merced group 
like streamers at a masthead, each from half a mile to a mile in 
length, slender at the point of attachment, then widening gradu- 
ally as it extended from the peak until it was about i,ooo or 1,500 
feet in breadth. Some of these snow banners extended from peak 
to peak, while others overlapped." Mr. Schwarz remarked that 
there was, to say the least, the most remarkable resemblance be- 
tween the phenomena described by Mr. Lembert and Mr. Muir. 

— Mr. Hopkins referred to his forthcoming list of North Ameri- 
can pine-insects, which contained forty-one species of Scolytidae — 
about twice the number of those previously recorded as depre- 
dating on pines. His list already contained the names of three 
hundred and thirty-six different kinds of insects which infest 



OF WASHINGTON. 193 

pine trees in this country, and he was of the opinion that when 
the subject had been thoroughly investigated this number would 
be nearly doubled. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that the pine-feeding Scolytidae would in- 
clude about two-thirds of the entire number of species, and that 
in North America this included fully one hundred and fifty spe- 
cies. Whole genera of Scol ytid sometimes feed exclusively 
upon pines. 

— Asked by Mr. Schwarz if he had recently seen in West Vir- 
ginia specimens of the introduced Clerus formicarius, Mr. 
Hopkins replied that he had not, but specimens had been seen by 
lumbermen, to whom figures and description of the Clerid had 
been communicated. 

— Mr. Hopkins also referred to a Dipteron which he had bred 
from larvae found in the body of an adult bee that nests in clay 
banks. From a pencil sketch the parasite was identified by 
Messrs. Coquillett and Ashmead as belonging to the Conopidae. 
From some of the Conopid larvae Mr. Hopkins had bred a large 
number of specimens of a species of Chalcid fly. 

— Under the heading of short notes and exhibition of speci- 
mens, Mr. Hubbard exhibited pupae and larval skins of Am phi - 
cofna vulpina found by Mr. Schwarz and himself near Asheville, 
N. C. The larva differs from the related forms quite as much 
as is known to be the case with the adults. The species had 
heretofore been recorded only from Massachusetts and other 
northern localities. 

— Mr. Hubbard also exhibited an apparatus for use in the ex- 
amination of alcoholic specimens. This was formerly used by 
Dr. Hagen, and consists of two watch-cases placed together in 
such a manner that their concave surfaces are next each other, 
the two glasses thus forming a single cell, being held in place 
by a spring clamp. The glasses act as a parabolic reflector, 
thus aiding in the examination of the objects placed between 
them. These, in the present case, consisted of several larvae of 
Hetnipeplus marginipennis ^ found by Mr. Hubbard between 
the ribs of unfolded palmetto leaves in Florida. Mr. Hubbard 
stated that there were various points of interest connected with 



41 
I 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

the structure and life-history of these larvae which he intended 
to lay before the Society at a future time. 

— Mr. Schwarz exhibited a series of specimens of Cicindela 
striga and C, severa which were collected on July 1 1 , near 
Punta Gorda, in southwestern Florida. These species occurred 
promiscuously on a salt marsh, which, on account of the pre- 
vailing rainy season, was completely submerged for several hours 
each day. They were equally active in the hot sunshine of mid- 
day and toward night, and made use of their wings only when 
hard pi'essed. Mr. Schwarz pointed out the structural differ- 
ences between these two Cicindelas and said that they could not 
possibly be regarded as races or varieties of the same species. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



AsJtMKAn, Wm. H. ■ Ntnes on Ihe genus Liopteruro Perty.,. 
HfifKiNS. A- U, ^ Nntc>. on Ih? habiU of certain MvcrtophilM*, -witi 

detcriinian orEpiflapuii tcabiei. sp. nov „.„...,.. 

Howard, L. O. ; A review of ilie work of the Etiiomolof ieal Sot 

of Washington, Kit i 0(i GoBaamer SpWer«* Web...,., , 

HimuAiU), H. G. ; TIiB »vip»ai(ifln Bf Melitnm piiMleniftlie WAlkfir,^ 
MAIU.ATT. C- L. ! FdrUwr note* on the ttructiire of the i>vfpo«l(oi 

III Hj'inenopterii. up! On the food-habits af Odjiiiertii) ,. 

Obbokn, HnRBBH'r: The jjbj'logeny of Ufliniplern..,!..,. - 

PlftSANDB, Ttiuo. : AdOillanul otKervnCiariE an Cite h«btU of i 

mophiiii grj'phui. Sat , 

ScMWAiw, E, ^1 Soniii tiOies«nMe)«heimer'8 0M«lo«ueorth«^tl; 

opiurn of I'ftoiujlvHniii, 134; Description eT the pine-wmv-' 

hnliiiing ScolyilJi ,. 



PR00EEDTNG8 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



WASHINGTON. 




Volume 111, No. -l. 

{January 3, 1895. to June 6, 1895.) 
tlssusD Jdnb 32, 1895.] 



rmUEasii M r 



PRICE OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Vol. I complete (Ho*- t-^)— 
Vol. a complete (Nos. i-^),. 
Vol.111, No, I 



Tlic above will be mailed onrecetpt of pHce. Address 

FRANK BENTON, CorrMponding Secretary, 

Dtpartrntnt oj Agricuttart, 

WafkingtoH, D. C. < 



OF WASHINGTON. 195 

January 3, 1895. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and the other members 
present were Messrs, Riley, Schwarz, Marlatt, McGee, Stiles, 
Gill, Benton, Patten, Heidemann, Howard, and Dodge. 

President Ashmead announced the death of Dr. George Marx, 
on January 3, and made a few remarks indicative of •the great 
loss which the Society had sustained. 

On motion by Mr. Schwarz, a committee was appointed to 
draw up resolutions expressing the sense of the Society. The 
chairman appointed Messrs. Riley, Howard, Schwarz, and Gill. 

The committee submitted the following resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, The Entomological Society ofWashington has just learned, 
i^vith deep sorrow, of the sad death of Dr. George Marx, one of the most 
learned members of the Society, one of its founders, for two years its 
President, and the warm personal friend of all of its members, therefore 
belt 

Resolved^ That this Society, through its Secretary, transmit to the family 
of its late member its deepest sympathy and an expression of profound 
sorrow. 

Resolved y That the published proceedings of this meeting of the Society 
consist only of a biographical sketch of our late President and fellow- 
member, with a list of his published writings; that all further business at 
this meeting be postponed, and that in respect to his memory we do now 

adjourn. 

C. V. RILEY. 

L. O. HOWARD. 

E. A. SCHWARZ. 

THEO. GILL. 



Dr. GEORGE MARX. 

Dr. George Marx was born in Laubach, Grand Duchy of Hesse, 
June 22, 1838. He was the son of George Marx, who was court 
chaplain at Laubach, and his boyhood was spent at that place. 
In 1845 his father received an appointment at Leeheim, where he 
went with his family. 

At the age of fourteen George Marx entered the gymnasium 
at Darmstadt. It was his father's wish that he should fit himself 
for the ministry, and he began at this time to study Hebrew. 
He had always shown a great love of nature, which had been 
fostered by a private tutor employed by his father at Laubach to 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

train his sons. While studying at the gymnasium, Dr. Marx 
proved himself so proficient in botany, and at the same time so 
able an artist, that to him was assigned the task of making the 
illustrations for the Flora of Gross-Gerau. He became intensely 
interested in this work, and began seriously to question his fitness 
for the ministry. Soon after, he decided to change his career, 
against his father's advice. He therefore took up the study of 
pharmacy, as offering an opportunity for work in the line of bot- 
any. After completing his pharmaceutical studies at Giessen, he 
came to America, in i860. The civil war breaking out soon 
afterward, he enlisted as a private in Company Kj 8th New York 
Volunteers, and remained with his company until after the battle 
of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. His pharmaceutical and medical 
knowledge becoming observed, he was transferred to the medical 
corps as assistant surgeon shortly after Bull Run. It is said that 
his letters to his parents during his early service contain such able 
and graphic accounts of army movements and army life, that they 
were printed in many German newspapers and excited a great 
deal of attention. In July, 1862, he became disabled through 
illness and through a severe wound, and was honorably discharged. 
He returned to New York and began life as a pharmacist. In 
1865 he took up his residence in Philadelphia, where he was 
engaged in business until 1878. It was during his residence in 
Philadelphia that he began to take an interest in the Arachnida 
and commenced to form a collection. Here, also, in May, 1869, 
he was married to Miss Minnie Maurer. In 1878 he came to 
Washington to accept the position of natural-history draftsman in 
the Department of Agriculture, and was attached to the force of 
the Division of Entomology. Many of the plates and smaller fig- 
ures published by this division during the years 1878 to 1883 were 
from his hand, and as a fair example of his skill as a natural- 
history artist we would point out the plate on the Catalpa Sphinx 
(Agric. Rept. for i88i-'82, plate xiii). In subsequent years he 
worked more for other divisions. He remained in this position 
until 1S89, when he was made chief of the newly established 
Division of Illustrations. This position he resigned shortly 
before his death, which occurred January 3, 1895. 

Inspired by his intercourse with the members of the force of the 
Division of Entomology, during his entire residence in Washing- 



OF WASHINGTON. 197 

ton Dr. Marx devoted a great deal of time to the study of the Arach- 
nida, as his magnificent collection and valuable library, as well as 
the list of his published papers, will testify. He became known 
as one of the foremost living authorities upon this class of ani- 
mals, yet he also found time to study medicine at the medical 
school of the Columbian University, from which institution he 
was graduated with the degree of M. D. in 1885. He was a 
charter- member of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
and its fourth President. He presented many valuable papers 
before the Society, and was from the start one of its foremost 
members. He maintained intimate relations by correspondence 
with the foremost arachnologists of Europe, and was selected by 
the publishers of Count Keyserling's Spinnen Amerikas to 
complete the work on the death of the distinguished author. 
Keyserling, Thorell, Simon, and Kulszynski have received much 
valuable material and information from Dr. Marx, and American 
students — -notably McCook, Emerton, and Peckham — have been 
under obligations to him in similar relations. His artistic talent, 
of course, greatly helped him in his studies, and the various 
plates and figures which adorn his contributions to science are by 
far the best illustrations of Arachnids that have ever been pro- 
duced in America. 

Nearly three years before his death he began to devote his 
spare moments to the study of the ticks, of which he contem- 
plated publishing ultimately a monograph. A few preliminary 
papers on the subject were read by him before the Entomological 
Society of Washington, but the attacks of the dreadful disease 
to which finally he was to succumb, after many months' suffering, 
frustrated all his plans. Still, the hope of restoring his health 
never abandoned him, and at the last meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Society which he attended (October, 1894) ^® exhibited 
and explained in an informal way a plate which was to accom- 
pany a paper on ticks. This plate we reproduce as an example 
of his later style of work, as well as on account of its scientific 
value. The accompanying explanation is from his pen. 

Personally, Dr. Marx was the most companionable of men. 
Genial and witty, he was at the same time earnest, and a man of 
wide reading and general information. American science can ill 
afford his loss. 



OF WASHINGTON. 



199 



Explanation of Plate II. 



Fig. i.—Rhynchoprium spinosum, dor$aI 
view. 
ta. Ventral view. 

i^. Young, Capitulum not redrawn. 
xc. Full-sucked individual, Capitulum pro- 
jected. 
Jii. Capitulum, dorsal view. 
2e. Maxillae. 
i/l Mandibles. 
jjF. Stigma. 
ih. Front foot. 
It. Haller's organ of hearing. 

Fig. a. — Ornithodorus ambricanus, dor- 
sal view. 
2a. Ventral view. 
3^. Side view of anterior portion. 
3f. Position of Capitulum in full-sucked 
state. 



2d. Capitulum, dorsal view. 

2^. Maxilla:. 

2/". Stigma. 

2£: Female sexual orifice. 

2A. Front foot. 

21. Haller's organ of hearing. 

Fig. 3. — Argas ambricanus, dorsal view. 
3a. Ventral view. 
3^. Side view of anterior portion. 
3c. Larva, dorsal view. 
3^. Larva, ventral view. 
3^. Capitulum, ventral view. 
3y. Mandibles. 
3P-. Maxillae. 
3«. Stigma. 
3/. Front foot. 
3^. Haller's organ. 



List of the Entomological Writings of George Marx. 



1. On some new tube-constructing spiders. 

Amer. Naturalist^ vol. 15, May, 1881, pp. 396-400; 8 figs. 

2. [List of spiders observed to feed on the cotton worm {Aletia 

arg'illacea)^ with a biological note on Theridula sphce- 

rula. 
Fourth Refort U. S. Entomol. C<?i»»f., Washington, D. C, 1885. 
Appendix, pp. [io6]-[io7]; plates XIII and XIV. 

3. Description of Gasteracantha rufospinosa, 

Entomol, AmericanUy vol. 2, no. 2, May, 1886, pp. 25-26; fig. 

4. Notes on Thelyphonus Latr. 

Entomol. Americana, vol. 2, no. 2, May, 1886, pp. 38-40; plate I. 

5. Notes on Phrynus Oliv. 

Proc. Entomol, Soc, Waskittg-ton, vol. i, no. 2, March, 1888, pp. 
46-47. 

6. [Remarks on the types of Scorpionidae described by Wood. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wasking'ton, vo\. i, no. 2, March, 1888, pp. 
90-91, 

7. On the morphology of Scorpionidae. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc, Washitigton, vol. i, no. 2, March, 1888, pp. 
108-112; figs. t-3. 

8. Eurypelma rileyi Marx, n. sp. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington, vol. i, no. 2, March, 1888, pp. 
116-117. 

9. On a new and interesting spider \_Hypochilus thorellif^. 

Entomol, Americana, vol. 4, no. 8, November, 1888, pp. 160-162 ; 
plate. 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

10. On a new and interesting spider from the United States 

\_Hyfochilus thorellif\, 

Proc. Entomol. Soc, Washington, vol. i, no. 3, March, 1889, pp. 
166-167. 

1 1 . On the importance of the structural characters of Hypochilus 

in the classification of spiders. 
Proc. Entom. Soc, Washing-ion, vol. i, no. 3, March, 1889, pp. 
178-180. 

12. Arachnida [List of species collected by the " Albatross " ex- 

pedition, I 887-1 888]. 
Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus.y vol, 12, 1889 (Feb. 1890), pp. 207-211. 

13. A contribution to the knowledge of the spider fauna of the 

Bermuda Islands. 
Proc. Acad, Nat. Sc, Philadelphia j 1889 (i89o)» PP- 98-101; pi. 
IV. 

14. Count Eugene Keyserling [Obituary and bibliography]. 

Entom. Americana^ vol. 5, no. 8, August, 1889, pp. 159-160. 

15. On a new species of spider of the genus Dinopis from the 

southern United States. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Philadelphia ^ 1889 (1890), pp. 341-343; pl- 
XI. 

16. Catalogue of the described Araneae of temperate North 

America. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.y vol. 12, 1889 (May, 1890), pp. 497-594. 

17. A contribution to the knowledge of North American spiders. 

Proc. Entom. Soc. Washington^ vol. 2, no. i, April, 1891, pp. 
28-37; P»- I- 

18. On the effect of the poison of Lathrodectus mactans^aick, 

upon warm-blooded animals. 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington, vol. 2, no. i, April, 1891, pp. 
85-86. 

19. Die Spinnen Amerikas — Brasilianische Spinnen — von Graf 

Keyserling nach dessenTode herausgegeben von Dr. George 
Marx, Dritter Band. 
Niirnberg, 1891. Verlag von Bauer & Raspe (Emil Ktister). 

20. Annual Address of the President : A List of the Araneae of 

the District of Columbia. 
Proc. Entom Soc. Washington, vol. 2, no. 2, June, 1892, pp. 
14S-161. 



OF WASHINGTON. 201 

21. A contribution to the study of the spider fauna of the Arctic 

regions. 
Proc. Eniomol. Soc, Washington^ vol. 2, no. 2, June, 1892, pp. 
186-200. 

22. Note on the classification of the Ixodidae. 

Proc, Eniomol. Soc. Washington^ vol. 2, no. 2, June, 1892, pp. 
232-236. 

23. Contributions to the knowledge of the life history of Arach- 

nida. 
Proc, Eniomol. Soc. Washingion, vol. 2, no. 2, June, 1892, pp. 
252-255- 

24. Die Spinnen Amerikas — EpeiridaB — von Graf E. Keyserling 

nach dessen Tode herausgegeben von Dr. George Marx, 
Vierter Band. 
Nurnberg, 1892. Verlag von Bauer & Raspe (Emil Kiister). 

25. Annual address of the President : On the morphology of the 

Ticks. 
Proc. Eniotn. Soc. Washingion, vol. 2, no. 3, December, 1892, pp. 
271-287. 

26. On spiders* web. 

Proc. Eniom. Soc. Washingion, vol.2, no. 4, June, 1893, pp. 385- 
388. 

27. On A new genus and some new species of Araneae from the 

west coast of Africa, collected by the U. S. steamer Enter- 
prise. 
Proc. U. S. Nai. Mus,, vol. 16, October, 1893, pp. 587-590; pi. 
LXX. 

28. Degeneration by disuse of certain organs in spiders. 

Proc. Eniom. Soc. WashingioUy vol. 3, no. i, March, 1894, pp. 
26-27. 

29. Continuation of the life history of the Whip-tail scorpion. 

Proc. Eniom, Soc. Washingiony vol. 3, no. i, March, 1894, p. 54. 

30. [Amblyomma tuberculatum Marx, n. sp.] 

Inseci Life^ vol. 6, no. 4, May, 1894, pp. 314-315. 

To this list should probably be added a paper on the Arachnida 
collected by Dr. G. Bauer on the Galapagos Islands, written in 
the German language and sent for publication to the Zoologische 
Jahrbiicher. - The exact title, however, is not known. 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL !4f>0IETY 

January 4, 1895. 
(^Special Meeting.^ 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and Messrs. McGee, 
Schwarz, Riley, Stiles, Benton, Marlatt, Gill, Heidemann, 
Dodge, Patten, and Howard were present. 

The Treasurer read his annual report, showing a balance of cash 
on hand to the amount of $144.92. 

Mr. F. W. Urich, Honorary Secretary of the Trinidad Field 
Naturalists' Club, Port of Spain, Trinidad, B. W. I., and Mr. 
H. Soltau, 251 E. 53d St., New York, were elected correspond- 
ing members. 

The retiring President, Mr. Ashmead, then delivered his 
annual address : 

ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

SOME IMPORTANT STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS IN THE 
CLASSIFICATION OF THE PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

Until within a few years, we have had, in America, compara- 
tively few systematic workers in the order Hymenoptera, but 
since the publication, in 1887, of "A Synopsis of the Families and 
Genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico," by 
our leading Hymenopterist, Mr. E. T. Cresson, considerable 
activity and interest in the order has been manifested, and to-day 
new workers are taking up the work where Cresson left off. 

It is this aroused interest in the order which induces me to 
select the subject for my address, " Some important structural 
characters in the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera," 
although other reasons and considerations weigh equally with me 
in my choice. 

Many of our students appear to be unfamiliar with the exten- 
sive and rapidly increasing European Hymenopterological litera- 
ture, and, judging from some recent work, in which the old lines 
of classification are still adhered to, seem to imagine that Cresson's 
work contains all the essentials for systematic work. The ex- 



OF WASHINGTON. 



203 



cellent classificatory work done by Forster, Thomson, Schletterer, 
Schmiedeknecht, Mayr, Kriechbaumer, Mocsary, Gribodo, Ko- 
now, Kohl and others are entirely overlooked, and important 
structural characters pointed out by these masters of our science 
are ignored. 

It is to draw attention to some of these important characters, 
therefore, that I address you to-night, and also to point out a few 
others which I have discovered in over 15 years' study in the order, 
and which I am only just beginning to use and appreciate in my 
own systematic work. 

In other departments of zoology, and indeed also by the public 
at large, the immense work being done by entomologists through- 
out the world — the greatness and grandeur of their task — is not 
at all appreciated, when in reality there are probably no more 
difficult or trying animals in the world to study than the Insecta. 
They are numbered by millions, although a rough estimate of the 
number of insects described in the world to-day foots up only a 
little under 300,000 species, or, more accurately, about 284,000 
species, as follows : 



Orthoptera, 






9,000 


Neuroptera, 






5,000 


Lepidoptera, 






60,000 


Hymenoptera, 






38,000 


Hemiptera, 






20,000 


Diptera, 






30,000 



284,000 

From this estimate it will be seen that the Hymenoptera known 
at present are far less numerous than the Coleoptera or the 
Lepidoptera ; but this great discrepancy is due entirely to the few 
students at present working in the order, as I firmly believe that 
their number, when all the parasitic forms are worked up, will 
be greater than these two great orders combined. 

Thi3 rough estimate will also enable you to form some idea of 
the great task before us — the value and necessity of a minute 
analysis of all their structural characters, and the many difficulties 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

to contend with — before our system of classification can be at 
least approximately correct. 

I should like, also, to draw your attention briefly to the great 
economic importance attached to their study, for this also, by 
many entomologists and the public, is only slightly appreciated, 
although to the farmer, fruit-grower, and agriculturist it is of the 
most urgent importance. 

It is estimated that between three and four hundred millions 
of dollars are annually lost in the United States from the dep- 
redations of insect pests. Think of it; more than double the 
amount now in the United States Treasury ! Now, all of these 
insect pests have their natural Hymenopterous parasites — true, 
many of them still unknown to us — that prey upon and destroy 
the eggs, larvae, pupae, and sometimes the imagoes themselves. 
Were it not so, not a crop of any kind could be raised in the 
United States. Few of us can estimate or appreciate the value 
of the services that thousands of these little parasites are daily 
performing for us in our midst — in our fields, our orchards, 
and our forests — in destroying and ridding us of the numerous 
Lepidopterous, Coleopterous, Hemipterous, and Dipterous insect 
pests so destructive to our forests, fruits, cereals, and our garden 
and field crops. 

I am sorry to say, some of our entomologists, who having paid 
little or no attention to these insects, or who have given them 
but little thought, are disposed to belittle the services of our 
Hymenopterous parasites and, because they do not totally exter- 
minate their hosts, claim they are of little economic importance. 
Now, I believe if we were to take away our Hymenopterous 
parasites, scarcely a single crop of any kind could be raised in 
the United States — certainly no cereal could be raised, as Aphides 
alone would destroy all — so rapid and prolific are they in their 
development. 

To illustrate the wonderful prolificness of an Aphis I will 
quote from Buckton. He says : 

** A single insect hatched from one of these shining black ova may be 
the mother of many billions of young, even during her lifetime. Latreille 
says one female during the summer will produce young at the rate of 25 
in a day; and Reaumur calculates that one Aphis may be the mother of 



OF WASHINGTON. 205 

the enormous number of 5,904,900,000 individuals during the month or 
six weeks of her existence. Probably the daily birth, as given by Latreille, 
is above the truth, yet I have witnessed the birth of eight young from the 
same mother in six hours, viz., from ten o'clock in the morning to four 
o'clock in the afternoon. However this may be, neither Tougard nor 
Morren is satisfied with Latreille's billions; both state that quintillions 
are within the capabilities of a single mother's efforts. Prof. Huxley 
makes a curious calculation, though for a different purpose, which at any 
rate affords some approximate idea of what a quintillion of Aphides might 
mean. Assuming that an Aphis weighs as little as j^^ of a grain, and 
that it requires a man to be very stout to weigh more than two million 
grains, he shows that the tenth brood of Aphides alone, without adding 
the products of all the generations which precede the tenth, if all the 
members survive the perils to which they are exposed, contains more pon- 
derable substance than five hundred millions of stout men; that is, more 
than the whole population of China ! " 

In a foot note he then goes on to show — 

•* that Prof. Huxley's graphic illustration, nevertheless, much underesti- 
mates the real quantity of animal matter capable of elaboration from one 
single rose Aphis in a year. 

*' Basing the calculation, for simplicity, upon the supposition that every 
Aphis lives twenty days, and that at the expiration of that period each 
Aphis shall have produced twenty young and no more, then, at the expira- 
tion of three hundred days only^ the living individuals would be 32,768,- 
000,000,000,000,000, or equal to the weight of 1,638,400,000 men." 

♦ * ♦ ** A mathematical friend remarks that this calculation does 
not express the real rate of increase, since it supposes the progeny of 
the first Aphis to be produced at once ^ and not to commence producing 
until the expiration of the first twenty days. To this same friend I am 
indebted for the annexed calculation. 

** If we suppose the progeny of the first Aphis to equal 20 in twenty days, 
and this progeny to begin producing, when five days old, 20 young, each 
of which on attaining the age of five days begins the propagation of 20 
young, and completes, also, that number in twenty days ; 

** Then, at the end of twenty days from the commencement of first 

Aphis production there would be direct issue = 20 A 

** At the end of fifth day, progeny A begin to produce, which at 
the end of first twenty days will altogether equal 15 -}- 14+ I3» 
+ I3» &c., + 2 + 1 = 120 B 

** At the end of tenth day,'progeny B begiii to produce, which at 
the end of the first twenty days will altogether equal 10 -|- 9 
+ 8, &C..+2 + 1 = 55 C 

** At the end of fifteenth day, progeny C begin to produce, which 
at the end of the first twenty days will altogether equal 5 -t~ 4 
+ 3 + 3 + 1 = 15D 

** Total at the end of 20 days equals A -f- B -|- C + D = 210 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAJ. SOCIETY 

** This amount, therefore, at the end of 300 days (or 20 X iS) would not 
be less than the fifteenth power of 210, which is almost impossible to 
express in figures. * There would be room in the world for nothing else 
but Aphides ! * Truly, * Nature is most wonderful in small things.' " 

These estimates, given above, are founded upon mathematical 
exactness and cannot be refuted. But you will say : "If this is so, 
why do not our Aphides increase and become more of a pest than 
they are to-day ? " I reply : Because of their parasites. Most 
of our fruit trees and vines — the apple, the peach, the orange, 
the grape, watermelon, etc. — and our more important field crops, 
such as cotton, wheat, corn, etc., have distinct species of Aphides, 
which destroy annually thousands of dollars' worth of these prod- 
ucts, but which, fortunately, are more or less kept under con- 
trol by their natural enemies — these parasitic Hymenoptera and 
other predaceous insects. 

From the orange Aphis in Florida, I have reared five distinct 
species of parasites ; from the cotton Aphis, three or four ; 
from the wheat Aphis seven or eight \ from the corn Aphis four 
or five ; and from other Aphides parasites in like proportions. 
Fourteen years ago, from three or four large orange leaves taken 
from an orange tree in my yard and badly infested with the 
orange Aphis, I reared between three and four hundred specimens 
of a parasite, and a careful examination of the leaves after- 
wards showed that every Aphis had been parasitized. Thou- 
sands of these little parasites were found running about on my 
trees, and within a very brief period after their appearance my 
trees were comparatively free from the pest. 

These are only a few instances out of hundreds that could be 
cited in illustration of the benefits derived from our Hymenop- 
terous parasites. 

It would be well here, also, to draw attention to another side 
of this important question of parasitism, that is, to the introduc- 
tion of the exotic, natural enemies of such of our insect pests as 
have been imported from foreign countries. Scarcely any 
attention at all has been given to this side of the question, although 
lately the subject has been agitated and some efforts are now 
being made towards its accomplishment. Let me urge, there- 
fore, upon all those who are in a position to influence action 



OF WASHINGTON. 207 

upon this good work, to do so without further delay, as much 
good will result therefrom. 

Some years ago, in Insect Life (vol. II, p. 210), Mr. L. O. 
Howard called attention to the European parasites bred from the 
Gypsy Moth (^Ocneria dispar Linn.), an introduced European 
pest now depredating places in Massachusetts, and for the exter- 
mination of which the Massachusetts legislature is spending an- 
nually thousands of dollars. Mr. Howard gave a list of no less 
than 24 distinct species of Hymenoptera bred from it in Europe, 
of which number 16 were primary parasites. It has always ap- 
peared to me singular why, with this knowledge before them, no 
effort has ever been made, on the part of those in charge of the 
work of destruction, to introduce some of these parasites. This 
might have been done, some years ago, at a comparatively small 
outlay — between three or four thousand dollars at the most — and 
certainly, had this been done, the parasites would have aided 
materially in the destruction of the pest and in keeping it within 
reasonable bounds. 

In these introductory remarks I believe I have now said suf- 
ficient to demonstrate to you all the economic importance of these 
parasites, and to impress upon you the benefits to be derived from 
a thorough study of their habits and structure, although con- 
nected with them are many other problems of great biologic in- 
terest, upon which I would like to say a few words, but which 
must be left unsaid for want of time; and I will therefore leave 
these untouched and proceed with the substance of my address — 
some important structural characters of these parasites. 

The Head. 

The head has always been considered of great importance in 
classification — its size, shape, and various appendages entering 
quite largely into all our systematic work, but it is not yet ex- 
hausted, and there are still important characters which may be 
used by us in our work. 

On the accoiyipanying Plate III, I have made some rough outline 
figures of a few of the different shaped heads, in order to draw 
special attention to some characters which should not be over- 
looked in classification, as they are frequently correlated with 
other characters of primary importance. 



208 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOOIBTY 

Figs. I, 2, and 3 represent the head of three different Bracon; 
ids. The first is quadrate, with head behind eyes very long; 
the second is transverse-quadrate, the head behind eyes not nar- 
rowed ; the third is also transverse, but with head convergent 
behind eyes. 

Now, strange to say, all three forms, with some others, are 
still retained to-day in the genus Bracon, according to the present 
classification in vogue, and they will illustrate what I mean w^hen 
I say the head and appendages, for use in classification, are still 
unexhausted. In my recent studies in the Braconidae, these dif- 
ferent shapes at once attracted my attention, and I soon found 
they were correlated with other characters, which will enable a 
subdivision of this extensive genus into half a dozen or more new 
genera — the other characters being found in the antennae, shape 
of scape, in the palpi, and in the thorax and abdomen. 

Figs. 4 and 5 represent two forms of head in the family Eva- 
niidae, while figs. 6 and 7 represent two characteristic forms to 
be found in the Chalcididae, belonging to the subfamily Pteroma- 
linae, as seen from in front, all the others having been shown 
from above. 

In this last family not enough attention has been given, in de- 
scriptive work, to the shape of the head as seen from in front, 
and to the shape of the clypeus, shape of eyes, mandibles, the 
character of the maxillary and labial palpi, and to the insertion 
of the antennae. 

In fig. 6 the head, as seen from in front, is nearly round, 
slightly wider than long, the clypeus being bidentate, the anten- 
nae being inserted on the middle of the face ; in fig. 7 it is 
oblong, nearly twice as long as wide, the clypeus being truncate, 
while the antennae are inserted just above the clypeus or the 
mouth. 

I would call special attention here to the great difference ob- 
servable in the clypeus and to its importance in classification. 
Sometimes it is entirely separated from the face by grooved lines, 
or separated only at the sides or not at all, as shown in fig. 6. 
Its anterior margin may be unidentate, bidentate, tridentate, 
truncate, rounded or emarginated, and these differences should 
always be mentioned in descriptive work. 



OF WASHINGTON. 209 

The position of the antennae should always be mentioned, as I 
have only illustrated two forms of insertion of these important 
organs. Sometimes they are placed far above the middle of the 
face, on the frons, or much below the middle of the face, on a 
line with the base of the eyes. 

In figs. 8 and 9 I represent two remarkable shaped heads 
representing a male and female fig-insect belonging to the 
Agaonidae or Blastophagidae. 

All females in this group have a more or less oblong head, 
which is grooved above, with a small curved tubercle at base, and 
^vith peculiar saw-like appendages to the mandibles as shown in 
fig. 8. 

Fig. 9 represents a male. The males are always apterous, 
^vith slender, weak, or aborted middle legs and stout, strong, 
much swollen front and hind legs ; the abdomen is long and 
tubular, being curved under the thorax. 

These remarkable insects live entirely on various fig-trees and 
are essential to their pollenization. 

Other important characters connected with the head are the 
mouth-parts, the mandibles, palpi, etc. 

The Swedish entomologist, C. G. Thomson, seems to have 
been the first to make extensive use of the mandibles in classify- 
ing the Chalcididae. 

After a careful study of them, I agree with him in regard 
to their value as aids in classification, although neither in this 
country nor abroad has their value been fully appreciated. 

Figs. 10 and 11 represent the typical forms found in the 
Eucharince^ a group of the Chalcididae parasitic on ants. 

These are long, sickle-shaped, with one or two teeth on the 
inner margin, near the middle. 

Figs. 12 and 13 represent the two types found in the Perilam- 
fince^ arid figs. 14 and 15 represent two inquilinous or parasitic fig- 
insects, Sycorectes. 

Figs. 16 to 22 also represent different types in the Chalcididae. 
You will observe that they have four, three, and two teeth respec- 
tively ; also that the shape and chai*acter of the teeth (differ ma 
terially in the several forms shown. 

In fig. 16 the outer tooth is the largest, the three following 



210 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

being nearly equal ; in fig. 17 the outer and the inner are equal, 
or nearly so, and larger than the two middle teeth; in fig. 18 the 
teeth are much smaller and all about equal; in figs. 19 and 20, 
the one with four, the other with three, the inner tooth is blunt 
or truncate; while in figs. 21 and 22 both are bidentate, but 
the outer tooth in one is much longer than in the other. 

In some genera both mandibles may be 4-dentate or 3-dentate ; 
in others they are 3-dentate in one mandible and 4 in the other. 
All these characters are important in descriptive work. 

Our systematic workers have not given enough attention to the 
structure of the mouth-parts of our parasites, although they 
undoubtedly afford excellent characters for generic diagnoses. 

To show how variable and valuable they are in systematic 
work, I have given some rough drawings, Plate IV, representing 
types found in three different families — the Ichneumonidae, 
Braconidae, and Chalcididae. 

Fig. I represents the mouth-parts of Ichneumon (after Ratze- 
burg). Here the labial palpi are 4-jointed, the maxillary palpi 
5-jointed, the galea being developed into strong, broadly rounded 
lobes, while the mentum, maxilla, and other parts have shapes 
peculiarly their own. 

Fig. 2 represents the same parts of a Braconid belonging to 
the genus Microgaster. The labial palpi are only 3-jointed, the 
galea less strongly developed, while the other parts are quite dif- 
ferently shaped from those in Ichneumon. 

Figs. 3 and 4 represent the mouth-parts of two Chalcids— one 
a Pteromalus, the other a Eurytoma. Here the maxillary palpi 
are only 4-jointed ; the labial palpi, although 3-jointed, have the 
second joint very small ; while the mentum and galea are quite 
distinct from both Bracon and Ichneumon. 

Fig. 4 represents Eurytoma. You will notice a marked dif- 
ference in the shape of the galeae between it and Pteromalus. 
These are long and acuminate or lanceolate, while the other parts 
are correspondingly different. 

All through this immense family, comprising thousands of 
species, many different types of mouth-parts occur, which I be- 
lieve, in connection with other characters, justify us in dividing it 
into several distinct and well-marked families. The labial palpi 



OF WASHINGTON. 211 

vary in the number of joints from 3 to i, the maxillary from 4 
to I, while the shape of the mentum, paraglossa, galea, and 
maxilla exhibit several distinctly marked types. 

The Thorax. 

In the second division of an insect, or the thorax, two distinctly 
marked types of the pronotum occur, which I believe to be of 
primary importance in classifying all insects in this order. 

In one type the pronotum does not extend back to the tegulae, 
or the scale at the insertion of the front wings — there is always a 
small sclerite thrust in between them ; while in the other type 
the pronotum always extends back and touches the tegulae. 

This simple character enables us to at once bring together all 
the closely allied families in the two great sections — into which 
the Hymenoptera are divided — in a way no other single character 
will do, and it must not be overlooked by the student. 

In this connection I should like to say something, of the side 
pieces of the thorax — the pleura, episterna, epimera, etc., — char- 
acters found to be of primary importance in the classification of the 
Coleoptera, and which will be found to be of the same impor- 
tance in the classification of this order ; but these characters are 
still unanalyzed, in my mind, and while I might point out their 
value in some particular cases, until I have satisfied myself of 
their value in all the groups, I prefer, for the present, to say 
nothing about them. 

With the metathorax, however, I can do better. In the meta- 
thorax of a Hymenopterous insect are to be found some of the 
most important characters, suitable for classification, found no- 
where else, and, strange to say, in America these important char- 
acters are entirely overlooked, or only used to a limited extent. 
Their value and importance are not fully appreciated by us. 

We are in reality indebted to the learned Dr. Arnold Forster 
for first calling attention to them, or, rather, making use of them, 
in his Essay Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Ichneu- 
moniden, published in 1868; but to the Swedish entomologist, 
C. G. Thomson, for first really analyzing their value and mak- 
ing use of them largely in his systematic work. 

Every natural group in the Parasitica seems to have an indi- 



212 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

vidualized type of metathcwax, and this has been most admirably 
brought out recently by Thomson. 

Take the Ichneumonidae for instance. In the group Ichneu- 
tnonince all have a more or less distinctly areolated metathorax, 
caused by raised lines, or carinae, variously arranged and modified 
to form different shaped cells or areas. 

On Plate V, in the figures, I have attempted to illustrate these 
areas and their value to us in classification. 

You will notice there are five series of cells — three median and 
two lateral. To these the following names may be applied : 

No. I. Basal area or first median area. 

2. Areola, upper median area or second median area. 

3. Petiolar area, apical area, or third median cell. 

4. External area or first lateral basal area. 

5. External median area or the second lateral area. 

6. Internal area, the middle apical area, or the third 

lateral area. 
47. The spiracular area or the first pleural area. 

8. The middle pleural area or the second pleural area. 

9. The angular area or the third pleural area. 

The carinse or raised lines may also be named : 

M. M. are the two median longitudinal carinas. 
L. L. are the two lateral longitudinal carinae. 
P. P. are the two pleural carinae. 
The transverse carinae are — 

B. The basal transverse carina. 
A. A. The apical transverse carina. 
These names will enable us to properly define the areas and 
carinae in descriptive work. For instance, these carinae are 
sometimes wanting between the areas. If the basal transverse 
carina between the basal area and the areola or the median cell 
(2) is wanting, we say basal area and median cell confluent; if 
the median transverse carina be wanting, we then say median 
and apical or the petiolar areas confluent — and thus through the 
whole series. 

In fig. 2, I show the metathoracic character of a Cryptid. 



OF WA8HINOT0N. 21 



3 



Here there are only two transverse carinae, the areas being want- 



ing. 



In figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6 I show some of the characteristic 
forms of the metathorax observed in the family Chalcididae. In 
fig. 3 the metathorax is produced into a subglobose neck at 
apex, while there are three longitudinal carinae, the two lateral 
usually being designated as the lateral folds. 

In fig. 4 the median carina is wanting, while in fig. 5 is ex- 
hibited a form entirely without carina. In both of these figures 
the metathorax is not produced into a subglobose neck. 

In fig. 6 I show a character not apparent in any of the others. 
This is a grooved line or channel extending from the spiracle to 
the apical margin, which is termed the spiracular sulcus. It is a 
valuable character in the classification of the Chalcididae. 

In figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10 I show some typical forms of the meta- 
thorax observed in the subfamily Microgasterince in the family 
£raconidce^ which I find to be of great importance in dividing 
this group into sections. In fig. 7 we have a median area or 
areola, in fig. 8 a median longitudinal carina, in fig. 9 it is per- 
fectly plane without either areola or carina, while in fig. 10 the 
apical margin is deeply bisinuated. 

While on the subject of the metathorax, I desire to call special 
attention to another character of primary importance, entirely, 
or almost entirely, neglected by systematic workers ; that is, the 
shape and position of the metathoracic spiracles. These should 
always be defined, at least in our generic descriptions. 

On the plate I have figured some of the more important 
forms: Fig. 11 is round or circular; fig. 12 oval; fig. 13 ovate; 
fig. 14 elliptical; fig. 15 reniform or kidney-shaped; fig. 16 
linear; fig. 17 curved linear. 

The wings and their venation have always been considered of 
the first importance in classification, and their value is not over- 
estimated. In fact, our system of classification in all orders 
to-day, except in the Coleoptera, is based mainly upon venation. 

To enter fully into the subject of venation, as found in the 
Parasitica, would occupy much time, and I shall only be able 
to-night to draw attention to a few special types and point out 
to you the value of some characteristic features of these in 
systematic work. 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

In figs. I to 12, on Plate VI, I illustrate a few of these types. 
Figs. I and 2 represent two typical forms of the front wings 
found among the Braconidae. Here, you will notice, the stigma 
in one is greatly thickened ; in the other it is long and slender, 
although otherwise there is a close resemblance between the two. 
On a closer inspection, however, we will see there are marked 
differences. In fig. i the submedian cell (2) is not longer than 
the median ( i ) , while in fig. 2 this same cell is longer than the 
median. 

