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BSIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
-^ iK ^W^7^^i>^^^^^
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.
JULY 28, 29, 30 and 3L 1915
C I.ARBNCK BDWAUI) 1IK.\I.1>, Hrcrrtary
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in 2009 with funding from
Brigham Young University
JULY 28-31, 1915
INTERNATIONAL GENEALOGICAL FEDERATION
BRIGHAM YOUNG -Ur . - cRSITY^
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section I — Historical
1 . Foreword i
by James A. Ban
2. History of Organization 3
by ^outwell T^unlap
Section II — Proceedings
1 . Summary of Proceedings 8
2. Minutes of Sessions __ 20
Section III — Papers and Addresses
n chroDcJogical order as read.
I. "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race"__ 33
by Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu
2. " Genealogical Records of the Maori of New Zealand "
With tables 46
by Elsdon Best
3. " Genealogy of the Native Hawaiians" 58
by Bruce Cartwright, Jr.
4. " Genealogical Charts " (Summary of exhibit) 60
by Sarah Louise Kimball
3. " The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics" . 63
by Paul Popenoe
6. " Genealogical Research Among Descendents of the Mayflower
Emigrants " 79
by Herbert Folger
7. " The Study of Genealogy and Its Place in the Affairs of Human
Society " 81
by Charles G. Finney Wilcox
8. "The House Restored" 91
by Marian Longfellow
9. " Genealogical Research in Denmark " 95
by Th. Hauch-Fausboll
10. " Letter from Siam " 99
11. ' President's Address" (Commemorative Session) 100
by Frank. Heroey Pettingell
12. " Address of Welcome " (Commemorative Session) 101
by Coloin B. Brown
13. " Response and Acceptance of Commemorative Medal " 103
by Henry B^ron Phillips
By JAMES A. DARR
DIKRCTOR OF CONGRKSSKS, PANAMA-PACIFIC INTKRNATIONAI*
The International Congress of Genealogy, which held its meet-
ings in the Exposition Memorial Auditorium at the Civic Center
of San Francisco, July 28th, 29th and 30th, 1915, was conceived
in the active circles of the California Genealogical Society in the
autumn of 1912. From the day of its conception, the idea grew
within that Society and soon a committee composed of its most
active members was working in full harmony with the Bureau
of Conventions and Societies of the Panama-Pacific International
Exposition to get in touch with the leading genealogists of the
v/orld and with the chief genealogical, historic, patriotic and
family organizations to induce their co-operation and affiliation.
The Congress was held at the time originally outlined, was
composed of delegates representing sixty-six (66) organizations
from various portions of the United States and from other coun-
tries, which named 297 delegates to attend and participate in the
Congress. It was generally conceded by those attending or taking
an interest in the Congress, that it was more widely representa-
tive, truer to its original purpose, and more successful in the cul-
mination of its conceded sentiment than any first gathering of
world organizations ever held.
The International Congress of Genealogy appealed to no mer-
cenary or commercial spirit, but was a worthy attempt by the
promoters to delve deep into the sentiment of those upholding
truths of the past, in a first attempt to get them to assemble, to
agree upon certain methods of endeavor, to perfect standards of
work and records, to exclude the spurious, the ill-gotten and the
unproved, to exchange vieAVs regarding more systematic procedure,
ind to consider the value or relative importance of heraldry,
eugenics and other problems seeming to have connection with
2 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
All this was accomplished with little excitement and dissent
during the three days' gathering and all present felt that their
highest expectation had been accomplished by the appointment of a
competent committee of three to make the work and the organiza-
tion permanent, by taking adequate steps to organize the Interna-
tional Genealogical Federation.
It is hoped and believed by all those participating, that such
wise and safe steps will be taken by the experienced men chosen
for the task and by the persistent and timely activities carried on
by the competent secretary chosen, that as a result of the First In-
ternational Congress of Genealogy, an International Genealogical
Federation will be organized, which will not only attract the co-
operation of all deserving genealogical, historical and family organ-
izations, but will so arrange the meetings, as to time and place, as
to result in continued attendance, greater interest and the achieve-
ment of every worthy desire.
PERSONNEL OF THE CALIFORNIA GENEALOGICAL
SOCIETY'S ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE.
Orra E. Monnette
Miss Carlie Inez Tomlinson
Hon. Boutwell Dunlap
Henry B. Phillips
Mrs. Lydia Lucelia Gillogly
Jas. a. Barr
JAMES ADAM BARR
HISTORY OF ORGANIZATION
HISTORY OF ORGANIZATION OF INTERNA-
TIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
By BOUTWELL DUNLAP
RECORDING SECRETARY CALIFORNIA. GENEALOGICAL SOCIETV
Being named to give a history of the organization of the Inter-
national Congress of Genealogy that its record may not be incom-
plete, the writer proposed in the summer of 1912 to the Hon. James
A. Barr, Director of Congresses of the Panama-Pacific International
Exposition, that invitations be »^xtended by the Exposition to all
genealogical, historical, family and eugenic societies and organiza-
tions to hold their general and annual meetings at about the same
time at the Exposition and that they name delegates for a general
congress to meet at the same time to consider subjects of related
interest. Mr. Barr expressed his approval of the plan, but thought
that additional results would be secured if his department should
have the co-operation of the California Genealogical Society, where-
upon Mr. Barr was invited to address the Society on October 5,
1915. However, it is particularly to Mr. Barr and his department
at the Exposition and to the California Genealogical Society,
through its members and committee, that the credit for organizing
and making effective the plan is entirelj* due.
After Mr. Barr's address, invitations were extended jointly by
the President and Directors of the Exposition and President Henry
B. Phillips of the California Genealogical Society, upon behalf of
the Society, to various genealogical and historical societies to hold
their meetings in San Francisco. A few weeks later, on December
7, 1912, owing to the fact that the writer had emphasized the
biological aspects of genealogy, he "was given," say the minutes
of the Society, "full power to invite any eugenic society to meet in
conjunction with the genealogical, historical and family associations
at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition and to work in con-
junction with Doctor David Starr Jordan to bring the International
Eugenics Congress to San Francisco during the Exposition."
Invitations to organizations by this time had aroused much in-
terest both among their members and in the press. Eventually
about twenty-five of such organizations held their meetings in San
Francisco at some period during the Exposition. At the same time
these invitations were being issued, a large number of letters to
persons and organizations asking for suggestions as to the proposed
congress were sent out.
4 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Upon April 5, 1913, the Society resolved that President Phillips
appoint a "Committee upon the Organization of an International
Congress of Genealogy and Eugenics." President Phillips named
the following members of the Society upon this Committee : Orra
E. Monnette, chairman, James A. Barr, Boutwell Dunlap, Mrs.
Lydia Lucelia Gillogly, Henry B. Phillips, Miss Carlie Inez Tom-
In order not to conflict with eugenic organizations and eugenics,
the Committee finally decided that the name of the Congress be
restricted to the International Congress of Genealogy and that such
a Congress be held. However, its date was so arranged that the
Congress was to meet during the week beginning Monday, July 26,
1915, succeeding the week in which the American Historical Asso-
ciation met and preceding the week of the annual meeting of the
American Genetic Association and the Second International Con-
ference on Race Betterment — all at the Exposition.
The Committee decided that at the Congress official delegates
be limited to two from each society, association or organization with
one hundred members or less, with an additional delegate for each
one hundred members or fraction thereof. Invitations to name such
delegates to the Congress were thereupon issued by President Henry
B. Phillips upon behalf of the Society and its Committee.
The Committee announced by circular distributed to all nations,
again inviting suggestions that the tentative subjects for discussion
by the Congress, would be : " (a) The relation between genealogical
investigations and eugenics; (b) The establishment of a National
Bureau of Heraldry in the United States, to become a recognized
and accepted authority; (c) The establishment of a bureau wherein
genealogists of standing shall be permitted to register so that a
certain stamp of official approval may be placed upon their work;
(d) Action looking to a uniform publication of the historical and
vital records of various counties and States now unpublished, and
the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records as part of
Governmental records at Washington, similar to the records in the
General Register Office, Somerset Hou.se, London, England."
The names of three hundred and ten societies and over two thou-
sand specialists or individuals peculiarly interested in the subjects
of the Congress were collected and corresponded with throughout
the world. This correspondence has been preserved in the archives
of the Exposition and contains much valuable suggestive material
for use by the International Genealogical Federation.
Never has the preliminary correspondence for the organization
of the first meeting of a congress been more thoroughly covered.
Thousands of letters were .sent and received. The writer cannot
MRS. LYDIA LUCEUIA GILLOGLY
HISTORY OP ORGANIZATION 5
allow the occasion to pass without expressing the indebtedness of all
to the Hon. James A. Barr and his Bureau of the Exposition for
this result. Had not the war intervened — as is shown by the letters
of those organizations and individuals who expressed themselves
before its outbreak as intending to be i*epresented by delegates or
in person, but who after its beginning gave notice of their inability
to attend — both foreign and domestic representation would have
been much larger than it was.
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
INTEENATIONAL COKGEESS OF GENEALOGY.
SESSIONS AND OFFICERS
The Congress met at San Francisco on July 28, 1915. Sessions
were held during four days: July 28, 29, 30 and 31.
Mr. Orra E. Monnette acted as Temporary Chairman pending
the formation of a regular organization ; the Congress organized by
electing the following officers :
President, Mr. Frank Ilervey Pettingell.
Secretary, Mr. Clarence Edward Ilcald.
Assistant Secretary, Miss C. I. Tomlinson.
Such committees as were required to handle the affairs of the
Congress were appointed from time to time. A list of all Com-
mittees is given on a later page.
The following organizations were represented by delegates:
1. National Society, Americans of Royal Descent.
2. The Society for the Preservation of New England An-
3. College of Arms & Scigneurial Court of Canada.
4. The Edward Bangs Descendants.
FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 9
5. The Bates Association,
6. Descendants of James Burton of Dent, Yorkshire, England.
7. California Genealogical Society.
8. Child Family Association.
9. The Doane Family Association of America.
10. The Donegal Society of Lancaster County, Pa.
11. Emery Family J^ sociation.
12. Order of the T anders and Patriots of America.
13. New Jersey Society of the Order of the Founders and
Patriots of America.
14. Frost Family Association of America.
15. Society of Genealogists of London.
16. The National Genealogical Society.
17. Goodwin Family Association.
18. New England Historic Genealogical Society.
19. Society of the Descendants of Pilgrim John Howland of
the Ship Mayflower,
20. The Huguenot Society of America.
21. American Irish Historical Society, California Chapter.
22. Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo.
23. The Jewett Family of America.
24. Kimball Family Association of California.
25. The Lindsay Family Association of America, Inc.
26. Maine Genealogical Society.
27. Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of California.
28. Old Plymouth Colony Descendants Society.
29. Parker Historical and Genealogical Association,
30. Solomon Peirce Family Association.
31. Pike Family Association.
32. National Society of the Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims.
33. Edmund Rice Descendants,
34. Daughters of the American Revolution, California Society.
35. Sons of the Revolution (National Society).
36. Society, Sons of the Revolution in the State of California.
37. California Society, Sons of the American Revolution.
38. The Robinson Genealogical Society.
39. The Smalls of America,
40. Tower Genealogical Society.
41. The Genealogical Society of Utah.
42. The Stone-Jones Genealogical Society,
43. The Order of Washington, '
10 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
44. National Womans' Relief Society (Genealogical Extension
45. Wilcox and Allied Families.
46. ^Mitchell Family Association.
In addition to the above list the following societies recognized
the Congress by appointing delegates. Many of these delegates,
though unable to be present, sent messages of good will:
47. Society of the Descendants of Robert Bartlet of Plymouth,
48. Bicknell Family Association.
49. Nathaniel Brewster Familj' Association.
50. The Captain Deliverance Browne Association.
51. Colonial Daughters.
52. American Society of Colonial Families.
53. Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut.
54. Descendants of John Folsom.
55. Western Hampden Historical Society, Inc.
56. Marshfield Historical Society.
57. The Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pa.
58. Historical Society of New Mexico.
59. The Irvine Society of America.
60. Louisiana Historical Society.
61. The McDowell Clan.
62. Missouri Society, Sons of the Revolution.
63. The Colonel Daniel Putnam Association, Inc.
64. The Shedd Family Association.
65. Underhill Society of America.
66. Worcester Family Association. ;
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 11
Following is the list of delegates present (numbers refer to
preceding list of societies) :
Mrs. Inez Knight Allen (41)
Lewis Anderson (41)
Nephi Anderson (41 )
Mark Austin (41)
Mrs. Gertrude L. Baerd (44)
George Anderson Bangs (4)
Miss Minerva Leantine Barker (42)
! Mrs. Vincy R. Stone Barker (42, 44)
James L. Barr ( 7 )
Mrs. Clara M. Bartholomew (42)
Henry L. Bates ( 5 )
Louisa B. Benson (44)
James Blake (41)
• Thomas Edward Bond (24)
Mrs. Anna Borland (34)
R. L. Bybee (41)
■ Miss Lillian Cameron (41)
Annie Wells Cannon (44)
Mrs. Harriet Dudley Chapman ( 7 )
Unity Chappel (44)
Joseph Christenson (41)
Lucy Clapper (23)
Mrs. D. H. Colcord ( 2 )
Mrs. Nathan Cole (34)
Mrs. Sarah Pike Conger (31)
12 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Etta Pearl Dam (30)
Francis Herbert Dam (30)
Miss Edna May Davis (44)
Jeremiah Deasy (21)
Willis Milnor Dixon (13, 35, 58)
George How.ird Robinson Doane ( 9 )
Mrs. ThoT^ IS B. Dozier (34)
James Du worth (41)
Boutwell Dunlap ( 7 )
J. M. Eddy (28)
Jane Jennings Eldredge (44)
Miss Jessie F. Emery (11, 18)
Mrs. S. A. Mitchell Farr (46)
Walter H. Faunce (28)
Herbert Folger (27)
Mrs. Susanna Pike French (31, 34)
Norman S. Frost (14, 33)
Mrs. Susa Young Gates (18, 41)
Heber J. Grant (41)
Lenora T. Harrington (44)
Clarence E. Heald (31) '
Aroetta Hale Holgate (44)
Miss Mabel Hoyt ( 4, 14)
Mrs. Janette A. Hyde (44)
Miss Annis C. Jewett (23) '
A. E. Jewett (23)
E. L. Jewett (23)
George A. Jewett (23, 18)
J. M. Jewett (23)
Mrs. Jessie P. Jones (41)
I\riss Sarah Louise Kimball (17, 24, 27)
Hilda H. H. Larson (44)
Anna Jewett LeFevre (23)
James W. Lesueur (41)
Mrs. C. F. Lewis (34)
Edwin B. Lindsay (25)
Mrs. Amy B. Lyman (44)
Annie Lynch (44)
Mrs. J. C. Lynch (34)
Mrs. Walter Damon Mansfield (1, 15)
' • SUMMARY OP PROCEEDINGS 13
ixeorgina G. Marriott (44)
Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune (41, 44)
Elizabeth C. McDonald (44)
Miss Sarah M. McLillard (44)
Frederick A. H. F. Mitchell (41, 46)
Orra Eugene Monnette (3, 12, 13, 20, 38, 43)
John Tower Morrison (40)
N. Murakami (22)
B. M, Newcomb (2, 27)
R. C. O'Conner '(21)
Miss Susanne R. Patch (34)
Mrs. George W. Percy (26)
T. A. Perkins (37)
Frank Hervey Pettingell (2, 36, 18)
Henry Byron Phillips (16, 32)
Miss Catherine G. Pike (31)
Alvin Plummer (7)
Frank T. Pomeroy (41)
A. P. Renstrom (41 )
William B. Rice (33)
Joseph E, Robinson (41)
Frederick Scholes (41) *
Artemesia Segmiller (44)
Joseph F. Smith Jr (41)
Mercy R. Stevens (44)
Mrs. Emily W. Stockdale (18)
Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas (44)
Mrs. Elisha Tibbits (10, 34)
Mrs. Lora A. Underbill (39, 18)
James B. Walkley (41)
Miss Miriam K. Wallis (20)
Mrs. Edmund Cottle Weeks (38)
Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells (44)
Miss Elizabeth A. Wilbur (19)
Charles G. Finney Wilcox (45)
Mrs. Elizabeth Wilcox (44)
Mrs. B. S. Wilkins (34)
Laura N. Williams (44)
Lily Wostenholm (44)
Mrs. Daniel R. Wood (34)
14 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
The following papers were read :
"Genealogical Records of the Maori of New Zealand," by
Elsdon Best, Wellington Philosophical Society, Wellington,
"Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race,"
by Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu.
"Genealogy of the Native Hawaiians," by Bruce Cartwright Jr.,
Ph. B.^ of Honolulu.
"The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics," by Paul
Popenoe. American Genetic Association, Editor of "Journal
' ' The Study of Genealogy and Its Place in the Affairs of Human
Society," by Charles G. Finney Wilcox of Brooklyn, N. Y.
"Genealogical Research Among Descendants of Mayflower Im-
migrants, ' ' by Herbert Folger of the Society of Mayflower Descend-
ants in the State of California.
The following papers, prepared for the Congress, were ordered
printed with the other proceedings as they were either not received
in time or for some other reason could not be included in the pro-
gram as presented :
"The House Restored," by Marian Longfellow of The Descend-
ants of Robert Bartlet, Esq., of Plymouth, Massachusetts,
"Genealogical Research in Denmark," by Th. Hauch-FausboU,
Dansk Genealogisk Institut, Copenhagen.
The addresses delivered at the Commemorative Session at Re-
cital Hall, Exposition Grounds, were :
President's Address, by ]\Ir. Frank H. Pettingell, President
of the Congress.
Address of Welcome and Presentation of Medal by Mr. Colvin
B. Brown of the Board of Directors of the Panama-Pacific
Response and Acceptance of Medal by Mr. Henry B. Phillips of
the California Genealogical Society.
CLARENCE EDWARD HEALD
SU.MMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 15
Perhaps the most important action of the Congress was that
looking to the perpetuation of its activities through the organiza-
tion of an International Genealogical Federation, the objects of
which will be :
a. To collect, preserve and render available genealogical
and historical records.
b. To procure legislation establishing adequate systems of
collecting and maintaining vital statistics and
c. To secure the establishment of an international bureau
for the registration of pedigrees, coats-of-arms, etc.
It is proposed that such Federation include the following classes
a. Genealogical organizations.
b. Historical organizations.
c. Family associations.
d. Individual membership.
The details of the actual organization of this Federation are
entrusted to the following Organization Committee, which was
given full power to act on behalf of the Congress, including power
to add to the membership of the committee :
Mr. Henry B. Phillips, delegate from the National Genealogical
Mr. Orra E. INIonnette, delegate from the Huguenot Society of
Mr. B. M. Newcomb, delegate from the Society for the Preserva-
tion of New England x^ntiquities.
Mr. Clarence E. Heald, delegate from the Pike Family Associa-
tion, Secretary and Custodian.
16 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
A resolution was passed meuiorializing' the United States Gov-
ernment to the following effeet :
To take such steps as may be necessary to establish and
maintain a National Bureau of Registration of Vital
Statistics, either by enlarging the scope of the Bureau of
the Census or the establishment of a new department.
Such Bureau to make and file copies of all authentic
vital statistics now on record in the various counties of the
That the Congress of the United States enact lavv's mak-
ing compulsory the registration of adequate vital statistics
throughout the country.
A committee was appointed with Dr. Alvin Plumnier of San
Francisco at its head, to further the principles expressed in the
With a special view to making the registration of voters of more
value to the searcher of genealogical data, the following resolution
Resolved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all
Public Record blanlcs be so changed as to provide actual
date and place of birth, marriage and death, father's name
and mother's maiden name wherever age and country or
state is now required.
The following resolution was passed, exemplifying the atti-
tude of the Congress toward the use of genealogical data in
working out the problems of eugenics:
Resolved, That one of the objects of the International
Genealogical Federation shall be the collection and pres-
ervation of genealogical data for eugenic purposes and
that the committee of organization of said International
Genealogical Federation is hereby instructed to provide
for the collection and preservation of said genealogical
data for eugenic purposes.
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 17
VOTES OF THANKS
During the sessions of the Congress the following Votes of
Thanks were passed (given in chronological order) :
To Mr. Kiang Shao Chiian Kang-Hu for preparing, and Mr.
Henry B. Phillips for rendering into English, an able paper
on "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese
Race. ' '
To the California Genealogical Society for their delightful en-
tertainment of the visiting delegates at the Fairmont Hotel
on Thursday, July 29, 1915.
To Mr. H. B. Phillips and his able co-workers who have prepared
the programs and arranged the sessions of this Congress.
To Mr. Frank H. Pettingell, the President, and Mr. Clarence E.
Heald, the very efficient Secretary of the Congress for the
able and courteous manner in which they have managed the
affairs of the Congress.
To Miss Sarah Louise Kimball, one of the foremost genealo-
gists of the Pacific Coast, for her distinguished work in
preparing the way for this Congress and aiding in the success
of its sessions.
To all those in foreign lands who had contributed papers, with
instructions to the Secretary to write them notifying them
of this action and expressing our appreciation.
To Professor N. Murakami for his courteous promise to con-
tribute an article on Genealogy in Japan to be printed with
the proceedings of the Congress.
The money required to meet current expenses of the Congress
was raised by means of an assessment of $1.00 on each of the
societies or organizations represented; thirty-four out of the forty-
six paid this on the day the assessment was announced.
18 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
LIST OF OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
The officers and committees of the Congress were as follows:
President — Mr. Frank Hervey Pettingell of Los Angeles, Cal.
Secretary — Mr. Clarence Edward Heald of San Francisco, Cal.
Assistant Secretary — Miss Carlie Inez Tomlinson of San Fran-
On Credentials —
Clarence E, Heald, Chairman.
Miss C. I. Tomlinson.
On Program —
Henry B. Phillips, Chairman.
B. M. Newcomb.
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates.
Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill.
Miss Jessie F. Emery.
On Ways and Means —
Joseph F. Smith Jr., Chairmar
Willis M. Dixon.
Norman S. Frost.
Mrs. Isaac N. Chapman.
T. Edward Bond.
On Permanent Organization —
Orra E. Monnette, Chairman.
B. M. Newcomb.
Joseph F. Smith Jr.
Mrs. Lora A, W. Underbill.
Mrs. W. D. Mansfield.
Mrs, Susa Y. Gates.
Mrs. B. S. Wilkins.
Mrs. I. N. Chapman.
T. A. Perkins.
On Establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Statistics-—
Dr. Alvin Plummer, Chairman.
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates.
Henry B. Phillips.
Clarence E. Heald.
Orra E. Monnett«.
T. A. Perkins.
B. H. Newcomb.
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 19
ORGANIZATION COM.AIITTEE OF INTERNATIONAL
HENRY BYRON PHILLIPS, Chairman
Delegate from the National Qenealogical Society.
ORRA EUGENE MONNETTE
Delegate from the Huguenot Society of America.
BETHUEL MERRITT NEWCOMB
Delegate from the Society for the Preservation of
New England Antiquities
Its Secretary and Custodian is;
CLARENCE EDWARD HEALD
.1215 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A.
20 INTERNATIONAX, CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
i<¥^«@ i^m mmm.m,^^m.i
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
SAN FRANCISCO CIVIC AUDITORIUM, HALL F.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 28. 1915, 10:30 A. M.
