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Full text of "Proceedings of the Lake Superior Mining Institute ... annual meeting"

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Proceedings of the Lake Superior 
Mining Institute ... Annual Meeting 

Lake Superior Mining Institute 







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SCIENCE LIBRAKY 

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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

LAKE SUPERIOR 
MINING INSTITUTE 

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

MISSABE RANGE 

AUGUST 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 1913 

VOL. XVllI 



I8HPEMING, MICH. 

PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE 

AT THB OFFICB OF THE 8BCRBTABY 

1913 



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PRESSES OF IRON ORE 
ISHPEMING, MICH. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME XVIII. 

Page. 

Officers of the Institute, 1913 v 

Officers of the Institute, 1914 vi 

List of Standing Committees for year ending 1914 vii 

Members of the Institute, 1913 vili 

Deceased Members xxii 

List of Papers Published In Preceding Numbers xxiii 

List of Meetings of the Institute xxx 

Rules of the Institute 1 

Minutes of the Eighteenth Annual Meeting 6 

Report of the Council 16 

PAPERS. 

Report of Committee on the Practice for the Prevention of Ac- 
cidents 31-37 

Sanitation for Mine Locations, by W. H. Moulton 38-42 

Winoiia Stamp-MIll^ by ft. R. Seeber 43-62 

Safety in the Mines of the Lake Superior Iron Ranges, by Edwin 

Higglns 63-84 

What Our Neighbors Can Do in Mining Iron Ore, by Dwight E. 

Woodbridge 85-89 

Re Lining No. 2 Hamilton Shaft with Reinforced Dividers, End 

Plates and Poured Concrete Walls, by S. W. Tarr 90-102 

Snsgestions on the Application of Efficiency Methods to Mining, 

by C. M. Leonard 103-107 

Mine Laws, Special Rules and the Prevention of Accidents, by 

E. B. Wilson 108-128 

Concentrating at the Madrid Mine, by Benedict Crowell 129-132 

Mining Methods on the Missabe Iron Range, by Committee, con- 
sisting of Willard Bayliss, E. D. McNeil and J. S. Lutes 133-154 

Wash Ores of Western Missabe Range and the Coleraine Con- 
centrating Plant, by John Uno Sebenius 155-186 

The -Application of Mining Machines to V^^^^sround Mining on 

the Mesabi Range, by H. E. Martin and W. J. Kaiser 187-191 

Opening the Leonidas Mine at Eveleth, Minnesota, by H. E. 

Loye 192-210 

The New Change House at Vulcan Mine, by Floyd L. Burr 211-223 

DISCUSSION. 

Of Messrs. Bayliss', McNeil's and Lutes' Paper on Mining Meth- 
ods on the Missabe Iron Range (see p. 133) 227 

Of the Report of Committee on the Practice for the Prevention 

of Accidents (see p. 31) 228 



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IV INDEX TO VOLUME XVlll 

Of Mr. Wilson's Paper on Mine Laws, Special Rules and the 

Prevention of Accidents (see p. 108) 229 

Of Mr. Higgins' Paper on Safety in the Mines of the Lake Su- 
perior Iron Ranges (see p. 63) 231 

Biographical Notices 235-240 

Past Officers of the Institute 241-243 

List of Publications Received by the Institute 244 

Lake Superior Iron Ore Shipments 245 

Picture of Members and Guests in Attendance Frontispiece 

Appendix — Duluth and the Minnesota Iron Ranges by W. W. J. 

Croze, Mining Engineer 1-63 

Map of Minnesota Iron Ranges Following page 32 of Appendix 



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OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 




(Term expires 1913). 
(The &bove officers constitute the council). 



+To fln vacancy of Qraham Pope, deceased. 



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IV 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVIU 



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OFFICERS OF 



■'if^-'- 



1%., «-> a «#«^%«A«A^w *» .... 

(Term expires 1913). 
(The above officers constitute the council). 

f To fill yacancy of Qraham Pope, deceased. 



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IV 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVlll 



i'j? 



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OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



OFFICERS. 

For the Year Ending With the Close of the Annual Meeting, August 

30th, 1913. 

PRESIDENT. 

PENTECOST MITCHELL Duhith, Minn. 

(Term one year). 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

GEO. H. ABEEL Ironwood, Mich. 

+W. P. CHINN McKinley, Minn. 

W. H. JOBE Palatka, Mich. 

(Term expires 1913). 

FRANCIS J. WEBB Duluth, Minn. 

AL D. EDWARDS * Aftlantlc Mine. Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

MANAGERS. 

M. H. GODFREY Coleralne, Minn. 

JAMES E. JOPLING Ishpeming, Mich. 

(Term expires 1913). 

G. S. BARBER Bessemer, Mich. 

WM. H. JOHNSTON Ishpeming, Mich. 

C. H. BAXTER Loretto, Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

TREASURER. 

E. W. HOPKINS Commonwealth, Wis. 

(Term expires 1913). 

SECRETARY. 

A. J. YUNGBLUTH Ishpeming, Mich. 

(Term expires 1913). 
(The above officers constitute the council). 

f To fill vacancy of Graham Pope, deceased. 



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VI OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



OFFICERS. 

The following is list of officers elected at the annual meeting. 
August 30th, 1913, also the officers holding over from the previous 
year which are indicated by ♦. 

PRESIDENT. 

WM. 11. JOHNSTON Ishpeming, Mich. 

(Term one year). 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

♦FRANCIS J. WEBB Duluth, Minn. 

•A. D. EDWARDS Atlantic Mine, Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

CHARLES T. KRUSE Ishpeming, Mich. 

CHARLES E. LAWRENCE^ Palatka, Mich. 

LUTHER C. BREWER ..*..' Ironwood, Mich. 

(Term expires 1915). 

MANAGERS. 

*G. S. BARBER : Bessemer, Mich. 

•CHARLES H. BAXTER Loretto, Mich. 

f STUART R. ELLIOTT Negaunee, Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

W. A. SIEBENTHAL Republic, Mich. 

J. S. LUTES Biwabik, Minn. 

(Term expires 1915). 

TREASURER. 

E. W. HOPKINS Commonwealth, Wis. 

(Term one year). 

SECRETARY. 

A. .T. YUNGBLUTH Ishpeming, Mich. 

(Term one year). 
(The above officers constitute the council). 

•jTo fill vacancy of Wm. H. Johnston, elected to presidency. 



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LIST OF STANDING COMMITTEES VU 



LIST OF STANDING COMMITTEES FOR YEAR 
ENDING 1914. 

PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS. 

C. E. LAWRENCE. Chairman Palatka, Mich. 

1). E. SUTHERLAND Iron Mountain. Mich. 

WM. CONIBEAR Ishpeming, Mich. 

W. H, SCHACHT Painesdale, Mich, 

M. H. GODFREY Virginia, Minn. 

OARE AND HANDLING OF HOISTING ROPES. 

W. A. COLE, Chairman Ironwood, Mich. 

O. D. M'CLURE Ishpeming, Mich. 

J. S. JAOKA Crystal Falls, Mich. 

W. J. RICHARDS Painesdale. Mich. 

A. TANCIG Hibbing, Minn. 

PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

WM. KELLY, Chairman Vulcan, Mich. 

J. H. HEARDING Duluth, Minn. 

F. \V. M'NAIR Houghton, Mich. 

.1. E. JOPLING Ishpeming, Mich. 

P. S. WILLIAMS Ramsay, Mich. 

BUREAU OF MINES. 

M. M. DUNCAN, Chairman Ishpeming, Mich. 

.J. B. COOPER Hubbell, Mich. 

A. J. YUNGBLUTH, Secretary Ishpeming, Mich. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

J. H. HEARDING, Chairman Duluth. Minn. 

J. B. COOPER Hubbell, Mich. 

R, A. DOUGLAS Ironwood, Mich. 

M. B. M'GEE Crystal Falls, M:ch. 

W. H. NEWETT Ishpeming, Mich. 

MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE. 
Committee to consist of three members to be appointed later. 



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Vlll MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 1913. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

DOUGLAS, JAMES 99 John St., New York City 

POMPELLY, RAPHAEL Dublin, N. H. 

VAN HISE, C. R Madison, Wis. 

WINCHELL, N. H 501 East River Road, Minneapolis, Minn. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 

KELLY, WILLIAM Vulcan, Mich. 

SILLIMAN, A. P Hlbbing, Minn. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

ABBOTT, C. E Bessemer, Ala. 

ABEEL, GEORGE H Ironwood, Mich. 

ABEEL, GEO. H., JR Ironwood, Mich. 

ADAMS, DAVID T 516 Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

ADGATE, FREDERICK W 419 Rookery Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

AISHTON, R. H 215 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

ALLEN, R. C Lansing, Mich. 

AMBERG, J. W 1400 Fulton St., Chicago. Ills. 

AMBERG, WILLIAM A 1400 Fulton St., Chicago, Ills. 

ANDREWS, C. E Escanaba, Mich. 

APPLEBY, WILLIAM R School of Mines, Minneapolis, Minn. 

ARMSTRONG, FRANK H Vulcan. Mich. 

ATKINS. SAMUEL E 909 Al worth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

BAER, HENRY L Hancock, Mich. 

BALDWIN, C. KEMBLE 1070 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

BALL, EDWIN Birmingham, Ala. 

BANDLER, ARTHUR S 30 E. 23rd St., New York City 

BARABE, C. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

BARBER, G. S Bessemer. Mich. 

BARBER, MAX H Nashwauk, Minn. 

BARR, J. CARROLL Crosby, Minn. 

BARROWS, WALTER A., JR Bralnerd, Minn. 



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Members of the institute ix 

BATCHELDER, B. W Naahwauk, Minn. 

BAYUSS, WILL/ARD Chisholm, Minn. 

BAXTER, CHARLES HOMER Loretto, Mich. 

BELDEN, WILLIAM P Ishpeming, Mich. 

BENEDICT, C. HARRY Lake Lfnden, Mich. 

BENGRY, WILLIAM H Palatka, Mich. 

BENNETT, R. M 710 Security Bank Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

BINNY. JOSEPH McKinley, Minn. 

BITTCHOFSKY, A. C Cleveland, Ohio. 

BJORK, ARVID Crystal Falls, Mich. 

BLACKWELL, FRANK Ironwood, Mich. 

BOLEY. W. E Baltic, Mich. 

BOLLES. FRED R Houghton, Mich. 

BOND, WILLIAM Ironwood, Mich. 

BONE, ALFRED Princeton, Mich. 

BOSS. CLARENCE M '..200 Wolvin Bidg., Duluth, Minn. 

BOWDEN. RICHARD Trimountain, Mich. 

BOWEN. REUBEN Pittsburg, Pa. 

BOWERS, E. C Iron River, Mich. 

BRiADT, E. F Jones & Laughlin Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

BRADY, SAMUEL Rockland, Mich. 

BREITUNG, EDWARD N Marquette, Mich. 

BRETT, HENRY Calumet, Mich. 

BRETTING, R. C Ashland, Wis. 

BREWER, CARL Ironwood, Mich. 

BREWER, LUTHER C Ironwood, Mich. 

BRIGHAM, E. D 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

BROWN, JOHN JACOB Carteret, N. J. 

BURDORF, HARRY A 2316 Garfield Ave., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

BURNHAM, R 936 Metropolitan Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

BURR. FLOYD L Vulcan, Mich. 

BURT. JOHN H Virginia, Minn. 

BUSH, JOHN M Iron River, Mich. 

BUSH, E. G 909 Alworth Bldg., Duiuth, Minn. 

BYRNE, S. E Houghton, Mich. 

CADDY, THOMAS Hibbing, Minn. 

CAINE, D. T Gilbert, Minn. 

CAIRNS, FREDERICK I Houghton, Mich. 

CALVERLEY, W. D Houghton, Mich. 

CAMERON, ALLEN Calumet, Mich. 

CAMPBELL, D. H Iron River, Mich. 

CARBIS, FRANK Iron Mountain; Mich. 

CARMICHAEL, WILLIAM Biwabik, Minn. 

CARNAHAN, ARTHUR L 101 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

CARROL, MICHAEL J Houghton, Mich. 

CARSON, JOHN A Appleton, Wis. 



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X MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

CARTER, RAYMOND B 301 W. Randolph St., Chicago, Ills. 

CASH, F. H Kinney, Minn. 

CHAMPION, CHARLES Beacon, Mich. 

CHAMPION, JOHN Humboldt, Mich. 

CH ANNING, J. PARKE 42 Broadway New York City 

CHARLTON, WILLIAM H...901 Buena Vista St., San Antonia, Texas 

CHASE, PHILO P Ishpeming, Mich. 

CHEYNEY. H. C 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

CHINN, WILLIAM P MoKlnley, Minn. 

CHR'ISTENSEN, GEORGE L Houghton, Mich. 

CHRISTIANSON, PETER Minneapolis, Minn. 

CHURCH, EDWARD Marquette, Mich. 

CHYNOWETH, B. F Houghton, Mich. 

CHYNOWETH, JAMES Calumet, Mich. 

CLARK, WESLEY Copper Falls, Mich. 

CLARK, KIMBALL Kimball, Wis. 

CLIFFORD, J. M '. Escanaba, Mich. 

COKEFAIR FRANK A Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

COLE, THOMAS F Duluth, Minn. 

COLE, WILLIAM T Ishpeming, Mich. 

COLE, CHARLES D Ishpeming, Mich. 

COLE, WILLIAM A Ironwood, Mich, 

COLE, WILLIAM H 713 Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

COLEMAN, MILTON W Virginia, Minn. 

COMSTOOK. HENRY Mineville, New York 

COMSTOCK, EHLING H Minneapolis, Minn. 

COOK, CHARLES W Economics Bldg., U of M„ Ann Arbor, Mich. 

CONIBEAR, WILLIAM Ishpeming, Mich. 

CONNORS, THOMAS Negaunee, Mich. 

CONOVER, A. B 171 Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

COOPER, CLAUDE H Hancock, Mich. 

COOPER, JAMES B Hubbell, Mich. 

COPELAND, FRANKLIN Vulcan, Mich. 

CORY, EDWIN N Negaunee, Mich. 

COVENTRY, F. L Hibblng, Minn. 

COYNE, WILLIAM Wilmington, Del. 

CRAM, FRED W Nashwauk, Minn. 

CROSBY, GEO. H Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

CROWELL, BENEDICT Cleveland, Ohio 

CUNDY, H. J Iron Ridge, Dodge Co., Wis. 

CUNNINGHAM, MARK H Freda, Mich. 

DALTON, H. G Cleveland, Ohio 

DAUME, PEERLESS P Painesdale, Mich. 

DAVEY, THOMAS H Eveleth, Minn. 

DAVIDSON, O. C Iron Mountain, Mich. 

DAVIDSON, WARD F Iron Mountain, Mich. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XI 

DAVIS, W. J Verona, Mich. 

DEAN, DUDLEY S 87 Milk St, Boston, Mass. 

DEB, JAMES R Houghton, Mich. 

DEHAAS, NATHAN G Marquette, Mich. 

DENTON, F. W Painesdale, Mich. 

DESOLIiAR, T. C Hancock, Mich. 

DESROCHERS, GEORGE E 157 Montezuma St., Houghton, Mich. 

DICKERMAN, ALTON L 70 State St., Boston, Mass. 

DIEHL, ALFRED S Coleraine, Minn. 

DIEHL, G. E 607 Wolvln Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

DONAHUE, E. J. W 416-17 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

DONOVAN. PERCY W Bralnerd, Minn. 

DORMER. GEORGE H Eveleth, Minn. 

DOUGLAS, ROBERT A Ironwood, Mich. 

DOW, HERBERT W Milwaukee, Wis. 

DRAKE, FRANK 79 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

DRAKE, JOHN M , Hibbing, Minn. 

DUDLEY, HARRY C 807 Lonsdale BMg., Duluth, Minn. 

DUNCAN, MURRAY M Ishpeming, Mich. 

DUNSTER, CARL B Marquette, Mich. 

EATON, LUCIEN Ishpeming, Mich. 

ECKSTROM, ALEXANDRE J Keewatin, Minn. 

EDWARDS, A. D Atlantic, Mich. 

EISELE, GEORGE J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

ELLIOTT MARK Virginia, Minn. 

ELLIOTT, STUART R Negaunee, Mich. 

EMMONS, WILLIAM H Minneapolis, Minn. 

ERICKSON, CARL E Ironwood, Mich. 

ESSELSTYN, J. N Sugar Loaf, Colo. 

FACKENTHAL, B. F., JR Riegelsville, Pa. 

FAIRBAIRN, CHARLES T Woodward Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 

PAIRCHILD, DAVID L 616 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

PARRELL, AUSTIN Marquette, Mich. 

PAY, JOSEPH : Marquette, Mich. 

PELCH. THEODORE A Ishpeming, Mich. 

FEIJ.OWS, OTIS D, JR Redridge, Mich. 

FELVER, HOWARD C Houghton, Mich. 

FERGUSON. J. A 316 W. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

FESING, HERMAN W Houghton, Mich. 

FISHER, HENRY Lake Linden, Mich. 

FISHER, JAMES, JR Houghton, Mich. 

FISH WICK, EDWARD T 60th & Greenfield Aves., Milwaukee, Wis. 

FITCH, WALTER Eureka, Utah 

FLANNIGAN, THOMAS A Gilbert, Minn. 

FLODIN, NELS P. Marquette, Mich. 



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XH MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

FOOTE, GEORGE C Port Henry, New York 

FORBES, GUY R 329 Hemlock St., Virginia, Minn. 

FORMIS, ANDRE Ojibway, Mich. 

POX, M. J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

FRASBR, WILLIAM H Crystal Falls, Mich. 

GARDNER, OCTAVE D Calumet, Mich. 

GARDNER, W. A 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

GAY, JOSEPH E 15 William St., New York City 

GAYNOR, WILLIAM E Duluth, Minn. 

GHOLZ, ARTHUR L Hibbing, Minn. 

GIBSON, WILLIAM M Calumet, Mich. 

GIBSON, T. THOBURN Amasa, Mich. 

GILCHRIST, J. D 1405 Downing St., Denver, Colo. 

GISH, JOHN R Beaverdam, Wis. 

GLASS, PRANK A Bralnerd, Minn. 

GODFREY, M. H Virginia, Minn. 

GOODALE, G. S Houghton, Mich. 

GOODELL, H. S Painesdale, Mich. 

GOODMAN, FRANK B Hurley, Wis. 

GOODSELL, B. W 20 S. Canal St., Chicago, Ills. 

GOODNEY, S. .J Stambaugh, Mich. 

GOUDIE, JAMES Ironwood, Mich. 

GOULD, E P Cincinnati, Ohio 

GOW, ALEXANDER M Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

GRAFF. W. W Ishpemlng, Mich. 

GRABOWSKY, CHARLES Virginia, Minn. 

GRANT, B. F 625 W. 41st Drive, Los Angeles, California 

GRIERSON, EDWARD S ...Calumet, Mich. 

GRIBBLE, SAMUEL J Ironwood, Mich. 

HALLER, FRANK H Osceola, Mich. 

HALLINGBY, OLE Calumet, Mich. 

HALLODAY, FRED H Hibbing, Minn. 

HAMPTON, H. C 165 Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

HANNA, L. C Cleveland, Ohio 

HARDENBURG, L. M Hurley, Wis. 

HARRIS, H. R Marquette. Mich. 

HARRIS, JOHN L Hancock, Mich. 

HARRIS, S. B Hancock, Mich. 

HARRIS, S. T Houghton, Mich. 

HARRISON. G. E Hibbing. Minn. 

HARTLEY. G. G Duluth, Minn. 

HARVEY. W. H Eveleth. Minn. 

HAYDEN, GEORGE S Ishpemlng, Mich. 

HiAYDEN. J. ELZEY Ishpemlng, Mich. 

HEARDING, JOHN H ^ Duluth, Minn. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE Xlll 

HEARLBY. MICHAEL T , Cleveland, Ohio 

HEATH, GEORGE L ...'. Hubbell, Mich. 

HEQGATON, WM. S Negaunee, Mich. 

HEIM. HARRY R 936 Metropolitan Life Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

HELPS, S. E '. Eveleth, Minn. 

HELMBR, CHESTER E Escanaba, Mich. 

HENDRIOK, C. E Virginia, Minn. 

HENDERSON, ENOCH Houghton, Mich. 

HEYN, HOWARD A Ishpeming, Mich. 

HIOKOK, ELBERT, E 137 E. Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

HICKS, B. W Warren, Ills. 

HIGGINS, EDWIN Ironwood, Mich. 

HILL, STACEY H Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

HINE, S. K Girard, Ohio 

HINGSTON, E. C 707 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

HITCHENS, JOHN H Iron Mountain, Mich. 

HOATSON, THOMAS Laurium, Mich. 

HOOKING, RICHARD O Keewatin. Minn. 

HODGE, JOHN E Marquette, Mich. 

HODGE, RICHARD Hibbing, Minn. 

HODGSON, JOSEPH Bisbee, Arizona 

HODGSON, J. H Houghton, Mich. 

HOLLEY, CARLOS E Bessemer, Mich. 

HOLLEY, A. B Virginia, Minn. 

HOLMAN, J. W1NCHESTEJR....1420 Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

HOLTHOPP, HENRY C Riverside, 111. 

HONNOLD, W. L Box 2209 Johannesburg, South Africa 

HOOD, O. P Pittsburg, Pa. 

HOOSE, J. WILLIAM Iron Mountain, Mich. 

HOPKINS, E. W... Commonwealth, Wis. 

HORE, REGINALD E Houghton, Mich. 

HOUSE, ALLAN C Cleveland, Ohio 

HOVLAND, JOSEPH T Hibbing. Minn. 

HUBBARD, LUCIUS L Houghton, Mich. 

HUHTALA, JOHN - Palmer, Mich. 

HULST, HARRY T Ishpeming, Mich. 

HULST. NELSON P 300 Knapp St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

HUNNER, EARL E .010 Sellwood Bldg, Duluth, Minn. 

HUNTER, ROY D 1500 Railway Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

HURTER. CHARLES S DuPont Bldg , Wilmington, Del. 

IMHOFP, WALLACE G 6805 Penn. Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. 

IRELAND, JAMES D 701 Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

JACKA, JOSIAH S Crystal Falls, Mich. 

JACKSON, C Madison, Wis. 

JACKSON, GEORGE R Princeton, Mich. 



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XIV MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

JACKSON, FRANK W Market and Randolph Sts., Chicago. Ills. 

JANSON, F. A Norway, Mich. 

JENKS, C. O Superior, Wis. 

JETTNER, AUGUST R. 171 W. .Randolph St., Chicago, Ills. 

JEWELL, SAMUEL Negaunee, Mich. 

JEWETT, NORMAN R Laurium, Mich. 

JEWETT, FRANK G 2105 S. Humboldt Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

JOBE, WILLIAM H Palatka, Mich. 

JOHNSON, R. M Greenland, Mich. 

JOHNSON, EDWIN F Virginia, Minn. 

JOHNSON. O. MARTIN Ishpeming, Mich. 

JOHNSON. HENRY O Virginia, Minn. 

JOHNSON, NELS Keewatin, Minn. 

JOHNSTON, WILLIAM H Ishpeming, Mich. 

JOHNSTONE, ORLAND W Duluth, Minn. 

JOLLY, JOHN Painesdale, Mich. 

JONES, B. W Vulcan, Mich. 

JOPLING, ALFRED O Marquette, Mich. 

JOPLING, JAMES E Ishpeming, Mich. 

JOPLING, M. W Marquette, Mich. 

JORY, WILLIAM Princeton, Mich. 

KARKEET, J. H Iron Mountain. Mich. 

KAUFMAN. HARRY L Marquette, Mich. 

KEARNEY, F. H Ironwood, Mich. 

KEAST, WILLIAM J Houghton, Mich. 

KEESE. FRANK E Ishpeming, Mich. 

KENNEDY, F. A Hibbing, Minn. 

KIEREN, JOSEPH Gilbert, Minn. 

KING, ROBERT Hurley, Wis. 

KIRKPATRICK. J. CLARK Escanaba, Mich. 

KITTS, THOMAS J Houghton, Mich. 

KLEFFMAN, JOHN Hibbing, Minn. 

KLINGLUND, F. D Palmer, Mich. 

KNAPP, GEO. F G02 Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

KNIGHT, J. B Norway, Mich. 

KNIGHT, R. C Eveleth, Minn. 

KNOX, JOHN JR Calumet, Mich. 

KOEPEL, ED Beacon Hill, Mich. 

KRUSE, CHARLES T Ishpeming, Mich. 

KURTZMAN, P. L McKinley, Minn. 

LADD. DAVID H HubbeP, Mich. 

LAIST, ALEXANDER Hancock, Mich. 

LAMBRIX, MICHAEL Hurley, Wis. 

LAMONT, JOHN D Virginia, Minn. 

LANE, ALFRED C Tuf*s College, Mass. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XV 

LANG, 8. S Houghton. Mich. 

LAROCHELLE. LOUIS Houghton, Mich. 

LARSSON, PER Striburg, Sweden 

LA RUB, WILLIAM G 1504 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

LASIER. F. G Birmingham, Mich. 

LATHAM, ARTHUR M Hibbing, Minn. 

LAWRENCE, CHARLES E Palatka, Mich. 

LAWTON. CHARLES L Hancock, Mich. 

LEACH, EDWARD J Hancock, Mich. 

LEOPOLD, N. F 108 Dearborn St., Chicago, Ills. 

LETZ, JOHN F GC2 12th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

LIBBY, DR, E. M Iron River, Mich. 

LINDB^RG, JOHN FREDERICK Hibbing, Minn. 

LINN. A. E Norway, Mich 

LINSLEY, W. B Escanaba. Mich 

LOCHER, W. H Duluth, Minn. 

LONGYEAR, E. J 710 Security Bank Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

LONGYEAR, J. M Marquette, Mich. 

LONSTORF, GEORGE J 2301 Grand Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

LOOK, WILLIAM F Panama City, Fla. 

LOUDENBACK, CLYDE 1 228 W. Randolph St., Chicago, Ills. 

LUKEY. FRANK Hurley, Wis. 

LUTES, J. S Biwabik, Minn. 

LUXMORE, THOMAS L Iron Mountain, Mich. 

LYNCH, THOMAS F Houghton, Mich 

MAAS, ARTHUR E 352 29th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

MAAS, GEORGE J Negaunee, Mich. 

MACE. ROBERT E Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

MACKILLICAN, JAMES A Hibbing, Minn. 

MACNAUGHTON, JAMES Calumet, Mich. 

MACOMBER, F. B No. 507 S. Clinton St., Chicago, Ills. 

MANVILLE, T. F Madison Ave. and 41st Street, New York City 

MARS, WILLIAM P.» Duluth, Minn. 

MARTIN, ALFRED Virginia, Minn. 

MATHER, S. LIVINGSTON Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

MATHER, WILLIAM G Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

MATTHEWS. WILLIAM C Wilmington, Del. 

MEADS, ALEXANDER P Marquette, Mich. 

MERCER, HARRY T Painesdale, Mich. 

MEUCHE, A. H Houghton, Mich. 

MEYERS, WILLIAM R Princeton, Mich. 

MIDDLEMISE, BRUCE A Hibbing, Minn. 

MILLAR. JOHN M Escanaba, Mich. 

MILLER, L. B Wade Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

MILLS, FRANK P Kimberley. Nevada 

MITCHELL, PENTECOST Duluth, Minn. 



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XVI MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

MITCHELL, R. J Eveleth, Minn. 

MITCHELL, WILLIAM A 16th and Rockwell Sts., Chicago, Ills. 

MITCHELL, SAMUEL J Marquette. Mich. 

MITCHELL, HAROLD E Eve^^eth, Minn. 

MOELLER, FRANKLIN 42 Chapman Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

MONROE, W. G Iron Mountain, Mich. 

MOORE, C. F 920 Newhouae Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah 

MOORE, CLARENCE E Virginia, Minn. 

MORGAN, DAVID T Detroit, Mich. 

MORRIS, CHARLES S 2232 E. First St., Duluth, Minn. 

MO WATT, NEVILLE P ....3rd Ave. and Michigan St., Duluth, Minn. 

MULLEN. THOMAS M Houghton. Mich. 

MUNGER, CHARLES H Duluth, Minn. 

MUNROE, HENRY S Columbia University, New York City 

MURRAY, ROBERT Hibbing, Minn. 

MYERS, ALBERT J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

M'CLURE, O. D Ishpeming, Mich. 

M'CORMICK, EDWARD Negaunee, Mich. 

M'DONALD, D. B Duluth, Minn, 

M'DOWELL, JOHN Hibbing, Minn. 

M'GEE, M. B Crystal Falls. Mich. 

M'GONAGLE, WILLIAM A Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

M'GREGOR, SILAS J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

M'INDOE, JAMES A Norway, Mich. 

M'INTYRE, JOHN E Nogales, Arizona 

M'LAUGHLIN. W. J Loretto, Mich. 

MT.EAN, JOHN H Duluth, Minn. 

M*LEAN, RICHARD EARLE Wells, Delta Co., Mich. 

M'NAMARA, THOMAS B Ironwood, Mich. 

M'NAIR, F. W Houghton, Mich. 

M'NEIL, E. D Virginia, Minn. 

M'RANDLE. WILLIAM E. R Bessemer, Mich. 

NELSON, S, T 1170 W. Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

NEWBY, WILLIAM PuriUn P. O., N. Ironwood. Mich. 

NEWETT, GEORGE A -.Ishpeming, Mich. 

NEWETT, W. H Ishpeming, Mich. 

NEWTON, L. L 1324 La Salle Ave., Chicago,. Ills. 

NICHOLAS, THOMAS J Palmer, Mich. 

NICHOLS, F. W Houghton, Mich. 

NICKERSON, H. F Houghton, Mich. 

NIXON, JOHN A Ishpeming, Mich. 

NOBLE, THOMAS H Marquette, Mich. 

NOETZEL, BENJAMIN D Trimountain, Mich. 

OBERG, ANTON C Hibbing, Minn. 

OLCOTT, WILLIAM J Duluth, Minn. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XVll 

ORBISON, THOMAS W Appleton, Wis. 

ORR, FRANK D Lyceum, Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

OSBORN, CHASE S Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

OVERPECK, HOLLIS W Box 617, Virginia, Minn. 

PAINE, W. A 82 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

PAINE. FRANCIS W Houghton, Mich. 

PARKER, RICHARD A 929 Foster Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

PASCOE. PETER W Republic, Mich. 

PATRICK, RICHARD S 314-15 Sellwood Block, Duluth, Minn. 

PELLJNG. WILLIAM F. J Carson Lake, Minn. 

PENGILLY, EDWARD Crystal Falls, Mich. 

PENMMAN, DWIGHT C Clin'ton Hotel, Minneapolis Minn. 

PENTON, JOHN A Iron Trade Review, Cleveland, Ohio 

PERKINS, SAMUEL J Ironwood, Mich. 

PETERSON, A. Y Chisholm, Minn. 

PHILBIN, DONALD M 408 Sellwood Bldg.. Duluth, Minn. 

PHILLIPS, W. G Calumet, Mich. 

PITKIN, S. H 682 W. Market St., Akron, Ohio 

POTTER, OCHA Houghton, Mich. 

POWELL, D. W Marquette, Mich. 

PRESCOTT, FRED M Oregon St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

PRESCOTT, L. L Menominee, Mich. 

PRYOR, R, C Houghton, Mich. 

PURSELL, H. E Kewanee, Illinois 

QUIGLEY, G. J Antigo, Wis. 

QUINE, JOHN THOMAS 413 Vine St., Ishpeming, Mich. 

QUINN, CLEMENT KRUSE Virginia, Minn. 

RAHT, CHARLES ^9 Broadway, New York City 

RAISKY, F. H Ishpoming, Mich. 

RALEY, ROBERT J Spalding Hotel, Duluth, Minn. 

RANKIN, WILLIAM A Painesdale, Mich. 

RASHLEIGH. WILLIAM J Aurora, Minn. 

RAYMOND, HENRY A Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

REDFERN, JOHN A Hibbing, Minn. 

REDNER, A. E 21G Aurora location, Ironwood, Mich. 

REEDER, J. T Houghton, Mich. 

REEDER, EDWIN C 1917 Fisher Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

REEDEiR, J. H Houghton, Mich. 

REHFUSS. LOUIS I LaCrosse, Wis. 

REIGART, JOHN R Princeton, Mich, 

REIFEL, H. T Nashwauk, Minn. 

REYNOLDS, M. K 430 E. Arch St., Marquette, Mich. 

RICE, CLAUDE T 1420 Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

RICE. JOHN H Houghton, Mich. 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM J Crystal Falls, Mich. 



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XVlll MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

RICHARDS, MORRIS EARL Virginia. Minn. 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM J Paitiesdale, Mich. 

RICHEY. E. W 211 Railway Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

RIDLEY, FREDERICK WILLIAM Calumet, Mich. 

ROBERTS, HARRY Duluth, Minn. 

ROBERTS, ALTON T Marquette, Mich. 

ROBERTSON, HUGH J Escanaba, Mich. 

ROHN. OSCAR Butte, Mont 

ROSE, R. S Marquette, Mich. 

ROSKILLY, JOSEPH Virginia, Minn. 

ROUCHLBAU, LOUIS Minneapolis, Minn. 

ROUGH, JAMES H Negaunee, Mich. 

ROWE, HENRY Ironwood, Mich. 

ROWE, WM. C Bessemer. Mich. 

RUEZ, GEORGE F Ishpeming, Mich. 

RUMSEY, SPENCER S 610 Wolvin Bldg.. Duluth, Minn. 

RUNDLE, A. J Iron Mountain. Mich. 

RYAN, JOHN A Iron Mountain, Mich. 

SALSICH, L. R Coleraine, Minn. 

SCADDEN, FRANK Crystal Falls, Mich. 

SCHACHT, WILLIAM H Painesdale, Mich. 

SCHLESINGER H. J Milwaukee, Wis. 

SCHUBERT, GEORGE P Hancock, Mich. 

SEAMAN, A. E Houghton,' Mich. 

SEBENIUS, JOHN UNO Wolvin Bldg.. Duluth, Minn. 

SEEBER, R. R Winona, Mich. 

SEELYE, R. W Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 

SELLS, MAX Florence, Wis. 

SELLWOOD, R. M Duluth, Minn. 

SENTER, A. W Hubbell, Mich. 

SHELDEN, R. SKIFF Houghton, Mich. 

SHELDON, ALBERT F 112 N. Arch St., Marquette, Mich. 

SHERLOCK, THOMAS Escanaba, Mich. 

SHERRERD, JOHN M 340 Spring Garden St.. Easton, Pa. 

SHIELDS, IRVIN J Houghton. Mich. 

SHOVE, BRIGHAM W Ironwood, Mich. 

SIEBENTHAL, W. A Republic, Mich. 

SILL, GEO. A 504 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

SILLIMAN, THOMAS B Coleraine. Minn. 

SILVER, C. R 29 W. Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

SIMMONS, CHARLES Beacon. Mich. 

SKINNER, MORTIMER B. 558 5(50 W. Washington Blvd.. Chicago, Ills. 

SLINEY, DAVID J Ishpeming, Mich. 

SMITH, FRED Kearsarge, Mich. 

SMITH, WILLARD J Mohawk, Mich. 

SMITH, CARL G Kearsarge, Mich. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XIX 

SMITH, ALFRED L Wakefield, Mich. 

SMYTH, H. L Rotch Bldg., Cambridge, Mass. 

SOADY, HARRY Duluth, Minn. 

SPARKS, BENJAMIN F 205 Ruby St., Houghton, Mich. 

SPERR. F. W Houghton. Mich. 

STAKEL, CHARLES J Ishpeming, Mich. 

STANTON, F. McM 208 5th Ave., New York City 

STANTON, J. R 11 William St., New York City 

STEPHENS, JAMES Ishpeming, Mich. 

STEVENS, THOMAS J Ironwood, Mich. 

STOEK, H. H University of Illinois, Urbana, Ills. 

STRONG, CLARENCE G Cincinnati, Ohio 

SUESS, JOSEPH E Negaunee, Mich. 

SULLIVAN, A. J Chisholm, Minn. 

SUTHERLAND, D. E Ironwood, Mich. 

SWIFT, GEORGE D Duluth, Minn. 

SWIFT, PAUL D Houghton, Mich. 

TALBOYS, HENRY H 717 Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

TANCIG, A Hibbing, Minn. 

TAPPAN, WILLIAM M Hibbing, Minn. 

TARR, S. W 610 Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

TAYLOR. JAMES HALL Box 485, Chicago, Ills. 

THIEMAN EDWARD Florence, Wis. 

THOMAS, KIRBY 505 Pearl St., New York City 

THOMS, REUBEN KNIGHT Ely, Minn. 

THOMPSON, CARMI A Room 222, G. N. Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

THOMPSON, G H '. Hibbing, Minn. 

THOMPSON, HENRY S Beacon, Mich. 

THOMPSON, JAMES R Ishpeming, Mich. 

TOWNSEND, C. V. R Negaunee, Mich. 

TRAVER, WILBER H Fisher Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

TREBILCOCK, JOHN Ishpeming, Mich. 

TREBILCOCK, WILLIAM North Freedom, Wis. 

TREPANIER, HENRY Iron Mountain, Mich. 

TREZONA, CHARLES Ely, Minn. 

TREVARROW. HENRY Negaunee, Mich. 

TREVARTHAN, W. J Bessemer, Mich. 

TRIPP, CHESTER D 1515 Corn Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

TRUDGEON, JOHN Wakefield, Mich. 

TUBBY. CHARLES W Voj Commerce Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

TUFTS, JOHN W 900 Hackett Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

TURNER, CHAS. N Colby-Abbott Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

UHLER, FRED WALTER Buhl, Minn. 

ULRICH, WILLIAM F Chisholm, Minn, 

UREN, WILLIAM J 124 College Ave., Houghton, Mich. 



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XX MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

VALLAT, BENJAMIN W Ironwood. Mich. 

VAN DYKE. W. D Milwaukee, Wis. 

VANDEVENTER, VIVIAN H Ishpemlng, Mich. 

VAN EVERA, JOHN R Marquette. Mich. 

VAN EVERA, WILBUR Virginia, Minn. 

VAN MATER, J. A 55 Wall St., New York City 

VAN ORDEN, F. L Houghton, Mich. 

VILAS, P. M. . . I 425 New York Life Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

VILAS, ROYAL L Ishpemlng, Mich. 

VIVIAN, JAMES G 909 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

VOGEL, P. A 25 Broad St., New York City 

WADE, JEPTHA H Wade Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

WAGNER, JOHN M Houghton, Mich. 

WALKER, ROBERT S Fidelity Bldg., Duluth. Minn. 

WALKER, ELTON WILLARD Mass, Mich. 

WALL, JAMES S Iron River, Mich. 

WALLACE. W. R Houghton, Mich. 

WALLACE GEORGE Marquette, Mich. 

WARE, JOHN FRANKLIN Forest and Five Oaks Ave., Dayton, O. 

WARE, FRED Negaunee, Mich. 

WARREN, O. B Hlbblng, Minn. 

WARRINER, S. D Wllkesbarre, Pa. 

WATSON, CHARLES H Crystal Falls, Mich. 

WEARNE, WILLIAM Hlbblng, Minn. 

WEBB, FRANCIS J 812 Fidelity Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WEBB. WALTER M • OUbtert, Minn. 

WELLS, PEARSON Ironwood, Mich. 

WENGLER, MATT P 1055 Cambridge Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

WESSINGER, W. E 610 Wolvln Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WEST, WILLIAM J Hlbblng, Minn. 

WHEELWRIGHT, O. W Florence, Wis. 

WHITE, V/ILLIAM Virginia, Minn. 

WHITE, EDWIN E Ishpemlng, Mich. 

WHITE, J. W 1905 E. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

WHITEHEAD, R. G Amasa, Mich. 

WHITESIDE, DR. JOHN W Ironwood, Mich. 

WILCOX, LEE L Gilbert, Minn. 

WILLARD, PAUL D Hlbblng, Minn. 

WILLEY, NORMAN W Hlbblng, Minn. 

WILKINS, WILLIAM Detroit, Mich. 

WILLIAMS, THOMAS H Ely, Minn. 

WILLIAMS, PERCIVAL S Ramsay, Mich. 

WILLIAMS, DEAN R 1213 Majestic Bldg, Milwaukee, Wis. 

WILSON, EUGENE B Scranton, Pa. 

WILSON, ARTHUR O Hlbblng, Minn. 

WINCHELL, HORACE V 505 Palace Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XXI 

WINTER, JOSEPH H Negaunee, Mich. 

WITHERBEE, P. S Port Henry, New York 

WOOOBRIDGE. DWIGHT E Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WOOr>WORTH, G. L Iron River. Mich. 

WOOIXWORTH, R. B 42T Carnegie Bldf., Pittsburg, Pa. 

WOOLP, PERCIVAL J Minneap^is, Minn. 

^WORDEN, EUCLID P 571 Summtt Ave., MU'waukee, Wla. 

YATES, W^ILLIAM H ..Negaunee, MtelL 

YOUNO. H. OLJN Ishpemlng,. McIl 

YOUNGS, FRANK W Iron River, Mich. 

YOUNGS, G. W Iron River, Mfehu 

YUNGBLUTH, A. J laHpemtog; Mich. 

ZAPP^FE, CARL 213 Citizens State Bank Bldg,, Brainerd, Minn. 

ZIMMERMAN, WALTER G Duluth, Mian. 



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XXll 



DECEASED MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 



ARMSTRONG, J. F 1898 

BAWDEN, JOHN T 1899 

BENNETT, JAMES H 

BIRKHEAD, LENNOX ....1911 

BROOKS, T. B 1902 

BULLOCK, M. C 1899 

COWLING, NICHOLAS ...1910 

CONRO, ALBERT 1901 

CLEAVES, WILL S 1910 

CHADBOURNE. T. L 1911 

CUMMINGS, GEO. P 1911 

DANIELS, JOHN 1398 

DICKENSON, W. E 1899 

DOWNING, W. H 1906 

DUNCAN, JOH.V 1904 

DUNSTON, THOMAS B 

GARBBRSON, W. R 1908 

HALL, CHAS. H 1910 

HARPER, GEORGE V 1905 

HASELTON, H. S 1911 

HAYDEN, GEORGE 1902 

HINTON, FRANCIS 1896 

HOLLAND, JAMES 1900 

HOLLER, S. H 1899 

HOUGHTON, JACOB 1903 

HYDE, WELCOME 

JEFFREY, WALTER M.. .1906 

JOCHIM, JOHN W 1905 

KRUSE, JOHN C 1907 



LUSTFIELD. A 1904 

LYON, JOHN B 1900 

MAAS, WM. J 1911 

MARR, GEORGE A 1905 

MILLER, A. M 1912 

MITCHELL, SAMUEL ....1908 

M'VICHIE, D 1906 

NINBSE, EDMUND 1909 

OLIVER. HENRY W 1904 

PEARCE, H. A 1905 

PERSONS, GEORGE R....1908 

POPE, GRAHAM 1912 

ROBERTS, E. S 

ROWE, JAMES 1911 

RYAN. EDWARD 1901 

SHEPHARD, AMOS ......1905 

STANLAKE, JAMES 1910 

STANTON, JOHN 190G 

STEVENS, HORACE J.... 1912 

STURTEVANT, H. B 1910 

THOMAS, HENRY 1905 

TOBIN, JAMES 1912 

TREVARTHEN, G. C 1898 

TRUSCOTT, HENRY 1910 

VAN DYKE, JOHN H 1906 

WALLACE. JOHN 1898 

WHITE. PETER 1908 

WHITNEY, J. D 1894 

WILLIAMS, W. H 1897 



LIST OF DECEASED MEMBERS REPORTED SINCE THE ANNUAL 
MEETING OF 1912. 

CLARK, H. S 

KOENIG, GEORGE A January 14th, 1913. 

THOMAS, WILLIAM ...'. 

M'NAMARA, T October 26th, 1912 

MINER,. A. B January 12th, 1913 

PEACON, JOHN May 15, 1913 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXlll 



LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING 
VOLUMES. 



1893— Vol. L 

Page. 
Soft Ore Mining on Lake Superior, by Per Larsson 13 

The Geology of that Portion of the Menominee Range, East 

of the Menominee River, by Nelson P. Hulst 19 

1894— Vol. II. 

Historical Address of the Retiring President, .Nelson P. Hulst. . 11 

Curvature of Diamond Drill Holes, by J. Parke Channing 23 

Historical Sketch of the Discovery of Mineral Deposits in the 

Lake Superior Region, by H. V. Winchell 33 

Partial Bibliography of the History of Mining on Lake Superior, 

by H. V. Winchell 71 

Two New Geological Cross-Sections of Keweenaw Point, With 
a Brief Description of the Main Geological Features of 

the Copper Range, by L. L. Hubbard 79 

Ore Dressing on Lake Superior, by F. F. Sharpless 97 

Sinking "C" Shaft at the West Vulcan Mine, Mich., by Wil- 
liam Bond 105 

A Pocket Stop, by William Kelly Ill 

1895— Vol. m. 

The Iron Ranges of Minnesota, Prepared as a Guide for Third 

Annual Meeting, by H. V. Winchell 11 

Mine Accidents — ^Address of the Retiring President, J. Parke 

Channing 34 

Distribution of Phosphorus and System of Sampling at the Pe- 

wabic Mine, Michigan, by E. F. Brown 49 

Efficiencies of Some Pumping Plants on the Menominee Range, 

Michigan, by Per Larsson 56 

Additional Pumping Data, Cleveland Iron Mining Co., by F. 

P. Mills 63 

The New Pumping Plant of the Stirling Iron & Zinc Co., New 

Jersey (Including results of an official duty test), by J. 

Parke Channing 64 

The Hoisting Plant of the Lake Mine, Cleveland Iron Mining 

Company, by J. M. Vickers 69 



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XXIV LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

The Relation of the Vein at the Central Mine, Keweenaw Point, 

to the Kearsarge Conglomerate, by L. L. Hubbard 74 

Open-Pit Mining, with Special Reference to the Mesabi Range, 

by F. W. Denton 84 

Communication Upon the Cost of Crushing Hard Hematite, 

Minnesota Iron Co 93 

1896— Vol. IV. 

Electric Mine Haulage Plant, Pittsburg & Lake Angeline Iron 

• Company, by E. P. Bradt 9 

Underground Electric Haulage Plant, Cleveland Lake Mine, , 
by James E. Jopling 17 

Methods of Sampling Iron Ore, by C. T. fMixer 27 

Comparative Tests of Bracing for Wooden Bents, by Edgar 

Kidwell 34 

The Steam Shovel in Mining, by A. W. Robinson 69 

The Occurrence of Copper Minerals in Hematite Ore,, by F. 

W. Denton, Part I, J. H. Eby, Part II 69 

A Single Engine Hoisting Plant, by T. F. Cole 81 

The Pioneer Mine Pumping Engines, by H. B. Sturtevant 84 

The Marquette Iron Range of Michigan, by George A. Newett. . 87 

1898-^Vol. V. 

Some Observations on the Prin<:lple of Benefit Funds and Their 
Place in the Lake Superior Iron Mining Industries, by Wil- 
liam G. Mather, Retiring President 10 

Mine Accounts, by A. J. Yungbluth 21 

A System of Mining Ore Bodies of Uniform Grade, by E. F. 

Brown 40 

A New Iron-Bearing Horizon in the Kewatin, in Minnesota, by 

N. H. Winchell 4G 

History of Exploration for Gold in the Central States, by C. 

W. Hall 49 

1900— Vol. VL 

The Present Condition of the Mining Business, by William Kel- 
ly, Retiring President 13 

The Pewabic Concentrating Works, by L. M. Hardenburg 21 

Electric Signals at the West Vulcan Mine, by A. W. Thomp- 
son 27 

Mine Dams, by James MacNaughton 37 

Economy in the Manufacture of Mining Machinery, by Charles 

H. Fitch 44 

Method of Mining at the Badger Mine, by O. C. Davidson 52 

Balancing Bailers, by William Kelly 54 

1901~Vol. VII. 

Some Early Mining Days at Portage Lake, by Graham Pope, 

President 17-31 



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UST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXV 

Steel Construction for Mines, by J. F. Jackson 32-43 

Historical Sketch of Smelting and Refining Lake Copper, by 

James B. Cooper 44-49 

No. 5 Shaft at the Tamarack Mine, by W. E. Parnall, Jr 50-61 

T-he Crystallization of Mohawkite, Domeykite and Other Similar 

Arsenides, by Dr. George A. Koenig 62-()4 

A Cause for Inaccuracy In Colorimetric Copper Determinations, 

by Dr. George A. Koenig 65-67 

The Testing and Control of the Produce in a Modem Copper 

Refinery, by George L. Heath 68-82 

Corliss Cross-Compound Pumping Engine in Penobscot Mine, 

by John A. Redf em 83-87 

The Invasion of the Water Tube Boiler into the Copper Coun- 
try, by O. P. Hood 88-93 

A New Form of Mine Drill Bit, by Walter Fitch 94-100 

College View of Mining Graduate, by F. W. McNair, President 

M. C. of Mines 101-106 

A Plea for Accurate Maps, by L. L. Hubbard 105-118 

Tapping the Water in the Old Minnesota Mine, by S. Howard 

Brady 119-120 

1902— Vol. vin. 

Moisture in Lake Superior Iron Ores, by Dr. N. P. Hulst 21-33 

The Use of Steel in Lining Mine Shafts, by Frank Drake 34-61 

Geological Work on the Lake Superior Region, by C. R. Van 

Hise 62-69 

A New Changing-House at the West Vulcan Mine, by William 

Kelly 70-74 

A Comparison of the Origin and Development of the Iron Ores 

of the Mesabi and Gogebic Ranges, by C. K. Leith 75-81 

Efficiency Test of a Nordberg Air Compressor at the Burra 

Burra Mine of the Tennessee Copper Co., by J. Parke Chan- 

ning 82-88 

The Mine Machine Shop, by J. F. Jackson 89-92 

Map of Mesabi and Vermilion Ranges 93 

1903— Vol. IX. 

Sinking and Equipping No. 9 Shaft, Ashland Mine, by H. F. 

Ellard 24-38 

High Explosives, Their Safe and Economical Methods of Hand- 
ling, by J. H. Karkeet 39-47 

Mine Accounting by W. M. Jeffrey 48-62 

Charcoal iron Industry of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 

by Williain G. Mather G3-88 

Pioneer Furnace No. 2, Description 89-93 

Iron Ores of Arctic Lapland, by Chase S. Osborn 94-113 

A Card System for Mine Supply Accounts, by F. W. Denton 114-118 

The Greenway Ore Unloader, Description 119-120 

A New Changing House at the Clifts Shaft Mine, by J. S. 

Mennie 121-124 

The Champion Mine Mill Intake Tunnel, by F. W. O'Neil 127-139 



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XXVI LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

1904--VO1. X. 

Iron and Steel Consumption, by George H. Abeel, Retiring 

President 27-30 

Titanium and Titaniferous Iron Ores,, by Dr. Nelson P. Hulst... 31-47 

Practical Use of Magnetic Attractions, by V. S. Hillyer 48-59 

Shaft Sinking Through Quicksand at Susquehanna Mine, by 

H. B. Sturtevant 60-65 

An Underground Magazine and Electric Powder Thawer, by 

William Kelly 66-71 

The Hoisting Problem, by J. R. Thompson 72-87 

The Geology of Some of the Lands In the Upper Peninsula, by 

Robert Seldon Rose 82-100 

Some Aspects of the Analyzing and Grading of Iron Ores of 

the Gogebic Range, by Edward A. Separk 103-126 

The Bisbee, Arizona, Copper Camp, by Geo. A. Newett 127-143 

Mining Methods in the Vermilion and Mesabi Districts, by Kirby 

Thomas 144-157 

The Gogebic Range, Historical 158-162 

Brief Description of Steel Lining for Shafts, by J. R. Thomp- 
son • 163-164 

1905--Vol. XI. 

Menominee Range, by John L. Buell 38-49 

The Utilization of Exhaust Steam, by Means of Steam Regen- 
erators and Low-Pressure Turbines on the Rateau System, 
by L. Battu 50-79 

Methods of Iron Ore Analysis Used in the Laboratories of the 
Iron Mining Companies of the Lake Superior Mining Region 
by W. A. Siebenthal 71-138 

The Unwatering of the Hamilton and Ludington Mines, by 

John T. Jones 139-147 

Determination of Angles of Diamond Drill Holes, by F. A. 

Janson 148-151 

Card System of Accounting for Mining Supplies, by W. M. 

Jeftrey 152-163 

A Method of Survey for Secondary Mine Openings, by Floyd 

L. Burr 164-172 

Cargo Sampling of Iron Ores Received at Lower Lake Ports — 
Including the Methods Used in the Analysis of the Same, 
by W. J. Rattle & Son 173-180 

Notes on Some of the Recent Changes in the Equipment of the 

Republic Mine, Michigan, by Frank H. Armstrong 181-189 

Discussion of Mr. Battu's Paper on Steam Regenerator for 

Hoisting Engines by the Rateau System 190-196 

1906— Vol. XII. 

Mines of the Lake Superior Copper District, by Horace J. 

Stevens 8-24 

The Geology of Keweenaw Point — A Brief Description, by Al- 
fred C. Lane, State Geologist 81-104 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXVll 

The Importance of the Ordinary Sanitary Precautions in the 
Prevention of Water Borne Disease in Mines, by B. W. 
Jones, M. D 105-115 

The Iron Ore Deposits of the Ely Trough, Vermilion Range, 

Minnesota, by C. E. Abbott 116-142 

Five Years of Progress in the Lake Superior Copper Country, 

by J. F. Jackson 143-153 

Salt Water in the Lake Mines, by Alfred C. Lane, State Geol- 
ogist 154-163 

A High Duty Air Compressor at the Champion Mine (Cop- 
per), by O. P. Hood 164-176 

1908— Vol. XIII. 

4 

The Iron Range of Minnesota, Prepared for the Program, by 

Dwight E. Woodbridge 13-27 

Mine Waters, by Alfred C. Lane, State Geologist, Michigan 63-152 

The Hydro-Electric Plant of Penn Iron Mining Co., at Vulcan, 

Mich., by T. W. Orbison and F. H. Armstrong 153-181 

Automatic Throttle Closing Device for Hoisting Machinery, by 

Spencer S. Rumsey 183-188 

Structures of Mesabi Iron Ore, by N. H. Winchell 189-204 

Acetylene as an Underground Light, by William P. Slaughter. .205-207 
The Standard Boiler House of The Oliver Iron Mining Co., by 

A. M. Gow 209-224 

The Sampling of Iron Ores, by L. S. Austin 225-230 

Standard Method for Sampling Cargoes of Iron Ore at Low- 
Lake Ports — 1907 — Oscar Textor 231-233 

Biographical Notices 235-252 

1909— XIV. 

The Marquette Iron Range, by Geo. A. Newett 19-26 

Compensation to Workmen in Case of Injuries, by Murray M. 

Duncan 47-53 

Sinking Reinforced Concrete Shafts Tlyough Quicksand, by 

Frederick W. Adgate 55-70 

Mine Accidents, by John T. Quine 71-81 

The Sociological Side of the Mining Industry, by W. H. Moul- 

ton 82-98 

Wood Preservation with Especial Reference to Mine Timbers, 

by John M. Nelson, Jr 99-115 

How Reforestation May Be Applied to the Mine Timber In- 
dustry, by Thomas B. Wyman 116-130 

Capillary Attraction in Diamond Drill Test Tubes, by J. E. 

Jopling 131-139 

The Brier Hill Concrete-Lined Shaft, by William Kelly 140-147 

Code of Mine Signals — The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, by 

O. D. McClure 147-155 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks, by N H. 

Winchell 156-178 

The Tariff on Iron Ore, by H. Olin Young 179-193 



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XXVlll LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

Biographical Notices 194-198 

Reminiscences 202-215 

1910— Vol. XV. 

Underground Steel Construction, by iR. B. Woodworth 45-99 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks — II and 

III, by N. H. Wlnchell 100-141 

The Proper Detonation of High Explosives, by Chas. S. Hur- 

ter 142-178 

Underground Methods of Mining Used on the Gogebic Range, 

by Percival S. Williams 179-194 

The Company Surgeon, by E. M.%Libby, M. D 195-200 

The Indiana Steel Co., Gary, Ind., Brief Description 201-209 

Steel Head Frame, No. 4 Shaft, Montreal Mine, by Frank B. 

G<90dmati 209-211 

Biographical Notices 212-218 

1911— Vol. XVI. 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks— IV., by N. 

H. Wlnciieil C1-G9 

Time Keeptog System of the Crystal Falls Iron Mining Co., by 

James D. Vivian 70-7C 

Some Practical Suggestions for Diamond Drill Explorations, by 

A. H. Meuche 77-81 

Stanflard Boiler House and Coal Handling System of the Crystal 

Falls Iron Mining Co., by J. S. Jacka 82-87 

Recording and Signalling Device for Mines, by John M. Johnson 88-99 
Surveying and Sampling Diamond Drill Holes, by E. E. White .. 100-120 
Social Surroundings of the Mine Employe, by Chas. E. Law- 
rence 121-12€ 

Time Keeping System and Labor Distribution at the Newport 

Mine, by G. L. Olson 127-143 

Square Set Mining at the Vulcan Mines, by Floyd L. Burr 144-155 

Some Safety Devices of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., by Alex. 

M. Gow 15C-167 

Diversion of the Sturgeon River at the Loretto Mine, by Chas. 

H. Baxter 108-170 

Raising Shaft on Timber in Hard Rock at the Armenia Mine, by 

S. J. Goodney 171-17C 

Accidents in the Transportation, Storage and Use of Explosives, 

by Charles S. Hurter 177-210 

The Relations of the Mining Industry to the Prevention of 

Forest Fires, by Thos. B. Wyman 211-217 

Block Caving and Sub-Stope System at the Tobin Mine, by 

Fred C. Roberts 218-226 

The Cornwall, Pa., Magnetite Deposits, by E. B. Wilson 227-238 

Top Slicing at the Caspian Mine, by Wm. A. McEachern 239-243 

Electrical Operation of the Plants of the Penn Iron Mining 

Company, by Frank H. Armstrong 244-250 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXIX 

Reminiscences of the Gogebic Range, Ironwood in 1887, by 

J. H. Hearding 251-257 

Map of Menominee Iron Range, following page 265 

Biographical Notices 259-260 

1912— Vol. XVII. 

Methods of Sampling at Lake Superior Iron Mines, by Bene- 
dict Crowell , 76-93 

System of Safety Inspection ol3 The Cleveland CI Ifts Iron Co., 

by William Conibear 94-111 

Raising Shaft at Rolling Mill Mine, Negaunee, Mich., by Ed- 
win N. Cory 112-116 

Mine Sanitation, by E. B. Wilson 117-126 

Unexplored Parts of the Copper Range of Keweenaw Point, 

by Alfred C. Lane 127-143 

Pootwall Shafts in Lake Superior Copper Mines, by L. L. 

Hubbard 144-161 

Balancing Rock Crushors, by O. P. Hood 162-166 

Some Applications of Concrete Underground, by H. T. Mercer 167-185 

Construction of Intakes at the Mills of the Trimounta.n and 

Champion Mining Companies, by Edward Koepel 186-210 

Description of an Air Balanced Hoisting Engine, Franklin 

Mining Company, by R H. Corbett 211-216 

Rockhouse Practice of ithe Quincy Mining Company, by T. C. 

DeSollar 217-226 

In the Lake Superior Area What Influence If Any, Did the 
Thickness and Contour of Poot-Wall Beds Have Upon the 
Subsequent Deposition and Distribution of Copper in Over- 
lying Beds, by L L. Hubbard 227-237 

Failures of the Rule of Following the Hanging, In the Devel- 
opment of Lake Superior Copper Mines, by F. W. Sperr. . 238 246 

economical Lubrication, by W. M. Davis 247 259 

R&ising, Sinking and Concrerting No. 3 Shaft, Negaunee Mine, 

by S. R Elliott 260-282 

Rockhouse Practice of the Copper Range Consolidated Com- 
pany, by H. T. Mercer 283-289 

Map of Portage Lake Mining District, following page 295 

Map of Mines and Properties Included in a Portion of the 

Lake Superior Copper District, following page 295 



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XXX LIST OF MEETINGS OF THE 



LIST OF MEETINGS OF THE INSTITUTE AND THEIR LOCALl- 
TIES FROM ITS ORGANIZATION TO AUGUST, 1913. 

No. Place. Date. Proceedings. 

1 Iron Mountain, Mich March 22-23, 1893 Vol. I 

2 Houghton, Mich March 7-9, 1894 Vol. II 

3 Mesabl and Vermilion Ranges.... March 6-8, 1895 Vol. Ill 

4 Ishpeming, Mich August 18-20, 1896... Vol. IV 

5 Ironwood, Mich August 16-18, 1898. . . Vol. V 

6 Iron Mountain, Mich February 6-8, 1900.. Vol. VI 

7 Houghton, Mich March 5-9, 1901 Vol. VII 

8 Mesabi and Vermilion Ranges August 19-21, 1902. . . Vol. VIII 

9 Ishpeming, Mich August 18-20, 1903 . . . Vol. IX 

10 Ironwood, Mich August 16-18, 1904. .. Vol.. X 

11 Iron Mountain, Mich October 17-19, 1905. . .Vol. XI 

12 Houghton, Mich August 8-10, 1906 .... Vol. XII 

13 Mesabi and Vermilion Ranges June 24^27, 1908 Vol. XIII 

14 Ishpeming, Mich August 25-27, 1909 . . . Vol. XIV 

15 Ironwood, Mich .August 24-26, 1910 . . . Vol. XV 

10 Crystal Falls, Mich August 22-24, 1911. . . Vol. XVI 

17 Houghton, Mich August 28-30, 1912. . . VoL XVII 

18 Mesabi Range August 26-30, 1913 . . Vol. XVIII 

Note— No meetings were held in 1897, 1899 and 1907. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



RULES OF THE INSTITUTE. 
I. 

OBJECTS. 

The objects of the Lake Superior Mining Institute are to promote 
the arts and sciences connected with the economical production of 
the useful minerals and metals in the Lake Superior region, and the 
welfare of those employed in these industries, by means of meetings 
of sccial intercourse, by excursions, and by the reading and discus- 
sion of practical and professional papers, and to circulate, by means 
of publications among its members the information thus obtained. 

11. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person interested in the objects of the Institute is eligible 
for membership. 

Honorary members not exceeding ten in number, may be ad- 
mitted to all the privileges of regular members except to vote. They 
must be persons eminent in mining or sciences relating thereto. 

III. 

ELECTION OP MEMBERS. 

Each person desirous of becoming a member shall be proposed 
by at least three members approved by the Council, and elected by 
ballot at a regular meeting (or by ballot at any time conducted 
through the mail, as the Council may prescribe), upon receiving 
three-fourths of the votes cast. Application must be accompanied 
by fee and dues as provided by Section V. 

Bach person proposed as an honorary member shall be recom- 
mended by at least ten members, approved by the Council, and elect- 
ed by ballot at a regular meeting, (or by ballot at any time bonduct- 
ed through the mail, as the Council may prescribe), on receiving 
nine-tenths of the votes cast. 

IV. 
WITHDRAWAL PROM MEMBERSHIP. 
Upon the recommendation of the Council, any member may be 
stricken from the list and denied the privilege of membership, by 



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2 RULES OF THE 

the vote of three-fourths of the members present at any regular 
meeting, due notice having been mailed in writing by the Secretary 
to him. 

V. 

DUES. 

The membership fee shall be five dollars and the annual dues 
five dollars, and applications for membership mu9t be accompanied 
by a remittance of ten dollars; five dollars for such membership fee 
and five dollars for dues for the ^first year. Honorary members shall 
not be liable to dues. Any member not in arrears may become a 
life member by the payment of fifty dollars at one time, and shall 
not be liable thereafter to annual dues. Any member in arrears may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be deprived of the receipt of pub- 
lications or be stricken from the list of members when in arrears 
six months; Provided, That he may be restored to membership by 
the Council on the payment of all arrears, or by re-election after an 
interval of three years. 

VI. 

OFFICERS. 

There shall be a President, flve^Vice Presidents, five Managers, 
a Secretary and a Treasurer, and these Officers shall constitute the 
Council. 

•VII. 

TERM OF OFFICE. 

The President, Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected for one 
year, and the Vice Presidents and Managers for two years, except 
that at the first election two Vice Presidents and three Managers shall 
be elected for only one year. No President, Vice President, or Manager 
shall be eligible for immediate re-election to the same office at the ex- 
piration of the term for which he was elected. The term of office 
shall continue until the adjournment of the meeting at which their 
successors are elected. 

Vacancies in the Council, whether by death, resignation, or the 
failure for one year to attend the Council meetings, or to perform 
the duties of the ofl'ice, shall be filled by the appointment of the 
Council, and any person so appointed shall hold office for the * re- 
mainder of the term for which his predecessor was elected or ap- 
pointed; Provided, That such appointment shall not render him In- 
eligible at the next election. 

VIII. 
DUTIES OF OFFICERS. 

All the affairs of the Institute shall be managed by the Coun- 
cil except the selection of the place of holding regular meetings. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 3 

Tbe duties of all Officers sliall be such as usually pertain to their 
offices, or may be delegated to them by the Council. 

The Council may, in its discretion, require bonds to be given by 
the Treasurer, and may allow the Secretary such compensation for 
his services as they deem proper. 

At each annual meeting the Council shall make a report of pro- 
ceedings to the Institute, together with a financial statement. 

Five members of the Council shall constitute a quorum; but the 
Council may appoint an executive committee, business may be trans- 
acted at a regularly called meeting of the Council, at which less than 
a quorum is present, subject to the approval of a majority of the 
Comicfl, subsequently given in writing to the Secretary and recorded 
by him with the minutes. 

There shall be a meeting of the Council at every regular meeting 
of the Institute and at such other times as they determine. 

IX. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Any five members not in arrears, may nominate and present to 
the Secretary over their signatures, at least thirty days before the 
annual meeting, the names of such candidates as they may select 
for offices falling under the rules. The Council, or a committee there- 
of duly authorized for the purpose, may also make similar nominations. 
The assent of the nominees shall have been secured in all cases. 

No less than two weeks prior to the annual meeting, the Secre- 
tary shall mail to all members not in arrears a list of all nomina- 
tions made and the number of officers to be voted for in the form 
of a letter ballot. Each member may vote either by striking from 
or adding to the names upon the list, leaving names not exceeding 
in number the officers to be elected, or by preparing a new list, sign- 
ing the ballot with his name, and either mailing it to the Secretary, 
or presenting it in person at the annual meeting. 

In case nominations are not made thirty days prior to the date 
of the annual meeting for all the offices becoming vacant under the 
rules, nominations for such offices may be made at the said meeting 
by five menibers. not in arrears, and an election held by a written or 
printed ballot. 

The ballots in either case shall be received and examined by three 
tellers appointed at the annual meeting by the presiding officer; and 
the persons who shall have received the greatest number of votes for 
the several offices shall be declared elected. The ballot shall be 
destroyed, and a list of the elected officers, certified by the tellers, 
shall be preserved by the Secretary. 

X. 

MEETINGS. 
Th£ animal m^etisc; of the Institute shall be keld at such time as 



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4 RULES OF THE 

may be designated by the Council. The Institute may at a regular 
meeting select the place for holding the next regular meeting. If no 
place is selected by the Institute it shall be done by the Council. 

Special meetings may be called whenever the Council may see fit; 
and the Secretary shall call a special meeting at the written re- 
quest of twenty or more members. No other business shall be trans- 
acted at a special meeting than that for which It was called. 

Notices of all meetings shall be mailed to all members at least 
thirty days in advance, with a statement of the business to be trans- 
acted, papers to be read, topics for discussion and excursions pro- 
posed. 

No vote shall be taken at any meeting on any question not per- 
taining to the business of conducting the Institute. 

Every question that shall properly come before any meeting of 
the Institute, shall be decided, unless otherwise provided for in these 
rules, by the votes of a majority of the members then present. 

Any member may introduce a stranger to any regular meeting; 
but the latter shall not take part in the proceedings without the 
consent of the meeting. 

XI. 
PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Any member may read a paper at any regular meeting of the 
Institute, provided the same shall have been submitted to and ap- 
proved by the Council, or a committee duly authorized by it for that 
purpose prior to such meeting. All papers shall become the prop- 
erty of the Institute on their acceptance, and with the discussion 
thereon, shall subsequently be published for distribution. The num- 
ber, form and distribution of all publications shall be under the con- 
trol of the Council. 

The Institute is not, as a body, responsible for the statements 
of facts or opinion advanced in papers or discussion at its meet- 
mgs, and it is understood, that papers and discussions should not 
include personalities, or matters relating to politics, or purely to 
trade. 

XII. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

The Council is authorized to appoint from time to time special 
committees to consider and i«eport upon, to the Institute through the 
Council, such subjects as changes in mining laws, safety devices, 
the securing and editing of papers on mining methods, definition of 
mining terms, affiliations with other societies, and such other sub- 
jects as the Council shall deem it desirable to inquire into, such re- 
ports not to be binding on the Institute except action is taken b7 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 5 

the Institute in accordance with the rules, and the Council is 
authorized to expend not exceeding six hundred dollars in any one 
year to carry out the purpose of this section. 

XIH. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These rules may be amended by a two-thirds vote taken by let- 
ter ballot in the same manner as is provided for the election of 
ofTicers by letter ballot; Provided, That written notice of the pro- 
posed amendment shall have been given at a previous meeting. 



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EXCURSIONS 



EXCURSIONS. 
Tuesday, August 26th, 191 3. 

The Lake Superior Mining Institute held its Eigliteenth 
Annual Meeting on the Missabe Range, the members assem- 
bling at Duluth, most of them arriving there on the morning 
trains. Headquarters were established at the Spalding Hotel 
where members and their guests secured tickets and reserva- 
tions for the trip over the range. The morning was verj' 
pleasantly si>ent in renewing old acquaintances, meeting new 
ones, and expressions of good fellowship.^ 

Tlie party left Duluth at 2 o'clock on the Steamer "Colum- 
bia" to inspect the plant of the Minnesota Steel Company, a 
subsidiary, of the United States Steel Corporation. They 
found the plant still in the process of construction upon a 
tract of 1,500 acres with a water frontage of more than two 
miles along the St. Louis river. It is about nine miles from 
the center of Duluth. The plant when completed and 
etiuipped will, it is said, be the best plant among the many 
(>ix^rated by the Steel Corporation. The buildings are of steel 
frames, enclosed with two-piece concrete blocks, making 
tliem absolutely fire-proof. There will be two blast furnaces 
of 500 tons capacity each, and ten open-hearth furnaces, also 
ninety Koppers tyi>e by-pro<luct coke ovens; one 40-inch re- 
versing blooming mill; one 28-inch finishing mill; one 16- 
inch continuous roughing train. The power is of 10,000 k. 
w. capacity ; five blowing engines, driven by gas, and of 20,- 
000 cubic feet capacity each, and a pumping station of 40,- 
000 gallons daily capacity. There will be also machine and 
structural shops sufficient to supply the needs of the com- 
pany. The company is also erecting 175 houses containing 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 7 

350 apartments for the accommodation of their men and 
their famiHes. They contemplate building a cement plant, 
of 4,000 barrels per day capacity, in the near future. 

After securing much valuable information from the in- 
spection of this plant the party returned to Duluth. arriving 
there shortly before 6 o'clock. The evening was very en- 
joyably spent as guests of the various clubs. The party left 
in three special trains over the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad 
at midnight. One of these luxurious trains was composed 
(^f ten sleq>ing and dining cars, the other two of fifteen private 
cars. 

Wednesday, August 27TH, 1913. 

The first stop was made at Biwabik, which is located on 
the eastern end of the range. A verj' interesting inspection 
of the Biwabik mine was made. This property was the sec- 
ond on the range to mine iron ore. It was opened in 1891, 
one year after the discovery at Mountain Iron. A part of 
the ore mined there is of a ver>' hard grade and has to be 
cnished. The crusher is of the g>'ratory type. Its capacity 
is 1,000 tons per hour. It is said to be the largest crusher of 
this tyi^e, having an opening of 48 inches. 

The party left Biwabik, in seventy automobiles, for Vir- 
ginia, where the afternoon and night were spent sight-seeing 
and visiting. On the road a visit was paid to the Genoa 
mine, near Eveleth, one of the deep pits of the range. It is 
so deep that it is no longer profitable to work with steam 
shovels. Most of the ore is now taken to the surface through 
two shafts. A stop was also made at the Leonidas. Here 
many went underground for the purpose of inspecting the 
concrete pumping station and new pumps. This is the deep- 
est property on the range. They are now mining at a depth 
of 480 feet. 

A very enjoyable dinner of the New England style was 
served by the people of Eveleth at the new Glode Hotel. 
After dinner the Xorman, Union, and Commodore mines of 
Virginia were insi^ected. It is interesting to note that the 
Norman is the deepest pit on the range, so deep that the steam 



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8 EXCURSIONS 

shovel work has been abandoned. The pit is over 300 feet 
deep and, owing to the narrowness of the vein and the per- 
pendicular walls of rock, mining operations have been carried 
on with much difficulty. 

The party was next taken to the modern equipped saw- 
mill plant of the Virginia & Rainy Lake Company. This 
plant consists of three large mills, all within the city limits 
of Virginia. They have a combined capacity of one million 
feet of lumber per day. It requires a force of about 1,400 
men to operate these mills. The comjxmy also has a large 
force of men employeil in the woods getting out logs to sui> 
ply the mills. 

Some of the company who were es[:)ecially interested in 
tliis feature of Missalje mine operations visited the drying 
plant at the Brunt mine. The ore is brouglit from the oi)en 
pit a mile distant and run through the drj^ers. This process 
reduces the moisture from 18 to 8 per cent. The plant con- 
sists of four dryers and the estimated output for 1913 is 200,- 
000 tons. This plant is oi)erated by the M. A. Hanna Coni- 
l>any. A short visit to the concentrating plant at the 
Madrid mine, of the A. B. Coates group, was made. This 
plant is described by Bene<lict Crowell in a i>ai)er which is 
printed in this volume. A map and description of the Com- 
moilore mine of the Corrigan, McKinney Company, is pub- 
lished in connection with the ixiper on '^Mining Methods on 
the Missalje Range." 

Some other proi>erties were visited during the afternoon, 
and at 4 o'ck^k a game of base ball between tlie Virginia and 
Range teams was greatly enjoyeil. A splendid dinner was 
served by the mining men of Virginia at the new home of 
tlie Elks Lodge of that city. The dinner was followed by 
an excellent musical program. A business session was held 
in the evening in the high school building. 

Thursday, August 28th, 1913. 

The party left Virginia, at 9 o'ckx^k, for Chisholm, where 
luncheon was served by the citizens at Bergeron liall. Stops 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 9 

were made en route at the Mountain Iron, Shenango, and 
Monroe proi)erties. As mentioned above Mountain Iron is 
the place where the first iron ore on the Missabe Range was 
discovered. This big pit has shipped over seventeen million 
tons of iron ore. The Shenango is one of the big open pit 
mines of the Missabe. It has been worked to considerable 
depth. The Monroe is not operating. The m'ine is com- 
pletely stripped, but no ore has been mined since 1909. The 
property adjoining the Monroe is now^ being stripped by the 
Great Northern Railroad interests, w^ho contemplate operat- 
ing the m/'nes on the Hill Lands, now under lease to the Oliver 
Iron Mining company. 

The party moved from Chisholm to Hibbing, which is 
only a few miles, stopi>ing on the w^ay at the Leonard mine. 
Here the entertainment provided a visit to the Fair grounds 
where the St. Louis County Fair was being held. Everybody 
greatly enjoyed the horse races in spite of the fact that recent 
rains had made the track exceedingly heavy. The exhibit of 
agricultural produce was exceptionally cred'itable for such a 
new ccuntr\'. The Fair was well patronized by people from 
the adjoining towns and everybody seemed to be having a 
gtxxl time. 

The evening entertainment at Hibbing was given at the 
Armor)'. The several city clubs held open-house and the 
evening was very enjoyably spent. 

Friday, August 29TH, 1913. 

About 9 o'clock in the morning the party embarked in 
flat cars provided with seats, and were taken into the open 
pits of the Mahoning, Hull-Rust, Burt-Pool, and Sellers. 
These mines are located in the city of Hibbing. Mining is 
being done very close to the city streets in several places, 
and l>efore many years a part of the city will have to be 
moved to make way for mining. The Hull-Rust is the largest 
iron property in the world. It has shipj^ed over 20,000,000 
tons of ore up to the present time. The mine was first opened 
in 1896, and there are many million tons now in sight so that 



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lO EXCURSIONS 

mining will be carried on there for many years to come. The 
extent of the ore body at this point is given as 5 miles in 
length by 3 or 4 thousand feet in width. A visit was also 
made to the Buffalo & Susquehanna property. More than 
140 feet of over-burden had to be removed before the ore 
could be mined and shii>ping commenced. The work was 
done in record time because of the character of the ground. 
They found the ore to a depth of 700 feet. 

Special trains departed from Hibbing at 10 130 o'clock for 
Coleraine, on the western end of the Range, where the night 
was spent and a business meeting held. Stops were made at 
the Stephenson, Hawkins, Crosby, Hill, Holman, and Cani- 
steo mines. All of these mines do open pit mining although 
some are also operating with shafts. The Holman and Cani- 
steo mines are very near to Coleraine. Coleraine is one of 
the best laid-out and finest mining locations in the country. 
Its location is almost ideal, being on the hills on the shore 
of Trout Lake. 

Saturday, August, 30TH, 191.3. 

After breakfast Saturday morning the Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Comixmy's concentrating plant was visited. Here we 
saw how the ores from the pits are freed of sand. A large 
lx>rtion of the ore on the Western Missalje range contains 
a great quantity of sand. This worthless material is washed 
out in the concentrating plant, thereby bringing the ore to a 
merchantable grade. The Coleraine plant has a capacity of 
20,000 tons daily. This is composed of five units of 4,000 
tons each. A pai>er by John Uno Sebenius, chief engineer for 
the Oliver Iron Mining Company, descrii)infr this plant, ai>- 
l)ears in another i>art of this publication. 

The insi)ection of the concentrating plant ended the pleas- 
urable and instructive insi)ection of the wonderful Missal)e 
Range, so the si)ecial trains were again boarded and the 
party began the return to Duluth, where they arrived shortly 
after the noon hour. Most of those who had enjoyed the 
trip left on evening trains for their homes, all loud in their 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 1 

praises of the entertainment accorded to them by the good 
people of the Missabe Range. How could they feel other- 
wise? Brass bands were in atendance in all towns visited 
and every host seemed to endeavor to outdo every other in 
the cordial sincerity of their greetings. It is always pleasant 
to meet old acquaintances and fellow workers of days that 
are gone. Many of the residents of the newer towns of the 
Missabe Range were formerly residents and workers in the 
older fields. There wras evidence of progress and improve- 
ment on everj' hand which was remarked by all who had vis- 
ited the Range on former trips of the Institute. The atten- 
dance numbered more than 300. 

A booklet, published by the General Committee, contains 
many views and much interesting information, compiled and 
arranged by W. W. J. Croze, mining engineer, Duluth, and 
is published as an appendix to this volume. 

BUSINESS SESSIONS. 

The first business meeting was held on Wednesday even- 
ing at 8:30, at the Roosevelt High school, in the City of 
Virginia. President Pentecost Mitchell presiding. Mr. Mitch- 
ell, on behalf of the membership from the Minnesota ranges, 
extended a cordial welcome to the members and guests pres- 
ent. 

Pa[)ers were presented in the following order: 
* Report of Committee on the Practice for the Prevention 
of Accidents, was, in the absence of the members, read by 
title. It presented the report of the two meetings held by the 
Committee, on March 26th and July 22nd, 1913. The Com- 
mittee especially advises the adoption of the classification 
of accidents as used by the United States Bureau of Mines 
in order that all reports may be uniform. Discussion of this 
pai>er should te presented at the next meeting. 

The following papers, in the absence of the authors, were 
read by title: 

^Sanitation for Mine Locations, by W. H. Moulton, Ish- 
pcming, Midi. 



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12 BUSINESS MEETING 

♦Winona Stamp Mill, by R. R. Seetoer, Winona, Mich. 

♦Mining Methods on the Missabe Range, by Willard Bay- 
liss J. S. Lutes and E. D. McNeil, Committee was presented 
in oral al)stract by Messrs. Bayliss and McXeil. 

♦What Our Neighlx>rs Can Do In Mining Iron Ore, by 
Dwight E. Wocxlbridge, Duluth, Minn., was read by the 
author. 

♦Safety in the Mines of the Lake Superior Iron Ranges, 
by Edwin Higgins, Ironwood, Mich., was presented in oral 
abstract. Discussion is published following paj^er. 

,This concluded the reading of i>apers for the evening. 

The President here introduced Charles E. VanBameveld, 
chief of the department of Mine.^ and Metallurgy of the 
Panama-Pacific Internationrd. ^x^sition, 191 5, who addressed 
the meeting as ^ ..lon-s : 

Someone has aptly called the Panama Canal 'ihe Gieatest Liberty 
ever taken with nature." The successful ccnrplo^tion of this project 
is due to American enterprise and American '^ngine^rins skill. The 
nation is justly proud of this achievement and proposes to celebrate 
it by holding an International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. 
I wish to lay special emphasis on the word Intsrnational. Because 
of its location, the Exposition is often spoken of and more often 
thought of as California's Exposition. While the majority wish it 
success and hope to take it in, a great many people do not seem 
to realize that practically everyone who occupies a position of any 
responsibility in American professional and industrial life owes 
some direct thought and attention to this Exposition now. 

In a sense California is the host. In a larger sense, however, 
the Nation is the host. The Nation has issued the call and has in- 
vited world-wide participation. Canadian, Australian, Asiatic and 
South American participation are assured on a large scale. The 
same may be said of Europe. While two important European Na- 
tions have officially declined to participate for the present, there 
is every reason to feel assured that they will ultimately be well 
represented. 

The citizens of California in preparing for this Exposition have 
raised 17 V^ million dollars This sum is being wisely expended in 
preparation of the site, in the 'erection and equipment of the Exposi- 
tion Palaces and in the maintenance of the Division of Exhibits. 
The Director qf Exhibits and his staff will be in readiness to advise 
with you, to receive and intelligently display the Nation's contrlbu- 

•Papers distributed in printed form. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I3 

tions towards this celebration. Beyond that, it must be clear to you 
that the responsibility for a successful Exposition lies with profes- 
sional and industrial America. 

This Exposition will be a record of the history of the world's 
progress In all the arts and industries. Its exhibits, gathered from 
all over the world, will tell the casual observer, the student, the 
thinker by object-lessons instead of by words, what mankind is, 
does, and seeks to do. It will be a living picture illustrating and 
interpreting the cold and bare statistics which, without such in- 
terpretation, are incomprehensible and meaningless to the average 
mind. It is therefore the privilege and duty of each industry to 
properly represent its activities. Each industry being in turn the 
host to all others. 

The Division of Exhibits is organized into eleven departments, 
one of which is Mines & Metallurgy. The Palace o: Mines is a 
beautiful building, well located and has about 200,000 square feet 
ef floor space. In addition^ to 'exhibiting the World's Natural Min- 
eral Resources, including the iMcj* and Non-Me tallies, we hope 
to fully illustrate the technique and the indu/Mal side of Mining 
and Metallur^. X? is cap only be done through the mrty co-op- 
eration of the profession anO the industry. 

It has been said ihat mining operations do not lead themselves 
readily to exhibition **nd that the legitimate mine-operator has little 
commercial incentive to exhibit because he has nothing to advertise, 
nothing to sell I Fortunately, the mining industry is, in the main, 
in the hands of public-spirited men, accustomed to taking a large 
view of things, men who will not allow the lack of commercial in- 
centive, the lack of apparent direct individual benefit, to outweigh 
the decided indirect, collective benefits to be derived from the right 
sort of publicity. We hear much of the decadence of prospecting 
and mining, of the lack of security and stability of mining invest- 
ments. The miner has suffered greatly from misunderstanding, from 
public ignorance, and above all from persistent misrepresentation. 
We all recognize in a general way, the importance of education; it 
is the greatest remedy for prejudice, superstition, and ignorance; 
it makes for greater all-around efficiency. A well planned exposi- 
tion is of incalculable value as an educator of the public mind and 
no industry is in greater need of this service today than mining. 
Many important questions in which the miner is vitally interested 
are pressing for settlement. The public is taking an increasingly 
active part in forcing these settlements. When not blinded by pre- 
judice and ignorance, the public is essentially fair-minded; it only 
needs to be educated. You have before you now an opportunity 
which probably will not recur for a decade to give the public an in- 
sight into the Importance, the stability, and solidarity of your in- 
dustry, its legitimate speculative and investment features, your need 
of capital, of fair treatment, of wise legislation, of public support 
and co-operation. 



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14 BUSINESS MEETING 

Every mining man should see in this Exposition an opportunity 
'lor some broadcast sowing. The higher he has risen in his profes- 
sion, the more Important the enterprise he owns, directs or is as- 
sociated with, the greater will his opportunity be. To approve the 
sentiment that the industry should be properly represented is only 
the .first step. While the result will be collective, the responsibility 
is -Individual. If each man will ask himself. What can I do individual- 
ly — What can I do to interest my company, my clients — What can 
I do to interest my superiors, my subordinates, to interest machinery 
men and those interested in special processes; and having asked and 
thought, will then set about doing it, we will have a mining and 
metallurgical exhibit worthy of the industry. 

The Lake Superior Districts are justly famed for their copper 
and iron ore production. From the standpoint of tonnage, scale of 
operation and engineering practice, this is the iron mining center 
of the world. The Lake Superior miner of the past generation was 
the originator and you of the present generation are the perfectors 
of mining methods which are copied all over the country. The Ex- 
position therefore makes a direct appeal to your individual pride, to 
your pride of industry, to your state and national pride — in a word, 
to the beat that Is in you; your patriotism. 

Get together on this proposition, gentlemen, and give us an Ex- 
hibit worthy ol your branch of the industry which more than any 
has advanced the settlement, the upbuilding and civilization of this 
country. 

The next order of business was appointing the various 
special committees. On motions duly made, seconded and car^ 
ried, the President apix>inted the following committees, to re- 
i:)<>rt at the business session on Friday evening. 

Committee on Nominations — Mark Elliott, Virginia, 
Minn.; Wm. J. Richards, Crystal Falls, Mich.; Peter W. 
Pascoe, Republic, Mich.; Andre Fomiis, Ojibway, Mich.; 
L. M. Hardenburgh, Hurley, Wis. 

Auditing Committee — Frank B. Goodman, Hurley, 
Wis.; Max H. Earlier, Nashwauk, Minn.; Charles Grabows- 
ky, Virginia, Minn. 

Committee ON Resolutions — ^John H. Hearding, Duluth, 
Minn.; George H. Al)eel, Ironwood, Mich.; Wm. H. John- 
ston, Ishi>eming, Mich. 

An adjournment was then taken to I^riday evening at 
8:30 o'clock, at the Village Hall, Coleraine. 



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lake superior mining institute 1 5 

Business Session Friday Evening. 

At 8:30 the final business meeting was held. Owing to 
the inability of President Mitchell to be present, Vice Presi- 
dent George H. Abeel, presided. The presentation of pai)ers 
was continued, and were taken up in the following order: 

The following papers were read by title: 

♦Relining No. 2 Hamihon Shaft with Reinforced Divid- 
ers, End Plates and Poured Concrete Walls, by S. W. Tarr, 
Duluth, Minn. 

♦Suggestions on the Application of Efficiency Methods to 
Mining, by C. M. Leonard, Gwinn, Mich. 

♦The Application of Mining Macliines to Underground 
Mining on the Missa:be Range, by H. E. Martin and W. J. 
Kaiser, Hibbing, Minn. 

♦Mine Laws, Special Rules and the Prevention of Acci- 
dents, by E. B. Wilson, Scranton, Pa. Discussion is pul>- 
lished with the paper. 

♦Concentrating at the Madrid Mine, by Benedict Crowell, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Wash Ores in Western Missabe and the Coleraine Wash- 
ing Plant, by John Uno Setenius, Duluth, Minn. 

Electricity, by William Kelly, Vulcan, Mich. (Title not 
final. ) 

Hoist Efficiency, by Frank H. Armstrong, Vulcan, Mich. 
(Title not final.) 

r>ry House at East Vulcan Mine, Penn Iron Mining Co., 
by Floyd L. Burr, Vulcan, Mich. 

This completed the reading of Pai^ers and the report of 
the Council was then presented. 



^Papers distributed in printed form 



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l6 BUSINESS MEETING 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Secretary's report of Receipts and Disbursements fronf August 
22nd, 1912 to August 18th, 1913. 

RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand August 22nd, 1912 $5,994 58 

Entrance fees for 1912 | 330 00 

Dues for 1912 2,210 00 

Back dues, 1909 . . '. | 25 00 

Back dues. 1910 70 00 

Back dues, 1911 210 00 305 00 

Advance dues for 1913 55 00 

Sale of Proceedings 31 25 

Proposals for membership 30 00 

Institute pin 4 00 

Houghton meeting proportion of pror 
gram 127 22 

Total 13,092 47 

Interest on deposit 205 53 

Total receipts 3,298 00 

Grand total $9,292 00 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Stationery and printing $ 95 00 

Postage 139 06 

Freight and express 23 90 

Exchange 2 15 

Telephone and telegraphing 4 74 

Secretary's salary 750 00 

Stenographic work 60 00 

Total $1,075 59 

Publishing Proceedings Vol. XVI 1.007 98 

Photographs, maps, etc 131 31 

Advance papers 1912 191 75 

Programs, etc., 1912 170 72 

Advance papers, 1913, (cuts) 52 37 

Expense Houghton meetings, rent and 

stenographer 33 50 

Badges for meeting. 1912 81 25 

Committee meetings, traveling expenses 51 90 

Total $1,720 84 

Total disbursements 2,796 43 

Cash on hand August 18th, 1913 0,496 15 

Grand total $9,292 58 

MEMBERSHIP. 

1913 1912 1911 

Total 518 486 51 7 

Members in good standing 483 437 467 

Honorary members 4 4 4 

Life members 2 2 2 

Members in arrears (2 years.) 29 43 44 

New members admitted, 1912 71 31 46 

New members not qualified 5 4 3 

New members added 66 27 43 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IJ 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 

Treasurer's Report from August 26th, 1912, to August 18th, 1913: 

Cash on hand August 26th, 1912 |5,994.58 

Received from secretary 3,062.47 

Received interest on deposits 205.53 

Paid drafts issued hy secretary $2,796.43 

Cash on hand August 18th, 1913 6,466.15 

Totals $9,262.58 $9,262.58 

Summary of cash on hand: 

As per treasurer's report $6,466.15 

In hands of secretary 30.00 

Total as per secretary's report $6,496.15 

The following" standing committees were appointed by the 
Council for the ensuing year: 

"PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS." 
(Committee to consist of five members.) 
C. B. Lawrence, Palatka, Mich., Chairman; D. E. Sutherland, Iron 
Mountain, Mich.; Wm. Conibear, Ishpeming, Mich.; W. H. Schacht, 
Painesdale, Mich.; M. H. Godfrey, Virginia, Minn. 

"CARE AND HANDLING OF HOISTING ROPES." 
(Committee to consist of five members.) 
W. A. Cole, Ironwood, Mich., Chairman; O. D. McClure, Ishpeming, 
Mich.; J. S. Jacka, Crystal Falls, Mich.; W. J. Richards, Painesdale, 
Mich.; A. T&ncig, Hibbing, Minn. 

"PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS." 
(Committee to consist of five members.) 
Wm. iCelly, Vulcan, Mich., Chairman; J. H. Hearding, Duluth, 
Minn.; F. W. McNair, Houghton, Mich.; J. E. Jopling, Ishpeming, 
Mich.; P. S. WiUiams, Ramsay, Mich. 

"BUREAU OF MINES." 
(Committee to consist of three members.) 
M. M. Duncan, Ishpeming, Mich., Chairman; J. B. Cooper, Hub- 
bell, Mich,; A. J. Yungbluth, Secretary, Ishpeming, Mich. 

"BIOGRAPHY." 
(Committee to consist of five members.) 
J. H. Hearding, Duluth, Minn., Chairman; J. B. Cooper, Hubbell, 
Mich.; R. A. Douglas, Ironwood, Mich.; M. B. McGee, Crystal Falls 
Mich.; W. H. Newett, Ishpeming, Mich. 

**MININa METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE." 
(Committee to consist of three members to be appointed later.) 

Committees to serve until their successors are appointed; each 
committee to have power to appoint sub-committees as may be 
deemed necessary. 

The following letter and invitation was received from the 
Committee of Management of the Inteniational Engineering 



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1 8 BUSINESS MEETING 

Congress, to he held in San Francisco, Sept. 20th to 25th, 

INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS, 1915i 
New York City, N. Y. 
To the Secretary of 

Lake Superior Mining Institute, 
Isiipeming, Mlcli. 
Dear Sir: 

On behalf of the Committee o* Management of the International 
Engineering Congress to be held in San FVancisco in 1915. we have 
the honor to enclose herewith a most cordial invitation to the officers 
and members of your Society to attend and to participate in the pro- 
ceedings of this Congress. 

We would respectfully request that you transmit to your mem- 
bers the information contained in the prelim nary announcement, 
which is also enclosed and which gives such outline of the Congress 
as can be furnished at the present time. 

Further details relative to the Congress will be sent to you in the 
near future by the Secretary of the Committee of Management in 
San Francisco, and we would request that your reply to the invita- 
tion and to this, as well as to all future communications relative to 
the Congress, be addressed to the Executive Officers of the Com- 
mittee of Management in San Francisco. 

Very respectfully yours, 
GEO. F. SWAIN, President. 

CHAS. WARREN HUNT, Secretary. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. 
CHiAS. F. RAND, President. 

BRADLEY STOUGHTON, Secretary. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers. 
W. F. M. GOSS, President. 

CALVIN W. RICE, Secretary. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
RALPH DAVENPORT MBRSHON. President. 
F. L. HUTCHINSON, Secretary. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
ROBERT M. THOMPSON, President. 
DANIEL H. COX, Secretary. 

The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 

The American Society of Civil Eng neers 

The American Institute of Mining Engineers 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

and 

The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 

extend to the officers and members of 

THE LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 

a most cordial invitation 

to attend and to participate in the proceedings of 

The International Engineering Congress 

to be held in connection with 

The Panama Pacific International Exposition 

September twentieth to twenty-flfth 

in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifteen 

in San Francisco 

California 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I9 

The letter ballot on the resolution presented at the last 
annual meeting was referred to William Kelly and L. C. 
Brewer as tellers, who canvassed the vote and presented the 
following results: 

Whole number votes cast, 200. 

In favor of resolution, 200. 

The resolution was accordingly adopted and added to the 
rules as Rule XII. 

On motion the reix)rt of the Council was adopted. 

The following pro[X)sals for meml>ership have been ap- 
]>n>ved by the Council: 

Barr, J. Carroll, General Manager, Pittsburg Steel Ore 
Co., Crosby, Minn. 

Batchelder, B. W., Superintendent Hawkins Mine, Nash- 
wauk, Minn. 

Bolles, Fred R., Assistant General Manager, Copper 
Range R. R., Houghton, Mich. 

Burdorf, Harry A., Representative The Lunkenheimer 
Co., -2316 Garfield Ave., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bush, E. G., Diamond Drill Contractor, 909 Ahvorth 
Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

Caine, D. T., Local Superintendent, Republic Iron & Steel 
Co., (lilbert, Minn. 

Cash, F. H., Local Superintendent, Rqxiblic Iron & Steel 
Co., Kinney, Minn. 

Christianson, Peter, Professor of Metallurgy, School of 
Mines. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Comstock, Henry, General Superintendent, Witherl)ee 
Shemian & Co., Mineville, New York. 

Comstock, Ehling H., Professor Mechanics & ]Mathe- 
matics. School of Mines, University of Minnesota, Minnea- 
jx;lis. Minn. 

Cook, Charles W., Instructor in Economic Geology, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Economics Bldg., Ann Arlx:>r, Mich. 

DeHaas, Nathan G., Wholesale Lunil)er, Marquette, Mich. 

Diehl, Alfred S., Chief Engineer, Oliver Iron Mining 
Company, Coleraine, Minn. 



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20 BUSINESS MEETING 

Donahue, E. J. W., Secretary, Cuyuna-Duluth Iron Com- 
pany, 416-17 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minii. 

Dow, Herbert W., Sales Manager, Nofdberg Mfg. Co., 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Drake, John M., Superintendent, Meridan Mine, Hibbing, 
Minn. 

Eckstroni, Alexander, J., Mining Engineer, Keewatin, 
Minn. 

Emmons, William H., Director, Minnesota Geological 
Survey, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Flannigan, Thomas A., General Superintendent, Repub- 
lic Iron & Steel Co., Gilbert, Minn. 

Foote, George C, Resident Director, Witherbee Sher- 
man & Co., Port Henry, New York. 

Forbes, Guy R., Mining Engineer, 329 Hemlock St., 
Virginia, Minn. 

Gaynor, William E., Manager Great Lakes Dredge & 
Dock Co., Duluth, Minn. 

Halloday, Fred H.,^ Superintendent Winston & Dear, Hib- 
bing, Minn. 

Hayden, J. Elzey, Mining Engineer, C. C. I. Co., Ishpem- 
ing, Mich. 

Heim. Harry R., Salesman Westinghopse Elec. Co., 936 
MetroiK>litan Life Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Higgins, Edwin, Mining Engineer, care Bureau of Mines, 
Ironwood, Mich. 

House, Allen C, care M. A. Hanna & Co., Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Jenks, C. O., General Superintendent, G. N. Ry., Super- 
ior, Wis. 

Johnson, Harry O., Osterberg & Johnson, Diamond Drill 
Conti-actors, Virginia, Minn. 

Johnson, Xels, Local Superintendent Republic Iron & 
Steel Co., Keewatin, Minn. 

Johnstone, Orland W., Si>ecial Agent Soo Line, Duluth, 
Minn. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 21 

Kieren, Josq>h, Master Mechanic, Republic Iron & Steel 
Co., Gilbert, Minn. 

Kurtzman, P. L., Local Superintendent Republic Iron & 
Steel Co., McKinley, Minn. 

Locker, W. H., Treasurer, Cuyuna-Duluth Iron Com- 
pany, 416 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

Middkmise Bruce A., Mine Superintendent, Hibbing, 
Minn. 

Mitchell, Harold E., Leonidas, Oliver Iron Mining* Coni- 
l)any, Eveleth, Minn. 

MacKillican, James A., Mining Engineer, Meridan Iron 
Co., Hibbing, Minn. 

McRandle, William E. R., Superintendent Gale Mine, 
Bessemer, Mich. 

Oberg, Anton C Chief Engineer, Arthur Iron Mining 
Co., Hibbing, Minn. 

Overpeck, Hollis \V., Safety Inspector, Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Co., Virginia District, Virginia, Minn. 

Pellenz, William P., Jr., Mining Superintendent, Carson 
Lake, Minn. 

Penniman, Dwight C, Representative Central Electric 
Company, Clinton Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Peterson, A. Y., Assistant General Superintendent, Oliver 
Iron Mining Co., Chisholm, Minn. 

Philbin, Donald M., Charge Great Northern Iron Ore 
Properties, 408 Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

Pursell, H. E., Sales Manager, Kewanee Boiler Co., Ke-. 
wanee, Illinois. 

Redner, A. E., Mining Captain, 216 Aurora Location, 
Iron wood, Mich. 

Reifel, H. T., Superintendent La Rue Mine, Xashwauk, 
Minn. 

Rouchleau, Louis, Mine Owner, West Hotel, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Sellwood, R. M., Mining & Banking, Duluth, Minn. 
Sheldon. All:)ert P., Garlock Packing Co., 112 X. .\rch 
St., Marquette, Mich. 



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22 BUSINESS MEETING 

Shove, Brigham W., Agent C. N. W., Ry., Ironwood, 
Mich. 

Silliman, Thomas, B., Mining Engineer, Coleraine, Minn. 
^ Stephens, James, Mining Captain. North Lake, R. F. D., 
Ishpeming, Mich. 

Sullivan, A. J., General Superintendent, Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Co., Chisholm, Minn. 

Tal'boys, Henry H., Salesman, Ingersoll-Rand Drill Co., 
717 Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

Tappan, William M., Mining Superintendent, Hibbing, 
Minn. 

Thomson, Camii A., General Manager, Great Northern 
Iron Ore Proi>erties, Room' 222, G. N. Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

Tubby, Charles, W., District Manager, International 
Steam Pump Co., 703 Commerce Bldg., St. Paul Minn. 

Ulrich, William R, Chief Chemist Oliver Iron Mining 
Company, Chisholm, Minn. 

Wiebb, Wa;lter M., Safety Inspector, Republic Iron & 
Steel Co., Gilbert, Minn. 

White, J. W., Sales Representative, Tlie Jeffrey Mfg. 
Comixmy, 1905 E. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

Wilcox, Lee L., Chief Engineer, Republic Iron & Steel 
I Co., Gilbert, Minn. 

Willard, Paul D., Mining Engineer, Hibbing, Minn. 

Williams, Dean R., Sales Agent, Williams & Wolff, 1213 
Majestic Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wilson, Arthur O., Engineer Susquehanna Mine, Hib- 
l):ng, Minn. 

Woodbridge, Dwight E., Mining Engineer, Sellw^ood 
Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

Zimmemian, Walter G., Contracting Manager, American 
Bridge Co., Duluth. Minn. 

On motion the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot 
for the elect'on of the applicants to membership. 

The Auditing Committee then presented the following re- 
ix>rt: 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE ^3 

Yoiir Committee appointed to examine the books of the 
Secretary and Treasurer, beg leave to report that we have 
carefully examined same and find the receipts and expendi- 
tures shown therein to be in accordance with the statements 
of the Secretary and Treasurer for the fiscal year ending 
August 26th, 1913. 

FRANK B. GOODMAN^ 
MAX H. BARBER, 
CHAS. GRABOWSKY. 

On motion the reix>rt of the Committee was adojited. 
Report of Committee on Nominations. 

Your Cciiimittee on nominations beg leave to submit the 
following names for oflficers of the Institute for teiTns speci- 
fied : 
For President (one year) : 

W. H. Johnston, Ishpeming, Mich. 
For Vice Presidents (two years) : 

C. T. Knise, Ishpeming, Mich. 

Charles E. Lawrence, Palatka, Mich. 

Luther C. Brewer, Ironwood, Mich. 
F(/r Managers (two years) : 

W. A. Sielxinthal, Repu1>lic, Mich. 

J. S. Lutes, Biwabik, Minn. 
For Manager (one year, to fill vacancy) : 

S. R. Elliott, Xegaunee, Mich. 
F< r Treasurer (one year) : 

E. W. Hoi:^ins, Commonwealth, Wis. 
Ft:r Secretary (one year) : 

A. J. Yungbluth, Ishi^eming, Mich. • 

mark ELLIOTT, 

W. J. RICHARDS, 

PETER W. PASCOE, 

ANDRE FOR MIS, 

L. M. HARDENBURGH, 

Committee, 



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24 BUSINESS MEETING 

On motion the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot 
for the election of the officers as submitted by the Committee. 