Another difference is in the recurrent- nervure (1). In one it 
enters the first submarginal cell ; in the other it is received by the 
second submarginal cell. There are also other differences. In 
fig. I the discoidal nervure (j) is straight; in fig. 2 it is angu- 
larly broken ; still another great difference is in the radial cell, 
the one being much smaller or shorter than the other, the radius 
in one not extending to the apex of the wing. These slight dif- 
ferences are of the greatest importance in a study of these insects. 

Fig. 3 represents the typical hind wing of a Braconid, while 
figs. 4 and 5 represent hind wings of Ichneumonids. Fig. 6 rep- 
resents the hind wing of the peculiar and rare genus Rhopa- 
losoma^ still classed with the Braconidae. Observe what a marked 
difference there is between these forms, and what admirable char- 
acters they present for classificatory purposes ! Why is it that 
American students have made no use of these excellent charac- 
ters found in the venation of the hind wings of these insects.^ 

Is it not time for us to begin to make use of them in our tables.^ 

The Abdomen. 

In the third division of an insect, or in the abdomen, may be 
found a host of most excellent and valuable characters for use in 
systematic work. These lie in its shape, the relative length of 
the segments — the tergites and sternites, and in the position of 
the spiracles. 

The value of these I will attempt to show by the use of the 
few rough figures on Plate VII. 

In the family Braconidae we have an extensive subfamily, 
termed the JMicrogastcritK/^^ comprising an excessively large 
number of minute species of great economic importance, as all, 



(yt WASHtNGTOl^. Sl6 

with but few exceptions, are primary parasites on destructive 
Lepidopterous larvae. 

This group has always been considered the most difficult one 
to study in this family, and up to the present time remains in the 
greatest confusion, as no one has been able to seize hold of 
salient characters that will readily separate the species. 

This, I think, can now be done, without much difficulty, from 
the use of characters pointed out to-night. 

In my remarks under the thorax I have already called atten- 
tion to the great differences observable in the metathoracic 
charactbrs of this group, and these differences taken in connection 
with structural peculiarities of the abdomen, now to be pointed 
out, will enable any one to readily separate these insects into 
sections, subsections or divisions, and then into species. 

In figs. 1 8, 19, 20, 21, and 22 I show the structure of only 
five different types of abdomen observable in this group, although 
many others exist. 

On the first or basal segment of all the species in this group, 
as well as sometimes in some species of other groups, is a raised 
chitinous shield or plate of various shapes or forms. 

This plate I find to be exceedingly valuable in classification, 
and I have made extensive use of it in my forthcoming mono- 
graph of the North American Braconidae. 

This plate, you will notice in fig. 18, is about three times as 
long as wide, the sides being parallel ; in fig. 19 it is trapezoidal, 
scarcely as long as wide, or a little wider at apex than at base ; 
in fig. 20 quite a different shape is seen ; here it is much longer 
than wide, or long trapezoidal, with the hind angles rounded ; 
in fig. 21 we have a quadrate-shaped plate, covering almost 
entirely the upper surface; while in fig. 22 still another quite 
different shaped plate is seen ; here we have a narrow, sharply 
pointed, wedge-shaped or lanceolate-shaped plate. 

These are only a few of the many forms occurring in this 
group. 

In this connection I would also call attention to another char- 
acter of primary importance, which should be more extensively 
used in classification ; that is, the relative length of the tergites 
or dorsal segments. 



216 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Take fig. i8, for example. Here, you will notice, the second 
segment is very short — about half the length of the third, with 
two oblique grooved lines. Compare this now with the others 
figured and see what a great difference there is. 

In fig. 19 the second segment is almost twice as long as the 
third, while the oblique grooved lines are wanting. In fig. 20 
the second and third are nearly equal; in fig. 21 it is about 2^ 
times longer than the third ; while in fig. 22 it is only a little 
shorter than the third, with two oblique gi'ooved lines that are 
approximate at base. 

To still further illustrate the value of these charaters, which I 
find to be of the greatest importance in classifying most of the 
groups in the Microhymenoptera, 1 have illustrated the abdomi- 
nal characteristics of five different genera in the group Eurytom- 
inse. 

Figs. 23 and 24 illustrate the female and male of Isosoma; 
figs. 25 and 26, female and male of Decatoma; figs. 27 and 
28, female and male of Bruchophagus ; figs. 29 and 30, female 
and male of Eurytotna ; while figs. 31 and 32 represent the 
female and male of the rare genus Axima^ represented at pres- 
ent by only two species — one described by Walker, from Brazil ; 
the other by Howard, from New York. 

A few words more, and I am done. The subject to which I 
have called your attention is both an extensive and an important 
one, and in my remarks to-night I have only barely touched upon 
some of the more important characters. I have said nothing of 
the antennae, the shape and structure of the legs, the tibial spurs 
and the claws, and their importance in classification, while 1^ have 
but briefly touched upon venation. 

To say all I should like to say would fill a volume, but I trust 
I have said sufficient to show the importance of the subject and 
to bring our students in line with the work being done abroad. 

I have described many species in the groups spoken of this 
evening, and have myself been described as a species maker. 

In conclusion, however, allow me to say that there is no ento- 
mologist who knows better or appreciates more thoroughly than 
I the work that is before us. I know and feel there is something 
higher, something grander, something more ennobling than mere 



6t WAStllNGTOK. 217 

species making, and that is the utilization of nature's laws for 
the benefit of mankind. By this I mean systematic work — the 
bringing of order out of chaos, the discovery of reliable struc- 
tural characters which may be depended upon for the founding of 
families, genera, and species, and their an*angement in such 
manner that the student the world over can readily recognize 
them ; also the search after and the discovery of the laws or prin- 
ciples underlying and influencing this mighty host of insect life — 
the discovery of their habits and life-histories, the morphological 
changes undergone in their struggle for existence, by change of 
food, environment, or climate — their migrations, their geograph- 
ical distribution, whence and how it came about, and the laws 
governing their increase and decrease. 

All of these things are of the greatest importance, looked at 
from any standpoint — philosophically, biologically, or economi- 
cally — and any life is well spent that is devoted to the discovery 
of these laws, and the unravelling of the lives and habits of the 
millions of these minute organic beings that teem in field and 
forest. 

The address was discussed by Messrs. Marlatt, Schwarz, Riley, 
Howard, and Gill. 

Mr. Schwarz congratulated Mr. Ashmead upon the results of 
what had evidently been a very great labor. He discussed briefly 
and comparatively a few of the characters mentioned by Mr. 
Ashmead, and spoke of their significance with the Coleoptera. 
He stated that with the latter order the hind wings have not been 
used to any great extent, and that only family characters have 
been derived from them. 

Dr. Riley complimented the address highly, but called atten- 
tion to the fact that the great majority of the characters pointed 
out by Mr. Ashmead had been used before by European system- 
atists. He agreed as to the value of a great majority of the char- 
acters described, although he was not inclined to give much 
weight to the variations in the shape of the spiracles and the 
dentation of the mandibles. The abdominal characters, as illus- 
trated by the figures of Eurytoma, Decatoma, and Isosoma had 
always been used, and he had carefully drawn them for the 



218 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETy 

American Entomologist^ years ago, in connection with some of 
Walsh's studies. He also spoke of the extraordinary fecundity 
of the Aphididae, giving examples of recent experience in his 
own greenhouse, and also referred to what he had recorded from 
actual observation in reference to Phorodon humuli, 

Mr. Howard said that it might seem strange, to the majority of 
systematists in other groups who were present, that the students 
of parasitic Hymenoptera had so long confined themselves in 
their descriptive work to the differentiation in a few obvious 
characters, and went on to state that this was due to the fact that, 
with the comparatively small number of forms which had hitherto 
been under obsei*vation, classification could be accomplished by 
the study of these few alone. Moreover, many of the important 
characters just pointed out by Mr. Ashmead are difficult of 
observation, and certain of them involve a partial dissection of the 
specimens. With the extraordinary increase of the number of 
forms collected which has been brought about of late years, 
however, the necessity arises for the discovery of new characters 
for their separation. The necessity is becoming greater every 
day, and in Mr. Ashmead we evidently have the man for the 
emergency. The address, as a whole, is of the greatest value, 
and will undoubtedly be of great assistance to students in the 
parasitic Hymenoptera. 

Dr. Gill expressed some dissatisfaction with the President for 
having apologized for going into such minute details. The 
speaker considered that this study of minute detail is exactly what 
we need. Our modern school of zoologists have drifted away 
from this necessary class of work and have in fact frowned down 
systematic study. It is becoming the custom, in fact, to study a 
few types and to write a text-book about them, whereas what we 
need is a multiplicity of details about a multiplicity of forms. 
Mr. Ash mead's address is typical of the best kind of systematic 
zoology. 

February 7, 1895. 

President Ashmead occupied the chair, and Messrs. Schwarz, 
Benton, Coquillett, Marlatt, Gill, Howard, C. Hart Merriam, 



Proc. Bntotn, SoCy Washing-ton^ Vol. III. 



P/ate III. 




STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS IN HYMENOPTERA. 



Proe. Enlont. Soc, WaikiHgton, Vol. III. 




STRUCTURAL CHARACTEkS IK HYUtVOVI^VJ.. 



Proc, Bntom. SoCj Waskingion^ VoL III, 
M L M 1 ? 







# 




^%iU- 




(.J. 





V^ 



f 



/0 



9 00 5 \1) 

" « /, 'f ,r ,L 



STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS IN HYMENOPTERA. 



Proc, Entotn. Soc , Washington^ Vol, II L 



Plate VI, 













/O 




n 




tz 



STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS IN HYMENOPTERA. 



Proc. Entom. Soc, Was/tingloti^ Vol. Ill, 



Plate VII. 







n 



.20 



^/ 




UX 





-2f 




^tr 




^6 




J27 




Jt^ 





30 





31 cSZ 

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS IN HYMENOPTERA. 



OF WASHINGTON. 219 

R. S. Clifton were present, the small attendance being due to a 
blizzard. 

The Corresponding Secretary announced the deaths of Berthold 
Neumogen and George D. Bradford, both of New York city and 
both corresponding members of the Society. 

On motion, the President appointed Messrs. Schwarz, Howard, 
and Gill a committee to take charge of the sale of the collection 
of Arachnids left by the late member of the Society — Dr. George 
Marx, as well as to prepare a biographical sketch and a list of 
his writings for the proceedings. 

Mr. Coquillett was elected a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. Marx. 

Mr. Howard read a paper entitled — 

NOTES ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN 
THE UNITED STATES OF CERTAIN INSECTS INJURING 
CULTIVATED CROPS. 

By L. O. Howard. 

The broad subject of the natural geographical distribution of 
animals and plants is a sufficiently complicated one, but it be- 
comes still further complicated when we come to consider the 
actual and possible distribution of cultivated species. One small 
phase of this subject enters naturally into the work of the eco- 
nomic entomologist, although it has as yet received no attention. 
This phase is expressed in the query. How far will a given inju- 
rious insect follow its natural food- plant when the geographical 
range of the latter is extended by artificial means? This is a 
question which can be answered satisfactorily only by a study of 
each individual injurious species and the facts concerning its ori- 
gin and present spread, as well as by a consideration of the laws 
governing the distribution of the food-plant. 

It is reasonable to suppose that in many cases insects will be 
unable to follow their food-plants to the limits of their possible 
range, notwithstanding the fact that the geographical distribution 
of animals and plants is governed by the same general laws of 
temperature, humidity, exposure, and geological characteristics. 
The obvious reason for this is, that purely artificial features are 
introduced in cultivating plants, varieties are propagated which 
develop resistant powers lacking in the parent stock ; seeds, in 
the case of annuals, are carefully collected and selected, the soil 
is prepared for their reception, and is artificially fertilized ; 
while with perennials the same general care is taken. It fol- 



220 E]STOl*MiOGlCAL SOCIETY 

lows, therefore, that the natural range of cultivated species is 
widely extended in every direction, and in the teeth of the very 
barriers which naturally would have held them rigidly in check. 
Plant-feeding insects in general follow the natural distribution of 
their specific food. Experience has shown that as this natural 
food becomes a cultivated crop they increase. As the cultivation 
of the crop is spread along natural lines of distribution, they fol- 
low it. When, however, by artificial selection, hardy varieties 
of the crop plant have developed, and the range becomes thus 
extended along what may be termed unnatural lines, with certain 
species, at least, and within certain limits with them, their insect 
enemies will naturally be unable to follow them. The result will 
be, theoretically, natural selection with the insects trying to catch 
up with the results of artificial selection with the plants. 

It will be interesting to follow the geographical distribution in 
the United States of a few important insect enemies of cultivated 
crops, to see what geographical limits apparently exist with the 
insects, which do not exist with the crops on which they feed. 

My attention was first called to this matter by the somewhat 
peculiar spread in the east of Asfidiotus perntciosus. This in- 
sect, the original home of which is unknown but which may be 
South America or Australia, made its first appearance in the 
vicinity of San Jos6, California. It spread rather slowly north 
and soutk through that peculiar life-zone on the Pacific coast of 
our country which combines throughout its entire extent forms 
belonging to the boreal and upper Sonoran regions. Brought 
across the entire country to New Jersey upon nursery stock, it 
spread rapidly through two large nurseries, and then for a num- 
ber- of years was sent out, ignorantly, upon nursery stock to the 
North, South, East and West, probably to nearly all of the thou- 
sands of customers of two of the most prominent nursery firms 
in the country. Not until the summer of 1893 was its presence 
in the East recognized by entomologists. Traffic in infested stock, 
however, had been going on for five or six years, and it was soon 
ascertained that the insect had taken a foothold at a number of 
points. Many of these points have been definitely located, and 
the occurrences of the insect studied. The species occurs upon 
all deciduous fruit trees. Apples and pears, and to a certain ex- 
tent peaches, are, as every one knows, extensively grown in por- 
tions of the transition life-zone ; in certain of these localities, in 
fact, fruit-growing is a great industry, and we may accept it as 
practically certain that nursery stock was sent to many points in 
this zone. The facts so far collected, however, fail to reveal a 
single locality within the limits of this zone in which the insect 
has established itself. Many points have been found in the up- 
per austral, others occur in the austro-riparian and lower Sono- 



OF WASHINGTON. 221 

ran, but not one has been found in the transition. The accuracy 
with which the difficult northern border line of the upper austral 
has been mapped by Dv. Merriam is indicated by several inter- 
esting occurrences of the San Jos6 scale which have been investi- 
gated. The southeastern one-fifth of Pennsylvania is upper 
austral, the zone taking a loop up at this point. Near the bot- 
tom of this loop the San Jos6 scale has been found, and at its ex- 
treme northwestern limit another occurrence has been ascertained. 
Across the northwestern corner of New Jersey the Alleghanian 
region extends in a diagonal line from southwest to northeast. 
In this corner the scale has not established itself, although below 
New Brunswick, as I learn from Dr. J. B. Smith, the orchards 
of the State are generally affected. Dr. Smith, in his paper 
read before . the Association of Economic Entomologists last 
August, correlated this dividing line with the so-called "red 
shale " line of New Jersey, and seemed of the opinion that the 
scale would not permanently establish itself north of this line. 
That it might so establish itself for a time, he said, was indicated 
by the occurrence of the insect in Columbia county. New York. 
The real significance of this occurrence in Columbia county, 
howxver, is shown by the fact that up the Hudson river nearly to 
Albany there extends a narrow finger of the upper austral zone. 
On Long Island the scale has also been found, but this, too, is 
upper austral. Across through the mid-region of the upper 
austral or Carolinian there are occasional points where the scale 
has established itself, and other significant occurrences have been 
found in Idaho. A narrow band of the upper austral or upper. 
Sonoran extends alorfg the Snake River valley, and at two points 
in the western part of the State within this band the scale has 
become established. The other Idaho point of establishment is 
also very interesting. This is the immediate vicinity of Lewiston, 
at the only point in the pan-handle of Idaho where the upper 
austral dips in from Washington.* 



♦Since the reading of this paper this peculiarity in the distribution of 
Aspidiotus perniciosus has been mentioned by the writer in Insect Life, 
volume VII, p. 292. Immediately after the publication of this record, 
specimens of this species were received from Professor C. H. Fernald, col- 
lected at Amherst, Mass. This was apparently a refutation of the prob- 
able limitation of spread suspected. Investigation, however, showed 
that the infested trees had been brought from New Jersey and planted at 
Amherst in the spring of 1894, and examination in the spring of 1895 
showed that all of the scale insects were dead. The instance, therefore, 
becomes a confirmation rather than a refutation. Moreover, the south 
Connecticut band of the upper austral extends for some distance up the 
Connecticut river, as is quite to be expected from the general law con- 
cerning river-banks. Quite up to the Massachusetts line, and beyond, 
plenty of upper austral forms are found mingling with transition forms. 



222 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

From our present information it seems that the spread of this 
destructive insect is likely to be limited, for a time at least, by the 
boundaries of the upper and * lower austral zones ; and if future 
observations prove that this supposition — based upon so few ob- 
servations, it is true — be correct, it will afford immeasurable relief 
to the thousands of fruit-growers in New England, large portions of 
New York and Pennsylvania, and the northern portions of the 
lower peninsula of Michigan. 

The older history of the eastern spread of the Colorado potato- 
beetle affords another exemplification. Potatoes are grown from 
the northern limits of the transition zone in British America south 
to the Gulf of Mexico. The Colorado potato-beetle, originally 
an inhabitant of the transition zone in the West, and feeding 
upon native solanaceous plants, spread straight east through the 
upper austral zone to the Atlantic ocean. It spread to the north, 
into the transition region, more slowly than towards the southern 
boundary of the upper austral. The centre of the army travelled 
the fastest, the north wing more slowly, and the south wing 
still more slowly. The insect established itself for a series of 
years, at least, at every point along the journey, and at many 
points permanently. Reaching the northernmost limit of the 
lower austral, however, it found its limit for a time, and in the 
southern range of this species we find a very interesting study. 
Bordering the southward extension of the Alleghanian fauna is 
a downward loop of the upper austral zone which includes the 
northeast corner of Alabama and the northwest corner of 
Georgia. So accurately were the limits of the spread of this 
species gauged to the limits of the upper austral that the only 
points in the Gulf line of States where the species had established 
itself as a crop pest were, until within the last year or two, in the 
northeast corner of Alabama and the northwest corner of 
Georgia.* 

The asparagus-beetle, Crioceris asfaragi^ was brought over 
from Europe and became noticeable on Long Island in 1856 to 
1859. This insect spreads readily by flight and is carried, in the 
^gg state and as young larva, on bunches of the cuttings sent to 
market. Its original spread was westward upon Long Island, 
out into southern Connecticut, down through New Jersey and 
eastern Pennsylvania, through Delaware and Maryland to Wash- 

*In April, 1895, word was received of the occurrence of this species at 
Charleston, S. C, where it is said by Mr. H. M. Simons to have been 
destructive in 1894. Whether this is a permanent establishment will re- 
quire two or three years* test; but at all events the restriction has lasted 
many years. The same may be said of Arkansas and northern Louisiana. 
The insect occurs rarely at Auburn, Ala., and still more rarely, and only 
upon native food-plants, in the Mesilla valley, in New Mexico. 



OF wAsiimoTON. 223 

ington, and inland it has reached Fredericksburg, Va. Down 
the coast it has proceeded as far as Fortress Monroe. Mr. 
Schwarz has recently called attention to the earlier introduction 
of the species, about 1800, at Hanover, York county, Pennsyl- 
vania. All these occurrences are upper austral ; the insect has 
not spread to any very great extent into transition regions. In 
order to reach the continuation of the upper austral in western 
Pennsylvania, northwestern New York, and mid western States, 
it has had to traverse the broad barrier of the AUeghanian region. 
This, it is reasonable to suppose, it could do only or mainly by 
the aid of commerce. Not until within the last ten years is it 
known to have taken this jump. In 1884 a few specimens were 
found at Geneva, N. Y., and in 1892 it was found about Roch- 
ester, where later Dr. Lintner ascertained that it had been trouble- 
some to asparagus growers for some little time. Its westward 
spread may now reasonably be supposed to be comparatively 
rapid. In 1893 Mr. Webster reported it at Cleveland and Akron, 
Ohio, and announced its prior occurrence in Columbiana county, 
in the same State. To say, however, as Mr. Webster does, that 
it doubtless reached this latter place via the Ohio river is hazard- 
ous, since no locality along the Ohio east was previously known 
to be infested. It was evidently a commercial jump across the 
AUeghanian barrier and a settlement in the first available upper 
austral spot. From now on its spread to the west may be steady, 
and we shall expect that year after year it will extend its west- 
ward range. 

The Geneva and Rochester localities, it will be remembered, 
are included in the eastward bend of the upper austral, which 
introduces a more southern character into the fauna and flora of 
w^estern New York. So far, there is nothing to conflict with the 
idea that the species will not establish itself in the true transition 
region. There remains, however, the fact that specimens have 
been received from several Massachusetts localities and Nashua, 
N. H. At Nashua it transpires that the insect was introduced 
in 1892, was rather numerous in 1893, and appeared to be dying 
out in 1894. Massachusetts reports are worthy of similar inves- 
tigation. If the insect has permanently established itself at 
Amherst and other points as an injurious species, it possesses to 
some extent the power of ranging beyond the line where many 
upper austral forms cease. It is well to state, however, that the 
northern boundary line of this zone in Connecticut is an uneven 
one, and is not established with absolute definiteness. 

The spread of the imported elm-leaf beetle ( Galcruca xan- 
thomelcena) is also significant in view of the peculiar dividing 
line between the upper austral and the transition in the general 
region between Washington and Albany. Its well-known oc 



224 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

currences throughout New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, 
southern Connecticut, and in the upper austral finger which ex- 
tends up the Hudson river, lead to the opinion that it is more or 
less strictly confined by the limits of the upper austral zone. A 
problematical occurrence has been reported to me from Middle- 
bury, Vermont, some ninety miles to the northeast of the Hudson 
River loop, and this locality needs investigation. 

Judging from what we know of the distribution of the sugar- 
cane and corn-stalk borer i^Diatrcea saccharalis)^ it is a tropical 
or sub-tropical species which extends with ease through the austro- 
riparian zone. Following up the Atlantic coast extension of the 
austro-riparian, it occurs abundantly through Georgia, South 
Carolina, North Carolina, and southern Virginia, and no com- 
plaints of its damage have been received from the corn-growing 
upper austral belt which bounds on the east the downward ex- 
tension of the Alleghanian. However, that it also possesses the 
power of reproducing itself to some extent in the upper austral 
is shown by the fact that it has extended north of the northern 
limit of the lower austral in Virginia by some 75 or 100 miles, 
and has also established itself on the north bank of the Poto- 
mac river in southern Maryland. It is not likely, however, that 
the species will establish itself injuriously to any serious degree 
in upper austral regions, although one of its prominent food- 
plants is most extensively grown all through this zone. 

The chinch-bug {^Blissus leucofterus)^ while a veiy wide- 
spread species, occurring from North Dakota on the northwest 
to southern Florida on the southeast, and from northern Maine 
on the northeast to southern Texas on the southwest, occurring 
also, sparingly, on the Pacific coast from north California down 
into lower California, reaches its climax as a destructive species 
only in the upper austral zone. The band of upper austral on 
the east side of the Alleghanian, from northern Virginia to the 
borders of South Carolina, is a portion of this territory ; but 
from eastern Ohio westward through Kansas, limited on the 
north by the transition and on the south by the austro-riparian, is 
its proper home as an injurious species. Curiously enough, Mr. 
Schwarz has recently concluded that this species is originally a 
sea-coast form. 

The permanent breeding grounds of the Rocky Mountain lo- 
cust are in the transition downshoot from British Columbia into 
the northwestern States. 

So far as our information goes, the wheat straw-worm, Isosoma 
tritici^ is confined to the upper austral and makes the proper 
bend around the lower end of the Alleghanian to the south, in 
northeast Alabama and northwest Georgia, It occurs in the 



OF WASHINGTON. 225 

Carolinian and upper Sonoran belt to Colorado, and is again 
found upon the Pacific slope north to Washington. 

The American locust {^Schistocerca americana) is a tropical 
and austro-riparian form, which apparently extends with ease 
through many upper austral regions. It is common throughout 
the southern States, from the District of Columbia to Texas, and 
injurious broods have occurred in Illinois, Indiana and southwest 
Ohio. It has been doubtfully reported from the vicinity of New 
York city, and specimens have been taken in New Jersey as far 
north as Newark and New Brunswick. The last number of the 
Canadian Entomologist records the capture of a single speci- 
men in Canada. The note is by Mr. J. Alston Moffat, who 
lives at London, in lower Ontario, at the borders of the upper 
austral, and presumably the specimen was captured in the Cana- 
dian strip of this zone, although the actual locality is not given.* 

This species is one of the forms which would seem to indicate 
that in a few cases, at least, the winter temperature must have 
some effect in determining distribution. It is exceptional from 
the fact that it hibernates in the adult condition, and we can 
hardly avoid the conclusion that it is limited in its northern range 
by circumstances which influence successful hibernation. Noth- 
ing is better known than that exceptional freezes may kill off 
thousands of insects ; there must therefore be species whose suc- 
cessful hibernation is limited by certain degrees of cold. 

There are, then, among these species which we have just con- 
sidered, several enemies to cultivated crops which are apparently 
unable to follow their food-plants into certain regions into which 
their cultivation has been successfully carried. They are spe- 
cies which occur to me at first glance over the field, and closer 
study will doubtless show others. There are, however, scores of 
species in which no such limitation exists. Such are Leucania 
unipuncta^ Heliothis arniiger^ Pieris rapce and many others 
which will readily occur to you. There are many potentially 
cosmopolitan species. Even in the case of Leucania unipuncta 
and Heliothis armigera^ however, there seems at least a partial 
end to injurious occurrences at the borders of the transition zone. 

The few facts just mentioned indicate that results of interest as 
well as of practical importance can be gained from the plotting 
of the spread and range of crop enemies. The fact that there 
are limitations not dependent upon food with even a few species, 
is of great importance, and it is a line of investigation which must 
be followed up. 

Mr. F. M. Webster in his suggestive paper, " Some insect 



* Mr. Moffat has since written me that the specimen was taken in the 
immediate vicinity of London. 



226 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

immigrants in Ohio," published in Science for February 3, 1893, 
and subsequently in Bull. 51 of the Ohio Exjjeriment Station, 
has brought out some interesting facts regarding the probable 
methods of introduction and lines of spread of certain species 
through Ohio ; but he has failed to appreciate the fundamental 
truths which govern the distribution of species in his region. 
Among other things, he has failed to point out the important fact 
that certain species to which the transition forms a barrier com- 
ing from the east can seldom reach Ohio by natural spread. The 
carriage of infested plants or the steam transportation of individ- 
duals across the Alleghanian barrier is necessary for their intro- 
duction, and upper austral forms are quite as liable to reach Ohio 
from the east by means of the great commercial paths to mid- 
western New York and thence by natural spread through lower 
Ontario and southern Michigan, or by the lake from Buffalo to 
Cleveland, Sandusky, or Toledo, as by commercial jumps across 
the mountainous regions of Pennsylvania. 

The whole subject is one which is fraught with the greatest 
difficulty as well as interest. What I have just said is of the 
most preliminary character and is advanced in this hurried way 
only on account of its suggestiveness, and to induce consideration 
and discussion of a comparatively new field. I have planned an 
extensive investigation of the question, and am engaged in plot- 
ting on a large scale the actual distribution and injurious occur- 
rences of about 150 of our most destructive species, and in this 
work hope to have the assistance of many of our entomologists. 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Schwarz, Ashmead, 
Merriam, and Gill. Mr. Schwarz spoke of the fact that there is 
a large class of cosmopolitan species which defy all laws of geo- 
graphical distribution. Local influences may cause their absence 
at certain points. He defined a cosmopolitan species as one that 
occurs in both temperate and tropical zones of both hemispheres. 
The scale-insects also seem to be not amenable to laws which 
affect other species. In the case of introduced insects he had 
noticed that, in general, forms introduced into the boreal regions 
of this country are unable to spread into other zones. In the 
same way species introduced into the southern States do not 
spread in the more northern regions. This restriction seems 
irrespective of spread in Europe. If species are introduced into 
the middle States, however, they are more liable to spread both 



OF WASHINGTON. 227 

to the north and the south. Mr. Ashmead spoke principally about 
the possible spread of the parasites of injurious species. In his 
opinion parasites will always follow their hosts, no matter what 
the spread of the latter may be. He mentioned particularly Iso- 
cratus vulgaris and Eufhorus sculptus^ as well as some of the 
parasites of wood-boring Coleoptera, which occur apparently in 
all parts of the world. He mentioned also the Spalangia parasite 
of the house-fly, and the fact that the European Ofheltesglaucop- 
terus^ originally an European species which occurs all through 
the United States, had recently been found by him in a collection 
of insects from Japan. These facts, he thought, emphasized the 
importance of efforts to introduce parasites of introduced injuri- 
ous species. 

Dr. Merriam expressed his pleasure at the opportunity of list- 
ening to the paper just read, not only on account of his long 
study of the problem of distribution, but also because he had 
always believed that there is a direct practical bearing of the ques- 
tion in just this direction. In 1868 he had made an appeal before 
the New York State Legislature for the establishment of a bio- 
logical survey, arguing that when we became familiar with the life- 
zones we could predict the spread of injurious species. He had 
also referred to the same point in one of his official reports. The 
paper just read, however, was the first direct proof of the cor- 
rectness of his idea which had been advanced. 

Apropos to the occurrence of Opheltes in Japan, Mr. Schwarz 
added that it is remarkable that so few Japanese insects have 
been introduced into California. Referring further to the sup- 
position that Asfidiotus perniciosus was introduced from Aus- 
tralia, he thought that the original home of many of our injurious 
CoccidaB must be China. The Coccid fauna of China has not 
been studied, but, on account of the extremely old civilization and 
cultivation of plants, many injurious forms which have since 
spread widely must have originated there. Mr. Ashmead agreed 
with the last speaker and stated that the most injurious among 
orange-scales — Mytilaspis cttricola — was brought direct to 
Florida from China many years ago upon orange plants. Dr. 
Gill stated that the most ancient civilization was not Chinese, 
but Indian, Assyrian, and north African. Our domestic animals 



9 



228 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

in the main came from Egypt and the adjoining parts of Asia. 
He mentioned particularly the domestic cat and the domestic dog. 
Referring to Mr. Ashmead's statement as to the spread of para- 
sites, he incidentally mentioned the house-fly and the bed-bug, 
whereupon Dr. Merriam stated that he had never known the 
bed-bug to occur in the boreal zone. Dr. Gill was inclined to 
think that h6 had heard of its occurrence in St. Johns, New- 
foundland, and he remarked that we cannot trust to negative evi- 
dence, such as that just advanced by Dr. Merriam, for upon 
negative evidence alone he would be inclined to say that the bed- 
bug does not occur in the city of Washington ! Mr. Schwarz 
stated that the chicken-flea — Sarcopsylla gallinacea — had re- 
cently been traced by Julius Wagner (Horas Soc. Ent. Ross. 28, 
1894, pp. 440) to central Asia, which is probably its original 
home. 

— Mr. Marlatt read a paper entitled : 

FURTHER NOTE ON THE CODLING MOTH. 

By C. L. Marlatt. 

A very interesting and satisfactory explanation of the variation 
in the number of broods of the Codling Moth in different parts 
of the United States is given by the maps illustrating Dr. C. 
Hart Merriam' s Laws of Temperature Control of the Geograph- 
ical Distribution of Terrestrial Animals and Plants.* Dr. Mer- 
riam's first map, showing the distribution of the total quantity 
of heat during the season of growth and reproductive activity, 
presents an interesting agreement in its zones with the available 
records in regard to the number of broods of this insect, and gives 
a basis of fact for my statement, in Insect Lifc^ (vol. VII, No. 
3, pp. 248-51,) that " it must be inferred that the climate of New 
Brunswick differs in the summer season sufliciently from that of the 
middle and western States — even of Iowa and northern Illinois — 
to lead to the development of but one yearly brood." The data 
so far obtained indicates one annual brood for the region over 
which the total summer heat exceeds 5,500° C, corresponding 
pretty closely with Dr. Merriam*s transitional zone, and includ- 
ing, in general, the northern tier of States, with a southward ex- 
tension along the main mountain systems, most of New England, 
and northern New Jersey. Two annual broods may be expected 

* National Geographical Magazine, vol. VII, pp. 229-238; pi. XII-XIV. 



OF WASHINGTON. 229 

throughout the region with summer heat exceeding 6,400° C, 
approximating the upper austral life-zone, and including in gen- 
eral the middle section of the United States, together with south- 
ern Michigan and Wisconsin, and the western half of Oregon and 
Washington. The records of southern California lead us to ex- 
peel three broods for the region with total summer heat exceed- 
ing 10,000° C, corresponding pretty closely with the lower aus- 
tral life-zone, and covering the cotton belt and most of California. 
The unexpected occurrence of but one annual brood in northern 
New Jersey, as opposed to two in northern Illinois and Oregon, 
and three in California, receives here a valid explanation. Doubt- 
less there are many exceptions within the zonal regions indicated 
by Dr. Merriam, in the number of broods of this insect ; but, 
normally, they will probably be found to conform to the zones 
as indicated ; and, at least, a good basis is furnished for future 
observations. 

The important economic bearing of the variation in the number 
of broods of the Codling Moth for the zones as thus approxi- 
mately limited comes in connection with remedial treatment. 

Experience has abundantly shown that where there is more 
than one annual brood it is the second or later broods that are 
especially to be feared — the damage of the first, except on very 
early apples, rarely amounting to much. Therefore, in the north- 
ern of these zones, or where there is but one brood annually, the 
infestation will be slight, because accomplished by the compara- 
tively few female moths which successfully hibernate, and will 
be comparable to the work of the first brood only of the warmer 
zones. For the northern zone, spraying, except for the early 
summer varieties, which will attract the majority of the moths, 
may prove unnecessary ; while for the middle and southern zones 
remedial effort is at once more necessary and more difficult of 
successful accomplishment. 



In discussing this paper. Dr. Merriam stated that the case de- 
scribed by Mr. Marlatt was paralleled by the distribution of the sev- 
enteen and ihirteen-year broods of the periodical cicada. Mr. 
Howard referred to the discussion between Professor Riley and 
Professor J. B. Smith on the number of broods of the elm leaf- 
beetle and to the suggestion made by Professor Riley that it would 
be important to study intermediate points betweenWashington and 
New Brunswick, N. J., to ascertain where the single-broodedness 
begins. He thought that the double-broodedness would be found 



230 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

to cease near the borders of the transition. Mr. Schwarz stated 
that many similar instances might be mentioned, and in the fact 
of our greater summer heat in this country, as compared to 
Europe, we have one of the reasons for the greater damage ac- 
complished by introduced insects, since here they have more 
generations annually. Scolytus rugulosus^ for example, is 
double-brooded in Europe, while here it may have six generations 
annually. Dr. Gill, referring'specifically to Mr. Marlatt's paper, 
asked whether it did not indicate that early apple culture should 
be abandoned in the transition zone. Mr. Marlatt stated that 
it indicated, rather, a necessity for spraying summer apples 
only. Mr. Howard spoke of the possible spread of the gypsy- 
moth, and Mr. Schwarz called attention to the fact that insecls 
introduced in the vicinity of Boston rarely spread. 
— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

ON THE GENUS PELECINELLA WESTWOOD, AND ITS POSI- 
TION AMONG THE CHALCIDID^. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

Nearly twenty-seven years ago the genus Pelecinella was 
erected by the late Prof. John O. Westwood for the reception of 
a peculiar Chalcidid collected by Bates along the banks of the 
Amazon in Brazil, the description being published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Society of London for the year 
1868. 

In his classical work " Thesaurus entomologicus oxoniensis," 
published in 1874, Westwood redescribes the genus, and on plate 
xxvi, fig. 8, gives an admirable illustration of the type Peleci- 
nella pkantasma. 

Up to the present time this single species is the only one known 
and it is probably extremely rare, as, during this long interval of 
twenty-seven years, no other authority, that I am aware of, makes 
mention of its capture. The types in the Hope Museum at Cam- 
bridge must therefore be the only ones in existence. 

It affords me, therefore, the greatest pleasure to exhibit to you 
tonight two new species belonging to this rare genus, discovered 
in the Herbert Smith collection now in my hands for naming, 
and to dedicate one of these to the grand old English entomolo- 
gist, John O. Westwood, the other to our fellow-member, Mr. 
L. O. Howard. 



OF WASHINGTON. 231 

Before describing these two species — which may be known as 
Pelecinella westwoodi and Pelecinella howardi — a few re- 
marks in regard to the peculiar characteristics of the genus and 
its proper position among the family Chalcididae will be apropos. 

Westwood, in his characterization of the genus, stated its 
atiinities were with Calltmome^ an old name for the modern 
genus Syntomaspis^ belonging to the subfamily Torymince ; but 
in his Thesaurus he has placed it with his subfamily Perilam- 
ptdes. Prof. Westwood was probably influenced into assigning it 
an aflUnity with the Toryminae from a fancied resemblance due to 
the very short subsessile stigmal vein, and by the long ovipositor, 
characteristics more particularly found associated wuth members 
belonging to this group ; but why he finally placed it with the 
Perilampides I cannot imagine, unless it is on account of the shape 
of the head, the head having a deep antennal emargination, and 
the coarse sculpture of the head and thorax. 

A careful study of the two species exhibited tonight convinces 
me, however, that the genus has not the slightest affinity with 
ekher the Torymince or the Perilamfince ^ but, on the contrary, 
all its affinities are with the subfamilies Cleonymince and the 
Mupelmince^ and I believe it forms a connecting link between 
these two subfamilies, but with characteristics sufficiently well 
marked to warrant us in elevating the genus into a distinct sub- 
family, intermediate between the two aforementioned groups. 

It differs from all genera in the Cleonyminae by the very slen- 
der legs, which increase successively rapidly in length and size ; 
so that the hind pair are more than twice longer than the anterior 
pair ; by the anterior and posterior coxae being very long ; by 
the very short subsessile stigmal vein ; and by the long petiolated, 
strongly compressed sword-shaped abdomen. 

It differs from all genera in the JBupelmince by venation ; by 
the shape and structure of the abdomen and thorax, the meso- 
pleura having a long femoral furrow ; by the proportionate 
length of the legs, and in having the middle tibial spur small and 
their tarsi not dilated ; and by the two broad claspers at the base 
of the ovipositor. 

In the Eupelminae two genera, Polymoria Forster and Met a- 
pelma Westw. , have the tarsi of the middle legs slender, not dilated, 
but the tibial spurs are large, and, besides, both have the large, 
non-impressed mesopleura and the characteristic mesonotum of 
the Eupelminae, and their position cannot be mistaken. 

The groups showing the closest affinities with the Cleonyminae 
may therefore be arranged in the following order : 

Subfamily Chalcedectinse = Polychrominae. 
Subfamily Cleonyminae. 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Subfamily PelecinelHnae. 
Subfamily Colotrechninae. 
Subfamily Eupelminae. 
Sul?family Encyrtinae. 

Pelecinella West wood. 

1868. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., Proc, p. 36. 
1874. Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 142. 

(Type P. p/iantasma Westw. 9.) 

$. — Body very long, linear; head subglobose, with deep antennal 
furrow; eyes very large, convex; antennae 11 -jointed, longer than the 
thorax, joints 2 and 3 minute, fourth joint very long, the following joints 
gradually shortening; mandibles broad; maxillary palpi 4 or 5-jointed 
(the last two joints connate) ; labial palpi 3-jointed, the last joint long, 
clavate. 

Thorax elongate, the anterior half transversely striated; pronotum 
very long, longer than the mesonotum but narrower, and narrowed 
anteriorly; mesonotum with complete parapsidal furrows; scutellum 
large, obconical, the axillae approximate; metanotum long, longer than 
wide, without carinae or spiracular sulci, the spiracles oval ; wings with 
the stigmal vein not developed, sessile or punctiform, the postmarginal 
very long, extending to the apex of wing and fully twice as long as the 
marginal; legs increasing in length and size posteriorly, the hind pair 
more than twice larger than the anterior pair; anterior and posterior 
coxae long, conical, the latter much the larger; anterior tibiae above and 
hind coxae above serrated; tibial spurs i. 2, 2; tarsi on front and middle 
legs much longer than their tibiae, those of the hind legs much shorter 
than their tibiae. 

