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JULY 28, 29, 30 and 3L 1915 



C I.ARBNCK BDWAUI) 1IK.\I.1>, Hrcrrtary 

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 
in 2009 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 







JULY 28-31, 1915 













Title Page 

Section I — Historical 

1 . Foreword i 

by James A. Ban 

2. History of Organization 3 

by ^outwell T^unlap 

Section II — Proceedings 

1 . Summary of Proceedings 8 

2. Minutes of Sessions __ 20 

Section III — Papers and Addresses 

n chroDcJogical order as read. 

I. "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race"__ 33 
by Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu 

2. " Genealogical Records of the Maori of New Zealand " 

With tables 46 

by Elsdon Best 

3. " Genealogy of the Native Hawaiians" 58 

by Bruce Cartwright, Jr. 

4. " Genealogical Charts " (Summary of exhibit) 60 

by Sarah Louise Kimball 

3. " The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics" . 63 

by Paul Popenoe 

6. " Genealogical Research Among Descendents of the Mayflower 

Emigrants " 79 

by Herbert Folger 

7. " The Study of Genealogy and Its Place in the Affairs of Human 

Society " 81 

by Charles G. Finney Wilcox 

8. "The House Restored" 91 

by Marian Longfellow 

9. " Genealogical Research in Denmark " 95 

by Th. Hauch-Fausboll 

10. " Letter from Siam " 99 

V. Frankfurter 

11. ' President's Address" (Commemorative Session) 100 

by Frank. Heroey Pettingell 

12. " Address of Welcome " (Commemorative Session) 101 

by Coloin B. Brown 

13. " Response and Acceptance of Commemorative Medal " 103 

by Henry B^ron Phillips 






The International Congress of Genealogy, which held its meet- 
ings in the Exposition Memorial Auditorium at the Civic Center 
of San Francisco, July 28th, 29th and 30th, 1915, was conceived 
in the active circles of the California Genealogical Society in the 
autumn of 1912. From the day of its conception, the idea grew 
within that Society and soon a committee composed of its most 
active members was working in full harmony with the Bureau 
of Conventions and Societies of the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition to get in touch with the leading genealogists of the 
v/orld and with the chief genealogical, historic, patriotic and 
family organizations to induce their co-operation and affiliation. 

The Congress was held at the time originally outlined, was 
composed of delegates representing sixty-six (66) organizations 
from various portions of the United States and from other coun- 
tries, which named 297 delegates to attend and participate in the 
Congress. It was generally conceded by those attending or taking 
an interest in the Congress, that it was more widely representa- 
tive, truer to its original purpose, and more successful in the cul- 
mination of its conceded sentiment than any first gathering of 
world organizations ever held. 

The International Congress of Genealogy appealed to no mer- 
cenary or commercial spirit, but was a worthy attempt by the 
promoters to delve deep into the sentiment of those upholding 
truths of the past, in a first attempt to get them to assemble, to 
agree upon certain methods of endeavor, to perfect standards of 
work and records, to exclude the spurious, the ill-gotten and the 
unproved, to exchange vieAVs regarding more systematic procedure, 
ind to consider the value or relative importance of heraldry, 
eugenics and other problems seeming to have connection with 


All this was accomplished with little excitement and dissent 
during the three days' gathering and all present felt that their 
highest expectation had been accomplished by the appointment of a 
competent committee of three to make the work and the organiza- 
tion permanent, by taking adequate steps to organize the Interna- 
tional Genealogical Federation. 

It is hoped and believed by all those participating, that such 
wise and safe steps will be taken by the experienced men chosen 
for the task and by the persistent and timely activities carried on 
by the competent secretary chosen, that as a result of the First In- 
ternational Congress of Genealogy, an International Genealogical 
Federation will be organized, which will not only attract the co- 
operation of all deserving genealogical, historical and family organ- 
izations, but will so arrange the meetings, as to time and place, as 
to result in continued attendance, greater interest and the achieve- 
ment of every worthy desire. 


Orra E. Monnette 

Miss Carlie Inez Tomlinson 

Hon. Boutwell Dunlap 

Henry B. Phillips 

Mrs. Lydia Lucelia Gillogly 

Jas. a. Barr 






Being named to give a history of the organization of the Inter- 
national Congress of Genealogy that its record may not be incom- 
plete, the writer proposed in the summer of 1912 to the Hon. James 

A. Barr, Director of Congresses of the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition, that invitations be »^xtended by the Exposition to all 
genealogical, historical, family and eugenic societies and organiza- 
tions to hold their general and annual meetings at about the same 
time at the Exposition and that they name delegates for a general 
congress to meet at the same time to consider subjects of related 
interest. Mr. Barr expressed his approval of the plan, but thought 
that additional results would be secured if his department should 
have the co-operation of the California Genealogical Society, where- 
upon Mr. Barr was invited to address the Society on October 5, 
1915. However, it is particularly to Mr. Barr and his department 
at the Exposition and to the California Genealogical Society, 
through its members and committee, that the credit for organizing 
and making effective the plan is entirelj* due. 

After Mr. Barr's address, invitations were extended jointly by 
the President and Directors of the Exposition and President Henry 

B. Phillips of the California Genealogical Society, upon behalf of 
the Society, to various genealogical and historical societies to hold 
their meetings in San Francisco. A few weeks later, on December 
7, 1912, owing to the fact that the writer had emphasized the 
biological aspects of genealogy, he "was given," say the minutes 
of the Society, "full power to invite any eugenic society to meet in 
conjunction with the genealogical, historical and family associations 
at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition and to work in con- 
junction with Doctor David Starr Jordan to bring the International 
Eugenics Congress to San Francisco during the Exposition." 

Invitations to organizations by this time had aroused much in- 
terest both among their members and in the press. Eventually 
about twenty-five of such organizations held their meetings in San 
Francisco at some period during the Exposition. At the same time 
these invitations were being issued, a large number of letters to 
persons and organizations asking for suggestions as to the proposed 
congress were sent out. 


Upon April 5, 1913, the Society resolved that President Phillips 
appoint a "Committee upon the Organization of an International 
Congress of Genealogy and Eugenics." President Phillips named 
the following members of the Society upon this Committee : Orra 
E. Monnette, chairman, James A. Barr, Boutwell Dunlap, Mrs. 
Lydia Lucelia Gillogly, Henry B. Phillips, Miss Carlie Inez Tom- 
linson, secretary. 

In order not to conflict with eugenic organizations and eugenics, 
the Committee finally decided that the name of the Congress be 
restricted to the International Congress of Genealogy and that such 
a Congress be held. However, its date was so arranged that the 
Congress was to meet during the week beginning Monday, July 26, 
1915, succeeding the week in which the American Historical Asso- 
ciation met and preceding the week of the annual meeting of the 
American Genetic Association and the Second International Con- 
ference on Race Betterment — all at the Exposition. 

The Committee decided that at the Congress official delegates 
be limited to two from each society, association or organization with 
one hundred members or less, with an additional delegate for each 
one hundred members or fraction thereof. Invitations to name such 
delegates to the Congress were thereupon issued by President Henry 
B. Phillips upon behalf of the Society and its Committee. 

The Committee announced by circular distributed to all nations, 
again inviting suggestions that the tentative subjects for discussion 
by the Congress, would be : " (a) The relation between genealogical 
investigations and eugenics; (b) The establishment of a National 
Bureau of Heraldry in the United States, to become a recognized 
and accepted authority; (c) The establishment of a bureau wherein 
genealogists of standing shall be permitted to register so that a 
certain stamp of official approval may be placed upon their work; 
(d) Action looking to a uniform publication of the historical and 
vital records of various counties and States now unpublished, and 
the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records as part of 
Governmental records at Washington, similar to the records in the 
General Register Office, Somerset, London, England." 

The names of three hundred and ten societies and over two thou- 
sand specialists or individuals peculiarly interested in the subjects 
of the Congress were collected and corresponded with throughout 
the world. This correspondence has been preserved in the archives 
of the Exposition and contains much valuable suggestive material 
for use by the International Genealogical Federation. 

Never has the preliminary correspondence for the organization 
of the first meeting of a congress been more thoroughly covered. 
Thousands of letters were .sent and received. The writer cannot 



allow the occasion to pass without expressing the indebtedness of all 
to the Hon. James A. Barr and his Bureau of the Exposition for 
this result. Had not the war intervened — as is shown by the letters 
of those organizations and individuals who expressed themselves 
before its outbreak as intending to be i*epresented by delegates or 
in person, but who after its beginning gave notice of their inability 
to attend — both foreign and domestic representation would have 
been much larger than it was. 








The Congress met at San Francisco on July 28, 1915. Sessions 
were held during four days: July 28, 29, 30 and 31. 

Mr. Orra E. Monnette acted as Temporary Chairman pending 
the formation of a regular organization ; the Congress organized by 
electing the following officers : 

President, Mr. Frank Ilervey Pettingell. 

Secretary, Mr. Clarence Edward Ilcald. 

Assistant Secretary, Miss C. I. Tomlinson. 

Such committees as were required to handle the affairs of the 
Congress were appointed from time to time. A list of all Com- 
mittees is given on a later page. 

The following organizations were represented by delegates: 

1. National Society, Americans of Royal Descent. 

2. The Society for the Preservation of New England An- 
tiquities, Inc. 

3. College of Arms & Scigneurial Court of Canada. 

4. The Edward Bangs Descendants. 



5. The Bates Association, 

6. Descendants of James Burton of Dent, Yorkshire, England. 

7. California Genealogical Society. 

8. Child Family Association. 

9. The Doane Family Association of America. 

10. The Donegal Society of Lancaster County, Pa. 

11. Emery Family J^ sociation. 

12. Order of the T anders and Patriots of America. 

13. New Jersey Society of the Order of the Founders and 
Patriots of America. 

14. Frost Family Association of America. 

15. Society of Genealogists of London. 

16. The National Genealogical Society. 

17. Goodwin Family Association. 

18. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

19. Society of the Descendants of Pilgrim John Howland of 
the Ship Mayflower, 

20. The Huguenot Society of America. 

21. American Irish Historical Society, California Chapter. 

22. Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo. 

23. The Jewett Family of America. 

24. Kimball Family Association of California. 

25. The Lindsay Family Association of America, Inc. 

26. Maine Genealogical Society. 

27. Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of California. 

28. Old Plymouth Colony Descendants Society. 

29. Parker Historical and Genealogical Association, 

30. Solomon Peirce Family Association. 

31. Pike Family Association. 

32. National Society of the Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims. 

33. Edmund Rice Descendants, 

34. Daughters of the American Revolution, California Society. 

35. Sons of the Revolution (National Society). 

36. Society, Sons of the Revolution in the State of California. 

37. California Society, Sons of the American Revolution. 

38. The Robinson Genealogical Society. 

39. The Smalls of America, 

40. Tower Genealogical Society. 

41. The Genealogical Society of Utah. 

42. The Stone-Jones Genealogical Society, 

43. The Order of Washington, ' 


44. National Womans' Relief Society (Genealogical Extension 

45. Wilcox and Allied Families. 

46. ^Mitchell Family Association. 

In addition to the above list the following societies recognized 
the Congress by appointing delegates. Many of these delegates, 
though unable to be present, sent messages of good will: 

47. Society of the Descendants of Robert Bartlet of Plymouth, 

48. Bicknell Family Association. 

49. Nathaniel Brewster Familj' Association. 

50. The Captain Deliverance Browne Association. 

51. Colonial Daughters. 

52. American Society of Colonial Families. 

53. Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. 

54. Descendants of John Folsom. 

55. Western Hampden Historical Society, Inc. 

56. Marshfield Historical Society. 

57. The Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pa. 

58. Historical Society of New Mexico. 

59. The Irvine Society of America. 

60. Louisiana Historical Society. 

61. The McDowell Clan. 

62. Missouri Society, Sons of the Revolution. 

63. The Colonel Daniel Putnam Association, Inc. 

64. The Shedd Family Association. 

65. Underhill Society of America. 

66. Worcester Family Association. ; 



Following is the list of delegates present (numbers refer to 
preceding list of societies) : 

Name. Society. 

Mrs. Inez Knight Allen (41) 

Lewis Anderson (41) 

Nephi Anderson (41 ) 

Mark Austin (41) 

Mrs. Gertrude L. Baerd (44) 

George Anderson Bangs (4) 

Miss Minerva Leantine Barker (42) 

! Mrs. Vincy R. Stone Barker (42, 44) 

James L. Barr ( 7 ) 

Mrs. Clara M. Bartholomew (42) 

Henry L. Bates ( 5 ) 

Louisa B. Benson (44) 

James Blake (41) 

• Thomas Edward Bond (24) 

Mrs. Anna Borland (34) 

R. L. Bybee (41) 

■ Miss Lillian Cameron (41) 

Annie Wells Cannon (44) 

Mrs. Harriet Dudley Chapman ( 7 ) 

Unity Chappel (44) 

Joseph Christenson (41) 

Lucy Clapper (23) 

Mrs. D. H. Colcord ( 2 ) 

Mrs. Nathan Cole (34) 

Mrs. Sarah Pike Conger (31) 


Etta Pearl Dam (30) 

Francis Herbert Dam (30) 

Miss Edna May Davis (44) 

Jeremiah Deasy (21) 

Willis Milnor Dixon (13, 35, 58) 

George How.ird Robinson Doane ( 9 ) 

Mrs. ThoT^ IS B. Dozier (34) 

James Du worth (41) 

Boutwell Dunlap ( 7 ) 

J. M. Eddy (28) 

Jane Jennings Eldredge (44) 

Miss Jessie F. Emery (11, 18) 

Mrs. S. A. Mitchell Farr (46) 

Walter H. Faunce (28) 

Herbert Folger (27) 

Mrs. Susanna Pike French (31, 34) 

Norman S. Frost (14, 33) 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates (18, 41) 

Heber J. Grant (41) 

Lenora T. Harrington (44) 

Clarence E. Heald (31) ' 

Aroetta Hale Holgate (44) 

Miss Mabel Hoyt ( 4, 14) 

Mrs. Janette A. Hyde (44) 

Miss Annis C. Jewett (23) ' 

A. E. Jewett (23) 

E. L. Jewett (23) 

George A. Jewett (23, 18) 

J. M. Jewett (23) 

Mrs. Jessie P. Jones (41) 

I\riss Sarah Louise Kimball (17, 24, 27) 

Hilda H. H. Larson (44) 

Anna Jewett LeFevre (23) 

James W. Lesueur (41) 

Mrs. C. F. Lewis (34) 

Edwin B. Lindsay (25) 

Mrs. Amy B. Lyman (44) 

Annie Lynch (44) 

Mrs. J. C. Lynch (34) 

Mrs. Walter Damon Mansfield (1, 15) 


ixeorgina G. Marriott (44) 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune (41, 44) 

Elizabeth C. McDonald (44) 

Miss Sarah M. McLillard (44) 

Frederick A. H. F. Mitchell (41, 46) 

Orra Eugene Monnette (3, 12, 13, 20, 38, 43) 

John Tower Morrison (40) 

N. Murakami (22) 

B. M, Newcomb (2, 27) 

R. C. O'Conner '(21) 

Miss Susanne R. Patch (34) 

Mrs. George W. Percy (26) 

T. A. Perkins (37) 

Frank Hervey Pettingell (2, 36, 18) 

Henry Byron Phillips (16, 32) 

Miss Catherine G. Pike (31) 

Alvin Plummer (7) 

Frank T. Pomeroy (41) 

A. P. Renstrom (41 ) 

William B. Rice (33) 

Joseph E, Robinson (41) 

Frederick Scholes (41) * 

Artemesia Segmiller (44) 

Joseph F. Smith Jr (41) 

Mercy R. Stevens (44) 

Mrs. Emily W. Stockdale (18) 

Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas (44) 

Mrs. Elisha Tibbits (10, 34) 

Mrs. Lora A. Underbill (39, 18) 

James B. Walkley (41) 

Miss Miriam K. Wallis (20) 

Mrs. Edmund Cottle Weeks (38) 

Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells (44) 

Miss Elizabeth A. Wilbur (19) 

Charles G. Finney Wilcox (45) 

Mrs. Elizabeth Wilcox (44) 

Mrs. B. S. Wilkins (34) 

Laura N. Williams (44) 

Lily Wostenholm (44) 

Mrs. Daniel R. Wood (34) 



The following papers were read : 

"Genealogical Records of the Maori of New Zealand," by 
Elsdon Best, Wellington Philosophical Society, Wellington, 
New Zealand. 

"Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race," 
by Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu. 

"Genealogy of the Native Hawaiians," by Bruce Cartwright Jr., 
Ph. B.^ of Honolulu. 

"The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics," by Paul 
Popenoe. American Genetic Association, Editor of "Journal 
of Heredity." 

' ' The Study of Genealogy and Its Place in the Affairs of Human 
Society," by Charles G. Finney Wilcox of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

"Genealogical Research Among Descendants of Mayflower Im- 
migrants, ' ' by Herbert Folger of the Society of Mayflower Descend- 
ants in the State of California. 

The following papers, prepared for the Congress, were ordered 
printed with the other proceedings as they were either not received 
in time or for some other reason could not be included in the pro- 
gram as presented : 

"The House Restored," by Marian Longfellow of The Descend- 
ants of Robert Bartlet, Esq., of Plymouth, Massachusetts, 

"Genealogical Research in Denmark," by Th. Hauch-FausboU, 
Dansk Genealogisk Institut, Copenhagen. 

The addresses delivered at the Commemorative Session at Re- 
cital Hall, Exposition Grounds, were : 

President's Address, by ]\Ir. Frank H. Pettingell, President 
of the Congress. 

Address of Welcome and Presentation of Medal by Mr. Colvin 
B. Brown of the Board of Directors of the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition. 

Response and Acceptance of Medal by Mr. Henry B. Phillips of 
the California Genealogical Society. 




Perhaps the most important action of the Congress was that 
looking to the perpetuation of its activities through the organiza- 
tion of an International Genealogical Federation, the objects of 
which will be : 

a. To collect, preserve and render available genealogical 

and historical records. 

b. To procure legislation establishing adequate systems of 

collecting and maintaining vital statistics and 

c. To secure the establishment of an international bureau 

for the registration of pedigrees, coats-of-arms, etc. 

It is proposed that such Federation include the following classes 
of membership: 

a. Genealogical organizations. 

b. Historical organizations. 

c. Family associations. 

d. Individual membership. 

The details of the actual organization of this Federation are 
entrusted to the following Organization Committee, which was 
given full power to act on behalf of the Congress, including power 
to add to the membership of the committee : 

Mr. Henry B. Phillips, delegate from the National Genealogical 
Society, GJiairman. 

Mr. Orra E. INIonnette, delegate from the Huguenot Society of 

Mr. B. M. Newcomb, delegate from the Society for the Preserva- 
tion of New England x^ntiquities. 

Mr. Clarence E. Heald, delegate from the Pike Family Associa- 
tion, Secretary and Custodian. 



A resolution was passed meuiorializing' the United States Gov- 
ernment to the following effeet : 

To take such steps as may be necessary to establish and 
maintain a National Bureau of Registration of Vital 
Statistics, either by enlarging the scope of the Bureau of 
the Census or the establishment of a new department. 

Such Bureau to make and file copies of all authentic 
vital statistics now on record in the various counties of the 
entire country. 

That the Congress of the United States enact lavv's mak- 
ing compulsory the registration of adequate vital statistics 
throughout the country. 
A committee was appointed with Dr. Alvin Plumnier of San 
Francisco at its head, to further the principles expressed in the 
above resolution. 

With a special view to making the registration of voters of more 
value to the searcher of genealogical data, the following resolution 
was adopted: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all 
Public Record blanlcs be so changed as to provide actual 
date and place of birth, marriage and death, father's name 
and mother's maiden name wherever age and country or 
state is now required. 

The following resolution was passed, exemplifying the atti- 
tude of the Congress toward the use of genealogical data in 
working out the problems of eugenics: 

Resolved, That one of the objects of the International 
Genealogical Federation shall be the collection and pres- 
ervation of genealogical data for eugenic purposes and 
that the committee of organization of said International 
Genealogical Federation is hereby instructed to provide 
for the collection and preservation of said genealogical 
data for eugenic purposes. 



During the sessions of the Congress the following Votes of 
Thanks were passed (given in chronological order) : 

To Mr. Kiang Shao Chiian Kang-Hu for preparing, and Mr. 
Henry B. Phillips for rendering into English, an able paper 
on "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese 
Race. ' ' 

To the California Genealogical Society for their delightful en- 
tertainment of the visiting delegates at the Fairmont Hotel 
on Thursday, July 29, 1915. 

To Mr. H. B. Phillips and his able co-workers who have prepared 
the programs and arranged the sessions of this Congress. 

To Mr. Frank H. Pettingell, the President, and Mr. Clarence E. 
Heald, the very efficient Secretary of the Congress for the 
able and courteous manner in which they have managed the 
affairs of the Congress. 

To Miss Sarah Louise Kimball, one of the foremost genealo- 
gists of the Pacific Coast, for her distinguished work in 
preparing the way for this Congress and aiding in the success 
of its sessions. 

To all those in foreign lands who had contributed papers, with 
instructions to the Secretary to write them notifying them 
of this action and expressing our appreciation. 

To Professor N. Murakami for his courteous promise to con- 
tribute an article on Genealogy in Japan to be printed with 
the proceedings of the Congress. 


The money required to meet current expenses of the Congress 
was raised by means of an assessment of $1.00 on each of the 
societies or organizations represented; thirty-four out of the forty- 
six paid this on the day the assessment was announced. 



The officers and committees of the Congress were as follows: 


President — Mr. Frank Hervey Pettingell of Los Angeles, Cal. 
Secretary — Mr. Clarence Edward Heald of San Francisco, Cal. 
Assistant Secretary — Miss Carlie Inez Tomlinson of San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 


On Credentials — 

Clarence E, Heald, Chairman. 
Miss C. I. Tomlinson. 

On Program — 

Henry B. Phillips, Chairman. 

B. M. Newcomb. 

Mrs. Susa Y. Gates. 

Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill. 

Miss Jessie F. Emery. 

On Ways and Means — 

Joseph F. Smith Jr., Chairmar 

Willis M. Dixon. 

Norman S. Frost. 

Mrs. Isaac N. Chapman. 

T. Edward Bond. 

On Permanent Organization — 

Orra E. Monnette, Chairman. 

B. M. Newcomb. 

Joseph F. Smith Jr. 

Mrs. Lora A, W. Underbill. 

Mrs. W. D. Mansfield. 

Mrs, Susa Y. Gates. 

Mrs. B. S. Wilkins. 

Mrs. I. N. Chapman. 

T. A. Perkins. 

On Establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Statistics-— 
Dr. Alvin Plummer, Chairman. 
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates. 
Henry B. Phillips. 
Clarence E. Heald. 
Orra E. Monnett«. 
T. A. Perkins. 
B. H. Newcomb. 



Delegate from the National Qenealogical Society. 


Delegate from the Huguenot Society of America. 


Delegate from the Society for the Preservation of 

New England Antiquities 

Its Secretary and Custodian is; 

.1215 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 


i<¥^«@ i^m mmm.m,^^m.i 




WEDNESDAY, JULY 28. 1915, 10:30 A. M. 

The Congress was called to order by ]\Ir. Henry Byron Phillips, 
President of the California Genealogical Society, who introduced 
Mr, Orra Eugene Monnette as Temporary Chairman. 

Mr. Monnette took the chair, and named i\Ir. Clarence E. Heald, 
Temporary Secretary, and Miss C. I. Tomlinson, Temporary As- 
sistant Secretary. 

In a brief and appropriate address Mr. Monnette then extended 
a warm greeting to all the delegates, informing them that no hard 
and fast program had been laid down for their proceedings, but 
that on the contrary the work of the Congress lay entirely in their 
own hands. 