On motion by Robert A. Douglass, the chair appointed 
the following Committee to escort the new^ly elected Presi- 
dent to the platform: Robert A. Douglass and Pearson 
Wells. Mr. Johnston, upon l)eing introduced, addressed the 
meeting as follows : 
Mr. Johnston : 

Mr. Pi-esident and Meml^ers of the Institute: I ap- 
preciate what a very great honor you have conferred upon 
me, for I realize that it is a great honor to be President of 
the Institute. With this honor also goes a very great re- 
sponsibility. I am more impressed with this responsibility 
after the fine program they have given us on this range. 
This meeting has been one of the most enjoyable I have ever 
attended. I think we have never had a greater number pres- 
ent than we have at this meeting. I should hesitate some- 
what about accepting the responsibility, or the honor, if it 
were not for the fact that I know the meinbers of the Insti- 
tute stand so loyally by the President, and that they do every- 
thing in their power to make their meetings successful. I 
also know that I have some friends on the Marquette Range, 
members of the Institute, who will do everything in their 
power to make the meeting successful. I thank you for the 
honor. 

The Coinmittee on Resolutions presented the following 
reiK>rt which was on motion adopted : 

Whereas, The Virginia Club, Elks Club of Virginia, 
Algonquin Club of Hibbing, the Commercial Clubs of Du- 
luth, and the entire Missalje Range have extended to this 
organization the facilities, conveniences, and what is much 
more, the greatest ix)ssible hospitality; 

And Whereas, Many of our friends and associates have 
ccnitributed most kindly the use of their automobiles for our - 
comfort and pleasure; 

And Whereas, Many of the church societies, other or- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2$ 

g'anizations and hotels, have given to us mast plenteously 
of their food and good cheer; 

And Whereas, The Duhith Commercial Club contributed 
greatly to our enjoyment in the visit to the Minnesota Steel 
Plant by boat; 

And Whereas, The Duluth, Missabe and Northern Rail- 
way, the Duluth and Iron Range Railway, and the Great 
N(^rthem Railway, and the Mining Companies, have made 
this trip ix,«sible through the use of their tracks and loco- 
motives; 

Now Therefor, Be it resolved by the Lake Sui>erior Min- 
ing Institute, and particularly by those mem1)€rs attending the 
1913 meeting, they being well-fed, well-cared for, and widely 
travelled, that they extend to each and all of the above men- 
tioned i>ersons, individually and collectively, their sincere and 
hearty thanks. 

J. H. hearding^ 

G. II. ABEEL, 

W. H. JOHNSTON. 

Committee. 

This concluded the business sessions of the Eighteenth 
.\nnual meeting. The splendid list of papers prq>ared by 
the members will make this volume one of the most interest- 
ing yet published. The authors are fully entitled to the ai>- 
preciation so freely expressed by the members for their ef- 
forts in contributing to the interest of the meeting. 

Before the adjournment w^as taken the acting President 
announced that Mr. Sebenius would present some moving 
pictures of the various features connected with mining on the 
Missabe range. These consisted in views of the first steps 
in breaking roads and establishing diamond drilling, mining 
ojKrations, loading and hauling ore to the docks and loading 
same into boats. Also the complete oi>eration of getting out 
the timber used by mines, running logs and delivering same 
to the mines. This feature of the meeting was novel and most 
interesting. 



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26 



REGISTRY OF MEMBERS 



The following is a partial list of those in attendance : 



Abeel, G. H Ironwood, Mich. 

Abeel, G. H. Jr. . Ironwood, Mich. 

Abell, O. J Chicago. Ills. 

Allen, R. C Lansing, Mich. 

Armstrong, F. H. . .Vulcan, Mich. 
Atkins, S. E Duluth, Minn. 

Baldwin, C. K Chicago, 111. 

Barber, M. H.. .Nashwauk, Minn. 

Barber, G. S Bessemer, Mch. 

Barney, Joseph .McKinley, Minn. 

Barr, J. C Rlverton, Minn. 

Batchelder, B. W 

Nashwauk, Minn. 

Bayllss, Willard . . Chisholm, Minn. 
Benjamin, P. S.... Duluth, Minn. 
Bergeat, Prof. A 

Koenigsberg, Germany 

Bernhardt, F. J Duluth, Minn. 

Binney, Joseph. .McKinley, Minn. 
Blackburn, R. D.. Hancock, Mich. 

Bolles, F. R Houghton, Mch. 

Bond, Wm Ironwood, Mich. 

Bond, Thomas ..Ironwood, Mich. 

Boss, C. M Duluth, Minn. 

Boyd, A. H Denver, Colo. 

Brewer, L. C Ironwood, Mich. 

Brewer, Carl. Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Brigham, E. D Chicago, 111. 

Burdorf, H. A.Minneapolis, Minn. 
Bush, E. C Duluth, Minn. 

Caddy, Thomas. . .Hibbing, Minn. 

Caine, D. S Gilbert, Minn. 

CampbeU, D. H.Iron River, Mich. 
Carbis, F..Iron Mountain, Mich. 
Carbis.W. J.Iron Mountain, Mich. 
Carmlchael, Wm . . Biwablk, Minn. 

Carroll, J. R Houghton, Mich. 

CarroH, Philip. .Houghton, Mich. 

Cash, F. H Kinney, Minn. 

Carlton, D. E Biwabik, Minn. 

Chinn, W. P McKinley, Minn. 

Christianson, Peter, .' 

Minneapolis. Minn. 

Clifford, J. M Escanaba, Mich. 

Cole, C. D Ishpeming, Mich. 

Cole, W. T Ishpeming, Mich. 

Cole, T. F Duluth, Minn. 

Conibear, Wm. .Ishpeming, Mich. 



Comstock, E. H 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cook. C. W...Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Congdon, W. B Duluth, Minn, 

Congdon, E. C Duluth, Minn. 

Cory, E. N Negaunee. Mich. 

Coven'try, Frank. .Hibbing. Minn. 
Crosby, Geo. H Duluth, Minn. 

Desrcchers, G. E.Houghton, Mich. 

Diehl. A. S Coleraine, Minn. 

Donahue, E. J. W.. Duluth, Minn. 

Donovan, M. J 

Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Dormer, Geo. H...Eveleth, Minn. 

Douglas, R A Ironwood, Mich. 

Dow, H. W Milwaukee. Wis. 

Dudley, H. C Duluth, Minn. 

Drake, J. M Keewatln, Minn. 

Eaton, Lucien.. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Eichenberger, R. W.. Chicago, III. 

Elliott, Mark Virginia, Minn. 

Emmons, W. H 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Erickson, Carl E. Ironwood, Mich. 
Estep, H. Cole Chicago, 111. 

Farchild, D. L.... Duluth, Minn. 

Fay, Joseph Marqueitte, Mich. 

Fay, A. H Washington, D. C. 

Federstrom, J. A. Ironwood, Mich. 
Fclver, H. C. .. .Houghton, Mich. 
Fish wick, E. T..Mnwaukee, Wis. 
Flannigan, T. A... Gilbert. Minn. 

Flodin. N. P Marquette, Mich, 

Forbes, G. R Virginia, Minn. 

Formis, A Oj.bway. Mich. 

Gardner, O. D Calumet. Mich, 

Gaynor, W. E Duluth, Minn. 

Gish, J. R Beaver Dam, WHs. 

Godfrey, M. H. .. .Virginia, Minn. 

Goodman, F. B Hurley, Wis. 

Goodsen, B. W Chicago, 111. 

Goudie, James ..Ironwood, Mich. 
Grabowsky, Chas. Virginia, Minn. 

Halloday, F. H. .. .Hibbing, Minn. 
Harris, S. T Houghton, Mich. 



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27 



Harrison. G. E... Ribbing, Minn. 
Hart, Wm. C .... Ribbing, Minn. 
Rarvey, W. H . . . . Eveleth, Minn. 

Hardenburgh, L. M 

Iron wood, Mich. 

Hastings. R X.. Green Bay, Wis. 
Hayden, J. £. .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Hearding, J. R Duluth, Minn. 

Hearn, A. L Virginia^ Minn. 

Heggaton, W. S.Negaunee, Mich. 
Heim. H. R. . .Minneapolis, Minn. 

Helps, S. E Eveleth, Minn. 

Hendrick. C. E.. Virginia, Minn. 
Heyn, Howard ..Ishpeming, Mich. 
Higgins, Edwin.. Iron wood, Mich. 

H.ll, S-tacy R Duluth, Minn. 

Ringston, C. E Duluth, Minn. 

Hoatson, Thomas. Calumet, Mich. 
Hocking, R. O .... Ribbing, Minn. 
Hodge, Richard . . Ribbing, Minn. 
HoUey, A. B .... Virginia, Minn. 

House, A. C Cleveland, Ohio. 

Huhtala, John .,,. Palmer, Mich. 

Runner, Earl E Duluth, Minn. 

Huyck, Charles Clio, Mich. 

Ireland, J. D Duluth, Minn. 

Jenks, C. O Superior, Wis. 

Johnson, E. F Virginia, Minn. 

Johnson, R. O.. Virginia, Minn. 
Johnston, W. R. . Ishpeming, Mich. 
Johnstone, O. W.. Duluth, Minn. 

Jory, Wm Gwinn, Mich. 

Johnson, Nels. . Keewatin, Minn. 

Kelly, Wiliam ....Vulcan, Mich. 

Kennedy, C. S Duluth, Minn. 

Kieren, Jos Gilbert, Minn. 

Kitts, Thos .-Hancock, Mich. 

Kleffman, John Ribbing, Minn. 

Knight, R. C Eveleth, Minn. 

Kreiter, J. W Duluth, Minn. 

Kurtzman, P. L..McKinley, Minn. 

LaCroix, M. F. .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Lane, J. S New York, N. Y. 

Larochelle, L.. .Houghton, Mich. 

LaRue, W. G Duluth, Minn. 

Latham, A. M Virginia, Minn. 

Letz, J. F Milwaukee, Wis. 

Lien, Nels Eveleth, Minn. 



Lindberg, J. F. .. .Ribbing, Minn. 

Locker, W. R Duluth, Minn. 

Loudenback, C. I... Chicago, 111. 
Lutes, J. S Blwablk, Minn. 

Mace, R. E Duluth, Minn. 

Markell. John Duluth, Minn. 

Mars, W. P Duluth, Minn. 

Martin, E. C Chicago, 111. 

Middlemise, B. A. Ribbing, Minn. 

Mitchell, R. E Eveleth, Minn. 

Mitchell, R. J Eveleth, Minn. 

Mitchell, Pentecost. Duluth, Minn. 
Mitchell, W. A.... Chicago. 111. 

Mowatt N. P Duluth, Minn. 

Murray, Robert ..Ribbing, Minn. 

McCord. R. D Duluth, Minn. 

McDonald, D, B Duluth, Minn. 

McDowell, John.. Ribbing, Minn. 
McGee, M. B. Crystal Falls, Mich. 
McGonagle, W. A. . . Duluth, Minn. 
McLane, John R.. Duluth, Minn. 
McNamara, T. B.Ironwood, Mich. 
McNeil, E. D. .. .Virginia, Minn. 
McRandall, W. E.Bessemer, Mich. 

Nelson, S. T Chicago, 111. 

Newett, Wm. R. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Oberg, Anton C Ribbing, Minn. 

Olcott, W. J Duluth, Minn. 

Orr, F. D Duluth, Minn. 

Overpeck, R. W.. Virginia, Minn. 

Parker, E. W. .Washington, D. C. 
Pascoe. Peter W. .Republ.c, Mich. 
Pascoe, P. W., Jr. Republic, Mich. 
Felling, W. T. Jr. Ribbing, Minn, 

Pendry, Wm Duluth, Minn. 

Penniman, D. C 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Perkins, F. J..Ironwood, Mich- 
Peterson, A. Y 

Carson Lake, Minn. 

Phillips, W. G Duluth, Minn. 

Philbin, D. M Duluth, Minn. 

Powell, D. W.. Marquette, Mich. 

Power, R Duluth, Minn. 

Prescott, Fred M.Milwaukee, Wis. 
Prescott, L. L. .Menominee, Mich. 

Prince, W. J Duluth, Minn. 

Pursell, R. B Kewauee, Ills. 



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28 



REGISTRY OF MEMBERS 



Quigley, G. J Antigo, Wis. 

Quine, John T. .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Quine, Wm Ishpeming, Mich. 

Quinn, C. K Virginia, Minn. 

Raisky, F Ishpeming, Mich. 

Raley , R. J Duluth, Minn. 

Redfern, John A..Hibbing, Minn. 

Redner, A. E Ironwood, Mich. 

Reifel, H. T Nashwauk, Minn. 

Richards, W. J 

Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Richards, M. E..Virgnia, Minn. 
Richards, John C. Virginia, Minn. 

Roberts, Harry Duluth, Minn. 

Rowe, W. C. .. .Bessemer, Mich. 
Rowe, Nathaniel. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Rouchleau, L. .Minneapolis, Minn. 

Rough, J. H Negaunee, Mich. 

Rough, J. H., Jr. Negaunee, Mich. 
Rumsey, S. S Duluth, Minn. 

Salsich. L. R Duluth, Minn. 

Sampson, John Ashland, Wis. 

Schubert, Geo. P.Hancock, Mich. 

Scott, A. J Iron River, Mich. 

Scott, Harry, M Chicago, 111. 

Searle, C. E Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sebenius, J. Uno. .Duluth, Minn. 

Sell wood, R. M Duluth, Minn. 

Sheldon, A. F. .Marquette, Mich. 

Shove, B. W Iron wood, Mich. 

Silliman, A. P. . . .Hibbing, Minn. 
Silliman, T. B. .. .Hibbing, Minn. 

Silver, C. R Chicago, 111. 

Smith, Bert Iron wood, Mich. 

Sparks, B. F Houghton, Mich. 

Stakel, C. J Ishpeming, Mich. 

Sutherland, D. E.Ironwood, Mich. 

Sullivan, A. J Chisholm, Minn. 

Swain, R. A . . Minneapolis, Minn. 
Swift, G. D Duluth, Minn. 

Talboys, H. H Duluth, Minn. 

Taley, D Duluth, Minn. 

Tancg, A Hibbing, Minn. 

Tappan, W. M Hibbing, Minn. 

Thompson, G. H.. Hibbing, Minn. 
Thomson, C. A.. St. Paul, Minn. 

Traver. W. H Chicago, 111. 

Trebilcock, Wm 

North Freedom, Wis. 



Trebilcock, J. . .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Trevarrow, H ... Negaunee, Mich. 

Trevarthan, W. J 

Bessemer, Mich. 

Trezona, Charles ...Ely, M nn. 
Tubby, C. W....St. Paul, Minn. 

Turner, C. N Milwaukee, Wis. 

Tyler, W. E Mendota, 111. 

Ulizen, B. A Crosby, Minn. 

TJlrich, W. F. .. .Chisholm, Minn. 

VanBarneveld, Charles E 

San Francisco, Calif, 

Vilas, R. L Ishpeming, Mich. 

Vivian, J. G Duluth, Minn. 

Vogel, F. A.... New York, N. Y. 

Wall, J. S Iron River, Mich. 

Ware, W. F Negaunee, Mich. 

Watson, C. H. Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Wearne, Wm Hibbing, Minn. 

Webb, F. J Duluth, Minn. 

Webb, W. M Gilbert, Minn. 

Welker, W. F Ashland, Wis. 

Wells, Pearson . . Ironwood, Mich. 

West, W. J Hibbing, Minn. 

Westcott, J. W. .Riverton, Minn. 

White, J. W Duluth, Minn. 

White, Wm Virginia, Minn. 

Whitehead, R. G. .Amasa, Mich. 

Whitney, J. H Oshkosh, Wis. 

Whitney, A. E Oshkosh, Wis. 

Whiteside, Robert. .Duluth, Minn. 

Wilcox, L. L Gilbert, Minn. 

Willard, P. D Gilbert, Minn. 

Wilson, A. O.... Hibbing, Minn, 

Williams, T. H Ely, Minn. 

Williams, P. S Ramsay, Mich. 

Winchell, H. V.Minneapolis, Minn. 
Wivell, Wm. . . .Nashwauk, Minn. 
Woodbridge, R. M.. Duluth, Minn. 
Woodbridge, D. E.. Duluth, Minn. 

Woodworth, G. L 

Iron River, Mich. 

Wodlf, P. J. .Minneapolis, Minn. 

Yates, W. H Duluth, Minn. 

Yungbluth, A. J. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Yungbluth, R. O. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Ziesing, August Chicago, 111. 

Zimmerman, W. G . . Duluth, Minn. 



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PAPERS 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 3 1 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE PRACTICE FOR 
THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS. 

The Committee on the Practice for the Prevention of Ac- 
cidents met in Ishpeming on March 26th, 1913, and the fol- 
lowing members were present: J. E. Jopling, Ishpeming, 
Chairman; C. E. Lawrence. Iron Moimtain; D. E. Sutherland. 
Ironwood, A. M. Gow, Duluth. 

After duly considering the subject and discussing the vari- 
ous suggestions which were made by members of the Com- 
ittee, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Uniform Mining Rides — It is thought advisable to collect 
information of mining rules used in the Lake Superior mining 
district and to compare the same with those published in the 
reix)rt to the American Mining Congress, American Institute 
of Mining Engineers and the Mining & Metallurgical Society 
of America by the Committee on Uniform Mining Laws for 
Prevention of Mine Accidents, October, 19 10, and the pro- 
posed form now being prepared by the Bureau of Mines; also 
that a competent person or persons should be employed under 
the direction of the Committee to draft a set of rules to be 
presented to the Lake Superior Mining Institute as a prq)osed 
standard for mines in the Lake Superior district. 

Uniform Reports of County Mine Inspectors — It is sug- 
gested that the reix)rts of the County Mine Inspectors of Mich- 
igan, Wisconsin and Minnesota be standardized; that the re- 
ports should cover the calendar year, and that they should in- 
clude fatal and serious accidents of all mine employes wheth- 
er surface or underground. In the judgment of the Com- 
mittee these accidents should be classified according to a uni- 
fonii system and recorded upon a unifonn blank. 



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32 REPORT ON PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

Classification of Accidents — It is recommended that inves- 
tigations be made leading to a unifomi classification of acci- 
dents for mines in the Lake Superior district. 

Reports as to Carrying Out Safety Rules — The Committee 
recommends the collection of blank forms used for reports to 
show the carrying out of safety rules adopted, these blank 
forms to be only such as are used by employes in various de- 
partments of the mining companies for their information. 

Contagious Diseases — It is the sense of this Committee that 
more definite action should be taken in the matter of con- 
tagious diseases in the different localities, in the form of a rigid 
quarantine to be established by the health officer. 

Physical Examination of Employes — Investigations should 
l3e made to find out what is being done in the matter of physical 
examination of employes by employers of labor. 

Publicity of Mining Rules — It is recommended that sug- 
gestions be made as to the dissemination of the Rules for the 
Prevention of Accidents among employes. 

Mine Rescue Car — It is recommended that the Bureau of 
Mines be requested to send mine rescue car No. 8 to the Me- 
sabi Range at the time of the meeting of the Institute. 

It is requested that the Council comment on the above reso- 
lutions, stating whether an appropriation will be made to car- 
ry out any of the investigations enumerated above. 

The resignation of Mr. Edward Koepel of Beacon Hill, 
Michigan, was submitted to the Committee. The Committee 
offers this resignation and suggests that Mr. W. H. Schacht 
of Painesdale, Michigan, be appointed in his place. 



The Committee met for the second time in Ishpeming on 
July 22nd, 1913. and the following members were present: J. 
E. Jopling, Ishpeming, Chairman; C. E. Lawrence, Palatka; 
A. M. Cow, Duluth; W. H. Schacht, Painesdale. 

In resiK)nse to a request to Mr. II. M. Wilson of the 
Bureau of Mines, Pittsburg, for consultation at this meet- 
ing, he sent Mr. Edwin Higgins, District Engineer, United 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 33 

States Bureau of Mines, who was present and gave much val- 
uable assistance and information. 

The resolutions adopted at the former meeting were fur- 
ther discussed. Mr. Gow had prei>ared a series of fifteen 
charts showing in parallel columns the mining rules adopted 
by The Cleveland-Qiffs Iron Company, The Inland Steel 
Company, Pickands, Mather & Company, and the Oliver Iron 
Mining- Co. These fifteen classifications are as follows: 

1. Locomotives, Steam Shovels and Cars. 

2. Boilers and Boiler Houses. 

3. Engine Rooms, Engine Hoists and Signals. 

4. Shops, Tools and Machines. 

5. Buildings, Headframes and Structures. 

6. Open Pits, Tracks, Roads and Test Pits. 

7. Standard Signs and Danger Signals. 

8. Cages, Skips, Buckets, Ropes, Cables, Hooks, Chains 
and Sheaves. 

9. Shafts, Ladderways, Ladders and Pump Stations. 

10. Underground Mining, Timl>ering and Tramming. 

1 1 . Explosives. 

12. General Safety Rules and Admonitions. 

13. Electrical Rules and Regulations. 

14. Medical and Sanitar}^ 

15. Fire Protection and Precautions. 

In the printed rules of the different mining companies 
referred to there is the widest divergence in classification, in 
number of rules l>earing upon a particular subject and in the 
emphasis placed upon them. Your Committee has therefore 
found it impossible to frame a code of safety rules to present 
at the meeting of the Institute for adoption. A committee 
of mining engineers consisting of Messrs. Ingalls, Channing, 
Douglas, Finlay and Hammond, framed a proposed code. 
We would recommend that the Lake Superior Mining Insti- 
tute apix)int a similar committee of oj)erating officials from 
the copix^r and iron ranges who shall make a report at the 
next meeting of the Institute as to the desirability of a uni- 



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34 REPORT ON PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

form code, and shall present such a code for discussion at 
that time. 

We deem it desirable that the safety rules to be adopted 
should be based uix>n some classification. We consider it ad- 
visable that such a classification should conform to that 
adopted by the United States Bureau of Mines in collecting 
statistics of metal mining accidents. This classification ai> 
l>ears to us to be thoroughly practical and inasmuch as the 
mining companies are required to refx^rt to this department 
all accidents in accordance with this classification, we see 
every reason why we should adopt it for our own reports. 

Presented herewith is a copy of the Bureau of Mines class- 
ification. Such an arrangement will simpHfy to a great extent 
the making of reports to the government by the mining com- 
panies. 

Owing to the desirability of having uniform reports made 
I)y mining companies and by county mine inspectors, it is rec- 
ommended that the atove fonn of report, except in relation to 
minor accidents, l)e adopted by county mine insi)ectors, thus 
making their reports uniform witli that called for by the 
Ijureau of Mines. 

In view of the fact that some county mine ins[>ectors re- 
port only on underground accidents while others reiK>rt on both 
surface and underground accidents, complications have arisen 
in the past in comparing the accident reports of the various 
districts. To improve this condition we recommend that all 
county mine insi)ectors make their re[x>rts covering lx>th sur- 
face and underground. The word "surface'' is here meant to 
include all o[)erations having to do with the actual operation 
of the mine, excluding all those which are at present covered 
by factory or mill inspection. 

From such information as we are able to obtain we are 
satisfied that the installation of safety devices and appliances, 
such as guards, t()c-l)oav(ls, hand rails, etc., is the smaller part 
of tlic safety movement. We l>elieve that efliciency in safety 
can only be attained by education and constant agitation of 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 35 

the subject and the hearty C(>-oi)eration of the employes with 
the management. The management, in even- case, should 
show its wilHngness to do its part in the installation of guards 
and appliances, but the most efficient work in the cause of 
safety must be done by methods which will constantly keep 
before the mind of everj- employe the fact that upon him rests 
an individual and i)ersonal res[x>nsibility. To put it another 
way, the problem is a psychological and not a mechanical one. 
We ihcrefiTe urge that in addititm to the installation of guards 
and appliances that consideration be given to those means 
and methods, other than mechanical, which will secure the 
c(M)i>eration of the employes in and alx)ut the mines. 

Your Committee gave consideration to the question of the 
physical examination of employes and while we believe that 
g(H)(l results might be obtained from such procedure, we are 
not, at this time, prepared to make any definite recommenda- 
tions whatsoever. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS IN METAL MINES ACCORDING 

TO THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES. 
Sub-Divided Under Following Caption — 
KILLED. 
SERIOUSLY INJURED. (Broken arm, leg, ribs, or other Injury 

involving loss of 20 or more days* work.) 
SLIGHTLY INJURED. (Injury involving loss of more than 1 
day's work, but less than 20.) 

Underground 

1. By fall of rock or ore from roof or wall. 

2. By rock or ore while loading at working face. 

3. By timber or hand tools. 

4. By explosives (fncludes premature blasts, explosion of misfires, 

flying pieces from blasts, suffocation by gases from blasts, 
etc.) 

5. By haulage accidents (by mine cars, mine locomotives, breakage 

of rope, etc.) 

6. By falling down chute, winze, raise, or stope. 

7. By run of ore from chute or pocket. 

8. By drilling accidents (by' machine or hand drills.) 

9. By electricity (shock or burn.)f 

10. By machinery (pumps, hoisting and haulage machinery, etc.. not 
including locomotives or drills.) 



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36 REPORT ON PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

11. By mine fires. 

12. By suffocation from natural gases. 

13. By inrush of water. , 

14. By stepping on na?I. 

15. By other causes, (Please list, showing causes.) 
Total number killed or injured underground. 

Shaft Accidents 
IG. By falling down shafts. 

17. By objects falling down shafts. 

18. By breaking of cables. 

19. By overwinding. 

20. By skip or cage. 

21. By other causes. (Please list, showing causes.) 
Total number killed or injured by shaft accidents. 

Surface Accidents* 

(Where surface mining is not performed.) 

22. By mine cars or mine locomotives. 

23. By railway cars and locomotives. 

24. By run or fall of ore in or from ore bins. 

25. By falls of persons. 
2G. By stepping on nail. 

27. By hand tools, axes, bars, etc. 

28. By electrlcity.f 

29. By machinery. 

30. By other causes. (Please list, showing causes.) 
Total number killed or injured by surface accidents. 

Surface Accidents* 
(Where surface mining is performed.) 

31. By falls or slides of rock or ore. 

32. By explosives (including premature blasts, explosion of mis- 

fires, flying pieces from blasts, etc.) 

33. By haulage accidents (by cars, locomotives, etc.) 

34. By steam shovels. 

35. By falls of persons. 

36. By falls of derricks, booms, etc. 

37. By run or fall of ore in or from ore bins. 

3S. By machinery (other than locomotives or steam shovels.) 

39. By electrlcity.f 

40. By hand tools. 

41. By other causes. (Please list, showing causes.) 
Total number kUled or injured by surface accidents. 

Grand total. 
*Does not Include accidents in ore dressing, 
f Please state the voltage of current. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 37 

PAPERS PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE, WHICH TREAT OF 
MINE SAFETY AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 

Vol. Page. 

Mine Accidents — Address of the Retiring President, J. 

Parke Channing Ill 34-48 

Some Observations on the Principle of Benefit Funds 
and Their Place In the Lake Superior Iron Mining 
Industries, by William G. Mather, Retiring President V 10-20 

High Explosives, Their Safe and Economical Methods 

of Handling, by J. H. Karkeet IX 3947 

The Importance of the Ordinary Sanitary Precautions 
in the Prevention of Water Borne Disease in Mines, 
by B. W. Jones, M. D XII * 105-115 

Compensation to Workmen in Case of Injuries, by 

Murray M. Duncan, Retiring President XIV 47-53 

Mine Accidents, by John T. Qulne, Mine Inspector, Mar- 
quette County XIV 71-81 

The Sociological Side of the Mining Industry, by W. 

H. Moulton XIV 82-98 

Social Surroundings of the Mine Employe, by Chas. E. 

Lawrence XVI 121-12G 

Some Safety Devices of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., 

by Alex. M. Gow XVI 156-167 

Accidents in the Transportation, Storage and Use of 

i Explosives, by Charles S. Hurter XVI 177-210 

System of Safety Inspection of the Cleveland Cliffs 

Iron Company, by William Conibear XVII 94-111 

Mine Sanitation by E. B. Wilson XVII 11 < -126 



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38 SANITATION FOR MINE LOCATIONS 



SANITATION FOR MINE LOCATIONS. 

BY W. H. MOULTON, ISIIPEMINQ, MICH.* 

Sanitation is the practical application of knowledge and 
science to the preservation of health. There is no one thing 
tliat more directly aflfects the successful oi)eration of our mines 
than the licalth and well being of the men, and we are now 
coming to realize that it is a practical as well as a scientific 
niaiter. The value of sanitation is being recognized today in 
all brandies of industry as well as in its effect upon a com- 
munity as a whole. Our higher educational institutions have 
regular courses in this subject and men are graduated in this 
branch of engineering. 

It is undoubtedly true, that the better living conditions 
and Ijetter physical health make for more satisfactory service. 
The health of the men may be conserved in many ways which 
are of practical application around our mines. Much has^ al- 
ready been accomplished and due credit should be given to 
the many companies who have given si>ecial consideration to 
the health of its men. 

The old wocxlen dry, of a comi>aratively few years ago, is 
now being replaced by the mcxleni one with ample hot and 
cold water, individual basins or buckets, lockers for the street 
and mine clothes, and drying and ventilating systems which ef- 
fectually take care of the wet clothing of the miner. The 
plan of susi^ending the wet clothes by means of a rope or 
chain, with individual lock, has much to commend it. The 
shower bath, which is a part of all the modern drys, has 
made it ix)ssible for the men to bathe who have not the proper 
facilitie*^ at home. Their constant use has demonstrated their 
value. 

♦Secretary Penslpn Department, The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 39 

The introduction of water closets in the drys has not al- 
ways met with complete success, but in the majority of cases 
it is working very advantageously and improving the under- 
ground conditions. 

Dry closets should be placed in every main level and they 
should be provided in proportion of one to every twenty-five 
men. These closets should be made of wood or iron of a 
size to be conveniently handled by two men. They should be 
taken to the surface and washed out with the hose when em[>- 
tied. Lime should be kept convenient to the boxes and used 
regularly. There is no more fruitful source of disease than 
the human excreta left in the mine workings. 

The water that the men drink should have the most care- 
ful attention and under no circumstances should the men be 
l)ermitted to drink water that is not known to be pure. This 
can only he made possible by furnishing good water so that 
the men can readily obtain it. The plan of the Oliver Iron 
Mining Company in providing bubbling fountains, thus doing 
away with the old dirty drinking cup, is also to be highly 
ccmmended. 

Anything that will lessen those diseases frequent among 
our miners such as tuberculosis, typhoid, and other contagious 
or communicable diseases, should be carefully considered. 
There should be a more rigid quarantine in cases of con- 
tagions diseases, and it is desirable that the minmg companies 
co.4>erate more fully with the health officers and that such reg- 
ulat:(.>ns be made and enforced that our unenviable record in 
contagious diseases, especially in diphtheria and scarlet fever 
may be greatly improved upon. 

Owing to the relation that the physicians bear to the mining 
companies, they may hesitate to suggest things which might 
appear as criticism of existing conditions or methods of mine 
management, and should therefore be given full authority to 
correct undesirable conditions. I l>elieve we would get bet- 
ter results in this matter of sanitation by employing the physi- 
cians, at a stated added remuneration, to make i>eriodical in- 
spection of the entire properties. 



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40 SANITATION FOR MINE LOCATIONS . 

Proi:)er ventilation should be provided in all of our mines 
which would add to the efficiency of the men and incidentally 
prolong their lives. Tuberculosis and similar diseases would 
be less prevalent. 

The sanitary condition of the home has a great influence 
on the lives of the men. What can reasonably be expected of 
a man living in unhealthful surroundings? 

I believe that there is a duty that the mining companies 
owe to men employed by them and the community in which 
they live. One of the most efficient ways of fulfilling this ob- 
ligation is in providing satisfactory homes, with healthful sur- 
roundings for the men and their families. Any work of this 
kind must be wisely done and in such a way that the men 
will be led to cooperate in it so that there will be no sug- 
gestion of pateniatism in its methods or manner of inforce- 
ment. The importance of providing houses for rental is gen- 
erally recop-^^'zed but after the house is provided it is just as 
essential th t its condition Ije not neglected. We have seen 
houses wit.i no provision for waste water, which must be 
thrown out upon the ground. The only good things that 
may be said of this is that it usually provides a good place for 
the propagation of fish worms, but it also assists in the propa- 
gation of other less desirable things. 

The old boxed-in cupboard sink may yet be found which 
is a place for refuse and vermin, and is so frequently a rotten, 
dirty, slimy hole. If there are sucli, let them be torn out. 

The drainage around our houses and other properties re- 
quires carefuC attention. Ditches should Ije dug and kept open 
even if the boys fillthem up, and no stagnant water left to 
breed mosquitoes and infection. 

Garbage and refuse should be deposited in covered re- 
ceptacles, preferably galvanized iron cans, and where such 
services are not rendered by the city or village, the companies 
should provide for its regular collection and disposal not less 
frequent than once each week. It has been found feasible in 
some places to have the occupants of the premises purchase 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 4 1 

the cans, which are supplied at wholesale rates, or through the 
comijany at cost, with the understanding that proper collection 
is assured. Rubbish should not be dumped around promis- 
cuously but deposited in a designated place, collected, and dis- 
posed of. Few of the men have time or facilities for eco- 
nomically doing this and if not looked after by the city or the 
company, it will not be taken care of at all satisfactorily. A 
refuse burner, costing very little, can be so located as to make 
the disposal of rubbish a simple matter and comparatively an 
incxi>ensive one. 

It is desirable in many cases to permit the keeping of a cow 
or horse but provision should be made for the care of the 
manure. It should not be allowed to accumulate from month 
to month but should be removed promptly. It also should be 
treated with chloride of lime, or with a kerosene carbolic acid 
mixture. 

The companies should encourage the beautiTyJaig of home 
surroundings but it is even more important to set''<-hat the san- 
itary conditions are what they should l^e. In those localities 
having no sewer connections, the question of out-houses is a 
serious matter. Too often the out-house is set on the ground 
with no proper receptacle for the human excreta which often 
spreads over the ground, even if a pit is dug. This is fre- 
(juently allowed to collect throughout the season thus becom- 
ing a menace to the family. Often the houses are more or 
less open; vermin enters without hindrance; the ever-present 
disease-carrying fly freely finds access, goes from there to the 
liouse, feeds en the baby, and has even been known to be on 
the household food. We have just begun to appreciate the 
danger from these i)ests. The companies which have already 
set us an example in their campaign against the fly should 
lie congratulated, and it should also stimulate the rest of us 
to make an equal effort. These out-houses should be pro- 
vided with a proi^er receptacle which should be emptied at reg- 
ular and not too separate intervals, and properly cleaned. 
Either earth, slaked lime or chloride of lime should be con- 
stantly used. 



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42 SANITATION FOR MINE LOCATIONS 

Much good can be accomplished by the teaching of sani- 
tation in the public and parochial schools. Some of us may 
be too old to take kindly to the need of sanitary precautions 
but it is not too much to expect that the young may be taught 
to look on these matters as important and to a considerable 
degree help to improve conditions. 

The value of the physical inspection of school children is 
only just beginning to be appreciated. It should be in effect 
in all of our communities. It is a health precaution of great 
merit. 

The most efficient agency in extending the benefit of this 
work of sanitation is the Visiting or Public Health Nurse. 
A number of mining companies in the Lake Superior region 
have already introduced this service with much success. No 
other person can have the same opportunity of reaching the 
homes and the members of the families and assisting in the 
understanding of the benefits to be derived from fresh air, 
cleanliness and other sanitary precautions. The importance of 
fresh air cannot be emphasized too strongly. 

The advantage of all this is a better home life, the preven- 
tion of serious contagion, and the men in better condition for 
work. Anything that tends to the more regular work of the 
men is well worth consideration. 

The mining companies of the Lake Superior region are 
to be commended for the work that has been done for the 
men, their families, and the communities in which their op- 
erations are conducted, but with this commendation must come 
the realization that there is still much to be accomplished. This 
can best be done by makng some one i)erson directly respon- 
sible for the execution of the plans and methods of sanitation 
authorized by the mine manager. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 43 



WINONA STAMP-MILL.* 

BY R. R. SEEBER, WINONA, MICH. 

From Octoter, 1906, to November, 1907, the Winona 
mine shipped rock from one shaft to the Adventure stamp- 
mill. This rock showed a total copper content of about twen- 
ty pounds per ton stamped. A large part of the contained 
copper w^as fine or flaky, making extraction very difficult. 



Winona Stamp Mill 

Only a trifle over thirteen pounds per ton stamped was re- 
covered during this period. With such a low grade ore, it was 
obviously necessary to practice every economy if a profit was 

•Winona Copper Company, Winona, Michigan. 



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44 WINONA STAMP MILL 

to be obtained. The transportation cost per ton stamped was 
17.5 cents during tliis period, or considerably over one cent 
per pound on the copper obtained. If a stamp-mill were to 
l>e built on the mine location without otherwise increasing op- 
erating expenses evidently a large proix>rtion of this expense 
might be eliminated. 

There are two principal reasons for the location of stamp- 
mills away from the mine, namely: To provide ample wa- 
ter for washing and to provide room for disposal of tailings. 
To meet the water requirement, with the mill on the mine 
at Winona, a dam across the Sleq>ing river was necessarv'. 
For a two-head mill it would also be necessary to use at least 
50 per cent of the water over and over as the stream flow is 
only about 3,000,000 gals, per 24 hours. 

To meet the sand room requirements, some de-watering 
device and sand-stacking equipment would be necessarj'. 

After considerable study it was decided that these re- 
quirements could be met without prohibitive first cost or 
undue oj^erating exjjense and work on a two-head mill was 
begun May 22(1, 1909. 

The location chosen was a hillside between No. 4 shaft, 
Winona, and Xo. i shaft, King Philip. On the line of the 
stamp heads pipes were driven which, when stopped, indicat- 
ed a layer of hard material at a depth of 40 feet below the 
intended plane of the stamp base. On this material the con- 
crete foundation of each stamp head was expected to rest. 
This foundation is cyHndrical. A steel caisson, 15 ft. in 
diameter, was weighted with a concrete ring 3 ft. thick and 
sunk as a drop shaft. When the expected layer of hard ma- 
terial was reached it was found to be thin and to be under- 
lain by at least 80 ft. of sand, some of which was wet. Sink- 
ing was therefore continued until a sufficiently hard layer of 
material was encountered at about 55 ft. Ix^low the intended 
plane of the stani]) base. The concrete ring was blocked up 
and a mushroom fiK)t of concrete built in, as shown in the 
drawing, Fig. 3. The top 7 ft. of the caisson and concrete 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



45 




Fig, 1 



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46 WINONA STAMP MILL 

foundation was made 22 ft. in diameter in order to accom- 
modate the i6-ft. square base for the head casting. The 
casting's below the rock (from mortar down) weigh about 80 
tons. The total weight of the stamp is about 115 tons. When 
sinking the 15-ft. caisson it was found that 43 ft. of concrete 
ring would be held up by the friction of the sand against the 
outer surface of the steel shell. Including the 7 feet of 22-ft. 
ring, this skin friction would care for at least 400 tons of 
total weight of about 1,050 tons to be supported, (935 tons 
foundation; 115 tons stamp), leaving 650 tons to be supported 
on the sand under the 20-ft. ring, 203 square ft. and the 
20-ft. diameter base (314 square ft.) or a load of a little over 
1.25 tons i>er square ft. on the total area of 517 square ft. 

Velocity cards of the stamps show a blow of from 24 to 
33-ft. tons. This is partly absorbed in crushing rock. As 
a foundation to assist in absorbing the balance there are sui>- 
plied 80 tons of cast iron and 930 tons of concrete. After 
two years of use, no settling of foundations is in evidence and 
I am inclined to the belief that the foundations are much 
larger than is necessary. The concrete for all purposes was 
supplied from a central mixing station using a Smith mixer 
of one-half yd. capacity. Sand and ciatshed rock were dumped 
from a temporary track and trestle into temporary bins alwve 
the mixer. Rock was first run into the hopj>er up to a mark, 
then sand. Cement from sacks was emptied on top and the 
charge dumjx^d into the mixer. The mixed charge was emptied 
into two-wheeled, steel-concrete buggies, wheeled over run- 
ways and dumped into the forms. Two of the steel rock 
bins were used for storing sand and rock for floors and other 
concrete work, placed after the erection of most of the steel. 

Foundation walls were all of concrete, of a 1 13 15 mixture ; 
all walls stand on dry, hard sand. The bin foundation walls 
were separated from the stamp foundations by tarred paper in 
order that any settling of the latter need not disturb the build- 
ing foundations. The octagonal foundations for the rock 
bins were tied together, to a certain extent, by old wire cable. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 47 . 

The detailed construction of the concrete settling tanks is 
l:)est shown in Photo "B," and drawings, Figs. 4 and 5. Un- 
der the sh'me dq)artment floors eight tanks were built for set- 
tling" the slimes and decanting the dirty water, to be re-used 
in the mill. These tanks are 46 ft. long by 24 ft. wide, and 



Photo B 



14 ft. deep. The w'alls are 14 to 24 in. thick and are rein- 
forced by vertical iron rods three-quarter in. in diameter, bent 
at the bottoms to make the joint into the floor. 

It was very difficult to place and tamp the concrete about 
these rods, but the walls when completed showed but a few 

small leaks which were easily stopi>ed and give no trouble in 
operation. 



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' I 







g 




1 




'il 




\ 




II 




1^ 


II 


^1 


\ 


1 
1 




1 


— 


K 




\ 




I 




\ 




ly 





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50 



winjona stamp mill 



The steel structure was made and erected by the Wisconsin 
Bridg-e & Iron Company. In general arrangement, it is the 
same as the usual copper country mill. Circular steel rock 
bins are used, two supplying each head, the openings being nni 
together high up the sides thus allowing a large proportion 
of the contents to run out freely. The storage capacity of four 
•bins is about 525 tons, or sufficient to last over night. 

Instead of a trolley beam over the stamps a light crane 
beam was installed. This has proved very convenient in op- 




j:^:^^^^'' 



u^ ,/ 1^; 



WINONA COPPER CO. 



WIMONA MKH 



St^BTCH or DP^IN 

ON MILL ROOF 



ivCCfV^ 



OATc2'/0'>9 

N0C-5S 



Figr. 10 

crating as well as during erection. This crane also handles 
all roll parts, etc. 

Over the slime department, at right angles to the line of 
the stamps, it was imjx^ssible to get in the usual step form of 
roof in a manner to allow sufficient light. Skylights of wire- 
glass were therefore tried and have proved satisfactory al- 
though snow sometimes accumulates over them. The roof is 
the usual form of matched flooring but is covered with Bnx)ks' 
4-ply asbestos rcx)ting, in sheets about 3 ft. by 7 ft. During 
the first winter much trouble was experienced with ice on 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



51 



the eaves. As snow melts over the main bocly of the wami 
rcxjfs the water nms down until it strikes the eaves, which 
are cold. It there freezes and makes a dam of ice which backs 




WINONA COPPER CO. 

WINONA. MKH 

SKETCH OF ST/IMP MiLL 
yV/TLLS. 



FifiT. 8 




^Thtae I Seams are 5pi»emJ a' op^rt. 



Jjjjl^ ShefthojB 




P7FT 



^^ 



-J 5- L \ (Triangle mvsh steel ► 
\rm.nforcem^T" 



SKETCH or CONCRETE FLOOR. 



Fig. 9 



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52 WINONA STAMP MILL 

the water up until it runs through some opening or freezes and 
adds to the ice already formed. Immense icicles were some-' 
times formed down the sides of the building to the ground. 
This trouble has been entirely overcome by building wooden 
dams just back of the line of the eaves on each step of roof. 
These dams slope to holes in the roof leading to a piping sys- 
tem inside the mill which carries off the water. The warm 
air from the interior keeps these pipes free from ice, and as 
fast as snow melts it runs off the roof. This scheme was 
copied from a similar one at the Calumet & Hecla mills but 
I have seen no description of it in print. 

The main slime department floor over the top of the' set- 
tling tanks is made of concrete reinforced with triangle-mesh 
wire. The outside walls of the building are formed by a 
thick coat of cement plaster on a chicken-wire reinforcement. 
The inside face of the wall is made in the same manner, which 
leaves a good air space in the wall. The mortar is made of 
cement, sand, and a little lime. A detailed sketch is shown 
in Figs. 8 and 9. 

The bins for storing mineral are in the bottom of the mill, 
over a spur from the railroad. They are made of steel and 
have 10 compartments, each of 200 cu. ft. capacity. A narrow- 
gauge track runs along one side of the mill and aci"oss it, 
l)ack of the jigs. Headings and No. i mineral from the jigs 
are emptied directly into cars running on this track. Settling 
bins for finer grades of mineral are situated above this track, 
c>n the head foundation level. All the finer grades of mineral 
are pumi)ed back to these bins from the various settling boxes 
of tables and jigs and excess water is allowed to drain off. 
When comparatively dry, this mineral is dumi>ed into the 
mineral car, and trammed over a track scale at the lower 
end of the mill and dumi)ed into the bins over the railroad 
track. All mineral is shipi>ed in steel mineral cars belonging 
to the Copper Range Railroad Company. 

Rongh tailings from the tails of the jigs are de-watered by 
a large wheel and fed to a cross conveyor which discharges 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



53 



over the main conveyor running the long way of the mill. 
This main conveyor operates within a steel bridge supported 
on three steel towers and, when dumping, reaches a maximum 
heighth of 84 ft. above the track level at the bottom of the 
mill and 123 ft. above the ground. The conveyor is of the 
usual Rabins type with troughing idlers on a 30 degree angle. 
The belt is balata, 20 in. wide. It has been in operation since 




De-waterinsT Wheel and Cross Conveyor, Winona Stamp Mill. 

March, 191 1, and apparently has a long time yet to run be- 
fore needing replacement. The conveyor is inclined i;?4 i"- 
l)er ft., or 8 deg. 18 min. 

A slime launder of steel extends 1,200 ft. \ye\o\\ the mill. 
This has a semi-circular bottom, with straight sides. We are 
now, (March, 191 3) putting in the first steel liners. The 
wear is only around the rivet heads where eddy-currents are 
>tt up. This launder slopes yi of an in. to the ft. and carries 
all the slime material. It empties into a ravine which joins 
the main river at a distance of about a mile and a half from 
the mill but on land belonging to the Winona Copper Com- 
pany. If necessaiy, at any time in the future, a dam cuuld 
l)e built across the river at this point and w^ater pumped back 
to the mill. 

A circular steel bin that can hold about four cars of coarse 
i^and is situated over the track to the mineral bin. This can 
W fiWed from a separate belt conveyor parallel to the main 
conveyor and, during the summer months, much of the coarse 
sand is sold for concrete work and for railroad ballast. 

The main trestle to the rock bins is used as a coal trestle. 
The coal plat is 30 ft. below^ the base of the rail. The floor 
is of concrete, about 4 in. thick. Th^ usual coal adit under 



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54 WINONA STAMP MILL 

the main trestle is also made from concrete. The storage ca- 
pacity of the plat is about 6,000 tons. The trestle is of steel. 
The coal adit enters the boiler house at the same elevation as 
the ash adit in front of the boilers. An electric elevator ele- 
vates the car with ashes to an ash trestle and the car with 
coal to a trestle 8 ft. above the floor and running parallel to 
the boiler front. The coal supply is dumped on the floor and 
the boilers are fired by hand. The stack is of steel, brick 
lined. It is 150 ft. high and 6 ft. in diameter. The boilers 
were made by Parker, of Philadelphia. They are three in 
number, each 268 horsepower and are set in brick. They 
are equipped with Andrews' shaking grates, draft regulators 
and feedwater regulators. 

The assay office is near the railroad at the bottom of the 
mill. It is supplied with the usual equipment for both fire 
and electrolytic assaying. A motor generator supplies the 
storage batteries for electrolytic work. A Tirrill gasolene gas 
plant supplies the gas. 

A dam for the main water supply of the mill is situated on 
the Sleeping river, about 3,900 ft. from the mill. It is 440 
ft. long and 27 ft. high. The width of the bank on top is 15 
ft. The slope on the water side is 2 to i and on the down 
stream side is 2>4 to i. The spillway is 7 ft. wide and 8 
ft. deep from the top of the concrete core wall. With all 
flasli lx)ards out of the spillway, the storage capacity of the 
dam is about 77,000,000 gals. Its volume is just about dou- 
bled by 5 ft. of flash boards. The core wall of the dam is con- 
crete, 12 in. thick at the top and as much as 6 ft. at the very 
lK)ttom. The sand fill was made mostly by the hydraulic pro- 
cess, a pump on the stream supplying water for washing sand 
from the banks. Both slopes are riprapped with coarse rock 
from the mine. A sheet steel intake 4 ft. square with a screen 
underneath, was first used but quickly became clogged with 
leaves, etc. A straight pipe 18 in. in diameter, the periphery 
filled with 13/2 in. holes and rising above the highwater level, 
was then tried. This has given no trouble beyond catching 
in the ice once as the water level dropped. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 55 

The main pump is situated in a compressor house on the 
river bank. The pump was made by the Laidlaw-Dunn-Gor- 
don Company. It has water cylinders 11^4 b-y 24 in. and 
steam cylinders 12 and 25 by 24 in. stroke. The cooling 
water for condensation is furnished by the main suction of 
the pimip. Water enters the suction under a head of 5 pounds. 
Steam pressure is 200 pounds. The pumping capacity, at 
67 J 'j revolutions per minute, is 4,000,000 gals, per 24 hours. 



Interior of Winona Mill 

The pipe line connecting the pump to the surge tank on top 
of the stamp-mill is spiral-riveted double galvanized pipe, with 
bolted points and rubber gaskets. The pressure at the pump 
is 86 Jpounds per square in. with the pump running. \Vt have 
ruptured several lengths of this pipe, the rupture cutting 
clear across the steel. This was probably due to flaws in 
the steel. The joints have not given trouble. The pipe is 
14 in. in diameter and 3,900 ft. long. The surge tank on top 



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56 WINONA STAMP MILL 

of the mill supplies pressure for fire lines. All piping for the 
mill is direct from this tank. 

The steam stamps were made by the Allis-Chalmers Com- 
pany. One is a simple stamp with a cylinder 24 in. dia. by 
25 in. stroke and the other a compound with cylinders 16 and 
32 in. dia. by 25 in. stroke. Both stamps have piston valves 
and only two eccentrics. The high-pressure cylinder Of the 
compound stamp is on top and is removed bodily by the crane, 
if necessary to inspect the low-pressure cylinder or the piston. 
The rolls are of the rigid type and were made by the Allis- 
Chalmers Company. Four trommels are used instead of two. 

The jigs are of the Woodbury system. One bull jig is used 
for the oversize and four four-compartment sets per head for 
the material through the trommels. Owing to the small per- 
centage of No. I copper (medium-sized pieces) contained in 
the Winona rock, these jigs do not seem well adapted to the 
purpose. They do make an excellent separation of slimes for 
table treatment and provide a middling feed for regrinding 
mills. The jigs are supported on iron brackets instead of the 
usual timber supports. This makes it easier to get under the 
machines for adjustment and repairs and for washing floors. 

The principal machine developed for the operation of this 
mill is the de-watering wheel. As it is necessary to re-use the 
water, the tailings had to be separated from it. The water 
carrying the tails of the jigs is comparatively free from slime 
so that it is kept separate as "clear water'' and re-used as wash 
water. The first de-watering device tried consisted of a 
screen tacked on a cylindrical frame which revolved slowly. 
The tails were drawn through spigots onto the outside of this 
screen the water falling through and the coarse material go- 
ing over with the screen on to the cross conveyor belt. This 
scheme was not satisfactory as the spigots required a great 
deal of attention, having a tendency to either clog or to run 
water as the feed varied. An 8-ft. wheel along the lines of 
the present wheel was then developed. This worked well but 
the i2-ft. diameter wheel now used gives more room for 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



57 



launders, etc., and takes care of two heads. As shown by the 
drawing, Fig. ii, the de-watering w'heel consists of a sheet 
steel w-ater-tight wheel with radial partitions along the peri- 
phery forming pockets in which the sand is caught and lifted 
out of the water and discharged at the top of the wheel over 
an apron on to the belt conveyor. The sand is run from 
settling tanks through spigots into the bottom of the wheel. 
The water overflowing from the wheel is carried to the set- 
tling tanks and re-used. 

The sand conveyor problem gave some little trouble be- 




DewritBrlrig Vt/heal. 
FijT. n 

lore it was satisfactorily solved. The first cross conveyor used 
delivered sand to a bucket elevator w^hich persisted in clog- 
ging and otherwise causing trouble. This w^as removed and 
the cross conveyor curved up to deliver directly to the main 
conveyor. Some trouble was experienced with the belts get- 
ting out of line but this was gradually eliminated until the 
sand conveyor equipment now has no special attendant. As 
a large pile of sand was piled up around the last tower of the 
sand conveyor the ground began to bulge up around the edge 
of the pile. Settlement of the outside tower came with this 



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58 



WINONA STAMP MILL 



movement and finally caused shearing of rivets on the upjier 
side of the conveyor bridge over the middle tower. These 
rivets were then cut out and bolts in slots substituted. A pin 
joint was placed in the bottom of the truss. This allowed 
for about 2 ft. of settlement in the outer tower. The settling 
continued until it became necessary to cut the conveyor house 
free from the outside tower. The conveyor bridge is now 
supported at the far end on blocking and jacks from the steel 
of the tower embedded in the sandpile. If settlement con- 
tinues, the conveyor bridge will be jacked up to keep pace. 
As the sand accumulates the conveyor will Ix extended and 




U i3 

Seconds of Time 
Fig. 12 

supixjrted on the sand. As regrinding increases the amount 
of coarse sand to Ije stacked will decrease. 

Milling was started with one 8 by 30 in. Ilardinge conical 
mill. During 191 2 two more were installed, one a 6- ft. by 
6o-in. straight face and the other an 8-ft. by i8-in. straight 
face. For one i)€riod of January, 191 2. no mill was at work. 
For most of the first six months two mills were in operation 
and for the last six months three mills were in operation. 
During the year about 36,000 tons of material was reground. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 59 

This figure is of course not exact but from several tests and 
records of time, etc., I feel sure that it is very nearly right. 
From the reground material 215,248 pounds of refined copper 
was produced. The grade of this mineral will average bet- 
ter than 50 per cent. The total cost of regrinding during the 
year was $9,697.09 or 26.93 cents per ton reground, and 4.5 
cents per pound of copper recovered. With electricity costing 
1.2 cents per k. w. hour, the power cost was $7,501.97 of the 
above total amount. Labor was $402.85 and supplies cost 
$1,792.27. Of the supplies, $1,235.80 was for 172,030 pounds 
of French pebbles and $280.68 for 19,342 pounds of silex lin- 
ing. The balance was for oil and supplies incidental to repairs. 
The pebble loss figures nearly five pounds per ton reground 
as it includes the initial charge for two new mills. The pebble 
loss is now running a trifle under four pounds per ton re- 
p^round, which is higher than usual in this district on account 
of the hardness of the rock. 

COSTS OF GRINDING 36,000 TONS. 

Total ^®^ ^°^ Units per ton 

' Reground. Percent. Ground. 

Power 1.2c per k. w. hr $7,501.97 20.84<; 77.36 17.415 k. w. hrs. 

Labor 402.85 1.12 4.15 

Supplies — 

.7184c per lb. pebbles.... 1,235.80 3.43 12.74 4.781b. pebbles 

1.4.512c per lb. lining 280.69 .77 2.90 .537 lb. lining 

Incidentals 275.78 .77 2.85 

$9,697.09 26.93c 100.00 
The 8-ft. diameter by 30-in. straight face mill has proved 
Ihe most economical in power cost per ton ground and also has 
ibe largest capacity of any we have tried. We are now in- 
stalling three more 8-ft. mills w^hich have a 36 in. straight 
face and we expect still greater capacity. These mills have 
Talk's cut herringbone gears and there is only one speed re- 
duction, which will materially reduce the power cost. The 
first mill installed has a silex lining but the subsequent mills 
are I'^^^^l ^^^ ^he straight face with pebbles set in grooves in 
L^l plates. The conical faces are lined with silex blocks, 
gt^l pebble linings have proved very satisfactory. A mill is 



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6o 



WINONA STAMP MILL 



out of service at least four days to replace silex lining as the 
cement must be allowed to set. With a steel pebble lining, 
the mill can go into service again as soon as new plates are 
placed, a matter of hours only. So far, our experience shows 







Fifif. 6 




a^nt tai-rsiH 



WINONA 5TAMP MILU 

n.VfOtUtT or OK Miwi. J«CTIOn 



Fiff. 7; Flow Sheet of One Mill Section, Winona Stamp Mill. 

that the steel pebble linings are cheapest. All our new mills 
will be equipped with the steel pebble linings on the cones as 
well as the straight faces. The mill is lighted at night, prin- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 6l 

cipally, by icx) candle power series Tungsten incandescent 
lamps on a 6.6 ampere constant current. These have been 
found satisfactory, the life of the lamps running above 2,000 
hours. 

A small lathe, drill press and power shear for cutting plate 
are the only power tools in the stamp mill as the mine shop 
is equipped for handling all other work. The detailed flow- 
sheet of water and material give, I believe, full information 
as to the manner of handling and method of operation. 

The water re-used in the mill is pumped back by two 
separate pumps, one for the dirty water and one for the clear 
water. These are both centrifugal pumps, direct connected 
to electric motors, the "clear" water pump having a capacity 
of 4,000,000 gallons and the "dirty'* water pump a capacity 
of 3,000,000 gallons. Both are regulated to suit conditions 
by throttling of discharge. Sand from both the "clear" and 
"dirty" water is simply spigoted out of the bottom of the 
settling tanks while the pumps are drawing from the upper 
part of these tanks. Following is a list of motors : 

Make. H.P. Voltage. Speed. Driving. 

A-C 75 2200 850 No. 1 Head Jigs, Shops & Gen. 

A-C 75 2200 850 No. 2 Head Jigs, Shops & Gen. 

A-C 50 2200 850 8'x30" Hardlnge Mill. 

A-C 45 2200 835 8'xl8" Hardinge Mill. 

G-E 35 2200 850 6'xGO" Hardinge MIH. 

Westinghouse ...50 2200 500 8'x36" Hardinge MiU. 

Westinghouse ...50 2200 500 8'x3G" Hardinge Mill. 

Westinghouse ...50 2200 500 8'x36" Hardinge Mill. 

G-E 35 2200 600 10" Centrifugal Pump. 

G-E 25 2200 600 8" Centrifugal Pump. 

A-C 30 2200 850 Two Sets of Rolls. 

A-C 30 2200 850 Sand Conveyor. 

A-C 20 2200 1130 Tables and Pumps. 

A-C 20 22oii 1130 Tables and Pumps. 

A-C 20 2200 1130 Tables and Pumps. 

A-C 5 220 1200 Ash and Coal Elevator. 

G-E 3 220 1200 No. 1 Head Valve Gear. 

G-E 3 220 1200 No. 2 Head Valve Gear. 

Westinghouse ... 5 220 1120 Tables. 

The Winona stamp-mill was built on the mine to reduce 

oi>erating expenses per ton by reducing transportation charges. 

Seventeen and one-half cents per ton was cut out of the 

transiMDrtation charge and the following items were added: 



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62 WINONA STAMP MILL 

Stacking sand 1.2c per ton stamped 

Transportation on the mine 3.6c per ton stamped 

This still leaves an important net saving due to location of 

mill on the mine. The unit costs given are necessarily high 

due to the small tonnage handled, namely, 181,184 tons for 

the year 1912. The detail of these costs follows: 

Cost of belt and conveyor idlers, about $4,000 erected; life 40 

months; cost per moMh $100.00 

Power at the rate of 8 k. w. at 1.2c per k. w. hour 60.00 

Attendance 10.00 

Oils, etc 10.00 

$180.00 
Or 1.2 cents per ton on 15,000 tons stamped. These will 
of course be reduced materially with increased tonnage han- 
dled. Of the ix>wer used, at least two-thirds is in friction. 

In addition, the following interest and depreciation charges 
might I^e listed against this operation : 

Cost of conveyor bridge and towers, fully equipped with belt 

and machinery $12,000.00 

Interest at 6 per cent 720.00 

5 per cent depreciation on $8,000 of this amount 400.00 

The depreciation of the otiier $4,000 is already accounted 
for in the working cost. 

Pumping costs should not be increased over similar costs 
with a stamp-mill on Lake Superior as while the water re- 
handled is pumped with less efficient machinery the head 
against which it is pumped is very materially reduced. The 
pumping cost taken from our cost sheet for the year 191 2 is 
2.3 cents per ton stamped. This is materially higher than the 
usual figure on Lake Sui>erior, owing, principally, to the 
smaller tonnage stamped. 

There is undoubtedly considerable gained by the concen- 
tration of all operations at the mine. Some of this gain can- 
not be expressed in cents per ton. During part of the month 
of March, 191 3, railroad service in Houghton county was 
very much hindered by heavy storms. Several of the mines 
were shut down temporarily and freight train service, at least, 
was cancelled for days at a time. Neither the Winona mine 
nor the mill was delayed on this account as our tracks are 
comparatively short and easily kept clear of snow. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 63 



SAFETY IN THE MINES OF THE LAKE SUPERIOR 
IRON RANGES. 

BY EDWIN HIGGINS^ IRONVVOOD, MICH.* 

It is not the purpose of this paper to go into a detailed dis- 
cussion of safety in mines, or to submit a set of rules that 
will eliminate accidents. No living- man, whatever his occu- 
pation, is immime from accidental bodily injury. Accidents 
cannot be eliminated; they may, however, by the exercise of 
care and vigilance, be kept within certain reasonable limits. 

As a result of visits to many of the iron mines of the 
Lake Superior region, for the purpose of studying conditions 
and possibly learning something as to the causes of accidents, 
some impressions have been gathered that might be of inter- 
est. In this paper, certain existing conditions will be dis- 
cussed, and some suggestions offered, not in a spirit of criti- 
cism, but with a view to emphasizing some of tlie features 
of safety work. 

In general, interest in the work is high. A great deal of 
money is being spent in safety devices and other means look- 
ing to a reduction in the numl^cr of accidents. PZxcept in a 
few cases, the mine officials are doing all in their power to 
accomplish this end. The seed of **safety first," sowed some 
years ago on the iron ranges, has become firmly rooted. 

It seems natural in a discussion of safety to turn first to 
the causes of accidents, for the remedy of aily evil lies in 
removing the cause. Few accidents may be charged to any one 
direct cause; most of them are due to a conil)ination of cir- 
cumstances or conditions. For example, a man is hurt from 



•District Engineer, Mlchlgan-Mlnnesota-Wisconsin Division, United 
States Bureau of Mines. 



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64 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

a fall of ground. The direct cause of the injury here was 
the falling of a section of ground. However, the falling of 
the ground might have been due to the failure of the miner 
to pick down the back ; the timbering might have been insuffi- 
cient or improperly placed ; possibly the miner was trying for 
"easy dirt" and was taking a chance; or the working place 
might not have been carefully inspected. In turn, any or all 
of these conditions might have been due, indirectly, to a de- 
mand for more ore production, either by the management or 
by an over-ambitious captain or shift boss. 

A man is crushed between a post and a motor or car. 
This accident might have been due to the fact that in laying 
the track insufficient clearance was allowed for between the 
cars and the post; or to the lack of a bell on the motor; or 
to the carelessness or inexperience of either the motonnan or 
miner who was hurt. 

In a broad sense it seems reasonable to assume that safety 
in and about the mines is closely related to and dependent upon 
the following conditions and elements: 

Rapidity of production of ore. 

Labor conditions. 

Accident preventive measures and devices. 

The Human element. 

Rapidity of Production of Ore. 

Forcing the production of more ore than can be supplied 
under normal working conditions doubtless tends to increase 
the number of accidents j^er man employed in the mine. A 
comparison of accident and production records will show this 
to be true in many cases. When the working places are over- 
crowded with men and machinery and the mine equipment is 
being worked beyond its capacity, there is a tendency for 
the work to go with a slam and a bang that allows little 
chance for anyone who hapi:)ens to get in the way. 

The demand for over-production might come from the 
management or officials; or, as is often the case, it might 
result from the spirit of rivalry that exists between some 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 65 

captains or shift bosses. To a certain extent, the belief is 
still prevalent that a man's worth is gaged by the amount of 
ore he produces. There are doubtless other causes that tend 
to spur the miner on in his work; the result in most cases is 
to make him less careful of his safety. The elimination of 
undue haste in all departments of mine work will tend to 
reduce accidents. 

Labor Conditions. 

A scarcity of labor means that there are a correspondingly 
smaller number of experienced men available. It follows 
that green men must be employed in the mines and that in- 
competent men must be kept at work vVhen they should be 
discharged. Such conditions are productive of accidents. The 
green hand, being unfamiliar with his working place, machin- 
ery and tools, does not know what to do in an emergency. 
Usually he does the wrong thing and receives an injury. 

Where an entire district is effected by a shortage of labor 
it is practically impossible for any one operator to remedy 
permanently conditions at his property. He may secure men 
from outside of his district but this is expensive and is not 
a lasting or satisfactory remedy. 

Accident Preventive Measures and Devices. 

No attempt will be made to describe the many safety de- 
vices and methods in use. The subject of accident prevention 
will be discussed in a general way under the following heads : 

Machinery, Tools and Appliances. 

Timbering. 

General Conditions in and About the Mines. 

Handling of Explosives. 

Fire Prevention and Protection, 

Rules and Regulations. 

Inspection. 

Machinery, Tools and Appliances. 

Usually the master mechanic is held accountable for the 
condition of all machinery. He must l>e certain at all times 
that his machinery is in safe condition for use, and that all 



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66 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

exposed parts, such as fly wheels, belts, pulleys, etc., are so 
covered that men cannot be caught and injured by them. This 
applies to underground as well as surface machinery, al- 
though the care of the underground machinery usually comes 
under a different man. Some companies make it a rule, where 
there is a choice, to avoid the use of machinery, devices or 
appliances that offer a chance of pinching or mangling the 
limbs of employes. In general, it was found that much has 
been done towards protecting men from exposed parts of 
machinery. 

Hoists, especially those used for handling men, should be 
provided with an automatic cut-off to prevent overwinding-. 
Cables should be carefully inspected at frequent intei-vals and 
the ends cut at stated periods. Cages for handling men should 
be provided with safety dogs and doors. Safety dogs should 
be tested at least once a month by dropping the cage; there 
are various well known methods of doing this. Although 
nearly ^very cage inspected on the iron ranges was equipped 
with safety dogs, it was found that less than 40 per cent of 
them were tested at regular intervals; many never had been 
tested. A safety dog is not safe unless it is known to be in 
perfect working order. 

Where electrical haulage is used underground, the as- 
sistant, or "swamper,*' on the motor is often injured by having 
his legs crushed or mangled. Accidents of this nature are 
due to the fact that no place is provided on the rear of the 
motor for the **swanii:)er ' to ride in safety. At one mine this 
class of accident became so common that motors were pro- 
vided with a place for the *'swaniper" to sit, so that his legs 
are protected the same as are those of the motorman on the 
front end. 

All electric feed wires should be well insulated and care- 
fully laid to prevent short circuiting. Trolley wires should 
have protection, esi>ecially at ore chutes. The common mode 
of protection is to provide, where the trolley passes in front 
of ore chutes, inverted troughs or launders of square or V- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE (ij 

shajied section ; or to secure, on each side of the trolley, round 
timbers from 5 to 8 in. in diameter. 

Telephones underground often play the part of a safely 
device. They should be installed in every mine. 

Timbering. 

From a safety standpoint, the proper timbering of work- 
ing places is of great importance. In most of the accidents 
happening from insecure or improperly-placed timbering, it 
has been found that the work has been done, or left undone, 
by an inexi)erienced man. The green man is most likely t(^ 
overlook one of the first principles of proj>er tim)>ering. 
viz: that of using sufficient blocking l^etvveen the timber and 
the back. This has been the- cause of a great many accidents. 
Under the head of improper timbering many conditions couM 
be referred to that may result in injury to the miner, but it 
seems unnecessary to go further into this subject. The remedy 
for such conditions, esi>ecially where green men must l)e em- 
ployed, is a closer insi)ection of all timbering. This remedy 
lias brought forth good results in several instances known 
to the wn'iter. 

Another plan that has been adopted with good results is 
to timber every place where there api)ears to l)e the slightest 
d^ahce of a fall. In one large mine a cl(>^se study of accident 
reix.Tts brought out the fact that falls of ground, resulting in 
injury, were occurring in rock drifts where it was thought that 
timl)er was entirely unnecessary. 

It is the rule in many of the mines for the captain or 
someone else to either climb, or make a slow trip by cage, 
through the shaft at frequent intervals, closely inspectin*;- 
guides and timbering. Such trips do not consume much time 
and should be made every day. 

General Conditions 

Handling Men — In order to avoid accidents that might re- 
sult from the sudden disability of the hoisting engineer, two 
men should be on the hoist when lowering men into or hoist- 
ing them out of the mine. 



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68 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

Miners are often hurt by crowding too close to the shaft 
when coming on or going off shift. The usual effective meth- 
od of preventing accidents of this kind is to provide some 
kind of enclosure around the shaft collar and underground sta- 
tions, into w^hich men may be admitted in limited numbers. 

Traveling Ways — Every mine should be provided with at 
least two outlets with ladderways in good rei)air. If the dis- 
tance is not too great the men should be made to pass through 
the second outlet from time to time in order to familiarize 
them with the w^ay. 

All traveling ways underground should be kept as clear 
of rubbish and old timber as possible. Timl^er with j^ggc6 
edges or with nails protruding, powder and candle boxes, in 
short, trash of any kind, are sources of danger when allowed 
to collect in traveling ways. A small piece of wood has been 
known to derail a motor or tramcar; men often are caught be- 
tween a derailed car and the timber. A man may trip over a 
slight obstruction, fall and receive a serious injury. 

In repair work in haulage drifts, neither old or new tim- 
ber should be left laying or standing any longer than is ab- 
solutely necessary. Men have been crushed by motors and 
cars because the way was so full of obstructions that they 
could not escape. 

Protection of Open Places — Every place into which it is 
possible for a miner to fall should be protected in some man- 
ner. This refers to gates or fences for shaft collars and sta- 
tions, doors for manways, bars or fences for ore chutes, and 
fences for dangerous abandoned places. 

Where cribbed ore chutes are used, as in the soft ore 
mines, there seems to be a tendency, due to the weight of the 
ore in the chute and the working of the surrounding ground, 
for the cribbing to settle and become distorted. Under such 
conditions it' is important to keep the collar of the chute in 
repair. In the course of time the iron bars used to prevent 
men from falling into the chute will settle with the cribbing. 
While bars four or five feet below the collar of the chute 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



69 



may prevent serious falls, they are as much a source of dan- 
g-er as they are a protection ; a man falling upon them is liable 
to very serious injur}-. To remedy this condition, a special 
grating is used at one mine. It consists of i-in. square iron 
pieces riveted loose to angle-iron end pieces. The square iron 
pieces are placed 8 in. apart and the grill so formed is suj)- 
ported to the chute collar by means of four round iron hooks, 
I ft. long, bolted to the angle-iron end pieces and passing over 
the top set of cribbing. In the end of the hook is a hole 







Afyl*'fwfS-4'>i3r*i 2 

I MIk ^-4 ^, 4 lY ♦ 



\ 






■ %• tjvUs Utru b^r i/«7 ^ttd 
^95/« ir 01;. 






0» -'ZtH^va j»r f^0h-l^^/^yfrs . 






K 



>3<£TCH or Gkiq-iroh fo^'' Frotcctiom 
AT Coll A/? or Ore Chutc. 



pi 



through whidi a spike is driven to secure the hook to the 
cribbing. The device always hangs i ft. below the top of 
the chute; it will adjust itself to any distortion of the crib- 
bing. This device is shown in an accompanying sketch. 

Open and dangerous places should be further protected by 
the use of ample lighting. This is simple on main levels where 
electric lamps are used. Great care should be used, however. 



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yO SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

where it is necessary to employ some type of torch or other 
oi>en light, esi:)ecially if there is much timber in the immedi- 
ate vicinity. 

Ladderways and Ladders — For shafts, ladders placed in 
an inclined (forward) position, with platforms, or sollai*s, not 
more than 24 ft. apart, are recognized as safer than the con- 
tinuous ladderw^ay without platfoniis. Ladders should pro- 
ject at least 3 ft. above platforms, or there should be a hand 
hold of some description provided just alx>ve the platform. 

Ladders, wherever used, should te placed about 3 in. out 
from the (r[)ening in which they are hung, and should be 
securely fastened. The spacing between rungs should be uni- 
form througliout aind not more than 12 in. from center to 
center. Broken or badly Ijent rungs should be immediately 
replaced. Three tyi)es of rungs are in general use — round iron 
bars, wood, and iron pipe. Wood rungs present a better hold 
for both hand and foot. They are subject to rot or easy 
breakage from falling rock or other material, and hence are 
not as serviceable as iron. Solid iron rungs are good, ImU 
when they are bent, especially in a wet mine, they make it 
easy for the miner to slip. Rungs made from discarded i-in. 
iron pipe are cheap and effective; Ijeing larger, they present 
a better hand and foot hold than the solid iron rung. For 
the protection of rungs, as well as human life, the top of every 
ladderway should be kept clear of loose rock. Careful inspec- 
tion and repair of ladders will tend to reduce accidents from 
falls. 

Tracks — Some importance is attached to the proper grad- 
ing of tracks, from a standpoint of economical w^ork, and be- 
cause pushing cars up too steep grades may l>e the cause of 
injuries in the nature of strains. In the haulage ways, es- 
jx^cially in rounding curves, ample room should be provided 
for men to stand to avoid being crushed l)etween the car or 
motor and the timber. A great many accidents happen from 
this cause. 

Tracks should be kept clear of all rubbish, especiallv pieces 
of wood and rock. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 7I 

Signs — Various kinds of signs are in use in many of the 
mines. This is a subject that is worthy of serious considera- 
tion. The most useful signs appear to be the following: 
Something to call attention to places where explosives are 
stored ; something to indicate dangerous places, such as aban- 
doned open stopes, places over which work is being done, etc. ; 
signs pointing the way to the different outlets of the mine. 
The latter should be more numerous where the vein is wide 
and the workings intricate. There is a great need of a uni- 
versal danger sign, something that by constant use will event- 
ually become familiar to men of all nationalities. 

Handling of Explosives. 

For underground work it is the general practice to use 
various grades of dynamite, such as straight dynamite, and 
the low-freezing, ammonia, gelatin, and granular dynamites. 
Explosives are fired by means of fuse and detonator, except in 
shaft sinking, in which it is customary to use an electrical 
firing device. 

In nearly all cases the explosive is carried into the mine 
in the original box, usually with the cover on, but in some 
cases with the cover removed. The l)est practice seems to ])e 
to remove the cover after the explosive is received under- 
ground, using a wcxxlen mallet and wedge for the purpose. 

Storage Underground — Explosives are stored under- 
ground either in a central magazine or in l>oxes kept near the 
working places. The chief factor in detemiining the l>est 
method of storage is the system of mining in use. Under dif- 
ferent conditions either method of storage may be l>est. In 
any event, no more than 48 hours' supply should be kq)t un- 
derground at any one time. 

Powder houses should l^e removed from working places 
and traveling ways. Those cut out of the solid rock, sui)port- 
ed where necessary by steel and concrete, are safest. Thev 
should be in charge of a powder man who shall deliver ex- 
plosives to the miner on written order only. In several mines 
the practice is followed of requiring the shift boss to make out 



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JT. SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

and sign the order for explosives. It is claimed that this meth- 
od is both economical and safe, as it prevents the miner or- 
dering too much explosive, at the same time eliminating the 
habit of leaving sticks of explosives lying around promis- 
cuously. The powder magazine should be electrically light- 
ed and no one should be allowed to enter wMth an open light 
of any kind. A good precaution is to place a fuse in the line 
leading to the powder magazine in order to prevent the ex- 
plosion of an incandescent lamp in c^se the current should 
rise suddenly. r 

Fuse and Detonators — The powder man should have 
charge also of the detonators and fuse and these should be kept 
in a room at least 50 ft. from the explosives. The duties 
of the powder man may include the cutting of the fuse and 
the crimping on of the detonator, for which latter purpose a 
crimper should be supplied. There are still a few miners left 
who will crimp a detonator with their teeth. 

Tlmidng — Thawing is variously performed. In cases 
where low freezing dynamite is used no means is provided for 
thawing. Some magazines are heated by steam coils and 
kept at a cerl.iiii temi>ijrature. Tliawing devices heated elec- 
trically or by steam pipes are used, as well as different types 
of hot water thawers. Electrical heaters require careful plan- 
ning to prevent dangerous conditions due to short circuits '.)r 
overheating. Only in a few cases w^as the dangerous prac- 
tice of thawing in contact widi a heated metal surface ob- 
served. Where steam is used for thawing it should be used 
under low pressure; exhaust steam from some source may be 
available. The practice of carrying sticks of explosives in the 
clothing in order to thaw them from the heat of the boily 
should be prohibited. 

Carrying Explosives — In carr}M'ng exp^(\sives from the 
magazine to his working place the miner has l)een observed ^o 
make up a bundle of a dozen or more sticks and tie it up with 
fuse; or he may carry the explosive loose or in a cloth sack. 
Obviously, the latter method is safest, because the explosive 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



73 



is better protected and is not likely to be lost. One objection 
to tying up a bundle with a length of fuse is that the fuse is 
very- likely to develop a defect from such treatment. 

Loading Detonator Into Primer — There were few mines 
visited in w^hich any regulation method of attaching the de- 
tonator to the primer was followed. In practically all cases 
the superintendents and captains knew that certain methods 
were to be preferred; the difficulty seemed to be in causing 
the miners to adhere to rules. Any method of performing this 
operation that allows the detonator to protrude from the prim- 
er, or the fonnation of sharp angles in the fuse, should be 
proliit>ited, as they give rise to premature explosions and miss- 
fires. Eitlier of the inethods shown in the accompanying 
sketch is both safe and efficient. A skewer of wood or brass 
should be used for punching the hole in the cartridge. 




Tamping — From a standix)int of both safety and economy, 
all explosives should be well tamped. For this purix)se damp 
clay may be used ; the tamping stick should be of woo<l. 

Missed Holes — In handling missed holes much care is 
generally used, although in some mines no set rule is fol- 
lowed. Usually some form of report is used whereby th^ 



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74 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

captain or shift boss of the oncoming shift is notified of the 
missfire. The shift boss locates the hole, removes the tamping, 
then inserts and fires another primer. In locating the hole 
the shift Ix)ss may be guided by the experienced miner, who 
can designate, in many cases, the charge that has failed ro 
explode from the sequence of the reports. No set rules can 
be laid down for handUng missfires. It may be said, how^- 
ever, that at least one hour should elapse before anyone is 
allowed to return to the hole; that great care should be ob- 
served in locating the hole and removing the tamping; that 
the charge should never be gouged out with a metal scraper; 
and that no attempt should be made to pull the fuse and de- 
tonator from the hole. There should be some place for post- 
ing or delivering a printed form for the attention of the cap- 
tain or shift boss of the oncoming shift. This fomi should be 
so filled out as to draw attention to the exact place where the 
missfire has occurred, and the numl>er of holes missed. 

Black Powder — For blasting on surface, as in open pits, 
various classes of black blasting jx^wder are used. Care should 
be used in the storage and opening of the ix>wder canisters. 
Loading should be done by careful and exjoerienced men. The 
safety precautions in this class of work are well known and 
will not be discussed here. It seems only necessary to mention 
the fact that constant vigilance is essential, for even men of 
long exi)erience in handling powder will in time become care- 
less and overlook the simplest rules for safety. 

Rules and Blasting Signals — Rules and regulations con- 
cerning the handling of explosives should be printed and i)()st- 
ed in proi>er places. Such placards should contain a few 
short and concise statements regarding the chief dangei-s in 
handling explosives. 

Miners should never Ije allowed to blast a hole, or even a 
plug shot of half a stick of dynamite, without giving the cus- 
tomary warning. The strict enforcement of this rule will pre- 
vent accidents. 



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lake superior mining institute 75 

Inspection. 
Safety inspectors, or committees, are to be found at many 
of the mines, but a great number of them still clq>end upon 
the captains and shift bosses alone to keep the mine in a safe 
condition. The mines at which some form of inspection was 
provided showed the good results of the work. Constant 
contact with certain conditions may cause even the careful 
captain or shift boss to overlook the dangerous features. 
Fire Prevention and Protection. 

While generously provided in few cases and moderately 
in most, fire protection was found entirely lacking in some 
of the mines. As a protection to life and property every mine 
should be provided with some means of preventing and fight- 
ing fires, both on the surface and underground. The aim 
should l)e to remove, as far as conditions and necessity will 
permit, the causes of fires ; and to provide the necessary equip- 
ment for attacking quickly any fire which may originate. 
The following may be set down as the causes of metal mine 
fires: 

Careless use of lights underground, in shaft, or at shaft 
collar. 

Defective electric wiring. 

Spontaneous combustion from friction in shaft rollers or 
underground machinery. 

Spontaneous ignition of combustible rock. 

Dropping lighted paper, candle or other material in ore 
• chutes. 

Building small fires underground for any purpose. 

Dumping ashes into open pits connected with underground 
workings. 

Careless use of matches. 

Incendiarism. 

Smoking in timbered places underground, in shaft, or at 
or near shaft collar. 

Sparks from surface engines of any kind, or from surface 
fires. 



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76 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

Allowing combustible rubbish to collect underground. 

By studying the causes of mine fires and some of the well 
known preventive and protective measures, many of which 
are embraced in the following suggestions, an efficient sys- 
tem may be worked out for almost any conditions. 

Do not place wooden structures close to the shaft collar. 
Have as little wood construction as ix)ssible around collar; 
steel headframes with steel and concrete construction to a 
depth of 25 ft. below the collar are safest. Sprinkle dr}- 
shafts. In all shafts use care in electric wiring; keep rollers 
we'l oiled; cover steam pipes, esi^ecially if laid close to timber; 
do not allow candle snuffs or other open lights to be left on 
timber. 

In shaft and pump stations use as little wooden construc- 
tion as possible; provide steel and concrete where support is 
necessary. Do not allow combustible material of any kind 
to collect; do away with open lights as far as possible; use 
care in electric wiring; provide separate receptacles for clean 
and oily waste; do not place machiner>' close to timber; do 
not spill oil on timber. If conditions do not warrant stet*l 
and concrete construction, at least break timl>ering connect- 
ing pump station with shaft, using steel and concrete if sup- 
ix>rt be necessary. 

Do not allow dry wood, ix>wder and candle boxes, paper, 
hay, waste, manure, or other combustible material, to collect 
anywhere underground. 

Provide a fire patrol for all timbered parts of mine. 

Do not store lighting or lubricating oils in great quantity 
luiderground, especially near timbered places. 

Provide one or more chemical fire extinguishers at or near 
ihe shaft collar, at every station, at ix)wder house, and in 
timbered drifts or crosscuts distant from the shaft. 

Provide one or more water plugs or connections, with 
several lengths of hose, at or near shaft collar and at stations. 
Water may be supplied underground from pumps, water col- 
umn, or by separate line from surface. A shaft sprinkling 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 7/ 

device is useful under certain conditions. In tapping water 
column it may l)e necessary to use a special pressure reducing 
valve. 

Make air line convertible into water line. 

Have a barrel of water and buckets at shaft stations. 

Provide dry fire extinguishers, such as sand, salt or ix)w- 
dcred limestone. 

Arrange for the control of ventilation through the use of 
doors. 

Provide air tight fire doors for isolation of parts of mine. 

Make rules for fire prevention and enforce them. 

Have fire drills and a pre-arranged plan of action in case 
of fire. 

Provide oxygen breathing apparatus. 

Provide fire signals. 

Arrange to notify miners in case of fire and be prepared 
to get them to surface promptly. 

Before leaving this subject, it is desired to draw attention 
to the use of candles for lighting underground. This article 
has probably been the cause, directly or indirectly, of more 
mine fires than any other known agent. It is notable that the 
candle is fast being replaced by the carbide lamp on the iron 
ranges. Xo mine, especially if it be dry and timbered, is safe 
from fire while candles are permitted below the collar of the 
shaft. Carbide lamps, while they are not an ideal lamp for 
the purpose, seem to be the best and safest device at present 
known for lighting underground in metal mines. Compared 
with candles, they consume less oxygen, give a brighter light, 
are at least half as costly, and present little danger of setting 
fires underground, chiefly because they are not hung on dry 
timbers and are carried out of the mine when the miner goes 
off shift. It might be mentioned also that the carbide lamp, 
because of its greater brightness of light, affords a better 
chance for kxrating loose pieces of rock in the back, and for 
seeing obstructions under foot. From a standpoint of fire 
prevention, there is great need of some lighting device for 



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78 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

underground that has an enclosed flame; at the same time it 
must ]ye simple, inexpensive and eflfective. Portable electric 
lamps (storage battery) are now coming on the market for use 
in coal mines. Lamps of this type present advantages for use 
in metal mines, but they must be simplified and improved be- 
fore their adoption is likely to become at all general. 
Oxygen Breathing Apparatus. 

By the use of oxygen breathing apparatus, the wearer is 
enabled, without inconvenience, to perform hard labor in an 
atmosphere containing smoke, fumes or poisonous gases. This 
device is an important part of the equipment for fighting un- 
derground fires and may be instrumental in saving life where 
men are overcome or lost in gas-filled mines. The appar- 
atus should be kept clean and should be tested at frequent iii- 
tervals to make sure that it is ready for instant use. In stor- 
age, it should be protected from steam, hot air and dust. A 
sufficient supply of oxygen should be kept on hand at all times. 

There should be two or more trained crews of five men 
each. If a crew consists of three or even four men and 
one of these men should meet with an accident, there is great 
danger that the two or three remaining men may not be able 
to carry him out of the danger zone. The leader of the crew 
should be cool and deliberate aud should exact absolute obedi- 
ence from every man under him. He should take every pre- 
caution for the safety of his men, thoroughly testing every 
apparatus before going underground in case of fire. 

For a more detailed discussion of this subject the reader 
is referred to Miner's Circular 4, **The Use and Care of Mine 
Rescue Breathing Apparatus," by James W. Paul, published 
by the United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. 
First Aid to the Injured. 

From the standpoint of safety, first aid to the injured, 
where practiced, suggests to the miner that he is liable to 
injury; it protects the miner who has received an injury, and 
prevents simple injuries from developing into something more 
serious, thus shortening periods of disability. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 79 

In the generally accepted sense, first aid to the injured does 
not contemplate the production of physicians after a few les- 
sons — or any number of lessons. Its purpose is to give tem- 
porary relief, by the simplest possible means, until the injured 
man can l>e taken to a physician or hospital. The study of 
first aid teaches what not to attempt, as well as what to do. 
As taught by the American Red Cross Association, the Unit- 
ed States Bureau of Mines, and other institutions, a man of 
no schooling may become as proficient in the work as the man 
of highest education. 

The larger companies operating on the iron ranges, and 
many of the smaller ones, have taken up the work of first 
aid to the injured. In some localities the work is well or- 
ganized and is doing a wonderful amount of good. Most 
operators and physicians are firm believers in the efficiency 
of the work, both from a humane and from an economical 
standpoint. 

It is suggested to any who have not given this subject 
serious consideration that they look up the records of what 
first aid has accomplished in the coal fields of the United 
States in recent years; or better still, obtain records of w^hat 
the work is doing on die iron ranges. Reports from one 
large hospital show that cases of infection have been reduced 
50 per cent since the introduction of first aid work. 
Sanitation and Ventilation. 

Sanitation and ventilation in mines are closely related to 
safety. A miner's general health is more valuable to him 
than a sound leg, arm or finger; and lie will do more efficient 
work and be less liable to long disability when injured, if his 
general health is good. Unsanitary conditions in the mine, 
coupled with an insuflficient supply of fresh air, will sooner or 
later show their eflfects upon the strongest man. 
Rules and Regul.vtions. 

Practically all of the mine oi^erators believe in the use of 
rules and regulations. This Ijelief is exemplified in some 
cases by the official who at least posts a notice against smok- 



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8o SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

ing ill certain places, or one refusing admittance to the mine 
or plant; passing through many gradations up to the official 
who believes in the printing of rules and regulations in eight 
or ten different languages. There can be no question as 
to the necessity of rules; and there seems to be no suitable 
method of reaching the men of various nationalities without 
printing these rules in numerous languages. 

The important point, often difficult to attain, is the en- 
forcement of these rules and regulations. The only satisfac- 
tory method of enforcing rules is to discipline, and finally dis- 
charge, offenders against them. Unfortunately, labor con- 
ditions are not always such that this course can be follow^ed. 

The Human Element. 

The human element enters into every angle of the safety 
problem. Rules may be provided, safety devices and precau- 
tions may l>e provided in the greatest abundance, and every 
preventive measure known to science may be brought into 
use; but they will not avail to reduce accidents to the minimum 
if the safety spirit is lacking in the officials, the captains, the 
shift bosses and the men under them. 

For instance, such an experience as the following is not 
uncommon. An official goes underground and finds certain 
dangerous conditions existing, against which there are strict 
and clearly worded rules. These rules might not have been 
observed for any one of several reasons. The captain might 
not have been sufficiently impressed with the "safety first" 
idea ; the captain might not have educated his shift boss suffi- 
ciently; or either the captain or shift boss might have been 
of that type who cannot adjust himself to ideas of safety as 
against ore production. 

The remark has been heard that this or that captain or- 
shift boss could not l>e brought to give serious attention to 
matters of this kind; that they were too valuable to discharge 
and would doubtless come around to the changed conditions 
later. In cases of this kind it seems to be a question of which 
man is the most valuable, the man who gets out ore without 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 8 1 

injur>' to his men, or the man who produces a greater ton- 
nage at the cost of human life. This is a question that may 
be studied either from a humane or from an economical view- 
point. 

Unless the mine official is of the firm belief that safety 
pays, little may be ex^xcted from the men under him. The 
best results seem to be forthcoming from the mines where 
the slogan "safety first'' is strong with the officials, and by 
them is made to penneate every department until it finally 
reaches, through the captains and shift bosses, the men be- 
hind the drill, the pick and the shovel. 

It is the rule on the iron ranges to find the mine officials 
greatly interested in safety, and the same may be said of 
the captains. However, the general run of shift bosses do 
not present a fertile field for the safety seed; either that, or 
the seed is improperly sowed. This does not refer to all shift 
bosses, for there are many safety enthusiasts among this class ; 
nor does it mean to imply that a shift boss would willingly or 
knowingly put a man in a dangerous position. The idea 
that it is desired to bring out is that, in general, the safety 
spirit is high with the average official, and most of the cap- 
tains; but when it reaches the shift bosses it begins to die, 
and by the time it comes down to the miner it is almost dead. 
The average miner resents suggestions for his safety. He 
will take care of his dinner pail and he will be careful to get 
all that is coming to him from his contract, but he will not 
take the necessary precautions to safeguard his life. Of course, 
there are some who are careful. 

The above statements are made after a close study of this 
particular feature of safety work in many of the mines. They 
lead up to what the writer believes to be of the utmost im- 
portance in the prevention of accidents, namely: That far 
more good may be accomplished by educating and securing 
the co-operation of the man underground than by the use 
of safety devices or measures of any other kind. Safety de- 
vices are good and they are absolutely essential for protecting 



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82 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

the miner; if they could be coupled with a mine full of men 
whose thoughts w^ere for their safety, then conditions w^ould 
l>egin to approach the ideal. The method of securing this 
co-oi)eration is the problem of the management, and the prolv 
lem is not the same in every mine. Schemes that will work 
out well in one mine might fail under widely different condi- 
tions. 

Organization and Co-Operation. 

In many of the mines the captains and shift bosses are 
looked to for the reduction of the accident list. Another class 
is made up of those mines which have one or more safety in- 
si>ectors. Still another class embraces the mines of the larger 
companies that maintain safety departments and si)end a great 
deal of time and money looking to the welfare and safety of 
the man in and about the mine. 

Of the schemes for securing the co-operation of the cap- 
tains and shift bosses there are none that seem to bring better 
results than the monthly or semi-monthly meetings at which 
accident reports are read and the accidents, with possible sug- 
gestions as to how they might have been prevented, dis- 
cussed. In some cases rivalry is stirred up amongst the shift 
bosses by offering small monthly prizes to the boss whose rec- 
ord for injuries to men is the cleanest. 

The writer is of the belief that a yearly cash bonus to 
shift lx)sses, based uiK>n the number of men injured (or the 
number of days disability resulting therefrom) and killed, will 
be effective in reducing accidents. At first thought this prop- 
osition might not be attractive. However, let us start with 
the premise that in a certain mine the shift bosses are not as 
careful as they should be — and this applies practically to all 
mines. There are. say, ten shift bosses. You appeal to them 
from the humane standpoint; ix)ssibly three will be deeply 
interested, three more moderately so — the remaining four are 
thinking of something else. And so it will be if you talk of 
prizes of any kind, until you mention, say $500 as a yearly 
bonus; there are then exactly ten shift bosses intensely in- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 83 

terested in your conversation. Consider the number of broken 
fingers it will take to cost $500 in compensation. 

The cash bonus is a suggestion ; the plan in detail must be 
worked out with careful regard to the conditions under which 
the men work. One objection that has Ijeen heard is that 
conditions in one place might be more dangerous than in an- 
other, in this way presenting difiiculties that might arise un- 
der any bonus system. It would seem that in the course of a 
year conditions would change sufficiently to equalize risks 
of injuries. As a matter of fact it is often found that more 
accidents hapi^en in places that are supposedly safe than in 
those that are known to be dangerous. In this connection, at- 
tention is directed to the fact that certain companies have 
brought about great improvement by oflfering cash prizes to 
miners for gardens and clean premises. 

During the past six months committees or associations 
have been organized in various districts on the iron ranges. 
Membership is made up of mine officials, captains, shift 
bosses, engineers and others interested in safety work from 
all operating proj^rties of the district. The purposes of the 
organization are, through co-operation, to promote welfare, 
safety in and about the mines, social intercourse, first aid to 
the injured and rescue work, and sanitation. The co-opera- 
tion is to be effected by regular meetings, at which these vari- 
ous subjects will be discussed, and by visits to the different 
mines. Several of these organizations show signs of becom- 
ing j)ennanent and ix>werful institutions. 

The methods of securing the co-operation of the miner 
are throuerh the posting of warnings of different kinds, the 
printing of rules and regulations, the ix)sting of newspai>er 
accounts of mine accidents with illustrations showing how men 
are injured, the foniiation of inspection committees of min- 
ers, and through personal contact of the officials, captains 
and shift bosses. These methods are more or less productive 
of results, but there still exists a woeful lack of willing co- 
operation among the miners. Just how this condition may 



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84 SAFETY IN LAKE SUPERIOR IRON MINES 

h€ improved is a problem, the solution of which will do mucli 
for the cause of safety in mines. Suggestions along these 
lines may be obtained through a study of the methods in use 
by many of the large industrial organizations of various parts 
of the United States. 

Conclusions. 

The reader, if he has the patience to go carefully through 
this paper, will doubtless make the mental note that there is 
still much to be written on the subject of safety; that the sug- 
gestions made are mostly old and well known ; or that he docs 
not agree with the writer on some points. It is hoped that 
these very faults might have the good effect of suggesting the 
ix)ints that have l>een omitted; in stirring someone to adopt 
a suggestion that he has neglected in spite of its age; or in 
bringing out, through discussion, a better way to accom- 
plish some of the objects outlined. 

More than this, it is hoped that by giving publicity to the 
subject of safety in mines, more converts will be made for 
the cause. The protection of our fellowman is a duty that we 
owe to ourselves and to mankind. If there is no appeal in 
the humane side of the question, study it from a standpoint 
of dollars and cents, for safety in mines pays, first, last and 
all the time. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 85 



WHAT OUR NEIGHBORS CAN DO IN MINING IRON 

ORE. 

BY DWIGHT E. WOODBRIDGE, DULUTH, MINN.* 

Lest we forget that there are others in the United States 
than we of Lake Superior, who are doing things in iron min- 
ing, and other places than the Mesabi range where iron is 
mined, and where records are made, I want to call attention 
to a few items from my note books. These items were gath- 
ered recently in work for the United States Government, as 
consulting engineer of the Bureau of Mines. 

I found that in the brown ore regions of Alabama, they 
are mining an average of 7 or 8 cu. yds. of material for every 
tf>n of 50 to 52 per cent ore, dried analysis, that they save. 
The Weems mine of brown ore, in the Rock Run district of 
Alabama, has mined 2,200,000 yds., and has secured 300,000 
tons of ore; one ton to every 7 yds., plus. A company in 
that vicinity was mining, at the time of my visit, 15 yds. to 
get I ton. All this material has to be mined from the ore 
bank, transi>orte<:l to the washery, washed and loaded on cars, 
and the cost figure for this oi)eration of 15 yds. to the ton 
was alx>ut $1. Companies like the Republic Iron & Steel 
Company are buying brown ore of a guarantee of 45 per 
cent, dr>', at $1.35 a ton f. o. b. cars. The Roane Iron Com- 
pany, of Chattanooga contracts for brown ore at $1 a ton 
when No. 2 foundry iron is selling at Birmingham at $7, and 
a 5 cent premium for every dollar added to the price of i>ig 
iron until it has reached a maximum cost of $1.50. That 
would make the Roane Company's brown ore cost it, now, 
about $1.20. This is for a ton of 2,268 pounds, which is a 

^Consulting Engineer. 



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86 MINING IRON ORE BY OUR NEIGHBORS 

weight used, I believe, nowhere else. The Woo<lwar(l Iron 
Company figures its brown ore costs at about $0,821 at the 
mine. 

In the Clinton ore district of New York state, where the 
iron content of the ore is about 40 to 45 per cent dry, they 
are removing an overburden that is from 10 to 20 ft. thick, 
half of it consisting of a hard limestone which must be blast- 
ed l)efore removal by the shovels, in order to get at a thick- 
ness of alx)ut 2 ft. of ore. This ore dips flatly into the earth, 
and they are now trying to figure out how they will be able 
to follow the ore to a depth of 500 ft. vertically, underground. 
This will mean a distance of 4 or 5 miles from the outcroj)- 
ping. This Clinton ore district of New York state, about 
which we hear very little, and from which but a trifling quan- 
tity of ore is now taken, is estimated to contain not less than 
500,000,000 tons of merchantable ore. 

An underground mine in Etowah county, Alabama, on the 
Clinton formation, is successfully producing a 45 per cent ore 
from a seam that averaged, at the time of my visit, 25.5 in. 
thick. Ore is successfully mined in this property to a thin- 
ness of 14 in. Miners get 55 cents a ton for ore in faces 
36 in. thick, with a premium on thinner seams and a penalty 
on thicker. At this mine the ore is trammed undergroimd in 
main galleries 48 in. high by ^'jennies" whose ears seem to 
have l>een cropped to fit the openings, is hoiste<l to the main 
tunnel level on platforms up an incline, is trammed out to 
surface by mules and run through a crusher and over a pickirig 
l>elt to remove slate, and the picked ore is then let down a 
long incline to the railroad track. The cost of all these op- 
erations was averaging, at the time I saw the mine, about 
$1.40 per ton of picked ore, this figure including all overhead 
costs as well as transportation to the furnace and amortization. 

(icnerally accepted figures on the tonnage of Clinton ores 
available in that part of Alabama l>etvveen Birmingham and 
the suburb of Bessemer have been for about 800,000,000 tons 
of the better grade, or "self-fluxing" ore. But by virtue of a 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 87 

drill hole sunk last year by Cole & McDonald, of Diiluth, this 
%ure should be doubled, as to probable ore. This drill hole 
went vertically 1,902 ft. to the top of the *'big seam" of Clin- 
ton ore, that outcrops 14,500 ft. away. At the outcrop of 
the "big seam'' it shows a thickness of some 12 ft., but at 
this point some 3 miles back from the outcrop, and 1,900 ft. 
deep, the ore shows a combined thickness of 15 ft. in two 
seams parted by 2 ft. of slate. It is probable that there is as 
much good ore between Birmingham and Bessemer, an ex- 
treme length of about 20 miles, as there is on the Mesabi range, 
and that there is alxmt as much merchantable ore of the Clin- 
ton hematites in Alabama as of all merchantable ores in the 
Lake Superior region. And lest we forget the comparative 
value of th.ese ores, let us bear in mind that a 40 j^er cent 
hard Clinton hematite of Alabama, is as good for furnace use 
as a 50 per cent ilesabi hematite, on account of its compara- 
tive freedom from moisture and its high percentage of car- 
bonate of lime. 

The d'stributioh of brown ore banks, throughout the 
United States, is far wider than that of any other tyi>e of iron 
l)earing material. These banks occur in the states of Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, 
Texas, Iowa and. Wisconsin. They are mined in Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, Iowa and Mis- 
souri; chiefly in Alabama and Georgia. That they are some 
factor to be reckoned with in the future, may be gathered 
V'lien I say that there are areas of these banks in Alabama 
alone, covering 7,000 square miles. Ko estimates of ton- 
nages that are worthy of credence have ever Ixen made, and 
it is imjKJSsible to make such estimates, on account of the un- 
certainty of the deposits. It is a common saying in the south 
that no man can see into a brown ore bank, further than the 
end of his pick. But, it is not unlikely that the deposits of 
these ores in the southern states of Virginia, Tennessee, 
CiecTgia and Alabama, will be found ultimately to be of 
enormous cjuantity. 



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88 MINING IRON ORE BY OUR NEIGHBORS 

In the Clinton ore mines of Birmingham some of the min- 
ing companies pay their miners on the basis of 30 cents a ton 
for ore. This means the breaking of the ore, loading in tram- 
cars, and the delivery of the cars to the main heading, where 
the cars are picked up by the company and pulled to the tij> 
pie at surface. In these cases the company furnishes drills, 
air and steel, the contractor, usually a negro, supplies la- 
bor and powder. Some companies pay less than 30 cents 
a ton. The pig iron costs of one of the large mining and iron 
making companies of the district, with the elimination of all 
intermediate profits, and by the use of by-product coke, have 
been under $6.50 a ton, and can now be figured at alx)ut $7. 
Possibly there are others that can not do so well. 