Abdomen petiolated, very long, slender, compressed, sword-shaped, 
terminating in a long prominent ovipositor, which is more or less pro- 
tected at base by two large foliaceous plates or lobes. 

cf . — Unknown. 

The following table will aid in separating the species : 

Table of Species. 

Females, 

Mostly rufous 2. 

Mostly black. 

Abdomen purplish or chalybeous ; legs black, the 4 apical joints of 
hind tarsi white ; ovip. 10 mm P. pAanlcismci Wesivr. 

Abdomen toward base and above the venter rufous or rufo-piceous, 
otherwise, including the petiole, black ; legs black, but with the tibiae 
and tarsi of anterior and middle legs and hind legs, except tibiae and 



OF WASHINGTON. 233 

tarsi, rufous; hind tibiae black, with an annulus at base and their 

tarsi white; ovip. 15-16 mm P, hoivardi %p, n. 

2. Head above, the antennae, the thorax above (rarely entirely) and 

ovipositor, except tips, black. 

Abdomen except tip ofclaspers, and legs except hind tarsi, rufous ; 
ovip. 7-8 mm P. wesfwcodi sp, n. 

(i) Pelecinella phantasma Westw. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1868, Proc, p. 36, 9. 

Thes. Ent. Oxon., 1874, p. 142, pi. xxvi, fig. 8. 
Hab. — Amazon river, Brazil, (Bates). 
Types in Hope Museum at Oxford. 

(2) Pelecinella howardi sp. n. 

9. — Length to tip of claspers 24 mm.; to tip of ovipositor 38 mm. 
Black ; anterior tibiae and tarsi, hind coxae and femora, rufous ; hind tibiae, 
except a white annulus at base, black or fuscous ; hind tarsi, except basal 
one-third of basal joint, white. Wings subhyaline ; tegulae rufous ; sub- 
marginal, marginal, the sessile stigmal, and the postmarginal veins black; 
spurious veins fuscous. Abdomen much longer than the head and thorax 
united, mostly black, the second and third segments rufous, the latter more 
or less stained with black and becoming black towards apex; ovipositor 
as long as abdomen, its tip white. 

Hab. — Chapada. 

Described from 2 $ specimens in Herbert Smith collection. 
It is at once distinguished from J^, phantasma Westw. by the 
color of legs and abdomen and by the much longer ovipositor. 

I have dedicated this grand Chalcidid to my friend Mr. L. O. 
Howard. 

(3) Pelecinella westwoodi sp. n. 

9. — Length to tip of claspers 16-17 mm.; to tip of ovipositor 19 to 22 
mm. Mostly rufous, the thorax more or less marked with black or some- 
times entirely black except a rufous spot at sides ; antennae, the bottom 
of antennal furrow, vertex, occiput, veins in wings, tips of the broad clasp- . 
ersattipof adbomen, and the ovipositor, except extreme tip (which iswhite), 
black; hind tarsi white, the basal one-fourth of the first joint, including 
the extreme tip of the tibiae and the tibial spurs, black. 

Hab. — Chapada and Port Branca. 

Described from 2 $ specimens in Herbert Smith collection. 

This species is quite distinct in the color of the legs and abdo- 
men and in size from the other forms mentioned here. The 
anterior and middle legs, especially their tibiae and tarsi, are paler 
than the posterior pair, and rather more of ^ brownish-yellow 
than rufous. 

It is dedicated to the late Prof. John O. Westwood. 



234 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOOIETT 

The paper was briefly discussed by Dr. Gill, who stated that 
he was glad to see that the author was not afraid to erect a sub- 
family for a single genus. So many systematists seem to be in- 
fluenced in their erection of higher groups quite as much by the 
number of forms as by morphological significance. 

— Mr. Marlatt read the following paper : 

THE AMERICAN SPECIES OF SCOLIONEURA KNW. 

By C. L. Marlatt. 

The genus Scolioneura belongs to the subfamily Blenno- 
campinaB and was separated by Konow from the genus Blenno- 
campa on what appear to be valid grounds. The important 
characters separating the genus Scolioneura from Blennocampa 
are, the curved basal vein which converges with the first re- 
current, and the broad inner tooth which projects from near the 
base of the claw. In Blennocampa the basal vein is straight 
and parallel with the first recurrent, and the claws are bifid or 
nearly so, the inner tooth being large and almost as long as the 
outer. In the Tenthredinid material now in my possession I find 
two species which may be properly assigned to Scolioneura, and 
of the described American species of Blennocampa B, capitalis 
Norton may also be so referred. The following characterization 
of the genus is given by Konow : * 

Body small, ovate, compound eyes reaching base of mandibles, antennae 
rather slender, filiform, basal nerve of upper wings curved, not parallel 
with first recurrent vein, transverse radial often not interstitial, posterior 
lower angle of third cubital cell acute, discal cells of lower wings wanting, 
inner tooth of claw near base and broad. 

Scolioneura capitalis Norton. 

Female. — Length 4 mm. Soft, delicate species ; clypeus broadly, squarely 
truncate; vertex smooth, shining, sutures indistinct. Antennae filiform 
or very slightly thickening towards tip, 3d and 4th joints subequal ; basal 
vein strongly converging with ist recurrent, distinctly bent near origin; 
ist cubital cross-vein wanting, or indicated by a minute stump on cubital 
vein; stigma broad, rounded; hind wings without discal cells or border- 
ing veins ; claws with broad but short basal inner tooth ; sheaths pro- 
jecting, narrow, obliquely truncate at tip; color light honey-yellow; 
antennae, except two basal joints, head, epimerse and more or less of tip 
of abdomen, brown; wings hyaline; veins yellowish-brown. 

Redescribed from one specimen collected in New York (Nor- 
ton's type). Type in collection Amer. Ent. Soc, Philadelphia, 

♦Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 1890, p. 239. 



OF WASHINGTON. 235 

This insect has the venation of Fenusa if the rudimentary 
stump of the ist cubital cross- vein be ignored. 

Scolioneura canadensis n. sp. 

Female. — Length 3.5-4 mm. Rather robust, smooth, shining. Cly- 
peus truncate, head smooth, sutures not distinctly defined; antennae 
shorter than thorax alone, scarcely tapering: inner tooth of claw short» 
inconspicuous; radial cross-nerve not interstitial. 

Color, — Head, thorax except anterior and lateral lobes, and abdomen, 
brownish-black; legs pallid; femora, especially middle and hind pair, 
brownish ; clypeus and mouth-parts pallid ; anterior and lateral lobes of 
thorax reddish-yellow; eyes green iridescent; wings hyaline; veins 
brown. 

Described from two specimens collected in Canada. Types 
belonging to the American Entomological Society of Philadelphia. 

Scolioneura populi n. sp. 

Female^ — Length 4 mm.; very robust, glistening; clypeus broad, trun- 
cate, projecting over labrum ; prominent sutures running from base of 
antennae to occiput; basin of anterior ocellus small, circular and connect- 
ing with elongate posteriorly-tapering antennal fovea; antennae very 
short, not twice length of head, third joint twice as long as fourth, others 
subequal, shortening but little towards terminal ones; transverse radial 
and third transverse cubital veins interstitial or nearly so; sheaths mod- 
erately robust, truncately rounded, somewhat pointed at upper apical 
angle; claws with large sub-apical tooth, below tooth greatly broadened. 

Color, — Yellowish ferruginous inclined to whitish on head, thorax and 
abdomen; lateral and basal sutures of vertex, antennal fovea, ocellar 
basin, occiput, thorax dorsally except distinctly defined border of anterior 
and the sides and apex of lateral lobes of mesothorax, two spots on scutel- 
lum, abdomen dorsally except two or three terminal segments, meta- 
episterna, lower third meso-epimera, black; legs, meso-epimera and light 
area of lateral lobes of mesothorax inclined to ferruginous ; antennae black, 
obscured by white pubescence, fulvus beneath ; wings hyaline, veins and 
stigma brownish, costa pale. 

Male.—^ mm. long; less robust than female; structurally as in female; 
lateral lobes of mesothorax marked with white laterally, scutel black, ter- 
minal abdominal segments light apically; abdomen infuscated beneath, 
especially basally, hypopygium pale; ferruginous limited to legs — other- 
-wise color as in female. 

Described from three females and one male, from C. H. T. 
Townsend, Las Cruces, N. M. Types in the Coll. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 

This species is supposed by Mr. Townsend to be the parent of 
the larva which mines the leaves of Populus fremontii inju- 



236 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

riously throughout the Mesilla valley in fJew Mexico.* Mr. 
Townsend has failed to rear the adults, but has collected these 
saw-flies on the cottonwoods just as the leaves were beginning to 
expand, early in April. He also reports that they were very 
abundant, flying everywhere during the latter part of March. A 
saw-fly belonging to a different genus, however, mines the poplar 
leaves in the larval state in exactly the manner described by Mr. 
Townsend; and the reference of the New Mexican species to 
the poplar-leaf miner is therefore still open to question. 

So far as known, the larvae of the European species feed ex- 
posed on the surface of leaves of Betula and Tilia. 



— Mr. Coquillett read the following : 

ON THE NESTING HABITS OF THE DIGGER-WASP, BEMBEX 

CINEREA HANDLIRSCH. 

By D. W. CoqyiLi.ETT. 

On September ii, 1891, in company with an enthusiastic nat- 
uralist, Dr. A. Davidson, of Los Angeles, California, the writer 
spent several hours in digging out the nests of this wasp in a sand- 
bank near the ocean beach adjoining the little village of Redondo, 
a summer resort distant about ten miles from Los Angeles. The 
sand-bank in question is in the form of high ridges with intervening 
depressions, and the nests were located in or near the bottom of 
these depressions. The mouth of the burrow leading to the nest 
was closed, and the only indication of its presence was a more or 
less circular pile of loose sand surrounding it. The burrow ex- 
tended obliquely downward a distance of from sixteen to tvsrenty 
inches, passing entirely through the loose surface sand and en- 
tering the moist, hard-packed sand beneath. At a point about 
four inches before its terminus a branch was formed which 
passed beneath the main burrow, going still deeper into the earth. 
The entire burrow had somewhat the form of an obliquely in- 
verted Y, one arm of which lay directly beneath the other. 
Nothing was found in the main burrow, the nest being invari- 
ably located at the farthest end of the branch. 

A large number of the burrows were examined, and all of them 
were constructed on this same plan, the philosophy of which is 
not very apparent. It cannot be for the purpose of excluding 

* Canadian Entomologist, vol. xxv, p. 304, December, 1893. Zee, vol. 
iii, pp. 234-236, October 1892. 



OF WASHINGTON. 237 

the rain from the nest proper, since the latter was always placed 
in that branch which would be certain to catch any water that 
might find its way into the burrow. Nor could it be for the pur- 
pose of misleading intruders, since these, by following the bur- 
row, would be led directly into the nest, with the possible exception, 
if any such exist, of those that make their way along the upper 
side, or roof of the burrow ; these would be led into the empty end 
of the main burrow. No parasites of any kind were found in 
any of the numerous nests examined by us. 

Only one Bembex inhabited each buiTow, and at the time of 
our visit, larvae, pupae, and recently excluded imagos occurred. 
The terminal portion of the burrow which contained the nest 
did not differ in character from the remaining portion. The 
nest proper was stored with Diptera only, among which were 
Musca domestica^ a second, undetermined species of Musca^ Lu- 
cilia ccesar^ Sarcophaga sp. (?), and Psilocephala costaiis. 
One of the nests contained one specimen of each of these flies, 
with the exception of the Psilocephala, of which there were two, 
and of the Musca sp. (?) eight specimens, or thirteen flies in all, 
and these were to serve as food for the single Bembex larva. 

After attaining full gowth this larva spins a dense black, very 
elongate oval silken cocoon. Many of the empty cocoons were 
lying about on the surface of the sand, either having been brought 
from the burrow by the wasp in its efforts to escape therefrom, 
or else they had been unearthed through the combined action .of 
the wind and rains. 

The species is rather rare in southern California, where I have 
obseiyed it only in the vicinity of the sea-coast. The adults are 
seen resting upon the bare sand during the warmer portion of 
the day ; they are very active and shy, seldom permitting a near 
enough approach to allow of being captured by means of an or- 
dinary butterfly net. 



Mr. Howard asked how the habits of this species differ from 
those of other species of the same genus. Mr. Ashmead stated 
that Bartram, over lOO years ago, observed that Bembex will 
supply its larvae with fresh food from time to time and that this 
observation had been substantiated more recently by European 
observers. Mr. Coquillett, however, had not noticed this with 
the present species, and stated that at the time of his visit the 
mouth of the nest was closed with sand by the adult wasp. Mr. 
Ashmead remarked that all species of Bembex store up Diptera. 



238 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOOIETT 

March 7, 1895. 

President Ashmead was in the chair, and Messrs. Marlatt, 
Vaughan, Benton, Gill, Patten, Schwarz, Linell, Chittenden, 
Coquillett, Howard, Riley, Heidemann, Stiles, DeSchweinitz, 
and Fernow were also present. 

— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

ON THE GENUS BARYCNEMIS FORSTER. 
By William H. Ashmead. 

The genus Barycnemis was erected by Dr. Arnold Forster, in 
his " Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Ichneumonen," 
published in the Verhandlungen des natur-historischen Vereins 
der preussische Rheinlande und Westphalens, vol. xxv, 1868, p. 
147. 

The type is not mentioned and, so far as I am aware, the genus 
has not since been recognized. 

In Mr. W. Hague Harrington's collection of Braconidae, kindly 
loaned me for study and comparison, during the progress of my 
work in monographing the North American Braconidae, I found a 
most singular looking Ichneumonid, bearing a superficial resem- 
blance to some of the Euphorinae, which, for a time, was ex- 
ceedingly difficult to place. Finally, however, after many trials 
and tribulations and the expenditure of much time in going over 
the literature, with the aid of Forster's Synopsis, I have been 
able to place it. It belongs, without doubt, in his genus 
Barycnemis, 

The genus was briefly characterized by Forster among the 
genera belonging to his family Porizonoidce ^ which, however, is 
not a distinct family, according to my views, but should be con- 
sidered as a tribe in the subfamily Opkiontnce, 

The genus appears most closely allied to Porizon Grav., but 
is readily separated from it and all other genera in the group by 
the much longer, more linear body, the short swollen femora 
and tibiae, and by the very long, slender tarsi, which are as long 
or even longer than the femora and tibiae combined. 

Our species may be briefly characterized as follows : 

Barycnemis linearis sp. n. 

9. — Length 4 mm. ; ovipositor a little longer than the petiole, recurved. 
Body elongate, slender, polished black; abdomen more or less along the 
sides and beneath dark honey-jellow or reddish ; antennae filiform, brown ; 
legs honey-yellow, or reddish-yellow, the hind femora more or less 
brownish above. Wings hyaline, the stigma large, triangular, brown; 



OF WASHINGTON. 239 

basal nervure rather strongly curved inwardly ; median and submedian 
cells equal ; radial cell triangular, a little longer than the stigma; areolet 
wanting. The head, when viewed from in front, is oblong, smooth, 
polished ; eyes large, extending to base of mandibles ; antennae broken 
at tips, but the basal joints of the flagellum are more than twice as long 
as thick; thorax narrowed anteriorly, without parapsidal furrows, the sur- 
face, except just in front of scutellum, smooth and polished; metathorax 
very long, smooth and polished, except an oblong space at base above 
which bears a median sulcus. 

Hab. — Ottawa, Canada (W. H. Harrington). 



— ^Mr. Howard read the following paper : 

ARRHENOPHAGUS IN AMERICA. 
By L. O. Howard. 

It is with peculiar pleasure that the American systematist rec- 
ognizes for the first time an American representative of a 
European genus ; but when, as in the present case, the European 
genus is monotypical, and its single representative is one of those 
extraordinary insects which upset preconceived systematic views, 
the pleasure becomes doubly great. In 1888 Dr. Christopher 
Aurivillius, in the JBntomologisk Tidskrift^ described the 
genus Arrhenophagus, devoting a full-page plate to its structural 
characters. The insect was bred in large series from the males of 
Chionaspis salicts. So peculiar was the form that Aurivillius 
was at a loss when he attempted to place it in its proper sub- 
family. In its general facies the insect resembles the Encyr- 
tinae ; its habits are those of this group. To the Encyrtinae it 
is further related by its wing venation, the tarsal claw of the 
middle legs, the undivided mesopleura, and the undivided meso- 
scutum. The Encyrtinae, however, is one of the subfamilies of 
the pentamerous group of the Chalcididae, and it is further charac- 
terized by the possession of more than eight antennal joints. 
Arrhenophagus proved to be tetramerous, and its antennae were 
but three-jointed. On the whole, Aurivillius was inclined to 
retain the insect, temporarily at least, among the Encyrtinae. 

Having in mind the somewhat similar state of affairs with 
regard to the number of tarsal joints in Coleoptera, and its 
peculiar history in classification, it occurred to me that we might 
have in this insect a cryptopentamerous group of the Chalcididae ; 
and that further proper mounting and clearing of specimens 
would reveal additional antennal joints. I therefore wrote to 



240 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Dr. Aurivillius and asked him whether he could spare me 
specimens of this remarkable insect. Promptly, by return mail, 
he forwarded a large series in alcohol and others dry. These 
were carefully studied, and his conclusions verified in every case. 
After two years in Canada balsam, however, the specimens have 
cleared very considerably, and one can trace at the base of the 
antennal club the evanescent remnants of former funicle joints. 
The tarsi, however, are undoubtedly four- jointed ; no hidden fifth 
joint can be found. 

A few days ago, in looking over some slide mounts of Chal- 
cididaB, I was delighted to find three specimens of an insect which 
not only belongs to this remarkable genus Arrhenophagus, but 
which corresponds exactly with Aurivillius' species, A. chionas- 
pidis. The label on the slide indicates that these specimens were 
reared by Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt at Kirkwood, Mo., in May, 
1888 (the same year in which the species was described by 
Aurivillius), from a barklouse on rose. It is altogether probable 
that the Missouri and the Swedish specimens had a common, 
more or less immediate, ancestry ; in other words, the species 
was probably carried from America to Europe or from Europe 
to America. At present it seems probable that the form is 
European, and it may readily have been carried to this country 
upon rose bushes or other imported plants, while living beneath 
scale-insects attached to the plants. There is no doubt that the 
insect is a degraded Encyrtine. Its four-jointed tarsi upset the 
old main division of the Chalcididae into pentamera, tetramera, 
and trimera ; and in this iconoclastic work it is not alone, since 
recent investigations have convinced me that the genera Pterop- 
trix Westwood, and Eretmocerus Haldeman, both tetramerous, 
belong properly to the subfamily Aphelininae, all the other 
representatives of which are pentamerous. 



Dr. Riley said he was much interested in the paper, and fully 
agreed with the conclusions of the writer, especially as to the 
introduction of the form from Europe to America or vice versa. 
So curious a monotypical genus could hardly have originated 
independently in the two countries. He was glad to see that the 
author was not inclined to give undue weight to the number of 
tarsal joints. He had been impressed with the futility of po- 
domeral variation unassociated with other important characters in 
recent studies of the Termites and Embiids. Dr. Gill said that 
in such cases we should be influenced by the assemblage of 



OF WASHINGTON. 



241 



characters in each particular case, and should not be led' to 
generalize from isolated structural characters. He brought up 
certain allied instances among the fishes. Dr. Stiles spoke of 
the number of hooks on the head of the Tseniids. 
— Mr. Marlatt read the following paper ; 

THE HEMIPTEROUS MOUTH. 

By C. L. Marlatt. 

The hitherto accepted idea of the structure of the mouth of 
hemipterous insects has been called in question by Prof. J. B. 
Smith, and an explanation offered which entirely overturns the 
old conceptions of the homologies of the mandibular, maxillary, 
and labial structures of these insects,* Some observations which 




I had made on the feeding habits of aphides, without particular 
reference to mouth structure, led me to make a general study of 
the hemipterous mouth. It very soon became apparent that 
Prof. Smith had been led into an error, doubtless through an 



I, April I, 1892, pp. 1 



1-190, 



242 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

accident in his dissections, by means of which parts normally con- 
nected were torn apart and applied to others with which- they 
had no intimate relation. By this means it was made to appear 
that the hemipterous mouth agreed with his previously conceived 
idea of the mouth of the dipterous insect. Previous to Prof. 
Smith's studies, the mouth structure of the Hemiptera,* while 
not elaborated in detail, was well understood, and the major 
features had been described by all the older writers on insect 
morphology, all agreeing, practically, in the following characteri- 
zation, which I quote from Westwood : 

"The mouth is of the Promuscid construction, the labium or 
canal being occasionally greatly elongated and extending beneath 
the body, and is either 3 or 4- jointed. The four internal delicate 
setae represent the mandibles and maxillae ; the maxillary and 
labial palpi are obsolete. The labrum is distinct, triangular, 
more or less elongated, closing upon the upper side of the labium 
at the base, when the setae enter the labial canal. "f 

Prof. Smith's explanation of the mouth-parts is, in brief, as 
follows : Accepting the clypeus and labrum as hitherto conceived, 
the first following sclerite on either side represents the mandibles, 
and the two pairs of setae with the lateral sclerites, posterior to 
the mandibles, together with the sheath (the labium or main 
part of the beak) , represent altogether the maxillae. Of these the 
setae, both of which are incorrectly made to attach to the sclerite 
following the mandible, represent the lacinia and stipes, the 
sclerite itself the palpus, and the sheath the subgalea and galea. 
Prof. Smith's mentum, which is rather indistinctly described, 
seems to be the hypopharynx. 

The studies which I have made of the mouth structure of the 
Cicada have convinced me that the older authors were in the 
main correct in the understanding and description of the homolo- 
gies of the mouth of this order ; and the most interesting result is 
the striking similarity, in spite of seeming divergences, in the mouth 
structure of the true bugs with the biting orders, and, indeed, 
with the typical insect mouth, which in all orders presents a 
fixed and uniform plan of structure. J 

* This term applies throughout to both the Hemiptera and to Homoptera. 

t Westwood, Classification of Insects, II, p. 452. 

J The terms " mandibulate" and " haustellate," used to separate into 
two groups the class Insecta, are misleading, since insects falling under the 
latter appellation also possess lateral jaws representing mandibles and 
maxillie. The misconception in these two terms was pointed out by 
Westwood (I, p. 8), who emphasized the fact that the variation in mouth 
structure was rather in the action of the various organs than in any impor- 
tant difference in type of structure. He says, "When the lateral ^ pieces 



OF WASHINftTON. 24 



Q 



The results hereinafter detailed are based upon dissections of 
the periodical cicada, which, on account of its large size and 
the abundance of material available, immediately suggested it- 
self as a convenient subject for study. 

All of the main parts of the mouth of the biting insect occur 
in the mouth of the cicada. Beginning anteriorly and naming 
them in the order of their occurrence, they are : (i) the clypeus, 
(2) the labrum, (3) the mandibles (the inner part of which are 
the upper and stronger setae), (4) the maxillae, with which belong 
the two following and more slender setae, and (5) the labium or 
sheath beneath. Within the mouth are the epipharnyx, project- 



are short^nd inserted at a distance apart, and have a horizontal motion, 
the action is that of biting; when, on the other hand, the lateral pieces 
are elongated, originating near together and having a longitudinal motion 
(by means of strong, elongated muscles at their base), the action 
is that of sucking." He suggests the terras dacnostomata (biting mouth) 
and antliostomata (sucking mouth) to express the characteristics of the 
two groups, without involving the contradiction suggested by the terms 
in use. 

Adopting for convenience the old comprehensive ordinal names, the 
Dacnostomata comprise the Coleoptera, the Orthoptera, the Neuroptera 
and the Hymenoptera ; and the Antliostomata the Diptera, Hemiptera, and 
Lepidoptera. 

To appreciate the modification of mouth-parts in the orders of sucking 
insects, the main features of the biting mouth may be noted. They com- 
prise two pairs of laterally- working, shear-like jaws (mandibles and max- 
illae), inclosed above and beneath respectively by the upper lip (labrum), 
the lower lip (labium), the latter bearing on its inner surface the tongue 
(ligula) with sometimes, also, a false tongue-like appendage originating 
from the roof of the mouth, or labrum. The principal modifications of ' 
this mouth structure in sucking insects are as follows : In the Hemiptera 
the four jaws are elongate, setiform, and are inclosed within the under 
lip, forming what has been termed the promuscis or beak. In the Diptera 
(in the more fully developed mouth) the upper lip, the four jaws, and the 
tongue are elongate, setiform, and inclosed within the elongated enlarged 
lower lip, forming what has been known as the proboscis or rostrum, ap- 
proaching very closely the type of mouth found in the Hemiptera. In 
the Lepidoptera the outer lobes (galeae) of the maxillae only are elon- 
gated, and closely applied and interlocked to form the spiral tongue or 
sucking tube, the madibles, labium, and other parts remaining rudimen- 
tary or not specially developed. Numerous and important variations in 
structure occur in each order, as, for illustration, most Hymenoptera are 
somewhat intermediate between the biting and sucking groups, and in 
the Lepedioptera the larvae are biting and in the Hemerobidae (Neurop- 
tera) the larvae are sucking. 



244 EirroMOLoaioAL sooiErrr 

ing fi-om the inner surface of the clypeus and labrum, and the 
hypopharynx, projecting from the inner face of the base of the 
labium. A more detailed description of these parts follows. 
For the careful drawing illustrating the studies and for very ma- 
terial aid in working out details of structure, I am indebted b> 
Miss Lillie Sullivan. 

Clypeus. — In the cicada the clypeus (I a) is enormously en- 
larged, and forms the bulk of the anterior portion of the head, 
extending from the base of the antennae to the labrum. Exteri- 




orly it is ornamented with a number of parallel grooves, arranged 
in two longitudinal rows. 

Labrum. — This sclerite (I b, c) is attached to the anterior 
edge of the clypeus and is triangular in shape, truncated at the 
apex with the anterior angles bent inider, and developed into a 
projecting, sheath-like appendage (I c, and I' c — Fig, 23) which 
covers the base of the labrimi and closes over the bases of the setae. 

Mandible. — Viewing the head laterally, a small elongate 
sclerite (II a) is seen extending from near the base of the com- 



OF WASHINGTON. 245 

pound eye to a little beyond the base of the labrum. This is the 
exterior face of the mandible, and when dissected free from the 
adjoining parts is found to consist of this exterior portion, with a 
flange-like projection apically (II 3), which passes under the la- 
brum. This anterior expansion extends apically in a narrow tongue 
analogous to the similar projection from the apex of the labrum, 
and the inner edge of this expansion or tongue is grooved to 
receive the mandibular seta (II c) which originates in a large, 
bulbous, fleshy expansion (II c'), attaching near the base of the 
mandible interiorly. The mandibular setae are very much the 
stouter of the two pairs, and the tips are serrated for a short 
distance. The exterior face of the mandible, especially apically, 
is clothed with long hairs. 

Maxilla. — Viewed again laterally, and following the man- 
dible, a more elongate sclerite is seen (III ^), which expands 
somewhat apically. On dissecting this out, it is found to be al- 
most identical in general structure with the mandible, having 
a similar apical expansion (III 3), with pseudo-sheath (III' b' — 
Fig. 22), through which the seta (III c) passes, and the bulbous 
expansion of the seta (III c') which merges into the base of the 
maxilla. The maxillary seta is much more delicate than the 
mandibular one, and is simple at tip, though somewhat hooked. 

I have made no effort to homologize the parts of the maxilla 
just described with the maxilla of biting insects, as the modifica 
tion in the present case has been so great, in the process of the 
evolution of the sucking mouth, that any homologies suggested 
would be largely fanciful. The striking similarity between the 
upper and lower jaws in the cicada discourages the applying of 
names to the parts in the maxilla which, in the biting insects, are 
known only in the maxilla, and in this case would have to apply 
to both jaws. 

It suggests, however, that in the original or early type of 
insect mouth, the two pairs of lateral jaws were of similar 
construction, probably both serving the purpose of biting or 
gnawing, and that the present wide divergence between the 
comparatively simple mandible and the very complex maxilla of 
biting insects is the result of a long line of variation in which 
the original function of the mandible has been largely retained, 
while the maxilla has been so modified as to make it an organ 
adapted to and used for holding and adjusting the food material, 
rather than for breaking it up or masticating it, and also as an or- 
gan of taste and touch. 

Labium, — The labium (IV a, 3, c) applies directly against 
the maxillae and forms the floor of the mouth. It is three-jointed, 
the joints being homologous, probably with the submentum (^) , 
mentum (^), and ligula (c) of the biting insect mouth. From the 



246 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SmUETT 



base of the last joint extend three strong bundles of muscles, 
which attach the labium to the base of the head on either side 
and to the prosternum. The upper surface of the labium is 
deeply grooved, forming a channel which encloses the two pairs 
of setK. 

The base of the labium is supported by a tongue-like expan- 
sion of the prosternum (V a), which is concave on the anterior 
face, so as to receive and strengthen the basal joint of the labium. 

Epipkarynx. — What I deem the epipharynx is a keel-like 
stracture (fig. 23, I d and I' d') projecting from the centre of the 




roof of the mouth, attaching to the clypeus and labium. It is 
rather chitinous and glistening, and the edge is slightly roughened 
or serrate from the presence of a row of minute depressions or 
fovese.* The inner lobes of the mandibles close up against the 
epipharynx on either side. 

Ilypopharynx. — This is a small, tongue-like expansion {IV 
d) , forming the upper face of the labium or the floor of the 
mouth, and projects apically as a short, free cylindrical tongue 



'This 



; to be the Eocalled gland attaching to the labru 



OF WASHINGTON. 247 

which bears centrally a minute seta or spine. This latter seems 
to be the rudiment of what in certain Diptera is developed into a 
5th piercing seta. Viewed from beneath (IV" d") the hypopharynx 
appears as a triangular piece (^) which closes against the pseudo- 
sheaths of the maxillaB, and large devaricating muscles. Viewed 
from above it is seen to expand basally as two glistening surfaces 
(jy) which apply to the lower face of the maxillae, just as the 
similar face of the mandibles applies to the hypopharynx. 

The epipharynx and hypopharynx are intimately connected 
with the clypeus and labrum and the labium respectively. The 
mandibles and maxillae are, however, freely separable, with a little 
care in dissection, and do not coalesce or come together in anyway, 
but have smooth, glistening faces along the line of contact. 
They are, however, so intimately associated that, while really 
free, they have no lateral play upon each other, or but very little, 
and do not perform at all the functions of the true biting mouth. 
The shining inner surfaces of the hypo- and epipharynx indicate 
that there may be a slight lateral motion, at least of the apical 
expansion both of the mandibles and the maxillae ; but this 
motion is probably confined to the more fleshy, inner portion of 
these jaws, the chitinous exterior being probably fixed. 

With the mouth-parts all brought together in a state of rest, 
as shown at figure i, the two expansions of the apex of the 
mandibles with pseudo-sheaths apply together beneath and within 
the labrum, and the mandibular setae, pass through the double 
canal thus formed. The similar expansions of the maxillae also 
apply very closely and project a little beyond the labrum, form- 
ing with the sheath-like projection from the apex of the latter 
a short tube, which includes the bases of all the setae. The rela- 
tion of the parts described and the details of structure are accu- 
rately shown in the accompanying illustrations. 

Throughout all the higher families of the Hemiptera and 
Homoptera the type of mouth structure detailed above is con- 
stant. In some of the families the labium varies in the number 
of joints, having apparently four in the Aphididae, two in the 
Aleyrodidae, and is obsolete or nearly so in the Coccidae. The 
setae are, however, always present, and in the Coccidae are free. 
The number of setae is constant, but in some of the lower fami- 
lies, particularly in the Aphididae and the Coccidae, the mandi- 
bular setaB are very apt to be rather intimately united, so that 
they do not separate readily, giving the appearance of but three 
setae ; and in fact Buckton failed to recognize this union, and 
said of aphides that they have but three setae instead of four. 

From the details of structure given above, tvith the accom- 
panying figures, which were based on dissections of a great 
many insects, it is difficult to understand how Prof. Smith was 



248 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

led to such an erroneous conception as would make the two pairs 
of setaB and the maxillary sclerites, together with the labium, 
which is not a paired organ but a simple one, all represent the 
maxillaB. The true homology is so simple and obvious that it is 
not necessary to take up Prof. Smith's argument in detail. It is 
gratifying to find, however, that the homology of mouth struc- 
ture worked out by such careful students as Burmeister, West- 
wood, and many others of the old school of entomologists, whose 
work in the main in this direction has not been improved upon, 
should in this instance prove to be correct in essential features. 
To Prof. Smith, "however, belongs the credit of having called 
attention to certain features of the hemipterous mouth which had 
not been previously noted, namely, the mandibular sclerite and 
the following maxillary sclerite, both of which he correctly de- 
scribed, so far as their exterior face is concerned. Previous to 
Prof. Smith's studies the mandibles and maxillaB were supposed 
to be represented by the setaB alone, and in fact in the lower 
families the exterior sclerite of the jaws so prominent in the Cica- 
das are either obsolete or minute and very difficult of detection. 

There is a very general misapprehension, popularly at least, 
of the manner in which the hemipterous insect draws up nourish- 
ment from animals or plants. It is ordinarily conceived that 
the beak, meaning the labium with inclosed setae, is thrust more 
or less deeply into the food substance and the juices sucked or 
pumped up into the mouth. My own observations of the habits 
in this particular of a number of species of predaceous hemiptera, 
together with the structure of the labium itself, convinces me 
that the beak proper, namely, the labium, is never thrust into the 
food substance in the least, unless accidentally where the material 
is so soft that the beak enters without effort on the part of the 
insect ; but that, on the contrary, the beak is merely applied 
closely to the exterior of the food and the setae are thrust in and 
the resulting flow of juices drawn by suction, probably accom- 
plished by expansions and contractions of the fleshy interior of 
the mouth-parts, into the canal formed by the labium and the 
setae. That the labium is never inserted is borne out by obser- 
vation in the case of Hemiptera sucking juices from lai'\'aB, the 
larvae invariably being suspended or seemingly attached at the 
very extremity of the beak.* In the case of plant-feeding 
Hemiptera the same is true even of the Aphides. In the 
cicada, for instance, which passes its long subterranean existence 
on the roots of plants, although the beak is very large and robust, 

the roots themselves show no signs of puncture other than a slight 

^, 

* Mr. Pergande informs me that his own observations on predaceous 
Hemiptera are in full accord with this statement. 



OF WASHINGTON. 249 

discoloration of the bark which results from the entrance of the 
very fine, almost microscopic, setae. If punctured by the beak 
itself comparatively large holes would be at once apparent. 

If observations on this point were wanting, the structure of the 
beak itself would at once indicate that it could not be employed 
as a piercing organ. The beak or labium of all hemipterous 
insects, so far as I have examined them, is clothed to and on the 
very tip with numerous hairs projecting anteriorly, which would 
make the piercing of any hard substance quite impossible with- 
out tearing of and rupturing the hairs ; and what is more, the 
beak is never very sharply pointed, or smooth or chitinous at the 
tip. Nearly every collector, also, has experienced the sting of 
some large hemipterous insect, and has doubtless mistaken the 
quick thrust of the maxillary setae for an actual puncture by the 
beak. 



Dr. Gill asked as to the true function of the beak. Mr. 
Marlatt stated that it was simply a support for the setae. Dr. 
Gill asked whether, with the Heteroptera, as with Reduvius and 
Nepa, it is not the beak which pierces. Mr. Marlatt thought 
not, and was of the opinion that in these cases, while it is 
generally supposed that the beak actually penetrates, in reality 
the puncture is made by the setae contained in the beak. Dr. 
Riley said he would much like to know how the Homoptera 
draw up their nourishment, particularly in the case of the 
Coccidae. He agreed with Mr. Marlatt that, in the Homoptera, 
the beak does not penetrate, but he thought that with the 
Heteroptera it does puncture. How the setae work in the 
Homoptera is a puzzle. Mr. Marlatt replied that the four 
bristles are probably closely applied to form a sucking tube. 
The suction is probably the reverse of the operation of oviposi- 
tion with Thalessa and other long-tailed Ichneumonids. 

Mr. Howard stated that Mr. Marlatt*s demonstration convinced 
him fully of the incorrectness of Dr. Smith's views in considering 
the beak to be the homologue of the galea of the maxillae. Dr. 
Smith had evidently been misled by his own conclusions from 
the study of the dipterous mouth, and had begun the study of 
the homopterous mouth with the preconceived idea that the 
beak must be a galea. He said that while Mr. Marlatt*s proof 
was perfect as regards the Hemiptera, it by no means neces- 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

sarily follows that the dipterous beak is also a labium, but the 
question of the dipterous mouth is obviously re-opened, and Dr. 
Smith's homologies must be most carefully tested. The man- 
dibular seta is a puzzle, but if we homologize the two pairs of 
jaws there is no reason why it should not be called a mandibular 
lacinia. 

— Dr. Riley presented a paper of which the following is an 
abstract : 

NOTES FROM CALIFORNIA: RESULTS OF MR. KOEBELE»S 

SECOND MISSION TO AUSTRALIA. 

By C. V. Riley. 

[^Au^kor^s abstract.'] 

Dr. Riley, under this head, gave an account of his observations 
upon his recent trip to California as to the results of Mr. 
Koebele's second mission to Australia. He briefly narrated the 
history of this mission as recorded in official publications of the 
Department of Agriculture, and to the unpleasant controversy 
between the California State Board of Horticulture and the 
Department which had grown out of this mission. Said State 
Board had obtained an appropriation from the State legislature 
for the importation of beneficial insects and had appealed to the 
Secretary of Agriculture to have Mr. Koebele sent over to 
Australia for this purpose, the appropriation being placed at the 
service of the Department. The then Secretary, Hon. J. M. 
Rusk, being absent. Acting Secretary Edwin Willets courteously 
declined, for reasons, the proposed arrangement. Upon his 
return, however. Secretary Rusk, having in the meantime, while 
in California, promised that Mr. Koebele should be sent, 
reversed Mr. Willets' decision. Mr. Koebele was consequently 
sent under Dr. Riley's direction. As time went on, the results 
of the introduction through Mr. Koebele's efforts, as a consequence 
of this second mission, caused much discussion in California, the 
State Board and its adherents claiming great success, while the 
practical fruit-growers as a rule began to lose faith. Dr. Riley 
alluded to several incidents which showed the baneful effects 
which political influence and methods sometimes have on 
scientific investigation. In the fall of 1893 he had Messrs. 
Coquillett and Koebele directed to carefully examine and report 
on the condition of the importations and the work they were 
doing. Their reports were published in Insect Life, Vol. VI, 
pp. 24-29, and showed on the whole that the imported insects 
had, up to that time, failed to produce any marked beneficial 



OF WASHINGTON. 251 

results. There were exceptional instances, and one particularly, 
at Santa Barbara, where Rhizobius ventralis was reported to be 
doing much good in clearing olive trees of the Black Scale, 
Lecaniutn olece. 

The controversy as to what these insects were doing continued, 
however, and he made it a point in his recent trip to study as far 
as possible the actual state of things. For this purpose he had 
made observations around Sacramento, San Francisco, Los Ange- 
les, and in various parts of Orange and of Santa Clara counties, 
as well as in and around Santa Barbara. At Los Angeles he 
examined with special interest the Kercheval orchard, where 
Orcus chalybeus bad been extensively colonized and cared for 
with.»much assiduity. He found there that the original trees upon 
which the ladybirds had been colonized still contained many 
specimens of the Red Scale, Aspidiotus aurantii^ which it was 
expected to exterminate, while the orchard, as a whole, was in a 
sorry plight both from the scale and from neglect. A few speci- 
mens of the ladybird were found after considerable search. In 
several orchards around Santa Barbara which were very care- 
fully examined he found but very little evidence of the work of 
Rhizobius, and none of any of the other introduced species. The 
same was true at Redlands, Riverside, Pasadena, Altadena, and 
other places where he had been able to make careful examina- 
tions. 

All over California the Black Scale is present this winter in 
smaller numbers than usual. This is the case in localities where 
Rhizobius has not been introduced, as well as in localities where 
it has been introduced, and this is probably the result of the ex- 
tremely hot, dry summer of last year. Many of the young scales, 
however, are still alive, even in localities where Rhizobius had 
been colonized. He found a few specimens of Leis conformis^ 
but none of the introduced species were present in any locality in 
anything like the same numbers as the native ladybirds, notably 
Chilocorus bivulnerus. 