A motion was made to the effect that the temporary organization 
be made permanent ; Mr. Monnette declared that while he appre- 
ciated the honor conferred upon him, it would be impossible for 
him to accept the Presidency of the Congress because his business 
engagements would permit him to remain in the city but two of the 
three days set for its sessions. 

Mr. H. B. Phillips moved that Mr. Frank Hervey Pettingell 
be named President. The motion was seconded by ]Mr. Norman S. 
Frost, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Pettingell took the chair and after expressing his appre- 
ciation of the action of the Congress called upon Mr. James A. 
Barr, Director of Congresses of the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition, for a few remarks. 

Mr. Barr told briefly of the inception and growth of the plans 
for this Congress, stating that sixty societies had notified him that 
they had named delegates. He also declared this to be the first 
International Congress of Genealogy ever held in America, as well 
as the first genealogical meeting to receive recognition from an in- 
ternational exposition and a place on its program. Among the 852 
bodies meeting here during the Exposition year twenty-five are 
genealogical organizations. On behalf of the Exposition he extended 
a cordial invitation to all to visit and study the World University 
exemplified by the Exposition itself. 



Hon. Joseph F. Smith Jr. was then introduced to the Congress. 
He expressed the thanks of the delegates to the Genealogical 
Society of California and to the Panama-Pacific International Ex- 
position for the invitation to all genealogical societies to gather 
here to further their mutual interests. He stated that one impor- 
tant thing to be considered was the system of arranging and re- 
cording genealogical data. There are now in use many systems and 
classifications ; some difficult and some simple. A uniform system 
would be a great advance in placing genealogical research on a 
better basis. Since we owe to our ancestors all that we are, there 
is due reason why we should honor and study them even though 
occasionally there may be one who is not entirely a credit to the 

Mr. H. B. Phillips moved that Mr. C. E. Heald be named Secre- 
tary of the Congress and Miss C. I. Tomlinson Assistant Secretary. 
The motion was seconded by Mr. N. S. Frost and carried. 

The President announced the appointment of ^Ir. Heald and 
Miss Tomlinson as Committee on Credentials. 

It was moved by Mr. J. M. Eddy that the list of delegates pre- 
pared by the Director of Congresses of the Exposition be tem- 
porarily accepted as official, the same to be subject to proper altera- 
tions and additions by the Credentials Committee. The motion was 
seconded by ]Mr. Phillips and carried. 

The Secretary tlien proceeded to call the roll of the delegates. 
Those present received appropriate badges. Of the sixty societies 
on the official list, twenty-eight were represented by delegates 
present: four more societies were added to the number through 
delegates recognized by the Credentials Committee, and one, the 
National Woman's Relief Society of Utah, by vote of the Congress 
upon motion of ^Irs. Elisha Tibbits, seconded by ]Mr. N. S. Frost. 
This raised the total number of societies represented by delegates 
at the first session of the Congress to thirty-three. 

The President named as a Program Committee : 
Mr. H. B. Phillips, Chairman. 
Mr. B. j\I. Newcomb, 
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates. 
Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill, 
^liss Jessie F. Emery. 

Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 2:30 
P. M. 

At the first session of the Congress, about three hundred per- 
sons were present, a number of them, although not delegates, being 
prominent genealogists. 


2:30 P. M. 

The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell. 

Mr. H. B. Phillips presented a report from the Program Com- 
mittee covering the schedule of meetings and the papers to be 
presented. Sessions are regularly to be held at 10:00 A. M. and 
2:30 P. M. 

The President announced a Committee on Ways and Means as 
follows : 

Hon. Joseph F, Smith Jr., Chairman. 

Mr. Willis Milnor Dixon. 

Mr. Norman S. Frost. 

Mrs. Isaac N. Chapman. 

Mr. T. Edward Bond. 

A paper on "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the 
Chinese Race" was read by Mr. H. B. Phillips. This paper was 
originally written in Chinese characters by Mr. Kiang Shao Chuan 
Kang-Hu and the translation made with the aid of Mr. Phillips. 
This paper was very impressive for its concise and able presentation 
of its big subject, covering the essential facts very completely. 

It was moved that we extend a vote of thanks to the author, 
and that Mr. Phillips be authorized to communicate to him our 
appreciation. This motion was amended to also express our thanki 
to Mr. Phillips for transcribing and reading this paper. The 
amendment being acceptable to the maker of the motion was incor- 
porated therewith, and the motion as amended was seconded and 

Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 10:00 
A. M., July 29, the members proceeding to the Grove street entrance 
of the Auditorium, where a group photograph Avas taken. 



The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell at 
10 :30 A. M. 

A report from the Committee on Ways and Means was pre- 
sented by its chairman, Hon, Joseph F. Smith Jr. The committee 
recommended that the immediate expenses of the Congress be 
provided for by assessing each organization represented the sum 
of one dollar. It was also recommended that the papers and pro- 


ceedings of this Congress be printed, a number of the Utah Geneal- 
ogical and Historical Magazine having been offered for the purpose 
without cost to the Congress. 

Upon motion by Mr. H. B. Phillips duly seconded it was voted 
that this report be accepted. 

A paper by Mr. Elsdon Best of the Wellington Philosophical 
Society of Wellington, New Zealand, on ' ' The Genealogical Records 
of the Maoris of New Zealand" was read by the Secretary. In 
this paper the Maori system of preserving orally the complete 
genealogical records of the race was clearly explained. 

The next paper presented was that of Mr. Bruce Cartwright Jr., 
on "The Genealogy of the Native Hawaiian Races." This paper, 
read by Mr. H. B. Phillips, outlined the system in use for many 
centuries in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The President appointed a Committee on Permanent Organiza- 
tion consisting of the following : 

Mr. Orra E. Monnette, Chairman. 

Mr. B. M. Newcomb. 

Mr. Joseph F. Smith Jr. 

Mrs. Susa Y. Gates. 

Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill. 

Mrs. W. D. Mansfield. 

Mr. T. A. Perkins. 

Mrs. I. N. Chapman. 

Mrs. B. S. Wilkins. 

Dr. Alvin Plummer moved that the following resolution be 
adopted : 

Ref;olved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all 
public record blanks be so changed as to provide actual 
date and place of birth, marriage and death wherever age 
and country or state is now required. 

This motion was seconded by Mrs. L. L. Gillogly. 

The discussion of the motion developed the fact that in present- 
ing this resolution Dr. Plummer had in mind particularly the 
blanks employed for the registration of voters. 

Upon motion duly seconded it was voted that this resolution 
be amended to provide that parentage (father's name and mother's 
maiden name) be also shown. 

The resolution as amended was then put to a vote and carried. 
It now stands as follows: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all 
Public Record blanks be so changed as to provide actual 
date and place of birth, marriage and death, father's name 
and mother's maiden name wherever age and country or 
state is now required. 


An extended discussion then took place on the qr.ostion of a 
permanent organization, the sentiment of the Congress finally 
being crystallized in the form of a motion that the Committee on 
Permanent Organization outline the general principles of such an 
organization, but that final and definite steps such as the prepara- 
tion of Constitution and By-Laws be placed in the hands of suit- 
able permanent committees empowered to carry on the work after 
the sessions of the present Congress are over. 

Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 2:30 
P. M. 


The Congress was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by President 

Mr. 0. E, Monnette as Chairman presented the report of the 
Committee on Permanent Organization as follows: 

Your committee on the organization of a permanent 
society of genealogy in the United States beg leave to re- 
port by recommending: 

1. That there shall be established an association or 
federation of genealogy to be either American or inter- 
national in its scope as shall be determined by a vote of 
this Congress, the name to include the word "Federation." 

2. That the scope of the work of this proposed Feder- 
ation shall include : 

a. Preservation and publication of historical and 
genealogical records. 

b. Procurement of legislation to establish systems 
of collecting and maintaining vital statistics and rec- 
ords, both national and local. 

c. Establishment of a national or international 
bureau of heraldry for the registration of pedigrees, 
coats-of-arms, etc. 

8. That this Congress appoint an Organization Com- 
mittee of three, with power to add to its membership, to 
continue in office after the adjournment of this Congress, 
and whose duties shall be to form a Constitution and 
By-Laws for the proposed Federation, determine its de- 
partments and all details of its establishment, the action 
of said committee to be final. Said committee shall also be 




entrusted v.'ith the papers, records and other data of this 
Congress and shall attend to the printing of the proceed- 
ings and all other matters relating to this Congress which 
may be left incomplete at the time of its adjournment. 

4. That this Congress recommend to said Organization 
Committee that the following classes of membership be 
constituted : 

a. Genealogical societies or organizations. 

b. Historical societies or organizations. 

c. Family associations. 

d. Individual membership. 

5. That this Congress recommend to said Committee 
that the representation in membership in the Federation 
shall be based upon organizations and not per capita, each 
being allotted the same numerical representation. Indi- 
viduals shall not have the right to vote as such, but shall 
have the privilege of the floor and participation in all dis- 
cussions and deliberations. 

It was moved by Dr. Alvin Plummer that this organization be 
perpetuated under the name "International Congress of Geneal- 
ogy." This motion was seconded by Mrs. L. L. Gillogly and after 
discussion was lost, the count of ayes and noes being taken by aid 
of a rising vote. 

It was moved by Mrs. Elisha Tibbits that the name of this 
society be "International Genealogical Federation." This motion 
was seconded by Mr. Monnette and carried. 

Upon motion duly seconded the report of the Committee on 
Permanent Organization was adopted. 

Mrs. L. L. Gillogly moved that the President of this Congress 
appoint the permanent Organization Committee provided by the 
plan just adopted; seconded by Mrs. Elisha Tibbits and carried. 

The President appointed as members of this Committee : 

H. B. Phillips, delegate from National Genealogical Society, 

O. E. Monnette, delegate from Huguenot Society of America. 

B. M. Newcomb, delegate from Society for the Preservation of 
New England Antiquities. 

Mr. 0. E, Monnette at the request of the President told the 
Congress something of the joint library established in Los Angeles 
by the Society of Colonial Wars and the Society, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, stating that any donations of appropriate documents or 
publications would be gratefully received by Mr. Willis M. Dixon, 
1200 Arapahoe Street, Los Angeles, the librarian. 


In response to a request from Rev. Henry L. Bates, the Secre- 
tary gave the names of the societies whose representatives had 
already paid him the amount of the assessment made by the Con- 
gress at its morning session of even date. 

The subject of Genealogical Charts was then introduced by Mr. 
H. B. Phillips, who presented a number of charts for the inspection 
of the Congress, also explaining the objects sought in their various 
methods of arrangement. 

Upon motion duly seconded the meeting was adjourned until 
10 :00 A. M., July 30, 1915. 


The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell at 
10:30 A. M. 

Dr. Paul Popenoe of the American Genetic Association of 
Washington, D. C., and editor of the "Journal of Heredity," read 
his paper on "The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics." 

Hon. Boutwell Dunlap stated that on hearing that Dr. Paul 
Popenoe was accessible for an address, he was pleased to ask to 
withdraw his name on the program for a paper on the relation of 
eugenics to genealogy in favor of Dr. Popenoe. In proposing the 
International Congress of Genealogy, Mr. Dunlap had hoped that 
one of its results might be the permission of genealogists to eugen- 
ists to use accumulated materials of the former ; until this was done 
there could not be much progress in "the breeding of the human 
race." He therefore proposed the following resolution: 

Resolved, That one of the objects of the International 
Genealogical Federation shall be the collection and pres- 
ervation of genealogical data for eugenic purposes and that 
the committee of organization of said International Gene- 
alogical Federation is hereby instructed to provide for the 
collection and preservation of said genealogical data for 
eugenic purposes. 

The motion was seconded by Mrs. S. Y. Gates and after dis- 
cussion was unanimously carried. 

Dr. Alvin Plummer moved the adoption of the following 
resolution : 

Whereas, From the foundation or discovery of this 
country to the present time there has been no systematic 
effort toward the establishment of a complete registration 
of vital statistics; and 


Whereas, The many different departments of the United 
States Government itself need such a compilation; and 

Whereas, The nucleus of such an institution is now in 
existence in the Bureau of the Census; and 

Whereas, Such a system can only be properly inaugu- 
rated and conducted by the government, which can make 
compliance with its requirements compulsory; and 

Whereas, The government can manage the details of 
such an undertaking more cheaply and more completely 
than can any other element; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the International Congress of Gene- 
alogy, in meeting assembled, hereby memorialize the United 
States Government to take such steps as may be necessary 
to establish and maintain a National Bureau of Registra- 
tion of Vital Statistics, either by an enlargement of the 
scope of the present Bureau of the Census or the establish- 
ment of a new department; and be it 

Resolved, That copies of all authentic vital statistics 
now on record in the various counties of this entire 
country be made and filed in accordance with up-to-date 
methods now in vogue; and be it further 

Resolved, That further laws be enacted by the Con- 
gress of the United States to make such registration here- 
after compulsory; and be it further 

Resolved, That the component parts of this Congress 
of Genealogy be and are hereby requested to use every 
personal and collective influence to accomplish this much 
to be desired result. 

The motion to adopt the above resolution was duly seconded 
and carried. 

It was moved by Dr. Alvin Plummer that a committee be 
appointed by the President for the furtherance of the principles 
expressed in the resolution introduced by himself and just adopted 
by the Congress. The motion was seconded and carried. 

The President announced the appointment of such a Committee 
for the furtherance of a National Bureau of Registration of Vital 
Statistics consisting of the following: 

Dr. Alvin Plummer. Chairman. 

Mrs. S. Y. Yates. 

Mr. H. B. Phillips. 

Mr. Clarence E. Heald. 

Mr. B. M. Newcomb. 

Mr. Orra E. Monnette. 

Mr. T. A. Perkins. 


Mrs. L. A. Underhill moved that the thanks of the delegates be 
extended to the California Genealogical Society for their delightful 
entertainment of the visiting delegates at the reception given in the 
ball room of the Fairmont Hotel last evening. The motion was 
seconded and carried by a rising vote. 

It was announced by Mr, H. B. Phillips as Chairman of the 
Program Committee that Mr. R. C. 'Conner's paper on "Irish 
Pedigrees" has not yet been completed, but upon its completion 
it will be filed with the Secretary to be included in the records of 
the Congress. 

Mr. Herbert Folger, Historian of the Society of Mayflower De- 
scendants in the State of California then spoke briefly on "The 
Descendants of the Mayflower Emigrants." 

In the course of his remarks Mr. Folger spoke of the complete- 
ness of the genealogical records kept by the Friends, and especially 
their marriage registrations, stating that although often difficult 
of access such records were of exceptional value. At the conclusion 
of his talk Mrs. W. D. Mansfield stated that her connections gave 
her unusual opportunities in this regard, and that she would be 
very glad to correspond with anyone who would like to reach the 
Friends' records, either in this country or in England; while many 
of the "meetings" are closed she knows where the records are kept 
and how to gain access to them. 

Upon motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned until 2 :30 
P. M. 


2:30 P. M. 

The Congress was called to order by President Petangell. 

Mi. Charleji G. Finney Wilcox read his paper Oii "The Study of 
Genealogy and 'its Place in the Affairs of Human Society." 

On behalf of the Organization Committee of the International 
Genealogical Federation Mr. H. B. Phillips stated that ' ' The Com- 
mittee desires that each organization represented at this Congress 
select one of its members as the representative with whom the Secre- 
tary of this Committee shall communicate on all matters appertain- 
ing to the formation of the Federation. While ordinarily the 
secretary of a body is supposed to be the proper person to com- 
municate with, in this case it is desired that the best person to 
represent his organization be selectcid. The Organization Committee 



has selected as its Secretary and Custodian Mr. Clarence Edward 
Heald of 1215 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco; all delegates 
present are requested to note that name and address. When you 
return to your homes and have your next meeting in your local 
societies please take this matter up with them and at as early a 
date as possible communicate with Mr. Heald in connection with 
the permanent organization of the Federation." 

' ' This Federation as a matter of course will require a seal. That 
seal should have a design appropriate to the nature of the organ- 
ization, and I would ask every person here present who is able to 
do so to make a design or suggest a design with an appropriate 
motto. From among these designs I presume we shall be able to 
select something of unusual merit." 

Mrs. S. Y. Gates suggested that undoubtedly every one present 
would like to join in an expression of gratitude to Mr. H. B. 
Phillips and his able co-workers who have prepared the programs 
and arranged the sessions of this Congress. To bear testimony to 
this feeling, and to register a sentiment that all who hear of this 
meeting should know of the splendid work of Mr. Phillips and his 
associates she felt that all might join, not in a vote of thanks but 
also in an expression of gratitude in the form of a Chautauqua 
salute. This thought met with a spontaneous response throughout 
the hall, and the salute was heartily given on the instant. 

Mr. Phillips responded with a few words of appreciation, saying 
that indeed he hardly felt that he himself had done anything to 
deserve appreciation and that the success that has attended the 
meetings was largely due to the willingness of all to help wdien 
shown what they might do, and to a judicious selection of people 
of ability to undertake the responsibility of getting things done. 

Dr. Alvin Plummer suggested that with the approaching end of 
this afternoon's session it might not be well to adjourn sine die, 
so that we may not be a dead organization when we meet at the 
Exposition grounds tomorrow at the invitation of their President 
and Directors to receive the bronze medal they have signified their 
intention of presenting. Further he stated that he would like to 
see the name of this organization perpetuated. 

Mr. W. M. Dixon moved that a vote of thanks be given to the 
President and to the very efficient Secretary for the able and 
courteous manner in which they have managed the affairs of the 
Congress. The motion was seconded and carried. 

The President, Mr. F. H. Pettingell, responded to the vote of 
thanks in a few appropriate words, declaring that he felt it an 
unusual privilege to preside over the meetings; and he congratu- 
lated the Congress on having availed itself of the services of Mr. 
C. E. Heald, who had displayed a rare ability in handling the 
duties of Secretary. 


Mrs. S. Y, Gates moved that a vote of thanks be extended to 
Miss Sarah Louise Kimball, one of the foremost genealogists of 
the Pacific Coast, for her distinguished work in preparing the way 
for this Congress and aiding in the success of its sessions. The 
motion was seconded and carried. 

Miss Jessie F. Emery declared that among the factors in making 
our sessions a source of enjoyment the beautiful roses on the Presi- 
dent's table had played an important part, and while votes of 
thanks were in order she would like to move such a vote to their 
donor. Mr. B. M. Newcomb had to plead guilty to providing the 
roses, products of his famous rose garden at Berkeley. 

It was suggested by Mr. H. B. Phillips that letters be sent 
to those in foreign lands who had contributed papers, expressing 
the appreciation of this Congress in the form of a vote of thanks. 
The President instructed the Secretary to see that this was done. 

On behalf of the Program Committee Mr. H. B. Phillips an- 
nounced that tomorrow had been designated by the Exposition 
as "International Congress of Genealogy Day" and that the follow- 
ing afternoon the delegates would assemble within the Exposition at 
Recital Hall. There the President of the Exposition or his repre- 
sentative would present to this Congress a medal commemorative of 
the occasion. These formalities take place in the case of every 
Congress which has been held here, and in our case "onll be held 
in Recital Hall at 2 :30 P. M., July 31, 1915. 

On motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned to meet at 
Recital Hall at the appointed time. 



JULY 31, 1915. 

The Congress met in Recital Hall within the grounds of the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, at the invitation of the 
Exposition's President and Directors. 

The Congress was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by President 
Pettingell, who in a few appr()i)riate words introduced Mr. Colvin 
B. Brown. 

Mr. Brown addressed the Congress on behalf of the President 
and Directors of the Exposition, expressing a grateful welcome 
and best wishes, and presenting to the Congress an appropriate 
memorial in the form of a bronze medal commemorative of the 


On behalf of the Congress ^Ir. Henry B. Phillips responded to 
Mr. Brown's address and accepted the medal. His remarks were 
thoughtfully responsive to the theme of the day. 

Dr. Alvin Plummer then told the Congress that he still felt 
the sting of yesterday's defeat and was still strongly of the opinion 
that any permanent body formed to carry on the work begun by 
this Congress should bear the name International Congress of 
Genealogy. Yet in view of the position he took in the former dis- 
cussion he did not think it good taste for him to make a motion 
to rescind the action taken when it was voted to adopt the name 
International Genealogical Federation. While many of the mem- 
bers who took part in the deliberations of yesterday had left the 
city and many more were not present, yet he believed the matter 
of such importance as to warrant the rescinding of yesterday's 

Mr. N, S. Frost moved that the motion in question be rescinded ; 
his motion was seconded by Mrs. Gillogly. 

A brief discussion ensued ; when asked for a ruling as to whether 
the motion was in order the President stated that it was, but that 
he felt it his duty to caution the Congress against any action in the 
nature of eleventh-hour legislation, especially when only a part of 
the membership of the Congress was present. The most of the 
speakers took the same view, basing their objections to the motion 
on questions of expediency and propriety rather than on the merits 
of the names in question. On ])eing put to a vote the motion was 
lost, a rising vote being taken to verify the decision of the President 
to that effect. 

Professor N. Murakami of the Imperial School of Languages, 
Tokyo, Japan, was then introduced to the Congress. He spoke a 
few words appropriate to the day. While he had not come pre- 
pared to make a lengthy address, he said that at the request of Mr. 
Phillips, Chairman of the Program Committee, he Avould try to write 
a short article on "Genealogy In Japan" to be printed at the time 
of the publication of the proceedings of this Congress. 

Mr. H, B, Phillips moved that a vote of thanks be extended to 
Mr. Murakami and that the Secretary be instructed to furnish him 
a copy of the same. The motion was seconded and carried. 

By motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned sine die. 

Respectfully submitted, 








NoTB. — In the spelling of the proper names occurring in this paper, the letters 
B, D, Q, V, X and Z are not used. The apostrophe is used with Ch, K, P and T 
to indicate a harder or more strongly aspirated sound, as follows : 
Ch is pronounced jih P is pronounced b 

Ch' is pronounced gh P' is pronounced p 

K Is pronounced g T is pronounced d 

K' Is pronounced k T' is pronounced t 

To the Officers and Members of the International Congress of 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Having been honored by an invitation from your Committee 
of Organization to represent the ancient country of China by 
some remarks appropriate to this occasion, I take pleasure in out- 
lining something of the methods whereby family names have been 
created and used in the Empire of China beginning about 2,800 
years before the Christian era, and the system whereby those names 
have been preserved, the successive generations tabulated, and 
reverence for our ancestors transmitted through all these ages; in 
short, something of the genealogy of our people. 

Genealogy among the ancient Chinese is a study interwined 
with the whole of their social life, and an element in their law of 
property, similar to the conditions existing in ancient Wales, where 
every family was represented by its Elder; and these Elders from 
every family or clan were delegated to the National Council. 

Since the time of the Emperor Fu-Hi, or Fushi (B. C. 2852 
years), all Chinese were required to have a family, or surname; 
the purpose being to distinguish the families and regulate the mar- 
riage relation. This emperor decreed there should be no marriages 
between persons of the same family name. 

From the time of the Emperor Fushi until the Chou dynasty 
(B. C. 1122 years), two classes of family names were in use, the 
first called Shih, being an hereditary title given by and held at 
the pleasure of the emperor, king or lord. This class of name was 
used by men only. The other class was called Shing, to designate 
the old custom of giving a name at birth; this second class was 
used by both men and women. The lower classes not dignified as 
families were called Ming. 


After the time of the Chou dynasty the classes Shih and Shing 
were all called Shing, and the very wonderful thing is that, when 
we address a woman and do not know her name, we say "Shing 
what a Shih" as a title. 

There are in evidence not less than eighteen sources from which 
these family names are derived. They may be briefly enumerated 
with examples. 

1. Adopting a dynasty designation, as Tang, Yu, Shia, etc. 

2. Taking the name of a feudal territory or division, such as 
Kiang, Whang, Chin, Gin, etc. 

3. Using the name of a political district similar to the county 
subdivision in a State of the United States, such as Hong, Chei, 
Fan, Lin, etc. 