In the case of one of the oi^erating companies of the dis- 
trict, the assemblage of materials is on the following basis: 
It owns a strip of land 4 miles long and about a mile wide. 
At one end of this strip are its ore mines, as good as can be 
found on Red Mountain. At the other end are its coal en- 
tries. In the center are its furnaces. Connecting all is a 
standard gauge railway laid with loo-lb. steel, and using 
cars of 140,000-lb. caj>acity. This road connects at points 
less than a mile from the furnaces, with ten trunk lines of 
railway. Another oi>erating company starts the incline track 
carrying ore to its furnace mouths in a limest*one quarry, suit- 
able for flux. The advantage of this condition is neutrahzed, 
however, by the fact that none of these companies use any 
flux to six^ak of. Another comixmy has five great blast fur- 
naces in a row, some of them of 500 tons per day capacity. 
I think it is a fact that nowhere in the world outside of Birm- 
ingham can five great blast furnaces be found under single 
ownership in one, except at Gary. 

There are in the state of Maryland four blast furnaces of 
a daily capacity of about 350 tons of pig iron each. All the 
iron pnxluced in that state is made in these stacks. Sixty years 
ago Mar)'land had no less than 31 active furnaces and their 
combined capacity was 70,000 tons a year, or as much as the 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 89 

four now in blast can make in two months. All those old 
stacks, which averaged about six tons of iron per day, and 
whose ruins now dot the state, produced iron from brown 
ore banks that were then active, and all of which lay within 
a few miles of the stacks. In those days there w^ere many 
stacks in the city of Baltimore and the ore to run them was 
mined within thirty miles of the city. Now' those ore banks 
are deserted, and the four great furnaces of Baltimore re- 
ceive their ore supplies from foreign mines situated more than 
1,000 miles away on the Caribbean sea. The Lake Superijr 
district is largely responsible for this and other similar changes 
in the iron trade. 

In New York state there are large deposits of low grade 
magnetites mnning, say 40 per cent and better in iron, and 
up to 2 per cent and more in phosphorous, that are being 
made into a very high grade ore, both bessemer and non- 
Ixssenier, by the elimination of the gangue and of the con- 
tained apatite, which is the mineral carrying the phosphorus. 
Thcv have pro<luced so far, of magnetic ore from this Ai>- 
palachian field, more than 35,000,000 tons, showing it to be 
a most important district. At Mineville they are now con- 
centrating these 2 j>er cent phosphorus ores at the rate of a 
million Urns a year, which is the capacity of their mines, and 
cf their m:lls when working one shift per day. In these 
mills thty are bringing their 40 per cent ere up to 63 and 
65 jjer cent, and their 2 i>er cent of phosphorus tliey are re- 
ducing, for some grade, to .03 per cent, and they are making 
products that do not var\- from month to month mere than 
f(;ur or five one- thousandth of one i)er cent in their phos- 
])horus content. Such close work seems almost uncanny. 
When one considers the vast tonnage probabilities in low 
gra'le magnetites on Lake Superior, now unused, he appre- 
ciates the opjx>rtunities for the application of such methods 
t<; the re<er\'es of this region. At Mineville they are able to 
mine and concentrate on -a commercial basis ores running a 
little better than 50 per cent that are taken out of a 12 ft. 
seam from 700 ft. underground. 



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90 



RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 



RE-LIXING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT WITH REIN- 

FORCEi;) DIVIDERS, END PLATES AND 

POURED CONCRETE WALLS. 

BY S. W. TARR^ DULUTII, MINN.* 

The No. 2 Hamilton (vertical) Shaft, Chapin Mine, at 
Iron Mountain, Mich., was sunk in 1891, as described in Vol- 
ume XI, of the Proceedings of the Lake Superior Mining- In- 
stitute, under title of "The Unwatering of the Hamilton and 
Ludington Mines'* (page 139-147), by John T. Jones. 

The original shaft consisted of six compartments, two for 
skips or bailers, 4 ft. 8 in.x7 ft. o in., two for cages, 4 ft. 8 
in.x4 ft. 6 in., and two compartments for steam and column 
pij^s for pumping, located in the end of the cage compart- 
ments, 4 ft. 8 in.x 2 ft. o in., as shown in Plate i. 

This shaft was lined with wood sets, consisting of 16 in. 



3 5>^ip E 



3 st^ip E 



s 






Sc/^c^E E 



=*=? 



Sc:/\c^E g 



f(CTior\i OF NQg ^^A^^lL.TO^ 



-^c 



OOP- i-l NED SHA^T=X- 



Plate 1. Oriifinal Shaft Before Enlarging and Relinins 



♦Engineer of Construction, Oliver Iron Mining Company, 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



91 



:.i 



square timl)€rs, spaced 6 ft. 2^^ in. center to center, with wood 
stuttles and steel hanging l3ohs, the outside of which was lathed 
with 2 in plank, making a minimum opening to \ye cut in the 
n;ck of 10 ft. o in.x24 ft. 4 in. The timbers in this shaft, 
due to long service, l>ecame badly decayed, so that it was neces- 
sarv' to re-line the shaft or abandon it. 

Early in the year 191 1, it was decided to make the No. 



I 

I 

"1 

E 

g 







111 



J 




PJsAIlJf 1Q-S 



4E67 



Plate 2. Sketch Showing: Enlarged Shaft 

2 Hamilton. Shaft a permanent outlet to the Chapin Mine, and 
install in this shaft the permanent underground electrical cen- 
trifugal pumping equipment. It was, therefore, necessary to 
re-line this shaft from collar to bottom, a distance of 1,434 
feet, and since there was a possibility of striking another vug 
of water in the underground workings at any time, provision 



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92 RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 

had to be made in the design of re-lining so that bailers could 
be put in service on a very short notice. Since this shaft was 
to be the permanent outlet, provision had to be made for col- 
umn pipes and transmission cal)les to transmit electric power 
to the underground pumps. To provide for these cokimn pii)es 
and transmission cables, it was necessary to increase the in- 
side dimensions of the shaft from 7 ft. o in.x 21 ft. 4 in. 
to 9 ft. o in.x2i ft. 4 in., making the ix)ured concrete wall 6 
in. thick. Thus, the outside dimensions of the shaft were not 
increased over the original wo(k1 Hned shaft. The shaft now 
consists of eight com|xirtments, two for skips or bailers and 
two for cages, each 4 ft. 8 in.x6 ft. 4 in., three compartments 
for pii)es and transmission cable and one for ladder, each 2 
ft. 4 in.x4 ft. 8 in., with concrete slab ixirtitions jjetween cage 
and skip comjxirtments, pii)e and skip compartments, and lad- 
der and skip compartments, as per Plate 2. 

Various methods of re-lining this shaft were considered, 
as follows: 

1st. Re-lining with timber sets and woo<l lath, i. e. replac- 
ing the present sets. 

2d. Re-lining with steel sets and wcxxl lath. 

3d. Re-lining with steel sets and reinforced concrete lath. 

4th. Re-lining with steel sets, angle stuttles, and concrete 
poured walls. 

5th. Re-lining with reinforced concrete dividers, end plates 
(made on surface), and ixnired concrete side walls. 

The first and second schemes were neither fire-proof nor 
permanent; the third and fourth schemes were not considered 
practicable; the fifth scheme was adopted on account of its 
l)ermanent qualities, being strictly fire-proof and water-proof. 

Concrete Mixing Plant. 

To economically make the reinforced concrete dividers, 
end plates and slabs, also the concrete for poured walls in 
shaft, a concrete mixing plant was built near the shaft, as 
shown on Plate 3. The mixing i)]ant consists of a crusher, 
bucket elevator, revolving screen, two concrete mixers, ix)cket 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



93 



divided into three divisions for sand, gravel and "over-size," 
and a drying room, equipped with an overhead hand traveling 
crane. 

The material for these dividers, end plates and slabs is 




Plates. Concrete Mixing: Plant 



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94 



RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 



brought to the mixing plant from a nearby gravel pit in dump 
wagons. This gravel contains a large percentage of sand. 
The material from the wagons is clumi)ed directly into the 
crusher. The product from the crusher is discharged on to 
the bucket elevator which elevates it to the cylindrical re- 
volving screen. This screen is divided intp two sections. The 
first section is perforated with ^)i in. diameter holes and the 



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ij" 



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—1 — rrr— K 





_v-^ 


t "tif 






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-liL 



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F»L.AXE Na<» 



. •/«■•' "-c 



•»*^'***«^«***'* ""^ ar t »« 



45B3 



Plate 4. Detail of Concrete Dividers and Slabs 

second section with i]/^ in. diameter holes. All aggregate 
passing through the ^8 in. diameter holes is tenned as '*sand'* 
and all aggregate passing through the iV^ in. diameter lioles 
is termed as '*gravel." The material larger than this is termed 
*'()ver-sizc.'' This "over-size" is used either for backfilling the 
concrete walls in the shaft or may be drawn out from the 



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^ 



•^ 



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r.if> 



W: 



B^ 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



95 



pocket into a tram car and returned to the crusher for re- 
crushin^^. The concrete mixers used are Smith Xo. i, of 
nine cubic feet cai>acity. The in^c^rechents are brought to the 
mixer in tram cars. The body of the tram car is divided into 
three sections to hold the required amount of sand, gravel and 




aer/uL •' *iAM* 'm M»rt* 



Mere - 

»0itrv»f •r eottcite rr r»m sjt *»i 
I f»jfT .Mvr«>j4A ^tfwn./*** cfj>*enT 

1 or Jt./*BJ. Sre OMm* M* *^91^ 






OL/VCR /M<y/ A0NHVG C». 



£ jUAr£_JN„Q ^. 



4718 



Plate 5. Detail of Concrete Slabs 

cement, to give the proi)er mixture of one portion of cement, 
two portions of sand, and four of gravel, for the making of 
reinforced concrete dividers, end plates and slal)s, and shaft 
wall. By moving under the sand and gravel sixiuts, the car 



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96 



RE-LINIXG NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 



is loaded with the proper portions of sand and gravel, and 
the required amount of cement is poured into the car from 
sacks. 'Jht loaded car is trammed to the mixer and contents 
(lumi)ed in same. A water measuring box is placed above 



I ■ 

5 I 



I 






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> 

-I* 

1l 

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I 



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?^AX^ rN0 7^ 



4719 



Plate 7. Steel Forms for Making Concrete Slabs 

each mixer, which discharges the proper amount of water into 
the batch to I>e mixed. The dividers, end plates and slabs are 
made in steel forms. These forms are placed beneath the mix- 
er from whirh the concrete is poured directly into lliem. After 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 97 

the concrete has been in the fomis a sufficient length of time 
to harden, the forms are removed and the moulds are picked 
up by the hand traveling crane and carried into the drying 
rcxjm, where they are cured. The design of reinforced con- 
crete dividers, end plates and reinforced concrete slabs are 
shown in Plates 4 and 5. The steel foiTns for making the 
same are shown in Plates 6 and 7. 

Method of Re-Lining Shaft With Poured Concete. 

The work of re-lining this shaft is done in sections. Each 
section is started on permanent bearers located to support the 
present tim])er shaft sets, and working upwards. A section of 
old timljer, usually 12 ft., is removed and loaded on to the 
cages and hoisted to the surface, where it is unloaded on to 
cars and dumj^ed into the cave nearby. The timber sets above 
these portions are supported by means of vertical columns with 
jack screws on the lx)ttom, resting on 12x12 in. timber placed 
on the l>earers. After the first 6-ft. section of concrete is 
poured, the 12x12 in. timbers are placed on the reinforced 
concrete dividers and end plates, which are supported on steel 
fomis, as shown in Plate 8. The steel forms are made in 
sections, with recesses to support end plates and dividers 
spaced either 4 ft. or 6 ft. centers as shown in Plate 9. Since 
■here are seven sets of steel fonns, the footings to carry the 
weight of old timber sets will bear either on the pennanent 
I>earers or on at least five sets or 30 ft. of concrete, i. e., the 
support of the old timbers above does not depend ujx^n green 
concrete. After the sections of steel fonns, 6 ft. high, are 
lowered in the cages and installed, the reinforced concrete di- 
viders and end plates are lowered and placed in the recesses 
provided in the steel forms, and the ends bolted to the steel 
forms. These end plates and dividers ser\^e as horizontal struts 
to hold the steel forms in position. When a section is placed, 
the vertical reinforcing rods are put in ix)sition in the wall, 
and the wall is now ready to be poured. The concrete for 
this shaft wall is mixed on the surface at the mixing plant 
and discharged into side dump steel cars, which are pushed by 



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98 



RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 



hand from the mixer to the shaft. A turn table is installed 
about 15 ft. from the shaft, tracks from which lead to both 
skip compartments. Cages are used in both of these com- 
ixirtments. The ccMicrete car is run on to either of these 
cages from the turn table and lowered into the 









B 



M^ 



i L 









/:.i:rt:.irrA..-.., -i.f; 






3t 



t^ 






f.r* 






*^ 



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I": 



L.:,_iL._,L| 




Plate 8. Showing Method of Pouring Concrete 

shaft. A revolving chute is attached to the spout of 
the car and the contents are discharged behind the forms to 
make the wall and pr()i)erly tam[KHl in place as shown in Plate 
8. In places there are large crevices in the shaft. Where these 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



99 



crevices occur, they are filled to within lo in. of the steel forms 
with large stones or rock from the over-size bin before the 
concrete is poured. The average amount of material for re- 
lining one 6-ft. vertical section of shaft is one cord of stone 
for backfilling lo cu. yards of concrete, and 550 pounds of 
steel for reinforcing. 







-if...- ♦/ /v« />.^ — 



:^:s:'/-- 



Plate 9. Steel Forms Made in Sectionsr With Recesses to Support End Plates and Dividers 
XUMDER OF ^IeN EMPLOYED. 

Tn removing old timber, five men are recjuired to work 
helow and one man at the collar to handle old timbers from 
the cage and dispose of same. The time recjuired to remove 
one 6-ft. section varies according to the condition of the old 
material in the shaft. In placing steel forms, four men are 
required below and two at the collar to lower the forms on 



469B 



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lOO RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 

the cag^e. In pouring concrete, four men are required below 
and two men at the collar. The above number of men does 
not include the shaft foreman, concrete foreman, hoisting en- 
gineer, or men working in the mixing plant, as these men do 
not spend all their time on this particular job. The re-lining- 
work is carried on in three eight-hour shifts per day, and 
the average time required to concrete 6 ft. of vertical shaft 
is 24 hours, or three shifts, which includes placing the fonns. 
pLuring concrete and removing an equal amount of forms. 
AVlieii the forms are removed, they are taken to the surface, 
tlioro.ughly cleaned and given a coat of crude oil before they 
are used again. 

All hoisting and lowering of material is done with the 
present reel hoists located in the No. 2 Hamilton engine house, 
as showai on Plate 10. 

When it was decided to make this shaft a permanent out- 
let, a new- steel headframe, stockpile trestle and idler stand were 
erected, as shown on Plate 10. 

On account of the heavy flow of water in the underground 
workings at this shaft, it was necessary, in dismantling the old 
wovKlen head-frame and erecting die new steel head-frame, 
that this work l)e done in the smallest possible time, as bailers 
might have to be put in oi>eration on vei^ short notice. When 
it came time to make this change, the old wooden head-frame 
was dismantled and the new steel one erected ready for hoist- 
ing in ten days. In the design of re-lining, the provision made 
for installing bailers on 24 hours' notice proved to be a goixl 
precaution, as a vug of water was encountered on Octo])er 
22d, 191 2, and the bailers were put in operation within 24 
hours, thus preventing the flooding of the lower workings of 
the mine. 

Progress of Work. 

The first i)ortion of the work of re-lining this shaft was 
started 83 ft. 3 in below collar of shaft, on May 3d, 191 2, 
and the concrete lining between this point and the collar was 
completed on June 29th, 191 2. The second portion was start- 



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C H ATPIN AMNg 
MP g 1-1 /\/v\l 1-TON SHA^rT 









1: 



U. 












i^i! 



:3 



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^i^ATg rsJO I. 



Plate 11. Showinir Prosrress of Work 



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I02 RE-LINING NO. 2 HAMILTON SHAFT 

ed 302 ft. 7 in. 1)elo\v collar of shaft, on July ist, 1912, and 
was connected to the Tirst ix)rtion on October 5th, 1912. The 
third portion was started 551 ft. 3 in. below collar of shaft, 
on October 12th, 1912, and connected to the second portion 
March 15th, 1913. In this portion, the shaft work was dis- 
continued from Octol^er 22d to November i8th, 1912, on ac- 
count of striking the vug of water on the i6th level. One week 
\Y2LS also lost between Januai-y nth and January i8th, 1913, 
on account of a slip of eld timbers in the shaft. The fourth 
portion was started 695 ft. 7 ifi. below collar of shaft, on 
March 22nd, 1913, and was connected to the third portion on 
May 10, 1913. The fifth portion was started 917 ft. 4 in. 
below collar of shaft on May 17th, 1913. and to July 5th, 
1913, 812 ft. 7 in. of the entire shaft have l)een completed. 
Weekly repoits c^ the pro^.^ress of this work are sent to the 
Chief Engineer's -office, where a graphic report is kept, as 
shown on Plate 11. 

The average rate of progress since the beginning, w-ithout 
deducting the time due to delays, is 56.7 ft i>er month, or 63 
ft. per month for actual working time. The progress for 
the past month nas y2 feet. The preliminar}^ estimate was 
based on re-lining 100 ft. i>er month. The old shaft timbers 
however, were in far worse condition than could possibly be 
anticipated, and the slower progress has been due entirely 
to the difficulty in removing the old timbers and the precau- 
tions required to protect the lives of the men who are em- 
ployed on thi^ work 

In the portion of shaft completed to date, all the work has 
proven perfectly satisfactory and entirely up to expectations, 
l^he walls are smooth and watemroof. The reinforced con- 
crete dividers and end plates come fro.'^ "he steel forms per- 
fectly true, straight and .s.nooth, aivl fv i*fectly in the re- 
cesses provided in the sti.-el foniis. 

All cement used in the construction o^.tuis shaft lining was 
furnished by the Universal Portland Cement Company, and 
the steel forms, reinforcing rods, steel head-frame, stockpile 
trestle and idler stand were furnished by the American Bridge 
Company. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IO3 



SUGGESTIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF EFFI- 
CIENCY METHODS TO MINING. 

BY C. M. LEONARD, GWINN, MICHIGAN. 

The originar application of the term ^'Efficiency" was made 
to machiner}' and was represented by the work accomplished, 
divided by the energy expended. This result in the older type 
of machines was very low and men specially trained, made a 
study of the appHcation of power and the results and by some 
small change in the organization of an enga'ie, the use of a 
different type of valve, the use of the condenser, etc., have 
increased this factor several hundred per cent. 

In 1883. Fred W. Taylor realized that the efficiency of hu- 
man energy was low, began to analyze operating conditions 
and the result of this analysis is one of the prime factors 
which enables American industrial labor to 'earn more per 
day than in any other country and American manufacturers 
to sell their products at a profit in countries where labor re- 
ceives but 40 to 50 per cent of what it receives in this 
country. 

Until a comparatively recent date, efficienc) engineering 
was confineil to industrial plants and const ruction 'work. The 
results obtained in these lines has suggested its application to 
mining and from the very nature of the necessary working 
conditions in mining, i^t^, would seeuwti'iat even greater results 
might be looked fc : )an ;in other industries. 

The cost of pn . 'on in mining. may be divided into two 
parts, viz : Supplies and Labor. Of these the latter is the 
larger. 
Supplies — 

Supplies are usually considered practically a constant factor 



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I04 APPLICATION OF EFFICIENCY METHODS TO MINING 

in the cost of production. They are, at least, less affected by 
a study of the details than labor. 

The importance of having excessive capital tied up in sup- 
plies is recognized, but it is doubtful if the interest on the 
amount necessary to carry an adequate stock of those in gen- 
erafl use, would meet the loss due to the delays caused by con- 
tinually mnning short of material. The amount of supplies 
which is necessary to carry, is affected by the standardization 
of equipment. F'or instance, nearly every manufacturer of 
power drills is glad to have his machine given a trial. If 
this trial were made on ground which were fairly uniform, a 
careful record kept of the performance of each machine and 
a comparison made of the records, it would probably result in 
one machine of each type being selected as a standard and 
a basis established for the purchase of power drills. The adoi>- 
tion of one brand of steel usually insures more uniform re- 
sults in the forge and consequently a better bit sent under- 
ground. 

Fuel, one of the principal items of supplies, is now pur- 
chased by most operators on an analysis basis, after detemiin- 
ing the fuel best suited for each condition. 

One company has reduced the cost of their lubricating oil 
by using a commercial grade of a thick oil, adding other lu- 
bricants to meet various conditions. 

A study of explosives, their application and instructions 
in their use may result in a saving of a cent or two per pound 
in this item or a pound or two of explosive per foot of drift. 

The use of carbide lamps underground has demonstrated 
that they not only cost less but give a better light and are 
smokeless. 
Labor — 

During the past ten years, it has been necessary for the 
mining industry to meet an increase of wages, vai-ying from 
8 to 21 per cent, a decrease of 20 per cent in the working- 
hours and in many instances, a decrease in the price received 
for their product. The one object of labor is to receive larger 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE lOS 

wages and one of the main objects of tlie operator is to get 
lower costs. The question naturally presents itself, how can 
this condition be met to the satisfaction of both parties? 
There can be but one answer to this and that is by increas- 
ing the efficiency of labor. 

The conditions which have a direct bearing on the effi- 
ciency, of labor are so varied, that an exhaustive treatment 
can not hz brought within the confines of one paper. Not 
only each district but each mine presents a different proposi- 
tion in itself and a study of the details of the operating con- 
ditions is the only manner by which we may arrive at any defi- 
nite s-L^lution. From our practical knowledge we may be able 
to sense a thing as being right or wrong. This judgment 
may err 5» lo or 15 per cent one way or the other and may 
represent the margin between a profit and l(;ss, but from a 
set cf figures compiled from a time study of the complete cycle 
of operations, from breaking the ore until it is loaded on 
surface, one is able to determine to what extent and at whicli 
pc.int it is possible to make changes and the exact result of 
these changes. It enables the work to be so co-ordinated that 
each man is given an opportunity of doing a days work and 
is not being held up by some other operation. It also pro- 
vides an intelligent basis for making contracts and if the aver- 
age inan does not make the minimum wage, it is his fault 
rather than an error in judgment on the part of the foreman. 

A time study to be of practical value, must l^e enough in 
detail and cover a sufficient period of time to enable one to get 
a fair average of the time recpiired on each operation, and 
(•ne which dees not give this information is worse than use- 
less as it permits false conclusions to be drawn. To get ix)si- 
tive results from this work it is absolutely essential that the 
co-operation cf the entire executive force be maintained and if 
there is any inclination on the part of a b;)ss or foreman \v)i 
to co-operate in the work, there remains but one of two courses 
to pursue, either discontinue the work along these lines or dis- 
pense with that persons services. 



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I06 APPLICATION OF EFFICIENCY METHODS TO MINING 

No trouble should be experienced in getting the men in- 
terested in the work for as soon as they realize that it means 
an increase in their wages, they are only too glad to make an 
extra effort. The men should be dealt with individually as 
far as possible. The force of this is apparent when a man is 
taken from day labor and given contract work. He immedi- 
ately realizes that a premium is being offered for better work 
and can see some tangible reason for making a greater ef- 
fort. It is generally recognized that any system of efficiency 
that does not provide for a division of the benefits to be de- 
rived from any changes which affects labor, will prove a fail- 
ure, and while a large percentage of the men working un- 
derground may not be able to speak English fluently, there 
are few who, at the end of the month, do not know approxi- 
mately what they have made and a settlement on any other 
basis will not prove conducive to the best results. 

Tlicre are conditions in which it is rather difficult to figure 
a contract basis. For example, in the Lake Superior Capper 
District, the cost of copi)er per pound dei)ends upon the 
quality of rock hoisted as well as the quantity. This neces- 
sitates underground sorting, which item is a large proixjrtion 
of the underground expense. When this operation is placed 
on a contract basis, the quality of the rock decreases and the 
(iuanlity increases as well as the cost of copper per pound. 

To a certain extent, efficiency work is a matter of educa- 
tion. While a practical training is absolutely necessary to 
one who in any way has charge of men or is planning work, 
it is of prime importance that they be able to appreciate the 
value of figures. The result of a time study placed before some 
of the older mining captains would produce about the same 
feeling toward them as the man lost in the woods has toward 
his compass. He will agree that they ought to be right, **but 
that they are certainly off this time." 

In the majority of cases the men theinselves may be 
taught to accoinplish the same or greater results with an ex- 
penditure of less physical force. This can not be done by 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IO7 

simply explaining the method but must be demonstrated. Tt 
may be necessary to take four or five cuts out of a drift be- 
fore you can convince a gang that they are not placing their 
holes to the best advantage. This part of the system of 
education is usually left to the boss, whose territory is so great 
* that he cannot give sufficient time to any individual gang or 
operation, to get the best results and too often his attitude 
toward the men may be that if they do not get the best results, 
they are on a contract and they, not he, will be the losers. 

There are many other conditions which have a direct bear- 
ing on the efficiency of labor, some of which are of such na- 
ture that the results can not be measured in dollars and cents. 
For instance, one large copper mine in the Southwest employs 
an expert to provide ventilation form stopes where the air is 
too hot or impure. Sociological and welfare work, which 
might be considered a dead expense, undoubtedly has a di- 
rect bearing on the efficiency of labor, in tending to presen'e 
the health, loyalty and continuity of an organization. If it 
were possible to determine to what extent the cost per ton 
of ore or per pound of copper were aflfected by this expendi- 
ture, it would doubtless show a balance on the credit side. 



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I08 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 



MINE LAWS, SPECIAL RULES AND THE PREVEN- 
TION OF ACCIDENTS. 

BY E. B. WILSON, SCRANTON, PA.* 

To cover exhaustively the subjects of this paper would re- 
quire that a large book be written, even then it is improbable 
that the cclntinually changing conditions about metal mines 
could be anticipated so as to present all the various matters 
which culminate in accidents; the unforseen possibilities that 
may arise for changes and additions to mine laws ; or the nec- 
essity for fonuulating new rules. The very uncertainty of 
things makes this paper of a general nature, nevertheless, 
there are specific matters that come under these captions to 
which attention is directed. 

That there may be no misunderstanding, this paper is not 
a criticism, but one in which are stated conditions as they are 
recorded. In the writer's opinion therefore no individual op- 
erator can assume complacency in this matter, but rather all 
should unite to remedy the conditions collectively. 

In most mining states laws have been passed to compel 
mine operators to do certain things and post certain rules, 
and, to see that the provivsicns in these laws are carried out, 
state mine insi)ect()rs are apix)inted or elected, whose ix>wer 
also consists in recommending safety measures, and pointing 
out dangers. In some coal mining states the inspectors are 
able to close mines and l)ring suits if oi)erators do not comply 
with their suggestions. 

In going over the various state mine laws in operation and 
proposed, one will find a list of subjects adopted years ago, but 
now suited only for use in kindergarten mining. Tliere are 

♦Editor, The CoUiery Engineer. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IO9 

also *'Dant's'' for operators and everyone else about a mine 
which to say the least are insults to average mining intelli- 
gence, but there are also some features in these various state 
laws which are good and might be adopted more extensively 
to advantage. Copies of these laws may be obtained by writ- 
ing to the Secretaries of the various metal mining states, and 
a proposed uniform metal mining law may be ol>tained by 
writing to James F. Callbreath, Secretary, American Mining 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Insi)ectors have had laws enacted which proved burdensome 
without corresj^onding decrease in fatalities, they have also 
created considerable friction l>y their suggestions and demands 
for their enforcement, but, as a rule, when they receive their 
i>ffice by appointment, and not by election, they work as har- 
moniously with the operators as the nature of their oath will 
peniiit. 

The selection of a state mine insi>ector is a matter of con- 
siderable importance as his first duty consists in providing 
for the maximum protection to mine workers. Violations of 
mine laws by oi>erators, mine officials or mine workers, where- 
by ilx' lives and health of men ar-e jeopardized, must be 
prosecuted, therefore a mine insi>ect(>r must be conversant 
with conditions existing in mines, and besides having an ex- 
tensive practical experience must possess moral courage and 
a mental temi>erament that will ensure the avoidance of 
hasty and ill-advised action. 

If inspection is to be properly performed, competent in- 
spector:; must be obtained free from any influence that will 
detract from the ix>wers vested in tliem. The proper way 
in the writer's estimation to obtain competent inspection is 
by appointment by the Governor, he however to he limited in 
his appointments to men who have passed a civil service ex- 
amination before an examining board composed of three 
mining engineers, three mine bosses and three miners. The 
examining board may select from the candidates who have 
I>assed both a written and oral examination with a percentage 



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no THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

of 90, those who have temperaments and moral characters that 
may be depended on and recommend thejn for appointments. 

In the anthracite fields of Pennsylvania men have been 
elected inspectors not because of character or ability but 
because they were politicians. Most of those who vote for 
mine nispectors, being farmers, laborers, business and profes- 
sional men, are incompetent to judge as to the fitness of 
candidates for mine inspectors, in fact may never have seen or 
heard oi them before their names were placed on the ballot. 

This is not all, if an elected inspector wants to retain his 
office he must be "suave'*; a "trimmer" at all times; spend 
most of his time electioneering for himself and party and not 
offend any of his constituents or they will defeat liim at 
the polls. 

A good inspector should be kept in office so long as he 
is physically able to [Derfomi his duties, and if a poor in- 
spector is appointed his removal should be recommended by 
the examining board that had him appointed. The con- 
stant change in inspectors made possible by the elective laws 
or by executive appointments, if not surrounded by civil ser- 
vice limitations, frequently makes the laws farcial to an ex- 
tent which gets on the public nerves. After following both 
the appointment and the election plans of creating inspectors, 
I am convinced that the plan here proposed will prove more 
satisfactory to miners, operators and .the public than any 
other that has been advanced. 

Large coal companies not satisfied with i>eriodic state mine 
inspection, hire company insj)ectors who examine the mine and 
appliances and suggest both changes and improvements that 
make for safety. Provided the right kind of a man is em- 
ployed, a company inspector will save his wages readily by act- 
ing as an efficiency engineer. In positions of this kind only 
experienced men with liberal educations should be employed, 
and if a concern is not large enough to hire such a man two 
or three should club together for the purpose. That he may 
not conflict with the Sui>erintendent and Foreman a perfect 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE III 

understanding as to each one's duties should be stated in writ- 
ing. Further he is hot to give orders either alx>ve or below 
ground and should write his suggestions in triplicate for the 
l>enefit of the Manager, Superintendent and Foreman. 

In the absence of state mine laws to govern metal min- 
ing, it certainly is advisable that the operator appoint a safety 
committee, make a uniform set of mine rules, make use of 
danger signs, and also issue from time to time Safety Pamph- 



Copyrisrht 1918, by J. W. Stonehouse, Denver, Colo. 
Fiff. 1 

lets for the miners all over the fields, calling attention to the 
accidents that have happened and how they may be avoided. 

Where there are state mine laws both the miner and the 
operator must obser\^e them, and in addition the miner must 
abide by the rules of the company. It is undoubtedly true 
that the number of accidents may be decreased by united ef- 
forts to teach the miners to care for themselves and by using 
strict disciplinary measures to regulate carelessness and eva- 
sion of rules. It is not enough to make one set of rules for 
the guidance of the miner, special sets of rules must be form- 
ulated for those men who follow distinctive lines of work in- 
side and outside the mine. , 

In case of an accident the cause should be investigated and 
wherever possible a rule formulated in such a way that a sim- 
ilar accident will not be likely to occur. Although this may pro- 
duce radical changes in the work and the discharge of several 
men for infringement of the rules, nevertheless it has been 



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112 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

found to add to efficiency and eventually decrease accidents. 

The most difficult cases to contend with will be those of 
old miners who have worked for years doing things certain 
ways. They are "bull-headed" and will tell how long they 
have mined, etc. However, they must understand that 
they are to do things differently if they want to continue* at 
work. These men may purposely do things they are told in 
a wrong way, but a lay-off with the reprimand that they are 
not good miners will bring them to reason. 

In mining two parties are concerned in an undertaking in 
which a contract is implied if not signed, sealed, acknowledged, 
and recorded. Both miner and operator are under obligations 
by this contract to refrain from doing or leaving undone those 
acts which will work injury to the other. This being a rec- 
ognized fact the next step is for the contracting parties to 
work in harmony for mutual benefit, in other words, place 
confidence in each other. 

Mr. Thomas Lynch, head of the H. C. Frick Coke Com- 
pany seems to have gained the confidence of his men, by 
appointing a safety committee of miners who investigate when- 
ever a miner anticipates danger and who immediately rec- 
ommend that conditions be made 'safe. A comparison be- 
tween the fatal accidents in Great Britain and the H. C. f'rick 
Company per million tons of coal mined is 4.52 to 1.88. The 
H. C. Frick Coke Company produced in 191 2, twice as much 
coal per fatal accident as the bituminous fields of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio. Illinois, and West Virginia. Tlie success of Mr. Lynch 
in decreasing accidents is due to his making the men resp<.:)n- 
sible for them, and by the strict enforcement of mine rules. 

Michigan employed 31,584 metal miners in 1911, of which . 
numl^er 134 were killed or 4.24 per thousand employed. 

Minnesota employed 16,548 metal miners of which num- 
l)er 76 were killed or 4.59 out of every 1,000. 

As Michigan and Minnesota employ 29 per cent of the 
if)5,979 metal miners in the United States it naturally fol- 
lows that there would be more accidents in these two states, 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE II3 

but we find on further analysis of the Census Bureau Reports 
that Houghton County, Michigan, had 563 deaths recorded 
during the period extending from 1894 to 1908, inclusive, yet 
in every one of these 14 years the death rate was less per 
thousand men employed than in the iron mines of the state. 
The average by counties was as follows : Dickinson County, 
4.01 ; Houghton County, 2.94, and Marquette County, 4.32. 

The writer has no statistics relative to the Minnesota Mine 
accidents for the 14 years mentioned, however, the data com- 
piled by Albert H. Fay and printed in the Bureau of Mines 
Technical Paper 40 is sufficient to show that the fatal accident 
list is much too high being 4.59 per 1,000. 

Taking Mr. Fay's figures, the total number of fatal acci- 
dents in 191 1 in Michigan and Minnesota ore n^ines were 
157, while those seriously injured numbered 1.839. These are 
tabulated for ready reference as follows: 

Accident Table Lake Superior Ore Mixes 191 i. 

Per cent Seriously Per cent 

Cause. KiUed. o? total. injured. of total. 

Falls of rock or ore 65 41 611 33 

Timber or hand tools 3 2 192 10 

Explosives 13 8 45 2 

Haulage 4 3 392 21 

Palling down chute, or 

winze, raise or stope... 10 6 92 5 

Palling down shafts 27 17 18 1 

Run of ore from chute or 

pocket 4 70 3 

Drilling machines 132 7 

Electricity 1 0.6 2 0.1 

Machinery other than drills 

and locomotives 5 3 60 3 

Mine fires 8 5 

Natural gas 1 0.6 

Miscellaneous 10 6 199 11 

Objects falling down shafts 3 2 21 1 

Hoisting rope breaking 1 0.0 1 0.1 

Overwinding 4 0.2 

157 1,839 

It is customary for statisticians to tabulate accidents whicli 
occur on the surface separately from those which occur under- 



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114 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

ground and also to sub-divide the accidents under headings. 
In the accident table, only underground and shaft accidents 
are given. 

In 1911 there were 32,793,130 tons of iron ore and 10,- 
978,827 tons of copper rock mined in the Lake Superior re- 
gion, but for every 278,802 tons of ore raised one life was lost, 
and for every 23,802 tons a man was seriously injured. 

Accidents above ground seem to be due to carelessness, al- 
though frequently it is commendable if misguided carelessness 
when to save property or time the etnploye risks safety. It 



Fig. 2. Safety Hooks 

should be thoroughly instilled into men's heads that no piece 
of proi^erty is worth so much as his life. Outside accidents 
happen through machinery ; haulage arrangements, tramming, 
coupling and dumping cars; falls from headframe and stag- 
ing; while carrying tools or materials; into chute or ore bin 
and getting caught with nmning ore; and in getting on or off 
the cage or bucket at the surface. Overwinding is not so com- 
mon as it once was, since at a large number of small operations 
Humble or Akron safety or detaching hooks have been adopt- 
ed and at large mines overwinding devices are used that take 
control of the hoisting engine if the engineer is incapacitated 
or fails to pay attention to the work or the indicator fails to 
register correctly. 






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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE II5 

That the top of all shafts, slopes and machinery is to be 
fenced goes without saying, and so far as my observation goes 
this is done at the Lake Superior mines without laws. Shaft 
gates should be arranged to open automatically whenever the 
landing is at the surface. Where, however, the landing or dump 
is above the ground, the surface gates should be kept locked. 
There is danger from pieces of ore falling from the dump 
where self-dumping cages and buckets are in use, and people 
should be warned from standing near the shaft collar when 
dumping is carried on above ground. Skips usually dump so 
far into the chute that with ordinary care no ore falls out- 
side the chutes. 

Getting off or on the bucket, skip or cage when in motion 
is a frequent cause for injury. No one should be allowed to 



Fig. 4. Fancy Skip Ridinfir. Two Skips on One Rope 

ride on cages carrying supplies except the man in charge and 
he should be instructed how to fasten the material so it will 
not move on the cage or project beyond the sides. 

At a mine in one of the eastern states, the men ride down 
ihe slope on skips. In addition to their overcrowding the 
skip they ride on the outside and on the rope steadying them- 
selves by placing their feet on the rail. While the speed of 
hoisting is not fast, there are any number of chances for acci- 
dents. The number of men that shall ride in a skip or cage 
should be posted at the top and bottom of the mine and at 



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Il6 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

each level. The man that gets oh after this limited number 
is reached should be laid off and for a second offense dis- 
cliarged. 

Hoisting- ropes should be inspected each morning before the 
men go down and each evening before the men come up. This 
is readily done by letting* the rope run slowly through the 
gloved hands of two men. Ropes are subject to greatest wear 
near the cage fastenings and the clami^s or sockets should l>e 
examined each morning and evening, also bridle chains should 
l^e used. Occasionaly a timter or tool may drop from a cage, 
etc., or a trammer may push a car from a level into the shaft 
and follow it down, or as in Colorado men may be killed bv 
being struck with a descending cage or bucket; however, to 
guard against the numerous kinds of accidents that might 
happen in a shaft, niles should be posted stating what may not 
be done. It is considered advisable to give publicity to shaft 
accidents and shew how they may be avoided. This is best 
accomplished by an operator's Publicity Pamphlet. 

One fruitful source for accidents in the Lake Superior met- 
al mines is falling down shafts, 17 per cent of the fatal ac- 
cidents l^eing due to that cause. It is hard to account for this 
if the levels, station?^, and shaft collars are properly fenced 
and run-arounds provided. It may possibly l)e due to falling 
from ladders. It certainly is not due to overwinding or the 
hoisting roi)es breaking, for such accidents are reported sep- 
arately. 

There were three killed by objects falling down shafts and 
21 injured. The table fails to si)ecifically state whether the 
objects were loose rock fn:m the sides of the shaft or material 
falling from buckets, skips or cages overloaded. 

In this connection no one should ]ye i>ennitted to stand di- 
rectly under a shaft opening, and not close to the shaft on a 
level. The shaft walls should be examined at regular intervals 
from top to bottom and locsc rock taken down or timbers re- 
paired as delay may prove serious. Universal danger signs 
should be freely used to warn people of a danger zone. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE II7 

When sliafts are l>eing repaired, the men should he pro- 
xi'Ied with strong platforms hr'aced rigidly to the top mem- 
hcrs of the cage. A swinging platfomi below the cage is not 
f-afc. 

Falling down chutes, winzes, raises and stopes, killed lo 
and wounded 92 men. Ladders should be provided in raises 
and w^inzes and kept in repair. Chain ladders w-ill be found 
serviceable in this connection and when provided with stretch- 
ers of great help in avoiding accidents. Hoisting men out of 
winzes by a windlass is not so safe as making use of ladders. 
In raises care should be taken to sec that the timbers support- 
ing the staging have proper footings even if it re(iuires cutting 
hitches. Chicken ladders well made will answer for stope 
climbing if properly fastened at the top and bottom. Where 
winzes connecting levels are used for ventilation and exit, good 
ladders shculd be provided, all other openings on levels should 
be lx:arded over to prevent falls, and those used as traveling 
ways should hz fenced on the upi>er level. The number of 
winzes en each level equipped with ladders will of course be 
only those used for traveling ways. 

When there is a ladder conipartment the ladders should 
not have an inclination above 60 degrees and should have 
substantial landings at 'east every 20 ft. The rungs of the 
ladders should be inspected and repaired quickly when broken, 
likely to break, or missing. Men carrying more than one 
tool should not be pennitted to climb ladders. At about 25 ft. 
from the surface a bulkhead should be placed over the ladder 
compartment ; from this bulkhead a level should be driven and 
in the case of comparatively level surface,ground a riser made. 
There are a number of reasons for this level among which are : 
prevention of material falling on men's heads; improved ven- 
tilat'on; in case of fire in the head hoifse or near it, the men 
will not be overcome with gases, and besides fomiing a partly 
second opening it gives the men a chance to rest. 

While there were but four fatal haulage accidents in the 
Lake Superior mines there were 392 serious injuries. It would 



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Il8 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

appear from this that more are injured by haulage arrange- 
ments in ore mines in proportion to the number of men em- 
ployed than in coal mines where haulage is longer and where 
many more cars are in use. There being no data to go by, 
the only suggestion to be offered is a warning to men not to 
ride on loaded cars or jump from moving cars. Rules made 



Fiar. 5. Collapsible Timber Derrick 

to cover haulage matters underground should be strictly en- 
forced. 

As in coal mines it is found that rock-falls are the most 
prolific cause of accidents underground and the most diffi- 
cult to prevent. The manager can go only so far as to furnish 
materials that men may protect themselves ; however, with the 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IIQ 

aid of inspectors men may be educated to protect themselves. 
In this connection inspection will disclose whether the sides of 
the level are in order, and another frequent source of injury 
will be removed namely falls of rock when traveling through 
levels. 

While there were three deaths from timbers and hand 
tools, 192 men were seriously injured by them. There is no 
branch of metal mining so important to successful operation 
as timbering and possibly no part of -the industry has been 
neglected to such an extent as that of handling timber. Re- 
cently a collapsible timber setting derrick (Fig. 5) has l>een 
placed on the market and this may prove useful for raising and 
placing stulls and stemples, also in placing collars in timber 
sets. The Eureka Timber Hook (Fig. 6) or *'toad'' for short. 



Fifir. 6. Eureka Timber Hook 

may l>e used on the end of sticks to lift them or snake them 
along. Sometime probably small electric cral>s will l^e de- 
vised to assist in handling timber in the mines; then there will 
be fewer falls of timber and fewer injuries from tools, and 
falls from staging. 

In the Lake Superior region 13 were killed from explosives 
and 45 seriously injured, which shows that in this resi>ect the 
operators are aware of the importance of proi^erly handling 
this material. In Colorado in 191 1, 43 were killed and 247 



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I20 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

injured by explosives, and in 191 2, 47 were killed and 435 
injured. Some of the coinmon accidents result from thawing 
dynamite over a candle, in a stove, by using too hot water or 
placing it on too hot sand; picking out missed shots; drilling 
into missed fire charges; using metal tools for ramming 
charges in holes; remaining too long after lighting fuse; re- 
turning too soon after blast had been lighted ; flying rock irom 
blast, men not being in place of safety; explosions from un- 
known causes; picking or mucking dirt in which was unex- 
ploded powder or caps ; carelessness in handling and carrying 
caps and drilling in blownout shot holes. 

Underground magazines are unsafe. Within the past few- 
years one blew up in Park City, Utah ; another on Treadwells 
Island, Alaska, and one in Calif omia. There have been oth- 
ers likely. No definite reasons for these explosions have been 
advanced, although lightning went down the same coal mine 
twice in two years and exploded black powder, also dynamite 
in holes which were connected to a battery. 

Quite a number of accidents both fatal and non- fatal occur 
in chutes where men get drawn in when starting the ore run- 
ning after a jam. This can be avoided by the use of ladders 
outside and inside the chute but not where a man stands on 
the ore and tries to bar a hole from above or gets below the 
jam and starts to make it move. Lake Superior mines are 
not alone in this matter of chute accidents inside and outside 
the mine, and some means should be devised to prevent them, 
for so long as rock will jam and arch, the chutes must be 
barred. A few dollars expended on a chute might possibly do 
away with these accidents. 

While no fatal accidents are recorded from drilling ma- 
chines 132 serious injuries are recorded. It is sometimes hard 
work to haul machines up a stope and sometimes difficult to 
keep them there, consequently every man for himself on this 
proposition until some one devises a remedy. Machinery other 
than drills and locomotives is responsible for the deaths of 5 
and the injury of 60 men. Not knowing th^ kind of ma- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 121 

chines connected with these accidents, one naturally wonders 
how men got against them or into them if they were fenced 
as machines should be. 

Mine fires are miserable affairs and have caused great dam- 
age and expense more particularly in metal mines. It is pos- 
sible that most of them can be avoided by using foresight, 
making rules and demanding their rigid enforcement. No 
steam pipes or electric -wires should be allowed to come in 
contact with mine timbers. Miners should not be pennitted 
to leave their candles or lamps buming in the mine, and 
should not attach them so close to timbers that the flames 
will scorch. Punk easily catches fire and in course of time 
creates a blaze. Pyrite can be ignited for which reason the 
lamps should be as carefully kept from pyritic rocks as from 
wood. Old timbers which have been replaced by new ones 
or are no longer needed should be removed from the mine. 
The reasons are they may trip some one, they are liable to 
catch fire; they will transmit fungii to sound timbers and will 
vitiate the mine air. 

Rules of the mine should be printed and each man pre- 
sented with a copy. Shaft rules and signals should be posted 
in the shaft house and at the landings. 

To protect life and avoid accidents all hands from the man- 
ager to the nipper should regulate their actions to conform to 
the rules of the mine and neither do or leave undone anything 
liable to cause an accident. 

The Prevention of Overwinding. 
A device to prevent overwinding demands that the control 
of a hoisting engine be taken out of the hands of the en- 
gineer if the cage passes a certain point, say 3 or 4 feet alx)ve 
the landing. Such a device must shut off the steam and apply 
the brake instantly so that the cage shall not travel more than 
from 10 to 15 feet before it is brought to a stop, and held in 
suspension above the shaft. C. R. Welch has made a simple 
device of this kind which consists of a few valves, levers, a 
rain, some pipes and a weight. 



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122 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

There is a revolving hub having projecting arms which 
travels to the right on a threaded shaft when the cage is as- 
cending and to the left wlien it is descending. The length 
of the horizontal movement of the hub is proportioned to the 
exact distance from the bottom to the top landing, and should 
the cage travel 3 or 4 feet above the top landing, the arms on 
the revolving hub will strike a lever which opens a valve and 
sends steam to a ram whose piston puts on the brake and closes 
the throttle almost instantaneously, thus preventing overvvind- 



Figr. 7. Overwinding Device. 

ing. The engineer has no volition in the matter, the control 
of the engine is out of his hands, and l^efore he can recom- 
mence hoisting he must reset the device which prevents over- 
winding. 

There is a regulator on this machine which, should the en- 
gineer fail to sl(;\v down as the cage reaches a certain point 
near the top of the shaft, will by the increased speed of rota- 
tion raise a weight and shut off the steam, also apply the brake. 

The ai>i>aratus which is sliown in Fig. 7 occupies little 
space on the floor and is a i>03itive check on overw^inding. The 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 23 

only possible way to prevent its stopping the engine in case of 
overwinding vvonld be to shut the steam oflf from it. Its very 
sim[>licity recommends it. When hoisting in balance, the two 
drums being fixed on the same shaft, but one overwinding de- 
vice is needed l)ecause lx>th cages travel specified distances rel- 
ative to each other. 

If, however, one drum is fixed and the other loose, or if 
drums are loose on the shaft to hoist from different levels, two 
devices are required, one for each dnmi. The drum shaft is 
connected to the overwinding device by a sprocket chain, and 
the regulator to the overwinding device by another sprocket 
chain. In case the drums were loose on the shaft the over- 
winding sprocket would l)e fastened to the drum. 

Safety Gates for Shafts. 

To prevent shaft accidents at the surface a gate of sim- 
ple construction is used by the D. L. & \V. Coal Company, 



Fi». 8. Safety Gate, D. L. & W. Coal Co. 

that may be raised or lowered into ix>siti()n before the shaft 
oi>ening, by the cage as it comes to or leaves the surface land- 
ing. (See Fig. 8). It is a double gate, that is, it is constructed 
the same for each side of the shaft and is raised by the top of 
the cage striking against the two woo<len cross pieces '*A'* fast- 
ened to both gates. 



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124 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

Fig. 9 shows the gate raised. Two iron guide rods "B" 
one each side of the gate keep the gate from swinging or sway- 
ing when the cage strikes the cross beams and also causes it 
to seat properly. To take up the shock of seating there are 



Fiff. 9. Safety Gate Raised, D. L. & W- Coal Co. 



FiflT. 10. Safety Gate, PennBylvania Coal Co. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I25 

two coil springs "C" which answer every purpose. Because 
the ends are boarded there is no way for a person to fall into 
this shaft unless he climbs the gates. 

Another safety gate is shown in Fig. lo. This gate is used 
at Pennsylvania Coal Company's No. i Dunmore shaft where 
the landing is on a high steel trestle and landers must at times 
cross the cage opening. The horizontal gate is raised and 
lowered by the top of the cage and both gates are always 
over the? openings except when one of the cages is at the land- 
ing. The shaft collar at the surface of this mine is fenced on 
four sides and these fences must be removed by some one in 
authority l:)efore a person could fall down the shaft. It will 
be noted that these gates are worked automatically so that 



Fig, 11. Safety Gate, Stronjr Shaft, Victor, Colo. 

only som^ one vested with authority to make use of the cage 
can raise them. 

The shaft gate shown in Fig. ii is in use at the Strong 
shaft, Victor, Colo. The l>ar "B'' is made of 4 in x 8 in. tim- 
ber or of any other convenient size. It is pivoted at *'H'' by 
a bolt upon the head-frame leg **A'' and at the opposite end 
fits into the rest or catch "G" of 3^^ in. x 3 in. iron. "F" is 
a counterweight of the proper heaviness and distance from 
"H" to permit of the gate being raised or turned on the pivot 
**H/' by a very light upward pull. 

Suspended from the bar **B'' by means of the rods '*D,'' 
etc., is the lower bar "C" which may be made of lighter ma- 
terial than *'B/' The rods "D," etc., are flattened at the upper 



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126 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

and lower ends and bolted to both **B" and "C* so that they 
may turn freely. 

Attached to the inner side and on the left end of the bar 
"C" is a slotted plate of thin iron, through which the bolt 
"K," set in the leg "A" passes. 

When the bar **B*' is raised by an upward pull near "G" 
it revolves on the bolt "H/' and rods "D/' etc., turn on their 
upper and lower pivots and the plate *'E'' turns downward on 



Fiff. 12. Shaft Gate Locking Device. H. C. Frick Coke Co. 

the l)olt "K," the whole gate l^eing raised and folded like a fer- 
ity lx>at gate. The arrangement is very simple and can be made 
by any mine carpenter at a reasonable cost. 

As gates of this description can l>e interfered with, the 
H. C. Frick Coke Company have adopted safety catches and 
leaking device. 

With the shaft gate locking device shown in Fig. 12, it 
is imix)ssible to open the gate in the railing about the top of 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 12/ 

the shaft unless the cage is there. The latch can he raised 
only by a system of levers operated by a handle extending 
through the fence just beside the gate; and it is only when 
the cage is in position at the surface that tlie proi^er bearing 
is afforded to the levers so that the latch can be lifted. On 
the shaft framing at the ground level is fastened a horizontal 
plate — an L-shaped lever turns about a pin in this plate. The 
lever arm is ordinarily back from the shaft out of the way of 
the cage, but when the cage is present one arm may be turned 
so as to bear against the side of the cage ; the other ami being 
connected by a straight rigid link ta the lower end of an up- 
rig-ht lever, to the upper end of which is fastened the rod 
and handle to operate the gate latch, and which ordinarily, 
when the cage is not present, turns al>out a pin held by a 
heavy weight about lo inches from the lower end. If now 
the upright lever is pulled with the cage away from the land- 
ing the L-shaped arm is simply turned forward and one arm 
extends out over the shaft; but if the cage is present the L 
arm can turn only until it hits the side of the cage when the 
lower end of tlie upright lever is prevented from further mo\'e- 
ment by the rigid link and the weight is lifted by any further 
pull. The gate latch is connected by a simple system of levers 
to this weight, holding the gate locked except when this 
weight is moved by the lever only when the cage is present. 

It is proposed to connect this device also to operate a car 
stop so that it will not l>e possible for a car to run to the 
shaft except when the gate is oy^en, the cage in position and 
ready for the car. The car stop prevents heavy cars from 
running into the gate. 

The D. L. & \V. Coal company have a combination of a 
g-ate which is lifted up by the cage and for a special reason 
can be made to swing open when the cage is not at the land- 
ing. It may l^e un(lerst(X)d that in some instances this doul)lc 
arrangement may be valuable but as a rule the positive open- 
ing and shutting of the gate by the cage will prevent acci- 
dents. 



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128 THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS 

The writer has been unable to find or hear of any auto- 
matic shaft gates used on levels underground. In the an- 
thracite fields the gates on levels swing on hinges, and are oi>- 
erated by the lander who ()i)ens and shuts the pair on his side 
of the shaft and by the loader who does the same on his side. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 29 



CONCENTRATING AT THE MADRID MINE. 

BY BEx\EDICT CROWELL, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

The Madrid mine, Virginia, Minn., has an output of about 
400 tons i^r day. The ore requires concentration to pro- 
duce a commercial grade, lx>th as to the chemical analysis 
and the physical stnicture of the ore. The problem of cheap- 
ly concentrating this small output seems to have been suc- 
cessfully met by the introduction of the Wetherbee concen- 
trator, which has been working sucessfully for some time 
past. 

The concentrator is installed in the headframe, just be- 
low a pocket which receives all of the material that passes 
through a one-half inch screen. This amounts to about 50 
per cent, of the ore hoisted. The coarse ore does not require 
treatment, and goes direct to the shipping pocket. The con- 
centrator receives the material that has i>assed through the 
one-half inch screen, and discharges the concentrates which 
have been unwatered by a perforated bucket elevator into 
the same ixxrket that receives the coarse ore. 

The concentrator is 3 feet in diameter, and is 6 feet high. 
It requires less than i horse power to operate and receives 
6.5 gallons of water per minute, the water being pumped as 
needed from the sump in the mine to a small storage tank in 
the headframe. It is operated less than one-half of the time 
to take care of the output of the mine, and reciuires only one 
man in addition to the regular lander. 

The output is desirable, both as to analysis and structure. 
It carries less moisture than the original ore, as all of the ma- 
terial that has been removed w'ill pass through a 100 mesh 
screen, and this material increases the power of the ore to 



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130 CONCENTRATING AT THE MADRID MINE 

hold moisture. The concentrates average about 57.50 per 
cent, iron, and the taihngs about 40.00 i>er cent. iron. The 
recovery is about 84 per cent, of the material treated, or 92 
per cent, of the total hoist. 

The machine consists of a cylindrical drum and a cylin- 
drical casing, the axis of the drum and of the casing l^eing 
concentric and vertical. The drum is driven from above, 
and is made with two compartments, the lower of which is 
an air chamber that causes the drum to just float in water. 
The upper compartment receives the material to l^e washed, 
and discharges it by centrifugal force through openings int^ 
the anni:lar space between the drum and casing. The cas- 
ing has an overflow launder at the top. and is bolted at the 
bottom to a water tight compartment, that is connected with 
the boot of the elevator. The water required enters at the 
base of the machine, and rises through the annular space be- 
tween the revolving drum, and casing, and discharges into 
the overflow launder at the top of the casing. 

The principle of the machine is based on the following 
theory: Supposing a particle of ore and a particle of quartz 
were allowed to settle in still wafer for a certain length of 
time, and that the particle of ore settled 4 inches, while the 
particle of quartz was settling 2 inches — it is evident that in 
order to separate these two particles by an upward flow of 
water, liiat a velocity of somewliere between 2 and 4 inches 
would be required or, s^iy 3 inches a second. Assuming that 
these same two particles were placed in the machine, and the 
revolving drum given such a velocity that the quartz par- 
ticle remained in suspension, traveling in the same horizon- 
tal plane, the ore particle, in the same length of tmie, would 
settle, say i inch. It is then evident that the slightest upward 
flow of water would wash out the particle of quartz, and 
would still allow the particle of ore to settle and that we 
have secured the same result by the use of the machine with 
an upward flow, of say, one sixteenth of an inch a second, 
that we did before with a flow of 3 inches a second, or in 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



131 




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132 CONCENTRATING AT THE MADRID MINE 

Other words, with the use of one forty-eighth of the amount 
of water. The fact that the whiriing current can be con- 
trolled independent of the velocity of the upward rising cur- 
rent allows an exact and independent control over the ma- 
terial that goes into the overflow or into the concentrates 
by changing either the speed of the drum, or the amount of 
water used. 

The capacity of this machine has not yet been tested at 
the Madrid mine, owing to the inability of the mine to hoist 
enough ore to make such a test. Twenty-five tons per hour 
has l^een put through, however, which is equivalent to say, 
500 tons per day. The larger size machine^, now being con- 
structed, will greatly incre?s: .h,. output. * 

The Wetherbee concentrator was designed primarily to 
treat Ihc sandy ores on the Western Mesaba range, and a 
number of tests have demonstrated that these ores can be 
concentrated up to nearly 60 per cent., the railings consisting 
of fine material, that will pass through a 100 mesh sieve, 
running about 40 per cent, in iron, in ^dici^ words, material 
that would make flue dust. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I33 



MINING METHODS ON THE MISSABE IRON 
RANGE. 

BY COMMITTEE, CONSISTING OF WILLARD BAYLISS, E. D. m'NEIL 
AND J. S. LUTES. 

The ore bodies of the Missabe Range are essentially flat 
(leIx:^slts, of great-area as compared to their depth. As an 
illustration, one of die largei tiei>osit3, located near Chisholm, 
has l)€en proved by the drilling on contiguous forty-acre tracts 
to be two and one-half miles in lengrii, and to average three- 
quarters of a mile in width. Within this area, however, there 
are some isolated barren portions where ore concentration has 
not taken place. This ore body is overlaid in some places by 
slate or taconite aud^'glacial drift; in others, by glacial drift 
alone. The average of 202 drill holes through to the bottom 
of the ore was " ^t. of ore and 76 ft. of glacial drift and 
rcKk al3ove. The dq>th of ore ranged from 5 to 243 ft., while 
the glacial drift and rock ranged from 11 to 215 ft. 

Taking the whole range into consideration, it may be said 
that the ore bodies are generally less than 200 ft. thick, with 
a maximum of 500 ft. 

Mining Methods in Present Use. 

There are three general methods in use at the present time 
in mining these ore bodies, viz : 

1. Underground Mining — The ore being mined by hand 
and hoisted through a shaft, the underground oi^enings being 
supix>rted by timl^er. 

2. Open Pit Mining — Where the material above the ore 
body is first removed and the ore then mined by steam shovels 
and loaded direct into standard-gauge railroad cars. 

3. Milling-Pit Mining — A combination of the two for- 



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134 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

mer methods, the material above the ore body being first re- 
moved, after which the ore is mined through underground 
openings and hoisted through a shaft. 

Selection of Method of Mining. 

Tlie selection of die method of mining to be adoj>ted in- 
volves a great many considerations and calls for experienced 
engineering and business judgment. Regardless of the meth- 
od to be adopted, its selection should be preceded by thorough 
drilling to determine the limits and size of the ore body and 
the grades of the ore. Maps showing the top and bottom con- 
tours of the ore, and cross-section maps shownig relative 
thickness of stripping and ore are indispensable. It is not 
the intention of this paper to go into the subject of the costs 
of mining, but in order to show the basis on which calcula- 
tions are made, we quote the following from "Iron Mining in 
Minnesota/' by Charles E. Van Barneveld.* 

''Operating Estimates — When a property has been drilled 
and estimated, the engineer makes further estimates to de- 
termine the method of mining best suited to the ore body 
under consideration. The following basis has been estaij- 
lished for comparison of underground and oi>en pit mining 
costs : 

Table No. i. 

Stripping ordinary glacial drift, 30 cents a cubic yard. 

Strii>ping ordinary j>aint-rock, 30 cents a cubic yard. 

Stripping ordinary broken taconite, 75 cents a cubic yard. 

Stripping ordinary solid taconite, $1.00 a cubic yard. 

Steam shovel mining, ordinary ground, 15 cents a ton. 

Underground mining, ordinary conditions, 75 cents a ton. 

One cubic yard of ore is roughly 2 tons. 

Sometimes a glance at the ore estimate will suffice to clas- 
sify part or all of an ore Ixxly. Often a calculation must be 
made as exemplified by this case: A drill hole shows 50 ft. 

♦Published by Authority of the Board of Regents of the University 
of Minnesota. Copyrighted, 1913. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I35 

of ordinary glacial drift and paint rock, 15 ft. hard taconite, 
36 ft. merchantable ore.. All other things teing equal, is this 
an open-pit or an underground proposition ? 

Reducing the consideration to a column of one yard square 
at the drill hole, a comparison may be made using the data in 
Table No. i. 

Underground Mining — 
Cost of mining a column of ore i yd. square and 36 

ft. high at 75 cents a ton (i cu. yd. equals 2 tons), 

36/3x2x$o.75= $18.00 

Open Pit Mining — 
Stripping a column i yd. sq. and 50 ft. high of glacial 

drift at 30 cents a cu. yd., 5o/3x$o.30= 5.00 

Stripi^ing 15 ft. solid taconite at $1.00, i5/3x$i.oo=.. 5.00 
Steam shovel mining 36 ft. ore at 15 cents per ton, 

36/3x2x$o.i5= 3.60 

Total cost of open pit work ; $13.^)0 

Difference in favor of open pit 4.40 

* * * * 

This offers a ready method of preliminary comparison to 
be supplemented by more exact figures when si^ecial consid- 
erations enter. It is of course understood that such ques- 
tions as adverse or favorable topography, accessibility of dump 
room, quick-sands, swamps, etc., have a sj^ecial l^earing on 
each individual case that does not admit of generalization. 

The economical limit of stripping is at present considered 
to be within the following proportions: 

1 . One yard of overburden to i ton of ore. 

2. Not to exceed 2-ft. depth of overburden to i-ft. deptli 
of ore. Hard slates and taconite cost from 2 to 3 times as 
much to strip as ordinary glacial drift and it is customary 
when applying these figures to consider i ft. of such ma- 
terial as equal to 3 ft. of overburden. 

3. A maximum stripping depth under any considerations 
of 150 feet." 



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136 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

In general, underground methods are used for those ore 
bodies lying under slates or taconite, or deep glacial drift. It 
is an alternative method, adopted only when the other two 
methods are out of the question. About the only considera- 
tion in its favor is that production can be obtained quicker 
and with less initial cost than with the other methods. 

Open pit mining is used for the larger bodies of ore lying 
under comparatively shallow surface material and where the 
operating company is able to make the large initial expendi- 
ture in stripping. Besides permitting the lowest operating 
cost, • it has many other advantages. ' The capacity for pro- 
duction from an open pit is enormous as compared to a shaft. 
One forty acre tract opened up as an open pit, provided the 
approach can lie on adjoining land, operating with two shovels 
and five locomotives, can send forward 9,000 tons daily, while 
the same area being operated as an underground mine, hoist- 
ing through one shaft, would ordinarily produce about 2,000 
tons daily. 

The milling pit method of mining is adopted generally for 
the smaller bodies of ore lying under comparatively shallow 
surface material. The amount of initial expenditure for 
stripping is much less than for an open pit, where the cost of 
the approach is a large item. The cost of production from 
a milling pit lies between that of open pit and underground 
mining. 

Underground Mining. 

There is one prevailing method of underground mining in 
use on the Missabe Range at the present time. This is the 
Top Slicing or Caving Method. The ma,in points of this 
method are as follows : 

A top slice over the whole area of the ore body is re- 
moved, using timber to the full height of the ore. As fast 
as the various rooms of this top slice are worked out, the 
bottoms are covered with boards, and the timber is blasted 
down, allowing the overburden to cave and fill up solidly the 
space formerly occupied by the ore. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 37 

When the top slice is out, another slice over the whole 
area is taken out just below it, also using timl^er the full 
height of the slice, up to the boards of the slice above. Rooms 
are blasted in as fast as they are mined out and the cave fol- 
lows. Successive slices are taken in like manner to the bot- 
tom of the ore body. The use of timber to the full height of 
the ore in each slice, thus insuring a very high percentage of 
extraction, is the most important feature of this methoil. 
The cross-cuts to the various rooms are always in solid 
ground, providing a safe retreat for the miners. 

The general practice in opening up and mining an ore 
Ixxly to be worked on the Top Slicing system may now be 
briefly considered. 

Size and Location of Main Slmft — For an ore body of 
considerable size, a shaft 8 by 20 ft. outside is largely used. 
There are two skip compartments, 5 by 6 ft., and one ladder 
and pipe compartment, 6 by 7 ft. with 6 in. dividers. The 
sets are of 12 by 12 in. timber. The shaft is located near 
the deepest part of the ore Ixxly, either in the ore itself or 
in the adjacent rock. From this position the drainage of all 
the ore to be mined through the shaft may be taken care of. 

Timber Shafts — Usually the sinking of a timl>er shaft, 
somewhere near the main shaft, is begun at the same tinvj 
as the latter. From one to three additional shafts, dej^endin^ 
on the size of the mine, are sunk at advantageous ix>:nts. The 
size may be 6 ft. square, or 6 by 9 ft. 

Locaiion of Main Drifts — A close study of the bottom 
contour map is necessary to decide this point. Where tlie 
drilling has been sufficient, one or more troughs of deep ore 
will be found running through the ore body, generally from 
northwest to southeast, or from west to east, with the deei)- 
est nart of the trough at the easterly end. It is in these troughs 
that the main drifts are located. The chief considerations are 
to have them near the bottom rock and still have them ex- 
tend as near to the limits of the ore body as possible. The 
idea is to make the motor tramming long and the hand tram- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I39 

ining short. When an ore body is 50 ft. thick or more, it is 
good practice to locate the main level high enough up in the 
ere Ixxly so that it will extend a considerable distance from the 
shaft, another main level being opened up nearer the bottom 
later. If the ore trough is wide enough, two parallel drifts, 
from 60 to 100 ft. apart, are driven, connected by a loop near 
the shaft. The advantage of two drifts is in opening up the 
ground quicker for drainage; small drifts across connecting 
them improve the ventilation ; if one strikes rock unexpectedly 
it can be discontinued temporarily, while the other continues 
ahead, frc«n which exploration of the rock encountered can 
l)e made. The main drifts are timbered with sets 5 ft. apart, 
using 8 or 9 ft. posts and 10 or 12 ft. caps, with lagging 
over the back. Vertical raises, 4 ft. square and without crib- 
bing, are put up every 50 ft. along the main drifts and car- 
ried up to the top of the ore. 

Top Sub'Lcz'el — (See Fig. i, which also shows plan of 
main drifts and raises.) The Top Sub-Level is located at 
such an elevation that the average height of the ore to be 
removed will be from 12 to 14 ft., so that most of it can 
be taken out with drift sets. From each raise 5 by 6 ft. drifts, 
untimbered, are driven parallel with each other and at right 
angles to the main drifts, until they reach the limit of the 
ort body or the boundary line of the property. Here the stop- 
ing or slicing of the ore begins. 

Slicing Details — Fig. No. 2 shows plan of two adjoining 
rooms each 50 ft. long and 15 ft. wide, opened up at the bound- 
ary line, together with a cross-section through one of them. 
When the boundary line was reached by cross-cut No. i, the 
first drift slice was started by blasting out all the ore at set 
marked No. i, and sets of timber, (12 ft. posts and 7 ft. caps), 
with the caps parallel with the cross-cut, put in place, using 
6 ft. lagging overhead. Set No. 2, also in the cross-cut, is the 
next to be taken and securely timbered and spragged, thus 
making the entrance secure. These four sets of timber at the 
entrance of the two slices of a room or stope are usually re- 



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140 



MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 




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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



141 



ferred to as the ''open sets." The first slice on the long side 
of the 55 ft. room is now completed by taking mit sets 3 to 
9. The track is continued frc«n the cross-cut into this slice 
as it advances. The next sets to be taken out depend upon 
whether the timber is taking much weight or not. If it is not, 




Vb ^A/se r/^oAf /^^/Af ^wv/^r- c^^ass-cov /Va/i? / 



-f-> N 



Yb /T^AAf ^m^ /f^/r* fim^T- ^m^s^' Ct/f- A^Jt g / 

3 




PLAN 



§ 



sets 10 to 16 are consecutively mined out, completing the long 
side of the room. The short side of the room is now taken out 
in the order indicated (sets 17-18-19-20). On the other hand, 
it the room is heavy and timbers are taking considerable 
weight, the order of removing the sets must be changed. A 



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142 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

safe exit for the miners must be maintained and it would 
1^ inadvisable to weaken the entrance to the room by taking 
cut set No. 10 at this time. The slice would be worked out 
from the far comer retreating toward the cross-cut. Instead 
of taking set No. 16 first, however, the miners make their at- 
tack on set No. 15, because it would blast out a little easier 
and there would be more room for them to shovel into the 
tram car standing on track in set 7 or 8. Therefore the se- 
([uence of sets taken out would be 15-16-14-13-12-11. Set 
No. 10 is left standing to protect the entrance while the short 
side of room (sets 17-18-19-20) is next mined out, and is 
the last set to be taken. This order of working out a room is 
not invariable, many changes being made depending on dif- 
ferir^g conditions. Under a strong back, or with solid ore 
on both sides of a room, the ore would be taken out two sets 
wide from the cross-cut back to the far end. Again, when 
the preceding room has not filled up solid with the cave, sets 
iO to 16 would be taken first, leaving one set of solid ground 
against the unfilled cave, after which sets 9 back to 3 would 
be taken. 

The reason for having a long side and a short side to a 
room is that only one set of curved rails need be laid to get 
tram car to convenient shoveHng distance for all the sets. The 
track is laid in only one of the slices. The ore from the short 
side is shovelled into car standing in the cross-cut. 

When a room is w^orked out, the side and ends next to 
the solid ore are boarded up w^ith cull boards to prevent the 
sand from mixing w-ith the ore of the next room when it is 
mined. The bottom is also covered with boards if there is a 
slice to be taken out underneath. The double row of posts 
in the center, and those along cave side, throughout the length 
of the room, are blasted out and 'the caved ground follows 
and fills the room. There is usually no difficulty at this point, 
the room soon being filled up solid against the boards so that 
another slice may be started alongside after a few hours. 

The height of the ore on the top sub-level varies consid- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I43 

erably on account of the rolling back. The length of posts 
used in the successive slic^ must be changed accordingly. The 
limit to successful slicing with drift sets is reached when 
posts 16 ft. long are necessary. Rather than use such long 
posts to any considerable extent recourse is usually had to 
using square set timber, two sets high, which would take out 
the same height of ore, 

Square-Set Slicing — In the cross-section in Fig. 2, a test 
raise is indicated which shows a roll in the back making maxi- 
mum height of ore 26 ft. above the top sub-level. Rather than 
open up a suWevel of very limited area in the upper half of this 
roll, in order to remove the ore with drift timber, it is the 
usual practice to mine it all out on square-sets. The change 
from drift slicing to square-set slicing would begin where the 
height of ore shows 17 ft. The first square-set slice would 
be taken in the solid, that is, leaving one set of ore standing 
between it and the last drift-slice. This is to insure getting 
the line of the square sets straight and at right angles to the 
cross-cut. The two sets in height of this slice are both mined 
out and timbered as the slice advances. The pillar left stand- 
ing next to the drift-slice is then mined out and timbered, the 
order of removal of the sets depending on whether the ground 
is heavy or not. The long side and the short side of the room 
being mined out, the side and ends next to ore are boarded up 
in same manner as a drift slice, except that lagging instead 
of boards is used on the bottom set. This is because they are 
stronger than boards and there is more pressure from the cave 
on account of room being higher. The span between sets is 
also greater. The rooms are blasted in as soon as the tim- 
bers show that much weight is on them which usually occurs 
when they are two sets wide. The blasting is 'done in such 
a manner as to leave the timber undisturbed which stands 
against the solid ore. 

In the succeeding square-set rooms the first slice is taken 
out along the cave, the caps connecting with the timber of the 
previous room. There are usually 5 sets on one side of the 



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144 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

cross-cut, and one set on the other, which, with the set occupy- 
ing the cross-cut itself, makes the tgtal length of room 7 sets 
or 51 ft. 8 in. A cap of odd length is used in connecting the 
timbering of rooms joining each other on their ends. 

Bottom posts are 8 ft. over-all, with 4 in. tenon. Regu- 
lar top-posts are 8 ft. over-all with two 4-in. tenons. Top- 
posts of lengths varying from 4 to 12 ft. are used on the 
top set where the back is irregular. The regular cap is ^ ft. 
long. 

There is very little square-set slicing on the Missabe 
Range at the present time exceeding four sets in height. 
Higher than this a great deal of trouble is experienced in 
keeping the rooms in shape on account of the pressure of the 
caves. Where the ore on the top sub-level is found to exceed 
this height it is divided by opening up another local sub-level 
and mined out with drift timber. 

Square-set slicing should l3e distinguished from the well- 
known square-set system of mining, where alternate pillars of 
ore were left standing between large square-set roc«ns, to be 
mined out after the latter were caved and filled. 

Prop Slicing — There are extensive stretches of ground in 
many of the Missal>e mines where the ore is overlaid by firm 
taconite or slate. In such cases the top slice can be taken 
out with the use of props, spaced irregularly as required. The 
maximum height of proi>s used is 20 ft. Often the ore does 
not exceed this height and, consequently, can all be mined 
out in one slice. Where such conditions occur the cost of 
mining is considerably lessened. 

Second and Longer Sub-Levels — When the ore in any part 
of the top sub-level has been mined out back to 20 ft. from 
Ihe raise from main level drift, a second sub-level is opened 
up by starting another cross-cut from the raise, directly un- 
der the one above, and of the same dimensions, 5 by 6 ft. 
Parallel cross-cuts on the same level are driven from each 
raise as other places above are finished. The distance below 
Ihe bottom of the top sub-level at which these cross-cuts are 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 145 

Started depends on the total thickness of the ore down to the 
main level, measured from bottom to bottom. This total 
height is divided so that the sub-levels will be from ii to 15 
ft. high. Where 11 ft. must be selected there would be 5 
ft. of solid ground over the back of the second sub-level cross- 
cut up to the boards of the top slice above. The ground is 
usually firm enough so that these cross-cuts will stand with- 
out being timbered. They are driven to the boundary line 
or until they strike the bottom rock, when slicing begins and 
is carried on in the same manner as on the top slice. The 



Top Slicinsr at Edffe of Leonard Open Pit 

rooms are timbered right up to the lx>ttom boards of the slice 
above. 

In conclusion, the Top-Slicing or Caving method of min- 
ing can be adapted to all conditions met with in underground 
mining on the Missabe Range. It is favored alike by fee- 
owner and operator, for in these days of rapidly diminishing 
ore reserves, wasteful methods of mining are no longer toler- 
ated. In any method of mining, the safety of the miner should 
be the first consideration ; the conservation of the ore, the sec- 
ond. This system has both of them to recommend it. 



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146 mining methods on missabe iron range 

Open-Pit or Steam Shovel Mining. 

Open-pit or steam shovel mining applies to that system 
of mining where the ore from an open pit is loaded by steam 
sliovels direct into railroad cars. It has been likened to load- 
ing a stockpile, beginning at the top. 

The first s:hipments from some Missabe Range mines have 
been fully as simple as stockpile loading but as depth is 
reached, approaches, grades of incline, and lay-out of tracks 
to reach the various parts of the ore body require skillful en- 
gineering. 

As mentioned elsewhere in this article, this system is the 
cheapest method and is adopted wherever it appears prac- 
ticable. Recent practice shows the use of open-pit mining for 
ore deposits that were formerly considered underground prop- 
ositions. In fact, some mines that were opened as under- 
ground propositions have been changed to the open system, 
notwithstanding the fact that a considerable tonnage of ore had 
already been removed and that stripping and mining both 
presented conditions less favorable than before underground 
mining was undertaken. 

Among the mines originally operated by underground 
mining and later changed to open-pit methods is the Com- 
modore Mine at Virginia. It consists of one forty and is sur- 
rounded by the Lincoln, Union, Lone Jack and Missabe Moun- 
tain properties. Seven hundred thousand tons had been 
mined through underground oj^erations when it was decided 
to change to open pit mining. Adequate and suitable dump- 
ing grounds were difficult to obtain and to complete the strip- 
ping necessitated dumping 800,000 yds. on the Commodore 
forty, over one-half of which composed the stripping area of 
the open pit. The waste dump finally reached a height of 87 
ft. and the height from top of ore at deepest stripping point 
to top of dump was 201 ft., showing that some of this strip- 
ping material was elevated in its transportation 201 ft., which 
v.as accomplished without going oflf the mine forty, except at 
the ends of two tail tracks where they ran on to adjoining 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I47 

l»roperty. The tracks from shovel to dump consisted of four 
switch-backs on a 5 per cent grade. 

The equipment was standard gauge dump cars and Shay 
geared locomotives of eighty tons weight on drivers. These 
locomotives are slower than the rod engines but have more 
tractive power, particularly on starting their loads on heavy 
grades and curves. In mining at this property both the rod 
tyi^e and Shay geared locomotives are used and a comparison 
of the two tyi^es under similar conditions shows the rod en- 
gines more satisfactory on good tracks and low grades, but on 
grades over 3 i)er cent and particularly where necessary to 
start the loads on heavy grade the geared locomotives had 
tije advantage. 

Limited area, depth and shape of ore deposit, yard facilities, 
ttc, have made conditions at this property for steam shovel 
r.iining more severe than most ojDen pits on the Range. The 
accompanying map shows the surface and pit lay-out. The 
approach is laid out on a 3 i^er cent grade which is equalized 
to allow for resistance on curves. During one season con- 
siderable loading was done on a 7 per cent grade, the Shay 
locomotives being able to start and haul three loads and the 
rod engines two loaded ore cars of forty tons each. A few 
years ago it was the practice to lay out open pits with grades 
not over two and one-half per cent, and with curves not ex- 
ceeding twenty degrees. While it is very desirable to keep 
within these limits of grades and curves, nearly every mine 
has found it ix)ssible and necessary to exceed practical rail- 
road conditions. 

The actual loading of the ore by steam shovels is prac- 
tically the same all over the Range. At soine mines all the 
ore must be blasted in order to loosen it for better loading, 
while at other mines the shovels are able to handle the ore 
without any blasting. 

Sixty to eighty-pound rails are used for mine tracks, the 
heavier steel being favored. The temporary loading tracks 
have to be changed for each succeeding shovel cut. At some 



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c 



a 

i 



a 

o 

I 

CS 



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sides Mine. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I49 

mines, and especially where the loading tracks are straight 'and 
of the lighter rail section, it is the practice to jack up the 
track to be moved and then line or heave it over with bars. 
At other mines new track is laid behind the shovel and in 
place for the next cut, the previous track being taken up. 

There are several im[x>rtant special features in connection 
with oi^en-pit mining of which mention should be made. 

At the Biwabik mine which has the distinction of being the 
first mine on the Missabe Range to use the steam shovel, much 
of the ore, a high grade Bessemer, requires crushing. Re- 
cently a new crusher of the gyrator>' tyj^e, with a 48-in. re- 
ceiving opening, has been put in (•i)eration. It has a ca- 
pacity of 1,000 tons i>er hour and is the largest gyratory 
crusher that has ever l)een installed. 

On the western end of the range, many of the ore Ixxlies 
contain layers of fine sand, lean ore and broken taconite which 
must be separated from the ore in order to make it merchant- 
able. After several years of experiment a large concentrator 
Vi-as erected on the east side of Trout Lake, at Coleraine, by 
the Oliver Iron Mining Company, which has been in suc- 
cessful oi^eration since 1909. 

The Wisconsin Steel Company erected a concentrator at 
Nashwauk, consisting of two units, which began operations 
in 1912. 

At the Leonard, Shenango, Commodore and some otlier 
l)its, low grade material containing 35 to 49 j^er cent iron is 
being stockpiled. This material is unmerchantable at the pres- 
ent time and being mostly paint-rock it will probably not yield 
to concentration. 

At the Brunt mine, at Mountain Iron, a drying plant is 
in operation for removing the excess moisture from the ore 
The moisture is being reduced from 18 to 20 i>er cent down 
below 8 per cent, resulting in considerable saving in freight 
charges and rendering the ore more acceptable to the furnace- 
men. 

Another drying plant is in course of erection at the White- 
sides Mine. 



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150 mining methods on missabe iron range 

Milling System of Mining. 
The Milling System is adapted for mining of the ore from 
deposits favorable for stripping but where the size of the de- 



Crushins Plant at the Biwabik Mine. 

posit, or its location, is such as to make it impracticable to 
mine as a steam shovel proposition. 

The relative depth of surface and ore, or rather the rela- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I5I 

tive prcqx)rtion of over-burden to be removed to the amount 
of ore uncovered, the size and shape of the ore deposit, the 
space and facilities for trackage approaches, and relative out- 
lay for equipment and development, are the determining fac- 
tors for choosing between the milling and steam shovel meth- 
ods. What is termed the **Milling System" on the Missabe 
Range is in reality a form of what is termed ''Underhand 
Stoping ' on the older ranges, and the development is by 
shafts, tramming levels, etc., much the same as in under- 
ground mining. The overburden is removed from the sur-^ 
face of the ore which permits of the use of underhand stoj)- 
ing by working the ore into chutes, from which it is drawn 
out on the tramming levels and handled in the same manner 
as in other underground mining systems. 

In opening up a proposition on the Milling System, the 
area to be stripj^ed, the stripping approaches, location of shaft, 
shaft house, tracks and mine buildings are decided upon. The 
work of stripping or removing the overburden is usually the 
first work started, and while this is progressing the working 
shaft is sunk, tramming levels oi^ened up and raises driven 
to the top of the ore dqx>sit. Raises are usually 4 by 5 ft. 
or 5 ft. square, and are i)ut up at intervals of from 30 ft. to 
40 ft., and are equipi>ed with chutes at the bottom. When 
ready to start mining, milling or underhand stoping is start- 
ed by drilling holes around the tops of the raises and blastin.^* 
them so that their burden will fall into the raises. After blast- 
ing, the loose dirt is usually picked down or loosened, or at 
least as much of it as will readily nm into the raise, after 
which blasting is again resorted to. It is customary to drill 
what are usually called collar holes first, and then carry the 
stope up the bank by successive blasting and picking down 
the loose dirt as long as it will run into the raises. The 
Missabe Range ores are of such character as to break up quite 
fine and run readily at an angle of 45 degrees, and in dry 
weather the ore will run on a slope of 38 degrees. Results 
sre best after the niills or funnels h^ye been ^ilarged, and 



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152 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

the larger the mill the better. When blasting large quantities 
of ore, and particularly when starting mills, the ore from the 
blasted holes falls to the bottom of the raises with such force 
that it often packs so hard that it will not run out of the 
chutes, and causes what is termed a "hang-up." This neces- 
sitates the use of chute bars to loosen the ore and get it nin- 



Jordan MUlinff Pit, 1903. 

ring. It often happens that the ore continues to hang up 
l:igher than can be reached with bars, when other means must 
be employed. At the Monroe mine where the raises were 
very high, a system of sub-drifts were driven above the work- 
ing level, connecting all the raises. This plan gave an opening 
for barring a hang-up raise through openings in the lagging 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 53 

or raise cribbing. At the Albany mine the main level drifts 
were made two sets high opposite the raises or chutes. This 
permitted the use of longer bars and facilitated the process of 
barring. At the Iroquois mine they placed a chain or wire 
rope through the raise, and when hung up the rope or chain 
was pulled up by a small hoist and pulled down by a number 
of men standing on the level. 

At the Jordan Mine the trouble with hang-up raises was 
obviated to a large extent by working down to the back of 
the tramming level the first two mills, and after that the 
raises were holed through into the sides of the slopes. The 
raises being from 30 to 40 ft. apart would hole through into 
the milling slopes when 30 to 40 ft. high. The first raises 
were 85 ft. high and caused a great deal of trouble with hang- 
ui>s. The subsecjuent raises being from 35 to 40 ft. high 
were much freer from hang-ups than the longer raises. By 
starting milling on the lower sides of the raises where they 
holed through into the slopes, the distance from the collar of 
the raise to the chute was seldom over 30 ft., and a hang-up 
could be broken down by barring or drilling from the top, if 
the trammers failed to get it running by barring from be- 
low. 

Another plan adoi^ted to some extent was to make the 
raises larger at the bottom and ta[)ering upward, but the con- 
struction of the chutes permits the ore to accumulate back in 
the comers and the raise openings soon become smaller. While 
the hang-ups occur from the impact of the falling burden, re- 
sulting usually from blasting into the raises, the trouble from 
this source is contributed to by the raise opening becoming 
smaller and smaller, from moist ore accumulating and caking 
quite hard all around the raise. From time to time it is 
necessary to clean out the sides of the raises for a distance 
above the chutes. 

The production by the Milling method is usually irregu- 
lar and varies from day to day, being influenced largely by 
weather conditions, as well as by the steadiness of the labor 
employed. During a spell of nice weather and with full crew 



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154 MINING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE 

of men, the daily production may be at the maximum, but a 
lieavy rain drives home the men working in the mills and 
washes out the slopes, making holes and gullies in the mills, 
?nd blocking the chutes with loose ore and water. If much wa- 
ter collects in the mills and chutes, any attempt to open and 
draw the chutes results in a rush of sloppy ore and water, fill- 
ing the level and necessitating cleaning up before tramming 
can be resumed. If the chutes are opened up more than two 
(>r three inches there is no closing them if the rush starts. 
In addition to the chute and level trouble, the slopes in the 
mills are so uneven and irregular that for several days much 
f f the ore that is loosened by blasting or picking down, fills 
up the holes and gullies instead of running into the chutes. 
Dry ores naturally run much better in the mills than wet ones, 
and some ores that w'ould run readily on a 45 degree slope 
curing dry weather become soaked and will scarcely run on 
a 50 degree slope when wet. 

When the mills are worked down close to the back of the 
level, short raises are put up in the ridges and much of the re- 
maining ore is milled in that way. At some mines steam 
shovels have been used to dig the ore in the hog-backs or 
ridges and drop it into the mills. This process was further 
clcveloi:)ed, using the steam shovel to load tli£ ore into cars 
which were either dumped direct into the skip jKHrket, or 
through a transfer chute and then re-trammed to the shaft. 

The Milling System is also used for the lower parts of 
ore bodies opened up for steam shovel mining, when the depth 
renders the use of locomotives impracticable. This system 
permits the recovery of all the ore, is more economical than 
underground mining and is, perhaps, a little safer. It is 
subject to the accidents iiKident to the limited underground 
v*ork and blasting in the open, but the greater danger is from 
rien being carried into chutes by slides. This is guarded 
pgainst to some extent by the use of ropes. 

Tlie Milling System has been used at the Norman, Au- 
burn, Fayal, Adams, Sharon, Jordan, Albany, Monroe, Dn- 
luth, Leonard, and a f^w Qth^r mines. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 55 



WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE RANGE AND 
THE COLERAINE CONCENTRATING PLANT. 

BY JOHN UNO SEBENIUS, DULUTH, MINN.* 
CHAPTERS. 

Geology. 

Structure. 

Mining Method. 

Main Points Bearing Uix)n the Commercial Utilization of the 

Western Missabe Silicious Ore Deposits. 
Concentration of the Western Missabe SiHcious Ores. 
Trovtt Lake Concentrating Plant: 

(a) Main Building and Serving Track. 

(b) Power Plant and Transmission. 

(c) Concentrating Machinery and Appliances. 
Process of Concentration. 
Safety Devices. 
Production. 
Illustrations: 

Exhibits, i Map showing the location of the Coleraine 

Washing Plant with reference to the mines 

in the district, from which, the crude ore for 

this plant is obtained. 

2 Typical Cross Section of Western Missal)e 

ore body. 
3. Vertical section of Coleraine Washing Plant. 
4 Flow Sheet of Coleraine Washing Plant. 
Exhibits, A, B and C: 

Photographic reductions, respectively ofi, 
early experimental washing plants at Arc- 
turus, Holman and Trout Lake — (Oliver 
Iron Mining Company.) 

♦Chief Engineer, Mining Department, Oliver Iron Mining Co. 



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156 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 



leaching and subsequent enrichment was most effective, the re- 
sult is our high grade merchantable ores; but where condi- 
tions for this process of change and disintegration were not 
entirely favorable, nature did not carry out its work to com- 
pletion. Hence on the Missabe Range we find gradations all 
the Way from the original "greenalite'' as the extreme on 



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158 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

one hand to the high grade ore on the other. The condi- 
tions affecting the efficiency of the process for the time it 
prevailed were largely such as offered the underground wa- 
ers, which acted as the main agency in this important change, 
opportunities for perfect percolation and circulation. In view- 
ing the Range with these conditions in mind it seems that 
over the eastern ix)rtion, extending from the eastern limit as 
far west as a mile east of the D. & I. R. R. R. track, condi- 
tions were evidently not favorable for a j^erfect change, and 
we therefore now find a hard lean iron formation practically 
barren at present, as far as known to<lay, of merchantable 
deix>s!ts of any size, together with some lean silicious ma- 
terial*; whereas in the middle portion of the Range, extending 
over an area lying ai>proximately between Sec. 22, 59-14 and 
the center of Sec. 23, 57-22, we find merchantable ore bod- 
ies of large size occurring in a rich largely altered forma- 
tion, together with a considerable amount of low grade mer- 
chantable and non-merchantable silicious ore material as a con- 
necting link l>etween the formation itself and the high grade 
ores. Again, on the western end of the range, extending from 
the central part of Sec. 23, 57-22 to alxnit twenty miles west of 
the Mississippi river, the same altered iron formation occurs 
as in the central portion, and in it similar large ore areas ; but 
here, i;istead of the merchantable ores, the non-merchantable 
silici(nis ores predominate, and in these ores are large quanti- 
ties of a great variety of the altered material resulting from 
an incomplete process of disintegration, and enrichment. 

Therefore, instead of the clean-cut features of a stand- 
ard Missal>e ore body, we see here a small amount of mer- 
chantable ore underlaid or surrounded by every derivative 
of the **greenalite" formation, and in some instances masses 
so great tliat they fomi veritable rock Ijeds, layers and is- 
lands in this silicious ore material. Thus we find here ex-- 
tensive deix>s:ts of taconite lying above, within and under the 
ore material. These layers of silicious material within the 
dei)osit are divided from each other by a rather large body or 



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l6o WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

zone of more or less clayey and sticky paint-rock material, 
which was originally a layer of slate occurring in the original 
deposit. 

As a further complication, there was found in the drilling, 
right under the surface and on top of some of the large ore 
areas, an entirely different deposit of ore material. This was 
afterwards found to be a cretaceous deposit containing fossils 
of various kinds and an ore material generally, of high phos- 
phorous content. 



Rock Dumps and Track Arranfirement Connecting Same With the Plant. 
STRUCTURE. 

After these ore areas had been explored and determined 
and it was thought that possibly the ores were suitable for 
concentration it became necessary to make a classification of 
the various materials encountered with a view to arriving at 
the physical structure of the deposits: (i) in order that 
mining methods could he worked out adapted to the sizes and 
conditions of the ore lx)dies; (2) in order that machinery 
suitable for handling these possible wash ores might be con- 
structed or found. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE l6l 

On account of the fact that chum drilling had to be re- 
sorted to in exploring these ore deposits, which method of 
drilling destroys the physical structure of layers of ore ma- 
terial encoimtereil, and since in addition to these results of 
drilling we had only a few shallow test-pits and shafts main- 
ly on the Arcturus property to work from, it was at first very 
difficult to get at the structure; but this was finally worked 
out and I attach hereto a section showing substantially the 
structure of these Western Missabe Range ore deposits. The 
reader will note in the center of this section the large paint 



West View of Washinff Plant Showing Tail Track. Water Supply Line and Tank; 
Electric Sub-Stetion. 

rock layer separating the masses of ore material into two 
layers or zones. Each of these zones is a separate meml^er of 
the formation, divided by the paint rock layer referred to 
above, and in these zones occurs the silicious wash ma- 
terial, generally speaking, in layers; and where of a standard 
character, made up of large and small pieces and grains of 
high grade ore arranged in seams alternating with seams of 
fine sand. Interbedded in these standard wash ore areas, 
however, are layers of hard taconite and all the other grada- 
tions of material encountered, varying from hard taconite to 



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1 62 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

material so soft that it can be crushed in the hand, in fact 
derivative layers of the original material referred to alx>ve. 
Over it all lies a deposit of cretaceous ore material and over 
this again the overburden or surface material, consisting of 
clay, sand, gravel and lx)ulders. 

Mining Methods. 

After the physical structure of these ore deposits was 
known it became apparent that the only way they could l>e 
attacked commercially was by the oi>en-pit method. This 
method, after the overburden had been removed, would afford 
us (i) the opix>rtunity to stockpile or otherwise dispose of 
the cretaceous material ,\v' 'ch had been found unsuitable for 
concentration or other present day metho<ls of treatment; 
(2) it woulr' 3iial>J<* v^"^' ]^'t\e the exact conditions of the 
ore deposit l>efore us at any stage of the work; (3) it would 
enable us to handle to the best advantage the large quantity of 
ore material which could l)e^ treated; (4) it would aflford us 
opix>rtunity to sort ottt^the waste material varying in com- 
lx>sition and structure and entirely unfit for concentration 
lying within the wash ore zone, from the material remain- 
ing for concentration within that same zone. 

MAIN POINTS BEARING UPON THE COMMERCIAL UTILIZATION 
OK THE WESTERN MISSABE SILICIOl\S DEPOSITS. 

In approaching the problem of utilizing commercially- the 
ore material from the vast deix>sits develoi^ed. we were con- 
fronted with the following conditions and facts: 

Pirsi — A very heavy overburden as compared with the 
depth of the available ores or the ores directly and easily 
amenable to concentration. 

Second — The occurrence very generally of a more or less 
thick layer of cretaceous maierial which was unmerchant- 
able and further unfit for present metho<ls of concentration, 
but which on the other hand, could, not l)e wasted, as it 
carried a>nsi(lerable iron, and therefore must l)e removed and 
st(Kkpiled at a considerable exj^nse. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 163 

Tlhird — Although there were in these dqx>sits large ton- 
nages of ore amenable to concentration, there was also found 
with them a large quantity of material entirely unfit for con- 
centration, rough and hard in cliaracter and so large in size 
that it had to be sorted out either by hand or machinery, as 
the c-ccasion would demand, at a considerable exi)ense over 
and abc've the ordinary method of handling and disjx^ing of 
such material. 

Fourth — Furthermore, in this material, in and between 
the layers of standard wash ore, there occurred a vast ^juantity 



Section AA Showing Screen. Pickiner Belt, and Bottom of Receiving Bin. 

of material which was neither washable ore nor hard rock, 
in fact, consisting of every gradation possible l^etween these 
extremes, and which could readily be sorted out. On ac- 
count of its character and occun-ence we \vere confronted 
not only with the necessity of handling this material and the 
expense connected therewith, but were forced to so construct 
our plant that a considerable ix>rtion of this could be ad- 
vantageously dealt with in the mill operation. This particular 



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164 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

requirement for the mill meant a high degree of strength, dur- 
ability and efficiency in the machines selected. 

Fifth — Whereas most of the ore in the washable ma- 
terial was rather coarse, there was nevertheless quite a 
large amount of fine rich ore which on account of its ex- 
ceeding fineness was not diserable from a furnace standpoint, 
but which nevertheless had to be saved as it already had borne 
a share of mining and transportation expenses, and for eco 



Tracks and Crude Ore Cars on Top of Receivinir Bins. 

nomical reasons alone could not be wasted when once de- 
livered to the plant. 

Sixth — The occurrence of the above mentioned paint rock. 
This material, having been derived from an original slate layer, 
was in its nature stickey and difficult to handle, when wet, 
contained a considerable amount of moisture, and was not 
amenable to concentration ; Ixit on the other hand its chemical 
composition was such that portions of it could be shipped di- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE l6S 

rect, while the remaining portion, which had to be removed to 
get at the underlying wash ores, could not be wasted and had 
to be stockpiled at some additional expense, because this ma- 
terial at some future day might become merchantable. 

Sez'Cfvth — Practical economic and lease conditions de- 
manded a large tonnage, much greater than generally had been 
handled up to that time by mills elsewhere in the country. 

Eighth — Large areas required, with extensive track systems 



Interior View, Sbowinff Front of Receivincr Bins, Grizzlies and Revolving Screens. 

to provide for the disposition of great quantities of overburden 
to be removed and for the stockpiling of low grade material 
not amenable to concentration. 

Concentration of the Western Missabe Silicious Ores. 
In 1 90 1 and 1902 Mr. Walter Barrows, Jr., Mr. Chas. 
A. Purdon and associates, after obtaining certain exploration 
data from the Arcturus property, and additional information 
by drilling, desirous of ascertaining whether this ore was 
amenable to some sort of concentration, sent a car-load of ore 



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1 66 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

to Cedartown, Georgia, for treatment. The result seemed so 
satisfactory that they installed on the proi>erty at their expense 
a small concentrating plant consisting of conical screens and 
a set of McLanahan jigs. In 1903 and 1904 a small plant 
(see photo) of somewhat similar construction, but without 
jigs, was installed and oj^rated at what is now known as the 
Holman mine, by Mr. Congdon and associates. While these 
two smaller plants clearly indicated that something could be 



di ne at least with seme portions of the vast ore Ixxlies con- 
tained in the district, they also showed that these screens and 
jigs would nt^t meet the requirements, first on account of the 
variety of material to be treated, and second on account of the 
large quantities that had to l>e handled. For this reason the 
officers of the Oliver In>n Mining Comjmny appointed a com- 
mittee to make a thorough study of the concentration protrfem 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 167 

here presented, ascertain what was done elsewhere, and if 
possible find machinery which would ineet the re<^|uirenients. 

After due consideration of all the facts and after an ex- 
tensive trip over the western and southwestern portion of the 
United States the commission prepared its report recommend- 
ing a scheme which seemed to them to offer a solution of 
the problem in hand. 

As suggested by the committee an experimental plant was 



decided on and erected in 1906 in the vicinity of the Canisteo 
deix>sits. (See photo.) In 1907 and 1908 experimental work 
was conducted in this plant with the machinery originally in- 
stalled as well as with additional different concentrating ma- 
chines which from time to time were tried out at the sug- 
gestion and request of manufacturers. 

After a long, expensive and exhaustive investigation, and 
compilation and study of the results obtained, it was conclu- 
sively proved, ist, that th^se ores could be economically and 



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l68 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

successfully treated and on a large scale made to render a 
merchantable product of a good desirable physical structure ; 
2nd, that machinery substantially such as suggested by the 
commfttee with some changes and improvements would suc- 
cessfully treat these ores. 

Trout Lake Concentrating Plant, 
(a) main building and serving tracks. 

With these and other facts and data at hand the con- 
struction and erection of the present concentrating plant was 
undertaken. This work was commenced in April, 1909, and 
was complete with the machinery installed ready for use in 
1910. Attached to the main building is a table house large 
enough to accommodate concentrating tables for five units and 
space for a small machine shop and supply store. For the 
handling of the railroad cars in the upper portion of the 
mill there is provided on the north side of the main structure 
a trestle approach 650 ft. long, and on the south or opposite 
side a tail track 300 ft. long. The latter is so constructed 
as to permit its being incorporated directly in a possible future 
extension of the plant. The building, viaduct approach and 
tail trestle, as well as the table house, are constructed of steel, 
the total amount used being 6,100 tons. The building is cov- 
ered by corrugated steel sheeting over 2x6 in. wood sheeting 
fastened directly to the structural steel. The north end of 
the trestle approach is connected with the main road-beds 
forming the track system for delivery of the crude ore to 
the plant over an einbankment of a maximum height of no 
feet containing over 2,000,000 cu. yds. of dirt. On the east 
side of the building is arranged a system of concentrate tracks 
connecting with ample storage yards for both loads and emi>- 
ties. The delivery tracks over the crude-ore bins are 90 feet 
above the tracks receiving the concentrates. 

While not intended for winter oi^eration, the mill building 
is equipped with a high pressure heating system, the steam for 
which is supplied by a small boiler plant located in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the mill 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 169 



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170 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

All inside wiring is placed in conduits. A traveling crane 
electrically operated over a track extending the entire length of 
the building provides for handling the heavy machinery. 

(b) power plant and transmission. 
The power plant of the mill is located on the shore of Trout 
Lake, 7,000 ft. distant from the main mill building. Clear 
\vater could not be obtained nearer the mill on account of 
the tailing discharge into the lake. 



Boiler House — The power is generated in a battery of six, 
72''xi8', horizontal return tubular boilers lioused in a building 
with a 120x53 ft. steel frame, brick nogged and covered with 
corrugated steel. Draught for these boilers is obtained through 
a chimney of hollow radial tile 150 ft. high. 

Enghw ^nd Gaierator House — This building is of the same 
general construction as the boiler house, size 82 by 132 ft. 
In it is housed one 26x52x48 in. horizontal cross compound 
Reynolds Corliss engine, direct connected to a 1,250 kw. 3- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I7I 

phase 60-cycle alternating current generator producing a cur- 
rent at 6,6cx) volts, equaling 1,675 horsepower. 

In this building are also installed two 26x52x48 in. Pres- 
cott compound pumping engines, of the fly-wheel type, each 
with a 24-hour capacity of 10,000,000 gals., total lift being 240 
ft. Each of these pumps is capable of furnishing the water 
necessary to operate the mill. As the five concentrating units 
contained in the mill described require individual consumption 



of 1,300 gals, per min. per unit, the power requirement of 
each pump is about 400 horsepower. 

The electric current generated is transmitted over surface 
lines to a transformer station located near the mill, where its 
pressure is stejjped down to 440 volts — the working pressure 
required for the plant. Power transmission in the mill is so ar- 
ranged that each working unit and the main group of ma- 
chines in the units themselves are independently operated by 
commensurate motors. All buildings are electrically lighted. 



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172 



WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 



Water Supply — Water is obtained from the lake through 
a 40-in., 400 ft. long, steel intake pipe and is conducted 
through a 30-in. lap-welded steel pipe to a 100,000 gal. cylin- 
drical steel tank at the mill. The water pressure on the vari- 
ous floors of the mill varies from 20 to 75 pounds per square 
inch. 