The Congress was called to order by ]\Ir. Henry Byron Phillips,
President of the California Genealogical Society, who introduced
Mr, Orra Eugene Monnette as Temporary Chairman.
Mr. Monnette took the chair, and named i\Ir. Clarence E. Heald,
Temporary Secretary, and Miss C. I. Tomlinson, Temporary As-
In a brief and appropriate address Mr. Monnette then extended
a warm greeting to all the delegates, informing them that no hard
and fast program had been laid down for their proceedings, but
that on the contrary the work of the Congress lay entirely in their
A motion was made to the effect that the temporary organization
be made permanent ; Mr. Monnette declared that while he appre-
ciated the honor conferred upon him, it would be impossible for
him to accept the Presidency of the Congress because his business
engagements would permit him to remain in the city but two of the
three days set for its sessions.
Mr. H. B. Phillips moved that Mr. Frank Hervey Pettingell
be named President. The motion was seconded by ]Mr. Norman S.
Frost, and carried unanimously.
Mr. Pettingell took the chair and after expressing his appre-
ciation of the action of the Congress called upon Mr. James A.
Barr, Director of Congresses of the Panama-Pacific International
Exposition, for a few remarks.
Mr. Barr told briefly of the inception and growth of the plans
for this Congress, stating that sixty societies had notified him that
they had named delegates. He also declared this to be the first
International Congress of Genealogy ever held in America, as well
as the first genealogical meeting to receive recognition from an in-
ternational exposition and a place on its program. Among the 852
bodies meeting here during the Exposition year twenty-five are
genealogical organizations. On behalf of the Exposition he extended
a cordial invitation to all to visit and study the World University
exemplified by the Exposition itself.
ORRA EUGENE MONNETTE
.MINUTES OF SESSIONS 21
Hon. Joseph F. Smith Jr. was then introduced to the Congress.
He expressed the thanks of the delegates to the Genealogical
Society of California and to the Panama-Pacific International Ex-
position for the invitation to all genealogical societies to gather
here to further their mutual interests. He stated that one impor-
tant thing to be considered was the system of arranging and re-
cording genealogical data. There are now in use many systems and
classifications ; some difficult and some simple. A uniform system
would be a great advance in placing genealogical research on a
better basis. Since we owe to our ancestors all that we are, there
is due reason why we should honor and study them even though
occasionally there may be one who is not entirely a credit to the
Mr. H. B. Phillips moved that Mr. C. E. Heald be named Secre-
tary of the Congress and Miss C. I. Tomlinson Assistant Secretary.
The motion was seconded by Mr. N. S. Frost and carried.
The President announced the appointment of ^Ir. Heald and
Miss Tomlinson as Committee on Credentials.
It was moved by Mr. J. M. Eddy that the list of delegates pre-
pared by the Director of Congresses of the Exposition be tem-
porarily accepted as official, the same to be subject to proper altera-
tions and additions by the Credentials Committee. The motion was
seconded by ]Mr. Phillips and carried.
The Secretary tlien proceeded to call the roll of the delegates.
Those present received appropriate badges. Of the sixty societies
on the official list, twenty-eight were represented by delegates
present: four more societies were added to the number through
delegates recognized by the Credentials Committee, and one, the
National Woman's Relief Society of Utah, by vote of the Congress
upon motion of ^Irs. Elisha Tibbits, seconded by ]Mr. N. S. Frost.
This raised the total number of societies represented by delegates
at the first session of the Congress to thirty-three.
The President named as a Program Committee :
Mr. H. B. Phillips, Chairman.
Mr. B. j\I. Newcomb,
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates.
Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill,
^liss Jessie F. Emery.
Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 2:30
At the first session of the Congress, about three hundred per-
sons were present, a number of them, although not delegates, being
22 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
AFTERNOON SESSION, JULY 28, 1915.
2:30 P. M.
The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell.
Mr. H. B. Phillips presented a report from the Program Com-
mittee covering the schedule of meetings and the papers to be
presented. Sessions are regularly to be held at 10:00 A. M. and
2:30 P. M.
The President announced a Committee on Ways and Means as
Hon. Joseph F, Smith Jr., Chairman.
Mr. Willis Milnor Dixon.
Mr. Norman S. Frost.
Mrs. Isaac N. Chapman.
Mr. T. Edward Bond.
A paper on "Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the
Chinese Race" was read by Mr. H. B. Phillips. This paper was
originally written in Chinese characters by Mr. Kiang Shao Chuan
Kang-Hu and the translation made with the aid of Mr. Phillips.
This paper was very impressive for its concise and able presentation
of its big subject, covering the essential facts very completely.
It was moved that we extend a vote of thanks to the author,
and that Mr. Phillips be authorized to communicate to him our
appreciation. This motion was amended to also express our thanki
to Mr. Phillips for transcribing and reading this paper. The
amendment being acceptable to the maker of the motion was incor-
porated therewith, and the motion as amended was seconded and
Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 10:00
A. M., July 29, the members proceeding to the Grove street entrance
of the Auditorium, where a group photograph Avas taken.
MORNING SESSION, JULY 29, 1915.
The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell at
10 :30 A. M.
A report from the Committee on Ways and Means was pre-
sented by its chairman, Hon, Joseph F. Smith Jr. The committee
recommended that the immediate expenses of the Congress be
provided for by assessing each organization represented the sum
of one dollar. It was also recommended that the papers and pro-
MINUTES OF SESSIONS 23
ceedings of this Congress be printed, a number of the Utah Geneal-
ogical and Historical Magazine having been offered for the purpose
without cost to the Congress.
Upon motion by Mr. H. B. Phillips duly seconded it was voted
that this report be accepted.
A paper by Mr. Elsdon Best of the Wellington Philosophical
Society of Wellington, New Zealand, on ' ' The Genealogical Records
of the Maoris of New Zealand" was read by the Secretary. In
this paper the Maori system of preserving orally the complete
genealogical records of the race was clearly explained.
The next paper presented was that of Mr. Bruce Cartwright Jr.,
on "The Genealogy of the Native Hawaiian Races." This paper,
read by Mr. H. B. Phillips, outlined the system in use for many
centuries in the Hawaiian Islands.
The President appointed a Committee on Permanent Organiza-
tion consisting of the following :
Mr. Orra E. Monnette, Chairman.
Mr. B. M. Newcomb.
Mr. Joseph F. Smith Jr.
Mrs. Susa Y. Gates.
Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill.
Mrs. W. D. Mansfield.
Mr. T. A. Perkins.
Mrs. I. N. Chapman.
Mrs. B. S. Wilkins.
Dr. Alvin Plummer moved that the following resolution be
Ref;olved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all
public record blanks be so changed as to provide actual
date and place of birth, marriage and death wherever age
and country or state is now required.
This motion was seconded by Mrs. L. L. Gillogly.
The discussion of the motion developed the fact that in present-
ing this resolution Dr. Plummer had in mind particularly the
blanks employed for the registration of voters.
Upon motion duly seconded it was voted that this resolution
be amended to provide that parentage (father's name and mother's
maiden name) be also shown.
The resolution as amended was then put to a vote and carried.
It now stands as follows:
Resolved, That it is the sense of this Congress that all
Public Record blanks be so changed as to provide actual
date and place of birth, marriage and death, father's name
and mother's maiden name wherever age and country or
state is now required.
24 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
An extended discussion then took place on the qr.ostion of a
permanent organization, the sentiment of the Congress finally
being crystallized in the form of a motion that the Committee on
Permanent Organization outline the general principles of such an
organization, but that final and definite steps such as the prepara-
tion of Constitution and By-Laws be placed in the hands of suit-
able permanent committees empowered to carry on the work after
the sessions of the present Congress are over.
Upon motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned until 2:30
AFTERNOON SESSION, JULY 29, 1915.
The Congress was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by President
Mr. 0. E, Monnette as Chairman presented the report of the
Committee on Permanent Organization as follows:
Your committee on the organization of a permanent
society of genealogy in the United States beg leave to re-
port by recommending:
1. That there shall be established an association or
federation of genealogy to be either American or inter-
national in its scope as shall be determined by a vote of
this Congress, the name to include the word "Federation."
2. That the scope of the work of this proposed Feder-
ation shall include :
a. Preservation and publication of historical and
b. Procurement of legislation to establish systems
of collecting and maintaining vital statistics and rec-
ords, both national and local.
c. Establishment of a national or international
bureau of heraldry for the registration of pedigrees,
8. That this Congress appoint an Organization Com-
mittee of three, with power to add to its membership, to
continue in office after the adjournment of this Congress,
and whose duties shall be to form a Constitution and
By-Laws for the proposed Federation, determine its de-
partments and all details of its establishment, the action
of said committee to be final. Said committee shall also be
MRS. LORA A. WOODBURY U N D E R H I LL.
MINUTES OF SESSIONS 25
entrusted v.'ith the papers, records and other data of this
Congress and shall attend to the printing of the proceed-
ings and all other matters relating to this Congress which
may be left incomplete at the time of its adjournment.
4. That this Congress recommend to said Organization
Committee that the following classes of membership be
a. Genealogical societies or organizations.
b. Historical societies or organizations.
c. Family associations.
d. Individual membership.
5. That this Congress recommend to said Committee
that the representation in membership in the Federation
shall be based upon organizations and not per capita, each
being allotted the same numerical representation. Indi-
viduals shall not have the right to vote as such, but shall
have the privilege of the floor and participation in all dis-
cussions and deliberations.
It was moved by Dr. Alvin Plummer that this organization be
perpetuated under the name "International Congress of Geneal-
ogy." This motion was seconded by Mrs. L. L. Gillogly and after
discussion was lost, the count of ayes and noes being taken by aid
of a rising vote.
It was moved by Mrs. Elisha Tibbits that the name of this
society be "International Genealogical Federation." This motion
was seconded by Mr. Monnette and carried.
Upon motion duly seconded the report of the Committee on
Permanent Organization was adopted.
Mrs. L. L. Gillogly moved that the President of this Congress
appoint the permanent Organization Committee provided by the
plan just adopted; seconded by Mrs. Elisha Tibbits and carried.
The President appointed as members of this Committee :
H. B. Phillips, delegate from National Genealogical Society,
O. E. Monnette, delegate from Huguenot Society of America.
B. M. Newcomb, delegate from Society for the Preservation of
New England Antiquities.
Mr. 0. E, Monnette at the request of the President told the
Congress something of the joint library established in Los Angeles
by the Society of Colonial Wars and the Society, Sons of the Revo-
lution, stating that any donations of appropriate documents or
publications would be gratefully received by Mr. Willis M. Dixon,
1200 Arapahoe Street, Los Angeles, the librarian.
26 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
In response to a request from Rev. Henry L. Bates, the Secre-
tary gave the names of the societies whose representatives had
already paid him the amount of the assessment made by the Con-
gress at its morning session of even date.
The subject of Genealogical Charts was then introduced by Mr.
H. B. Phillips, who presented a number of charts for the inspection
of the Congress, also explaining the objects sought in their various
methods of arrangement.
Upon motion duly seconded the meeting was adjourned until
10 :00 A. M., July 30, 1915.
MORNING SESSION, JULY 30, 1915.
The Congress was called to order by President Pettingell at
10:30 A. M.
Dr. Paul Popenoe of the American Genetic Association of
Washington, D. C., and editor of the "Journal of Heredity," read
his paper on "The Relationship Between Genealogy and Eugenics."
Hon. Boutwell Dunlap stated that on hearing that Dr. Paul
Popenoe was accessible for an address, he was pleased to ask to
withdraw his name on the program for a paper on the relation of
eugenics to genealogy in favor of Dr. Popenoe. In proposing the
International Congress of Genealogy, Mr. Dunlap had hoped that
one of its results might be the permission of genealogists to eugen-
ists to use accumulated materials of the former ; until this was done
there could not be much progress in "the breeding of the human
race." He therefore proposed the following resolution:
Resolved, That one of the objects of the International
Genealogical Federation shall be the collection and pres-
ervation of genealogical data for eugenic purposes and that
the committee of organization of said International Gene-
alogical Federation is hereby instructed to provide for the
collection and preservation of said genealogical data for
The motion was seconded by Mrs. S. Y. Gates and after dis-
cussion was unanimously carried.
Dr. Alvin Plummer moved the adoption of the following
Whereas, From the foundation or discovery of this
country to the present time there has been no systematic
effort toward the establishment of a complete registration
of vital statistics; and
MINUTES OF SESSIONS 27
Whereas, The many different departments of the United
States Government itself need such a compilation; and
Whereas, The nucleus of such an institution is now in
existence in the Bureau of the Census; and
Whereas, Such a system can only be properly inaugu-
rated and conducted by the government, which can make
compliance with its requirements compulsory; and
Whereas, The government can manage the details of
such an undertaking more cheaply and more completely
than can any other element; therefore, be it
Resolved, That we, the International Congress of Gene-
alogy, in meeting assembled, hereby memorialize the United
States Government to take such steps as may be necessary
to establish and maintain a National Bureau of Registra-
tion of Vital Statistics, either by an enlargement of the
scope of the present Bureau of the Census or the establish-
ment of a new department; and be it
Resolved, That copies of all authentic vital statistics
now on record in the various counties of this entire
country be made and filed in accordance with up-to-date
methods now in vogue; and be it further
Resolved, That further laws be enacted by the Con-
gress of the United States to make such registration here-
after compulsory; and be it further
Resolved, That the component parts of this Congress
of Genealogy be and are hereby requested to use every
personal and collective influence to accomplish this much
to be desired result.
The motion to adopt the above resolution was duly seconded
It was moved by Dr. Alvin Plummer that a committee be
appointed by the President for the furtherance of the principles
expressed in the resolution introduced by himself and just adopted
by the Congress. The motion was seconded and carried.
The President announced the appointment of such a Committee
for the furtherance of a National Bureau of Registration of Vital
Statistics consisting of the following:
Dr. Alvin Plummer. Chairman.
Mrs. S. Y. Yates.
Mr. H. B. Phillips.
Mr. Clarence E. Heald.
Mr. B. M. Newcomb.
Mr. Orra E. Monnette.
Mr. T. A. Perkins.
28 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Mrs. L. A. Underhill moved that the thanks of the delegates be
extended to the California Genealogical Society for their delightful
entertainment of the visiting delegates at the reception given in the
ball room of the Fairmont Hotel last evening. The motion was
seconded and carried by a rising vote.
It was announced by Mr, H. B. Phillips as Chairman of the
Program Committee that Mr. R. C. 'Conner's paper on "Irish
Pedigrees" has not yet been completed, but upon its completion
it will be filed with the Secretary to be included in the records of
Mr. Herbert Folger, Historian of the Society of Mayflower De-
scendants in the State of California then spoke briefly on "The
Descendants of the Mayflower Emigrants."
In the course of his remarks Mr. Folger spoke of the complete-
ness of the genealogical records kept by the Friends, and especially
their marriage registrations, stating that although often difficult
of access such records were of exceptional value. At the conclusion
of his talk Mrs. W. D. Mansfield stated that her connections gave
her unusual opportunities in this regard, and that she would be
very glad to correspond with anyone who would like to reach the
Friends' records, either in this country or in England; while many
of the "meetings" are closed she knows where the records are kept
and how to gain access to them.
Upon motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned until 2 :30
AFTERNOON SESSION, JULY 30, 1915.
2:30 P. M.
The Congress was called to order by President Petangell.
Mi. Charleji G. Finney Wilcox read his paper Oii "The Study of
Genealogy and 'its Place in the Affairs of Human Society."
On behalf of the Organization Committee of the International
Genealogical Federation Mr. H. B. Phillips stated that ' ' The Com-
mittee desires that each organization represented at this Congress
select one of its members as the representative with whom the Secre-
tary of this Committee shall communicate on all matters appertain-
ing to the formation of the Federation. While ordinarily the
secretary of a body is supposed to be the proper person to com-
municate with, in this case it is desired that the best person to
represent his organization be selectcid. The Organization Committee
BETHUEL MERRITT NEWCOMB
MINUTES OF SESSIONS 29
has selected as its Secretary and Custodian Mr. Clarence Edward
Heald of 1215 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco; all delegates
present are requested to note that name and address. When you
return to your homes and have your next meeting in your local
societies please take this matter up with them and at as early a
date as possible communicate with Mr. Heald in connection with
the permanent organization of the Federation."
' ' This Federation as a matter of course will require a seal. That
seal should have a design appropriate to the nature of the organ-
ization, and I would ask every person here present who is able to
do so to make a design or suggest a design with an appropriate
motto. From among these designs I presume we shall be able to
select something of unusual merit."
Mrs. S. Y. Gates suggested that undoubtedly every one present
would like to join in an expression of gratitude to Mr. H. B.
Phillips and his able co-workers who have prepared the programs
and arranged the sessions of this Congress. To bear testimony to
this feeling, and to register a sentiment that all who hear of this
meeting should know of the splendid work of Mr. Phillips and his
associates she felt that all might join, not in a vote of thanks but
also in an expression of gratitude in the form of a Chautauqua
salute. This thought met with a spontaneous response throughout
the hall, and the salute was heartily given on the instant.
Mr. Phillips responded with a few words of appreciation, saying
that indeed he hardly felt that he himself had done anything to
deserve appreciation and that the success that has attended the
meetings was largely due to the willingness of all to help wdien
shown what they might do, and to a judicious selection of people
of ability to undertake the responsibility of getting things done.
Dr. Alvin Plummer suggested that with the approaching end of
this afternoon's session it might not be well to adjourn sine die,
so that we may not be a dead organization when we meet at the
Exposition grounds tomorrow at the invitation of their President
and Directors to receive the bronze medal they have signified their
intention of presenting. Further he stated that he would like to
see the name of this organization perpetuated.
Mr. W. M. Dixon moved that a vote of thanks be given to the
President and to the very efficient Secretary for the able and
courteous manner in which they have managed the affairs of the
Congress. The motion was seconded and carried.
The President, Mr. F. H. Pettingell, responded to the vote of
thanks in a few appropriate words, declaring that he felt it an
unusual privilege to preside over the meetings; and he congratu-
lated the Congress on having availed itself of the services of Mr.
C. E. Heald, who had displayed a rare ability in handling the
duties of Secretary.
30 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Mrs. S. Y, Gates moved that a vote of thanks be extended to
Miss Sarah Louise Kimball, one of the foremost genealogists of
the Pacific Coast, for her distinguished work in preparing the way
for this Congress and aiding in the success of its sessions. The
motion was seconded and carried.
Miss Jessie F. Emery declared that among the factors in making
our sessions a source of enjoyment the beautiful roses on the Presi-
dent's table had played an important part, and while votes of
thanks were in order she would like to move such a vote to their
donor. Mr. B. M. Newcomb had to plead guilty to providing the
roses, products of his famous rose garden at Berkeley.
It was suggested by Mr. H. B. Phillips that letters be sent
to those in foreign lands who had contributed papers, expressing
the appreciation of this Congress in the form of a vote of thanks.
The President instructed the Secretary to see that this was done.
On behalf of the Program Committee Mr. H. B. Phillips an-
nounced that tomorrow had been designated by the Exposition
as "International Congress of Genealogy Day" and that the follow-
ing afternoon the delegates would assemble within the Exposition at
Recital Hall. There the President of the Exposition or his repre-
sentative would present to this Congress a medal commemorative of
the occasion. These formalities take place in the case of every
Congress which has been held here, and in our case "onll be held
in Recital Hall at 2 :30 P. M., July 31, 1915.
On motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned to meet at
Recital Hall at the appointed time.
JULY 31, 1915.
The Congress met in Recital Hall within the grounds of the
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, at the invitation of the
Exposition's President and Directors.
The Congress was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by President
Pettingell, who in a few appr()i)riate words introduced Mr. Colvin
Mr. Brown addressed the Congress on behalf of the President
and Directors of the Exposition, expressing a grateful welcome
and best wishes, and presenting to the Congress an appropriate
memorial in the form of a bronze medal commemorative of the
MINUTES OF SESSIONS 31
On behalf of the Congress ^Ir. Henry B. Phillips responded to
Mr. Brown's address and accepted the medal. His remarks were
thoughtfully responsive to the theme of the day.
Dr. Alvin Plummer then told the Congress that he still felt
the sting of yesterday's defeat and was still strongly of the opinion
that any permanent body formed to carry on the work begun by
this Congress should bear the name International Congress of
Genealogy. Yet in view of the position he took in the former dis-
cussion he did not think it good taste for him to make a motion
to rescind the action taken when it was voted to adopt the name
International Genealogical Federation. While many of the mem-
bers who took part in the deliberations of yesterday had left the
city and many more were not present, yet he believed the matter
of such importance as to warrant the rescinding of yesterday's
Mr. N, S. Frost moved that the motion in question be rescinded ;
his motion was seconded by Mrs. Gillogly.
A brief discussion ensued ; when asked for a ruling as to whether
the motion was in order the President stated that it was, but that
he felt it his duty to caution the Congress against any action in the
nature of eleventh-hour legislation, especially when only a part of
the membership of the Congress was present. The most of the
speakers took the same view, basing their objections to the motion
on questions of expediency and propriety rather than on the merits
of the names in question. On ])eing put to a vote the motion was
lost, a rising vote being taken to verify the decision of the President
to that effect.
Professor N. Murakami of the Imperial School of Languages,
Tokyo, Japan, was then introduced to the Congress. He spoke a
few words appropriate to the day. While he had not come pre-
pared to make a lengthy address, he said that at the request of Mr.
Phillips, Chairman of the Program Committee, he Avould try to write
a short article on "Genealogy In Japan" to be printed at the time
of the publication of the proceedings of this Congress.
Mr. H, B, Phillips moved that a vote of thanks be extended to
Mr. Murakami and that the Secretary be instructed to furnish him
a copy of the same. The motion was seconded and carried.
By motion duly seconded the Congress adjourned sine die.
CLARENCE EDWARD HEALD,
GENEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 33
GKNEALOGY AND FAMILY NAME ORI-
GINS OF THE CHINESE RACE.
By H.IANG SHAO CHUAN RANG-HU
OF THE VNIVBR8ITY OF CAL.IFOBNIA
TRANSCBIBKD BY RBNRY BYRON PHILLIPS
NoTB. — In the spelling of the proper names occurring in this paper, the letters
B, D, Q, V, X and Z are not used. The apostrophe is used with Ch, K, P and T
to indicate a harder or more strongly aspirated sound, as follows :
Ch is pronounced jih P is pronounced b
Ch' is pronounced gh P' is pronounced p
K Is pronounced g T is pronounced d
K' Is pronounced k T' is pronounced t
To the Officers and Members of the International Congress of
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Having been honored by an invitation from your Committee
of Organization to represent the ancient country of China by
some remarks appropriate to this occasion, I take pleasure in out-
lining something of the methods whereby family names have been
created and used in the Empire of China beginning about 2,800
years before the Christian era, and the system whereby those names
have been preserved, the successive generations tabulated, and
reverence for our ancestors transmitted through all these ages; in
short, something of the genealogy of our people.
Genealogy among the ancient Chinese is a study interwined
with the whole of their social life, and an element in their law of
property, similar to the conditions existing in ancient Wales, where
every family was represented by its Elder; and these Elders from
every family or clan were delegated to the National Council.