4. From the name of a town, such as Yin, Su, Mou, Shan, etc. 

5. From rural hamlets, called Shiang, such as Pai, Lu, Pang, 
Yen, etc. 

6. From cross roads or way stations, called T'ing, such as 
Mi, Tsai, Owyang, etc. 

7. From suburbs of direction, north, east, west, etc., such as 
Tong-Shiang, Hsi-iMen, Nang-Yeh, Pei-Kuo, etc. 

8. Adopting the "Ming" (name) of some historical personage 
of the empire, as for example Fu, Yii, Tang, Chin, etc. 

9. The use of a man's "social name," called Tsu, hereinafter 
mentioned, for a family name, such as K'ung, Fang, Kung, Tong; 
all formerly social names. 

10. A custom called "Ts'u," that is, adopting appellatives 
applied to relatives, as old brother, young sister, etc. Exampled by 
Mung, i. e., brother; Chi. i. e., last brother; Tsu, i. e., grand- 
father; Mi, i. e., grandfather-in-la\v. 

11. From names of tribes and clans, called Tsu. Such as Ching, 
Tso, So, Chang. 

12. From names of officials, called Kuan, i. e.. officer. Such as 
Shih, a historian; Chi, a librarian; K'ou, a policeman; Shuai, a 
general; Ssu-Tu, a civic official. 

13. From "Chueh," i. e., titles. As Whang (emperor) ; Wang 
(king) ; Ba (grand duke) ; Hon (duke). 

14. From occupations, called "Chi"; exampled by Wu, i. e., a 
magician; Tu, i. e., a butcher; Tau, i. e., a potter; Chiang, i. e., a 
builder, etc. 

15. Names of objects, called "Shih" names. As for example, 
Chii, a carriage ; Kuan, a hat ; Pu, grass ; Fu, a flower. 

16. Adoption of the appellatives given to rulers after their 
death. In this connection it may be observed that the custom 
prevails that the real names of rulers shall never be used after their 
death, and to each one is assigned a descriptive name to be there- 
after used on all occasions when they shall be referred to. These 
"post mortem" names are designated "Shih" names, and as exam- 


pies are given: Wen, i. e., The Good; Wu, i. e., The Military- 
Leader; Chuang, i. e., the Polite One; Min, i. e., the Kindly One. 

17. Adding a diminutive to the parent name, a custom called 
**Shi." Exampled by: Wong-Tsu, i. e., king's son; Kung-Sun, i. e., 
grandson of a duke; Yuan-Po, i. e., first son of Yuan; Shen-Shu, i, e., 
third son of Shen. 

18. Names of contempt, derision and opprobrium, applied to an 
evil doer by the ruler, called " e " names. Such as, Fu, i. e., poison 
snake ; jMang, i. e., rebel ; Ching, i. e., branded felon ; Shiao, i. e., an 
owl. "With the Chinese the owl is considered a bird of evil omen, 
one that will eat his own parents. 

From the above illustrations it will be known that the Chinese 
family names have been derived in many different ways, and you 
will have observed that the same name has more than one origin. 

As for example the names of the Ho, Lin, Pao, and Kuo families 
have each three different origins. 

The Wang and Kao families draw from four different sources. 
The Liou, Yuan, may be derived from any of five different sources, 
while the Yang and Lu family names may be referred to as many 
as six separate beginnings. 

On the other hand you will have observed that in a few in- 
stances we have a different name from the same origin. For 
example, the family names of Ching and Li are from the same 
source, as are also the Yuin and Yang families. 

The rule in Chinese writing is that family names shall consist 
of one character only; this rule, like most rules has various excep- 
tions which I shall here briefly endeavor to point out. The two 
character surnames are called "Fu Shing" names. When Emperor 
Fushi promulgated his decree that family names must be used 
almost all families adopted a single character or syllable name; as 
time went on, however, hyphenated or double character names 
became more numerous, many being introduced by persons from 
foreign nations, but in recent years the custom of having a multi- 
character name has been very largely discontinued. Foreigners 
entering the country adopt two methods in selecting their Chinese 
family names, either they use characters not before used for family 
names, or adopt an existing family name. 

Before the time of the Sung dynasty (A. D. 960), foreigners 
were designated either "Tai Pei" or "Kwan Hsi." The former 
meaning those from the northern regions, and the latter those from 
the west. The Empire at that time being bounded on the east and 
south by the salt seas, no record is known of strangers coming from 
these directions. They were further divided into divisions accord- 
ing to their racial characteristics and may broadly be assigned as 
follows : 

First, the original inhabitants of the country called JMiao; the 
Chi 'Tan, Tartars; Hsung Nu, Hungarians; Shen Pei, Koreans; 
T'o Chiieh, Turks; Huei Ho, INIahometans; Sha To, Persians; T'u 


Fan. Thibetans, and the Ch'ih, Chieh and Ch'iang that cannot be 
definitely assigned. This gives a group of names of foreign deriva- 

After the Sung Dynasty came the Lao, a northern race, for- 
merly Chi Tan; the Chin, or early inhabitants of Manchuria; 
the Yuan, or ^Mongolians ; the Hsi Hsia, or Westerners, also several 
tribes called Tang, Shiang, etc., adding more family names of 
foreign derivation, as all the races and tribes from time to time 
entered the territory of China and conquered portions of it and 
settled upon themselves and their descendants the class of above 
described names. 

After the ]\ling Dynasty came the Manchu or Ching Dynasty 
(A. D. 1627). These Manchu tribes were divided into eight 
"Flags" or sections, each section or Flag having names identical 
with surnames of men, these Flag surnames being called "Chi' 
Shing" or Flag Surnames. When these names were translated to 
Chinese characters, they were very long, and all the characters were 
finally dropped but the first only, and this first character or given 
name, is now used for their family name. This explains why the 
common people who do not know this say father and son have 
different family names, which is said by them in ignorance of the 
true reason. 

Some of the more celebrated foreigners who took family names 
in the Empire of China may be mentioned. 

Marco Polo, who took the name of Ma, and during the Ming 
Dynasty (beginning A. D. 1355), and later these foreigners, all 
from the West and of Aryan descent : 

Matteo Ricci, called Li Ma Ton, took the family name Li; 
Jacobus Pantoja, called Pang Ti Wo, took the family name Pang; 
Sebastian de Vries, called Hsung San Pa, took the family name 
Hsung; Nicolaus Lombardi, called Lung Wha ]\Iin, took the family 
name Lung; John Adam Schaal, called Tang Juo Wang, took the 
family name Tang ; Ferdinand Verliest, called Nan Huai Jen, took 
the family name Nan ; Jules Aloui, called Si Ju Lue, took the family 
name Si, in all cases dropping all but one character. Thus it wnll 
be observed that by reason of these contracted forms many foreign 
names that have been introduced into the Chinese family system 
have become obscured and their origin lost to sight. 

There have been many changes of the family name during the 
centuries covering a period of nearly 5000 years since the system 
was first inaugurated, for various reasons. I may specify a dozen 
or more of the more important of them, with illustrations. 

The first and most important is that of Imperial Edict for 
cause, either for merit or demerit, as well as honorary names 
bestowed upon distinguished foreigners as a mark of respect or 
honor. The name of merit bestowed upon statesmen or councillors 
being the name of the ruler who gave it, as in the Han Dynasty, the 
ruler, Liu, gave his name for a family name ; in the Tang Dynasty, 


the ruler, Li, gave his name to a family as a reward of merit, and 
in the Ming Dynasty, the ruler, Chu, did likewise. In the case 
of distinguished foreigners, the ruler bestowed a compound name ; 
that of himself coupled Avith their own name as interpreted in 

The name of demerit was used in changing the names of crim- 
inals and rulers of conquered kingdoms or countries; as in the 
Han Dyna,sty, by Imperial Decree, the name "Ying" was changed 
to "Ching," the latter meaning a branded criminal. The name 
of a conquered ruler, "Sun," was thus changed to "Li," meaning 
a bad devil. 

A second reason for change is that no one is allowed to speak 
or write the given name of the ruler for the time being; should a 
family bear the same name as the given name of him who has 
become the ruler over them, then the family name must be changed. 
As for example, Chi changed to Shi, having nearly the same sound. 

Chuang changed to Yen, same meaning but different character. 

Shih changed to Shai, characters very alike but meaning dif- 

A third reason for change is stated to be to escape from an 
enemy; just what this ostrich-like proceeding of covering the head 
and leaving the body exposed was to accomplish does not now 
appear, but it was attempted something in the following manner, 
as Tuan-Mu changed to Mu by dropping the first character, Wu 
changed to Wu, the second "wu" represented by a different char- 
acter. Niu changed to Lao, both characters having the same 

A fourth reason was to simplify the construction of the char- 
acter, or as Europeans would say, to simplify the spelling of the 
word, as Wau to a second form of Wau of simpler strokes, and the 
same of the characters "Shin," "Sui," "Chang," etc., this feature 
being hard to translate, but may be paralleled in the English tongue 
by reducing the word Roxborough to Roxboro and the like. 

Another reason, also to simplify the word was by changing 
Lu-Pu to Lu, or from two characters to one character ; Chung-Li to 
Chung by dropping the second character, and Ssu-Kow to Kow by 
dropping the first character. 

Again a change is made by adding an additional character or 
characters for the purpose of showing lines of descent, as for 
example : 

Chi changed to Chi-Sun, the latter meaning the grandson of Chi. 
Ko changed to Chu-Ko, a designation taken by all sons of Ko, except 
the first son only, who carries the original family name of Ko. 

Other reasons of change are errors or mistakes in the form of 
characters or sounds; concrete examples of these changes may 
hardly be translated. 

Certain changes have been made by foreigners in the Chinese 


equivalents of their own native names, as has been alluded to above, 
some further examples may here be recorded, as : 

Tapa, Ho-Ku, to Yuan ; Shi Yun Yu Lien to Yun ; Tu Ku Hun 
to Tu; Po To Lo to Pan; Shi Lou to Kao, the first (Shi Lou) 
meaning in Chinese characters, "this is a story of a building," the 
second (Kao) meaning "high." 

Yet another change is brought about when a child is adopted 
from another family or "clan"; the child assumes the family name 
of the person adopting him. This rule is modified in the case where 
sons of sisters, daughters or female relatives are adopted; then the 
son's family name becomes a compound one, combining his own 
family name with that of the person who adopted him, as for 
example: Chang-Lo, when a son of the Lo family went to the 
Chang family, and Hsii-Teng, when a son of the Teng family went 
to the Hsii family. 

Another reason for a change is dissatisfaction with the family 
name, by reason of its meaning, or otherwise, as for example : Ai 
changed to Chung; "Ai" meaning melancholj'- while "Chung" 
means heart, the characters being very much alike. 

Names have been changed for purposes of deception, a notable 
instance of this when one Liu Chih Yuan took the name of a ruler, 
Liu, and one Shih Ching Tang took the name of a ruler, Shih, for 
the purpose of rebellion and an endeavor to conquer the country. 
In this they succeeded and divided the country between themselves. 
It may be remarked that moral delinquency does not permanently 
prosper, and their conquest was not a lasting one. 

There were also certain compound family names originated 
during the Han Dynasty (beginning B. C. 201) ; at that time the 
Empire was divided into ninety districts or "Chiin" and in many 
cases the name of the "Chiin," or district, was added to the family 
name of the principal families residing therein. 

Genealogical Bibliography. 

The treatises on Genealogy and Family History of the Chinese 
are very many and important works ; the more important are not, 
however, of the "popular" kind, being only known to specialists 
or the higher and more advanced in literature. Some of the more 
notable are : 

First — and the oldest work that has been preserved, called "Shih 
Pun," or "Book of Origins," in two volumes, composed by Liu 
Shiang, covering a period of about 2000 years previous to the Han 
Dynasty (201 B. C.) ; not all of this has been preserved. 

Another is the "Shin Yuan" or "Surname Symposium," in 
ten volumes, written by Ho Ch'eng T'ien, during the Tang Dynasty. 
Another entitled "Yuan Ho Shing Tsuan," or a "Collection of 
Family Names," in eleven volumes, compiled by Lin Pau in the 
year Yuan Ho, also of the time of the Tang Dynasty. 


and the accompanying difficulty to prove which particular "John" 
or "Sarah" is intended. 

In addition to the family, or clan name, the Pai-Ming or genera- 
tion name and the personal or given name bestowed by parents, 
every one is entitled to a "social name," to be selected by himself 
after reaching maturity: this period of time would agree in Amer- 
ica with the time of reaching "legal age." 

This social name is in a sense an equivalent to a motto used in 
English or Continental Heraldry, but with the Chinese selected by 
the individual, rather than bestowed by popular agreement or for 
good deeds done. 

In writing, the family or clan name takes precedence, then the 
Pai-Ming or generation name, then the given or personal name, and 
lastly the social name. As an example — continuing with above illus- 
trations, and being excused for the personal nature of these exam- 
ples — at the proper time I selected as a "Social name" the char- 
acter "Kang-Hu," meaning Kang (high), and Hu (literally tiger, 
but in the sense employed, independent, fearless). The full name 
being written, Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu. It is a rule that chil- 
dren and grandchildren must not speak or write the registered 
names of their fathers or grandfathers, it being considered unfilial 
and lacking in respect so to do. This rule also extends to the Em- 
peror. It is, however, permissible to use one character, or the given 
name only. 

A few families place the given, or personal name in the middle 
and the Pai-Ming or generation name at the end. 

When the name is registered in the "Family Table Book" of 
the "Tsu Tang," it becomes the official or guaranteed name and is 
called the "Pu-Ming"; Pu meaning "generation book" and ^ling 
meaning "name." 

It should be noted here that the "Social name" is not so regis- 
tered, and is not used in business or official matters. 

Hereditary Titles. 

Some customs still exist that have been brought down from the 
ancient feudal system. That of primogeniture or hereditary descent 
is one; it is called "Ta-Tsung, " meaning hereditary line. The first 
son by the first wife is called "Po-Tsu," if the first son is of the 
second or other wife, he is called "Mung-Tsu"; all other sons by the 
first wife are called "Yii-Tsu," the other sons of other wives are 
called * ' Shii-Tsu. ' ' The ' ' Family Table Book ' ' is always particular 
to set out these relationships and the exact lines of descent, in order 
that there may be no question as to the hereditary line of descent, 
which involves hereditary titles. 

The emperors of the different dynasties have, for the most part, 
observed the rule of primogeniture, but in a few cases, the selection 
by the Emperor father has been other than his oldest son for his 
successor to the throne. This latter has been the practice of the 


Emperors of the Ching, or Manehii Dynasty. The descent of titles 
in those families that have hereditary titles is observed in a like 

The feudal system of land holding is still observed among the 
Mongol families and the "Miao" or original inhabitants. These 
latter are now only found as a tribal unit in the Western frontiers 
of the Empire. 

With the Lamas in Thibet, who have no wives or sons, the 
descent of title is arranged by the private selection of a successor; 
after the succession is settled it is then publicly announced that the 
spirit of the dead Lama has entered the body of the newly selected 
person, and he henceforth is to be considered the true living Buddha. 

The family of Kung-Fii-Tsu (Confucius), have a special title 
called ''Tien Shih," meaning ''Heavenly Teacher," 
created during the Han Dynasty (201 B. C). and which is con- 
tinued to the present day. The local residence of the present holder 
of this title, probably the most highly honored in the Kingdom, is 
in the Shan Tung Province. An enumeration of the Confucius 
family was made in the 18th century, and at that time something 
like 13,000 persons were found living who could prove descent from 
the sage and philosopher. 

Another special hereditary title is the one given to a man named 
"Chang Tao Ling," who elevated Taoism from a philosophy to a 
religion during the Han Dynasty. In the time of the Tang Dynasty 
(627 A. D.), his descendants were given a hereditary family title 
called ' ' Tien Shih. ' ' meaning ' ' Heavenly Teacher. ' ' 

These two families are the most noted in all China, these family 
titles have been continued through all the Dynasties, and through 
the line of the eldest son. to the present time. 

The Chinese philosopher Mencius, said, "The most undutiful 
condition is to have no son." That is why it is considered of the 
first importance to have a son for a successor, for the dual purpose 
of perpetuating the family and doing reverence to ancestors. 

In this view of conditions, which to the Chinese is virtually a 
tenet of their religion, the laws allow, even to the present time, a 
plurality of wives. When a man has no son by his first wife, he is 
permitted to take a second, or more, if necessary, in order that a son 
may not be denied him. Some men getting old, or perhaps not 
desiring to take a second wife, or who are too poor to support an- 
other and being without a son. proceed to select from the same gen- 
eration, and in the same family, and as near to his own line as may 
be, a second or later son of another man, adopt him as his heir and 
successor, the selection and adoption being duly registered in the 
"Family Table Book" or record of the family or clan. A first son 
must never be chosen, as that would deprive another branch of the 
family of its proper line of descent. The selected and adopted son 
then calls his own parents ''Pun Shung Fu Me," or birth parents, 
and his adopted parents "Chi Fu ,Mu," or adopted parents. 


It is allowable if no issue of a male be available, to adopt the 
son of a sister, the hus))and of a daughter or other near female 
relative. In this case the person adopted changes his family name ; 
if a husband of a daughter, he takes the family name of his wife, 
which is a proceeding many times done in English descent of title 
and property, as I learn from their pedigree charts. Among the 
wealthy families of the Cantonese, the custom prevails even to the 
extent of adopting sons of otlier families, in order to have many 
sons to share their wealth by inheritance. 

When a man or woman joins the Buddhist order, they drop their 
names, and take a new name given them by their teachers, called 
"Sung" or "Shih, " meaning a son or daughter of Buddha, and 
become members of the Buddha family or clan, using the generation 
name of the Buddha system of genealogy or heraldry, but in the 
generation book of the system the entries must be understood as 
showing no blood descent, which difference is important to remem- 
ber when investigating the ancestry of a member of the order. 

The Taoists are of two kinds; one marry and the other do not. 
In either case they always retain their family names and records 
in the Family Table Book. 

Should a man become an anarchist or free lover or otherwise 
act in a manner to bring discredit upon his family or clan name, his 
family name is taken away from him by the "Tsu Tang" of his 
elan, his name erased from the Family Table Book, and he, a family 
outlaw, must use another name. 

In the genealogical tables of China, much attention is given to 
the line of male descent, particularly the stem, or hereditary line; 
but very little attention to the female line, it being understood, if 
no record to the contrary, that the female is of the same family 
and naturally and surely traces back to the original stem in any 
event; being a matter of a certain number of generations removed. 

In closing these somewhat discursive remarks upon the family 
life and genealogy of the Chinese people, I am reminded that in the 
last analysis all the people of the earth are really members of one 
family, and I cannot better close than by repeating the words of 
Confucius: "The People of the Four Seas, i. e., the people of all 
the world, are all one brotherhood." And also he said: "There 
is only one universal Family in the world." And again he said: 
"In the Golden Age, men will treat all elderly people as their par- 
ents, all young persons as their children, and all of equal age as 
brothers and sisters." 

To the wise man there is, in all this broad and immense world, 
6m/ a single family, all governed by One Supreme Intelligence. 
When this Family recognizes this Truth, and in direct and real 
sincerity practices the few and perfectly simple rules of benevolent 
morality as taught by our ancient sage, then will it be an enlight- 
ened, civilized family. 





As a branch oi' the Polynesian race which occupies so vast an 
area of the island system of the Pacific Ocean, it may be taken as 
a foregone conclusion that the JMaori of New Zealand was ever 
most careful and diligent in conserving the traditional lore of his 
people, and in no department was this more marked than in the 
preservation of genealogical records. It is a well known fact that 
the Polynesians have ever venerated the older oral traditions and 
genealogies of their race, and have set a high value on those con- 
nected with the origin of man and of man's descent from the gods. 
In endeavoring to discover some explanation for the veneration 
displayed towards the more ancient portions of lines of descent 
and the innate Mana possessed by them, as proved by the fact of 
their being recited in certain ritual performances, it is quite 
possible that we here note the origin of such usages and beliefs. 
The Maori believes that he is descended from the gods, that he, 
in his own person, possesses or contains a portion of divine essence, 
and moreover that it is this quality that enables him to perform 
any remarkable feat, and protects and preserves his welfare, physi- 
cal, intellectual and spiritual. He does not claim descent from the 
Supreme Being, but from what may be termed the departmental 
gods, the offspring of the primal parents Rangi (the Sky Parent) 
and Papa (the Earth Mother). It was Tane, the son of these 
parents, who sought the female element far and wide without suc- 
cess, whereupon he formed a figure of earth on the mons veneris 
of the Earth Mother. He then procured from the Supreme Being 
the soul, the blood and the breath of life by which the lifeless 
form was vivified, and the first sign of life given by that form was 
a sneeze, hence the well known expression of "Tike Mauri Ora" 
(sneeze, living soul), as heard among the ]\Iaori folk of this day. 

Thus came into being Hinc-Aliu-One, the Earth-formed Maid, 
who was taken to wife by Tanc. She was the first woman, and the 
mother of mankind ; from this twain are descended the whole of the 
brown skinned folk who dwell in the countless lands of the I\Iany 
Isled Sea. A further inquiry into ^laori myth will show that Tane 
was essentially the fertilizer, he who fertilizes the Earth Mother, 
the origin or tutelary deity of forests, and the power that brought 
light into the world; in brief, Tane is the Sun. 


Tlie most stupendous work of this character is, however, the 
"Wan Shin T"ung P'u," or the "Stem Charts of 10,000 Families," 
in 350 volumes, the work of Lin Ti Cliih, of the Ming Dynasty. 

Besides these, there is the "Shing Shih Chi Chiu Pien," or the 
book of "Family Names in Rhyme," in which the names of families 
are introduced and arranged in poetical form. This is the work of 
Wang Ying Ling of the Sung Dynasty (960-1279 A. D.) 

And last but not least in merit is an encyclopedia called "Shu 
Wen Shien T'ung K'au, " in which are to be found listed about 3038 
single or one-character family names, and about 1619 two, or more, 
character family names. Of the 4657 names therein appearing, 
perhaps not more than 10 per cent now survive. 

In addition to the above noble records of antiquity of the 
Chinese people, there may be mentioned two common, or as may be 
said in the modern English vernacular, "Popular" works on 
genealogy and family names. One is entitled the "Pai Chia Shing," 
the book of "Simple Rhyming 100 Family Names"; its author is 
unknown but it was written during the Sung Dynasty (960-1279 
A. D.) The other is the "Shang Yeu Lu," or "Biography of 
Famous Men," by Liau Yung Shien of the Ming Dynasty. 

I might say at this point that many obscure families desiring to 
appear to have sprung from one of the family lines that may be 
found in any of the above works, have discarded their own family 
name and adopted one found in the record, making it sometimes 
difficult now in this twentieth century to trace truthfully some 
present day families. In this respect, however, families of other 
countries are alike guilty. 

System of Family Associations. 

Besides tlie genealogical works named above, every family has 
its own genealogical record, or "Generation Book," giving the 
origin of the family, its collateral lines, names and ages of the 
females, registers of marriages, births and deaths, also including a 
business historj^ of the men. This book is called the "Chia Pu, " or 
*' Family Table Book," and every thirty to fifty years it is con- 
tinued down to date and a new copy made. 

An organization, or Board of Editors, is maintained to write, 
edit and preserve this important family record. Such organization 
is called the "Tsu Tang," or "Hall for Worship of Ancestors." 
This is maintained by aid of funds assessed and collected from all 
members of the family or clan. The Board elects one of their num- 
ber chairman, who must have three particular qualifications; he 
must be of old age, he must be of the oldest living generation, and 
he must be of good character. This office at the head of the family 
or clan is of life tenure. Another member seated in the Board by 
virtue of birth is the oldest son of direct descent of the family 
or clan. 


When the time arrives to edit and bring this "Family Table 
Book/' or genealogy, down to date, the chairman gives notice to 
all members of the family or clan, and to all sub, or inferior asso- 
ciations within the clan, of the time and place of such contemplated 
action, every branch or sub association nuist then send representa- 
tives to assist in the work. 