TROUT LAKE O0NCENTRATIH9 PLANT 




ti;:!^^^^^^ 



LJ--* 




(c) CONCENTRATING MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES. 

As the mill stands today the plant contains five independeii. 
units and appliances. Each individual unit is made up of 
two half units which are dependent on one another only in 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I73 

bin and screening capacity. This arrangement was adopted 
to prevent delay in the entire miH and in each separate unit — 
should break-downs occur. Installment of individual units 
was also necessitated by lease conditions requiring that ore 
from each property be handled separately. All units are en- 
tirely similar in construction, but were installed at various 
times, the first and second units being erected in the spring 
of 1 9 10, the third in the fall of the same year, the fourth 



Lower End of Crude Ore Bin and Grizzly 

and fifth completed at the beginning of the season 191 1. 
Precaution was taken to eliminate from the mill construction 
all light and unreliable machinery such as link belts, chain 
elevators, conveyors and automatic feeding appliances. 

Each individual unit is made up as follows : At the top of 
the mill and directly under the crude ore tracks, for each unit 
there is a receiving bin with a capacity of about 500 tons 
crude ore. At the discharge end of this receiving bin is a 
grizzly — steel rails spaced 12-in. centers — and also a hydraulic 



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174 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

nozzle connected to the water system. Under the grizzly 
is a rock pocket. The hydraulic nozzle is capable of dis- 
charging into the receiving bin at the direction of an oper- 
ator, a heavy stream of water under a pressure of 33 pounds 
per square inch. The bin extension under the grizzly is 
through an apron directly connected with one conical, revolv- 
ing screen or trommel having 2-in. perforations. Passing 
through the center and along the entire length of this trcwnmel 



Turbo. 



is a spray pipe. The size of the trommel is: Length 20 ft., 
diameter at the small end 4 ft., at the larger end 8 ft. 

Directly l^elow the large end of the trommel is placed a 
conveyor belt 36 in. wide and 20 ft. long to take the over-size 
material from this screen. Directly l^elow the trommel is con- 
structed a bin or junction-lx>x divided into two compartments 
into which falls the under-size material. On each side of this 
bin and below the same and at proper distances and elevations 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I7S 

are placed two log* washers each taking one-half of the under- 
size material delivered into the junction box from the trommel. 
The size of these log washers is: Length 25 ft., width 6 ft. 8 
in, depth 3 ft. They are placed at an incline of i in. to 
the foot, and are each provided with twin logs with chilled 
cast iron paddles. Their bottom is constructed so as to pro- 
vide for three hutches covered with perforated steel plates 
through which a strong current of water under a pressure of 



50 lbs. to the square inch is forced. The waste material 
coming over the overflow end of the log washers contains 
chips, waste and other material, and for this reason a chip 
screen has been placed directly behind each log washer. Di- 
rectly under these log washers are placed three steel settling 
tanks, Nos. i, 2 and 3, at different elevations. Located di- 
rectly under No. i tank on each unit is placed one smaller 
log washer locally known as a "turbo." The size of these 
turbos is as follows: Length 18 ft., width 4 ft., depth t}i 



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176 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

ft. These turbos are of the same general construction as the 
larger log-washers, being provided with a rising water column 
forced under pressure through hutches and hutch-plates. 

The tanks above referred to are "V" shaped. Tank No. 
I is 5 ft. in width by 8 ft. in length and 43/2 ft. deep. Tanks 
Nos. 2 and 3 are 6 ft. in width, 16 ft. in length and 5^ ft. 
deep. All are provided with spigots for the discharge of the 
accumulated material. 



Arcturus Experimental Washing Plant, Front View. 

In the table house at some distance below these three steel 
tanks are located four batteries of five Overstrom tables, ar- 
ranged in two parallel series. Each of the twenty concen- 
trating tables is 14 ft. in length and 6 ft. wide along end 
lines, and is provided with riffles, which on some tables are 
constructed of wood and on others of rubber. 

To convey the table concentrate from the table house, two 
54-in. Frenier spiral sand pumps are installed in each one- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 77 

halt unit. These pumps discharge into a de-watering tank 
located immediately above the bin jnto which is assembled all 
the concentrate from all machines constituting the unit. This 
de-watering tank is also of steel **V" shaped, top width 7 ft., 
length 12 ft., and depth 5J4 ft. 

The conveyor belt above referred to is known as the **pick- 
ing belt." On each side of it is located a steel chute leading 
to what is known as a "rock pocket" made of steel. This dis- 
charges into cars below. These car^ are hauled by an electric 
locomotive to a rock dump a short distance beyond the con- 
fines of the plant, over a track system overheg^ding the main 
shipping tracks on the east side of the plant. 

The concentrate receiving bin is large enough to accom- 
modate the entire unit, built of wood and lined with steel 
plates, and has a capacity of about 90 tons. I'his receiving bin 
is provided with discharge lips through which this concentrate 
passes into railroad cars on the tracks below. 

The following arrangement gives the power distribution 
for the unit: One 100 h.p. motor is used for driving the 
cone-shaped trommel, tw^o log washers and two turbos. One 
15 h.p. motor is used for driving the concentrating table and 
chip screen. One 20 h.p. motor drives the four Frenier 
pumps serving the unit. 

The concentrating equipment in each unit thus includes : 

One receiving bin. 

One grizzly. 

One conical screen. 

One belt conveyor, or picking belt. 

Two 2S-ft. log washers. 

Two i8-ft. log washers. 

Six steel settling tanks. 

Two table wash-water tanks. 

Twenty Overstrom concentrating tables. 

Four Frenier pumps. 

Two steel de-watering tanks. 

Two rock pockets. 

One concentrate bin. 



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178 wash ores of western missabe 

Process of Concentration. 
At the mines the crude ore is loaded directly into hopper 
cars of an average capacity of 40 tons of this material. The 
cars are of pressed steel, of Sommers and Pressed Steel Car 
Company design. Train loads of these cars are hauled 
over the receiving tracks and over the viaduct approach to 
the top of the mill and there dumped directly into the receiv- 
ing bins. In these receiving bins the ores are attacked by a 



stream of water from the hydraulic nozzle above referred to 
and sluiceil down thi-ough the oj^ening in the lower end of 
the bin over the grizzly bars, which eliminates the larger 
pieces of taconite included in the shipment. This rock is 
raked from the top of the grizzly by hand into the rock 
jxKket provided' for each unit. Tlie material passing through 
the grizzly is conducted over the connecting apron into the 
revolving trommel. The over-size material in this trommel 
advances through it and is in passage subjected to a thorough 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 79 

rolling and rubbing process as well as a heavy spray of wa- 
ter fixHn the spray-pipe arranged for this puipose. After 
being thus abraded and washed off, the content of this 
trommel passes on to the picking belt provided in front and 
is here hand sorted. The rock material is thrown into the 
chutes leading to the rock pocket whence it is loaded into 
cars and by an electric locomotive hauled to the rock dump. 
The coarse material remaining on the picking belt falls di- 
rectly into a steel chute which conveys it to the concentrate 
bin immediately below. The material obtained is known as 
Ixrlt product and consists of lump ore concentrate of sizes 
larger than 2 in. 

The material passing thnnigh the conical screen or trom- 
mel falls directly into the underlying junction-box, half of 
the material going to eadi of the two log washers provided 
on cither side of this junction-box. In these log washers 
the iratcrial is subjected to a combined stirring and abrasive 
action prcxluced by the i^addles of the twin logs revolving 
therein, in water which enters the log washer under pressure 
thn.ugh the three l»ttom hutches. This introduction of wa- 
ter under pressure into the lx>tto!n of the log washer is a 
decided improvement over earlier constnicteil log washers, 
and is an important provision in that it prevents dead ma- 
terial from lying at the bottom of the box, assists in the thor- 
ough stirring and washing of all the material passing through 
the machine, and gives life and activity to the entire oper- 
ation. The action of the log washer in this prcxess is that 
of a large, efficient, ever-ready classifier-concentrator and dis- 
integrator. By stirring effect of the paddles, the friction be- 
tween them and the pieces with which they come in contact, 
as well as between the pieces themselves in this ever-moving 
mass under strong water action, all the more or less disin- 
tegrated pieces are broken up into their component parts — 
grains of sand and pieces and particles of ore. 

In the operation the heavy flow of water introduced into 
the machine, both with the material itself as well as from 



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l8o WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

the bottom, carries the sand towards and over the tail-board 
at the lower end of the machine. The heavy material, on the 
other hand, consisting largely of iron ore varying in size from 
2 in. to grains, is forced by the action of the paddled twin 
logs towards the raised or upper end and there discharged 
as log product into the concentrate-receiving bin. 

The overflow from the log washer is then passed through 
the chip screen for the purpose of removing pieces of wood, 



Vv'aste and other foreign substances. From the chip screen 
tiie material is led into what is known as the first set of 
settling tanks, one on each side of the unit. The heavier ma- 
terial is allowed to settle and the spigot product is fed to the 
two turlx>s below. 

As stated before the **turbo" is similar in construction 
to the large washer, but smaller. The operation is also sim- 
ilar. 

The overflow from the settling tanks is passed into a sec- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE l8l 

ond pair of tanks. The overflow from these is carried out of 
the mill, and the spigot product is conveyed into the table room 
and there distributed over two sets of five Overstrom tables, 
each set serving one tank. 

The concentrate obtained in the upper end of the turbos is 
fed directly into the concentrate receiving bin of the unit. 
The overflow from the turbos is passed into a third pair of 
settling tanks. The overflow from these is ixissed out of 
the mill. The spigot pro<luct is carried into the table house 
and there dealt with in a manner similar to that, in which 
the spigot product from the second i>air is handled. 

The concentrate from the twenty tables ser\'ing each unit is 
conveyed through the four Frenier pumi^s serving the unit into 
the de-watering tank, the spigot pro<iuct of which falls di- 
rectly into the concentrate receiving bin t^eneath. 

All tailings frcin the settling tanks and tables are dis- 
charged into Trout Lake below the ni'll through a 4-ft. wcxxl 
bottom concrete flume. 

Safety Devices. 

The great amount of thought which has been put into 
safety devices, and the minute detail into which those in 
charge have gone, make impossible complete description in 
a i^aper of this kind. Therefore only the more prominent 
features will be described, and perhaps the most simple course 
to follow will be the one most commonly used, that is, the 
route of the ore. 

The first application of a safety feature is in preventing 
the crude ore from falling through the api>roach trestle from 
the cars to the ground. The great height of this trestle would 
make an injury from this source very serious. This is pre- 
vented by a decking which also eliminates danger of fire 
from the sparks of passing locomotives. A structural steel 
hand-railing extends the entire length of the trestle on both 
sides and is supplemented by a toe-board at its bottom. 

Within the building, at the receiving bins, the most ap- 
parent features are, first, the peculiar arrangement of rail- 



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1 82 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

ings and walks which compels the workman unconsciously 
to guard himself from passing trains, and second, the covered 
stairways and landings by which the sluicer helpers are en- 
abled to work beneath the tracks with safety and freedom. 

Within the mill proper, at a point where the ore is washed 
from the bins into the revolving conical screens, are placed 
large heavy hinged gate and a stationary wall which serves as 
a sort of breastwork in front of the sluicer. The stationary 
walls afford the worker safety from sudden slides of ore 
while sluicing, and the hinged door protects him from the same 
danger when ore is being dumped into the bin. 

At the picking belts are provided hoppers located con- 



El«ctric Sub-Station 

veniently near both the belt and the men. While these are 
built up high enough to greatly facilitate removing the waste 
i\x:k from the l^elt, their primary purpose is to prevent the 
men from falling into the pockets beneath. The chutes from 
these pockets which receive the waste rock were provided with 
the customary quarter-pan or pocket stops, but as these did 
not prevent small pieces from rolling out beneath them down 
on to the heads of passers-by, it was necessary to provide an- 
additional means to prevent this. Such a device consisted of 
a special counterbalance gate or dam made of steel plate. The 
peculiar location of the stop itself and the point from which 
it was to be operated made this a difficult problem. The 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 183 

electric tram cars which carry the rock from these chutes to 
the dumps are provided with automatic gong^ which ring when 
the cars are in motion and warn the workmen of their ap- 
proach. 

The next point of possible danger in the course of the ore is 
in the discharge from the log washers. The problem here was 
somewhat difficult, for in order to inspect properly the con- 
centrated product the workmen had to stand between large 
revolving gears on one side, and the moving blades of the 
washers on the other. However, the difficulty was solved by 
means of gear housing and platforms in such a manner as 



Water Supply Line 

to make this point very accessible and at the same time remove 
lx>th danger and fear of injury. 

On the table floor, the driving-head gear of the machines 
presented the chief source of danger. To obviate this, frames 
built of pii>e and covered with removable steel plates were 
placed around the driving mechanism. This secured safety 
and accessibility. Shifting levers for the belts, so designed 
as to be simple and free from projecting parts, were attached 
to these frames. 

In the basement the only point which was considered 
dangerous, and this on account of darkness rather than loca- 
tion, was the driving mechanism of the Frenier pumps. The 



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1 84 



WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 



installation of steel geared housings, wooden troughs for belts 
and a generous lighting system, did away with all danger at 
this point. 

There are many miscellaneous devices which though 
not so intimately connected with the oi>eration of the mill, 
are none the less necessary. The most important of these 
are the coverings of every gear, belt, pulley, and moving part 
throughout the mill, and the safety collars on all shafting. 
Enameled iron signs warning oj^erators are placed at every 
conceivable point of danger. Signal bells are sounded when 
starting all mill machinery, so that every working man may 
protect himself if in danger or invisible to the oi)erator. Per- 




Power Plant 

manent stair-like platforms were constnicted beneath the re- 
ceiving bins, to enable workmen safely to remove the bolts 
that hold the wearing plates when repairing them. Stairways 
were everywhere provided rather than ladders, and all of 
them were covered at the backs, thereby preventing material 
from falling or being kicke<l through them on to tlie head 
of persons beneath. But perhai>s tlie greatest of all provisions 
for the protection of the working man in his routine dut^' 
about the mill is the most carefully planned and permanently 
constructed system of railed walks. These lead everywhere. 
They are rigid and strong to the last degree. Their railings 
are of steel pipe, their stringers and joists are of- steel beams. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 85 

Their treads are of the heaviest matched flooring, and their 
sides are protected by the ever-efficient, though djscure, toe- 
board. Records show that in this item alone, 32,300 Hneal ft. 
of 134 in- standard pii)e with the necessary fittings, and 12,450 
Hneal ft. of 2x8 in. surface p'ne boards have been used. Not 
the least of the factors which makes this provisione one of the 
most worthy of the safety device is the sense of security, which 
the workmanship apparent in it engenders. 

In conclusion, it must not be supposed that the apjxirent 
completion of these safety devices has tended to eliminate in- 
terest in safety measures. On the contrarj- the interest is 
even greater, because it has l)een shown that the effort, money 
and vigilance expended in this direction produces tlie most 
gratifying results. 

Production. 

Tons. 
Plant produced in 1910 with 2 units in oi>erati(>n. . . . 610000 
Plant produced in 191 1 with 5 units in operation. . . . 1,978,000 
Plant produced in 191 2 with 5 units in oi)eration. . .2,555,000 
The construction of the plant including ix>wer installation, 
water supply and necessary track arrangements, involved 

an exi>enditure of approximately $1,500,000 

The total amount of concentrate produced by the vari- 
ous machines in the unit dei>ends largely on the character of 
the crude ore treated. The following table will, however, give 
a general idea thereof : 

Per Cent. 

Belt product . 3 to 35 ( Depending on char- 

T.wo logs product 60 to 85 ) . , 

Two turbos product 2.5 to 10 ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^''"^'^ ^^^• 

Twenty tables product 1.5 to 6.5 

Concerning the size of the product obtained, it may be 
stated that the l^elt pr€<luct is all larger than 20 mesh. Of the 
log product 90 per cent, is coarser than 40 mesh and 4 per cent, 
finer than 100 mesh. Of the turbo product 15 per cent, is 
coarser than 40 mesh and 32 per cent, finer than 100 mesh. 



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1 86 WASH ORES OF WESTERN MISSABE 

Of the total table product 85 per cent, is finer than 100 mesh 
and 50 per cent, is finer than 200 mesh. 

These figures will indicate the care which has been taken 
in the processes, in the construction of the plant and of the 
various machines therein, to effect a saving commensurate 
with good practice, economy and furnace requirements. 

The above is a general and practical statement devoid of 
complicated calculations and demonstrations, entering into 
the solution of the problems connected with the handling of 
the wash ores on the Western Missabe Range, involving the 
construction of, and the processes devised for, the Coleraine 
Washing Plant. 

In conclusion I wish to slate that while it would be de- 
sirable and interesting from a scientific and economical stand- 
ix>int in a subject of this nature, to enter into, for instance, 
the specific performance of eacli machine, the possibility of 
improving and of simplifying both method and machinery, 
to consider the question of recovery and the ratio of concentra- 
tion, and finally to demonstrate the extent to which this plant 
as a unit has ser\'e<l its purpose as a medium through which 
this non-merchantable ore is made merchantable, it is im- 
possible to touch upon these subjects within the scope of this 
pai)er, as time and conditions will not permit it. 

The items referred to above may be proper subjects for 
another paper on a future occasion. 

Lastly, while this plant today does its work as well and 
even better than expected, at some future day no doubt it will 
be changed and improved, or others will be built to take its 
place to meet conditions not here presented, but fully known 
from investigations made, which conditions it is neither 
practicable nor advisable to approach nearer at the present 
time. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 187 



THE APPLICATION OF MINING MACHINES TO UN- 
DERGROUND MINING ON THE MESABI RANGE 

BY H. E. MARTIN AND W. J. KAISER. 

The application of machines to underground mining on 
the Mesabi Range is a radical departure from the methods in 
use at the present time, and while it is difficult to foretell the 
ultimate results, their use cannot but l^ beneficial both to the 
miner iuid the mining companies. 

Since mining was started on the Mesabi Range some twen- 
ty odd years ago, improvements and changes have been made 
in practically every method and device except those used in 
the actual mining of underground ore. During the past few 
years open pit mining has grown from "a comparative infant 
to its present huge proportions. Heavier steam shovels, larger 
engines and standard equipment have been adopted, as well 
as various changes in methods employed. In our underground 
mines, the most efficient machinery has been installed for 
handling the ore once it has left the miners hands. The 
miners, however, still drill by hand, muck their own dirt 
and otherwise mine as they have done since the start. The 
number of miners on this range has not grown in proportion 
to the amount of development, and in consequence the pro- 
duction from underground mines has not been as large as it 
should be. How to increase the production, using the limited 
number of miners available, is then the question of vital in- 
terest. Could power machines be successfully used, it would 
necessarily mean a division of labor into two classes, miners 
and muckers, and the output per miner would be largely in- 
creased. The common laborers, becoming more proficient, 
would eventually graduate into the miners class, thus increas- 



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l88 MINING MACHINES ON THE MESABI RANGE 

ing their number. With these ideas in view, it was decided 
to experiment with machines on the soft ores of this range. 
As used at the Harold Mine, of the Hibbing District, the 
machines consist of an ordinary Sulhvan air-pick or coal 
puncher, and a Jeffries air-auger. The pick machine is the 
largest type manufactured by the Sullivan Machinery Com- 
jxiny having a depth of undercut of five and one-half feet. 



Sullivan 700 lb. Pick Machine in a four-foot vein of coal. Pennsylvania. Runner site 
on board, gruiding: machine by handles and foot>clQir. 

The bore of cylinder is 5]/^ inches, pressure required 80 
pounds, and total weight 825 ixninds. To understand thor- 
oughly the application of these machines to our mining meth- 
ods, it may be well to mention first the several operations in- 
cident to taking out a set of ground by (>rdinai*y means. The 
miners first drill a round of holes in the breast, each hole 
approximately five feet in depth and varying in number from 
three tn five, dei)ending upon the height of iK)St, character of 
ground and whether drifting into the solid or along side of 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 189 

caved crround. The upper holes are usually fired first and 
the bottom holes after the top dirt is mucked out. The amount 
of dynamite used depends upon the conditions mentioned 
above and varies from 15 to 30 sticks, each stick being" about 
Yj, pour.d. After the upper holes are fired the miners secure 
the back by poling from the last set of timber into the breast. 
The ore broken in this blast is then loaded and trammed, 
and the bottom holes are fired. After all the ore is mucked 
out, the miners trim the breast, back and sides and the set 
is ready for timber. Under ordinary conditions the amount 
of time spent in these several oj^erations is approximately as 
follows : 

Drilhng, 17 per cent; blasting, 4 per cent; clearing of 
smoke. 3 per cent; tramming, 7 per cent; trimming, 9 per 
cent ; timbering, 20 per cent, and mucking, 40 per cent. 

The number of men required for one machine crew, is 
two machine men, three miners and six muckers. This ratio 
was CKperimentally determined and is of the most import- 
ance to the efficient working of the machines, in that there 
should he no delay of miners, muckers or machine men waiting 
upon e?ch other. The minimum number of working places or 
rooms required to take care of one machine has been found 
to be five, though a larger number will insure no delays and 
make for higher efficiency. 

The actual taking out of a set of ground with the aid 
of the machines is as follows : 

The set is first under-cut with the puncher to a depth of 
five feet, the cut extending from the solid rib to within six 
inches or so of the opposite side, thus leaving a small pillar 
six inches wide and the full length of the set. The purpose of 
this small pillar being to support the ground against prema- 
ture caving. Two holes are then drilled with the air-auger, 
about ore foot from the solid rib and spaced about two anrl six 
feet respectively from the back. In case the slice was driven 
into the solid four holes would be necessary, two on each side. 
Two short holes are drilled in the small pillar sui>iK>rting the 



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IQO MINING MACHINES ON THE MESABI RANGE 

set by the miners. Boards are now placed in the cut and 
under the set to be broken out, a small amount of ore picked 
down upon them to hold them in place, and the holes are 
loaded and fired. Being able to place boards beneath the set 
before it is broken, is an advantage rather hard to estimate 
but of considerable moment to those using the shovels, giving 
them as it does a smooth surface from which to shovel. The 
miners now secure the back by poling and the room is 
ready for the muckers. After the ore is mucked out, the 



Sullivan 826 lb. Pick Machine in a Southern Illinois mine, 8-foot coal. This shows the 
undercut completed at left, and a fresh "board" started to the risrht. 

miners square up the set, place the timber and another cycle 
of operations is started. 

The average time for under-cutting one set of ground ex- 
cluding delays, has been 59 minutes, for moving from 
place to place and setting machine, 26 minutes. To drill one 
foot of ground with the air-auger has averaged 2.8 minutes, 
time setting up 1.4 minutes i>er foot. These results can aixi 
no doubt will be considerably lessened, as the machine men 
become more proficient. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I9I 

The advantages which can be claimed for the machine, 
aside from any possible reduction in the cost of producing the 
ore, are emjJoyment of one-half common labor, using ap- 
proximately one-half the amount of dynamite, less liability 
of posts being blasted out and consequent caving of rooms, 
and always having a smooth surface to shovel from. To the 
successful working of the machines, several conditions are 
necessary. The rooms served by the machine must be easy 
of access from one to another, their height should not be less 
than seven or eight feet and no bottom stoping should be 
necessary. In other words they can be applied to ordinary 
slicing and square-setting. 

The results obtained so far have not been as satisfactory 
as cotild be wished, primarily due to the labor situation, 
muckers not being obtainable in sufficient number to keep the 
machine and miners busy at all times. At the start many 
delays were occasioned by not having a sufficient number of 
places opened up for the machine. However, during the first 
five weeks of work, the average number of tons per man 
per day was twelve, an amount considerably above the aver- 
age for most places in our underground mines. Taking these 
points into consideration, it can be conservatively said, that 
it is not a question of what the machines can or will do but 
merely one of organization and hence their future on the 
Mesabi Range seems assured. 



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192 OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 



OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE AT EVELETH, 
MINNESOTA. 

BY H. E. LOYE, EVELETH, MINN.* 

At the Leonidas mine of the OHver Iron Mining Company, 
at Eveleth, Minnesota, two ore lx)clies were found separated 
by rock 250 ft. in thickness. The upper body averaging 49 



Leonidas Mine, Eveleth, Minn. 

ft. in tliickness, will be mined in greater i>art by the open pit 
method, the lower body averaging 76 ft. in thickness, by Ihe 
underground method. 

On account of the long i)eriod of time recjuired to mine 
this lower (Iqx>sit, it was desirable to have the shaft and 
stations as i>ei'manent as i:K>ssible, and also as shaft stations 
are the parts most sul)ject to fire, and as in this case there w^ill 

*Chi3f Engineer, Oliver Iron Mining Co., Adams District. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 93 

be only one outlet for a number of years, it was very in> 
portant to have the shaft and stations as nearly fireproof as 
possible. With this in view, it was decided to use only 
steel and concrete in the construction; steel sets made by the 
American Bridge Co., backed by reinforced concrete slabs 
made with Universal Portland cement. 

The shaft, which is 10 ft. by 17 ft. 4 in. in the clear, con- 
tains five compartments; two skip compartments 6 ft. by 5 
ft., pipe and ladder compartments each 3 ft. 8 in. by 5 ft. 
and a cage compartment 10 ft. b^- 5 ft. 8 in., as shown in 
Plate I. Tlie wall and end plates are made of 6-in. 23.8-lb. 
H sections, the main dividers of loin. 25-lb. I-beams, the 
smaller dividers of 4-in. 13.6-lb. H sections and the studdles 
of 33^ in. by 3 in. by ^-in. angle irons. Sets w^ere placed 
4 ft. center to center and 2-in. planking used for temporary 
lathing, to be replaced later by reinforced concrete slabs, the 
planking resting in the hollow of the H section and being 
flush on the inside of the shaft so as to prevent lodgment of 
material. In sinking, the sets were kept from 12 to 16 ft. alx>ve 
the bott(^m cf the shaft to avoid any breakage by blasting. 
The bearing pieces used were 12-in. 31.5-lb. I-l:>eams, 19 ft. 6 
in. long, 4 in a set, placed under the end plates and dividers 
with their ends concreted into the hitches, as shown on Plate 
2. Five sets of these tearers were put in as follows : At 
collar, at 113 ft., af2i3 ft., at 313 ft. and at 438 ft. 

In sinking the shaft, J2 ft. of surface or glacial drift was 
passed through, the remainder of the shaft l^eing sunk thrcnigh 
taconite. Water was encountered at a depth of 30 ft. and the 
flow became so heavy at a deptli of 268 ft. that a temporary 
pump station was cut, 8 ft. by 16 ft. by 41 ft. in the clear 
with a sump 10 ft. by 12 ft. by 7 ft. Two 9 and 18 by 8 by 
i8-in. Prescott compomid duplex pumps and a 14 by 9 by 18 
in. Pre.scott duplex pump were installed in this pum|>hou.se 
with four 14 by 8 by 12 in. Prescott sinking pumps shainbling 
the water to them. At this time 1.500 gallons i>er minute were 
being handled. The column and steam pijies were carried 



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194 



OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



195 



down the shaft according to the permanent lay-out as shown 
in Plate i, so that when the shaft was completed it was only 
necessary to carry the piping down from the 348 foot pump 
station. By the time the shaft was 356 ft. in depth, 2,400 
gallons per minute were being handled requiring six sinking 
pumps in the shaft, one throwing to surface, and as the flow 
was increasing, it was necessary to put in another temporary 
pump station, at a depth of 348 ft. This is 10 ft. by 18 ft. 
by 61 ft. in the clear, with a sump 14 ft. by 16 ft. by 6 ft. In 



FLAJE2 




Jb«<«** JA^t^mf /«W«arf m^^tttt mj —» Amff »/ 



OH¥(f( iHOn MIftt/VG CO 

«»!.*</./ Ot* *»- /»•« 



Section Throusrh Steel Shaft Sets. 

this Station was installed one 12 and 24 by 12 by 24 in. and one 
12 and 24 by io>4 by 24 in. Prescott comi>ound duplex pumps 
and the two 9 and 18 by 8 by 18 in. Prescott compounds were 
moved down from the upi)er station. This equipment, using 
six sinking pumps, sufficed to complete the shaft although the 
flow ran up to 3,500 gallons per minute before the shaft was 
finished. When the permanent pump station was being cut 
the flow ran up as high as 4,000 gallons per minute and to 



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196 



OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 



handle this required the addition of a 14 by 9 by 18 in. Cam- 
eron pump which with one of the sinking pumps was put in 
on the entr\' level and Ix^th discharged to surface, the other 
five sinkers shambling to the 348 foot pump^house. 

The sinking of the shaft was greatly impeded by the flo^v 
of water, the miners working in from 12 to 24 in. of water 

PLATE 3. 




TEMPORARY T/MBER/NG. 

L£0NfOA5 PUMP ROOM. 
^97 rr L£V£L No I S^ArT 

all the time. The great number of pumps in the shaft took up 
much rcK:m and made the shaft exceedingly warm. This shaft 
drained the Adams and Spi"uce ore bodies, leaving them dry 
by the time the shaft was 300 ft. in depth. In sinking from 
this ix)int to the bottom, if one of the pumps broke down, it 
was necessarj' to stop work to enable the other pumps to handle 
the flow, and this caused many delays. 

After completing the shaft to a depth of 448 ft., the entry 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I97 

to the permanent pump station was started at a depth of 438 
ft. The rock-work in the entry and pumi>house was driven in 
two stoj^es, the ui>i)er nnming from 5 ft. in height on the 
side to 13 ft. in the center, was kept 10 to 12 ft. ahe^d of 
the lower which was 8 ft. in height, the opening being 24 ft. 
wide )>y 21 ft. high in the center, as shown on Plate 3. The 
entry is ^2 ft. long and the pump-hoiise opening is 119 ft. 
As the steel for the sets could not be delivered in time, tern- 
ix>rary wood sets, as shown in Plate 3, w^ere used, placing 
them Ixtween where the steel sets would come and with the 
outside line of the w^oo<l posts i in. in the clear of the inside 
line of the steel sets. This facilitated the work of putting in 
the hokl-down bolts and small piers for the steel posts and 
the erection of the steel work. When the rock-work of the 
main pump-house was completed, the steel sets were placed, 
as shown in Plate 4, working from each end towards the cen- 
ter an I then through the entry to the shaft, affording an 
easy way of completing the rock-fill behind the concrete slabs. 
The start was made by removing two wood sets at the breast 
and putting in three steel sets, the first two l^eing cross-braced. 
Then the concrete slabs, as shown in Plate 5, which had previ- 
ously been dipped in hot tar and dried on surface, w-ere laid 
in place in neat cement l)ehind the steel and as each slab was 
placed, it was back-filled with' broken rock tami>ed in. The 
slabs were stepped up three to a set so that there were fifteen 
slabs in the center of the breast set when the three sets of 
steel and slabs were ready to pnKeed further with the work. 
The steel gang then removed one wcxxlen set at a time, re- 
placing it w'ith a steel set, the slab work l>eing raised three 
slabs all around for each steel set placed. This necessarily 
left the back open for quite a distance but if the back showed 
any weakness props were put in either from the steel sets or 
from the floor. Before the steel and concrete were placed it 
was almost impossible to see from the center tO' either end of 
the pump house on account of the amount of water falling 
from the back but after these were in place the room was prac- 
tically dry. 



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198 OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



199 



To keep dawn the water pressure behind these walls short 
pieces of one inch pipe were placed under the slal>s just below 
the floor level and these were connected to a pipe under the 
concrete floor leading to the sump. Pipes were also laid 
under the floor from the sump to each fly w^heel pit so as to 



S-dfT. 



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S^fT^rfTeO THUS 




PLATE 5. 



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D£TAHb or COAfC^£T£CUIB^ 

rem 

^t/M^ STATfON 

A/et SHA^T L£ONIO^C kifN£. 



be able to drain the pits, but valves wxre placed on these 
pipes and are kept closed so that in case of water rising up in 
the station it will not back up into the pits. On the top of 
the concrete slabs in the back, tar paper was used to shed 
the water until the cement could set, the b^k-filling^ being 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



200 OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 

placed in on top of the paper. Although in some places holes 
opened up in the back as high as lo ft. above the sets, still 
nothing but rock was used for back-filling. When the station 
had dried up, the slabs were given two coats of white cold 
water paint and the steel two coats of turpentine asphaltum. 
As soon as the steel sets had been placed in the clear of the 
pump foundations, the templets for these were placed and work 
started. These foundations were finished and had set suflS- 



Plate 6. Enirine End of South Pump. 

ciently before the slab work was completed so that the pumps 
could be installed at once on the completion of the pump-house 
supix)rtings. 

The pumping engines are two i6 and 32 by 8 by 36 in. 
Prescott ccrliss cross compound condensing, Missabe t>T)e, 
crank and fly wheel, with horizontal jet condenser with a 
normal capacity of 1,500 gallons per minute and a maximum 
capacity of 2,200 gallons per minute against a head of 450 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 20I 

ft. Plate 6 shows the engine end of one of these pumps. 
This type of pump was selected on atcount of its economical 
q)erat*on, its guaranteed duty being 135.000,000 ft. pounds 
of delivered work per 1,000 pounds of dry steam consumed 
by the engine, when furnished with steam at 125 pounds gauge 
pressure and with a' vaccuum of 26 in. of mercury. Each 
engine is supplied by a 5-in. steam line and discharges into 
an :ndependent 14-in. column pipe. The steam pipes and 



Plate 7. Emergency Pump in Entry Drift. 

discharge pij^es are cross connected in the entry and provided 
with valves so that either engine can take steam from either 
steam pipe and either pump discharge into either column p pe. 
This arrangement, as shown on Plate 4, prevents flooding of 
the mine due to oiie pump and the steam or discharge pipe of 
the otlier pump being out of commission at the same time. 
An auxiliary pump was installed in the entry drift for use in 
case of emergency as there is always the possibility of some- 
thing going wrong with a ww installation. This is a 12 and 



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c 



•s 

c 
H 



I 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2O3 

24 by 1 03^ by 24 in. Prescott cross compound capable of 
pumping 1,200 gallons per minute against a 450 ft. head and 
is shown in Plate 7. A trench just under the floor of the 
entry connects the shaft and the sump so that the water in 
the shaft can flow into the sump without running over the 
entry floor. Plate 8 shows the water end of North pump and 
the entry drift from shaft. 

A drift 50 ft. in length was driven to the west directly 
opposite the entry and at the breast a sump was put down 
6 ft. by 6 ft. by 20 ft. deep. The drift is now practically 



Plate 9. Clear Water Drift and Pump 

dr}% as shown by Plate 9, but there is an excellent flow of 
pure water from the breast, as shown in Plate 10, which was 
taken from the doorway in the wire partition shown in Plate 
9. In this drift was installed the pump for supplying clean 
water for domestic and drinking purposes. This is an Ep- 
p!ng-Carpenter pot- form pump 10 by 6 by 12 in. capable of 
pumping 350 gallons per minute against a 500 ft. head. The 
end of the drift has a heavy wire netting partition across it 
so that no one can get near the supply of water. 

The ventilating drifts were driven in rock on an incline of 



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^04 OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 

50 degrees, from each end of the pump station up to the main 
tramming level 30 ft. above. These drifts required no sup- 
ports. Iron stairways with railings were placed in them af- 
fording a good passage-way between level and station. The 
water from the level above is conducted along the drifts from 
the breasts in box launders covered over for walk-ways, then 
down the^e ventilating drifts in 12-in. pipes into concrete 
launders below, the launders emptying into the main sump. 
Board partitions are placed in the box launders and screens 



Plate 10. Breast of Clear Water Drift 

over the toi)s of the pipes to keep the mud, rocks and sticks out 
of the sump. 

After completing the pump station, the main level station 
was started at a depth of 405 ft. below the collar or 33 /t. 
above the pump station. The level station is 19 ft. 6 in. by 
47 ft. by 12 ft. high, in the clear, and has steel sets with con- 
crete slabs for lagging on sides and back. On account of the 
ladderway l}eing on the other side of the shaft from the 
station, a passageway around the shaft was made using steel 
sets and concrete slabs, while the temporsiry wooden laths in 
the shaft at the station were replaced by steel plates. Plate 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



205 



II shows the station lay-out, and Plate 12 shows a reproduc- 
tion of a picture of the station. 

The main drifts leading north and south from the main 
station and then turning* to the east a short distance in, have 
steel sets and concrete slab lagging for some distance from 
the shaft. The one leading north has sets 8 ft. by 8 ft. in 
the clear, made from 6-in. 23.8-lb. H sections lined with 4 in. 
by 12 in. reinforced concrete slabs (Plate 5) extending for 84 
ft. from the shaft station. The drift leading soiith has steel 



PLATE 11. 




or/r/^/>wr uttMtM S CO 



Plan and Section of 405 ft. Station 

sets 12 ft. by 8 ft. in the clear, with 6-in. 23.8-lb. H sections 
for posts and lo-in. 25-lb. I-'beams for caps with 4 in. by 12 
in. reinforced concrete slabs (Plate 5) for lining a distance of 
210 ft. from the shaft station. This drift is double tracked, 
with drainage launder between the tracks covered over for a 
walk-way. Motor haulage will be used on this level. 

When the level drifts were well under way, the opening for 
the pockets was cut and the steel put in. The main pocket is 
8 ft. by 24 ft. by 9 ft. deep with the bottom on an angle of 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



206 OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 

47 degrees. Chutes with finger stoppers lead from this main 
pocket to an auxiliary pocket for each skip, each pocket hold- 
ing one skip of ore when full. These are filled from the main 
pocket while the skip is being hoisted and as soon as the skip 
is in place for loading, the tiller wheel opening the door is 
thrown over and the ore falls into the skip, the door closing 
of its own weight. A skip can be filled almost before the 



Plate 12. Shaft Station 405 ft. Level 

engineer can reverse his engine. Plate 13 shows the arrange- 
ment of these pockets. 

The ore, outside of the pit limits in the upper ore body, 
had l>een planned to be mine<:l out from the open pit but it 
was decided to mine this ore through the shaft and thereby 
save a number of years in the mining of the ore. Accordingly 
a level was driven at a depth of 92 ft. from the collar. Steel 
sets with concrete slabs in the back were used for the station 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



207 



i 



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Digitized byVjOOQlC 



208 



OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 




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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



209 



which extended back the full width of the shaft for 16 ft. 
The drift extending on from the station has steel sets same 
as in tKe south drift of the 405 ft. level, 12 ft. wide but with 
concrete slabs in the back only. These extend for 125 ft. from 
the station. As it was necessary to hoist the ore from this 
level on the cage and it was found that, without chairs, the 
cage settled so much when the loaded car was being pushed 
on it that occasionally one stood on end, it was necessary to 
design chairs to suit the equipment. The chairs used are shown 
in Plate 14. These chairs have to be held in place for the 




cage to rest on and when the cage is lifted off, they move 
back out of place, leaving the shaft clear. Motor haulage 
will be used on this level. 

The lay-out of the main tramming drifts on the main level, 
(405 ft. level), is shown in Plate 15. The lay-out of the 
main tramming drifts on the 92 ft. level is shown in Plate 16. 

The wires of the lighting system are carried in conduits 
throughout and every endeavor was made to have the conduits 
water tight. The positive line down the shaft is a No. 10 
double- braid, nibber covered, crown cable and the various cir- 
cuits below are of No. 12 duplex rubber covered wire. 



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2IO 



OPENING THE LEONIDAS MINE 



The pump station has i8 6o-Watt Mazda lamps with lo 
in. aluminum reflectors, the entry drift 5 and the clear water 
station 3 lamps of the same size. These light up the station 
in excellent shape. 







PROPOSKD dfat:ix)pmknt 

.92 FT uyuL 
LKONIDAS MINK KVELKTH.MINN 



'if / / V . /<>.-/•/• j/->»/- ts-iyti 



The main station has 4 lOO-Watt Mazda lamps with 12 
in. aluminum reflectors. Tlie lights in the tramming drifts are 
16 can(lleix>wer carlx>n lamps and are placed every 50 ft. 
along the drift. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 211 



. THE NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE. 

BY FLOYD L. BURR^ VULCAN^ MICH.* 

No meeting- of the Institute and volume of its Proceedings 
seems lo be entirely complete without a paper describing the 
latest and best miner's "dry" or change house. Therefore for 
the sake of such completeness, I shall attempt a short de- 
scription of a change house recently built at the East Vulcan 
Mine of Penn Iron Mining Company. 

Early in the spring of 191 2, the old imperfect and inade- 
quate, wooden structure known as the "dry" burned down, 
and brought to the point of early decision the previously con- 
sidered project of building a new and modern change house. 

At this time and in previous years, a large amount of study 
and thoi:ght had been given to the question as to what would 
constitute an ideal change house. The principal requirements 
naiTied in the order of their relative importance seem to be : 
Perfect facilities for the drying, warming and otherwise car- 
ing for the miner's digging clothes, suitable provision for 
washing off the dirt accumulated on the hands and face during 
the day's toil underground ; a comfortable and convenient place 
for changing from street clothes to underground clothes or 
vice versa; satisfactory provision for the safe and convenient 
storage of the miner's street clothing during his absence un- 
derground; good, emergency hospital facilities; and toilet ar- 
rangements comprising sanitary closets, urinals and shower 
baths. Good lighting, heating, ventilation, plumbing, fire 
resistance, and good construction generally, are to be consid- 
ered necessary features in the attainment of the principal re- 
quirements just mentioned. They are means tow^ard an end. 
^Structural Engineer, Penn Iron Mining Co. 



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212 NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 

The matters of permanence and economy of operation and 
maintenance, have to do both with general poHcies of man- 
agement and with local conditions, such as the value, size 
and permanence of the mine for which the equipment is 
planned. Of course there must always be in the mind of the 
designer a continuous conflict between the awful ogre, cost, 
and the beautiful goddess, perfection. 

The decision was to build a permanent, substantial, con- 
venient, sanitary change house of fire resistant constniction 
at minimum cost without considerable attention to architec- 
tural beauty. Minimum cost implies minimum size of build- 
ing. It was considered necessary to provide for at least 150 
men with the possibihty of taking care of 250 men if occasion 
should require. 

The first mentioned requirement of caring for the under- 
ground clothing was given much consideration, many schemes 
being drawn up and rejected for one reason or another. The 
scheme finally adopted is in a general way one that has a 
wide use in some parts of Europe and in a few places in 
America. By this scheme the clothes are hung uix>n suitable 
h<x>ks which are afterwards hoisted up out of reach to dry 
and aerate. One of the most extensive and widely known 
installations of this sort in America is located at the Marianna 
Coal Mine in Washington Comity, Pennsylvania. During 
the consideration of the design, a visit was paid to Marianna 
and the change house inspected. Through the courtesy of 
friends and associates, various descriptions of such installa- 
tions from English and French technical journals were avail- 
able. From all this data, however, only the general idea of 
hoisting the clothes was copied. 

In all the previous installations of which we have knowl- 
edge one man's clothes are hung upon a single multi-pronged 
hook which is attached to a simple chain, not confined against 
swinging, and hoisted up to a more or less high ceiling. 
These chains or hoists have been arranged in blocks com- 
prising at least five rows between aisles. Their use has not 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 213 

beeii confined to the mine clothes; on the contrary the street 
clothes also are hung up, which practice often brings one 
man's street clothes adjacent to and in contact with another 
man's underground clothing. 

According to the design adopted a cupola or monitor, ex- 
tending the full length of the locker room, has been built and 
up into this drying chamber the clothes are hoisted. Near 
the base of this monitor are coils of steam pipes from the 
region of which quantities of dry warm air rise through and 
about the clothing. The monitor is surmounted at its center 
by a large ventilator which provides for the escape from the 
building of this air now laden with moisture and disagreeable 
odors from the clothing. The monitor is about four feet 
wide inside and provides for only two rows of hoists which 
places each row adjacent to an aisle. No street clothing is 
hung on these hoists, lockers being provided for them. 

The sui>ports for the mine clothes, we have chosen to call 
hook racks. A hi;ok rack consists of a hollow central stem 
to which are attached twelve or sixteen large hooks. This 
central stem is made up of two channels placed flange to 
flange and held in that ix>sition by the pressure of the hooks 
which are biJted together in pairs, enclosing the stem. The 
stem l3cing hollow, a space is provided which is occupied by 
a round steel guide rod up and down which the rack can be 
made to travel at the will of the oi)erator. This guide rod 
is alx>ut 22 feet long and extends from an attachment at a 
ix>int about a foot above the floor up to a i>oint about a foot 
below the ceiling of the drying chaml>er or monitor. The 
hooks can turn about the guide rod bitt, of course, they are 
confined by it against swinging. This arrangement confines 
the rack to space allowed for it and prevents adjacent racks 
and their hoisting chains from becoming entangled. For the 
sake of economy each rank is assigned to two or three men 
and to neutralize the excessive hoisting load a counter-weight 
is attached to the chain. Suitable hooks are provided for hold- 
ing the chain at any desired point in its travel and there are 



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214 ^'EW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 

padlocks to lock it against the evil designs of "the other fel- 
low." These devices are attached to a horizontal 3 by 3^ 
in. steel angle located at a height of about four feet alx>ve 
the floor. The horizontal area contiguous to each hook rack 



f9s Hooks 



Cross S motion Through neck Rack- 

is a rectangle 21 hy 24. in. and the one double row includes 
a total of 84 racks. These racks have been in use -now for 
several months and seem to fulfill their purpose well, though 
it is not claimed that the scheme is ideal. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 21 5 

Lockers are provided for the street clothes. To economize 
in floor and wall space, it was decided to use doiil)Ie-tier lock- 
ers and in order to have them of proi)er height and yet be 
able to reach into the upi^er tier of lockers successfully, it 
was necessary to have a seat run along the front of the lock- 
ers nineteen inches above the floor and to use this seat as 
a step. The lockers are home-made and consist of cylinders 
24 in. in diameter and 46 in. high, revolving about a central 
spindle. Each locker is provided with a series of 6 3-pronged 
hooks but has no shelf 011 account of limited vertical dimen- 
sions due to the double-tier arrangement. They are doorless 
and are closed by revolving them until the opening comes 
adjacent to the wall along which they are arranged. They 
may be locked in this closed position at the pleasure of the 
men who possess the keys. This tyi^e of locker is the inven- 
tion of the author of this pai^er and his intention is to apply 
for letters patent upon the idea. 

The available wall space gives room for 64 l(x:kers in each 
tier or a total of 128 lockers. There is ample room in each 
locker for two men's street clothes at one time while three 
men would not iDe badly crowded. The lockers are strong and 
to illustrate their strength, it might be mentioned that upon 
several occasions a large man has been enticed into one of the 
Icxrkers and the unsuspecting victim given a free merry-go- 
round ride therein. 

The lockers and hook- racks fKCupy a rectangidar room 17 
ft. 8 in. wide and 80 ft. 4 in. long. Pivoted-ventilator steel 
sash windows at a1x>ut 9 ft. above the floor are arranged along 
one side and at both ends of this room. At each end of the 
rcx>m is an emergency-exit door opening outward. 

Connected by an open doorway with the locker room and 
separated from it by a partition reaching only to within some 
four feet of the ceiling is the wash room. This room is 
about 9 ft. 8 in. wide and 36 ft. 6 in. long, and contains 
about 70 lineal feet of wash-trough arranged on the two sides 
and one end of the room. The men use this trough only a§ 



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2l6 



NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 



a sink or support for pails, each man providing himself with 
a paid to be used as a wash basin. This is standard prac- 
tice at all the changing houses at the Penn Mines. The trough 
is made of concrete and is so shaped as to fonn at the back a 
gutter the bottom of which slopes to catch basins discharging 
into the sewer and into which gutter each man dumps his pail 
of wash water after the completion of his ablution. The bot- 
tom of the main portion of the trough slopes slightly toward 




Croat Smcfftf 7)t ro »f A hbmJk M^fn 

the gutter so that water dumped upon it goes immediately into 
the gutter and one man's wash water does not inconvenience 
his neighbor. Hot and cold water is on tap at three foot in- 
tervals along the length of the trough. A coil of steam pipes 
attached to the wall just alx>ve the water pipes gives heat to 
the room. 

In working out the floor plat only a small sf>ace seemed 
to be available for first aid purposes. This rooin is 9 ft. 3 
in. wide by 9 ft, 11 in. long and may prove to be rather 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



217 



crami>ecl when equipped with the hospital apparatus needed 
for such a place. However, there is a very high ceiling and 
by a proj^er use of the space overhead, the floor area may be 
conserved and found sufficient when the ecjuipment is in. In 
order to give the room sanitary qualities, a heavy coating of 
enamel has been applied to the floor, walls and cealing. 

I— <-«-- 







The irregular shaped office room is also something in the 
nature of a left-over and there w^as some doubt of its being 
adequate, the floor area being only about 45 feet. However 
since it has been in use, it seems to be large enough for its 
purpose. The shift bosses go into it to write their daily re- 
ports but its greatest use is by the dry man who uses it to 
dispense carbide as well as for an office where he stands in 
taking the numbers of the men going on shift. 



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2l8 NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 

The toilet room is of ample size and contains two shower 
baths, three urinals and three closets. Each shower room has 
a vestibule where the bather may disrobe and hang up his 
clothes. The fixtures are of the ordinary tyi^e without mix- 
ing chambers. The urinals are high grade and arranged for 
ample flushing. The closets are high grade, automatic in 
action and are equipped with white enamel iron tanks. They 
have proven to be extremely satisfactory in use, and as yet 
no difficulty has been experienced in keeping them perfectly 
clean. They flush in every way similarly to an ordinary non- 
automatic, low tank closet, except that the removal of the oc- 
cupants weight from the seats takes the place of the usual act 
of pulling a chain, pushing a button, or otherwise voluntarily 
o[)erating a lever. In the opinion of the writer of this paper, 
they are far superior to the closed or air-pressure-tank type 
of automatic closet. 

Considerable thought was given to the subject of a proper 
entrance to the building. The shortcoming of most existing 
change houses was recognized in that there is no adequate 
provisions against a current of cold winter air blowing in 
through open doors upon men half naked in the operation of 
changing and washing. It was decided to have a revolving 
door, built of steel and asbestos, this has been built at our 
own shoi)s and is al)out to be set up. 

One of the conditions most essential in a modem change 
house is i^rfect cleanliness and it was necessary in the design 
to so arrange that the dry man could clean up each morning 
with a minimum expenditure of time and labor and with a 
maximum degree of perfection. The floor of the building 
which, of course, is of concrete, is so built that it slopes from 
every point in the building down to a large central catch- 
basin located in the center of the locker room. There is an 
exception to this statement in that the floor in each of the 
shower-bath rooms sloi>es locally to a small catch basin. This 
large catch basin is so provided with trap, screen, and flush- 
ing arrangements that the dryman may with impunity wash 



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220 NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 

all dirt and litter down to it. Sticks, matches, tobacco bags, 
discarded hats, all land at the catch basin, and, of course, 
there are large quantities of ore and jaspar that go the same 
way. The building is so piped that at five different points a 
one-inch hose may be readily attached for this floor washing. 
One 25 ft. length hose is sufficient to reach every part of the 
building. 

Compressed air is piped into the building and is on tap 
at several points where a small hose may be attached for blow- 
ing dust from the tops of lockers or other points of lodgment. 

The building is heated by steam, piped in from the boiler 
house. The coils located in the various rooms are each pro- 
vided with valves so that the temperature of the different 
rooms may be regulated separately. The steam pipe located 
in the monitor are in four coils, thus allowing special reg- 
ulation there, to suit the season, or special conditions. All 
water of condensation is discharged through a steam trap to 
a concrete tank located over the revolving door-way, and hot 
water is drawn from this tank for the wash room and shower 
baths. 

The illumination of the building is very satisfactory, due 
to the high windows and to white-washed walls and ceiling. 
Electric incandescent lamps are provided in plentiful number 
for night illumination. It may be mentioned that there are 
a few in the entrance way and main aisle that stay on all 
night while the great majority are switched on only at times 
when the men are in the building. The lights are arranged 
on several sub-circuits for the sake of economical control. The 
main switches and all the sub-switches are located in the office 
room excepting one Icxrated in the hospital room to control 
the lights there. 

The building is of fire resistant construction throughout. 
It is not fire-proof in a strict sense because many steel meni- 
l:)ers are exposed, but considering the contents of the building 
there is practically no risk of any fire sufficient to injure the 
stmcture. The nucleus of tlie building is a structural steel 



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Hs 



^S 



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222 NEW CHANGE HOUSE AT VULCAN MINE 

frame of somewhat unusual design. The outer cokimns are 
merged into a 6 in. concrete wall and the roof beams support 
a concrete roof. Inside of the 6 in. concrete wall is a 2 in. air 
sjxice, a layer of No. i tarred felt, a J^-in. air sjmce, and 
last of all a i-in. slab of cement plaster. The roof consists 
of a 13^ in. slab of concrete, below that an air space, a layer 
of asphalt mastic wall board, another air si>ace, and at the 
bottom a 2-in, slab of concrete. The partitions consist of 
cement plaster walls 2 in. thick. Some of these partitions 
reach entirely up to the ceiling, wiiile others of them reach 
only part way up. All the concrete and plaster work is re- 
inforced with *'Trussit" and **Self-Centering,*' furnished by 
the General Fire-Proc'fing Company. Ine steel window sash 
came from the Tnisse(' xrete Steel Company. Wooden 
storm sash are providecj /o be used in winter. They are ap-- 
plied inside the regular sash. The roof inclusive of sides and 
top of monitor is water-proofed by the application of Carey's 
Flexible Cement Roofing, with a surfacing of asphalt. The 
exterior of the walls is uniformed and slightly tinted by the 
application of "Trus-Con Stonetex." The interior of all 
walls and ceiling except in the hospital room are treated with 
white-wash. For the lower five feet of the walls the white- 
wash was stained red by the use of ix)wdered hematite. All 
the exix>sed steel work is painted black. 

The normal capacity of the building is taken as 252 men 
but it might be possil)le to take care of more should occasion 
arise. A little calculation may Ije in order. The 84 hook 
racks will each hold the underground clothing of three men, 
making the total capacity as regards hook-racks to be 252 
men. The 128 circular lockers will each normally be issued 
to two men, one man on day shift and one man on night shift, 
which would total 256 men, approximately the same as the 
hook racks accommodate. However these l(x:kers will easily 
hold two men's clothes at one time and on a pinch three men 
can crowd their clothes in. Therefore it would l)e practicable 
to assign each locker to two men on each shift and each locker 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 223 

would thus take care of the street clothes of four men. By 
thus assigning the lockers, only 63 of the 128 would be needed 
to equal the capacity of the hook-racks, and 65 lockers would 
be empty. Now there are a good many miners who work in 
dry places who could get along with the circular lockers for 
both street and mine clothes. Two men could easily occupy 
a locker together in this way and the 65 Icxkers could thus be 
made to accommodate at least 130 men. By this arrangement 
the capacity would l)e 252 plus 130 or 382 men. In computing 
the cost per man however, a capacity of 252 men is consid- 
ered. 

The work of construction has all been done by the regular 
mine force and, as is usual when done in that way, has dragged 
along so that even yet there are \v things to do, such as 
hanging permanent doors in place \./ rough temporary ones, 
supplying seats and hooks in shower bath rooms, and equip- 
ping* the hospital. Estimating the cost of the few items yet 
to be finished, the total cost amounts to $10,325.00. This cost 
includes excavation, grading, building and construction, pip- 
ing, sewerage work inside and outside of building, wiring, ex- 
perimental work, and equipment. For a capacity of 252 men 
this amounts to a cost of about $41.00 per man. 



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DISCUSSION 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 22^ 

MIXING METHODS ON MISSABE IRON RANGE. 

(Discussion of the Paper of Willard Baylies, E. D. McNeil, and J. S. 
Lutes, Committee, p. 133). 

William Kelly, Vulcan Mich: The pai)er just read 
gives us an excee<Hngly clear idea of the varying conditions 
which are met with in mining on the Missabe and the modifi- 
cations of the general methods which have been worked out in 
practice to meet these conditions. The statements are so clear- 
ly made that there is little room for discussion. 

One matter not touched on that might give additional 
value to the paper is the i^ercentage of ore recovered or con- 
versely the loss of ore in the methods that are being used 
on the Missabe Range. I am very strongly of the opinion that 
the underground methods used here result in the saving of 
a very high percentage of the original ainount of commercial 
ore in the groimd, and if this is the case, and an estimate can 
be made, the figures should have a place in this paper so that 
the methods perfected in this district may receive the credit 
to which they are justly entitled. 

Pentecost Mitchell, Duluth, Minn: I think that Mr. 
Kelly's suggestion is a gxxxl one, and that matter ought to 
be brought out. At various times estimates have been made 
and checked up very closely by some of the mining companies 
and the representatives of the fee owners. 



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228 DISCUSSION 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE PRACTICE FOR 
THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS. 

(Discussion of the Paper, p. 31). 

William Kelly, Vulcan, Mich: Mr. President, I take 
it that this reix)rt is merely a report of progress, and that we 
can look forward to a more extended report later. Am I 
correct in that hope and expectation? 

Secretary : I will say that the Committee has prepared 
this classification in the hope that it woiild get the matter 
started, and they are ver)-- anxious to receive suggestions re- 
garding the classification. They believe that it would be ad- 
visable to make reix>rts confomi to the rqx>rts of the Bureau 
of Mines, and this paper sets forth the classification adopted 
by the Bureau at the present time. If any of tiie mining com- 
panies desired to carry the detail a little further they could 
still use the general captions and elaborate their reports to 
suit reciuirements. 

Pearson Wells, Ironwood, Mich: I notice that one o^ 
the objects of the Committee was to do some work on uni- 
form, mine accident laws. I have here a copy of the report 
on that subject by the Committee appointed by the American 
Mining Congress. The Technical Society of Colorado went 
over these proposals for uniform mining laws and changed 
them to a considerable extent. I would like to put this into 
the hands of the ChaiiTnan of the Committee, but since he 
isn't here I will hand it to the Secretary. I think the Com- 
mittee can find something of value in it. The Colorado Com- 
mittee was to reix>rt to the American Mining Congress and 
also to the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and dis- 
cussion, suggestions and criticisms by other bodies interesteil 
in mining, and from mining men in general, were invited by 
the original Committee. 

(The report referred to is the *Troceeilings of the Colo- 
rado Scientific Society, Vol. X, pp. 279-414," July, 1913). 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 229 

MINE LAWS, SPECIAL RULES AND THE PREVEN- 
TION OF ACCIDENTS. 

(Discussion of the Paper of E. B. Wilson, Scranton, Pa., p. 108). 

Edwin Higgins, Ironwocxl, Mich: On page iii of this 
volume there appears a cut of a danger sign. The only ref- 
erence to it in the text is where the writer states: 

**In the absence of state mine laws to govern metal min- 
ing, it certainly is advisable that the operator apix>int a safety 
committee, make a uniform set of mine rules, make use of 
danger signs, and also issue from time to time safety pamph- 
lets for the miners all over the fields, calling attention to the 
accidents that have happened and how they may l)e avoided." 

There is a publication to come out shortly by the Bureau 
of Mines, on the use of mine signs in metal mines, and an 
important feature of that paper will be the recommendation 
of three universal signs. The Bureau has recjuested me, if 
possible, to get some discussion or some expression of opinix>n 
on these signs which it will recommend. Unless there is some 
objection to them by some mining IxKly or institution in some 
part of the metal mining country, these signs will he recom- 
mended by the Bureau as universal signs. They are as fol- 
lows : 

1. Universal danger sign: A circular red ball i>ainted on 
a white background. 

2. Universal safety sign : An arrow painted in any dis- 
tinctive color. This may be used also to indicate the direction 
to outlet shafts, main drifts, etc. 

3. Universal sign indicating ladderways : A ladder paint- 
ed in a dark color on a light colored background. 

Pearson Wells, Ironwtx>d, Mich : This suggestion came 
up at the last meeting of the Mine Association of the Go- 
gebic Range. Although we haven't come to any definite con- 
clusion on the matter, I think that the Ass(xiati(>n will be 
in favor of adopting anything that the Bureau recommends. 
I say this for the benefit of the operators on the other ranges. 
I can't say definitely that we will resolve to adopt it on the 



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230 DISCUSSION 

Gogebic Range, but it certainly looks like a good thing to us 
because the more general these things can be made the better 
it is for all concerned. Our men are migrating from place 
to place a great deal, and if we can educate them up to the 
universal sig^is it is bound to help a great deal on all the 
ranges. Mr. Higgins tells me that the Mining Association in 
the Iron Mountain district also look upon these universal 
signs favorably, in fact, I believe they have resolved to ac- 
cept what the Bureau proposes. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 23 1 

SAFETY IN THE MIXES OF THE LAKE SUPERIOR 

IRON RANGES. 
(Discussion of the Paper of Edwin Higgins, Ironwood, Mich., p. 63). 

.\. H. Fay, W^'ashington, D. C : Three years agfo I visit- 
ed the iron ranges of Minnesota and Michigan and in pass- 
ing- through a number of machine shops and also around the 
headframes, hoisting plants, etc., I noticed that some of the 
companies were putting up guard rails and other safety de- 
vices on machinery, stairways and ladderways. This, hcnv- 
ever, was only in a few places. These guard rails and other 
safety devices were still fresh from the planing mill with 
scarcely a grease mark on them, indicating that the work was 
of recent date. I find today that practically all of those have 
been replaced by pij^e and substantial frames of various kinds. 
This is not only at a few mines, but at many. The gearing 
of lathes has been enclosed; wire netting has been placed in 
front of .other dangerous machiner}'; eniery wheels have been 
covered with sheet iron; and band and circular saws have 
l^een encased. Stairways of heading frames, and in shops 
as well, have been provided with hand rails, and shaft open- 
ings provided with automatic gates or covers. In addition 
to all of these mechanical improvements there has been in 
progress a campaign of etlucation among the miners, foremen, 
and (/Iterators all of which has resulted in a decrease in the 
fatality rate in the Lake Superior district. This decrease is 
shown in the following tabulation of fatalities for 1911 and 
1912. 

FATALITY RATES IN MICHIGAN AND MINNESOTA COMPARED 
FOR THE YEARS 1911 AND 1912. 

Number 
Killed 
Number Per 1,000 
Killed. Employed. 

Michigan iron mines, 1911 G9 4.67 

Michigan iron mines, 1912 52 3.62 

Michigan copper mines, 1911 63 3.80 

Michigan copper mines. 1912 44 2.96 

Michigan total for all mines, 1911 134 4.24 

Michigan total for all mines, 1912 96 3.25 

Minnesota iron mines, 1911 76 . 4.57 

Minnesota iron mines, 1912 5Q 3.02 



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232 DISCUSSION 

It will be noted from the above table that the fatality rate 
has been decreased practically one unit in each case, and it 
is hoped that with the good work that is being done in the iron 
and copper mines of Lake Superior district that a still fur- 
ther reduction in the fatality rate may be obtained : 

Pentecost Mitchell, Duluth Minn: The figures sul> 
mitted by Mr. Fay are very interesting, and I think they should 
be included in our proceedings here this evening as showing 
the progress that has been made during the last few years. 
I think this has been general over the whole Lake Superior 
country. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 235 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Chas. T. Harvey. 

Bona in 1829, in Connecticut. In his youth he worked as 
a clerk for Josiah Wright, in a grocery store, and later on he 
became traveling salesman for the Fairbanks Scales Company. 
In 1852 he came to Marquette, an invalid, seeking health aft- 
er a severe attack of typhoid fever at his home in Connecticut. 
■ At that time he represented, as western agent, the Fairbanks 
Scales Company and looked after their business when he first 
came. 

During his visit at Marquette he saw, as had many oth- 
ers, the necessity for the locks at Sault Ste. Marie and busied 
himself immediately in starting such a project. Standing six 
feet two inches, with great personal magnetism, he soon over- 
came all opposition to such a project in the state legislature, 
and organized the Sault Ste. Marie Canal & Land Co., with 
the necessary capital to complete the canal. 

A government land grant of 750,000 acres was given for 
the building of the canal, and Mr. Han^ey was placed in 
charge of the project and personally superintended the con- 
struction of the canal, w^hich was completed in 1855. 

In 1857 Mr. Han-ey organized the first company to build 
a blast furnace in northern Michigan. It was called the Pio- 
neer furnace and was located in Negaunee. This company 
was later on absorbed by the present Pioneer Iron Company, 
with furnace at Marquette. 

He also obtained a charter for the building of a railway 
from Ishpeming to Escanaba in the early sixties and which 
is now the Peninsula division of the C. & N. W. R'y. 

Later he was awarded a state approj^riation for the best 



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236 BIOGRAPHICAL 

rapid transit system in New York city, which was the elevat- 
ed street railway. 

Throughout his life he was continually promoting" enter- 
prises of great public importance but from which he gained 
but little for himself. His ability in such matters and good 
judgment in their direction won wealth to many but in which 
he seldom shared. He died in New York city March 14, 1912. 

Louis W. Powell. 

Louis Weston Powell was iDom at Wythenalle, Va., aiid 
was a graduate of Washington and Lee University. For a 
time he was employed in the iron mines, at Virginia, coming 
to the Palms mine, at Bessemer in 1896. 

In 1900 he became connected with the Oliver Iron Mining 
Company, at Duluth, as assistant to the president. He re- 
mained with this Company, as assistant general manager, un- 
til 1906, at which time he became general manager for the 
Calumet & Arizona Mining Company, at Bisbee, Arizona, 
In 1910 he resigned this i>osition and was interested for a 
number of years, until his death, in promoting different min- 
ing comi>anies in Mexico and the Southwest. At his death, 
which occurred in New York on October 24, 1913, he was 
president of the Elenita Development Company, vice president 
of the Cananea Copper Company, and a director in other 
copper mines. 

Dr. George Koenig. 

Bom in Geniiany, 1845. Educated in Heidelberg. He 
came to America in his youth and taught chemistry for twenty 
years in the University of Pennsylvania. He established the 
first course in mining ever taught in the United States. In 
1892 Dr. Koenig joined the Michigan College of Mines, at 
Houghton, as professor of chemistr)^ 

He had a kindly humor and his lectures were very popu- 
lar with the students because he illuminated them with quiet 
fun at times. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 237 

He died January 14, 1913, at Philadelphia, of arterio 
sclerosis. 

His works on chemistry are used as text books at the 
Michig^an College of Mines and other colleges. 

A. Lanfear Norrie. 

Born in 1858; his early home was in New York city. He 
received part of his education in England. Came to the 
Xorthern Peninsula in 1885 and, having some capital, com- 
menced to explore on the then new Gogebic range. He 
located the Xorrie mine in 1885 and 1886 and then retired 
from his mining work, living principally in New York city. 
He died there December 22, 1910. 

Graham Pope. 

Mr. Poi)e was born in the city of Boston, Mass., October 
12, 1840. He was educated in the public schools there and, 
for a year following his student life, worked in a nautical and 
scientific instrument shop. He then took a position in a 
large mercantile house and there gained a business education. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Pope came to Houghton and entered the 
employ of the Isle Royale Mining Company with the inten- 
tion of following mining work thereafter. He was made 
treasurer and manager of the Houghton Copper Works in 
187 1 and continued this work for two years until the con- 
cern had to close in 1873 for lack of capital. Then for a few 
years Mr. Pope was engaged on tribute mining, until 1878, 
when he became a member of the firm of Pope, Shepherd & 
Co., later becoming sole owner. 

In 1892 Mr. Pope again entered the mining field, as 
manager of the Franklin Mine, and again gave up mining in 
1899 owning to the pressure of his private affairs. He also 
closed his mercantile business and retired to private life. 

During the Civil war Mr. Pope was a lieutenant in Com- 
pany I, Twenty-Third Michigan Volunteer Infantr}^ and was 
largely instrumental in recruiting this Houghton county com- 



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238 BIOGRAPHICAL 

f>any. He was the donor of the soldiers' moniinient in Hough- 
ton, dedicated May 30, 191 2. 

Mr. Pope was president oAhe Lake Sui>erior Mining In- 
stitute for the year 1900 and was always an enthusiastic 
supporter and member of the same. 

In 1864 he married Miss Alice H. Fielder, of Houghton, 
who died in 1876, and they are sun'ived by one son and three 
daughters. He died Sunday, July 8, 191 2. An active, aggres- 
sive man, throughout his entire life, which was nearly all 
spent in the upper peninsula; he also possessed those quali- 
ties that drew from his associates their honor, respect and 
affection. At his death there were few in the Lake Superior 
region that stood as high in the estimation of those ejigaged 
in the business of mining. 

Edwin J. Hulbert. 

Bom at Fort Brady, Sault Ste. Marie, April 30, 1829. 
He was a son of John Hulbert, of Sault Ste. Marie, and a 
nephew of Henry W. Schoolcraft, the liistorian. He was 
employed in 1857 ^^^ ^^^^ survey of the state road from Cop- 
\yer Harbor, by way of Eagle Harbor Cliff and Houghton, to 
Ontonagon and, during that time, the first discoveries of 
conglomerate boulders were made. 

He purchased lands which he thought contained copper 
veins and, in 1864, discovered the Calumet conglomerate lode 
in a pit sunk by John Hulbert, Jr., and Amos Scott. No. 4 
shaft, Calumet mine, marks the site of the pit in which the 
discovery was made. 

Mr. Hulbert had the first survey made for the Portage 
Lake canal, the work loeing done by W. H. Hearding, then 
of Houghton. For this survey he i)ersonally paid. The 
W(;rk was afterwards completed by the government. During 
his discovei*}' of the Calumet & Hecla conglomerate, ]Mr. 
Hulbert acquired large tracts of land in the vicinity of the 
original pit, the Tamarack Mine being situated upon some 
of them. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 239 

For various reasons he lost almost all his holdings and, 
not wishing to remain in the United States, moved to Rome, 
Italy, where he died October 20, 1910. 

Anson B. Miner. 

Born in Illinois in 1846. He entered a Chicago banking 
institution at an early age in the capacity of office boy. He 
soon gained a knowledge of the banking business and ad- 
vanced rapidly until he was appointed as cashier, a position 
which he filled until 1874, when the bank was burned out 
and he was forced to journey to the West because of ill 
health. He returned to Chicago after an absence of several 
years and tc-ok a position with the First National Bank, re- 
maining there until 1883 when he went to Ishpeming as cash- 
ier of the First National Bank of that city. The -bank was 
reorganized later, the name being changed to the Miners' 
National Bank, and Mr. Miner was named as cashier and 
managing director. 

He was one of the keenest bankers in the Upper Peninsula 
and his advice was sought by many. He took a great deal 
of interest in the mining business of the country and never 
failed to attend the sessions of the Institute. 

Mr. Miner was married to Miss Colter, of Ontonagon, 
at Ishpeming, and one daughter, Mary Miner, -vvas born t(^ 
them. He died at Ishpeming on January 13, 191 3, after a 
short illness., 

John McEncroe. 

Born at Detroit, Michigan, in 1834. Twenty years later 
he left his native city and started for the Upi>er Peninsula, 
stopping first at Sault Ste. Marie, where he spent a few 
months, and then journeyed to Marquette. At this place 
he secured work on the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon 
Railway, which was then being built. In 1856 he went to 
work at the Eureka Mine, located a short distance from 
Marquette. The proi>erty was operated by A. B. Ward and 



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240 BIOGRAPHICAL 

the ore was of the bog variety and was sent to the Wyandot 
furnace for smelting. The mine soon played out as the de- 
posit was small. 

In 1858 Mr. McEncroe went to Ishpeming to enter the 
employ of the Lake Superior Iron Company and he remained 
in the service of that comi>any for 53 years, being placed on 
the i^ension roll a few years prior to his death. He was one 
of a little band of ten working under Gilbert D. Johnson, 
the Company's first sui>erintendent. His first work was that 
of a miner, working in the open pits, for which he received 
seventy-five cents per day. In^ i860 he was promoted to 
the foremanship of one of the pits. In 1865 he was made 
foreman of all of the pits and all of the surface work. 

In 1873 Mr. McEncroe was made mining captain of all 
of the Company's hard ore mines, a position which he held 
continuously until he retired, with great credit to himself and 
profit to his employers. Captain McEncroe needs no greater 
c( mpliment to his ability as a miner; to his organization of 
a working force, or to his character as a stable citizen than the 
simple statement that he had been engaged with one company 
for fifty-three years. He entered the Lake Superior field when 
there were but a few mining properties and the methods of 
extracting ore were crude, and the experiences that he often 
related of the early days on the Marquette range were highly 
interesting. 

He was the oldest resident of Ishi)eming, Mich., at th* 
time of his death, which occurred on April 23, 1913. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



241 



PAST OFFICERS. 
PRESIDENTS. 



Nelson P. Hulst 1893 

J. Parke Channing 1894 

John Duncan 1895 

William G. Mather 1896 

William Kelly 1898 

Graham Pope 1900 

W. J. Olcott 1901 

Walter Fitch 1902 



George H. Abeel 1903 

O. C. Davidson 1904 

James MacNaughton 1905 

Thomas P. Cole 1906 

Murray M. Duncan 1908 

D. E. Sutherland 1909 

William J. Richards 1910 

F. W. Denton 19U 



Pentecost Mitchell 1912 

(No meetings were held in 1897, 1899 and 1907.) 
VICE PRESIDENTS. 



John T. Jones 
F. P. Mills 

John T. Jones 
F. P. Mills 

F. McM. Stanton 
Geo. A. Newett 



F. McM. Stanton 
Geo. A. Newett 



E. F. Brown 
James B. Cooper 

O. C. Davidson 
T. F. Cole 



J. H. McLean 
M. M. Duncan 



William Kelly 
Nelson P. Hulst 



1893. 
, Parke Channing 
1894. 
R. A. Parker 

1895. 

R. A. Parker 

1896. 

J. F. Armstrong 

1898. 

Ed. Ball 

1900. 

M. M. Duncan 

1901. 

Nelson P. Hulst 
1902, 

Fred Smith 



Graham Pope 
M. W. Burt 



Graham Pope 
W. J. Olcott 



Per Larsson 
W. J. Olcott 



Per Larsson 
Geo. H. Abeel 



Walter Fitch 
Geo. H. Abeel 



J. H. McLean 
F. W. Denton 



F. W. Denton 
William Kelly 

H. F. Ellard 
Wm. H. Johnston 



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2A2 



PAST OFFICERS 



H. F. Ellard 
Fred Smith 



H. F. Ellard 
Wm. H. Johnston 



M. M. Duncan 
Fred M. Prescot't 



M. M. Duncan 
J. M. Longyear 



J. M. Longyear 
F. W. Denton 



W. J. Richards 
Charles Trezona 

W. J. Richards 
John M. Bush 



E. D. Brigham 
John M. Bush 



E. D. Brigham 
Geo. H. Abeel 



1903. 

James B. Cooper 

1904. 

Fred Smith 

1905. 

F. W. McNair 

1906. 

Fred M. Prescott 

1908. 

David T. Morgan 

1909. 

D. T. Morgan 

1910. 

Frederick W. Sperr 

1911. 

Frederick W. Sperr 

1912. 

W. P. Chinn 



Wm. H. Johnston 
John H. McLean 



John H. McLean 
James B. Cooper 

John H. McLean 
J.^ B. Cooper 

F. W. McNair 
F. W. Denton 



D. E. Sutherland 
Norman W. Haire 



D. E. Sutherland 
Norman W. Haire 



Charles Trezona 
James H. Rough 

C. H. Munger 
James H. Rough 



C. H. Munger 
W. H. Jobe 



MANAGERS. 



John Duncan 
Walter Fitch 



Walter Fitch 
John Duncan 



F. P. Mills 
Ed. Ball 



F. P. Mills 
Ed. Ball 



M. M. Duncan 
J. D. GiU'hrist 



E. F. Brown 
Ed. Ball 



1893. 

William Kelly 

1894. 

M. E. Wadsworth 

1895. 

M. E. Wadsworth 

1896. 

C. H. Munger 

1898. 

T. F. Cole 

1900. 

James B. Cooper 



James MacNaughton 
Charles Munger 

C. M. Boss 
O. C. Davidson 



C. M. Boss 
O. C. Davidson 



Graham Pope 
William Kelly 



Graham Pope 
O. C. Davidson 



Walter Fitch 
George H. Abeel 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 243 

1901. 
James B. Cooper James Clancey 

James MacNaughton (One Vacancy) J. L. Greatsinger 

1902. 
James Clancey Graham Pope 

J. L. Greatsinger Amos Shephard T. F. Cole 

1903. 
Graham Pope T. F. Cole 

Amos Shephard W. J. Richards John McDowell 

1904. 
John McDowell Thomas F. Cole 

Wm. J. Richards Graham Pope Amos Shephard 

1905. 
John C. Greenway H. B. Sturtevant 

John McDowell William Kelly Wm. J. Richards 

1906. 
John C. Greenway H. B. Sturtevant 

Jas. R. Thompson William Kelly Felix A. Vogel 

1908. 
James R. Thompson J. Ward Amherg 

Felix A. Vogel John C. Greenway Pentecost Mitchell 

1909. 
F. E. Keese J. Ward Amberg 

W. J. Uren L. M. Hardenhurg Pentecost Mitchell 

1910. 
Frank E. Keeae L. M. Hardenburg 

Charles. B. Lawrence William J. Uren William J. West 

1911. 
Charles E. Lawrence William J. West 

Peter W. Pascoe J. B. Cooper L. C. Brewer 

1912. 
Peter Pascoe J. B. Cooper L. C. Brewer 

M. H. Godfrey J. E. Jopling 

TREASURERS. 

C. M. Boss 1893 

A. C. Lane 1894 

Geo. D. Swift 1895-1896 

A. J. Yungbluth •. 1898-1900 

Geo. H. Abeel 190M902 

E. W. Hopkins 1903- 

SECRETARIES. 

F. W. Denton 1893-1S9G 

F. W. Denton and F. W. Sperr 1898 

F. W. Sperr 1900 

A. J. Yungbluth 1901-. . . . 



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244 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED BY THE INSTITUTE. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 99 John Street, New 
York City. 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, 505 Pearl Street, 
New York City. 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 220 West 57th Street, New 
York City. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boslon, Mass. 

Western Society of Engineers, 1734-41 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

The Mining Society of Nova Scotia, Halifax, N. S. 

Canadian Mining Institute, Ottawa. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Montreal. 

Institute of Mining Engineers, Neville Hall, Newcastle Upon-Tyne, 
England. 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England. 

Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, Jo- 
hanneshurg, S. A. 

American Mining Congress, 1510 Court Place, Denver, Colo. 

State Bureau of Mines, Colorado, Denver, Colo. 

Reports of the United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Geological Survey of Ohio State University, Columbus, O. 

Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Okla. 

University of Oregon, Library, Eugene, Oregon. 

Case School of Applied Science, Department of Mining & Metal- 
lurgy, Cleveland, Ohio. 

University of Illinois, Exchange Department, Urbana, Ills. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

The Mining Magazine, 178 Salisbury House, London, E. C. 

Mines and Mining, 1824 Curtis Street, Denver, Colo. 

Engineering-Contracting, 355 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ills. 

Mining & Engineering World, Monadnock Block, Chicago, Ills. 

Mining Science, Denver Colo. 

Mining & Scientific Press, 6G7 Howard Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Mexican Mining Journal, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Stahl und Eisen, Dusseldorf, Germany, Jacobistrasse 6. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



245 



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APPENDIX 



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Printing by The O. F. Collier Press 
Engravings by Duluth-Photo Engraving Co. 



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Duluth and the Minnesota 
Iron Ranges 



Q Data and views showing 
the scope of operations 
pertaining to the mining, 
transportation and smelting 
of Iron Ore in Northern 
Minnesota :: 




Compiled and arranged b}f 
W. W. J. CROZE, Hiniiig Engineer 

DULUTH. MINN. 

1913 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Lake Superior Mining Institute. 
LOCAL COMMITTEES FOR 1 8th ANNUAL MEETING. 



T. F. Cole 

A. L. Ordean 
Jno. A. Savage 
C. A. Congdon 

B. W. How 

R. B. Whiteside 
James A. Ferguson 
Jas. D. Ireland 
Julius H. Barnes 
Geo. D. Swift 
A. D. Thomson 
Jos. B. Cotton 
A. M. Chisholm 
H. M. Peyton 
H. W. Brown 



RECEPTION 

Geo. A. St. Clair, Chairman 

A. M. Marshall 

W. J. Olcott 

M. H. Alworth 

C. A. Luster 

Jno. G. Williams 

W. N. Ryerson 

G. G. Bamum 

Judge Page Morris 

R. B. Knox 

Cuyler Adams 

Capt. Alex. McDougal 

Hon. E. B. Hawkins 

C. A. Duncan 

G. A. Tomlinson 



Geo. L. Reis 
J. L. Washburn 
Hon. W. I. Prince 
Capt. Ernest D. Peek 
Joseph Sellwood 
W. C. Agnew 
J. B. Adams 

F. D. Orr 

G. G. Hartley 
Chas. d*Autremont 
O. W. Johnstone 
Herbert Warren 
F. A. Brewer 
W. G. La Rue 



C. H. Munger 
Geo. H. Crosby 

D. E. Woodbridge 



ARRANGEMENTS 

John H. McLean, Chairman 

D. M. Philbin 
R. M. Sellwood 
D. L. Fairchild 



Geo. D. Swift 
W. W. J. Croze 
W. H. Cole 



F. E. House 
J. R. Michaels, 
Thos. Owens 



TRANSPORTATION 

W. A. McGonagle, Chairman 

W. W. Walker 
A. V. Brown 
Oscar Mitchell 



C. O. Jenks 
J. W. Kreitter 
Geo. M. Smith 



S. S. Rumsey 
J. H. Hearding 
J. D. Ireland 



ENTERTAINMENT 

Francis J. Webb, Chairman 

A. B. Coales 
J. G. Vivian 
W. J. West 
4 



L. R. Salsich 
W. P. Chinn 
J. S. Lutes 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNE SOTA 

ITINERARY 

Lake Superior Mining Institute 

TUESDAY. AUGUST 26th. 1913: 

Headquarters at Spalding Hotel, Duluth. 

Leave Fifth Avenue dock by Steamer "Columbia" for steel plant 

at 2:00 P. M.. returning to Duluth between 6:00 P. M. and 7:00 

P. M. 
Leave Duluth by special train, via Duluth & Iron Range Railroad. 

from Union Depot at 12:00 o'clock midnight for 'Aurora. 
WEDNESDAY. AUGUST 27th, 1913: 

Breakfast on train at Aurora. Leave at 8:00 A. M. by automobile 

for the following mines: Biwabik, Corsica, Elba, Schley. Pettit. 

Genoa, Fayal. Adams and Spruce. 
Luncheon at Glode Hotel. Eveleth. 12:00 o'clock noon. 
Leave Eveleth 1 :30 P. M. and visit the following mines: Norman. 

Union, Commodore, Lincoln. Alpena and Virginia & Rainy Lake 

Company's saw mill. 
Baseball game at 4:00 P. M. at Virginia between Northern League 

teams. 
Dinner at Elk's Club. Virginia. 6:30 P. M. 
Business meeting. Virginia High School, 8:00 P. M. 
Elks Club and Virginia Club will be open in the afternoon and evening 

to all members of the Institute. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 28th, 1913: 

Breakfast on train at Virginia. Leave at 8:00 A. M. by automobile 

for following mines: Brunt, Mountain Iron. Wacoutah. Kinney. 

Whiteside. Woodbridge, Grant and Shenango. 
Luncheon at 1 2 :00 o'clock noon at Chisholm, in Bergeron Hall. 
Leave Chisholm 1 :30 P. M. and visit the following mines: Leonard 

and Monroe. 
Arrive at Fair Grounds, Hibbing, 3:30 P. M. Attend horse races. 
Dinner on train at 6:30 P. M. 
Vaudeville entertainment. Armory, 8:30 P. M. 
Algonquin and Oliver Clubs will be open in afternoon and evening to 

the Institute Members. 
FRIDAY, AUGUST 29th, 1913: 

Breakfast on train at Hibbing. Leave at 8:00 A. M. for Hull-Rust, 

Burt-Pool, Sellers and Buffalo & Susquehanna Mines. 
Leave on Great Northern Railway at 10:30 A. M., visiting the fol- 
lowing mines: Stevenson. St. Paul, Bray, Hawkins, Crosby, Hill, 

Holman and Canisteo, arriving at Coleraine between 5:00 and 6:00 

P. M. 
Luncheon and dinner on train. 
Moving pictures of Missabe Range mines and business meeting. Village 

Hall, 8:00 P. M. 
SATURDAY. AUGUST 30ih. 1913: 
Breakfast on train at Coleraine. 
Leave at 8:00 A. M. for inspection of Concentrating and Power 

Plants. 
Leave Coleraine, via Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway, at 10:30 

A. M. for Duluth. 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 




HISTORY of DULUTH 

HE HISTORY of Duluth commences with Daniel de 
Gresolon, Sieur Dulhut, one of the explorers of the 
Upper Mississippi, who came to the head of the lakes 
in the summer of 1679. Radisson and Groseillier, and 
Claude Allouez, a Jesuit priest, preceeded Dulhut to 
the Lake Superior district, and are supposed to have 

visited the head of the lakes, but there is no authentic account 

previous to that of Dulhut. 

Q In I 792 the fur traders established a fort at Fond du Lac, on the 
St Louis river, 1 5 miles above the present city of Duluth. In the 
early 30*s there were a few ttered squatters at Oneota and around 
the George Stuntz trading post on Minnesota Point In 1833-36 the 
setdement on Minnesota Point was called Duluth, commemorating 
the name of Dulhut. 

fl The first railroad was built to the head of the lakes in 1870. The 
charter for this road had been granted in 1861 to the Lake Superior 
and Mississippi Railroad Company, afterward called the St. Paul and 
Duluth, and which is now a part of the Northern Pacific. 

Q In 1870 the population of Duluth was about 1,200, and Oneota 
300; 1880,3,480; 1890.33,113; 1900,32,969; 1910,78,184. 




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;/ 



St. LouiB County Court House, Duluth, Minnesota 



Club House, Northland Country Club 
9 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Aflinnesota Steel Company Shop Buildings 

^ The plant of the Minnesota Steel G>mpany is located on 
the St. Louis River, nine miles from Union Depot at Duluth, 
on a tract of 1 300 acres, with two miles of water front and 
connected by the Spirit Lake Transfer Ry. and Interstate 
Railroad, with all railroads entering Duluth or Superior. The 
present plans include: 

Two blast furnaces— 300 tons daily capacity each; thin lined, water cooled shells; 

10 stoves, gas washers, etc. 
Ninety Koppers type by-product coke stoves. 
Ten open hearth furnaces — rated capacity 73 tons each. (EUich furnace equipped 

with 400 h. p. boiler for utilizing waste heat.) 
Four 4-hole soaking pits. 
One 40-in. reversing Blooming Mill, steam driven, with low pressure turbine 

generator set. 
One 28- in. finishing mill — Motor driven 
One 16-in. continuous roughing train with J 

7 t!'"j In'^"- t^\^"^ > Motor driven 

2 5tand lU-m. hnishmg i 

2 Stand 8-in. finishing ) 

Power house — 10,000 K W capacity 

Five blowing engines - gas driven, 20,000 cu. ft. capacity each. 

Pumping station — 40,000,000 gallons daily capacity 

Machine Forge and Structural Shop. 

Three continuous reheating furnaces — regenerating type, end discharge, designed to 

use 16-foot billets. Elstimated daily capacity of 1,000 tons ingots. 
All buildings steel frames, enclosed with two-piece concrete blocks. 

^ The company are also erecting 1 75 houses containing 
350 apartments. A cement plant with a capacity of 4000 
barrels per day will also be built. 

10 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



GREAT NORTHERN POWER COMPANY 

4 The Great Northern Power Company started a commercial 
operation July Ist, 1908, with ten customers, using 16,000 horse- 
pow^er. Today it is supplying forty customers using 40,000 horse- 
power. These customers include railway companies, lighting com- 
panies in Duluth and Superior, also power for pumping the water 
supply to the city of Duluth and several miscellaneous customers 
including sixteen of the twenty-one coal docks at the head of the 
lakes. 

4 The installation consists of three 1 3,000 horsepower units and a 
20,000 horsepower unit is to be put in this winter. 

4 The plant is fifteen miles from the center of the city and the 
present development has an effective head of 373 feet at the Power 
House. The company owns the further rights for a 70 foot develop- 
ment at Fond du Lac. 

4 Rates for power are lower than at any other lake port for simi- 
lar service and range from one to two cents per kilowatt hour or from 
$10 to $30 per horsepower per year, depending upon the average 
use of horsepower installed. 

^ The Power Company can only handle customers with an 
installed capacity of 30 or more horsepo.wer; the small customers 
being served by the local lighting companies in the two cities. 

^ The total capacity of the plant with no steam auxiliaries is 
1 00,000 horsepower and with steam auxiliaries, this can be increased 
to a considerable extent 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



ZENITH FURNACE COMPANY 

Q In 1 903 an organization was perfected at Duluth, having for its 
primary motive the manufacture of Bessemer and Foundry pig iron, 
for the purpose of supplying the trade tributary to the Head of the 
Lakes. 

Q Until the completion of the immense steel plant of the United 
States Steel Corporation, now under construction on the St Louis 
River, a few miles beyond the location of the Zenith Furnace Com- 
pany, the latter will enjoy the distinction of operating the only blast 
furnace on the South Shore of Lake Superior producing Bessemer and 
Foundry coke iron. 

Q The most serious obstacle confronting the enterprise at its incep- 
tion was the inability to obtain high grade coke at prices which were 
not prohibitive. This problem was eventually satisfactorily solved 
by the installation of a battery of fifty by-product coke ovens. 

Q The daily consumption of this battery of ovens is about 373 tons 
of the highest qusJity of Youghiogheny gas coal screenings, produc- 
ing about 260 tons of Bessemer coke for blast furnace use. 

Q The by-products are gas, which is supplied to the cities of 
Duluth and Superior for illuminating, cooking and heating purpose*, 
tar and ammonia. 

Q Only the purest Thin Vein Youghiogheny gas coal, mined in the 
Pittsburgh district, is suitable for the production of Zenith coke, and 
after the screenings are separated from the run of pile coal, which is 
received in cargo lots, the screened coal is sold to the steam and 
domestic trade in two sizes, which have long since become well and 
favorably known throughout the northwest under the names of 
Zenith Lump and Zenith Stove coal. 

Q The cleanest of preparation and promptness in filling shipping 
instructions have been specialties with the Zenith Furnace Company's 
dock organization, and to the latter end it operates its own terminal 
railway, in preference to depending upon the railroads for switching 
service. 

Q The annual capacity of the Zenith Furnace Company now 
aggregates about 600,000 tons of coal, 1 00,000 tons of coke, 73,000 
tons of pig iron, 700,000,000 cubic feet of gas, 600,000 pounds of 
ammonia and 1 ,200,000 gallons of tar. 

15 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 

"Che IRON RANGES of MINNESOTA 

^JTHE FIRST mention of iron bearing formation in this region is 
111 by Norwood in 1852, but it was not until 1875 that we have 
^^ any record of work being done to establish the economic 
value of the district. In this year Prof. A. H. Chester examined 
the Missabe range from Embarrass Lake eastward to Birch Lake* 
In the greater portion of the district examined by Prof. Chester, the 
formation is highly magnetic and has never produced bodies of 
merchantable ore. Shortly after attention was almost wholly diverted 
from the Missabe by the discovery of ore on the Vermilion range. 

4 In the early 80's, Mr. Geo. C. Stone succeeded in interesting 
Mr. Charlemange Tower in the ore deposits on the Vermilion range 
near Tower. The first shipment of ore was made in 1 884. In 1 886 
the whole property including mines, railroad, docks, and land grant 
was sold to the Minnesota Iron Company and later, on the organiz- 
ation of the U. S. Steel Corporation, became a part of the holdings of 
that corporation. The first mine to be developed near Elly, 2 1 miles 
east of Tower, was the Chandler, which began shipping in the fall of 
1 888. Since then the Pioneer, Zenith, Sibley and Savoy have been 
opened in what is known as the Elly trough. A new mine called the 
Section 30 is being worked on another trough about 3 miles east of Ely. 

4 On the Missabe range, ore was discovered in the fall of 1890 
near the present Mountain Iron mine by the Messrs. Merritt of 
Duluth, and in the fall of the following year on the Biwabik property 
by the same parties. Since these discoveries the development of this 
range has been phenomenal. 

4 The Cuyuna Range was located from the results of magnetic 
work done by Mr. Cuyler Adams about the year 1895. Very litde 
was done, other than magnetic research work, until the year 1 904 
when the first drilling was started in Sec. 1 6, Town 46, Range 28, 
about a mile southeast of Deerwood. 

4 The first shipment of ore from the Cu3mna Range was made 
in 1911 from the Kennedy mine. 

fl Minnesota furnishes yearly about three-fifths of the iron ore 
produced in the United States; the shipments during 1912 amounting 
to 34,197,501 tons. 

Missabe Range 32.047,409 tons 

Vermilion Range 1.844,981 tons 

Cuyuna Range 303, 1 1 1 tons 

Lake Superior District 48.221,546 tons 

TOTAL IRON ORE PRODUCED TO JAN. I. 1913. 

Lake Superior District 574. 125,258 tons 

( Missabe Range 279,067.325 tons 

Minnesota < Vermilion Range 33,262,473 tons 

( Cuyuna Range 452,542 tons —3 1 2.782,340 tons 

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VERMILION RANGE 

^JTHE vermilion range extends from the vicinity of Tower to 
flL and beyond the international boundary, crossing into Canada 
^^ at the eastern end of Hunter's Island. Merchantable bodies 
of ore have been discovered at but two localities along this 
extent, one at Tower and the other near Ely. 

^ The iron bearing formation of this range occupies the lowest 
position geologically of any of the Lake Superior iron formations, 
being designated by Van Hise and Clements as in the Archean. 

Q At the Minnesota mine the ore is a dense hard hematite occur- 
ing in irregular connected and disconnected lense shaped bodies in 
the jasper, which is intricately infolded in the spheroidal greenstone 
or green schists, so-called on account of a characteristic spheroidal 
parting. The strike is about east and west and the dip approximately 
vertical with a westerly pitch. The underground workings at this 
mine are some 4,500 feet in extent east and west, and over 1,500 
feet in depth. The structure here is probably the most complex in 
the Lake Superior iron districts. Above the iron bearing formation, 
geologically, comes the basal conglomerate of the Lower Huronian, 
arr3ring large boulders and masses of the iron bearing rocks. 

9 The ores at Ely differ from the preceeding, mainly in their 
physical structure, being much more broken and friable. The area 
in which they lie is a double ended trough about two miles in length 
east and west and some 1,500 feet in width. The general dip is 
nearly vertical and the pitch of the ore bodies at the west end of the 
trough, is to the east, while the pitch of those at the east end is to 
the west. The iron formation here, as at the Minnesota mine, lies in 
a trough of the older spheroidal greenstone, but the folding is not so 
close. Intrusive masses and dikes of granitic porphyry and basic 
eruptives cut the whole series. 




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A Shaft, Pioneer Mine, Elly. Minnesota 



B Shaft, Pioneer Mine, Ely, Minnesota 
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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 

MISSABE RANGE 

^ The ores of the Missabe are red, brown and yellow hematites 
and limonites, more or less hydrated, and are secondary replace- 
ments or enrichments of the jasper. They are supposed to be 
mainly derived from the silicates of iron, which are abundant in the 
rocks of the iron formation, and to a less degree from siderite. In 
physical structure they vary from a fairly compact phase to earthy 
or powdery phases, and are comparatively high in moisture. At the 
west end of the range the ores are more or less "sandy," a condition 
evidcndy resulting from the decomposition of the cherty layers in 
the banded iron and chert. 

Q The first ore from the Missabe range was shipped from the 
Mountain Iron mine over the Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railroad 
in 1892. The total shipments during that year amounted to 4,248 
tons. Since that time the Mountain Iron mine has produced 
I 7,200,000 tons. 

IRON ORE PRODUCTION. 

1911 22,093,532 tons 

1912 32.047,409 " 

Total to January 1.1913 - - 2 79.067.325 " 

Q Since the Missabe range opened there has been removed 
205,949.000 cubic yards of stripping. The total excavation, taking 
into account the ore and stripping, is as follows: 

1892 to 1900 stripping - 22,089,000 cu. yds. 

1901 to 1913 " - 183,860,000 " " 

1 892 to 1 900 ore (estimated) 1 5,700.000 " " 

1901 to 1913 ore - 123 ,833,6 00 " " 

Grand Total - 345,482,C00 " " 

fl Besides this, 5,000.000 cubic yards of lean ore has been put in 
stock pile. The total excavation for the Panama Canal is, according 
to the latest figures, 2 1 8, 1 38,300 cubic yards. 




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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



List of Mines on the Missabe Range 

With Name of Mine, Operating Company and Elstimated 
Shipments for 1913. 



OLIVER IRON MINING COMPANY'S MINES 



Mine 


Operating Company^ 


Adams 


Oliver '. 


ron Mining Company 


Auburn 


Oliver ] 


Iron Mining Company 


Burt-Pool-Day 


Oliver 


[ron Mining Company 


Canisteo 


Oliver 


[ron Mining Company 


Canton 


Oliver 


[ron Mining Company 


Chisholm 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Clark . . 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Dale . . 


Oliver 1 


[ron Mining Company 


Duluth 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Fay . . 


Oliver ] 


Iron Mining Company 


Fayal . . 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Genoa-Sparta 


Oliver ] 


iron Mining Company 


Gilbert 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Glen . . 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Graham 


Oliver 1 


[ron Mining Company 


Harold 


Oliver 1 


Ton Mining Company 


Hartley 


Oliver 


Ton Mining Company 


Higgins 


Oliver 


[ron Mining Company 


Hill . . . 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Holman 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


HuU-Rust . 


Oliver 1 


Ton Mining Company 


Judd . . 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Leonard 


Oliver 1 


ron Mining Company 


Leonidas 


Oliver 1 


ron Mining Company 


Lone Jack . 


Oliver ] 


Ton Mining Company 


McKinley 


Oliver 1 


Ton Mining Company 


Mace 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Minnewas 


Oliver 


ron Mining Company 


Missabe Mountaii 


1 Oliver 


ron Mining Company 


Mississippi 


Oliver 


ron Mining Company 


Monroe-Tener 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Morris 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Mountain Iron 


Oliver ] 


Ton Mining Company 


Myers 


Oliver 1 


Ton Mining Company 


Norman 


Oliver ] 


ron Mining Company 


Ohio . . 


Oliver 1 


[ron Mining Company 


Pillsbury 


. Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 


Sauntry-Alpena 


Oliver 1 


ron Mining Company 


Sellers . . 


Oliver 1 


[ron Mining Company 


Sharon 


. Oliver 


iron Mining Company 


Spruce 


Oliver 1 


ron Mining Company 


Stephens 


Oliver ] 


[ron Mining Company 



Estimated 

Shipm'ts ' 1 3 

932.000 



695.000 
1.100.000 



600.000 
450.000 
560,000 

260.666 
1.271.000 
1.020.000 

185.000 



100.000 
245.000 



810.000 

775.000 
3.742.000 

100.000 
1.525.000 

555.000 



150.000 

325,666 
275.000 
500.000 



90.000 
400.000 



1 .600.000 
244.000 

750.666 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 





Estimated 


Mine 


Operating Company Shipm'ts ' 1 3 


St. Clair . 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 


Sullivan 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 








Una— North 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 






275.000 


Uno — South 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 






875.000 


Vivian 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 






15.000 


Walker 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 








Weed . . 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 








Winifred 


Oliver Iron Mining Company 






40.666 


Total 








70 4^4 000 


PICK/ 


^NDS, MATHER & COMPANY'S MINES 


Albany 


Pickands, Mather & Company . . 350.000 


Bangor 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




130.000 


Corsica 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




250.000 


Elba . . 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




125.000 


Hudson 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




250.000 


Kellogg 


Pickands. Mather & Company 






Malta . . 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




90.666 


Minorca 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




80.000 


Mohawk 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




200.000 


Scranton 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




240.000 


Troy 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




70.000 


Utica . . 


Pickands. Mather & Company 




350.000 


Virginia 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




350.000 


Yawkey 


Pickands, Mather & Company 




50.000 


Total 






2535000 


REPUBLIC IRON & S I'EEL COMPANY'S MINES 


Bray . . 


Republic Iron & Steel Company . . 100.000 


Franklin 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




50.000 


Kinney 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




500.000 


Mariska 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 






Monica 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




75.666 


Onondaga 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




40.000 


Pettit . . . 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




200.000 


Schley . . . 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




200,000 


Union 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 




285.000 


Victoria 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 






Wills . . 


Republic Iron & Steel Company 






Total 






1 .450.666 


M 


. A. HANNA & COMPANY'S MINES 


Brunt . . 


M. A. Hanna & Company . . . 200.000 


Croxton 


M. A. Hanna & Company . . . 75.000 


Frantz 


M. A. Hanna & Company 


Hanna 


M. A. Hanna & Company . . . 300,000 
24 






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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Mine 
Hobart 
La Rue 

Sliver 



Total 



Operating Company 
M. A. Hanna & Company 
M. A. Hanna & Company 
M. A. Hanna & Company 



Estimated 
Shipm^ts ' I 3 



250,000 

325,000 

1.150.000 



Adriatic 

Cyprus 

Monow 

Pearson 

Perkins 



Total 



JOSEPH SELLWOOD GROUP OF MINES 

Joseph Sellwood 

Joseph Sellwood 

Joseph Sellwood 

Joseph Sellwood 

Joseph Sellwood 



125.000 
100.000 
100.000 
125.000 
150,000 
600.000 



THE SHENANGO FURNACE COMPANY'S MINES 



Shenango 
Webb . . 
Whiteside 

Total 



TTie Shenango Furnace Company 
The Shenango Furnace Company 
The Shenango Furnace Company 



1.000.000 
300.000 
300,000 

1.600.000 



JONES & LAUGHLIN STEEL COMPANY'S MINES 



Columbia 

Fowler-Meadow 

Grant 

Leetonia 

Lincoln 

Longyear 

Nassau 

Total 



Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company 



100.000 
650.000 
500,000 
200.000 
200.000 

1.650.666 



PITT IRON MINING COMPANY'S MINES 



U Belle 
Miller . 
Ruddy 
Wacotah 

Total 



Pitt Iron Mining Company 
Pitt Iron Mining Company 
Pitt Iron Mining Company 
Pitt Iron Mining Company 



15.000 

350.000 

40.000 

405.666 



Madrid 
Section 17 . 
Seville 

Total 



A. B. COATFS GROUP OF MINES 

A. B. Coates 

. A. B. Coates 

. A. B. Coates 



95.000 

30.000 

5.000 

1 30.000 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 

ARTHUR IRON MINING COMPANY'S MINES 

Estimated 
Mine Operating Company Shipm^ts * 1 3 

(Great Northern Ore Properties) 

Dean Arthur Iron Mining Company 

Dunwoody Arthur Iron Mining Company 

Smith Arthur Iron Mining Company 

GEO. A. ST. CLAIR GROUP OF MINES 

Spring . . Geo. A. St. Clair 

Silverton Geo. A. St. Clair 

Ajax . . . Geo. A. St. Clair 

Hector Geo. A. St. Clair 



CORRIGAN. McKINNEY & COMPANY'S MINES 



St. James . Corrigan, McKinney & Company 

St. Paul Corrigan, McKinney & Company 

Stevenson Corrigan. McKinney & Company 

Commodore Corrigan, McKinney & Company 



Total 



600.000 
1,000,000 
1.600.000 



INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY'S MINES 

Agnew International Harvester Company 1 00.000 

Hawkins International Harvester Company 500,000 

Total 600,000 

OGLEBAY, NORTON & COMPANY'S MINES 
Woodbridge Oglebay, Norton & Company ... 1 50,000 

BUFFALO & SUSQUEHANNA COMPANY'S MINES 

(Rogers-Brown Ore Company) 

Iroquois Buffalo & Susquehanna Company 1 50.000 

Susquehanna Buffalo & Susquehanna Company I.I 00.000 

Total 1,250.000 

NEW YORK STATE STEEL COMPANY'S MINES 
Knox . . . H. F. Kendall. Receiver .... 20,000 

INLAND STEEL COMPANY'S MINES 

Grace Inland Steel Company .... 1 00,000 

Laura Inland Steel Company .... 200.000 

Total 300.000 

26 

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IR ON INDUSTRY OF M I_N N E S OTA 

MAHONING ORE & STEEL COMPANY'S MINES 

Estimated 

Mine Operating Company Shiprnts * 1 3 

Mahoning Mahoning Ore & Steel G>mpany 2,000,000 

TOD-STAMBAUGH COMPANY'S MINES 
Morton Tod-Stambaugh & Company ... 1 50,000 

CLEVELAND-CLIFFS IRON COMPANY'S MINES 
Crosby . Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company . . 250,000 

BIWABIK MINING COMPANY'S MINES 

(Tod-Stambaugh & Co.) 