Since the time of the Emperor Fu-Hi, or Fushi (B. C. 2852
years), all Chinese were required to have a family, or surname;
the purpose being to distinguish the families and regulate the mar-
riage relation. This emperor decreed there should be no marriages
between persons of the same family name.
From the time of the Emperor Fushi until the Chou dynasty
(B. C. 1122 years), two classes of family names were in use, the
first called Shih, being an hereditary title given by and held at
the pleasure of the emperor, king or lord. This class of name was
used by men only. The other class was called Shing, to designate
the old custom of giving a name at birth; this second class was
used by both men and women. The lower classes not dignified as
families were called Ming.
34 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
After the time of the Chou dynasty the classes Shih and Shing
were all called Shing, and the very wonderful thing is that, when
we address a woman and do not know her name, we say "Shing
what a Shih" as a title.
There are in evidence not less than eighteen sources from which
these family names are derived. They may be briefly enumerated
1. Adopting a dynasty designation, as Tang, Yu, Shia, etc.
2. Taking the name of a feudal territory or division, such as
Kiang, Whang, Chin, Gin, etc.
3. Using the name of a political district similar to the county
subdivision in a State of the United States, such as Hong, Chei,
Fan, Lin, etc.
4. From the name of a town, such as Yin, Su, Mou, Shan, etc.
5. From rural hamlets, called Shiang, such as Pai, Lu, Pang,
6. From cross roads or way stations, called T'ing, such as
Mi, Tsai, Owyang, etc.
7. From suburbs of direction, north, east, west, etc., such as
Tong-Shiang, Hsi-iMen, Nang-Yeh, Pei-Kuo, etc.
8. Adopting the "Ming" (name) of some historical personage
of the empire, as for example Fu, Yii, Tang, Chin, etc.
9. The use of a man's "social name," called Tsu, hereinafter
mentioned, for a family name, such as K'ung, Fang, Kung, Tong;
all formerly social names.
10. A custom called "Ts'u," that is, adopting appellatives
applied to relatives, as old brother, young sister, etc. Exampled by
Mung, i. e., fir.st brother; Chi. i. e., last brother; Tsu, i. e., grand-
father; Mi, i. e., grandfather-in-la\v.
11. From names of tribes and clans, called Tsu. Such as Ching,
Tso, So, Chang.
12. From names of officials, called Kuan, i. e.. officer. Such as
Shih, a historian; Chi, a librarian; K'ou, a policeman; Shuai, a
general; Ssu-Tu, a civic official.
13. From "Chueh," i. e., titles. As Whang (emperor) ; Wang
(king) ; Ba (grand duke) ; Hon (duke).
14. From occupations, called "Chi"; exampled by Wu, i. e., a
magician; Tu, i. e., a butcher; Tau, i. e., a potter; Chiang, i. e., a
15. Names of objects, called "Shih" names. As for example,
Chii, a carriage ; Kuan, a hat ; Pu, grass ; Fu, a flower.
16. Adoption of the appellatives given to rulers after their
death. In this connection it may be observed that the custom
prevails that the real names of rulers shall never be used after their
death, and to each one is assigned a descriptive name to be there-
after used on all occasions when they shall be referred to. These
"post mortem" names are designated "Shih" names, and as exam-
GENEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 3o
pies are given: Wen, i. e., The Good; Wu, i. e., The Military-
Leader; Chuang, i. e., the Polite One; Min, i. e., the Kindly One.
17. Adding a diminutive to the parent name, a custom called
**Shi." Exampled by: Wong-Tsu, i. e., king's son; Kung-Sun, i. e.,
grandson of a duke; Yuan-Po, i. e., first son of Yuan; Shen-Shu, i, e.,
third son of Shen.
18. Names of contempt, derision and opprobrium, applied to an
evil doer by the ruler, called " e " names. Such as, Fu, i. e., poison
snake ; jMang, i. e., rebel ; Ching, i. e., branded felon ; Shiao, i. e., an
owl. "With the Chinese the owl is considered a bird of evil omen,
one that will eat his own parents.
From the above illustrations it will be known that the Chinese
family names have been derived in many different ways, and you
will have observed that the same name has more than one origin.
As for example the names of the Ho, Lin, Pao, and Kuo families
have each three different origins.
The Wang and Kao families draw from four different sources.
The Liou, Yuan, may be derived from any of five different sources,
while the Yang and Lu family names may be referred to as many
as six separate beginnings.
On the other hand you will have observed that in a few in-
stances we have a different name from the same origin. For
example, the family names of Ching and Li are from the same
source, as are also the Yuin and Yang families.
The rule in Chinese writing is that family names shall consist
of one character only; this rule, like most rules has various excep-
tions which I shall here briefly endeavor to point out. The two
character surnames are called "Fu Shing" names. When Emperor
Fushi promulgated his decree that family names must be used
almost all families adopted a single character or syllable name; as
time went on, however, hyphenated or double character names
became more numerous, many being introduced by persons from
foreign nations, but in recent years the custom of having a multi-
character name has been very largely discontinued. Foreigners
entering the country adopt two methods in selecting their Chinese
family names, either they use characters not before used for family
names, or adopt an existing family name.
Before the time of the Sung dynasty (A. D. 960), foreigners
were designated either "Tai Pei" or "Kwan Hsi." The former
meaning those from the northern regions, and the latter those from
the west. The Empire at that time being bounded on the east and
south by the salt seas, no record is known of strangers coming from
these directions. They were further divided into divisions accord-
ing to their racial characteristics and may broadly be assigned as
First, the original inhabitants of the country called JMiao; the
Chi 'Tan, Tartars; Hsung Nu, Hungarians; Shen Pei, Koreans;
T'o Chiieh, Turks; Huei Ho, INIahometans; Sha To, Persians; T'u
36 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Fan. Thibetans, and the Ch'ih, Chieh and Ch'iang that cannot be
definitely assigned. This gives a group of names of foreign deriva-
After the Sung Dynasty came the Lao, a northern race, for-
merly Chi Tan; the Chin, or early inhabitants of Manchuria;
the Yuan, or ^Mongolians ; the Hsi Hsia, or Westerners, also several
tribes called Tang, Shiang, etc., adding more family names of
foreign derivation, as all the races and tribes from time to time
entered the territory of China and conquered portions of it and
settled upon themselves and their descendants the class of above
After the ]\ling Dynasty came the Manchu or Ching Dynasty
(A. D. 1627). These Manchu tribes were divided into eight
"Flags" or sections, each section or Flag having names identical
with surnames of men, these Flag surnames being called "Chi'
Shing" or Flag Surnames. When these names were translated to
Chinese characters, they were very long, and all the characters were
finally dropped but the first only, and this first character or given
name, is now used for their family name. This explains why the
common people who do not know this say father and son have
different family names, which is said by them in ignorance of the
Some of the more celebrated foreigners who took family names
in the Empire of China may be mentioned.
Marco Polo, who took the name of Ma, and during the Ming
Dynasty (beginning A. D. 1355), and later these foreigners, all
from the West and of Aryan descent :
Matteo Ricci, called Li Ma Ton, took the family name Li;
Jacobus Pantoja, called Pang Ti Wo, took the family name Pang;
Sebastian de Vries, called Hsung San Pa, took the family name
Hsung; Nicolaus Lombardi, called Lung Wha ]\Iin, took the family
name Lung; John Adam Schaal, called Tang Juo Wang, took the
family name Tang ; Ferdinand Verliest, called Nan Huai Jen, took
the family name Nan ; Jules Aloui, called Si Ju Lue, took the family
name Si, in all cases dropping all but one character. Thus it wnll
be observed that by reason of these contracted forms many foreign
names that have been introduced into the Chinese family system
have become obscured and their origin lost to sight.
There have been many changes of the family name during the
centuries covering a period of nearly 5000 years since the system
was first inaugurated, for various reasons. I may specify a dozen
or more of the more important of them, with illustrations.
The first and most important is that of Imperial Edict for
cause, either for merit or demerit, as well as honorary names
bestowed upon distinguished foreigners as a mark of respect or
honor. The name of merit bestowed upon statesmen or councillors
being the name of the ruler who gave it, as in the Han Dynasty, the
ruler, Liu, gave his name for a family name ; in the Tang Dynasty,
GENEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 37
the ruler, Li, gave his name to a family as a reward of merit, and
in the Ming Dynasty, the ruler, Chu, did likewise. In the case
of distinguished foreigners, the ruler bestowed a compound name ;
that of himself coupled Avith their own name as interpreted in
The name of demerit was used in changing the names of crim-
inals and rulers of conquered kingdoms or countries; as in the
Han Dyna,sty, by Imperial Decree, the name "Ying" was changed
to "Ching," the latter meaning a branded criminal. The name
of a conquered ruler, "Sun," was thus changed to "Li," meaning
a bad devil.
A second reason for change is that no one is allowed to speak
or write the given name of the ruler for the time being; should a
family bear the same name as the given name of him who has
become the ruler over them, then the family name must be changed.
As for example, Chi changed to Shi, having nearly the same sound.
Chuang changed to Yen, same meaning but different character.
Shih changed to Shai, characters very alike but meaning dif-
A third reason for change is stated to be to escape from an
enemy; just what this ostrich-like proceeding of covering the head
and leaving the body exposed was to accomplish does not now
appear, but it was attempted something in the following manner,
as Tuan-Mu changed to Mu by dropping the first character, Wu
changed to Wu, the second "wu" represented by a different char-
acter. Niu changed to Lao, both characters having the same
A fourth reason was to simplify the construction of the char-
acter, or as Europeans would say, to simplify the spelling of the
word, as Wau to a second form of Wau of simpler strokes, and the
same of the characters "Shin," "Sui," "Chang," etc., this feature
being hard to translate, but may be paralleled in the English tongue
by reducing the word Roxborough to Roxboro and the like.
Another reason, also to simplify the word was by changing
Lu-Pu to Lu, or from two characters to one character ; Chung-Li to
Chung by dropping the second character, and Ssu-Kow to Kow by
dropping the first character.
Again a change is made by adding an additional character or
characters for the purpose of showing lines of descent, as for
Chi changed to Chi-Sun, the latter meaning the grandson of Chi.
Ko changed to Chu-Ko, a designation taken by all sons of Ko, except
the first son only, who carries the original family name of Ko.
Other reasons of change are errors or mistakes in the form of
characters or sounds; concrete examples of these changes may
hardly be translated.
Certain changes have been made by foreigners in the Chinese
38 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
equivalents of their own native names, as has been alluded to above,
some further examples may here be recorded, as :
Tapa, Ho-Ku, to Yuan ; Shi Yun Yu Lien to Yun ; Tu Ku Hun
to Tu; Po To Lo to Pan; Shi Lou to Kao, the first (Shi Lou)
meaning in Chinese characters, "this is a story of a building," the
second (Kao) meaning "high."
Yet another change is brought about when a child is adopted
from another family or "clan"; the child assumes the family name
of the person adopting him. This rule is modified in the case where
sons of sisters, daughters or female relatives are adopted; then the
son's family name becomes a compound one, combining his own
family name with that of the person who adopted him, as for
example: Chang-Lo, when a son of the Lo family went to the
Chang family, and Hsii-Teng, when a son of the Teng family went
to the Hsii family.
Another reason for a change is dissatisfaction with the family
name, by reason of its meaning, or otherwise, as for example : Ai
changed to Chung; "Ai" meaning melancholj'- while "Chung"
means heart, the characters being very much alike.
Names have been changed for purposes of deception, a notable
instance of this when one Liu Chih Yuan took the name of a ruler,
Liu, and one Shih Ching Tang took the name of a ruler, Shih, for
the purpose of rebellion and an endeavor to conquer the country.
In this they succeeded and divided the country between themselves.
It may be remarked that moral delinquency does not permanently
prosper, and their conquest was not a lasting one.
There were also certain compound family names originated
during the Han Dynasty (beginning B. C. 201) ; at that time the
Empire was divided into ninety districts or "Chiin" and in many
cases the name of the "Chiin," or district, was added to the family
name of the principal families residing therein.
The treatises on Genealogy and Family History of the Chinese
are very many and important works ; the more important are not,
however, of the "popular" kind, being only known to specialists
or the higher and more advanced in literature. Some of the more
notable are :
First — and the oldest work that has been preserved, called "Shih
Pun," or "Book of Origins," in two volumes, composed by Liu
Shiang, covering a period of about 2000 years previous to the Han
Dynasty (201 B. C.) ; not all of this has been preserved.
Another is the "Shin Yuan" or "Surname Symposium," in
ten volumes, written by Ho Ch'eng T'ien, during the Tang Dynasty.
Another entitled "Yuan Ho Shing Tsuan," or a "Collection of
Family Names," in eleven volumes, compiled by Lin Pau in the
year Yuan Ho, also of the time of the Tang Dynasty.
GENEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 43
and the accompanying difficulty to prove which particular "John"
or "Sarah" is intended.
In addition to the family, or clan name, the Pai-Ming or genera-
tion name and the personal or given name bestowed by parents,
every one is entitled to a "social name," to be selected by himself
after reaching maturity: this period of time would agree in Amer-
ica with the time of reaching "legal age."
This social name is in a sense an equivalent to a motto used in
English or Continental Heraldry, but with the Chinese selected by
the individual, rather than bestowed by popular agreement or for
good deeds done.
In writing, the family or clan name takes precedence, then the
Pai-Ming or generation name, then the given or personal name, and
lastly the social name. As an example — continuing with above illus-
trations, and being excused for the personal nature of these exam-
ples — at the proper time I selected as a "Social name" the char-
acter "Kang-Hu," meaning Kang (high), and Hu (literally tiger,
but in the sense employed, independent, fearless). The full name
being written, Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu. It is a rule that chil-
dren and grandchildren must not speak or write the registered
names of their fathers or grandfathers, it being considered unfilial
and lacking in respect so to do. This rule also extends to the Em-
peror. It is, however, permissible to use one character, or the given
A few families place the given, or personal name in the middle
and the Pai-Ming or generation name at the end.
When the name is registered in the "Family Table Book" of
the "Tsu Tang," it becomes the official or guaranteed name and is
called the "Pu-Ming"; Pu meaning "generation book" and ^ling
It should be noted here that the "Social name" is not so regis-
tered, and is not used in business or official matters.
Some customs still exist that have been brought down from the
ancient feudal system. That of primogeniture or hereditary descent
is one; it is called "Ta-Tsung, " meaning hereditary line. The first
son by the first wife is called "Po-Tsu," if the first son is of the
second or other wife, he is called "Mung-Tsu"; all other sons by the
first wife are called "Yii-Tsu," the other sons of other wives are
called * ' Shii-Tsu. ' ' The ' ' Family Table Book ' ' is always particular
to set out these relationships and the exact lines of descent, in order
that there may be no question as to the hereditary line of descent,
which involves hereditary titles.
The emperors of the different dynasties have, for the most part,
observed the rule of primogeniture, but in a few cases, the selection
by the Emperor father has been other than his oldest son for his
successor to the throne. This latter has been the practice of the
44 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Emperors of the Ching, or Manehii Dynasty. The descent of titles
in those families that have hereditary titles is observed in a like
The feudal system of land holding is still observed among the
Mongol families and the "Miao" or original inhabitants. These
latter are now only found as a tribal unit in the Western frontiers
of the Empire.
With the Lamas in Thibet, who have no wives or sons, the
descent of title is arranged by the private selection of a successor;
after the succession is settled it is then publicly announced that the
spirit of the dead Lama has entered the body of the newly selected
person, and he henceforth is to be considered the true living Buddha.
The family of Kung-Fii-Tsu (Confucius), have a special title
called ''Tien Shih," meaning ''Heavenly Teacher,"
created during the Han Dynasty (201 B. C). and which is con-
tinued to the present day. The local residence of the present holder
of this title, probably the most highly honored in the Kingdom, is
in the Shan Tung Province. An enumeration of the Confucius
family was made in the 18th century, and at that time something
like 13,000 persons were found living who could prove descent from
the sage and philosopher.
Another special hereditary title is the one given to a man named
"Chang Tao Ling," who elevated Taoism from a philosophy to a
religion during the Han Dynasty. In the time of the Tang Dynasty
(627 A. D.), his descendants were given a hereditary family title
called ' ' Tien Shih. ' ' meaning ' ' Heavenly Teacher. ' '
These two families are the most noted in all China, these family
titles have been continued through all the Dynasties, and through
the line of the eldest son. to the present time.
The Chinese philosopher Mencius, said, "The most undutiful
condition is to have no son." That is why it is considered of the
first importance to have a son for a successor, for the dual purpose
of perpetuating the family and doing reverence to ancestors.
In this view of conditions, which to the Chinese is virtually a
tenet of their religion, the laws allow, even to the present time, a
plurality of wives. When a man has no son by his first wife, he is
permitted to take a second, or more, if necessary, in order that a son
may not be denied him. Some men getting old, or perhaps not
desiring to take a second wife, or who are too poor to support an-
other and being without a son. proceed to select from the same gen-
eration, and in the same family, and as near to his own line as may
be, a second or later son of another man, adopt him as his heir and
successor, the selection and adoption being duly registered in the
"Family Table Book" or record of the family or clan. A first son
must never be chosen, as that would deprive another branch of the
family of its proper line of descent. The selected and adopted son
then calls his own parents ''Pun Shung Fu Me," or birth parents,
and his adopted parents "Chi Fu ,Mu," or adopted parents.
GEXEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 45
It is allowable if no issue of a male be available, to adopt the
son of a sister, the hus))and of a daughter or other near female
relative. In this case the person adopted changes his family name ;
if a husband of a daughter, he takes the family name of his wife,
which is a proceeding many times done in English descent of title
and property, as I learn from their pedigree charts. Among the
wealthy families of the Cantonese, the custom prevails even to the
extent of adopting sons of otlier families, in order to have many
sons to share their wealth by inheritance.
When a man or woman joins the Buddhist order, they drop their
names, and take a new name given them by their teachers, called
"Sung" or "Shih, " meaning a son or daughter of Buddha, and
become members of the Buddha family or clan, using the generation
name of the Buddha system of genealogy or heraldry, but in the
generation book of the system the entries must be understood as
showing no blood descent, which difference is important to remem-
ber when investigating the ancestry of a member of the order.
The Taoists are of two kinds; one marry and the other do not.
In either case they always retain their family names and records
in the Family Table Book.
Should a man become an anarchist or free lover or otherwise
act in a manner to bring discredit upon his family or clan name, his
family name is taken away from him by the "Tsu Tang" of his
elan, his name erased from the Family Table Book, and he, a family
outlaw, must use another name.
In the genealogical tables of China, much attention is given to
the line of male descent, particularly the stem, or hereditary line;
but very little attention to the female line, it being understood, if
no record to the contrary, that the female is of the same family
and naturally and surely traces back to the original stem in any
event; being a matter of a certain number of generations removed.
In closing these somewhat discursive remarks upon the family
life and genealogy of the Chinese people, I am reminded that in the
last analysis all the people of the earth are really members of one
family, and I cannot better close than by repeating the words of
Confucius: "The People of the Four Seas, i. e., the people of all
the world, are all one brotherhood." And also he said: "There
is only one universal Family in the world." And again he said:
"In the Golden Age, men will treat all elderly people as their par-
ents, all young persons as their children, and all of equal age as
brothers and sisters."
To the wise man there is, in all this broad and immense world,
6m/ a single family, all governed by One Supreme Intelligence.
When this Family recognizes this Truth, and in direct and real
sincerity practices the few and perfectly simple rules of benevolent
morality as taught by our ancient sage, then will it be an enlight-
ened, civilized family.
46 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI
OF NEW ZEALAND.
By ELSDON BEST
WELUNCTON PHILOSOPHICAL. SOCIETV. WELLINGTON. N. Z
As a branch oi' the Polynesian race which occupies so vast an
area of the island system of the Pacific Ocean, it may be taken as
a foregone conclusion that the JMaori of New Zealand was ever
most careful and diligent in conserving the traditional lore of his
people, and in no department was this more marked than in the
preservation of genealogical records. It is a well known fact that
the Polynesians have ever venerated the older oral traditions and
genealogies of their race, and have set a high value on those con-
nected with the origin of man and of man's descent from the gods.
In endeavoring to discover some explanation for the veneration
displayed towards the more ancient portions of lines of descent
and the innate Mana possessed by them, as proved by the fact of
their being recited in certain ritual performances, it is quite
possible that we here note the origin of such usages and beliefs.
The Maori believes that he is descended from the gods, that he,
in his own person, possesses or contains a portion of divine essence,
and moreover that it is this quality that enables him to perform
any remarkable feat, and protects and preserves his welfare, physi-
cal, intellectual and spiritual. He does not claim descent from the
Supreme Being, but from what may be termed the departmental
gods, the offspring of the primal parents Rangi (the Sky Parent)
and Papa (the Earth Mother). It was Tane, the son of these
parents, who sought the female element far and wide without suc-
cess, whereupon he formed a figure of earth on the mons veneris
of the Earth Mother. He then procured from the Supreme Being
the soul, the blood and the breath of life by which the lifeless
form was vivified, and the first sign of life given by that form was
a sneeze, hence the well known expression of "Tike Mauri Ora"
(sneeze, living soul), as heard among the ]\Iaori folk of this day.
Thus came into being Hinc-Aliu-One, the Earth-formed Maid,
who was taken to wife by Tanc. She was the first woman, and the
mother of mankind ; from this twain are descended the whole of the
brown skinned folk who dwell in the countless lands of the I\Iany
Isled Sea. A further inquiry into ^laori myth will show that Tane
was essentially the fertilizer, he who fertilizes the Earth Mother,
the origin or tutelary deity of forests, and the power that brought
light into the world; in brief, Tane is the Sun.
GENEALOGY OF THE CHINESE 39
Tlie most stupendous work of this character is, however, the
"Wan Shin T"ung P'u," or the "Stem Charts of 10,000 Families,"
in 350 volumes, the work of Lin Ti Cliih, of the Ming Dynasty.
Besides these, there is the "Shing Shih Chi Chiu Pien," or the
book of "Family Names in Rhyme," in which the names of families
are introduced and arranged in poetical form. This is the work of
Wang Ying Ling of the Sung Dynasty (960-1279 A. D.)
And last but not least in merit is an encyclopedia called "Shu
Wen Shien T'ung K'au, " in which are to be found listed about 3038
single or one-character family names, and about 1619 two, or more,
character family names. Of the 4657 names therein appearing,
perhaps not more than 10 per cent now survive.
In addition to the above noble records of antiquity of the
Chinese people, there may be mentioned two common, or as may be
said in the modern English vernacular, "Popular" works on
genealogy and family names. One is entitled the "Pai Chia Shing,"
the book of "Simple Rhyming 100 Family Names"; its author is
unknown but it was written during the Sung Dynasty (960-1279
A. D.) The other is the "Shang Yeu Lu," or "Biography of
Famous Men," by Liau Yung Shien of the Ming Dynasty.
I might say at this point that many obscure families desiring to
appear to have sprung from one of the family lines that may be
found in any of the above works, have discarded their own family
name and adopted one found in the record, making it sometimes
difficult now in this twentieth century to trace truthfully some
present day families. In this respect, however, families of other
countries are alike guilty.
System of Family Associations.