If a group or branch have removed to another part of the king- 
dom, they can demand to be allowed to withdraw from the general 
association, and are permitted to form a new association of their 
own, or they may join another organization already in existence in 
their neighliorhood, provided they be of the same family name. 

Other functions of the "Tsu Tang" than that of preserving the 
history and genealogy of the family are : three times each year to 
worship and do reverence (a Lodge of Sorrow), to their ancestors 
within the hall or place of meeting. To judge and settle disputes 
arising in the family and between its members, which the Board 
must pass upon before going to the Magistrate or public Court of 
Justice. To have charge of marriage and funeral ceremonies of its 
members. To establish scholarships and bestow prizes for superior 
scholarship on their young men. To aid and assist the orphans, the 
poor and distressed. In essentials this may be considered an 
ideal communistic society. There have arisen in the United States, 
and in particular in California, certain organizations (copying 
their forms from these beneficiary societies), called "Tongs" or 
• ' Fighting Men Societies. ' ' These ' ' Tongs ' ' are largely composed of 
Cantonese and men of Southern China, and must not be confounded 
with the "Tsu Tang" or family associations. 

Marks, Signatures and Rubrics. 

In the ancient times each Chinese family had a special "mark" 
or rubric; during the Tang Dynasty this custom was much in evi- 
dence, there being but very few who were obliged to use an "X." 
This custom still prevails among the Japanese, and is there called 
"Wen" which is the equivalent to a "Coat of Arms," or rubric. 
Since the Yuan Dynasty, the Chinese people prefer to sign their 
own names, but in peculiar forms, each family in a different way : 
this practice is called ' ' Yuan Ya, ' ' meaning Yuan Dynasty sign. 

At first each paper or document requiring a signature was signed 
by hand manual, but afterward the use of engraved copper seals 
became common. At the present time literary people continue to 
use the seals, but the common people do not now use them. 

The Family Name Poem. 

Every Chinese rightfully has three names: The first, called 
"Shing," is the family, or clan name. The second, called "Pai- 
Ming," is the "Generation" name, and the third, called "Shih- 
Ming," is the given name. The use of the fii-st and third are ob- 


vious, but the use of the second or generation name is peculiar to 
the Chinese system adopted about the time of the beginning of the 
Han Dynasty (201 B. C.) The Pai-Ming or generation name is 
used to indicate the number of the generations from the beginning of 
the pedigree, as given in the records of the family association, to 
the person having the certain name, which is determined before- 
hand in the manner following: 

Each branch or sub-family of the general family association held 
a convention previous to entering the general association and com- 
posed and adopted a peculiar form of poem, or quatrain, consisting 
of either twenty or thirty characters, something easy to remember. 
This poem is constructed with much skill, it must be composed only 
of single, or simple, characters; the meaning expressed in choice 
phrase; the sounds to iiarmonize, all must be balanced in class and 
different in tones, and the tenth and twentieth and thirtieth must 
rhyme as the stanza is of two, four or six lines. At the beginning of 
a new cycle, when the poem for a family generation guide name is 
to be adopted, it is then a subject of competition and grave delibera- 
tion, which insures a production of great literary excellence, accord- 
ing to the governing rules. 

The application is that the first generation shall all bear for a 
middle or "Pai-Ming" name the first character or word of this 
generation poem, all of the second generation shall have for a 
middle name (a very few exceptions will be pointed out later), the 
second character or word of this generation poem, and so on. 

This system makes the identification of the person by his names 
a simple matter. The first or Shing (family name), tells to what 
family or clan the person belongs. The second or Pai-i\Iing (gen- 
eration name), indicates the number of generations in descent from 
the original stem, and at once declares that all those who bear it are 
cousins, even though many degrees removed ; hence it is that the 
expressions so commonly heard from English-speaking Chinese, 
"he my cousin," "he uiy uncle" are explained; because while they 
may be entire strangers, yet the name at once proclaims the rela- 

As an example of this system T trust I may be pardoned for 
presenting the ])oem for my own family name, that of the 

Famu.y Kiang. 

Yuan T'in Chin I You 
Chih Jih Ch'i Fung Ch'eng, 
HungT'u Shao Shih Tse 
P'i Shien Cheng Chia Sheng. 

These twenty characters or words provide the middle or Pai- 
i\[ing names for twenty generations. The translation is not easy; 
the following is an attempt, which is rather a paraphrase, in an 
endeavor to preserve the meaning: 


"The noble men now in future coming, ' 

Will generation after generation improve; 
Perpetuating the virtues of their ancestors, 
Adding luster to the familj^ name." 

A literal translation of the characters is also added in order 
that "he who runs may read" and may perchance very much 
improve my attempt: 

Yuan — meaning chief, high class man, head man, 

T'in — meaning statesman, 

Chin — m(!aning from now, hereafter, 

I — meaning one, at once. 

You — meaning to have, to come, to produce. 

Chih — meaning then, when, 

Jih — meaning daily, periodically, by generation, 

Ch'i — meaning to open, to go forward, to expand, 

Fung — meaning to meet, to obtain, 

Ch'eng — meaning successful, success. 

Hung — meaning good, great, large, 
T'u — meaning actions, deeds, virtues, 
Shao — meaning succeed, acquire, perpetuate, 
Shih — meaning those gone before (generations), 
Tse — meaning prosperity. 

P'i — meaning enlarge, add to, 

Shien — meaning illuminate, brighten, brighter, 

Cheng — meaning diffuse, scatter, separate, 

Chia — meaning family, clan, tribe, 

Sheng — meaning good name, better quality. 

The above is the present or current Pai-Ming poem of the Kiaug 
family; of this current cycle I am of the thirteenth generation, and 
therefore have as a middle name, the appellation Shao. This name 
was prepared for me nearly 400 years ago, considering that an 
average generation is about thirty years. 

Wlien a child is born the parents select a personal name, this 
name is registered, but should it afterwards be found that another 
person in the Family Association of the same generation as the 
child, has the name so selected, then the name must be changed, 
and the new name registered as before; it being the rule that no 
two or more persons of the same family and generation shall have 
the same given, or personal name. This is a very wise rule, as no 
doubt many genealogists working in the English language can 
appreciate, when they chance often upon a family with cousins 
from two to perhaps half a dozen bearing the same personal name, 


Here we have the singular fact of a whole race firmly believing 
itself to be descended from the primal parents, Heaven and Earth, 
through the sun, and it is the belief of the writer that this fact 
has had a very important bearing on the history and achievements 
of the Polynesian people. This last subject lies outside the scope 
of this paper, but enough has been said to give a good reason why 
the Polynesian should so highly prize his racial lineage, and why 
he was so extremely careful to preserve his genealogical records. 
The earlier parts of such genealogies, containing the names of 
supernatural beings and heroes, are viewed as being extremely 
Tapu, and not to be lightly mentioned, so much so indeed that we 
know they were recited by Maori priests on certain occasions as a 
part of a religious ritual. Two of such occasions were the marriage 
of a man and woman of rank, and cases of difficult parturition. 

Probably no greater misfortune could afSict a Maori than to 
lose knowledge of his lineage, though it must be added that it 
would scarcely be possible for him to do so, inasmuch as he could 
obtain it from others, even from adepts of another tribe. The 
expression Aho Ngaro occasionally heard is applied to the extinc- 
tion of a family. The term Aho, a string or cord, is also used to 
denote a line of descent. Ngaro means "lost." The word Kawai 
used to express lineage, also denotes the shoot of a creeping plant, 
the tentacles of an octopus, etc. Tahuhu denotes the ridgepole of 
a house, also a line of ancestry. 

It seems highly probable that the only situations in which Poly- 
nesians have lost knowledge of their genealogies were such as crush- 
ing disasters afflicting a small isolated community having no com- 
munication with other isles. 

The Maori was an enthusiastic upholder of the laws of primo- 
geniture, and descent through the eldest son was ever viewed as 
the most important. The Aho Aroki, or descent through the eldest 
sons of a high chieftain family was held in very high respect, and 
when such a man was also a priestly adept, his standing and in- 
fluence in the tribe were very great. 

In regard to the conservation of genealogical records, there are 
two phases of the process to be considered and explained. In the 
first place every man of a Maori tribe knew his own lineage, could 
recite his descent from a tribal ancestor of the last migration from 
Polynesia to New Zealand about twenty generations ago, and would 
very likely know his ancestral connection with other tribes, but 
such a man was not looked upon as an adept, a genealogical expert. 
He would trace his descent from much more remote ancestors, and 
even possibly from the gods of mythical ages, but this early part of 
his lineage was often inexact, and would not be confirmed by 
an expert. For instance, the god Tane has many names, each illus- 
trating a phase of his manifestations or energies, and these are 
often given as names of separate individuals in genealogies, a course 
condemned by higher authorities. The names of periods, or ages, 


or conditions that preceded the Sky Parent and Earth Mother are 
also so given by some, but condemned by adepts. 

The true genealogical experts were men who, in their youth, 
had been selected as students to be taught in the sacred school of 
learning. For this purpose were selected youths of good family, 
i. e., of the chieftain class, who possessed good memories. This 
most necessary qualification was ascertained by assembling these 
youths together, when one adept would recite to them some lengthy 
tradition, a popular story or folk lore tale, such as the story of 
Maui, the Hero. This story the young folk had to memorize from 
one recital, and those among them who were able to do so, and to 
repeat such story correctly in detail, were selected as pupils to be 
taught the oral traditions of the tribe, including the origin of man, 
cosmological myths, tribal history and genealogical lore. The curi- 
ous and interesting formalities and ritual connected with such 
teaching is too big a subject to be here described, but it should 
be made clear that the imparting of what were deemed the more 
important subjects, anthropogeny, cosruogony, ritual formulae, old 
time genealogies, etc., was a highly serious task and extremely Tapu. 
The numerous restrictions, prohibitions and ritual performances 
connected with the acquisition of such knowledge throw much light 
on the mentality and religion of this most interesting people. 

One subject on which the adept teachers of such scholars laid 
considerable stress was the line of demarcation between popular 
folk lore tales and what v,'as held to be correct and orthodox tradi- 
tional history. Thus certain traditionary tales, etc., bore two 
aspects, the popular version known to all persons, and the correct 
or orthodox version known only to the trained adepts who had 
passed through the school of learning. Thus we have discovered 
of late years that certain stories held by us to be merely myths or 
folk tales, are really, as taught to the initiated few, records of 
bona fide ancestors and their doings. Such traditions have, as 
preserved by the bulk of the people, become encrusted with mythical 
and impossible features, which rendered them of greater interest 
to the ordinary person. As already observed, this peculiarity ex- 
tended to the more ancient portions of tribal genealogies, the trained 
adepts were the preservers of what was deemed the correct versions 
of ancient lineage. Such persons only were able to give details of 
far back generations, such as marriages of remote ancestors. The 
average commoner could not supply such details for more than about 
ten to twenty generations. The very greatest care was taken to ren- 
der the transmission of all genealogical and other important matter 
absolutely accurate. Should an adept make a mistake in his recital 
of a genealogy or religious formula, such an occurrence was looked 
upon as a most serious misfortune, and not infrequently caused 
the death of the hapless adept. In its mildest aspect it was ex- 
tremely unlucky to commit such an error, for the gods of the 
IMaori would punish the offender. 


It must not be supposed that trained priestly adepts who had 
passed through the Tapii school of learning were in the habit of 
airing their knowledge, or imparting it to all and sundry. They 
were extremely conservative and reticent. They heard the people 
reciting the fireside stories, popularized and erroneous forms of his- 
torical traditions, also incorrect accounts of the origin cf man, but 
made no sign and no attempt to correct them. Such things were 
good enough for commoners, and if the latter became possessed of 
Tapu branches of knowledge, then most assuredl}^ would the tribe 
be in peril. The more ancient portions of genealogies, as also little 
known lines of descent, were not discussed or recited in public 
unless the audience was composed of a cohesive, homogeneous people, 
such as a village community, and even under such conditions these 
occurrences were rare. Should members of another tribe chance 
to be present, adepts were doubly reticent. In many cases a line 
of descent "was strung on a single line," i. e., the name of the 
wife or husband was not given. No person is more conservative 
of prized knowledge than the Maori. 

We have seen that every male member of a tribe w^ould know 
his own line of descent from a given point, usually from an ancestor 
who came to New Zealand from the isles of Eastern Polynesia in 
one of the many vessels that arrived here from those parts during 
a period of from eighteen to thirty generations ago. He would 
also be conversant with his connection with other sub-tribes and 
tribes, for, owing to intermarriages, he would be a member of 
several such communities. In every clan there would also be several 
men who might be termed second rate adepts, men who had not 
passed through the school of learning, but who were interested in 
the tribal lineage and had managed to collect a considerable amount 
of information on the subject. In such studies the astonishing 
powers of memory possessed by the IMaori stood him in good stead, 
for he had no system of written language or mnemonics to assist 
liim in preserving tribal records; he depended upon memory alone, 
and his memory assurely did him yeoman service. 

As an illustration of this type of genealogists I n^ay mention 
my worthy old friend Tamarau of the Tuhoe tribe. When a govern- 
ment commission was inquiring into the ownership of certain blocks 
of land, this old man gave in court the descent of his sub-tribe 
from an ancestor who flourished some twenty-one generations ago. 
The recital of this matter, with sundry explanations of inter- 
marriages with other communities, occupied three days, and the 
descent of every living member of the clan was clearly shown. 
This task involved the remembrance and recital of 1,288 names of 
persons in order to ])ring the various branches from the main line 
down, not to every living member of the clan, but to the oldest 
living member of each family, etc., of the clan, often a grand- 
parent, occasionally a great grandparent. The recital of the names 
of all the living members of each family was a distinct performance 


that was carried out later. Now the whole of the above informa- 
tion, the vast number of personal names, given in their proper 
order, had been memorized by the reciter in his younger days and 
remembered when he was 70 years of age. Moreover this was but a 
portion of his acquired mass of knowledge of the subject; he could 
trace descent from many other ancestors, and give the lineage of 
other clans or sub-tribes. Apart from this subject his mind was 
equally well stored in respect to other branches of knowledge, such 
as tribal history, myths, folk lore, songs, etc. On one occasion the 
writer spent three days with him, and spent the three days and even- 
ings in taking down in shorthand a mass of traditional history, etc., 
from his dictation. The old fellow never flagged and was never 
apparently at fault. When leaving he informed me that we had 
but commenced the task. 

Another interesting experience that befell the writer was when, 
in 1896, an old native recited to him from memory no less than 
406 songs. In neither case was any graphic system relied upon, 
the memory alone was the conserving power, the amazing memory 
of the Polynesian that has preserved such vast stores of tradi- 
tional lore. 

In Table No. 1 is given the descent of Tamarau from Rape, as 
taken from the genealogy of his sub-tribe mentioned above. To 
copy out the whole table, with its many branches, would be no 
light task, and would appal the reader. 

Inasmuch as tribal genealogies formed the only system of 
chronology known to, and utilized by, the Maori, it follows that 
such a fact imparted to them additional value in the estimation of 
the natives. It is also this fact that renders these tables interesting 
to Europeans. When we hear the traditions of the adventures of 
Hape and other old sea wanderers who laid down the water roads 
over great areas of the Pacific Ocean, and breaking through the 
hanging sky reached this lone land, we can, by scanning the lines 
of descent from them, locate with some approach to precision the 
century in which they lived. As the lines from Hape range from 
21 to 24 generations, we take the mean of 221/2 as an indication of 
the time in which he flourished. Some writers have placed the 
Maori generation at 30 years, others at 20, but the experts of the 
Polynesian Society have adopted 25 years as the unit. 

It appears to be a somewhat common belief among anthropol- 
ogists that eponymic ancestor appearing in the genealogies of un- 
cultured races are fictitious, mythical personages who never existed. 
This is not the case with the Maori folk of New Zealand. Here most 
of the tribes are named after an ancestor from whom every member 
of the tribe can trace his descent. Even in cases where a tribe 
or sub-tribe is not named, still it has a common ancestor. For 
instance, Table No. 1 shows a line of descent from Hape, but the 
tribe, i. e., his descendants, is known as Te Hapu-Oneone. This line 
also illustrates the origin of a sub-tribe known as Ngai-Te-Kapo, 



whose members are the descendants of No. 9 in the table, their 
eponymous ancestor. It must be distinctly understood that every 
member of a Maori tribe is descended from a common ancestor, 
the founder of that tribe. Adoption does not make a person a true 
member of a Maori tribe, it gives him no claim to the lands of that 
tribe. Should he marry a member of the tribe, however, his chil- 
dren have full rights therein, although he might be only a slave. 
The marrying a free woman would, in such a ease, release his 
children from bondage. 

When the lands of the Tuhoe tribe were being put through the 
Land Court, the writer made out a complete genealogical tree, 
showing the descent of every living member of the tribe, about 800, 
from the common eponymic ancestor Tuhoe-Potiki, who flourished 
some twelve or fourteen generations ago. The table contained 
thousands of names and the compilation thereof was no light task. 

In Table No. 2 we have one Turanga-pikitoi in the first position. 
This is the eponymic ancestor of Ngai-Turanga, a clan of many 
members usually known by other elan names, such as Tuhoe. 
Turanga was a chief of the people usually referred to as the 
aborigines of New Zealand, but ^\•ho really represented a mixture 
of the earlier immigrants from Eastern Polynesia and the original 
inhabitants of these isles, an inferior people in physique and culture 
of whom we know but little. Turanga was a descendant of Toi, 
leader of the first band of Polynesians that settled in New Zealand 
nearly thirty generations ago. His great-great-grandson married 
Wairaka, daughter of Toroa, chief of a vessel named Matatua that 
reached these shores from Eastern Polynesia. Some lines from 
Toroa are longer than those given in the table. Here we note an 
intermarriage soon after the arrival of the immigrants, for Wairaka 
came with her father, as also did his sister Muriwai, an ancestress 
of the Whakatohea tribe. Tuhoe-potiki, grandson of Wairaka, is 
the eponymic ancestor of Ngai-Tuhoe, by which tribal name the 
Ngai-Turanga folk are now generally knovvTi. The sister of Tuhoe 
married into the Arawa tribe, where her descendants are still liv- 
ing. Their claim to Tuhoe tribal lands has become "cold," as the 
Maori puts it. 

In this table it must be borne in mind that, owing to inter- 
marriages, all members of the later generations claim other tribal 
or kapu (sub-tribe) names. Thus a man might belong to four or 
five sub-tribes of his tribe, and he would probably reside with all 
of them in rotation, so that he might retain his standing in the 
community and keep his local claim "warm." 

In regard to the remote ancestor Toi, above mentioned, it is 
probable that every Maori in these isles can claim descent from him. 

The Maori folk have preserved more interest in their genealogies 
than in any other branch of their ancient lore, simply because by 
means of them do they make good their claims in our Native Land 
Courts. The modern Maori is not above inventing a line of descent 


from some desirable ancestor in such cases, and only a long and 
close study of the subject will enable one to detect such forgeries. 

In some cases natives have given up memorizing the many lines 
of descent and intermarriages, relying on written language to pre- 
serve such data. Occasionally such practices put them in a serious 
quandary. Some time ago the writer was visited by two members 
of a tribe among which he had resided for fifteen years. This was 
a deputation sent down to copy from my note books certain lines 
of descent needed as evidence in a Native Land Court. Written 
copies had been lost and destroyed, the old men of knowledge were 
all dead, hence this application to a member of an alien race ; surely 
a novel and significant position for Maori folk. 

Again, a few months since, the writer received a letter from a 
somewhat famed genealogist of the East Coast, asking for the name 
of the wife of a gentleman who flourished twenty- four generations 
ago. On receipt of the name he w^rote a letter expressing gratitude 
for the favor, and remarking that the sun had risen above a gloomy 

The "ways that are dark and tricks that are vain" of some of 
these gentry in preferring claims in a Land Court are often pass- 
ing strange. When engaged in making out lists of persons entitled, 
or alleged to be entitled, to shares in certain lands, I have known 
natives to assign sex and name to a child yet unborn. When the 
pre-natal claimant finally appeared in this world, and of the wrong 
sex, some excuse would readily be found for such error in the lists. 

Table No. 3 gives a line from Ira-kai-putahi, eponymous ancestor 
of the Ngati-Ira tribe, who came hither from Eastern Polynesia 
and whose descendants formerly held the Wellington district as 
their tribal lands. This folk once occupied lands near East Cape 
and have had a stormy career. 

The tables given might be extended to a prodigious extent, but 
this would but weary readers. Some rolls made out are 15 to 25 
feet in length. 

Although a line of descent through the eldest son was held to 
be the most important, yet that through the eldest daughter was 
also highly esteemed. The Aho Tamawakine or female line of 
descent in the higher class families carried considerable weight and 
commanded the respect of the community. 



1. Hape (An immigrant 
from Polynesia). 






Te Whakatangata 


'3. Te Kapo-o-te-rangi 







Te Ata-pare 

18. Tamarau 

Te Reinga 

.21. Hine-ki-runga 

(an infant in 1897) 




9 0) 



















.2 a 




























• F^ 














o 1^ 




11-2 o ce 

-»-, o. 











<5 III 

o as cc w 3 .- a> 















a; 0) ^ 





fl -tj 

ce s 

a S married Takahi 

Col. 1 

-•- D 

nJ rt 


V. ^ a 

rt a « c8 . 

td S S cS , 


2 'S J 

.„ 3 a 
(1) rt P ^ 

u © 

f^ S.ti tftti 2*1 


'3 = 

a « 

[3 a> 


3 '^ 



* «, <« 

.*? 43 O) a> 

l>H I— I 

3 3 

ce CIS 

,H Q 3 w W 

- (J) 3 Cd 03 a> ® 




Shows descent of Wai-rarapa families from Ira, an immigrant from 
Polynesia by the vessel known as Horouta. Ira is the epoymic of the 
Ngati-Ira tribe. 




Te Wha-kuma 
Te Ahi-a te-momo 
Te Rangi-takaiwaho 
Te Manihera 
. Maangi 
27. Waikawa (Living 1911> 


Shows descent of Waikawa from Tol. 


1. Rongoueroa 

2. Whatonga 

3. Tara 


Te Rangi-tu-pewa 

Te Rangi-tu-maroro 

10. Turia 




Te Rangi-tualahj 
15. Ira-karak«, 


Pouri i 


20. Whakairi-te-rangi 



Te Huinga 

Te Whakararo 
25. Raurangi 

Taketake ,, 

Te Ngaere 
28. Te Manihera 

30. Maota 





From Hawaiian genealogies, handed down orally for hundreds 
of years, the history of the race has been traced. It shows us that 
the Hawaiians are a very primitive people. About the tifth century 
A. D. they came to Hawaii, where they remained unknown until 
the eleventh century, when thej'^ were visited by several parties 
from the groups to the south, from the ^I'arquesas, Samoan and 
Society Islands. Active intercourse was maintained for the space 
of six generations, when the Hawaiians were again isolated until 
their rediscovery by Captain James Cook in 1778. 

All the inhabitants of Hawaii were .supposed to have descended 
from the same ancestors, Wakea, the male, and Papa, the female. 
After the lapse of time a King was chosen to rule over the people, 
and others were chosen to assist the King, who were the chiefs. 

The genealogies of the Kings and Chiefs were considered of 
great importance and were memorized by genealogists who were 
supported by the nobility and held honored and important posi- 
tions under the Crown. 

The marriage ceremony commonly consisted of the groom throw- 
ing a piece of kapa (native cloth) over the bride in the presence 
of witnesses, usually the bride's relatives. After this brief cere- 
mony a feast took place in celebration of the event. 

Great care was exercised in the choice of the first wife of a 
chief of high rank. She must be of the same or higher rank so 
that their children would be of high rank. Search was made into 
the pedigree of both the man and woman by the genealogists before 
they were allowed to marry and the ceremony was not permitted 
to proceed until the genealogist approved of the pedigrees. 