Biwabik Biwabik Mming Company . 300,000 

Cincinnati Biwabik Mining Company . 

Total 300,000 

CLARE IRON COMPANY'S MINES 
Elizabeth Clare Iron Company . . . 

MERIDEN IRON COMPANY'S MINES 
Pearce Meriden Iron Company .... 1 20,000 

SWALLOW & HOPKINS' MINES 
Helmer Swallow & Hopkins 50,000 

KEEWATIN MINING COMPANY'S MINES 
Bennett Keewatin Mining Company 

KABEKONA IRON COMPANY'S MINES 
Kabekona Kabekona Iron Company 

CAVOUR MINING COMPANY'S MINES 

Cavour . Cavour Mining Company ... 1 50,000 

D. C. REED (Virginia, Minn.) 
Roberts . . D. C. Reed 

YAWKEY ESTATE 
Larkin . . Yawkey Estate 

27 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 

MORRIS IRON COMPANVS MINES 

Estimated 

Mine Operating Companif Shipints ' I 3 

Allen Morris Iron Company .... 50,000 

SECTION 4 MINES COMPANY'S MINES 
Section 4 . Section 4 Mines Company . . 



THOMAS FURNACE COMPANY'S MINES 
Williams Thomas Furnace Company ... 1 35,000 

REDWOOD MINING COMPANY'S MINES 
Holland . Redwood Mining Company . . 



WHITE IRON LAKE IRON COMPANY'S MINES 

Euclid . White Iron Lake Iron Company . 25,000 

Grand Total 37,134,000 




28 



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Mine Location Virginia, Minnesota 



A Type of Sanitary Alley, Mine Location— Virginia, Minnesota 

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Interior View of Bray Mine Change House, Keewatin, Minnesota. 



Brunt Mine — Ore Dryer, Mountain Iron, Minnesota. 

Plant consists of two dryers, each of a capacity of 40 tons of dried ore per hour, 

and two dryers each of a capacity of 20 tons of dried ore per hour. Ore 

is reduced in moisture from around 18 per cent to 6 per cent 



40 



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I I? ON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



No. 4 Shaft, Spruce Mine, Eveleth, Minnesota 



Mine Location — Monroe Mine, Chisholm, Minnesota 
41 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Safety Houses — Men use these to protect themselves from flying material 
hurled by blasting in tte pits 



^-r: 



Type of Elngine used on the Missabe Range. 
Note the guard railings for protection of men. 



42 



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Concentrating Plant, Coleraine, Minnesota 

fl A large portion of the ore on the Western Missabe Range 
occurs mixed with sand, making it necessary to build wash- 
ing plants to remove the worthless material and bring the 
ore to a merchantable grade. 

fl The Concentrating Plant at Coleraine consists of five units, 
each unit comprising the following: 

1 Receiving bin, 

1-20 ft. revolving screen, 2 in. holes, 

I Picking belt, 

2-25 ft. log washers, 

2-18 ft. "turbo" washers, 
20 Overstrom tables, 

I Shipping pocket. 
Necessary settling tanks, rock bins, sapd pumps and 
driving mechanism. 

^ Elach unit is operated by a 1 00 h. p. motor. The capacity of 
each unit is 4,000 tons of crude ore per day, or a total of 
20,000 Ions per day. 

fl All structural work was furnished and erected by The 
American Bridge Co. 

^ In the mill, trestle and tail track, there are 6,400 tons of steel. 

fl The Power Plant comprises the following: 
6-72 in.xl8 ft. H. T. boilers with tile stack. 
1-26x52 and 1 6x48 Prescott, Cross Compound, Condensing 
Pumping-engine; capacity 12,000,000 gallons, delivering 
through a 30 in. steel main to mill, 
1-26 and 52x48 Cross Compound, Condensing, Corliss 
engine, direct connected to 1 250 K. V. A., 6,600 volt, 60 
cycle generator. 
The necessary exciter sets, (switchboard, transformers, etc.) 

44 

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CUYUNA RANGE 

fl The Cuyuna Range lies in the vicinity of Deerwood, 100 
miles west of Duluth. 

^ The occurrence of the ore deposits on the Cuyuna 
Range differs greatly from that of the Missabe. The Cuyuna, 
in a broad sense, occurs as a series of detached lenses or 
bodies of iron bearing material, in connection with the great 
slate area which abounds throughout this secStion of the State. 
Within these lenses of iron bearing rocks, the ore deposits 
are found. The ore bodies dip steeply from the horizontal, 
conforming to the dip of the slates, their long dimensions 
being about parallel and lying in a northeast and southwest 
direction. The south range consists of a long, narrow belt, 
containing a series of iron formation lenses, lying close to- 
gether, parallel and overlapping. The deposits on the north 
range are more scattered and cover a larger area. 

^ The Kennedy is the pioneer mine of this range. This 
property is worked by the Rogers Brown Company. 

^ Shipments from the Cuyuna Range began in 191 1 and 
to Jan. 1, 1913 amounted to 452,542 tons. In 1912 there 
were four producing mines; Kennedy, Armour No. 1 , Armour 
No. 2. and Thompson. Other properties are being opened; 
one called the Pennington is to be stripped and the ore mined 
by steam shovel. 




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Kennedy Mine, Cuyuna Range 



Armour Mine, No. I, Cuyuna Range 
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RAILROADS 

DULUTH & IRON RANGE RAILROAD. 

^ The Duluth & Iron Range Railroad was built from Two Haibon to the Ver- 
milion Range at Tower, a distance of 67.6 miles, in 1884, and extended to Ely, 21 
miles east of Tower, in 1888. It was built into Duluth in 1886. and branches were 
extended from its main line to the Missabe mines in 1892 and 1893. 

DULUTH. MISSABE & NORTHERN RAILWAY. 

^ The Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway was constructed from Stony Brook 
to Mountain Iron, a distance of 48 miles, in 1892. The Biwabik branch from Iron 
Junction to Biwabik. a distance of 15 miles, was constructed in 1892. The Superior 
branch from Wolf to Hibbing, a distance of 16 miles, was constructed in 1893. The 
Duluth extension from Columbia Junction to Duluth, a distance of 29 miles, was 
completed in 1893. The Albom branch from Coleraine Junction to Coleraine, a 
distance of 53 miles, was constructed in 1906. The HuU-Rust short line from HuD 
Junction to Hull-Rust Mine, 18 miles, was built in 19 II. 

GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY LINE. 
Missabe Division. 

^ The Great Northern Railway Line acquired what is now its Missabe Division, 
over which line ore is transported from Missabe Range mines to docks at Allouez, 
Wisconsin, by purchase of the Duluth, Superior and Western Railway (Duluth and 
Winnipeg) in 1898. At time of purchase this line extended from Duluth to Deer 
River, connecting with the Duluth, Mississippi River and Northern Railway at Swan 
River, this latter road extending to the mines. In 1898 the purchase of the Duluth 
and Mississippi River and Northern Road was atfected, which gave the Great 
Northern a line through to Barclay Junction, (now Chisholm), Minnesota. In 1900 
and 1901 extension was built from Barclay Junction to Virginia, and in 1901 and 
1902 line was built from Ellis (near Virginia) to a point on the old D. S. & W., at 
Brookston. In 1902 and 1903 what is now designated as the ''South Range Line" 
"waB constructed from Hibbing to Virginia. There has also been built a **cut-off** 
known as the Kelly Lake Fermoy Line. 

^ All the roads mentioned above transport ore from the Missabe Range. The 
Duluth & Iron Range handles the ore from the Vermilion District. 

^ The following shows the general equipment of the ore carrying roads neces- 
sary for the handling of the enormous yearly tonnage from the Missabe and Ver. 
mi lion Ranges: 

Road 

Duluth & Iron Range 

Duluth, Missabe & Northern .... 
Great Northern (Missabe Division) 

Q The Canadian Northern Railroad between Fort Frances and Duluth is now fin- 
ished. This road passes through Virginia and later will no doubt carry ore from the 
Missabe Range. 

Q In the summer of 1910 the Soo line finished a branch road to the Kennedy mine 
and later to other properties on the Cuyuna Range. This together with the Northern 
Pacific, gives the district two railroads. The ore shipped so far has been handled by 
the Soo Line from their dock at Superior. 

Q The Northern Pacific is now building a dock at Superior. It will be ready in 
August 1913. 

48 





No. of 


No. of 


ileage 


Engines 


Cars 


200 


104 


5627 


351 


no 


7687 


310 


75 


6876 



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The following tabulation gives the distance in miles of 
Range towns from Duluth: 



TOWN 


RANGE 


RAILROAD 


DISTANCE 


Ely 


Vermilion 


D. & 1. R. 


116 


Tower 


Vermilion 


D. & I. R. 


98 


Allen Junction 


Junction Point 


D. & 1. R. 


73 


Two Harbors 


Ore Docks 


D. & 1. R. 


27 


Biwabik 


Missabe 


D. & 1. R. 


87 


Biwabik 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


78 


Virginia 


Missabe 


D. & 1. R. 


97 


Virginia 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


72 


Eveleth 


Missabe 


D. & I. R. 


100 


Eveleth 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


69 


Mountain Iron 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


72 


Chisholm 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


81 


Hibbing 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


84 


Marble 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


77 


Taconite 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


82 


Coleraine 


Missabe 


D. M. & N. 


86 



49 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Section of D. M. & N. Ry. Main Line, showing double track, lOO-lbs. to the 
yard rail, steel ties and rock ballast 



50 miles of track for the storage of ore — Proctor, Minnesota, D. M. & N. Ry. 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 

ORE DOCKS 

Duluth & Iron Range Ore Docks at Two Harbors. 

Dock Length Width Working, Storage Capacity 

No. Ft. Ft. In. Ton« 

1 (Steel) 1376 51 8 56.000 

2 1280 49 31.200 

3 1054 49 25.500 

4 1042 49 25.200 

5 1050 49 25,200 

6 ^Steel) 920 51 3j< 37.000 









Total Tons 


200.100 




Duluth, Missabe & Northern Ore Docks at Duluth. 


Dock 

No. 




Length 
Ft. 


Width 
Ft. 


Working, Storage Capacity 
Tons 


2 
3 
4 




2336 
2304 
230.4 


49 
59 
57 

Total Tons 


38.400 

57.600 

76.800 

- 172.800 




Great Northern 


Ore Docks at 


Superior, Wis. 


Dock 
No. 




Length 
Ft. 


Width 
Ft. In. 


Working, Storage Capacity 
Tons 


1 

2 
3 
4 (Steel) 


2244 

2100 
1956 
1812 


62 8 
62 8 
62 8 
62 6 


112.200 

105,000 

97.800 

90.600 



Total Tons - 405,600 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Ry., at Superior, Wis. 

Dock Length Width Working, Storage Capacity 

No. Ft. Ft. Tons 

I 1800 58 90,000 

Northern Pacific Railway at Superior, Wis. 

Dock Length Width Working, Storage Capacity 

No. Ft. Ft. In. Tons 

1 684 572 35,700 

During 1912, 10,495,577 tons of ore was handled by the 
Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway from the West Duluth 
docks; 9,370,969 tons by the Duluth & Iron Range at Two 
Harbors; 13,935,602 tons by the Great Northern and 305,1 12 
tons by the Soo Line from their docks in Superior. 

52 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



LAKE TRANSPORTATION 

/g|\NE of the first ships of commerce to arrive in the harbor 
l||-f of Duluth was the Meteor, in September, 1868. The 
capacity of this boat was about 500 tons. The first 
cargo of ore 8hipp>ed from Minnesota was carried by the 
steamer Hecla. This ore was loaded on August 1 9, 1 884, at 
Two Harbors at the Duluth & Iron Range dock and consisted 
of 1427 tons. 

fl At the present time there are about 400 boats used for 
the ore carrying trade. The capacity of this fleet is estimated 
around 33,000,000 tons of ore a season. This is in addition 
to the transportation of coal and grain. 

fl The Pittsburgh Steamship Company owns 1 03 boats. 

fl During 1912 ore was carried on the Great Lakes over an 
average distance of 1 ,000 miles for as low as 30 cents a ton, 
the boat owners paying the unloading charge of 1 cents a ton. 

fl The following will give an idea of the size of the newer 
boats constituting a part of the ore carrying fleet: 





Length 


WidtK 


Tonnage 


STEAMER 


Feet 


Feet 


Gross Tons 


Col. J. N. Schoonmaker 


- 617 


64 


14.000 


W. P. Snyder, Jr. 


617 


64 


14.000 


Thonrms F. G)le 


605 


58 


12,000 


L S. DeGraff 


605 


60 


12.900 


W.B.Kerr 


605 


60 


12.300 



fl The usual time of loading an ordinary size boat of about 
10,000 tons is six hours. The steamer Corey was loaded at 
Superior, September 8, 1911, with 9,436 gross tons of ore in 
twenty-five minutes (actual time loading). The steamer W. P. 
Palmer unloaded 1 1 ,000 tons of ore at Conneaut in two hours 
and fifty-eight minutes. 

55 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Loading Boat at Ore Docks 



Fire Tug, W. A. McGonagle 
57 

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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Draegcr Oxygen Apparatus — Used in case of fire or bad air to extricate men 
from dangerous places 



59 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



• 'I y' "r -^ ■ " 



Mining timber logs being stored in the east arm of Bumtside Lake 



Driving mining timber logs down the Cloquet River 
60 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



Loading assorted mining timber logs on cars for shipment to the mines 



Logging crew eating dinner in the open on the works 
61 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



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8s 



~ 3 



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IRON INDUSTRY OF MINNESOTA 



I 



Logging Camps on Bass Lake, showing Mess Camp, Sleeping Camp, 
Blacks mith Shop, Office and Stables 



63 

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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

LAKE SUPERIOR 
MINING INSTITUTE 

NINETEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

MARQUETTE RANGE 
AUG. 31, SEPT. 1, 2, 3, 1914 

VOL. XIX 



I8HPEMING. MICH. 

PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE 

AT THE OFFICE OF THE 8BCRBTART 
1914 



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PRESSES OF IRON ORB 

ISHPEMING, MICH. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME XIX. 

Page. 

Officers of the Institute, 1)914 v 

Officers of the Institute, 1915 vi 

List of Standing Committees for year ending 1915 vil 

Members of the Institute, 1914 vili 

Deceased Members xxll 

List of Papers Published in Preceding Numbers xxill 

List of Meetings of the Institute xzxil 

Rules of the Institute 1 

Minutes of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting 6 

Report of the Council 15 

Partial List of Members in Attendance at Nineteenth Meeting. . 27 

Description of Mechanical Underground Shovel 30 

PAPERS. 

Use of Electricity at the Penn and Republic Iron Mines, Michigan, 
by William Kelly and F. H. Armstrong; with discussion 35 

Methods of Stocking Ore on the Marquette Range, by Lucien Eaton 72 
General Outline of Mining Methods Used in the Copper Queen 
Mine, Bisbee. Arizona , 100 

The Sinking of a Vertical Shaft at the Palms Mine of the New- 
port Mining Company, at Bessemer, Michigan, by Frank Black- 
well; with discussion 116 

Mining Methods on the Marquette Range, by Committee consisting 
of H. T. Hulst, G. R. Jackson, W. A. Siebenthal; with discus- 
sion 131 

Steel Stocking Trestle at No. 3 Shaft, Negaunee Mine, by Stuart 
R. Elliott; with discussion 142 

Ventilation in the Iron Mines of the Lake Superior District, by Ed- 
win Hlggins ; with discussion 154 

FoUow-Up System and Method of Recording Injuries in Compliance 
With the ''Workmen's Compensation Law," by Herbert J. Fisher.lT? 

The Electrification of the Mines of The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Com- 
pany by F. C. Stanford ; with discussion 189 

Titaniferous Ores in the Blast Furnace — ^A Recent Experiment, by 
Dwlght E. Woodbrldge 223 

Michigan Iron Ore Reserves; Methods of Appraisal for Taxation, 
by R. C. Allen 229 

The Caving System of Mining in Lake Superior Iron )bllnes, by J. 
Parke Channing; with discussion 245 



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IV INDEX TO VOLUME XIX 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

List of Iron Mining Properties of Michigan and Wisconsin, com- 
piled by Carl C. Brewer 252 

Report of the First Annual First-Aid Contest, by C. S. Stevenson .. 269 

Past Officers of the Institute 279 

List of Publications Received by the Institute 282 

Producing Mines of Marquette Range 283 

Idle Mines and Mines Being Developed in Marquette County 284 

Abandoned Mines on Marquette Range 285 

Iron Ore Shipments from Marquette Range 285 

Lake Superior Iron Ore Shipments (1855 to 1913, Inclusive) 286 

Biographical Notices 289 

APPENDIX. 

The Early History of the Marquette Iron Ore Range by George 

A. Newett 297 

History of Marquette Ore .Docks, by D. H. Merritt 305 

A Trip to Lake Superior in 1853 (Narrative by Robert Kelly) 309 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 

Monument Jackson Forge, Negaunee, Mich Frontispiece 

CoUinaVille Furnace near Marquette, 1860 Following page 228 

Locks at Sault Ste. Marie, 1855 

Cleveland Ore Dock, Marquette, 1873 

Scene on the Ishpeming-Marquette Highway " 

The Ropes Gold Mine " 

New L. S. & I. Railway Dock at Marquette 

Concentrating Plant at the American Mine, Diorite, 

Mich, (near Ishpeming) " 

Timber Tunnel, Negaunee Mine " 

Approach to Hill Mine, at Marble, Western End of 

Mesaba Range (Meeting 1913) " 

Group Picture taken at Wawonowln Golf Club, 

Ishpeming, Monday, August 31st, 1914 " 

Picture taken at Marquette, Mich., November, 

18G3 of Crew of Ste. Marie's Canal Mineral 

Land Company Enroute to Houghton 

Marquette Docks and Shipping; About 1861 " 

Map of the Marquette Range Following page 323 

Map of a Portion of the Marquette Iron Range, 

Geological Survey of Michigan 1872 " 



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Monument Erbctbd by the Jackson Iron Co.. to Mark the Spot Where 
THE First Forge War Built by the Jackson Mining Co. in 1847. 



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OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



OFFICERS. 

For the year ending with the close of the annual meeting, Sep- 
tember 3rd, 1914. 

PRESIDENT. 

WM. H. JOHNSTON Ishpemlng, Mich. 

(Term one year). 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

FRANCIS J. WEBB Duluth, Minn. 

A. D. EDWARDS Atlantic Mine, Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

CHARLES T. KRUSB Ishpeming, Mich. 

CHARLES E. LAWRENCE Palatka, Mich. 

LUTHER C. BREWER Ironwood Mich. 

(Term expires 1915). 

MANAGERS. 

G. S. BARBER Bessemer, Mich. 

CHARLES H. BAXTER Loretto, Mich. 

♦STUART R. ELLIOTT Negaunee, Mich. 

(Term expires 1914). 

W. A. SIEBENTHAL Republic, Mich. 

J. S. LUTES Biwabik, Minn. 

(Term expires 1915). 

TREASURER. 

E. W. HOPKINS Commonwealth, Wis. 

(Term one year). 

SECRETARY. 

A. J. YUNGBLUTH Ishpeming, Mich. 

(Term one year). 



(The above officers constitute the council). 

•To fill vacancy of Wm. H. Johnston, elected to presidency. 



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Yl OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



OFFICERS. 

The following is list of officers elected at the annual meeting, 
September 1st. 1914, also the officers holding over from the previous 
year which are indicated by an asterisk. 

PRESIDENT. 

L. M. HARDENBURG Hurley, Wis. 

(Term one year). 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

♦CHARLES T. KRUSE Ishpeming. Mich. 

♦CHARLES E. LAWRENCE Palatka. Mich. 

♦LUTHER C. BREWER Ironwood, Mich. 

(Term expires 1915). 

GEORGE R. JACKSON Princeton, Mich. 

THOMAS A. FLANNIGAN Gilbert, Minn. 

(Term expires 1916). 

MANAGERS. 

♦W. A. SIEBENTHAL Republic, Mich. 

♦J. S. LUTES Biwabik, Minn. 

(Term expires 1915). 

HENRY ROWE Ironwood, Mich. 

M. E. RICHARDS Virginia, Minn. 

ENOCH HENDERSON Houghton, Mich. 

(Term expires 1916). 

TREASURER. 

E. W. HOPKINS Commonwealth, Wis. 

(Term one year). 

SECRETARY. 

A. J. YUNGBLUTH Ishpeming Mich. 

(Term one year). 

(The »bgve officers constitute the council). 



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LIST OF STANDING COMMITTEES VII 



LIST OF STANDING COMMITTEES FOR YEAR END- 
ING 1915. 

PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS. 

C. E. LAWRENCE, Chairman Palatka, Mich. 

WM. CONIBEAR Ishpeming, Mich. 

W. H. SCHACHT Painesdale, Mich. 

M. H. GODFREY Virginia, Minn. 

P. S. WILLIAMS Ramsay, Mich. 

CARE AND HANDLING OF HOISTING ROPES. 

W. A. COLE. Chairman Iron wood, Mich. 

O. D. M'CLURE Ishpeming, Mich. 

J. S. JACKA Crystal Falls Mich. 

W. J. RICHARDS Palnesdale, Mich. 

A. TANCIG Hibbing, Minn. 

PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

WILLIAM KELLY, Chairman Vulcan, Mich. 

J. H. HEARDING Duluth, Minn. 

F. W. M'NAIR Houghton, Mich. 

J. E. JOPLING Ishpeming, Mich. 

FRANK BLACKWELL Ironwood, Mich. 

BUREAU OF MINES. 

M. M. DUNCAN, Chairman Ishpeming, Mich. 

F. W. DENTON Palnesdale, Mich. 

A. J. YUNGBLUTH, Secretary Ishpeming, Mich. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

J. H. HEARDING, Chairman Duluth, Minn. 

R. A. DOUGLAS Ironwood, Mich. 

M. B. M'GEE Crystal Falls, Mich. 

W. H. NEWETT Ishpeming, Mich. 

JAMES FISHER Houghton, Mich. 

MINING METHODS ON THE GOGEBIC RANGE. 
Committee to consist of three members to be appointed later. 



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Vlll MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



' MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 1914. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

DOUGLAS, JAMES 99 John St., New York City 

POMPELLY, RAPHAEL Dublin, N. H. 

VAN HISE, C. R Madison, Wis. 

WINCHELL, N. H 501 East River Road, Minneapolis, Minn. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 

KELLY, WILLIAM Vulcan, Mich. 

SILLIMAN, A. P Hibbing, Minn. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

ABBOTT, C. E 1405 Minnesota Ave., Bessemer, Ala. 

ABEEL, GEORGE H Ironwood, Mich. 

ABEEL, GEO. H., JR Ironwood, M'ch. 

ADAMS, DAVID T 516 Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

ADGATE, FREDERICK W 419 Rookery Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

AISHTON, R. H 215 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

ALLEN, R. C Lansing, Mich. 

AMBERG, J. W 1400 Fulton St., Chicago, Ills. 

AMBERG, WILLIAM A 1400 Fulton St., Chicago, Ills. 

ANDREWS, C. E Escanaba, Mich. 

APPLEBY, WILLIAM R School of Mines, Minneapolis, Minn. 

ARMSTRONG, FRANK H Vulcan, Mich. 

ATKINS, SAMUEL E 909 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

BAER, HENRY L Hancock, Mich. 

BALDWIN, C. KEMBLE 1070 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

BALL, EDWIN Birmingham, Ala. 

BANDLER, ARTHUR S 30 E. 23rd St., New York City 

BARABE, C. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

BARBER, G. S Bessemer, Mich. 

BARBER, MAX H Nashwauk, Minn. 

BARR, J. CARROLL Crosby, Minn. 

BARROWS, WALTER A., JR Brainerd, Minn. 

BATCHJ3LDER, B. W Nashwauk, Minn. 



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AffiMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE IX 

fiAYLiSS, WILLARD Eveleth, Minn. 

BAXTER, CHARLES HOMER Loretto, Mich. 

BELDEN, WILLIAM P... Ishpeming, Mich. 

BENEDICT, C. HARRY Lake Linden, Mich. 

BENGRY, WILLIAM H Paldtka, Mich. 

BENNETT, R. M 710 Security Bank Bldg., Minneapolis, Mintl. 

BIGELOW, C. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

BINNY. JOSEPH McKinley, Minn. 

BITTCHOPSKY, A. C Cleveland, Ohio. 

BJORK, ARVID CrysUl Falls, Mich. 

BLACKWELL, PRANK Ironwood, Mich. 

BOLEY, W. E Baltic, Mich. 

BOLLES, PRED R Houghton, Mich. 

BOND, WIIJLIAM Ironwood, Mich. 

BONE. ALFRED Princeton, Mich. 

BOSS, CLARENCE M 200 Wolvin Bldg, Duluth, Minn. 

BOWDEN, RICHARD .Trimountain, Mich. 

BOWEN, REUBEN Pittsburg, Pa. 

BOWERS, E. C Iron River, Mich. 

BRADT, E. P Jones & Laughlin Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

BRADY, SAMUEL Rockland, Mich. 

BREITUNG, EDWARD N Marquette, Mich. 

BRETT, HENRY Calumet, Mich. 

BRETTING, R. C Ashland, Wis. 

BREWER, CARL Crystal Falls, Mich. 

BREWER, LUTHER C Ironwood, Mich. 

BRIGHAM, E. D 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

BROWN. JOHN JACOB Carteret, N. J. 

BROWN, W. G 302 W. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

BURDORP, HARRY A 2316 Garfield Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

BURNHAM, R 936 Metropolitan Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

BURR. FLOYD L Vulcan, Mich. 

BURT, JOHN H Virginia, Minn. 

BUSH. JOHN M Republic, Mich. 

BUSH, E. G 909 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

CADDY, THOMAS Hibbing, Minn. 

CAINE, D. T Gilbert, Minn. 

CAIRNS, FREDERICK I Houghton, Mich. 

CALVERLEY, W. D Houghton, Mich. 

CAMERON, ALLEN Calumet, Mich. 

CAMPBELL, D. H Iron River, Mich. 

CARBIS, FRANK Iron Mountain, Mich. 

CARMICHAEL, WILLIAM Biwabik, Minn. 

CARNAHAN, ARTHUR L 101 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

CARROL, MICHAEL J Houghton, Mich. 

CARROLL, RICHARD , .Houghton, Mich. 



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X MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

CARROLL, JAMES R .Houghton, Mich. 

CARROLL, PHILIP Houghton, Mich. 

CARSON, JOHN A Appleton, Wis. 

CARTER, RAYMOND B 301 W. Randolph St.. Chicago, Ills. 

CASH, P. H Knney. Minn. 

CHAMPION, CHARLES Beacon, Mich. 

CHAMPION, JOHN Iron River, Mich. 

CHANNING, J. PARKE 61 Broadway, New York City 

CHARLTON, WILLIAM H...901 Buena Vista St., San Antonia. Texas 

CHARLTON, D. E Virginia, Minn. 

CHASE, PHILO P Ishpeming, Mich. 

CHEYNEY, H. C 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

CHINN, WILLIAM P Gilbert, Minn. 

CHRISTENSEN, GEORGE L Houghton. Mich. 

CHRISTIANSEN, PETER.... 217 Union St., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn. 

CHURCH, EDWARD Marquette, Mich. 

CHYNOWETH, B. F Houghton, Mich. 

CLARK, WESLEY Copper Palls. Mich. 

CLARK, KIMBALL Kimball, Wis. 

CLIFFORD, J. M Green Bay, Wis. 

COKEPAIR FRANK A Providence Bldg., Duluth. Minn. 

COLE. THOMAS F Duluth, Minn. 

COLE, WILLIAM T Ishpeming, Mich. 

COLE, CHARLES D Ishpeming, Mich. 

COLE, WILLIAM A Ironwood, Mich. 

COLE, WILLIAM H 302 Glencoe Bldg , Duluth, Minn. 

COLEMAN, MILTON W ....Virginia. Minn. 

COMSTOCK, HENRY Mineville. New York 

COMSTOCK, EHLING H Minneapolis. Minn. 

COOK, CHARLES W. .. .Economics Bldg., U of M., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

CONIBEAR, WILLIAM Ishpeming, Mich. 

CONNORS, THOMAS Negaunee, Mich. 

CONOVER, A. B 171 Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

COOPER, CLAUDE H Hancock, Mich. 

COPELAND, FRANKLIN Vulcan, Mich. 

CORY, EDWIN N Negaunee, Mich. 

COVENTRY, F. L Hibbing. Minn. 

COYNE, WILLIAM Wilmington, Del. 

CRAM, FRED W Nashwauk. Minn. 

CROSBY, GEO. H Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

CROWELL, BENEDICT Cleveland. Ohio 

CUNDY, H. J Iron Ridge, Dodge Co., Wis. 

CUNNINGHAM, MARK H Freda, Mich. 

DALTON, H. G Cleveland, Ohio 

DAUME, PEERLESS P Painesdale, Mich. 

DAVEY, THOMAS H Eveleth, Minn. 



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Members dF the institute xi 

DAVIDSON, O. C Iron Mountain, Mich. 

DAVIDSON. WARD P Iron Mountain. Mich. 

DAVIS. W. J Wakefield, Mich. 

DEAN. DUDLEY S 87 Milk St, Boston, Mass. 

DEHAAS. NATHAN G Marquette, Mich. 

DENTON. F. W Palnesdale, Mich. 

DESOLLAR, TENNY C Hancock, Mich. 

DESROCHERS, GEORGE E Pineville, St. Louis Co., Minn. 

DIBBLE, S. E 801 Fidelity Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

DICKERMAN, ALTON L 70 State St, Boston, Mass. 

DIEHL. ALFRED S Coleralne, Minn. 

DONAHUE, E. J. W 41617 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

DONOVAN, PERCY W Brainerd, Minn. 

DORMER, GEORGE H Eveleth, Minn. 

DOTY, O. P., JR Palatka, Mich. 

DOUGLAS, ROBERT A Ironwood, Mich. 

DOW, HERBERT W Milwaukee, Wis. 

DRAKE. FRANK 79 Milk St, Boston, Mass. 

DUDLEY, HARRY C 807 Lonsdale B^dg., Duluth, Minn. 

DUNCAN, MURRAY M Ishpeming. Mich. 

DUNSTER, CARL B Marquette, Mich. 

EATON, LUCIEN Ishpeming, Mich. 

ECKSTROM, ALEXANDRE J Keewatin, Minn. 

EDWARDS, A. D Atlantic, Mich. 

EISELE, GEORGE J Iron MounUin, Mich. 

ELDREDGE, A. B Marquette, Mich. 

ELLIOTT MARK Virginia, Minn. 

ELLIOTT, STUART R Negaunee, Mich. 

EMMONS, WILLIAM H Minneapolis, Minn. 

ERDLETS. J. F. B.. JR 5 London Wall Bldg., E. C. 

ERICKSON, CARL E Ironwood, Mich. 

ESSELSTYN, J. N Sugar Loaf, Colo. 

FACKENTHAL, B. F., JR RiegelsvlUe, Pa. 

FAIRBAIRN, CHARLES T Woodward Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 

FAIRCHILD, DAVID L 500 Lonsdale Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

PARRBLL, AUSTIN Marquette, Mich. 

fay; JOSEPH .Marquette, Mich. 

PELCH, THEODORE A Ishpeming, Mich. 

FELLOWS. OTIS D, JR Redridge, Mich. 

FELVER, HOWARD C Houghton, Mich. 

FERGUSON, J. A 316 W. Superior St, Duluth, Minn. 

FESING, HERMAN W Houghton, Mich. 

FISHER, HENRY Lake Linden, Mich. 

FISHER. JAMES, JR Houghton, Mich. 

FI8HWICK, EDWARD T COth & Greenfield Aves., Milwaukee, Wis. 



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Xli MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

FITCH, WALTER Eureka, Utah 

PDANNIGAN. THOMAS A GUbert, Minn. 

FLODIN, NELS P Marquette. Mich. 

FOOTE, GEORGE C Port Henry, New York 

FORBES, GUY R 329 Hemlock St., Virginia, Minn. 

FORMIS, ANDRE Iron River, Mich. 

FOX, M. J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

FRASER, WILLIAM H Crystal Falls, Mich. 

GARDNER, OCTAVE D ;... Calumet, Mich. 

GARDNER, W. A 215 Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

GAY, JOSEPH E 15 William St., New York City 

GAYNOR, WILLIAM E Duluth, Minn. 

GHOLZ, ARTHUR L Crystal Falls, Minn. 

GIBSON, WILLIAM M Calumet, Mich. 

GIBSON, T. THOBURN Amasa, Mich. 

GILCHRIST, J. D 1405 Downing St., Denver, Colo. 

GISH, JOHN R Beaverdam, Wis. 

GLASS, FRANK A Brainerd, Minn. 

GODFREY, M. H Virginia, Minn. 

GOODALE, GEORGE S Houghton, Mich. 

GOODELL, H. S Houghton, Mich. 

GOODMAN, FRANK B Hurley, Wis. 

GOODSELL B. W .31 W. Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

GOODNEY, S. .J Stambaugh, Mich. 

GOUDIE, JAMES Ironwood, Mich. 

GOULD, E P Cincinnati, Ohio 

GOW, ALEXANDER M Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

GRAFF, W. W Ishpeming, Mich. 

GRABOWSKY, CHARLES Virginia, Minn. 

GRANT, B. F 025 W. 4l8t Drive, Los Angeles, California 

GREEN, A. C Halsted and 48th Sts., Chicago, Ills. 

GRIERSON, EDWARD S Calumet, Mich. 

GRIBBLE, SAMUEL J Ironwood, Mich. 

HALLER, FRANK H Osceola, Mich. 

HALLINGBY, OLE Calumet, Mich. 

HALLODAY, FRED H Chisholm, Minn. 

HAMILTON, ORR R Lansing, Mich. 

HAMPTON, H. C 165 Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

HANNA, L. C Cleveland, Ohio 

HARDENBURG, L. M Hurley, Wis. 

HARRIS. H. R Marquette, Mich. 

HARRIS, JOHN L Hancock, Mich. 

HARRIS, S. B Hancock, Mich. 

HARRIS, S. T Houghton. Mich. 

HARRISON, G. E Hibbing, MUin. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE Xlll 

HARVEY, W. H Eveleth, Minn. 

HAYDEN, GEORGE S Ishpeming, Mich. 

HAYDEN, J. ELZEY Ishpeming, Mich. 

HEARDING, JOHN H Duluth, Minn. 

HEATH, GEORGE L Hubbell, Mich. 

HEGGATON, WM. S Negaunee, Mich. 

HEIM, HARRY R 936 Metropolitan Life Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

HELPS, S. E Eveleth, Minn. 

HELMER, CHESTER E 558 W. 7th St., Winona, Minn. 

HENDRICK, C. E Virginia, Minn. 

HENDERSON, ENOCH Houghton, Mich. 

HEYN, HOWARD A Ishpeming, Mich. 

HICKOK, ELBERT E 173 W. Lake St , Chicago, Ills. 

HICKS. B. W Warren, Ills. 

HICOK, J. H Hancock, Mich. 

HIGGINS, EDWIN Bureau of Mines, Pittsburg, Pa. 

HILL, STACEY H Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

HINE. S. K Girard, Ohio 

HINGSTON, E. C 707 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

HITCHENS, JOHN H Iron Mountain, Mich. 

HOATSON, THOMAS Laurium, Mich. 

HOCKING, RICHARD O Keewatin, Minn. 

HODGE, JOHN E Minneapolis, Minn. 

HODGE, RICHARD Shenango Mine, Chisholm, Minn. 

HODGSON, JOSEPH Bisbee, Arizona 

HOLLEY, CARLOS E Bessemer, Mich. 

HOLLEY, A. B Virginia, Minn. 

HOLM AN, J. WINCHESTER.... 1420 Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

HOLTHOFF, HENRY C Juneaa Place, Milwaukee, Wis. 

HONNOLD, W. L Box 2269 Johannesburg, South Africa 

HOOD, O. P Pittsburg, Pa. 

HOSKINS, SAMUEL Hurley, Wis. 

HOOSE, J. WILLIAM Iron Mountain, Mich. 

HOPKINS, E. W Commonwealth, Wis. 

HORE, REGINALD E Houghton, Mich. 

HOUSE, ALLAN C '. Cleveland, Ohio 

HOVLAND, JOSEPH T Hibbing, Minn. 

HUBBARD, LUCIUS L Houghton, Mich. 

HUHTALA, JOHN Palmer, Mich. 

HULST, HARRY T Ishpeming, Mich. 

HULST, NELSON P 300 Knapp St , Milwaukee, Wis. 

HUNNER, EARL E 610 Sellwood Bldg, Duhith, Minn. 

HUNNER. H. H Hibbing, Minn. 

HUNTER. ROY D 1506 Railway Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

HURTER. CHARLES S Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 

HUTCHINSON, FRANK Riverton, Minn. 



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XIV MEMBEkS OF THE INSTITUTE 

IMHOFF, WALLACE G 6805 Penn. Ave., Pittsburg. PA. 

IRELAND, JAMES D 701 Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

JACKA, JOSIAH S Crystal Palls. Mich. 

JACKSON, C Madison, Wis. 

JACKSON, GEORGE R Princeton, Mich. 

JACKSON, FRANK W Market and Randolph Sts., Chicago, Ills. 

JANSON, F. A Norway, Mich. 

JENKS, C. O Superior, Wis. 

JENKS, FRANK G Marquette, Mich. 

JETTNER, AUGUST R 171 W. Randolph St. Chicago, Ills. 

JEWELL, SAMUEL Negaunee, Mich. 

JEWETT, FRANK G 710 Security Bank Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

JOBE, WILLIAM H Palatka, Mich. 

JOHNSON, R. M Greenland, Mich. 

JOHNSON, EDWIN F Virginia. Minn. 

JOHNSON. O. MARTIN Ishpeming, Mich. 

JOHNSON. HENRY O Virginia, Minn. 

JOHNSON, NELS Keewatin, Minn. 

JOHNSTON, WILLIAM H Ishpeming. Mich. 

JOHNSTONE, ORLAND W Duluth, Minn. 

JOLLY, JOHN Painesdale, Mich. 

JONES, B. W Vulcan. Mich. 

JOPLING, ALFRED O Marquette, Mich. 

JOPLING, JAMES E Ishpeming. Mich. 

JOPLING, M. W Marquette. Mich. 

JORY, WILLIAM Princeton. Mich. 

KARKEET, J. H Iron Mountain, Mich. 

KAUFMAN, HARRY L Marquette, Mich. 

KEAST, WILLIAM J Houghton. Mich. 

KEESE, FRANK E Ishpeming, Mich. 

KENNEDY, F. A University of Wisconsin. Madison, Wis. 

KIEREN, JOSEPH Gilbert. M.nn. 

KIRKPATRICK, J. CLARK Escanaba. Mich. 

KITTS, THOMAS J Houghton, Mich. 

KLEFPMAN, JOHN Hibbing, Minn. 

KLINGLUND, F. D Palmer. Mich. 

KNAPP, GEO. F G02 Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

KNEIP, L. H. P Palmer, Mich. 

KNIGHT, J. B Norway, Mich. 

KNIGHT, R. C Eveleth. Minn. 

KNOX, JOHN JR Calumet, Mich. 

KOEPEL, ED Beacon Hill. Mich. 

KREITTER, JOHN W Proctor, Minn. 

KRUSE, CHARLES T Ishpeming, Mich. 

KURTZMAN. P. L McKinley, Minn. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XV 

LADD, DAVID H 110 Front St., Hancock Mich. 

LAIST, ALEXANDER Hancock. Mich. 

LAMBRIX, MICHAEL Hurley, Wis. 

LAMONT, JOHN D Virginia, Minn. 

LANE, ALFRED C Tufts College, Mass. 

LANG. S. S Houghton, Mich. 

LA ROCHELLE, LOUIS Box 9, Houghton, Mich. 

LARSSON, PER Striburg, Sweden 

LA RUE. WILLIAM G 1504 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

LASIER. F. G Birmingham, Mich. 

LAWRENCE, CHARLES E Palatka, Mich. 

LAWTON, CHARLES L Hancock, Mich. 

LEACH. EDWARD J Hancock, Mich. 

LEOPOLD, N. F 108 Dearborn St., Chicago, Ills. 

LETZ. JOHN F 6G2 12th St , Milwaukee, Wis, 

LIBBY, DR. E. M Iron River, Mich. 

LINDBERG, JOHN FREDERICK Hibbing, Minn. 

LINN. A. E Norway, Mich 

LOCHER, W. H Duluth, Minn. 

LOHNEIS, HENRY G Virginia, Mina 

LONGYEAR, E. J 710 Security Bank Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

LONGYEAR, J. M Marquette, Mich. 

LONSTORF. GEORGE J 2301 Grand Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

LOUDENBACK, CLYDE 1 228 W. Randolph St.. Chicago, Ills. 

LUKEY, FRANK Hurley, Wis. 

LUKEY, PRANK G Houghton, Mich. 

LUTES, J. S Biwabik, Minn. 

LYNCH, THOMAS F Houghton, Mich 

MAAS, ARTHUR E 352 29th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

MAAS, GEORGE J Negaunee, Mich. 

MACE. ROBERT E Wolvin Bldg , Duluth, Minn. 

MACKILLICAN, JAMES A Hibbing, Minn. 

MACNAUGHTON, JAMES Calumet, Mich. 

MACOMBER, F. B No. 507 S. Clinton St., Chicago, Ills. 

MANVILLE, T. F Madison Ave. and 41st Street, New York City 

MARS. WILLIAM P Duluth, Minn. 

MARSHALL, NEWTON C Winona Mich. 

MARTIN, ALFRED Crystal Falls, Mich. 

MATHER, S. LIVINGSTON Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

MATHER, WILLIAM G Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

MATTHEWS, C. H 801 Fidelity Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

MATTHEWS, ABE, JR Crystal Falls, Mich. 

MEADS, ALEXANDER P Marquette, Mich. 

MERCER, HARRY T Painesdale, Mich. 

MEUCHE, A. H Houghton, Mich. 

MEYERS, WILLIAM R Princeton, Mich 



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XVI MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

MIDDLEMISS. BRUCE A ....Hibbing, Minil. 

MILLAR, JOHN M Escanaba, Mich. 

MILLER. L. B Wade Bldg.. Cleveland, Ohio 

MILLS, FRANK P Grand Rapids, Minn. 

MITCHELL, PENTECOST Duluth. Minn. 

MITCHELL. EDWARD Marquette, Mich. 

MITCHELL, R. J Eveleth, Minn. 

MITCHELL, WILLIAM A ICth and Rockwell Sts., Chicago, Ills. 

MITCHELL, SAMUEL J Marquette, Mich. 

MITCHELL, HAROLD E Eve'iBth, Minn. 

MOELLER, FRANKLIN 42 Chapman Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

MONROE, W. G Iron Mountain, Mich. 

MOORE, C. F 920 Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah 

MOORE. CLARENCE E Virginia, Minn. 

MORGAN, DAVID T 54 California Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

MO WATT, NEVILLE P ....3rd Ave. and Michigan St, Duluth, Minn. 

MULLEN, THOMAS M Houghton, Mich. 

MUNGER, CHARLES H Duluth. Minn. 

MUNROE, HENRY S Columbia University, New York City 

MURPHY, C. M IShpeming, Mich. 

MURRAY, ROBERT Hibbing, Minn, 

MYERS, ALBERT J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

M'CLURE, O. D Ishpeming, Mich. 

M'CORMICK, EDWARD Negaunee, MICh. 

M'DONALD. D. B 303 Glencoe Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

M'DOWELL, JOHN .Hibbing, Minn. 

M'GEE. M. B Crystal Falls, Mich. 

M'GONAGLE, WILLIAM A Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

M'GREGOR. SILAS J ..Iron Mountain, Mich. 

M'INDOE, JAMES A Norway, Mich, 

M'INTYRE, JOHN E Nogales, Arizona 

M'LAUGHLIN. W. J Loretto, Mich. 

M'LEAN, JOHN H Duluth, Minn. 

M'LEAN, RICHARD EARLE Wells, Delta Co., Mich. 

M'NAMARA, THOMAS B ' Ironwood, Mich, 

M'NAIR, F. W Houghton. Mich. 

M'NEIL, E. D Virginia, Minn. 

M'RANDLE, WILLIAM E. R Bessemer, Mich. 

NELSON. S. T 1170 W. Lake St., Chicago. Ills. 

NELSON. JOHN E Negaunee, Mich. 

NEWBY, WILLIAM Puritan P. O., N. Ironwood, Mich. 

NEWETT, GEORGE A Ishpeming, Mich. 

NEWETT, W. H Ishpeming. Mich. 

NEWTON, L. L 1324 La Salle Ave., Chicago. Ills. 

NICHOLAS, THOMAS J Palmer, Mich. 

NICHOLS, F. W Houghton, Mich. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XVll 

NICKERSON, H. F Houghton, Mich. 

NIXON, JOHN A Ishpeming, Mich. 

NOETZEL, BENJAMIN D Triraountain, Mich. 

OBERG. ANTON C 503 Manhatten Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

OLCOTT, WILLIAM J Duluth, Minn. 

ORBISON, THOMAS W Appleton, Wis. 

ORR, FRANK D Lyceum, Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

OSBORN, CHASE S Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

OVERPECK. HOLLIS W Box 617, Virginia, Minn. 

PAINE, W. A. . 82 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

PAINE, FRANCIS W Houghton, Mich. 

PARKER, RICHARD A 802 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Colo, 

PASCOE, PETER W Republic, Mich. 

PATRICK, RICHARD S 314-15 Sellwood Block, Duluth, Minn. 

PEARCE, E. L Marquette, Mich. 

FELLING, WILLIAM F. JR Carson Lake, Minn. 

PENGILLY, EDWARD Crystal Falls, Mich. 

PENNIMAN. DWIGHT C Curtis Court, Minneapolis, Minn. 

PENTON, JOHN A Iron Trade Review, Cleveland, Ohio 

PERKINS, SAMUEL J Ironwood, Mich. 

PETERSON, A. Y Chlsholm, Minn. 

PITKIN, S. H 682 W. Market St., Akron, Ohio 

POTTER, OCHA Houghton, Mich. 

POTTER, W. T Ishpeming, Mich. 

POWELL, D. W Marquette. Mich. 

POWELL, A. E Marquette, Mich. 

PRESCOTT, FRED M Oregon St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

PRESCOTT, L. L Menominee, Mich. 

PRYOR, R. C Houghton, Mich. 

PURSELL, H. E Kewanee, Illinois 

QUIGLEY, G. J Antigo, Wis. 

QUINE, JOHN THOMAS 413 Vine St., Ishpeming, Mich. 

QUINN, CLEMENT KRUSE Virginia, Minn. 

RAISKY, F. H Duluth, Minn. 

RALEY, ROBERT J Ketchi-Gaumi Club, Duluth, Minn. 

RANKIN, WILLIAM A Painesdale, Mich. 

RASHLEIGH, WILLIAM J Aurora, Minn. 

RAYMOND, HENRY A Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

REDFERN, JOHN A ' Hibbing, Minn. 

REDNER, A. E 216 Aurora location, Ironwood, Mich 

REEDER, J. T Houghton, Mich. 

REEDER, EDW!N C 1917 Fisher Bldg.. Chicago, Ills. 

REEDER. J. H Houghton, Mich. 

REHFUSS, LOUIS I LaCrosse, Wis. 



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XVlll MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

REIGART, JOHN R Princeton, Mich. 

REIFEL. H. T Nashwauk, Minn. 

REYNOLDS, M. K Ridge St., Marquette, Mich. 

RICE, CLAUDE T 1420 Monadnock Bldg.. Chicago, Ills. 

RICE, JOHN H Houghton. Mich. 

RICE, C. W Milwaukee, Wis. 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM J Crystal Palls, Mich. 

RICHARDS, MORRIS EARL Crystal Falls, Mich. 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM J Painesdale, Mich. 

RICHARDS, GUY A Biwabik, Minn. 

RICHEY, E. W 211 Railway Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

RIDLEY, FREDERICK WILLIAM Calumet, Mich. 

ROBERTS, HARRY Duluth, Minn. 

ROBERTS, ALTON t Marquette, Mich. 

ROBERTSON, HUGH J Escanaba, Mich. 

ROHN, OSCAR Butte, Mont 

ROSE, ROBERT S Marquette, Mich. 

ROSKILLY, JOSEPH Virginia, Minn. 

ROUCHLBAU, LOUIS Minneapolis, Minn. 

ROUGH, JAMES H Negaunee, Mich. 

ROWE, HENRY , Ironwood, Mich. 

ROWE, WM. C Bessemer, Mich. 

RUMSEY, SPENCER S 610 Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

BUNDLE, A. J Iron Mountain, Mich. 

RUSSELL, JAMES Marquette, Mich. 

RYAN, JOHN A Iron Mountain, Mich. 

SALSICH, L. R Coleraine, Minn. 

SCADDEN, FRANK Crystal Falls, Mich. 

SCHACHT, WILLIAM H Painesdale, Mich. 

SCHLESINGER H. J Milwaukee, Wis. 

SCHUBERT, GEORGE P Hancock, Mich, 

SEAMAN, A. E Houghton, Mich. 

SEBENIUS, JOHN UNO Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

SEEBER, R. R .Winona, Mich. 

SEELYE, R. W^ Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

SELDEN, WILLIAM H., JR Iron River, Mich. 

SELLS, MAX Florence. Wis. 

SELLWOOD, R. M Duluth, Minn. 

SENTER, A. W Hubbell, Mich. 

SHELDEN, R. SKIFF Houghton, Mich. 

SHELDON, ALBERT F 112 N. Arch St., Marquette, Mich. 

SHERLOCK, THOMAS Escanaba, Mich. 

SHERRERD, JOHN M 340 Spring Garden St., Easton. Pa. 

SHERWOOD, M. J Marquette, Mich. 

SHIELDS, IRVIN J Houghton, Mich. 

SHOVE, BRIGHAM W Ironwood, Mich. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XIX 

SIEBENTHAL, W. A Vulcan, Mich. 

SILL, GEO. A 507 Germain Bldg.. Los Angeles, CaT. 

SILLIMAN, THOMAS B Coleraine. Minn. 

SILVER, C. R 29 W. Lake St., Chicago, Ills. 

SIMMONS. CHARLES Beacon, Mich. 

SKINNER, MORTIMER B.558 5C0 W, Washington Blvd., Chicago, Ills. 

SLINEY, DAVID J Ishpeming, Mich. 

SMALL, H. H 4834 S. Halsted St., Chicago, Ills. 

SMITH, FRED Kearsarge, Mich. 

SMITH, WILLARD J Mohawk, Mich. 

SMITH, CARL G Kearsarge, Mich. 

SMITH, ALFRED L 28 Loraine St.. Pontiac, Mich. 

SMYTH, H. L Rotch Bldg., Cambridge, Mass. 

SOADY. HARRY Duluth, Minn. 

SPARKS, BENJAMIN F 205 Ruby St., Houghton, Mich. 

SPERR, F. W Houghton. Mich. 

STAKEL, CHARLES J Ishpeming, Mich. 

STANTON, F. McM 208 5th Ave., New York City 

STANTON, J. R 11 William St., New York City 

STEPHENS, JAMES Ishpeming, Mich. 

STRONG. CLARENCE G Lunkenheimer Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 

SUESS, JOSEPH E Negaunee, Mich. 

SULLIVAN, A. J Chisholm, Minn. 

SUTHERLAND, D. E Ironwood, Mich. 

SWIFT, GEORGE D Duluth, Minn. 

SWIFT, PAUL D Houghton, Mich. 

TALBOYS, HENRY H 717 Providence Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

TAPPAN, WILLIAM M Hibbing, Minn. 

TARR, S. W CIO Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

THIEMAN EDWARD Florence, Wis. 

THOMS, REUBEN KNIGHT Ely, Minn. 

THOMPSON, CARMI A Room 222, G. N. Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

THOMPSON, HENRY S Beacon, Mich. 

THOMPSON, JAMES R Ishpeming, Mich. 

TOWNSEND, C. V. R Negaunee, Mich. 

TRAVER, WILBER H Fisher Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

TREBILCOCK, JOHN Ishpeming, Mich. 

TREBILCOCK, WILLIAM North Freedom, Wis. 

TREZONA, CHARLES Ely, Minn. 

TREVARROW, HENRY Negaunee, Mich. 

TREVARTHAN, W. J Bessemer, Mich. 

TRIPP, CHESTER D 1515 Corn Exchange Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

TRUDGEON, JOHN Wakefield, Mich. 

TUBBY, CHARLES W '<Uo Commerce Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 

TUFTS, JOHN W 900 Hackett Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

TURNER, CHAS. N Colby-Abbott Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 



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XX MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE 

UHLER, FRED WALTER Al worth Bldg , Duluth. Minn. 

ULRICH, WILLIAM P Chisholm, Minn. 

UREN, WILLIAM J 124 College Ave., Houghton, Mich. 

VALLAT, BENJAMIN W 347 E. Grand Block, Detroit, Mich. 

VAN DYKE, W. D 910 Wells Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

VANDEVENTER, VIVIAN H Ishpeming, Mich. 

VAN EVERA, JOHN R Marquette, Mich. 

VAN EVERA, WILBUR Virginia, Minn. 

VAN MATER, J. A 55 Wall St., New York City 

VAN ORDEN, F. L Houghton, Mich. 

VIVIAN, JAMES G 909 Alworth Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

VOGEL, F. A 25 Broad St., New York City 

WADE, JEPTHA H Wade Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 

WAGNER, JOHN M Houghton. Mich. 

WALKER. ROBERT S Fidelity Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WALKER, ELTON WILLARD Mass, Mich. 

WALL, JAMES S Iron River, Mich. 

WALLACE, W. R Houghton. Mich. 

WALLACE GEORGE Marquette, Mich. 

WARE, JOHN FRANKLIN Forest and Five Oaks Ave., Dayton, O. 

WARE, FRED Negaunee, Mich. 

WARREN, O. B Hibbing. Minn. 

WARRINER, S. D 437 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

WATSON, CHARLES H Crystal Falls, Mich. 

WP:ARNE, WILLIAM Hibbing, Minn. 

WEBB, FRANCIS J 812 Fidelity Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WEBB. WALTER M Gilbert. Minn. 

WELLS. PEARSON 221 Van Dyke Ave., Detroit Mich. 

WENGLER, MATT P 1055 Cambridge Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

WESSINGER. W. E 610 Wolvin Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WEST. WILLIAM J Hibbing, Minn. 

WHEELWRIGHT, O. W Florence, Wis. 

WHITE, WILLIAM Virginia. Minn. 

WHITE, EDWIN E Ishpeming, Mich. 

WHITE, J. W 1905 E. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 

WHITEHEAD, R. G Alpha, Mich. 

WHITESIDE, JOHN W Ironwood. Mich. 

WILCOX, LEE L Gilbert, Minn. 

WILLARD, PAUL D Hibbing. Minn. 

WILLEY, NORMAN W Hibbing, Minn. 

WILKIXS. WILLIAM Ashland, Wis. 

WILLIAMS, THOMAS H Ely, Minn. 

WILLIAMS, PERCIVAL S Ramsay, Mich. 

WILLIAMS, DEAN R 1213 Majestic Bldg, Milwaukee. Wis. 

WILSON, EUGENE B Scranton, Pa. 



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MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE XXI 

WILSON. ARTHUR O Hibbing, Mlnn. 

WILSON, W. G Palmer, Mich. 

WINCHELL. HORACE V 505 Palace Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WINTER. JOSEPH H Negaunee, Mich. 

WITHERBEE, F. S Port Henry, New York 

WOODBRIDGE, DWIGHT E Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 

WOODWORTH. G. L Iron River, Mich. 

WOOLF. PERCIVAL J Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, Ills. 

WORDEN. EUCLID P 571 SummH Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

YATES. WILLIAM H 507 Alworth. Bldg.. Duluth, Minn. 

YOUNG, H. OLIN Ishpeming, Mich. 

YOUNGS, FRANK W Iron River, Mich. 

YOUNGS. G. W Iron River, Mich. 

YUNGBLUTH, A. J Ishpeming, Mich. 

ZAPFFB, CARL 213 Citizens State Bank Bldg., Brainerd, Minn. 

ZIMMERMAN, WALTER G Duluth, Minn. 



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XXll 



DECEASED MEMBERS 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 



ARMSTRONG, J. F 1898 

BAWDEN, JOHN T 1899 

BENNETT. JAMES H 

BIRKHEAD, LENNOX ....1911 

BROOKS, T. B 1902 

BULLOCK, M. C 1899 

COWLING. NICHOLAS ...1910 

CONRO, ALBERT 1901 

CLARK. H. S 

CLEAVES. WILL S ..1910 

CHADBOURNE, T. L 1911 

CUMMINGS. GEO. P 1911 

DANIELS, JOHN 1898 

DEACON. JOHN 1913 

DICKENSON. W. E 1899 

DOWNING, W. H 1906 

DUNCAN. JOHN 1904 

DUNSTON. THOMAS B 

GARBBRSON. W. R 1908 

HALL, CHAS. H 1910 

HARPER,' GEORGE V 1905 

HASELTON. H. S 1911 

HAYDEN, GEORGE 1902 

HINTON, FRANCIS 189G 

HOLLAND, JAMES 1900 

HOLLEY, S. H 1899 

HOUGHTON, JACOB 1903 

HYDE, WELCOME 

JEFFREY, WALTER M.. .1906 

JOCHIM, JOHN W 1905 

KOENIG, GEORGE A 1913 

KRUSE, JOHN C 1907 



LUSTFIELD, A 1904 

LYON, JOHN B 1900 

MAAS, WM. J 1911 

MARR, GEORGE A 1905 

MILLER, A. M 1912 

MINER, A. B 1913 

MITCHELL, SAMUEL ....1908 

M'VICHIE, D 1906 

M'NAMARA, T 1912 

NINESE, EDMUND 1909 

OLIVER, HENRY W 1904 

PEARCE, H. A 1905 

PERSONS. GEORGE R 1908 

POPE, GRAHAM 1912 

ROBERTS, E. S 

ROWE, JAMES 1911 

RYAN. EDWARD 1901 

SHEPHARD, AMOS 1905 

STANLAKE, JAMES 1910 

STANTON, JOHN 1900 

STEVENS, HORACE J 1912 

STURTEVANT, H. B 1910 

THOMAS, HENRY 1905 

THOMAS, WILLIAM 

TOBIN, JAMES 1912 

TREVARTHEN. G. C 1898 

TRUSCOTT, HENRY 1910 

VAN DYKE, JOHN H 19CG 

WALLACE. JOHN 1898 

WHITE, PETER 1908 

WHITNEY, J. D 1894 

WILLIAMS, W. H 1897 



LIST OF DECEASED MEMBERS REPORTED SINCE THE ANNUAL 
MEETING OF 1913. 

DRiAKE, J. M November 27, 1913 

JEWETT, N. R 1914 

LINSLEY, W. B January 10, 1914 

COOPER JAS. B February 27. 1914 

PHILBIN, D. M , August, 1914 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXlll 



LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING 
VOLUMES. 

1893— Vol. I. 

Page. 

Soft Ore Mining on Lake Superior, by Per Larsson 13 

The Geology of that Portion of the Menominee Range, East 

of the Menominee River, by Nelson P. Hulst 19 

1894— Vol. II. 

Historical Address of the Retiring President, Nelson P. Hulst. . 11 

Curvature of Diamond Drill Holes, by J. Parke Channibg 23 

Historical Sketch of the Discovery of Mineral Deposits in the 

Lake Superior Region, by H. V. Winchell 33 

Partial Bibliography of the History of Mining on Lake Superior, 

by H. V. Winchell 71 

Two New Geological Cross-Sections of Keweenaw Point, With 
a Brief Description of the Main Geological Features of 

the Copper Range, by L. L. Hubbard 79 

Ore Dressing on Lake Superior, by F. F. Sharpless 97 

Sinking **C" Shaft at the West Vulcan Mine, Mich., by Wil- 
liam Bond 105 

A Pocket Stop, by William Kelly Ill 

1895— Vol. III. 

The Iron Ranges of Minnesota, Prepared as a Guide for Third 

Annual Meeting, by H. V. Winchell 11 

Mine Accidents — Address of the Retiring President. J. Parke 

Channing 34 

Distribution of Phosphorus and System of Sampling at the Pe- 

wabic Mine, Michigan, by E. F. Brown 49 

Efficiencies of Some Pumping Plants on the Menominee Range, 

Michigan, by Per Larsson 56 

Additional Pumping Data, Cleveland Iron Mining Co., by F. 

P. Mills 63 

The New Pumping Plant of the Stirling Iron & Zinc Co., New 

Jersey (including results of an ofticial duty test), by J. 

Parke Cbanning 64 



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XXIV LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

The Hoisting Plant of the Lake Mine, Cleveland Iron Mining 

Company, by J. M. Vickers 69 

The Relation of the Vein at the Central Mine, Keweenaw Point, 

to the Kearsarge Conglomerate, by L. L. Hubbard 74 

Open-Pit Mining, with Special Reference to the Mesabi Range, 

by F. W. Denton 84 

Communication Upon the Cost of Crushing Hard Hematite, 

Minnesota Iron Co 93 

1896— Vol. IV. 

Electric Mine Haulage Plant, Pittsburg & Lake Angeline Iron 

Company, by E. F. Bradt 9 

Underground Electric Haulage Plant, Cleveland Lake Mine. 

by James E. Jopling 17 

Methods of Sampling Iron Ore, by C. T. Mixer 27 

Comparative Tests of Bracing for Wooden Bents, by Edgar 

Kidwell 34 

The Steam Shovel in Mining, by A. W. Robinson 59 

The Occurrence of Copper Minerals in Hematite Ore, by F. 

W. Denton, Part I, J. H. Eby, Part II 69 

A Single Engine Hoisting Plant, by T. F. Cole 81 

The Pioneer Mine Pumping Engines, by H. B. Sturtevant 84 

The Marquette Iron Range of Michigan, by George A. Newett.. 87 

1898— Vol. V. 

Some Observations on the Principle of Benefit Funds and Their 
Place in the Lake Superior Iron Mining Industries, by Wil- 
liam G. Mather, Retiring President 10 

Mine Accounts, by A. J. Yungbluth 21 

A System of Mining Ore Bodies of Uniform Grade, by E. F. 

Brown 40 

A New Iron-Bearing Horizon in the Kewatin, in Minnesota, by 

N. H. Winchell 46 

History of Exploration for Gold in the Central States, by C. 

W. Hall 49 

1900— Vol. VL 

The Present Condition of the Mining Business, by William Kel- 
ly, Retiring President 13 

The Pewabic Concentrating Works, by L. M. Hardenburg 21 

Electric Signals at the West Vulcan Mine, by A. W. Thomp- 
son 27 

Mine Dams, by James MacNaughton 37 

Economy in the Manufacture of Mining Machinery, by Charles 
H. Fitch , 44 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXV 

Method of Mining at the Badger Mine, by O. C. DavidBon 52 

Balancing Bailers, by William Kelly 54 

1901— Vol. VII. 

Some Early Mining Days at Portage Lake, by Graham Pope, 

President 17-31 

Steel Construction for Mines, by J. F. Jackson 32-43 

Historical Sketch of Smelting and Refining Lake Copper, by 

James B. Cooper 44-49 

No. 5 Shaft at the Tamarack Mine, by W. E. Parnall, Jr 50-61 

The Crystallization gf Mohawkite, Domeykite and Other Similar 

Arsenides, by Dr. George A. Koenig 62-64 

A Cause for Inaccuracy in Colorimetric Copper Determinations, 

by Dr. George A. Koenig 65-67 

The Testing and Control of the Product In a Modem Copper 

Refinery, by George L. Heath 68-82 

Corliss Cross-Compound Pumping Engine in Penobscot Mine, 

by John A. Redfern 83-87 

The Invasion of the Water Tube Boiler into the Copper Coun- 
try, by O. P. Hood 88-93 

A New Form of Mine Drill Bit, by Walter Pitch 94-100 

College View of Mining Graduate, by F. W. McNair, President 

M. C. of Mines 101-106 

A Plea for Accurate Maps, by L. L. Hubbard 105-118 

Tapping the Water in the Old Minnesota Mine, by S. Howard 

Brady 119-120 

1902— Vol. VIII. 

Moisture in Lake Superior Iron Ores, by Dr. N. P. Hulst 21-33 

The Use of Steel in Lining Mine Shafts, by Frank Drake 34-61 

Geological Work on the Lake Superior Region, by C. R. Van 

Hise 62-69 

A New Changing-House at the West Vulcan Mine, by William 

Kelly 70-74 

A Comparison of the Origin and Development of the Iron Ores 

of the Mesabi and Gogebic Ranges, by C. K. Leith 75-81 

Efficiency Test of a Nordberg Air Compressor at the Burra 

Burra Mine of the Tennessee Copper Co., by J. Parke Chan- 

ning 82-88 

The Mine Machine Shop, by J. F. Jackson 89-92 

Map of Mesabi and Vermilion Ranges 93 

1903— Vol. IX. 

Sinking and Equipping No. 9 Shaft, Ashland Mine, by H. F. 

EUard 24-38 



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XXVI LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

High Explosives, Their Safe and Economical Methods of Hand- 
ling, by J. H. Karkeet 39-47 

Mine Accounting by W. M. Jeffrey 48-62 

Charcoal Iron Industry of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 

by William G. Mather 03-88 

Pioneer Furnace No. 2, Description 89-93 

Iron Ores of Arctic Lapland, by Chase S. Osborn 94-113 

A Card System for Mine Supply Accounts, by F. W. Denton 114-118 

The Greenway Ore Unloader, Description 119-120 

A New Changing House at the Cliffs Shaft Mine, by J. S. 

Mennie 121-124 

The Champion Mine Mill Intake Tunnel, by F. W. O'Neil 127-139 

1904— Vol. X. 

Iron and Steel Consumption, by George H. Abeel, Retiring 

President 27-30 

Titanium and Titaniferous Iron Ores, by Dr. Nelson P. Hulst.. 31-47 

Practical Use of Magnetic Attractions, by V. S. Hillyer 48-59 

Shaft Sinking Through Quicksand at Susquehanna Mine, by 

H. 3. Sturtevant 60-65 

An Underground Magazine and Electric Powder Thawer, by 

William Kelly 66-71 

The Hoisting Problem, by J. R. Thompson 72-87 

The Geology of Some of the Lands in the Upper Peninsula, by 

Robert Seldon Rose 82-100 

Some Aspects o( the Analyzing and Grading of Iron Ores of 

the Gogebic Range, by Edward A. Separk 103-126 

The Bisbee, Arizona, Copper Camp, by Geo. A. Newett 127-143 

Mining Methods in the Vermilion and Mesabi Districts, by Kirby 

Thomas 144-157 

The Gogebic Range, Historical 168-162 

Brief Description of Steel Lining for Shafts, by J. R. Thomp- 
son 163-164 

1905— Vol. XI. 

Menominee Range, by John L. Buell 3g.49 

The Utilization of Exhaust Steam, by Means of Steam Regen- 
erators and Low-Pressure Turbines on the Rateau System, 
by L. Battu 50.79 

Methods of Iron Ore Analysis Used in the Laboratories of the 
Iron Mining Companies of the Lake Superior Mining Region 
by W. A. Siebenthal 71-138 

The Unwatering of the Hamilton and Ludington Mines, by 

John T. Jones ^ 139-147 

Determination of Angles of Diamond Drill Holes, by F. A. 

Janson 148-161 



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LIST OF PAPEkS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXVll 

Card System of Accounting for Mining Supplies, by W. M. 

Jeffrey 152-163 

A Method of Survey for Secondary Mine Openings, by F*loyd 

L. Burr 104-172 

Cargo Sampling of Iron Ores Received at Lower Lake Ports-* 

Including the Methods Used in the Analysis of the Same, 

by W. J. Raitle & Son 173-180 

Notes on Some of the Recent Changes in the Equipment of the 

Republic Mine, Michigan, by Frank H. Armstrong 181-189 

Discussion of Mr. Battu's Paper on Steam Regenerator for 

Hoisting Engines by the Rateau System 190-196 

1906— Vol. XIL 

Mines of the Lake Superior Copper District, by Horace J. 

Stevens 8-24 

The Geology of Keweenaw Point — A Brief Description, by Al- 
fred C. Lane. State Geologist 81-104 

The Importance of the Ordinary Sanitary Precautions in the 
Prevention of Water Borne Disease in Mines, by B. W. 
Jones, M. D 105-115 

The Iron Ore Deposits of the Ely Trough, Vermilion Range, 

Minnesota, by C. E. Abbott 116-142 

Five Years of Progress in the Lake Superior Copper Country, 

by J. F. Jackson 143-153 

Salt Water in the Lake Mines, by Alfred C. Lane, State Geol- 
ogist 154-163 

A High Duty Air Compressor at the Champion Mine (Cop- 
per), by O. P. Hood 164-176 

1908— Vol. XIII. 

The Iron Range of Minnesota, Prepared for the Program, by 

Dwight E. Woodbridge 13-27 

Mine Waters, by Alfred C. Lane, State Geologist, Michigan 03-152 

The Hydro-Electric Plant of Penn Iron Mining Co., at Vulcan, 

Mich., by T. W. Orbison and F. H. Armstrong 153-181 

Automatic Throttle Closing Device for Hoisting Machinery, by 

Spencer S: Rumsey 183-188 

Structures of Mesabi Iron Ore, by N. H. Winchell 189-204 

Acetylene as an Underground Light, by William F. Slaughter. .205-207 
The Standard Boiler House of The Oliver Iron Mining Co., by 

A. M. Gow 209-224 

The Sampling of Iron Ores, by L. S. Austin 225-230 

Standard Method for Sampling Cargoes of Iron Ore at Low- 
Lake Ports— 1907— Oscar Textor ..231-233 

Biographical Notices ... 235-252 



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XXVni LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

1909— XIV. 

The Marquette Iron Range, by Geo. A. Newett 19-26 

Compensation to Workmen in Case of Injuries, by Murray M. 

Duncan 47-53 

Sinking Reinforced Concrete Shafts Through Quicksand, by 

Frederick W. Adgate 55-70 

Mine Accidents, by John T. Quine 71-81 

The Sociological Side of the Mining Industry, by W. H. Moul- 

ton 82-98 

Wood Preservation with Especial Reference to Mine Timbers, 

by John M. Nelson, Jr 99-115 

How Reforestation May Be Applied to the Mine Timber In- 
dustry, by Thomas B. Wyman 116-130 

Capillary Attraction in Diamond Drill 'Test Tubes, by J. E. 

Jopling 131-139 

The Brier Hill Concrete-Lined Shaft, by William Kelly 140-147 

Code of Mine Signals — The Cleveland-Clifts Iron Company, by 

O. D. McClure 147-155 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks, by N. H. 

Winchell 156-178 

The Tariff on Iron Ore, by H. Olin Young 179-193 

Biographical Notices 194-198 

Reminiscences 202-215 

1910— Vol. XV. 

Underground Steel Construction, by R. B. Woodworth 45-99 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks — II and 

III, by N. H. Winchell 100-141 

The Proper Detonation of High Explosives, by Chas. S. Hur- 

ter 142-178 

Underground Methods of Mining Used on the Gogebic Range, 

by Percival S. Williams 179-194 

The Company Surgeon, by E. M. Libby, M. D 195-200 

The Indiana Steel Co., Gary, Ind.,- Brief Description 201-209 

Steel Head Frame, No. 4 Shaft, Montreal Mine, by Frank B. 

Goodman 209-211 

Biographical Notices 212-218 

1911— Vol. XVL 

A Diamond Drill Core Section of the Mesabi Rocks — IV., by N. 

H. Winchell C1-C9 

Time Keeping System of the Crystal Falls Iron Mining Co., by 

James D. Vivian ] . . . 70-76 

Some Practical Suggestions for Diamond Drill Explorations, by 

A. H. Meuche 77-81 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXIX 

Standard Boiler House and Coal Handling System of the Crystal 

Falls Iron Mining Co., by J. S. Jacka 82-87 

Recording and Signalling Device for Mines, by John M. Johnson 88-99 
Surveying and Sampling Diamond Drill Holes, by E. E. White.. 100-1 20 
Social Surroundings of the Mine Employe, by Chas. E. Law- 
rence 121-126 

Time Keeping System and Labor Distribution at the Newport 

Mine, by G. L. Olson 127-143 

Square Set Mining at the Vulcan Mines, by Floyd L. Burr 144-155 

Some Safety Devices of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., by Alex. 

M. Gow 150-167 

Diversion of the Sturgeon River at the Loretto Mine, by Chas. 

H. Baxter 108-170 

Raising Shaft on Timber in Hard Rock at the Armenia Mine, by 

S. J. Goodney 171-170 

Accidents in the Transportation, Storage and Use of Explosives, 

by Charles S. Hurter 177-210 

The Relations of the Mining Industry to the Prevention of 

Forest Fires, by Thos. B. Wyman 211-217 

Block Caving and Sub-Stope System at the Tobin Mine, by 

Fred C. Roberts 218-226 

The Cornwall, Pa, Magnetite Deposits, by E. B. Wilson 227-238 

Top Slicing at the Caspian Mine, by Wm. A. McEachern 239-243 

Electrical Operation qt the Plants of the Penn Iron Mining 

Company, by Frank H. Armstrong 244-250 

Reminiscences of the Gogebic Range, Ironwood in 1887, by 

J. H. Hearding 251-257 

Map of Menominee Iron Range, following page 265 

Biographical Notices 259-260 



1912—Vo\ XVII. 

Methods of Sampling at Lake Superior Iron Mines, by Bene- 
dict Crowell 76-93 

System of Safety Inspection 6^ The Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co., 

by William Conibear 94111 

Raising Shaft at Rolling Mill Mine, Negaunee, Mich., by Ed 

w:n N. Cory 112-llG 

Mine Sanitation, by E. B. Wilson 117-126 

Unexpired Parts of the Copper Range of Keweenaw Point, 

by Alfred C. Lane 127-143 

Footwall Shafts in Lake Superior Copper Mines, by L. L. 

Hubbard 144-161 

Balancing Rock Crush»3rs, by O. P. Hood 162-166 

Some Applications of Concrete Underground, by H. T. Mercer 167-185 
Construction of Intakes at the Mills of the Trimounta!n and 

Champion Mining Companies, by Edward Koepel 186-210 



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XXX LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHJiD IN PRECEDING NUMBERS 

Description of an Air Balanced Hoisting Engine, Franklin 

M ning Company, by R. H. Corbett 211-216 

Rockhouse Practice of the Quincy Mining Company, by T. C. 

DeSollar 217-226 

In the Lake Superior Area What Influence If Any, Did the 
Thickness and Contour of Foot-Wall Beds Have Upon the 
Subsequent Deposition and Distribution of Copper in Over- 
lying Beds, by L. L. Hubbard 227-237 

Failures of the Rule of Following the Hang ng, in the Devel- 
opment of Lake Superfor Copper Mines, by F. W. Sperr. . 238 246 

Economical Lubrication, by W. M. Davis 247 259 

Raising, Sinking and Concreting No. 3 Shaft, Negaunee Mine, 

by S. R. Elliott 260-282 

Rockhouse Practice of the Copper Range Consolidated Com- 
pany, by H. T, Mercer 283-289 

Map of Portage Lake Mining District, following page 295 

Map of Mines and Properties Included in a Portion of the 

Lake Superior Copper District, foPowiv -v^ £95 



1913— -VOL. XVIII. 

Report of Committee on the Practice for tU rreveution of Ac- 
cidents 31-37 

Sanitation for Mine Locations, by W. H. Moiilton 38-42 

Winona Stamp-Mill, by R. R. Seeber 43-62 

Safety in the Mines of the Lake Superior Iron Ranges, by Edwin 

Higgins 03-84 

What Our Neighbors Can Do in Mining Iron Ore, by Dwight E. 

Woodbridge 85-89 

Re-Lining No. 2 Hamilton Shaft With Reinforced Dividers, End 

Plates and Poured Concrete Walls, by S. W. Tarr 90-102 

Suggestions on the Application of Efficiency Methods to Mining, 

by C. M. Leonard 103-107 

Mine Laws, Special Rules and the Prevention of Accidents, by 

E. B. Wilson 108-128 

Concentrating at the Madrid Mine, by Benedict Crowell 129-132 

Mining Methods on the Missabe Iron Range, by Committee, con- 
sisting of Willard Bayliss, E. D. McNeil and J. S. Lutes 133-154 

Wash Ores of Western Missabe Range and the Coleraine Con- 
centrating Plant, by John Uno Sebenius 155-186 

The Application of Mining Machines to Underground Mining on 

the Mesabi Range, by H. E. Martin and W. J. Kaiser 187-lin 

Opening the T^onidas Mine at Eveleth, Minnesota by H. E. 

Loye 192-210 

The New Change House at Vulcan Mine, by Fl-/d L. Burr 211-223 

Discussion of Messrs. Bayliss*, McNeil's and Lr'^-s* Paper on 

Mining Methods on the Missabe Iron Range (see p. 133) 227 



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LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHKt> IN PRECEDING NUMBERS XXXI 

Discussion of the Report of Committee on the Practice for the 

Prevention of Accidents (see p. 31) 228 

Discussion of Mr. Wilson's Paper on Mine Laws, Special Rules 

and the Prevention of Accidents (see p. 108) 229 

Discussion of Mr. Higgins' Paper on Safety in the Mines of the 

Lake Superior Iron Ranges (see p. G3) 231 

Biographical Notices 235-240 

Past Ofticera of the Institute 241-243 

List of Publications Received by the Institute 244 

Lake Superior Iron Ore shipments • 245 

Picture of Members and Guests in Attendance Frontispiece 

Appendix — Duluth and the Minnesota Iron Ranges by W. W. J. 

Croze, Minimg Engineer 1-63 

Map of Minnesota Iron Ranges Following page 32 of Appendix 



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XXXn LIST OF MEETINGS OF TTIE 



LIST OF MEETINGS OF THE INSTITUTE AND THEIR LOCALI- 
TIES FROM ITS ORGANIZATION TO AUGUST, 1914. 

No. Place. D.ate. Proceedings 

1 Iron Mountain, Mich March 22-23, 1893 Vol. I 

2 Houghton, Mich March 7-9, 1894 Vol. II 

3 Mesabl and Vermilion Ranges. March G-8, 1895 Vol. Ill 

4 Ishpeming, Mich August 18-20, 1896 Vol. IV 

5 Ironwood. Mich August 16-18, 1898 Vol. V 

C Iron Mountain, Mich February 6-8 1900 Vol. VI 

7 Houghton, Mich March 5-9, 1901 Vol. VII 

8 Mesabi and Vermilion RangesAugust 19-21, 1902 Vol. VIII 

9 Ishpeming, Mich August 18-20, 1903 Vol. IX 

10 Ironwood, Mich August 10-18, 1904 Vol. X 

11 Iron Mountain, Mich October 17-19, 1905 Vol. XI 

12 Houghtoa, Mich August 8-10, 1906 Vol. XII 

13 Mesabi and Vermilion Ranges. June 24-27, 1908 Vol. XIII 

14 Ishpeming, Mich August 25-27, 1909 ... . Vol. XIV 

15 Ironwood, Mich August 24-26, 1910 Vol. XV 

16 Crystal Falls, Mich August 22-24, 1911 Vol. XVI 

17 Houghto 1, Mich August 28-30, 1912 Vol. XVII 

18 Mesabi Range August 26-30, 1913 Vol. XVIII 

19 Marquette Range Aug. 31 to Sept. 3, 1914 Vol. XIX 

Note:— No meetings were held in 1897, 1899 and 1907. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



RULES OF THE INSTITUTE. 



OBJECTS. 

The objects of the Lake Superior Mining Institute are to promote 
the arts and sciences connected with the economical production of 
the useful minerals and metals in the Lake Superior region, and the 
welfare of those employed in these industries, by means of meetings 
of social intercourse, by excursions, and by the reading and discus- 
sion of practical and professional papers, and to circulate, by means 
of publications among its members, the information thus obtained. 

11. 
MEMBERSHIP. 

Any person interested in the objects of the Institute is eligible 
for membership. 

Honorary members not exceeding ten in number, may be ad- 
mitted to all the privileges of regular members except to vote. They 
must be persons eminent in mining or sciences relating thereto. 

in. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

Each person desirous of becoming a member shall be proposed 
by at least three members approved by the Council, and elected by 
ballot at a regular meeting (or by ballot at any time conducted 
through the mail, as the Council may prescribe), upon receiving 
three-fourths of the votes cast. Application must be accompanied 
by fee and dues as provided by Section V. 

Each person proposed as an honorary member shall be recom- 
mended by at least ten members, approved by the Council, and elect- 
ed by ballot at a regular meeting, (or by ballot at any time conduct- 
ed through the mail, as the Council may prescribe), on receiving 
nine-tenths of the votes cast. 

IV. 

WITHDRAWAL FROM MEMBERSHIP. 

Upon the recommendation of the Council, any member may be 
stricken from the list and denied the privilege of membership, by 
the vote of three-fourths of the members present at any regular 



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2 RULES OF THE 

meeting, due notice having been mailed in writing by the Secretary 
to him. 



DUES. 

The membership fee shall be five dollars and the annual dues 
five dollars, and applications for membership must be accompanied 
by a remittance of ten dollars; five dollars for such membership fee 
and five dollars for dues for the first year. Honorary members shall 
not be liable to dues. Any member not in arrears may become a 
life member by the payment of fifty dollars at one time, and shall 
not be liable thereafter to annual dues. Any member in arrears may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be deprived of the receipt of pub- 
lications or be stricken from the list of members when in arrears 
six months; Provided, That he may be restored to membership by 
the Council on the payment of all arrears, or by re-election after an 
interval of three years. 

VI. 

OFFICERS. 

There shall be a President, five Vice Presidents, five Managers, 
a Secretary and a Treasurer, and these Officers shall constitute the 
Council. 

VII. 
TERM OF OFFICE. 

The President, Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected for one 
year, and the Vice Presidents and Managers for two years, except 
that at the first election two Vice Presidents and three Managers sl^all 
be elected for only one year. No President, Vice President, or Manager 
shall be eligible for immediate re-election to the same office at the ex- 
piration of the term for which he was elected. The term of office 
shall continue until the adjournment of the meeting at which their 
successors are elected. 

Vacancies in the Council, whether by death, resignation, or the 
failure for one year to attend the Council meetings, or to perform 
the duties of the office, shall be filled by the appointment of the 
Council, and any person so appointed shall hold office for the re- 
mainder of the term for which his predecessor was elected or ap- 
pointed; Provided, That such appointment shall not render him in- 
eligible at the next election. 

VIII. 

DUTIES OF OFFICERS. 

All the affairs of the Institute shall be managed by the Coun- 
cil except the selection of the place of holding regular meetings. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 3 

The duties of all Officers shall be such as usually pertain to their 
offices, or may be delegated to them by the Council. 

The Council may, in its discretion, require bonds to be given by 
the Treasurer, and may allow the Secretary such compensation for 
his services as they deem prop.er. 

At each annual meeting the Council shall make a report of pro- 
ceedings to the Institute, together with a financial statement. 

Five members of the Council shall constitute a quorum; but the 
Council may appoint an executive committee, business may be trans- 
acted at a regularly called meeting of the Council, at which less than 
a quorum is present, subject to the approval of a majority of the 
Council, subsequently given in writing to the Secretary and recorded 
by him with the minutes. 

There shall be a meeting of the Council at every regular meeting 
of the Institute and at such other times as they determine. 

IX. 
ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Any five members not in arrears, may nominate and present to 
the Secretary over their signatures, at least thirty days before the 
annual meeting, the names of such candidates as they may select 
for offices falling under the rules. The Council, or a committee there- 
of duly authorized for the purpose, may also make similar nominations. 
The aEsent of the nominees shall have been secured in all cases. 

No less than two weeks prior to the annual meeting, the Secre- 
tary shall mail to all members not in arrears a list of all nomina- 
tions made and the number of officers to be voted for in the form 
of a letter ballot. Each member may vote either by striking from 
or adding to the names upon the list, leaving names not exceeding 
in number the officers to be elected, or by preparing a new list, sign- 
ing the ballot with his name, and either mailing it to the Secretary, 
or presenting it in person at the annual meeting. 

In case nominations are not made thirty days prior to the date 
of the annual meeting for all the offices becoming vacant under the 
rules, nominations for such offices may be made at the said meeting 
by five members, not in arrears, and an election held by a written or 
printed ballot. 

The ballots in either case shall be received and examined by three 
tellers appointed at the annual meeting by the presiding officer; and 
the persons who shall have received the greatest number of votes for 
the several offices shall be declared elected. The ballot shall be 
destroyed, and a list of the elected officers, certified by the tellers, 
shall be preserved by the Secretary. 

X. 
MEETINGS. 
The annual meeting of the Institute shall be held at such time as 
may be designated by the Council The Institute may at a regular 



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4 RULES OF THE 

meeting select the place for holding the next regular meeting. If no 
place is selected by the Institute it shall be done by the Council. 

Special meetings may be called whenever the Council may see fit; 
and the Secretary shall call a special meeting at the written re- 
quest of twenty or more members. No. other business shall be trans- 
acted at a special meeting than that for which it was called. 

Notices of all meetings shall be mailed to all members at least 
thirty days in advance, with a statement of the business to be trans- 
acted, papers to be read, topics for discussion and excursions pro- 
posed. 

No vote shall be taken at any meeting on any question not per- 
laining to the business of conducting the Institute. 

Every question that shall properly come before any meeting of 
the Institute, shall be decided, unless otherwise provided for in these 
rules, by the votes of a majority of the members then present. 

Any member may introduce a stranger to any regular meeting; 
but the latter shall not take part in the proceedings without the 
consent of the meeting. 

XI. 

PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Any member may read a paper at any regular meeting of the 
Institute, provided the same shall have been submitted to and ap- 
proved by the Council, or a committee duly authorized by it for that 
purpose prior to such meeting. All papers shall become the prop- 
erty of the Institute on their acceptance, and with the discussion 
thereon, shall subsequently be published for distribution. The num- 
ber, form and distribution of all publications shall be under the con- 
trol of the Council. 

The Institute is not, as a body, responsible for the statements 
of facts or opinion advanced in papers or discussion at its meet- 
mgs, and it is understood, that papers and discussions should not 
include personalities, or matters relating to politics, or purely to 
trade. 

XII. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

The Council is authorized to appoint from time to time special 
committees to consider and i«eport upon, to the Institute through the 
Council, such subjects as changes in mining laws, safety devices, 
the securing and editing of papers on mining methods, definition of 
mining terms, affil.'ations with other societies, and such other sub- 
jects as the Council shall deem it desirable to Inquire into, such re- 
ports not to be binding on the Institute except action is taken by 
the Institute in accordance with the rules, and the Council is 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 5 

authorized to expend not exceeding six hundred dollars in any one 
year to carry out the purpose of this section. 

XIII. 

AMENDMENTS. 

These rules may be amended by a two- thirds vote taken by let- 
ter ballot in the same manner as is provided for the election of 
officers by letter ballot; Provided, That written notice of the pro- 
posed amendment shall have been given at a previous meeting. 



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BUSINESS MEETING 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL 
MEETING, MARQUETTE RANGE. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Arrangements. 
F. E. Keese, Chairman. 

D. J. Sliney G. R. Jackson 

E. N. Cory R. S. Rose S. .Jewell 

C. A. Barabe O. D. McClure Austin Parrell 

D. W. Powell Wm. Conibear H. S. Thompson 



A. T. Roberts 
Luclen Eaton 
H. L. Kaufman 



G. F. Ruez 
W. H. Newett 
J. R. Van Evera 



H. R. Harris 
C. J. Stakel 



Thos. Walters 
G. G. Barnett 
W. P. Belden 
T. A. Felch 
E. E. White 
Peter Pascoe 
J, M, Longyear 



Finance. 
C. T. Kruse Chairman. 
F. D. Klinglund H. T. Hulst 

H. Huhtala T. J. Nichols 

J. R. Thompson H. A. Heyn 



Entertainment. 
S. R. Elliott, Chairman. 



J. E. Hayden 
N. P. Flodin 



J. H. Rough 
J. M. Bush 
M. W. Jopling 



Transportation. 
Geo. A. Newett, Chairman. 

C. E. Lytle 
J. H. Malloy C. A. Barabe 



Reception. 
M. M. Duncan, ChaTman. 



S. J. Mitchell 
Geo. J. Maas 
J. H. Winter 
M. J. Sherwood 
H. O. Young 
G. S. Hayden 
J, B. Jopling 



W. W. Graff 

H. L. Smyth 

E. N. Breitung 

Jas. Russell 

Jos. Fay 

C. V. R. Townsend 

W. S. Heggaton 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 7 

Monday^ August 31ST, 1914. 

The Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Lake Superior 
Mining Institute oi>enecl in Ishpeming on Monday, August 
31st. Members and guests were met at incoming trains by 
niemljers of the Local Committees, who escorted them to the 
Nelson House, where headquarters were established. Here 
they were supplied with badges, programs, copies of advance 
l>ai)ers, and also tickets for local events. Arrangements were 
also completed for the excursion trip to Detroit, Michigan. 

At 9:30 a. m. the party left by special street cars for 
Union Park, where a First Aid demonstration was held. This 
feature of the program was under the supervision of the 
Committee on "Practice for the Prevention of Acci- 
dents," and was the first one held under the auspices of the 
Institute, and proved very successful. A complete reix)rt of 
the event is published in a special chapter, giving also the list 
of prize winners. 

At 12:30 luncheon was served at the Wawanowin (iolf 
Club by the ladies of Grace Church for 230 guests. Follow- 
ing the luncheon an interesting ball game was witnessed at 
Union Park between the Ishpeming and Negaunee teams ; the 
Xegaunee team being the winner. 

'^t 3-15 the members and guests journeyed by automobiles 
to the Athens- Mine at Negaunee, where a shaft is being 
sunk, the ultimate depth of which will be over 2,000 feet. The 
work of concreting is carried down and the steel dividings 
placed, as sinking progresses. The powder plant for hoisting 
and compressing is operated electrically; current for which 
is furnished from the hydro-electric plant of the Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Company under whose supervision the develop- 
ment work is being conducted. 

The Negaunee Mine, located near the Athens, was next 
visited. During the past few years a new shaft has been sunk 
and an entirely new surface plant installed. The new shaft 
was put in commission in 1913, and is designated as No. 3. 
The jx^wer plant is operated electrically from the hydro-elec- 
tric plant of the Cleveland-ClifTs Iron Company. The grounds 
around the property are well kept, shrubbery, vines and flow- 
ers adorning the grassy plats, and present a very neat ap- 
pearance. The steel stocking trestle w^as a feature of sjie- 
cial interest to the visitors, it being the first of its kind erected 
in the Lake Superior District, and is described in a paper by 



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8 BUSINESS MEETING 

S. R. Elliott, Superintendent. The machinery plant is also 
described in the paper by F. C. Stanford, Chief Electrician. . 
The party then went to Marquette by automobiles over the 
splendidly macadamized county road which connects the two 
cities. After inspecting the steel-concrete ore dock of the I^ake 
Superior & Ishpeming Railway at Presque Isle, near Mar- 
quette, the party proceeded to the Lake Shore Engine Works, 
where a demonstration of their underground loading machine 
was witnessed, attracting much attention. A banquet was 
tendered the visitors in the pattern shop of the Lake Shore 
Engine Works, which was artistically decorated for the occa- 
sion, and over three hundred guests w'ere served. Lake Su- 
I>erior whitefish was the feature of the menu. 

In the evening the citizens of Marquette provided a mov- 
ing picture entertainment at the opera house which included 
some special features, among which was an interesting picture 
of the Kimberly Diamond Mines of South Africa, also a 
complete set of pictures of the surface and underground 
equipment of the Witherbee, Sherman Company's mines at 
Port Henry, New York, the latter set being furnished by 
Edwin Higgins, Engineer, of The United States Bureau of 
Mines, and made a specialty of the "Safety First" movement 
as carried on by the Bureau. During the remainder of the 
evening the Marquette Club and the Elks Club supplied lunches 
for the visitors. Sleeping cars were provided for those de- 
siring to make the trip to St. Ignace. 

Tuesday, September ist, 1914. 

The" sf^ecial train of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic 
Railway left Marquette at six a. m., arriving at St. Ignace at 
II o'clock. Immediately upon the arrival of the train the 
party boarded the Steamer **City of Detroit ii'' of the D. 
& C. line, for Detroit. A brief stop was made at Mackinac 
Island. A business session was held on the boat at 2 o'clock, 
which was called to order by W. H. Johnston, President, of 
Ishpeming, who delivered the opening address, which was re- 
sixMided to by W. H Emmons, Directoi", Minnesota Geolog- 
ical Survey, Minneapolis, in behalf of the American Associa- 
tion of State Geologists. F. W. DeWolf, Director, State 
{Geological Survey of Illinois, Urbana, Ills., spoke on the 
Kern-Foster bill now before Congress ; William Kelly, of the 
Penn Iron Mining Company, Vulcan, Mich., replying to Mr. 
DeWolf. R, C. Allen, State Geologist of Michigan, spoke in 



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LAlCfi SUPERIOR MiKiNG INSTITUTE ^ 

reference to the trip made by the American Association of 
State Geologists. The addresses are given in full in another 
chapter. 

The following papers were presented in oral abstract ! 
♦Use of Electricity at the Penn and Republic Mines—By Wm. Kel- 
ly and P. H. Armstrong, Vulcan, Mich. 

♦Methods of Stocking Ore on the Marquette Range — By Luclen 
Eaton, Ishpeming, Mich. 

♦The Sinking of a Vertical Shaft at the Palms Mine of the New- 
port Mining Company at Bessemer, Mich. — By Frank Blackwell, Iron- 
wood, Mich. 

♦Mining Methods on the Marquette Range — Report by Committee. 
♦Steel Stocking Trestle, at No. 3 Shaft, Negaunee, Mine— By S. R. 
Elliott, Negaunee, Mich. 

♦Ventilation in the Iron Mines of the Lake Superior District — By 
Edwin Higgins, Pittsburg, Pa. 

The following papers, in the absence of the authors, were 
read by title: 

♦General Outline of Mining Methods Used in the Copper Queen 
Mine, Bisbee, Arizona — By Joseph Park Hodgson, Bisbee, Arizona. 

♦Follow-Up System and Method of Recording Injuries in Compliance 
With the Workmen's Compensation Law — By Herbert J. Fisher, Iron 
River, Mich. 

This concluded the reading of paj^ers for the afternoon 
session. 

On motion by William Kelly, the President appointed the 
following a Committee on Nominations: William Kelly, 
Lucien Eaton, William Bond, John A. Red fern and F. W. 
Sj^err. 

On motion by F. W. McNair, the President appointed the 
following a Committee on Resolutions: F. W. McNair, J. 
S. Lutes, W. H. Newett, Frank Carbis and P. S. Williams. 

On motion by D. J. Sliney, the President apix)inted the 
following a Committee to audit the l)ooks of the Secretary 
and Treasurer: D. J. Sliney, C. E. Abbott and Thos. A. 
Flannigan. 

Committee to reix>rt at the evening session. 

'Papers distributed in printed form. 



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lO BUSINESS MEETING 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME BY W. H. JOHNSTON, PRESIDENT. 

Members and Guests of the Lake Superior Mining Institute: This 
is the first good opportunity I have had to extend to you in behali 
Oi the members and citizens of the Marquette Range a hearty wel- 
come. After our visit last year to the big steel plant under construc- 
tion at Duluth and many of the iron mines of Minnesota, we realized 
how small our mines on the Marquette Range would look in compari- 
son. We, however, prepared a program which we trust will meet 
your approval. After several conferences with the local members 
and some correspondence it was decided to spend one day on the 
Marquette Range and then visit Detroit, the metropolis of our State, 
and look over some of the large industrial works o? which Detroit 
has many. We were assured of a hearty welcome and that an inter- 
esting program would be prepared that would keep us busy during 
our short stay. 

We decided to hold our business meetings on the boat which would 
give us a good opportunity for the discussion of the excellent papers 
to be presented, for we would have ample time to do this. At our 
recent meetings we have had so much work laid out for us oi an in- 
teresting character that the discussion of papers has been somewhat 
neglected and I trust that this meeting will be an exception and that 
we will have a full and general discussion of the papers, for I regard 
this as one of the important features of our meetings. 

I regret that the attendance is not larger and am sure it would 
have been under normal conditions. Quite a number who expressed 
their intention of attending the meeting have since notified our Sec- 
retary that they would be unable to do so and I have received a 
telegram since leaving home from one of our ex-Presidents, Mr. W. 
J. Olcott, expressing his regrets that he could not be with Us and 
wishing us a very successful meeting and delightful trip. 

Tomorrow morning a committee from the Detroit Board of Com- 
merce will meet us and I understand have arranged so we will have 
an opportunity to view the parade of the G. A. R., after which we 
are to go at once to the Detroit Board of Commerce which is to be 
headquarters while we are in Detroit. 

I desire to take this opportunity to thank the members of our 
committees who have assisted me in arranging for this meeting. 



RESPONSE TO PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS, BY MR. W. H. EMMONa 
OF MINNESOTA. 

Gentlemen of the Lake Superior Mining Institute: On behalf of 
the American Association of State Geologists, I wish to thank you 
for your cordial invitation to be with you on this trip. There are, 
I think, thirty-five state geologists in the United States. Of this num- 
ber there were twenty on an excursion and meeting which has just 
terminated, during which we were the guests of Mr. R. C. Allen, Di- 



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Lake sOPEkiok mining Institute ii 

rector of the State Geological Survey of Michigan. This morning and 
last night telegrams began to come from various places for seversH 
ol these men, and a number who had intended to be present at this 
meeting found it would be necessary for them to go home, so there 
are only about ten or a dozen of us left. I wish to express the sin- 
cere regrets of those who were not able to attend this meeting. 

After spending a number of years in various mining camps in 
the western part of this country and then coming to Minnesota a 
year or two ago, and up here, and visiting the deposits of this region, 
the most striking thing, it seems to me, about the ore bodies of the 
Lake Superior country is their great regularity and the great sta- 
bility of the industries that depend on them. I think that those of 
U3 to whose lot it has fallen to be placed in this favored region are 
to be congratulated particularly at this time when the great mining 
camps o! the West are curtailing production and many of them clos- 
ing down. We should be particularly grateful that we have these 
great syngenetic ore deposits of the Liake Superior region which seem 
to stand the various vicissitudes of finance and politics and weather 
the storm so well as they are weathering it now. In this connection 
I would like to say that it seems to me that there is also a very seri- 
ous responsibility resting on the members of this organization and on 
all others who are interested in the great deposits of the Lake Su- 
perior region. Now at the time when we may say a lower point, or 
perhaps the lowest point in the trough of the curve of progress is 
reached, when conditions perhaps are as serious as they have ever 
been, is the time to think of the g^'eat problems in connection with 
these deposits, in connection with working the lower grade ores and 
lengthening the life of the deposits, and increasing the stability of 
the industries depending upon them. In this, of course, we will all 
have to play a part. I do not wish to anticipate the remarks of 
my friend, Mr. DeWolf, of Illinois, who will have something to say 
on that subject. I thank you, Mr. President and gentlemen. 



MR. DEWOLF, SECRETARY OF ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 

STATE GEOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE ILLINOIS 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

At a recent meeting of our Association we had up for discussion 
certain proposed legislation in which we as geologists feel particularly 
interested. It was suggested that this Institute would very likely be 
interested in the same matter if, indeed, the subject had not already 
been brought to your attention. When I spoke to your Secretary and 
President I was asked to present the subject myself for your con- 
sideration and action if desirable. 

Congressman Foster from my State introduced a bill at Wash- 
ington providing for extension of the work of the Bureau of Mines 
with regard to mine safety and the development of efficient mining, 
quarrying and metallurgical practices. It is known as the Kern-Fos- 



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12 BUSINESS MEETING 

ter Bill, (H. R. 15869), and while I might read it to you, It Is per- 
haps enough to say that the gist of this bill Is the provision for fif- 
teen additional mine safety stations or crews and for ten mining ex- 
periment stations. It may be assumed that these will be distributed 
throughout the country geographically so as to serve the needs of 
the Industries, and also to meet the constant demand which has been 
coming for work in various regions. 

It is anticipated that each of these safety stations or orews will 
be manned by a mining engineer, two miners, and a surgeon or physi- 
cian, besides other routine employes, and if I remember it something 
like $16,000.00 per year will have to be provided for the support of 
each of these safety stations or crews. Similarly the mine experi- 
ment stations are to be manned by a scientific staff, presumably min- 
ing engineers and chemists and will require $25,000.00 a year each. 
As I understand those who are behind this bill, it is the Intention 
that some of these experiment stations shall be In or near mining 
camps where mining, milling and metallurgical problems are yet to 
be solved. Of course this Lake Superior district is Important and 
any scheme would doubtless contemplate the location of an experi- 
ment station or a safety station in this district. In general it is 
planned to associate these experiment stations with existing mining 
schools, or with State Geological Surveys, or with other State agen- 
cies, working along these general lines, and it is probable that co- 
operative arrangements will be made wherever these stations are 
placed, so as to result in a combination of resources and activity 
wisely devoted to local needs. 