Dr. Riley called attention to the fact that in Europe and 
America our predaceous insects have, as a rule, some property 
that protects them from the attacks of other animals. In the case 
of the Coccinellids this protection is believed to be due to some 
acrid secretion unpalatable to predaceous animals and other pre- 
daceous and parasitic insects. The Australian Coccinellids, 
however, seem to be of a lower type and not to share in such 
immunity. They are known in the larva state to be quite com- 
mdnly parasitized, and, what is more singular, are extensively 
eaten both in the larva and imago states by birds, the English 
sparrow being conspicuous in this respect, as recorded by French 
and other Australian writers. 



252 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Considering that over 50 species of ladybirds were sent over 
by Mr. Koebele, it is remarkable that so few of them have held 
their own in California or multiplied so as to accomplish any 
good. Orcus chalybeus and O, australasice^ of- which so much 
was expected by Mr. Koebele and by the State Board of Horti- 
culture, are practically unknown to-day among fruit-growers, and 
only found in comparatively few numbers where they were in- 
troduced. The two species of Rhizobius which have maintained 
themselves show great variation in different localities. As a 
consequence, the gas treatment is still being vigorously employed 
by most of the people concerned, and by the county commission- 
ers, and where some insecticides or other preventive means is not 
adopted, the orange groves are yet suffering from both the Red 
and the Black Scales. The policy, however, of introducing para- 
sites and predaceous insects from abroad has a very strong hold 
on the people of the State, but the present condition of things 
fully justified the position which he had taken, and confirmed the 
general conclusions in his paper on "Parasitic and Predaceous 
Insects in Applied Entomology,*' read at the meeting of the As- 
sociation of Economic Entomologists at Madison in August, 1893 
{vide Insect Life, Vol. VI, No. 2, pp. 130-141). 

As the speaker had often insisted, he was strongly of the opin- 
ion that careful study should always precede any attempt at in- 
troducing species for practical purposes. We should satisfy 
ourselves first as to the country of origin on the introduced inju- 
rious form ; we should then satisfy ourselves that in that country 
it is held in check by natural enemies which do not occur in this 
country. These facts having been ascertained, we may then en- 
deavor to introduce such natural enemies, with some hope of 
beneficial results, especially if care be taken to introduce them 
without their natural enemies. This favorable situation exists 
in the case of the Gypsy Moth, and he expressed himself as sur- 
prised that the Gypsy Moth Commission had not sent over to 
Europe for the natural enemies of this insect, as he had himself 
urged them to, several years ago. 

As experience with the last introductions from Australia varied 
somewhat with locality, he believed it would be advisable, even 
though the chances might be against important practical results, 
to introduce the Australian Rhizobiids that had maintained them- 
selves in California to the Atlantic coast, since one of them had 
been found also to feed upon Aspidiotus perniciosus^ which was 
just now spreading in the Eastern States. He also believed that 
good would result by introducing some of the insects of this 
genus, as well as the two species of Orcus just mentioned, to 
Montserrat, as they might do better there than they do in this 
country in competition with our indigenous species. 



OF WASHINGTON. 253 

In discussing this paper Mr. Schwarz said that the Coccinel- 
lidae are separated by extreiiiely feeble characters. The Austra- 
lian genera are therefore closely related structurally to American 
genera. He believes that the Australian species are therefore 
not more susceptible to bird and insect attack, but that, in the 
case of the English sparrow particularly, the habit of feeding 
upon ladybirds is an acquired character. In introducing a spe- 
cies from one part of the world into another, we should bear sev- 
eral facts in mind. If the relationships of the proposed introduced 
species to forms already existing are obvious, the success of the 
importation becomes probable ; if not, the result cannot be pre- 
dicted. Experiment must be the test. The point of Gray*s law 
regarding east and west coasts should always be borne in mind. 
European species can be taken to California with better hope of 
success, while Asiatic forms can be taken to the eastern United 
States. As a rule, Australian species are weak and cannot stand 
competition, judging from the fact that they do not well resist 
the inroads of plants and animals. Mr. Fernow rather contra- 
dicted the last speaker, and stated that many entirely foreign 
genera had been introduced into England with success, and, 
further, that many European trees have been introduced into the 
eastern United States and flourished there better than in their 
original home. 

Dr. Gill said that the Gray coast law must be modified in 
many respects, since the west-American forms are really mor^ 
closely related to those of east Europe and northern Asia than to 
west-European forms. Mr. Schwarz said that with the Coleop- 
tera the old rule will hold, and Dr. Gill stated that he knew of 
many supporting instances, but also of many contradictory in- 
stances. It is simply a case of a fascinating idea which has 
taken hold of scientific men generally, and all the supporting in- 
stances had been brought forward, but almost no one has taken 
the trouble to bring up the contradictory instances, which, in his 
opinion, are quite as numerous. Mr. Schwarz said that for 
many years Mr. Hubbard had been attempting to introduce into 
Florida all sorts of plants from all parts of the world. He has 
found, however, that the European plants do not flourish ; they 
die out. So do the insects which are accidentally introduced 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

with them, but Japanese plants, on the contrary, flourish ex- 
tremely. Dr. Riley supported Mr. Schwarz, and said it was a 
well-known fact that Japanese plants flourish better in the east 
than in the west. His first impression of the Calif ornian flora 
was that it was European in its character. Referring to the sus- 
ceptibility of Australian ladybirds to the attacks of enemies, he 
stated that in Australia birds in general prey upon ladybirds, and 
in his opinion this was due to the lack of certain protective in- 
fluences on the part of the ladybirds themselves. The Austra- 
lian fauna is composed of weak forms. He once more insisted 
upon the fact that we must not expect good results from miscel- 
laneous introductions of beneficial insects ; all the facts concern- 
ing them must be known. Mr. Fernow spoke of the introduction 
of the Douglass spruce into Europe from California and from 
Colorado. It was found that those from the Pacific coast do not 
flourish in Europe, while those from Colorado do. He was of 
the opinion that it was a question of resemblance of climate be- 
tween the original country and that to which the species was in- 
troduced. Dr. Gill said that Prof. Riley's recognition of the 
European character of the Californian flora is due to the exten- 
sion of the European flora through northern Asia, making it thus 
really the flora of an adjoining country. We are accustomed to 
associate the Indian fauna and flora with the Asiatic idea, but 
they are in reality quite distinct, and the true European forms 
extend to the Pacific Ocean at a point above the limit of the In- 
dian life-zone. 

April 4, 1895. 

President Ashmead was in the chair and Messrs. Schwarz, 
Stiles, Stetson, Marlatt, Benton, Howard, Pratt, Linell, Chit- 
tenden, Heidemann, Vaughan, Riley, Dodge, and Gill were 
also present. 

— Prof. Riley read the following paper : 

ON OVIPOSITION IN THE CYNIPID^. 
By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

Having made a special study of galls and gall insects, and 
having accumulated a large number of notes on the habits of the 



OF WASHINGTON. 255 

species in different Orders, especially in the CynipidaB, I have 
been deeply interested in many of the questions that were 
treated rather fully by Hermann Adler in his epoch-making 
work on "Alternating Generations: a biological study of Oak 
Galls and Gall Flies," published some fifteen years ago. At the 
time (1881) Lichtenstein published his excellent translation I 
w^as in correspondence with him, and also had on several previous 
occasions the pleasure of joining in some of his observations at 
Montpellier and in discussing with him some of the questions 
involved. 

One of the most interesting points in the economy of the 
CynipidaB is the mechanism of oviposition. It is interesting not 
only because of the almost universal but erroneous assumption 
by older authors that Cynipid galls owed their growth to the 
action of some poison inserted in the plant tissue by the female 
in the act of oviposition,* but also because of the extremely 
long, curved and specialized nature of the ovipositor itself and of 
the difficulty in following all the steps in the act. 

A number of years ago, desiring to make some original 
observations and, if possible, confirm Adler's on the subject of 
oviposition, as also to endeavor to connect some alternate agamic 
and sexual forms, I had a series of experiments instituted, plac- 
ing them in the care of Mr. Pergande. A number of young oak 
trees of different species, in pots, were obtained for this purpose 
and to assist observations in the field. Frequent absences from 
the office, and other pre-occupations, prevented as much personal 
attention as I had desired to give to the matter, and the experiments 
were finally allowed to lapse. Some interesting observations, 
however, have been obtained on the subject of oviposition ; and 
as the results seem to conflict with those obtained by Adler, I 
have concluded to put them on record, more particularly as an 
English translation of Adler*s celebrated work has recently 
appeared from the Clarendon Press of Oxford, edited by 
Charles R. Straton. 

Adler goes into details and seems to have made his observa- 
tions so carefully that one may scarcely doubt the accuracy of his 
records. For instance, speaking of Neuroter^s lenticularis ^ 
which is the agamous spring form of Spathegaster baccarum^ 
he says: "It" (the female fly) " first examines the buds care- 
fully with its antennae until it finds one that suits it, when it 
takes up a different position. It advances toward the apex of 
the bud and pushes its ovipositor down under one of the 

*The ingenious dissertations of Walsh on the poison gland and the 
secretion therefrom (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, pp. 473-4) very well illus- 
strate how firmly this view was fixed in the minds of naturalists up to 
that time. 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

bud-scales. After several attempts, the ovipositor is forced 
in and glides down under the bud-scales to the base of the 
bud-axis, which it penetrates from without inwards. This 
can only be accomplished by imparting to the ovipositor a 
direction at an obtuse or right angle to the course it followed when 
entering. The natural curvature of the ovipositor here stands 
the fly in good stead, but it requires a vast expenditure of time 
and strength before it can penetrate the heart of the bud." 

Referring to Biorhiza after a (which is the agamic form of 
Teras terminalis) , he says that the female seeks by preference 
the greater terminal buds and seeks to bore into them. " The 
pricking is done in a very different way from that of other gall- 
flies. After a suitable bud has been found, the fly stops, turns 
its head downwards, and directs its abdomen to the point of the 
bud. In this position it inserts its ovipositor somewhat below 
the middle of the bud, in or upon the tissue from which terminal 
growth proceeds. After the fly has pushed in its ovipositor it 
withdraws it, and goes on boring one canal after another in the 
stratum which the egg is to occupy, until the whole layer is rid- 
dled like a sieve. When the operation is finished, the eggs are 
successively pushed into the pricked canals, where they lie so 
thickly together that they look like a continuous mass. The 
amount of work which the fly goes through in laying its eggs in 
this way is astonishing. After having been occupied for hours 
in boring these numerous canals, it appeared to me inexplicable 
that it had as yet laid no eggs ; I found, however, that it bores 
all the canals for their reception before actually laying a single 
&%%, This part of the work requires much time, as to which I 
have made the following observations. 

" On January 27, 1878, a fly was put upon a little oak, and 
soon began to prick a bud ; when it had finished the first bud, it 
went on without interruption to another, and was altogether 
eighty-seven hours busily employed laying its eggs. In these 
two buds I counted 582 eggs." 

The process of oviposition in the Cynipidae is a very elaborate 
one and has been much written about. Adler gives a most full 
and elaborate description of the mechanism of the ovipositor, and 
particularly of the ventral plates and bundles of muscles by which 
the terebra is worked. The structure of the ovipositor is well 
known, and its parts homologize with those of the same organ in 
all Hymenoptera. It consists of a large bristle or seta and of 
two spiculae which mortise into it and form the channel down 
which the ^^^ passes. The seta occupies half the area of a trans- 
verse section 'of the terebra, and the two spiculae occupy the other 
half. The seta has two tenons, and a central canal which con- 
tains an air vessel, a nerve branch, and some sanguineous fluid. 



OF WASHINGTON. 257 

While appearing like a single piece, it is in reality double or com- 
posed of two parts which, indeed, are separated at the extreme 
base, but otherwise firmly soldered together. The spiculae are 
serrate or notched at the tip, and the seta often ends in a slight 
hook. The two spiculaB play, by means of strong basal muscles, 
longitudinally up and down, by means of the grooves which em- 
brace the tenons of the seta. 

The eggs of CynipidaB are characterized by having a stalk 
or pedicel of varying length according to the species, the egg- 
body proper, according to Adler, being at the apical or anterior 
end which first issues from the body, and the basal or posterior 
end being also somewhat enlarged or spatulate. In repose, the 
ovipositor is concealed within two sheaths, but in oviposition, ac- 
cording to Hartig's views, the spiculae grasp the egg-stalk and 
push it to the tip, the fluids being pressed back in the operation, 
so that they come to be distributed along the stalk or to lie at the 
opposite or posterior pole of the stalk. The spiculae then slightly 
separate at the tip from the seta and extend beyond it so that the 
apical end of the stalk becomes free. Now, by pressure, the 
fluid at the posterior end passes through the stalk into the oppo- 
site or apical end -which is plunged in the plant, the basal por- 
tion becoming emptied, the swollen apical end thus remaining in 
the plant when the ovipositor is withdrawn, filling the distal 
end of the puncture, which is somewhat enlarged. The empty 
basal sack of the egg and a portion of the stalk are often left ex- 
posed, looking not unlike the empty egg of some lace-wing fly 
( Hemerobiid) . In short, Hartig*s view, very generally adopted, 
was that the extensile and ductile egg was driven through the ovi- 
positor itself while this was in the plant, and that the contents of 
the egg-body were pressed back into the egg-stalk or pedicel dur- 
ing the operation and collected in the posterior end, and only 
after the apical end had reached the bottom of the puncture did 
these contents stream back into it. 

Adler would refute this view, and draws attention to his own 
figures on Plate 3, where the eggs and ovipositor are illustrated 
side by side, all taken from photographs and drawn from the 
same amplification. These show that the ovipositor is, in every 
case, longer than the egg itself, the enlarged head of the egg cor- 
responding in direction to the tip of the ovipositor. He argues 
from this fact that one end of the egg cannot be in the plant tis- 
sue while the other is in the canal. He further argues that it is 
not possible that the whole egg can be received into the ovipositor 
and glide through it in the way in which Hartig supposed. Let 
me give in his own words the description of the process which 
he has followed, particularly on Neuroterus Iceviusculus (the 
agamic vernal form of Spathegaster albipes)^ while ovipositing 
in an oak bud. 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

" We shall begin with the moment when the fly places its ovi- 
positor on the bud. She always chooses the edge of one of the 
outer scales as a point of attack, and pushes her ovipositor under 
it. Then the ovipositor glides under the scales to the base of the 
bud-axis. Even this first act requires great strength on the part 
of the fly. We sometimes see it attack the bud repeatedly with 
its ovipositor before it succeeds in getting it under the scales. It 
does not succeed with buds in which the scales are closely im- 
bricated, hence it always prefers buds with loose-lying scales. 
When the ovipositor has arrived at the base it is driven towards 
the bud-axis, so as to reach the rudimentary leaves ; but the path 
made by the ovipositor is always more or less curved. By mak- 
ing a careful preparation of any pricked bud, the canal can be 
plainly seen, and the path taken by the ovipositor followed. 
After the fly has finished the first part of its work, and driven the 
ovipositor into the centre of the bud, there comes a moment of 
complete rest, and the fly sits motionless upon the bud. If it is 
fixed in this position by dipping it Into chloroform, nothing is 
seen of the egg — it still remains in the vagina. Then follows the 
second part of the work, the pushing of the egg into the bud. 

" The egg slips, with its enclosed egg-body, to the base of the 
ovipositor between the origin of the two spiculas. The egg-body 
glides over the point where the two spiculas embrace the tenon of 
the seta, since the space remaining open between the two spiculae 
is too small to admit it. But the egg-stalk, which follows, slips 
between the two spiculae, is seized by them and driven forward; 
in this way the egg is pushed downwards into the ovipositor, 
with the egg-body hanging out. 

" When at last the egg is about to enter the canal which has 
been bored into the centre of the bud, it becomes evident that it 
is impossible for the canal to admit the ovipositor and the egg- 
body to pass in at the same time. The egg-body is always of 
much greater diameter than the ovipositor ; on this account the 
ovipositor is next partially withdrawn by the fly, until the pierced 
canal becomes empty. The egg-body then enters the pierced 
canal, and the ovipositor follows, pushing it before it. In short, 
the whole forward motion is dependent on the egg-stalk being 
propelled by the to-and-fro movements of the two spiculae, and 
the egg reaches the end of the bored canal, while the egg-stalk 
remains lying within it." 

To sum the matter up, the operation according to Adler con- 
sists of three distinct stages: (i) the canal is first bored, after 
which the fly rests ; (2) the egg is then passed from the ovarium 
to the base of the ovipositor, the swollen end or body of the egg 
hanging out, but being pushed along by means of the stalk be- 
hind being grasped between the two spiculae ; (3) finally, when 



OF WASHINGTON. 259 

the egg-body reaches the perforation, the ovipositor is partially 
withdrawn and the whole egg then pushed in till the egg-body 
reaches the bottom. Adler rightly expresses wonder that this 
complex procedure should be repeated so often with such great 
accuracy, and proceeds to describe the tactile hairs connected 
w^ith the ovipositor which permit her to carry out the operation. 
He further states that while oviposition on the surface of leaves 
is, in its nature, easier, the mechanism of oviposition is exactly 
the same as that in buds. 

As already stated, the observations are difficult and can only 
be made with satisfaction by observing a great number of indi- 
viduals and by suddenly chloroforming them at different stages of 
the operation. Adler has done this to some extent, but there are 
several passages which leave some doubt in my mind as to the 
complete accuracy of his views. For instance, in controverting 
Hartig and referring to his (Adler's) figures of the eggs and of 
the ovipositor, there is no indication as to whether the eggs were 
taken from the buds after^being deposited, or from the ovaries or 
from the ovipositor. My own experience with these and other 
ductile and extensile eggs with long egg-stalks would indicate 
that we have a very varying length of stalk according to these 
varying circumstances. Therefore, it is rather inaccurate to re- 
fer to these eggs as if they had a definite and uniform length as 
compared with the ovipositor. Moreover, the passages quoted 
show that the operation varies considerably in different species, 
his conclusions evidently being based on Neuroterus Icevius- 
cuius. 

Again, any one who will carefully read Hartig will see that 
Adler has totally misjudged him in assuming that he described 
the egg as passing down the minute channel of the seta ; for 
Hartig*s language, as well as his figures, makes it very plain that 
he had in mind the actual facts, viz., the passing of the egg down 
the channel formed by the connection of the two spiculae with 
the seta. It is true that he calls the seta the egg'g\i\de{S tie iter) , 
and this in truth it is, but he distinctly shows by his figure and 
his description that it acts as a guide only by the passage which 
it makes when mortised into the spiculae, referring particularly 
to this space (Tab. i. Fig. 9, c) as "die innere Hohlung des 
Legestachels, in welche das Ei aufgenommen und hindurch 
geht."* 

♦Incidentally I may state, as corroborative of Adler's liability to error, 
that he makes the sweeping assertion that the gall-gnats (Cecidomyidae) 
cannot inject an irritating poison into the plant tissue as do the saw-flies 
(Tenthredinidae), oh the ground that the gall-gnats have no piercing ap- 
paratus. He is in good company in making this statement, but I have good 



260 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Such are some of the reasons which would make one question 
the accuracy of Adler's views, and I will now give the record of 
the observations which would seem to controvert those views and 
to comport most with those of Hartig, though showing yet a 
third method. 

On April 20, 1894, my attention was called by Mr. Pergande 
to several specimens of Callirhytis clavula Osten Sacken 
ovipositing in the buds of ^uercus prinus. This is a rather 
large, winged agamic form, which Mr. Ashmead informs me he 
has actually bred from the clavula gall. The same species also 
oviposits in the buds of ^uercus alba. The flies were sitting on 
the buds with the head towards the tip of the bud, and were so 
absorbed in their work that they scarcely moved or altered their 
position, even when the twigs were allowed to sweep back with 
some force. The ovipositor was deeply inserted within the 
scale-like covering of the buds. On carefully removing the scaly 
covering of a bud that had been pricked, quite a number of eggs 
were found in clusters of three or four together, and a few singly, 
inserted in the tender, new, embryo leaves. It was further found 
that the eggs were inserted on both the upper and lower surfaces 
of the leaf and almost entirely hidden by the silvery pubescence 
of the newly formed leaf. They were attached by a short stout 
pedicel or stem which, however, upon very careful examination, 
was found to extend for a great length (six or seven times the 
length of the exposed egg-body) like a fine thread into the sub- 
stance of the leaf. The distal or anterior end of the egg-stalk 
was also somewhat enlarged, looking like a bit of shrivelled skin. 
The exposed portion of the ^^^ or egg-body was white, glistening, 
elongate-ovoid or bean-shaped in form and about .2 mm. in 
length. Two days later, or on the 2 2d, additional flies were 
observed ovipositing and the buds were marked. On the 27th 



reason to believe, nevertheless, that it is absolutely incorrect. Winnertz, 
Osten Sacken, and other writers have generalized in this matter from what 
may be considered the typical Cecidomyidous ovipositor, which is a cylin- 
drical tube, being but a prolongation of the tip of the abdomen. The 
truth of the matter is, however, that many of the gall-making species have 
this tip of the abdomen almost as much specialized as in Pronuba among 
Lepidoptera, ending in a delicate, sharp lance, admirably fitted for pierc- 
ing the soft tissues of tender vegetation, as I stated in the article on galls 
in Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia (1876), which Lichtenstein, by a cu- 
rious error, referred to, in the Introduction to his translation of Adler, as 
Le Dictionnaire Scientifique de St. Louis — a purely imaginary publication. 
That they insert some special secretion which induces gall growth is also 
presumable from the fact that in some cases which I have studied the gall 
forms (as in the Tenthredinidse) before the larva hatches. 



OF WASHINGTON. 261 

these were examined and it was found that the pedicel had 
become shorter and stouter, while the anterior or buried end had 
greatly increased, the exposed portion being now half empty of 
its contents. Five days later, April 27th, the young leaves had 
formed from these same marked buds and the eggs were still in 
position, but mostly empty, and when removed and closely 
examined it was found that under the epidermis and below the 
base of the exposed egg-shell there had formed a soft, colorless, 
globular body, having a yellowish streak internally. This body, 
probably the first larval stage, is easily detached from the leaf, 
but no movement could be discerned and the fhread-like pedicel 
had separated from it and disappeared. 

So far, there is no trace of a gall or swelling to be seen, 
although the affected leaves appear more or less crumpled or 
distorted. May 4th the same leaves were again examined and 
the young galls had already formed, appearing as slight thicken- 
ings of the leaf, but scarcely elevated or prominent. The spot 
where the egg had been inserted forms a minute depression or 
hollow in the leaf, with the colorless and shrivelled egg-shell still 
in position, the cavity thus formed being in an oblique direction 
to the surface of the leaf. The cell or cells in each gall are re- 
moved from the egg-shells about twice the length of these last, 
but for which there would be little trace as to where the egg en- 
tered ; they are ovoid or rounded, and each contains a perfect 
larva, semitransparent or colorless, with a brownish ventral spot. 
Most of the galls contain three to five cells. 

From now on, the formation of the gall is rapid, the substance 
of the young gall being very juicy and succulent and of a yellow- 
ish color, its outer margin or edge being pale pinkish. On May 
nth the galls were nearly full grown and proved to be Calli- 
rhytis futilis O. S., but no flies were reared until the middle of 
June, and from this time until the last of the month flies in both 
sexes were continually bred. A number of interesting subsequent 
observations were made upon this interesting species, but have 
no especial bearing on this communication. I ought, however, 
to state that Mr. H. F. Bassett (Psyche, Vol. 5, pp. 235-8, Dec, 
1889) has described what is, apparently, the same insect as Cal- 
lirhytis radicis^ which he reared from a series of blister-like 
cavities in the bark of the root of ^uercus alba^ and identified 
with the fly which he had himself obsei*ved ovipositing in 
the buds of the same oak and producing the gall which gives 
forth Callirhytis futilis Osten Sacken. There is consequently 
some confusion as to the actual relations of this sexual generation, 
and either an error as to determination on the part of Mr. Bassett 
or else an erroneous record of rearing on the part of Mr. Ash- 
mead. I have adopted the former as the more probable. There 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

is, however, a third explanation, which, if verified by future in- 
vestigation, would prove to be another interesting discovery in 
connection with these oak gall-flies, viz., that the same species 
may indifferently produce a gall on the root or on the twig. 
When we remember how closely these two parts of the plant 
are related physiologically and how readily the one in most trees 
may be converted into the other, such a discovery should not sur- 
prise us. 

From the facts given in this case, although the act of oviposi- 
tion was not carefully followed, it is yet obvious that the eggs 
could not have been inserted in the manner described by Adler. 
The facts as already suggested comport more with the conclu- 
sions of Hartig, though they indicate quite a different method of 
oviposition than that described by either, in that the fluid egg-con- 
tents are not passed from one pole to another rapidly during the 
act of oviposition as described by Hartig, but very gradually, the 
process not being completed till just before the hatching. 

Again, a small, black, wingless species {Btorhtza nigra 
Fitch, subsequently described as B, politus by Bassett) is not 
infrequently found, during late winter, under the shelter of bark 
scales, and oviposits, during late winter, in the terminal buds of 
^uercus alba and J^. obtusiloba. The ovipositor in this case, 
as in most cases where eggs are laid in dormant buds, is thrust 
down between the bud-scales until it reaches the soft latent cell 
tissue toward the centre of the bud. And here it is easy to ob- 
serve, by removing the scaly coverings, that the pedicel or stalk 
only, which is about ten times as long as the egg-body, is in- 
serted in the leaf tissue, and the enlarged portion or egg-body is 
at first external, being pressed and somewhat flattened by the sur- 
rounding leaf-scales.* 

In still a third case, of a small black inquiline ( Ceroptus po- 
litus Ashm.), oviposition was observed by Mr. Pergande in the 
midrib of ^uercus rubra^ May 20, 1884, and in this case, as 
my notes show, the ^^'g is thrust down into the puncture made 
by the terebra in the midrib until not a vestige of the ^gg is visi- 
ble, the pedicel being very short. 

There is, therefore, good reason for believing that oviposition 
in these insects follows no uniform system, and there is a serious 
question whether Adler's rejection of Hartig's views is justified. 

♦This fly produces, according to experiments made for me by Mr. J. G. 
Barlow of Cadet, Mo., an undescribed vesicular bud-gall, from which issues 
a small black-winged bisexual sipQC\Q%i^Dryophattta vesiculoides MS. mihi). 
The gall produced by this and from which the apterous agamic genera- 
tion comes is not yet known, though it will probably be a leaf-gall similar 
to that oi Acraspis erinacece Walsh. 



OF WASHINGTON. 263 

In connection with Adler's views as to oviposition, he concludes 
from his own studies that the main purpose of the stalk is, by its 
posterior end remaining at the surface of the puncture, to supply 
oxygen to the egg-body in the plant tissues ; but that this is also 
an erroneous conclusion is, I think, made manifest by some of 
the facts just stated. That the function of the egg-stalk is, rather, 
to facilitate the otherwise difficult mechanical operation of the 
passage of the egg down a narrow and elongate ovipositor in the 
manner indicated by Hartig is supported by the fact that the 
puncture is often closed at its mouth, as also from what we know 
of the similar oviposition in other orders of insects. The facts, 
for instance, connected with the oviposition of Pronuba yucca- 
sella ^ where the egg is thrust deep into the ovarian cavity of the 
Yucca pistil, bear out this view. The egg^ in this case, as it 
passes down the ovarium has not a definite pedicel or stalk, but 
becomes a mere thread in passing through the ovipositor (the 
nature of which precludes any external outlet during the passage) , 
and the fluids gradually concentrate in the apical or anterior end 
as the embryo develops. Moreover, it is passed into the ovarian 
cavity of the pistil and has no connection through the pedicel 
with the exterior wound, which is closed before the lai*va hatches. 



The paper was briefly discussed by Messrs. Marlatt, Ashmead, 
and Benton. Mr. Marlatt said that the mere fact that observa- 
tions on this point are so difficult is sufficient in itself to explain 
any discrepancies. Mr. Ashmead expressed himself as inclined 
to accept the observations of Dr. Riley. In referring to dimor- 
phism, he said that he was satisfied that the wingless species of the 
genera Acraspis and Biorhiza are agamic forms of some winged 
bisexual forms. He thinks, for instance, that there is a connec- 
tion between Dryophanta and Acraspis. In Florida the winged 
bisexual form of Belonocnemus occurs on the roots of live oak, 
the agamic form appearing on the leaves in the fall. 

— Mr. Marlatt read the following paper : 

THE HIBERNATION OF NEMATIDS, AND ITS BEARING ON 

INQUILINOUS SPECIES. 

During the summer and fall of 1894 ^^rge quantities of saw-fly 
galls on willow were collected for me by Mr. E. L. Horton, of 
East Steamburg, N. Y. These belong to both of the genera 
of NematinaB (Euura and Pontania), the larvae of which develop 
in galls on twigs or on leaves of willow. The experience 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

gained in the study of these galls and of the habits of the larvae, and 
in the rearings, has resulted in some interesting facts, the signifi- 
cance and accuracy of which have been substantiated by examina- 
tion of the earlier breeding records contained in the Department 
notes, and in the records attached to specimens in the collections 
of the National Museum, the Entomological Society of Philadel- 
phia, and Cornell University, together with the published records, 
particularly those of Walsh. 

Proper reference of galls, — Examination of notes and rec- 
ords indicated at once that there had been considerable confusion 
in the references of galls received at vaious times, the result being 
that a great many Nematid (Pontania)* galls have been referred 
to the genus Euura, and, where parasites have been reared, these 
have in some instances been named euurce^ from an entire mis- 
conception of the host.f 

Such errors of determination from the gall may be avoided if 
it be remembered that the species of the genus Euura, so far as 
we have any record, always produce galls on or in the twigs, one 
form {^E. salicicola Sm.)- developing in the pith without result- 
ing gall formation. The bud Euura (^E, orbitalis Norton) is 
only an apparent exception, as this gall is really formed in the 
young twig represented by the undeveloped bud. On the other 
hand, all the species of Pontania of which the habits are known 
cause galls in or on some portion of the leaf. The habit of these 
two genera in this respect is so constant that any of their galls 
may be properly referred with scarcely the possibility of error. 

Hibernation of the larva, — The idea has hitherto obtained 
that the larvae of most gall-making Nematids normally winter in 
the galls themselves, or that, abandoning the galls in the fall, 
they enter the earth to hibernate, or more rarely hibernate in rub- 
bish on the surface of the ground. Hibernation within the galls 
was supposed by Walsh to be generally true of pomum and des- 
modioides^ while pisum,, he states, hibernates normally in the 
earth. Of the Euuras a common habit, at least of ovum and 
nodus^ according to Walsh, is to hibernate in the galls. The ex- 
perience gained from the specimens referred to above has indi- 
cated that this idea of hibernation is not the correct one for most 
species. The galls received from Mr. Horton, chiefly those of 
Euura ovum and Nematus pisum^ were, in every instance, 
abandoned by the larva? in September, while the leaves were still 
green and before cold weather had set in. In cages supplied 

* All the gali-making species of the old genus Nematus are now as- 
signed to Costa's genus Pontania. 

t Bassus euurce Ashm., reared from Pontania resinicola n. sp. 
Pimpla euurte Ashm., reared from Pontania pyri/ormis n. sp 



OF WASHINGTON. 265 

with soil and more or less matted leaves, the larvae of both these 
species wandered restlessly about for several days, without show- 
ing any inclination either to enter the soil or spin up in the sub- 
stances provided. Supplying them, however, with bits of soft 
or rotting wood, bark, and dry bits of weeds or twigs having 
large pith, the larvae began immediately to burrow into these sub- 
stances with great industry and rapidity, the Euuras apparently 
preferring the pith of weeds and twigs, and very soon all of them 
had concealed themselves. This experience explains the failure, 
which has been a common one, in the attempts to breed these 
and other gall species, and, in connection with other available 
records, indicates conclusively that these insects normally hiber- 
nate in bark, pith, or wood. Very rarely the dry galls of 
their own species already deserted by other larvae are entered, or 
they spin up between matted leaves. Other saw-flies are known 
to enter wood to hibernate, and this habit is doubtless very much 
more common than hitherto supposed. The larvae of Tenthredi- 
nidae are most difficult to carry through the winter successfully, 
and I am convinced that it is largely because the proper condi- 
tions have not been supplied. 

Relations of these facts to inquilinous species, — This method 
of hibernation has an important bearing on the validity of the in- 
quilinous species, and an examination of the records, as well as of 
the species themselves wherever obtainable, has convinced me 
that all the species designated as inquilinous cannot be so con- 
sidered, but are really instances where the larvae of various saw- 
flies, including those of the true gall-making species, and others 
which live exposed on the leaves, have entered deserted galls, fre- 
quently of the previous year's growth and of both dipterous and 
hymenopterous origin, to hibernate, and, these being collected 
and the saw-flies subsequently reared, the latter were very natur- 
ally described as inquilinous. All these inquilinous species are 
due to records obtained by Mr. Walsh, a most careful and con- 
scientious observer, and in nearly every case he himself pointed 
out the close resemblance of these supposed inquilinous forms to 
the species with which they really belong, and the facts of rear- 
ing as recorded by him show pretty conclusively of themselves 
that my inference in regard to them is correct. 

There are six inquilinous species of saw-flies described by Mr. 
Walsh. Two of these belong to the genus Pontania, and are 
synonymous with true gall-makers. (A third may be added here 
which Walsh referred to but never described.) Two belong 
to other subdivisions of the old genus Nematus, the larvae of 
which live exposed on the leaves and had undoubtedly entered the 
galls simply to secure a convenient retreat — in some instances for 



266 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

midsummer transformation, and, in cases of the fall brood, for 
hibernation. A Euura and a Pristiphora complete the list. 
The record of these species and synonymy is as follows : 

True Gall-Makers. 

Pontania hospes Walsh. — This species is synonymous with P, 
pomum^ from which Walsh himself says it is absolutely indistin- 
guishable, except in certain very slight and unimportant colora- 
tional features. It was reared from the gall of Cecidomyia 
strobiloides O. S. (see Proc. Entom. Soc. Phila., VI, p. 261). 
I have also received two specimens of potnutn from Cornell 
University, labelled as having been reared from this same Ceci- 
domyiid gall. 

Pontania inquilina Walsh. — This species is synonymous 
with P. desmodioides Walsh, who says of it that it is very like 
a pale variety of the gall- making species desmodioides. It was 
reared from the gall of Cecidomyia rhodoides (1. c, p. 261). 

Nematus quercicola Walsh MS. — This species Walsh appar- 
ently never described, although he refers to it on two occasions 
(1. c, p. 260 ; Amer. Entomologist, II, p. 73). It is undoubtedly, 
from Walsh's own statement, synonymous with pisum. He 
reared it from an undescribed cabbage-like gall of Cecidomyia 
on white oak. He says that it cannot be distinguished from 
Nematus s, pisum^ and differs only in the fact that all of his 
species of pisum entered the ground to pupate and the oak species 
pupated within the gall. My own records of pisum,^ however, 
show that it hibernates in pith or other dry, soft woody material as 
described, and will not enter the soil except as a last resort. 
Walsh's specimens, after abandoning their willow galls, un- 
doubtedly entered and transformed within this oak gall because of 
the lack of any more suitable material. 

Euura perturbans Walsh. — This species is synonymous with 
Euura ovum^ Walsh himself saying that it is "absolutely 
indistinguishable " by any reliable characters. A number of 
males and females were reared from the galls of Cecidomyia 
strobiloides O. S., and from C batatas Walsh and C rhodoides 
Walsh, all galls of the preceding year, and "two females bred 
many years ago, in the same season that the gall was produced, 
so far as I recollect, from an undescribed Cecidomyid bud-gall — 
Vitis fusus Walsh MS. — composed of bunches of 6 to 50 
fusiform galls, occurring on the stem of wild grape vine 
( Vitis cordifolia) ^ each gall attached by a single point and 
about one-half an inch long" (1. c, p. 252; pp. 254, 255). 

From the experience with the larvae of Euura ovum^ already 
detailed, the significance of the above records is at once appa- 



OF WASHINGTON. 267 

rent. The larvae of this species refuse absolutely to enter the soil 
or to spin up in leaves, but burrow into bark or pith or soft 
wood, or even into the galls of their own species, or of other in- 
sects, to hibernate, and in this way had entered, in the fall, the 
galls subsequently collected by Mr. Walsh. 

NoN Gall-Makers. 

Nematus mendicus Walsh. — This is a good species, and will 
fall in the genus Pteronus. Mr. Walsh says of it (1. c, p. 262) : 
"One female bred May 2, from a Tenthredinidous gall of S, 
pomum n. sp. of the preceding year's growth, and another fe- 
male August 5, from the Cecidomyiidous gall of 6". brassicoides 
Walsh of the same year's growth." The latter record is interest- 
ing, as showing that the larva of one of the early broods had en- 
tered the green gall of this Cecidomyiid to spin up, the inquili- 
nous habit of the species being thus apparently strongly indicated. 
In the first instance one of the later broods had entered a gall in 
the fall for hibernation. 

Nematus fur^'eX^. — Walsh (1. c, p.. 263) reared this species 
from the gall of Cecidomyia batatas Walsh on Salix hutnilis. 
He says : "As the mother saw-fly must have deposited her ^^^^^ in 
this gall after the gall-maker had quitted it, or not long before, it 
is a question whether, if sucli be its general habits, this species 
can be properly considered as an inquiline." The type of this 
species has been lost, but, from the affinities pointed out by Mr. 
Norton, it probably belongs in the genus Amauronematus. 

Pristiphora sycofhantce Walsh. — Mr. Walsh bred this spe- 
cies, August 9, from a cocoon found within the gall of Ceci- 
domyia brassicoides of the same year's growth (1. c, p. 264). 
The type specimen seems to be lost, but Norton has already 
pointed out the close resemblance and probable identity of this 
species with his P. tibialis. In this Norton is probably correct, 
and it undoubtedly is another case where a larva of one of the 
early broods had entered the gall in question to spin up. 

It will be noted that, in the case of every one of the inquilinous 
species cited above, the hibernating habit, so strongly marked, 
especially in the gall-making groups of saw-flies, of entering dry 
vegetable material for the winter, fully explains the occurrence 
of the cocoons or larvae in foreign galls, and would render the 
claim that they were inquilinous very doubtful, even if the con- 
firmatory evidence of their practical identity with other species 
were lacking. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Schwarz, Riley, and Ash- 
mead. Dr. Riley stated that, while he thought Mr. Marlatt's 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

conclusions in the main were probably correct, he hesitated to 
condemn Walsh without the most careful consideration of all 
the circumstances. Where a full-fed saw-fly larva enters the gall 
of another insect, the entrance-hole must be perfectly visible, and 
it seems incredible that Walsh could have overlooked this en- 
trance-hole. It is possible that the galls were collected in large 
numbers and that the saw-flies issued from the mass of galls, so 
that there was hardly an opportunity for investigating this point. 
He further said that the saw-fly might oviposit in the epidermis 
of a young Cecidomyiid gall quite as well as in the epidermis of 
a twig or leaf, and that the saw-fly larva might develop with the 
Cecidomyiid gall. He further said that the leaf -galls of Nemati- 
dae fall to the ground with the leaves in autumn and that the full- 
grown larvae issuing from them would not be apt to reascend the 
plant and bore into the galls. 

Mr. Marlatt, in reply, said that in the species which he had had 
an opportunity to study, and in the available records of the rear- 
ings, the parent saw-flies issued too early in the spring to oviposit in 
the epidermis of Cecidomyiid or other galls. The Euuras emerge 
long before the time of leafing in spring, in late February or 
early in March, and the Nematids, producing galls on the leaves, 
issue in the latter part of March or early in April, with the first 
appearance of the leaves. He also said that the larvae coming 
from both the stem-galls of Euura and the leaf-galls of Nematus 
abandon their galls early in the autumn, before the leaves fall 
and in fact while they are still green. He said, also, that many of 
these inquilines were reared from leafy galls, in which no 
entrance-hole would be necessary. 

Dr. Riley, replying, said that while it is true that saw-flies gener- 
ally issue early in the season, they come out very irregularly, and 
some are miich later than others, and he saw nothing impracti- 
cable in the idea that oviposition might take place exceptionally 
on Cecidomyiid galls. Mr. Schwarz said that many saw-fly larvae 
construct hibernating burrows in the dry bark of trees, and suggested 
that these burrows should be collected and studied, since they are 
characteristic with each species, in this way being somewhat 
analogous to Scolytid burrows. Other saw-fly larvae bore in the 
hard wood, and he remembers having found the larvae, probably 



OF WASHINGTON. 269 

of Harptphorus testaceus Nort., burrowing to a depth of two 
or three inches in the solid wood of an oak near Rock Creek in 
the District of Columbia. 

— Mr. Schwarz presented for publication the following paper : 

NOTES ON NOMARETUS, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO 

NEW SPECIES. 