A suitable mate for a chief of high rank was his sister. If 
there were any children, they were considered chiefs of the 
highest rank. They were called "Ninau Pio" and were so sacred 
that all who came into their presence must prostrate themselves. 
For this reason these chiefs went around at night so that the people 
would not have to stop work and fall to the ground in an attitude 
of worship should they be seen. If a chief had no sister to marry, 
other members of his immediate family were considered suitable, 
such as his cousins, aunts, and, in some cases, even his mother. 

The descent was usually traced through the female for the 
simple reason that there could be no question as to whom the 
mother was. 


After children were born to this first marriage, a husband or 
n wife might take as many partners as they chose of any rank 
and the chikiren begotten of these other unions would be caUed 
■"Kaikaina" and they were recognized as the younger brothers 
and sisters of the great chief, the first child, and in time would 
become his advisers or the ministers of his government. 

In order to show how complex relationships became I will refer 
to Fornander, Volume II, page 130: 

Ka-lani-kau-lele-i-a-iwi was the daughter of Kea-kea-lani- 
wahine, a Queen of the Island of Hawaii and a woman of the high- 
est rank. She became Queen, sharing the throne with her half- 
brother and husband, Kea^v•e. She had four husbands of whom 
there is record, each one of whom had several wives, who in turn 
had several husbands. 

]Most of us will acknowledge that it would be quite a task to 
segregate the second generation of this household and classify 
them as to their relationships with one another. 

Her half-brother Keawe is the reputed head of many families 
in Hawaii proud of their chiefly descent. Keaua, the reputed 
father of the great Kamehameha, was a grandson of both King 
Keawe and his sister, Queen Ka-lani-kau-lele-i-a-iwi, his father 
being Ka-lani-keeaumoku, their son. The mother of Kamehameha 
was Kekuiapoiwa II, a chiefess of the highest rank and daughter 
of Haae, who was the son of Queen Kalani-kau-lele-ia-iwi by another 
husband other than her brother Keawe, the King. Tliis second 
husband was Kauauamahi, a very high chief from the district of 

In showing the relationships of the third generation from 
Keawe it would be necessary to make a chart showing all the wives 
of all the husbands, when we would find such a multitude and such 
combinations that we would be forced to start a separate chart 
for each individual. 

The Hawaiian Historical Society at its annual meeting in Janu- 
ary, 1914, authorized me to chose a committee to look into the 
advisability of the society starting a genealogical department. I 
invited Mr. Edger Henriques and Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder to join 
me as a committee, and after going into the question from all 
points of view we reported that it was our opinion that no time 
should be lost in starting a genealogical department for the 
Hawaiian Historical Society. 

It would seem a simple matter to trace foreign families in 
Hawaii since foreigners began to arrive after the report on Cook's 
voyage was made public, and in only a few cases would it be 
necessary to go back further than 1790, but such we find not to 
be the case. The early arrivals in Hawaii were men who kept no 
records and it was not until the arrival of the missionaries in 1820 
that a foreign woman came to the Islands and permanent records 
of events were kept. 





During the afternoon session of Thursday, July 29, there was an 
exhibition of genealogical charts, a brief summary of which follows : 

Chart 1. — Showing European ancestry for several centuries of 
George Washington's ancestor, Col. George Reade, who came from 
England to Virginia in 1637. 

Prepared by Henry Byron Phillips. 

Chart 2. — A comparative study of three lines of ancestry trac- 
ing through the French, Scandinavian and Hawaiian royal lines 
to Adam. 

Prepared by Henry Byron Phillips. 

Chart 3. — "The Fittest," showing one ancestress, Isabel de 
Vermandois (granddaughter of Henry I, King of France), for 
rulers and leaders in Europe and America. 
Prepared by Sarah Louise Kimball. 

Chart 4. — Showing Isabel de Vermandois as ancestress of all 
reigning monarchs in Europe, except certain Balkan States and 
Turkey, as well as of thirteen presidents of the Ignited States. 
Prepared by Sarah Louise Kimball. 

Charts 5-20. — A series of studies of American families, by 
Sarah Louise Kimball, as follows : 

Ludlow -Carter, of Virginia, producing: 

3 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 2 presi- 
dents, 7 governors, 3 U. S. senators, 1 minister and 
1 ambassador to England, 1 ambassador to Italy, 
and the commander-in-chief C. S. A. 

Taylor, of Virginia, producing : 

2 presidents, 2 governors, 1 member of Congress, 1 
U. S. senator, 1 minister to Mexico and the wife of 
the president of the Confederacy. 

Lee, of Virginia, producing: 

1 president, 1 U. S. senator, 1 state senator, 1 member 
of Congress, 1 representative to the Continental 
Congress, 1 acting governor, 4 celebrated generals. 


Latham-Dungan-Clarke, of Rhode Island, producing: 
10 governors, 14 deputy governors. 

Lawrence, of New England, producing: 

1 president, 2 governors, 1 lieutenant governor, 4 mem- 

bers of Congress, 1 secretary of war, 1 U. S. sena- 
tor, 2 state senators, 3 mayors, 1 rear admiral 
U. S. N,, 1 justice Supreme Court, 1 commodore 
U. S. N., 1 Indian cotnmissioner, 3 diplomatic rep- 
resentatives, 1 benefactor, 1 orator. 

Arnold, of Rhode Island, producing: 

5 governors, 2 chief justices, 1 U. S. senator, 1 signer 
Declaration of Independence, 1 commodore I'. S. N,, 
1 celebrated general in the Revolution. 

Greene, of Rhode Island, producing: 

3 governors, 2 lieutenant-governors, 1 deputy gover- 
nor, 3 U. S. senators, 1 attorney general, 1 U, S. 
consul, 2 historians, 1 author, 1 celebrated general 
in the Revolution. 

Field, of New England, producing: 

2 justices Supreme Court U. S., 2 chief justices. Su- 
preme Court of California, 1 chief justice Supreme 
Court of Iowa, 1 U, S. senator, 1 attorney general, 
1 author, who compiled law codes adopted by 27 
States, the layer of the Atlantic cable, 1 captain of 
industry, 1 governor of Newfoundland, Jamaica, 

Clinton, of New York, producing: 

1 vice-president, 2 governors, 1 brigadier general, 1 
commander-in-chief in the Revolution, 

Richardson, of South Carolina, producing; 

6 governors. 

Wanton, of Rhode Island, producing : 

4 governors, 

Wentivorth, of New Hampshire, producing: 

2 governors, 2 lieutenant-governors, 4 councillors, 12 
members of state legislatures, 1 delegate to the 
Continental Congress, 1 member of Congress, 1 
mayor, 3 authors. 


Dudley, of Massachusetts, producing: 

5 governors, 1 justice U. S. Supreme Court, 1 univer- 
sity president, 1 signer Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 1 editor historical publication,. 1 noted clergy- 
man, 1 oFator, 

Edwards^ of New England, producing : 

1 president, 1 vice-president, 1 governor, 1 chief jus- 
tice, 2 founders law schools, 16 presidents of uni- 
versities, etc., 1 autho'r. 

KimhaU, of New England, producirfgr 

1 vice-president, 2 governoi'S, 1 lieutenant-governor, 
14 state senators, 51 members of state legislatures, 
2 justices, 1 chief justice, 1 attorney general, 1 U. S, 
district attorney, 11 captains of industry, 1 univer- 
sity president, 1 university chancellor, 2 founders 
of academies, 1 president school for girls, 6 authors, 
6 publishers, 1 sculptor, 1 explorer, 1 state chemist, 
I member state constitutional conrs'ention, 1 rear 
admiral U. S. N., 1 director U. S. Mint, 5 U. S, 
consuls, 1 chief signal officer U, S, A., 1 U. S. cus- 
toms expert, 

Kimball, of New England, pToducing r 

152 soldiers in the KevolutwDary war, of whom 27 
were officers. 

Chart 21. — A study on one American family, showing eminent 
descendants within 150 years after the death of the ascendant, 
prepared by Hon, Boutwell Dunlap, as follows: 

John Presfon, of Virginia, producing: 

31 men, among wlrom there were 1 vice-president ; 4 
cabinet oflBcers; 1 Confederate cabinet officer; 9 
U. S. senators; 1 Confederate senator; 5 governors 
(one of 2 territories) ; 15 congressmen j 1 member 
of Continental Congress; 1 Confederate congress- 
man ; 3 foreign ministers; 2 generals in war of 1812; 
4 generals; 5 Confederate generals. 

19 women, among whom were the wives of 1 presi- 
dent; 1 cabinet officer; 5 U. S. senators; 7 gover- 
nors ; 5 congressman ; 2 foreign ministers ; 1 ad- 
miral ; 1 general in war of 1812 ; 4 generals j 4 Con- 
federate generals. 





Scientific plant breeders todaj'' have learned that their success 
often depends on the care with which they study the genealogy of 
their plants. 

Livestock breeders admit that their profession is on a sure 
scientific basis only to the extent that the genealogy of the animal 
used is known. 

Human genealogy is one of the oldest manifestations of man's 
intellectual activity, but until recently it has been subservient to 
sentimental purposes, or pursued from historical or legal motives. 
Biology has had no place in it. 

Genealogy, however, has not altogether escaped the re-examina- 
tion which ail sciences received after the Darwinian movement revo- 
lutionized mcdern thought. Numerous ways have been pointed out 
in which the scienc-e — for genealogy is certainly a science — could be 
brought into line with the new way of looking at man and his 
world. Tlie field of genealogy has already been invaded at many 
points by biologists, seeking the furtherance of their own aims. 

I propose to discuss briefly the relations between the conven- 
tional genealogy and the modern application of biological principles 
to every-day life which, as it is here viewed, may be broadly de- 
scribed by the name Eugenics, "good breeding." It may be that 
genealogy could become an even more valuable branch of human 
knowledge that it now is, if it were more closely aligned with 
biology. In order to throw light on this possibility, we must 
inquire : 

(1) What is genealogy? 

(2) What does it novv' attempt to do? 

(3) What faults appear, from the eugenist's standpoint, to 
exist in its present methods? 

(4) What additions should be made to its present methods? 

(5) What can be expected of it, after it is revised in accord- 
ance with the ideas of the eugenist? 

The answer to the first question, "What is genealogy?" need 
not detain me long, for you are already more familiar with it 
than I am. Genealogy may ]ye envisaged from several points. It 
serves history. It has a legal function, which is probably of more 


consequence abroad than in Ainerica. It has social significance, 
in bolstering family pride and creating a feeling of family solidarity 
— this is perhaps its chief office in the United States, It has, or 
can have, biological significance, and this in two ways: either in 
relation to the pure science or the applied science. In connection 
with pure science, its function is to furnish us means for getting 
a knowledge of the laws of heredity. In application, its function 
is to furnish a knowledge of the inherited characters of any given 
individual, in order to make it possible for the individual to 
marry wisely. It is obvious that the use of genealogy in the 
applied science of eugenics is dependent on the preceding use of 
it in the pure branch of the science ; for marriage matings which 
take account of heredity cannot be made unless the laws of heredity 
have previously been discovered. 

True Worth of Genealogy. 

The historical, social, legal and other aspects of genealogy do 
not concern the present paper. I shall discuss only the biological 
aspect : firstly, because I am incompetent to discuss the others ; and 
secondly, because I hold that the biological conception has by 
far the greatest true value, accepting the criterion of value as that 
which furthers the progressive evolution of the race. By this cri- 
terion, I believe the historical, legal and social aspects of genealogy 
are of secondary importance; the greatest worth it can possibly 
have is in co-operation with biology. This definition may appear to 
be a begging of the question of my whole paper; I shall attempt 
to justify it farther on, 

(2) Genealogy now too often pretends to be an end in itself. 
It can, of course, be looked upon as an end in itself, but I believe 
that it will be recognized as a science of much greater value to the 
world if it is admitted to be not an end, but a means to a far 
greater end that it alone can supply. 

It has indeed, been contended, even by such an authority as 
Ottokar Lorenz,' who is often considered the father of modern 
scientific genealogy, that a knowledge of his own ancestry will 
tell each individual exactly what he himself is. This, as I under- 
stand it, is the basis of Lorenz' valuation of genealogy. It is a 
step in the right direction; but 

(3) The present methods of genealogy are inadequate to sup- 
port such a claim. Its methods are still based on the historical, 
legal and social functions, and it has not yet begun, save in a few 
instances, to realize its almost incomparable opportunity for the 
betterment of mankind. Let me indicate just a few of the faults 
of method in genealogy, which the eugenist most deplores: 

(a) The information which is of most value is exactly that 
which genealogy does not furnish. Dates of birth, death and mar- 
riage of an ancestor are of interest, but rarely of real biological 


value. The facts about that ancestor which vitally concern his 
living descendant are the facts of his character, physical and 
mental ; and these facts are given in very few genealogies. 

Data Usually Incomplete. 

(b) Genealogies are commonly too incomplete to be of real 
value. Sometimes they deal only with the direct male line of 
ascent — what animal breeders call the tail-mail. In this case it 
is not too much to say that they are quite devoid of genuine value. 
Fortunately American genealogies do not often go to this extreme, 
but it is not uncommon for them to deal only with the direct 
ancestors of the individual, omitting all brothers and sisters of 
those ancestors. Altliough this simplifies the work of the geneal- 
ogist immensely, it deprives it of value to a corresponding degree. 

(c) As the purpose of genealogy in this country has been 
largely social, it is to be feared that in too many cases discredit- 
able data have been tacitly omitted from the records. The anti- 
social individual, the feeble-minded, the insane, tlie alcoholic, tlie 
"generally no-count," has been glossed over. Such a lack of 
candor is not in accord with the scientific spirit, and makes one 
uncertain, in the use of genealogies, to what extent he is really 
getting all the facts. There are few families of any size which 
have not one such member or more, not many generations removed. 
To attempt to conceal the fact is an action of doubtful ethical 
propriety; but from the eugenist's point of view, at any rate, it 
is a falsification of records that must be regarded with great 

(d) Even if the information it furnishes were more com- 
plete, human genealogy would not justify the claims sometimes 
made for it as a science, because, to use a biological phrase, "the 
matings are not controlled." We see the results of a certain 
experiment, but wc cannot interpret them unless we know what 
the result would have been had the precedent conditions been 
varied in this way or in that way. We can make these controlled 
experiments in our plant and animal breeding; we have been 
making them by the thousand, by the hundred thousand, for many 
years. We cannot make them in human society. Of course, we 
don't want to; but the point on which I wish to insist is that the 
biological meaning of human history, the real import of genealogy 
can only be interpreted in the light of modern plant and animal 
breeding. It is absolutely necessary that genealogy go into 
partnership with genetics, the general science of heredity ; that it 
do not consider itself cheapened by an alliance v/ith the plant 
and animal breeders. If a spirit of false pride lead it to hold 
aloof from these experiments, it will make slow progress. The 
interpretation of genealogy in the light of modern research in 
heredity, through the experimental breeding of plants and animals 
is full of hope; without snch light, it is almost hopeless. 


Genealogists are usually proud of their pedigrees; they usually 
have a right to be. But I beg of you, do not let your pride lead 
you to scorn the pedigrees of some of the peas, and corn and snap- 
dragons, and sugar beets, and bulldogs, and Shorthorn cattle, with 
which genetists have been working during the last generation ; for 
these humble pedigrees may throw more light on your own than a 
century of research in purely human material. 

Biology Necessary. 

Your science will not have full meaning and full value to you 
unless you bring yourselves to look on men and women as organisms 
subject to the same laws of heredity and variation as other living 
things. Biologists were not long ago told that it was essential for 
them to learn to think like genealogists. It is excellent advice, 
and if I were speaking to biologists, I would repeat it. As I am 
speaking to genealogists, I say with equal conviction that it is 
essential for genealogists to learn to think like biologists. For the 
purpose of eugenics, neither science is complete without the other; 
and I think it is not invidious for me to say that biologists have 
been quicker to recognize this than have genealogists. The Golden 
Age of your science is yet to come. 

(4) In addition to the correction of these faulty methods, 
there are certain extensions of genealogical method which could 
advantageously be made without great difficulty, I think. 

(a) More written records should be kept, and less dependence 
placed on oral communication. The obsolescent family Bible, with 
its chronicle of births, deaths and marriages, is an institution of 
too great value to be given up, in more ways than one. In the 
United States we have not the advantage of much of the machinery 
of state registration which European genealogy enjoys, and it should 
be a matter of pride with every family to keep its own archives. 

(b) Family trees should be kept in more detail, including all 
brothers and sisters in every family, no matter at what age they 
died, and including as many collaterals as possible. This means 
more Avork for the genealogist, but the results will repay him. 

(c) More family traits should be marked. Those at present 
recorded are mostly of a social or economic nature and are of little 
real significance after the death of their possessor. But the traits 
of his mind and body are likely to go on to his descendants in- 
definitely. These are the facts of his life on which we should 
focus our attention. How this can be most conveniently done I 
shall discuss later. 

(d) More pictorial data should be added. Photographs of 
the members of the family, at all ages, should be carefully pre- 
served. They are often of inestimable value. Measurements equally 
deserve attention. The door jamb is not a satisfactory place for 
recording the heights of children, particularly in this day when 


real estate so often changes liands. Complete anthropometric meas- 
urements, such as every member of the Young ]\fen's Christian 
Association, most college students, and many other people are 
obliged to undergo once or periodically, should be placed on file. 

(e) Pedigrees should be traced upward from a living indi- 
vidual, rather than downward from some hero long since dead. 
Of course, the ideal method would be to combine these two, or to 
keep duplicate pedigrees, one a table of ascendants and the other 
of descendants, in the same stock. This plan is not too laborious 
to use, in many eases; the combined tables, which show all the 
relatives of an individual, although attractive to the investigator, 
are too complicated ever to become popular, I suspect. 

The Ideal Genealogy. 

Genealogical data of the kind we need, however, cannot be 
reduced to a mere table or family tree. The ideal genealogy, as 
described by Davenport," starts with a whole fraternity — the indi- 
vidual who is making it, and all his brothers or sisters. It describes 
fully each member of this fraternity. "It then describes each mem- 
ber of the fraternity to which the father belongs and gives some 
account of their consorts (if married) and their children. It does 
the same for the maternal fraternity. Next it considers the fra- 
ternity to which the father's father belongs, considers their con- 
sorts, their children and grandchildren, and it does the same for 
the fraternities to which the father's mother belongs. It were 
more significant thus to study in detail the behavior of all the 
available product of the germ-plasms involved in the makeup of the 
first fraternity than to weld a chain or two of links through six or 
seven generations. A genealogy constructed on such a plan v/ould 
give a clear picture of heredity, would be useful for the prediction 
of the characteristics of the generations yet unborn, and would, 
indeed, aid in bringing about better matings. " 

(5) With these changes, genealogy would become the study of 
heredity, rather than the study of lineage. Perhaps you will not 
all agree that this would be a desirable change; but I think if 
you can once get the biological, the eugenic point of view, you will 
realize that any other field for genealogy is too narrow. 

I do not mean to say that the study of heredity is nothing more 
than applied genealogy. As we understand it nowadays, it includes 
mathematical and biological territory which must always be foreign 
to genealogy. I should prefer to put it this way : That in so far as 
man is concerned, heredity is the interpretation of genealogy, and 
eugenics the application of heredity. But I do mean to say that 
genealogy should give its students a vision of the species as a great 
group of ever-changing, inter-related organisms, a great netAvork 
originating in the obscurity of the past, stretching forward into the 
obscurity of the future, every individual in it organically related 


to every other, and all of them the heritors of the past in a very 
real sense. 

No one is so Avell fitted as the genealogist to realize the solemn 
grandeur of Weissman's doctrine that the germ-plasm is continu- 
ous from the beginning of existence on this world, to the now un- 
seen end. Our bodies, as you all have heard, are made up of two 
parts: this mass of highly differentiated cells which represents the 
man or woman, and which are destined to die when the individual 
shall have completed his three score years and ten, more or less; 
and within, the little mass of germ-cells, the undifferentiated, im- 
mortal, or, at least, potentially immortal carriers of the heritage 
of the race. Generation after generation this germ-plasm goes on 
dividing; from parent to child it is passed on, unchanged save by 
the addition at each generation of a new line from the second 
parent. The body dies, but if the individual has left posterity, the lives after him. Immortality is, in this sense at least, a 
very real thing to the biologist ; and I believe the genealogist would 
see a new meaning in his work if he l^ept the same conception in 

Importance of Individuals. 

Genealogy does well in giving a realization of the importance 
of the family, but it errs if it bases this teaching altogether on the 
family pride in some remote ancestor who, even though he bore the 
family name and was a prodigy of virtues, probably counts for little 
or nothing in the individual's make-up today. Let me take a con- 
crete though wholly imaginary illustration : what man would not 
feel a certain satisfaction in being a lineal descendant of George 
Washington? And yet, if we place the Father of his Country at 
only four removes from the living individual, nothing is more 
certain than that our hypothetical living individual had fifteen 
other ancestors in George Washington's generation, any one of 
whom may play as great or greater a part in his ancestry; and so 
remote are they all that, on statistical grounds alone, it is calculated' 
that the contribution of George Washington to the ancestry of our 
hypothetical living individual would be perhaps not more than 
one-third of one per cent, of the total. 

I do not mean to disparage descent from a famous man or 
woman. It is a matter of legitimate pride and congratulation. 
But claims for respect made on that ground alone are, from a 
biological point of view, usually contemptible, if the hero is several 
generations removed. What Sir Francis Galton wrote* of the 
peers of England ma.y, with slight reserves, be given general appli- 
cation to the descendants of famous people : 

"An old peerage is a valueless title to natural gifts, except so 
far as it may have been furbished up bj^ a succession of wise inter- 
marriages. ... I cannot think of any claim to respect, put forward 
in modern days, that is so entirely an imposture, as that made by 


a peer on the ground of descent, who has neither been nobly edu- 
cated, nor has any eminent kinsman within three degrees." 

But, some one may protest, am I not shattering the very edifice 
of which I am a professed defender, in thus denying the force of 
heredity? Not at all. I wish merely to emphasize that a man has 
sixteen great-great-grandparents, instead of one, and that we too 
often overlook those in the maternal lines, although from a biologi- 
cal point of view they are every bit as important as those in the 
paternal lines. And I wish further to emphasize the point that it 
is the near relatives who, on the whole, represent what we are. The 
great family which for a generation or two makes unwise marriages, 
must live on its past reputation and see the work of the world done 
and the prizes carried away by the children of wiser matings. No 
family can maintain its place merely by the power of inertia. Every 
marriage that a member of the family makes is a matter of vital 
concern to the future of the family ; and this is one of the lessons 
which a broad science of genealogy should inculcate in every youth. 

Qualifications for Work. 

Is it practicable to direct genealogy on this slightly different 
line ? As to that, I must allow you to judge ; it would be pre- 
sumptuous for me to express an opinion. Let me recall, however, 
the qualifications which old Professor William Chauncey Fowler 
laid down'' as essential for a successful genealogist: 

Love of kindred. 

Love of investigation. 

Active imagination. 

Sound and disciplined judgment. 

Conscientious regard to truth. 

A retentive memory. 

A pleasing style as a writer. 
With such qualifications one can go far, and I venture to ex- 
press the opinion that one who possesses them has only to fix his 
Mttention upon the biological aspect of genealogy to become con- 
vinced that his science is only part of a science as long as it ignores 
eugenics. After all, nothing more is necessary than a slight change 
in the point of view; and if genealogists can adopt this new point 
of view, can add to their equipment some familiarity with the 
fundamental principles of biology as they apply to man and are 
laid down in the science of eugenics, I am firmly of the conviction 
that the value of the science of genealogy to the world will be in- 
creased at least five fold within a generation. 

Let us examine a little more closely what can be expected from 
a genealogy with eugenic foundation. 