It is my understanding that this bill is well along but probably 
will not pass at this session of Congress. The sponsors of the bill 
hope to pass it early in the next session so that the various State 
Legislatures which meet during the first part of January may, if 
they see fit, provide for permanent co-operation with the new federal 
stations. 

The Association of State Geologists has appointed a Committee 
of five to give this matter special thought and to consult with the 
Bureau of Mines' authorities, on invitation, in determining the char- 
acter of work to be done at each of these stations and in bringing 
about a logical and efficient distribution of the stations. Some of 
us feel that greater efficiency would perhaps come from strengthening 
the present main station at Pittsburg, but we know that the logical 
way to make rapid progress in this line is to bring about a geograph- 
ical distribution of the work in response to local interest among the 
mining industries. This course will more quickly induce Congress- 
men to furnish the necessary funds for this urgent work. Inasmuch 
as the Government's money is being spent for the purposes which 
are most strongly supported, and since the needs of the mining in- 
dustries have been neglected, it seems to our Association that it is 
desirable to support this bill strongly. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 3 . 

Mr. President, I have presented the matter briefly, but I have the 
bill here and if any questions are asked I shall be glad to try to 
answer them. My purpose was to bring this subject to your atten- 
tion for deliberation. 

Question: How much is provided for each station? 

Answer: Another bill would provide the appropriations. I be- 
lieve the estimates provide $25,000.00 annually for each experiment 
station, and $16,000.00 annually for each safety station or car. 



MR. KELLY OF VULCAN, MICHIGAN, RESPONDING. 

We on Lake Superior have greatly at heart this proposition of 
the safety of the men who work in the mines. Perhaps one of the 
best evidences of the work that is being carried on for this purpose 
was that shown yesterday by the contests of First Aid Corps from 
various mines. Most of the mines are adopting measures for First 
Aid and Rescue work, providing devices to guard the safety of men 
and coming in closer touch with the men underground, to further the 
safety of life and limb. We have had great aid in this work from 
the Government car which has been located in our region during the 
last two or three years and we hope for more of this work. We 
can, therefore, heartily approve of this proposition to have the work 
extended broadly throughout the different mining districts ol the coun- 
try. I am sorry to say, however, that a proposition to indorse this 
measure lies outside of the functions of this Institute. This Institute 
has a constitution similar to that of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers and under it there Is no way in which the Institute 
as a body can be bound by the action of a session of the Institute; 
nor is there any way provided for taking a consensus of opinion of 
the body of the Institute outside of its re^lar routine proceedings. 
If individual expression can add to this measure and if individual ef- 
fort with the members of Congress will help, I think we can rest 
assured that everything possible will be done, and my own opinion 
is that these individual efforts, if they can be aroused, will be more 
effective than any expression of opinion passed by a session or con- 
vention. 



MR. ALLEN OF MICHIGAN. 

Gentlemen: It is my impression that some of the members of 
this organization hear from me too many times during the course of 
the year. However, I am glad of this opportunity to thank the mem- 
bers of the Lake Superior Mining Institute for the invitation to the 
Association of American State Geologists to join you on this trip, 
and particularly to thank those of you who have been so kind and 
courteous to the visiting geologists. It is one of the traditions of 
this upper country, both on the iron ranges and in the copper coun- 



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14 BUSINESS MEETING 

try^ that visitors are always well treated and I am sure that you 
have maintained this tradition in the way you have helped me to 
show these visiting geologists around the country. 

During the last two or three years it has heen my good fortune 
to come into very close contact with many of the mining men of 
Michigan, more particularly those in the iron mining industry, and 
I feel that I have been benefitted greatly thereby; that I have been 
growing; and that I have learned a great deal from you. I derive 
a great deal of personal satisfaction from my acquaintanceship amons: 
you, and I hope that whatever may result from the dealings that we 
have had. or may have in the future, nothing will intervene to mar 
our pleasant relations. 

We are sorry that all of our members were not able to join us 
in this trip. It is one of the most desirable features of our Mich- 
igan tour and the itinerary was arranged so that all of us would 
have the opportunity of joining you here. However, we have been 
moving rapidly since we started about a week ago at Houghton, 
partly on loot, and by the time we reached St. Ignace some of the 
older members of our organization were really exhausted and anxious 
to get home. There are ten of us here and we are all glad that we 
are here. Speaking for myself, I do not want ever to miss any of 
these annual excursions of the Mining Institute. Gentlemen, I thanK 
you. 



Evening Session. 

The evening session was held at 8 o'clock, President W. 
H. Jolmston, presiding. The following pai)ers were presented 
in oral abstract : 

♦Mining Methods on the Marquette Range — Report by Committee. 

♦Hydro-Electric Plant of The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company — By 
F. C. Stanford, Ishpeming, Mich. 

^ In the absence of the authors the following pai)ers were 
read by title: 

♦Titaniferous Ores in the Blast Furnace — A Recent Experiment — 
By D. E. Woodbridge, Duluth, Minn. 

♦The Caving System of Mining in the Lake Superior Iron Mines — 
By J. Parke Channing. New York. 

After the presentation of papers the Council presented 
its rei)ort as follows: 

*Papers distributed in printed form. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 5 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Secretary's report of Receipts and Disbursements from August 18th, 
1913 to August 24th, 1914. 

RECEIPTS 

Cash on hand August 18th, 1*913 $6.49G.15 

Entrance fees for 1913 | 3?0.00 

Dues for 1913 2,280.00 

Back dues, 1910 % 20.00 

Back dues. 1911 40.00 

Back dues, 1912 115.00 175.00 

Advance dues. 1914 60.00 

Advance dues, 1915 5.00 65.00 

Sale of Proceedings 91.70 

Institute pin 4.00 

Total $2,935.70 

Interest on deposits 201.29 

Total receipts 3,136.99 



Grand total on hand and received . . $9,633.14 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Stationery and printing | 101.00 

Postage 177.20 

Freight and express 33.84 

Exchange 2.45 

Telephone and telegraphing 6.69 

Secretary's salary 750.00 

Stenographic work 60.00 

Editing papers 33.00 

Total $1,104.18 

Publishing Proceedings 1,028.50 

Advance Papers 211.50 

Photographs. Maps, Cuts, etc 310.33 

Badges for 1913 81.48 

Expenses Duluth meetings, rent and mes- 
senger service 3.50 

Committee meetings 10.00 

Total 1,645.31 

Total disbursements 2,809.49 

Cash on hand August 24th, 1914 6,823.65 



Grand total $9,633.14 

MEMBERSHIP. 

1914 1913 1912 

Total 549 518 486 

Members in good standing ♦524 -}-483 437 

Honorary members 4 4 4 

Life members 2 2 2 

Members in arrears (2 years) 19 29 43 

New members admitted. 1913 71 31 46 

New members not qualified 5 4 3 

New members added 66 27 43 

'Includes 54 in arrears for one year. flncludes 34 in arrears for one year. . 



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1 6 BUSINESS MEETING 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 

Treasurers Report from August 18th, 1913, to August 24th 1914: 

Cash on hand, August 18th, 1913 |6,466.15 

Received from Secretary 2,965.70 

Received interest on deposits 201.29 

Paid drafts issued by Secretary |2,809.49 

Cash on hand, August 24th, 1914 6.823.65 

Totals 19,633.14 |9,633.14 



The following standing committees were appointed by the Council 
for the ensuing year: 

"PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS." 
(Committee to consist of five members). 
C. E. Lawrence, Palatka, Mich., Chairman; P. S. Williams, Ram- 
say, Mich.; Wm. Conibear, Ishpeming Mich.; W. H. Schacht, Paines- 
dale, Mich.; M. H. Godfrey, Virginia, Minn. 

"CARE AND HANDLING OF HOISTING ROPES." 
(Committee to consist of five members). 
W. A. Cole, Ironwood, Mich., Chairman; O. D. McClure, Ishpeming:, 
Mich.; J. S. Jacka, Crystal Falls, Mich.; W. J. Richards, Painesdale, 
Mich.; A. Tancig, Hibbing, Minn. 

"PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS." 
(Committee to consist of five members). 
Wm. Kelly, Vulcan, Mich., Chairman; J. H. Hearding, Duluth» 
Minn.; F. W. McNair, Houghton, Mich.; .1. E. Jopling, Ishpeming, 
Mich.; Frank Blackwell, Ironwood, Mich. 

"BUREAU OF MINES." 
(Committee to consist of three members). 
M. M. Duncan, Ishpeming, Mich., Chairman; F. W. Denton. Paines- 
dale, Mich.; A. J. Yungbluth, Secretary, Ishpeming, Mich. 

"BJOGRAPHY." 
(Committee to consist of Ave members). 
J. H. Hearding. Duluth, Minn., Chairman: .Tames Fisher, Hough- 
ton, Mich.; R. A. Douglas, Ironwood, Mich.; M. B. McGee. Crystal 
Falls, Mich.; W. H. Newett, Ishpeming. Mich. 

"MINING METHODS ON THE GOGEBIC RANGE." 
(Committee to consist of three members to be appointed later). 
Committees to serve until their successors are appointed; each 
committee to have power to appoint sub-committees as may be deemed 
necessary. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 7 

The following proposals for membership have been approved by 
the Council: 

Blgelow, Charles A., Manager Pluto Powder Co., Ishpeming, Mich. 

Carroll, Philip, Foundry man, Houghton, Mich. 

Carroll, Richard Foundry man, Houghton, Mich. 

Carroll, James R., Foundryman, Houghton, Mich. 

Dibble, Samuel P., Manager General Electric Co., Duluth, Minn. 

Doty, Oliver P., Jr., Superintendent Spring Valley Iron Co., Palatka, 
Mich. 

Erdlets, Joseph F. B. Jr., Mining Engineer, 5 London Wall Bldgs., 
London, E. C. 

Eldredge, A. B., Lawyer, Marquette, Michigan. 

Green, Arthur C, Sales Engineer, Goodman Manufacturing Co., 
Chicago, Ills. 

Hicok J. H., Manager Portage Coal & Dock Co., and Jas. Pickands 
& Co.. Hancock, Mich. 

Hunner, Hale H., Mining Engineer, Merlden Iron Co., Hibbing, 
Minn. 

Hutchinson, Frank, Chief Engineer, Pittsburg Steel Ore Co., River- 
ton, Minn. 

Kneip, Leo H., Mine Clerk, Cascade Mining Co., Palmer, Mich. 

Kreitter. John W., Superintendent Duluth, Missabe & Northern Ry., 
Proctor, Minn. 

Lohneis, Henry G., Assistant Superintendent, Virginia, Minn. 

Lukey, Frank G., Representative, A. Milne & Co., Houghton, Mich. 

Marshall, N. C, Mining Engineer, Winona, Mich. 

Matthews, Charles H., Salesman. General Electric Co., 801 Fidelity 
Building, Duluth, Minn. 

Mathews Abe, Jr., Mining Engineer, Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Mitchell, Edward, General Contractor, Marquette, Mich. 

Murphy, C. M., Master Mechanic Oliver Iron Mining Co., Ishpem- 
ing, Mich. 

Pearce, Ernest L., Manager Lake Shore Engine Works, Marquette, 
Mich. 

Powell, Arthur E., Civil Engineer, Marquette, Mich. 

Rice, Charles W., Pumping Machinery Salesman, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Richards, Guy A.. Superintendent Williams Mine, Biwablk, Minn. 

Russell, James, Publisher, Marquette, Mich. 

Selden, William H., Jr., Capitalist, Iron River, Mich. 

Sherwood, Myron J., Miner, Marquette, Mich. 

Small, Harry H., Sales Manager Goodman Manufacturing Co., 
Chicago, Ills. 

Wibon, Wm, G., Master Mechanic, Cascade Mining Co., Palmer, 
Mich. 

On motion by F. W. McNair, the Secretary was instruct- 
ed to cast a ballot for the election to membership of the list 
as approved by the Council. 



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l8 BUSINESS MEETING 

Report of Committee on Nominations. 
Your Committee on Nominations beg leave to submit the 
following names for officers of the Institute for terms spe- 
cified : 

For President— L. M. Hardenburgh, one year. 
For Vice President — G. R. Jackson, T. A. Flannigan, two 
years. 

For Managers — Henry Rowe, M. E. Richards, Enoch 
Henderson, two years. 

For Treasurer — E. W. Hopkins, one year. 

William Kelly, 
LuciEN Eaton. 
William Bond, 
Jno. a. Redfern, 
F. W. Sperr, 

Committee. 
The Auditing Committee presented the following report: 
Your Committee appointed to examine the books of the 
Secretary and Treasurer, beg leave to report that we have 
carefully examined same and find the receipts and exi>endi- 
tures shown therein, to be in accordance with the statements 
of the Secretary and Treasurer for the fiscal year ending Au- 
gust 26th, 1 914. 

D. J. Sliney, 
C. E. Abbott, 
Thos. a. Flannigan. 
On motion the report of the Committee was adopted. 

Report of Committee on the Practice for the Pre- 
vention OF Accidents. 
To The Council and Meml^ers of the Lake Superior Mining 
Institute. 

We, the committee on "The Practice for the Prevention 
of Accidents,'' submit the following for your consideration 
and action at the coming meeting, August 31st to Septemljer 
4th, 1 914. 

This committee, in session w^th your president and sec- 
retary, held a meeting on Friday, i\pril loth, 1914, at which 
was discussed the offer of the American Mine Safety Asso- 
ciation, for a joint meeting of the two associations, for the 
furtherance of a program in '*First Aid" and rescue work. 

It was decided after due consideration, that owing to only 
one day of the Institute's time on the Marquette range, that 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I9 

it would be impossible to hold a joint demonstration, but so- 
licited through H. M. Wilson, Engineer in charge, of the Bu- 
reau of Mines, a future arrangement of such a demonstra- 
tion, covering more than one day, to be held in 191 5, or at such 
time as the council may deem wise ; also, as the necessity for 
raising five hundred dollars to defray the expenses that would 
be entailed at such a meeting, the action of the whole Insti- 
tute on the proposition, would be needed, to incur this amount, 
for this vvordiy project, and that the matter would be placed 
before the Institute at its coming meeting and try to secure 
favorable action on this proix>sition. In lieu thereof, the 
committee has made arrangements for a **First Aid" demon- 
stration, under the management of the Marquette Range 
Safety Association. 

Due to the vital interest and active work on the various 
ranges, both from individual companies and through general 
action of Range Associations and meets, assisted materially 
by the aid of the Bureau of Mines, all of which has been 
highly educational, and the results of which are greatly ap- 
preciated by mine officials, the committee feels justified in 
recommending that the exi>ense solicited be allowed, and that 
llie council and meml^ers of the Institute, who have encour- 
aged the work thus far, in the last three years, will, by its 
favorable action, continue the progress along these lines. 

Further, the committee would reiterate and call attention 
to the complete report on recommendations, of the 1913 com- 
mittee reix)rt, for favorable action, and the appointment of a 
special committee, for the purpose of printing a book on uni- 
form mine rules, working in conjunction with the rex>ort pul)- 
lished by the American Mining Congress, American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, the Mining and Metallurgical Society 
of America, the Colorado Scientific Society, also mine laws 
of Canada and other countries, which b<.)ok would help broad- 
en, codify and disseminate general customs covering the whole 
field of mining operations in the Lake Superior district. This 
s[)ecial committee to I^e composed of five meml)ers of tlie l^oard. 
theoretical and practical exi)erience; the expense of which is 
to l)e home by the Institute; this to include payment of the 
committee, for time given to the subject and the employment 
of a secretary, and other expense of printing and publishing 
same in book form. 

The committee recommends that a vote of sincere thanks 
and appreciation be given by the Institute, to the officials of 



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20 BUSINESS MEETING 

the United States g-overnment, in charge of the Bureau of 
Mines car, for the capable demonstration of its work in the 
Lake Superior district, and the results of education accom- 
plished along these lines. 

The committee further recommends, that the present vari- 
ous range associations, composed of superintendents, min- 
ing captains and shift bosses, l>e given further encourage- 
ment in the practical work it is showing to the individual min- 
er and employe, by continuing the holding of frequent meet- 
ings on the various ranges; in this way disseminating a broad 
general knowledge of mining operations, particularly that of 
safety and efficiency in the individual, under extreme and hard 
conditions met with. 

The committee further recommends that every member of 
the Lake Superior Mining Institute assume an urgent respon- 
sibility in furthering this activity of education. Its dissemina- 
tion along safety and efficiency lines among the thousands 
of mine employes is important. The newness of the subject, 
the indifference to overcome, the mixed nationality of the em- 
ployes all combine to make the work of introduction rather 
hard of accomplishment. Careful, conscientious work by 
every meml)er of the Institute is urged. 
Respectfully submitted, 

CiiAS. E. Lawrence, 

Chairman. 
William Conibear, 

For Committee. 

Mr. McXair: I question whether the Institute is ready 
to commit itself to any decision, action or recommendation at 
the moment. It occurs to me that the proper handling of the 
re]X)rt is to receive it ; order it printed in the proceedings, and 
refer questions of action or recommendation involved to the 
Council. 

Mr. Higgins : I would like to say just one word about the 
hoisting signals as a matter of information when the subject 
is discussed. The Gogebic Range Mining Association ap- 
pointed a committee to investigate the signals on the Gogebic 
Range and a report was made and submitted. In discussing 
that subject it may be possible to get a copy of that report. 
It was found that there were eight to ten different signals for 
doing the same thing. The consensus of opinion was that the 
signals should be universalized ; that they should be made with 
respect to three or four of the cardinal signals only. Mr. Jobc 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 21 

of Iron Mountain went into that quite thoroughly so that 
there would be considerable data to work on when that subject 
is considered. 

The following communication from the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition Bureau was read and on motion re- 
ferred to the Council for consideration: 

"Feelicg that it win be impossible for me to attend your com- 
ing Convention in person, I take this occasion to extend greetings 
and a cordial Invitation in the name ol the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition for the Lake Superior Mining Institute to meet in 
San Francisco in 1915. 

"The series of congresses and conventions to be held in that city 
during the Exposition Is becoming a more significant feature every 
week; as much for the notable character of the associations to meet 
tiiere and the topics they will discuss, as because of the number that 
are scheduled. We are now certain that this series of assemblages 
will attract a larger number of the ablest thinkers and most suc- 
cessful doers from the world at large, than ever were gathered in a 
single city in one year before. So pronounced has become this 
feature that those most familiar with the subject have aptly termed 
it *ten months' course in world development.* 

'Some of the Exhibits will be of special interest to your Institute. 
Many organizations are planning to have surveys made of the Ex- 
position by committees in advance of their meeting and a syllabus 
of the exhibits deserving special attention may be printed with re- 
ports on the exhibits and comparisons of notes, thus correlating the 
work of the meeting with the exhibits and obtaining the utmost pos- 
sible benefit from both. 

'*I trust this matter wiil receive the careful investigation of your 
Institute. With favorable action, a committee should be appointed 
to make definite arrangements. The Exposition officials and espe- 
cially the undersigned, will be pleased to assist in every way possible 
to make your trip to San Francisco a great success. 

"We want you and we expect you; and you will never regret your 
session with us next year. Hoping to hear from you soon and 
favorably, and expecting to greet you at the Golden Gate in 1915, 
1 remain." 

G. F. HATFIELD. 
Chicago, Lis., August 20th, 1914. Field Secretary. 

The following communication from the ^'Manufacturers 
Rec(n-d," extending a cordial invitation to hold a meeting in 
the Birmingham, Alabama, district, was read and on mo- 
tion referred to the Council for consideration : 

"Understanding that the members of your Institute have been 
considering the possibility of holding an annual meeting in Birming- 
hum in order that they might have the opportunity of seeing for 



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22 BUSINESS MEETING 

themselves the resources and the development of that section, I 
wish to take the liberty of urging this very strongly upon your In- 
stitute. I trust that at the coming meeting the matter may be brought 
before the members and careful consideration given to it. 

**I need not call your attention to the extent of the resources of 
ore and coal in the Birmingham district, and in a large part of the 
area of the mountain region of the South from Virginia to Northern 
Alabama. In no other way could the members of your Institute have 
the opportunity of studying these resources and of forming their own 
conclusions as to their extent and the possibilities of their develop- 
ment, to such advantage as by holding an annual meeting in Birm- 
ingham. Such a meeting would be warmly welcomed not only by 
Birmingham, but by Chattanooga and other leading centers of the 
iron and steel industry of the South, and I can assure you that every 
effort would be put forth to make the trip one of Interest and of 
entertainment to all who might attend." 

RICHARD H. EDMONDS, 
Baltimore, Md.. August 10th, 1914. Editor. 

MR. ABBOTT OF BESSEMER, ALA. 

"I am quite certain that the members of the Institute would be 
very well pleased with what they would see in the Birmingham Dis- 
trict. A great many of the developments there in the last ten years, 
especially in the iron ores, have been merely the adoption of Lake 
Superior methods as regards installations of mining equipment and 
of mining methods. 

"We are unusually fortunate in the location of our raw materials. 
The members of the Institute can see anything and everything from 
the mining of the ore and coal, to the manufacture of the raw material 
into a finished product. The steel plant and furnaces are located 
between the coal deposits and the iron ore deposits, in fact, can be 
seen from the crest of Red Mountain, which is the main source of 
the iron ore supply. We have in addition, a by-product plant w^here 
coal tar and ammonium sulphate are being recovered from the gas 
from the coal in the coking process. 

"The American Steel & Wire Company has a large plant whicn 
will eventually use about six hundred tons of steel per day in the 
manufacture of wire products. We have many foundries and other 
industries which would prove interesting. The Birmingham District 
is the only place in the known world where the raw materials are so 
well located. The District has its disadvantages also, such as low 
grade iron and coal which has to be washed. 

"I feel that the trip south would be very pleasant for the members 
of the Institute, and hope you will make it. You can be assured of a 
very hearty welcome." 

The following communication from George H. Crosby, 
in reference to a meeting on the Cuyuna Range in 191 5, was 
read and on motion referred to the Council for consideration : 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



23 



"I expected to be present at the Institute meetings to be held at 
Marquette, August 31st, and September 1st, 2nd and 3rd, 1914, but 
I find at the last minute that I will not have that opportunity and 
pleasure, which I regret exceedingly. 

"I wish to extend an invitation to the members of the Lake Su- 
perior Mining Institute on behalf of the operators of the Cuyuna 
Range and the citizens of Crosby to hold their next annual meeting 
on the Cuyuna Range and to make their headquarters at Crosby. 

''Crosby has splendid hotel accommodations and is a strictly mod- 
ern mining town. The Cuyuna iron range is a new country and 
should be of great interest to all members of the Institute. We 
have three open-pit mines now in operation and three underground 
mines, and will have by next year at least three more, which are 
now approaching the production state. 

"Hoping this invitation will be favorably acted upon by members 
of the Institute." 
Duluth, Minn., August 29th, 1914. GEORGE H. CROSBY. 

This concluded the business session and reading of ixii>ers 
for the meeting. The papers presented brought out consid- 
erable discussion which is printed with the papers. Memljers 
are urgently requested to present further discussion of these 
pa[>ers for the next meeting. The subject of **Mining Meth- 
ckIs" offers a splendid field for further presentation, and it is 
to be hoi>ed that this subject will be kept active as long as 
nevv conditions develop. The work of shaft sinking and clrift- 
ing should receive further attention as the constant develoi>- 
ment in jxjwer drills adds greater efficiency in the results ob- 
tained. 

Excursion to Detroit Under the Auspices of the 
Detroit Board of Commerce. 



DETROIT BOARD OP COMMERCE. 

Charles B. Warren — President. 

Byres H. Gitchell — Secretary. 

A. T. Waterfall— Traffic Commissioner. 

Entertainment Committee. 
Oliver Phelps, Chairman, M. A. Hanna & Co. 



Paul Bagley, 
John J. Bagley & Co. Tobacco 
Manufacturers. 

George H. Barbour, 
Michigan Stove Co. 

Warren S. Blauvelt, 
Semet-Solvay Co., Coke 
Manufacturers. 



Frank E. Bogart, 
Farrand, Williams & Clark, 
Wholesale Drugs. 

Wayne C. Bogue, 
Carnegie Steel Co. 

D. C. Delamater, 
Delamater Hardware Co., 
Wholesale Hardware. 



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24 



EXCURSIONS 



L. H. Carlisle, 

Cambria Steel Co. 
Frank H. Croul, 

Detroit Oak Leather Belting Co 
Sherman L. Depew, 

F. C. Pingree Sons Shoe Co. 
Caleb M. East, 

Murphy Iron Works, Automatic 

Stokers. 
William Gerhauser, 

Superior Charcoal Iron Co. 
Andrew H. Green, Jr., 

Solvay Process Co., Soda Ash 

Manufacturers. 
William G. Henry, 

Detroit Stove Works. 
Frederick H. Holt, 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. 
J. S. Hageman, 

Bethlehem Steel Co. 
Henry W. Horton, 

Buhl Sons Co., Wholesale 

Hardware. 
F. W. Hutchings, 

Lake Superior Iron & Chemical 

Co. 
F. L. Klingensmith, 

Ford Motor. Co. 
Bamlet Kent, 

U. S. Engineers. 

Abner E. Larned, 

Larned, Carter & Co. Overall 

Manufacturers. 
James L. Lee, 

Wm. M. Finck & Co., Overall 

Manufacturers. 

Thomas J. Marsden, 

Lee & Cady, Wholesale Grocers. 

Jay C. McLauchlan, 
Pickands, Mather & Co. 

P. J. Moran, 
Detroit Iron & Steel Co. 



William R. Orr, 

Detroit Saturday Night 
Percy Owen, 

Chalmers Motor Co. 
Oliver Phelps, Jr., 

Miller, Selden Electric Co., 

Construction and Supplies. 
Charles M. Roehm, 

Roehm & Davison, Wholesale 
. Hardware. 
C. W. Russell, 

Russell Wheel & Foundry Co.. 

Structural Iron & Mine Cars. 
John R. Searle^, 

Detroit Copper & Brass Rolling 

Mills. 

James Schermerhorn, 

The Detroit Times. 
W. C. Standish, 

U. S. Tire Co. 
F. C. Stoepel, 

Bumham, Stoepel & Co., Whole- 
sale Dry Goods. 
Frederick Stockwell, 

Edson, Moore & Co., Wholesale 

Dry Goods. 
Joseph S. Stringham, 

Monarch Steel Casting Co. 
Robert W. Standart, Jr., 

Standart Brothers, Ltd., Whole- 
sale Hardware. 
A. A. Templeton, 

Morgan & Wright, Rubber 

Manufacturers. 
James T. Whitehead, 

Whitehead & Kales Iron Works, 

Structural Iron. 
Maurice O. Williams, 

Michigan Drug Co., Wholesale 

Drugs. 
Frank R. Wylie, 

W. H. Edgar & Sons, Wholesale 

Sugar. 



PROGRAM. 
Wednesday, September 2nd. 

8:30 a. m.— The City of Detroit II will dock at the foot of Third 
Street. 

9.00 a. m. — Visitors will be escorted to seats tc review G. A. R. parade, 

1:00 p. m. — Luncheon in Board of Commerce dining room. 

2:30 p. m. — Leave Detroit Board of Commerce building for boat at 
foot of Third Street, going to the Detroit Copper & Brass 
Rolling Mills, the Detroit Iron & Steel Company's fur- 
nacesi and t)ie Semet-Solvay Company's coke ovens, 



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Lake superior mining institute 25 

5:30 p. m. — Boat returns to foot of Third Street. 

Free time until: 

8:15 p. m. — Temple Theater. 

Thurscbfiy, September Srd. 

9:00 a. m. — Assemble at Detroit Board of Commerce building. 

9:30 a. m. — Leave by Woodward Avenue street cars marked "Log 
Cabin'* for Ford Motor Company. After Inspection of 
plant, return to Ferry dock at right-hand side of street, 
foot of Woodward Avenue, taking ferry boat to Belle Isle. 

1:30 p. m. — Luncheon at the 'Detroit Boat Club. 

2:30 p. m. — Ride around Belle Isle in automobiles then to the Chal- 
mers Motor Company. After inspection of plant, guests 
will return at their convenience by street car for down 
town. 

Wednesday, September 2nd. 

Members of the reception committee with Oliver Phel[>s, 
Chairman, lx>arded the steamer from a tug at six o'clock in 
the morning to receive the party and complete the plans for 
the visit at Detroit, such was the interest manifested for the 
visitors from the North. The steamer docked at eight o'clock, 
and the party was escorted to the new Chamber of Commerce 
building where a luncheon was prepared. During the fore- 
n(Kjn the visitors w-ere afforded an opportunity to view the 
G. A. R. parade. After the luncheon, Chas. B. Warren, Presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce, in a brief address extend- 
ed to the Institute a cordial welcome to which W. H. John- 
ston, President, William Kelly and James Russell responded 
in l^ehalf of the visitors. The party then boarded a special 
steamer and was taken for a trip down the river to the plant 
of the Detroit Copper & Brass RolHng Mills and the Detroit 
Iron & Steel Company's furnaces and the Semet-Solvay plant. 
In the evening the members were guests at the Temple The- 
atre. 

Thursday, September 3RD. 

The party assembled at the Chamber of , Commerce build- 
ing at nine o'clock and proceeded to the Ford Motor Com- 
j>any's plant where an hour was pleasantly spent in a tour 
through the works. Automobiles then conveyed the visitors 
to the Detroit Boat Club on Belle Isle, where a luncheon was 
served by the club, after which a trip was made around the 
island. The next stop was at the Chalmers Motor Company's 
plant where some time was spent in inspecting the various op- 



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26 EXCURSIONS 

crating departments. The party was then taken to the dock 
where they boarded the Steamer Detroit II for the return trip 
to St. Ignace, enroiite to their homes in the Iron and Copi^er 
Country of Lake Superior. 

The meml3ers are most enthusiastic over the cordial recep- 
tion extended to them by the citizens of Detroit, the many 
interesting places visited, and the entertainment afforded them 
uix>n this occasion; their first visit to the metroi>oHs of Mich- 
igan. 



The following is the report presented by the Committee 
on Resolutions: 

Resolved by the members in attendance at the 1914 meet- 
ing of the Lake Sui)eri<)r Mining Institute that we hereby ex- 
tend our thanks to the Mining Comi>anies of the Marquette 
Range, the Wawonow^n Golf Club, Marquette Club, the Elks 
Club of Marquette, the Lake Shore Engine Works, the E. J. 
I^)ngyear Co., and resident citizens for entertainment enjoyed 
by us while on the Marquette Range, and 

Also to those who kindly provided motor cars, the D., S. 
S. & A. R'y. Co., the D. & C. Navigation Co., and other Rail- 
way Companies who have extended courtesies to insure our 
comfort, and 

Also to the Detroit Board of Commerce, the Convention 
and Tourist Bureau of Detroit, the Detroit Boat Club, the 
r\)rd Motor Car Co., and the Chalmers Motor Car Co. for en- 
tertaining us and facilitating our visits to ix)ints of interest in 
their City, and 

Further, that we particularly appreciate the First Aid Ex- 
hibition which we have witnessed at Ishpeming, the spirit and 
skill shown by the participants, the interest in this w^>rk on 
the part of those who made it ix>ssible for the several teams 
to participate, and the interest of those whose contributions 
added to the zeal of the contestants. 

V. W. McNair. 
J. S. Lutes, 
W. H. Newett, 
Frank Carbis, 
P. S. Williams, 

Committee. 



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27 



FOLLOWING IS A PARTIAL LIST OF THOSE IN ATTENDANCE. 



Abbott, C. E Bessemer, Ala. 

Allen, R. C Lansing, Mich. 

Archibald, R. S..Negaunee, Mich. 

Armstrong F. H Vulcan, Mich. 

Atkins, S. E Duluth, Minn. 

Barabe, C. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

Barbour, Edwin H.. Lincoln, Neb. 
Barnett, G. G . . . Ishpemiag, Mich. 
Begole, F. H. . .Marquette, Mich. 

Bengry, W. H Palatka, Mich. 

Benjamin, F. S Duluth, Minn. 

Berteling, John. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Bigelow, C. A. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Bittcho&ky, A. C.Cleveland, Ohio 

Bitters, H Marquette, Mich. 

Blackwell, fYank. Iron wood, Mich. 

Bond, Wm Ironwood, Mich. 

Bowers, E. C.Iron River, Mich. 
Bownocker, J. A.Columbus, Ohio 

Brown, W. G Duluth, Minn. 

Brown, P. W. .Marquette, Mich. 
Buehler, H. A RoUa, Mo. 

Carbis, F...Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Case, P. N Springfield, Mass. 

Champion, Chas Beacon, Mich. 

Charlton, D. E Virginia, Minn. 

Chase, P. P Ishpeming, Mich. 

Cheyney, H. C Chicago, Ills. 

Chipman, J. C. W.Ishpeming, Mich 
Clancey, James .. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Clifford, J. M Green Bay, Wis. 

Cole, C. D Ishpeming, Mich. 

Cole, W. T Jshpeming, Mich. 

Conibear, Wm .. Ishpeming, Mich. 

ConoUy, J. J Marquette, Mich. 

Cory, E. N Negaunee, Mich. 

Davies, W. J .... Wakefield, Mich. 

Davi^, J. M Milwaukee, Wis. 

DeHaas, N. G ... Marquette, Mich. 

Derby, E. L Ishpeming, Mich. 

DeWolf. F. W Urbana, Ills. 

Dickerson, L. R Chicago, Ills. 

Doty. O. P Palatka, Mich. 

Duncan, M. M .. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Durham, T. W. .Marquette, Mich. 



Elliott, S. R Negaunee, Mich. 

Emmons, W. H.Minneapolis, Minn 
Erick,son, E. R..Iron River, Mich. 

Fay, Joseph Marquette, Mich. 

Felch, T. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

Fesing, G. F Houghton, Mich. 

Fesing, H. W Houghton, Mich. 

Flannigan, T. A... Gilbert, Minn. 

Flodin, Nels Marquette, Mich. 

Fogerberg, August . Gwinn, Mich. 

Formis. A Iron River, Mich. 

Fink, Fred ....Iron River, Mich. 
Fisher, James ... Houghton, Mich. 

Goodney, S. J. .Stambaugh, Mich. 

Gow, A. M Duluth, Minn. 

Graff, W. W.... Ishpeming. Mich. 

Green, A. C Oiicago, Ills. 

Gribble, Thomas . Negaunee, Mich. 

Hansen, Chris .. Negaunee, Mich. 

Hanst, J. F Ishpeming, Mich. 

Hardgrove, T. H Gwinn, Mich. 

Hart, W. C Wakefield, Mich. 

Harvey, W. H. . . .Eveleth, Minn. 
Harvey, Ed.. Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Hawes, G. H Pittsburg, Pa. 

Hayden, J. E. . .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Hearding. J. H Duluth, Minn. 

Helmer, C. E Winona, Minn. 

Hetzel, H. F Pittsburg. Pa. 

Heyn, H. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

Higgins. Edwin Pittsburg, Pa. 

Hise. R. R Beaver, Pa. 

Hoatson. Chester. Calumet, Mich. 
Hoatson, Thomas. Calumet, Mich. 

Holman, J. W Chicago, Ills. 

Holmgren, Axle. .Ironwood, Mich. 

Hopkins E. W 

Commonwealth, Wis. 

Hoskias, Samuel Hurley, Wis. 

Hotchkiss, W. O... Madison, Wis. 

Howie, T. C 

Huhtala, John Palmer, Mich. 

Hunt, S. H Ironwood, Mich. 

Ives, L. E New York City 



Eaton, Lucien. .Ishpeming, Mich. Jackson, G. R. .... .Gwinn. Mich. 

Edwards, A. D Atlantic, Mich. Jackson, Harry Gwinn, Mich. 



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28 



REGISTRY OF MEMBERS 



Jaedecke Clarence 

Iron River, Mich. 

Jenks, F. G Marquette, Mich. 

Jewell, Samuel . . Negaunee, Mich. 
Johnson, O. M . . Ishpeming, Mich. 

Johnson, H. O Virginia, Minn. 

Johnston, W.H . . Ishpeming, Mich. 

Jones. Henry Gwinn, Mich. 

Jopling, J. E Ishpeming, Mich. 

Jory, Wm Princeton, Mich. 

Kay, G. F Iowa City, Iowa. 

Keese, F. E Ishpeming, Mich. 

Kelly, Wm Vulcan, Mich. 

Kleffman, John. . .Hibbing, Minn. 

Klinglund, P. D Palmer, Mich. 

Knoeffel, A. F.. Terra Haute, Ind. 
Kohlhaas, F. W.. Calumet, Mich. 
Kruse, C. T Ishpeming, Mich. 

Lacroix, M. F. . .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Lasier, F. G Detroit, Mich. 

Lawrence, C. E...Palatka, Mich. 

Lawton, C. L Hancock, Mich. 

Lawton, N. O Miami, Ariz. 

Leonard. C. M Gwinn, Mich. 

Longyear, J. M .. Marquette. Mich. 

Lukey, Frank Hurley Wis. 

Lutes, J. S Biwabik, Minn. 

Lytle, C. E Marquette, Mich. 

Moss, C. H Ishpeming Mich. 

Maney, James Duluth, Minn. 

Mather, S. L Cleveland, Ohio 

Matthews, A. .Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Myers, E. R Cleveland, Ohio 

Mildon H. H. . .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Mildren, John Ironwood, Mich. 

Miller, W. G Toronto, Ont. 

Mitchell, W. A Chicago, Ills. 

Mitchell, S. J Marquette, Mich. 

Mitchell, Ed Marquette, Mich. 

Morgan, I). T Detroit, Mich. 

Moulton, W. H. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Moulton, H. O.. Ishpeming Mich. 
Murphy, C. M .. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Myers, Wm Princeton, Mich. 

McDonald, D. B Duluth, Minn. 

McGee. M. B. .Crystal Falls, Mich. 
McNair, F. W. . . .Houghton. Mich. 
McNamara, T. B. Ironwood, Mich. 
Nelson, J. E Negaunee, Mich. 



Nelson. E. R Ishpeming, Mich. 

Newett, Geo. A. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Newett, W. H ... Ishpeming, Mich. 

Newton, L. L Ironwood, Mich. 

Nixon, J. A Ishpeming, Mich. 

Nolan, Dan Ironwood, Mich. 

Orr, F. D Duluth, Minn. 

Pascoe, P. W Republic, Mich. 

Pellow, Kenneth, C 

Negaunee, Mich. 

Pellow, Thomas .. Negaunee, Mich. 

Perkins, G. H Burlington, Vt. 

Peterson, Otto. . .Ironwood, Mich. 
Petruscak, Tony. Iror wood, Mich. 
Platto, Frank. . .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Powell, D. W Marquette, Mich. 

Pratt, J. H.... Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Prescott, F. M .. Menominee, Mich. 

Quigley, G. J Antigo, Wis. 

Quine, J. T Ishpeming, Mich. 

Raisky, F. H Duluth, Minn. 

Raley, R. J Duluth, Minn. 

Redfern, J. A Hibbing, Minn. 

Reigart, J. R Princeton. Mich. 

Richards, F. G. . .Ironwood, Mich. 
Richards, M. E 

Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Richards, W. J 

Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Richards, W. A 

Crystal Falls, Mich- 
Richmond, W. .Marquette, Mich. 
Roberts, A. T ... Marquette, Mich. 
Rockwell, F. G. .Ishpeming, Mich. 

Rough, J. H Negaunee, Mich. 

Rough Jas. Jr. . .Negaunee, Mich. 

Ruez, G. F Ishpeming, Mich. 

Russ, Ernest Ironwood, Mich. 

Russell, Jas Marquette, Mich. 

Salsich, L. R Coleraine, Minn. 

Sampson, John Ashland, Wis. 

Sawhill, R. V Cleveland, Ohio 

Scadden, Frank 

Crystal Falls. Mich. 

Schaus, O. M Hurley. Wis. 

Scheder, M. J Vulcan, Mich. 



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^9 



Scheiber, H. L 

Schneider, Theo . Marquette, Mich. 
Schubert, Jos. M . . Hancock, Mich. 

Schubert, G. P Hancock, Mich. 

Sedgwick, B. G. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Sellards, E. H. . .Tallahassee, Fla. 

Shannon, C. W Norman, Okla. 

Sheldon R. F.. .Marquette, Mich. 

Shields, I. J Houghton, Mich. 

Shields, J. C Detroit, Mich. 

Shove, B. W Ironwood, Mich.. 

Siebeiathal, W. A... Vulcan, Mich. 

Sink, Ed Marquette, Mich. 

Sliney, D J Ishpeming, Mich. 

Small, H. H Chicago, Ills. 

Smith. E. A University, Ala. 

Smith. R. T Ishpeming, Mich. 

Smyth, H. L. . .Cambridge, Ma3s. 

Soady, Harry Duluth, Minn. 

Sperr, P. W Houghton, Mich. 

Sporley, C. L Negaunee, Mich. 

Stack G. M Escanaba, Mich. 

Stafford, E. O .. Marquette, Mich. 

Stakel, O. J Ishpeming, Mich. 

Stanford, F. C. .Ishpeming, Mich. 
Stannard, W. L... Calumet, Mich. 
Stephens Jas . . . Ishpeming, Mich. 
Stevenson, C. A. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Stewart, H. E. . .Houghton, Mich. 
Strong, C. G Detroit, Mich. 

Talboys, H. H Duluth, Minn. 

Taylor, J. C Houghton, Mich. 

Thomas J Negaunee, Mich. 

Tillson, A. H Gwinn, Mich. 

Traver, D. R Chicago. Ills. 

Traver. W. H Chicago, Ills. 

Trebilcock, John.Ishpeming, Mich. 
Trebilcock, Wm . N. Freedom Wis. 

Trevarrow, Henry 

Negaunee, Mich. 

Trumbull, L. W.. Cheyenne, Wyo. 



Ulrich, E. O ... Washington, D. C. 

Uren, W. J Houghton, Mich. 

Urick, W. H Marquette, Mich. 

Vallett, B. W Detroit, Mich. 

Vandeventer. V. H 

Ishpeming, Mich. 

\anEvera, W Virginia, Minn. 

Walker, W. W Duluth, Minn. 

Waller, F Marquette, Mich. 

Walters, Thos .. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Ware, F Negaunee, Mich. 

Watson, C. H. Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Webb, W. M Gilbert Minn. 

Webb, F. J Duluth, Minn. 

Webb, C. E Houghton, Mich. 

Wells, Pearson Detroit, Mich. 

Westergren, Arthur 

Ironwood, Mich. 

White, Wm Virginia, Minn. 

White, E. E..... Ishpeming, Mich. 
White, L. C.Morgantown, W. Va. 
Whitney, Lowe. .Iron River, Mich. 
Wieland H. J. E 

Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Williams, R. Y Urbana, Ills. 

Williams, P. S Ramsay, Mich. 

Wills, G. M Marquette, Mich. 

Winn, Jos 

Wold, A. N Hancock, Mich. 

Worden, E. P. . .Milwaukee, Wis. 
Wright, C. W Eveleth, Minn. 



Yates, W. H Duluth. Minn. 

Yungbluth A. J. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Yungbluth, R. O. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Zimmerman,, W. G. Duluth, Minn. 



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30 mechanical underground shovel 

Mechanical Underground Shovel. 

The following description has been furnished of the un- 
derground loading machine which was demonstrated on the 
occasion of our visit at the plant of the Lake Shore Engine 
Works, on Monday, August 31st. 

The loader is designed for use in iron, copper and coal 
mines, in drifts 8x8 ft. and possibly smaller. The machine has 
an extreme height of 5 ft. from the top of the rail, width of 
3 ft. 9 in. and an extreme length of 14 ft., including the shov- 
el, or 1 1 ft. without the shovel. It can be arranged for opera- 
tion on any gauge track, is self-proi>elled, com|>act and weighs 
6500 lbs. The rubber conveyor belt, 22 in. wide, is the only 
detail in the machine which is not either iron or steel. The 
cai>acity is 40 tons of material per hour. The loader may be 
arranged for operation by air or electricity although it is ex- 
pected that air oi>eration will be popular because the exhaust 
from the engine w-ill help to clear the drift of smoke after a 
blast. It will be jx>ssible, however, to change the power, on 
any machine, in an hour's time when the necessary electric 
equipment is at hand. There are six different motions con- 
trolled by one operator. The machine propels itself forward 
and backward, the conveyor and shovel oi^erate on a vei*tical 
arc of 30 degrees and in a radial arc of 60 degrees, respec- 
tively; the conveyor l>elt is driven and there is the driving 
mechanism of the shovel. With this combination of motions 
a great deal will probably dei)end upon the ability of the oi>- 
erator to get the best output from the machine, and this in 
turn will depend upon his skill and experience in actual service 
with it. 

The loader consists of three distinct parts which may lie 
disconnected with little difficulty when it is required to take 
the machine from surface to points underground, or from 
drift to drift. The truck constitutes one portion, the frame 
with driving mechanism another, and the conveyor belt and 
shovel the third. All chains for driving are heavy-construc- 
tion automobile chains. The gear drive from the engine to 
the main shaft is of the Wuest patented herringbone type. All 
()l>erating mechanism is completely inclosed, and securely cov- 
ered so that no dirt can interfere with the operation of the 
drive. 

The digging dipi>er, which is somewhat cup-shaped, is 
fitted with teeth on the cutting edge, and hinged at the l>ack. 
After securing a load, the dipper is revolved through a vertical 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 3 1 

arc, and its load falls backward upon the rubber conveyor 
b^it. This l^elt carries the dirt up an incline of al30Ut 30 de- 
grees, dumping it at the turn into an iron chute. The latter 
directs the dirt into the tram car, and both its angle and di- 
rection can Ije changed within certain limits. 

It is the intention of the company to manufacture several 
sizes, adaptable to other mines where conditions are different. 
The demonstrating machine will go into service soon at the 
Jiulson mine, at Alpha, on the Menominee iron range, Mich- 
igan. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 35 



USE OF ELECTRICITY AT THE PENN AND REPUB- 
LIC IRON MINES, MICHIGAN.* 

BY WILLIAM KELLY, AND F. H. ARMSTRONG, VULCAN, MICH. 

The object of this paper is to descril^e the electric ec]uii>- 
nient at the iron ore mines of Penn Iron Mining Company, 
Vulcan, Mich., and of Republic Iron Company, Republic, 
Mich.; to give the results of tests; and to discuss the melh- 
(xls in use from an operating as well as from an efficiency 
standpoint. 

Electricity was introduced at the Penn mines for pumping, 
hoisting, and compressing air in the spring of 1907, upon 
the completion of a hydro-electric plant built by that com- 
pany on the Menominee river about 4 miles from the mines. 
This plant was described in a paper^ itr^uted before the 
I.^ke Sui^erior Mining Institute. A pap^i^presented at a 
meeting of the same Institute describes some of the oi>erating 
features, and the safety devices of the electric hoist at the 
Curry shaft were briefly described in the Proceedings of the 
First Co-Oi^erative Safety Congress held under the auspices 
of the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers at 
Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 30 to Oct. 5, 19 12. 

Generating Power Plants. 

After the success of electrical operation was assured, a 
second set of water wheels and generator was installed at the 
falls, for which provision had been made in the original dcs'gn 
and in the construction of the foundations, and later three 



• Presented also by mutual afirreement at the meetinsr of the American Institute of Min- 
inflT Enfiineers, February. 1914. 

1 T. W. Orbison and F. H. Armstrong. Proceedinsrs of the Lake Superior Mininflr Insti- 
tute. Vol. xiii. pp. 163-181, (1908). 

2 Fmnk H. Armstronar, idem. Vol. xvi, 244-250. (1911). 



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36 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

additional wires were added to the main transmission line, 
doubling its capacity and reducing the line loss. 

The general conditions of this installation are particularly 
favorable for hydro-electric operation. In the neighbt>rh(x>d 
of three-fourths of the power used is for mine pumping, w^hich 
in the main is regular and continuous. For air compressing, 
power is used for about 18 hr. a day for five days, and 9 
hr. for one day in the week, though occasionally when shaft 
sinking is going on a very small amount of compressed air 
may be required continuously. Hoisting and surface tram- 
ming, which are intermittent, require only about 6 per cent, 
of the power used. The pond above the falls covers an area 
of about 450 acres and the head is 25 feet. There is, there- 
fore, an ample quantity of water to talce care of the ordinary 
irregularities of consumption without much change in the 
head, but on the other hand it does not supply any extended 
storage, as if the flow from alx)ve was entirely cut off the 
draw'ing down of i ft. would furnish water to supply the 
ix>wer requirements for only a little over 4 hours. 

The power requirements of the mines, though somew^hat 
variable, have been averaging about 2,400 h.p. The Me- 
nominee river furnishes this amount of power at what may l)e 
considered the normal stage. In dry seasons the water power 
has to be supplemented, and therefore a 1,500-kw. steam tur- 
bo-generator has l>een installed at the principal mine. This 
is sufficient in itself to take care of the pumping, if for any 
reason the hydro-electric plant should be out of commission. 
As a matter of fact, this has occurred without control only 
four times in six years, three times on account of anchor ice, 
not over 8 hr. at either time, and once for 3 hr. on account 
of a l>rcak in the transmission line due to a faulty disconnector. 
The protection against anchor ice is the length of the pond, 
which is about 5 miles to the next rapids above. As soon as 
this ix>nd freezes over the anchor ice formed above does not 
come through. The three experiences with anchor ice were 
on days late in the fall before the pond had frozen over, when 
the temperature fell much l^elow the freezing point and there 
was a high wind. 

At the falls the generating units are of 1,500 and 2,000 
kw., 6,600 volts, and are run singly or together according to 
the mine requirements and the quantity of water available. 
During the years 191 1, 1912 and the first half of 1913, there 
was generated at the falls 37,502,160 kw.-hr. at a cost, in- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 37 

eluding taxes, of 0.083c. per kilowatt-hour. The steam plant 
generated 1.670,700 kw.hr. at a cost, including stand-by ex- 
penses, of 1.82 ic. per kilowatt-hour. The average cost of 
power for operating was 0.157c. per kilowatt-hour. Depre- 
ciation for a 20-year period and interest at 5 per cent, add 
0.182c., making the total cost, including operating, taxes, and 
depreciation, 0.339c. per kilowatt-hour. 

At Republic the small water power is used entirely for 
compressing air. Electricity is used for the pumping, one 
surface tram, the cnisher plant, and the shops. The principal 
generating unit is a mixed-pressure steam turbo-generator 
which nuis on the exhaust steam of the hoisting engines suj)- 
plemented by live steam. The exhaust steam is passed through 
a regenerator in order to distribute its use to as great an ex- 
tent as possible during intermissions of hoisting. The success- 
ful utilization of intermittent supplies of low-pressure steam 
dq>ends very largely on having the regenerator capacity of 
ample size. The steam turbine runs at 9,000 rev. per minute. 
Live steam is automatically supplied to fill any deficiencies 
in the amount of exhaust steam available. There is an inde- 
l^endent condenser which produces a vacuum of 27 inches. 
Geare<l to the shaft of the steam turbine are two electric gen- 
erators of a combined capacity of 150 kw., which run at 900 
rev. per minute. These are to have fly wheels on the shafts 
so as to eliminate the peaks and reduce the heavy voltage 
fluctuations. Each wheel is 52 in. in diameter by 10 in. 
thick and weighs something over 5 000 pounds. The. speed of 
the turbine when using live steam is 33^ i^r cent less than 
when using exhaust. These fly wheels will give, for this re- 
duction in si>eed, 525 h.p.-sec. There is a back pressure on 
tlie hoisting engines varying from a maximum of 4 lb. to a 
slight vacuum. As close as can be figured, this turbine is 
furnishing a kilowatt-hour for a fuel cost of 0.15 cents. 

Electric Pumps. 

At the time when the original installation at Vulcan was 
under consideration, centrifugal pumps for high heads had 
not given good satisfaction in this country. There had been 
difficulties with thrust bearings and considerable doubt al>out 
continuous efficiencies. The correctness of the general me- 
chanical principle of attaching a centrifugal pump directly to 
a high-sjjeed motor was recognized. It was decided, there- 
fore, to place the order for the main pumping units of cen- 



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38 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

trifugal design under specifications to cover the principal re- 
quirements. In brief, these were for three units, each with 
an induction motor for 2,200 volts, 450 h.p., three-phase, al- 
ternating current, and a centrifugal pump in eight stages, 
four on each side of the motor, all on the same shaft, with 
a marine thrust bearing at each end, for a capacity of 900 
gal. per minute at a speed of 1,200 rev. per minute, with suc- 
tion lift of 20 ft. and discharge head including friction of 
1,275 ft., with a combined efficiency of motor and pump of 
63 per cent. Two of these units were put in at the West 
Vulcan C shaft and one at the East Vulcan No. 4 shaft. A 



Figure 1 Pump Station at West Vulcan 

view of the two pumps at West Vulcan in the pump station 
1,200 ft. below the surface is shown in Fig. i. 

When the pumps were started they fell short of the guar- 
anteed efficiency; there was trouble from heat in the thnist 
bearings in starting, and rapid wear of the protecting sleeves 
alK)ut the shaft in the high-pressure stuffing boxes. The prin- 
cipal changes were in closing some holes in the impellers that 
had been made with the expectation that they w^ould equalize 
the thrust movement ; in substituting for the marine thrust 
bearing a hydraulic thnist ring against which the pressure of 
water in the column pipe is automatically applied by a slight 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 39 

thrust movement of the shaft; in some alterations to make 
it easier to change the wearing sleeves on the shaft; and in 
experimenting with different kinds of packing. The result of 
this work was the raising of the efficiency to the required 
standard, the elimination of all thrust trouble, and a reduction 
of the wear caused by the packing in the high-pressure stuf- 
fing boxes to very' moderate proportions. Subsequently some 
further improvements were made. 

Multi-stage centrifugal pumps consist of impellers at- 
tached to the shaft and stationary diffusion rings. The water 
enters an impeller near the shaft and issues with great ve- 
Icxity from its periphery. It then passes in a spiral direction 
through the passages of a diffusion ring to the inlet of the 
succeeding impeller or from the last impeller to the outlet. 
The expanding passageways for the water through the dif- 
fusion ring convert the velocity into pressure. The efficiency 
of a centrifugal pump depends principally on the shape and 
size of the impellers, the internal leakages, and the friction in 
the water passages. 

The three original centrifugal pumps are made with a 
solid casing and the impellers and the diffusion rings are 
drawn out through the end of the casing. In the pumps 
installed since there is no casing, but the stationary parts of 
each stage are held together by large through bolts. None 
of the pumps have casings divided horizontally, which plan 
introduces unfavorable joints and necessitates disconnecting 
and lifting out the shaft and impellers. Without the hori- 
zontal joint the diffusion rings and impellers are very easily 
drawn out endways without disturbing the shaft. It takes 
alx>ut 4 hr. to take a pump of four stages apart and put it 
together again. 

The experience of several years shows that there is very 
little wear in the interior or on the periphery of the impellers, 
or in the water passages leading from one impeller to another. 
The principal wear and the occasion of greatest loss in effi- 
ciency is t^etween the impellers and the diffusion rings. Orig- 
inally, the contact faces were quite narrow, only % in. They 
have since been made i 7/16 in. and the tendency to leak has 
been decreased by using labyrinth rings, as shown in Fig. 2l 

In later installations the hydraulic thrust ring was sup- 
plied wMth oil from a separate small motor-driven plunger 
pump. When oil was lacking it was found that water an- 
swered equally well. The advantage of having pressure in- 



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40 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

dependent of the water column is because the greatest tend- 
ency to thrust is on starting before the impellers become bal- 
anced, as they are when under the full head, because at the 
time of starting the column pipe may not supply the requisite 
or perhaps any pressure, and also because the independent 
puijip gives a constant quantity at a variable pressure de- 
pending upon the thrust. 

The main stuffing boxes were originally packed with a 
solid metallic i>acking, but, as that did not prove satisfactory, 



Jf/NC ON Impelled 



STATIONAf^Y RtNQ 
O/V HCADS AND 
lNT£/in£0/ATE3 




Figure 2 Labyrinth Rings to Decrease Leakage 

soft metallic packing and several kinds of special packings 
were tried in succession, but finally practice has settled down 
to a good grade of square braided hemp packing. The leak- 
age is naturally greatest through the stuffing lx)x on the dis- 
charge end of the pump, where there is the full pressure of 
552 lb. to the square inch. As the shaft has only a rotary 
motion, when the packing is tightened up there is nothing to 
distribute the pressure applied upon the outside ring of pack- 
ing to the other rings, as a shaft with motion lengthways 
helps to do, and consequently the outside ring is apt to be 



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Lake superior mining institute 41 

pressed so tight that it wears a groove in the shaft or the 
protecting sleeve about the shaft. No attempt is made to 
lubricate the packing. The shaft is protected from this wear 
in the stuffing boxes by removable sleeves. It takes only 2 
hr. to replace a sleeve. The replacing of the sleeves has teen 
the greatest source of delay of a mechanical nature, but the 
aggregate of the delays is very small. At the East Vulcan 
mine, where for nearly three years there was only one electric 
centrifugal pump, and it was run as nearly continuously as 
I>ossible, the total delays amounted to only 364 hr. in 33 
months, or less than i J4 per cent, of the time. 

Occasionally the discharge of the pump has fallen off, 
due to chips or refuse in the suction end of the pump. This 
is guarded against as much as possible by having duplicate 
wire screens in the suction tank, so that all' the water from 
the mine has to pass through a screen. The screens are in 
duplicate, so that there may always te one in place when the 
other is raised for cleaning. In these mines it has I)een found 
that the test protection against grit in the water is to te had 
Trom good ditches which keep the water in the drifts below 
the traveled road. The internal wear of the water passages 
due to grit has teen exceedingly small. The water is free 
from acid and without corrosive effect. The internal con- 
struction of these pumjjs is simplicity itself, and their de- 
pendability is much greater, and the time and cost of re- 
jxiirs much less, than with the triple-expansion steam pumps 
which the centrifugals displaced. 

Approximate figures on the maintenance for one year of 

four centrifugal pumps as compared to four triple-expansion 

steam pumps doing practically the same duty are as follows : 

Centrifugal. Steam. 

Shop labor I 717 | 7C0 

Labor on pumps G90 590 

Supplies 503 2,021 

11,910 13,371 

The motor of these pumps have wound rotors with a de- 
vice for short circuiting the secondary current and relieving 
the brushes from wear by lifting them from the rings. These 
pumps were rated at 900 gal. per minute and that was about 
the quantity of water that they handled at first. Soon after 
the quantity to te pumi>ed increased to 1,100 gal. per minute. 
This was too much for one pump and not enough for two, 
so that it was necessary to start and stop one pump frequently. 



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4^ ELECTRICITY AT PEKK AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

As this quantity of water continued for some time, it was 
found that by increasing the speed of the generators at the 
falls from 60 to 62 J^ cycles per second, the pumps were each 
capable of handling from 1,200 to 1.300 gal. per minute. 
This overloaded the motors, and after running for a consid- 



^ __^ ^^=^=^ tt> 

•^-^=-:r:r: : . H 

: _ _ _ 25 

flC ul 



1000 UQO 1«» 

CAPACITY. GALLONS PER MINUTE 
Figure 8 Efficiency Curve of 8-in. EUoht-Stagb Centrifugal Pump 

erable time it was found that the insulation had been baked 
until it was brittle. This made trouble when it became neces- 
sary to repair the windings. A dropping off in efficiency will 
also overload the motor, so that it is w^ell to have centrifugal- 



\\^ 










'^ 






. B 






\ 






\ 




1 1 










r 


zz^ 


u 




1 

1 

/^« H.mk.r */ [ 

> 

/I 

V 

r 









^*z 



Figure 4 Measuring Tank 

pump motors of a larger size than the specified head and 
quantities under normal conditions call for. 

Fig. 3 shows an approximate curve of efficiency based on 
eight tests at different quantities on a pump when in first-class 
condition. During these tests the unit was being run at 1,235 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINiNG INSTITUTE 43 

rev. per minute and the quantity was varied by manipulating 
a valve on the suction. 

In order to test the efficiency of the pumps it was neces- 
sary to measure the water. At first, this was done on surface, 
by means of both a tank with knife-edged orifice and a weir. 
Penrranent concrete tanks were later installed at both East 
Vulcan and West Vulcan so as to obtain a continuous record 
of the amount of water pumped. One of these tanks is shown 
in Fig. 4. There is a division wall in it which is pierced 
with a great many 2-in holes. The water from the mine 
flows into the back i>art of the tank and through the holes in 
the division wall into the front part of the tank. This breaks 
up the flow of water and prevents "velocity of approach'' to 
the orifice. In the front wall of the tank there is a plate of 
steel with a circular knife-edge opening of exact size. 

The quantity of water that flows through the orifice de- 
pends on the head above the center of the orifice. The head 
is recorded on a recording water-level guage and tables for 
each orifice show the gallons per minute corresponding to 
each tenth of a foot of head. One of the charts is shown in 
Fig. 5. This chart was used in connection with an orifice 
having a diameter of 7 in. and shows an average for the 
week of about 894 gal. per minute. When the pumping is 
irregular the average is ascertained by the use of a plani- 
meter for circular charts. On this chart it can be seen that 
the pumps were stopped for a few minutes three times during 
the week. The charts are changed Sundays at noon. Orifices 
of different sizes are used when the quantity of water changes, 
so as to keep the water at somewhere between 2 and 4 ft. above 
the center. With these permanent measuring tanks and suit- 
able electrical instruments a test of efficiency becomes a very 
simple matter. 

At the Brier Hill shaft, where there are only from 30 to 
40 gal. per minute, and a depth of 900 ft., there is a motor- 
driven reciprocating, horizontal, plunger pump, of 125 gal. 
per minute capacity, which on Sundays and holidays may be 
operated from the hoist house on surface, the high- and low- 
water mark in the sump being provided with an electric sig- 
nalling device to the hoist house. 

At the Republic mine, for pumping from a depth of 1,150 
ft. a motor-driven triplex plunger pump of 95 gal. per minute 
and a motor-driven horizontal duplex plunger pump of 125 
gal. per minute are used, but at that point the maximum wa- 



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44 



ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 



ter is only 150 gal. per minute, with an average of about 50 
gallons. At other points where the quantities are moderate 
and intermittent operation is not objectionable, motor-driven 
plunger pumi>s are used. 

In the smaller sizes centrifugal pumps are inefficient, but 
the efficiency increases with the size. Pumps of 600 to 1,200 



Figure 5 Chart From Recording Water-Level Gauge 

gal. a minute can be easily maintained at an efficiency of 55 
to 65 per cent, measured from the ix)vver delivered to the 
motors to the water at the top of the shaft, while pumps of 
larger capacity will undoubtedly give higher efficiencies. 

One of the great advantages of centrifugal pumps is that 
the quantity of w^ater can be regulated within comparatively 
wide limits by simply opening and closing a valve on either 
the suction or the discharge pipe, preferably the former, with 
but slight variation in the efficiency. A reciprocating pump 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 45 

driven by an induction motor, on the other hand, must run 
at a constant speed. Mechanical devices to change the speed 
of the pump or the quantity of water per stroke are neces- 
sarily complicated. The common practice for decreasing the 
quantity is to use a by-pass on the discharge column, allowing 
a- portion of the water to return to the sump. This of course 
is directly at the expense of efficiency. Intermittent pump- 
ing" necessitates adeciuate sump capacity. It may be generally 
sai<l that a reciprocating pump driven by an induction motor 
is especially suited to pump a certain amount of water against 
a head that may be varied at pleasure, while with a centrifugal 
pump the quantity of water can be regulated but the head 
cannot l)e materially changed without structural changes. To 
effect the latter end a centrifugal pump should be designed 
for changing either the number or the diameter of the im- 
I>elleri',. High-pressure centrifugal pumps are usually de- 
signed for a head of lOO to 150 ft. for each stage or im- 
peller. The speed must be approximately 1,200 or 1,800 rev. 
jxrr minute with a six- or four-pole motor and a 6o-cycle al- 
ternating current. With a 25-cycle current the si>ee(l would 
not Ix? sufficient, except with a two^pole motor. 

Electric Hoists. 

Before the introduction of electricity, hoisting at the Penn 
mines was done at five shafts with steam hoists of the follow- 
ing tyi^es : 

Shaft No. of Drums ^'"^{j^^ Geared ^ Drums**' 

EaGt Vulcan No. 4 2 10 Yes Tandem 

East Vulcan No. 3 2 5 Yes On same shaCt 

West Vulcan C 2 12 Yes Tandem 

West Vulcan C 2 12 No On same shaft 

Curry No. 1 2 6 Yes On same shaft 

Norway No. 10 2 5 Yes On same shaft 

The principal hoisting was at East Vulcan No. 4 and West 
Vulcan C shafts. The geared plants at these two points were 
altered so as to permit their being driven by motors. This 
was done by extending the pinion shaft on the side opposite 
to the steam engine and putting on the extended shaft a large 
rope wheel, which was driven by an American system rope 
drive from a small rope wheel on the shaft of the motor. On 
the other side the connecting rod of the steam engine was dis- 
connected. This arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 6. The 
method of operating is to start the motor, roi>e wheels, gear 
wheels, and drum shafts and when these are up to speed 



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46 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND I^EPUBLIC IRON MINES 

gradually to apply the clutch of the drum, thus starting- the 
skip or cage and quickly accelerating it. This had always 
been the practice in starting with steam except that with the 
rope wheels and motor the fly wheel effect is greater. 

At the same time the East Vulcan No. 3 hoist, which was 
used very intermittently and principally for depths of only 
250 ft., was run by compressed air generated by a motor- 

73 

r 



Figure 6 Tandem Drums Driven by Either Engine or Motor 

driven compressor. As the work of this hoist has increased 
a motor and l^elt have been substituted for the engine, as 
shown in Fig. 7. The same change was made with the Nor- 
way hoist. The first-motion steam hoist at West Vulcan has 
l)een dispensed with. The Curry hoist was formerly nni by 
steam from the saw mill. This hoist was too small for the 
work and has l^een replaced by a new electrically driven plant. 
A new hoist has also been supplied for the circular concrete- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



47 



lined shaft at Brier Hill. These last two hoists will be de- 
scribed more in detail. 

The motors of the four principal hoists are all of standard 
design. They are three-phase, Go-cycle, 2,200-volt induction 
motors with wound rotors and external resistance for starting. 

Experience shows that the motors at West Vulcan, Curry, 




FiGURB 7 Parallel Drums Driven by Either Engine or Motor 

and Brier Hill are much larger than is required. A 
of 200 h.p. would be sufficient for the requirements 
of the above shafts. 



East Vulcan No. 4 220 

West Vulcan 350 

Curry 350 

Brier Hill 450 



43 

360 
360 
360 
300 



h 

OQ 

6,700 

6,000 

12.000 

12,000 



lis 

1,557 

1.546 

1,410 

989 



motor 
of any 



"^90 
588 
600 
600 



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48 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON lalNES 

The first hoist at these mines constructed solely for electric 
hoisting was installed at the Brier Hill shaft. This hoist has 
two drums with shells of steel plate 12 ft. in diameter by 5 
ft. 9 in. face, and 2 cast-iron conical drums, of which the 
small diameter is 4 ft. 6 in. and the large diameter 17 feet. 
These drums, Fig. 8, are keyed on two i>arallel shafts, a 
cylindrical and a conical drum on each shaft. Each cylin- 
drical dnmi is driven by a Lane friction clutch from a cut 
spur gear having 144 teeth, 4-in. circular pitch and 12-in. 
face. The pinion has 46 teeth, giving a gear ratio of 3.13 to 
I. On the pinion shaft is a rope wheel 21 ft. 6 in. in diam- 



FiGURE 8 Hoist at Brier Hill Shaft 

eter. having 24 grooves for ij4 i^'i- nianila rope. The pulley 
on the motor is 48 in. in diameter. The friction clutches and 
band brakes are operated by compressed-air cylinders each 
having an oil cylinder to prevent jumping and to hold it at 
any ix)int. Safety devices on this hoist fulfill the same con- 
ditions as those on the Curry hoist, but are more complicated 
and will not be descriljed in detail here. 

Before putting in this plant it was thought that a hand- 
oi>erated controller for so large a motor as 450 h.p. would l)e 
hard to handle, so an automatic controller operated by alter- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



49 



nating-current solenoids with a master controller was in- 
stalled. This controller required frequent attention and was 
very noisy. It has been replaced with a water rheostat, which 
after some experimenting was built as shown in Fig. 9. The 
tank is of concrete, open on top and nearly full of a weak 
solution of carbonate of soda. A timber crosshead is sus- 
pended above the tank and to the under side of it four iron 
plates are attached. The plates are connected to the three 
secondary leads from the motor as indicated in the drawing. 
The crosshead and plates are raised and lowered by a rope 



(^^^ 





Figure 9 Water Rheostat Controller for 500-h.p. Induction Motor Hoist Service 

which leads from an air cylinder in the hoist house. The 
plates are trapezoids in shai)e with the shortest side down 
and they are set at angles to each other so that the lowest 
parts are the greatest distance apart. As the plates descend 
into the water the areas increase rapidly and the jxirts at the 
surface of the water are closer together, so that the electrical 
resistance is reduced. The setting of the plane of the plates 
at an angle with the perpendicular also stirs up the solution to 
some extent. Between each pair of plates are smaller plates 
much closer together, electrically connected to the large plates, 
and at such a height that they enter the water just as the 
large plates become completely submerged. By adjusting the 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



50 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

distance between these small plates the amount of slip of the 
motor when pulling full load at full speed can be varied. 

The mechanism for regulating the speed with which the 
plates are lowered into the water, for raising the plates out 
of the water, and for operating the primary switch is shown 
in Fig. lo. A four-way valve having only two positions, "on" 
and "off," is handled by the operator. In the "on" position 
air is admitted to a small cylinder which closes the primary 
switch, and the pipe leading to the air cylinder is opened to 
exhaust. The weight of the crosshead and plates causes them 
to sink into the water at a speed determined by the amount of 
opening of the by-pass valve on the oil cylinder. When the 



Operators //a/7d/e. 




(J 



nir operated 
prt/rtary Qytitch 



Air suf>f»ly. 

4f WAy (Lir y/aln. 

— CnhAUst 



yBy-^uss vajf6. 



T^ 



To c/vsshud 
CArr/fftf ff/Atts. 




Jlir cy/iader. dil rttej-dify Cflindtr, 



Unchor 



Figure 10 Operating Mechanism for Water Rheostat 

hoist is nearly completed the operator throws the handle to 
the "off" ix>sition. This allows the air in the primary switch 
cylinder to ex'haust, thereby opening the switch, and at the 
same time admits air into the air cylinder, thus raising the 
plates nearly out of the water. 

Fig. 1 1 shows the starting curv^e with this water rheostat. 
Fig. 12 shows the corresix>nding curve with the automatic 
controller previously used. On comparing these it will be 
seen that acceleration was accomplished with the water rheo- 
stat in 20 sec, while it took 40 sec. with the automatic con- 
troller, and the power drawn from the line was much more 
uniform with the former. The curve in Fig. ii also shows 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 5 1 

the practically perfect counterbalancing of the skip and the 
unbalanced load of the cage. 

The Curry hoist, shown in Fig. 13, was designed and 
built by the Penn Iron Mining Company. It has been in 
service since March, 191 2. It has two cast-iron drums 12 
ft. in diameter by 6 ft. face on the same shaft, each drum 
having a band brake 10 in. wide, 12 ft. in diameter, and 
driven independently by a Lane friction clutch 12 in. wide, 
which grips a friction ring 10 ft. 4 in. in diameter. 



Figure U Starting Curve With Water Rheostat 



Figure 12 Starting Curve With Automatic ControlleIi 

The main shaft is driven by a Falk cut helical gear having 
i8i teeth, lY^-'m. circular pitch, and an i8-in. face. The 
pinion meshing with this gear has 19 teeth, giving a gear 
ratio of 9.52 to i. On the pinion shafts is a rope wheel 9 
ft. 10 in. in diameter having 24 V-grooves for 134 -in- manila 
rope. The rim of this rope wheel is 3/^ -in. thick, to give it 
the proi)er amount of inertia. This vo\i^ wheel is driven from 
the 350-h.p. motor by a rope pulley 50 in. in diameter. 



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52 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

The friction clutches and band brakes are power operated. 
In the basement is a small motor-driven triplex pump which 
takes oil from a suction tank and pumps it into a pressure 
tank. When all the oil in the system is in the pressure tank 
it is only one-third full of oil, two-thirds of the volume be- 
ing compressed air at 80 lb. gauge pressure. As fast as oil 
is used and exhausted into the suction tank the pump puts it 
back into the pressure tank. When there is no oil in the 
suction tank the pump draws air, w^hich is compressed and 
delivered into the pressure tank. A small safety valve allows 



Figure 13 Hoist at Curry Shaft 

the escape of any excess air. The brake is released by an oil 
cylinder and set by a weight, oil being admitted or exhausted 
by a three-way valve. The hand lever operating this valve 
is connected differentially to the brake lever so that the 
l>rake follows the operator's hand. The clutch is engaged by 
oil cylinder and released by a weight in the same manner. 
The use of oil under pressure instead of compressed air or 
steam insures smooth action of the clutch and brake, mak- 
ing sudden starting or stopping almost impossible, while the 
use of weights to release the clutch and set the brakes insures 
a reliable source of ix>wer for stopping. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



53 



The safety device stops the drum under any one of four 
conditions, viz: Lowering too rapidly; overwinding; at a 
point 90 ft. above the bottom when lowering; and at a point 
50 ft. below the surface when coming up. The two latter 
stoi>s are under the control of the brak«nan, so that if he 
is aware of the position of the cage or skip he can disconnect 
either of these two devices. Referring to Fig. 14, the levers 
which operate the valves of the clutch and brake cylinders 
are shown, one in the "nmning" position and one in the 
"stop" position. A solenoid is arranged to release a weight 
which puts both clutch and brake levers into the **stop" po- 



Oftr-mnA G»iiiuit. 



Screw DrhfinlyUrvm 




ThMclinf Nut wit/f Tcetfy 




f^ibrc Bfoeh Gurryinf dontict Ylheet 
Set for soft U/ow SurlACt. SttforfO k a/fore Bottom. 



$tq^ /^itiofr. 



T^vnninf ^pMittoo 



5^ 5o/enoJd for T^efsAsinf Yfci^ht 




TkU Hm'sS^S: 



FiQURE 14 Safety Device on Hoists 

sition. It remains then to have a contact made that will send 
a current through the solenoid when it is desired to stoj) the 
drimi. The contact for stopping when lowering too rapidly, 
the condition first mentioned, is made by a simple fly ball gov- 
ernor, shown in Fig. 15. The other three conditions are con- 
trolled by means of the device shown in Fig. 14. A screw, 
driven by the drum, carries a nut with teeth which strike 
a pawl on the contact wheel, tuming the wheel slightly and 
thus making a contact. By slightly turning the shaft which 
carries the contact wheels, the pawds are lifted and the nut 
travels under without tuming the wheel. The shaft may be 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



54 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

turned by pressing on the "dead man's button." The contact 
for the overwind needs no description. Fig. 15 gives a gen- 
eral view of this safety device. This device has been tried 
many times and all of the four conditions have always been 
met. 

The ore formations at Vulcan are inclined at varying 
angles from 45 to 90 degrees from the horizontal, but all 
the shafts are vertical with the exception of the lower part of 



Figure 15 Fly-Ball Governor for Speed Control 

East Vulcan No. 4. The orebodies are very irregular in 
shape and may be considered ore shoots rather than lenses. 
The quantities on different levels vary greatly. For this rea- 
son hoisting with indei^endent drums rather than with drums 
in balance presents advantages. A single drum at any of the 
shafts will carry all the ore required and work more or less 
intemiittently. This economizes shaft space, and with a plant 
of two dnims one can be us^d for a skip and the other for 
a cage. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



55 



In the important installations the weight of the skips, 
and when heavy the weight of the cage, is counterbalanced 
by a weight in the shaft. The road for the counterbalance 
requires very little space in the shaft, as the counterbalance is 
made fairly long and small in the other directions. In one 
case an old Cornish pump plunger i6 in. in diameter and lo 
ft. long partly filled with scrap has been used. 

At East Vulcan No. 4 and Curry, in order to balance and 
equalize the weight of the ropes, the counterbalance roi^e, 
after leaving the hoisting drum, passes outside of the hoisting 
house to one of two connected conical drums toward its smaller 




FiouKE 16 Arramgement op Curry Hoist and Balance Drums 

diameter, while from the larger diameter of the other drum 
another rope leads to the shaft and carries the counterweight, 
as show^n in Fig. 16. The uniformity of the balancing through- 
out the travel of the skip in the Curry hoist is shown in Fig. 
17. In the Brier Hill plant, instead of the pair of conical 
drums outside the hoisting house there is a conical drum on 
the shaft with each of the main hoisting drums and the count- 
erbalance rope leads from the smaller end of the conical dnmi 
(see Figs. 8 and 18.) This arrangement is possible only 
when the hoisting drums are set tandem to each other. The 



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56 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 



Strains on the counterbalance drum are so much less than on 
the hoisting drum that it can be very much lighter and there 
are fewer difficulties in its structural features than where con- 
ical drums are used for hoisting. The counterbalancing of 



14^100 










































lt.000 


,^ 




- 






































--^ 




< 


-We 


gilt 


OfflUp^Qd^lM 
















o 






^ 




-^ 




"^ 


>- 


:Pu 


lof 


iBaljnAA 
















2iAMM 




" 


2 
















-< 






■^ 


-- 








































■--. 










. 




^ 


8,000 
































"^ 




.^ 


6LD0O 









































S.000ft. 



usooft 



IgOOOft 



won. 



fiotlom T^ 

FiQuitE 17 Curves Showing Variation in Balance With Curry Balance Drums. 
1V4-IN. Hoisting Rope, 4,900 lb.; Skip Weighs 7,600 lb.; Weight of Countbrbalamcb 



Figure 18 Arrangement of Brier Hill Balance Drums 

the ropes by means of a single conical drum necessitates the 
use of a drum with a wide difference between its end diam- 
eters, a diffo'ence which in some cases is almost impractic- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 57 

able, and in any case requires deep grooving. Such a drum 
is more expensive both for itself and for the inclosing build- 
ing than the pairs of drums used on the other plants and is 
heavier, thereby increasing the inertia. 

In order to equalize the weight of the ropes in every part 
of the shaft as nearly as possible the angle of the cones must 
be carefully designed. To obtain absolute equalization would 
require a cone of which the outlines of a longitudinal section 
would be curved rather than straight, but the difference in 
counterbalancing effect in different parts of the shaft can 
usually be kept within lOO or 200 lbs. with straight cones. 

In thus counterbalancing the dead weights some allowance 
must be made so that the descending skip will overhaul the 
drums. This requires g^erally an unbalanced load of not 
exceeding 800 lbs. The excess of weight of the empty skip 
or cage should only be such as to take it down with little or 
no application of the brake for the greater part of. its travel. 
In a shaft 2,000 ft. deep, where the weight of ore hoisted is 
12,000 lb., the weight of the skip 7,400 lb., and the rope 
4,900 lb., or a total dead weight of 12,300 lb., the loss, ne- 
glecting friction, would be 50.6 per cent. When the dead 
weights are coimterbalanced to within 800 lb. the loss is only 
6.6 per cent. 

in this method of counterbalancing the conical drums have 
l^een designed so that the total travel of the counterbalance 
will be so much less than that of the skip or cage that the 
counterweights will never come to the surface when the skip 
or cage is at the bottom of the shaft. This has been done 
to avoid the freezing of the counterweight to its guides in 
severe winter w.eather. 

For a counterbalance recently designed for one of the Re- 
public shafts, in place of the two conical drums there are a 
nearly cylindrical drum and a reel for a flat rope which car- 
ries the counterweight. This method of counterbalancing can 
be used for a depth of at least 3,000 ft. in a vertical shaft 
with a load of ore of 12,000 lb., as illustrated in Fig. 19. In 
Fig. 20 is shown the uniformity of the l>alancing. 

When a skip is in the dump a part of its weight rests on 
the members of the headframe and it is necessary to make 
some compensation so as to maintain the equalizing of the 
weights at that point as well as at other points in the travel. 
This has been accomplished in several ways. One way was 
to have the counterweight made in parts, the upper part of 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



58 



ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 



larger cross section than the lower part, so that when the skip 
was entering the dump the larger part of the counterweight 
near the bottom of the shaft would be caught on stationarj*^ 
projections from the shaft timbers and held there, to be caught 






] 


PlOURBlO IfSTBOD 








ia.n» 


^ 










































•V, 


V 


^ 


Nfc, 


































ii,non 










> 


*^ 


-W€ 


Ighl 


Of^ 


kip 


iDd 


Sop 


i 




. 












l%fM» 










•^ 


^ 


^ 


>? 


Pul 


iof 


IfllA 


100 
























«A ICflOfl 














^ 


:^ 


"^ 
























Z 


















■^ 




^*s, 




















POU 






















"" 






^ 


V, 






































^ 




"^ 


v^ 








8,000 
































"^ 


■^ 


"^ 


^ 






































V, 




'^ 


&00O 








































^ 



8,000 fb 

or 
Bottom 



1^100 ft 



Figure 20 Curves Showing Variation in Balancb With Wheel and Drum. IH-in. 
Hoisting Rope. 9.000 lb.; % by 2H-in. Flat Balance Rope. 6*100 lb.; Weight of Sup 
7,600 LB.: Weight op Balance, 8,400 lb.; Load Raised (Orb), 12.000 lb. 



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LAKE SUPEKIOk MINING iNStlTtltE! 



50 



up again when the skip came out of the dump. Even with 
slowly traveling ropes this put on a sudden strain which was 
not desirable. Another method that has been used is to curve 
the counterweight road at the bottom so that the vertical 
component of the weight decreases similarly to that of the 
skip when it goes into the dump. This answers the purposes 
excellently, but the curved road requires additional rock ex- 
cavation in the mine and is expensive to build and maintain. 

funnel open on one 
side J cr o/>en on ^ot^ 

sides ^ith sw/n^lrjf 
iuiffje fi/aU )n center- 




tfighest "Position. 




m 



^5t 



/\s skip begios 

to clump, sheath 

OP skip strike* 
rop^. 



D 

Figure 21 "Take On" Balance 

Also, when new levels are sunk the location of the curve 
must be changed. No attempt has been made to make this 
equalization by change in diameters on the conical drums, for 
like reason. The method which has proved to meet the con- 
ditions most satisfactorily is to have the frame of the skip 
pick up a weight as the box goes into the dump. In order 
to take the weight gradually and without jar, an idler wheel 



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6o ELECTklCItY AT PEKN AND kEPUBLiC IKON MINES 

36 in. in diameter attached to the top of the bail of the skip 
engages a rope which lies across the skip compartment just 
as the box of the skip starts into the dump. One end of the 
rope is fixed, the other end passes over a vertical wheel and 
has a weight attached to it. The weight does not hang over 
the shaft and a fence prevents any one from getting under it. 
Without this "take-on" balance or a similar device it would 
not be possible to have the counterweight in the shaft as heavy 
as it might otherwise be by several hundred pounds. (See 
Fig. 21.) 

The use of a counterweight with independent skips and 
cages not only reduces the total work but makes the work 
after the moving parts are up to speed equal throughout the 
whole of the travel. In hoisting with skips in balance, un- 
less there is a tail rope the weight of one of the ropes is addetl 
to the required starting torque, gradually decreases, is bal- 
anced half way up and thereafter increases negatively. 

In the system of hoisting described the extra power re- 
quired to start the skip or cage and accelerate it is provided 
for in the fly-wheel action of the revolving parts, especially 
in the larger rope wheel. The design is based on the re- 
quirement that the energy stored is sufficient to accelerate 
the load without reducing the speed below the slip si:)eed of 
the motor. In this method no resistance is required to reduce 
the speed, as in the Ilgner system, and that loss is eliminated. 
The drums are controlled mechanically by means of a clutch 
and a brake in the same way that has been in general practice 
for years with steam plants of like design. If built with am- 
ple surfaces the clutches and brakes are effective and require 
very little attention. The Brier Hill hoist was started in 
April. 1 910, and has run three years and seven months, hoist- 
ing during that time 500,000 tons of ore. The original fric- 
tions are still in service. The Curry hoist has run 20 months 
and hoisted 150,000 tons without requiring a replacement of 
the frictions. When the counterweights are used the brakes 
also retjuire very little attention. The control of a drum by 
means of a mechanical clutch and brake is as simple and exact 
as can be desired. 

This system has the same advantage as the Ilgner system 
in the fly-wheel action to prevent any j^eak load in starting 
the drum, but the fly-wheel effect is limited to what is suffi- 
cient for that purpose and is not intended to provide power to 
hoist much after the power is shut off. As hoisting at these 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



6l 



mines is generally intermittent the practice is to start up the 
motor when the signal to hoist comes in. It takes about 20 
sec. to get it up to speed. Before the skip or cage reaches 
the top the current is cut off and the travel is completed by 
means of the momentum of the moving parts. The motor is 
then idle until there is another call to hoist. When hoisting 
is irregular the saving over the Ilgner system by not having 
to keep a heavy fly-wheel in motion is considerable. There is 
also a considerable saving in the mechanical control over the 
Ilgner control by the omission of the direct-current generator 
and motor. There is some loss, however, in the mechanical 
appliances. of a clutch and brake, but these probably do not 
ccjual the rheostat losses of the other system. It must l)e ad- 
mitted that no power can be derived from lowering timl)er, 
men, tools and other weights, as in the case of the Ilgner 
system or with a compressed-air system such as has l)een 
recently installed at Butte and described in B. V. Nordl^erg's 
paper entitled The Compressed-Air System of the Anaconda 
Copi>er Company.^ No continued record at the Penn mines 
is available for these lowered weights, but a careful record for 
a week at one shaft, at which the greatest amount of timl)er 
is lowered, shows that the lowered weights are 5.67 i>er cent, 
of the weights hoisted. Only a small fraction of this loss 
could be recovered by either the Ilgner System or the com- 
pressed-air system at Butte. The total weight l>were»l at 
Brier Hill in a week is less than 250 tons, a distance of 750 
ft., and the power wasted costs only 47c to generate. 

The following figures show the results of tests of hoisting 
at the Brier Hill and Curr}-^ shafts. By "live ton-feet'' is meant 
the live load of ore in tons multiplied by the number of feet 
hoisted vertically. 

Results of Test on Brier Hill Electric Hoist. 



Date Nov. 


Kilowatt 


. No. 


of Tons 


HoiBted 


From 


Live Ton- 


Kilowatt- 


1911 


houra 


6th 


6th 


8th 


9th 


feet 


hours per 






Level 


Level 


Level 


Level 




Live Ton-foot 


G 


5G3 


6 


24 


195 


228 


371,424 


0.001515 


7 


578 


3 


33 


183 


249 


384,579 


0.001505 


8 


558 


3 


30 


180 


240 


372,480 


0.001497 


9 


597 


9 


36 


1G8 


270 


390,162 


001507 


10 


015 


6 


30 


183 


279 


410,853 


0.001490 


11 


287 





12 


75 


141 


190,071 


0.001510 



Total 3,198 2,126,169 0.001504 

From the 5th level to the dump is 480 ft.; 0th level, 592 ft.; 8th 
level, 780 ft.; 9th level, 887 ft. Load, two cars or 12,000 lb. of ore. 
Hoisting speed, GOO ft. per minute. 



8 Bull. No. 81. Sept, 1913. p. 2225. A. I. M. E. 



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62 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

It takes at the rate of 2.256 kw.-hr. to hoist i ton of ore 
1,500 ft. and the cost of power for this work is 0.764c. 

Results of Test on Curry Electric Hoist. 



Data June 


Kilowatt 


—No. of Tons Prom— ^ 


Live Ton- 


Kilowatt-hoon 


1912 


hours Intes- 


16th 


17th 


feet 


Per Uve Ton- 




ratins Meter 


Level 


Level 




foot 


12 


243.75 


117 


12 


169,956 


0.001434 


13 


462.5 


210 


36 


325,440 


0.001421 


14 


48t25 


243 


18 


343,224 


0.001402 


17 * 


450 


258 


3 


341,694 


0.001318 


18 


456.25 


216 


24 


316,368 


0.001442 


19 


462.5 


228 


21 


327,834 


001411 


20 


462.5 


222 


18 


315,756 


0.001465 



3,018.75 2,140,272 0.0014104 

FYom the 16th level, 1,308 ft, to the dump; 17th level, 1,410 ft. 
Hoisting speed, 600 ft. per minute. Load, two cars or 12,000 lb. of 
ore. 

It takes at the rate of 2. 1 1 56 kw.-hr. to hoist i ton of ore 
1,500 ft. and the cost of power for this work is 0.712c. 

On a capacity test recently made on the Curry hoist 13 
skips, or approximately 78 tons, of ore was raised 1,410 ft. 
in 61 min. This is equivalent to 325,000 to 350,000 tons a 
year. 

From data collected during this test it has been estimated 
that with a hoisting speed of 1,200-ft. per minute, which is 
well within safe limits, an output of 300,000 tons per year 
could be obtained from a depth of 3,000 ft., and greater 
quantities at less depth. In ad-dition to the very high effi- 
ciency of this system of hoisting, the comparatively small 
cost of the hoisting plant and accessories, the saving in the 
size of the building to inclose it and the decreased space re- 
quired in the shaft must be considered. 

Electrically Driven Air Compressors. 

In substituting electrical for steam machinery at the Vul- 
can mines four compressors were installed. At East Vulcan 
the compressor is two-stage, having a capacity of 2,200 cu. 
ft. of free air per minute at a speed of 120 rev., driven by a 
rope drive from an induction motor of 350 h.p., 2,200 volts 
at 360 rev. per minute. At West Vulcan two two-stage com- 
pressors were put in. Each has a capacity of 3,300 cu. ft. of 
free air per minute, runs at 72 rev. per minute and is driven 
by a rope drive from an induction motor of 450 h.p., 6,600 
volts at 300 rev. per minute. At Norway a straight-line, 
two-stage compressor of 780 and 390 cu. ft. of free air per 
minute was changed by removing the steam cylinder, putting 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 63 

a belt wheel on the main shaft and driving it from a two- 
speed induction motor of loo h.p., 2,200 volts at 600 and 300 
rev. per minute. The use of rope drives for the larger com- 
pressors and a belt for the small one permitted the use of high- 
speed motors with comparatively low-speed compressors, and 
this was less expensive than compressors with motors on the 
main shaft. The loss in efficiency of the rope drive is 2 per 
cent, while there is a gain in efficiency and power factor with 
a high-speed motor over a slow-speed motor. 

The rope drives for the compressors and hoists at Vul- 
can and Republic have been very satisfactory.' At Republic 
one transmission rope has been in use over ten years, although 
its continuous service would be only about half that, as the 
plant consists of two compressors driven by water wheels 
which do not always run at the same time on account of lack 
of water. 

The experience of the past few years indicates that it 
would have been a less expensive and more efficient installation 
if instead of putting in compressors at the three mines they had 
all been placed at the more central point at West Vulcan with 
pipe lines to East Vulcan, i]^ miles, and to Norway, i 1/3 
miles. If that had been done three compressors, of 1,500 
3,000, and 4,000 cu. ft. of free air per minute, would have 
supplied all the requirements and could be run as required 
at nearly full capacity at all times. The pipe lines would have 
been less expensive than the additional compressor required 
in the plan adopted. 

The varying demand for air is readily met with steam 
compressors by varying the speed, but with constant-speed 
nK>tor-driven compressors some means must be used to reduce 
the quantity of air compressed and the amount of power re- 
quired. All of the above-mentioned electrically driven com- 
pressors have choking inlet controllers. The controllers on 
the West Vulcan compressors have oil dash pots which allow 
the inlet to be partly or entirely closed. On each end of the 
high-pressure cylinder is a valve that connects the two ends 
of the cylinder when the pressure in the intercooler drops 
below atmosphere. This by-passes the air and prevents ex- 
cessive heating such as would result if air were compressed 
in one cylinder from a partial vacuum to full receiver pressure. 
The East Vulcan compressor has a choking inlet controller 
without the oil dash pot, and instead of by-passing air from 
one side of the high-pressure piston to the other, it opens each 



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64 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

end to the atmosphere when there is a partial vacuum in the 
intercooler. 

Tramming. 

The output of the Perm mines has averaged for the last 
few years alx>ut 400,000 tons a year, and this comes from 
several shafts and from several levels in each shaft. There is 
no ore body of such size or distance from a shaft as to justify 
the installation of power trams. Considering the quantities, 
tramming with mules is satisfactory and economical. On good 



Figure 22 Tramming Plant at the Penn Mines 

roads with even grade, a single mule for some time . regular- 
ly drew loads of six cars, or 12 tons, of ore a distance of 
2,300 ft. The maximum load recorded was 13 cars, or about 
26 tons. 

The ore hoisted during the winter months is stocked on 
surface. As there are two, three, or four grades at each shaft, 
it is necessary in summer to transport the ore from the shaft 
to the different pockets at the railroad. The movement of 
stockpile or jKHrket is done by a car with endless rope which 
is moved by wheels geared to a motor. This plant is shown 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 65 

in Fig. 22, The tram is driven by a 2oh.p., 220-volt, 720- 
rev. per minute, wound-rotor, reversible, induction motor. 

The 'drive wheel is made with a rim in halves that can l>e 
easily replaced. The drum has four y^-\n. grooves on its 
outer circumference. About 4 ft. from the center of the dmm 
is a shaft carrying three idler wheels, the center one being 
keyed to the shaft and the two outer ones being loose on the 
shaft. This shaft is set at an angle to the horizontal so that 
the top of one wheel is in line with the first groove of the 
drum, while the bottom of the same wheel is in line with 
the second groove on the drum. The rope is led to the first 
groove on the drum, then around one idler, to second groove, 
and so on. Having three separate w^heels for the idlers re- 
duces the tendency of wear to cause a differential strain on 
the rope. The drum being split allows of its being replaced 
quickly when the grooves show a difference in diameter caused 
by wear. The load of the car is about 6 tons^.of ore and 
there are curves in the track of 25-ft. radius. , ' trestles 
used for stocking in winter are taken down as ti.c' ore is 
loaded by a shovel during the season of navigation, and are 
set up again in the fall. This is considered cheaper than to 
build out tracks on the ore as it is dumped. It also avoids 
the necessity of any one going out on the trestle during the 
cold weather except occasionally to oil the rollers. The dan- 
ger of derailment does not involve life. 

For these reasons and because there has l^een no other need 
for direct current a trolley system of tramming has not been 
considered. The quantity of power is comparatively so small 
that the question of efficiency is secondary to the other ele- 
ments. 

Signal System. 

Electric bell signals were originally operated by direct 
current from primary batteries using one weather-proof wire 
for each signal (skip, cage, or grade) and a common return. 
So much trouble was experienced, due principally to electro- 
lysis, that, before the general alternating-current system was 
put in, a telephone magneto was used by plugging in at dif- 
ferent levels and ringing by hand. This prevented any one 
except the conductor for the cage and the dumpers for the 
skip, who were furnished with magnetos, from ringing any 
signals, and stop])ed all trouble from electrolysis. 

When alternating current was available the present system. 



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66 



ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 



shown in Fig. 23, was developed. A small transformer takes 
1 10- volt current from the lighting system and reduces it to 
30 volts. One side of this low-voltage circuit is connected to 
the ground, while the other side leads to a relay for each of 
the bells in the hoist house, skip, and cage, and to one side of 
a grade bell in the shaft house. The other side of each re- 
lay and the grade bell are each connected to one of three No. 
4 bare copper wires supported on insulators down the shaft. 
By grounding any one of these three wires a current will flow 
through the grade bell or relays in the hoisting house. The 
bell wire for the cage is near the center of one side of the 
compartment, so that it is nearly inrpossible to reach it at any 




SHiff ht/l , Ca^B ^«//. 



FiouiiB 23 Signal System 

landing place unless one stands on the cage. A short piece 
of flexible wire, with a bare piece of No. 4 solid wire at the 
end, is fastened to the iron work of the cage, so that the 
bell wire for the cage can be grounded from the cage at any 
ix)int whether at rest or moving. This plan prevents any one 
from ringing the bell for the cage except from the cage itself. 
The ringing of the cage bell when the cage is not in sight, 
although against all rules, is occasionally done and is very 
likely to have serious consequences. It is the practice at these 
mines to have each cage handling men, timber, and tools in 
charge of a conductor, whose place generally is riding on 
the cage. 

The skip and cage bells are 16 in. in diameter and are 
struck a heavy blow by an alternating-current solenoid using 
a local iio-volt circuit, this circuit being closed by the relay. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 67 

In addition to ringing the bell very loudly an indicator regis- 
ters the number of bells rung and a lamp at the top center 
and right hand corner lights. This bell, lamp, and indicator 
can be seen in Fig. 13. 

Power Lines in the Shafts. 

All current carried underground is 2,200-volt, three-phase, 
6c)-cycle alternating. At the West Vulcan and East Vulcan 
No. 4 shafts three separate lines of conduit are carried from 
the surface sub-station to the pump rooms. Each conduit in- 
closes three separate transmission wires, two of the conduits 
having No. 00 stranded wires and one having 500,000 circular 
mils stranded cable. Each wire is insulated with rubber for 
7,500 volts, the wall being 30 per cent. Para rubber 5/16 in. 
thick. The three wires are supported on strain insulators in 
the shaft house and at stations about every 500 feet. The 
conduit is sealed at the upper end around the wires to prevent 
the entrance of moisture and is open at the lower end to allow 
the moisture of condensation to get out. The first conduits 
used at the Penn mines were 3-in. pipe lined with fiber. The 
inside diameter was so small that it was hard to pull the 
three wires in and after being used some time the moisture 
caused the fiber to swell so that it was very difficult to get 
the wires out. The conduits now used are 3-in. Sheraduct 
for the No. 00 lines and 5 in. for the large lines. The first 
2,200-volt underground lines, put down one of the shafts at 
Republic, were lead-covered cables, three cables in an iron 
pipe. The alternating current seemed to build up a static 
charge on the lead covering that punctured the insulation as 
well as the lead and caused bad short circuits. While wires 
in a shaft or mine are underground in the miner's use of that 
term, they are really aerial lines, for they are not imbeddeil 
in the ground, under which latter conditions lead-covered 
wires are properly used. 

Conclusion. 

Numerous small motors are used for driving hoists and 
pumps in winzes, timber hoists, portable saws, concrete mix- 
ers, and shop tools. At the Penn mines no steam is used ex- 
cept in the saw mill, for heating, and for supplementing the 
power from the Falls when there is a deficiency. Electricity 
has been entirely satisfactory from an operating standpoint 
as well as very efficient. The same men who formerly oper- 



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68 ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

ated the steam hoists and pumps operate the electric hoists 
and pumps. The adaptability and reliability of electrical ma- 
chinery is generally appreciated. 

Discussion. 

(Including discussion of paper by F. C. Stanford, *'The 
Electrification of the Mines of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Com- 
I>any," printed elsewhere in this volume.) 

Mr. Kelly : There are three principal uses of electricity 
in mining: for pumping, hoisting and compressing air. The 
running of a compressor with an electric motor is a simple 
proix)sition. One appliance is required with a constant speed 
motor not necessary with steam compressors — ^an automatic 
controller to check the work of compressing when the air 
pressure reaches the maximum and take it up again when the 
j^ressure falls. The motor may be put on the main shaft of 
the compressor or a motor of higher speed than the compres- 
sor may be used to drive it by means of a rope drive or belt. 
The conditions of each installation .will indicate what is best 
in each case as a question of first cost and efficiency. 

In pumping with electricity there are two 'general methods, 
one with centrifugal pumps, the other with reciprocating 
pumps and they each have their limitations and their advan- 
tages. For small quantities the centrifugal pump is not adapt- 
ed and the reciprocating pump is the only one that can prop- 
erly l3e used but as the quantity of water increases the efficiency 
and the advantages of centrifugal pumps improve. The first 
cost of centrifugal pumps is considerably less in most cases 
than reciprocating pumps of the same capacity and power. 
The efficiency of the reciprocating pump, when run to its full 
capacity, I think I may properly say, is higher than that of the 
centrifugal pump but it is not always feasible to maintain full 
capacity. All pumping in mines is with varying quantities. 
The quantity may vary with the seasons ; or with the rain fall. 
New sources of water may be tapped as openings are extended, 
liven if the quantity of water that the mine makes is fairly con- 
stant, it is frequently necessary to sink a shaft or winze deeper 
with pumps l>elow the main station pumps delivering t(y the 
main pumps intermittently, so that the main pumps have either 
to runintenriittently or with varying quantities. The cenrifugal 
pump is a pump that can be run with different quantities of 
water with a comparatively small change in the efficiency, 
while the efficiency of a reciprocating pump run at full speed 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 69 

• 

and delivering only part of the water would, of course, be in 
proportion to the quantity delivered. With the Cornish pump- 
ing system the usual practice is to have a by-pass and run some 
of the water back rather than vary the speed or stop and 
start the pumps. A by-pass may be desirable in starting any 
pump but its use at other times is a waste of power. The 
high efficiency of the constant speed motor-driven reciprocat- 
ing pump is frequently lost by the improper use of the by- 
pass. To accommodate the variation in the quantity of water 
with a centrifugal pump, the valve on the suction or discharge 
(preferably the former) may be opened or closed but with a 
constant speed reciprocating pump some mechanical arrange- 
ment is necessary for changing the length of the stroke, size 
of plungers, gear ratios — all comphcated processes — or the 
pump must be stopped and started. This last plan neces- 
sitates increased sump capacity With centrifugal pumps care 
has to be taken that they do not lose efficieiKy by wear. When 
centrifugal pumps were put in at the Penn mines some seven 
years ago they had a bad name. There had been great trou- 
ble especially with thrust bearings, but our consulting engi- 
neers advised us that they were based on correct mechanical 
principles and that the difficulties in the details could be over- 
come. This was accomplished and the centrifugal pumps that 
were put in seven years ago are still running and are consid- 
ered more reliable than the steam pumps which they displaced. 
The question as to the use of a reciprocating or a centrifugal 
type of pump depends, as in fact everything else does, on the 
conditions to be met. Each has its place and the conditions 
of each case must determine which should be selected. 