By E. a. Schwarz. 

The discovery of two undescribed species of Nomaretus, one of 
which differs remarkably from the nearest allied species in the 
tarsal characters of the male, led to a desire of examining and 
comparing the males of all our species. In this I was unsuc- 
cessful, owing to the scarcity of specimens in our collections, and 
the idea of contrasting the species according to the tarsal structure 
of the males had to be abandoned for the present. However, in 
the course of examination of the available material a number of 
other distinctive characters, irrespective of sex, were found, and 
the following synoptic table, which has been drawn up conjointly 
by Mr. H. G. Hubbard and myself, may be of some use in con- 
nection with that given by Dr. Horn (Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, 

I, 1879, p. 80). 

Table of Species. 

Body cychriform ; humeri distinct ; elytra with marginal row of punctures ; 
epipleurae either coarsely punctate or at least with marginal row of punc- 
tures. 

Sides of thorax with many punctures ; under side of body more or 
less punctate; 6lytral epipleurae coarsely, irregularly punctate; 
side margin of thorax not sinuate, hind angles obtuse; elytral 
striatioji complete. 

Elytral striae distinctly impressed, punctures approximate, 

bilobus Say. 
Elytral striae feebly impressed, punctures distant. 

Thorax with many setigerous punctures on the disc, 

cavicollis Lee. 

Thorax smooth on the disc .fissicollis Lee. 

Sides of thorax with a single setigerous puncture; under side en- 
tirely smooth ; elytral epipleurse with a single marginal row of 
punctures; thorax sinuate at sides, hind angles subrectangular. 
Hind angles of thorax long; elytra convex, with complete 
striation ; punctures of strise not coarse and rather closely 

placed debilis "LiQC, 

Hind angles of thorax short ; elytra subdeplanate with seven 
abbreviated striae ; inner striae coarsely punctate, 

iucompietus n. sp. 



270 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Body slender ; humeri obliterated ; elytra without marginal row of punc- 
tures ; under side and epipleurae smooth ; sides of thorax with a single 
setigerous puncture; elytral striation incomplete. 

Front tarsi of (;f widely dilated; elytra oblong-oval, with from five 
to six abbreviated strise ; fourth interstice with a series of setige- 
rous punctures kubbardi n. sp. 

Front tarsi of (j^ not dilated; elytra elongate-oval, with from three 
to four strise, interstices without setigerous punctures. 

imferfectus Horn. 

1. N. bilobus Say. 

(j^. — Front tarsi moderately dilated, densely papillose beneath, except- 
ing base of first joint ; joint i fully twice longer than wide at tip, joints 
2-4 much decreasing in size, each slightly longer than wide; last joint of 
palpi much dilated; last joint of labial palpi with the apical edge much 
longer than the inner lateral edge and slightly longer than the outer lateral 
edge. 

9 not seen bv me. 

The post-ocular constriction is deeply impressed, and the ver- 
tex greatly convex ; side of the prosternum and the pro-epimera, 
sides and side pieces of meso- and metasternum are coarsely 
punctate ; sides of first abdominal joints with some indefinite 
punctures ; second joint of labial palpi with four setae. 

The specimens before me are from the Lake Superior region 
(Marquette and Michipicoten Island), and I have seen others from 
Canada and New Hampshire, but none from Say's type localities, 
"Missouri" (probably northern Nebraska) and "Northwestern 
Territory" (probably Minnesota). 

2. N. cavicollis Lee. 

I have examined only a single female specimen from Texas : 
second joint of labial palpi with 5 setae, last, joint strongly secu- 
riform, with the apical edge slightly longer than the inner edge 
and distinctly shorter than the outer edge ; last joint of maxillar}' 
palpi much more slender than that of the labial palpi ; post-ocular 
constriction less impressed than in bilobus^ and the vertex less 
convex. The punctures on the anterior part of the prothoracic 
disc are setigerous ; those near the base simple ; under side more 
punctate than in any other species. 

3. N. fissicoUis Lee. 

Only a few specimens from Texas and Kansas have been seen 
by me. From a superficial examination of a male in Mr Ulke's 
collection I made the following notes : Front tarsi slightly less 
dilated than in bilobus^ spongy, pubescent beneath, first joint 
more slender than in bilobus and pubescent only at apical half ; 
last joint of palpi strongly dilated ; last joint of labial palpi with 



OF WASHINGTON. 271 

the apical edge slightly longer than the inner edge. The female 
has the last joint of palpi distinctly dilated and securiform. 

4. N. debilis Lee. 

(5*. — Front tarsi with joints 1-2 distinctly dilated but less so than in htlo- 
buSy joints 1-3 papillose beneath, joint i, 2\ times longer than wide at tip, 
joint 2 almost twice as long as wide, joint 3 feebly dilated, more than twice 
longer than wide, joint 4 not dilated ; second joint of labial palpi trise- 
tose, last joint strongly dilated with the apical edge as long as, or shorter 
than, the inner edge. 

In this and the following species the eyes are feebly prominent 
and the post-ocular constriction obsolete. 

The type locality is Habersham Co., Ga. ; the specimens be- 
fore me were collected by Mr. H. G. Hubbard and myself at 
Round Knob, N. C. (altitude, about 1,800'), between June 23 
and June 28. 

5. N. incompletus n. sp. 

Moderately slender, cychriform, shining, black ; antennae, mouth-parts, 
tibiae and tarsi rufous, elytra rufo-piceous, with slight bluish tinge. Head 
with the post-ocular constriction obsolete ; eyes feebly prominent, second 
joint of labial palpi trisetose. Thorax cordate, as wide as long, surface 
slightly depressed, smooth, except a setigerous puncture at the middle of 
the side margin and the usual puncture in front of the hind angles, sides 
much rounded, slightly sinuate behind, hind angles siibrectangular, apical 
and ante-basal transverse impressions deep, basal longitudinal impression 
well marked and extending beyond the transverse impression. Elytra ob- 
long-oval, decidedly deplanate on the disc, humeri well indicated though 
rounded, with seven striae, all being greatly abbreviated, the outer ones 
gradually much more so than the inner ones; a wide smooth submarginal 
space extending from the humeri to the apex; marginal row of punctures 
distinct from the base to beyond the middle; striae 1-5 deeply impressed 
and coarsely punctate, the punctures not closely placed, sixth stria less 
distinctly impressed and with the punctures small and indefinite, seventh 
stria feeble and not punctured ; interstices wider than the striae, convex 
and smooth ; epipleurae with a marginal row of punctures and with a few 
irregular punctures near the humeri ; under side of body smooth ; legs 
long and slender. 

(^ unknown. 

$. — Front tarsi slender, first joint as long as the following three to- 
gether, joints 2 and 3 each more than twice longer than wide, joint 4 dis- 
tinctly longer than wide; last joint of palpi slender, feebly securiform, 
last joint of labial palpi with the apical edge at least twice shorter than the 
inner lateral edge. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Described from a single specimen found by Mr. H. G. Hub- 



272 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

bard at Stone Creek, Lee Co., Va. (Cumberland Mts.), July 30, 

In general appearance this species resembles a diminutive Cy- 
chrus cordatus. It is closely allied to iV^. debilis^ the distin- 
guishing characters being given in the table. The reddish color 
of the elytra is most probably only an individual character. 

6. N. hubbardi n. sp. 

Slender, black, shining^ mouth-parts, antennae and tarsi rufous, tibix 
piceo-rufous. Head with the post-ocular impression deep, vertex globose, 
eyes prominent. Thorax cordate, as long as wide, sides greatly rounded 
at apical third, posteriorly oblique and slightly subsinuate, hind angles 
nearly rectangular; surface smooth with a single setigerous puncture at 
the middle of the side margin and another near the hind angles ; anterior 
transverse impression feeble, posterior transverse and basal longitudinal 
impressions deep. Elytra oblong-oval, moderately convex, declivity 
oblique; humeri entirely obliterated ; sides moderately rounded ; surface 
With five or six abbreviated strise, the outer gradually much more so than 
the inner ones, and with a broad, smooth lateral space extending from the 
base to the apex; the four inner striae anteriorly moderately impressed 
and punctate, the punctures not coarse and rather closely placed, fifth stria 
feebly impressed, either feebly punctate or smooth, sixth stria feebly im- 
pressed, not punctate and sometimes obsolete ; interstices moderately con- 
vex, the fourth with a series of 5 or 6 setigerous punctures ; a series of 
from two to four setigerous punctures in the smooth space between the 
outermost stria and the margin ; marginal impressed line without punc- 
tures but with a few setae near the humeri ; epipleurae and entire under 
side smooth ; legs moderately slender. 

(^. — Front tarsi spongy, pubescent beneath, and much more strongly 
dilated than in the other species, joint i slightly longer than wide at tip, 
joints 2-4 each as long as wide; last joint of labial palpi moderately di- 
lated with the apical edge about as long as inner lateral edge and distinctly 
shorter than the outer lateral edge. 

9. — Front tarsi simple, moderately slender, joint i nearly as long as 
the three following joints united, joint 2 about twice longer than wide, 
joint 3 slightly longer than wide, joint 4 as long as wide; palpi very slen- 
der, last joint very feebly dilated with the apical edge fully twice shorter 
than the inner lateral edge. 

Length, 8-9 mm. 

Several specimens were found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, to whom 
the species is dedicated, near Retreat, Haywood Co., N. C. (al- 
titude about 3,000'), in May and June, 1893. 

This is the only species with strongly dilated tarsi in the male, 
and the row of setigerous punctures on the disc of the elytra is 
also a character not found in any other species. It is evidently 
closely allied to N, imperfectus^ which, however, is the only 



OF WASHn^^GTON. 273 

species with simple front tarsi in the male. In JV, hubbardi the 
punctures of the elytral striae are smaller, more numerous, and 
more closely placed than in tm perfect us ; the other more striking 
differences between the two are set forth in the table. 

7. N. imperfectus Horn. 

(^. — Front tarsi not dilated, tip of joint i and joints 2 and 3 beneath 
with spongy pubescence, joint i not increasing in width apically and 
about 2J times longer than wide, joint 2 slightly longer than wide, joints 
3 and 4 each as wide as long; last joint of palpi moderately dilated, last 
joint of labial palpi with the apical edge slightly shorter than the inner 
lateral edge and about one-third shorter than the outer lateral edge. 

?. — Front tarsi as in the male, beneath sparsely hairy; terminal joint 
of palpi extremely slender, that of the maxillary palpi not dilated and not 
securiform, that of the labial palpi with the apical edge at least three times 
shorter than the inner apical edge. 

Widely distributed in the Allegheny Mts., but apparently not 
occumng below 1,800' elevation. Type locality, Hampshire 
Co., W. Va. I have seen specimens from Cresson Springs, Pa. ; 
Deer Park, Md. (Ulke) ; Ft. Pendleton, Md. (Schwarz) ; Moun- 
tain Lake, Giles Co., Va. (Ulke), and Round Knob, N. C. 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 



May 3, 1895. 

President Ashmead in the chair, and the following gentlemen 
w^ere also present : Messrs. Stiles, Benton, Gill, Patten, Chit- 
tenden, Linell, Marlatt, Howard, Fernow, Waite, Swingle, and 
Dr. Deckert, of Leipzig. 

The following new members were elected : Active — S. D. 
Judd and Henry Schoenborn ; Corresponding — H. Schwarz, 
1520 Lafayette avenue, St. Louis, Mo., A. H. Kirkland, Mai- 
den, Mass., Dr. Geo. W. Bock, 13 19 Hickory street, St. Louis, 
Mo., and C. W. Johnson, Wagner Institute, Philadelphia. 

— Mr. Howard read a paper on "An injurious parasite."* 

— The following communication was presented for publication : 

A LEAF-BEETLE OF THE GOLDEN-ROD. 

By F. H. Chittenden. 

A low-growing species of golden-rod that occurs about Wash- 
ington and which has been identified as probably Solidago ar- 

'^ Withdrawn for publication in Insect Life^ Vol VII, No. 5. 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

guta Alt. is yearly ravaged by a little chrysomelid beetle, which 
attacks it soon after the appearance of its foliage above ground, 
both larvae and beetles cutting out large holes in the leaves, which 
become still larger with the plant's growth. 

The beetle in question is Galerucella atnericana Fab., a ro- 
bust little light brown species with its elytra lined with black and 
resembling the congeneric imported elm leaf-beetle, G, luteola 
Mull. {=^ xanthomelcena Schr.). Last summer this insect oc- 
curred in such abundance just above the Virginia shores of the 
Potomac opposite Georgetown that it was next to impossible to 
find a plant of this species of Solidago that had not been attacked 
by the beetle. It was almost equally diflficult at the time of this 
observation to find the larvae and, when found, to carry them» 
safely over the larval stage. During the first days of June full- 
sized larvae were observed and all that could be found taken home 
for rearing. After searching many plants that showed the char- 
acteristic large holes eaten out by this species and finding four 
specimens, I discovered the cause of their scarcity in a fungoid 
disease, which manifested itself in patches of mould of the size 
of the larvae and dispersed about on the under-side of the leaves. 
All but a few of the larvae taken at this time were light straw- 
yellow in color, and all thus colored died, some within a few 
hours after capture. They usually succumb to this disease upon 
arriving at maturity, but a few died at a younger age. In a very 
few hours after death ensues the larvae become flattened and lose 
all semblance to their former selves. 

Specimens of the diseased lai^vai were shown to Mr. B. T. 
Galloway, Chief of the Division of Vegetable Pathology in the 
Department of Agriculture, who doubtfully referred the fungus 
to Empusa sphcerosperma^ a common species which often pro- 
duces epidemics among various insects. The infected larvae were 
found along the border of a shaded pathway, and it is not im- 
probable that the shade may have afforded the most suitable con- 
ditions for the propagation of the fungus. At any rate, in an 
adjoining meadow more exposed to sunlight, larvae w^ere found 
free from infection. One of these, confined in a rearing jar, was 
found to have formed its cocoon on the morning of June 1 1 . It 
pupated June 15, and the imago developed on the 22d, this in- 
dividual having passed seven days as pupa. A second developed 
in six days, in extremely warm weather, June 20-26. The adult 
remains a few days in the pupal case and after issuing requires a 
few days longer for its outer chitinous parts to harden. 

The new brood of 1894 began to appear June 14 and by the 1 7th 
the most of those found had fully matured. A good series was 
collected and fed, but no attempt at copulation was noticed, nor 
were any more larvae found after June, from which facts it is 



OF WASHINGTON. 275 

quite plain that the species is normally single-brooded in this lat- 
itude. On the other hand, a pair of adults, withc^ut doubt of the 
new brood, was taken in copula as late as July 26, from which 
was obtained a mass of ten eggs on the following day. Thus it 
is probable that in the southernmost limit of the species we may 
sometimes have produced an exceptional second generation in one 
year. This is of interest as the number of yearly generations of the 
elm-leaf species has been the subject of considerable controversy, 
the outcome being that careful observations by Professors Smith 
and Riley in the latitudes of northern New Jersey and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, respectively, have developed the fact that for 
that species in the former locality about the same condition of 
affairs in regard to generations obtains as in the golden-rod species 
here, whereas in the latter locality two, three, and exceptionally 
four broods of larvae have been noted (see Proc, vol. II, pp. 
364-365). 

The life-history of G, atnericana^ according to my observa- 
tions, may be summed up about as follows : The hibernated 
adults may be seen towards the end of April, or soon after the 
foliage of the Solidago appears, and egg-laying continues at 
least throughout the month of May. The larvae attain full growth 
by the end of May. The pupal stage occupies a week and the 
inactive stage of the matute larva and newly-bred adult consumes 
another week. About the middle of June the adults leave the 
pupal case and, after feeding for several days, perhaps weeks, 
leave the plants and begin hibernation. In this locality, at least, 
this beetle feeds only on Solidago and has thus far been found to 
feed only on a single species of this genus. 



— Mr. Ashmead read the following : 

LYSIOGNATHA, A NEW AND REMARKABLE GENUS IN THE 

ICHNEUMONID^. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

Among a lot of miscellaneous parasitic Hymenoptera, princi- 
pally Braconidae, sent me for determination by Prof. J. Henry 
Comstock, of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., through his 
assistant, Mr. Alexander MacGillivray, I found a most anoma- 
lous ichneumonid, represented in both sexes, having the head and 
jaws similar to an Alysiine in the Braconidae, but otherwise, in 
venation and abdominal characteristics, agreeing with many forms 
found in the family Ichneumonidae. 

This singular insect at first was very perplexing to classify, 
but, after a thorough study of all its characters, I am convinced 



276 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

it represents an ancient type of the family Ichneumon idae, and 
probably the phylum from whence originated part of the Braconidae 
— the Alsyiinae. On account of its venation, however, it having 
a distinct areolet, two recurrent nervures, and its abdominal char- 
acters, I believe it should be placed as a distinct subfamily in the 
Ichneumonidae. 

This new genus may be thus characterized : 

Lysiognatha genus nov. 

Head) viewed from ahove^ subquadrate, deeply eniarginate posteriorly, full 
and broad behind the eyes, the vertex with a median sulcus extending to 
front ocellus; viewed from \n front nearly twice as wide as long, the face 
therefore short, the clypeus extending from eye to eye and visible as a 
narrow transverse ridge; ocelli 3, rather close together in a triangle far 
away from the eye margin ; eyes oblong oval extending to base of man- 
dibleSf the malar space entirely wanting; mandibles widely separated, 
attached to the side of the head as in Alysia, oblong, only slightly con- 
tracted at the middle, the apex being deeply emarginate and forming 
two nearly equal-sized teeth ; maxillary palpi 5-jointed ; labial palpi 
3-jointed ; antennae inserted a little below the middle of the face, in 9 
very slightly thickened toward apex, 22:jointed, the last joint, however, 
apparently composed of 3 connate joints ; in (^ tapering towards tips, 25- 
jointed. Thorax ovate, the prothorax narrowed, triangular ; mesonotum not 
longer than wide, without parapsidal furrows, the mesopleura convex, not 
impressed or foveated; scutellum subtriangular, with a deep furrow 
across the base; metanotum with two delicate median carinas, divergent 
posteriorly, the lateral longitudinal carinae subobsolete, the spiracles 
small rounded, placed toward the lateral middle; anterior wings as in 
Pimpla^ with an oblique, subrhomboidal areolet, the second recurrent 
nervure entering the areolet near its apex, the median and submedian 
cells equal, the discoidal nervure angulate a little before the middle, legs 
normal, the tibial spurs i, 2, 2, short, not strong. Abdomen in 9 oblong- 
oval, sessile, subcompressed at apex and ending in a long ovipositor; 
first segment the longest, feebly bicarinate toward base, the spiracles very 
small, rounded, placed a little before the middle; the other segments 
smooth ; the second segment is half as long as the first, the following 
gradually shortening. In the ^ the abdomen is a more slender, with the 
first, second, third, and fourth segments with a ventral fold. 

Lysiognatha comstockii sp. n. 

$. — Length 2 8 to 3 mm. ; ovipositor longer than the abdomen. Red- 
dish-brown, smooth and polished; anterior orbits broadly, face below an- 
tennae, clypeus, mandibles, except teeth, mouth-parts, antennae toward 
base, collar, tegulae, legs and abdomen toward base, yellowish-white; 
ocelli, eyes, and tips of mandibular teeth, black. Antennae 22-jointed, ex- 
tending to base of abdomen, brownish toward apex and pubescent. Wings 



OF WASHINGTON. 277 

hyaline, the venation pallid. Abdomen sessile, oblong-oval, a little 
longer than the head and thorax united, subcompressed at apex and end- 
ing in a long ovipositor. 

In the male the head and thorax are black, the abdomen reddish-brown ; 
anterior orbits, face below antennae, mouth-parts, two basal joints of an- 
tennae, prothorax, tegulae, legs and sutures of the abdomen, yellowish- 
white, while the antennae are a little longer, more slender toward apex, 
and composed of 25 joints. 

Hab. — Cayuga Lake, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Types in Collection Cornell University and Coll. Ashmead. 

Described from i d^ and 2 ? specimens received from Prof. J. 
Henry Comstock, collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. 

Mr. Smith's record of the capture of a pair of these insects 
reads: " Swept from foliage in woods, in copula^ at Norton's 
Landing, Cayuga Lake, June 26, 1872." 

For some years past I have given considerable study to the 
Ichneumonidae, basing my studies upon those of Forster's Synop- 
sis, and in order to show the position that this new subfamily 
should hold in the family I would propose the following arrange- 
ment of the subfamilies and tribes : 

Family ICHNEUMONID^. 

Subfamily I. Lysiognathin^. 

Subfamily II. Ophionin^. 
Tribe I. Anomaloniui. 
II. Trachynotini, 

III. Porizonint. 

IV. Prtstomerini, 
V. Cremastinu 

VI. Helliviffiini, 
VII. Ophiontni. 
VIII. Campopleg^ini, 
IX. Banchtni, 
X. Mesochortni, 
XI. Plecticini, 
XII. Agriotypini. 

Subfamily III. Tryphonin^. 
Tribe I. Mesoleptini, 
II. Exenterini, 

III. Cienopelmini, 

IV. Tryphonini. 
V. Exochini. 

m 

VI. Trachydertnatifn» 
VII. Orthocentrini. 
VIII. Basstni, 
IX. Sphinctini. 
X. Metopiiniy 



278 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Subfamily IV. Ichneumonin^. 
Tribe I. Troginu 

II. Ichneutnonini, 

III. Alomyini. 

IV. Listrodromini, 
V. PhcBOgenini, 

Subfamily V. Cryptin-«. 
Tribe I. Stilpni 

II. Hemitelini. 

III. Phygadeuonini, 

IV. Cryptini. 

Subfamily VI. Pimplin^. 
Tribe I. Acoeniiini, 
II. Ltssonittni, 

III. Pimflini, 

IV. Xoridini, 

My own collection is now arranged after the above scheme, 
and it appears to me a very natural one, so gradually do the sub- 
families and tribes run into one another. The student must not 
forget, however, that at least sixty per cent, of our Ichneumon- 
idae are incorrectly placed in our lists and catalogues, and that an 
enormous amount of work must yet be done before our described 
species can be brought into their proper genera and tribes. 



In discussion, Dr. Gill asked Mr. Ashmead to figure the typi- 
cal mouth-parts of an ichneumonid so as to enable the Society to 
judge as to the limits of the variation. He further questioned 
Mr. Ashmead closely as to the significance of the extraordinary 
mouth of the new form, and concluded by suggesting that the 
insect deserves family rather than subfamily rank. Some dis- 
cussion arose as to the use of the jaws in the Ichneumonidae and 
Braconidae. Mr. Marlatt stated that their sole use seemed to be 
to enable the insects to issue from their cocoons or from imprison- 
ing substances ; that, after issuing, the jaws are of little or no 
use, although he had known the larger Ichneumonids to bite 
when handled. Mr. Howard referred to the wing venation of 
the new form and stated that the presence or absence of the sec- 
ond recurrent nervure was, in his opinion, not a competent family 
character, and that from venation alone he would not consider 
the new form as necessarily an ichneumonid. Mr. Ashmead 
agreed with the last speaker, but stated that the abdominal char- 



OF WASHINaTON. 279 

acters, and in fact all of the characters except those of the head, 
were such that the form appears more closely related to the Ich- 
neumonidae than to the Braconidae. Mr. Marlatt, apropos of the 
presence or absence of the outer recurrent nervure, stated that 
both were present in the Tenthredinidae ; that he considered the 
Ichneumonidse to be lower in type and nearer to the Tenthre- 
dinidae than are the Braconidae; The presence of the second re- 
current nervure in Lysiognatha, he thought, might simply be a 
reversionary character. Mr. Ashmead agreed with the view 
that the Tenthredinidae are the lowest of the Hymenoptera. 
Many wing veins, in his opinion, indicate a low type. Thus 
the Chalcididae, which have almost no veins, are recent develop- 
ments. Lysiognatha, in his opinion, may be an old type of 
Alysiinae. Dr. Gill expressed himself as of the opinion that we 
should discard the use of the terms " low " and " high " in this 
connection on account of the possible ambiguity, substituting the 
terms " generalized " and " specialized." This point was further 
discussed by Messrs. Fernow and Howard, and the latter speaker 
referred to the theories of wing development of Redtenbacher 
and Spuler as commented upon in recent papers by Comstock 
and Packard. 

— A note by Mr. H. G. Barber, a corresponding member of 
the Society, entitled " Food-habits of Hypatus bachmani^^^ was 
read by the Corresponding Secretary.* , 

— Mr. Swingle gave a short talk on the effects of the freezes 
of the past winter upon orange trees and upon orange insects in 
Florida, showing that the second freeze had resulted in the de- 
struction of all insects upon the leaves. Mr. Marlatt suggested 
that in the course of a year or two there would probably be a 
marked increase rather than decrease in the number of injurious 
insects in the orange groves as a consequence of the weakened 
condition of the trees. Mr. Swingle said that with plant dis- 
eases this state of affairs will be brought about in many cases, but 
that the contrary effect will be produced in many other cases. 
Certainly with the Mytilaspis scales an enfeebled condition of the 
trees does not favor the multiplication of the insects. Vigorous 
dark green trees are most apt to be affected. He mentioned the 

See Ejitomologtcal News^ VI, No. 6, pp. i90-'9i (June, 1895). 



280 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

curious point that in certain localities in Florida growers refuse 
to spray for the Mytilaspis scales on account of the fact that spray- 
ing increases their number. Experiments which he himself had 
made indicated the truth of this general idea, particularly when 
the spraying was done with fungicides. He was convinced that 
the fungus known as Ophionectria coccicola is a true scale para- 
site and that this fungus is destroyed by the spraying, allowing 
the scales to multiply unchecked. From the practical standpoint 
he considered that the important insect enemies of the orange 
tree, viz., the red scale and the white fly, have been greatly les- 
sened in number and that only the unimportant ones were un- 
harmed by the freezes. Mr. Marlatt said, however, that insects 
previously considered unimportant might now, and probably 
would, become important, owing to the enfeebled condition of 
the trees. This was particularly apt to be the case with bark- 
boring beetles. Mr. Ashmead agreed with Mr. Marlatt and 
stated that in his own experience of many years in Florida he 
had found very serious damage to result from bark-boring beetles 
following severe freezes. He also stated that after a check to the 
growth of a tree it might become attacked by new parasites 
which gradually might change their food-habil and become ene- 
mies of healthy trees. 



•juNE 6, 1895. 

President Ashmead in the chair, and the following members 
also present : Messrs. Gill, Hubbard, Marlatt, Benton, Patten, 
Judd, Howard, Waite, Heidemann, Swingle, E. F. Smith, and 
Fernow. 

— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

DISCOVERY OF THE GENUS ELASMOSOMA, RUTHE, IN 

AMERICA. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

The genus Elasmosoma was described by J. F. Ruthe, in a 
paper entitled ^'Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Braconidae,'' pub- 
lished in Vol. II of the Berliner Entomblogische Zeitschrift, 1858, 
with one species, E, berolinense^ and up to the present time the 
genus has remained monotypical. 



OF WASHINGTON. 281 

The genus belongs in the subfamily Microgasterinae, in the 
family Braconidae, and Ruthe has recorded that his species was 
captured by Prof. Schenck with Formica rufa. He was of the 
opinion it was parasitic on this ant, 

Ruthe briefly characterized the genus as follows : 

Maxillary palpi 2-jointed, labial palpi unjointed. Antennae 14-jointed, 
the scape abbreviated. Eyes smooth (bare). Occiput flat, the vertex 
narrowed. Front wings with 3 inconstant cubital cells, the radius eva- 
nescent towards apex. Abdomen depressed ; ovipositor hidden. 

Soon after my return from Germany, in 1890, among some 
chalcidids taken by Mr. E. A. Schwarz at Washington in 1889, 
I discovered a curious little ? microgasterine with a long abdo- 
men, short, 13-jointed antennae and a peculiar wing venation 
which I was unable to place in any known genus and to which I 
gave the MS. name Paramirax schivarzi^ placing it away in my 
cabinet for future study. 

Some months ago a d^ of this peculiar braconid, with 14-jointed 
antennae, was received from Mr. Carl F. Baker, taken at Fort 
Collins, Colorado, and only a few nights ago I finished studying 
it and the one taken by Mr. Schwarz and arrived at the conclu- 
sion that my MS. genus Paramirax would not hold, since it 
vsras identical with Elasmosoma Ruthe, the difference in the num- 
ber of joints in the first species not being suflScient to justify the 
erection of a new genus. 

It is very remarkable that, the very next morning after reach- 
ing this conclusion, Mr. Pergande sent word from his oflSce, if I 
had time to spare, he would like to see me. 

Judge of my surprise, therefore, when he brought out two 
specimens of a third species of this rare genus, mounted on a 
single pin with an ant, two myrmecophiloys beetles, and a myr- 
mecophilous cricket and asked me what it was. 

Having just finished studying my own specimens, I replied at 
once, "Why, that is a species of the rare genus Elasmosoma 
Ruthe. Where did you take it? " 

Mr. Pergande then told me that the day before, which was a 
holiday, he went out collecting myrmecophilous insects and that 
while inspecting the nest of Camponotus melleus Say, which 
was under a large stone, he was pestered with some little flies 
which were quite numerous and kept flying into his eyes and ever 
and anon alighting among the ants, during his examination of the 
nest. At first he paid no attention to them, mistaking them for 
small oscinids ; but they were so persistent in alighting among 
the ants that finally his curiosity was aroused and he determined 
to find out what they were. Wetting the tip of his finger 
with his mouth, he captured two, placing them in a vial with the 



282 ENTOMOLOGICAL ^iO0IETY 

intention of examining and making out the species on his return 
home. When he got home and found out what a rare and curious 
insect he had found, he was quite surprised, and regretted he had 
not taken more. 

Is the genus parasitic on the ants or on the myrmecophilous 
beetles? 

It is truly significant that both in Europe and in America the 
genus is found only associated with ants, but as yet we have no 
authentic information as to the parasitic habits of the species. . 
We trust Mr. Pergande will continue his observations on the 
species discovered by him and definitely settle the question as to 
its parasitism. 

All other genera in the Microgasterinae are parasitic only on 
lepidopterous larvae, although two or three species of Apante- 
les and Microgaster are recorded as having been bred from 
rhynchophorous beetles. 

The specimens spoken of above represent three distinct species 
and may be tabulated as follows : 

Table of Spbcibs. 

Antennae 13-jointed 2 

Antennae 14-jointed. 

Antennae entirely and middle and hind coxae, black, rest of legs pale 

ferruginous ; abdomen as long as head and thorax united. 

JE, bakeri. 
2. All coxae yellowish-white. 

Abdomen twice as long as the head and thorax united, subpetio- 

lated, the segments i, 3, 4, 5, and 6 longer than wide; two basal 

joints of antennae and legs pale yellowish £. schwarzu 

Abdomen only on^third longer than the head and thorax united, 
the dorsal segments 2 and 3 tinged with rufous, all the segments 
wider than long; two basal joints of antennae brown; legs pale 
yellowish E, pergandei. 

(i) Elasmosoma bakeri sp. n. 

^. — Length 2.5 mm. Black, subopaque, shagreened, the vertex with 
transverse striae, the metathorax finely rugulose, the abdomen granulated. 
Antennae 14 jointed, black, pubescent, extending to base of abdomen and 
tapering toward tips, the scape and pedicel small, not as thick as, and both 
united not as long as the basal joint of fiagellum, joints of fiagellum all 
longer than thick and gradually become more slender towards apex. 
Trophi whitish. Thorax without parapsidal furrows, flattened on disk in 
front of scutellum ; axillaj not well separated, the scutellum laterally and 
the post-scutellum striated. Metanotum finely rugulose, not carinate. 
Wings whitish hyaline, the costa #and stigma brown, the outer edge 
blackish, the internal nervures hyaline, subobsolete. Legs pale ferru- 



OF WASHINGTON. 283 

ginous, with the middle and hind coxae black, the hind tibial spurs nearly 
as long as the basal joint of tarsi. Abdomen as long as the head and 
thorax united, elongate oval, depressed with pale colored ventral fold on 
first ^hree segments, the surface above granulated, the segments 2 and 3 
subequal, wider than long, the following much shorter. 

Hab. — Fort Collins, Colorado. 
Type in Collection Ashmead. 

Described from 1 ^ specimen, received from Mr. Carl F. 
Baker, and in honor of whom the species is named. 

(2) Elasmosoma schwarzi sp. n. 

9. — Length 3 mm. Black, subopaque, shagreened, with the head less 
distinctly sculptured than the preceding species, the vertex shining and 
very delicately transversely aciculated. Ocelli" white. Eyes large, strongly 
convergent anteriorly. Two basal joints of antennae, trophi and legs, 
white or yellowish-white, flagellum brown, the first joint being a little 
shorter than the scape and pedicel united. Wings hyaline, the costa and 
stigma dark brown. Abdomen subpetiolate, much elongated and twice as 
long as the head and thorax united, with parallel sides, all the segments, 
except the second and the last two, are longer than wide, the second is a 
little wider than long, the last two very short ; the upper surface is flat, 
finely shagreened black ; beneath there is a ventral fold which is more or 
less tinged with piceous. 

Hab. — Washington, D. C. 

Type in Collection Ashmead. 

Described from i 9 specimen and dedicated to Mr. E. A. 
Schwarz, who captured it on the outskirts of Washington, July 
15, 1889. 

(3) Elasmosoma pergandei sp. n. 

$. — Length 2 mm. Black, subopaque, shagreened; clypeus and man- 
dibles, except teeth, brownish-yellow; palpi, middle and anterior legs and 
hind coxae, yellowish-white; hind legs, except tarsi, brownish-yellow, 
their tarsi brown or fuscous Wings grayish-hyaline, the costa and stigma 
dark brown, the internal veins lighter brown or brownish-yellow, the 
radial cell closed and indistinctly separated by a faint cross-vein into two 
cells, the veins, however, only distinctly seen by transmitted light. The 
head is transverse, a little wider than the thorax, the frons and vertex 
finely transversely shagreened, the eyes strongly facetted, bare, convergent 
below and reaching almost to the base of the mandibles. Antennae 13- 
jointed, filiform, tapering toward apex, black, with the scape and pedicel 
brown; the scape is not longer than the first joint of flagellum, the joints 
of the flagellum being a fittle longer than thick. Thorax ovate, finely 
shagreened, the collar not visible from above, the metanotum with some 



284 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

irregular raised lines. Abdomen one-third longer than the head and 
thorax united, shagreened, segments i, 2 and 3 subequal in length, the 
first very slightly the longest, segment 4 two-thirds as long as the third, 
segment 5 a little shorter, the following still shorter, subequal. Thj ab- 
domen is black but the second and third dorsal segments are tinged with 
rufous. 

Hab. — Washington, D. C. 

Described from 2 9 specimens, taken by Mr. Theo. Pergande, 
in the nests of Catnponotus tnelleus Say, May 29, 1895, 



The paper was briefly discussed by Messrs. Marlatt and How- 
ard, the former bringing up the point of the difiiculty of associ- 
ating males and females in collected specimens, apropos to a 
question by the latter as to the possible association of the Colo- 
rado male with the District of Columbia female. 

— The Corresponding Secretary read the following paper by 
Mr. F. M. Webster : 

NOTES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOME INJURIOUS 

INSECTS. 

By F. M. Webster. 

In his very interesting paper, "Notes on the Geographical 
Distribution within the United States of certain Insects Injuring 
Cultivated Crops" (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. Ill, No. 4), 
Mr. L. O. Howard has attempted to bring together some data 
to show that some of our injurious species are more or less re- 
stricted in their habitat to certain life-zones, as mapped out by 
Dr. Merriam. In doing this he has been obliged to criticise some 
statements made by myself, first in Science for February 3, 1893, 
and later in Bulletin 51, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 
where I gave the distribution of some of these species in Ohio, 
with such information as I was able to obtain relative to their 
probable introduction and subsequent diffusion. Knowing, as I 
do, that Mr. Howard is as sincere in his position and as desirous 
of getting at the truth as I am myself, it appeared to me that it 
would be but just to myself and all interested to give the facts 
upon which my statements were based. 

In August, 1892, at the meeting of the Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists at Rochester, N. Y., specimens of Crio- 
ceris asparagi were found near the city, and this was, at that 
time, supposed to be their extreme western point of occurrence. 
A year later I received specimens, in all stages of development, 



OF WASHINGTON. 285 

from near Cleveland, Ohio, and on mentioning the fact to Prof. 
E. W. Claypole, of Akron, was informed by him that he had 
observed the species at Salem, Ohio,* some six years before, 
fully 60 miles southeast of Cleveland, in a direct line, and not 
over 25 miles from the Ohio river. I had been on the watch for 
the insect in the extreme northeast corner of the State, but had 
not been able to find it, though I had examined every patch of 
asparagus that came in my way in that part of the State. 

I visited Cleveland on a market day and took specimens with 
me, but could not find a gardener or truck farmer that had ever 
seen them before, and returned home more perplexed than ever 
regarding the probable introduction of the pest. I next wrote 
Mr. Ottomar Reinecke, of Buffalo, N. Y., who informed me 
that it did not occur there, and the nearest point where it did 
was at Rochester, 68 miles east. He stated, however, that Mr. 
A. Bolter had found it about Chicago some years before. I then 
wrote Mr. Bolter for information, from whom I received the reply 
that he had found five examples near the city 25 years before, 
and had seen specimens that had been collected by the late B. D. 
Walsh in the vicinity of Rock Island, Illinois. Mr. Walsh died 
in 1869, so that the collection must have been made at least 24 
years previous. Mr. Bolter also stated that he had the year be- 
fore, 1892, found the species literally swarming on the Island of 
Nantucket. My puzzle, instead of nearing a solution, was getting 
more puzzling. I then addressed letters to commission men in 
Cleveland, Sandusky, Detroit, and Chicago to learn if their sup- 
ply of asparagus came from the east. The replies to my inquires 
gave th^ information that they received nothing from the east, 
but that it all came from the south, where the asparagus-beetle is 
not known to exist. The introductions at Rock Island and Chi- 
cago had undoubtedly died out,^ as it has not, to my knowledge, 
been again reported from the former locality, and Mr. Bolter 
stated that he had not observed it about Chicago since. Would 
the Cleveland occurrence, which was only in a private garden, 
and the Salem introduction also die out ? And how in the world 
did the thing ever get into Ohio ? The country about Salem is 
not devoted to truck farming, while there are hundreds of acres 
near Cleveland, Toledo, and Chicago that are and have been for 
years. Last year, 1894, I found the species breeding quite 
abundantly on runaway or volunteer stalks of asparagus growing 
in uncultivated fields about 15 miles east of Cleveland, and it was 
reported to me, with specimens, as very destructive at Lordstown^ 
almost directly between Salem and Cleveland, but much nearer 



♦ In my paper, above referred to, Akron was given as a point of infection, 
but this has since proven to be an error. 



286 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

the former, however, than the latter. Now, so far as I could 
then or can yet discern, there are but two ways that this insect 
could have been introduced into Ohio : first, by the hibernating 
adults being shipped in with plants, and, second, by being washed 
into some of the tributaries of the Ohio river, which we know 
intermingle with those of the Genesee, Susquehanna, and Poto- 
mac rivers. As I have before stated, the edible part of the plant 
comes from the south exclusively, and where the roots are 
shipped for transplanting they are removed either late in the fall 
or early in the spring, before the young shoots are put out, which 
would preclude transporting anything but the hibernating adults. 
If the introduction was by this means, there would be, it seems 
to me, a far greater likelihood of its becoming established in a 
section of country where the most asparagus was grown, instead 
of where the reverse was the case. Even if it were introduced 
about Cleveland first, by a " commercial jump," as Mr. Howard 
terms it, it would be difficult to find a good reason for its becom- 
ing destructively abundant 40 miles away, where little of its food- 
plant is grown, leaving acres untouched about its area of first 
colonization. Despite Mr. Howard's suggestion that my state- 
ment that the species doubtless entered the State via the Ohio 
river is " hazardous," I am still willing to hazard the statement. 

Mr. Howard cites many instances where the asparagus-beetle 
inhabits the Upper Austral life-zone, and a few instances where 
it occurs on the Transition, yet the tenor of his argument is that 
the former life-zone, only, is congenial and that its introduction 
into the Transition is artificial, and cites one instance where it 
seems to be dying out. West of the Alleghenies the situation 
is somewhat different. According to Mr. Bolter, the species 
was established both about Chicago and Rock Island, Illinois, 
and has not been heard from for over 25 years in either locality, 
both of which are in Upper Austral. The locality of infection 
near Cleveland is in Upper Austral, and probably Salem also, 
but Lordstown, the only locality in Ohio where the species has 
been reported destructively abundant, is fairly and squarely on the 
Transition. The Ohio and Nantucket exceptions, with those 
given by Mr. Howard himself, would indicate that the statement 
" So far, there is nothing to conflict with the idea that the species 
will not establish itself in the true transition region *' would have 
been a good confession with which to have opened his argument, 
and that the fact of their not having previously been known to 
occur in the transition-zone, along the upper Ohio river, is hardly 
proof of their non-occurrence, or that the species necessarily 
used a '' commercial jump " in order to reach Ohio. 