Besides tlie genealogical works named above, every family has
its own genealogical record, or "Generation Book," giving the
origin of the family, its collateral lines, names and ages of the
females, registers of marriages, births and deaths, also including a
business historj^ of the men. This book is called the "Chia Pu, " or
*' Family Table Book," and every thirty to fifty years it is con-
tinued down to date and a new copy made.
An organization, or Board of Editors, is maintained to write,
edit and preserve this important family record. Such organization
is called the "Tsu Tang," or "Hall for Worship of Ancestors."
This is maintained by aid of funds assessed and collected from all
members of the family or clan. The Board elects one of their num-
ber chairman, who must have three particular qualifications; he
must be of old age, he must be of the oldest living generation, and
he must be of good character. This office at the head of the family
or clan is of life tenure. Another member seated in the Board by
virtue of birth is the oldest son of direct descent of the family
40 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP GENEALOGY
When the time arrives to edit and bring this "Family Table
Book/' or genealogy, down to date, the chairman gives notice to
all members of the family or clan, and to all sub, or inferior asso-
ciations within the clan, of the time and place of such contemplated
action, every branch or sub association nuist then send representa-
tives to assist in the work.
If a group or branch have removed to another part of the king-
dom, they can demand to be allowed to withdraw from the general
association, and are permitted to form a new association of their
own, or they may join another organization already in existence in
their neighliorhood, provided they be of the same family name.
Other functions of the "Tsu Tang" than that of preserving the
history and genealogy of the family are : three times each year to
worship and do reverence (a Lodge of Sorrow), to their ancestors
within the hall or place of meeting. To judge and settle disputes
arising in the family and between its members, which the Board
must pass upon before going to the Magistrate or public Court of
Justice. To have charge of marriage and funeral ceremonies of its
members. To establish scholarships and bestow prizes for superior
scholarship on their young men. To aid and assist the orphans, the
poor and distressed. In essentials this may be considered an
ideal communistic society. There have arisen in the United States,
and in particular in California, certain organizations (copying
their forms from these beneficiary societies), called "Tongs" or
• ' Fighting Men Societies. ' ' These ' ' Tongs ' ' are largely composed of
Cantonese and men of Southern China, and must not be confounded
with the "Tsu Tang" or family associations.
Marks, Signatures and Rubrics.
In the ancient times each Chinese family had a special "mark"
or rubric; during the Tang Dynasty this custom was much in evi-
dence, there being but very few who were obliged to use an "X."
This custom still prevails among the Japanese, and is there called
"Wen" which is the equivalent to a "Coat of Arms," or rubric.
Since the Yuan Dynasty, the Chinese people prefer to sign their
own names, but in peculiar forms, each family in a different way :
this practice is called ' ' Yuan Ya, ' ' meaning Yuan Dynasty sign.
At first each paper or document requiring a signature was signed
by hand manual, but afterward the use of engraved copper seals
became common. At the present time literary people continue to
use the seals, but the common people do not now use them.
The Family Name Poem.
Every Chinese rightfully has three names: The first, called
"Shing," is the family, or clan name. The second, called "Pai-
Ming," is the "Generation" name, and the third, called "Shih-
Ming," is the given name. The use of the fii-st and third are ob-
tGENEALOGY OP THE CHINESE 41
vious, but the use of the second or generation name is peculiar to
the Chinese system adopted about the time of the beginning of the
Han Dynasty (201 B. C.) The Pai-Ming or generation name is
used to indicate the number of the generations from the beginning of
the pedigree, as given in the records of the family association, to
the person having the certain name, which is determined before-
hand in the manner following:
Each branch or sub-family of the general family association held
a convention previous to entering the general association and com-
posed and adopted a peculiar form of poem, or quatrain, consisting
of either twenty or thirty characters, something easy to remember.
This poem is constructed with much skill, it must be composed only
of single, or simple, characters; the meaning expressed in choice
phrase; the sounds to iiarmonize, all must be balanced in class and
different in tones, and the tenth and twentieth and thirtieth must
rhyme as the stanza is of two, four or six lines. At the beginning of
a new cycle, when the poem for a family generation guide name is
to be adopted, it is then a subject of competition and grave delibera-
tion, which insures a production of great literary excellence, accord-
ing to the governing rules.
The application is that the first generation shall all bear for a
middle or "Pai-Ming" name the first character or word of this
generation poem, all of the second generation shall have for a
middle name (a very few exceptions will be pointed out later), the
second character or word of this generation poem, and so on.
This system makes the identification of the person by his names
a simple matter. The first or Shing (family name), tells to what
family or clan the person belongs. The second or Pai-i\Iing (gen-
eration name), indicates the number of generations in descent from
the original stem, and at once declares that all those who bear it are
cousins, even though many degrees removed ; hence it is that the
expressions so commonly heard from English-speaking Chinese,
"he my cousin," "he uiy uncle" are explained; because while they
may be entire strangers, yet the name at once proclaims the rela-
As an example of this system T trust I may be pardoned for
presenting the ])oem for my own family name, that of the
Yuan T'in Chin I You
Chih Jih Ch'i Fung Ch'eng,
HungT'u Shao Shih Tse
P'i Shien Cheng Chia Sheng.
These twenty characters or words provide the middle or Pai-
i\[ing names for twenty generations. The translation is not easy;
the following is an attempt, which is rather a paraphrase, in an
endeavor to preserve the meaning:
42 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
"The noble men now in future coming, '
Will generation after generation improve;
Perpetuating the virtues of their ancestors,
Adding luster to the familj^ name."
A literal translation of the characters is also added in order
that "he who runs may read" and may perchance very much
improve my attempt:
Yuan — meaning chief, high class man, head man,
T'in — meaning statesman,
Chin — m(!aning from now, hereafter,
I — meaning one, at once.
You — meaning to have, to come, to produce.
Chih — meaning then, when,
Jih — meaning daily, periodically, by generation,
Ch'i — meaning to open, to go forward, to expand,
Fung — meaning to meet, to obtain,
Ch'eng — meaning successful, success.
Hung — meaning good, great, large,
T'u — meaning actions, deeds, virtues,
Shao — meaning succeed, acquire, perpetuate,
Shih — meaning those gone before (generations),
Tse — meaning prosperity.
P'i — meaning enlarge, add to,
Shien — meaning illuminate, brighten, brighter,
Cheng — meaning diffuse, scatter, separate,
Chia — meaning family, clan, tribe,
Sheng — meaning good name, better quality.
The above is the present or current Pai-Ming poem of the Kiaug
family; of this current cycle I am of the thirteenth generation, and
therefore have as a middle name, the appellation Shao. This name
was prepared for me nearly 400 years ago, considering that an
average generation is about thirty years.
Wlien a child is born the parents select a personal name, this
name is registered, but should it afterwards be found that another
person in the Family Association of the same generation as the
child, has the name so selected, then the name must be changed,
and the new name registered as before; it being the rule that no
two or more persons of the same family and generation shall have
the same given, or personal name. This is a very wise rule, as no
doubt many genealogists working in the English language can
appreciate, when they chance often upon a family with cousins
from two to perhaps half a dozen bearing the same personal name,
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI 47
Here we have the singular fact of a whole race firmly believing
itself to be descended from the primal parents, Heaven and Earth,
through the sun, and it is the belief of the writer that this fact
has had a very important bearing on the history and achievements
of the Polynesian people. This last subject lies outside the scope
of this paper, but enough has been said to give a good reason why
the Polynesian should so highly prize his racial lineage, and why
he was so extremely careful to preserve his genealogical records.
The earlier parts of such genealogies, containing the names of
supernatural beings and heroes, are viewed as being extremely
Tapu, and not to be lightly mentioned, so much so indeed that we
know they were recited by Maori priests on certain occasions as a
part of a religious ritual. Two of such occasions were the marriage
of a man and woman of rank, and cases of difficult parturition.
Probably no greater misfortune could afSict a Maori than to
lose knowledge of his lineage, though it must be added that it
would scarcely be possible for him to do so, inasmuch as he could
obtain it from others, even from adepts of another tribe. The
expression Aho Ngaro occasionally heard is applied to the extinc-
tion of a family. The term Aho, a string or cord, is also used to
denote a line of descent. Ngaro means "lost." The word Kawai
used to express lineage, also denotes the shoot of a creeping plant,
the tentacles of an octopus, etc. Tahuhu denotes the ridgepole of
a house, also a line of ancestry.
It seems highly probable that the only situations in which Poly-
nesians have lost knowledge of their genealogies were such as crush-
ing disasters afflicting a small isolated community having no com-
munication with other isles.
The Maori was an enthusiastic upholder of the laws of primo-
geniture, and descent through the eldest son was ever viewed as
the most important. The Aho Aroki, or descent through the eldest
sons of a high chieftain family was held in very high respect, and
when such a man was also a priestly adept, his standing and in-
fluence in the tribe were very great.
In regard to the conservation of genealogical records, there are
two phases of the process to be considered and explained. In the
first place every man of a Maori tribe knew his own lineage, could
recite his descent from a tribal ancestor of the last migration from
Polynesia to New Zealand about twenty generations ago, and would
very likely know his ancestral connection with other tribes, but
such a man was not looked upon as an adept, a genealogical expert.
He would trace his descent from much more remote ancestors, and
even possibly from the gods of mythical ages, but this early part of
his lineage was often inexact, and would not be confirmed by
an expert. For instance, the god Tane has many names, each illus-
trating a phase of his manifestations or energies, and these are
often given as names of separate individuals in genealogies, a course
condemned by higher authorities. The names of periods, or ages,
48 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
or conditions that preceded the Sky Parent and Earth Mother are
also so given by some, but condemned by adepts.
The true genealogical experts were men who, in their youth,
had been selected as students to be taught in the sacred school of
learning. For this purpose were selected youths of good family,
i. e., of the chieftain class, who possessed good memories. This
most necessary qualification was ascertained by assembling these
youths together, when one adept would recite to them some lengthy
tradition, a popular story or folk lore tale, such as the story of
Maui, the Hero. This story the young folk had to memorize from
one recital, and those among them who were able to do so, and to
repeat such story correctly in detail, were selected as pupils to be
taught the oral traditions of the tribe, including the origin of man,
cosmological myths, tribal history and genealogical lore. The curi-
ous and interesting formalities and ritual connected with such
teaching is too big a subject to be here described, but it should
be made clear that the imparting of what were deemed the more
important subjects, anthropogeny, cosruogony, ritual formulae, old
time genealogies, etc., was a highly serious task and extremely Tapu.
The numerous restrictions, prohibitions and ritual performances
connected with the acquisition of such knowledge throw much light
on the mentality and religion of this most interesting people.
One subject on which the adept teachers of such scholars laid
considerable stress was the line of demarcation between popular
folk lore tales and what v,'as held to be correct and orthodox tradi-
tional history. Thus certain traditionary tales, etc., bore two
aspects, the popular version known to all persons, and the correct
or orthodox version known only to the trained adepts who had
passed through the school of learning. Thus we have discovered
of late years that certain stories held by us to be merely myths or
folk tales, are really, as taught to the initiated few, records of
bona fide ancestors and their doings. Such traditions have, as
preserved by the bulk of the people, become encrusted with mythical
and impossible features, which rendered them of greater interest
to the ordinary person. As already observed, this peculiarity ex-
tended to the more ancient portions of tribal genealogies, the trained
adepts were the preservers of what was deemed the correct versions
of ancient lineage. Such persons only were able to give details of
far back generations, such as marriages of remote ancestors. The
average commoner could not supply such details for more than about
ten to twenty generations. The very greatest care was taken to ren-
der the transmission of all genealogical and other important matter
absolutely accurate. Should an adept make a mistake in his recital
of a genealogy or religious formula, such an occurrence was looked
upon as a most serious misfortune, and not infrequently caused
the death of the hapless adept. In its mildest aspect it was ex-
tremely unlucky to commit such an error, for the gods of the
IMaori would punish the offender.
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE I\IAORI 49
It must not be supposed that trained priestly adepts who had
passed through the Tapii school of learning were in the habit of
airing their knowledge, or imparting it to all and sundry. They
were extremely conservative and reticent. They heard the people
reciting the fireside stories, popularized and erroneous forms of his-
torical traditions, also incorrect accounts of the origin cf man, but
made no sign and no attempt to correct them. Such things were
good enough for commoners, and if the latter became possessed of
Tapu branches of knowledge, then most assuredl}^ would the tribe
be in peril. The more ancient portions of genealogies, as also little
known lines of descent, were not discussed or recited in public
unless the audience was composed of a cohesive, homogeneous people,
such as a village community, and even under such conditions these
occurrences were rare. Should members of another tribe chance
to be present, adepts were doubly reticent. In many cases a line
of descent "was strung on a single line," i. e., the name of the
wife or husband was not given. No person is more conservative
of prized knowledge than the Maori.
We have seen that every male member of a tribe w^ould know
his own line of descent from a given point, usually from an ancestor
who came to New Zealand from the isles of Eastern Polynesia in
one of the many vessels that arrived here from those parts during
a period of from eighteen to thirty generations ago. He would
also be conversant with his connection with other sub-tribes and
tribes, for, owing to intermarriages, he would be a member of
several such communities. In every clan there would also be several
men who might be termed second rate adepts, men who had not
passed through the school of learning, but who were interested in
the tribal lineage and had managed to collect a considerable amount
of information on the subject. In such studies the astonishing
powers of memory possessed by the IMaori stood him in good stead,
for he had no system of written language or mnemonics to assist
liim in preserving tribal records; he depended upon memory alone,
and his memory assurely did him yeoman service.
As an illustration of this type of genealogists I n^ay mention
my worthy old friend Tamarau of the Tuhoe tribe. When a govern-
ment commission was inquiring into the ownership of certain blocks
of land, this old man gave in court the descent of his sub-tribe
from an ancestor who flourished some twenty-one generations ago.
The recital of this matter, with sundry explanations of inter-
marriages with other communities, occupied three days, and the
descent of every living member of the clan was clearly shown.
This task involved the remembrance and recital of 1,288 names of
persons in order to ])ring the various branches from the main line
down, not to every living member of the clan, but to the oldest
living member of each family, etc., of the clan, often a grand-
parent, occasionally a great grandparent. The recital of the names
of all the living members of each family was a distinct performance
50 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
that was carried out later. Now the whole of the above informa-
tion, the vast number of personal names, given in their proper
order, had been memorized by the reciter in his younger days and
remembered when he was 70 years of age. Moreover this was but a
portion of his acquired mass of knowledge of the subject; he could
trace descent from many other ancestors, and give the lineage of
other clans or sub-tribes. Apart from this subject his mind was
equally well stored in respect to other branches of knowledge, such
as tribal history, myths, folk lore, songs, etc. On one occasion the
writer spent three days with him, and spent the three days and even-
ings in taking down in shorthand a mass of traditional history, etc.,
from his dictation. The old fellow never flagged and was never
apparently at fault. When leaving he informed me that we had
but commenced the task.
Another interesting experience that befell the writer was when,
in 1896, an old native recited to him from memory no less than
406 songs. In neither case was any graphic system relied upon,
the memory alone was the conserving power, the amazing memory
of the Polynesian that has preserved such vast stores of tradi-
In Table No. 1 is given the descent of Tamarau from Rape, as
taken from the genealogy of his sub-tribe mentioned above. To
copy out the whole table, with its many branches, would be no
light task, and would appal the reader.
Inasmuch as tribal genealogies formed the only system of
chronology known to, and utilized by, the Maori, it follows that
such a fact imparted to them additional value in the estimation of
the natives. It is also this fact that renders these tables interesting
to Europeans. When we hear the traditions of the adventures of
Hape and other old sea wanderers who laid down the water roads
over great areas of the Pacific Ocean, and breaking through the
hanging sky reached this lone land, we can, by scanning the lines
of descent from them, locate with some approach to precision the
century in which they lived. As the lines from Hape range from
21 to 24 generations, we take the mean of 221/2 as an indication of
the time in which he flourished. Some writers have placed the
Maori generation at 30 years, others at 20, but the experts of the
Polynesian Society have adopted 25 years as the unit.
It appears to be a somewhat common belief among anthropol-
ogists that eponymic ancestor appearing in the genealogies of un-
cultured races are fictitious, mythical personages who never existed.
This is not the case with the Maori folk of New Zealand. Here most
of the tribes are named after an ancestor from whom every member
of the tribe can trace his descent. Even in cases where a tribe
or sub-tribe is not named, still it has a common ancestor. For
instance, Table No. 1 shows a line of descent from Hape, but the
tribe, i. e., his descendants, is known as Te Hapu-Oneone. This line
also illustrates the origin of a sub-tribe known as Ngai-Te-Kapo,
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI 51
whose members are the descendants of No. 9 in the table, their
eponymous ancestor. It must be distinctly understood that every
member of a Maori tribe is descended from a common ancestor,
the founder of that tribe. Adoption does not make a person a true
member of a Maori tribe, it gives him no claim to the lands of that
tribe. Should he marry a member of the tribe, however, his chil-
dren have full rights therein, although he might be only a slave.
The marrying a free woman would, in such a ease, release his
children from bondage.
When the lands of the Tuhoe tribe were being put through the
Land Court, the writer made out a complete genealogical tree,
showing the descent of every living member of the tribe, about 800,
from the common eponymic ancestor Tuhoe-Potiki, who flourished
some twelve or fourteen generations ago. The table contained
thousands of names and the compilation thereof was no light task.
In Table No. 2 we have one Turanga-pikitoi in the first position.
This is the eponymic ancestor of Ngai-Turanga, a clan of many
members usually known by other elan names, such as Tuhoe.
Turanga was a chief of the people usually referred to as the
aborigines of New Zealand, but ^\•ho really represented a mixture
of the earlier immigrants from Eastern Polynesia and the original
inhabitants of these isles, an inferior people in physique and culture
of whom we know but little. Turanga was a descendant of Toi,
leader of the first band of Polynesians that settled in New Zealand
nearly thirty generations ago. His great-great-grandson married
Wairaka, daughter of Toroa, chief of a vessel named Matatua that
reached these shores from Eastern Polynesia. Some lines from
Toroa are longer than those given in the table. Here we note an
intermarriage soon after the arrival of the immigrants, for Wairaka
came with her father, as also did his sister Muriwai, an ancestress
of the Whakatohea tribe. Tuhoe-potiki, grandson of Wairaka, is
the eponymic ancestor of Ngai-Tuhoe, by which tribal name the
Ngai-Turanga folk are now generally knovvTi. The sister of Tuhoe
married into the Arawa tribe, where her descendants are still liv-
ing. Their claim to Tuhoe tribal lands has become "cold," as the
Maori puts it.
In this table it must be borne in mind that, owing to inter-
marriages, all members of the later generations claim other tribal
or kapu (sub-tribe) names. Thus a man might belong to four or
five sub-tribes of his tribe, and he would probably reside with all
of them in rotation, so that he might retain his standing in the
community and keep his local claim "warm."
In regard to the remote ancestor Toi, above mentioned, it is
probable that every Maori in these isles can claim descent from him.
The Maori folk have preserved more interest in their genealogies
than in any other branch of their ancient lore, simply because by
means of them do they make good their claims in our Native Land
Courts. The modern Maori is not above inventing a line of descent
52 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
from some desirable ancestor in such cases, and only a long and
close study of the subject will enable one to detect such forgeries.
In some cases natives have given up memorizing the many lines
of descent and intermarriages, relying on written language to pre-
serve such data. Occasionally such practices put them in a serious
quandary. Some time ago the writer was visited by two members
of a tribe among which he had resided for fifteen years. This was
a deputation sent down to copy from my note books certain lines
of descent needed as evidence in a Native Land Court. Written
copies had been lost and destroyed, the old men of knowledge were
all dead, hence this application to a member of an alien race ; surely
a novel and significant position for Maori folk.
Again, a few months since, the writer received a letter from a
somewhat famed genealogist of the East Coast, asking for the name
of the wife of a gentleman who flourished twenty- four generations
ago. On receipt of the name he w^rote a letter expressing gratitude
for the favor, and remarking that the sun had risen above a gloomy
The "ways that are dark and tricks that are vain" of some of
these gentry in preferring claims in a Land Court are often pass-
ing strange. When engaged in making out lists of persons entitled,
or alleged to be entitled, to shares in certain lands, I have known
natives to assign sex and name to a child yet unborn. When the
pre-natal claimant finally appeared in this world, and of the wrong
sex, some excuse would readily be found for such error in the lists.
Table No. 3 gives a line from Ira-kai-putahi, eponymous ancestor
of the Ngati-Ira tribe, who came hither from Eastern Polynesia
and whose descendants formerly held the Wellington district as
their tribal lands. This folk once occupied lands near East Cape
and have had a stormy career.
The tables given might be extended to a prodigious extent, but
this would but weary readers. Some rolls made out are 15 to 25
feet in length.
Although a line of descent through the eldest son was held to
be the most important, yet that through the eldest daughter was
also highly esteemed. The Aho Tamawakine or female line of
descent in the higher class families carried considerable weight and
commanded the respect of the community.
■GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI 5S
1. Hape (An immigrant
'3. Te Kapo-o-te-rangi
(an infant in 1897)
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI
11-2 o ce
o as cc w 3 .- a>
a; 0) ^
a S married Takahi
V. ^ a
rt a « c8 .
td S S cS ,
2 'S J
.„ 3 a
(1) rt P ^
f^ S.ti tftti 2*1
* «, <«
.*? 43 O) a>
l>H I— I
,H Q 3 w W
- (J) 3 Cd 03 a> ®
56 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Shows descent of Wai-rarapa families from Ira, an immigrant from
Polynesia by the vessel known as Horouta. Ira is the epoymic of the
Te Ahi-a te-momo
27. Waikawa (Living 1911>
GENEALOGICAL RECORDS OF THE MAORI W
Shows descent of Waikawa from Tol.
28. Te Manihera
58 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
GENEALOGY OF THE NATIVE HAWAIIxVNS.
By BRUCE CARTWRIGHT, JR.
From Hawaiian genealogies, handed down orally for hundreds
of years, the history of the race has been traced. It shows us that
the Hawaiians are a very primitive people. About the tifth century
A. D. they came to Hawaii, where they remained unknown until
the eleventh century, when thej'^ were visited by several parties
from the groups to the south, from the ^I'arquesas, Samoan and
Society Islands. Active intercourse was maintained for the space
of six generations, when the Hawaiians were again isolated until
their rediscovery by Captain James Cook in 1778.
All the inhabitants of Hawaii were .supposed to have descended
from the same ancestors, Wakea, the male, and Papa, the female.
After the lapse of time a King was chosen to rule over the people,
and others were chosen to assist the King, who were the chiefs.
The genealogies of the Kings and Chiefs were considered of
great importance and were memorized by genealogists who were
supported by the nobility and held honored and important posi-
tions under the Crown.
The marriage ceremony commonly consisted of the groom throw-
ing a piece of kapa (native cloth) over the bride in the presence
of witnesses, usually the bride's relatives. After this brief cere-
mony a feast took place in celebration of the event.
Great care was exercised in the choice of the first wife of a
chief of high rank. She must be of the same or higher rank so
that their children would be of high rank. Search was made into
the pedigree of both the man and woman by the genealogists before
they were allowed to marry and the ceremony was not permitted
to proceed until the genealogist approved of the pedigrees.
A suitable mate for a chief of high rank was his sister. If
there were any children, they were considered chiefs of the
highest rank. They were called "Ninau Pio" and were so sacred
that all who came into their presence must prostrate themselves.