Let me say something, too, with regard to the hoisting 
problem. The method which seems to have had the greatest 
approval of the electrical engineers is to use a motor generator 
set. A motor generator set is an arrangement by which on 
the same shaft is a motor, a fly-wheel and a generator. The 
motor takes current from the alternating system at high ten- 
sion and drives the fly-wheel and a direct current generator. 
U|K>n the shaft of the hoist is a direct current motor which 
takes its current from the direct current generator. Its most 
suitable application is for continuous servnce where large ton- 
nages have to be raised continuously and the skips are coming 
up without interruption. But there are a great many mines 
where this is not the case and as the motor generator set runs 
constantly, the considerable power used to run the set in the 



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JO ELECTRICITY AT PENN AND REPUBLIC IRON MINES 

t 

intervals of hoisting is a loss. The operating of the drums 
by means of a direct current motor is a very smooth and safe 
plan, but it is accompanied by certain losses of power corre- 
sponding to, but possibly exceeding the losses in a mechanical 
system with clutch and brake. If a motor generator set is not 
used the motor may be placed on the drum shaft as is fre- 
quently done or it may operate a fly-wheel and the drums 
started by a friction clutch after the other moving parts are 
up to speed. The hardest part of the work of hoisting is in 
starting a loaded skip with its rope from rest and bringing it 
up to speed. If that work is done with a motor without a 
fly-wheel it takes a tremendous flow of current — a peak load. 
The system described in the paper *'On the Use of Electricity 
at the Penn and Republic Mines," has the advantage of utiliz- 
ing a fly-wheel to eliminate the peak at starting and the motor 
is run only when hoisting is going on. The use of a clutch 
for starting the drum is the same as with the ordinary geared 
plant operated by steam that has been in use on Lake Superior 
for twenty-five or thirty years, and if properly proportioned 
the clutch requires very little attention. With the use of a 
counterbalance as described in the paper, the efficiency of the 
system is all that could be desired and for intermittent hoist- 
ing it is particularly well adapted. 

Mr. Stanford: I do not believe that I can add very 
much to what has been said. I agree with the remarks made 
very heartily. We have made practically all of the applica- 
tions that have been suggested, excepting, we have not used 
fly-wheels on induction hoist motors. I will say, however, 
that we are perfectly safe in using an induction motor directly 
geared or connected with the hoist when the size of that motc.r 
is not greater than ten per cent of the generating capacity of 
the plant. We have one 500 h.p. motor operating without a 
fly-wheel with results which are entirely satisfactory, but it 
seems to be pretty close to the limit which should be applied 
with the power that we have back of our system. You will 
note the description of the hoist. We have only one of the fly- 
wheel sets with direct current motors in service and some fif- 
teen or sixteen of the induction motor driven hoists. You will 
note in the paper the division as to when the direct current 
hoist should be applied ; that is as far as our experience has 
gone. As has been said, in selecting a new system for hoisting, 
if you expect to get perfect results with an Ilgner set, it is 
absolutely necessary that you ^hajl have a perfect hoisting cy- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 7 1 

cle. If the hoist is designed to carry a five-ton load in a ninety- 
second cyck, if you carry a five-ton load and increase the cycle 
to one hundred and eighty seconds, you get no benefit from the 
fly-wheel set because it will draw back from the line; that is, 
your fly-wheel will have to come up to full speed at the end 
of ninety seconds, but if after the close of the ninety-second 
cycle there is another skip load ready to come up, then you get 
the full benefit of the fly-wheel. 

The only advantage of a fly-wheel in connection with an 
induction motor hoist is to induce the starting peak. It will 
actually take more power in k.w. hours than without the fly- 
wheel. 



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^2, STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 



METHODS OF STOCKING ORE ON THE MAR- 
QUETTE RANGE. 

BY LUCIEN EATON, ISHPEMING, MICH.* 

At all of the producing mines on the Marquette Range, 
except the open pits, which operate only during the summer 
months, it is necessary to stock most of the ore produced dur- 
ing the winter, from the middle of November to the middle of 
April, while navigation on the Great Lakes is closed. The 
ore that has been stocked during the winter is loaded, usually 
by steam shovel, during the summer, and shipped to lower 
lake ports. 

For preparing the floors on which the ore is to be stocked 
two methods are in vogue, and are about equally papular. 
One is to cover the graded floor with 3-in. plank, usually 
hemlock, and the other is to use a dressing of lean ore, w^hich 
when wet down and rolled, cements together and becomes as 
hard as a macadamized road. The method used depends upon 
local conditions, the price of plank, and the physical character 
and value of the ore. 

For transferring the ore from the shaft-house to the stock- 
pile, all the mines use cars, but the manner of handling the 
cars varies. I have classified the different methods employed 
as shown in the following table, and have also tabulated the 
operating mines of the Range according to this classification. 
This table will be found at the end of the paper. In pre- 
senting the different methods I have made no attempt to de- 
scribe all the details of practice at all the mines, but have 
selected only typical examples. 

*Local Superintendent The Cleveland-CliffB Iron Company. 



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lake superior mining institute 73 

Methods of Stocking Ore. 

(a) hand tramming. 

I. Stocking with end-dump cars, using only a short 
trestle near the shaft-house. Example : Lake Superior Hem- 
atite mine. 

(b) gravity tramming with rope pull-back. 

1. Stocking with end-dump cars, using only a short trestle 
near the shaft-house. Example : Salisbury mine. 

2. Stocking with side-dump cars, starting from tempor- 
ary trestles and fanning out on both sides. Examples: (a) 
Cliffs Shaft mine, (b) Republic mine. 

(C) ENDLESS rope HAULAGE. 

1. Stocking from temporary trestle with gable-bottomed 
cars. Example : Lake mine. 

2. Stocking from permanent trestle with gable-bottomed 
cars. Example : Negaunee mine, new shaft. 

(d) electric motor haulage. 

1. Stocking with an electric motor and end-dump cars, 
using only a short trestle near the shaft-house. Example: 
Mary Charlotte mine. 

2. Stocking from temporary trestles with self-propelled, 
side-dump cars. Example : American mine. 

(A) Hand Tramming. 

I. Stocking with end-dump cars, using a short trestle near 
the shaft-house. Example: Lake Superior Hematite mine, 
Ishpeming, Michigan. 

At the No. 4 shaft of the Lake Superior Hematite mine 
the ore is hoisted with a cage in ij^-ton steel end-dump cars 
and is trammed by hand to the dump on the stockpile. The 
tracks have about yi per cent grade in favor of the load, and 
are laid with 30-lb. rails, with i8-in. gauge. The short trestle 
is built west from the shaft across a street and is then branched 
to three piles, — for rock and two grades of ore. A view of the 
plant is shown in Fig. i. The ends of the rails on the stock- 
pile tracks are turned up into horns, and the cars dump against 
these. From one to three dumps are maintained on each pile, 
so as to avoid delay in moving tracks. 

The crew consists of four men — one lander at the shaft, 
two trammers, and one man on the dump. 



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74 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

The cycle of operations is about as follows: 

Seconds. 

Taking cars off cage 35 

Tramming out 60 

Tramming hack 85 

Total 180 

Capacity : 20 trips per hour or 30 tons. As the men and 
supplies have to be handled on the same cage, the maximum 
capacity is little over 200 tons per shift of eight hours. 

The advantages of this system are its low first cost and 
slight loss of elevation in the pile. As the amount of ore to 
l>e hoisted was small, low first cost was essential, and as the 
stocking trestle, already built, was low, gravity tramming was 



PiauRE 1 No. 4 Shaft. Lake Superior Hbmatitb Mine 

out of the question. The disadvantages are small capacity 
and high operating cost. 

(B) Gravity Tramming With Rope Pull-Back. 

I. Stocking with end-dump cars, using only a short trestle 
near the shaft. Example : Salisbury mine, Ishpeming, Michi- 
gan. 

At this plant the rock and three grades of ore are handled 
with one skip, and the arraiigement of the trestles and piles 
is as shown in Fig. 2. Short trestles are built from the shaft- 
house to the stockpile grounds, and are extended only far 
enough to start the piles. The last three bents in each trestle 
have to be taken down when the pile is shipped. The ore is 
hoisted in a two-ton skip, and is dumped through a chute into 
an end-dump iron-body car equipped with brake and rotating 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINIKG INSTITUTE 



75 



table. There are two cars, one serving piles A and B on the 
east, and the other serving piles C and D on the west. The 
proper car is spotted under the chute while the skip is being 
hoisted. The same rope is used for both cars, being connected 
to either car according to the grade of ore hoisted. The cars 
run out by gravity and dump over the end of the track or 

PLAN OF STOCK-PILE TRE8TLEB 

AT 

8ALIBBURY MINE 




along the side, the track being extended or shifted as the pile 
is enlarged. They are pulled back by a J^-in. wire rope wound 
on an i8-in. drum mounted loose on a shaft, to which it is 
connected by a friction clutch. The shaft is driven directly by 
a horizontal engine run by compressed air. This engine is at 



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^(i STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

rest except when pulling the car back, and the friction clutch 
is used as a brake when the car runs out. 

The regular crew ctmsists of three men. One man samples 
the car and operates the drum. Two men ride the car out 
to the pile, dump it and ride back. These men are responsible 
for the condition of the track and for extensions. 

The track is laid with 30-lb. rails on a 2.75 to 2.5 per 
cent, grade, with 39-inch gauge. Where the track is straight 
the rope runs on wooden rollers placed between the rails, and 



Figure 3 Sausbury Mine— No. 5 Shapt 

on the curves it runs on wooden spools covered with 6-in. pipe, 
placed outside the track. 

The cars run out at a speed of frdm 450 to 500 feet per 
minute, and are pulled back at a speed of from 500 to 550 feet 
per minute. The average round trip takes two minutes, mak- 
ing the capacity, counting delays, about 50 tons per hour, or 
400 tons per eight-hour shift. 

The advantages of this method are low first cost and great 
flexibility combined with moderate capacity. The disadvant- 
ages are the dangers attendant on car riding, delays due to 
track disturbances from the setting of the piles, reduction of 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE TJ 

cap>acity and high operating cost in stormy weather, and loss 
of height due to the grade of the tracks. Views of the plant 
and of one of the cars are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. 

2. Stocking ziith side-dump cars, starting from temporary 
trestles and fanning out on both sides. 

EXAMPLE (a) : CLIFFS SHAFT MINE, ISHPEMING, MICHIGAN. 

The ore at the Cliffs Shaft mine is a hafd specular hem- 
atite which is separated into two grades according to the size 
f>f the pieces before it goes to the stockpile. The run-of- 
mine ore passes over a grizzly, from which the oversize goes 



Figure 4 Top-Tram Car, Salisbury Mine 

to the lump-ore pocket. The ore passing through the grizzly 
goes to a revolving screen, from which the oversize passes to 
a crusher and thence to the same pocket into which the fine 
ore from the screen falls. 

The methods of stocking the two grades of ore, "lump'' 
and "crushed," are essentially the same, but differ in some de- 
tails, and wiH' be described sq^arately. The plan- of the 
tracks is shown in Fig. 5. 

Stocking Crushed Ore — The crushed ore is drawn off from 



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78 



STOCKING OfeE ON THE MAftQUEtTEl RANGIS 



the pocket into a side-dumping car of 56 cu. ft. capacity, 
which runs out by gravity on the stockpile trestle and is 
automatically dumped by a dump-stick set between the rails, 
which trips the door latches. The car is pulled back by a 
yi-in, rope wound on a small drum in the crusher building. 
This drum is loose on the shaft and is equipped with a brake 
and friction clutch. A similar drum is used for pulling back 
the lump-ore car, and is mounted on the same shaft. A 20 

PLAN OF STOCK-PILE TRESTLES 

AT 

CLIFFS SHAFT MINE 




h.p. motor drives the shaft for both drums. Fig. 6 shows the 
design of the car, with the exception of the roller-bearings 
with which the wheels are equipped. The side of the car 
opposite the door is weighted with about one ton of old rails. 
Cars run out at a maximum speed of 700 ft. per minute, and 
are pulled back at 600 ft. per minute. 

The car starts on the permanent trestle on a 3 per cent 
grade, but this is decreased to 2.25 per cent, on the temporary 
trestle. The track is 30-in. gauge, laid with 25-lb. rails. The 



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I 



i 



I 



i 



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8o STOCKING ORE ON THE MAHQUETTE RANGE 

temporary trestle is of the ordinary type for single track, con- 
sisting of two-leg bents with corbels and two stringers. It is 
alx)ut 30 ft. high. A floor of 3-in. planks is laid on the 
stringers, but the rails are not spiked to this floor. Instead 
they are spiked to ties, which in turn are bolted to the trestle 
at intervals of about 20 feet. When the trestle is filled on 
lx)th sides, these bolts are removed, the edge of the pile is 
smoothed off, the track is thrown over, and stocking is contin- 
ued. By successive movements of the track the stockpile is 
widened until it becomes fan-shaped. In this way a pile can 
l)e built up containing six to seven times the capacity of the 
trestle. 

When ore is being stocked from the trestle two men are 
employed at the pocket, one to operate the brake and clutch 
and the other to fill the car and take samples. Another man 
is needed when the pile is ]ye'mg "fanned out." The cycle of 
oj^rations, when the mine is nmning at full capacity, is about 
as follows, the dump-stick being set about 300 ft. from the 
IKKket : 

Seconds. 

To load 36 

To nni out and dump 32 

To run in . . . 28 

Total 96 

Capacity: 37 trips or iii tons per hour. (3-ton cars.) 

Stocking Lump Ore — The ore is drawn off from the pock- 
et through a finger chute, operated by an air-lift in the crusher 
building, into a side-dump car of 56 cu. ft. capacity of the 
same design as that used for the crushed ore. The car nms 
down grade by gravity on a single-track trestle, is dumped 
in the same way as on the crushed-ore pile, and is pulled back 
by a J/2-in. roi)e wound on a drum in the crusher building. 
The track is laid on ties on the trestle, just as with the crushed 
ore, and is moved out on the pile in the same way after the 
trestle has lieen filled. 

As the lump ore has a compiaratively high angle of rest, 
and as sampling has to be done on the pile, more men are 
needed on the dump than on the crushed-ore pile. The crew- 
consists of one sampler and two dump-men on the stockpile 
after the trestle has been filled, and one man at the pocket, 
who fills the car and operates the haulage drum. 

The cycle of operations is about as follows: 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 8 1 

Seconds. 

Loading 17 

Running out 44 

Running in 44 

Qosing car door 5 

Total 1 10 

The capacity is as follows : 

Number of trips per hour 32 

Tons per hour, 3 tons per trip 96 

Tons per shift, 6j^ hours tramming 624 



Figure 7 Cuffs Shaft Mine-Crushed Ore Pile. Showing Method of Fanning Out 

ttLOM Trestle 

This method has the advantages of comparatively large 
capacity with great flexibility and low cost of installation and 
operation. The ratio of storage capacity to trestle cost is high 
and the dangers of car-riding are eliminated. The disadvant- 
ages are the cost of erecting the temporary trestle, the loss 
of height due to grade in the track, and, with wet or sticky ore, 
delays due to track disturbances on the pile. 

Views of the tops of the piles are shown in Fig. 7 and 
Fig. 8. 



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82 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

EXAMPLE (b) : REPUBLIC MINE, REPUBLIC, MICHIGAN. 

The ore at the Republic mine is a hard specular hematite 
containing little moisture, and is easily handled in the cars. 
Several different systems of tramming the ore from the shafts 
to the stockpiles are employed, but only that used at No. 9 
shaft will be described. 

At No. 9 shaft the ore is hoisted in a 3-ton Kimberiy 
skip axid dumped directly into the stockpile car, which is a 
side-dumping car made entirely of steel. The distinguishing 
features are the slope of the bottom, which is about 60 de- 



FiGURE 8 Cliffs Shaft Mine- Lump Ore Pile. Showing Method of Fanning Out 

From Trestle 

grees, the arrangement of the trucks, and the tripping-lever. 
The body is supported on a frame between two swivelled four- 
wheeled trucks, which enable the car to pass easily around 
curves of small radius. The tripping-lever is on the side oi>- 
[K)site the door, and is adjustable, so that, by using dump* 
sticks of different heights, three different grades of ore can 
Ije stocked from one trestle. Two of these cars are shown in 
Fig. 9. 

The track is laid with 40-lb. rails, with 36-in. gauge, on a 
3 per cent, grade. The trestle is single-track, of the ordinary 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 83 

design, and is branched a short distance from the shaft-house, 
one track leading to the crusher building, one to the rock- 
dump and one to the stockpile. 

The car runs out by gravity and dumps automatically. It 
is puiled back by a ^-in. rope wound on a drum in the shaft- 
house. This drum is mounted loose on its shaft, is equipped 
with clutch and brake, and is driven by a rope-drive from the 
head-sheave of the skip. When the skip is hoisted, the head- 
sheave drives the drum that pulls the car back. As the depth 
from which the ore is hoisted is considerable, the car has 



Figure 9 Republic Mine Stocking Cars 

ample time to return to the shaft-house before the skip reaches 
the dump. 

One man acts as lander at the shaft, operates the car and 
throws the switches on the trestle. 

The car is of excellent design, but it is expensive to build. 
Under other conditions, with a different method of oj^erating 
the pull-back, the capacity of such a system would be large. 
(C) Endless Rope Haulage. 

I. Stocking from temporary trestles with gable-bottomed 
cars. Example: Lake mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 



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84 



STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 



FLAN OP STOCK-FILE TRESTLES 



LAKE MINE 




Figure 12 Lakb ICinb— No. 4 Shaft 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



8 = 



Rock and one grade of ore are handled at this plant. The 
ore is stocked from temporary double-track wooden trestles, 
built east and west from the shaft. Rock is dumped from a 



TEMPOITARY STOCKING TfTCfTLE 
CLCvcL/iNO CLirra iron company 



ltNf»CMIII« MICN. 




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short trestle extending south from the shaft-house. The lay- 
out of the trestles is shown in Fig. ii and Fig. 12. There 
are five bents of permanent trestle on each side of the shaft- 



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86 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 



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Lake Mine 

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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



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Figure 10 B W CU, ft. Automatic Top Tram Car- Lake Mine 



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88 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

house before the temporary trestle begins. The design of the 
bent used in the temporary trestle is shown in Fig. 13. The 
trestle is 42 ft. high with bents 26 ft. ap>art. The tracks are 
30-in. g^uge, laid without grade with 60-lb. rails, and 3-in. 
plank is used for ties. 

The ore is dumped from the skip to the stockpile cars 
through a short chute, in which is placed a "butterfly'' or 
swinging door, by which the ore from either skip can be de- 
flected into either car. The cars are of 60 cu. ft. capacity, 
of the gable-bottomed, automatic-dumping type, as shown in 
Fig. 10. Both cars are moved by endless, 5^-:n. wire ropes, 
driven by a 40-h.p. Corliss engine located in a small house on 
the ground level. Each rope makes four turns about two 4- 
ft. drums mounted loose on i>arallel shafts 10 ft. apart. These 
shafts are driven in opposite directions by a crossed belt, ami 
the car is pulled in or out by throwing in the friction clutch 
an one dmm or the other. The maximum rope speed is 1,000 
ft. per minute. 

From the car the haulage rope runs out along the track 
over wooden rollers to a tightener at the end of the trestle; 
it is deflected at the turns by i6-in. cast-iron sheaves. This 
tightener, the design of which is shown in Fig. 14, consists 
of a cast-iron sheave (A) mounted on a small carriage (B) 
on the track, and holds the rope in tension by means of a 
compression spring (C) enclosed in a piece of 6-in. pipe. Ad- 
justments are made by a long screw (D) behind the spring. 
The return rope is carried on rollers on the caps of the bents 
l)etween the two tracks, over a tuni-sheave, and down to the 
haulage engine. Ore is stocked on one side of the shaft until 
that trestle is filled, and the ropes are then moved to the 
other side. 

As it is impossible for the engineer operating the haulage 
engine to see the stockpile cars, special signals for spotting 
them are necessary. When a car is spotted in the right position 
under the chute, an electric contact is made between a steel 
spring that projects alx)ve the s"de of the car under the lip of 
tlie chute and a metal band on the under side of the lip of the 
chute. This steel spring is connected by a wire with the 
axle of the car, so that when it comes in contact with the 
Ixind on the lips of the chute, the circuit is grounded, and a 
pair of red lamps are lighted in front of the haulage engine. 
There is one of these signals for each car. As a precaution 
against running the car off the end of the trestle the last 100 



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90 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

ft. of rails are insulated from each other and from the rest 
of the track, and when the car reaches that part of the track, 
a cluster of lamps are lit over the haulage engine. In addi- 
tion, marks are made on the rope to indicate the position of 
the car when it is at the dump-stick and at the shaft. These 
marks are made by tying cotton wicking around the rope for 
a length of five or six inches, using a single knot at every half 
turn. The engineer receives his signals for moving the cars 
by electric bell from the landing floor. 

Rock is trammed by gravity from the south side of the 
shaft-house in an end-dump car, which as pulled back by a 
small steam engine located on the landing floor. When not 
in use this car is kept out of the way under the south skip- 
chute, but when rock is to be trammed a set of temporary 
rails are swung across the ore-track, and the rock car is pushed 
out far enough to receive its load from the skip. 

The operation of the stocking plant requires five men on 
each shift, one haulage-engineer and four top-landers. One 
top-lander operates the "butterfly'* and the rock-car engine, 
rings b-ell signals, and keeps the tally of skips and cars; one 
oils six)ols and rollers, and keeps the tracks and skip-dumps 
clean and free from ice ; and the other two operate the rock- 
car, brace the doors of the ore cars spotted at the chutes, 
sample the cars, and keep the landing floor clean. 
The cycle of operations is about as follows : 

Seconds. 

To load lo 

To nm out and dump 55 

To run in 55 

Total 120 

The capacity per car is 30 trips or 90 tons per hour. The 
capacity for lx)th cars is 180 tons per hour. 

When the dump is at considerable distance from the shaft 
the cars are nni in trains of two, the two cars in each tram 
l)eing sejxirated about 25 feet. In this case the cycle of o[y 
erations as about as follows : 

Seconds. 

Loading first car 10 

Spotting second car 10 

I.x>a(ling second car 10 

Running out 70 

Runniing in 70 

Total 170 



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Lake superior mining institute 



•)i 




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92 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

The capacity per train is 21 trips or 126 tons per hour. 
The capacity for all four carsds 252 tons per hour. 

This figure is about right when the dump-stick is set from 
900 to 1000 ft. from the shaft. A capacity of 150 tons per 
hour has been maintained when ore is stocked 1600 ft. from 
the shaft. 

The advantages of this system are large capacity com- 
bined with low operating cost and reliability under all sorts 
of weather conditions and with all kinds of ore. The dangers 
of car riding are also eliminated. The disadvantages are high 
cost of installation and maantenance and lack of flexibility. 

It is possible to fan out from the trestles with a side-dump 



Figure 16 Neoaunee Mine Trestle 

car, using the endless-rope haulage system, and this method 
is sometimes used at the Lake mine and at others where sim- 
ilar plants are installed, but on account of its higher cost of 
operation and lower capacity, it is resorted to only in emer- 
gencies. 

2. Stocking from permanent trestle zvith gable-bottomed 
cars. Example : Negaunee mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

At this plant rock and two grades of ore are handled on 
one trestle. A permanent double-track steCl trestle extends 



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LAKE SUPEklOk MIKIKG iNSTlTtJlTfi 93 

approximately 1500 ft. east and west from the shaft house, 
and a wooden trestle is built at the west end of the steel trestle. 
Ore is stocked from the steel trestle and rock from the wooden 
trestle. The steel trestls is 42 ft. high, and is supported on 
reinforced concrete pillars, the length of the spans being 114 
feet. A detailed description of this trestle is given in a paper 
by Mr. S. R. Elliott, presented at this meeting of the Insti- 
tute. A view of the trestle is shown in Fig. 16. The tracks 
are 30-in. gauge, and are laid with 40-lb. rails. 

The ore is dumped directly from the skips into two gable- 
bottomed cars of 75 cu. ft. capacity; these can be hauled 
either way from the shaft-house. Each car is moved by an 
endless 5^-in. wire rope 5500 ft. long driven by a 50-h.p. in- 
duction motor operating a drum and idler. The haulage mo- 
tors are on the ground level in a building by themselves, but 
the controllers are in a concrete shanty on the landing floor. 
From here the operator can watch both of the cars and spot 
them directly. TTie ropes are kept in tension by the same type 
of tightener as described for the Lake mine, but the slack is 
not taken up by a screw as at the latter mine, but by a count- 
erweight suspended from the end of the trestle. The car 
doors are opened by a tripping-lever, which is raised by a 
(lump-stick set between the rails. The maximum car-speed ob- 
tained is 1200 ft. per minute. 

The average time is about as follows : 

Seconds. 
To spot and load 10 

• To run out and dump 55 

To run in 55 

Total 120 

Capacity: 30 trips per hour with each car, or al>out 240 
tons per hour in all. 

The advantages of this system are large capacity and 
reliability under all sorts of weather conditions and with all 
kinds of ore, combined with low operating and maintenance 
costs. Also the dangers of car riding are eliminated. The dis- 
advantages are high first cost, lack of flexibility, and higli 
cost for power. 

(D) Electric Motor Haulage. 

I. Stocking zinth an electric motor and end-dump cars, 
using only a short trestle near the shaft-house. Example: 
Mary Charlotte mine, Negaunee, Michigan. 



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94 



STOCKING OfeE OK tHE MAkQUETTE RANGE 



At the Mary Charlotte mine three grades of ore are stocked 
in separate piles on the west side of the shaft, and rock is 
dumped on the east side. A short trestle extends from the 
shaft-house to the first point of dumping in each case, and 
from there on the track is laid on the top of the pile itself as 
it advances. The track is of 36-in. gauge, laid with 6o-lb. 
rails, and is kept level. The plan of the tracks is shown in 
Fig. 17. 

The ore is hoisted in 4^-ton skips, and is dumped directly 
into an end-dump steel car equipped with a ball-bearing turn- 
table. This car is pushed out to tlie dump by a 6-ton electric 



ROUGH SKKTCH 

SNOWW* tT«C< PILI. ailOUND 

n 
Hilt fMtfT NkkV CHMUtn 
f«. 17 



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locomotive. One car is used for all three grades of ore anil 
another car for rock. The same motor serves both cars. The 
ore car and motor are shown in Fig. 18. The troiley-wire 
is carried on overhead crosspieces supported on small poles 
erected at the side of the trestle. It is extended only as far 
as the dump. 

The crew on each shift consists of a motomian and two 
car-dumpers, who all ride on the motor, and a lander who 
stays at the shaft, rings the bell, regulates the distribution o\ 
the ore, and keeps the landing floor clean. On day shift two 
or more men in addition are needed on the dump to make ex- 
tensions and keep the tracks in order. 

The cycle of operations is alx)ut as follows when ore is 
dumped 250 ft. from the shaft: 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 95 

Seconds. 

Spotting and loading 15 

Running out 40 

Dumping 25 

Running in 40 

Total 120 

Capacity: 30 trii>s per hour, or 128 tons. As the distance 

from the shaft increases, the capacity is reduced. An average 

of 600 tons a shift of eight hours is considered good work. 

The advantages of this system are its flexibility, the low 



Figure 18 Top Tram Car and Motor— Mary Charlotte Mine 

first cost of the trestles and equipment, low maintenance, and 
comparative freedom from delay on account of bad weather. 
The disadvantages are danger to employes, especially to the 
three men who ride, and delays from track disturbances, due 
to settling of the pile either from the frost melting out of the 
upper parts or from excessive moisture in the ore. 

2. Stocking from temporary trestle with self-propelled 
side-dump cars. Example: American mine, Diorite, Mich- 
igan. 

At the American mine the ore is hoisted through an in- 



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96 



Stocking okE oti tHE MAftgUEttfi RAKcfi 



clined shaft by two skips; these dump directly into a No. 
8 gyratory crusher. The ore, as it is discharged from the 
crusher, falls through a small chute into a side dumping 
self-propelled car or *'larry" of 80 cu. ft. capacity, by which 
it is transferred to the railroad pockets, to the stockpile, or 
to the concentrator. Rock, concentrating ore, and four grades 
of high-grade ore are handled. 

In stocking ore temporary single-track trestles are used, 
a plan of which is shown in Fag. 19. When these are filled 
the track can be moved over on the pile, as is done at the 
Cliflfs Shaft mine. The tracks are level, laid with 60-lb. rails, 
and have 40-in. gauge. There are three tracks across the 
shaft-house on the landing floor, two for loading at the chutes 
and one for a turn-out. 



Iniuu, MiCM. 

Hm* I'.MI ' 




The car or lari*y consists of a wooden body with a slop- 
ing floor and with a hinged door on the side, mounted on a 
sted frame. The door is opened and closed by a simple tog- 
gle and lever, ojDerated by the man who rides the car. The 
steel frame carrying the car body is supported at one end by 
a small four-wheeled tnick, which is free to turn on a swivel, 
and at the other end by a single pair of 20-in. wheels, to 
which the driving motor is geared. The motor is a 6-h.p. 
250-volt direct-current crane motor. Each car is equipped 
with a controller and foot-brake. The trolley-wire is sup- 
ported on horizontal poles at intervals of from 15 to 20 feet. 
A view of this car is shown in Fig. 20. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 9/ 



Figure 20 American Mine Stocking Car 



Figure 21 American Mine Shaft 



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98 STOCKING ORE ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

The crew consists of one lander and two car-riders on each 
shift. Ordinarily only two cars are needed, but when hoist- 
ing is brisk, an additional car is used, one car being left under 
the crusher chute while the other two are making their trips. 
Two car-riders operating three cars in this way have an av- 
erage working capacity of 100 tons an hour, and a maximum 
of 160 tons an hour. 

The cars travel at a speed of from six to eight miles an 
hour. 

The advantages of this system of stocking ore are extreme 
flexibility, positive action, a small operating crew, relatively 
low *power-cost, and maximum trestle capacity. Its disadvant- 
ages are the dangers attendant on car-riding on trestles, and 
the cost of maintenance of trestles and cars. 

Tabulation of Stocking Methods Employed at Various 

Mines. 

A HAND tramming. 

I. Stocking with end-dump cars, using only a short 
trestle near the shaft house. 

Lake Superior Hematite mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 
Stegmiller mine, Princeton, Mich. 

B gravity TRAMMING WITH ROPE PULL-BACK. 

1. Stocking with end-dump cars, using only a short 
trestle near the shaft house. 

Salisbury mine. Ishpeming, Mich. 

Austin mine, Princeton, Mich. 

Chase mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 

Section i6 mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 

Lake Superior Hard Ore, Ishpeming, Mich. 

Queen mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

Prince of Wales mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

Rolling Mill mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

Cambria mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

2. Stocking with side-dump cars, starting from tempor- 
ary trestles and fanning out. 

Cliffs Shaft mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 
Republic mine. Republic, Mich. 

C — ENDLESS ROPE HAULAGE. 

I. Stocking from temporary trestle with gable-bottomed 
cars. 

Morris mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 
Lloyd mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 99 

Lake mine, Ishi)eming, Mich. 
Maas mine, Negaunee, Mich. 
Gvvinn mine, Gwinn, Mich. 
Mackinaw mine, Gwinn, Mich. 
Princeton mine, Princeton, Mich. 
Stephenson mine, Princeton, Mich. 

2. Stocking from permanent trestle with gable-bottomed 
cars. 

Negaunee mine, N^^unee, Mich. 

D — ELECTRIC MOTOR HAULAGE. 

1. Stocking with electric-motor and end-dump cars, us- 
ing only a short trestle near the shaft house. 

Mary Charlotte mine, Negaunee, Mich. 

Volunteer mine. Palmer, Mich. 

Lake Angeline mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 

2. Stocking from temporary trestle with self-propelled, 
side-dump cars. 

American mine, Diorite, Mich. 



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ICX^ MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 



GENERAL OUTLINE OF MINING METHODS USED 
IN THE COPPER QUEEN MINE, BISBEE. ARIZ. 

BY JOSEPH PARK HODGSON^ BISBEE, ARIZONA.* 

The Copper Queen, which might be called a group of 
mines, is the principal mining operation of the Copper Queen 
Consolidated Mining Company. Mining operations were com- 
menced in 1880. The famous Queen orebody, which ex- 
tended to the surface, was quarried from a large open cut in 
the outcrop. Tlie orebody was followed down to the 300-ft. 
level with the Queen incline and stoped by the square-set 
method. This, I believe, marks the introduction of square- 
setting into the Bisbee district. It is still the system of stoping 
most commonly practiced. 

Orebodies — The orebodies in the Copper Queen mine 
occur in the limestones, and most of the ore hr^ ^'-^^ ' 

from the Abrigo, Martin and Escabrosa limef 
the orebodies outcrop in the extreme westen . .ae 

mine, the general dip is to the east and south, at an angle of 
about 20 degrees. This dip is not by any means regular, 
however; in fact, it is very irregular locally. The ore varies 
remarkably in character, some of it being very soft and re- 
quiring a large amount of timber, and other portions consist- 
ing of extremely hard sulphides. In general the orebodies 
are remarkable for their continuity, but very irregular as to 
shape and size. As the mine has been in operation so many 
years, and over such a large area, the overburden is constantly 
shrinking. The constant movement resulting, shown by large 
cracks and interstices in the surface rocks, contributes largely 
to the very high deadwork or maintenance cost of the mine. 
For the year 19 13 the one item of repairs and deadwork 
amounted to almost $400,000. 

*Mine Superintendent Copper Queen Consolidated Mlninv Co. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE tOI 



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I02 MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 

Haulage and Hoisting — The underground openings have 
been extended in the neighborhood of two hundred miles. The 
ore is hoisted at a centrally located shaft, the Sacramento, to 
which it is conveyed from different parts of the mine by elec- 
tric haulage. There were slightly over nine miles of electric 
tramway in operation in 191 3. The hoisting levels at the 
Sacramento shaft are 200 ft. apart, commencing at the 400- 
ft. level and continuing down to the 1600- ft. level, the aver- 
age hoisting distance being 1,000 feet. Kimberly skips are 
used, and are loaded from pockets. As high as four hundred 
skips have been hoisted through this shaft in a 7^-hour shift. 

Intermediate tramming to haulage chutes is done, in gen- 
eral, by mules and by hand. Waste material is used for fill- 
ing the square-set and cut-and-fill stopes. Any surplus waste 
rock is sent to the surface at the subsidiary shafts, of which 
there are seven in operation*. These shafts are also used for 
hoisting and lowering men, timber and supplies. 

Lighting — All main haulage- ways, powder houses, etc., 
are lighted by electricity. The workmen have been using 
candles, but carbide lamps are being substituted for them. It 
is thought that there is less danger of fire with the carbide 
lamps, and it has also been demonstrated that carbide is more 
economical. They also give a better light, which enables the 
workmen to see better, a distinct advantage because of the 
large amount of ore that is sorted underground. 

Compressed Air — All hoists, with the exception of the 
Sacramento, are operated by compressed air generated at the 
central power plant by compressors having a total capacity of 
21,000 cubic feet of free air per minute. Electric power for 
underground and surface lights and for haulage is supplied 
by three Curtis turbo-generators, which are connected with 
seven 407-h.p. water-tube boilers. 

Square-Setting — Up to about a year ago, square-setting 
was the only method practiced in. this property. The system, 
as a whole, has been very successful. It is quite elastic; and 
stringers can be followed from any point in the stope and 
prosi>ecting is efficient. Perhaps the greatest objection to it 
is that in very soft ground the stopes may close in from the 
excessive weight. The timber cost is also very high, and as 
a whole, i>erhaps the system is not as economical as some 
others. Nevertheless a very large portion of the mine will 
always be worked upon this plan, by reason of the very un- 
equal and changing character of the ground. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IO3 

The general custom in the square-setting system practiced 
here is to block the ore out in sections, numbering the sec- 
tions consecutively, and mine, if possible, four sections around 
one central raise. This can quite often be done, but frequent- 
ly the ground is so heavy, and so much weight is thrown upon 
the timbers, that it is impossible to take out more than two or 
three sections to a raise. These sections are laid out according 
to the local character of the ground, and are from two to 



Orch 
Opt 



square 3Mn^ 
FIJI 



Of 

f 



Open 5€Ti 



Figure 1 and 2 Illustrate Different Stages of Extracting the Ore by Means op 
Sections Which Was Explained Under the Square Set System. The Chutks 
Arb so Arranged as to Require the Least Amount of Mucking. 

four sets in width, and from six to ten in length. The sec- 
tions must be laid out with great care, because if they are 
too large or too* wide, the stope may cave in. As the stoping 
progresses from the sill upward, the raise is usually extended 
to the next level. This gives proper ventilation to the stope, 
and besides, the raise is almost necessary for the lowering of 
timbers and the dumping of filling; it has been foupd neces- 



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J04 MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 

sary to carry the filling to within about two floors of the bade 
of the stope and immediately below where men are working. 

In many of the stopes, particularly in the oxide ores, a 
good deal of the ore is sorted, as it has been demcmstrated 
that it is cheaper to sort out the waste in the stope. In 
many cases this increases the mining cost quite materially, 
yet the Company has no doubts of its being good business to 
leave the waste in the gob rather than to put it into chutes, 
tram and hoist it, and pay transportation and smelting charges 
upon it. So that nothing will be mined but what shows a 
margin of profit, a system of minima, based upon the selling 
price of copper, has been put into effect. 

Cut and Fill — Within the last two years, the management 
has been making some experiments in other mining methods, 
and in certain portions of the mine, notably in the Holbrook, 
Spray and Gardner divisions, s(xne cut-and-fill stopes have 
been opened.. This system of mining is of course applicable 
only in hard ground, and these stopes are exclusively in sul- 
phide ores. The experiments have, to date, proved quite suc- 
cessful, and have materially decreased the mining cost from 
that of the square-set method, and it is believed that this sys- 
tem should be used wherever the conditions are suitable. The 
method in use is somewhat as follows: 

The orebody is prospected as far as possible in advance, 
and the side and vertical dimensions of the ore determined. 
Drifts are driven where possible under the bottom of the ore 
and raises put through the ore to the level above to permit 
the dumping of filling. Chambers are then cut out and drifts 
formed either by cribs or by sets of timber. The back is 
blasted down, the raises are cribbed up at convenient points, 
and filling is dumped in for the men to stand upon, so that they 
will at all times be working close to the back. Wherever 
possible the stope is worked on an angle of about 45 degrees, 
so that the broken ore may slide down to the chutes upon a 
plank bed laid upon the filling. This plan materially reduces 
the cost of getting the ore into chutes, and is advantageous 
wherever it can be adopted. Prospecting can be done frcwm 
any elevation, as the stope is worked up to that point and 
the filling is easily and cheaply disposed of. Wherever it is 
possible to work a stope upon an angle of 45 degrees, very 
little timber is needed, as the slope of the ground helps to 
support the stope. Wherever a stope cannot be worked upon 
the slope and where the backs are carried more or less hori- 



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tsAJiE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



i6§ 



zontal, they must often be blocked up temporarily or supported 
by cribbing to make the stope safe while the ore is being ex- 
tracted. 



eoQLrrrl 




/7fJ. CuUndnil 



Figure 8. Staktino at the Top of thb Slops, Water Holes Are Drilled and a 
Section op Ground About 8 ft. Thick and 20 ft. Wide is Blasted Down. The 
Work is Done Underhand Wherever it is Possible in Order to Keep the 
Back Solid. 



n^,t Cut and r///. 



Figure 4. Shows that the Ore Has Been Removed. Waste Filling Has Been Run in 
and is Again in the Condition as Shown in Figure 8. 

This system is also quite elastic, inasmuch as small blocks 
can be worked out wherever it is deemed necessary in case 
the back is heavy and will not admit of being opened up in a 



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I06 MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 

fairly large chamber. One absolute necessity in working this 
system is that the men be watched closely and taught to bar 
clown the backs and take down all loose or unsafe ground 
before they set up their drills. Perhaps the system is at a 
disadvantage where the ore is intersected by stringers or 
bunches of waste; however, if care is taken, this waste can 
always be blasted down or put in the gob and the ore mined 
clean. The cut-and-fill method thus far has worked quite 
successfully in the Copper Queen mines, and the writer knows 
of many mines in Michigan and other places that have been 
worked successfully by similar systems. 

Shrinkage — Up to the present time, only one place has 
been found in the Copper Queen mine where in our judgment 
a shrinkage stope could be developed. This slope is on the 
iioo-ft. level of the Lowell mine, upon an orebody approxi- 
mately lOO ft. long and 50 ft. wide. To use the shrinkage 
system successfully, the character of the surrounding walls 
must fifst be ascertained; it must be demonstrated beyond a 
doubt that they are strong enough to permit the removal of 
the ore after it has been mined to the top of the orebody or 
to the level above. Such work is under way at present in 
the Lowell mine, and promises to show a substantial reduction 
in cost as compared to square-setting in the same character 
of ground. Practically no timber is needed, and as the ore 
is kept close to the back, the workmen are at all times close to 
the working face. As with the cut-and-fill system, care must 
always be taken that the workmen bar down and make safe 
the backs before commencing drilling operations. One dis- 
advantage of the shrinkage system is that bars of waste occur- 
ring in the orebody must necessarily be broken down and thus 
may become mixed with the ore. 

Top-Slicing — Another system that has also been receiving 
attention in these properties is that of the top slice. The 
top-slicing system probably originated in the iron ore mines 
of the northern part of England, and, I believe, was first in- 
troduced in this country in the iron mines in northern Michi- 
gan. This system consists of first driving in the main level 
drifts, crosscutting and finding the extent of the orebody, 
putting up raises through the orebody to the top of the ore, 
and commencing operations at the extreme top of the orebody. 
It must, of course, be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the 
management that there is no possibility of other orebodies 
lying over the country that is to be mined, as the system, 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE IO7 



D. Another View of Surface Above Dividend Ore Body. Czar Mine. Filling on 
THE Left. Copper Queen C. M. Co. 



A. CONCRBTB 18 MIXED IMMEDIATELY ABOVE DIVIDEND OrE BoDY FOR CONCRETE RAISES 

Df Foot-Wall of Orb Body, Czar Mine, Copper Queen C. M. Co. 



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io8 



MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 



when properly used, does not necessitate filling. The opera- 
tions consist simply of driving lateral drifts and taking out 
the ore in small blocks, — ^making sure to clean the top of the 
orebody, — and placing either plank or split lagging upon the 
sill of every individual slice as the operations are continued 
downward, thereby forming a mat upon which the overburden 
and debris will rest. It is usually found in the preliminary 



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iom 



^m 



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M 



Limit 



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tt. 



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Fig. f Top 5licinf 



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/Ty^ TopSlkinf 

Figure 5, Shows a Top-Slice Started and Mat Formed. Figure 6 Shows Extremities 
OF Orb Body Being Taken Out in Advance of Central Portion. This is Done 
Where a Main Extraction Tunnel is Immediately Below the Slice in Order 
TO Obviate Repair Costs in Main Levels. 

operations of a top slice that the overburden is heaviest while 
the first three or four slices are being extracted. After this, 
the mat, old timber and overburden become intermixed, and 
in a measure self-sustaining. 

This system can be used to advantage in very soft or wet 
ground; it is the writer's opinion that in such cases it will 
succeed and return a profit where square-setting and other 
methods fail. Top-slicing has been commenced in what is 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



109 



known as the Dividend slice of the Czar mine. This orebody 
contains perhaps from 750,000 to 1,000,000 tons of very soft, 
wet, aluminous ore. Square-setting wherever tried in this 




i-^! -r 



I 




FlQURB 7. 



Skbtch op Concrbte Pocket Built Particularly to Handle Sticky Ores from the 
Dividend Slice. 



territory has been very expensive and it has been almost im- 
possible to complete a section successfully. As a preliminary 
to starting the slice, a drift was driven in the footwall on the 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE III 



g 



o 
u 



o 



I 



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112 MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUfiEK 

400- ft. level ; the orebody lies on the footwall and extends up 
about 50 ft. above the 200-ft. level. Raises were then put 
up to the 200-ft. level in the footwall; it has been found 
that raises in the orebody will not stand the immense pres- 
sure which is brought to bear upon them. Because the ore 
is very wet and aluminous, it is hard to handle in the chutes, 
and concrete pockets have been designed which have the shape 
of an inverted funnel, with the large portion of the funnel 
downward. About 30 ft. above the 400-ft. sill, Or in the tc^ 
of this funnel, an offset or baffle has been put in, and from 
this point the raise is continued to the 200-ft. level. The raise 
is circular and is lined with concrete. While we have not 
yet proved that this type of pocket will be successful, we are 
ccMifident that it will very considerably lower the cost of hand- 
ling the ore. The work in this orebody has not progressed 
to a point where a comparison of costs may be made, but we 
are quite certain that the operation will be successful. 

One advantage of toi)-slicing is that it is very elastic. Drifts 
for prospecting may be driven in any direction from any floor, 
and the waste disposed of in the workings. Another advant- 
age is that in mining the orebody from the top down, the ore 
is mined clean, and still another is that wherever it is desir- 
able, incline raises may be put up at any point from main raises 
to the mining floor to lower the cost of tramming. Several 
orebodies in the Czar, Holbrook, Gardner and Sacramento 
mines are being developed upon this plan, and the manage- 
ment is of the opinion that they will show a substantial low- 
ering of costs, as compared with those worked by square-set- 
ting. It must be understood, however, that top-slicing can be 
used only where it will not damage any portion of the mine, 
and, particularly, it must be demonstrated, as before noted, 
that there are no orebodies above the territory worked ac- 
cording to this system. 

Conclusions as to Mining Systems — It is quite evident to 
the writer that in future developments in these properties, 
wherever orebodies are developed which are adapted to tojv 
slicing, cut-and-fill, or shrinkage methods, these methods 
will be found to be much more economical than the square- 
setting which has been in vogue almost exclusively in the past. 
It must be remembered, however, that the square-set method 
will always be used for a large portion of the ore in these 
properties, because it undoubtedly has some advantages under 
varying conditions that the other systems do not have. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE XI 3 



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1 14 MINING METHODS AT THE COPPER QUEEN 

Ventilation — ^Until recently, natural ventilation aided by 
exhaust from drill machines and by small 5-h.p. blowers and 
compressed air was the only means of ventilating the exten- 
sive workings of the entire mine. While the temperature in 
stopes was not very high, the relative humidity in most places 
exceeded ninety per cent, and in consequence, the mine air 
seemed oppressive. A mechanical ventilation system was com- 
pleted in the Gardner during August, 191 3. The improved 
working- conditions and increased efficiency of the men that 
have resulted have justified the installation of similar sys- 
tems in the Lowell and Sacramento divisions. 

The system of ventilation adopted in the Gardner is the 
pressure system. Two Sirocco blowers, located near the 900- 
ft. station, deliver a total of 70,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute. Tliis entire volume of air is so conducted as to ven- 
tilate the workings from the looo-ft. to the 6oo-ft. levels, 
from whence it. exhausts through the shafts of the Calumet & 
Arizona Mining Company. 

Lowell Fire District — In the Lowell division, there is an 
old fire which extends from the lOOO-ft. to the 1300-ft. levels. 
Water is being nm into this fire area. In working its way 
through the hot zone, this water becomes charged with cop- 
l^er sulphate. In a concrete precipitating plant, 500 ft. long 
and 4 ft. wide, on the 1300-ft. level these acid waters perco- 
late among tin cans and scrap iron and thus deposit their cop- 
per. 

To make secure the drifts and raises that conduct the 
gases which come from the fire district, those that are most 
imix>rtant have been heavily lined with concrete. 

Concrete Pockets and Raises — It has been found very eco- 
nomical for certain kinds of ore to put in concrete pockets 
and cylindrical raises in storage chutes; the up-keep cost of 
concrete is practically nothing, whereas the maintenance of 
timjjer in storage chutes is expensive. 

Copper Queen — An interesting feature of the mine is that 
at present large areas of old stopes are being worked, and 
ore which was regarded as waste in former years is now 
mined at a profit. A large amount of this work is being done 
in the Czar and Holbrook divisions. 

During 1913 about 104.000 ft. of development work was 
done, alx>ut 70,000 ft. of it on contract. The timber used 
for the year was 18,645,713 feet 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE II 5 

The output for the year was 867,481 tons of copper ore, 
yielding 97,181,725 pounds of copper, and 15,573 ^^"^ ^^ ^^^^ 
ore, yielding 5,701,628 pounds of lead. To January, 1914. 
the mine has produced a total of 1,176,718,905 pounds of 
copper. 



B. Dividend Incline of Czab Mine. Copper Queen C. M. Co. 



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Il6 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 



THE SINKING OF A VERTICAL SHAFT AT THE 

PALMS MINE OF THE NEWPORT MINING 

CO., AT BESSEMER, MICHIGAN. 

BY FRANK BLACKWELL, IRONWOOD, MICH.* 

Before the sinking of the shaft at the Palms mine was 
begun, the management made a detailed comparison of the 
advantages and disadvantages of incline and vertical shafts in 
the footwall. An incline shaft would have the disadvantag^es 
of rails, back runners, skip wheels, axles and boxes, and the 
expense and trouble of axle lubrication, and of frequently re- 
placing supfK)rts for ropes; longer ropes would be required, 
and wear and tear of same would be greater, and the skips 
would have to travel a greater distance and at limited speed. 
There would be a constant and considerable expense for the 
upkeep of the shaft and its equipment. A vertical shaft in the 
foot-wall would have only the disadvantages of longer cross- 
cuts from the orebody to the shaft, and of the greater dis- 
tance of transiX)rtation : but with transportation by electricity, 
distance is a small consideration. Accordingly a vertical shaft 
was decided upon, to be lined with steel and concrete. (Fig-. 

DESIGN OF SHAFT. 

The shaft is divided into five compartments : a cage com- 
partment 6ft. 2 in. by lo ft.; two skip compartments 
4 ft. lo in. by 6 ft. each; a ladder compartment 3 ft. 
8 in. by 4 ft. 10 in.; and a pipe and counterweight compart- 
ment 3 ft. 8 in. by 4 ft. 10 in. (Fig. 2.) It is 10 ft 10 in. 
by 17 ft. 6 in. in outside dimensions. The wall plates, 17 
ft. 6 in. long, and the end pieces and the two dividers, each 
10 ft. long, are 5-in. 18.7-lb. H sections. The other two 
dividers, 4 ft. 10 in. long, are 4-in. 13.6-lb. H sections. The 

*Blinins Engineer. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



117 



eight studdles are 3 in. by 3 in. by ^ in. angle iron. Most 
of the sets are placed 8 ft. apart center to center. Because of 
the heavy ground encountered several sets are placed 6 ft. 






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Figure 1 Cross Section Through Shaft 



apart, and a few of them 4 feet. The wooden guides are 5^ 
ill. by 7iJ4 i^^*? two of them are strengthened by 7-in. channel 
iron. 



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ii8 



SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 




F10UBB2 Plan OF Shaft 




ir4*f*r 9eoi,ec 





FyouRsS By^^KST y^Bp FOR Shaft SiNKiNO 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



H9 




Figuiib4 General Subfacv Plan 



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I20 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 

EQUIPMENT FOR SHAFT SINKING. 

The temporary head frame used was high enough so that 
the bucket of rock could be dumped into a car i8 ft. above 
surface. After a bucket (Fig. 3) was hoisted, a counter- 
weight door was let down and the car run upon it. A chain 
was hooked to the bottom of the bucket so that when the 
bucket was lowered it dumped its contents into the car. The 
quartzite in the shaft was dumped from the trestle and re- 
served for concreting. (Fig. 4.) For crushing the rock for 
concreting a Gates gyratory crusher No. 2, driven by a 20- 
h.p. motor, was used. 

Near the shaft was the shop, (Fig. 4) where the drills 
were sharpened and the drilling machines repaired. For 
sharpening the drills, an Ingersoll-Rand No. 5 Leyner drill 
sharpener was used. The die accompanying this machine very 
easily shanked the drills for use in the jack-hammers. The 
bits ranged in size from 1^4 to 1^4 inches. At one end of 
the shop was located a small dry and, conveniently near, a 
powder house. 

In the temporary engine house was a double-drum double- 
gear-reduction electric hoist, the drums 40 in. in diameter, and 
with 30-in. faces, designed for a total load of 6,000 pounds, 
and with an average rope speed of 600 ft. per minute. The 
motor was 70-h.p. with a speed of 550 rev. per minute. This 
operated the two 26-cu.-ft. rock buckets in the two end com- 
partments of the shaft with a ^-in. rope, usually in balance. 
Here was also a geared single-drum 50-h.p. electric hoist, with 
a drum 2 ft. 6 in. both in diameter and in face, and operating 
with a ^-'in. wire rope a Hght cage for timbermen in the 
middle compartment of the shaft. The same engineer fired 
a small boiler which heated the entire surface equipment for 
shaft sinking. 

For ventilation a 12-in. pipe, which still remains in the 
shaft for the cage counterweight, was connected to a 7;^- 
h.p. electric fan. The pipe extended down to within 15 or 25 
ft. from the bottom of the shaft. Immediately after the blast- 
ing, compressed air was blown into the shaft through a valve 
on surface, and the fan started. The smoke and gases were 
drawn through the fan in this way for about half an hour. 

To the bottom end of the air line was connected a flanged 
fitting with eleven ^-in. valved outlets for hose connec- 
tions, Before blasting, this fitting was replaced by a flanged 



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Lake superior mi^^ing Institute Hi 

Reducer having a ^-in. valve opening. Thfe tiriiberinen also 
used this for a hose connectiori for running the auger niachine. 

SINKING THE SHAFT* 

Forty hoks were drilled per cut ; ten IngersoU-Rand jack- 
hammers and four spares with %-in. hollow hexagon steel 
were used. In the soft slates 8-ft. holes were drilled. Dur- 
ing the drilling the holes were cleaned out with a blow-pipe. 
This was found to be indispensable for rapid drilling. When 
the drilling was nearly completed, only about four of the 
machines were running ; the other men were preparing the ex- 
plosives and removing air hose. 



Figure 5 Blastino Box 

Figure 5 shows the blasting box used. This was a pvaraf- 
fined pasteboard box 9 in. by 3^2 in. and i J4 in. deep. With an 
iron punch, holes just large enough for a fuse to fit tightly 
were made in the sides of this box near the bottom. In the first 
lx)xes used, a positive wire was led through one end and a 
negative through the other. The ends of these were connected 
with a one-ampere fuse. Two of these lx>xes were used at 
the same time to blast a whole cut. Two positive wires, one 
for each box, of copper. No. 14 gauge, were strung from sur- 
face, and the two negative wires were connected to the air 
pipe. After fuses of proper length were inserted through the 
holes in the box, a small amount of a mixture of FF rifle and 
ordinary blasting black powder was strewn over the one- 
ampere fuse, and the box covered with a wooden lid. When 



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122 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 

the men reached surface, they could determine positively by 
means of a galvanometer whether they had made the wire 
connections properly, and whether the circuit was closed. Then 
the 250-volt current was thrown on, and the one-ampere fuse 
burned and ignited the powder, and this, in turn, ignited the 
fuses. If only a few of the fuses spit fire at first, these in 
turn ignited others, and almost instantaneously all the fuses 
threw fire across the inside of the box, so that it was almost 
impossible for any one to miss fire. The fuses were cut to 
such lengths that only one hole went off at a time. 

However, too much labor was required to prepare these 
one-ampere fuse boxes, so that later an electric blasting squib 
was used to ignite the powder in the box. A squib was placed 
through a hole at each end of the box, two being used to 
insure the igniting of the black powder. The two boxes were 
connected in series, with but one No. 14 positive copper wire 
from surface, and with the negative wire connected to the air 
pipe. Finally, a Du Pont delay electric fuse-igniter was used 
in place of the squib. 

Du Pont 8o-per cent gelatin i in. by 8 in. was used for 
blasting. For a 7-ft. cut, from 250 to 300 sticks were used; 
for a 5-ft. cut, from 200 to 250 sticks w-ere used. 

After the blasting, when the smoke had been blown out, 
the miners cleaned down the sets, trimmed the sides, and began 
mucking. Toward the end of the mucking some of the men 
used one bucket to lower the hose, machines, tools, etc., for the 
next cut, while the other men picked the bottom thoroughly 
and finislied mucking with single hoisting. 

PLACING THE SETS. 

Some of the steel sets were riveted together on surface. 
Where the rock was sufficiently hard so that a distance of 14 
ft. underneath the last set was available, the set was lowered 
entire and swung into place. Shoes on the two lower comers 
guided it through the shaft. Four one-ton duplex chain blocks 
were used for swinging it into place. To each comer of the 
set was fastened a j4-in. sling chain about 3 ft. long, with a 
5-in. ring on one end and a 3-in. ring on the other, and to 
these the hooks of the chain blocks were attached. If the dis- 
tance under the last set in the shaft was less than 14 ft. the 
sets were lowered in parts and bolted together in the shaft. 
For blocking the sets a supply of wood sprags of different 
lengths was always ready on surface for immediate use. 



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LAKfi SUf^EMOR MINING iNSTlTUtfi 



1^3 



When the solid rock (Figs. 2 and lo) was more than 8 
or 9 in. from the steel sets, 4-in. tie timbers were placed ver- 
tically 4 in. outside the sets and about 2 ft. apart. Between 
the steel sets and these timbers 4-in. wood blocks 12 in. long 
were placed. One-inch rough boards were placed horizontally 




'JjyeOttrt'nrm 



F10UBB6 Mbthod OP CoNNBCTiNo A» Line 





OLor f^rrs o^£/p 

r/G.7 

FioubbT Method op Supportino Pipb 
Df Shapt 



outside the verticals to act as outside forms for pouring con- 
crete. Lagging was filled in between the boards and the solid 
rock. When the rock was less than 8 or 9 in. from the sets, 
4-in. flat timbers were placed between the flanges of the H 
section sets, and lagging placed behind to the rock. (See Figi. 
2 and 10). This lagging was left until concreting time, when 
it was removed and hoisted to surface. In the two ends of 
the shaft the rock was from 2 to 8 in. from the steel sets for 



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124 



SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 



nearly the whole distance. In the other two sides the rock 
was 9 in. or less from the wall plates for about one-half the 
whole distance. 

A length of pipe was connected to the bottom end of the 
air line as follows (Fig. 6) : To the top end of the section that 
was to be lowered, a coupling was fastened very loosely by a 
very few threads, and to the l»ttom end was attached a tem- 
porary coupling with the socket of a ball-and-socket joint. The 
pipe was lowered underneath the bucket with a half-inch chain. 




FlODBB 8 DbVICB for CENTERING HOLES TO BE BORBD IN GUIDES 

A clamp kept it from slipping. Tlie plate of the ball-and- 
socket joint was supported underneath the air line by two 
chain blocks. The lower end of the section of pipe was swung 
over upon the plate by hand. The chain blocks raised the sec- 
tion of pipe up to the end of the air line. Then with a few 
turns of the loose coupling by hand the connection was quickly 
made. The coupling was tightened with chain tongs. In the 
couplings every 40 to 50 ft., J/2-in. air connections were made. 
To lower a section of the 12-in. flanged pipe the bucket 
was removed from the hoisting rope; eye-bolts were inserted 
in three of the holes of the flange, and rods connected these 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



I^S 



eye-bolts to a ring in the device at the end of the hoisting rope. 
At the end of the 12-in. line two chain blocks were hung 
and by means of two ^-in. wire-rope slings the section of 
pipe was taken from the hoisting rope and placed in the prop- 
er position for connection to the 12-in. line. Fig. 7 shows 
the method of supix>rting this pipe in the shaft. The slot 
engaged the flange of the H section sets. Every alternate one 
of these rested upon the wall plates and the others upon the 
dividers. 

The guides were lowered either in or underneath the buck- 
et. When the proper depth was reached, a sling chain was 




Figure 9 Hopper for Lowering Concrete in Shaft 



FfG fi 



fastened around the guide and a chain block hung to the set 
swung it into place. In lining the guide a 2- by 2-in. wooden 
gauge was placed between the wall plate and guide. This 
gauge was supported by two hooks hung over the flange of the 
H section divider or end piece. The bolt holes were bored 
after the guide was lined up. In order to start the hole di- 
rectly opposite the hole already drilled in the steel set, the 
device shown in Fig. 8 was used. The hole for the bolt head 
was counter-bored by hand with an extension bit, and the bolt 
hole was bored with an air auger machine and twist drill. 



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126 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAtIf AT PALM5 MiNfi 

CONCRETING. 

During the sinking, every 75 to lOO ft. two or three ad- 
jacent sets were filled in to the solid rock with concrete; this 
made it unnecessary to cut hitches and place steel bearers. 
This concrete also serves as a permanent support to the shaft. 
It was mixed on surface and lowered in a hopper (Fig. 9) 
at the bottom of which was a flexible spout. (Fig. 10). 

When the shaft was sunk to a depth of 1207 ft., it was 
thought necessary to complete the concreting because of the 
approach of cold weather. Concreting was started at a depth 
of 1 1 70 feet. The concrete was mixed in the proportions 
1-3-5 in a half-yard electric driven mixer (Fig. 4), and con- 
ducted through a launder to a 4-in. flanged pipe laid from sur- 
face. The lower end of the 4-in. pipe telescoped into a S-in. 
branch (Fig. 10). This 5-in. branch took the blow of the con- 
crete. To the bottom of the branch was connected a reverse 
bend with its lower end vertical. A flexible spout 18 ft. long 
which fitted over this conducted the concrete to the forms. 
While the concreting force was filling one set, other men 
were removing the blocking from the set above as explained, 
hanging the strands of old wire rope vertically one foot apart 
and horizontally about three feet apart for reinforcement, 
and placing the inside forms. For an 8-ft. span, 2-ia hard- 
wood plank was used, (Fig. 10), and for 4-ft. and 6- ft. spans, 
i^-in. hardwood plank. The plank was cut on a bevel on the 
upper end, so that the concrete came underneath the steel sets 
for a support. The bottom end came tight against the outside 
flange of the H section. Two-inch strips of wood about 12 
in. long were laid one inch apart between the bottom end of 
the plank and the inside flange of steel. When these strips 
were taken out the planks were easily removed from- the con- 
crete. 

In all cases the comers were left open for a distance of at 
least 12 in. from the corners of the sets. (Fig. 2). This left a 
solid column of concrete in each corner for the entire depth of 
the shaft. Also where the lagging and timber was left be- 
tween the concrete and rock, openings for concrete were left 
Thus in all cases the concrete extended from the steel set to 
directly back of the wall plates and end pieces to the solid rock, 
the rock (Fig. 10). A 6- by 8-in. block 12 in. long was laid 
in the concrete midway between the 8-ft. sets to serve as a 
support to the two end guides. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 




127 



FlOUBSlO MSTHOD OP iJLOOIMa 8sn AMD 

CoNCBsnNa 



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1:28 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT At PAtMg MlN^ 

WATER. 

Most of the water entered the shaft at 15 ft. from surface, 
and a concrete dam built about 100 ft. down collected most 
of it. When the dam was full, the water was nm into a 
bucket through an opened valve and hoisted to surface. The 
water in the bottom of the shaft was also handled in buckets. 
On the trestle landing a wheeled water tank was pushed un- 
derneath the bucket. 

LABOR. 

The day was divided into three 8-hour shifts. Nine min- 
ers and a foreman per shift did the drilling, blasting and 
mucking, and assisted the timbermen in placing the sets, con- 
crete bearers, and 12-in. pipe. 

Three timbermen per shift for three shifts with two fore- 
men for the 24 hours lagged the sets, put in the guides, ex- 
tended the air line, placed the ladders, and substituted for 
absent miners, etc. During 24 hours two engineers operated 
the double-drum hoist, and two the single-drum. There were 
two top-landers per 12 hours and two men to handle the 
rock, tram, move track and level the stockpile ground. Two 
blacksmiths were engaged during 24 hours with a helper 
for one shift. After each cut was drilled all of the machines 
were taken apart for inspection and repairs and oiled. This 
required a mechanic for a few hours each day. 

The concreting required the ten miners for removing lag- 
ging, placing reinforcement and placing plank forms. The 
four timbermen attended to the distribution of the concrete 
to the forms. On surface three men wheeled rock to the 
mixer, two men the sand and cement, one poured water and 
attended to the securing of the proj^er mixture, one discharged 
the mixer, one looked after the launder from the mixer to 
the 4-in. pipe and two men conducted the concrete down the 
4-in. pipe. All the men worked 8-hour shifts on the con- 
creting. 

The approximate time required for a 7-ft. cut was as 
follows : 

Hours. 

Drilling 4 

Hoisting tools and blasting i 

Blowing smoke J^ 

Lowering men and cleaning off sets i 

Trimming the sides I 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 29 

Mucking and picking bottom I4j^ 

Placing a set . . ; 2 

Lunch J4 

Changing shifts 34 

For extending the shaft equipment the approximate time 
required was as follows : 

Hours. 

To lawyer and place one length of air pipe }i 

To lower and place one length of 12-in. pipe i 

To lower and place one length of guide - - -H 

To lower and place one length of 7-in. channel ^ 

Concreting during sinking required two shifts to make a 
plank bottom and fill between three adjacent sets or 16 feet. 

The speed of sinking the shaft, including the placing of 
steel sets and lagging, occasional concreting, etc., averaged 
from 4 to 4.56 ft. per day during several months. For the 
last three weeks in August, 191 3, it averaged 5 ft. per day. 

The speed of final concreting was from 35 to 48 ft. per 
day. For the total distance concreted 78 gondolas of sand 
and 15,695 sacks or 21 carloads of cement were required. 

The above is a description of the shaft sunk to a depth of 
1207 feet. During the sinking a raise 5x12 ft. also was driven 
285 ft. from the nth to the 9th levels; and then 158 ft. above 
the 9th level. Here it holed underneath the shaft. Stripping 
then progressed down to the nth level; with pockets installe<l 
at the 9th level. The shaft is now 80 ft. below the nth level, 
but is concreted only to a depth of 11 70 ft. below surface. 

During the entire shaft sinking not a single serious ac- 
cident resulted. Great credit is due the men for the versatility 
of their suggestions, their willing application to the work, and 
interest they manifested in the speed and general progress of 
the shaft sinking. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Blackwell: There are one or two things I might 
say about the paper. All the shaft sinking in the foot-wall 
on the Gogebic Range has been on the incline, and this is the 
first sunk vertically. 

I want to emphasize the use of the blasting box. By 
means of it the speed of the shaft sinking was increased by 
55 per cent. This box can also Ije used in high raises. Instead 
of using a long fuse for each hole, one long fuse can be used 



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130 SINKING A VERTICAL SHAFT AT PALMS MINE 

to ignite the powder in the box, which in turn ignites all the 
short ones leading from the box to the holes. This has been 
used successfully. 

Mr. Eaton : I should not think that studdles made of 3X3X 
% angle iron would be heavy enough. I should think that 
after the bearers were in, there would be a great deal of 
compression on the studdles when the ground settled. 

Mr. Blackwell : While sinking there were incline sprag3 
placed underneath occasional sets, which support the weight 
which would otherwise come upon the studdles. Finally the 
concrete lining incloses these studdles so that they act as a 
reinforcement, and the concrete supports all the weight. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I3I 



MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE. 

by committee consisting of h. t. hulst, g. r. jackson, 
w. a. siebenthal. 

Shrinkage-Stope System. 

At the Lloyd mine of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, 
a form of the shrinkage-stope system has been followed in 
mining a part of the orebody. A silicious orebody 500 ft. 
in length, and from 25 to 75 ft in width, and from 50 to 
175 ft. in thickness, has been taken out according to this sys- 
tem. Because it forms the hanging of a narrow high-grade 
orebody, it had to be mined first. Furthermore, if it was to 
yield a profit, it had to be mined cheaply. After a study of 
conditions, the shrinkage-stope system was selected. 

The formation in the North Lake district stands at a 
steep angle, the dip varying from 70 to 85 degrees. In using 
this system of mining, there was no danger irom falls of 
ground from the back, but special attention had to be given 
the hanging side of the stope. 

The shaft is located in the fcK>twall 300 ft. away from 
the ore, this site having been chosen on account of the loca- 
tion of the loading tracks. Levels were opened 150 ft. apart 
and crosscuts were driven from the shaft to the ore. Drifts 
were driven in the ore both ways with the formation to the 
limit of the orebody. These drifts were timbered with sets 
four feet apart, 8-ft. legs and 7-ft. caps being used. The 
orebody was developed by crosscuts turned off every 100 ft. 
to determine the width and grade. The main haulage drift 
was driven near the footwall, in the wide part of the de- 
posit; a parallel drift was later driven near the hanging, as 
the orebody was too wide to be removed in one stope. Up to 
widths of 40 ft, the ore was removed in one stope; greater 



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132 



MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 



widths were taken out either in a parallel stope with a pillar 
between, or by stopes at right angles with pillars between. 
This latter method was used where pockets of ore extended 
into the hanging at points above the main level. 

As the body was being developed on the main levels, raises 




without cribbing were put up to the top of the ore ^^e^' 
I GO feet. Above the ist level these raises connected with 
each other at the top, and two raises were extended throw?" 
to surface. The raises from the 2nd level were carried up 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 33 

to the 1st level and holed on the side of the haulage drift. 
These raises provided traveling roads to the stopes, ventila- 
tion, and a means of bringing in the air lines. Small raises 
without cribbing, with iS-ft. pillars between, were put up 
10 ft. above the level in the main haulage drift. These raises 
were strongly built, being re-inforced with 40-lb. rails and 
3-in. hardwood plank, because of the blasting of hang-ups. 
Chutes were built to these raises. At a point about 15 ft. 
above the level the raises were connected ; the stope was then 
opened to full size and mining started. One gang of miners 
worked about 50 ft. of the stope, or the territory above three 
raises. Each miner had a raising drill, two machines thus 
being to one contract. 

About thirty per cenft. of the broken ore had to be drawn 
from the stope to make room for the men to work. One la- 
borer was required to each 100 ft. of stope to sledge the 
large pieces. Occasionzilly it was necessary to block-hole 
large slabs which had been blasted or barred down from the 
hanging side of the stope. On the completion of the stope, 
the chutes were drawn as nearly equal as possible, as this 
seemed to prevent blocking. 

This system of mining has worked out very satisfactorily 
as regards costs and safety. 

Stoping System Hartford Mine — Republic Iron and 

Steel Co. 

A comparison of the methods of mining at the Hartford 
and Section 21 mines shows many points of similarity; the 
chief difference betw^een them is that the Hartford employs 
overhand stoping, and Section 21 underhand stoping. The 
ore at the Hartford is peculiar as to its physical character, 
being a little different from any hematite heretofore produced 
on the Marquette Range. In consequence the usual methods 
of mining such deposits failed to give the desired results, so 
that considerable experimenting was necessary in the early 
stages of development to find the most economical system 
for removing the ore. 

The room-and-pillar system was tried on the 750-ft level 
with but indifferent success, and was finally abandoned for 
the overhand-stoping and milling system modified and com- 
bined. In the developing of the orebody the ground broke in 
such large masses that it was almost impossible to keep the 
openings small enough so that standard sized drift sets could 



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134 



MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 



be used. Frequently a space of twelve or fifteen feet would 
open up between the timber and solid ground. As a result a 
prohibitive amount of lagging had to be used, and even then 
the drifts were always dangerous and expensive to maintain 
because of the breaking of timbers and blocking of the tracks. 

To overcome this difficulty the openings were driven two 
sets high; little additional labor was required to break the 
ground to this increased height. 

The illustration shows a cross-section through two of the 
slopes which were started from raises put up from a crosscut. 
The stope marked N is a little further advanced than M. in 
which the core has not yet fallen. No timber is used in the 
raises or stopes; thus no ladderways can be maintained in 
the openings through which the ore is milled. The working 
faces of the stopes are reached through the raises which are 











1 




S 


1 


1- HARTFORD MINE 

AS cmosa aictioM Tft/rov«N arot^ta 


B 
«C«lC •' ret 

^ ,1 1 ? t 


SCCTION ON 



put up at frequent intervals from the foat>vall drift marked 
K. The stopes themselves are also connected by small drifts 
entirely independent of the drifts from the raises, so that 
there may be half a dozen or more ways of entrance or re- 
treat. 

As the stopes advance, several may connect before the 
level above is reached. Wh'^re this happens, the conical shape 
is not continued, but tli« ^ides are carried up vertically in- 
stead ; or one stope may be abandoned while the other is de- 
veloped as originally started. 

The section through the double-set drift shows a method 
of filling cars without using the chutes found in so many 
mines on the Marquette Range. The caps of the lower set 
of timbers are lagged over to an opening in the center di- 
rectly above the track and this opening is covered with short 
pieces pf timber which (ran easily be removed to let the ore 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



135 



into a car below. When any considerable tonnage falls away 
at one time from the core of a stope, masses several feet 
m diameter must be reduced to a size small enough to pass 
through the caning in the lagging. With the double-set 
drift these masses are always accessible, a few blows of a 
pick being all that is required. 

Section 21 Mine — Oliver Iron Mining Co. 

In the western portion of Section 21 mine a stoping system 
is now used which has proved both economical and safe. 
The physical character of the ore is such that no timber is 
required except for the construction of chutes for handling the 
product when it is drawn from the mills. 

In the opening of a new level, a crosscut is driven from 




^LJl*^ AATO C00SS StCTfJ^ 

SfCr/OA/ JP/ Af/A/e 

\ r . r. r ■ r ■ r 



ctfa* atcri0Mf 



foot to hanging and both are then followed until the drifts 
connect. Crosscuts are usually driven between these drifts at 
distances of from 50 to 60 feet. Raising is started on the 
footwall as soon as developmen'^' has advanced enough so 
that a chute can be operated w?ti:out interfering with the 
other work on the level. The footwall raise is put up at 
this time chiefly for ventilation purposes and traveling way, 
as it is not needed for handling ore until later. 

The ideal section shows a crosscut on 820-ft. level driven 
to the hanging with footwall raise completed, also another 
raise connected with the level above. Raises from the 760-ft. 
level show the system of milling; the dotted lines indicate 
the next step in advance. A floor pillar of six to ten feet is 



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136 MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

sufficient to support the level until all the available ore above 
it has been removed. 

Between the 700- and 640-ft. levels a condition still far- 
ther advanced is shown, and on the 640-ft. level is shown 
the final stages of removing the pillars. 

Practically all of the ore was removed to a depth of 350 
ft. by this method without any apparent weakening of the 
hanging, but below this depth it has been necessary to modify 
the system so as to prevent caved rock from contaminating 
the ore. To accomplish this the pillars above the nearly ex- 
hausted level, as well as the floor pillars below it, are drille4 
and blasted continuously by fuse firing, with the result that 
the ore falls into the mills and is drawn from the chutes on 
the level below without any appreciable contamination. 

All raises are vertical or nearly so, with the exception of 
the footwall raise and a few next the hanging. A plan of 
the workings just below the floor of each level, after mining 
has been started, would show a succession of circular mills of 
various sizes with a raise in the center of each. Numerous 
rock intrusions and dykes make it impossible to conform rig- 
idly to any pre-determined geometrical plan further than to 
locate raises to reach the thickest portions of the pillars on 
the level above. Although the drawings show four levels in 
operation, this is not the actual condition in practice; instead, 
all of the various stages of development shown in detail are 
worked simultaneously over different parts of one level. 

Method of Mining at the Republic Mine, Republic; 

Michigan. 

by r. b. wallace. 

To illustrate the method of mining used at this hard-ore 
mine we will take as an example a body of ore averaging 20 
ft. wide and 80 ft. long and extending several hundred feet 
in height. These "lenses," if we may call them such, do not 
always stand vertical, but may be inclined as much as 20 or 
30 degrees. 

The first step in extracting the ore is to drive a 7- by 7- ft. 
drift through the entire length of the orebody. The ore is 
then cut out the full size of the orebody to a height of 15 ft. 
and the stull over the tramway put in place. Breaking is 
then commenced and the ladderway mills are built up as is 
shown in Fig. i. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectipn through the 
stope showing the openings for drawing off the ore left every 



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tAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



137 



25 ft. in the side of the timbered tramway. Only enough ore 
is drawn off to enable the miner to set up his machine. 

In some places where the orebody is of greater length, 
this method has been modified, since the timbered tramways 
have to be renewed before the stope is finished. A drift is 



run parallel to the orebody about 10 ft. back in the footwall 
and from this drift crosscuts are made every 25 ft. into the 
stope: through these the ore is drawn off and access is ob- 
tained to the ladderway mills. A cross-section through one 
of these crosscuts is shown in Fig. 3. 

In the old workings are some floors which are being taken 




out. The process is slow, as the open stope below has to be 
filled with waste rock. There is an abundance of this and 
sometimes it is intermixed with enough ore from caved pillars 
and floors to pay for separating and handling the rock. Fig. 



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138 MINING METHODS ON THE MAftQUETTE ttANGE 

4 is a longitudinal section of a stope which is almost filled with 
waste rock preparatory to mining the floor. When the stope 
is filled to within 6 ft. of the back, breaking is commenced and 
the ore is thrown down the mills. More filling is leveled 
across the stope and the floor is thinned till finally it is broken 
through. 

Discussion. 

Mr. Blackwell : How is the ore graded when there is 
a pile broken in the stope? 

Mr. Graff : The ore is of one grade, and all low grade. 
It would be impossible to make more than one grade in the 
stopes. 

Mr. Sperr: As there are quite a number of miners 
present, mining captains and others, would it not be well to 
define what the shrinkage-stope system means. Is it what 
the miners know as stoping on arches and rigging up ma- 
chines on the broken "dirt''? I have often wondered my- 
self why it was called the shrinkage-stope method. I think this 
term of "shrinkage-stoping" is a good one because we are 
looking for terms to mean specific things in mining operations 
and this term is particularly well confined to a definite meth- 
od of mining; but I doubt whether to many mining people 
who are not up on the literature of mining, the method would 
be suggested by the term. If we could invent terms that would 
mean something in practice as well as being specific, I think 
we would do the best possible for the literature of mining. 

Mr. Graff : I hardly know why that term is applied, be- 
cause the stope is nearly full all the time; however, you have 
to shrink or pull it in order to get working room. That, is my 
idea of why that term is applied to this system. The stope 
gets larger after each blast, and is filled more or less close 
to the back. It then has to be shrunk up by pulling some of 
the dirt from it in order that the men can get back to work. 

Mr. Sperr : But you do not shrink the stope by pulling 
some of the dirt from it. The stope is the excavation. What 
you shrink is the pile of broken material in the stope ; you do 
not shrink the stope. 

Mr. Graff : Technically speaking you are correct in say- 
ing we shrink the pile of broken dirt in the stope, practically 
speaking, through virtue of common usage, we say "shrink 
the stoi)e.'* As I understand it this is a meeting of practical 
miners and for that reason it would appear advisable not to 
be too severely technical. 



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LAKfi SUPEklOfe MiKiNG iNSTltUTE l^^ 

Mr. Sperr: I am sure I could not attempt to add any- 
thing to further illustrate the method but I would venture the 
suggestion that it is a modified block-caving system. Most of 
the ore is cut off over a large area and as the cutting off pro- 
ceeds upward and around, the block caves and then there is 
not only the central chute into which the ore may drop but all 
the other chutes which have been put up. In a general way 
the scheme is to cut the ore body off and allow it to settle into 
the chutes prepared for it, the same as in any block-caving 
method. To me it seemed a most desirable system and most 
admirably executed at the time I w^as in the mine. 

Mr. Higgins: I would just like to say one word about 
these descriptions of mining methods; somew^hac of a defense 
of the gentlemen who have written them, as a commendatory 
word. I want to say that for the past two years I have been 
investigating these methods of mining and have endeavored 
to describe them. I have read many descriptions of the meth- 
ods and have noted that most of them do not present a perfect 
picture. I want to say I do not believe there is a man alive 
today who can describe these methods of mining, especially 
the highly complicated ones, and make them plain. I think 
these gentlemen have written splendid descriptions. The per- 
fect picture can only be secured by trips underground. 

Mr. Sperr : I think w^e would get a great deal from these 
papers, if we would get into the discussion of them and ask 
questions more freely than we do. Just as Mr Higgins says, 
there is no man on earth can put an underground operation on 
paper so that any man can understand it who has not seen 
it. I do not think I ever saw a better lot of papers than these 
are, but we do get wrong notions from the best of descriptions 
and for that reason I think that the papers should be freely 
discussed in order to derive the fullest benefits from these 
meetings. 

Mr. Eaton : Is there anyone here who can tell how the 
ore is drawn off in the Republic mine, whether drawn into 
chutes or shoveled ? 

Mr. Pascoe: I would say the method we adopted here 
has been worked in the Republic Mine for several years, in 
this manner, which is, as Mr. Wallace in his paper, explains : 
all we do is drive our drift the length of the ore body and then 
cut it out to the full width of the ore body which averages 
from five to twenty-five feet in width, and to a height of sixteen 
feet. We then place our stulls underneath to a height of ten 



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I40 MINING METHODS ON THE MARQUETTE RANGE 

feet. Then we commence on the top of the stuU and break our 
ore down. In order for us to take our ore from that stope we 
then have filling places, not mills, but filling places in the foot 
or hanging where we fill up under. On account of our ore being 
badly mixed we have to assort it underground. We fill it up 
under and have rock pickers who pick the rock out of the 
cars as it is filled. We draw off the excess ore about ooe- 
third while we are stoping. Then we continue that stope until 
we reach the level above, one hundred or one hundred and 
fifty feet. We mine this stope up within ten to fifteen feet 
through to the level above when we then commence on the 
extreme end and mine that floor through to the old workings 
until it is completely back to the extreme end, completing the 
stope. Then we start on the extreme end and blast the stuUs 
down and draw the ore back. In that manner we keep on 
until we draw all the ore out or practically all the ore on that 
level. The next level we start underneath and if there is any 
ore left behind it would naturally drop down to the level below 
and I think it takes practically all the ore. It beats any meth- 
od that has been adopted heretofore at the mine. 

Mr. Johnston : What percentage of loss do you esti- 
mate? 

Mr. Pascoe : We have no loss to speak of, not over five 
per cent. 

Mr. Abbott : I would like to ask if he makes his fill with 
ore. Before the rock filling is made do you draw off all of 
the ore in the back? 

Mr. Pascoe : We take all the ore the first cut, then we put 
our stulls in from the center and then fill with the broken ore 
on each side and on top of that we start our mills, one on each 
end, inlet and outlet, and all the remaining parts of the stope 
we fill with broken ore. 

Mr. Eaton : Is that ore thrown into the chutes by hand 
or is it drawn off? 

Mr. Pascoe : We do not handle it, we just draw it down. 

Mr. Eaton : Do you draw it through the timber? 

Mr. Pascoe: No, we draw it down over the side. Our 
filling places are made on the side of the stulls. We do not 
use a chute on account of the ore being so badly mixed. 

Mr. Eaton : Do you pick any of the rock out in the 
stopes ? 

Mr. Pascoe : We do not pick any rock out until it comes 
into the car. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I4I 

Mr. Kelly: The Republic Mine consists of several dif- 
ferent ore bodies, some of which are rather small and there 
have been modifications in the methods of mining used in 
different parts of the mine. In the largest deposit now being 
worked the ore is taken out completely and no floor left be- 
tween levels. That method of taking out the ore completely 
has been followed for something like a thousand feet in depth, 
leaving no floors in, the whole thing taken out completely. In 
this part of the mine in the working stopes the ore alone is 
used for standing on to break the back. In other parts of the 
mine it has been necessary to leave the floors under the old 
levels and in those places it has been necessary after taking 
out the stope of ore to fill it with rock in order to get the 
floor underneath the level above when that becomes available. 
A number of experiments have been made in handling the 
ore. Chutes were used for a time but in certain parts of the 
mine, as Mr. Pascoe stated, a good deal of the ore is more or 
less mixed with jasper and it is necessary to sort it out. Then 
too, some of it comes down very big and has to be block- 
holed. But where the ore is free and small enough a chute 
could be used to advantage. Some experiments have also been 
made in driving levels at different vertical distances apart. The 
usual distance has been one hundred feet but one hundred and 
fifty feet was tried in order to reduce the dead work of drift- 
ing. That has proven to be a little too much as it increases 
the difficulty of stoping and ties up too much ore. Since the 
introduction of Leyner drills the increase in speed and decrease 
in cost of drifting removes the disadvantages which previous- 
ly were urged against the use of levels not exceeding one hun- 
dred feet in depth. 



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t4^ StEEL STOCKIKG TRESTLfi 



STEEL STOCKING TRESTLE AT NO. 3 SHAFT, NE- 
GAUNEE MINE. 

BY STUART R. ELLIOTT, NEGAUNEE, MICH.* 

A common method of stocking iron ore is by the grav- 
ity system, extending the tracks on the pile of ore as it ad- 
vances. The tracks are laid with sufficient grade to run the 
cars to the end of the pile. The cars are brought back either 
by a puffer or by trammers. For handling a large product 
this system is often not practical, as the necessary grade re- 
duces the height of the pile and therefore its capacity. As 
the height decreases, the length of tram increases rapidly. The 
tracks are difficult and expensive to maintain and keep in prop- 
er alignment. Delays in hoisting are frequent and expensive. 
Also where the available stocking room is limited, often the 
gravity system cannot be considered. It has been proved at 
mines of large production that it is more economical to erect 
wooden trestles and to use some mechanical means of stock- 
ing. On the other hand, the cost each year for erecting and 
dismantling wooden trestles is heavy. With certain classes of 
ore the yearly breakage in legs will amount to as much as 33 
per cent. An actual record kept of a trestle at a large mine 
shows that in six years not a single stick of the original timber 
was in use. The price of timber and trestle legs is steadily 
increasing and it is only a matter of a limited time when 
legs will be difficult to procure at any price. 

For a number of years I have believed that it would be 
more economical to stock ore from permanent steel trestles. 
In 1909, when it was found necessary to sink a new shaft 
at the Negaunee mine, I began to collect data in order to 
make some preliminary estimates as to the comparative cost 

*Local Superintendent The Cleveland-CIiffB Iron Co. 



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Lake supEftiOft mining institute 




U3 



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144 STEEL STOCKING TRESTLfi 

of wood and steel. I went to Milwaukee and submitted sev- 
eral sketches of steel trestles to Mr. J. F. Jackson, of the 
Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Company. When the cost of main- 
tenance of wooden trestles had been explained to him, Mr. 
Jackson stated that it was his opinion that for a mine with a 
long life the cost of a steel trestle would not be excessive. He 
prepared some sketches and submitted approximate estimates 
of steel trestles. From these I was able to make some com- 
parative estimates which showed conclusively that if a prac- 
ticable steel trestle could be constructed, it would mean a large 
saving for any mine which had a life of ten years or more. 
The Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Company was asked to make 
final drawings and to submit bids for a steel trestle. These 
bids were accepted and the trestle constructed. 

The average wooden trestle used by the Cleveland-Cliffs 
Iron company cost approximately $6 per foot. The cost for 
labor each year in erecting and dismantling amounts to $1.20 
per foot, and the entire stocking trestle has to be renewed 
in about six years. A wooden trestle must be dismantled in 
order to load the ore with a steam shovel. It is not unusual 
during busy seasons for railroads to fail to supply mines with 
a sufficient number of cars to ship the current hoist from the 
shaft pockets; if this occurs after the trestle is dismantled, a 
great loss in time and money results irom the delay. Even 
if a part of the trestle has not been torn down the ore can 
not be stocked by hand, because the modem top tram car is too 
heavy, and special cars would have to be provided. At other 
times the railroads are unable to supply the mines with cars be- 
cause of strikes on docks or because stonns delay boats and a 
shut-down therefore becomes necessary. A permanent steel 
stocking trestle would provide against all such delays, as the 
tracks would not have to be disturbed to load with steam shov- 
els and it would therefore be possible to stock ore at any time 
at a minute's notice. On a steel trestle permanent tracks could 
be ' maintained in the best possible conditions for stocking; 
the tracks being in perfect alignment, no delays would be 
caused by cars falling from the trestle. For all of the above 
reasons, but particularly on account of the large saving in 
money over a long period of years, it was decided to install a 
permanent steel trestle at the Negaunee mine. The following 
is a description of this trestle: 

At intervals of 114 ft. there are concrete columns, the up- 
per part for a distance of 28 ft. 6 in. being 4 ft. in diam- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I45 

eter and the lower lo ft. belling out to a diameter of 6 ft. at 
the bottom. The shells of plate are 34 Jri. thick. They rest 
on and are bolted to pyramid-shai>ed reenforced-concrete bases 
which are 12 ft. wide by 26 ft. long by 6 ft. deep. Each 
base is reenforced by 52 rods Ji in. in diameter which radiate 
in all directions through the base and extend up into the shells 
for a distance of 20 feet. (Fig. i). The rods were all bent 
so as to extend to the proper points in the bases and to project 
to the correct height in the shells. In the bottom of each pyra- 
mid the rods were tied to seven old rails which extend across 
the long dimension. At a point about 20 ft. above the base 



Figure 1 Concrete Base and Re-enforcing for Columns 

the rods were attached and properly distributed around two 
horizontal rings in the shells. Above these rings other rods 
were spliced so that the reenforcing extended to within a few 
inches of the top of the columns. 

When the excavation for the base of a column was made 
and the form constructed, the rails and reenforcing bars were 
placed in position and wired to keep them from shifting. The 
six very heavy anchor bolts to which the steel shell is bolted 
were suspended from a templet and lined up by the engin- 
eers. In order to allow a small amount of leeway these anchor 
bolts Avere all set in sections of pipe. A concrete mixer was 



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146 STEEL STOCKING TRESTLE 

set over the edge of the excavation and the concrete dumped 
directly into the form. While one form was being filled the 
carpenters were busy constructing the form for the next base. 
In a very short time after one base was completed, the forms 
could be moved with safety to the next excavation. In this 
way only a small amount of lumber was used. Before the 
bases were completed the bridge builders were on the ground 
and ready to begin placing the steel shells in position. For 
handling the heavy steel, a railroad track had been laid along 
the entire length of the trestle. 

The length of span between columns is 114 feet. Across 
the center of each column are two short plate girders, each 
38 ft. in length. Between these short girders are two other 
girders 76 ft. long, thus making the total span of 114 feet 
As soon as one span was bolted together two shells could be 
filled with concrete. A puffer, operating two small steel 
cages in balance, was set up midway between the two shells, 
thus filling them simultaneously. To one end of the drum of 
the puffer was attached a six)ol, and around this spool a ^-in. 
wire roi:)e was wrapped four times. The ends of the rope 
extended from the spool at an angle of about 30° to sheaves 
supported about 6 ft. above the top of the shells. The cages 
were constructed to run on wire-rope guides from the ground 
to the top of each shell, the rope serving simply to keep the 
cages from twisting. The hoisting rope was so adjusted that 
when one cage was on the ground the other was above the 
shell. Concrete was loaded in small concrete buggies holding 
about a quarter of a yard. The work progressed rapidly and 
at a reasonable cost. As it was feared that the dunging of 
the material might throw the columns slightly out of line if 
the shells were filled completely in one operation, they were 
filled a little over a half full one day and completed the fol- 
lowing. After the shells were filled the surface was rounded 
off with a rich mixture and made as smooth as possible, to 
keep water from getting between the concrete and the steel 
jacket. The work was constantly watched by an engineer to 
see that the shells did not shift or get out of alignment. 

On top of each column the girders rest on horizontal 8-in. 
I-beams supported by four braces firmly connected to the col- 
umns which extend down at an angle of 45 degrees. The 
plate girders are made up of angles and two plates 42 in. 
wide and J4 in. thick. The distance from center to center of 
girders, or center to center of tracks, is 20 feet. The entire 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I47 

length of the part of the trestle from which ore can be stocked 
is 2,094 feet. In addition there are 500 ft. of curved trestle 
extending from the shaft and connecting with the stocking 
trestle. The legs in the curved part are built up of angles 
and channels. The stringers are channels and I-beams of 
various sections. On top of the I-beams are holes to which 
are bolted j-in. nailing strips. On top of these nailing strips 
was spiked a 5- by 7-in. sollar to serve as ties. The 40-lb. 



Completed Trestle 

rails on the plate girders are spiked to 5-in. sawed ties 4 ft. 
in length. On the outside of the girders the ties were bolted 
to 4- by 4-in. timbers placed snugly up against the girders. 
These 4- by 4-in. timbers prevent any pK)ssible shifting in the 
track at right angles to the length of the trestles. To prevent 
the ties from creeping, they were attached at intervals by 
hooked bolts to the small angles inside of the girders. Since 
the tracks were completed, about two years ago, not a single 



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148 STEEL STOCKING TRESTLE 

penny has been spent on them. They are now in as good align- 
ment as when first put in. The height of the trestle is 42 ft. 
from rail to soUar. The g^uge is 30 inches. 

The trestle was built under a guarantee to support a mov- 
able load of ten tons. It was put into commission during the 
fall of 191 2 and has been used continuously since then. No 
defects in construction or design have been discovered. No 
delays in loading with the steam shovel have been occasioned. 
In the second cut taken by the shovel the track runs fairly 
close to the piers. The operator, before reaching a point where 
the pier would prevent his boom from swinging, digs into the 
pile as far as possible. He then moves the shovel ahead until 
the front part of it is directly opposite the far edge of the 
pier. By digging in at right angles to the shovel he is able 
to get all of the ore in the cut except a small strip on the 
other side of the pier. The small amount of hand work re- 
quired for this is hardly worth mentioning. With the wooden 
trestles there is considerable delay in pulling out legs, conse- 
quently ore can be loaded more rapidly from the steel trestle. 

At the shaft the ore is dumped during the stocking season 
into special saddleback cars of about five tons capacity. These 
cars are operated by the tail-rope system, the power being fur- 
nished by two 50-k.w. motors. The cars are of special con- 
struction and dump automatically simply by running over a 
(lump-jack placed between the tracks at the desired point on 
the trestle. This releases the catches and allows the doors to 
open. By shifting a lever on one end of the car, three grades 
of ore can be stocked from each track. On top of the plate 
girders, between the rails, the ^-in. rope is carried on wooden 
rollers. On the end of the trestle it passes around a roller- 
bearing sheave 2 ft. in diameter. Below the tracks the return 
rope is supported on small sheaves placed at intervals of about 
30 feet. The slack is taken up by four special tighteners which 
are placed at the end of each track. The tightener consists of 
a truck, to one end of which is attached a 2-ft. roller-bearing 
sheave and from the other a rope, which passes over a station- 
ary sheave to a large iron bucket suspended below the trestle. 
The slack in the rope is controlled by putting the proper weight 
in the bucket. Placing the tighteners at the end of the line 
rather than near the w?inding drums at the shaft house has 
been found to be a great improvement. 

The common method of disposing the rock is to dump it 
into a special car which runs out on another trestle from a 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 49 

switch from the main line. At the Negaunee mine the rock 
dump consists of a wooden trestle built at the extreme end of 
one of the permanent trestles. Rock can be hoisted at any 
time and disposed of without delay or extra labor simply by 
throwing a lever on the end of the car and sending it to the 
rock dump. This method has been found to be very practicable 
and to save considerable time. Great care was used in laying 
the tracks on the entire trestle and in giving the curves the 
proper elevation, the consequence of which is that the cars can 
be run at a speed as high as 1,400 ft. per minute on the straight 
part without danger of their leaving the track. The following 
table shows the cost of the various items connected with the 
trestle : 

Cost of Eighteen Piers. 

Amount. Per Yard. 

Excavation, 1,800 yards I 994.65 | .553 

Concreting, 1,352 yards 5,142 70 3.80 

Bolts, washers and forms 2,167.94 2.185 

Reenforcing steel 1,423.89 1.053 

ToUl 19,729.18 |7.197 

Average cost per pier 540.41 

Steel Trestle, 2,594 Feet. 

Lin. Ft. Amount. Per Ft. 

Steel erected 135,100 00 |13.53 

Colums (18) /i,094 9,729.18 4.G5 

Small piers for curved trestle (20).. 500 641.93 1.28 

Decking 500 1,870.07 3.74 

Ties and fastenings 2,094 1,627.59 .78 

Walk and railings 500 358.78 .72 

Temporary tracks for unloading 2,594 355.89 .14 

Rail and laying 2,594 1,545.48 .60 

Total 2,594 151,228.92 |19.7l 

From figures obtained from several mines it has been 
found that in five years the total cost of repairs and renewals 
on wooden stocking trestles amounts to the original cost of 
the trestle. Breakage in legs is exceedingly high, often 
amounting to as much as 33 per cent, per year. If for any 
reason ore is not shipped and the legs are allowed to remain 
in the pile for several seasons, it has been observed that they 
rot rapidly. Weather conditions have considerable to do wMth 
the percentage of broken legs. If ore is dumped on a frozen 
face of the stockpile and this new ore freezse rapidly, it will 
often move in a mass down on the frozen face and break the 
legs. Large masses of frozen ore also shift in this way dur- 
ing loading with the steam shovel. 



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150 STEEL STOCKING TRESTLE 

The cost for erecting and dismantling was accurately kept 
at two large mines for a period of years. It was found to 
amount to $1.20 per foot. Under unusual conditions this 
has run as high as $1.60 per foot. The portion of the trestle 
between the shaft and the point where ore is stocked is usually 
called the permanent trestle, the other port being the stocking 
trestle. The permanent trestle is put up in a very substantial 
way and is expensive, costing as much as $15 per foot. After 
a period of ten years this permanent trestle is sure to be in 
bad repair. A few of the stringers not directly below the 



Stockpile After Removal op One Cut by Shovel 

tracks will probably last for a short additional time, but for 
the sake of an estimate it can be assumed that the permanent 
trestle will have to be entirely rebuilt in ten years. In making 
the following comparative statement of the cost of wood and 
steel, the expenditure each year at 6 per cent, compound in- 
terest has been used. This yearly expenditure has been ac- 
cumulated and figured at compound interest for a period of 
twenty years. It is found that at 6j4 years the costs for 
wooden and 3teel trestles of th^ same length are practically 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 15! 

identical. As the time increases the accumulated amount for 
repairs, renewals, erecting and dismantling, figured at 6 per 
cent, compound interest, increases, very rapidly. At the end 
of twenty years the saving in favor of the steel stocking trestle 
is $117,000. It is impossible to estimate the saving due to 
better tracks and operating conditions and consequently the 
minimizing of delays on the surface. With a wooden trestle 
a certain number of carpenters and extra laborers must be 
employed. Only a part of their time can be charged against 
the stocking trestle, but it is nevertheless necessary to have 
them so that they can be used when repairs are needed. At 
the Negaunee mine we have only one carpenter, whose entire 
time is spent in the shop. 

Comparative Cost of Wood and Steel Stocking Trestles 

6% Years. 20'Years. 
Permanent Wood Trestle — 

Original cost, 500 ft. at $15 $ 7,500.00 $ 7,500.00 

Repairs and renewals, 10 per cent, per year. . 4,875.00 15,000.00 

Six per cent, compound Interest 4,692.29 30,798.02 

Total $17,067.29 $53,298.02 

Temporary Wood Trestles — 

Original cost, 2,094 ft. at $6 $12,564.00 $12,564.00 

Repairs and renewals, 20 per cent per year. . 16,333.20 50,256.00 
Erecting and dismantling, $1.20 per foot 

per year 16,333 20 50,256.00 

Six per cent, compound interest 14,0<)3.33 122,822.09 

Total $59,293.73 $235,898.09 

Total cost wooden trestles $76,361.02 $289,196.11 

2,594 Foot Steel Stocking Trestle- 
Original cost $51,228 92 $ 51,228.92 

Estimated maintenance cost 1,300.00 4,000.00 

Six per cent, compound interest 23,949.51 116,867.78 

Total $76,478.43 $172,006.70 

Net saving 117.41 117,099.41 

Discussion. 

Mr. Abbott: I would like to ask if you have had any 
trouble in removing the ore in the vicinity of the supporting 
pillars of the trestle; if it required any hand work or can the 
steam shovel reach all of the ore conveniently ? 

Mr. Elliott: Practically no additional labor is neces- 
sary. 

Mr. W. H. Johnston: Have you experienced any diffi- 
culty in the ore freezing around the pillars? 

Mr. Elliott: No, we have loaded ore for two seasons 



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152 STEEL STOCKING TRESTLE 

and no trouble has been experienced from freezing around 
the columns. It does not stick to the columns. There is not 
nearly as much trouble in loading from this trestle as from a 
wooden trestle. In the latter you always have the delay due 
to the pulling of trestle legs. 

Mr. Johnston : You also have the advantage of always 
being ready to stock the ore. There are times when we have 
not been ready to stock ore. 

Mr. Kelly: This method also eliminates the danger to 
life in drawing trestle legs. 

Mr. p. S. Williams: Why did they choose the endless 
rope system of haulage as against handling the cars with elec- 
tric motor, for which power can be furnished cheaply. I think 
myself it is possibly due to increased speed of operation but I 
would like to hear from Mr. Elliott who has comparative fig- 
ures on the cost of different systems of stocking ore. 

Mr. Elliott: I think the use of the motor would be 
cheaper but, of course, the element of danger to the men rid- 
ing these motors is very great, and that is one of the principal 
objections to the use of motors. 

Mr. Kelly : Probably there would be a little saving in 
power by the trolley system, but the labor cost might be a lit- 
tle more, l>ecause the man at the shaft will run out the endless 
roi^e and still be at the shaft where he can answer the bells. 
In certain cases the trolley system would require additional 
men. Then, also, the man running out the trolley is exposed 
to the inclemency of the weather while the man running the 
endless rope is in a house. 

Mr. Elliott : I might add that if we used motors the cost 
of the trestle would have been greatly increased because it 
would have been necessary to build a much more rigid trestle. 
The moving load would have been increased six or seven tons, 
which would have greatly increased the cost of the trestle. 

Mr. Williams: I was surprised to hear Mr. Elliott say 
tliat he thought the cost would probably be cheaper by motor. 
From my experience with endless rope haulage, using steam« 
I would say it is considerably cheaper than electric haulage on 
a long trestle. 

Mr. Eaton : I would say that the results we have ob- 
tained with endless rope haulage using steam and electricity 
for power, are almost contradictory. We hardly know where 
we stand. xAt the Lake Mine in Ishpeming we have a 40-h.p. 
Corliss engine driving the endless rope on two tracks. When 



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Lake stPEkiflk mining institute 15 j 

stocking ore 1,700 feet from the shaft, a few years ago, it 
was necessary to haul the cars in trains of two, and often all 
four cars would be in motion at the same time, two loaded 
cars going out and two empties coming in. The steam en- 
p^ine handled this load without much difficulty. In our more 
recent installations each rope is driven independently by a 50- 
h.p. electric motor, and this motor has all it can do to handle 
one car. 

Mr. Stanford : I think we all appreciate that a 40-h.p. 
steam engine, under these conditions is not working at a quar- 
ter cut-off, and is probably taking steam the full length of the 
stroke. My judgment is that the cost is probably less with 
the endless rope system than with the electric locomotive. I 
would qualify by saying that it would apply to the top tram- 
ming system as used at all of our mines, and I believe that 
the cost of power is probably less than it would be with the 
electric locomotive. 



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154 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 



VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES OF THE LAKE 
SUPERIOR DISTRICT. 

by edwin higgins, pittsburgh, pa.* 

Introduction. 

The purpose of this paper is to set forth the general con- 
ditions existing in Lake Superior iron mines with regard to 
ventilation, more especially those conditions which have an 
effect upon the health and efficiency of the miner. Some 
remedies are suggested for the most serious conditions, those 
which undoubtdly affect the cost of producing ore through 
iheir ill effect upon the miner. 