First and foremost it will give genetics a chance to advance with 
rapidity in its study of man. Genetics, the study of heredity, can- 
not successfully proceed by direct ol)servation in the human species, 
as it does with plants and rapidly-breeding animals, because the 


generations are too long. Less than three generations are of little 
value for our researches, and even three can rarely be observed to 
advantage by any one person. Therefore, second-hand information 
must be used. So far vve have gained most of this by sending field- 
workers — a new kind of genealogist — out among the people in whom 
we are interested and having them collect the information we 
wanted, either by study of extant records or by word of mouth. 
But the written records of value have been usually negligible in 
quantity, and oral communication has therefore been our main- 
stay. It has not been wholly satisfactory. Few people — aside 
from genealogists — can give even the names of all their great- 
grandparents, far less can they tell anything of importance about 

It is thus to genealogy that we are driven. Unless we have 
family records, we can accomplish little. And we cannot get these 
family records unless you genealogists realize the importance of 
furnishing them ; for as I have already pointed out, and as I wish to 
emphasize, genealogies at present availaljle are of little value to 
genetics because of the inadequacy of the data they furnish. It is 
only in the case of exceptional families, such as the royal houses 
of Europe, that enough information is given about each individual 
to furnish an opportunity for analysis. What could be done if 
there were more such data availal)le, is brilliantly illustrated by the 
investigation" by Dr. Frederick Adams Woods of Boston of the 
reigning houses of Europe. I commend his writing to every geneal- 
ogist as a source of inspiration as well as information. 

Hope for Quick Results. 

To get more such data we must look to the future. We must 
begin at once to keep our family records in such a way that they 
will be of the greatest value possible — that they will serve not only 
family pride, but bigger purposes. It will not take long to get 
together a large number of family histories in which the idea will 
be to tell as much as possible, instead of as little as possible, about 
every individual mentioned. Let me run over a few of the problems 
on which such genealogies would throw light. 

There is the important problem of the inheritance of longevity. 
Karl Pearson showed' some years ago, by advanced statistical 
methods, that longevity is inheritable. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, 
whose investigation of the ancestry of congenital deaf persons at 
Martha's Vineyard and elsewhere, more than a generation ago, 
was one of the first pieces of biological genealogy executed in this 
country, and indubitablj^ estal)lislu'd the heritable nature of congen- 
ital deafness' — Dr. Bell is now working on the published history of 
the Hyde Family in the United States and analyzing it from many 
points of view to bring to light the ways in which longevity is 
inherited. It is obvious that this trait is a particularly easy one 
for investigation, because we need to know nothing more than the 


dates on which an individual and his parents were born and died. 
Certainly a genealogy that does not tell so much must be con- 
sidered defective, and yet of the 8,000 or more persons listed in 
the Hyde genealogy, there are less than 3,000 for whom these data 
are complete. 

Longevity being due more to heredity than to anything else, 
it is obvious, as Dr. Bell has clearly pointed out, that it is a trait 
of which families may vvcil be proud, if it runs consistently in 
their stock. And as we eugenists try as far as possible to put our 
knowledge to practical use, he has also pointed out that it is very 
desirable for a young man or young w^oman to marry into a 
family possessing that trait, since it is a good indication of general 
soundness of constitution and physical vigor. Families in whose 
ancestry longevity is a characteristic, can well afford to make the 
fact known, and take pride in alliance with other worthj^ families 
similarly endowed. 

Such a mating, like with like, is technically known to us as 
assortative. It used to be supposed that people tended to marry 
their opposites — the blonde and the brunette, the short and the tall. 
The use of exact methods in eugenics has demonstrated that the 
reverse is the case, and that for almost every measureable trait 
there is distinct evidence of assortative mating." That such a fact is 
of great value to the race, when the character involved is one of 
so much importance as longevity, is obvious, and the tendency 
should be encouraged. Genealogy can give much help in this 

The Determination of Sex. 

There are certain phases of the always interesting problem of 
sex-determination on which genealogy can easily throw light. It 
has sometimes been asserted that the age of the parents influences 
the sex of the offspring. We do not know that this is so, but with 
the help of genealogy we can find out. 

Another question of great practical importance, on which we 
seek information, relates to the posterity of men of genius. Is 
there any truth in the idea that their mental activity tends to use 
up their vital force, with the result that they are either sterile or 
leave posterity of mediocre qualitj^'? The idea does not sound con- 
vincing, but we shall not dismiss it dogmatically, we shall appeal 
to genealogy for data on which to dispose of it definitely. Of course 
the alleged fact here must not be confused with the well-known fact 
of regression, formulated as a mathematical law by Galtou. We 
know that, on the average, the children of superior parents will 
tend to be inferior to their parents, and the children of parents 
who are below normal will tend to be a little better than their 
parents. This is due to the vast bulk of their remote ancestry, most 
of which is necessarily average, or as the statistician puts it, 
mediocre. The drag of this more remote heredity tends to pull 


every child toward mediocrity, or the mean, the average of the 
race. I must emphasize the fact that this is purely a statistical law, 
applying only to a quantity of cases, and is frequently untrue for 
individual cases. 

The results of early, as compared with late marriage, offer an- 
other big problem in the solution of which we need your help. 

That the first-born children are, on the whole, inferior to the 
brothers or sisters who come after them, has been asserted in recent 
years, and the assertion has been supported by a good deal of 
evidence. It is highly important that a much greater body of 
evidence be brought together on this point, and here genealogy can 
aid with very little trouble. Unfortunately it is not uncommon to 
find in the earlier generations of a family tree that the exact birth- 
rank of the various children is not designated; nor is account always 
made of infant deaths or still-births, as should certainly be done 
in every ease. 

The question of consanguineous marriage is one in which every 
genealogist is certain to have taken an interest, merely because of 
the doubling up of a name in his chart, if not from a biological 
point of view. Until recently the question of the marriage of kin 
was debated largely by an appeal to dogma. I dare say every 
genealogist has seen cases where the marriage of first cousins was 
followed bj'' good progeny, and equally cases where the result was 
bad. There is plenty of evidence of that sort to be had on both 
sides. I think it is safe to say that genetics has established the 
status of consanguineous marriage beyond all dispute. It certainly 
is not bad in itself, although first cousins are forbidden by law to 
marry in a third of the States of the I'nion." It simply results 
in a doubling up of the traits which the two may have in common. 
If these traits are good, the children get a double dose of them, and 
will be more highly endowed than their parents. If the traits are 
bad, the children equally get a double dose of them, and may far 
surpass their parents in worthlessness, or in the prominence of any 
particular defect. The general conclusion is clear to us; marriages 
between cousins or other relatives of equal consanguinity should not 
be condemned offhand, but the facts should be taken into consider- 
ation in each individual case. And it should be borne in mind, of 
course, that a trait may be latent or concealed in each of the cousins, 
but come into expression in their children. Although cousin mar- 
riages, therefore, should be scrutinized closely, we certainly find 
no reason to forbid them when the contracting parties are of 
sound .stock. 

Inheritance of Disease. 

The question of the inheritance of disease is one of great im- 
portance, which can be studied very easily through genealogy. Of 
course, no one with a knowledge of modern work in genetics now 
believes that diseases are actually inherited as such ; but there is a 


great deal of evidence to show that what the doctors call "diathesis," 
a predisposing tendency to some disease, may be inherited. Greater 
research is urgently needed to find the extent and limits of such 
inheritance, and it is to enlightened genealogy that we must look 
for the solution of the problem— or rather, problems — since there 
are as many problems as there are diseases, defects and abnormali- 
ties. We must not draw hasty generalizations, but attack each 
subject separately. We have pretty good evidence, for instance, 
that the tubercular diathesis is inherited; that the white plague 
ravages some families and leaves others untouched; that almost every 
city-dweller, at least, is at some time or other during his life in- 
fected with phthisis, and whether he resists or succumbs depends on 
his heredity. Herein lies guidance for those who would marry; 
other things being equal let them avoid the weak stocks, the stocks 
known to be marked with tuberculosis. But because tuberculosis is 
thus a matter of heredity, it does not necessarily follow that cancer, 
or any other disease, is. We must take nothing for granted ; we 
must find out bj' examining many families in which a given disease 
or abnormality occurs. And to do this we must depend on the 
data of genealogy. 

Here, however, let nie utter an emphatic warning against super- 
ficial investigation. The medical profession has been particularly 
hasty, many times, in reporting cases which were assumed to demon- 
strate heredity. The child was so and so ; it was found on inquiry 
that the father was also so and so: post, hoc, ergo propter hoc — it 
must have been heredity. Such a method of investigation is cal- 
culated to bring the science of genetics into dfsrepute, and might 
easily ruin the credit of the science of genealogy, should genealogy 
allow itself to be so misled. As a fact, one case counts for practi- 
cally nothing as proof of hereditary influence; even half a dozen 
or a dozen may be of no significance. There are two ways in 
which we can analyze genealogical data to deduce biological laws: 
one is based on the application of higher mathematics to mass 
statistics, and needs some hundreds of cases to be of value; the 
other is by pedigree-study, and needs at least three generations of 
pedigree, usually covering numerous collaterals, to offer any certain 
results. Not all the findings announced even by professional 
eugenists have met one or other of these requirements, and to the 
extent in which they have fallen short, they are being discredited. 
It is not to be supposed that anyone with a sufficiently complete 
record of his own ancestry would nec<'ssarily be able by inspection 
to deduce from it any important conti-ibution to science. But if 
enough complete family records are made ;ivailal)le, the professional 
genetist can be called into co-operation, can supplement the human 
record with his knowledge of the results achieved by carefully 
controlled animal and plant breeding, and between them the geneal- 
ogist and the eugenist can in most cases arrive at the truth. That 


such truth is of the highest importance to any family, and equally 
to society as a whole, must be evident. 

Sex-Linked Inheritance, 

The whole question of sex-linked inheritance depends for its 
solution on the extension of genealogical material. It is often said 
that sons take after their mothers, while daughters tend to resemble 
their fathers. The Arabs and Hebrews put the same idea a little 
differently, that a son tends to resemble his maternal uncle. Is 
there anything in these ideas ? In a small way, there is no mystery 
about it; we know that certain hereditary traits are sex-linked — 
that they are carried hy one sex but appear in the other. Thus it 
is rare to find women who are color blind, but a woman who does not 
show this defect herself may have inherited it from her father, 
who was visibly affected, and transmit it to her sons, who will 
also be visibly affected. Extending this principle, it is easy to 
see that a boy might inherit some traits from his mother, which 
his father wholly lacked, and that a daughter might similarly re- 
ceive exclusive traits from her father. Sex-linked heredity 
in the human race has so far been definitely proved only in 
regard to color-blindness, hemophilia and a few other abnormal 
conditions; but with the co-operation of the genealogists it is 
probable that this condition, as important as it is interesting, will 
be found to prevail more widely. 

The problem of the inheritance of fecundity can obviously be 
settled only through proper genealogical material. It is known 
that fecundity is to some extent an inherited characteristic, although 
doubtless affected in man largely by outward circumstances. The 
voluntary limitations of births, which has become so widespread 
during the hsst generation, of course complicates the study of this 
subject, but there is, nevertheless, room for much work of a 
distinctly practical kind. Obviously one of the easiest ways to im- 
prove the general average of the race would be to have high 
fecundity in the superior stocks and low fecundity in the inferior 
ones. It is equally obvious that if fecundity is associated with 
inferiority — with feeble-raindedness, for example, that disastrous 
results will ensue if Nature is allowed to "take its course." The 
genealogist can contribute indispensable material for this study, 
and for the general study of the birth-rate in various sections of 
the community at various periods — a study which is the very foun- 
dation of applied eugenics. 

Frederick S. Crum's work" on published genealogies of New 
England families shows what can be done in this line. From his 
material, Crum was able to get figures for 12,722 wives, and he 
found that the number of children per wife had decreased as follows : 


1750-1799 6.43 

1800-1849 4.94 

1850-1869 3.47 

1870-1879 2.77 

Before 1700 less than 2 per cent, of the wives had only one child 
each ; nowadays the percentage is about 20. The percentage of 
wives in his records who are absolutely childless has increased as 
follows : 

1750-1799 1.88 

1800-1849 4.07 

1850-1869 5.91 

1870-1879 8.10 

He finds, on analysis of the most recent material, that the New 
England wives of the present day, representing the old Colonial 
stock, have an average of 1.92 living children each, while the foreign- 
born mothers in the same districts have 3.01. We are accustomed to 
point with pity at France as a nation committing race suicide, with 
more deatlis than births ; as a fact, the old American stock in New 
England is dying out more rapidly, through race suicide, than is 
the population of France. Unless a change takes place the stock 
which has furnished most of the genealogies, and a large part 
of the great men and women, of America is doomed to perish. 

The inheritance of the tendency to produce twins is an inter- 
esting trait, not without practical as well as theoretical import- 
ance, which could probably be solved were a sufficient number of 
well-kept family trees made available for study. It is known that 
twinning is largely a matter of heredity, although the exact man- 
ner in which the tendency is inherited is still obscure. A good 
example of the danger of hasty generalization is furnished by the 
announcement made by some enthusiastic investigator a few years 
ago'^ that he had found a number of cases which made it evident 
to him that the tendency to twinning was due to the father rather 
than the mother. As ordinary twins are due to the production of 
two ova instead of one, and as the production of ova can hardly 
be denied to be a function of the mother rather than the father, 
the claim is absurd. Yet it is possible that a tendency to twinning 
might be sex-linked and transmitted through a father to his daugh- 
ters, as has recently been asserted to be the case with high egg 
production in hens. Whatever the solution may be, it still lies 
hidden in pedigrees which the genealogist will make, or is already 

Data on All Traits Wanted. 

But this list might grow interminably : for properly kept gene- 
alogical records will furnish material, without further trouble, for 
attacking very nearly all the problems in human heredity that are 
conceivable. The compiler of family histories need only include 


every physical or mental trait possible, bearing in mind that the 
genetist will ask two questions about it : 

Is this characteristic inherited? 
If so, how? 
Nor must it be forgotten that we are often as much interested in 
knowing that a given character is not inherited under certain con- 
ditions, as that it is. 

Aside from biology, or that phase of it which we call eugenics, 
genealogy may also serve medicine, jurisprudence, sociology, statis- 
tics, and various other sciences as well as the ones which it now 
serves. But in most cases such service will have a eugenic aspect. 
The alliance between eugenics and genealogy is one that is certainly 
foreordained, and it cannot be put off much longer. 

You may ask what facilities we have for receiving and using 
pedigrees such as I have been outlining, if they were made up. 
You are all, of course, familiar with the repositories which the 
different patriotic societies, the National Genealogical Society, and 
similar organizations maintain, as well as the collections of the 
Library of Congress and other great public institutions. Anything 
deposited in such a place can be found by tlie investigators, mostly 
attached to colleges and universities, who are actively engaged in 
eugenic research. 

In addition to tliis there are certain establishments founded for 
the sole purpose of analyzing genealogies from a biological or statis- 
tical point of view. The first of these was the Galton Laboratory 
of the University of London, directed by Karl Pearson. I shall not 
take time to mention the European institutions, but shall call to 
your attention tlie two at woi-k in the United States. 

The larger is the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, 
Long Island, New York, directed by Dr. Charles B. Davenj)ort 
and maintained largely through the generosity of IMrs. E. H. Harri- 
man. Blank schedides are sent to all applicants, in which the 
pedigree of an individual may be easily set down, with reference 
particularly to the traits of eugenic importance. When desired the 
office will send duplicate sc-hedules, one of wliich may be retained 
by the applicant for his own files. The schedules filed at the 
Eugenics' Record Office are treated as alisolutely confidential, ac- 
cess to them being given only to accredited investigators.'* 

The second institution of this kind is the Genealogical Record 
Office, founded and directed by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, at 
1601 Thirty-fifth Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C. This de- 
votes itself solely to the collection of data regarding longevity, and 
sends out schedules to all those in whose families there have been 
individuals attaining the age of 80 or over. It welcomes correspond- 
ence on the subject from all who know of cases of long life, and 
endeavors to put the particulars on record, especially with reference 
to the ancestry and habits of the long-lived individual. 


Duty of the iNDiviDUAii. 

Persons intelligently interested in their ancestry might well 
consider it a duty to society, and to their own posterity, to send 
for one of the Eugenics' Record Office schedules, fill it out and 
place it on file there, and to do the same with the Genealogical 
Record Office, if they are so fortunate as to come of a stock char- 
acterized by longevity. The filling out of these schedules would be 
likely to lead to a new viewpoint of genealogy; and when this 
viewpoint is once gained, I am satisfied that the student will find 
it adds immensely to his interest in his pursuit. 

You are all familiar with the charge of long standing, that 
genealogy is a subject of no use, a fad of a privileged class. I do 
not need to tell you that such a charge is untrue. But I think that 
genealogy can be made a much more useful science then it now is, 
and that it will be at the same time more interesting to its followers, 
if it ceases to look on itself as an end in itself, or solely as a minister 
to family pride. I hope to see it look on itself as a handmaid of 
evolution, just as other sciences are coming to do; I hope to see 
it link arms with the great biological movement of the present day; 
I hope to see the two of them working in close harmony for the 
betterment of mankind. 

So much for the science as a whole. What can the individual 
do? Nothing better than to broaden his outlook so that he may 
view his family not as an exclusive entity, centered in a name, 
dependent on some illustrious man or men of the past ; but rather 
as an integral part of the great fabric of human life, its warp and 
woof continuous from the dawn of creation and criss-crossed at 
each generation. When he gets this vision, he will desire to make 
his family tree as full as possible, to include his collaterals, to note 
every trait which he can find on record, to preserve the photographs 
and measurements of his own conteinporaries, and to take a pride 
in feeling that the history of his family is a contribution to human 
knowledge, as well as to the pride of the family. 

If the individual genealogist does this, the science of genealogy 
will become a splendid servant of the whole race, and its influence, 
not confined to a few, will be felt by all as a positive, dynamic force 
helping them to lead more worthy lives in the short span allotted 
to them, and helping them to leave more worthy posterity to carry 
on the names they bore and the sacred thread of immortality, of 
which they were for a time the custodians. 

•I^orenz, Ottodar — Lehrbuch der gesammten wi.ssenscliaftlichen Genealogie. 
Berlin. W. Hertz, 1898. 

^Davenport, C. B. — Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, p. 240. New York, Henry 
Holt & Co.. 1911. 

•Galton's Law of Ancestral Heredity (which is purely statistical in nature and 
mav be quite misleading when applied to individual cases) makes it possible to 
calculate the contribution of each ancestor, all the way to infinity. Pearson 
has modified It, but as I cite it here merely by way of illustration, I use 
Galton's original form for the sake of simplicity. Following Is the calcula- 
tion for the first six generations: 


Number of 

Influence of 

Influence of 




























*Galton, Francis — Hereditary Genius, p. 87. London, The Macmillan Co.. 1869. 
*Fowler, William Chauncey — Conditions of Success in Genealogical Investiga- 
tions. N. E. Hist, and Gen. Soc. Boston, 1866. 

•Woods. Frederick Adams — Mental and Moral Heredity in Royalty. New York, 
Henrv Holt & Co.. 1906 ; also The Influence of Monarchs. New York, The Mac- 
millan Co., 1914. 

'Pearson, Karl — RoyaJ Society of London. Phil. Trans., vol. 192A. p. 277 ; 
Biometrika, vol. I, p. 74. London, 1903. 

■Bell, Alexander Graham — Memoirs Upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of 
the Human Race. Washington, D. C. National Academy of Sciences, 1884. 

•For a summary see Harris. J. Arthur — Assortative Mating in Man. Popular 
Science Monthly. LXXX. No. 5, pp. 476-493, New York. May, 1912. 

•"Davenport. C. B. — State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection, p. 14. Eugenics 
Record OflBce Bull. No. 9, Cold Springs Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., June, 1913. 

"Crum. Frederick S. — The Decadence of the Native American Stock. Quarterly 
Pub. American Statistical Assn., XIV, n. s. 107. pp. 215-223, Sept., 1914. 

"Cited by Weinberg. W. — Methode der Vererbungsforschung beim Menschen. 
Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. vol. 49, 1912; No. 14, pp. 646-649 (April 1), 
and No. 15. pp. 697-701 (April S). 

"Since the above was written, the Eugenics Record Office has published 
Bulletin No. 13 on "How to Make a Eugenical Family Study." It gives details 
of procedure which will be of much value to anyone interested in genealogy 
from the viewpoint I have outlined, and will be sent gratis, I believe, to any 
serious inquirer. 





Some seven years ago, in the course of the work performed 
as Historian of the Society of Mayflower Descendants of Cali- 
fornia I had a call from an otfice boy, who asked if I owned a 
ranch in the State of Washington; I replied that I had no such 
ranch. He then produced a record of a policy issued to "H. 
Folger" and giving a Washington address. 

The Society made it a practice to address postal cards or 
circulars to persons whose names implied that they might be 
descended from the passengers on the good ship " ^Mayflower. " 
A card was accordingly sent to Mr. H. Folger, and the card 
asked that the names of his parents and grandparents be for- 
warded to the Society, together with certain other information. 
In due time we received a reply that his father was named Jethro 
and that the family came from North Carolina and had no con- 
nection with any MayHower stock; that there was a tradition 
in North Carolina, however, that their ancestors had come from 

Upon investigation it was found that a Latham Folger had 
removed from Massachusetts to North Carolina in 1774 and been 
lost sight of. It was five years before we could determine in 
general terms where this family had gone and of whom it con- 
sisted. Finally a young lady was found in North Carolina who 
proved a good friend. She was connected with Guilford Col- 
lege, which had in its vaults some of the records of the Society 
of Quakers of early days. It transpired that all the emigrants 
to North Carolina from ^Massachusetts at that time were mem- 
bers of the Society of Quakers, the move having been made to 
escape the necessity of military service. 

That society not only recorded the names of children who 
were born but also made very complete records of the mar- 
riages. Every certificate began: "Whereas son of 

desires marriage with daughter of " and often also 

gave the names of all relatives present together with their rela- 
tionship, rendering the records of the greatest value. We his^ 
torians who are required to prove statements are especially 
helped when we can refer to a record which clearly traces the 
parentage of the people affected. 

It was found that Latham Folger had ten children, one of 
whom was named Jethro and was born in 1797. This hardly 
seemed to meet the case, for it did not seem possible that a man 


writing the hand iu which Homer Folger's letter was written 
could be the son of a man born in 1797. He was communicated 
with on this point, and stated that in 1855 his father Jethro 
married a second wife and that he had himself been born in 
1862, when his father was 65 years of age. 

This peculiar case drew the attention of our society to the 
need of reliable vital records and we have ever since sought by 
individual correspondence to ascertain and preserve the records 
of families. We have had some success, but I am convinced that 
we Americans do not pay sufficient attention to the necessity of 
following the custom of our ancestors in recording the names of 
our children not only in town records but also in church and 
family records. 

Getting down to the concrete, on the Pacific Coast we are 
three thousand miles from Plymouth. It is found that one-third 
of the claims filed with the Society have been invalid because 
incorrect ; lines of descent submitted in good faith have many 
defects. Of the remainder some are quite unable to go back 
of their grandparents ; old people are excusable for not remem- 
bering their grandparents' names. 

If we are disappointed in this way in 1915, what may we 
expect in the year 2000/ Many records now available are sub- 
ject to loss. It should be possible for a Federation such as this 
to preserve records, make them accessible, and arouse the in- 
terest of the community at large in vital records. The fact that 
the men coming to California brought no records with them, 
preserved none and kept none, has made the work in California 
exceptionally difficult, but interest has been aroused to cor- 
respond with the magnitude of the task. 

The interest in genealogical work is largely personal; it may 
be that some of you can enjoy hearing other people recount a 
line at great length but I confess I get very tired and that a 
little goes a long way with me. How many fully realize that 
the chief interest in the subject of Pilgrim genealogy lies in the 
personality it brings up — in the character of the stock — and lies 
further in the historical fact that this original stock which landed 
on the shores of Massachusetts in 1620 very shortly scattered. 
Many of them are lost to sight and a large part of them are lost 
in the records. 