For this reason these chiefs went around at night so that the people
would not have to stop work and fall to the ground in an attitude
of worship should they be seen. If a chief had no sister to marry,
other members of his immediate family were considered suitable,
such as his cousins, aunts, and, in some cases, even his mother.
The descent was usually traced through the female for the
simple reason that there could be no question as to whom the
GENEALOGY OF THE HAWAIIANS 59
After children were born to this first marriage, a husband or
n wife might take as many partners as they chose of any rank
and the chikiren begotten of these other unions would be caUed
■"Kaikaina" and they were recognized as the younger brothers
and sisters of the great chief, the first child, and in time would
become his advisers or the ministers of his government.
In order to show how complex relationships became I will refer
to Fornander, Volume II, page 130:
Ka-lani-kau-lele-i-a-iwi was the daughter of Kea-kea-lani-
wahine, a Queen of the Island of Hawaii and a woman of the high-
est rank. She became Queen, sharing the throne with her half-
brother and husband, Kea^v•e. She had four husbands of whom
there is record, each one of whom had several wives, who in turn
had several husbands.
]Most of us will acknowledge that it would be quite a task to
segregate the second generation of this household and classify
them as to their relationships with one another.
Her half-brother Keawe is the reputed head of many families
in Hawaii proud of their chiefly descent. Keaua, the reputed
father of the great Kamehameha, was a grandson of both King
Keawe and his sister, Queen Ka-lani-kau-lele-i-a-iwi, his father
being Ka-lani-keeaumoku, their son. The mother of Kamehameha
was Kekuiapoiwa II, a chiefess of the highest rank and daughter
of Haae, who was the son of Queen Kalani-kau-lele-ia-iwi by another
husband other than her brother Keawe, the King. Tliis second
husband was Kauauamahi, a very high chief from the district of
In showing the relationships of the third generation from
Keawe it would be necessary to make a chart showing all the wives
of all the husbands, when we would find such a multitude and such
combinations that we would be forced to start a separate chart
for each individual.
The Hawaiian Historical Society at its annual meeting in Janu-
ary, 1914, authorized me to chose a committee to look into the
advisability of the society starting a genealogical department. I
invited Mr. Edger Henriques and Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder to join
me as a committee, and after going into the question from all
points of view we reported that it was our opinion that no time
should be lost in starting a genealogical department for the
Hawaiian Historical Society.
It would seem a simple matter to trace foreign families in
Hawaii since foreigners began to arrive after the report on Cook's
voyage was made public, and in only a few cases would it be
necessary to go back further than 1790, but such we find not to
be the case. The early arrivals in Hawaii were men who kept no
records and it was not until the arrival of the missionaries in 1820
that a foreign woman came to the Islands and permanent records
of events were kept.
60 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
By SARAH LOUISE. KIMBALL.
OF THB CAI.1FOUNIA. OENK^VLOCICA L SOCIETY.
During the afternoon session of Thursday, July 29, there was an
exhibition of genealogical charts, a brief summary of which follows :
Chart 1. — Showing European ancestry for several centuries of
George Washington's ancestor, Col. George Reade, who came from
England to Virginia in 1637.
Prepared by Henry Byron Phillips.
Chart 2. — A comparative study of three lines of ancestry trac-
ing through the French, Scandinavian and Hawaiian royal lines
Prepared by Henry Byron Phillips.
Chart 3. — "The Fittest," showing one ancestress, Isabel de
Vermandois (granddaughter of Henry I, King of France), for
rulers and leaders in Europe and America.
Prepared by Sarah Louise Kimball.
Chart 4. — Showing Isabel de Vermandois as ancestress of all
reigning monarchs in Europe, except certain Balkan States and
Turkey, as well as of thirteen presidents of the Ignited States.
Prepared by Sarah Louise Kimball.
Charts 5-20. — A series of studies of American families, by
Sarah Louise Kimball, as follows :
Ludlow -Carter, of Virginia, producing:
3 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 2 presi-
dents, 7 governors, 3 U. S. senators, 1 minister and
1 ambassador to England, 1 ambassador to Italy,
and the commander-in-chief C. S. A.
Taylor, of Virginia, producing :
2 presidents, 2 governors, 1 member of Congress, 1
U. S. senator, 1 minister to Mexico and the wife of
the president of the Confederacy.
Lee, of Virginia, producing:
1 president, 1 U. S. senator, 1 state senator, 1 member
of Congress, 1 representative to the Continental
Congress, 1 acting governor, 4 celebrated generals.
GENEALOGICAL CHARTS 61
Latham-Dungan-Clarke, of Rhode Island, producing:
10 governors, 14 deputy governors.
Lawrence, of New England, producing:
1 president, 2 governors, 1 lieutenant governor, 4 mem-
bers of Congress, 1 secretary of war, 1 U. S. sena-
tor, 2 state senators, 3 mayors, 1 rear admiral
U. S. N,, 1 justice Supreme Court, 1 commodore
U. S. N., 1 Indian cotnmissioner, 3 diplomatic rep-
resentatives, 1 benefactor, 1 orator.
Arnold, of Rhode Island, producing:
5 governors, 2 chief justices, 1 U. S. senator, 1 signer
Declaration of Independence, 1 commodore I'. S. N,,
1 celebrated general in the Revolution.
Greene, of Rhode Island, producing:
3 governors, 2 lieutenant-governors, 1 deputy gover-
nor, 3 U. S. senators, 1 attorney general, 1 U, S.
consul, 2 historians, 1 author, 1 celebrated general
in the Revolution.
Field, of New England, producing:
2 justices Supreme Court U. S., 2 chief justices. Su-
preme Court of California, 1 chief justice Supreme
Court of Iowa, 1 U, S. senator, 1 attorney general,
1 author, who compiled law codes adopted by 27
States, the layer of the Atlantic cable, 1 captain of
industry, 1 governor of Newfoundland, Jamaica,
Clinton, of New York, producing:
1 vice-president, 2 governors, 1 brigadier general, 1
commander-in-chief in the Revolution,
Richardson, of South Carolina, producing;
Wanton, of Rhode Island, producing :
Wentivorth, of New Hampshire, producing:
2 governors, 2 lieutenant-governors, 4 councillors, 12
members of state legislatures, 1 delegate to the
Continental Congress, 1 member of Congress, 1
mayor, 3 authors.
t>2 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Dudley, of Massachusetts, producing:
5 governors, 1 justice U. S. Supreme Court, 1 univer-
sity president, 1 signer Declaration of Indepen-
dence, 1 editor historical publication,. 1 noted clergy-
man, 1 oFator,
Edwards^ of New England, producing :
1 president, 1 vice-president, 1 governor, 1 chief jus-
tice, 2 founders law schools, 16 presidents of uni-
versities, etc., 1 autho'r.
KimhaU, of New England, producirfgr
1 vice-president, 2 governoi'S, 1 lieutenant-governor,
14 state senators, 51 members of state legislatures,
2 justices, 1 chief justice, 1 attorney general, 1 U. S,
district attorney, 11 captains of industry, 1 univer-
sity president, 1 university chancellor, 2 founders
of academies, 1 president school for girls, 6 authors,
6 publishers, 1 sculptor, 1 explorer, 1 state chemist,
I member state constitutional conrs'ention, 1 rear
admiral U. S. N., 1 director U. S. Mint, 5 U. S,
consuls, 1 chief signal officer U, S, A., 1 U. S. cus-
Kimball, of New England, pToducing r
152 soldiers in the KevolutwDary war, of whom 27
Chart 21. — A study on one American family, showing eminent
descendants within 150 years after the death of the ascendant,
prepared by Hon, Boutwell Dunlap, as follows:
John Presfon, of Virginia, producing:
31 men, among wlrom there were 1 vice-president ; 4
cabinet oflBcers; 1 Confederate cabinet officer; 9
U. S. senators; 1 Confederate senator; 5 governors
(one of 2 territories) ; 15 congressmen j 1 member
of Continental Congress; 1 Confederate congress-
man ; 3 foreign ministers; 2 generals in war of 1812;
4 generals; 5 Confederate generals.
19 women, among whom were the wives of 1 presi-
dent; 1 cabinet officer; 5 U. S. senators; 7 gover-
nors ; 5 congressman ; 2 foreign ministers ; 1 ad-
miral ; 1 general in war of 1812 ; 4 generals j 4 Con-
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENEA-
LOGY AND EUGENICS.
By PAUL POPENOE.
OF THK AMEItlCAN- OKXETIC SOCIETY.
EDITOR OF "JOURNAI^ OF HEREDITY"
Scientific plant breeders todaj'' have learned that their success
often depends on the care with which they study the genealogy of
Livestock breeders admit that their profession is on a sure
scientific basis only to the extent that the genealogy of the animal
used is known.
Human genealogy is one of the oldest manifestations of man's
intellectual activity, but until recently it has been subservient to
sentimental purposes, or pursued from historical or legal motives.
Biology has had no place in it.
Genealogy, however, has not altogether escaped the re-examina-
tion which ail sciences received after the Darwinian movement revo-
lutionized mcdern thought. Numerous ways have been pointed out
in which the scienc-e — for genealogy is certainly a science — could be
brought into line with the new way of looking at man and his
world. Tlie field of genealogy has already been invaded at many
points by biologists, seeking the furtherance of their own aims.
I propose to discuss briefly the relations between the conven-
tional genealogy and the modern application of biological principles
to every-day life which, as it is here viewed, may be broadly de-
scribed by the name Eugenics, "good breeding." It may be that
genealogy could become an even more valuable branch of human
knowledge that it now is, if it were more closely aligned with
biology. In order to throw light on this possibility, we must
(1) What is genealogy?
(2) What does it novv' attempt to do?
(3) What faults appear, from the eugenist's standpoint, to
exist in its present methods?
(4) What additions should be made to its present methods?
(5) What can be expected of it, after it is revised in accord-
ance with the ideas of the eugenist?
The answer to the first question, "What is genealogy?" need
not detain me long, for you are already more familiar with it
than I am. Genealogy may ]ye envisaged from several points. It
serves history. It has a legal function, which is probably of more
64 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
consequence abroad than in Ainerica. It has social significance,
in bolstering family pride and creating a feeling of family solidarity
— this is perhaps its chief office in the United States, It has, or
can have, biological significance, and this in two ways: either in
relation to the pure science or the applied science. In connection
with pure science, its function is to furnish us means for getting
a knowledge of the laws of heredity. In application, its function
is to furnish a knowledge of the inherited characters of any given
individual, in order to make it possible for the individual to
marry wisely. It is obvious that the use of genealogy in the
applied science of eugenics is dependent on the preceding use of
it in the pure branch of the science ; for marriage matings which
take account of heredity cannot be made unless the laws of heredity
have previously been discovered.
True Worth of Genealogy.
The historical, social, legal and other aspects of genealogy do
not concern the present paper. I shall discuss only the biological
aspect : firstly, because I am incompetent to discuss the others ; and
secondly, because I hold that the biological conception has by
far the greatest true value, accepting the criterion of value as that
which furthers the progressive evolution of the race. By this cri-
terion, I believe the historical, legal and social aspects of genealogy
are of secondary importance; the greatest worth it can possibly
have is in co-operation with biology. This definition may appear to
be a begging of the question of my whole paper; I shall attempt
to justify it farther on,
(2) Genealogy now too often pretends to be an end in itself.
It can, of course, be looked upon as an end in itself, but I believe
that it will be recognized as a science of much greater value to the
world if it is admitted to be not an end, but a means to a far
greater end that it alone can supply.
It has indeed, been contended, even by such an authority as
Ottokar Lorenz,' who is often considered the father of modern
scientific genealogy, that a knowledge of his own ancestry will
tell each individual exactly what he himself is. This, as I under-
stand it, is the basis of Lorenz' valuation of genealogy. It is a
step in the right direction; but
(3) The present methods of genealogy are inadequate to sup-
port such a claim. Its methods are still based on the historical,
legal and social functions, and it has not yet begun, save in a few
instances, to realize its almost incomparable opportunity for the
betterment of mankind. Let me indicate just a few of the faults
of method in genealogy, which the eugenist most deplores:
(a) The information which is of most value is exactly that
which genealogy does not furnish. Dates of birth, death and mar-
riage of an ancestor are of interest, but rarely of real biological
GENEALOGY Ax\D EUGENICS 65
value. The facts about that ancestor which vitally concern his
living descendant are the facts of his character, physical and
mental ; and these facts are given in very few genealogies.
Data Usually Incomplete.
(b) Genealogies are commonly too incomplete to be of real
value. Sometimes they deal only with the direct male line of
ascent — what animal breeders call the tail-mail. In this case it
is not too much to say that they are quite devoid of genuine value.
Fortunately American genealogies do not often go to this extreme,
but it is not uncommon for them to deal only with the direct
ancestors of the individual, omitting all brothers and sisters of
those ancestors. Altliough this simplifies the work of the geneal-
ogist immensely, it deprives it of value to a corresponding degree.
(c) As the purpose of genealogy in this country has been
largely social, it is to be feared that in too many cases discredit-
able data have been tacitly omitted from the records. The anti-
social individual, the feeble-minded, the insane, tlie alcoholic, tlie
"generally no-count," has been glossed over. Such a lack of
candor is not in accord with the scientific spirit, and makes one
uncertain, in the use of genealogies, to what extent he is really
getting all the facts. There are few families of any size which
have not one such member or more, not many generations removed.
To attempt to conceal the fact is an action of doubtful ethical
propriety; but from the eugenist's point of view, at any rate, it
is a falsification of records that must be regarded with great
(d) Even if the information it furnishes were more com-
plete, human genealogy would not justify the claims sometimes
made for it as a science, because, to use a biological phrase, "the
matings are not controlled." We see the results of a certain
experiment, but wc cannot interpret them unless we know what
the result would have been had the precedent conditions been
varied in this way or in that way. We can make these controlled
experiments in our plant and animal breeding; we have been
making them by the thousand, by the hundred thousand, for many
years. We cannot make them in human society. Of course, we
don't want to; but the point on which I wish to insist is that the
biological meaning of human history, the real import of genealogy
can only be interpreted in the light of modern plant and animal
breeding. It is absolutely necessary that genealogy go into
partnership with genetics, the general science of heredity ; that it
do not consider itself cheapened by an alliance v/ith the plant
and animal breeders. If a spirit of false pride lead it to hold
aloof from these experiments, it will make slow progress. The
interpretation of genealogy in the light of modern research in
heredity, through the experimental breeding of plants and animals
is full of hope; without snch light, it is almost hopeless.
66 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
Genealogists are usually proud of their pedigrees; they usually
have a right to be. But I beg of you, do not let your pride lead
you to scorn the pedigrees of some of the peas, and corn and snap-
dragons, and sugar beets, and bulldogs, and Shorthorn cattle, with
which genetists have been working during the last generation ; for
these humble pedigrees may throw more light on your own than a
century of research in purely human material.
Your science will not have full meaning and full value to you
unless you bring yourselves to look on men and women as organisms
subject to the same laws of heredity and variation as other living
things. Biologists were not long ago told that it was essential for
them to learn to think like genealogists. It is excellent advice,
and if I were speaking to biologists, I would repeat it. As I am
speaking to genealogists, I say with equal conviction that it is
essential for genealogists to learn to think like biologists. For the
purpose of eugenics, neither science is complete without the other;
and I think it is not invidious for me to say that biologists have
been quicker to recognize this than have genealogists. The Golden
Age of your science is yet to come.
(4) In addition to the correction of these faulty methods,
there are certain extensions of genealogical method which could
advantageously be made without great difficulty, I think.
(a) More written records should be kept, and less dependence
placed on oral communication. The obsolescent family Bible, with
its chronicle of births, deaths and marriages, is an institution of
too great value to be given up, in more ways than one. In the
United States we have not the advantage of much of the machinery
of state registration which European genealogy enjoys, and it should
be a matter of pride with every family to keep its own archives.
(b) Family trees should be kept in more detail, including all
brothers and sisters in every family, no matter at what age they
died, and including as many collaterals as possible. This means
more Avork for the genealogist, but the results will repay him.
(c) More family traits should be marked. Those at present
recorded are mostly of a social or economic nature and are of little
real significance after the death of their possessor. But the traits
of his mind and body are likely to go on to his descendants in-
definitely. These are the facts of his life on which we should
focus our attention. How this can be most conveniently done I
shall discuss later.
(d) More pictorial data should be added. Photographs of
the members of the family, at all ages, should be carefully pre-
served. They are often of inestimable value. Measurements equally
deserve attention. The door jamb is not a satisfactory place for
recording the heights of children, particularly in this day when
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 67
real estate so often changes liands. Complete anthropometric meas-
urements, such as every member of the Young ]\fen's Christian
Association, most college students, and many other people are
obliged to undergo once or periodically, should be placed on file.
(e) Pedigrees should be traced upward from a living indi-
vidual, rather than downward from some hero long since dead.
Of course, the ideal method would be to combine these two, or to
keep duplicate pedigrees, one a table of ascendants and the other
of descendants, in the same stock. This plan is not too laborious
to use, in many eases; the combined tables, which show all the
relatives of an individual, although attractive to the investigator,
are too complicated ever to become popular, I suspect.
The Ideal Genealogy.
Genealogical data of the kind we need, however, cannot be
reduced to a mere table or family tree. The ideal genealogy, as
described by Davenport," starts with a whole fraternity — the indi-
vidual who is making it, and all his brothers or sisters. It describes
fully each member of this fraternity. "It then describes each mem-
ber of the fraternity to which the father belongs and gives some
account of their consorts (if married) and their children. It does
the same for the maternal fraternity. Next it considers the fra-
ternity to which the father's father belongs, considers their con-
sorts, their children and grandchildren, and it does the same for
the fraternities to which the father's mother belongs. It were
more significant thus to study in detail the behavior of all the
available product of the germ-plasms involved in the makeup of the
first fraternity than to weld a chain or two of links through six or
seven generations. A genealogy constructed on such a plan v/ould
give a clear picture of heredity, would be useful for the prediction
of the characteristics of the generations yet unborn, and would,
indeed, aid in bringing about better matings. "
(5) With these changes, genealogy would become the study of
heredity, rather than the study of lineage. Perhaps you will not
all agree that this would be a desirable change; but I think if
you can once get the biological, the eugenic point of view, you will
realize that any other field for genealogy is too narrow.
I do not mean to say that the study of heredity is nothing more
than applied genealogy. As we understand it nowadays, it includes
mathematical and biological territory which must always be foreign
to genealogy. I should prefer to put it this way : That in so far as
man is concerned, heredity is the interpretation of genealogy, and
eugenics the application of heredity. But I do mean to say that
genealogy should give its students a vision of the species as a great
group of ever-changing, inter-related organisms, a great netAvork
originating in the obscurity of the past, stretching forward into the
obscurity of the future, every individual in it organically related
68 INTERNATIOXAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
to every other, and all of them the heritors of the past in a very
No one is so Avell fitted as the genealogist to realize the solemn
grandeur of Weissman's doctrine that the germ-plasm is continu-
ous from the beginning of existence on this world, to the now un-
seen end. Our bodies, as you all have heard, are made up of two
parts: this mass of highly differentiated cells which represents the
man or woman, and which are destined to die when the individual
shall have completed his three score years and ten, more or less;
and within, the little mass of germ-cells, the undifferentiated, im-
mortal, or, at least, potentially immortal carriers of the heritage
of the race. Generation after generation this germ-plasm goes on
dividing; from parent to child it is passed on, unchanged save by
the addition at each generation of a new line from the second
parent. The body dies, but if the individual has left posterity, the
germ-pla.sm lives after him. Immortality is, in this sense at least, a
very real thing to the biologist ; and I believe the genealogist would
see a new meaning in his work if he l^ept the same conception in
Importance of Individuals.
Genealogy does well in giving a realization of the importance
of the family, but it errs if it bases this teaching altogether on the
family pride in some remote ancestor who, even though he bore the
family name and was a prodigy of virtues, probably counts for little
or nothing in the individual's make-up today. Let me take a con-
crete though wholly imaginary illustration : what man would not
feel a certain satisfaction in being a lineal descendant of George
Washington? And yet, if we place the Father of his Country at
only four removes from the living individual, nothing is more
certain than that our hypothetical living individual had fifteen
other ancestors in George Washington's generation, any one of
whom may play as great or greater a part in his ancestry; and so
remote are they all that, on statistical grounds alone, it is calculated'
that the contribution of George Washington to the ancestry of our
hypothetical living individual would be perhaps not more than
one-third of one per cent, of the total.
I do not mean to disparage descent from a famous man or
woman. It is a matter of legitimate pride and congratulation.
But claims for respect made on that ground alone are, from a
biological point of view, usually contemptible, if the hero is several
generations removed. What Sir Francis Galton wrote* of the
peers of England ma.y, with slight reserves, be given general appli-
cation to the descendants of famous people :
"An old peerage is a valueless title to natural gifts, except so
far as it may have been furbished up bj^ a succession of wise inter-
marriages. ... I cannot think of any claim to respect, put forward
in modern days, that is so entirely an imposture, as that made by
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 69
a peer on the ground of descent, who has neither been nobly edu-
cated, nor has any eminent kinsman within three degrees."
But, some one may protest, am I not shattering the very edifice
of which I am a professed defender, in thus denying the force of
heredity? Not at all. I wish merely to emphasize that a man has
sixteen great-great-grandparents, instead of one, and that we too
often overlook those in the maternal lines, although from a biologi-
cal point of view they are every bit as important as those in the
paternal lines. And I wish further to emphasize the point that it
is the near relatives who, on the whole, represent what we are. The
great family which for a generation or two makes unwise marriages,
must live on its past reputation and see the work of the world done
and the prizes carried away by the children of wiser matings. No
family can maintain its place merely by the power of inertia. Every
marriage that a member of the family makes is a matter of vital
concern to the future of the family ; and this is one of the lessons
which a broad science of genealogy should inculcate in every youth.
Qualifications for Work.
Is it practicable to direct genealogy on this slightly different
line ? As to that, I must allow you to judge ; it would be pre-
sumptuous for me to express an opinion. Let me recall, however,
the qualifications which old Professor William Chauncey Fowler
laid down'' as essential for a successful genealogist:
Love of kindred.
Love of investigation.
Sound and disciplined judgment.
Conscientious regard to truth.
A retentive memory.
A pleasing style as a writer.
With such qualifications one can go far, and I venture to ex-
press the opinion that one who possesses them has only to fix his
Mttention upon the biological aspect of genealogy to become con-
vinced that his science is only part of a science as long as it ignores
eugenics. After all, nothing more is necessary than a slight change
in the point of view; and if genealogists can adopt this new point
of view, can add to their equipment some familiarity with the
fundamental principles of biology as they apply to man and are
laid down in the science of eugenics, I am firmly of the conviction
that the value of the science of genealogy to the world will be in-
creased at least five fold within a generation.
Let us examine a little more closely what can be expected from
a genealogy with eugenic foundation.
First and foremost it will give genetics a chance to advance with
rapidity in its study of man. Genetics, the study of heredity, can-
not successfully proceed by direct ol)servation in the human species,
as it does with plants and rapidly-breeding animals, because the
70 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
generations are too long. Less than three generations are of little
value for our researches, and even three can rarely be observed to
advantage by any one person. Therefore, second-hand information
must be used. So far vve have gained most of this by sending field-
workers — a new kind of genealogist — out among the people in whom
we are interested and having them collect the information we
wanted, either by study of extant records or by word of mouth.