My critic further says that I fail to appreciate the fundamental 
truths which govern the distribution of species in my region ; that. 



OF WASHINGTON. 287 

among other things, I failed, in my paper, to point out the im- 
portant fact that the Transition forms a barrier to certain species 
coming from the East, and that such cannot reach Ohio by natu- 
ral spread ; that Upper Austral forms are quite as likely to reach 
Ohio from the East by means of the great commercial paths to 
middle western New York and thence by natural spread through 
lower Ontario and southern Michigan, or by lake from Buffalo 
to Cleveland, Sandusky, or Toledo, as by commercial jumps 
across the mountain regions of Pennsylvania. 

In reply to these three separate indictments I will say that I 
have a profound regard for truths, fundamental or otherwise, 
when they have been proven to be such, but not when based on 
negative evidence. 1 did, in my paper, point out the fact that 
the Allegheny mountains formed an impassable barrier to some 
species, and that such had probably been introduced by the way 
of our trunk lines of railways in the transportation of articles of 
commerce. I did not term the barrier " transition life-zone," but 
gave some instances where the introductions were on the line of 
the railways. Now, commercial jumps, it seems to me, are all 
right provided we do not lean too heavily on them and use them 
as a solution of problems in geographical diffusion where they do 
not belong. In other words, we must exercise the utmost caution 
against being misled by them, and assume that their influence 
has been greater than it really has. It will be observed that 1 
do have a little faith in '' commercial jumps," which I could not 
possibly have if I were to concur with friend Howard in his third 
proposition. In this case I am, most assuredly, on the side of 
"commercial jumps," for it will not be at all difficult to prove 
that insects have reached Ohio, in some instances, by this avenue, 
while of the two others mentioned by Mr. Howard, in one case 
they* have not, and in the other they cannot. I confess that, as I 
look over Dr. Merriam's map of life-zones, I cannot see why 
eastern species of insects should not pass westward through 
Ontario and southern Michigan, into Ohio, as indicated by Mr. 
Howard, but the fact that they do not remains stubbornly in the 
way. There is not a case on record where an eastern species has 
appeared in northwestern Ohio before it did in the eastern section. 
Then, too. Lake Erie looks as though it might convey some 
species from Buffalo to Cleveland, or even beyond. But there is 
a slow but steady movement of the water toward Buffalo instead 
of from it, and evidence of which may be found in the fact that 
the sewage of Cleveland contaminates the water of the lake for 
some distance to the eastward, but not to the westward. Then, 
again, the high winds that might aid in this method of transpor- 
tation during the season when insects are most likely to be car- 



288 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOOrETY 

ried about are, almost without exception, either from the west, 
northwest, or southwest, or toward Buffalo instead of from it. 

No one knows better than I do that Mr. Howard does not write 
such papers as his for the sake of theorizing, or for the purpose 
of getting into print, but with the sincere hope of furthering the 
interests of a science to which he is giving }:he best years of his 
life ; and for this reason these facts are given as additional infor- 
mation on the subject, and probably not in his possession when 
he wrote his paper ; and far more in the spirit of a colleague 
than that of an opponent. His paper is an excellent one, and 
would have been of value even had he not shown the growing 
necessity of keeping records of exact locations, and giving more 
exact information on that point than to say that a species occurs 
in such and such States, or from such a State to such a State, 
as we have been in the habit of doing heretofore. 

There are so many factors that influence insects that the prob- 
lem of geographical distribution, as well as the phenomena of 
their differentiation, becomes not only interesting but sometimes 
exasperatingly perplexing, especially in the case of introduced 
species. It would, indeed, be an achievement in economic ento- 
mology if we could say of a species, it will reach only a certain 
locality, or it will not prove destructive beyond a certain well- 
defined boundary. For my own part, some of our native species 
that are moving from the south northward are puzzling me quite 
as much as those that are reaching Ohio from the east, not that 
it is at all strange that southern species should, some of them, 
work northward, even from Central America, but I would like to 
know where the things are likely to stop in their migration, and 
if, when they appear to have reached their limit of range, they 
have stopped for good, or if, after I have stated beyond revision that 
they will not continue northward, they do not suddenly break out 
in destructive numbers far beyond the area that I have assigned to 
them. In short, I would be glad to learn, beyond a doubt, 
whether or not there is some natural barrier to their progress be- 
yond certain lines that can be so clearly indicated that the public 
may see and understand. 

Murgantia histrionica^ as is well known, has been steadily 
working its way northward from Texas since 1865. In the Sixth 
Report of the State Entomologist of Illinois Dr. Cyrus Thomas 
records the appearance of the species in Jackson county of that 
State, but in a recent letter from Prof. G. H.French, of Carbon- 
dale, I have the information that the announcement was probably 
a mistake. Prof. French says that he has a single specimen from 
somewhere in southern Illinois, he does not know just where, but 
that the insect is not destructive or even common, so far as he is 
aware. I think it was in 1890 that it was reported from Tobins- 



OF WASHINGTON. 289 

port, Perry county, Indiana, in December, where it was reported 
to have worked serious injury the previous summer. When I 
came to Ohio, in 1891, 1 foimd a single specimen in the collection 
of the Experiment Station marked from Lebanon, Warren county, 
about 30 miles north of Cincinnati. Up to the present year, 1895, 
I had been unable to learn of its being again observed in that lo- 
cality, and had begun to hope that the single individual was either 
a stray or that the record had been a mistake, either of which 
may still be the case, and that Ohio was as yet free from the pest. 
A few weeks ago I received it twice within one week from two 
localities, Portsmouth and Racine, both along the Ohio river, 
with the statement that it had, last season, done widespread and 
serious injury. Now, any one who is at all familiar with the in- 
sect fauna and flora of southern Illinois knows that south of the 
watershed between the Big Muddy and Ohio rivers both are ex- 
tremely southern in their nature, both plants and insects being 
found there whose natural habitat would seem to be much farther 
to the southward. Large areas of this section are devoted to 
truck farming, so much so that it is known as Chicago's vege- 
table and fruit garden. Here it would seem that we might ex- 
pect to find Murgantia perfectly at 'home and in abundance. 
But, as shown, we do not. I have heard nothing more from the 
Indiana colony, as I most certainly should had it continued de- 
structive to any extent. It would appear that, of all places in 
Ohio, the country about Cincinnati would be the place of all 
others where colonization would take place, such colonies origi- 
nating in bugs introduced with southern-grown cabbage ; yet 
here again we are disappointed, while farther up the river, and 
in a locality even farther north and where we would least expect 
it, the insect has appeared the most numerous. Now, what can 
an entomologist make out of such a muddle as this? We all of 
us know that this is not a haphazard world, and that there are, 
somewhere, good reasons for this condition of affairs. But what 
are they? This species comes to us, as it were, from out of the 
Tropical life-zone, through the lower Sonoran and Austroriparian, 
stopping in mid Upper Austral, but right along the line of divis- 
ion between the glaciated and unglaciated sections of the country. 
Only in the case of the single specimen from Lebanon, Ohio, has 
it, so far, been found within the limit of the southern range of the 
drift. It would, indeed, be grand if we could say to those who 
were fortunate enough to reside on the glaciated territory, ''This 
pest will not reach your locality. Have no fear of its ravages.** 
I believe that I here catch something of the spirit that prompted 
Mr. Howard's paper ; but it is quite possible that were I to say 
these things to our people and publish the statements, ere the 
printer's ink had dried on the page the beastly thing would appear 



290 ENTOMOLOGICAL 80CIETT 

just where I had said it would not. It seems to me that the best 
we can do, for the present, is to record exact localities of occur- 
rence, no matter how common or rare the species may be, and, 
some time, the laws that govern the movements of species among 
insects will begin to show. I would not for a moment discour- 
age such papers as Mr. Howard's, though, possibly, a more con- 
servative view would have been more judicious. 

In my paper to which previous references have been made I 
stated that this insect occurred in northern New Jersey. This 
was corrected in my bulletin, but not in Science, I should have 
said southern New Jersey. 



In discussing this paper, Mr. Howard stated that in his closing 
sentences Mr. Webster had caught very happily the spirit which 
prompted the original paper. The views expressed in this orig- 
inal paper he had made every effort to restrain within conserva- 
tive bounds. No positive claims were made. It was a plea for 
exact records of injurious appearances of our principal insect 
foes, and the instances which were adduced and which, from the 
nature of things, must at the present time have been based upon 
negative evidence were brought forward as seeming to indicate 
restrictions in the spread of pests not holding with their food- 
plants, and thus indicating, in the most forcible way possible, the 
desirability of accumulating evidence which should not be nega- 
tive. That the paper has already done much good is at once 
shown by the fact that it has stimulated so careful a rejoinder as 
this of Mr. Webster's. That" it has excited widespread interest 
among economic entomologists is evidenced by extensive cor- 
respondence received. That the stimulus which it has given to 
investigation fn this direction will ultimately bring about some 
good result cannot be doubted, whether the results confirm or 
overthrow the suggestions made in the original paper. As to the 
ultimate truth of the general idea that natural selection cannot 
contend with artificial selection but can only follow it after the 
lapse of years, the speaker had no doubt. One of the very cases 
brought up by Mr. Webster, viz., that of Murgantia histrionica^ 
one which seems to puzzle Mr. Webster greatly, is confirmatory 
even at the present time. This insect reached Delaware 20 years 
ago, and yet since that time it has only been found at one more 



OF WASHimS^TON. 291 

northern point. That it should appear in an isolated locality in 
Ohio, north of extensive truck regions in which it is unknown, is 
not surprising. In its spread during lo years from Texas to Dela- 
ware it did not spread from farm to farm and from garden patch 
to garden patch. It went by commercial jumps, and at the pres- 
ent time hardly a week passes without the receipt of specimens 
of this iusect from some locality within this already passed-over 
region, with the statement that it is a new enemy to cabbage at 
that point. In Ohio the insect has been commercially or acci- 
dentally introduced at a more northern point, but, as surely as 
time goes on, it will be found in the truck-farming region men- 
tioned by Mr. Webster. He further 'expressed himself as wel- 
coming close criticism of this kind when based on exact obser- 
vation. 

The paper was further discussed briefly by Messrs. Waite, 
Smith, Benton, and Gill. Messrs. Waite and Smith spoke of 
the commercial transportation of asparagus roots in the early 
spring, and even in the fall, as offering a possible means of trans- 
portation of the asparagus-beetle, and Mr. Benton said that the 
carriage of this insect from Buffalo to northern Ohio ports did 
not necessarily depend upon direction of wind or current, since 
it could readily be carried by lake vessels. 

— Mr. H. G. Hubbard exhibited specimens of the borings of 
Xyleborus and Platypus, Scolytid beetles, in orange wood. He 
described the habits of these beetles, and showed that Platypus is 
capable of making extensive galleries of its own in hard- wood 
trees. The nature of the food of these timber beetles was dis- 
cussed. In addition to reviewing and confirming the observations 
of European writers, Mr. Hubbard described the so-called am- 
brosia which nourishes the young, as welling up through the 
pores of the wood which are cut by the galleries in the shape of 
minute white buttons, giving a tesselated appearance to the walls 
of the passages. The substance sometimes accumulates in the 
galleries, and when puddled by the larvae resembles half-melted 
snow, or slush. A growth of fungus forms upon the ambrosia 
and, closing the mouth of the galleries, causes them to fill up and 
suffocate the inmates. This method of treatment w^as found use- 
ful in Florida, to save from further injury the budded portion of 



292 EKTOMOLOGIOAL SOCIETY 

trees killed back by the severe frost of February last. A piece 
of wire was pushed into the burrrows as far as it would go, and 
then cut off and left there. 

As to the nature of ambrosia, Mr. Hubbard made the conjec- 
ture that it was a ferment set up in the sap of the tree and aug- 
mented by the presence of the animals. 

This communication was discussed by Messrs. Gill, Smith, 
Waite, Swingle, and Fernow, the discussion taking the form of 
questions and more or less unsatisfactory suggestions as to the 
nature of the ambrosia. 

— Under the head of exhibition of specimens, Mr. Heidemann 
exhibited specimens of Coriscus Jlavotnarginatus Reuter, a 
brachypterous species new to North America, which had been 
collected at St. John's, New Brunswick, some years ago, by the 
late Dr. Marx. 

— Mr. Howard showed a female Scolia which had been sent 
from Texas by Mr. Schwarz, and which had become, in some 
manner, impaled upon a sharp thorn, the thorn entering the mid- 
dle of the face. It was a question whether the insect became so 
impaled by flying violently against the thorn, or whether it had 
been stuck there by a shrike. 

— Mr. Benton showed a comb of Apis Jlorea^ the smallest 
Apis known. The comb was collected in Ceylon some years ago 
by Mr. Benton himself. He called attention to the fact that 
there are loo cells to the square inch with this species, and that 
Apis Jlorea and A, dorsata are the only species which build in 
the open air. These are, curiously enough, the smallest bee and 
the largest bee known. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



>, Wm. H-: Someimport&ntstructural character* In the ctMdl- 
^dcntSon of the parasitic HyiDcaoptera (annual addros 0C the 
ptvsidcnt), I03; On the genus Peiecinella Westwooii, awl lu. po- 
lition among tho C>ialcid)d!e, 130: On th« genu* Bar^cnemt* 
Paa-»ter, 136; LyHiogaattia, a new and remaricable genua tn the 
IchneurnanidB, 373; DUeovery of the genus ElaaniOKOins Rulhc 

in America 

CmrrKnutw.T. H. ; A Itar-lieellc of the golden-rod.. ^.. 

Cochin t-BTT. D. W. ; On the nesting hablti^ of the di^^iwMMp. ' 

Bemhex dnercft 

Hdward, L O, : (Obituary notice of) Dr. George Marx, 195; NoiM 
on Ihe geographlenl ilUlribuLlon within the United Statoof cer* 
tain inseclo injuring cultivated crops, 119! Arrhenophaguk In 

America < 

HakLATT, C. r.. ■■ Fiirtlier notes oa the codling moth, 33.S; The. ' 
An;ierican tpcdee of Scolioneura K'ii'«r.> 1341 The hemlptci-ou* 
mouth, 241 : The hibernation of Nematids, Had its beating on 10- 

L quiltnoiw speole* - ~ 

»t, C. V, ; aotva from CalifoTnia,- ResultB ftf Mr, Koebete'd »««- 
million la Aottmlia, ijo; On oTipoBition in the CyniiHcbe. ; 
WARK, E, A.- LifctoriheentomoioglcaJ writing* orGeorgeM»n(, 
iy^g Notes on Nontaretuu, with dlwcriptionti of tvo new specivi. 
WxmTKK, F. M. ' Nolei on the diitrlbution of totr>t injuriuu» inae<;t«. 



PROOEEBINGS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



WASHTNGTON. 




Volume III, No. 5. 

(Stplcmtcr i6, 1895, to Deoentber 26, 189;.) 

[Issued October 6, 1S96.] 



WASUWGTON. D. C. = 
Fina.Wi»n UK- n« Socieiv. 



PRICE OF PROCEEDINGS. 




«ipt of price. Address 
FRANK BENTON, Corresponding Secretory, 

Department of Agriculture, 
WashingtoK^ D. 



p.- 



OF WASHINGTON. 293 

Special Meeting, Sept. i6, 1895. 

President Ashmead, in calling the meeting to order, stated 
that it had been called to take appropriate action on the death of 
Dr. C. V. Riley. 

Mr. Howard moved that the chair appoint a committee of 
three to draft the necessary resolutions. Seconded by Mr. 
Schwarz, and adopted. 

The chair appointed Messrs. Howard, Schwarz, and Hubbard. 
This committee reported the following resolutions : 

Whbrkas, The Entomological Society of Washington has lost by the 
hand of death its founder, its former President, and its most prominent 
member, Dr. Charles Valentine Riley, therefore be it 

Resolved^ That the Society, through its Secretary, transmit to the family 
of its late member its deepest sympathy and an expression of its realiza- 
tion of its own irreparable loss, in the future absence from its councils, of 
one of the most eminent entomologists of modern times, and of a man to 
whom most of the members owed much in the way of advice and encour- 
agement. 

Resolved^ That the Society in the next number of its Proceedings 
shall publish an account of the life and work of its late founder. 

Upon motion of Mr. Marlatt, the report of the committee 
was adopted. 

Mr. Schwarz moved that the Publication Committee be 
charged with the preparation of a biography of Dr. Riley. 
Adopted. 

The Society then adjourned. 



CHARLES V. RILEY, Pii. D. 

The sudden death of Dr. Riley, on September 14, 1S95, was 
the severest loss which could possibly have befallen the Entomo- 
logical Society of Washington, for he was the founder of the 
Society, the person in whom the idea of the establishment of the 
Society first orignated ; he was by all means the most prominent 
and best known member of the Society ; and he was, at the 
same time, one of its most active members. He was its first 
President and almost continuously during the eleven years of its 



294 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

existence, prior to his death, he held one office or another. 
During the first years of the existence of the Society he did not 
take a very prominent or active part in the proceedings. There 
were few members and the meetings were held in a large and 
gloomy hall, and the conditions were by no means favorable for 
producing an animated discussion. His health failed in 1886, 
and his frequent absences from Washington prevented regular 
attendance at the meetings. Later the Society passed beyond 
this critical period of its existence. The meetings began to be 
held at more congenial places, more papers were read, and the 
discussions became of a more general character. In the broad- 
ening of the scope of the discussions. Dr. Riley contributed 
perhaps more than any other member and he eminently enjoyed 
a vigorous participation in all discussions, particulary those of a 
general nature. His great knowledge in general and applied 
entomology, his wonderful memory, his easy and graceful man- 
ner of expounding his views, will not be forgotten by the sur- 
viving members. These qualities in discussion made him a 
formidable and usually victorous opponent to any member who 
happened to express a differing opinion. That his participation 
in these discussions is not more fully brought out in the pub- 
lished proceedings of the Society is explained by the difficulty 
experienced by all scientific societies in accurately recording 
discussions without the aid of a stenographer, and Dr. Riley 
himself was always averse to writing out afterwards what he 
had said in debate. 

During his lifetime several biographic sketches were published, 
and a complete bibliography down . to the close of the year 
1889 was also put into print. Since his death obituaries have 
been published in nearly all scientific periodicals, no matter 
where published, or in what language. The best of these 
are those written by Dr. G. Brown Goode and by Dr. A. S. 
Packard, and published in Science^ December, 1895, ^^^ Janu- 
ary, 1896. The history of Riley's life, the importance of his 
contributions to scientific literature, his triumphs in the field of 
practical entomology, his remarkable power of organization, have 
all been fully brought out. In view of this fact, and since the 
publication of the Proceeding's of this Society will be delayed, 



OF WASHINGTON. 295 

much which might otherwise have been written here would be 
but a repetition of what has already been published in many 
places. At this time and in this place, therefore, we need give 
but the barest summary of the facts of his life, dwelling, as we 
have already done, upon his services to our own Society, and 
calling attention to a few points in his career which have not 
elsewhere been brought out. 

He was born at Chelsea, London, England, September i8, 
1843, and received his education in England and later in France 
and Germany.. At the age of 17 he emigrated to America, 
where he settled on a farm in Illinois. His first contributions to 
entomological literature appeared in 1863, in the columns of the 
Prairie Partner^ of Chicago. As editor of the entomological 
department of this journal he resided in Chicago until 1868. 
During this residence he made the acquaintance of Benjamin D. 
Walsh, a friendship which resulted unquestionably in a power- 
ful influence upon his future career. In 1868 he was appointed 
State Entomologist of Missouri and continued to serve in this 
capacity until 1876, when he came to Washington to assume the 
ofliice of Chief of the U. S. Entomological Commission, an or- 
ganization created by Act of Congress, approved March 3, 1877. 
Early in 1878 he was appointed Entomologist to the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, and, with the intermission of the years 
i879-'8o, he continued to fill this office until 1894. By deposit- 
ing his private collection of insects in the U.S. National Museum 
in 1880, be became founder of the Department of Insects of that 
institution. In 1886 he gave the collection to the Museum and 
was appointed Honorary Curator of the Department. In 1889 
he was appointed by the President of the United States an Ex- 
pert Commissioner to the Paris Exposition and Representative 
of the Department of Agriculture. In 1892 he was appointed 
Biologist of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. 

It is scarcely a matter of wonder that under the constant strain- 
of these multifarious duties his health began to be seriously 
impaired, and in May, 1894, ^^ resigned his most onerous office, 
that of Entomologist to the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
His energy and love for work, however, were not broken, and 
in the secluded rooms of the U. S. National Museum, undisturbed 



296 ENTOMOLOQICAL SOCIETY 

by the former constant stream of intei*viewers and assistants, 
he intended to pass the rest of his life, working upon the many 
scientific problems which had suggested themselves to him and 
which he had set aside for investigation when such a time should 
come. His accidental death in a little more than a year and 
before he had time to fairly concentrate himself upon the con- 
genial work to which he had looked forward all of his life is a 
shocking example of the irony of fate. 

An important point which has not been mentioned by any of 
his biographers may be briefly considered, viz : which of his 
numerous works was considered by Riley himself as the principal 
achievement of his life? The writers of these lines, associated 
with him for many years, have at various times conversed with 
him upon this subject ; the last time was only a few days before 
his death, and he always pointed to his Missouri Reports as his 
principal work. That he earnestly believed this cannot be 
doubted by any one who has heard him speak, either at the 
meetings of this Society or at the meetings of the Biological 
Society of Washington. How often has he used the expression, 

" As I have shown in my Missouri Report," and how often 

in his subsequent writings did he quote passages from these 
Missouri Reports ! Every worker on the biology of . North 
American insects and every worker in economic entomology 
must candidly confess that these Missouri Reports are the most 
indispensable works of reference and that they are overflowing 
and never failing sources of information. More than twenty 
years have lapsed since the publication of the final volume of the 
series and they still remain as standards, and practically not only 
as the most necessary handbooks of workers, but as models for 
the younger generation. 

It is true that he had predecessors in the field covered. Harris' 
classical treatise on the Injurious Insects of Massachusetts is a 
most charming account of a number of North American insects 
and possibly unsurpassed as an introduction to the study of ento- 
mology for the beginner, but nowhere does it enter deeply into 
the subject of the biology of individual species with the practical 
end in view. Fitch's reports, the most important of which had 
been published at the time Riley began to write, are also ventures 



OF WASHINGTON. 297 

into the same field, but there is lacking in Fitch's reports the 
eminent practicality which characterizes Riley's, and it is every- 
where apparent to one who contrasts the work of the two men 
that the vigorous originality and independent nature of the author 
of the Missouri Reports could not fail to produce volumes of 
much more lasting value. 

As has often been said, the illustrations of these reports added 
very greatly to their value. They were drawn by Dr. Riley 
himself with a fidelity to nature and at the same time with an 
artistic skill practically unknown in America at that period. 

They were engraved on wood by the best engravers who could 
be found. William Macwitz of St. Louis was always especially 
mentioned by Riley in speaking of these illustrations. In spite 
of his remarkable ability as a delineator of insects, however. Dr. 
Riley, after leaving Missouri, was forced, through lack of time, to 
entirely abandon this work, although with his great talent it was 
a pleasure rather than a task. In later years he took up portrait- 
ure as a pastime and produced a number of heads in chalk and 
in water colors of great merit. 

One of Riley's cherished plans, and one which he constantly 
kept in mind, was to publish a second and revised edition of the 
Missouri Reports. For this purpose he had collected a large 
amount of additional notes upon the insects treated in the reports. 
These notes were written in the interleaved bound copies which 
he always kept on his revolving book-case, close at hand. These 
volumes, much worn by constant use, constitute perhaps the most 
valuable literary legacy which he has left, and it is to be hoped 
that at some future time his plan of republication will be 
realized. As early as 1880 he commenced negotiations with the 
Missouri authorities regarding thQ reissuing of the reports. The 
correspondence continued through several years, but, for reasons 
unknown to us, led to no result. During the last years of his life 
Riley altered his plan, intending to use the vast material thus ac- 
cumulated as the basis for a text-book on entomology, and this 
work he hoped to accomplish when freed from the arduous 
cares and vexations of official duties. 

The likeness which we use as a frontispiece has never before 
been used as a basis for an illustration. We mention it partic- 



2.98 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

ularly in this connection since it represents him in the full 
maturity of his youthful vigor, at a time when his energy was 
unimpaired and his enthusiasm unabated, and at a time, too, when 
the publication of seven of his Missouri Reports had already 
marked him as a leader in entomological research and as fore- 
most in economic work. The photograph from w^hich it was 
reproduced was taken August lo, 1875, at Detroit, Michigan, at 
the time of the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

Enough has not been said of Dr. Riley's social qualities. 
Away from his work he was the most approachable and genial 
of men, and this side of his character reached its highest plane 
perhaps at the meetings of this Society. At the close of our 
stated program it is our custom to spend an hour in general con- 
versation, and here one saw one of the most delightful phases of 
his character. Official cares were thrown aside and all the geni- 
ality of his nature came to the front. It is probable that the 
picture of Riley which will last longest in the minds of most of 
us will'show him seated at the head of his own hospitable table 
at some one of the many meetings of the Society held at his 
house, discussing in his versatile way almost any subject from 
politics to ethics, his face beaming with animation and good 
humor. 

Thus it is as a genial companion, as well as the founder of 
the Society, its first President, and its most prominent member, 
that the Entomological Society of Washington will ever mourn 
the loss of Charles Valentine Riley, 



October 10, 1895. 



President Ashmead was in the chair and the following mem- 
bers and visitors were present : Messrs. Gill, Uhler, Patton, 
Schwarz, Hubbard, Marlatt, Heidemann, Chittenden, Benton, 
Judd, E. F. Smith, Linell, Schoenborn, Stiles, Howard, Waite, 
O. F. Cook, Henry Ulke, G. H. Hicks, and W. H. Fox. 

— Mr. Hubbard read the following paper : 



OF WASHINGTON. 299 

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE INSECT GUESTS OF THE 

FLORIDA LAND TORTOISE. 

By H. G. Hubbard. 

Since the publication of my paper on Gopher Insects, in vol. vi 
of Insect Life, May, 1894, I have made additional explorations 
in gopher burrows both at Crescent City and in other parts of 
Florida. Thus I examined burrovs^s at De Funiak Springs, 
which is west of Tallahassee, on the mainland and in the extreme 
w^estern part of the State, and at Clearwater Harbor, on the gulf 
coast, a short distance north of Tampa. Dr. John Hamilton 
also examined gopher holes at I^^ke Worth, Fla., which is 
probably the extreme southern limit reached by the tortoise on 
the Atlantic coast. Dr. Hamilton found three of the gopher 
beetles present in small numbers, viz : the Copris^ Afhodius^ 
and Chelyoxenus ; the holes which he examined were, however, 
shallow, and probably not favorable for the full development of 
this peculiar fauna. In my explorations I found in abundance 
all the insects previously noted and added several new forms to 
the list. The larvae of nearly all the beetles have now been 
discovered within the gopher burrows, and the moth has been 
bred in both sexes from the remarkable caterpillar which feeds 
upon the dung of the tortoise. Dr. John B. Smith has had the 
imago in his hands and will describe it as a new species of Del- 
toid belonging to the Fseudaglossa section of the genus Efi- 
zeuxis (old genus Helta). It therefore belongs almost exactly 
where it was tentatively placed from the resemblance of the 
larva to the myrmecophilous Helta americalis. The new dis- 
coveries are a very interesting Staphylinid beetle with exactly 
the facies of a Stilicopsis^ but with a single tooth on the clypeus. 
It constitutes, therefore, a new genus, which I hope to describe 
under the name Acrostilicus hospes (n. gen. et n. sp.) Its larva 
has also been found, and with its imago it has the pallid color 
and all the characteristics of a true gopher insect. A new fly, a 
species of Hylemyia^ family Anthomyiidae, will be described by 
Mr. Coquillett. Its larva lives upon the dung of the gopher, 
and the imagos, which I had previously overlooked, prove to 
be quite abundant in each of the localities which I have in- 
vestigated. There is also another much smaller fly, which Mr. 
Coquillett pronounces a X//w^^/««, family Borboridce^ the thread- 
like larva of which is always common in the dung at the 
end of the gopher holes, but the imagos have not hitherto been 
bred. 

I find also that I have overlooked one or two spiders of pale 
color and with a subterranean appearance which turn up so 



300 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

persistently in the buiTows that I am forced to include them in 
the fauna. They have not yet been studied by an arachnologist. 
Another arachnid discovered in a gopher hole interests me greatly, 
since it belongs to a group of small harvestmen {Phalangiidce) 
which are characteristically cavernicole in this and other countries. 
It is probably a new species, but congeneric with the cave har- 
vestmen (^Phalangodes) found in Mammoth Cave, Ky., Wyan- 
dotte Cave, Ind., and other great caverns in this country, although 
some of the species are also found under deep stones, etc. I 
have also found in a small cave near Istachatta, in eastern Florida, 
a Phalangodes very closely allied to the gopher harvestman but 
apparently distinct specifically. 

In my former paper Dr. Marx described a tick found on the 
gopher under the name Amblyomma tuberculatum. The other 
tick which is found constantly associated with the tortoise was 
given a manuscript name, Ornithodorus americanus Marx. 
This species has since been published in our Proceedings, with- 
out description, in the posthumous plate appended to the obituary 
of our late lamented member. Dr. Marx considered this tick 
identical vs^ith a species found in the nostrils of mammals in Peru 
and in Texas. At my request Dr. Marx made most careful 
comparisons of my specimens with those from the horse and 
the llama in his collection, but was unable to distinguish them 
specifically. I regard this result as most surprising, since i*epeated 
observation shows me that this tick does not attach itself to the 
tortoise at any stage, but lives in the burrow like a bedbug, and 
I find repeatedly the gravid females, plethoric with ova, burrowed 
deep in the sand, beneath the floor of the burrows, as if incubating 
their progeny. I have not yet, however, secured the larvae from 
these females. I have in years past, on several occasions, taken 
ticks from the bodies of the tortoise captured outside of their 
burrows, and I supposed when my paper was written that some 
of these would prove to be adults of Ornithodorus^ but in hunt- 
ing up the material, some of it collected 15 years ago, I find an 
abundance of specimens of the Amblyom?na^ but not one of the 
Ornithodorus. I find it difficult to believe that any tick could 
have a rostrum so constructed that it was capable of attaching 
itself permanently to the nostrils of a mammal, while it could be 
thrust into and withdrawn at will from the tough and leathery 
hide of the Florida gopher. 

As a whole, the permanent connection of this insect fauna 
with the economy of the tortoise, has been firmly established by 
a more extended knowledge of the life histories of the several 
species. Thus l^JiilontJius gopJicri has been found fairly 
abundant in certain burrows, and a good series of its larva has 
been secured. The larva of the Chclyoxcnus has been found 



OF WASHINGTON. 301 

in such numbers that I am now inclined to believe that it is car- 
nivorous and preys especially upon the dipterous maggots in the 
gopher dung. The larva of Onthophagus polyphemi has not 
been definitely distinguished from some of the smaller specimens 
of the scarabaeid larvae collected, which may be confused with 
those of Copris gopheri. Several casual visitants have been 
observed in the burrows, and it is noteworthy that the number is 
so small. The list, appended, herewith includes a single speci- 
men of a black species of Philonthus^ a common Saprinus found 
on several occasions, and two species of Ptomofhagus^ both 
common species of these small Silphidae, which are liable to oc- 
cur in deep pits and cellars or within the mouths of caves. The 
whip-tailed scorpion, Thelyphonus giganteus^2i^^Q2iX% to be rather 
more than a casual visitor to the gopher holes, and is probably 
attracted thither by the abundance of the crickets ( Ceuthophilus), 
A list of the gopher guests which is given here below includes 
as regular inhabitants of the burrows 19 articulates and one ver- 
tebrate, with four coleoptera and one arachnid in additional con- 
sidered as visitors of the domicile only. The full fauna, there- 
fore, comprises 24 parasites and messmates of the tortoise. 

LIST OF GOPHER INSECTS. OCTOBER, 1895. 

COLEOPTERA. 

(i) Homalota sp. indet. 

(2) Philonihus gopheri 2iXidi larva. 

(3^ Acrostilicus ho$pes n. gen., n. sp. and larva. 

(4) Trichopteryx sp. indet. 

(5) Chelyoxenus xerobatis and larva. 

(6) Cofris gopher i 2iX\A larva. 

C7) Onthophagus polyfhemt larva ( ?) 

(8) Aphoditts troglodytes and larva. 

DIPTERA. 

(9) Hylemyia n. sp. {Ant homy ud(E) and larva (larger fly). 

(10) Litnosina sp. {Borboridce) and larva (smaller fly). 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

(11) Epixeuxis n. sp. and larva. 

ORTHOPTERA. 

( 12) Ceuthophilus latibuli Scud. 

ARACHNIDA. 

(13) Spiders uninvestigated, probably 2 species. 

(14) Phalangodes n. sp. 

(15) Chelatiops affinis Banks. 

(16) Ornithodorus americanus Marx. 

(17) Atnblyomma tuberculatum Marx. 

(18) Mites (Orobatid) on Copris, 



302 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



(19) Rana ossopus Cope. 



VBRTBBRATA. 

VISITANTS 

INSECTA. 



(20) Pkilonthus cautus. 

(21) Ptomophagtis ulkei. [De Funiak.] 

(22) Ptomophagus consobrinus, [Crescent City.] 

(23) Saprinus ferrugineus Mars. 

(24) Thelyphonus giganteus Lucas. 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Schwarz and Gill. Mr. 
Schwarz said that the only contribution published since Mr. 
Hubbard's original paper was by Mr. G. Lewis in the Entomol- 
ogist's Monthly Magazine for January last. This consisted 
mainly of a letter from Dr. Hamilton and the advice to Euro- 
pean entomologists to dig up European turtle holes in the hope 
of similar discoveries. Mr. Schwarz, however, was of the 
opinion that they have in Europe no turtle of similar habits. 
He further said that while Lake Worth is the most southern 
point at which gopher burrows have been examined, at least 60 
miles south of this point gopher burrows will be found, viz : at 
Cape Florida. He further said that we have in this country 
three species of Gopherus— the one studied by Mr. Hubbard, 
G. agassizii in the Death Valley and adjoining regions, and G, 
berlandieri of Texas. The members of the Death Valley Expe- 
dition were unable to discover any holes of the first named, and 
almost nothing is known about the Texas form. On a recent 
trip he tried, with little success, to find out something about it. 
The only success he had was the statement from the inhabitants 
of Pena, near Laredo, on the Mexican National Railway, that a 
burrowing turtle exists in the large sand plains near that point, 
but he was unable to investigate. 

Dr. Gill stated that the analogy in morphology is not neces- 
sarily connected with similarity in habits. The European land 
tortoises are not so closely allied to the American species as they 
seemed to be. The Testudos in Europe do not make regular 
burrows. They hibernate in holes not made by themselves, 
although probably enlarged by them, and under rocks. The 



OF WASHINGTON. 303 

species are smaller than Gopherus. Referring to the American 
forms, he said that we must not assume that agassizii and ber- 
landieri burrow. They may differ in habit from the Florida 
species. He asked whether any other specimens of the frog had 
been found by Mr. Hubbard. Mr. Hubbard replied that he 
had taken several additional specimens, among them one gravid 
female, which he had given to Dr. Stejneger of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

— Mr. O. F. Cook made some general remarks under the 
head of "Insect Collecting in Africa." He spoke of some 
rarities which he had collected in Liberia in his woi*k upon his 
own special group — the Myriapoda, exhibiting drawings of one 
remarkable form. He further spoke in general upon some of 
the more striking features of the insect fauna of Liberia and 
gave in considerable detail his experience with di*iver-ants. 
These insects, he thinks, have taken the place of a Liberian St. 
Patrick, i, ^., they are responsible for the almost total absence 
of snakes in Libei'ia. He concluded by asking if the driver-ants 
have any permanent domicile or whether they are invariably 
peripatetic. Mr. Schwarz said that no trace of a more or less 
permanent nest of Eciton has ever been found, and that, fui*ther, 
no queen has been found. They make temporary nests, but 
are more or less constantly tiavelling. The true nest, he thinks, 
will some time be found, owing to this very fact that no queen 
is yet known. He called attention to the fact that the Rev. 
P. Jerome Schmidt has found a species of Eciton in North 
Carolina and that the same gentleman had discovered several 
inquilinous species. Dr. Gill and Mr. Cook discussed the 
question of disparity in size in sexes of Myriapoda. Mr. Ulke 
spoke of some recent experiences with ants in Maryland. 

— Mr. Ashmead read the following paper : 

RHOPALOSOMIDiE * A NEW FAMILY OF FOSSORIAL WASPS. 

By William H. Ashmead. 

Recently, in monographing our North American Braconidae, 
it became necessary for me to make a study of a most extraordi- 
nary insect, the Rhopalosoina Poeyi^ originally described by 



* I prefer this form to Rhopalosomatidie. 



304 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Mr. E. T. Cresson, from specimens received from Cuba, and 
placed by him in the family Braconidae. 

The insect is extremely rare and has not yet been recorded in 
our faunal lists, although several specimens have passed through 
my hands, taken in vai'ious parts of the United States. 

Mr. Theodore Pergande took a single specimen, many years 
ago, at St. Louis, Missouri. The American Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia possesses, besides the types from Cuba, 
one or two specimens collected by Mr. H. K. Morrison in North 
Carolina. Mr. Chas. W. Johnson took three specimens some 
years ago at St. Augustine, Florida (one of which he has kindly- 
given to me), while recently I have identified a single male 
taken by Prof. H. Garman at Louisville, Kentucky. 

These captui*es not only prove the extreme rarity of the insect 
but show that it is widely distributed throughout our fauna, and 
we may expect to hear of its being taken in many other localities 
in the United States. 

It has also been recorded from Hayti and San Domingo. 

The genus was erected thirty years ago by Mr. Cresson in his 
paper entitled " Hymenoptera of Cuba," published in the Proc. 
Ent Soc. of Phila., vol. iv, p. 58, where he placed it in the 
family BraconidaB. 

Three years later, in the Pi*oc. Ent. Soc. of London, Prof. 
Westwood, having overlooked Mr. Cresson's description, on 
account of the position assigned it, rechristened it Sibyllina^ 
placing it among the Vespidae. 

In the discussion following the presentation of Prof. West- 
wood's description, Mr. Frederick Smith, at that time the highest 
British authority on the Hymenoptera, gave reasons for believing 
the genus should be placed in the family Ichneumonidae, although 
he had previously considered it an ant and placed it in the family 
Poneridae. 

He says : ''I had myself, after a somewhat cursory examina- 
tion, referred it to the ants and had placed it in the family 
Poneridae. A few years ago I had an opportunity of submitting 
it to Dr. Nylander, who thought I was right in so doing, but I 
must admit he had only time to give it a very slight examination." 

Six years later, or in 1874, Westwood again treats of this 
remarkable insect in his sumptuous work " Thesaurus Entomo- 
logicus Oxoniensis," p. 130, and on plate xxiv gives us for the 
first time a most excellent figure of it with details. 

In this work Prof. Westwood gave a complete summary of 
what had been written upon this insect up to that time, and from 
which I shall quote. He says : 

''This curious genus was considered (doubtingly) by the late 
Mr. rialiday (one of the most profound hymenopterists) as one 



OF WASHINGTON. 305 

of the Sphegidce^ with smooth legs, neai* Pelopaeus, as appears 
by a note attached to a specimen of the type in the collection of 
the British Museum. [Note. — ^Antennae foem. not geniculate; 
hind wings incised at end of the pobrachial vein ; fore wings 
w^ith a third discal areole. See also form of thorax. I think a 
sphegid with smooth legs, near Pelopaeus. Haliday MS. in 
Brit. Mus.]" 

Prof. Westwood on exhibiting a specimen of this insect at a 
meeting of the London Entomological Society recognized it as a 
new genus of Aculeates, with most perplexing structural affinities, 
but thought that it came closest to the family VespidaB, although 
the male, in its elongated antennae, was not unlike an ant. 