One who says there are a million descendants of the Pilgrims 
in this nation may be stating a truth literally but he could not 
possibly prove it. At the end of 21 years the Society of May- 
flower Descendants has not had more than four thousand mem- 
bers in the entire nation. 

I urge upon j'ou when you go to your homes that in the 
society each attends a record of descent as showing that one 
comes of good clean stock shall be set down and preserved. I do 
not think that iu the concrete you can do any better work. 







Genealogy touches life in its most vital and important relations. 
In the Mythology of the Ancients there were the Parcae, or Fates, 
who were conceived as holding the destinies of all mankind in their 
hands. They were known as Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. The 
significance of the allusion to them in this place will be obvious 
upon a further investigation of their offices or the sphere of their 
dominion over humanity. 

An ancient verse best defines their character and their offices: 

Clotho colum rctinet, Lachesis net, 
Et Atropos occat. 

This translated means: "Clotho upholds the column or distaff, 
Lachesis spins or weaves, and Atropos cuts the thread." 

When appearing together they were generally represented as 
three women with chaplets made of white wool and interwoven with 
flowers of the narcissus. They were covered with a white robe and 
fillet of the same color bound with chaplets. 

By reason of their office their power was great and extensive: 
Clotho, the youngest, presiding over birth and generation, or the 
origin of life; Lachesis, the second, presiding over the future and 
the fortunes and success of life ; and Atropos, the oldest, decreeing 
the end of life and cutting it off in accordance with her arbi- 
trary will. 

These goddesses were supposed to be subject to none of the gods 
but Jupiter, while some supposed that even Jupiter himself was 
subject to them and obedient to their commands. They were 
generally regarded as the arbiters of life and death of mankind 
and it was supposed that whatever of good or evil might befall 
persons in the world proceeded from them. 

Thus the Fates or Parcae controlled the life, fortune and death, 
or the supreme destinies of mankind; so genealogy records the 
same events in the lives of mankind. As the Parcae occupied a 
place of supreme power so genealogy occupies a similar place of 
supreme importance, as it is no less than the history of the 
omnipotent decrees and ensuing deeds and enactments of these 


omnipotent deities in tlieir administration of the affairs of the 
human race over which they bear rule. 

We cannot overestimate the importance of the study of geneal- 
ogy; as we have said, it touches life in its most momentous relations 
in conjunction with history; it is to be gleaned from an infinite 
variety of sources; at every turn we are confronted with sources 
of information and evidences of genealogical facts; public records, 
directories, registers of churches, monuments and tombstones. I 
would suggest as a clew not often resorted to, the subscription lists 
of journals and periodicals, and even the books of account of 
business firms may contain names of certain persons otherwise un- 

The relation of a family to certain persons is often suggested 
or evidenced by the naming of children; the political affiliations 
and sympathies, or the particular beliefs of a person or family are 
also thus often shown in that the child is named for a person 
prominent at the time, or one who is revered and honored by the 
family in which the child is born. 

The knowledge of one's genealogy is a guide to matrimonial 
selection, by observation of results and the laws of heredity as well 
as they may be understood and applied. It has been considered 
as an aid to the elimination of unfit persons from society, but is 
not sufficiently certain to justify the enactment of radical measures 
that will interrupt the established course of governmental affairs 
as adapted to the fundamental principles of law and government. 

It discloses family tendencies; the effect on progeny of large 
families may be noted by knowledge of these things ; there have 
been observations relative to the probable success of the youngest 
or oldest of a family, or their attaining to eminence ; also the trans- 
mission of family traits in older and younger children, the males 
or the females, and the inheritance of the males or fem.ales from 
the father or mother. 

Genealogy and the study of the subject tends to accuracy and 
order; it encourages the preservation of records, of relics, heir- 
looms and monuments ; it is an inspiration to higher ideals and 
attainments of life; the study of the lives of our ancestors; it is 
an incentive to the establishment of a truer and greater justice, a 
larger liberty, a broader toleration, more tender compassion, a 
truer democracy, a more steadfast hope, a stronger faith in God, in 
man, in one 's self. 

It reveals the origin of a person and the effect of environment 
and heredity upon his status and estate in society; the connections 
of a man by marriage, his parentage or ancestry, and the effect 
thereof upon his own life. 

All should realize the importance of knowledge of these essent- 
ial facts that they may more efficaciously protect themselves in their 
rights and enjoy larger privileges, based thereon and arising there- 


To what shall we liken genealogj'^? It is the log-book of the 
voyage of our ancestors adown the endless river of time — across 
the shoreless sea of life; from it we should chart our own course 
across the great ocean of futurity. 

We should make our own genealogy an aid to ourselves, our 
families, and our friends, and should by a knowledge of that of 
others fortify and defend ourselves against our enemies. 

The sphere of genealogy and the knowledge gained by study of 
the subject is not and should not be involved with legislation or 
government in our country. It has often been involved with the 
government of other nations and has too often under these circum- 
stances proven a bane or a curse to the people of such nation and 
the world. 

By applying the knowledge of the principles acquired by the 
study of genealogy to our own lives as individuals and families we 
may be benefited, and be the arbiters of our own lives and conduct, 
but by seeking to apply these principles through the agency of civil 
government and legislation we place ourselves in danger, because 
we thereby give into the hands of others the absolute control of 
our own destinies. 

Each of us today can truly say : " I am the sum of my ancestors ; 
my world is the world in which my ancestors lived ; and the shrines 
of my devotion are the homes and citadels of their nativity; and 
the monuments that mark their graves are to me as precious stones 
set in the treasure box of life." 

By a knowledge of genealogy we acquire pride of birth ; we find 
in it an inspiration to live a noble life, to be worthy of the honored 
name we bear. It conduces to study and liberal education; the 
study of hygiene and the development of physical strength and 
beauty, the preservation of health and an incentive to a life of 
sobriety; it inculcates a spirit of veneration and develops the 
religious instinct in our nature; it is an incentive to thrift and 
industry, and is, therefore, the basis and foundation of prosperity, 
stability and wealth; it broadens and enlarges life in all its rela- 
tions, and especially promotes domestic felicity and joy, harmony 
and content. It conduces to right living, pleasant social relations, a 
delightful courtship, and a pure, wholesome marriage ; an honorable 
and a happy life ; a resigned and peaceful death ; a loved and cher- 
ished memory in the hearts of friends and kindred ; a progeny on the 
earth to fulfill and realize our hopes and aspirations and' to guar- 
antee unto us a realization of our cherished dream of an existence in 
a future and a happier state ; the joys of love, honor and domestic 
felicity in a world made bright and beautiful with flowers and gems 
while living; honor and veneration, tears and lamentations, sculp- 
tured monuments and storied urns, garlands, and funeral wreaths 
when silent in death, and though silent yet still existent, active and 
living our own high ideals with a conscious realization and a per- 
sonal delight in the lives of a devoted posterity, who are in their 


turn raised to a more exalted plane of life as a result of our own 
lives and of the devotion and venerable regard we have exemplified 
for our ancestors and the preservation of the knowledge of all that 
appertains to them. 

This indeed and in truth, is the sphere of genealogy in the 
affairs of human society. He who plants his feet upon the vantage 
ground of genealogy has surely ascended the Holy Mount (even as 
Moses, the great Law Giver), from which may be seen the glories 
of the Promised Land, where those who follow after us will enjoy 
the bliss of life in a land of fertile valleys, wooded and watered 
mountains, orchards and fruitful vineyards; a land that floweth 
with milk and honey. 

Genealogy reveals the kinship of man to man and nation to 
nation; it exemplifies and proves the Divine Word, that "God hath 
made of one flesh all nations that dwell in the earth." 

"And ah! it is a noble deed to show before mankind; 
How every race and every creed may be in love conjoined ; 
May be conjoined, yet not forget, 
The fountains whence they rose, 
As filled with many a rivulet, 
The stately Shannon flows," 

It is the history of families in epochs and chapters. Tt is the 
stratification of history, a chart of the evolution of our own race 
and generation, disclosing the difference between families. 

Genealogy discloses one's relatives and enables one to benefit 
as far as possible by the sacred ties of consanguinity. It gives one 
a knowledge of the qualities of temperament, character and genius 
in himself and others. If all men are related to one another, we 
may by a knowledge of genealogy become acquainted with our near- 
est relatives. 

Genealogy in a monarchy or autocratic government is the cement 
that binds together the stones in the edifice of state ; genealogy in 
a democracy is the safeguard against revolution and the re-estab- 
lishment of a despotism, for by a knowledge of genealogy the 
people may be able to prevent descendants of their hereditary 
enemies, the scions of ancient kings and emperors, from establish- 
ing themselves in power. 

Genealogy as a study is an inspiration and an aid to humanity 
in all fields of endeavor and activity; as a science it is but specu- 
lative, conjectural and uncertain. 

It does not afford a sufficient basis for positive conclusions as 
to what man will be, although it is a light to the understanding in 
determining what men are. 

It is the instrument of the despot, the conqueror, and the foeman 
of mankind, when used for the subjugation and extermination of 
a race, a nation, or a noble family. 


It i.s relied upon as a means of arousing prejudice as well as 
for fostering friendship ; of inspiring fear as well as for winning 
favor. It is used by ambitious and unjust rulers as a means of 
overthrowing families and nations because of their relation to one 
certain individual who has incurred general disfavor or hatred. 

The work of conquest by a tyrant may be more expeditious and 
complete if by a false theory of heredity he can induce his followers 
or subjects to destroy a nation, a class of persons or a family, when 
they would otherwise, and in justice, destroy only the individual 
who might be guilty of the offense. 

Persons interested in eugenics, and elimination by sterilization, 
segregation and extermination, should consider the dangers to all 
mankind of making it possible for unjust men in political office 
and temporary power to work an irreparable injury upon others 
who might have incurred their hatred, malice and disfavor. 

Where is genealogy found? Among what genus, race, order of 
beings? What is its office? Do we find the accurate and precise 
pedigree from the founding of the world among the slimy reptiles 
crawling among the rocks of the wilderness? The savage beasts of 
the forest that bite and devour one another, making the welkin hide- 
ous by day and by night with their roaring and shrieks? Or even 
among human kind do we find the naked savage, clad in the 
breech cloth and armlets and anklets absorbed in the study of his 
lineage and coat armor? And 3''et again do we find among the 
oppressed serfs and slaves of semi-civilized nations or even among 
the peasantr3^ an intense interest in the annals of their noble sires? 
No. It is not among the savage tribes, not among serfs and slaves, 
not among the peasantry and yeomanry that Ave find the rare 
exotic that blooms only in the palace of the king. It is not among 
these that we find the carefully preserved pedigree with the arms 
and crests of noble sires, with hatchments, escutcheons and marks of 
cadency, but only among tlie noble families who have stood above 
their kind through the lapse of passing centuries : 

"As some proud cliff that lifts its awful form. 
Swells from tlie vale and nobly cleaves the storm; 
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread ; 
Eternal sunshine centers on its head." 

It is pertinent here to inquire why we are interested in gene- 
alogy? Why should we be interested in this subject. We as 
Americans — democratic citizens of a democratic nation— a nation 
whose foundation and cornerstone is the preamble of the Declara- 
tion of Independence which declares: '^AU men are created equal, 
and endowed hy their Creator with certain inalienable rights, 
ivhich among others are life, liherty, and the pursuit of happiness." 
Can true Americans boast an interest in that which concerns kings 
and princes, and the scions of royalty? Or do we resign our title 



of Americans when we find in tracing our ancestral pedigrees that 
we derive our origin from the kings and emperors of the Eastern 
Hemisphere ? 

This might at first appear to be the consistent deduction from 
the previous statement, that genealogy in its completeness is most 
often found among the royal families, but it is not a true and logical 
conclusion, as we shall clearly show. But to properly answer 
the question: "Can we as true Americans be interested in gene- 
alogy in view of the assertion that the subject so largely concerns 
nobility?" we must revert to some essential facts of history and 
trace the circumstances and events that resulted in the colonization 
of this, the Western Hemisphere, and the founding of the govern- 
ment under which we live, the government of the United States 
of America. 

Before the Colonization, Development, Federation and Revolu- 
tion had been consummated in this country, for almost three cen- 
turies the nations of Europe had been ravaged by civil war and 
fratricidal strife. 

The issues were the issues of Life, Liberty and Justice, as 
against Arbitrary Power and Despotism ; the opposing parties and 
armies were composed of persons of rank and nobility, sometimes 
of factions of the same family, and sometimes of different families 
opposed to one another from time immemorial; but they were in 
most cases commanded and championed by men of royal blood, 
upon which side soever they were aligned. Ultimately, the more 
powerful forces were successful, and the conquered at this, the Col- 
onial period, sought asylum in America; a very wise course, since 
to be identified with a party known to be opposed to the Crown in 
a Monarchical Government is more serious than to be opposed to 
the predominating party in a Republican Government such as our 

In this way we can understand how it happened that many 
families of noble blood settled in America as colonists, but owing to 
political issues made no effort to herald the facts to the world and 
eventually sunk into the oblivion of obscure life, and forgotten 

As Americans then, although we do not seek to establish rights 
to title, estates or hereditary offices, we may know that we are 
equal in rank if rank is honorable, to the noblest scion of the 
royalty of Europe. 

It is not for the glamor and pride of royalty alone that we, as 
Americans, are interested in genealogy, although we often find 
with royalty the highest perfection of genealogy — charts, family 
trees, diagrams, arms, crests, hatchments, cadency, and all that 
is associated with the genealogical science. 

"For what is pomp, rule, reign. 
But earth and dust ? " 


"The boast of heraldry, tlie pomp of power, 
And all that beauty, all that wealth ere gave, 
Await alike the inevitable hour. 
The paths of glory lead but to the grave," 

Aye — and in the course of time and events we oft see the 
exemplification of the proverb : 

"He hath put down the mighty from their seat; 
He hath exalted them of low degree." 

"Pride bend thine eye from heaven to thine estate, 

See how the mighty sink into a song — 

Can volume, pillar, pile, preserve the great? 

Or must thou trust tradition's tongue, 

When flattery sleeps with thee, 

And history does thee wrong?" 

The kaleidoscopic changes in the fortunes of the world continu- 
ally and unceasingly bring before the eye of the observer of men 
and affairs the changing glories of the scene. As the kaleidoscope 
revolves, the position of the variously colored prisms is shifted and 
new combinations of form and color are presented to the eye in 
infinite variety; the red and the blue, the yellow and the purple, 
the orange and green, the black and the white, the neutral tints 
all commingling and reflected, always changing, never twice the 
same. But in the never ceasing change the black and the white, the 
neutral tints and the grays, the red and the blue, the yellow and 
the purple, the orange and green, never lose their value, biit remain 
ever the same ; ever producing upon the retina the same impression 
and effect, only by juxtaposition, position and reflection and chang- 
ing light and multiplication is the change in effect produced. 

Our lives, individually and collectively, are one vast kaleidoscope 
in which we are each but as one of the brilliant prisms jostling and 
piling one upon another, ever assuming new positions reflecting the 
light of new surroundings, but ever the same identical prisms, 
or units. 

In the great kaleidoscope of human life as the world revolves 
we can behold the coalition of individuals, the serf, the slave, the 
savage, the barbarian, the peasant and the yeoman, the general and 
the statesman, the prince and the king, priest and bishop, 
cardinal and pontiff, each in the sphere of their changing environ- 
ment and surroundings, but ever the character of each remains the 
same. Now one, now another appears in ascendency, in all the 
blazing glory of royalty and power, clothed in regal majesty — 
vassals waiting at their command and princes bowing before their 
decrees; but regardless of position or transient power each retains 
and displays to the world his true character of prince or plebeian, 


emperor or slave, king or peasant; the God-man in the sovereign 
majesty of nol)le character, or the degraded being in the unclean 
garments of vice and crime, upon the royal throne or whatever 
may be the apparent station he holds in the world of men. 

In the songs of Kabir, by Ramandranath Tagore, he has said: 
"When the wave rises it is the water, and when it falls it is the 
same water. Because it has been named a wave, shall it no longer 
be water?" 

Of many a noble family of former days it might be truly said : 

"Bright star of the morning that beamed on the brow, 
Of the chief of ten thousand, oh where are thou now? 
The sword of your fathers is cankered with rust, 
And the might of thy clan is bow(;d low in the dust." 

Of the noble family of Roslyn we read : 

".Seemed all on fire that chappelle proud. 
Where Roslyn 's chiefs uncofiined lie. 
Each baron for a sable shroud 
Shelled in his iron panoply. 

"Blazed battlements and pennants bright, 
Blazed every rose-carved buttress fair, 
So shall they blaze when falls in might, 
The leading line of high St. Clare. 

"There twenty of Roslyn 's barons liold 
Lie buried within that proud chappelle. 
Each one the holy vault doth hold. 
But the sea holds lovely Rosabelle. " 

" 'Twere long to tell, and sad to trace, 
Each step from splendor to disgrace." 

In the foregoing we have sufficiently emphasized and illustrated 
the fact that station does not confer character nor wealth station; 
that station is not enduring, and that neither royal title, station, 
wealth nor character can be successively and indeterminately trans- 
mitted with certainty from generation to generation; but we believe 
it to be indisputable that character above all — wealth, station, 
royalty, power, aye, character of all things, is the most enduring, 
potential and fruitful in largess of reward to those who possess it — 
"Above all things, Truth beareth away the victory." 
The question may arise : If the most prized and most valuable 
things of life are not transmissible with certainty from one genera- 
tion to another, why should we devote our time and attention to 
the laborious task of tracing and preserving our lineage from re- 


mote and forgotten ancestors ? Are we not chasing moonbeams, and 
the "will-o'-the-wisp" in the Everglades? 

No, emphatically no — "You perceive the wind and hear its 
murmuring music, but whence it has come and whither it may wan- 
der you may never know." Yet will you disregard the wind at 
times and thereby sacriHce yourselves to it by disdaining to 
take due precaution for protection against its power. Intelligent 
beings observe, study and record the actions of the winds and all 
natural forces of nature that they may be prepared to avert dangers 
or disa.ster and benefit by a knowledge of the salutory and beneficent 
effects of sucli physical conditions as may obtain; and in like 
manner should we observe and record all incidents and facts that 
may reflect light upon the origin, nature, derivation and character 
of men, that we may know their nature and their destinies as far 
as may be possible by having an adequate knowledge of their 
ancestry and origin. 

The development of our race has been gradual — the advance- 
ment of learning and science, religion and art has been slow and 
laborious : 

"Science moves by slowest stages, 
Creeping on from point to point. 

Heaven is not reached by a single bound, 
But we build the ladder by which we rise. 

From the earth to the vaulted skies. 
And Ave mount to its summit round by round." 

Although the science of life is incomplete and imperfect we 
must endeavor to perfect and apply it. The procreation of our 
species is the greatest, the most absor])ing responsibility devolving 
upon human beings, and although the laws of procreation or repro- 
duction are but inadequately and vaguely understood by the human 
family, as we continue to live and reproduce our species we should 
continue to study and learn these laws by improving every oppor- 
tunity for observation and investigation relative to the principles 
of this fundamental though abtruse science of the creation of the 
future race. 

Thus we see that by genealogical research we may learn the 
laws of reproduction, not only with respect to the reproduction of 
physical beings, but with respect to mentality and moral tendencies, 
and various phases of character. If by our devotion to this absorb- 
ing study we can establish definitely, and conclusively demonstrate 
some certain principles of the law of life not before enunciated or 
understood by human beings, we will have raised the race one step 
higher toward the celestial realm — the perfect life and environment 
to which optimists, religionists and prophets have looked and for 
which they have hoped in all ages. 


The influence and efforts of governmental enactments are so 
far reaching that we should not venture upon new and novel ex- 
periments, but should stand firm upon the time-tried and tested 
principles of law, justice and truth that have endured through the 
passing centuries. 

To make our state and nation what it should be we must be 
wise, deliberative and true. We must realize what is the nature 
of a nation and a state. 

Alceus to ]\Iytelene. 

What constitutes a state? 
Not high raised battlements or labored mound, 

The thick walled moated gate. 
Not altars proud with spires or turret crowned, 

Not bays and broad armed ports. 
Where laughing at the storms rich navies i-ide, 

Not starred and spangled courts, 
Where low-browed coarseness wafts perfume and pride, 

No — men ! high-minded men 
With powers as far above dull brute endued 

In forest, brake or den. 
As birds excel cold rocks and brambles rude, 

Men who their duties know 
But knowing their rights, and knowing dare maintain, 

Prevent the long-armed blow, 
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain. 

These constitute the state. 





This is, liappilj^ the age of the "builder" and not the "icono- 
clast," in spite of the great havoc waging in Europe. I have faith 
to believe that, like the phoenix of old, there will arise from the 
dust and ashes of evil passions, relentless hate and iconoclastic 
struggle the era of a brighter day for the family of mankind. 

There is, I believe, no nobler pursuit, no higher object than the 
building up of the beauties of character and high purpose as 
evinced in the lives of those who have preceded us. Indeed, it is 
a sacred trust committed to our hands that there be no jot or tittle 
of their good work allowed to perish from among us. 

The lot of the genealogist is not a happy one, which sentiment, 
although first voiced under a jest in comic opera in dealing with 
another walk of life, is true. I would liken the work to that of 
the toiler who seeks laboriously to rescue from the dust heap of 
oblivion and disregard the jewel of high purpose and the deed of 
renown. Of a truth the labor is heavy; much is investigated and 
ofttimes little is obtained in genealogical research, but the purpose 
is a noble one and must eventually find its reward. For every 
nugget of gold discovered there must be tons of rubbish to explore ; 
still the knowledge that the nugget is there to be found inspires 
and upholds the seeker. 

We are the guardians of the past; upon us rests a sacred duty, 
and in the performance of it there should be, as I have said, suffi- 
cient reward. If the genealogist be watchful, caretaking and 
conscientious, though this harvest be small, his or her work is 
of inestimable value. But what is to be said of the slipshod worker 
in the ranks of genealogical research? The investigator who stops 
just short of the goal desired? The seeker who is satisfied with 
the plausible explanation of a problem? There is nothing so to 
be feared and so common, alas, as the superficial laborer in the 
vineyard. There have been more mistakes made, more havoc 
wrought by such than in any other pursuit. The opinionated 
person is to be dreaded, but that very trait leads often, through 
its very intensity of purpose, to the solving of the problem, while 
the superficial seeker never attains the object sought and frequently 
is guilty of "false witness" in placing on record some erroneous 
statement which, like the tare among the wheat, spreads and 
strangles and finally nullifies all the good heretofore accomplished. 


For this reason, that there is so much superficial work done, so 
much that lacks the seal of complete reliance and the endorsement 
of the learned, I would urge upon you, members of this Interna- 
tional Congress of Genealogy now convened, to endorse most 
strongly the plan of "an uniform publication of the historical 
and vital records of various counties and states now unpublished, 
and the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records as a 
part of governmental records at Washington, similar to the records 
in the General Register Office, Somerset House, Loudon, England."' 

The histor}^ of Great Britain is long and brilliant; tlie knowl- 
edge of the great importance of preserving the records of its history 
has ever had a firm hold upon that nation. 

We are the children of that blood, many of us having in our 
veins no other mixture. Its high renown is ours; its sons were 
worthy of the scions from whom they came. Why do we, then, 
continue to let the ''house beautiful'' remain in a state of dilapi- 

The same is to be said of those having in their veins the blood 
of the Huguenot and the Hollandais. We are proud of that, does 
it not follow that we owe a duty to our forebears and, owing that 
duty, does it not become us to perform it ? In the economy of 
life there is a large factor which may be briefly listed under the 
head of "The Family." We know the exact value of the "family" 
as it affects our own individual case — the relationship of father, 
mother, sister, brother, husband, wife and children ; but that is 
family in a restricted sense. 