But the written records of value have been usually negligible in
quantity, and oral communication has therefore been our main-
stay. It has not been wholly satisfactory. Few people — aside
from genealogists — can give even the names of all their great-
grandparents, far less can they tell anything of importance about
It is thus to genealogy that we are driven. Unless we have
family records, we can accomplish little. And we cannot get these
family records unless you genealogists realize the importance of
furnishing them ; for as I have already pointed out, and as I wish to
emphasize, genealogies at present availaljle are of little value to
genetics because of the inadequacy of the data they furnish. It is
only in the case of exceptional families, such as the royal houses
of Europe, that enough information is given about each individual
to furnish an opportunity for analysis. What could be done if
there were more such data availal)le, is brilliantly illustrated by the
investigation" by Dr. Frederick Adams Woods of Boston of the
reigning houses of Europe. I commend his writing to every geneal-
ogist as a source of inspiration as well as information.
Hope for Quick Results.
To get more such data we must look to the future. We must
begin at once to keep our family records in such a way that they
will be of the greatest value possible — that they will serve not only
family pride, but bigger purposes. It will not take long to get
together a large number of family histories in which the idea will
be to tell as much as possible, instead of as little as possible, about
every individual mentioned. Let me run over a few of the problems
on which such genealogies would throw light.
There is the important problem of the inheritance of longevity.
Karl Pearson showed' some years ago, by advanced statistical
methods, that longevity is inheritable. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell,
whose investigation of the ancestry of congenital deaf persons at
Martha's Vineyard and elsewhere, more than a generation ago,
was one of the first pieces of biological genealogy executed in this
country, and indubitablj^ estal)lislu'd the heritable nature of congen-
ital deafness' — Dr. Bell is now working on the published history of
the Hyde Family in the United States and analyzing it from many
points of view to bring to light the ways in which longevity is
inherited. It is obvious that this trait is a particularly easy one
for investigation, because we need to know nothing more than the
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 71
dates on which an individual and his parents were born and died.
Certainly a genealogy that does not tell so much must be con-
sidered defective, and yet of the 8,000 or more persons listed in
the Hyde genealogy, there are less than 3,000 for whom these data
Longevity being due more to heredity than to anything else,
it is obvious, as Dr. Bell has clearly pointed out, that it is a trait
of which families may vvcil be proud, if it runs consistently in
their stock. And as we eugenists try as far as possible to put our
knowledge to practical use, he has also pointed out that it is very
desirable for a young man or young w^oman to marry into a
family possessing that trait, since it is a good indication of general
soundness of constitution and physical vigor. Families in whose
ancestry longevity is a characteristic, can well afford to make the
fact known, and take pride in alliance with other worthj^ families
Such a mating, like with like, is technically known to us as
assortative. It used to be supposed that people tended to marry
their opposites — the blonde and the brunette, the short and the tall.
The use of exact methods in eugenics has demonstrated that the
reverse is the case, and that for almost every measureable trait
there is distinct evidence of assortative mating." That such a fact is
of great value to the race, when the character involved is one of
so much importance as longevity, is obvious, and the tendency
should be encouraged. Genealogy can give much help in this
The Determination of Sex.
There are certain phases of the always interesting problem of
sex-determination on which genealogy can easily throw light. It
has sometimes been asserted that the age of the parents influences
the sex of the offspring. We do not know that this is so, but with
the help of genealogy we can find out.
Another question of great practical importance, on which we
seek information, relates to the posterity of men of genius. Is
there any truth in the idea that their mental activity tends to use
up their vital force, with the result that they are either sterile or
leave posterity of mediocre qualitj^'? The idea does not sound con-
vincing, but we shall not dismiss it dogmatically, we shall appeal
to genealogy for data on which to dispose of it definitely. Of course
the alleged fact here must not be confused with the well-known fact
of regression, formulated as a mathematical law by Galtou. We
know that, on the average, the children of superior parents will
tend to be inferior to their parents, and the children of parents
who are below normal will tend to be a little better than their
parents. This is due to the vast bulk of their remote ancestry, most
of which is necessarily average, or as the statistician puts it,
mediocre. The drag of this more remote heredity tends to pull
72 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
every child toward mediocrity, or the mean, the average of the
race. I must emphasize the fact that this is purely a statistical law,
applying only to a quantity of cases, and is frequently untrue for
The results of early, as compared with late marriage, offer an-
other big problem in the solution of which we need your help.
That the first-born children are, on the whole, inferior to the
brothers or sisters who come after them, has been asserted in recent
years, and the assertion has been supported by a good deal of
evidence. It is highly important that a much greater body of
evidence be brought together on this point, and here genealogy can
aid with very little trouble. Unfortunately it is not uncommon to
find in the earlier generations of a family tree that the exact birth-
rank of the various children is not designated; nor is account always
made of infant deaths or still-births, as should certainly be done
in every ease.
The question of consanguineous marriage is one in which every
genealogist is certain to have taken an interest, merely because of
the doubling up of a name in his chart, if not from a biological
point of view. Until recently the question of the marriage of kin
was debated largely by an appeal to dogma. I dare say every
genealogist has seen cases where the marriage of first cousins was
followed bj'' good progeny, and equally cases where the result was
bad. There is plenty of evidence of that sort to be had on both
sides. I think it is safe to say that genetics has established the
status of consanguineous marriage beyond all dispute. It certainly
is not bad in itself, although first cousins are forbidden by law to
marry in a third of the States of the I'nion." It simply results
in a doubling up of the traits which the two may have in common.
If these traits are good, the children get a double dose of them, and
will be more highly endowed than their parents. If the traits are
bad, the children equally get a double dose of them, and may far
surpass their parents in worthlessness, or in the prominence of any
particular defect. The general conclusion is clear to us; marriages
between cousins or other relatives of equal consanguinity should not
be condemned offhand, but the facts should be taken into consider-
ation in each individual case. And it should be borne in mind, of
course, that a trait may be latent or concealed in each of the cousins,
but come into expression in their children. Although cousin mar-
riages, therefore, should be scrutinized closely, we certainly find
no reason to forbid them when the contracting parties are of
Inheritance of Disease.
The question of the inheritance of disease is one of great im-
portance, which can be studied very easily through genealogy. Of
course, no one with a knowledge of modern work in genetics now
believes that diseases are actually inherited as such ; but there is a
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 73
great deal of evidence to show that what the doctors call "diathesis,"
a predisposing tendency to some disease, may be inherited. Greater
research is urgently needed to find the extent and limits of such
inheritance, and it is to enlightened genealogy that we must look
for the solution of the problem— or rather, problems — since there
are as many problems as there are diseases, defects and abnormali-
ties. We must not draw hasty generalizations, but attack each
subject separately. We have pretty good evidence, for instance,
that the tubercular diathesis is inherited; that the white plague
ravages some families and leaves others untouched; that almost every
city-dweller, at least, is at some time or other during his life in-
fected with phthisis, and whether he resists or succumbs depends on
his heredity. Herein lies guidance for those who would marry;
other things being equal let them avoid the weak stocks, the stocks
known to be marked with tuberculosis. But because tuberculosis is
thus a matter of heredity, it does not necessarily follow that cancer,
or any other disease, is. We must take nothing for granted ; we
must find out bj' examining many families in which a given disease
or abnormality occurs. And to do this we must depend on the
data of genealogy.
Here, however, let nie utter an emphatic warning against super-
ficial investigation. The medical profession has been particularly
hasty, many times, in reporting cases which were assumed to demon-
strate heredity. The child was so and so ; it was found on inquiry
that the father was also so and so: post, hoc, ergo propter hoc — it
must have been heredity. Such a method of investigation is cal-
culated to bring the science of genetics into dfsrepute, and might
easily ruin the credit of the science of genealogy, should genealogy
allow itself to be so misled. As a fact, one case counts for practi-
cally nothing as proof of hereditary influence; even half a dozen
or a dozen may be of no significance. There are two ways in
which we can analyze genealogical data to deduce biological laws:
one is based on the application of higher mathematics to mass
statistics, and needs some hundreds of cases to be of value; the
other is by pedigree-study, and needs at least three generations of
pedigree, usually covering numerous collaterals, to offer any certain
results. Not all the findings announced even by professional
eugenists have met one or other of these requirements, and to the
extent in which they have fallen short, they are being discredited.
It is not to be supposed that anyone with a sufficiently complete
record of his own ancestry would nec<'ssarily be able by inspection
to deduce from it any important conti-ibution to science. But if
enough complete family records are made ;ivailal)le, the professional
genetist can be called into co-operation, can supplement the human
record with his knowledge of the results achieved by carefully
controlled animal and plant breeding, and between them the geneal-
ogist and the eugenist can in most cases arrive at the truth. That
74 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
such truth is of the highest importance to any family, and equally
to society as a whole, must be evident.
The whole question of sex-linked inheritance depends for its
solution on the extension of genealogical material. It is often said
that sons take after their mothers, while daughters tend to resemble
their fathers. The Arabs and Hebrews put the same idea a little
differently, that a son tends to resemble his maternal uncle. Is
there anything in these ideas ? In a small way, there is no mystery
about it; we know that certain hereditary traits are sex-linked —
that they are carried hy one sex but appear in the other. Thus it
is rare to find women who are color blind, but a woman who does not
show this defect herself may have inherited it from her father,
who was visibly affected, and transmit it to her sons, who will
also be visibly affected. Extending this principle, it is easy to
see that a boy might inherit some traits from his mother, which
his father wholly lacked, and that a daughter might similarly re-
ceive exclusive traits from her father. Sex-linked heredity
in the human race has so far been definitely proved only in
regard to color-blindness, hemophilia and a few other abnormal
conditions; but with the co-operation of the genealogists it is
probable that this condition, as important as it is interesting, will
be found to prevail more widely.
The problem of the inheritance of fecundity can obviously be
settled only through proper genealogical material. It is known
that fecundity is to some extent an inherited characteristic, although
doubtless affected in man largely by outward circumstances. The
voluntary limitations of births, which has become so widespread
during the hsst generation, of course complicates the study of this
subject, but there is, nevertheless, room for much work of a
distinctly practical kind. Obviously one of the easiest ways to im-
prove the general average of the race would be to have high
fecundity in the superior stocks and low fecundity in the inferior
ones. It is equally obvious that if fecundity is associated with
inferiority — with feeble-raindedness, for example, that disastrous
results will ensue if Nature is allowed to "take its course." The
genealogist can contribute indispensable material for this study,
and for the general study of the birth-rate in various sections of
the community at various periods — a study which is the very foun-
dation of applied eugenics.
Frederick S. Crum's work" on published genealogies of New
England families shows what can be done in this line. From his
material, Crum was able to get figures for 12,722 wives, and he
found that the number of children per wife had decreased as follows :
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 75
Before 1700 less than 2 per cent, of the wives had only one child
each ; nowadays the percentage is about 20. The percentage of
wives in his records who are absolutely childless has increased as
He finds, on analysis of the most recent material, that the New
England wives of the present day, representing the old Colonial
stock, have an average of 1.92 living children each, while the foreign-
born mothers in the same districts have 3.01. We are accustomed to
point with pity at France as a nation committing race suicide, with
more deatlis than births ; as a fact, the old American stock in New
England is dying out more rapidly, through race suicide, than is
the population of France. Unless a change takes place the stock
which has furnished most of the genealogies, and a large part
of the great men and women, of America is doomed to perish.
The inheritance of the tendency to produce twins is an inter-
esting trait, not without practical as well as theoretical import-
ance, which could probably be solved were a sufficient number of
well-kept family trees made available for study. It is known that
twinning is largely a matter of heredity, although the exact man-
ner in which the tendency is inherited is still obscure. A good
example of the danger of hasty generalization is furnished by the
announcement made by some enthusiastic investigator a few years
ago'^ that he had found a number of cases which made it evident
to him that the tendency to twinning was due to the father rather
than the mother. As ordinary twins are due to the production of
two ova instead of one, and as the production of ova can hardly
be denied to be a function of the mother rather than the father,
the claim is absurd. Yet it is possible that a tendency to twinning
might be sex-linked and transmitted through a father to his daugh-
ters, as has recently been asserted to be the case with high egg
production in hens. Whatever the solution may be, it still lies
hidden in pedigrees which the genealogist will make, or is already
Data on All Traits Wanted.
But this list might grow interminably : for properly kept gene-
alogical records will furnish material, without further trouble, for
attacking very nearly all the problems in human heredity that are
conceivable. The compiler of family histories need only include
76 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
every physical or mental trait possible, bearing in mind that the
genetist will ask two questions about it :
Is this characteristic inherited?
If so, how?
Nor must it be forgotten that we are often as much interested in
knowing that a given character is not inherited under certain con-
ditions, as that it is.
Aside from biology, or that phase of it which we call eugenics,
genealogy may also serve medicine, jurisprudence, sociology, statis-
tics, and various other sciences as well as the ones which it now
serves. But in most cases such service will have a eugenic aspect.
The alliance between eugenics and genealogy is one that is certainly
foreordained, and it cannot be put off much longer.
You may ask what facilities we have for receiving and using
pedigrees such as I have been outlining, if they were made up.
You are all, of course, familiar with the repositories which the
different patriotic societies, the National Genealogical Society, and
similar organizations maintain, as well as the collections of the
Library of Congress and other great public institutions. Anything
deposited in such a place can be found by tlie investigators, mostly
attached to colleges and universities, who are actively engaged in
In addition to tliis there are certain establishments founded for
the sole purpose of analyzing genealogies from a biological or statis-
tical point of view. The first of these was the Galton Laboratory
of the University of London, directed by Karl Pearson. I shall not
take time to mention the European institutions, but shall call to
your attention tlie two at woi-k in the United States.
The larger is the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor,
Long Island, New York, directed by Dr. Charles B. Davenj)ort
and maintained largely through the generosity of IMrs. E. H. Harri-
man. Blank schedides are sent to all applicants, in which the
pedigree of an individual may be easily set down, with reference
particularly to the traits of eugenic importance. When desired the
office will send duplicate sc-hedules, one of wliich may be retained
by the applicant for his own files. The schedules filed at the
Eugenics' Record Office are treated as alisolutely confidential, ac-
cess to them being given only to accredited investigators.'*
The second institution of this kind is the Genealogical Record
Office, founded and directed by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, at
1601 Thirty-fifth Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C. This de-
votes itself solely to the collection of data regarding longevity, and
sends out schedules to all those in whose families there have been
individuals attaining the age of 80 or over. It welcomes correspond-
ence on the subject from all who know of cases of long life, and
endeavors to put the particulars on record, especially with reference
to the ancestry and habits of the long-lived individual.
GENEALOGY AND EUGENICS 77
Duty of the iNDiviDUAii.
Persons intelligently interested in their ancestry might well
consider it a duty to society, and to their own posterity, to send
for one of the Eugenics' Record Office schedules, fill it out and
place it on file there, and to do the same with the Genealogical
Record Office, if they are so fortunate as to come of a stock char-
acterized by longevity. The filling out of these schedules would be
likely to lead to a new viewpoint of genealogy; and when this
viewpoint is once gained, I am satisfied that the student will find
it adds immensely to his interest in his pursuit.
You are all familiar with the charge of long standing, that
genealogy is a subject of no use, a fad of a privileged class. I do
not need to tell you that such a charge is untrue. But I think that
genealogy can be made a much more useful science then it now is,
and that it will be at the same time more interesting to its followers,
if it ceases to look on itself as an end in itself, or solely as a minister
to family pride. I hope to see it look on itself as a handmaid of
evolution, just as other sciences are coming to do; I hope to see
it link arms with the great biological movement of the present day;
I hope to see the two of them working in close harmony for the
betterment of mankind.
So much for the science as a whole. What can the individual
do? Nothing better than to broaden his outlook so that he may
view his family not as an exclusive entity, centered in a name,
dependent on some illustrious man or men of the past ; but rather
as an integral part of the great fabric of human life, its warp and
woof continuous from the dawn of creation and criss-crossed at
each generation. When he gets this vision, he will desire to make
his family tree as full as possible, to include his collaterals, to note
every trait which he can find on record, to preserve the photographs
and measurements of his own conteinporaries, and to take a pride
in feeling that the history of his family is a contribution to human
knowledge, as well as to the pride of the family.
If the individual genealogist does this, the science of genealogy
will become a splendid servant of the whole race, and its influence,
not confined to a few, will be felt by all as a positive, dynamic force
helping them to lead more worthy lives in the short span allotted
to them, and helping them to leave more worthy posterity to carry
on the names they bore and the sacred thread of immortality, of
which they were for a time the custodians.
•I^orenz, Ottodar — Lehrbuch der gesammten wi.ssenscliaftlichen Genealogie.
Berlin. W. Hertz, 1898.
^Davenport, C. B. — Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, p. 240. New York, Henry
Holt & Co.. 1911.
•Galton's Law of Ancestral Heredity (which is purely statistical in nature and
mav be quite misleading when applied to individual cases) makes it possible to
calculate the contribution of each ancestor, all the way to infinity. Pearson
has modified It, but as I cite it here merely by way of illustration, I use
Galton's original form for the sake of simplicity. Following Is the calcula-
tion for the first six generations:
IXTERXATIOXAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
*Galton, Francis — Hereditary Genius, p. 87. London, The Macmillan Co.. 1869.
*Fowler, William Chauncey — Conditions of Success in Genealogical Investiga-
tions. N. E. Hist, and Gen. Soc. Boston, 1866.
•Woods. Frederick Adams — Mental and Moral Heredity in Royalty. New York,
Henrv Holt & Co.. 1906 ; also The Influence of Monarchs. New York, The Mac-
millan Co., 1914.
'Pearson, Karl — RoyaJ Society of London. Phil. Trans., vol. 192A. p. 277 ;
Biometrika, vol. I, p. 74. London, 1903.
■Bell, Alexander Graham — Memoirs Upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of
the Human Race. Washington, D. C. National Academy of Sciences, 1884.
•For a summary see Harris. J. Arthur — Assortative Mating in Man. Popular
Science Monthly. LXXX. No. 5, pp. 476-493, New York. May, 1912.
•"Davenport. C. B. — State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection, p. 14. Eugenics
Record OflBce Bull. No. 9, Cold Springs Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., June, 1913.
"Crum. Frederick S. — The Decadence of the Native American Stock. Quarterly
Pub. American Statistical Assn., XIV, n. s. 107. pp. 215-223, Sept., 1914.
"Cited by Weinberg. W. — Methode der Vererbungsforschung beim Menschen.
Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. vol. 49, 1912; No. 14, pp. 646-649 (April 1),
and No. 15. pp. 697-701 (April S).
"Since the above was written, the Eugenics Record Office has published
Bulletin No. 13 on "How to Make a Eugenical Family Study." It gives details
of procedure which will be of much value to anyone interested in genealogy
from the viewpoint I have outlined, and will be sent gratis, I believe, to any
MAYFLOWER DESCENDANTS 79
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH AMONG DES-
CENDANTS OF THE MAYFLOWER
By HERBERT FOLGER
HISTORIAN SOCIETV OF MA-VFLOWER DES.CKNDAN1S I.V THE
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
Some seven years ago, in the course of the work performed
as Historian of the Society of Mayflower Descendants of Cali-
fornia I had a call from an otfice boy, who asked if I owned a
ranch in the State of Washington; I replied that I had no such
ranch. He then produced a record of a policy issued to "H.
Folger" and giving a Washington address.
The Society made it a practice to address postal cards or
circulars to persons whose names implied that they might be
descended from the passengers on the good ship " ^Mayflower. "
A card was accordingly sent to Mr. H. Folger, and the card
asked that the names of his parents and grandparents be for-
warded to the Society, together with certain other information.
In due time we received a reply that his father was named Jethro
and that the family came from North Carolina and had no con-
nection with any MayHower stock; that there was a tradition
in North Carolina, however, that their ancestors had come from
Upon investigation it was found that a Latham Folger had
removed from Massachusetts to North Carolina in 1774 and been
lost sight of. It was five years before we could determine in
general terms where this family had gone and of whom it con-
sisted. Finally a young lady was found in North Carolina who
proved a good friend. She was connected with Guilford Col-
lege, which had in its vaults some of the records of the Society
of Quakers of early days. It transpired that all the emigrants
to North Carolina from ^Massachusetts at that time were mem-
bers of the Society of Quakers, the move having been made to
escape the necessity of military service.
That society not only recorded the names of children who
were born but also made very complete records of the mar-
riages. Every certificate began: "Whereas son of
desires marriage with daughter of " and often also
gave the names of all relatives present together with their rela-
tionship, rendering the records of the greatest value. We his^
torians who are required to prove statements are especially
helped when we can refer to a record which clearly traces the
parentage of the people affected.
It was found that Latham Folger had ten children, one of
whom was named Jethro and was born in 1797. This hardly
seemed to meet the case, for it did not seem possible that a man
so IXTERXATIOXAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
writing the hand iu which Homer Folger's letter was written
could be the son of a man born in 1797. He was communicated
with on this point, and stated that in 1855 his father Jethro
married a second wife and that he had himself been born in
1862, when his father was 65 years of age.
This peculiar case drew the attention of our society to the
need of reliable vital records and we have ever since sought by
individual correspondence to ascertain and preserve the records
of families. We have had some success, but I am convinced that
we Americans do not pay sufficient attention to the necessity of
following the custom of our ancestors in recording the names of
our children not only in town records but also in church and
Getting down to the concrete, on the Pacific Coast we are
three thousand miles from Plymouth. It is found that one-third
of the claims filed with the Society have been invalid because
incorrect ; lines of descent submitted in good faith have many
defects. Of the remainder some are quite unable to go back
of their grandparents ; old people are excusable for not remem-
bering their grandparents' names.
If we are disappointed in this way in 1915, what may we
expect in the year 2000/ Many records now available are sub-
ject to loss. It should be possible for a Federation such as this
to preserve records, make them accessible, and arouse the in-
terest of the community at large in vital records. The fact that
the men coming to California brought no records with them,
preserved none and kept none, has made the work in California
exceptionally difficult, but interest has been aroused to cor-
respond with the magnitude of the task.
The interest in genealogical work is largely personal; it may
be that some of you can enjoy hearing other people recount a
line at great length but I confess I get very tired and that a
little goes a long way with me. How many fully realize that
the chief interest in the subject of Pilgrim genealogy lies in the
personality it brings up — in the character of the stock — and lies
further in the historical fact that this original stock which landed
on the shores of Massachusetts in 1620 very shortly scattered.
Many of them are lost to sight and a large part of them are lost
in the records.
One who says there are a million descendants of the Pilgrims
in this nation may be stating a truth literally but he could not
possibly prove it. At the end of 21 years the Society of May-
flower Descendants has not had more than four thousand mem-
bers in the entire nation.
I urge upon j'ou when you go to your homes that in the
society each attends a record of descent as showing that one
comes of good clean stock shall be set down and preserved. I do
not think that iu the concrete you can do any better work.
GENEALOGY AND HUMAN SOCIETY 81
THE STUDY OF GENEALOGY AND ITS
PLACE IN THE AFFAIRS OF
By CHARLES G. FINNEY WILCOX
OK THE ASSOCIATION OV WII.COX KAMII.IKS AND AI.I.IBD FAMIUIES.