Mr. F. Smith, on the same occasion, also considered that " it 
had more characters in accordance with those of the ants than 
with any other family.'* (Proc. Ent. Soc, Nov. i6, 1868.) 

Piiof. Westwood says, further, that Mr. Cresson, who first 
described this genus, placed it undoubtingly amongst the multi- 
tudinous genera of the Ichneumonidce (which caused me to 
overlook it), remarking, "I am at present unable to define the 
true position of this remarkable genus. It seems to form a con- 
necting link between Ichneumones genuini and the Adsciti; 
from the former it differs by the paucity of the antennal joints, 
and from the latter by the anterior wings having a faint indica- 
tion of a second recurrent nervure. Its structure places it, beyond 
doubt, in the family Ichneumonidce^ whilst its general appear- 
ance, together with the arrangement of the wing-veins, seems to 
place it among the Adsciti^ where I will allow it to remain for 
the present." 

Subsequently, Mr. Smith (without being aware that the insect 
had been thus commented upon by Mr. Cresson), in a paper 
communicated to the Entomological Society on the 4th Jan., 
1869 (Trans. 1868, Proc. p. li), discussed the aflfinities of this 
genus at length with great acumen, contending, '* ist. That all 
wasps have the wings folded, whilst they are flat in Rhopalosoma. 
2nd, Rhopalosoma has only two submarginal cells, whilst every 
known wasp has either three or four. 3rd, Every true wasp has 
three discoidal cells in the fore-wings, whilst Rhopalosoma has 
only one. 4th, The prothorax (collar) in all Vespidae extends 
backwards to the tegulaB, which is not the case in Rhopalosoma. 
5th, Lunate eyes (which Rhopalosoma possesses) are found in 
Mutilla^ Scolia^ Sapyga^ Pemphredon^ and Philanthus 
amongst the Aculeata, and in the Ichneumonideous genera 
Pimpla^ Campoplex^ Anonialon^ Ophion^ and some others. 
6th, The tarsal ungues (toothed in Rhopalosoma) are simple in 
the social Vespidae, although dentate in the solitary wasps." On 
the other hand, Mr. Smith regarded the insect as belonging to the 



306 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Ichneumonidae. " 7th, Because, amongst the minute (Adscitous) 
groups, species exist having only 12-jointed antennae (Ephedrus) 
and others having 13-jointed antennae (Trioxys)." 8th, Mr. 
Smith states " that in Rhopalosoma a distinct second joint in the 
trochanters is quite as visible as in the Ichneumonideous genus 
Metopius. 9th, The antennae of every known species of wasp 
are geniculate, which is not the case in Rhopalosoma. loth, 
The prothorax of Rhopalosoma is of the same structure as Ophion 
and Anomalon. nth, The ocelli are large and prominent in 
Rhopalosoma, as in the two last-named genera ; in the Vespidae 
they are much smaller and usually more sunken than prominent. 
1 2th, The broadly dilated tarsi in Rhopalosoma do not occur in 
Vespidae, but are peculiarly characteristic of Anomalon. 13th, 
The basal segment of the abdomen of Rhopalosoma agrees with 
that of Ophion and Anomalon, as well as Belonogaster and 
Vespa." 

Although thus pointing out the relationship of the genus with 
Ophion and Anomalon, Mr. Smith admitted its want of strong 
affinity with any other known insect. 

Prof. Westwood, to these objections, replied as follows : 

1 . Some of the most aberrant wasp genera, and the remainder 
of the Aculeata, have flat wings. 

2. Rhopalosoma has three submarginal cells. In all the gen- 
uine Ichneumons, the first submarginal and the anterior discoidal 
cells are thrown together. Even in those Adsciti which have 
three distinct submarginal cells, the first (and only) recurrent 
vein enters the first submarginal cell, and not the second, as in 
Rhopalsoma. 

3. Rhopalosoma has three discoidal cells, the lower outer one 
having its extremity partially closed by a transverse, nearly ob- 
solete vein. 

4. The collar of Rhopalosoma extends back laterally to the 
tegulae, although not seen dorsally at the sides of the thorax. 

5. The eyes of Rhopalosoma are not lunate but oval, with a 
small emargination in the middle of the inner margin. 

6. The ungues in Rhopalosoma are furnished beneath with two 
obtuse spines. 

7. No species of Adscitous Ichneumon, nor indeed any other 
terebrant Hymenopterous insect, is known possessing 13-jointed 
antennae in the males and 12 in the females. This is one of the 
leading characters of Aculeata. 

8. I cannot discover a second joint in the trochanters of Rho- 
palosoma. Its existence is one of the leading characters of the 
terebrant llymenoptera. In certain positions, a faint appearance 
of an articulation near the base of the femora may be observed. 



OF WASHINGTON. 307 

In the Ichneumons the two joints of the trochanters are distinct, 
and nearly equal in size in many species. 

9. The long, straight filiform structure of the antennae of Rho- 
palosoma is unquestionably a strong character against its belong- 
ing to the Vespidae. 

10. The front of the thorax of Rhopalosoma is similarly 
formed to that of Ophion. 

11. The ocelli of Rhopalosoma agree with those of Ophion. 

12. I know of no Ichneumonideous, nor indeed any other 
Hymenopterous insect, with feet like those of the female Rhopa 
losoma, whereas they are simple in the male. 

13. The pedunculated basal segment of the abdomen of Rho- 
palosoma occurs in many groups of Aculeata, as well as in many 
of the Terebrantia. 

14. The sting of Rhopalosoma is a genuine aculeus, with a 
broad sheath. 

15. The lobed base of the hind wing, and the 6- jointed max- 
illary palpi, which latter character occurs in no genuine Ichneu- 
mon, must not be overlooked in determining the relations of the 
genus. 

After this very complete summary, for and against this insect 
being an Ichneumonid, Prof. Westwood ends up with the fol- 
lowing remarks : 

"From the preceding discussion it will doubtless be considered 
that whilst in several important respects the insect before us 
agrees with some of the Ichneumonidae, it is in others, equally 
important, allied to the Aculeata, forming by itself a most ex- 
ceptional and isolated section.** 

The above summary will afford you an admirable idea of how 
Doctors sometimes disagree, since the four mentioned — Haliday, 
Smith, Westwood, and Cresson — are among the highest authorities 
in the Hymenoptera. 

What has been given above seems to be all that has been writ- 
ten upon this remarkable genus up to the present time, except 
that in my paper "On the Hymenoptera of Colorado," published 
in Bull. No. 1 of Col. Biol. Assoc, 1880, without specimens of 
my own for study. I made it the type of a new subfamily, the 
Rhopalosominse, in the family Braconidae. 

Since that time, however, I have made a careful and thorough 
study of the insect and now believe it to be no Braconid, but 
agree with Haliday and Westwood and believe it to be a true 
Aculeate. I go even farther and believe it to be the type of a 
distinct family of fossorial wasps, with affinities allying it to the 
Vespidae, Sapygidae, and Scoliidae, and propose, for it the family 
name Rhofalosomidce , 

It is, according to my views, a connecting link between the 



308 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vespidae and the Sapygidae and tends to confirm the correctness 
of my views, in having removed the Vespidae from near the 
ApidaB, or bees, to a position among the fossorial w^asps, be- 
tween the Pompilidae, Sapygidae, and Scoliidae. 

It is hardly necessary for me here to enter into a description of 
the peculiarities of structure of this insect, since these may be as- 
certained from the excellent description and figures given by 
Westwood in his Thesaurus and in the discussions recorded 
above. 

In closing, however, I will give my reasons for believing this 
insect to be neither a Braconid nor an Ichneumonid ; my rea- 
sons for considering it to be an Aculeate ; and why I consider it 
entitled to family rank. 

My reasons for believing it to be neither a Braconid nor an 
Ichneumonid are as follows : 

(i) Because the venter in the Ichneumonidae and the Bracon- 
idaB is soft and membranous ; in Rhopalosoma it is hard and 
chitinous like all true Aculeates; (2) because it has a true sting 
which issues from the tip of the abdomen ; although the ovipositor 
in a Terebrant may sometimes be capable of inflicting a sting, it 
never issues from the tip of the abdomen ; (3) because the vena- 
tion is quite distinct from all Terebrants ; (4) because the tro- 
chanters are i -jointed, while, as already pointed out by Westwood, , 
in the Ichneumonidae and Braconidae the trochanters are always 
distinctly 2-jointed ; and (5) because the legs are strictly fossorial, 
although entirely different from any known Hymenopter. 

I consider it to be an Aculeate Hymenopter : 

(i) Because the ovipositor is short, stout and sharp, issues 
from the tip of the abdomen, and is in every sense ''a sting; " 
(2) because of its convex, hard chitinous venter; (3) because 
the venation of the wings more nearly resembles that of the 
Scoliidae, the curvature in the lower outer angle of the first dis- 
coidal cell being a peculiarity of Scolia, while the venation of 
the hind wings, except in some minute details, is exactly like that 
of Dielis and totally dissimilar to any known Terebrant ; (4) 
because the emarginated eyes appear to me to resemble more 
closely those found in Sapyga^ JSumenes^ and Myzinc^ than 
those found in certain Ichneumonids ; and (5) because the num- 
ber of joints in the antennae, 12 in 9 and 13 in J\, is a feature 
peculiar to the Aculeata and extremely rare with the Tere- 
brant ia, 

Rhopalosoma is believed to be entitled to family rank : (i) 
because the venation of the front wings, although similar to 
some Aculeates, is really cjuite distinct from all other known 
forms; (2) because of the large prominent ocelli; (3) because 
of the structure of the antennae, the iiagellar joints all being very 



OF WASHINGTON. 309 

long and slender and all armed above with a slender spine at 
tip ; (4) because of the abnormally developed legs in the female, 
the tarsal joints 2, 3, and 4 being dilated and deeply lobed at 
apex, the incision being filled with a membrane, which evidently 
materially aids the insect in making its burrows into light 
sandy soil; (5) because of the remarkable length of the tibial 
spurs in both sexes, the inner being almost as long as the long 
basal tarsal joint ; and (6) because of the peculiarities of the 
spiny armature and the bifid claws. 

RHOPALOSOMA CRESSON. 

1865. Rhopalosoma Cr., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vol. iv, p. 58. 
1868. Sibyllina Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend., pt. iv (Dec), p. 329. 

(S. aenigmatica.) 

1868. Smith, 1. c. Proc, Nov. 16, p. xli. 

1869. 1. c Proc, p. li. 

1874. Rhopalosoma Westw., Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 130, pi. xxiv, f. 9. 
1894. Dalla Torre, Cat. Hym. ix, p. 113. 

(Type7?./<?ejK» Cr.) 



The paper was discussed by Messrs. Marlatt, Schwarz, Gill, 
and Uhler. Mr. Marlatt expressed his conviction as to the ac- 
curacy of Mr. Ashmead's conclusions, but took exception as to 
Mr. Ashmead's general statement that the sting of the aculeate 
Hymenoptera issues from the tip of the abdomen, whereas the 
ovipositor of the terebrant Hymenoptera does not issue from the 
tip. Mr. Marlatt said that while this distinction is apparent it 
is not real. Homologically, the two organs are the same and 
their point of issuing or attachment is also the same. In the 
aculeate Hymenoptera, the ventral segments fold in such a way 
as to obscure the point of origin of the sting. 

Mr. Ashmead in reply said that Mr. Marlatt was undoubtedly 
correct and that the homology of the two organs has been 
strengthened by the recent finding of a poison gland among cer- 
tain terebrant Hymenoptera. The character of which he had 
made use, however, was equally valuable as a means of distin- 
guishing between the two groups. Mr. Marlatt had practically 
criticised simply the form of words, and not the validity of the 
character used. Mr. Schwarz said that, from the general ap- 
pearance of the insect exhibited by Mr. Ashmead, he would by 
no means call it a fossorial species. The legs were not at all 



310 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

comparable to the legs of fossorial Coleoptera. Mr. Ashmead 
replied that many fossorial insects do not have fossorial legs. 
The legs of Rhopalosoma, however, he considers to be strictly 
fossorial. The spines on the tarsi are obviously for fossorial 
purposes. Mr. Schwarz, referring to the long spurs on the 
posterior tibiae, said that when such spurs occur in Coleoptera 
they never occur in fossorial species. Dr. Gill remarked that 
nature is not limited in fossorial adaptations any more than it is 
in any other adaptations. It is not necessary, therefore, that 
hymenopterous fossores should resemble coleopterous fossores. 
He showed that the method of fossorial adaptation differs decid- 
edly with different fossorial mammals. Professor Uhler stated 
that, as a general rule, fossorial insects may be distinguished by 
the fact that the joints of the tarsi of the front leg are crowned 
by a chaplet of spines, which seem to be absent in this species 
shown by Mr. Ashmead. 

— Mr. Howard presented the following paper for publication : 

A COLEOPTEROUS ENEMY OF CORYDALIS CORNUTUS. 

By L. O. Howard. 

Corydalis cornutus is the largest Sialid in the North Ameri- 
can fauna and is one of the most conspicuous and curious of our 
commoner insects. Its anatomy was studied by Leidy as early 
as 1848 and its larva and pupa were known prior to that time. 
Riley completed the life history of the species by his discovery 
of the egg-masses in 1876. Almost every detail of the anatomy, 
physiology, and economy of the species has been carefully 
studied by Comstock and his students and assistants at Ithaca, 
and, in fact, were the graduation theses of his students for the 
last 20 years published, we should have a complete anatomy of 
the larva of this insect which would be almost comparable to 
Lyonnet's famous anatomy of the larva of Cossus. It may be 
briefly stated that the eggs are laid in midsummer in flat circular 
batches, covered with a tough calcareous substance, upon the 
leaves of trees, upon rocks, and wooden piles overhanging or in 
close proximity to the water ; in such situations, in fact, that the 
larviE on hatching may drop into the water. Each egg-mass con- 
tains about 2,000 to 3,000 eggs and the diameter of the mass is a 
little more than ^ of an inch. The larvae of the insect are 
familiar to fishermen under the names " Dobson," " Crawler," 
and " Hellgrammite," and are commonly used for bait for black 



OF WASHINGTON. 311 

bass and other fish. The insect is thus of some slight economic 
importance and derives some additional importance from the 
fact that while it is eaten by large fish, it retaliates by destroying 
smaller fish. No natural enemies of this species have ever been 
recorded. The species breeds rather abundantly in the Potomac 
river and in Rock Creek, and the egg-masses, looking like acci- 
dental splashes of whitewash, are often seen on the rocks along 
the shores of these streams. 

In the latter part of July of the present year, Mr. R. S. Clif- 
ton, of the Division of Entomology, an enthusiastic boatman, 
noticed that certain egg-masses upon rocks on the Virginia side 
of the Potomac river above Georgetown contained small round 
holes, and suspected from this fact the existence of some parasitic 
or predaceous enemy. Upon close examination he saw a small 
beetle engaged in eating into an egg-mass. He did not capture 
the specimen, but, thinking that the observation might be of im- 
portance, he mentioned it to the writer, who, on August 4, 
joined him in an investigating expedition. This was about two 
weeks after the original observation. At the date of our visit 
wre found hardly one egg-mass out of a very large number which 
had not been eaten into. The beetle was captured and later de- 
termined by Mr. Schwarz to be a variety of Antkicus kalde- 
tnani. * Upon opening the egg-masses we were greatly interested 
to find the larva of the beetle. In some cases only one or two 
large larvae were found in a single egg-mass ; in other cases a 
large number — certainly more than a dozen — smaller larvae were 
found, and in others larvae of several distinct sizes were noticed. 
Living specimens were brought home and fed in confinement. 
It was at first supposed that the lai*vae would transform without 
issuing from the eggs. This, however, proved to be incorrect. 
When fullgrown they wandered restlessly around and this fact 
was sufiicient to indicate to Mr. Pergande, in whose care they 
had been placed, that they needed certain conditions for pupat- 
ing which were not present in the open-mouthed vials in which 
they had been kept. He therefore transferred them to vials con- 
taining sand, into which they immediately crawled and in which 
they soon pupated. Two larvae were placed with the sand on 
August 15. On August 19 they were still unchanged, but one 
of them had formed a kind of cocoon from the grains of sand. 
On August 22 this individual had transformed to pupa. On 
August 24 Mr. Schwarz went with Mr. Clifton to the same 
locality and secured further material. August 31 three larvae 
obtained on this trip transformed to pupae, and September 3 



♦ Later Capt. Casey informed the writer that the species is his A, her- 
oicu$^ described in Annals N. Y. Ac. Sc, 8, 1895, p. 712. ^ 



312 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

two more transformed. On account of the interest attaching to 
the early stages of the Anthicus, no effort was made to rear the 
adult from material gathered, but all pupaB and larvae in differ- 
ent stages were preserved in alcohol. Without doubt the beetles 
would have emerged before fall and the insect would have hiber- 
nated in the adult condition, as do its relatives. From these obser- 
vations we judge that there is more than one generation, depend- 
ing upon the amount of food and the length of time that these 
egg-masses are available for food. The larva grows rapidly and 
there must be other food than the Corydalis egg-masses for 
early individuals. It seems likely that the beetle ordinarily 
gnaws a hole in the egg-masses before laying its eggs, and it 
seems, further, that few eggs are laid by each beetle in a single 
egg-mass. Other beetles, however, visit the egg-mass subse- 
quently in many cases, as the fact that larvae of different sizes 
were found would show. In lifting appai*ently unattacked egg- 
masses for food for the larvae taken, we were surprised to find in 
several cases that these masses contained young larvae of the 
Anthicus, so that the beetle does not necessarily gnaw the char- 
acteristic large round hole in the egg-mass before ovipositing. 
Careful observations were not made on this point, but it is likely 
that the eggs in these cases were thrust under the edge of the 
egg-masses where no orifice existed, or perhaps a small hole which 
was unnoticed was made at such a point. The extent of the de- 
struction of the Corydalis eggs in this way was extraordinary. 
An uninfested egg-mass could hardly be found among the hun- 
dreds which occurred upon the rocks along the stream and upon 
the piers of the Aqueduct Bridge. 

There are three very interesting features connected with this 
observation : First, that the eggs of Corydalis cornutus have 
never before been known to be attacked by any insect ; second, that 
this species of Anthicus is rare in collections ; and, third, that 
very little is known about the early stages of any Anthicid. 
Messrs. Hubbard and Schwarz say that they have seen the 
leaves of trees overhanging the waters of the Grand river at 
Grand Ledge, Mich., white with Corydalis egg-masses, but with 
no signs of any insect attack upon them. The writer has seen 
the leaves of trees overhanging several streams in the vicinity of 
Ithaca, N. Y., similarly plastered with egg-masses, and, as 
above stated, the Corydalis has for many years been studied by 
Professor Conistock and his assistants, but Professor Comstock 
has written me, in reply to an inquiry upon the subject, that he 
has not noticed that the eg^s are attacked by any insect at Ithaca. 
The immunity in these two cases may l)e due to the fact that the 
e^gs are laid more commonly upon leaves and trees where the 
larvte of Anthicus on emerging could not find a proper place to 



OF WASHINGTON. 313 

pupate, or it may have something to do with the geographical 
distribution of the species. Mr. Schwarz informs me that up to 
this summer, neither Mr. Ulke nor himself had ever taken this 
species at Washington, yet on August 4 the writer could easily 
have captured a hundred had he so desired. Mr. Schwarz further 
informs me that with Mr. Hubbard he noticed a closely allied 
species — Anthicus quadrilunatus — in extreme abundance along 
the rocky shores of the canyon streams in Colorado and Utah, 
and that Chauliodes and large Perlids were extremely common 
at the same time. He is inclined to think, since Mr. Clifton's 
discovery, that the related species may feed upon the eggs of 
these Pseudoneuroptera. The discovery will, in fact, probably 
lead to the discovery of the early stages of other Anthicidae 
which frequent the margins of streams. 

On the occasion of Mr. Schwarz*s trip, on August 24, most of 
the egg-masses had been desti*oyed and there were abundant in- 
dications of subsequent feeding upon the remains of the egg- 
shells by several insects. He found the larva and the imago of 
a large Psocid engaged in this work and he also found two larvae 
of an Anthrenus similarly engaged. One specimen of another 
species of Psocid was also found and a mite was seen feeding 
upon the ^^^^ remains. As the larvae of the Anthicus grow and 
demolish the interior of the egg-masses, the cover becomes grad- 
ually lifted from its closely fastened border on the i*ocks, allow- 
ing easy entrance to these other insects, which feed upon the leav- 
ings. The cocoons of a small Drassid spider were also found 
in a few demolished egg-masses. 



November 7, 1895. 

President Ashmead in the chair and the following members 
also present: Messrs. Mann, Linell, Hubbard, Gill, Heidemarin, 
Marlatt, Benton, and Howard. 

By unanimous vote Prof. Dr. Rudolph Leuckart, of Leipzig, 
was elected an honorary member. Dr. William Barnes, of 
Decatur, Illinois, was elected a corresponding member. 

The President announced the death of the Rev. Dr. J. G. 
Morris, one of the foundei's of the Society, and made a few 
remarks about Dr. Morris's long and prominent career. 

— Mr. Hubbard read the following paper : 



314 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



SOME INSECTS WHICH BRAVE THE DANGERS OF THE 

PITCHER-PLANT. 

By H. G. Hubbard. 

Since Prof. Riley published in Trans. Acad. Sci., St, Louis, 
1874, iii, pp. 235-240, his account of the insects which he obsened 
in connection with the common pitcher-plant, Sarracenia vario- 
laris^ I believe few new observations upon this subject have 
been made. In July, 1894, ^ ^^^ ^^ opportunity of making a 
brief study of the insects associated with the large trumpet- 
shaped leaves of Sarracenia Jlava^ a species of pitcher plant as 
common in the low sandy savannas and on springy hillsides in 
Georgia and Florida as S, variolaris is in our northern bogs 
and marshes. At De Funiak Springs, in western Florida, I found 
an unusually fine collection of these plants in the boggy meadows 
and springy hillsides forming the valley of a small streamlet. I 
first noticed that many of the pitchers, thousands of which rose 
above the sod, standing erect to a height of over two feet, were 
attacked and eroded, chiefly in the upper part, by caterpillars of 
a most brilliant carmine red color. I afterwards bred from 
these both species of Xanthoptera mentioned by Prof. Riley 
from Sarracenia variolaris^ viz : X. semicrocea Gn. and A'. 
ridingsii Riley. ^ The moth of X, ridingsii has upon the upper 
wings transverse bars of fuscous, while X, semicrocea has the 
fore wing half black and half orange-yellow. The latter is the 
smaller and the more distinctly marked species. Its larva is 
much the brighter in coloration and all the markings are more 
sharply defined than in ridingsii. It is a most beautiful creature, 
gayly decorated with carmine, white, and velvety black. The 
moths of both spec?ies were entirely at their ease within the 
pitchers and made themselves at home there, resting in copula- 
tion upon the spine-clad walls or flitting over the dangerous 
surface as easily as upon ordinary leaves. Evidently the death- 
trap has no terrors for them. I noticed that the larva of both 
species takes the precaution to empty the pitchers of their liquid 
contents by cutting a small hole from the outside near the base. 
This insures a dry interior which becomes partly filled with the 
excrementary pellets, and among these the pupa is usually formed. 
The drowned insects ensnared by the plant include species of all 
orders — in fact, representatives of almost the entire fauna of these 
swampy meadows, ants predominating, as Prof. Riley remarks; 
but, contrary to his experience in the case of Sarracenia vario- 
laris^ I find that S.Jlava captures not only the honey-bee but 
even Boinhus and Megachile, together with sand-wasps (Beni- 
becidic), and other aculeate Ilynienoptera of the largest size. 1 



OF WASHINGTON. 315 

was therefore the more surprised to discover that a large Sphecid 
wasp, which Mr. Ashmead has kindly determined as Isodontia 
i^Sphex) fhiladelfhica St. Farg., utilizes the pitchers, in their 
most active and formidable condition, as a resting-place for the 
rearing of its young. Hundreds of the pitchers had been thus 
appropriated, but at the time, July 4th, I found only the capsules 
from which the wasps had emerged, and secured a single pupa 
only, far advanced towards maturity. 

The mother wasp stuffs the pitcher more or less compactly 
with blades of grass and the fibrous threads of plants, which 
float above the stygean lake in the bottom of the cup and safely 
bridge its dangers. I suspect that the food which is supplied to 
the larva of this wasp consists principally of the caterpillars of 
the Sarracenia moths {Xanihopiera) ^ but I did not satisfactorily 
ascertain the fact, as I only found the spun pupa cases resting 
upright in the midst of a loose packing of grass. 

Notwithstanding that many species of spiders are found drowned 
within the pitchers, there is nevertheless at least one species of 
Lycosa that has thoroughly mastered the difficulties of the 
situation, and habitually spreads its web within the tubes, not 
only taking toll of the plant in the insects which it allures, but 
also utilizing it as a safe retreat in which to rear its young. The 
spider spreads a diaphragm of web half way down the tube, and 
its egg-mass may be found suspended there a short distance 
above the water. 

The maggots of the pitcher-plant fly, Sarcophaga sarracentce 
Riley, are so uniformly present and so abundant in every species 
of pitcher-plant which I have examined from the swamps of 
Lake Superior to the bay-heads of Florida that I am constrained 
to think they have a more intimate connection with the economy 
of the plant than has been assigned to them. They certainly aid 
materially in disintegrating the mass of accumulated insects in 
the pitchers, and I see no reason for considering that they rob the 
plant of its proper food, since they must add their own excreta 
to the macerated digestive material, and this may serve the needs 
of the plant as well, or even better, than the disintegration of the 
animal matter produced by its own fluids. 

A species of the interesting and little known parrot-beak 
pitcher-plant, S, psittacina^ was common at De Funiak, growing 
low in the wet grass about the roots of the giant tubes of ^S. Jiava, 
The curious bladder-like pitchers of this species are constricted 
at the lip in a narrow opening, and I found the contained liquids 
received only insects of the smallest size, chiefly minute gnats, 
Cecidomyiidae ; the smaller Staphylinidae, such as Atheta and 
TrogophlcEus, were also represented there, together with minute 
semi-aquatic Hemiptera and Thrips. The accumulation of dead 



316 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

insects was relatively rather less than in its gigantic relative. 
No maggots of Sarcophaga and no intruders of any kind were 
found in these tiny pitchers. 



In discussing this paper Mr. Ashmead stated that in Jacksonville, 
Florida, he had studied the insects found in the pitchers of several 
species of the pitcher-plant and could corroborate Mr. Hubbard's 
statement of the enormous number of insects which were found in 
such locations. He himself had found some rare Coleoptera in 
this way. He had never heard, however, of species of Sphex in 
such situations, and doubted Mr. Hubbard's theory that this insect 
feeds upon the lepidopterous larvae in the pitchers, since Sphex 
is almost invariably a storer of orthopterous insects. The genus 
Isodontia has recently been suppressed ; but if Mr. Hubbard's ob- 
servation that this insect feeds upon lepidopterous larv« is cor- 
rect, this difference in habit from the ordinary Sphex may war- 
rant the revival of the genus. Mr. Hubbard, however, stated 
that he did not observe the food of Sphex and it was a mere 
supposition that it fed upon Lepidoptera. Grasshoppers were 
very plenty in the pitchers. Mr. Mann said that, following the 
general rule, caterpillars of such bright colors as those found in 
the pitcher-plant were apt to be distasteful to other insects. 

— Mr. Howard read a paper entitled " Notes on the Life-history 
of Culex pungens^ with remarks about other Mosquitoes." * 

In discussion Dr. Gill said that he wished that some one 
would make an effort to determine the species of other common 
dipterous genera, and referred to the fact that he had caught upon 
sticky fly-paper in his office room about a dozen different species 
of Diptera and that Mr. Schwarz had told him that very few of 
them could be determined offhand. Referring to mosquitoes as 
fish food, he stated that a very large proportion of the food of 
newly hatched fresh- water fish consisted of mosquito larvae. The 
Trinidad fish referred to by the speaker probably belongs to 
Rivulus or to Poecilia. Mr. Hubbard stated that he had noticed 
that adult mosquitoes take some time in issuing from the pupa 



♦Published in Bulletin 4, New Series, Division of Entomology, U. S. 
Dept. Agriculture. 



OF WASHINaTON. 317 

and that they rest upon the pupa skin for quite a while extend- 
ing their wings. At this time if the surface of the water is 
i*uffled by wind many are upset and drowned. With other 
aquatic Diptera living in more rapid streams the maturation must 
be brought about much more quickly. Recently, at Niagara 
Falls, he had picked up a rock from the rapids and a dipterous 
insect had actually burst out of the pupa and flown away like an 
arrow from a bow. He thought this must be common among 
Diptera living in such localities. Mr. Howard said that this was 
undoubtedly the case with Simulium, a statement which Mr. 
Marlatt substantiated by quoting Mr. G. L. Frierson, who said 
that he had seen adult Simuliums popping out of water in such 
numbers as to give the water the appearance of boiling. Mr. 
Howard said that the adult Simulium was almost virtually aquatic, 
referring to its egg-laying habits where the adult certainly enters 
the water to oviposit. Mr. Benton, referring to the food habits 
of adult mosquitoes, said that they are very fond of honey. He 
has frequently seen them feeding upon exposed honey in great 
numbers. Apropos to the slow expanding of the wings of adult 
insects, he stated that where the issuing of the adult from a pupa 
with the honey-bee is retarded to any considerable extent the bee 
finally comes out ready for immediate flight. Where there is no 
retardation, however, it takes some time to expand and harden 
its wings. The question of the food of the male mosquito was 
brought up and Mr. Mann stated that according to Dr. Dimmock 
experiments failed to prove that it can pierce the skin. A study 
of the mouth-parts substantiated this idea. While the male 
mosquito has a mouth which will allow it to suck up liquids, it 
apparently is not capable of piercing either skin of warm-blooded 
animals or tissues of plants. Mr. Ashmead referred to the so- 
called blind mosquito of Florida which some people down there 
thought to be a male mosquito. It is, however, a species of 
Chironomus. 

— Mr. Heidemann exhibited specimens of Rheutnatobates 
rileyi in the fully winged form and said that only four specimens 
are known, two of which he has collected near Washington and 
two collected by Mr. C. E. Chambliss, in Tennessee. Dr. 
Meinert doubts the existence of winged specimens. Mr. Heide- 



318 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

mann's series, however, shows both the normal and abnormal 
forms (so called by Riley) , or R, tenuifes Meinert and R, rileyi 
Bergroth. Of the former he had both sexes in the winged form, 
but of the latter only the males. 

— Mr. Ashmead submitted some Mutillidae and called particular 
attention to the difference between Sphaerophthalma and Pho- 
topsis, the latter having been considered by Fox a synonym of 
the former. Mr. Ashmead is of the opinion that one section of 
the genus Photopsis is composed entirely of males of Cyphotes. 

— Mr. Hubbard stated that he had found the brood cells of 
Xyleborus xylographus^ a species which burrows directly and 
for a long distance into hickory wood. In the brood cell he 
found a large colony of females and several males. In one corner 
of the brood cell he found what is obviously a cemetery, con- 
taining dead larvae and adults, comparable to the cemeteries 
which he had found in ants* nests. Mixed with the dead bodies 
were thousands of eggs of a Tyroglyph mite. He further found 
the body of the mother of the colony walled into a side burrow. 
From this observation he inferred that the presence of dead 
animal matter would interfere with the growth of the ambrosia 
upon which the young Scolytids feed, and that we have here the 
obvious beginning of a cultivation of ambrosia, a step towards 
the condition of affairs which has recently excitecji so much 
attention with certain ants. He considers that this indicates that 
the Scolytidac have a very high order of intelligence. 



December 5, 1S95. 

The following members were present : Messrs. Gill, Fernow, 
Test, Marlatt, Hubbard, Coquillett, Stiles, Linell, Heidemann, 
Benton, and Vaughn ; also three visitors. 

Mr. Hubbard then read a paper of which he has presented the 
following abstract : 



OF WASHINGTON. 319 



ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN SPECIES OF 

MYTILASPIS. 

By H. G. Hubbard. 
lAu^Aor*s abstract.] 

Mr. Hubbard spoke of the unreliability of tradition and early 
records as a source of exact knowledge concerning the introduc- 
tion and spread from one country to another of pests like Scale 
Insects, which are so easily transported upon living plants and 
so difficult of specific identification even by expert observers. 
He said that the published accounts of the introduction into 
Florida of the two common orange scale insects, Mytilaspis 
gloveri and Mytilaspis citricola^ were apparently exact and 
circumstantial, the Long Scale having, it is said, been brought to 
Mandarin in 1S38, by Mr. Robinson, on two small mandarin trees 
which were obtained in New York from a ship which came from 
China ; and the Purple Scale, according to Glover's account, 
brought into the State some years later upon lemons imported 
from Bermuda. 

Notwithstanding these very positive statements, which have 
passed unchallenged into our literature, it is almost certain that 
both are erroneous. The insects mentioned by Glover as coming 
from Bermuda are clearly not Mytilaspis Scales ; and the Purple 
Scale, to which his record has been supposed to refer had at the 
time of which he wrote not yet reached Europe from the East. 
It was not until the middle of the present century had been 
reached and passed that it continued its westerly course and 
spread over the islands of the Atlantic and the Carribean Sea, 
attaining the continent of North America not much before the 
year 1S80. 

As to the Long Scale {M, glover i^^ the fact that it is to-day 
the principal pest of the orange in the interior of Mexico renders 
the tradition of its introduction upon the North American con- 
tinent in 1838 altogether improbable. It is probable that this 
scale was intoduced with the orange into Florida and Mexico by 
the Spaniards at the end of the i6th or beginning of the 17th 
century. Its irruption in 1838 was in fact but a continuation 
of an epidemic of coccid pests of the orange which is known to 
have overwhelmed the citrus plantations of Europe and the 
Mediterranean in the early part of the century and to have spread 
westward somewhat later, to the Azores, the Canaries, and finally 
to Bermuda. 

In these days of rapid transit, which facilitates the interchange 
of living plants between the most distant countries, insects of 



320 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

economic importance easily and quickly girdle the earth. It has, 
therefore, no especial significance when these orange scales are 
discovered in the botanic gardens of Australia, Tahiti, Fiji, Cey- 
lon, India, and other distant colonies of the British Empire 
where the importation of living plants is actively carried on. 
The researches of Mr. Maskell and the official entomologists of 
the various stations give a very clear idea of the character of the 
indigenous coccid fauna of Australia and the islands of the 
Indian Ocean, and it appears that while our typical orange scales 
have been introduced into many of these countries they have no 
place in their original fauna, but are represented there by inter- 
mediate species, or perhaps only varieties of one species, which 
unite three principal types of Mytilaspis scales that in the 
Northern Hemisphere have become more fully differentiated and 
form as many distinct species, viz. : the apple scale, Mytilaspis 
pomorum^ having the thickest scale and darkest color ; M. cit- 
ricola^ with an equally broad scale, but thinner and lighter in 
color ; and M, gloveri^ with linear form and still thinner and 
paler scale. Mr. Hubbard showed that these variations in the 
scale covering were necessarily accompanied by differences in 
the structure of the insect, and pointed out that the thin and elon- 
gate forms were adapted to life in tropical thickets ; that the 
broader form and thicker scale was better suited to existence in 
uplands where there is greater exposure to sun and air and less 
moisture ; and finally that the heaviest and darkest coverings 
were necessary to resist the sudden changes of winter. He sug- 
gested the hypothesis that a tendency to vary in these three 
directions on the part of an originally tropical species of Myti- 
laspis had in the North produced as three distinct species the 
apple scale, the purple scale, and the long scale, while in the 
Southern Hemisphere, and in islands like Japan, the preponder- 
ance of water and the abrupt termination of the land areas, giv- 
ing a moi'e restricted range into colder regions, these variations 
had not become fully differentiated and still existed as varieties 
of the original species. 



— Dr. Stiles exhibited a Dermestes larva from a corpse from 
three to six months after death. He also called attention to the 
French work entitled " La Faune des Cadavres," by P. M<5gnin. 
This author divides the period from the burial of the corpse to 
its final dissolution into eight portions, and states that during 
these different periods a different series of insects infests it, and 
that in some instances the insects present in one period may be 



OF WASHINGTON. 321 

absent during the succeeding one, but will sometimes be found 
again at a later' period. In this way he says that the length of 
time the corpse has been buried can be definitely ascertained 
from the insects found infesting it. Mr. Marlatt doubted that 
any kind of insect which once infested a corpse would leave it 
for a certain length of time and then return. He also doubted 
that data obtained in this way could be implicitly relied upon, 
since the conditions are so seldom the same. 

In regard to the manner in which the insects gain access to 
the corpse, Mr. Hubbard stated that in the case of the Diptera 
the eggs were evidently deposited on the outside of the coffin or 
casket before burial and the young larvae made their way through 
any small opening. He did not believe it possible for the young 
larva to make its way through the soil after burial. Dr. Stiles 
stated that he does not agree with the conclusions arrived at by 
the author of the work in question, but thought that the field 
was a very interesting one and desired to bring it to the attention 
of entomologists. 

— Mr. Coquillett presented for publication in the Proceedings 
the following paper : 

A NEW DIPTEROUS GENUS RELATED TO GNORISTE. 

By D. W. Coquillett. 

In a small collection of Diptera recently received from Prof. 
T. D. A. Cockerell is a Mycetophilid having an extremely long 
proboscis. The only described genus having this character so 
far reported as occurring in our fauna is Gnoriste Meigen. But 
the present form differs from the latter genus in having the palpi 
attached to the proboscis near its base instead of near its apex, 
and the fourth vein forks far beyond the foiking of the fifth in- 
stead of almost opposite it. The new form will be easily recog- 
nized by the accompanying figure and description : 

Eugnoriste new genus. — Head small, much narrower than the thorax; 
antennae slightly longer than the thorax, filiform, pubescent, sixteen- 
jointed \ proboscis rigid, filiform, directed downward and backward, longer 
than the head and thorax taken together; palpi four-jointed, the first 
joint very short, the second as long as the two following taken together; 
three ocelli; eyes deeply emarginate next the antennae. Coxae nearly as 
long as height of thorax, legs destitute of strong bristles, spurs at tips of 



322 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETr 



tibiEc well developed. Wings bare, coEtal vein reaching half way from 
tip of third vein to apex of upper branch of the fourth, auxiliary vein ob- 
solete toward its apex, third vein not forked, fourth issuing from the Bltli 
close to the base Rnd forking far bejond the base of the third; fifth vein 
forking near its base. Type, the following species ; 




Eagiiorisle oecidenialis new species. — 5 — Head and thorax black, sub- 
shining, antenns, proboscis, patpi and halteres blackish brown; abdo- 
men dark brown, sutures of the segments yellow; legs, including 
the cuxx, yellowish, tarsi brown toward the tips. Wings hyaline, veins 
brown, second section of fourth vein sub-obsolete. Length 1.5 to 3 mm- 
Las Cruces, New Mexico. 



Thit 



specimens collected June S, by Prof. T. D. A. Cock- 



Special Meeting, Dec. 26, 1895. 

A meeting of the Society was held in tlie assembly hall of the 
Cosmos Club under the auspices of the Joint Commission of the 
Scientific Societies of Washington. Major J. W. Powell of the 
Joint Commission presided, and 35 other persons were present. 

The retiring President, Mr. Ashniead, then delivered his annual 
address : 



OF WASHINGTON. 323 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

THE PHYLOGENY OF THE HYMENOPTERA. 
By William H. Ashmead. 

You are all probably aware that the order Hymenoptera 
includes those insects known to us under the popular names of 
bees, wasps, hornets, ants, saw-flies, gall-flies. Ichneumons, and 
Chalcid-flies, and to-night I shall attempt to give you some idea 
of their origin, history, and development, their aflSnities with 
other orders, and their classification into groups, families, and 
tribes. I shall also attempt to show how the phytophagous 
species, under the great law of evolution, gave place to parasitic 
and predaceous species ; and while I should like to mention some 
of the interesting and unsolved problems in their life-history, I 
shall be compelled, for want of time, to confine myself to the 
subject of my address and merely call your attention to the 
economic importance of the order. 

A study of insects demonstrates that the same general laws of 
development that govern the higher animal life govern insect life 
and that there is ever an upward tendency to a higher or more 
specialized type ; since man is the highest type of animal life, so 
a bee or an ant is the highest type of insect life. 

Both in their way are remarkable productions of nature. 

The surprising instincts and wonderful intelligence displayed 
by many Hymenoptera, particularly among the social species, in 
the construction of their habitations, in the care of their young 
and in gathering their food have been noticed and commented 
upon by many observers. 