Do we keep in mind the relative value of the "family" as 
applied to our ancestral lines? Do we see and recognize the traits, 
the habits, the virtues, and, alas ! the vices that accrue to us through 
a long line of forbears? Do we .justly value the good that has come 
to us thereby, and wisely guard against the evil that also comes 
into that great scheme of life? 

A man lives — or a woman — for his or her family. They die 
for a principle or an inherited obligation. 

If, then, the unit of the family calls forth such devotion, must 
not the idea of the tie of a common stock have great weight? It 
is well, and just, and proper to do all for and in the individual 
family life, but should all interest cease there? 

What higher incentive to pure living and noble deeds than the 
remembrance that one has sprung from a line which has made its 
mark in history, has written its name on the pages of humanity ! 

The Chinese have their form of " ancestor- worship, " and it 
has been the fashion to deride such ; but the ancestor- worship that 
bids us remember the chivalrous deeds, the noble thoughts that 
were the soul of those from whom we have descended is a high and 
praiseworthy object. 

Again the individual family, in many cases, tends to selfishness: 
the horizon is too circumscribed, the outlook is too narrow, and the 


well known aphorism "charity begins at home" is often so insist- 
ently urged that it is likely to remain at home and there end ! 

If we will but enlarge our interests; if we will but turn a 
kindly thought to some other branch of the family tree; if we will 
but believe that among the larger army of "collateral branches" 
we may find interests, enthusiasms, incentives to higher and broader 
action, then will we find the "family," like the newer and loftier 
progressive shell of the chambered nautilus, grow more beautiful 
and appealing, and as a consequence will make our lives more 
useful in the world. 

Family lines lend a most fascinating and interesting aspect 
of life. 

We may lack some quality of mind or body that apparently 
should be ours hj virtue of birth, and lo ! we find it in some son 
of daughter of a "collateral line," who has sprung from our 
common ancestor. We may, in turn, possess some attribute or 
qualification that another descendant lacks, the quality of which 
may be of real service to our neighbor. We become thereby of 
actual service to the one who does not possess such quality or 

The view of a common fellowship through the same ties of 
blood is broadening and helpful to a wonderful degree. Thus it is 
that the welding into one form — the "family" — and the gathering 
together of the widely separated members of each family is whole- 
some and beneficent. 

If we have been in doubt on this point consider a few well 
known "family" organizations. The "home coming" to the quaint 
little home in Duxbur}^ with which the name of John Alden will 
ever be associated; the gathering of that large association, "The 
Alden Kindred of America," from all parts of the United States 
and sometimes from abroad, keeps the sacred fire alive upon the 
altar of home and kindred. The pilgrimages of the "Society of 
the Descendants of Robert Bartlet of Plymouth" to that city by 
the sea, Plymouth, IMassachusetts, when members from far and near 
gather about the boulder which has been erected upon the site of 
the old homestead of ]\[anomet. 

The rallying about the old house at Dedham of men and women 
in whose veins flows the blood of the Fairbanks, and the annual 
gatherings of many, many other "families" prove that "blood is 
thicker than water," that the tie of kinship is stronger than the 
world, in its selfish struggle for power and wealth, is willing to 
concede. It is here that the best traits are brought forward, for 
who would hold up to public scrutiny, or seek to exhibit to the 
world any ignoble strain? Seeking the best in a line is in itself 
educational and beneficial. There is another point to be considered 
— the strength of unity. 

Then let us continue in this form of "ancestor- worship," seek- 
ing the "survival of the fittest," the oldest of laws, and do all in 


our power to encourage the forming into "families" those or 
common kindred, thus keeping alive that search for the best and 
highest, which was the mark of the Pilgrim, the indomitable spirit 
of the Puritan, the devotion of the Huguenot, the sturdy adherence 
to duty and love of native land of the Hollandais, which is shared 
by Belgium, as shown in her struggle against this atrocious war now 
waging in Europe; and last, though first by right of settlement, 
the high courage and daring of the Cavaliers, though screened in 
velvet and lace! 

Thus, in order to preserve the "Family" we must preserve the 
House, in which no more beautiful and important room is to be 
found than that of its "hall of records." 

Uniform publication of records is a vital point. Where authori- 
ties differ confusion reigns. Vital statistics or records are justly 
termed "vital," for they are vital as to worth and authority. 

In the great scheme of government at our National capitol, that 
of the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records, aye, 
and the preservation of those now in its possession, is most fitting 
and most hopeful of good results. 

We must remember that in our hands has been reposed a great 
trust, that of the preservation of the records of the great American 
people descended from the races of the older world, and that in 
our magnificent march of progress this is a salient feature. 

It is an encouraging mark of the times that this large and 
representative body should be today in convention, and it is not 
an unreasonable hope that such measures will be taken here, and 
such work established in the near future, as to place on a firm 
basis the projects for which this Society has come into existence, 
and which justify its being. 





I remember from the days of my childhood in a country par- 
sonage by the coast of the North Sea a song which our maid used 
to be fond of and which .?he sang with great pathos. 

These were the first lines : 

* * Oh Susanna ! Wilt thou come and marry me ? 
Then off I'll be to California and gold I will find for thee." 

According to my idea the number of Danes can hardly be so 
few who, when the gold fever was raging, could have undertaken 
the voyage across the Atlantic to seek their fortunes in the Far 

Of course Denmark is not covered everywhere with green beech 
trees and waving cornfields. Right through Jutland there ex- 
tends a waste expanse of heather, and along the coast of the North 
Sea the soil for miles is mingled with drifting sand, which has 
produced horny hands and tough sinews before crops could be 
thought of at all. Such rough, uncouth surroundings would natur- 
ally tend to enhance the emigration with a prospect of amelioration 
of wages and social conditions, but America Avas not deceived by 
these sturdy and industrious people, and we who remained at 
home have often had the opportunity to be pleased at tlie praise 
which was bestowed upon our compatriots in the new country of 
their adoption. 

From time to time "The Danish Genealogical Institute" re- 
ceives an old certificate of character or a faded document from 
across the sea with the request to obtain information about their 
kinsmen at home. Hitherto the number of such requests has not 
been very large, but that, I should take it, is due to the fact that 
the struggle for existence has provided our pioneers with quite 
enough to do. A couple of generations miist go by before our 
friends can afford the time to think of anything but material things 
in life and before their traditions and family histories begin to 
fOx-m. However, the time will surely come when many of the 
descendants of the emigrants will seek for information regarding 
their ancestors in Denmark, and it has, therefore, afforded me 
great pleasure to have received "California Genealogical Society's" 
flattering invitation to relate a little as to how the genealogical 
researches are carried out in this country. 


It may here be stated at once that Denmark is one of those 
countries where the sources are plentiful and easily accessible to 
the student of genealogy. Whilst still in many places abroad — to 
the great detriment of genealogical research — the materials in con- 
nection with archives are found distributed among various officials 
where they are likely to be exposed to defacement and danger from 
fire, we can thank Mr. A. D. Jorgensen from South Jutland for 
two main sources from which one can draw if one is in search of 
information about one's ancestors: in church registers and in the 
records of settlements of estate in Denmark, these being concen- 
trated in three national archives (one for Jutland, one for Funen, 
and one for Sealand with Lolland-Falster and Bornholm) where 
they are at the free disposal of the public. 

In order to be able to utilize these archives to their fullest 
advantage it is only necessary that one has some practice in de- 
ciphering scripts. It is here we take the lead as compared with 
foreign countries, for even where the church registers (the records 
of settlements of estates are certainly a special northern phenom- 
enon, as I have never in any single case met with anything 
similar abroad) are concentrated as, for example, in Scotland, Meck- 
lenburg and many other places a certain fee is charged for the 
use of same. 

In addition to these main sources, the church registers, in 
which are to be found the records of our ancestors' christenings, 
marriages and deaths, and to the registers of estates, which contain 
information of their bequests and heirs, there are, of course, many 
other sources to fall back upon, e. g., census and census lists (in the 
last mentioned the places of birth have been given since 1844), 
trade licenses, also usually indicating place of birth (in olden times, 
however, often only mentioning the country or that part of the 
country to which the person in question belonged), registers of 
legal decisions, letters patent and concessions, together wtih statu- 
tory records. If one is fortunate enough to be descended from 
a fighting and quarrelsome ancestor the latter are of great value 
if the church and estate registers are discrepant. 

The church registers were put into force by law in Denmark 
in the years 1645-46. Only a few, hovv'ever, go so far back; partly 
the rules were not adhered to everywhere and partly some of the 
registers were the victims of unfortunate circumstances. 

It was only after 1814, when duplicates were introduced, that 
one could depend upon the existence of church registers from all 

When it is known in which parish an ancestor has been resident 
this register will not be found so difficult to consult; but it is to 
be hoped that the same forefather was possessed of a calm and 
equable temperament, one who had remained on the spot which he 
at one time had chosen, for otherwise it will be difficult enough 
to follow him from one locality to another. 


The examination of estate registers is less easy, the estate de- 
partments in former times having been controlled by various 
authorities. JMilitary and ecclesiastical each had their own estate 
department and the town theirs; in the country the landed pro- 
prietors belong to the county sheriffs' jurisdiction and the large 
majority of peasants, the leaseholders, may cause especial difficul- 
ties, as each landed proprietor settled his peasants' estates himself. 
As an estate might possess pea?aut-o\vned property in various parts 
of the country, it is not always easy to find where such an estate 
can be located. 

I have in the foregoing made brief mention of some of the chief 
sources of information which have not found their way into print, 
and I will now draw attention to a few of the many printed records 
which a Danish genealogist has at his disposal. 

As in most other countries, Denmark has its biographical dic- 
tionaries (also including Norway from 1537 to 1814) in which all 
personages w^ho have distinguished themselves by deeds, either 
good or evil, are enumerated. There are besides this a few older 
works on the Danish nobility — a splendid material in a long row 
of stately volumes of "Denmark's Nobility Annual" — which have 
been published yearly since 1884. Among other lists of pedigrees 
may be mentioned "Gjessings Jubellarere" (biographies and pedi- 
grees of Danes, Norwegians and Icelanders who have celebrated 
their fifty years' jubilee of office) ; " Lengnicks, " numerous but 
rather unreliable genealogies of noble and plebeian families (the 
later preponderating) ; "Patrician Families" and "Family Hand- 
book" (supplement to "Genealogical Review"). 

As regards works of reference dealing with individual persons 
we have in Denmark a fairly good number of reliable works deal- 
ing with almost every profession, such as the clergy, teachers, 
doctors, lawyers, military persons, authors, artists, politicians, 
etc., who have all had their biographers, so that it is comparatively 
easy to trace a man who would not be included among the peasant 
or citizen classes. 

Nothing similar could be thought of in large countries where 
it would be a stupendous task for one single man, for instance, to 
collect material for a complete handbook on the clergy of the 
country during a period of about 350 years, as has been done in 
Denmark. Also in the method of working I believe the Danish 
genealogist (I can well include the Norv/egian and partly the 
Swedish) are ahead of most other countries. Principally, Keeper 
of Archives Thiset's work on the history of the Danish nobility, 
and many excellent treatises on the review of personal biographists 
which have appeared since the year 1880, have helped to direct the 
genealogical research in this country and in Norway into scientific 
channels, and what has been produced in works dealing with gene- 
alogical and personal biographies is, in my opinion, better than 
anywhere else, both as regards quality and quantity. Here will 


also be found a long and attractive list of family books and an- 
cestral tables. Even if genealogical research in a general way is 
not a particularly involved thing, it is still necessary to execute 
a thorough and correct work, and as an intimate knowledge and 
undertaking of the many printed and unprinted sources of infor- 
mation can only be obtained by many years experience, it is, 
therefore, always an advantage to apply to a reliable expert instead 
of meddling in the business oneself. Both money and time will 
be thereby saved and often information obtained which otherwise 
one would have to go without. 

What we especially need in Denmark, from a genealogical point 
of view, is a more intensive connection with foreign countries. 
Nearly every family spreads its branches over foreign countries; 
genealogy is, therefore, in a high degree international, but it is 
cultivated as only national here at home. If a family has 
migrated abroad we obtain, as a rule, little information of their 
ancestors and easily lose track of the emigrants and their descend- 
ants. A closer co-operation between the students of genealogy will 
surely be to the advantage of genealogical research in Denmark. 




banc:kok. SIAM. 

SiR: — I feel greatly honored by your proposal conveyed to me 
in your letter of the 27th of April last to contribute to the Congress 
of Genealogy, to be held in San Francisco on July 26th, a paper to 
be read before the Congress and preserved in its proceedings upon 
the genealogy of the Siamese people. 

It would have given me pleasure to contribute such a paper to 
your proceedings, but your letter reached me too late to make it 
possible for me to comply with your wish. 

I will only remark that the proper designation of the Siamese 
is "Thai," that coming from the borders of China — as can be 
proved by legend and language — they extended their dominion 
through the valley of the "Menam Chao Phraya" and "'Menam 
Kong" down to the Malay Peninsula, with Ligor as the capital, 
and as far south as Malacca. 

With regard to the question of a pedigree of a well known 
Siamese family, I have to point out that a hereditary nobility 
does not exist in Siam. The nobility, if so it can be called, is an 
official one. Up to two years ago family names, as such, did not 
exist among the Siamese ; they have been created by the present 
king and it is said will come into general use in two years' time. 

I regret that owing to the bad communications at present exist- 
ing and the shortness of time, I cannot give you fuller information, 
but hold myself at your disposal for anything further you may 
wish or I may supply. I have the honor to be 
Your very obedient servant, 

(Signed) V. Frankfurter. 

To the Hon. Henry Byron Phillips, 

President California Genealogical Society, 
San Francisco, U. S. A. 





We are assembled here this afternoon to participate in the 
closing exercises of the International Congress of Genealogy 
which has been in session for three days in San Francisco. 

The Panama-Pacific International Exposition has recognized 
the Congress by giving it a place on the official program. This 
recognition is highly prized and will go far toward impressing 
this Congress on the memory of every one present. 

Our business is finished ; we now want to see the wonders of 
this Exposition. I will not attempt any pyrotechnic flight of 
oratory; no doubt all the adjectives in the English language have 
long ago been exhausted in its praise. 

When we disperse todaj^ and you will go your different ways, 
I hope you will spread the importance of American Genealogy; 
not only as it relates to the past but as to its bearing on the 

I take great pleasure in introducing Mr. Colvin B. Brown of 
the Panama-Pacifie International Exposition who has a most 
pleasant task to perform. 

*Deliverecl at the opening of the Commemorative Session, July 31, 1915. 





It is my pleasant privilege today to extend to you a word of 
greeting on behalf of the President and Board of Directors of the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition and to present to you a 
token of their appreciation at having you with us today as our 
very welcome guests. 

The builders of the Exposition set for themselves a heavy task 
when they undertook to create something that would adequately 
celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal. They well under- 
stood that in order to meet expectations it w^ould have to be some- 
thing more beautiful, more compelling, and grander in every way 
than any that had gone before. 

So the men who undertook this task gathered to them architects 
of international fame, the nation's greatest colorist, the world's 
most famous expert on lighting, and a landscape gardener who 
had turned the sand dunes at the Golden Gate into a modern 
Paradise. And these people and their helpers took the perfect 
architecture of Greece, mingled it with the art of Spain's renais- 
sance, spilled upon it the color of the Orient, lighted it like an opal 
and set it in the midst of a garden of flowers and shrubs and far- 
reaching lawns. 

In the meantime emissaries were sent throughout the world who 
gathered together exhibits representing the very sum of human 
achievements in all that makes for the comfort, the happiness, and 
the benefit of mankind. 

So here we have this marvelous combination of architecture, 
color and light, these palaces filled with the best that man has 
wrought, and today it is all at your disposal. We bid you a sincere 
welcome to it and express to you our earnest wish that all good 
possible may flow to you from contact with, and understanding of, 
the feast that has been prepared for you. 

There is something more here than the physical evidences that 
you will see around you, for those who built the Exposition were 
idealists, and they thought this creation of theirs would scarcely 
be worth the effort if the Exposition were to die with the destruction 
of the buildings. It was their intent that out of all the time and 
money and effort something lasting must result if the real mission 
of the Exposition were to be fulfilled. And so national and inter- 
national congresses, conventions and societies were invited to hold 
their meetings here. Eight hundred and thirty-five accepted the 
invitation, and these, meeting in these surroundings, studying the 


lessons the exhibits teach and consulting together for the benefit 
of that which they represent, are bound to evolve something which, 
in the aggregate, will redound to the benefit of all humanity for 
all time. 

The members of the International Genealogical Congress repre- 
sent a forward movement in race betterment. You recognize that 
you have inherited an obligation from your ancestors that you 
must fulfill to the best that is in you, and that you must pass this 
down to those who follow after you, to the end that each succeeding 
generation, if true to its obligation, will approach nearer and nearer 
to the goal of perfect man and womanhood. 

So I feel that you represent in the highest way the very spirit 
of this great Exposition, and it is an honor to welcome you. 

I have here our words of welcome inscribed on imperishable 
bronze. May the work you are doing for the uplift of the race 
last as long as this endures. Intrinsically it is of small value, but 
the spirit in which it is given is great. 





Mr. Colvin B. Brown, representing Mr. Chas. C. Moore, Presi- 
dent of the Panama -Pacific International Exposition : 

I wish to express the appreciation of the members of this Con- 
gress upon the wonderful showing you have made in construction 
and equipment of this Exposition; it seems to me that were there 
nothing whatever to be seen inside of any building in these grounds 
that the wonderful beauty of the exteriors, the magic settings of 
flowers and greens, the great transformation of its wonderful even- 
ing lights and shadows would be of themselves alone worthy 
of a journey from the uttermost parts of the earth simply to enjoy 
to the utmost. 

You have builded better than you knew, and why have you done 
all these things, that would seem almost impossible Avere it not a 
glittering truth? Was it for mere material gain to your city and 
State? It was not. Was it to celebrate the opening of the Panama 
Canal? Many of you no doubt honestly think so. Was it in a 
larger way to call attention to the shifting trade currents of the 
world, and emphasize the Pacific Coast as the coming future empire 
of the world's commercial and industrial activities? Perhaps many 
also will assign that as thf reason of its being. 

But it seems to those who have come from afar to see the glories 
of this Exposition and enjoy the hospitality of its creators that you 
yourselves do not grasp the real significance and reason why this 
great thing has been so superbly done. 

It seems to me, and to others, that it was born of necessity. 
Psychologists tell us that we have in our mental makeup certain 
emotional functions that tend to produce actions of special char- 
acter, technically called by tlieni "\ implexes," that when a certain 
"complex" dominates our mind to the exclusion of other things 
that we become to an extent insane upon that subject. 

Now it appears to me that the overwhelming nature of your 
calamity of a few years since so dominated your minds, that you as 
a community had an overwhelming "complex" set up in your 
minds, that if left undisturbed would have driven you to the 
insanity of despair. But here the radiant beauty of that Equili- 
brium between Infinite Wisdom and Infinite Power made itself 
manifest to preserve the balance in nature, and your minds in- 


stinctively and for self-preservation turned to another "complex" 
to safeguard your mentalities from that greater calamity of despair. 
This saving "complex" was the thought of this Exposition, little 
perhaps at first, but eagerly grasped for by your minds as a balance 
and saviour, growing by leaps and bounds; it would not take no 
for an answer to anything, it fought the fight of despair to gain 
the sanction of Congress, subscribed your material fortunes almost 
joyously, overcame all obstacles, designed and builded in the same 
compelled mood of mentality, for self-preservation. 

The purpose of this International Congress of Genealogy is to 
bring in common touch the representatives of the numerous local 
kindred organizations that have heretofore been working each in 
its own way, in a more or less restricted field, to broaden their 
outlook, to avoid duplication of work and thus loss of energy; to 
establish uniform system and methods, to memorialize Congress for 
the needed legislation to preserve the vital records of this country 
in a manner befitting the necessities and intelligence of our people ; 
to discourage superficial and inaccurate work; to collect scattered 
records of the past from places of danger, decay or other hazard 
and cause them to be conserved in safe repositories; to collect and 
place at the disposal of all scientific investigation the necessary 
vital data upon which they must of necessity build in their efforts 
to conserve and improve the human race, and, finally, to lay the 
foundation of an International Genealogical Federation, which shall 
be an organized body, which shall supervise to a large extent the 
activities indicated above and other cognate matters that may be 
determined as proper subjects for recognition by the consent of 
the bodies embraced in the proposed federation. 

It is confidently expected that the stamp of approval of this 
federation shall be taken as the final word in such matters. 

A few arguments may be briefiy presented to establish the 
reasonable and correct understanding of Genealogy. 

It is eminently useful to the student of history ; no one can 
understand the secret motives or the political manoeuvers of the 
the statesmen of Europe, for example, not knowing the relation- 
ships of their leading families. Periods whose history is most 
complicated, are intelligible only by means of genealogical tables, 
for family pride, the love of one's own blood, the reliance upon ties 
of kindred have ever exercised a powerful influence. The genealogi- 
cal table sometimes comes in to solve, with gratifying simplicity, 
these enigmas in political history which, without this aid, would 
have been shrouded in complete darkness. 

If the genealogy of the royal families and of statesmen must be 
ascertained in order to render intelligible the annals of a nation, 
so must the relationships of families be made known in order to 
explain many of the occurrences in the history of towns and the 
country-side. Thus it may be understood that genealogy is the 
corner stone of history. 


The preservation of family history, which is more than a mere 
collection of names for the purpose of forming a pedigree, has 
come to be regarded as one of the most important parts of the 
history of a people. Hitherto history was limited almost exclusively 
to governmental and political affairs; the pomp and glitter of 
courts, an assumed glory of military achievements, and all the 
attendant circumstances of oppressive rule. Hardly a glimpse do 
we get of the real life of the people, the men of the mart, the farm 
or the factory, or of the women Avhose social and domestic virtues 
made possible their orderly lives and gave strength to the nation. 

Of these history is almost silent, for it has been written under 
the influence of those in power for the most part. 

The modern historian is realizing that the history of the people 
is an important portion of modern history, and several recent 
volumes have been written in which the life story of the men and 
women of a period who have been forgotten has been pieced out 
scrap by scrap from materials gathered by genealogists from many 
scattered sources, to supplement the statecraft history of the past. 
No more interesting contributions to literature than these have been 
given to modern readers. 

Genealogy is essential to family history, and may be called also 
the handmaid to history, and the genealogist in his search for 
family connections should gather every scrap of interest relating 
to the life of those whose genealogies he is seeking to construct. 

A family pedigree is valuable, but immensely more so when 
associated with the lives of its component members, or as may be 
said, clothed with flesh and blood. 

No man knows himself so well but that he may learn more by 
scanning the lives of his progenitors. The faults, the strength, 
the vices, the weakness or the virtue of the father of a family do 
not end in himself. Human legislation cannot amend the law that 
our children's children shall be the better for our virtues and worse 
for our sins. Where can one find a better guide to correct conduct 
than in the vital records of his ancestors? This is also a function of 
genealogy, a guide to right living. 

Further it has been said that "those who care nothing for their 
ancestors are wanting in respect for themselves." 

Looking at the subject in a large and lofty way I would say 
the study of genealogy teaches us to live and so develop the latent 
forces for good that are within us that we may be able to make 
our ancestors famous — the progenitors of illustrious men and 

I am sorry that many of our delegates felt impelled to leave 
for their homes, which accounts for the light attendance here today, 
but all, whether here or absent, will unite with me to thank the 
management of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition for 
the many courtesies extended and for the beautiful token of our 
visit as embodied in this historic mass of moulded metal, and on 



behalf Of the International Congress of Genealogy I now am pleased 
to accept this memento from yo.u- hands, and place it in th^aSTes 

and sue Jess '^^'^ '"^ ''' "° ^^^Pi^^tion to future effort 


3 1197 20964 5479 

Date Due 

All library items are subject to recaU 3 weeks from 
the original date stamped. 


AlllS 1 '/ /^03 

/.iJl) 1 I 


APR 1 B 7010 


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gham Young Univen