Genealogy touches life in its most vital and important relations.
In the Mythology of the Ancients there were the Parcae, or Fates,
who were conceived as holding the destinies of all mankind in their
hands. They were known as Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. The
significance of the allusion to them in this place will be obvious
upon a further investigation of their offices or the sphere of their
dominion over humanity.
An ancient verse best defines their character and their offices:
Clotho colum rctinet, Lachesis net,
Et Atropos occat.
This translated means: "Clotho upholds the column or distaff,
Lachesis spins or weaves, and Atropos cuts the thread."
When appearing together they were generally represented as
three women with chaplets made of white wool and interwoven with
flowers of the narcissus. They were covered with a white robe and
fillet of the same color bound with chaplets.
By reason of their office their power was great and extensive:
Clotho, the youngest, presiding over birth and generation, or the
origin of life; Lachesis, the second, presiding over the future and
the fortunes and success of life ; and Atropos, the oldest, decreeing
the end of life and cutting it off in accordance with her arbi-
These goddesses were supposed to be subject to none of the gods
but Jupiter, while some supposed that even Jupiter himself was
subject to them and obedient to their commands. They were
generally regarded as the arbiters of life and death of mankind
and it was supposed that whatever of good or evil might befall
persons in the world proceeded from them.
Thus the Fates or Parcae controlled the life, fortune and death,
or the supreme destinies of mankind; so genealogy records the
same events in the lives of mankind. As the Parcae occupied a
place of supreme power so genealogy occupies a similar place of
supreme importance, as it is no less than the history of the
omnipotent decrees and ensuing deeds and enactments of these
82 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
omnipotent deities in tlieir administration of the affairs of the
human race over which they bear rule.
We cannot overestimate the importance of the study of geneal-
ogy; as we have said, it touches life in its most momentous relations
in conjunction with history; it is to be gleaned from an infinite
variety of sources; at every turn we are confronted with sources
of information and evidences of genealogical facts; public records,
directories, registers of churches, monuments and tombstones. I
would suggest as a clew not often resorted to, the subscription lists
of journals and periodicals, and even the books of account of
business firms may contain names of certain persons otherwise un-
The relation of a family to certain persons is often suggested
or evidenced by the naming of children; the political affiliations
and sympathies, or the particular beliefs of a person or family are
also thus often shown in that the child is named for a person
prominent at the time, or one who is revered and honored by the
family in which the child is born.
The knowledge of one's genealogy is a guide to matrimonial
selection, by observation of results and the laws of heredity as well
as they may be understood and applied. It has been considered
as an aid to the elimination of unfit persons from society, but is
not sufficiently certain to justify the enactment of radical measures
that will interrupt the established course of governmental affairs
as adapted to the fundamental principles of law and government.
It discloses family tendencies; the effect on progeny of large
families may be noted by knowledge of these things ; there have
been observations relative to the probable success of the youngest
or oldest of a family, or their attaining to eminence ; also the trans-
mission of family traits in older and younger children, the males
or the females, and the inheritance of the males or fem.ales from
the father or mother.
Genealogy and the study of the subject tends to accuracy and
order; it encourages the preservation of records, of relics, heir-
looms and monuments ; it is an inspiration to higher ideals and
attainments of life; the study of the lives of our ancestors; it is
an incentive to the establishment of a truer and greater justice, a
larger liberty, a broader toleration, more tender compassion, a
truer democracy, a more steadfast hope, a stronger faith in God, in
man, in one 's self.
It reveals the origin of a person and the effect of environment
and heredity upon his status and estate in society; the connections
of a man by marriage, his parentage or ancestry, and the effect
thereof upon his own life.
All should realize the importance of knowledge of these essent-
ial facts that they may more efficaciously protect themselves in their
rights and enjoy larger privileges, based thereon and arising there-
GENEALOGY AND HUMAN SOCIETY 83
To what shall we liken genealogj'^? It is the log-book of the
voyage of our ancestors adown the endless river of time — across
the shoreless sea of life; from it we should chart our own course
across the great ocean of futurity.
We should make our own genealogy an aid to ourselves, our
families, and our friends, and should by a knowledge of that of
others fortify and defend ourselves against our enemies.
The sphere of genealogy and the knowledge gained by study of
the subject is not and should not be involved with legislation or
government in our country. It has often been involved with the
government of other nations and has too often under these circum-
stances proven a bane or a curse to the people of such nation and
By applying the knowledge of the principles acquired by the
study of genealogy to our own lives as individuals and families we
may be benefited, and be the arbiters of our own lives and conduct,
but by seeking to apply these principles through the agency of civil
government and legislation we place ourselves in danger, because
we thereby give into the hands of others the absolute control of
our own destinies.
Each of us today can truly say : " I am the sum of my ancestors ;
my world is the world in which my ancestors lived ; and the shrines
of my devotion are the homes and citadels of their nativity; and
the monuments that mark their graves are to me as precious stones
set in the treasure box of life."
By a knowledge of genealogy we acquire pride of birth ; we find
in it an inspiration to live a noble life, to be worthy of the honored
name we bear. It conduces to study and liberal education; the
study of hygiene and the development of physical strength and
beauty, the preservation of health and an incentive to a life of
sobriety; it inculcates a spirit of veneration and develops the
religious instinct in our nature; it is an incentive to thrift and
industry, and is, therefore, the basis and foundation of prosperity,
stability and wealth; it broadens and enlarges life in all its rela-
tions, and especially promotes domestic felicity and joy, harmony
and content. It conduces to right living, pleasant social relations, a
delightful courtship, and a pure, wholesome marriage ; an honorable
and a happy life ; a resigned and peaceful death ; a loved and cher-
ished memory in the hearts of friends and kindred ; a progeny on the
earth to fulfill and realize our hopes and aspirations and' to guar-
antee unto us a realization of our cherished dream of an existence in
a future and a happier state ; the joys of love, honor and domestic
felicity in a world made bright and beautiful with flowers and gems
while living; honor and veneration, tears and lamentations, sculp-
tured monuments and storied urns, garlands, and funeral wreaths
when silent in death, and though silent yet still existent, active and
living our own high ideals with a conscious realization and a per-
sonal delight in the lives of a devoted posterity, who are in their
84 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
turn raised to a more exalted plane of life as a result of our own
lives and of the devotion and venerable regard we have exemplified
for our ancestors and the preservation of the knowledge of all that
appertains to them.
This indeed and in truth, is the sphere of genealogy in the
affairs of human society. He who plants his feet upon the vantage
ground of genealogy has surely ascended the Holy Mount (even as
Moses, the great Law Giver), from which may be seen the glories
of the Promised Land, where those who follow after us will enjoy
the bliss of life in a land of fertile valleys, wooded and watered
mountains, orchards and fruitful vineyards; a land that floweth
with milk and honey.
Genealogy reveals the kinship of man to man and nation to
nation; it exemplifies and proves the Divine Word, that "God hath
made of one flesh all nations that dwell in the earth."
"And ah! it is a noble deed to show before mankind;
How every race and every creed may be in love conjoined ;
May be conjoined, yet not forget,
The fountains whence they rose,
As filled with many a rivulet,
The stately Shannon flows,"
It is the history of families in epochs and chapters. Tt is the
stratification of history, a chart of the evolution of our own race
and generation, disclosing the difference between families.
Genealogy discloses one's relatives and enables one to benefit
as far as possible by the sacred ties of consanguinity. It gives one
a knowledge of the qualities of temperament, character and genius
in himself and others. If all men are related to one another, we
may by a knowledge of genealogy become acquainted with our near-
Genealogy in a monarchy or autocratic government is the cement
that binds together the stones in the edifice of state ; genealogy in
a democracy is the safeguard against revolution and the re-estab-
lishment of a despotism, for by a knowledge of genealogy the
people may be able to prevent descendants of their hereditary
enemies, the scions of ancient kings and emperors, from establish-
ing themselves in power.
Genealogy as a study is an inspiration and an aid to humanity
in all fields of endeavor and activity; as a science it is but specu-
lative, conjectural and uncertain.
It does not afford a sufficient basis for positive conclusions as
to what man will be, although it is a light to the understanding in
determining what men are.
It is the instrument of the despot, the conqueror, and the foeman
of mankind, when used for the subjugation and extermination of
a race, a nation, or a noble family.
GENEALOGY AND HUMAN SOCIETY 85
It i.s relied upon as a means of arousing prejudice as well as
for fostering friendship ; of inspiring fear as well as for winning
favor. It is used by ambitious and unjust rulers as a means of
overthrowing families and nations because of their relation to one
certain individual who has incurred general disfavor or hatred.
The work of conquest by a tyrant may be more expeditious and
complete if by a false theory of heredity he can induce his followers
or subjects to destroy a nation, a class of persons or a family, when
they would otherwise, and in justice, destroy only the individual
who might be guilty of the offense.
Persons interested in eugenics, and elimination by sterilization,
segregation and extermination, should consider the dangers to all
mankind of making it possible for unjust men in political office
and temporary power to work an irreparable injury upon others
who might have incurred their hatred, malice and disfavor.
Where is genealogy found? Among what genus, race, order of
beings? What is its office? Do we find the accurate and precise
pedigree from the founding of the world among the slimy reptiles
crawling among the rocks of the wilderness? The savage beasts of
the forest that bite and devour one another, making the welkin hide-
ous by day and by night with their roaring and shrieks? Or even
among human kind do we find the naked savage, clad in the
breech cloth and armlets and anklets absorbed in the study of his
lineage and coat armor? And 3''et again do we find among the
oppressed serfs and slaves of semi-civilized nations or even among
the peasantr3^ an intense interest in the annals of their noble sires?
No. It is not among the savage tribes, not among serfs and slaves,
not among the peasantry and yeomanry that Ave find the rare
exotic that blooms only in the palace of the king. It is not among
these that we find the carefully preserved pedigree with the arms
and crests of noble sires, with hatchments, escutcheons and marks of
cadency, but only among tlie noble families who have stood above
their kind through the lapse of passing centuries :
"As some proud cliff that lifts its awful form.
Swells from tlie vale and nobly cleaves the storm;
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread ;
Eternal sunshine centers on its head."
It is pertinent here to inquire why we are interested in gene-
alogy? Why should we be interested in this subject. We as
Americans — democratic citizens of a democratic nation— a nation
whose foundation and cornerstone is the preamble of the Declara-
tion of Independence which declares: '^AU men are created equal,
and endowed hy their Creator with certain inalienable rights,
ivhich among others are life, liherty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Can true Americans boast an interest in that which concerns kings
and princes, and the scions of royalty? Or do we resign our title
86 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGl
of Americans when we find in tracing our ancestral pedigrees that
we derive our origin from the kings and emperors of the Eastern
This might at first appear to be the consistent deduction from
the previous statement, that genealogy in its completeness is most
often found among the royal families, but it is not a true and logical
conclusion, as we shall clearly show. But to properly answer
the question: "Can we as true Americans be interested in gene-
alogy in view of the assertion that the subject so largely concerns
nobility?" we must revert to some essential facts of history and
trace the circumstances and events that resulted in the colonization
of this, the Western Hemisphere, and the founding of the govern-
ment under which we live, the government of the United States
Before the Colonization, Development, Federation and Revolu-
tion had been consummated in this country, for almost three cen-
turies the nations of Europe had been ravaged by civil war and
The issues were the issues of Life, Liberty and Justice, as
against Arbitrary Power and Despotism ; the opposing parties and
armies were composed of persons of rank and nobility, sometimes
of factions of the same family, and sometimes of different families
opposed to one another from time immemorial; but they were in
most cases commanded and championed by men of royal blood,
upon which side soever they were aligned. Ultimately, the more
powerful forces were successful, and the conquered at this, the Col-
onial period, sought asylum in America; a very wise course, since
to be identified with a party known to be opposed to the Crown in
a Monarchical Government is more serious than to be opposed to
the predominating party in a Republican Government such as our
In this way we can understand how it happened that many
families of noble blood settled in America as colonists, but owing to
political issues made no effort to herald the facts to the world and
eventually sunk into the oblivion of obscure life, and forgotten
As Americans then, although we do not seek to establish rights
to title, estates or hereditary offices, we may know that we are
equal in rank if rank is honorable, to the noblest scion of the
royalty of Europe.
It is not for the glamor and pride of royalty alone that we, as
Americans, are interested in genealogy, although we often find
with royalty the highest perfection of genealogy — charts, family
trees, diagrams, arms, crests, hatchments, cadency, and all that
is associated with the genealogical science.
"For what is pomp, rule, reign.
But earth and dust ? "
GENEALOGY AND HUMAN SOCIETY 87
"The boast of heraldry, tlie pomp of power,
And all that beauty, all that wealth ere gave,
Await alike the inevitable hour.
The paths of glory lead but to the grave,"
Aye — and in the course of time and events we oft see the
exemplification of the proverb :
"He hath put down the mighty from their seat;
He hath exalted them of low degree."
"Pride bend thine eye from heaven to thine estate,
See how the mighty sink into a song —
Can volume, pillar, pile, preserve the great?
Or must thou trust tradition's tongue,
When flattery sleeps with thee,
And history does thee wrong?"
The kaleidoscopic changes in the fortunes of the world continu-
ally and unceasingly bring before the eye of the observer of men
and affairs the changing glories of the scene. As the kaleidoscope
revolves, the position of the variously colored prisms is shifted and
new combinations of form and color are presented to the eye in
infinite variety; the red and the blue, the yellow and the purple,
the orange and green, the black and the white, the neutral tints
all commingling and reflected, always changing, never twice the
same. But in the never ceasing change the black and the white, the
neutral tints and the grays, the red and the blue, the yellow and
the purple, the orange and green, never lose their value, biit remain
ever the same ; ever producing upon the retina the same impression
and effect, only by juxtaposition, position and reflection and chang-
ing light and multiplication is the change in effect produced.
Our lives, individually and collectively, are one vast kaleidoscope
in which we are each but as one of the brilliant prisms jostling and
piling one upon another, ever assuming new positions reflecting the
light of new surroundings, but ever the same identical prisms,
In the great kaleidoscope of human life as the world revolves
we can behold the coalition of individuals, the serf, the slave, the
savage, the barbarian, the peasant and the yeoman, the general and
the statesman, the prince and the king, priest and bishop,
cardinal and pontiff, each in the sphere of their changing environ-
ment and surroundings, but ever the character of each remains the
same. Now one, now another appears in ascendency, in all the
blazing glory of royalty and power, clothed in regal majesty —
vassals waiting at their command and princes bowing before their
decrees; but regardless of position or transient power each retains
and displays to the world his true character of prince or plebeian,
88 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
emperor or slave, king or peasant; the God-man in the sovereign
majesty of nol)le character, or the degraded being in the unclean
garments of vice and crime, upon the royal throne or whatever
may be the apparent station he holds in the world of men.
In the songs of Kabir, by Ramandranath Tagore, he has said:
"When the wave rises it is the water, and when it falls it is the
same water. Because it has been named a wave, shall it no longer
Of many a noble family of former days it might be truly said :
"Bright star of the morning that beamed on the brow,
Of the chief of ten thousand, oh where are thou now?
The sword of your fathers is cankered with rust,
And the might of thy clan is bow(;d low in the dust."
Of the noble family of Roslyn we read :
".Seemed all on fire that chappelle proud.
Where Roslyn 's chiefs uncofiined lie.
Each baron for a sable shroud
Shelled in his iron panoply.
"Blazed battlements and pennants bright,
Blazed every rose-carved buttress fair,
So shall they blaze when falls in might,
The leading line of high St. Clare.
"There twenty of Roslyn 's barons liold
Lie buried within that proud chappelle.
Each one the holy vault doth hold.
But the sea holds lovely Rosabelle. "
" 'Twere long to tell, and sad to trace,
Each step from splendor to disgrace."
In the foregoing we have sufficiently emphasized and illustrated
the fact that station does not confer character nor wealth station;
that station is not enduring, and that neither royal title, station,
wealth nor character can be successively and indeterminately trans-
mitted with certainty from generation to generation; but we believe
it to be indisputable that character above all — wealth, station,
royalty, power, aye, character of all things, is the most enduring,
potential and fruitful in largess of reward to those who possess it —
"Above all things, Truth beareth away the victory."
The question may arise : If the most prized and most valuable
things of life are not transmissible with certainty from one genera-
tion to another, why should we devote our time and attention to
the laborious task of tracing and preserving our lineage from re-
GENEALOGY AND HUMAN SOCIETY 89
mote and forgotten ancestors ? Are we not chasing moonbeams, and
the "will-o'-the-wisp" in the Everglades?
No, emphatically no — "You perceive the wind and hear its
murmuring music, but whence it has come and whither it may wan-
der you may never know." Yet will you disregard the wind at
times and thereby sacriHce yourselves to it by disdaining to
take due precaution for protection against its power. Intelligent
beings observe, study and record the actions of the winds and all
natural forces of nature that they may be prepared to avert dangers
or disa.ster and benefit by a knowledge of the salutory and beneficent
effects of sucli physical conditions as may obtain; and in like
manner should we observe and record all incidents and facts that
may reflect light upon the origin, nature, derivation and character
of men, that we may know their nature and their destinies as far
as may be possible by having an adequate knowledge of their
ancestry and origin.
The development of our race has been gradual — the advance-
ment of learning and science, religion and art has been slow and
"Science moves by slowest stages,
Creeping on from point to point.
Heaven is not reached by a single bound,
But we build the ladder by which we rise.
From the lov.ly earth to the vaulted skies.
And Ave mount to its summit round by round."
Although the science of life is incomplete and imperfect we
must endeavor to perfect and apply it. The procreation of our
species is the greatest, the most absor])ing responsibility devolving
upon human beings, and although the laws of procreation or repro-
duction are but inadequately and vaguely understood by the human
family, as we continue to live and reproduce our species we should
continue to study and learn these laws by improving every oppor-
tunity for observation and investigation relative to the principles
of this fundamental though abtruse science of the creation of the
Thus we see that by genealogical research we may learn the
laws of reproduction, not only with respect to the reproduction of
physical beings, but with respect to mentality and moral tendencies,
and various phases of character. If by our devotion to this absorb-
ing study we can establish definitely, and conclusively demonstrate
some certain principles of the law of life not before enunciated or
understood by human beings, we will have raised the race one step
higher toward the celestial realm — the perfect life and environment
to which optimists, religionists and prophets have looked and for
which they have hoped in all ages.
90 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
The influence and efforts of governmental enactments are so
far reaching that we should not venture upon new and novel ex-
periments, but should stand firm upon the time-tried and tested
principles of law, justice and truth that have endured through the
To make our state and nation what it should be we must be
wise, deliberative and true. We must realize what is the nature
of a nation and a state.
Alceus to ]\Iytelene.
What constitutes a state?
Not high raised battlements or labored mound,
The thick walled moated gate.
Not altars proud with spires or turret crowned,
Not bays and broad armed ports.
Where laughing at the storms rich navies i-ide,
Not starred and spangled courts,
Where low-browed coarseness wafts perfume and pride,
No — men ! high-minded men
With powers as far above dull brute endued
In forest, brake or den.
As birds excel cold rocks and brambles rude,
Men who their duties know
But knowing their rights, and knowing dare maintain,
Prevent the long-armed blow,
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain.
These constitute the state.
THE HOUSE RESTORED 91
THE HOUSE RESTORED.
By MARIAN LONGFELLO^W
OF THK tSOCIElV OF Till'; BFSt KNDANTS OF ROIiFRT BARTI.KTT, KSQ.,
OP PLYMOUTH, MAS.SA<;HUSKTT!S.
This is, liappilj^ the age of the "builder" and not the "icono-
clast," in spite of the great havoc waging in Europe. I have faith
to believe that, like the phoenix of old, there will arise from the
dust and ashes of evil passions, relentless hate and iconoclastic
struggle the era of a brighter day for the family of mankind.
There is, I believe, no nobler pursuit, no higher object than the
building up of the beauties of character and high purpose as
evinced in the lives of those who have preceded us. Indeed, it is
a sacred trust committed to our hands that there be no jot or tittle
of their good work allowed to perish from among us.
The lot of the genealogist is not a happy one, which sentiment,
although first voiced under a jest in comic opera in dealing with
another walk of life, is true. I would liken the work to that of
the toiler who seeks laboriously to rescue from the dust heap of
oblivion and disregard the jewel of high purpose and the deed of
renown. Of a truth the labor is heavy; much is investigated and
ofttimes little is obtained in genealogical research, but the purpose
is a noble one and must eventually find its reward. For every
nugget of gold discovered there must be tons of rubbish to explore ;
still the knowledge that the nugget is there to be found inspires
and upholds the seeker.
We are the guardians of the past; upon us rests a sacred duty,
and in the performance of it there should be, as I have said, suffi-
cient reward. If the genealogist be watchful, caretaking and
conscientious, though this harvest be small, his or her work is
of inestimable value. But what is to be said of the slipshod worker
in the ranks of genealogical research? The investigator who stops
just short of the goal desired? The seeker who is satisfied with
the plausible explanation of a problem? There is nothing so to
be feared and so common, alas, as the superficial laborer in the
vineyard. There have been more mistakes made, more havoc
wrought by such than in any other pursuit. The opinionated
person is to be dreaded, but that very trait leads often, through
its very intensity of purpose, to the solving of the problem, while
the superficial seeker never attains the object sought and frequently
is guilty of "false witness" in placing on record some erroneous
statement which, like the tare among the wheat, spreads and
strangles and finally nullifies all the good heretofore accomplished.
92 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
For this reason, that there is so much superficial work done, so
much that lacks the seal of complete reliance and the endorsement
of the learned, I would urge upon you, members of this Interna-
tional Congress of Genealogy now convened, to endorse most
strongly the plan of "an uniform publication of the historical
and vital records of various counties and states now unpublished,
and the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records as a
part of governmental records at Washington, similar to the records
in the General Register Office, Somerset House, Loudon, England."'
The histor}^ of Great Britain is long and brilliant; tlie knowl-
edge of the great importance of preserving the records of its history
has ever had a firm hold upon that nation.
We are the children of that blood, many of us having in our
veins no other mixture. Its high renown is ours; its sons were
worthy of the scions from whom they came. Why do we, then,
continue to let the ''house beautiful'' remain in a state of dilapi-
The same is to be said of those having in their veins the blood
of the Huguenot and the Hollandais. We are proud of that, does
it not follow that we owe a duty to our forebears and, owing that
duty, does it not become us to perform it ? In the economy of
life there is a large factor which may be briefly listed under the
head of "The Family." We know the exact value of the "family"
as it affects our own individual case — the relationship of father,
mother, sister, brother, husband, wife and children ; but that is
family in a restricted sense.
Do we keep in mind the relative value of the "family" as
applied to our ancestral lines? Do we see and recognize the traits,
the habits, the virtues, and, alas ! the vices that accrue to us through
a long line of forbears? Do we .justly value the good that has come
to us thereby, and wisely guard against the evil that also comes
into that great scheme of life?
A man lives — or a woman — for his or her family. They die
for a principle or an inherited obligation.
If, then, the unit of the family calls forth such devotion, must
not the idea of the tie of a common stock have great weight? It
is well, and just, and proper to do all for and in the individual
family life, but should all interest cease there?
What higher incentive to pure living and noble deeds than the
remembrance that one has sprung from a line which has made its
mark in history, has written its name on the pages of humanity !