The late Prof. John O. Westwood as early as 1840 says : "If 
interesting habits and economy, great development of instinctive 
powers and social qualities be considered as indicating superiority 
in their possessors, the insects composing the order Hymenoptera 
have certainly far greater claims to be placed in the foremost 
ranks of insect tribes than any of their brethren." 

Sir John Lubbock, known to us all for his researches in many 
departments of science, also says : "If we judge animals by their 
intelligence as evinced in their actions, it is not the gorilla and 



324 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCLETY 

chimpanzee, but the bee and above all the ant, which approach 
nearest to man." 

The Hymenoptera are also among the most useful and bene- 
ficial insects to man, since it is mostly only among the phytopha- 
gous species, or the saw-flies, horntails, etc., that we find those 
that are injurious ; the vast majority of the species known to us 
being beneficial in various ways. 

The hive-bee and other wild bees fui'nish us with wax and 
honey ; while other bees are useful in the pollenization of plants 
and fruit trees, the legs of these insects, with their hairy covering, 
being specially adapted for carrying pollen from one flower to 
another. In fact, modern research has shown that many plants 
cannot be pollenized without the bees, and if it were not for 
these useful insects our orchards would be unproductive, since 
they are essential to the pollenization of the apple, the pear, the 
peach, and other fruit trees. It has also been shown that the 
bumble-bee is essential to the fertilization of red clover and other 
plants. 

The oak-gall of commerce, the product of a cynipid, or gall- 
making wasp, has been for years utilized in the manufacture of 
ink, and, although to-day somewhat superseded by chemical 
products, is still much used in the manufacture of this important 
article of modern civilization. 

The fig insects, the Agaonidae or Blastophagae, a most re- 
markable group of hymenopterous insects, belonging to the 
family Chalcididae, are also important to man, since from time 
immemorial they have been made use of in the fertilization of 
the fig. 

They are still made use of in the Orient, although it has been 
demonstrated that some varieties of figs — the artificial product of 
man through centuries of cultivation — will produce fruit without 
their intervention. All wild fig trees, however, are dioiceous 
and it has been fully demonstrated that each species of fig tree 
has one or more species of these insects attached to it, which are 
essential to its fertilization. 

All wasps — the wood-wasps, the digger-wasps, the social 
wasps, etc. — arc also beneficial, and very few persons, outside 
of entomologists, can conceive of the immense services performed 



OF WASHINGTON. 325 

by these gayly-colored insects. All are predaceous or parasitic, 
and destroy annually thousands and thousands of destructive 
insect pests. 

The economic value to us of the wasp and bee, hovsrever, is 
probably much less in comparison vsrith the benefits we derive 
from innumerable parasitic ichneumon and chalcid flies. These 
are numbered by millions and are found everywhere. Most of 
them, too, are so minute or microscopic in size as to escape our 
notice, and it is only by the most careful observation in the field 
and by breeding in the laboratory that we are able to obtain a 
knowledge of their obscure mode of life. 

These belong principally to five families, the Proctotrypidae, 
Cynipidae, Evaniidae, Chalcididae, Braconidae, and Ichneumonidae, 
and all of them except the gall-making^ cynipids and a few phy- 
tophagous chalcidids, are genuine parasites, living in and de- 
stroying the eggs, larvae, pupae, and imagoes of the destructive 
insect pests of the forest, field, and garden. 

The obscure habits of these parasitic Hymenoptera are now 
being slowly worked out in various countries of the globe, and 
more particularly in Europe and America. 

In recent years great interest in a study of these microscopic 
species has been manifested, and it is gratifying to us to know 
that in no country in the world is so much being done to make 
known the habits and economic value of these insects as in our 
own country. I allude particularly to the great work being 
done in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, by its field agents, 
and by our numerous Agricultural Experiment Stations. 

Our knowledge of the habits of certain groups and genera of 
these insects is now sufficient to give us a good idea of those 
species which are most important to the agriculturist and fruit- 
grower. 

For example, we have found out that whole groups of genera 
and species are parasitic in the eggs of other insects and that 
these are the most important. 

The species belonging to the family Mymaridae are parasitic 
in the eggs of Hemiptera, Diptera, Neuroptera, &c. Certain 
Proctotrypids belonging to the tribe Scelionini destroy the eggs 
of destructive orthopterous insects, — grasshoppers, katydids, 



326 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

locusts, &c. ; the tribe Telenomini destroy lepidopterous, 
hemipterous, dipterous, and neuropterous eggs ; the tribe Ba^ini, 
spider eggs ; the tribe Teleasini, beetle eggs ; while the family 
Trichogrammidse destroy the eggs of moths, butterflies, beetles, 
bugs, &c. The species belonging to the genus Evania in the 
family Evaniidse destroy the eggs of cockroaches ; while some 
Chalcidids are also egg-destroyers, species of Encyrtus and 
Anastatus (= Antigaster). 

The tribe Bethylini in the Proctotrypidae are parasitic on the 
larvse of the Micro-lepidoptera and on coleopterous larvae ; the 
subfamily Dryininae on homopterous larvae ; the subfamily 
Platygasterinae on dipterous larvae ; the subfamily Helorinae on 
neuropterous insects ; the subfamilies Proctotrypinae and Belytinae 
on coleopterous larvae ; while the Diapriinae attack dipterous 
larvae. 

The parasitic Cynipidae attack principally dipterous larvae, 
although one subfamily, the Allotriinae, destroy plant-lice belong- 
ing to the homopterous family Aphididae. 

The species belonging to the families Chalcididae, Braconidae, 
and Ichneumonidae, comprising thousands and thousands of 
species, destroy the larvse, pupae, and imagoes of nearly all 
orders. 

And we find in these families, just as we have found to be the 
case in the Proctotrypidae, whole tribes and genera with a unity 
of habit that is universal. The genera Bracon, Spathius, 
Meteorus, Euphorus, Ichneumon, Pteromalus, Eupelmus, Aph- 
elinus, Coccophagus, Tetrastichus, Melittobia, etc., have the 
same habits in Europe, Asia, Africa, or Australia •as they have 
in America ; and I hope to see the knowledge we are acquiring 
of these parasitic insects put to practical use. 

I hope to live to see these parasites bred in great numbers in 
the laboratory and then transported into regions where they do 
not exist and where they will do the most good, in destroying 
their destructive insect hosts. 

There is no reason why we cannot send our American para- 
sites to other countries and receive in return other parasites not 
in our fauna. 

Some of our most destructive insect pests were imported from 



OF WASHINGTON. 327 

foreign shores, and we should look to the original habitat of 
these insects for their natural enemies and parasites ; and if these 
are not already with us, they should be imported. 

The Phylogeny of Hexapous Insects. 

From what I have said, I think I have clearly demonstrated 
the high rank of the order and its great economic importance, 
and will now proceed to show its phylogenetic developments 
and its position among other orders. 

Dr. A. S. Packard, one of our best systematic entomologists, 
says : " There is nothing like a linear series in the animal king- 
dom, but it is like a tree. The higher series of orders form 
more of a linear series than the lower series, so that the Neurop- 
tera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera form a more 
broken series than the Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. 
A bee, butterfly, and house-fly are much more closely allied to 
each other than a beetle, squash-bug, a grasshopper, and a 
dragon-fly are among themselves." 

This is quite true and a principle now almost universally ac- 
cepted by zoologists. 

Before proceeding with the phylogeny of the Hymenoptera, I 
shall, therefore, first attempt to show briefly the phylogeny of 
hexapodous insects, in an ideal genealogical tree. 

This ideal tree is shown on my diagram No. i. 

It will be observed that I agree with Brauer, Packard, Lub- 
bock, and others in considering the order Thysanura as repre- 
senting the less specialized type of insects and from which de- 
veloped all others, which is emphasized again and again in 
the lai*val development of the different orders. 

Twenty distinct orders are recognized, Uratochelia being a 
new order proposed for the family Japygidae since I believe 
these insects, although closely allied, are quite distinct from 
other thysanurians. 

This ideal genealogical tree will, I hope, enable you to at once 
grasp the affinities of the different orders and will show you the 
evolution that has taken place in their development. 

It will also demonstrate to you more clearly than pages of 



ENTOMOLOOICAL 80CIBTT 



Diagram No. 




Ideal Geticalogical Tree of Insects. 



OF WA8H1N0T0K. 329 

text the evolution of insects from a primitive wingless type, with- 
out metamorphosis, into • more specialized types of winged and 
wingless insects, with incomplete or complete metamorphosis. 

The thysanurians, or springtails, are always apterous and 
undergo no distinct metamorphosis. 

If in this ideal sketch of the phylogeny of insects I have 
drawn somewhat upon my imagination, instead of dependii^g 
always upon facts, for my conception of their development, I 
have no apology to make ; but, on the contrary, claim it is just 
as permissible for naturalists, as it is for philosophers to draw 
sometimes upon their imagination in order to interpret nature 
correctly. 

This ideal genealogical tree is given merely to illustrate the 
origin of the Hymenoptera, and the position which I believe 
these insects should occupy among other orders, and I will now 
proceed to say something about this order. 

The geological history of the Hymenoptera is very meagre. 
Some authorities, and especially Mr. Samuel H. Scudder, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., our highest authority on fossil insects, consider 
that hexapodous insects were not ordinarily differentiated until 
post-palaeozoic time, and class all fossil insects before this time in 
a single order, termed Palaeodictyoptera, since these fossils cannot 
be referable to any of our modern orders. 

Most of these insects, however, show neuropterous and or- 
thopterous affinities and demonstrate the great age of these insects. 
As we ascend the geological strata, insects become better differ- 
entiated and other orders appear — the Hemiptera, Coleoptera, etc. , 
but no trace of hymenopterous insects appears until the tertiary 
formation is reached. 

The earliest known fossil Hymenoptera occur in England in 
the middle Oolite, while in this countiy they have been obtained 
from different localities in the tertiary formation. Scudder in 
his Tertiary Insects of North America (U. S. Geol. Surv., 1890) 
describes 15 fossil terebrants and 8 aculeates from the Floris- 
sant beds of Colorado. 

These fossils, however, are of so recent a date that, with one 
or two exceptions, all are referred to modern genera, and all 
belong to well-defined modern families, so that no clew as to the 



330 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

origin of the order is obtainable from geological strata and we 
must look to other sources for this information. 

This clew, I believe, may be obtained, at least approximately, 
from living forms and from the position assigned the order by 
various systematic workers. 

Position Assigned the Hymenoptera by Different 

Authorities. 

The older authors divided insects into two principal groups : (i) 
The Mandibulata, or insects with jaws fitted for biting ; and (2) 
The Haustellata, or insects with the mouth-parts fitted for suck- 
ing. From Westwood I find that Lamarck thought the Hymen- 
optera were the connecting order between the two series. 
Latreille placed it between the Neuroptera and the Lepidoptera, 
regarding Phryganea and Termes as forming the link between 
them, considering the long-tongue bees as approaching nearest 
to the Lepidoptera. 

MacLeay, on the other hand, placed the Hymenoptera between 
the Coleoptera (with which they are supposed to be connected 
by the osculant order Strepsiptera) and the Trichoptera, the 
Tenthredinidae being considered as trichopterous and the Uro- 
ceridse as forming an osculant order, Bomboptera, between Tri- 
choptera and Hymenoptera, which last order is reduced to the 
species possessing apodal larvae : thus by means of the connec- 
tion between the ants (Formicidae) and white ants (Termitidae), 
and the caddice-flies (Phryganeidae) and the saw-flies (Tenthre- 
dinidae) , a strong relationship is shown to exist between the Lin- 
naean orders Hymenoptera and Neuroptera. 

Packard in his paper entitled On Synthetic Types in Insects 
(Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 591-22, 1863) says that the 
Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Neuroptera '' seem 
bound together by affinities such as those that unite by them- 
selves the bees, moths, and flies," and to the latter or w^hat he 
considers the higher series he has since applied the term Meta- 
bola, and to the former Heterometabola. He says: "The 
Metabola are unquestionably more homogeneous than the other 
group. One of their primary features is found in the more 



OF WASHINGTON. 331 

clearly marked regional divisions of the body ; this is a consid- 
eration of great significance, since in the progress of structure, 
from the worms, through the crustaceans to the insects ; or with 
the progress of structure, from myriapods, through the arach- 
nids to the hexapods ; or in the developmental history of the 
Metabola themselves, from the larva, through the pupa to 
the imago, we discover constantly increasing concentration of the 
segments of which the bo<Iy is composed into distinct regions, 
culminating in the Hymenoptera, where head, thorax, and abdo- 
men are most sharply defined." 

All the orders of the Heterometabola and none of the Metabola 
are represented in the palaeozoic rocks. Scudder states : " This 
is the more striking from the fact that if we omit mention of the 
single discovery of insect wings in the Devonian, the three orders 
of insects — hexapods, arachnids, and myriapods — appear simulta- 
neously in the Carboniferous strata. The Metabola are then 
later in time and more perfect in development than the Hetero- 
metabola." 

Packard also believes the Hymenoptera are descendant from 
the Lepidoptera. 

Thus we see that most authorities are agreed as to the affini- 
ties existing between the Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, and 
there is scarcely any doubt in my own mind now that this is the 
correct view, and that these two orders with the Trichoptera 
and part of the Diptera had a common ancestry. 

This relationship is shown in the close resemblance between 
the larvae of the phytophagous Hymenoptera and those of cer- 
tain lepidopterous larvae, although the direct line of descent 
cannot be pointed out absolutely. 

The relationship will probably be found among some of the 
wood-boring Lepidoptera, Cossidce^ .^Egeriidce^ Hefialidce^ 
etc., and more particularly among those lepidopterous insects 
furnished with an ovipositor. 

The larvae of the Mecaptera (Panorpidae) also approach close 
to the Hymenoptera, and the peculiar rostrate head of the imagoes 
of this order is frequently reproduced among the parasitic species 
(Agathis, Cremnops, etc.). 

Mr. Nathan Banks has suggested that the Megaptera were the 



332 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



Diagram No. 2. 




Phylogcny of the Hymenoptera, 



OV^ WASHlKCiTOJr. 333 

ancestors of the Diptera. There is apparently a close relation- 
ship between these insects and certain Tipulidce, 

In my diagram No. 2, I have attempted to show the develop- 
ment and relationship of the different families of the Hymenoptera, 
and to illustrate how the phytophagous species, whose larvae 
are furnished with legs, in time gave place to higher and more 
specialized forms, whose larvae are apodous. 

I consider the Tenthredinidae to be the lowest of hymenop- 
terous insects, and from these in time were evolved on one hand 
the Cephidae and Oryssidse, on the other hand the Uroceridae. 

From the latter probably evolved the Braconidae and Ichneu- 
monidae, in which the egg-boring apparatus is usually well 
developed. From the Oryssidae were evidently evolved other 
forms, in which the egg-boring apparatus becomes variously 
modified and gradually develops into a true sting, and from 
which in time came the true aculeates — wasps, bees, etc. It is 
the stem of three or four different families. 

The family Stephanidse is evidently a branch of the Oryssidae, 
with strong braconid affinities. The Cynipidae, Proctotrypidae, 
and Evaniidae also had a common origin and in time evolved 
other forms. 

From the Cynipidae came the Chalcididae, a recent type ; while 
from the Proctotrypidae, which I believe represent some of the 
most ancient types of hymenopters, we have a distinct line of 
descent into the Scoliidae, Mutillidae, and the higher Aculeata. 

My diagram will sufficiently show my conception of the rela- 
tionship of these families, and I will therefore close with a brief 
synopsis of a new classification of these insects, based upon their 
relationship as illustrated in my diagram. 



334 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

' I. Sub-order Heterophaga.* Abdomen petiolate or subpetiolate, never 
broadly sessile ; larvae apodous. 

* Hypopygium entire and closely united with the pygium, the 
sting or ovipositor always issuing from tip of abdomen. 

a. Pronotum not extending back to tegulae. 

Tarsi dilated or thickened.. I. Anthophila Hartig. 
Tarsi slender, not dilated.. .II. Entomophila Ashm. 

aa. Pronotum extending back to the tegulse. 

t Apical segments of abdomen normal. 

° Petiole or first segment of abdomen simple, 
without scales or nodes. 

Wings usually folded longitudinally 
in repose ; if straight the antennae 
ending in a large club. 

III. Diplopteryga Latr. 

Wings not folded longitudinally in 
repose IV. Fossores Latr. 

^ Petiole or first segment of abdomen with 
one or more scales or nodes ; sexes usu- 
ally 3, cJ^$ ^ V. Heterogyna Latr. 

ft Apical segments of abdomen tubular and re- 
tractile, telescopic-like, visible dorsal seg- 
ments from 3-5 VI. Tubulifera Latr. 

ttt Apical segments of abdomen usually tubular, 
but not retractile or telescopic-like. 

VII. Oxyura Latr. 

** Hypopygium divided or never united with the pygium ; ovi- 
positor originating some distance before tip of abdomen. 
Front wings without a stigma... VIII. Stenospili Ashm. 
Front wings with a stigma IX. Megaspili Ashm. 

n. Sub-order Phytophaga.** Abdomen broadly sessile : larvae with legs. 

Anterior tibiae with i apical spur I. Xylophaga. 

Anterior tibiae with 2 apical spurs II. Phyllophaga. 

The series indicated above represent the following families, 
which may be arranged consecutively thus : 

* Petioli\'cntres llaliday. ** Sessiliventres Haliday. 



OF WASHINGTON. 



335 



Anthophila. 



Entomophila ....•{ 



Diplopteryga 



Fossores 



Heterogyna 



Tubulifera. 
Oxyura 



Stenospili 



Megaspili. 



Xylophaga. . . 
Phyllophaga. 



f I. Apidae. 

( II. Andrenidae. 

f III. Crabronidae. 

IV. Pemphredonidae. 
V. Bembicidae. 
VI. Larridae. 
VII. Trypox ylonidae . 
VIII. Philanthidse. 
IX. Nyssonidae. 
X. Sphecidae. 
L XI. Ampulicidae. 

( XII. Masaridae. 

-^ XIII. Vespidae. 

( XIV. Eumenidse. 

XV. Pompilidae. 
XVI. Sapygidae. 
XVII. Rhopalosomidas. 
XVIII. Scoliida. 
XIX. Thynnidae. 

XX. Mutillidae. 

XXI. Poneridae. 
XXII. Dorylidae. 

XXIII. Formicidae. 

XXIV. Myrmicidae. 

XXV. Chrysididae. 

Pelecinidae. 
Proctotrypidae. 

Cynipidae. 

Chalcididae. 

Mymaridae. 

Evaniidae. 

Trigonalidae. 

Stephanidae. 

Braconidae. 

IchneumonidoB. 

Agriotypidae. 

Oryssidae. 
Siricidae.* 
Cephidae. 

XL. Pamphiliidse. 
XLI. Tenthredinidae. 



( XXVI. 
( XXVII. 

f XXVIII. 
< XXIX. 
( XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 
XXXIII. 
XXXIV. 

XXXV. 
XXXVI. 

( XXXVII. 
^ XXXVIII. 
( XXXIX. 

( 

t 



Tables defining the above families are already prepared and 
will be published in a separate paper. This arrangement is 
given now, in connection with the diagram, merely to show how 
these families are arranged in my collection, so as to exhibit their 
true relationship. 



* Uroceridse of American authors. 



336 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

You have now had a modern opinion as to the origin and 
development of the Hymenoptera, and, in conclusion, I shall 
bring my address to a close by a quotation from Cowan, as to 
the opinion held by the ancients, respecting the development of 
the bees and wasps : 

He says : "It was the general opinion of antiquity that Bees 
were produced from putrid bodies of cattle. Varro says they 
are called Bnuyovat by the Greeks, because they arise from pu- 
trefied bullocks. In another place he mentions their arising 
from these putrid animals, and quotes the authority of Archelaus, 
who says Bees proceed from bullocks, and Wasps from horses : 
Virgil, however, is much more satisfactory, for he gives us the 
recipe in all its details for producing these insects : 

"First, in a place, by nature close, they build 
A narrow flooring, gutter*d, wall'd, and til*d. 
In this, four windows are contrived, that strike 
To the four winds opposM, their beams oblique. 
A steer of two years old they take, whose head 
Now first with burnished horns begins to spread : 
They stop his nostrils, while he strives in vain 
To breathe free air, and struggles with his pain. 
Knock'd down he dies : his bowels bruis'd within. 
Betray no wound on his unbroken skin. 
Extended thus, in his obscene abode, 
They leave the beast; but first sweet flowers are strow'd ; 
Beneath his body, broken boughs, and thyme. 
And pleasing Cassia, just renew'd in prime. 
This must be done, ere spring makes equal day, 
When western winds on curling waters play : 
Ere painted meads produce their flowery crops. 
Or swallows twitter on the chimney tops. 
The tainted blood, in this close prison pent. 
Begins to boil, and thro' the bones ferment. 
Then wondrous to behold, new creatures rise, 
A moving mass at first and short of thighs ; 
Till shooting out with legs, and imp'd with wings. 
The grubs proceed to Bees with pointed stings : 
And more and more affecting air, they try 
Their tender pinions and begin to flj'." 



IISTDEX 



Acanthia inodora, iO. 

Acheron tia atropoe, 60. 

Agrilus bilineatus, 82. 

Ammopbilxui gryphus. Additional observa- 
tions on habits of, 168. 

Amphicoma vulpina, 193. 

Amplicotes, Occurrence of, in Florida, 91 

Anchonus floridanns n. sp., 42. 

Anthicns haldemani, 311 ; heroicus, 311 ; 
qaadrilanatns, 313. 

Anthocharis genntia, 58. 

Antinonnin, 103. 

Aphids, Prolificacy of, 204. 

Apis florea, Comb of, 292; mellifica, 23; 
mating of queens, 169. 

Arachnida, Degeneration by disuse of certain 
organs of, 26. 

Aramigus fulleri, 146. 

Archeoplax notopus, 183. 

Argas americanus, 199. 

Arrhenophagus chlonaspidis. Occurrence of 
in America, 239. 

Ashmead, W. H., Notes on the genus Oen> 
trodora, 9; A Synopsis of the Spalau- 
giinie of N. A., 27; Synopsis of the N. 
A. si)ecies of Toxoneura Say, 47 ; Notes 
on the family PachylommatoidsB, 55 ; 
Notes on the genus Liopteron Perty, 
174; Presidential Address for 1894: 
Some imi)ortant structural characters 
in the classification of the iiarasitic 
Hymenoptera, 202 ; On the genus Pele- 
cinella Westwood and its position 
among the Chalcidids, 230; On the 
genus Barycnemis Furster, 238 ; Lysiog- 
natha, a new and remarkable genus in 
the Ichneumonldte, 275 ; Discovery of 
the genus Elasmosoma, Ruthe, in 
America, 280; Rhopalosomldie, a new 
family of fossorial wasiw, 303; Presi- 
dential Address for 1895 : The Phylogeny 
of the Hymenoptera, 323 ; Shorter com- 
munications, 94, 106, 138, 182, 318. 

Aspidiotus perniciosus. Distribution of, 220 
tenebricosus, 66. 

Barycnemis, On the genus, 238 ; linearis n. 
sp., 238. 



Belostoma, Notes on, 83. 

Bembex cinerea. Nesting habits of, 236. 

Benaous, Notes on, 83. 

Benton, Frank, The curious defenses con- 
structed by Melipona and Trigona, 18; 
The Death's-head moth in relation to 
honey-bees, 60 ; Shorter communica- 
tions, 160, 169, 292. 

Blissus leuoopterus. Distribution of, 224. 

Brathinus, Note on, 10; calif omicus n. sp., 
11. 

Califomia, Notes from, 250. 

Carpocapsa pomonella, Futher note on, 228. 

Centrodora, Notes on the genus, 9; clisio> 

campaen. sp., 10. 
CerambycldaB, Notes on food-habits of, 95. 
Oeresa bubalus and C. tauriua. Eggs of, 88. 
Cerocephala, Synopsis of, 31 ; pityophthori 

n. sp., 32 ; scolytivora n. sp., 33. 
OhaBtopsila, 34. 
Ohalcis oyanea, 106. 
Chittenden, F. H., On the habits of some 

Longicoms, 95 ; A Leaf-beetle of the 

Golden Bod, 273. 
Chrysobothris femorata, 92. 
Chrysomela flavomarginata, 9. 
Cicada, Mouth-parts of, 241 ; septendecim, 

Larval history of, 115. 
Cicindela severa, 194 ; striga, 194. 
Clerus formicarius, 193. 
CoccidsB, Destroyed by fimgus disease, 180, 

181; Distribution of, 173; Hibernation 

of, 67 : Notes on, 65. 
Coccinellidie, Importation of coccidiphagous, 

251. 
Cockerell, T. D. A., Communications by, 

127, 173. 
Codling moth. Further note on, 228. 
Cold, Effect of, on insects, 27, 279. 
Coleoptera of Alaska, 170 ; Collections made 

in the Northwest, 17 ; Exhibition of rare 

N. A. species, 17 ; Malformation iu, 39 ; 

Melsheimer's Catalogue of, 134 ; Method 

of mounting small, 146 ; Termitophilous 

and myrmecophilous, 73. 
Coleopterous enemy of Corydalis comntus, 

310. 



338 



INDEX. 



Colorado potato beetle, Distribution of, 202. 

Colors, Their use to insects in the struggle 
for existence, 139. 

Commensalim, 3. 

Cook, O. F., Communication by, 808. 

Coquillett, D. W., On the nesting habits of 
the digger-wasp, Bembex cinerea, 236; 
A new Dipterous genus related to 
Gnoriste, 321. 

Cordyceps clavatula, 180. 

Coriscus flavomarginatus, 292. 

Gorthylus columbiauus n. sp., 104; Food- 
habits and galleries of, 105, 107, 188. 

Coruco, a Hemipteron infesting poultry in 
New Mexico, 40. 

Gorydalis comutus, A coleopterous enemy 
of, 310. 

Criocerls asparagi. Distribution of, 222, 286. 

Crustacea, Do they belong within the do- 
main of entomoliglcal Journals 7 183. 

Cryptogastri, Table of subfamilies, 175. 

Gryptorhopalun triste, l4urva of, 146. 

Crypturgus alutaoeus, n. sp., 17. 

Culex puBgens, 316. 

CynipidSB, Ovlposition in, 254. 



Davis, O. C, Communication by, 12. 

Death's-head moth in relation to honey- 
bees, 60. 

Degeneration, by disuse, of organs in 
spiders, 26. 

Derniestes larva on a corpse, 320, 

Dlatrsea saccharalis. Distribution of, 224. 

Diptera as carriers of contagious diseases, 

179. 
Distribution, Gray's law of, 253; of some 

injurious insects, 219, 222, 284 ; of cer- 
tain species of Mytilaspls, 319. 

Donacia, Note on the ovipositor of, 24. 

Doryphora 10-liueata, 139; Distribution of, 
222. 

Driver-ants in Liberia, 303. 

DroBophila living within the mouth of a 
crab, 184. 

Eciton, 303. 

Elasmiua), Peculiar structural feature in, 13. 

£la8mo8oma,Dlscovery of the genus, in North 
America, 280; bakeri u. sp., 282; per- 
gaudei u. sp. , '283 ; schwarzii u. sp. , 283. 

Eutomological Society of Washington, 
Election of offlcorH for 1894, 94 ; Review 
of tht! work of, 161. 

Epidapus scabiei ii. sp., 152. 

Eiuloxima traiiHvt'rsa, 138. 

Eugnormte u. geu.,321; occidentalis u. sp., 
322. 



Eupachylomma n. g., 58; Havodncta n. 

sp., 59. 
Eutermes morio, 160 ; rippertii, 160. 
Buura pertiurbanB, 266. 

Femow, B. E., Conmiunicstion by, 103. 
Fig-insects, Exhibition of, 182. 
Fleas, Structural characters of month-parts, 
38. 



Galeruca xanthomeliena. Distribution of, 223. 

Qallerucella amerioana, life-history of, 273. 

Gall-making nematids, 264, 266. 

GastrosphaBria, 46. 

Geographical distribution, »ee Distribution. 

Gill, Dr. Theo. N., Communication by, 188L 

Gononotus angullcollis, 68. 

Gopher insects, 299, 801. ' 

Gossamer spiders' web, 191. 

Gray's law of distribution, 263. 



Heidemann, Otto, CommnnicationB by, 53, 
94, 106, 148, 292, 817. 

Hemipeplus marginipennis, 193. 

Hemiptera, Mouth-parts of, 241 ; Phylogeny 
of, 185 ; Bare species found near Wash- 
ington, 143. 

Hibernation of nematids, 263. 

Hlppelates pusio, 178. 

Hopkins, Prof. A. D., Note on the discovery 
of a new Scolytid, with brief description 
of the species, 104 ; Notes on food-habits 
of Corthylus punctatissimus, 106 ; Notes 
on the habits of certain Mycetophilids, 
Mrith descriptions of Epidapus scabiei, 
sp. nov., 149 ; Shorter communications, 
82, 107, 138, 19a 

Howard, L. O., A peculiar structural feature 
of the Elasminn, 13 ; Note on the mouth- 
X>arts of Stenopelmatus, 102 ; A Review 
of the work of the Entomological Society 
of Washington during the first ten years 
of its existence, 161 ; On Gossamer 
Spiders' Web, 191 ; Notes on the geo- 
graphical distribution within the U. S. of 
certain insects injuring cultivated crops, 
219; Arrhenophagus in America, 239; A 
Coleopterous enemy of Corydalis oomu- 
tus, 310 ; Shorter communications, ISO, 
292, 316. 

Hubbard, H. G., Note on Brathinus, 10; 
The Ovlposition of Melitara prodenialls 
Walker, 129 ; Additional uotes on the 
insect guests of the Florida land tor- 
toiBc, 299; Some insects which brave 



INDEX. 



339 



the dangers of the Pitcher-plant, SU ; 

On the distribution of certain species of 

Mytilaspis [author's abstract], 819; 

Shorter communications, 9, 139, 182, 184, 

193, 291, 318. 
Hyleccetus brasdliensis, 181 ; lugubris, 82. 
Uymenoptera, Further note on the structure 

of the ovipositor in, 142; Important 

structural characters of parasitic, 202; 

of Jamaica, 127 ; Phylogeny of, 323. 

Ichneumonidn, Arrangement of subfamilies 
and tribes, 277; Structure of mouth- 
IMurts, 278. 

Injurious insects. Distribution of some, 2S4. 

luquilinous Nematids, 266, 267. 

Insecticides, Discussion on, 103. 

Insects, Apparatus for examining alcoholic 
specimens, 193; Associated with the 
Florida land tortoise, 299 ; Braving the 
dangers of the pitcher-plant, 314 ; Col- 
lection of, at the Michigan Agricultural 
College, 12 ; Collecting in Africa, 303 ; 
Distribution of injurious species, 219, 
284 ; Distribution of, in the West Indies, 
128 ; Effect of cold on, 27, 279 ; Found 
on corpses, 320; Importation of bene- 
ficial, 261 ; Longevity in, 108 ; Number 
of species described, 203 ; Relative size 
in the two sexes, 147 ; Retardation in de- 
velopment, 121 ; Use of colors to, in the 
struggle for existence, 139 ; Phylogeny 
of, 327. 

Isocrates vulgaris, 29. 

Isodontia azteca, 46 ; philadelphica, 316, 316. 

Isosoma tritici. Distribution of, 224. 

Ixodidffi figured by Dr. Marx, 199. 

Johnson, C. W., Communication by, 63. 



Eoebele, A., Results of his second mission to 
Australia, 260. 



Lachnostema, Further notes on, 64. 
Leaf -beetle of the Golden Rod, 273. 
Liberia, Driver-ants in, 303. 
Liopterou, Notes on the genus, 174 ; Synopsis 

of species, 176 ; fenestratumn. sp., 177 ; 

rufumn. sp., 178 ; tarsals u. sp., 177. 
Loganius flcus n. sp., 44. 
Longevity in insects, 106. 
Longicoms, On the habits of some, 96. 
Lycosa in pitchers of Sarraceula, 316. 
LygsBUs kalmii, 106 ; turcicus, 106. 



Lymexylon navale, 181 ; sericeum, 181. 
Lysiognatha n. g., 276; comstockil n. sp., 
276. 

Macrostola iutea, 182. 

Margarodes, Notes on, 148, 172. 

Marlatt, C. L., Neuriation on the wings of 
TenthredinidA, 78; Further note on 
the structure of the ovipositor in 
Hymenoptera, 142; On the food-habits 
of Odynerus, 172; Further note on the 
Codling moth, 228; The American species 
of Scolioneura En w., 234; The Hemip- 
terous mouth, 241*; The hibernation of 
Nematids, and its bearing on inquUlnous 
species, 263 ; Shorter communication, 96. 

Marx, Dr. Geo., D^eneration by disuse of 
certain organs in spiders, 26 ; Continua- 
tion of the life-history of the Whip-tail 
scorpion, 64 ; Figures of Ixodidie [post- 
humous publication], 199; Shorter 
communication, 138. 

Marx, Dr. Geo., Obituary of, 196; Bibliog- 
raphy of, 199. 

Melipone, Exhibition of a living colony 
from Montserrat, W. I., 160; Curious 
defenses of, 18. 

Melitara prodenialis, Oviposition of, 129. 

Melsheimer's Catalogue of the Coleoptera of 
Pennsylvania, 134. 

Mosquitoes, habits of, 316. 

Murgantia histrionica. Distribution of, 288. 

Mutillid8B, generic differences in, 318. 

Mutualism, 3. 

Mycetophilids, Notes on the habits of, 149. 

Myrmecophilous Coleoptera, 74. 

Mytilaspis, Distribution of certain species 
of, 319; citricola, 319; gloveri, 319; 
pomorum, 320. 

Nematids, Hibernation of, 263. 

Nematus fur, 267 ; mendicus, 267 ; quercicola, 
266. 

Neuration of the wings of TenthrediuidaB, 
78. 

Nomaretus, Synopsis of, 269 ; hubbardi n. 
sp., 272; incompletus n. sp., 271. 

Odynerus, Food-habits of, 172. 

OonopidaB, A remarkable species of, 138. 

Ophionectra coccicola, 280. 

Orange Insects, Effect of cold on, 279. 

Omithodorus americanus, 199. 

Osborn, Herbert, The Phylogeny of Hemip- 
tera, 186 . 

Oviposition in GynipidsB, 254; in Hymen- 
optera, Further note on, 142. 



340 



INDEX. 



OxyporuB 6>punctfttu8, Sexual characters 
of, 147. 

PachylommatoidsB, Notes on the family, 65. 

Paraltesthia, 30. 

Parasitic Hymenoptera, Some important 

structural characters of, 202. 
Parasitism, DeflnHion of, 1 ; Discussion on, 

7 ; Spurious, 4, 17. 
Patton, W. H., Notes upon wasps.— I, 46. 
Pelecinella, Its position among the Chal- 

cididsB, 230; howardi n. sp., 233; phan- 

tasma, 232 ; westwoodi n. sp., 233. 
Pepsis hesperiBB n. sp., 46; marginata, 47; 

sommeri, 47. 
Pergande, Theo.. Additional observations on 

the habits of Ammophila gryphus Sm., 

168. 
PhloBotribus frontalis in Paper mulberry, 

146. 

Photopsis, 318. 

Phylogeny of Hemiptera, 185 ; of Hymenop- 
tera, 323 ; of Hexapod Insects, 327. 

Pitcher-plant, Insects braving the dangers 
of, 314. 

Pityophthorus conii)erda n. sp., 144. 

Platypus, Borings of, in Orange wood, 291. 

Pontania, Notes on, 266 ; hospes, 266 ; inqui- 
lina, 266. 

Poulton, Prof. E. B., Communication by, 
139. 

Pristiphora sycophantsB, 267. 

Pterostichus covered with Laboulbenia, 94 ; 
Malformation in, 39. 

Pulicidffi, Structural characters of, 38. 



Betropiuma, new name, 183. 

Retroplumida, new family, 183. 

Rheumatobates rileyi, 317 ; tenuipes, 318. 

Rhodobaenus, Remarkable species of, 72. 

Rhopalosoma poeyi, 303. 

Rhopalosoraidffi, new family, 303. 

Rhynchoprium spinosum, 199. 

Riley, Dr. C. V., Further notes on Lachnos- 
terna, 64 ; Notes on Coccid®, 65 ; Notes 
upon Belostoma and Benacus, 83 ; The 
eggs of Ceresa bubalus Fabr. and those 
of C. taurina Fitch, 88; Presidential 
Address for 1893 : Longevity in Insects, 
108; Notes from California: Results of 
Mr. Koebele's second mission to Austra- 
lia, 250 ; On oviposition iu the Cyuipidte, 
254; Shorter commuuications, 92, 148, 
160, 172, 181, 182, 184. 

Riley, Dr. C. V., Obituary of, 293. 



Sarcophaga sarraceniiB, 316. 
Sarracenia flava, 314 ; psittacina, 316. 
Schistooerca americana. Distribution of, 226. 
Schwarz, E. A. , A " parasitic " Scolytid, 15 : 
Note on the oviposition of some species 
of Donacia, 24; Descriptions of two 
Rhynchophorous Coleoptera from semi- 
tropical Florida, 42; Additions to the 
lists of N. A. termitophilousandmyrme- 
cophilous Coleoptera. 73; Some notes 
on Melsheimer's Catalogue of the Coleop- 
tera of Pennsylvania, 134 ; Description 
of the pine-cone-iuhabiting Scolytid, 
143 ; Notes on Nomaretus, with descrip- 
tions of two new species, 269; Shorter 
remarks, 9, 39, 63, 72, 94, 145, 146, 147 
170, 171, 178, 194. 

Scolia impaled upon a thorn, 292. 

Scolioneura, The American species of, 234 ; 
canadensis n. sp., 236; populi n. sp., 
235. 

Scolytid, A " parasitic," 15 ; The pine-cone- 
inhabiting, 143. 

Scolytids infesting pine trees, 192. 

Serropalpus striatus, 82. 

Sexual characters. Value of, 93, 

Silpha lapponica, 9. 

Simulium, egg-laying habits, 317. 

Smith, Dr. John B., Communication by, 38. 

Sx)alangia, Synopsis of, 34 ; hsBinatobise n. 
sp., 37 ; rugosicollii n. sp., 86. 

SpalangiinaB, Synopsis of North America, 27. 

SphsBrius gibbioides, 39. 

Sphex philadelphica, 315, 316. 

Spiders, Degeneration by disuse of certain 
organs of, 26. 

Spiders' web. Gossamer, 191. 

Steniola edwardsii, 45. 

Stenopelmatus, Note on mouth-parts of, 102. 

Stenopelmus rufinasus, 185. 

Stiles, Dr. C. W., Parasitism, 1 ; Shorter re- 
marks, 127, 320. 

Swingle, W. T., Communication by, 279. 

TenthredinidflB, Neuration of the Mrings of, 

78. 
' Termite, A diurnal species of, 182. 
Termitophilous Coleoptera, 73. 
Thelyphonus gigauteus, 54. 
Timber-worms of West Virginia, 82. 
Townsend, C. H. Tyler, Note on the Coruco, 

a hemipterous insect which infests jwul- 

try in southern New Mexico, 40, 
Toxoneura, Synopsis of North America, 47 : 

calif ornica n. sp., 50; floridajia n. sp., 

50; pluto u. sp.,49. 



INDEX. 



341 



Trigona, Curious defenses of, 18. 
Trochlllum syriugie, 92. 



Webster, F. M., Notes on the distribution of 

some injurious insects, 284. 
Whip-tail scorpion, Life-history of, 64. 



Uratochelia, new order, 327. 



Wasps, Notes upon, 45. 



Xanthoptera ridingsii, 314 : seinicrooea, 314. 
Xyleborns, Borings of in Orange wood, 291 ; 

affinis, 171 ; perforans, 171 : xylographus 

318. 




CONTENTS OF THJ 



V (>F CUAliLES V. RlLSV jgQ 

i.Vf. li. : Rliopalosoraitiae, anew raraily of FouorinI Wasini, 
f 303; Aonual Address of the Prtsidenl: The Kiylogenj of tho 

, Hj-mnnoptera • 

- CnqptLtBTT, D. W, ; A new Oipteroua genus reUted to Gnoriste 

(IllugtrntedJ- 

How'Aiitj. L. O. ; & ColeopteroUB •jneroy of CorjdaJU cornutuB JH?| 

HVBDARD. H.G.i Additional notes on the msect guests of the Florida 
Land TortoiBe. 199; Some iiikects which brave the dangers of the 
Pilcher-pliint, 314; On the distribution of cerlain species of 
M^liliieplB [aulhoi'* abstract] , - 311) 






hj^-i^i^^:-^-