The Chinese have their form of " ancestor- worship, " and it
has been the fashion to deride such ; but the ancestor- worship that
bids us remember the chivalrous deeds, the noble thoughts that
were the soul of those from whom we have descended is a high and
Again the individual family, in many cases, tends to selfishness:
the horizon is too circumscribed, the outlook is too narrow, and the
THE HOUSE RESTORED 93
well known aphorism "charity begins at home" is often so insist-
ently urged that it is likely to remain at home and there end !
If we will but enlarge our interests; if we will but turn a
kindly thought to some other branch of the family tree; if we will
but believe that among the larger army of "collateral branches"
we may find interests, enthusiasms, incentives to higher and broader
action, then will we find the "family," like the newer and loftier
progressive shell of the chambered nautilus, grow more beautiful
and appealing, and as a consequence will make our lives more
useful in the world.
Family lines lend a most fascinating and interesting aspect
We may lack some quality of mind or body that apparently
should be ours hj virtue of birth, and lo ! we find it in some son
of daughter of a "collateral line," who has sprung from our
common ancestor. We may, in turn, possess some attribute or
qualification that another descendant lacks, the quality of which
may be of real service to our neighbor. We become thereby of
actual service to the one who does not possess such quality or
The view of a common fellowship through the same ties of
blood is broadening and helpful to a wonderful degree. Thus it is
that the welding into one form — the "family" — and the gathering
together of the widely separated members of each family is whole-
some and beneficent.
If we have been in doubt on this point consider a few well
known "family" organizations. The "home coming" to the quaint
little home in Duxbur}^ with which the name of John Alden will
ever be associated; the gathering of that large association, "The
Alden Kindred of America," from all parts of the United States
and sometimes from abroad, keeps the sacred fire alive upon the
altar of home and kindred. The pilgrimages of the "Society of
the Descendants of Robert Bartlet of Plymouth" to that city by
the sea, Plymouth, IMassachusetts, when members from far and near
gather about the boulder which has been erected upon the site of
the old homestead of ]\[anomet.
The rallying about the old house at Dedham of men and women
in whose veins flows the blood of the Fairbanks, and the annual
gatherings of many, many other "families" prove that "blood is
thicker than water," that the tie of kinship is stronger than the
world, in its selfish struggle for power and wealth, is willing to
concede. It is here that the best traits are brought forward, for
who would hold up to public scrutiny, or seek to exhibit to the
world any ignoble strain? Seeking the best in a line is in itself
educational and beneficial. There is another point to be considered
— the strength of unity.
Then let us continue in this form of "ancestor- worship," seek-
ing the "survival of the fittest," the oldest of laws, and do all in
94 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
our power to encourage the forming into "families" those or
common kindred, thus keeping alive that search for the best and
highest, which was the mark of the Pilgrim, the indomitable spirit
of the Puritan, the devotion of the Huguenot, the sturdy adherence
to duty and love of native land of the Hollandais, which is shared
by Belgium, as shown in her struggle against this atrocious war now
waging in Europe; and last, though first by right of settlement,
the high courage and daring of the Cavaliers, though screened in
velvet and lace!
Thus, in order to preserve the "Family" we must preserve the
House, in which no more beautiful and important room is to be
found than that of its "hall of records."
Uniform publication of records is a vital point. Where authori-
ties differ confusion reigns. Vital statistics or records are justly
termed "vital," for they are vital as to worth and authority.
In the great scheme of government at our National capitol, that
of the establishment of a National Bureau of Vital Records, aye,
and the preservation of those now in its possession, is most fitting
and most hopeful of good results.
We must remember that in our hands has been reposed a great
trust, that of the preservation of the records of the great American
people descended from the races of the older world, and that in
our magnificent march of progress this is a salient feature.
It is an encouraging mark of the times that this large and
representative body should be today in convention, and it is not
an unreasonable hope that such measures will be taken here, and
such work established in the near future, as to place on a firm
basis the projects for which this Society has come into existence,
and which justify its being.
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH IN DENMARK 95
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH IN DENMARK.
By TH. HAUCH-FAUSBOLL
DIRKKTOU DANSK CiKNEA I.OOISK INSTITl^T OF COPKNII AtSKN. DKNMARK.
I remember from the days of my childhood in a country par-
sonage by the coast of the North Sea a song which our maid used
to be fond of and which .?he sang with great pathos.
These were the first lines :
* * Oh Susanna ! Wilt thou come and marry me ?
Then off I'll be to California and gold I will find for thee."
According to my idea the number of Danes can hardly be so
few who, when the gold fever was raging, could have undertaken
the voyage across the Atlantic to seek their fortunes in the Far
Of course Denmark is not covered everywhere with green beech
trees and waving cornfields. Right through Jutland there ex-
tends a waste expanse of heather, and along the coast of the North
Sea the soil for miles is mingled with drifting sand, which has
produced horny hands and tough sinews before crops could be
thought of at all. Such rough, uncouth surroundings would natur-
ally tend to enhance the emigration with a prospect of amelioration
of wages and social conditions, but America Avas not deceived by
these sturdy and industrious people, and we who remained at
home have often had the opportunity to be pleased at tlie praise
which was bestowed upon our compatriots in the new country of
From time to time "The Danish Genealogical Institute" re-
ceives an old certificate of character or a faded document from
across the sea with the request to obtain information about their
kinsmen at home. Hitherto the number of such requests has not
been very large, but that, I should take it, is due to the fact that
the struggle for existence has provided our pioneers with quite
enough to do. A couple of generations miist go by before our
friends can afford the time to think of anything but material things
in life and before their traditions and family histories begin to
fOx-m. However, the time will surely come when many of the
descendants of the emigrants will seek for information regarding
their ancestors in Denmark, and it has, therefore, afforded me
great pleasure to have received "California Genealogical Society's"
flattering invitation to relate a little as to how the genealogical
researches are carried out in this country.
96 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
It may here be stated at once that Denmark is one of those
countries where the sources are plentiful and easily accessible to
the student of genealogy. Whilst still in many places abroad — to
the great detriment of genealogical research — the materials in con-
nection with archives are found distributed among various officials
where they are likely to be exposed to defacement and danger from
fire, we can thank Mr. A. D. Jorgensen from South Jutland for
two main sources from which one can draw if one is in search of
information about one's ancestors: in church registers and in the
records of settlements of estate in Denmark, these being concen-
trated in three national archives (one for Jutland, one for Funen,
and one for Sealand with Lolland-Falster and Bornholm) where
they are at the free disposal of the public.
In order to be able to utilize these archives to their fullest
advantage it is only necessary that one has some practice in de-
ciphering scripts. It is here we take the lead as compared with
foreign countries, for even where the church registers (the records
of settlements of estates are certainly a special northern phenom-
enon, as I have never in any single case met with anything
similar abroad) are concentrated as, for example, in Scotland, Meck-
lenburg and many other places a certain fee is charged for the
use of same.
In addition to these main sources, the church registers, in
which are to be found the records of our ancestors' christenings,
marriages and deaths, and to the registers of estates, which contain
information of their bequests and heirs, there are, of course, many
other sources to fall back upon, e. g., census and census lists (in the
last mentioned the places of birth have been given since 1844),
trade licenses, also usually indicating place of birth (in olden times,
however, often only mentioning the country or that part of the
country to which the person in question belonged), registers of
legal decisions, letters patent and concessions, together wtih statu-
tory records. If one is fortunate enough to be descended from
a fighting and quarrelsome ancestor the latter are of great value
if the church and estate registers are discrepant.
The church registers were put into force by law in Denmark
in the years 1645-46. Only a few, hovv'ever, go so far back; partly
the rules were not adhered to everywhere and partly some of the
registers were the victims of unfortunate circumstances.
It was only after 1814, when duplicates were introduced, that
one could depend upon the existence of church registers from all
When it is known in which parish an ancestor has been resident
this register will not be found so difficult to consult; but it is to
be hoped that the same forefather was possessed of a calm and
equable temperament, one who had remained on the spot which he
at one time had chosen, for otherwise it will be difficult enough
to follow him from one locality to another.
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH IX DENMARK 97
The examination of estate registers is less easy, the estate de-
partments in former times having been controlled by various
authorities. JMilitary and ecclesiastical each had their own estate
department and the town theirs; in the country the landed pro-
prietors belong to the county sheriffs' jurisdiction and the large
majority of peasants, the leaseholders, may cause especial difficul-
ties, as each landed proprietor settled his peasants' estates himself.
As an estate might possess pea?aut-o\vned property in various parts
of the country, it is not always easy to find where such an estate
can be located.
I have in the foregoing made brief mention of some of the chief
sources of information which have not found their way into print,
and I will now draw attention to a few of the many printed records
which a Danish genealogist has at his disposal.
As in most other countries, Denmark has its biographical dic-
tionaries (also including Norway from 1537 to 1814) in which all
personages w^ho have distinguished themselves by deeds, either
good or evil, are enumerated. There are besides this a few older
works on the Danish nobility — a splendid material in a long row
of stately volumes of "Denmark's Nobility Annual" — which have
been published yearly since 1884. Among other lists of pedigrees
may be mentioned "Gjessings Jubellarere" (biographies and pedi-
grees of Danes, Norwegians and Icelanders who have celebrated
their fifty years' jubilee of office) ; " Lengnicks, " numerous but
rather unreliable genealogies of noble and plebeian families (the
later preponderating) ; "Patrician Families" and "Family Hand-
book" (supplement to "Genealogical Review").
As regards works of reference dealing with individual persons
we have in Denmark a fairly good number of reliable works deal-
ing with almost every profession, such as the clergy, teachers,
doctors, lawyers, military persons, authors, artists, politicians,
etc., who have all had their biographers, so that it is comparatively
easy to trace a man who would not be included among the peasant
or citizen classes.
Nothing similar could be thought of in large countries where
it would be a stupendous task for one single man, for instance, to
collect material for a complete handbook on the clergy of the
country during a period of about 350 years, as has been done in
Denmark. Also in the method of working I believe the Danish
genealogist (I can well include the Norv/egian and partly the
Swedish) are ahead of most other countries. Principally, Keeper
of Archives Thiset's work on the history of the Danish nobility,
and many excellent treatises on the review of personal biographists
which have appeared since the year 1880, have helped to direct the
genealogical research in this country and in Norway into scientific
channels, and what has been produced in works dealing with gene-
alogical and personal biographies is, in my opinion, better than
anywhere else, both as regards quality and quantity. Here will
98 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
also be found a long and attractive list of family books and an-
cestral tables. Even if genealogical research in a general way is
not a particularly involved thing, it is still necessary to execute
a thorough and correct work, and as an intimate knowledge and
undertaking of the many printed and unprinted sources of infor-
mation can only be obtained by many years experience, it is,
therefore, always an advantage to apply to a reliable expert instead
of meddling in the business oneself. Both money and time will
be thereby saved and often information obtained which otherwise
one would have to go without.
What we especially need in Denmark, from a genealogical point
of view, is a more intensive connection with foreign countries.
Nearly every family spreads its branches over foreign countries;
genealogy is, therefore, in a high degree international, but it is
cultivated as almo.st only national here at home. If a family has
migrated abroad we obtain, as a rule, little information of their
ancestors and easily lose track of the emigrants and their descend-
ants. A closer co-operation between the students of genealogy will
surely be to the advantage of genealogical research in Denmark.
LETTER FROM SIAM 99
LETTER FROM SIAM.
VAJIRA.NANA NATIONAL LIBRARY,
SiR: — I feel greatly honored by your proposal conveyed to me
in your letter of the 27th of April last to contribute to the Congress
of Genealogy, to be held in San Francisco on July 26th, a paper to
be read before the Congress and preserved in its proceedings upon
the genealogy of the Siamese people.
It would have given me pleasure to contribute such a paper to
your proceedings, but your letter reached me too late to make it
possible for me to comply with your wish.
I will only remark that the proper designation of the Siamese
is "Thai," that coming from the borders of China — as can be
proved by legend and language — they extended their dominion
through the valley of the "Menam Chao Phraya" and "'Menam
Kong" down to the Malay Peninsula, with Ligor as the capital,
and as far south as Malacca.
With regard to the question of a pedigree of a well known
Siamese family, I have to point out that a hereditary nobility
does not exist in Siam. The nobility, if so it can be called, is an
official one. Up to two years ago family names, as such, did not
exist among the Siamese ; they have been created by the present
king and it is said will come into general use in two years' time.
I regret that owing to the bad communications at present exist-
ing and the shortness of time, I cannot give you fuller information,
but hold myself at your disposal for anything further you may
wish or I may supply. I have the honor to be
Your very obedient servant,
(Signed) V. Frankfurter.
To the Hon. Henry Byron Phillips,
President California Genealogical Society,
San Francisco, U. S. A.
100 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
PRESIDENT'S COMMEMORATIVE ADDRESS/
By FRANli HERVEY PETTINGELL
PRESIDENT INTERNATIONAL, CONGRESS OF GENE AL,OCiY
We are assembled here this afternoon to participate in the
closing exercises of the International Congress of Genealogy
which has been in session for three days in San Francisco.
The Panama-Pacific International Exposition has recognized
the Congress by giving it a place on the official program. This
recognition is highly prized and will go far toward impressing
this Congress on the memory of every one present.
Our business is finished ; we now want to see the wonders of
this Exposition. I will not attempt any pyrotechnic flight of
oratory; no doubt all the adjectives in the English language have
long ago been exhausted in its praise.
When we disperse todaj^ and you will go your different ways,
I hope you will spread the importance of American Genealogy;
not only as it relates to the past but as to its bearing on the
I take great pleasure in introducing Mr. Colvin B. Brown of
the Panama-Pacifie International Exposition who has a most
pleasant task to perform.
*Deliverecl at the opening of the Commemorative Session, July 31, 1915.
ADDRESS OF WELCOME 101
ADDRESS OF WELCOME.
By COLVIN B. BROW^N
OF THE BOARD OF DIRKCTORS, PAXA.MA-PACIF1C INTKRNATIONAL KXPOSITION.
It is my pleasant privilege today to extend to you a word of
greeting on behalf of the President and Board of Directors of the
Panama-Pacific International Exposition and to present to you a
token of their appreciation at having you with us today as our
very welcome guests.
The builders of the Exposition set for themselves a heavy task
when they undertook to create something that would adequately
celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal. They well under-
stood that in order to meet expectations it w^ould have to be some-
thing more beautiful, more compelling, and grander in every way
than any that had gone before.
So the men who undertook this task gathered to them architects
of international fame, the nation's greatest colorist, the world's
most famous expert on lighting, and a landscape gardener who
had turned the sand dunes at the Golden Gate into a modern
Paradise. And these people and their helpers took the perfect
architecture of Greece, mingled it with the art of Spain's renais-
sance, spilled upon it the color of the Orient, lighted it like an opal
and set it in the midst of a garden of flowers and shrubs and far-
In the meantime emissaries were sent throughout the world who
gathered together exhibits representing the very sum of human
achievements in all that makes for the comfort, the happiness, and
the benefit of mankind.
So here we have this marvelous combination of architecture,
color and light, these palaces filled with the best that man has
wrought, and today it is all at your disposal. We bid you a sincere
welcome to it and express to you our earnest wish that all good
possible may flow to you from contact with, and understanding of,
the feast that has been prepared for you.
There is something more here than the physical evidences that
you will see around you, for those who built the Exposition were
idealists, and they thought this creation of theirs would scarcely
be worth the effort if the Exposition were to die with the destruction
of the buildings. It was their intent that out of all the time and
money and effort something lasting must result if the real mission
of the Exposition were to be fulfilled. And so national and inter-
national congresses, conventions and societies were invited to hold
their meetings here. Eight hundred and thirty-five accepted the
invitation, and these, meeting in these surroundings, studying the
102 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
lessons the exhibits teach and consulting together for the benefit
of that which they represent, are bound to evolve something which,
in the aggregate, will redound to the benefit of all humanity for
The members of the International Genealogical Congress repre-
sent a forward movement in race betterment. You recognize that
you have inherited an obligation from your ancestors that you
must fulfill to the best that is in you, and that you must pass this
down to those who follow after you, to the end that each succeeding
generation, if true to its obligation, will approach nearer and nearer
to the goal of perfect man and womanhood.
So I feel that you represent in the highest way the very spirit
of this great Exposition, and it is an honor to welcome you.
I have here our words of welcome inscribed on imperishable
bronze. May the work you are doing for the uplift of the race
last as long as this endures. Intrinsically it is of small value, but
the spirit in which it is given is great.
ACCEPTANCE OP COiMMEMORATIVE MEDAL 103
RESPONSE AND ACCEPTANCE OF COM-
By HENRY BYRON PHILLIPS
PKESIDENT eALIFORNIA C:ENI':A.LOCiICAL. SOCIETY.
Mr. Colvin B. Brown, representing Mr. Chas. C. Moore, Presi-
dent of the Panama -Pacific International Exposition :
I wish to express the appreciation of the members of this Con-
gress upon the wonderful showing you have made in construction
and equipment of this Exposition; it seems to me that were there
nothing whatever to be seen inside of any building in these grounds
that the wonderful beauty of the exteriors, the magic settings of
flowers and greens, the great transformation of its wonderful even-
ing lights and shadows would be of themselves alone worthy
of a journey from the uttermost parts of the earth simply to enjoy
to the utmost.
You have builded better than you knew, and why have you done
all these things, that would seem almost impossible Avere it not a
glittering truth? Was it for mere material gain to your city and
State? It was not. Was it to celebrate the opening of the Panama
Canal? Many of you no doubt honestly think so. Was it in a
larger way to call attention to the shifting trade currents of the
world, and emphasize the Pacific Coast as the coming future empire
of the world's commercial and industrial activities? Perhaps many
also will assign that as thf reason of its being.
But it seems to those who have come from afar to see the glories
of this Exposition and enjoy the hospitality of its creators that you
yourselves do not grasp the real significance and reason why this
great thing has been so superbly done.
It seems to me, and to others, that it was born of necessity.
Psychologists tell us that we have in our mental makeup certain
emotional functions that tend to produce actions of special char-
acter, technically called by tlieni "\ implexes," that when a certain
"complex" dominates our mind to the exclusion of other things
that we become to an extent insane upon that subject.
Now it appears to me that the overwhelming nature of your
calamity of a few years since so dominated your minds, that you as
a community had an overwhelming "complex" set up in your
minds, that if left undisturbed would have driven you to the
insanity of despair. But here the radiant beauty of that Equili-
brium between Infinite Wisdom and Infinite Power made itself
manifest to preserve the balance in nature, and your minds in-
104 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
stinctively and for self-preservation turned to another "complex"
to safeguard your mentalities from that greater calamity of despair.
This saving "complex" was the thought of this Exposition, little
perhaps at first, but eagerly grasped for by your minds as a balance
and saviour, growing by leaps and bounds; it would not take no
for an answer to anything, it fought the fight of despair to gain
the sanction of Congress, subscribed your material fortunes almost
joyously, overcame all obstacles, designed and builded in the same
compelled mood of mentality, for self-preservation.
The purpose of this International Congress of Genealogy is to
bring in common touch the representatives of the numerous local
kindred organizations that have heretofore been working each in
its own way, in a more or less restricted field, to broaden their
outlook, to avoid duplication of work and thus loss of energy; to
establish uniform system and methods, to memorialize Congress for
the needed legislation to preserve the vital records of this country
in a manner befitting the necessities and intelligence of our people ;
to discourage superficial and inaccurate work; to collect scattered
records of the past from places of danger, decay or other hazard
and cause them to be conserved in safe repositories; to collect and
place at the disposal of all scientific investigation the necessary
vital data upon which they must of necessity build in their efforts
to conserve and improve the human race, and, finally, to lay the
foundation of an International Genealogical Federation, which shall
be an organized body, which shall supervise to a large extent the
activities indicated above and other cognate matters that may be
determined as proper subjects for recognition by the consent of
the bodies embraced in the proposed federation.
It is confidently expected that the stamp of approval of this
federation shall be taken as the final word in such matters.
A few arguments may be briefiy presented to establish the
reasonable and correct understanding of Genealogy.
It is eminently useful to the student of history ; no one can
understand the secret motives or the political manoeuvers of the
the statesmen of Europe, for example, not knowing the relation-
ships of their leading families. Periods whose history is most
complicated, are intelligible only by means of genealogical tables,
for family pride, the love of one's own blood, the reliance upon ties
of kindred have ever exercised a powerful influence. The genealogi-
cal table sometimes comes in to solve, with gratifying simplicity,
these enigmas in political history which, without this aid, would
have been shrouded in complete darkness.
If the genealogy of the royal families and of statesmen must be
ascertained in order to render intelligible the annals of a nation,
so must the relationships of families be made known in order to
explain many of the occurrences in the history of towns and the
country-side. Thus it may be understood that genealogy is the
corner stone of history.
ACCEPTANCE OF COMMEMORATIVE MEDAL 105
The preservation of family history, which is more than a mere
collection of names for the purpose of forming a pedigree, has
come to be regarded as one of the most important parts of the
history of a people. Hitherto history was limited almost exclusively
to governmental and political affairs; the pomp and glitter of
courts, an assumed glory of military achievements, and all the
attendant circumstances of oppressive rule. Hardly a glimpse do
we get of the real life of the people, the men of the mart, the farm
or the factory, or of the women Avhose social and domestic virtues
made possible their orderly lives and gave strength to the nation.
Of these history is almost silent, for it has been written under
the influence of those in power for the most part.
The modern historian is realizing that the history of the people
is an important portion of modern history, and several recent
volumes have been written in which the life story of the men and
women of a period who have been forgotten has been pieced out
scrap by scrap from materials gathered by genealogists from many
scattered sources, to supplement the statecraft history of the past.
No more interesting contributions to literature than these have been
given to modern readers.
Genealogy is essential to family history, and may be called also
the handmaid to history, and the genealogist in his search for
family connections should gather every scrap of interest relating
to the life of those whose genealogies he is seeking to construct.
A family pedigree is valuable, but immensely more so when
associated with the lives of its component members, or as may be
said, clothed with flesh and blood.
No man knows himself so well but that he may learn more by
scanning the lives of his progenitors. The faults, the strength,
the vices, the weakness or the virtue of the father of a family do
not end in himself. Human legislation cannot amend the law that
our children's children shall be the better for our virtues and worse
for our sins. Where can one find a better guide to correct conduct
than in the vital records of his ancestors? This is also a function of
genealogy, a guide to right living.
Further it has been said that "those who care nothing for their
ancestors are wanting in respect for themselves."
Looking at the subject in a large and lofty way I would say
the study of genealogy teaches us to live and so develop the latent
forces for good that are within us that we may be able to make
our ancestors famous — the progenitors of illustrious men and
I am sorry that many of our delegates felt impelled to leave
for their homes, which accounts for the light attendance here today,
but all, whether here or absent, will unite with me to thank the
management of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition for
the many courtesies extended and for the beautiful token of our
visit as embodied in this historic mass of moulded metal, and on
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF GENEALOGY
behalf Of the International Congress of Genealogy I now am pleased
to accept this memento from yo.u- hands, and place it in th^aSTes
and sue Jess '^^'^ '"^ ''' "° ^^^Pi^^tion to future effort
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
3 1197 20964 5479
All library items are subject to recaU 3 weeks from
the original date stamped.
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APR 1 B 7010
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gham Young Univen