It may be well to state here that I am at present engaged, 
in collaboration with associated mining engineers and chem- 
ists, in the investiga^ton of ventilation in the metal mines of 
the United States for the Bureau of Mines. The field work 
for this investigation was started in the Lake Superior dis- 
trict early in 1913. While the notes on that district are ap- 
proximately complete, it is probable that some further ob- 
servations will be necessitated in the light of results from 
experimental work that has been carried on in the Pittsburgh 
laboratories of the bureau. In the course of the field work in 
the Lake Superior district visits were made to nearly all the 
mines in Michigan and Wisconsin, and some of those on the 
Mesabi and Vermillion ranges in Minnesota. 

Although many air samples were taken, their analyses 
will be made use of only in pointing out general conditions. 
While it is not the purpose here to detail the results of these 
investigations, it has been thought that a discussion of the 
more important phases of the subject might be of interest and 
value. It is hoped that this paper, which is of a preliminary 

*Mininff Engineer, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Pittoburgh, Pa. 



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Lake superior mIKing Institute 155 

nature, will lead to discussion that will be of value for use 
in the bulletin on ventilation to be issued by the Bureau of 
Mines. 

General Conditions in the Mines. 

All the mines visited, with the exception of two, depended 
on natural ventilation for the supply of air to the working 
places. Of the two exceptions, one mine had a blower fan 
installed underground, and in the other the air was kept in 
motion by means of compressed air jets. In a few cases 
booster fans were found in use in dead ends, especially in 
those immediately under the timber mat. The amount of air 
entering the mines per man employed underground varied 
greatly, but in the majority of cases was between 50 to 100 
cu. ft. per man per minute. 

Quality and Temperature of the Air in the Main Airways. 
The analyses of many air samples showed that seldom in the 
main airways did the air contain any appreciable amount of 
noxious gases. The only exception to this statement might 
be said to be in reference to the "return" air issuing from the 
mine after use therein; this showed a minimum of 0.2 i^r 
cent, and a maximum of 0.8 per cent, of carbon dioxide. In- 
variably the heavily timbered mines showed a higher percent- 
age of carbon dioxide in the return air, than did those mines 
in which little timber is used. 

As to temperatures, the fresh down-cast air varied, of 
course, according to the season of the year. Summer tem- 
peratures may be said to range from 50"^ (nights) to a max- 
imum of 100° F. (days) in the shade; in the winter tempera- 
tures range from the vicinity of o to a maximum of 30 to 
40° F. below. At all times the humidity is comparitively 
low. 

In the deeper mines (1,000 feet or more) the tempera- 
ture underground showed little variation, no matter what the 
temperature on the surface. In the shallower mines, how- 
ever, it is common in winter to encounter huge icicles, in 
some cases as deep as 300 ft. from the collar of the down- 
cast shaft. In the heavily timbered mines, the return air 
ranged in temperature from 75 to 90°, and humidity usually 
from 95 to 100 per cent. In mines where little timber is 
used the return air is from 10 to 15° cooler. 

Condition In Working Places. The working places near 
the main air courses, both in mines using little timber, and 



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156 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

in those using a great amount of timber, were found to pre- 
sent no abnormal conditions. However, in the dead ends, 
such as are encountered in driving long cross-cuts or drifts, 
or in sub-levels immediately under the timber mat, severe 
conditions were noted in many cases. In the heavily tim- 
bered mines temperatures in such working places were found 
to range from 75 to 100° (humidity from 95 to 100 per 
cent). Many air samples taken from such places showed 
from 0.5 to as high as 3 per cent, carbon dioxide. It was 
found that the gases produced by blasting gave a great deal 
of trouble. The expedient of turning on the compressed air 
after blasting was not always effective. 

Gases Found in the Mines and Their Effect Upon the 
Human System. 

Atmospheric air may be considered as consisting of ap- 
proximately 20.93 per cent, oxygen, 79.04 per cent, nitrc^en, 
and 0.03 per cent, carbon dioxide. 

Gases Produced Under Ordinary Operating Conditions. 
With the exception of the combustible hydro-carbon gases 
reported from time to time from some of the mines situated 
in the carbonaceous black slate area of the Menominee range, 
the only noxious gas that is encountered under ordinary c^ 
crating conditions is carbon dioxide. No explosive gases 
occur. Reference is made further on to gases produced after 
blasting. 

In mines, carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by the 
breathing of men or animals, the combustion of timber and 
explosives, the burning of lamps, and the decay of timber or 
other vegetable matter. It is a colorless gas, without odor, 
and has a slightly acid taste. Its specific gravity (air equals 
i) is 1.529 at ordinary temperatures. 'Carbon dioxide, in 
the quantities in which it is ordinarily found in mines, does 
not directly poison the person or animal breathing it. When 
it is present in the air of mines there is usually a deficiency of 
oxygen. The first efTect of breathing air containing 2 to 3 
per cent, carbon dioxide, is headache and dizziness; larger 
percentages cause extreme panting. When the human being 
breathes air containing about 10 per cent, of carbon dioxide 
life becomes imperiled. Candles in air are usually extin- 
guished when the oxygen content decreases to 16 or 17 per 
cent. Carbon dioxide that may be present has but slight ef- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I57 

feet upon the extinguishment. Carbide lamps become ex- 
lingfuished when the oxygen decreases to about 12 per cent. 

Gases Produced By Blasting, In addition to carbon 
dioxide there are produced by the combustion of explosives, 
depending on the kind used, varying percentages of hydrogen, 
methane, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, water vapour 
and hydrogen sulphide. For the purpose of this paper it will 
suffice to say that very small percentages of either carbon 
monoxide, oxides of nitrogen or hydrogen sulphide have 
marked effects upon the human system. One tenth of one 
l)er cent, of any of these gases have a serious effect upon 
the miner. Experiments by the Bureau of Mines indicate 
Ihat the oxides of nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide are even 
more dangerous, in the same quantity, than carbon monoxide. 

Gases Produced During Mine Fires, During timber ftres 
in metal mines the noxious gases produced are carbon dioxide 
and carbon monoxide; the effect of the former has been dis- 
cussed above. Carbon monoxide (CO) is far more deadly 
than carbon dioxide in its poisonous effect on the system. It 
is a product of incomplete combustion of wood or other com- 
bustible matter, also of the explosion of varix)us types of blast- 
ing powder or dynamite. The amount produced is enormous- 
ly increased when the explosive bums instead of detonat- 
ing. Carbon monoxide is more than likely to be encountered 
during a smouldering fire, such as would result in a damp or 
wet mine. It is a colorless gas and has a specific gravity of 
0.967. As little as 0.2 per cent, of this gas will cause death 
if breathed for a sufficient length of time. It acts as a cum- 
ulative poison to the human system by combining with the 
haemoglobin of the blood, thus preventing that agent from 
combining with sufficient oxygen to support life. It gives 
little or no warning of its effect on the system. The person 
breathing it usually becomes suddenly weak in the knees and 
lapses into unconsciousness. Carbon monoxide may occur in 
quantities sufficient to cause sudden death, and still its pres- 
ence will not be indicated by the dimming of the candle flame. 
Thus it may be seen that the belief of many miners that they 
can live wherever a candle will burn, is erroneous. 

For more detailed information regarding certain of the 
gases mentioned above, the reader is referred to Bureau of 
Mines technical paper 62 : "Relative Effects of Carbon Mon- 
oxide on Small Animals'' by Messrs. Burrell, Seibert and 



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158 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

Robertson; and miner's circular 14: "Gases Found In Coal 
Mines," by Messrs. Burrell and Seibert. 

Effect of High Temperatures and Humidity. 

By the efficiency of the miner is meant his capacity to 
perform work. That high temperatures and extreme humid- 
ity have a marked effect in lessening the efficiency of the 
miner, there can be no dotibt. In this connection Haldane* 
says "The normal body temperature of a man is frcxn 98 
to 101° F., and in order to obtain efficiency in work, his tem- 
perature should not exceed this upper limit. The body may 
be cooled by radiation, conduction and evaporation (sweat- 
ing.) Cooling by evaporation is the most important in deep 
mine ventilation. Evaporation from the body can only oc- 
cur when the dew point of the surrounding air is below body 
temperature, 98° F. * * * In order to maintain the body 
temperature in hot mines, where one is working, it is neces- 
sary to keep the skin at a lower temperature than the inter- 
ior of the body. The body temperature may be maintained 
when 78° F. wet bulb in still air, and 88° F. wet bulb in good 
moving air, is shown * * * *" 

According to G. J. Young ^: "With a temperature from 
95 to 105° F., and relative humidity 50 to 70 per cent, in 
still air, miners can do efficient work. From no to 115° 
F., and with other conditions the same as above, efficient 
work cannot be done. Increasing the velocity of the air, 
with other conditions the same as above, makes work more 
bearable, but miners cannot work very long at a time under 
such conditions. 95 to 105° F., in saturated air and no velo- 
city, is dangerous ; 90 to 98° F., saturated, velocity of air cur- 
rent 400 to 500 ft. per minute, and slightly vitiated, will pre- 
vent efficient labor. Impurities in the mine air seem to hin- 
der labor efficiency more than high temperatures do. The 
humidity of the air depends upon the amount of water in the 
mine and the dryness of the down-cast air." 

High temperatures in a comparatively dry air do not have 
so great an effect on the miner. This fact was forcefully il- 
lustrated to me on a recent trip through the Comstock 
mines in Nevada. In one place the dry bulb thermometer 
read 110° F., and the wet bulb 100°. This represents a 
humidity of 70 per cent. While performing no work the 

a J. S. Haldane. Jour. Chem. Met & BCin. Soc. South Africa, VoL 11, 1910. pace 227. 
b Jour. Chem. & Min. Soc. South Africa. VoL 11. 1910. page 411. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 159 

place was not unbearably hot. Nearby, where the return air 
current was encountered, the wet and dry bulbs both read 
iio° (representing a humidity of lOO per cent.) and the ef- 
fect w^as distressing. 

By frequent observations in many of the Lake Superior 
iron mines, I have noted repeatedly that miners working in 
temperatures above 75° wet bulb (relative humidity 100 per 
cent.) showed a marked falling off in energy. At wet bulb 
temperatures of from 80 to 90° (relative humidity 90 to 100 
per cent.) the average miner works only from one-half to 
one-third of his time; when he is at work under these condi- 
tions his efficiency is not normal, and when he is resting, of 
course, his time is entirely lost. In one mine 4 miners pro- 
duced the same tonnage of ore as was produced by 9 miners 
in a similar place in the same mine where the temperature 
was 10° hotter. Many cases of this kind could be cited. 
Relation of These Conditions to the Cost of Mining. 

Many notes were made on the relative efficiency of miners 
working under normal conditions as compared with those 
working under severe conditions as to temperatures and 
quality of air. The following example, in which nominal 
figures are used, will serve to illustrate the effect of poor 
ventilation on the cost of mining. 

A well ventilated mine produces 1,000 tons of ore per 
day, at a cost of $1,000. The labor cost for this tonnage 
approximates $750. Now, if the places from which 300 
tons of the production comes are poorly ventilated and hot 
(say 85 to 90°, relative humidity 95 to 100 per cent.) the 
miners will put in only one-half of their time in effective 
work. Thus they would produce only 150 tons, instead 
of 300, as under normal conditions; and the result would be 
that there would be produced 850 tons at a labor cost of $750, 
as compared with 1,000 tons at a labor cost of $750 under 
normal conditions. This would represent an increase from 
75c per ton, under normal conditions, to 88c per ton in a 
lX)orly ventilated mine — an increase of 13c per ton. 

Even if the cost of mining were increased 5c per ton by 
a preventable cause it would occasion considerable concern to 
the management. Thousands of dollars are spent in operat- 
ing equipment in order that a few cents may be saved in the 
cost of mining a ton of ore. The great importance of proper 
ventilation has been recognized by some, and efforts are now 



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l6o veKtilatiok In the iron mxNeS 

being made to improve conditions in this respect. Grood re- 
sults have already been obtained in one or two cases. The 
management of one mine, where , production per man has 
l)een increased greatly recently, attributes the increase in a 
great measure to better ventilation facilities. 

Causes of Vitiated Air In the Mines. 

Oxygen is consumed, and carbon dioxide produced in the 
mines, through the following agencies: 

Oxidation or rotting of timbers. 

Breathing of men. 

Burning of various types of miners' lights. 

Blasting. 

Oxidation of certain rocks. 

Without going into a detailed discussion, it may be stated 
that investigation points to the oxidation or rotting of tim- 
bers (in the heavily timbered mines) as the chief cause of 
the vitiation of air. The breathing of men and the burning 
of candles and lamps come next in importance. In heavily 
timbered mines (especially where the mine is wet or damp) 
the timbers consume from three to four times as much oxygen 
as do all the other factors combined. 

Recognizing the importance of this phase of the prob- 
lem, an investigation was instituted at the Pittsburgh labora- 
tories of the Bureau of Mines. While the work done to date 
has been only preliminary, some interesting facts have been 
brought out. The investigation is being carried on by G. 
A. Burrell, chemist of the bureau, who writes as follows: 

The Absorption of Oxygen and Production of Carbok 
Dioxide from Atmospheric Air by Wood. 

"Herein are shown the results of some preliminary ex- 
periments having to do with the absorption of oxygen and 
production of carlx>n dioxide from atmospheric air by wood. 
Dried ^nd seasoned pieces of wood planks were sawed suffi- 
ciently to produce sawdust. In one case very thin shavings 
were used. This material was placed in bottles having a ca- 
pacity of 2^ liters and the bottles securely closed. Through 
each bottle stopper a glass tube was placed, provided with a 
stopcock, to permit of drawing out samples of air for anal- 
ysis. 



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lake superior mining institute l6l 

Experiments to Determine the Effect of Wood in 
Changing the Composition of Atmospheric Air. 



m 



lis «S Is ^S 8g 8eg 

^S^ ^S IS ^S ^2 



Kind of wood andWt. in -gS^ ^S SS *S *S ^9 

""" is| II U ti ti 1 • 



<i^ t& |s :3 IS 



« « 5 5 5 

1 



Ash sawdust CO^ .0 .15 3.38 11.6 18.9 20.6 

112.6 grams O^ 20.8 20.8 17.5 8 6 1.7 .0 

Cypress shavings CO .0 .15 1.98 4 6.0 10. 

76 grains O 20.9 20.8 18.75 16 7 14.4 10.1 

Hemlock sawdust CO .2 .20 7.87 16.6 18 17.7 

135.5 grams O^ 20.8 20.8 12 2,0 .7 .3 

Oak sawdust CO^ .2 .2 8.27 17.0 19 2 20.2 

136. grams O^ 20.7 20.8 15.05 31 1.2 .4 

(a) Water was added to each bottle 15 days after (7/16/13) prior 
to these analyses. Enough water was added to saturate the wood so 
that it caked. 

Discussion of Results. The experiments were started on 
June 6, 1913, and the first analysis of the residual air in the 
bottles made on June 2yy 191 3. No appreciable change in 
the oxygen or carbon dioxide content of the residual air 
over the composition of ordinary atmospheric air was no- 
ticed. The same held true of results obtained on July 15, 
191 3» or 39 da)"^ after starting the experiment. Water was 
then added to each bottle in quantity sufficient to percq>tibly 
moisten the sawdust and shavings. In 16 days from the 
Lime the wood- was moistened analyses were made again of 
the residual air in each bottle. A marked increase in carbon 
dioxide and decrease in oxygen resulted, and continued until 
in the case of the sawdust samples it had all or practically all 
disappeared. In the case of the fine cypress shavings the 
rate of absorption of oxygen was slower, probably due to the 
fact that the cypress wood was not in as fine a state of divi- 
sion as the other woods tried. An interesting feature of the 
results is that the carbon dioxide is only slightly less than 
the molecular equivalent of the oxygen consumed. This is 
a different result than that obtained when oxygen is absorbed 



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l62 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

by coal at ordinary temperatures. In the case of coal the 
amount of carbon dioxide produced is invariably less than the 
molecular equivalent of the consumed oxygen, Laboratorj^ 
experiments by many have shown this. The writer has also 
observed it many times in the case of samples collected in coal 
mines. In the case of coal and air, the oxygen may entirely 
or almost entirely disappear and there result in the residual 
air only two or three per cent, of carbon dioxide. 

"The change in air after contact with coal may be the 
result of the slow oxidation of the carbon, with the forma- 
tion of a small amount of carbon dioxide; the oxidation of 
certain unknown and unsaturated bodies in the coal without 
the formation of carbon dioxide and possibly also the absorp- 
tion of the oxygen, and presumably of some nitrogen. That 
carlxjn dioxide also disappears after contact with coal has 
been determined by experiment. Bacterial action apparently 
does not enter into the case. On the other hand the disap- 
pearance of oxygen and formation of carbon dioxide in the 
case of wood and air is probably almost entirely due to bac- 
terial action. Sometimes small quantdties of other gases are 
formed, methane and hydrogen for instance. The samples 
examined for this report were not tested for gases other than 
carbon dioxide and oxygen. 

"These results show that timber in metal mines (where 
large quantities of it are used) may be responsible for part 
of the vitiation of the air therein, especially in dead ends 
where the air is stagnant, the wood moist, and much tim- 
ber is present. 

"The results, however, are only preliminary and not quan- 
titative; hence give one no idea of the exact part played in 
the vitiation of the air of metal mines by the timber. The 
state of division of the wood is undoubtedly very important. 
Further experimenting is required to determine the action 
between air and timbers. The rock in some metal mines, es- 
pecially if iron pyrites is present, is probably responsible for 
some of the oxygen disappearance. 

"Many of the samples of mine air collected by the bureau, 
however, have shown a quantity of carbon dioxide almost 
proportional to the oxygen disappearance, suggesting that 
the timbers or some reaction that is analogous to that tak- 
ing place between air and wood is responsible for the vitia- 
tion of the air.'* 



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lake superior mining institute 163 

Causes of Heat and Humidity In the Mines. 

In general, it may be said that heat is developed in mines 
through the following agencies: 

Rock temperatures. 

Presence of men and lights. 

Crushing and working of rock and timbers, and possibly 
ihe oxidation of timbers. 

Operation of machinery and presence of steam lines con- 
nected thereto. 

The cause of humidity, of course, is the absorption of 
moisture in the mine by the comparatively dry air admitted 
from outside. In practically every case in the Lake Superior 
district the air issuing from mines was found to range be- 
tween 95 and 100 per cent, in humidity. 

It was found that rock temperatures had practically no 
bearing on the great heat encountered in the sub-levels, es- 
l^ecially those subs directly under the timber mat. In sev- 
eral cases rock temperatures, at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 ft. 
were as much as 10° lower than air temperatures from 500 
lo 1,000 ft. nearer the surface (under the timber mat.) Air 
currents passing through timbered workings where no men 
were employed were tested at various intervals, and the tem- 
peratures were found to increase gradually, regardless of 
whether the course of the air was downward or upward. 
With respect to working places, then, the causes men- 
tioned may be disposed of as of small importance in causing 
a rise in temperature, with the exceptlion of the crushing 
and working of the rock and timbers, and the oxidation of 
the latter. While the laboratory investigations have not pro- 
gressed far enough as yet to make a positive statement in 
this connection, it is my opinion, from observations made in 
the field, that in these mines the oxidation of the timber is 
the chief cause of the production of heat. In one mine a new 
sub-level was opened under the sub directly beneath the tim- 
ber mat. Before the introduction of timber in this new sub, 
the temperature averaged 75° ; when drift sets had been put 
in the average temperature of the level was 80°. 

The Problem. 

There are two problems presented in the proper ventila- 
tion of Lake Superior iron mines. 

I. The supply of a sufficient quantity of air, and its 



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164 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

proper distribution, so that it will carry off the noxious gases 
produced; and have the effect of lowering the temperature 
and humidity existing in working places. 

2. The production of lesser quantities of noxious gases. 

As to the amount of air required in the mines it might 
be well to cite the requirements of coal mines in this coun- 
try. In non-gaseous mines the average requirement is 100 
cu. ft. of air i^er minute per man employed underground and 
500 cu. ft. per minute per animal. In gaseous mines these 
figures are increased. On an average, perhaps 50 per cent, 
of this air reaches the working faces, the balance being lost 
by leakage through stoppings and doors. 

The conditions in the iron mines differ greatly from those 
in coal mines. As indicated on previous pages, the most im- 
ix)rtant considerations are the oxygen consumed, and carbon 
dioxide produced, by the oxidation or rotting of timbers, and 
by the breathing of men and the burning of lights. In the 
iron mines the employment of animals exists only in occasion- 
«il cases. 

It is a difficult matter to state Just how much air should 
be supplied in the heavily timbered mines for the reason that 
there is no accurate method of calculating how much oxygen 
the timbers will consume. The factors effecting this are ex- 
tremely variable. Damp timbers are much more active in 
oxygen consumption than are dry timbers. Again, due to 
the methods of mining, it is impossible to figure with any de- 
gree of accuracy the amount of timber in a mine. However, 
a study of actual conditions lead me to the belief that, in un- 
timl>ered mines, where no animals are used, 50 cu. ft. per 
minute per man employed underground, is sufficient air. In 
mines where a moderate amount of timber is used there should 
be 100 cu. ft. per minute per man employed underground. In 
the heavily timl)ered mines, it may be necessary to increase 
the amount to 150 or even 200 feet per minute, depending 
upon the amount of timber in the mine. 

There are several guides in determining whether or not 
there is a sufficient amount of air entering the mine. In the 
first place there should be sufficient atr to prevent the humid- 
ity in working places from rising higher than 90 per cent 
With 90 per cent, humidity the wet bulb thermometer should 
not read more than 80° in still air, and 85° in a current of 
400 to 500 ft. per minute; with 100 per cent, humidity these 
figures may be set at 75 and 80°. 



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Google 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 165 

The second consideration is the diminution of the amount 
of oxygen in the air. As pointed out, this is closely related, 
in the Lake Superior iron mines, to the amount of carbon 
dioxide in the air. In England, ventilation requirements deal 
with the oxygen and the amount of carbon dioxide in the 
air. The requirements, (not less than 19 per cent, oxygen, 
or more than 1.25 per cent, carbon dioxide), refer to coal 
mining, in which the ratio between the oxygen and carbon 
dioxide contained in the air is not as constant as it is in metal 
mines. 

Distress may be caused by breathing in atmosphere con- 
taining too little oxygen, or too much carbon dioxide. Hal- 
dane, in a report on "The Causes of Death in Colliery Ex- 
plosions and Underground Fires," writes as follows: 

"A diminution from 20.93 ^^ ^5 P^^ cent, oxygen by vol- 
ume is practically without effect on man, although, of course, 
a candle or wick-fed flame is instantly extinguished. As the 
decrease of oxygen proceeds further certain effects begin to 
be noticed, but a person not exerting himself will, as a rule, 
not notice anything unusual until the oxygen percentage has 
fallen to about 10 per cent. The breathing then becomes deep- 
er and more frequent, the pulse more frequent, and the face 
somewhat dusky. Frcttn this to lower percentage the symp- 
toms are more pronounced, and a person's life becomes in 
grave peril." 

Haldane's experiments refer to fresh air. Exi)eriments 
by the Bureau of Mines support these statements. 

Haldane also states that carbon dioxide in air produces 
no very noticeable effect on man until the proportion of car- 
bon dioxide reaches about 3 per cent. When the proportion 
is increased to 5 or 6 per cent, there is distinct panting, throb- 
bing, and flushing of the face. 

In exploring a certain mine after an explosion engineers 
of the Bureau of Mines suddenly entered a mine atmosphere 
containing 13 per cent, of oxygen and 4 per cent, of carbon 
dioxide. They experienced no distress, but they were in the 
atmosphere only a few minutes. 

While a miner may feel no discomfort while not exerting 
himself, in an atmosphere in which a candle will become ex- 
tinguished (from 16 to 17 per cent, oxygen), the effect may 
be very different when carbon dioxide is present and he is 
working hard. Another factor to be considered is the heat 
usually encountered in places containing vitiated air. I have 



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1 66 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

noted miners, when working, showing ill effects in an atmos- 
phere containing i per cent. cartx)n dioxide and 19.7 per 
cent, oxygen, the temperature being 75° and the relative 
humidity 95 per cent. It is my belief that miners will begin 
to lose efficiency in air containing more than 1.25 per cent, 
carbon dioxide and less than 19 per cent, oxygen, in ordin- 
arily cool temperatures; when the woricing place is hot the 
effect is correspondingly worse. 

Recommendations for the Rand mines by S. Perlerich 
(a) are: That sufficient air shall be provided so that in one 
hour after a shot is fired, a sample taken anywhere in the 
mine will not contain more than 0.2 per cent, carbon dioxide, 
and o.oi per cent, carbon monoxide, and only traces of the 
oxides of nitrogen. 

It is a simple matter to determine whether conditions in 
working places are such that miners can perform efficient 
work. Temperatures and humidity may be determined by 
the use of the sling psychrometer; gases present may be de- 
termined by sampling and analyzing the air. 

Remedial Measures. 

The principal remedy for the conditions referred to is a 
sufficient air supply, and its proper distribution throughout 
the mine. Increased air supply may be effected; (a) by pro- 
viding a greater number of openings to the mine; (b) pro- 
viding for down-cast and up-cast openings, with due regard 
to the elevation of the shaft collars, and the presence or ab- 
sence of steam pipes in the shaft; (c) by the use of fans 
either at the shaft collar or within the mine. A blower fan 
at the collar of the down-cast shaft is preferable. If an air 
shaft is not available, that is, one that is not used for hoist- 
ing, it may be possible to utilize the manway in an operating 
shaft as an airway, but in this case the partitic«i between the 
manway and the hoisting compartments must be absolutely 
tight. If it is not practicable to place the fan at the shaft 
collar, it must then be placed within the mine workings, pre- 
ferably a blower fan somewhere near the down-cast shaft. 

Many of the mines have a sufficient amount of air passing 
into them but, owing to insufficient airways, most of the air 
escapes from the mine without reaching the working places. 
Such conditions can be remedied by the running of additional 

a Jour. Cb«m, Met, & Min, Soc. of South Africa, Vol. 11, 1910, p. 60. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 167 

crosscuts, drifts and raises for carrying the air, and by the 
installation, at proper places, of doors and brattices. An im- 
portant aid in ventilating dead ends may be found in the in- 
telligent use of electrically operated booster fans. 

With regard to measures looking to a reduction in the 
noxious g^s produced in the mine, those worthy of considera- 
tion are : (a) The treatment of timber with such preserva- 
tives as will prevent or retard oxidation or rotting, and (b) 
the use of explosives that produce a minimum amount of 
noxious gases. The treatment of timber has been discussed 
in various papers and publications and it is probable that the 
use of some preservative that will act as a sterilizing agent 
will be effective in the Lake Superior mines.* Probably the 
preservative most used at this time is creosote. However, 
this is a subject that requires further investigation before de- 
finite recommendations can be made. The cost of treatment 
is an important factor. It might be added that stripping the 
bark from timber retards, to sc«ne extent, its liability to oxida- 
tion. 

Reduction of Noxious Gases from Explosives. 

On account of the many reports received of the serious 
effect of powder gases on miners (a surprising number have 
been overcome and not a few have died), the Bureau of 
Mines recently undertook an investigation with the hope of 
developing a powder whith would evolve, on detonation, a 
minimum quantity of noxious gases. 

As the result of a number of tests with straight nitrogly- 
cerin, low freezing, ammonia, and gelatin dynamites, the fact 
was brought out that the gelatin dynamites evolve smaller 
quantities of noxious gases than any other. There is given, 
herewith, a table showing the compositions of gelatin dyna- 
mites of various strengths. Table II shows the combustion 
products resulting from tests of explosives in thin paraffin 
paper wrappers. 

Several samples of 40 per cent, gelatin dynamites were 
procured from different manufacturers; of these samples the 
whole produced poisonous gases on detonation. The percent- 
age of carbon monoxide varied from 3 to 5.7 per cent, and of 
hydrogen sulphide from 0.7 to 4.1 per cent. As a final re- 
sult of the investigations a 40 per cent, strength gelatin dyna- 
mite was prepared according to the following formula: 

*'*Wood p i— iva tion wftb especial reference to Vine Timbers." John M. Nelaon, Jr. Vol. 
Xnr. pp. W-U6. 



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1 68 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

Special formula for 40 per '^^nt. strength gelatin dyna- 
mite. 

Nitroglycerin 33 

Nitrocellulose i 

Sodium nitrate 54 

Combustible material (a) 11 

Calcium carbonate i 



100 



(a) Flour. 

The products of combustion were collected in a Bichel 
gauge. This is described in Bureau of Mines Bulletin 15, 
page 103. 

The resuhs of tests made with this explosive are shown 
in table III. 

Table i — Composition of Gelatine Dynamites of Vari- 
ous Strengths. 

41* 4* 4* -M «* 4* ** 

H H if t% §1 if H 

Irun-edlentB || || || || || || || 

8" 8* 9^ S» g" S" g" 

Nitroglycerin 23.0 28.0 33.0 42.0 46.0 50.0 60 

Nitrocellulose 0.7 0.9 10 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.4 

Sodium nitrate 62.3 58.1 52.0 45.5 42.0 38.1 29 6 

aCombustible material ...13.0 12.0 13 10.0 9.0 9.0 7.0 

Calcium carbonate 1.0 10 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 LO 

~ioo.o 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

a Wood pulp Is used in 00 and 70 per cent strength gelatin dyna- 
mite Sulphur, flour, wood pulp, and sometimes resin are used in 
other grades. Some manufacturers replace a small percentage of the 
nltro-glycerin in -these grades with an equal amount of ammonium 
nHrate. This replacerxent, however, offers little, if any, advantage 
other than reducing the cost of manufacture. 



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170 ventilation in the iron mines 

Table hi — Combustion Products Resulting from Tests 
OF Special 40 Per Cent. Strength Gelatin Dynamite. 

(Analyst A. L. Hyde.) 

Weight of Products, Grams. 

Gaseous 85.5 

Solids 102.3 

Liquid 13.2 

Gaseous Products, Per Cent, by Volume. 

Carbon dioxide 51.0 

Carbon monoxide o 

Oxygen 9 

Hydrogen o 

Methane 7 

Nitrogen 47.4 

Hydrogen sulphide o 



1 00.0 
Solids, Per Cent. 

Soluble 92.10 

Insoluble 7.90 



100.00 

In order to determine whether these results could be 
checked in actual mine operation, tests were made in two dif- 
ferent mines and the results were practically the same. 

The above investigations are described in detail in Bul- 
letin 48, Bureau of Mines, "The Selection of Explosives 
Used in Engineering and Mining Operations" by Clarence 
Hall and Spencer P. Howell. The following statement re- 
garding the work is of interest : 

"The mine tests, although of «nall scope, confirmed, with 
a few exceptions, the tests made in the pressure gauge. The 
odor of hydrogen sulphide was noticeable immediately after 
firing some of the explosives containing sulphur, but the chem- 
ical analyses of the mine-air samples failed to disclose the pres- 
ence of an appreciable quantity of this gas. Several days in- 
tervened between the taking of the samples in the mine and 
the chemical examinations made of them, and it is possible 
that if minute quantities of hydrogen sulpiiide were collected 
in any of the samples, they were decomposed by standing so 
long. It is worthy of note that in all the tests the explosives 



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Lake sUpeIuOr miKing iNSTltutE iyt 

were completely detonated and there was no formation of 
nitrognen oxides. 

"The results of the experiments indicate that all gelatin 
dynamites should be made with an oxygen excess sufficient 
to completely oxidize all combustible materials present, in- 
cluding the wrappers; furthermore, the tests show that when 
this class of explosive is properly and completely detonated 
the proportion of harmful gases evolved is reduced to a min- 
imum. However, it should be remembered that proper con- 
ditions do not exist if there has been any chemical or ptiy- 
sical change in the explosive or if it is fired under conditions 
that cause burning or incomplete detonation. When the ex- 
plosive has aged to such an extent as to materially decrease 
its sensitiveness, when weak detonators are used, or when the 
explosive is used in a frozen or partly frozen condition, a 
greater quantity of poisonous gases is evolved." 

' Conclusions. 

It is hoped that the foregoing discussion will impress 
mine operators with the importance of the subject of mine 
ventilation, both as to its effect upon the health of the miner, 
and as to its relation to the cost of mining. It is further 
hoped that the remedial measures suggested will have the re- 
sult of instituting attempts looking to the improvement of 
ventilation in the mines. The result of such attempts will be 
of great value in the ultimate solution of this important prob- 
lem. While the problem is not serious in the mines using 
little timber, it is one of great moment in heavily timbered 
mines ; and it will increase in seriousness as the mines of the 
district reach greater depth. 



Mr. Higgins : I wish to bring out one point and that is 
the chief purpose of this paper, which is to indicate the effect 
of poor ventilation on the efficiency of the miner and to show 
how this may seriously affect the cost of mining. I think that 
if some one would come to the oi>erator of a large mine in 
the Lake Superior district and say, "I can install a machine 
or machines that will decrease your cost of mining five cents 
a ton" that a great deal of attention would be given to the mat- 
ter. It is probable that if the machine proved its worth that 
many thousands of dollars would be spent on its installation. 
I maintain that many of the operators are overlooking an im- 



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172 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

portant factor in the cost of mining, and that the cost of min- 
ing is seriously affected by poor ventilation. 

In my paper I have submitted an illustration, using nom- 
inal figures, which show that under ordinarily serious condi- 
tions the cost of mining may be increased 13 cents per ton. I 
would like to go over this illustration. Suppose a mine pro- 
duces 1,000 tons of ore per day and the cost of mining this 
ore is $1,000. The labor cost is approximately $750. Sup' 
pose the places from which 300 tons of the ore comes are hot 
and the air is slightly vitiated, containing say from .5 to i 
per cent of carbon dioxide; suppose the temperature in these 
places is from 80 to 90 degrees and the humidity 100 per 
cent. The men would work about half time effectively and 
would produce from this place 150 tons of ore instead of 300. 
In other words, there would be produced in the mine 850 
tons of ore at a labor cost of $750, instead of 1,000 at a labor 
cost of $750 as under normal conditions. This would repre- 
sent an increase of 13 cents per ton in the labor cost. 

In arriving at the approximate efficiency of miners work- 
ing under bad conditions as to ventilation, I have given due 
regard to the opinions of the foremost scientists of this and 
other countries. Furthermore, I have checked these opinions 
by actual observation in 75 or 80 mines in the Lake Superior 
district. There is abundant proof that extreme conditions 
seriously affect the capacity of the miner to do effective work. 
In the Comstock mines, reported to be the hottest in the world, 
I found miners working from 1/5 to 1/6 of their time and 
receiving therefor a day's pay. However, conditions in the 
Lake Superior district are not nearly as bad as that. 

I think that investigation will point out to many of the op- 
erators in the Lake Superior district that conditions are as 
bad, if not worse, than those used in the above illustration. I 
have a statement from a gentleman who has charge of the ven- 
tilation of a large iron mine in the Lake Superior district that 
four men produced more ore from a certain working place 
than did nine men in a similar working place where the tem- 
perature was ten degrees higher and the air slightly vitiated. 
I think there are a great many cases of this kind. Doubtless 
the time is coming when this subject will receive a great deal 
of attention. As a matter of fact several companies have al- 
ready given attention to ventilation in their mines. Condi- 
tions will get worse as the mines grow deeper. I desire to im- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 73 

press upon the operators of the Lake Superior district the im- 
portance of proper ventilation from the standpoint of the health 
and efficiency of the miner. 

Discussion. 

Mr. McNair : In this paper, Mr. Higgins speaks of the 
vitiation of the air due to the production of carbon dioxide in 
heavily timbered mines and suggests that something may b^ 
done to lessen that production. I would like to ask him if 
he has any specific suggestion ; if he has observed any mine in 
which any process is applied to timber before it is put in place 
which has been successful in arresting the production of carbon 
dioxide. 

Mr. Higgins : I might say that this phase of the subject 
is not treated in my paper. We hope that the suggestions 
made may produce some experimental work along these lines. 
Various preservatives are used on timbers but we have not as 
yet any comparative results. I think the most commonly used 
preservative today is creosote. In investigations up to this 
date, where the air passed through timber which had been creo- 
soted, the production of carbon dioxide was very slight. Ex- 
13eriments leading up to that point are being carried on now. 
At the Pittsburgh station, sawdust was placed in a bottle and 
in the course of two or three months it had consumed every 
particle of oxygen and converted it into carbon dioxide. 

Mr. McNair: I might ask Mr. Higgins if he has any 
data or any opinion to oflfer as to whether the application of 
preservatives to underground timber might sufficiently prevent 
the rotting process and so prolong the life of the timber in 
certain places as to oflfer some return to the mining companies 
for expense incurred. 

Mr. Higgins: I do not think there is any question but 
that the consumption of oxygen by wood or other carbon- 
aceous matter is a process of rotting, and that the treatment 
of these timbers with some preservative that will prevent their 
oxidation would naturally prevent the rotting. That is gen- 
erally accepted. I hope to prove before we get very far with 
this investigation not only that rotting is responsible for the 
vitiation of the air and the production of carbon dioxide, but 
that it is also responsible for the production of heat. 

Mr. Williams of Urbana, Ills : I would like to make 
a remark in reply to the professor's question. There is a coal 
mine near Peoria, in Illinois, where they had a great deal of 



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174 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

trouble with the timber. Eighteen months to two years was 
all the life they could get out of timbers. They tried a pre- 
servative and that timber has now been in six years. The cost 
of untreated timber was lo cents per running foot, of treated 
timber 17 cents. About eight months ago I tried to hang a 
hydrometer on one of these timbers. The foreman asked me 
whether I was a good carpenter. I knew that the timber had 
been treated and was consequently prepared to strike light 
blows and it was about a five minutes job for me to get a nail 
into that timber. It was just as sound and hard and strong 
as the day it was put in. It not only is strong after being 
treated but apparently gets stronger with age. How long that 
strength will continue to increase has not been demonstrated. 
This is a case of about six years against eighteen months to 
two years. The preservative was creosote. Oak does not show 
the same increase as some of the more porous woods that 
will allow the creosote to enter the pores. White oak is too 
short grained. 

Mr. Eaton : In answer to Mr. McNair's question I would 
say that the mines where we have trouble in ventilation are 
those where the ground is very heavy, where the timber 
crushes before it has a chance to rot. When timber will stand 
up only two or three weeks the use of a preservative would 
not be of much benefit. As to whether or not a preservative 
applied to the timber would prevent the formation of carbon 
dioxide after the timber had been crushed and had gone into 
the "mat" or "gob," there is some doubt. In the Cripple Creek 
District in Colorado there was, in a great many mines, trouble 
caused by carbon dioxide entering the workings from fissures, 
and this trouble was overcome by maintaining in the workings 
a pressure slightly higher than that of outside air, thus driving 
the carbon dioxide back into the fissures. 

I would like to ask Mr. Higgins his opinion in r^ard to 
the applicability of this pressure system of ventilation to our 
mines. Mr. Higgins, do you not think that an air pressure of, 
say, three inches of water in our mines would keep the carbon 
dioxide back in the old timbers and prevent it from entering 
the workings where the men are now employed ? Do you not 
think that by keeping this carbon dioxide back in the old tim- 
ber further oxidation would also be reduced, if not prevented? 
It will be very interesting to hear your opinion on this subject. 

Mr. Higgins: Six months ago I had occasion to visit 
some of the Cripple Creek mines in which carbon dioxide is 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE iy$ 

given off by the country rock. I took samples of the air and 
investigated the pressure system of ventilation. I began to 
think of the Lake Superior District and wondered if the pres- 
sure system used on the sub-levels might not have the effect 
of improving conditions, while I believe that the pressure sys- 
tem would hold the gases back, it is doubtful if it would de- 
crease the heat. I do not see how it could. In some of the 
mines heat is the greatest trouble. In one mine I found min- 
ers working in a temperature of 65 degrees (100 per cent, 
humidity) and stripped to the waist on account of vitiated 
air. Under conditions like that I think it would be very good. 
I talked that over with one of your men and suggested that 
I would Hke to see this system tried imder such conditions. 

Mr. Sperr : The greatest difficulty arising from the vitia- 
tion of the air by decaying timber, is in the stopes where the 
timber is required to last but a very short time. The decay 
does not set in until after the timber has served its purpose of 
sustaining a temporary opening. A g^eat quantity of timber 
accumulates in a mat following the stope downward. The 
slow combustion of this mat makes the troublesome heat in 
the working places. This applies particularly to the method 
of mining to which Mr. Channing refers in his paper under 
the head of "The Caving System of Mining." (In this issue.) 
This system of mining by successive timbered slices worked 
from the top of the ore downward, has undergone many modi- 
fications since it was introduced with the top slicing method 
about thirty years ago. First the slices were mined and tim- 
bered in immediate contact with each other; then between the 
slices about five feet of ore was left to be caved ; then the dis- 
tance between slices in different instances, was increased more 
or less until 100 feet has been successfully attained in what 
is known as the "Block Caving Method." In order to avoid 
the excessive use of timber with its consequent heat and bad 
ventilation, I believe the tendency with the attainment of 
greater depth in the mines will be more and more to get away 
from the top slicing, and to approach the block caving meth- 
od, by which the ventilation can be greatly improved, and the 
shoveling and tramming in the stopes can be largely eliminated. 

In all early mining operations, when the mines are shallow, 
the attempt has been made to give permanent support to the 
excavations. As greater depth is attained, the excavations are 
either filled or are allowed to fill themselves by the process of 
caving, excepting the hoisting and haulage ways. The ut- 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



176 VENTILATION IN THE IRON MINES 

most attempt is made to give rigid support to the shafts and 
drifts, which also fails with only a little greater depth. Con- 
crete and steel supports have been and, no doubt, will be tried. 
These all fail at certain depth or when rock movement sets 
in; and they are most troublesome when they do fail. The 
principle of yielding supports should be employed at and below 
certain depths in mining operations. 

Mr. p. S. Williams : We must have some men here who 
have had experience in the use of concrete in mines. We have 
a problem ourselves where a shaft is to go through about 
one hundred feet of dyke rock at a depth of about two thou- 
sand feet. I had in mind putting in reinforced concrete to 
keep the air away from the rock. My own opinion is that 
the air disintegrates the rock and if we can keep the air away 
we accomplish the desired result. 

Mr. Sperr: You would for a short time. I would say 
that as a general proposition in the iron mines, the use of 
concrete as a rigid support at a depth of two thousand feet 
would be a mistake for the purpose as mentioned by Mr. Wil- 
liams. For the si^ecific purpose of keeping the air away from 
a rock which readily disintegrates, it would serve temporarily; 
but as soon as pressure develops and any movement sets in, 
the concrete is absolutely worthless and steel is a nuisance. 

Mr. Johnston: Will you explain what you mean by 
yielding supports? 

Mr. Sperr : At great depth it is impossible to support tlie 
superincumbent material against its tendency to move down- 
ward and fill the excavation ; but it is necessary and quite prac- 
ticable to support the fragments which by becoming detached 
will fall and do damage. A yielding support is one which 
yields to the general downward movement without losing its 
usefulness for the purpose of supporting the detached frag- 
ments. For example, a stull or prop set in the ordinary way 
with a hitch in the footwall and a wedge against the hanging 
wall, yields but very little to the slow closing-up movement 
l>etween the foot and hanging walls, before it buckles and be- 
comes useless. But, a support made up with a piece of timber 
on end like a stull, and with more or less blocking at the top 
and bottom, will yield until the blocking is crushed to pulp, 
thus greatly prolonging the life of the stull. Concrete yields 
even less than timber on end. Steel has more yielding quality, 
but its replacement or repair is much more difficult. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUIE 1 77 



FOLLOW-UP SYSTEM AND METHOD OF RECORD- 
ING INJURIES IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE 
"WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAW." 

BY HERBERT J. FISHER, IRON RIVER, MICH.* 

In 1912, at an extra session of the Michigan State Legis- 
lature, Act No. 10 was passed, providing compensation for 
accidental injury to, or death of employes, methods for the 
payment of the same, and creating an Industrial Accident 
Board. Since that time, many systems for handling compensa- 
tion have been devised by various mining companies, the com- 
plexity of each system depending largely upon conditions in 
the mine, and the number and class of employes engaged in 
the work. 

Accidents naturally divide themselves into two classes, 
minor and serious. Government statistics show that eighty 
per cent of all accidents are minor, while only twenty per 
cent are either serious or fatal. It has been found that a 
large numl>er of the minor accidents become serious through 
infection, if not given prompt attention, and that this iriat- 
tention is due mainly to the fact that most men believe that 
slight lacerations do not need to be cared for by a physician 
or nurse, and that many others, after having had a first dress- 
ing, do not believe subsequent dressings or attention neces- 
sary. 

It is my purpose, in dealing with this subject, to present 
in detail a system which has thus far proven very efficient in 
eliminating the carelessness and indifference on the part of 
the men. in accurately checking every movement of the in- 
jured workmen from the time of injury to the time when he 
is able to resume work, and in handling compensation as re- 
quired by the law. Although five of the mining companies in 
the Iron River district are using practically the same sys- 
tem, I wish to refer more especially to the method followed by 
the Munro Iron Mining Company, Iron River, Michigan. 

'Cashier Munro Mining Company. 



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178 



METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 



Form 181. 

NAME HiB signature Check No.. . . 

Munro Iron Mining Co Mine. Date of employment 19. 

Age Nationality In what country bom 

His present place of residence 

Weight Height Complexion Married or single. . . 

Color eyes Color hair Mustache 

Give distinguishing marks 



Describe any deformities or permanent injuries. 



Father's name Mother'-s name . . . 

Father's address Mother's address 

Wife's name and address 



No. of children, name and age of each 
Names and address of other relatives . 



Plate No. 1 (Fbont of Gaed) 



What work is he experienced in?.. 
How long engaged at this work?. 

Offered employment as 

Give drink habits in full 



Can he speak English? Can he read English? 

Can he write his name? How long in this country? 

Has he first papers? Has he second papers? 

Where and when has he worked for M. I M. Co. before? 

Wh€re employed previous to" obtaining employment with this Com- 



pany? 



Cause of leaving 

Date of leaving 

How long did he work there? 

What work engaged in? 

Name of Mine 

Name of Company 



Last Place. Next to Last 



Date and reason for leaving M. I. M. Co. 



Plate No. 1 (Back of Gaed) 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



179 



Plate No. I, in two parts, shows an identification card. 
All but the fourth question, of part two is filled in by the time- 
keeper as soon as a man is employed. When an employe's 
drink habits are ascertained, the captain or foreman sends a 
note direct to the General Office with the desired informa- 
tion, which is entered on the card. This card gives definite 
information as to all dependents, and refers to the different 
places where the applicant has worked during the year. This 



HOOHS 



Platb No. 2 (Rbgistry Board at Mink) 

information is used in computing the average weekly wage. 
The card also gives some idea of the workmen's drink habits, 
which information is vital in reducing to a minimum the num- 
ber of accidents, and in raising the average resistance to infec- 
tions. 

All captains, foremen, skip-tenders, drymen, and timekeep- 



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i8o 



METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 



ers are warned to be on the lookout for all injuries no matter 
how slight. When an injury is discovered, the man is sent 
to the doctor for attention, and the timekeeper is reported to, 
and he in turn reports by telephone to the General Office. 
The timekeeper then makes out a card showing the date, 
name, and nature of the injury. This card is then hung on 
a registry board, as shown in Plate 2, the board being pro- 
vided with small hooks for holding the cards. 



ITtefcr* I 



rTBggr- i 



v 



HOOK3 



Plate No. 8 (General OFncE Registry Board) 

The board is kept where the captain and foremen can eas- 
ily refer to it before taking their shift, and they are not allowed 
to let a man go to work whose name appears on the registry 
board. 

The timekeeper also makes an accident report, giving brief- 
ly the history of the accident, together with written statements 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



l8l 



of witnesses, and this is forwarded to the General Office as 
soon as possible. The General Office, upon receiving the time- 
keeper's telephone report, telephones to the hospital, and makes 
out a card similar to the timekeeper's, and posts it on a reg- 
istry board (Plate 3) hung in the General Office. 

As soon as the hospital receives the report from the Gen- 
eral Office, a card is filled in (Plate 4) and inserted in a 



Name. 
Mine No. 



Hosp. No. 



Date Injury. 



PLATBNO. 4 (HO6PTTAL RaOBTBY BOABD Cabd) 

registry board, kept in the hospital (Plate 5), in the column 
under the day of the week in which the man was injured. If 
he does not appear on that day, the hospital telephones the 
General Office, and the compensation clerk takes immediate 



jucaooL 




- 



E o 



E 



PlatiNo. 6 (HoepiTAL Rbgistby Boabd) 



Steps to locate the injured workman, to see that he reports 
to the physician or hospital. When he has received his dress- 
ing, a hospital card (Plate 6) is filled in, and a physician's 
report (Plate 7) is made. 



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l82 



METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 



.191. 



SURGEON'S REPORT OF ACCIDENT. 

No 

Mine. 

1. Name Check No 

2. Address Occupation 

3. Nationality . .Age . .Married?. .Children under 16 years of age. 

4. Height . .ft. .in. Weight. . .lbs. Chest. . .in. Hair. . .Eyes. . .Skin. 



6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



Injured 191 

Dr. notified 191 

Received 191 

First aid by Dr at... 

Treatment by Dr at... 

Assistants 

Interpreter? ^ Name and address . . 



.M. 
.M. 
.M. 



10. Statement of Injured Person as to Manner in Which Injury 

Was Caused. 



11. Injuries 

4 



12. Treatment 



13. Disposition of patient 

14. Probable result 

16. Probable period of disability . . . .* 

16. Previous condition and evidences of old injury. 



17. Insurance carried 



18. Witnesses 



Refer to Hospital File No. 



.Surgeon 






fLATsNo,? (9uiioiqn*sRbpobt) 



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tAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 183 



I I 

b O 

a 



I 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



i84 



METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 
MERCY H08FITAI- ^„_ 



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Plate No. 6 (Hospital Card) 



The form Plate 6 is kept oil file at the hospital, and the 
form Plate 7 is forwarded to the General Office of the Mining 
Company. The injured man is then given a dressing card and 
envelope (Plate 8 and 9), which he carries with him. He is 






Form No. 161. 



Mine. Hosp. File 

SURGEON'S CARD. 

Notice to Injured Employe. 

READ THIS . 

Tliis card is to notify you that, during the continuance of your dis- 
ability, you are to report to the surgeon for examination as directed 
by hinL If you refuse* your right to compensation will be suspended. 
Bring this card with you each time you report to the surgeon. 

Bearer Check No 

Date 



.Is "*** ready to work 

now 



. Surgeon. 



(Note): H — Hospital Treatment. 
R— Home Treatment. 
Q — OfTice Treatment. 

Plate Np. 8 (D^bssinq Card) 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 85 



Mine 



EMPLOYEE'S DRESSING CARD 

NiM CbtekNo... 

Address. 



KEEP THIS CARD CLEAN 
Do Not Fold, Bend or Break It 



Platb No. 9 (Drbmikg Card Envblopb) 

then advised when to report for another dressing. The small 
card (Plate 4), is then inserted on the regsitry board (Plate 
5) in the column under the day of the week in which he must 
appear for his next dressing. The physician's registry board 
shows at a glance what men are due for dressing or attention. 
In case the injured man does not appear, as requested by the 
physician, the General Office is again notified, and immediate 
steps are taken to locate him and see that he receives the proper 
attention. 

When the injured party is able to resume work, the physi- 
cian scratches out the word "not," on the dressing card (Plate 
8), and signs it. The injured man then presents the dressing 
card to the foreman at the mine, and if it is satisfactory, he 
is put to work. Later the foreman checks with the mine 
registry board so as to be sure there is no error. In the 
meantime the physician fills in a postal card (Plate 10), and 

This is to advise that 

No Our File No has received 

complete Dressing Card and w^as ready to resume w^ork 

191.. 

Surgeon. 

Plate No. 10 (Postal Cabd) 

forwards it to the General Office. The Office in turn reports 
to the timekeeper, and he takes out the card posted on the mine 
registry board (Plate 2). 

It is the duty of the physician, when an injured man ap- 
pears for his first dressing or treatment, to report it at once 



Digitized byVjQOQlC 



l86 METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 

by telephone to the General Office, except in cases where the 
Office has already reported to him. Therefore, in the case 
where a man with a slight injury goes unobserved by any 
one at the mine, but later goes to the hospital for treatment, 
the General Office will get a telephone report from the hos- 
pital, whereupon they will then refer to their registry board 
(Plate 3). If no card is found for the injury, one is made 
out, placed on the board, and the injury is reported to the 
timekeeper at the mine, who duplicates the Office card, and 
hangs it on the mine registry board (Plate 2). The injured 
man is then unable to return to work until he has received his 
completed dressing card (Plate 8) from the physician. 

In giving the above detail, I wish to impress the value of 
the double-check system. At first reading it may seem bur- 
densome, but in actual use, it is simple and logical. 

The value of any system depends upon the results ob- 
tained, and what is needed most in handling these "injured 
cases," is a system wherein a man is compelled to report and 
receive attention. Every skip-tender, foreman, dryman, cap- 
tain, and timekeeper, knows it is his duty to report an injury, 
no matter how slight. The compensation clerk and physician 
know that it is their duty, after being reported to, to see that 
the injured receives systematic attention, and when anyone 
fails to perform his special duty, that failure is easily traced. 
The error of one is reflected by that of another through a 
central point, in this case, the General Office. 

When the Munro Iron Mining Company first installed this 
system, considerable difficulty was encountered, but after a 
number of cases had been carefully checked, the whole scheme 
seemed to implant itself in the minds of all, and at present it 
is an exception when a complete check has to be made. It has 
also been found that it is quite unusual for a man with even a 
slight injury to leave the mine without its being known, where- 
as under the old system most of the minor injuries were not 
known until a physician's report was received, and by that 
time many of these cases had become infected. 

Compensation. 

In handling the compensation part of this paper, I am 
not going into the details of the compensation law and its 
requirements, for these are no doubt familiar to most of the 
mining men, and are easily obtained by reviewing the law on 
the subject. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



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28 


































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31 


































ii. 


































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44 


































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lL 














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lU D-U 


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Flats No. U (Opficb Rboobd) 



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l88 METHOD OF RECORDING INJURIES 

In the General Office of the Munro Mining Company, at 
Iron River, Michigan, are two separate sets of vertical filing 
cases. One contains all the reports required by the state, the 
special folders for each injury being arranged in alphabetical 
order according to the names of the men injured, together with 
all correspondence in regard to each particular case. In the 
other case is filed the history of the case in the form of ac- 
cident reports, physician's reports, postal card (Plate lo), 
and dressing card (Plate 8). 

The final record (Plate ii), which is a summary of all 
the records of the case found in both sets of filing cases, is 
kept in a loose-leaf ledger. This form is made out as soon 
as compensation begins, and contains a record of a man's 
earnings, his dependents, and the state requirements, as well 
as a statement of the compensation he has received and is yet 
to receive. 

When the form (Plate ii) is complete, it is taken out 
of the loose-leaf ledger and placed in a storage ledger. From 
the ledger a balance can easily be drawn showing the total 
amount of compensation for which the company is liable. 

Note — Where the work of a number of mining companies 
is handled by the same physician, a color scheme is used, each 
company having a different color for its set of cards. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 189 



THE ELECTRIFICATION OF THE MINES OF THE 
CLEVELAND-CUFFS IRON COMPANY. 

BY F. C. STANFORD, ISHPEMING MICH.* 

The first electrical equipment used by this Company was 
installed 34 years ago, in the year 1880. It consisted of an 
arc-lighting outfit for the illumination of open-pit workings. 

In the year 1894 ^^^ Company installed its first electric 
underground haulage. The original electric locomotives made 
by the General Electric Company and exhibited at the World's 
Columbian Exposition are still in regular service. In 1898 
two additional locomotives were bought from The Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Company, and in 1901 one was bought from 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. These 
are all now in use at the Lake mine. 

The principal mines of the Cleveland-CIififs Company are 
so located that the change from steam to electric power, and 
the use of electric power for the development of new mines, 
has been accomplished without difficulty and with very satis- 
factory results and has proved entirely adequate to meet any 
conditions that may be expected in iron mining. The map 
shown on pages 2 and 3 indicates the relative location of mines 
and the inter-connecting transmission lines. Nineteen mines 
are now connected by electric lines. Eighteen of these mines 
are either producing or are under development. In addition 
to this, the Pioneer Furnace at Marquette is connected to the 
system. 

The principal generating station is a hydro-electric plant 
located near Marquette. This has a normal rated capacity 
of S,6oo kilowatts. The generating equipment consists of 
two AUis-Chalmers 2,800-k.w. 2,300-volts 3-phase 6o-cycle 

*ChicfElMtrteiu. 



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IQO 



ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 



generators direct connected to high-head turbines. The exciters 
are mounted on shaft extensions outside the main bearings, 
each exciter being of sufficient capacity to provide excitation 
for both units if necessary. All circuits are controlled by Gener- 



CAM^ jri¥£/t 



\ AiAnOUE±TE 




^nXgaunee 



/ 



\ Situs 9¥mr /f/*f£ 



osrrtfr fnt*r 



al Electric solenoid-operated oil switches. These are each placed 
in individual brick-and-concrete compartments, one switch be- 
ing provided for transformer control, two for generator con- 
trol and two for local feeders. The 2,300-volt bus bars are 
carried in brick-and-concrete compartments and have section- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



191 



alizing disconnecting switches. The high-tension bus bars are 
carried open on wall-mounted insulators to the disconnecting 
switches and high-tension circuit breakers. The high-tension 
transformers consist of three AUis-Chalmers 1900-k.v.a. trans- 




T/f£ CteveuAfD Currs I/fmCo. 



cAif^ /tfitg^ t^jtr£a /9»^jeML sn 



^pcoo roir usfe. 



formers, 2300/30,000/60,000 volts, connected delta. The 
station wiring for the 2300 volts is varnished-cambric double- 
braid insulation carried in fibre conduit. One of the local 
feeders supplies the station lights and miscellaneous power for 
operating the auxiliaries. The other local feeder is carried to 



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192 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I.- CO. MINES 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I93 

three 2300/6600-volt General Electric oil-and-air-cooled trans- 
formers to supply the 6600 volt power for the Pioneer Fur- 
nace line. 

The drainage area of the Carp River, from which the 
power is derived, is about 70 sq. miles, and the average flow 
in a dry month is .4 cu. ft. per second per sq. mile of drainage 
area. The stream discharge has been found, however, to be 
1.25 sec. ft. per sq. mile during the 7 months of the year 
when the flow is greatest. The equipment, therefore, was 
proportioned on the basis of this flow, the expectation being 
that as the load built up, steam reserve plants would be used 
during the low-water periods. 

The Carp River dam is located about four miles from 
Lake Superior and the total fall between the dam and the 
power house is 600 ft., giving an average working head of 
580 feet. The dam consists of a monolith concrete struc- 
ture, cuts of which are shown. 

The pipe line connecting the dam with the generating sta- 
tion consists of 10,000 ft. of 6o-in. wood-stave pipe supplied 
by the Pacific Coast Pipe Company; about 9,000 ft. of 66-in. 
steel-lockbar pipe furnished by The East Jersey Pipe Com- 
pany ; and for the high-pressure section near the power house, 
about 2,000 ft. of 60-in. seamless welded pipe furnished by 
Thyssen & Company of Bremen, Germany. The pipe line, as 
shown by the cuts, passes through a very rough country, and 
in order to hold the pipe in position concrete anchorages were 
placed at grade changes where the pipe tends to rise. The 
delivery of the material used in the construction of the pipe 
line, which ordinarily is a considerable factor in the expense 
of construction, was accomplished by a somewhat novel meth- 
od. The grading for the pipe was completed and upon this 
a temporary track was laid. At two different points the rail- 
way track passed over the pipe line location and at these 
points switches were provided. The material was transferred 
here from the railroad cars to trucks and delivered to its 
final position. At 1400-ft. intervals suitable air valves were 
placed. To prevent freezing, these were first enclosed in a 
wooden box and the box packed with manure. This froze 
solid. The valves were then enclosed within stone walls and 
covered with plates with the expectation that the dead-air 
space would prevent freezing. This entire structure was cov- 
ered with earth and the ventilator packed in mineral wool. 
This, however, did not prevent freezing. The final method 



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194 



ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C I. CO. MINES 




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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 95 

adopted consisted of enclosing the valve within the stone 
structure in a wooden box and packing this portion full of 
mineral wool, leaving a suitable vent in the top. This has 
proved entirely satisfactory and valves have not frozen since 
this method was adopted. 

In order to equalize the stream flow and conserve the run- 
off of the stream during the flood period a storage dam was 
constructed near Ishpeming. This dam contains about 1800 
cu. yds. of masonry, has a spillway 150 ft. long, and a 60- 



Stbphbnson Mine. Panels roR Underground Pumps 

in. butterfly valve to control the flow. The approximate ca- 
pacity of the storage basin is 435,000,000 cu. ft. of water and 
its area is approximately 1000 acres. 

The water turbines were furnished by the Allis-Chahners 
Company. They have cast-iron spiral casings and are de- 
signed for 550 ft. effective head, a normal speed of 700 ft. 
per minute, and a normal capacity of 4000 h.p. each. The 
runner is of bronze, cast in one piece and keyed to a forged- 
steel shaft. The casing is made in the form of a true involute 



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196 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

spiral, SO that the area changes in direct proportion to the 
amount of water discharged into the guide casing, which 
gives theoretically a constant velocity of flow with minimum 
loss. These turbines are balanced hydraulically, the thrust due 
to the action of the runner being automatically counter-acted 
by a suitable proportioning of the annular space on either side 
of the nmner. The draft tubes are about 20 ft. long and 
40 in. in diameter, and are built of iy^-\n. steel slightly tap- 
ered to reduce the velocity. Each unit is controlled by an oil- 
pressure regulator so designed that the pressure may not in- 
crease to exceed 12 per cent under sudden changes of load. The 
oil-pressure system for the operation of these governors was 
supplied by the AUis-Chalmers Company and is operated by 
15-h.p. no volt motors driving rotary pumps. The speed 
regulation under the governor control is according to the fol- 
lowing table : 

Speed Variations, 
Load Change, Per Cent. 

Horsepower. Load on. Load off. 

2,000 8.0 5.5 

1,500 6.0 4.0 

1,000 4.0 2.5 

500 2.2 I.S 

For equalizing the pressure in the pipe line a surge tank 
was erected at the beginning of the high-pressure line upon 
a point called Mt. Mesnard. This surge tank is of steel, 16 
ft. in diameter and 124 ft. high. To prevent freezing in the 
winter the tank is covered with wood lagging. 

Steam Reserve. 

The auxiliary reserve steam plant consists of two steam 
turbo-generator sets each rated at 1000 k.w., but designed to 
carry 1500 k.v.a. each for short periods. These stations are 
duplicates, one being located at the Maas mine, Negaunee, 
and the other at the Central Power Plant, Princeton. At 
each station steam is supplied by Stirling boilers with Mur- 
phy automatic stokers. The furnaces are built with out-set 
front, Dutch-oven effect, with coal bins above supplied from 
overhead cars. The plants are equipped with Sturtevant 
economizers and operate by induced draft. 

The turbo-generator sets and all auxiliary apparatus were 
supplied by the Allis-Chalmers Company. The turbines op- 
erate at 1800 r.p.m., 2300 volts, and have the exciter on a 
shaft extension. An auxiliary exciter is motor driven. Full 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE I97 

switchboard equipment is provided, including voltage regula- 
tors and necessary instruments and feeder switches. Tom- 
linson barometric condensers are used. 

Transmission Lines. 

The high-tension transmission line is designed for 60,000 
volt operation, but. at present only 30,000 volts are in use. 
The total length of the high-tension transmission line is 38 
miles. There are four substations. The line consists of 
two 3-phase circuits of No. 2 solid hard-drawn copper wire 



General. Electric Lightning Arrester Mounted in Sub-Station at Ishpeming 

carried on steel towers. The gitard wire is 5/16-in. steel 
strand. R. Thomas & Sons insulators were used exclusively, 
and the wires are attached thereto with Clark insulator clamps. 
The four substations are practically duplicates, each contain- 
ing three 590-k.v.a. Allis-Chalmers transformers, 30,000/60,- 
000/2300 volts, connected delta; two high-tension circuit 



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198 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

breakers furnished either by the AUis-Chalmers Company or 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company; and 
two sets of 60,000-volt, 3-phase, ungrounded neutral elec- 
trolytic lightning arresters, part of them furnished by the 
General Electric Company and the others by the Westing- 



Standard Construction of High Tension 
Transmission Line 



house Company. The distribution lines from the substations 
to the mines for all distances up to two or three miles are 
standard pole-line construction for 3-phase, 2300-volts. These 
lines vary in size from No. 2 to 300,000 C. M., depending 
upon the Ipad to b^ carried and the distance. For longer dis- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 1 99 

tances, up to five or six miles, 6600 volts is used. These are 
connected through General Electric oil-and-air-cooled 
2300/6600 volt transformers. 

One motor-generator set located at the Pioneer Furnace is 
driven by a 6oo-h.p. 6600-volt 3-phase synchronous motor fur- 
nished by the Allis-Chalmers Company. Aside from this the 
standard practice is to use 2300 volts for all service above 25 
h.p. and 220-volt motors for all smaller sizes. Lighting in 



Standard Polb-Linb Construction 

mines and mine buildings is at 220 volts, and for the loca- 
tions, at no volts. All distribution lines are protected by 
either Westinghouse or General Electric 3-phase electrolytic 
lightning arresters. 

The principal uses for current are as follows: Hoisting, 
Tramming, Air Compressors, Underground Pumps, Surface 
Pumps, Underground Haulage, Miscellaneous Power, Light- 
ing, Signal Service, etc. 



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200 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. t. CO. MINES 

The following table shows the amount of current used in 
a typical month: 

Kilowatt-Hours. 

Hoisting 219,700 

Tramming 16,900 

Air Compressors 497,800 

Pumps 398,600 

Underground Haulage 109,600 

Miscellaneous Power 131,200 

Shops 9,100 

Lighting 41,100 

The total motor load now connected is approximately 16,- 
000 h.p., comprising 4,500 h.p. in synchronous motors and 
11,500 h.p. in induction motors. 

As most central station men consider mine service ver>' 
severe a curve of our daily load is herewith shown. 

While this curve shows a fairly wide variation of load, 
and some high peaks, there are no serious fluctuations in 
voltage such as will impair lighting service. 



Load Curvb at tub Carp Rivbs Plant For Onb Day. Mabcb 27, 1914 

All wiring in and about mines must be as nearly perfect 
as possible, not only that the service shall not be interrupt- 
ed but also for the protection of employes. Particularly is 
this true underground, where the wires may not be as closely 
inspected as in more readily accessible places. Also much 
of the work of wiring about mines has to be done in un- 
favorable locations, where there is moisture, etc. 

On all installations of primary motors a standard panel 
is used, equipped with ammeter, volt meter, oil circuit break- 
er, low-voltage release and watt-hour meter. These panels are 
usually of slate, but in the future, for underground service 
all installations will be on pipe-frame mountings only. Marble 
or slate panels are undesirable because they show a tendency 
to absorb moisture and dirt. 



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LaKe superior mining institute 



20I 



Secondary motors are usually equipped with an oil cir- 
cuit breaker, low-voltage and overload relays, and watt-hour 
meter, with wall or pipe-frame mounting. 

Fuses are used for the lighting service only. 

On wiring for primary motors in power houses and shops 
varnished-cambric steel-taped cable without lead is used. Sec- 
ondary motors ordinarily are connected by the usual conduit 
wiring, R. C. wire being used. For conducting the primary 
current into the mines three-conductor varnished-cambric in- 
sulation rated at 5,000 volts, with lead sheath, jute wrapping 
and j54-in. rectangular armor, is used. A special form of 
hanger has been developed which securely clamps the steel 
armor without injury, so that when the cable is in the shaft 




CuRVB Showing Load Charactbristics Ovbs a Pbsiod op 80 
MiNum AT Carp Rivbr Station 

the weight is all supported by the armor. Pump house wiring 
underground is all with lead-copered steel-taped cable. All 
cables terminate in some approved form of pot head, and the 
armor and lead sheath are carefully grounded to prevent punc- 
ture. 

For the direct-current circuits operating the underground 
locomotives, the feeders' are placed in a 3-in. fibre conduit 
having a ^-in. shell. The return wire is bare and is car- 
ried outside the conduit. This method is reliable and no 
trouble has developed. 

The placing of the heavy cables in the deep shafts was 
quite a problem, as space was somewhat restricted and a num- 



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202 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

ber of men were needed to guide the cable past obstructions 
and any failure would have placed them in jeopardy. The 
best method yet tried for this is to remove the hoist rope from 
the cage and then clamp the cable and hoist rope together 
about every 50 ft. and lower the cable into the proper com- 
partment. By doing this work on a holiday, usually no delay 
is caused in the mine operations. No duplicate cables have 
been used, as up to the present time there have been no failures 
in our primary cables. 

Cables are usually tested on the reel, and again after in- 



1 4TERI0K View of North Lake Sub-Station Showing High Tension Cmcurr 

AND WBSTTNGHOUSE ELECTROLYTIC LIGHTNING 



stallation, for insulation resistance, and from time to time re- 
test is made. We have, with nearly four years service, found 
no deterioration, but rather an improvement in the insulation 
resistance. Re-tests are usually made with a soo-volt "Meg- 
ger,'' as it is quick and accurate. 

Lighting underground in drifts is taken direct from the 
trolley wire, and at shaft landings and pump houses usually 
a reserve system of lights from the alternating-current cir- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



203 



cuit is installed. It is the policy of the Company to use tung- 
sten lamps exclusively, both on surface and underground. For 
power houses gas-filled lamps are being tried, and if they show 
reasonable life no doubt they will be used wherever suitsible. 

On all new installations all wiring will be either in armored 
cable or metal conduit. 

Hoists. 

Two types of electric hoists have been developed, each oc- 
cupying its own field. These are the direct-current hoist, op- 



tBtfSUk 




VAhr* to Air Biak* 



Elkctkic Horn Safbtt Ovbswimd 



erated by the "Ilgner'' system, and the induction-motor-driven 
hoist. Wherever the desired product of a mine can be hoisted 
in three-ton lo^ds at. a speed of 1,000 ft. per minute or less, 
induction motors'd' ^% geared to the hoist are used. Where 
a greater product is dfesired the "Ilgner" system is used. The 
experience which we* have had in the past few years in the 
practical operation of electric-driven hoists indicates that the 
conclusions arrived at are entirely sound and that the load 
and speed indicated is the proper division as between the use 
of the two different types of hoisting apparatus. With a larg- 
er generating station, larger induction-hoist motors could be 
used. In designing hoists for electric drive it is desirable 
that they shall be made for as low a rope speed as possible, 
rather increasing the weight of the live load as necessary, than 
going to high speeds with light loads. The development of 
each individual hoist, is of course, dependent entirely upon 
the design arid size of the shaft and the amount of ore to l^ 
hoisted within a specified time. 



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204 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

At present only one "Ilgner" set is in service. This is a 
Westinghouse set having a 350-h.p. induction motor, a 400- 
k.w. 600-volt direct-current generator, a i50-k.\v. 200-voh 
direct-current generator, a 2S-k.w. 200-volt exciter and a 25,- 
ooo-lb. flywheel mounted on one shaft. The direct-current 
generators are connected directly to a 500-h.p. 600-r.p.m. first- 
motion hoist motor for ore skips, and to a 2oa-h.p. 250-r.p.m. 
motor with helical gears for the cage or man hoist. The fly- 
wheel set has an automatic slip regulator, which by an au- 
tomatic changing of the resistance in the rotor of the in- 



One of the Sub-Stations, North Lake. Outside Mountino. LiOHTNiNa 

duction motor, gives a variation of speed from 550 to 720 
r.p.m. depending upon the load. The armatures of the gen- 
erators and hoist motors are connected directly by 1,000.000- 
c.m. cables without intermediate circuit breakers, the motors 
having constant excitation in the fields and the control is by 
varying the field of the generators. This gives a very reliable 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 205 

service, as the flywheel will usually have sufficient stored en- 
erg^ to complete any trip, even if there is an interruption in 
the current supply. The ore hoist is designed for a 90-second 
cycle under a looo-ft. hoist and gives a maximum hoisting 
speed at full load of 1500 ft. per minute. Curves with tables 
accompanying indicate the conditions of operation. 

Test of Flywheel Set. 

Depth of Shaft (Sump to Dump) 900 ft. vertical 

Net Weight of Load per Trip 9,290 lbs. 



400 H. P. Induction Motor Drivino Hoist at Athens Mine. Motor Panel and Auxili- 
ary Am Compressor at the Left and Contractor Panels Mounted Above the 
Hoist Motob. 

Weight of Skip (Self-Dumping) 5,330 lbs. 

Size of Rope, i>^-in Diam 2.2 lbs. per ft. 

Hoisting Balanced 

Size and Shape of Drum Cylindrical, 8 ft. x 66 in. wide 

Weight of Drum and Shaft (From Dwg.) 31,650 lbs. 

Radius of Gyration of Drum 3.86 ft. 

Total Revolutions of Drum 35.8 



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4o6 



ELECTklFICAtlOl^ Ot C.-C. t CO. MINeS 



Direct-Current Hoist Motor, 500 h.p., 525 Volts, Shunt 
Wound, 60 r.p.m. 

First Cyclfl Second Cycle 

No. 1 Skip No. 2 Skip Na 1 Skip Na 2 Skip 

Time for Hoisting, Sec 66.4 86.85 82.9 78.3 

Time of Caging, Sec 17.9 20.15 16.9 20.2 

Maximum R.p.m 74 71 70.5 75 

Maximum Rope Speed, Ft. per 

Minute 1858 1782 1770 1882 

Time of Accelerating . « 10.5 15.5 20 16 

Time of Retarding 36 32 38 47 

Average R.pjn.., 38.4 29.5 27.7 30.7 

Average Rope Speed, rt.p.m 965 792 696 772 

Maximum Motor Current 1160 2230 1410 1680 

Maximum Motor Voltage 550 520 520 552 

Average Motor Current 495 710 520 683 

Average Motor Voltage 276 212 200 222 

Average Motor Input, H.p 183.2 2018 139.6 194.2 

Average Motor Input, H.p.-Sec..l2150 17500 11560 15190 

Motor Copper Losses, H.p 10.5 21.6 10.8 20.1 

Motor Copper Losses, Hp.-Sec. 699 1875 895 1573 

Average Brake Current 450 235 210 180 

Average Brake Voltage 47 62 90 115 

Duration of Brake 13 7.75 5.5 5.25 

Brake, H.p.-Sec. Generated 368.5. 151.2 139.2 145.7 

Brake, H.p.- Copper Losses .... 23.25 16.7 16.56 16.25 

Brake H.p.-Sec. Copper Losses. 302 5 129.5 91 85.3 

Net Hoisting Work 10780. 15344.3 10434.8 13386. 

Average Generator Current 495 710 520 683 

Average Generator Voltage 276 212 200 222 

Output of Generator, Hp.-Sec 12150 17500 11560 15190 
Average Generator Copper Loss. 

H.p 12.4 16.15 12.79 15.62 

Average Generator Copper Loss, 

H.p.-Sec 825.5 1402 1060 1223 

Average Wdg. Fr., and Fe Loss 

H.p.-Sec 628 674 634 647 

Total Generator Losses, H. p.- 

Sec 1453.5 2076 1694 1870 

Speed of Set at Start of Hoist- 
ing 690 680 664 685 

Speed of Set at End of Hoisting 655 600 647 662 

Speed of Set at End of Cycle. . . 680 664 685 690 

Output of Flywheel, H.p.-Sec... 4200 9000 2000 3000 

Input to Flywheel, H.p.-Sec 3000 7000 4500 3400 

Input to Generator, H.p.-Sec.. ..13603.5 19576 13254 17060 
Input to Alt-Cur. Motor, H.p.- 
Sec 26800 36300 32500 30000 

Input to Alt-Cur. Motor Not Ab- 
sorbed by Flywheel 23800 29300 28000 26600 

Alt.-Cur. Motor Losses in H.p.- 
Sec 2145 2575 1928 2045 

Slip Regulator Losses, H.p.-Sec. 652 2140 405 504 

Shaft, Hp.-Sec 15200 15200 15200 15200 

Overall Effciency 62 44.7 50.2 52 

K.w.-Hours per ton 1.1 1.5 1.35 1.3 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 20/ 

There are connected the following induction-hoist motors : 
Chase Mine, i 200-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with 

direct control — AUis-Chalmers. 
Morris Mine, 2 400-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with 

remote control — i General Electric and I Westinghouse. 
Lloyd Mine, 2 400-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with re- 
mote control — General Electric. 
CliflFs Shaft Mine, i 500-h.p. double-reduction geared double- 
drum hoist with friction, remote control — General Electric. 
Salisbury Mine, i 400-h.p. single-helical geared double-drum 

hoist, with friction, remote control — General Electric. 
Princeton Mine, i 2oa-h.p. double-reduction geared hc«st with 

direct control — General Electric. 
Princeton Mine, i 7S-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with 

direct control — Westinghouse. 
Austin Mine, i iso-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with 

direct control — Westinghouse. 
Gvvinn Mine, 2 400-h.p. double-reduction geared hoist with re- 
mote control — I General Electric and i Westinghouse. 
Gardner Mine, i 400-h.p. single-helical geared hoist with re- 
mote control — General Electric. 
Mackinaw Mine, i 400-h.p. single-helical geared hoist with 

remote control — General Electric. 
Athens Mine, i 400-h.p. single-helical geared hoist with re- 
mote control— -General Electric. 
South Jackson Mine, i 7S-h.p. double-helical geared hoist with 
remote control — Westinghouse. 

With the smaller motors we find the direct control, with 
an oil-immersed primary reversing drum, to be fairly satis- 
factory when the control is properly designed. The second- 
ary contacts must be of ample capacity and with positive 
"snap" into position. The primary reversing contacts should 
have a quick and positive make-and-break before the second- 
aries come in. The oil tanks should be so designed that oil 
will not be thrown out, and the leads must be brought out 
where they may be readily inspected. Ample barriers should 
be placed between phase leads because with the accurate spot- 
ting sometimes necessary with a hoist a quick make-and-break 
will likely cause surges which may cause a flash-over. 

For the control of large hoist motors, solenoid-operated 
contactors are used exclusively. The only primary switches we 
have found that are entirely reliable have an air break. While 



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^08 tLECTRIFICAtlON Ot* C.-C. t. Cd. MINE^ 

this caiisei an annoying flash and noise, it is good evidence to 
the operator that the switch is working properly. 

The lin^-contact points must not make a "butt" contact, but 
should havf wiping contact. This is because the contacts may 
possibly bum together and fail to open when the controller 
is thrown off. This form of contact is also best for second- 
aries for the same reason. Just such a burning together of 
contacts nearly caused a serious and fatal accident with an old 
form of contactor which we had in service; the motor failed 
to stop at surface when the control was off. The single-phase 



200 H. P. DiiDscT Current Motor. DRrviNO Caqb Hoist at Nbgaunbb Mine. On tbb 
Left May be seen Sibmens-Halske Signal Pedestal 

type of control operation seems to be simpler than dividing 
the contactor closing coils into three phase. 

Hoist motors must have very rugged and substantial 
frames, as the pounding of gears and frequent starts and 
stops is very severe. Phase leads and coils should be rigidly 
supported to prevent vibration or distortion under excess cur- 
rent. Adjustable bearing brackets are desirable. The usual 
excuse that these things are non-essential should not be passed, 
because when a hoist is once in service it must be ready at all 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 20g 

times for service and frequently the lives of men are depend- 
ent upcn its reliability. The banding of the rotor should be 
extra strong because of the possibility of overspced. We 
require that lowering shall be with the current on to prevent 
oversgeed. 

An electric safety overwind has been developed which has 
l3een found very reliable. It is similar to most others which 
have been brought out, but has been somewhat simplified. The 
operation is as follows: 

A contact-making device is attached to the indicator on the 
hoist with one contact made about loo ft. below the collar of 
the shaft. This is controlled by a foot switch operated by the 
brakeman; if the hoist is under control and the switch is 
opened it does not operate. The final contact closing is }x>si- 
tive and is at danger point. As soon as closed it actuates the 
circuit-opening relay which trii>s the low-voltage release, and 
opens the motor lines. This permits the holding coil to open 
and operates the air brake. The trip may also be operated by 
an overspeed governor placed on the end of the motor shaft. 
If the current sui>ply fails for any reason, the brake immedi- 
ately sets. It will be observed that this device does not in 
any sense relieve the brakeman of his responsibility, and while 
it is in a certain sense automatic in its operation, the inter- 
mediate stop, which is under the control of the brakeman, 
necessitates that he shall, have his mind centered upon the 
work in hand at all times. This practice seems to be more 
desirable than to introduce a device which would entirely re- 
move "the personal element." 

Tramming. 

The word "tramming" as here used refers to the moving 
of ore on surface for storage in stockpiles. Two methods are 
in use, but principally the "endless-rope system" with five-ton 
cars. This requires from 25- to 50-h.p. motors and is very 
severe service, particularly in winter when most stocking is 
done. On account of the location of loading tracks, and other 
conditions not readily changed, the stocking tracks are usual- 
ly rather crooked, and because of the many sheaves and rol- 
lers the friction load is frequently as high as 75 or 80 per 
cent. When induction motors are used, they should have 
exceptionally high torque and a very liberal allowance of 
grid resistance. The service likely will be at about the rate 
of one minute on, with possibly 100 per cent, overload at 



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2IO ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

the start, and then one minute oflf while the car is being 
loaded. Tramming speed may be as high as 1500 ft. per min- 
ute, depending upon the ler^h of tram. Motors for this 
service must have very heavy and rigid frames, especially 
so if they are to be equipped with solenoid brakes. In one 
instance the frame of the motor was broken squarely in two 
by a sudden stopping with the solenoid brake setting hard. 
For short trams under suitable conditions gravity tram- 
ming is in use and the motor is used only to return the car. 
Almost any kind of motor answers for this service. (The 
curve shown indicates the load on one tram which is handled 
by a 50-h.p. motor.) 

Air Compressors. 

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company has in operation or 
under erection nine motor-driven air compressors. 



Underground Pump at the Gwinn Mine 

One 4000-CU. ft. rope-driven compressor equipped with a 
General Electric 625-h. p. synchonous motor with belted ex- 
citer. This compressor is not equipped with a variable load 
device, being an adaptation of a steam-driven machine. An 
**Erie" valve was placed in the suction and as the pressure 
drops, this opens the intake and the compressor takes the 
load. This is rather severe service for a synchronous motor, 
ranging from friction load to 650-h.p. within a period of two 
seconds. This installation, however, has given us very sat- 
isfactory service and we have experienced no difficulty with 
this application. The synchronous motor is designed to carry 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



211 




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213 



ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 




ttl 



55 



i%l 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2I3 

over-excitation to correct the low power factor. This com- 
pressor is located at the Central Power Plant, Princeton. 

One Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon duplex compressor driven by 
a 150-h. p. belted Westinghouse induction motor. Located 
at the Salisbury mine. 

One soo-cu. ft. Ingersoll-Rand compressor belt-driven by 
a 50-h.p. General Electric motor. Located at the South 
Jackson mine. 

One iioo-cu. ft. tandem Allis-Chalmers compressor at 
the Chase mine, operated by an Allis-Chalmers i7S-h. p. 
induction motor. 

One Ingersoll-Rand 1700-cu. ft. duplex compressor with 
piston inlet valves and clearance control devise, direct con- 
nected to a 250-h.p. Allis-Chalmers synchronous motor. Lo- 
cated at the Morris mine. , 

Tests to indicate efficiences of compressors have been made 
with orifices and the output computed by Fliegner's formula. 
These tests are not sufficiently complete at the present time 
to give duties, but developments are under way and ultimate- 
ly we will be able to obtain full and accurate information as 
to the operation of our air compressors. 

Several small automatic electric air compressors, driven 
by 3-h. p. induction motors, have been installed at the various 
mines as a reserve to operate the air brakes on the hoists. 
These have proved to be very reliable and satisfactory. 

Underground Haulage. 

Underground haulage at all the principal mines is with 
250-volt direct-current electric locomotives. These are of 
various manufacture, usually about 6H tons, and 30-in. 
gauge. The largest in service is a lo-ton locomotive, but 
this seems to be somewhat larger than is necessary, as the 
6^ -ton size will handle all the ore that can be mined. This 
Ijecomes quite clear when it is understood that a large part 
of the time in haulage is employed in spotting cars and pick- 
ing up loads, the actual run to the shaft using but a small 
lK)rtion of the time. Standard construction is with 40-lb. 
rails, with No. 00 coi>per bonds at each joint and i>ast switches^ 
No. 00 grooved trolley is used. In a part of the mine this 
is placed in an inverted trough, in others is entirely open. 
Very few accidents occur. The Company has 28 electric lo- 
comotives in service and one armature winder makes all the 
rewinds of the 56 motors without trouble and has abundant 



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214 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

time for other work. This will indicate the rdiabih'ty of the 
modem mine locomotives. 

These underground haulage locomotives are driven by mo- 
tor-generator sets. Five of these sets are driven by 215-h. 
p. 2200-volt, Westinghouse synchronous motors at 600 rev. 
per minute. Two sets are driven by induction motors fur- 
nished by the General Electric Company. Very little trou- 
ble develops in these and they run continuously. About once 
in two or three years we find it necessary to true the com- 
mutators. This is done while they are in service, with a mo- 
tor-driven grinding machine. 

Pumping. 

The drainage of mines being a matter of great import- 
tance the necessity for reliable service in mine pumps is ob- 
vious. 

The centrifugal pump on account of its naturally high 
speed and rotary form lends itself very readily to motor 
drive. Unfortunately, however, from a mechanical viewpoint 
it is very much lacking in efficiency. About the best that can 
be exi^ected from a looo-gallon-per-minute pump designed 
for looo-ft. head is 60 to 95 per cent, efficiency, depending 
upon the condition of the impellers, packing, clearance, etc. 
Having the advantage of low first cost these make a very sat- 
isfactory reserve or temporary pumping outfit. This is the 
use given them by The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. Each 
mine has a centrifugal pump installation equivalent in size 
to one of the regular units and these are used only for tem- 
porary service or in case of emergency. Tests made with a 
V-notch weir gave the following efficiencies : 

Over-all Efficiencies of Motor-Driven Mine Pumps. 

Total. Gallons Over-all 

Head Ft Per Min. Efficiency. 

Six-Stage Centrifugal Pump 933 987.8 54,1 

Duplex Double-acting Geared 

Plunger Pump 833 991.8 84.9 

Triplex Single-acting Geared 

Plunger Pump 409 303.8 81.7 

Four-stage Centrifuge Pump ...409 288 51.3 
Duplex Double-acting Geared 

Plunger Pump 509 1406 81.8 

Five-stage Centrifugal Pump 498 1153 56.9 

The mine drainage is principally by means of duplex, 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 21 5 

double-acting, plunger iximps, although a few small triplex 
pumps are in use. These are driven mostly by induction mo- 
tors with single-reduction gears. These gears gave con- 
siderable trouble, but of late all pumps have been equipped 
with helical-cut gears and very little trouble occurs. 

It is important that all motors for this service shall have 
as nearly waterproof insulation as can be applied, as it is 
usually more or less damp undergroimd and occasionally 
water wnll break through and cover a motor. We have never 
had a burn-out in this class of service and all mines are elec- 



SWITCHBOARD AND MOTOR PANELS AT MoRRIS-LLOYD MjNB 

trically equipped. Primary motors exclusively are used for 
this service. 

The most interesting underground pump installation which 
we have is the equipment at the Negaunee mine. This con- 
sists of two Prescott duplex, double-acting, ix>wer-driven 
mine pumps directly connected to 300-h.p. General Electric 
synchronous motors. These pumps are rated at 1000 gal- 
lons per minute, 1000 ft. head, and operate at 120 rev. per 
minute. This gives a piston speed of 480 ft. per minute. 



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2l6 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

These pumps at first were equipped with metal valves and 
seats. On account of wire drawing and excessive wear due 
to the mine water these were found unsatisfactory. New 
valves have been designed, with "Balata" and fibre seats, and 
the difficulty is corrected. The slii>page in these pumps up to 
the present time has been somewhat excessive, being about 
5 per cent, more than the estimate, but with the introduction 
of the new form of valves and springs of suitable design we 
believe that this will very soon be corrected. In order that 
these pumps may at all times have a full supply of water in 
the suction, small volute pumps, driven by 15-h.p. General 
Electric induction motors, were placed in the suction. These 



Westinghousb Fly Wheel Set at Negaumeb Mine 

were designed to deliver to each pump approximately 1200 
gallons per minute at a 30-ft. head. This should assure a 
full water supply at all times. The synchronous motors are 
provided with motor-driven exciters and complete switch- 
lx)ard equipment in each pump station. In addition to the 
two direct-connected pumping units, a centrifugal pmmp, 
manufactured by the Alberger Pump and Condenser Com- 
l)any and rated at 1000 gallons per minute against 1000 ft. 
head, was installed at this mine. This is driven by a General 
Electric 350-h.p. Form P., induction motor having a syn- 
chronous speed of i8qo rev, per minute. 



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tAiit SUPEklOR MINING INSTITUTE 



217 



We have found that underground pumping by electric 
drive is thoroughly reliable, efficient and satisfactory in every 
respect. It is advisable that every pump motor should be in 
operation at least one or two hours every day, the object being, 
of course, that the heat developed in the motor under rui^ 
may drive out the moisture which may be expected in the 
dampness of underground pump stations. We have not up 
to the present time considered it necessary to provide trans- 
formers for the purpose of delivering low-voltage current in- 
to the motors while at rest, and the rule requiring daily opera- 
tion of every pump motor seems to be sufficient to keep them 
in good condition. 

Other underground pumping applications are small auto- 
matic sump pumps operating with the ordinary tank-float ar- 
rangement. Another use of pumps is in sinking. We have 
three electric-driven sinking pumps, one operating at 2,200 
volts and the others at 220. These are about so-h.p. each and 
are very easy to install and reliable in operation. 

Surface pumping is mostly with small centrifugal pumps, 
which have a miscellaneous application, for circulating and 
cooling water, for surface drainage, water supply, etc. These 
motors range in size from 5 to 40-h.p. and are all of squirrel- 
cage type. 

Following is a list of the underground pumps and mo- 
tors in service: 



Make of 


Horse- 




Geared or Direct Kind of i 


Sallons per 


Na Motor 


power 


Speed 


Connected 


Pump 


Minute 


3 General Electric 


50 


1800 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


400 


1 WeBtinghouse 


50 


1800 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


400 


2 Allis-Chalmers 


350 


430 


Geared 


Duplex 


1000 


2 General Electric 


400 


1200 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


1000 


4 General Electric 


50 


514 


Geared 


Triplex 


400 


2 General Electric 


300 


120 


Direct 


Duplex 


1000 


2 General Electric 


350 


1800 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


1000 


i General Electric 


180 


600 


Geared 


Duplex 


600 


1 General Electric 


250 


1800 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


600 


1 General Electric 


75 


600 


Geared 


Duplex 


400 


1 General Electric 


125 


1800 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


400 


1 General Electric 


275 


1200 


Direct 


Centrifugal 


1500 


1 General Electric 


250 


600 


Geared 


Duplex 


1500 


1 General Electric 


320 


720 


Geared 


Duplex 


1000 






Crushing. 







Part of the ore mined is hard and requii-es crushing before 
shipment. Crusher house service is very severe for motors 
on account of a varying load and the large amount of ore 
dust which gets into the windings. Two 125-h.p. squirrel- 



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2l8 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

cage motors are used, each driving a No. 8 McCully gyratory 
crusher, and two 25-h.p. motors, each driving a No. 5 Mc- 
Cully crusher. Smaller motors are in service for driving 
screens, etc. The principal trouble that has occurred has been 
due to cold weather. With no heat in the buildings and 
temperatures ranging down to 30 degrees below zero, the oil 
congealed in the circuit breakers and starting compensators. 
This was relieved by boxing in the apparatus and placing one 
or two incandescent lamps within. An occasional bum-out 
occurs in this service, but as it seems to be witVi all makes of 
motors, and as the windings are always full of iron ore, that 
is presumed to be the trouble. The enclosing of the motors 



600 B.P. 70 R.P M. WBSTINOBOUSB DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR, CONNECTED DUtBCT TO SUP 

Hoist at Neoaunee Mine 

lias been considered, but trouble has been so infrequent that 
it has not been done. 

Small crushers are placed in the laboratories. Usually a 
2- or 3-h.p. squirrel-cage motor drives the entire plant. For 
evaporating, electric hot plates are used. These are very sat- 
isfactory and all laboratories are now equipped with them in 
preference to gas. 

Miscellaneous Motors. 

The usual miscellaneous applications of power motors are 
made for machine-shop service and to operate sundry auxil- 
iaries. As tlie5?e are small and i>erform very ordinary service 
th.ey are not of especial interest. 



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LaKE superior mining INSTITUIE 219 

Signal Systems. 

Several different forms of electric mine signals are in use. 
The most complete is an imported outfit with both visible and 
audible signals, manufactured by the Siemens & Halske Co., 
Berlin. Heavy waterproof bells are installed at each level and 
at landings, these being connected in series and repeating at 
every point. In the engine room for each hoist is a pedestal 
outfit having a paper roll which travels about two inches for 
each signal. E^ch time the bell rings a hole is punched in 
the paper ribbon. By a system of lenses, lamps and mirrors 
a strong beam of light is projected through these holes and 



MoBRis Mine Power House. 400 h. p. Wbstinghouse Induction Motor Drivino Cage 
Hoist. 400 h. p. General Electric Motor on Skip Hoist. Allis Chalmers Syn- 
chbonous Motor Drtvino Air Compressor. 

reflected on a ground glass screen. By this method a clear 
and accurate record of each signal is shown and also a per- 
manent record made on the paper ribbon. The wires for this 
are rubber covered and in a lead-sheath armored cable. At 
other mines iio-volt vibrating bells, connected in multiple 
and repeating at each level, are used. For the pushes, wa- 
terproof iron boxes have been developed. Some mines are 
supplied with single-stroke bells, current being suppKed from 
small motor-generator sets. All of these methods are quite 



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220 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

satisfactory. In addition to the signal equipment, regular mine 
telephones are installed in all mines. The wiring for signals 
and bells is the same as for National Electric Code 6oo-volt 
service. There is a demand for reliable waterproof signal 
switches and junction boxes. 

Testing Instruments. 
A fairly complete set of testing instruments has been pro- 
vided. This consists of galvanometers, a Wheatstone bridge, 
single-phase and polyphase watt meters, alternating- and di- 



Underground Haulage Set at Nbgaunee Mine. Formerly the General Elbctric 
Generator was Belt-Driven. Now Direct Connected to Westinobousb Syn- 
chronous Motor. 

rect-current volt meters and ammeters, shunts, portable po- 
tential and current transformers, a megger, etc. 

For locating faults in transmission and distributing lines 
a slide-wire bridge has been developed. This has proved 
quite accurate and a ground or cross in the transmission line 
can usually be located within one or two towers, considerable 
time and expense thus being saved. 

General. 

As mine service in general is rather severe and inasmuch 
as the safety of employes may at any time be dependent upon 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 221 

the reliable operation of apparatus, manufacturers should rec- 
ognize the demand for rugged and lasting apparatus. When 
this requirement is fulfilled, the application of electric drive to 
mining machinery shows a very marked saving in cost of 
IK>wer and a decided gain in reliability of service. 

On the part of operators, constant and thorough inspec- 
tion is essential. Motor clearance must be tested frequently. 
Oil switches must be carefully cared for and kept in perfect 
condition. The oil must be frequently changed and tested for 
moisture. Control apparatus should be gone ever daily and 
contacts kept clean and properly adjusted. Meters should be 
frequently tested and readings checked to locate quickly any 
loss in efficiency or defect in the operation of apparatus. Mine 
electricians should be trained to observe all mechanical equip- 
ment used in connection with motor drive and to know when 
it is in proper condition, because of the usual habit of mine 
employes to blame any trouble on the electrical part of the 
equipment. 

If these simple rules are observed electrical drive in mines 
will be found to be an ideal application. 

Discussion. 

(Note: Discussion by Mr. Kelly is printed on page 68 
and applies also to the paper on the "Use of Electricity at the 
Penn and Republic Mines.") 

Question : How much does electrical storms affect trans- 
mission ? 

Mr. Stanford: We were a little unfortunate when we 
first built the high tension transmission in that the electrolytic 
lightning arresters had not at that time been fully perfected 
and we were compelled to install, as the best thing available, 
a type of lightning arrester which was not nearly so perfect as 
those now installed. We did occasionally have some trouble 
although not of a serious nature. Since that time we liave put 
in new equipment of the most modern type and have had no 
serious trouble from storms. Occasionally we have a flash over 
a switch, but it is only a few moments' work to put the line 
into service again. One storm seriously impaired the service. 
During a sleet storm ice formed on the wires so that some of 
them at the worst point were an inch in diameter. There was 
a high wind and we were out of service for more than a half 
day at the North Lake properties. We were able to keep our 
other properties working without serious interruption. This 



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222 ELECTRIFICATION OF C.-C. I. CO. MINES 

was a very unusual condition. In fifteen years' experience 
through the western part of the United States similar condi- 
tions had not occurred, so we simply consider that this was an 
act of Providence and trust that it will not recur. 

Mr. Abbott : I would like to know from i safety stand- 
point what provision has been made for grounding one of the 
cables in case it should break ; that is, grounding it before the 
cable would touch the ground; especially with reference to 
railroad crossings and where the lines may cross occupied 
buildings. 

Mr. Stanford: It is not our policy at any time to carry 
the lines over buildings if it is in any way possible to avoid 
it. The question of railroad crossings has been discussed pro 
and con by engineers for some years. We have made no pro- 
visions for grounding the circuits in case of a break. Stand- 
ard railroad crossings on all lines is by the use of a stranded 
copper wire. Stranded cable is used and wherever the line con- 
ductors are smaller than No. 2, B. & S. gauge No. o is used. 
Railroad crossing would be the last part of the line which 
would give way. In the State of Michigan we are governed 
somewhat by the rulings of the State Railroad Commission and 
this form of crossing complies with their requirements in every 
respect. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 223 



TITANIFEROUS ORES IN THE BLAST FURNACE— 
A RECENT EXPERIMENT. 

BY DWIGHT E. WOODBRIDGE.* 

Near the center of the Adirondajck region of New Yoric 
State is one of the most important deposits of titaniferous 
magnetic iron ores existing in America. For more than a 
century various efforts have been made to develop this prop- 
erty and to utilize its ore for iron making. The latest and 
most pretentious of these attempts has been carried on th^is 
year, beginning in February and ending with July, 1914. It 
is currently reported that this endeavor has cost not far from 
$300,000. In view of its importance and of the probability 
that there exist large quantities of gabbro ores of a generally 
similar character in the Lake Superior region, a brief story 
of the experiment and a resume of the results attained, may 
be of interest to the members of the Lake Superior Mining 
Institute. 

While many magnetite iron ores contain titanium, and while 
it is a frequent constituent of coke ash, the Tahawus deposit 
of the Adirondacks is so great — ^possibly several hundred mil- 
lion tons, its mining is so simple — it has little or no cover 
and is especially suited to quarrying, and its proportion of Ti 
O2 is so high — ranging from 15 to 20 per cent in the ore — that 
this experiment was expected to have a most important bear- 
ing on the future of the industry. 

Lake Sanford, upon the shores of which the Tahawus 
deposits lie, is in the center of the Adirondacks, in a wilder- 
ness that is by wagon road nearly 50 miles from Lake Cham- 
plain and the town of Port Henry, where is the 200-ton blast 
furnace of the Northern Iron Company, in which the experi- 

*Miniiir Engineer, Duluth. If Inn. 



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^^4 TltANlFEkOliS OkES In SLASt FUftNACEg 

ment was conducted. The country is of wild and rugged beau- 
ty, the tumbled peaks of the Adirondacks surround it on all 
sides, blue lakes gleam through the dense foliage of maple, 
beech and pine, trout crowd the streams and red deer people 
the forests. 

Here last autumn a magnetic concentrator was built, for 
the purpose of extracting a portion of the ilmenite from the 
magnetite and thus reducing the titanium, which is contained 
in the ilmenite. The plan was to separate here ^i the mine and 
convey by wagon the separated ore to Port Henry. Owing to 
causes that need no explanation in this brief paper, this attempt 
was futile and it became necessary to hurry the shipment of 
10,000 tons of ore, a small part of which had been put through 
the concentrator. Roads were built through the forest on which 
grasshopper traction engines were to travel. This ore finally 
reached Port Henry and was sent to the Witherbee, Sherman 
& Co. separators at Mineville for the treatment St had failed to 
receive at Lake San ford. It was then brought back to Port 
Henry for smelting. 

For many years the belief has been current that TiOj 
in the blast furnace made the slag relatively infusible, viscous 
and thick, that this ore would cause the formation of in- 
fusible titanium compounds, such as cyano-nitrite of titanium, 
and that serious furnace scaffolding would result. Excessive 
fuel consumption was feared, and altogether few furnace men 
were willing to use these ores. 

This experiment began with a mixture of Tahawus and 
Mineville ores (magnetic concentrates from Witherbee, Sher- 
man & Co.) At first the percentage of Tahawus was slight, 
but it was increased until at the close the furnace was worked 
on 5/16 Tahawus to 11/16 Mineville. At no time during the 
entire run did the furnace scaffold seriously and never was 
the slag anything but fluid and acidic. Several times during 
the run the furnace broke through, but as the experiment 
began on an old lining that could not be examined, and as one 
of these breaks took place in February, no one can tell wheth- 
er or not the titanic acid had anything to do with it. At 
the conclusion of the test the lining in the lower portion of 
the furnace was gone. It is unfortunate that this work did 
not start on a new lining so that some knowledge might be 
had of the effect on a furnace lining of an ore carrying an 
excessively high acidity — of SiOj+TiOj. Amounts of coke 
consumed were not especially excessive, indeed were lower 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 225 

than was generally anticipated. Flux used was marble refuse 
from Vermont quarries, and later marble mixed with an im- 
pure dolomite. 

The class of Tahawus concentrates used during the test 
was: 

High. Low. Average. 

Fe 57.05 44.85 54.27 

TiOa 14.90 ^0.81 13.57 

V2O3 404 .395 .401 

In addition to these ores those used were Barton Hill, 
Harmony, New Bed and Old Bed. Barton Hill carried .914 
TiOj, New Bed .69 TiOg, but neither of these was used in 
large amounts. 

It will readily be seen that any experiment in which the 
total titanium in the iron charge is that derived from what 
may be contained in 5/16 of the burden running 13.57 TiOg, 
or about 4 per cent, in the charge as a whole, is not especially 
conclusive as to what may be done with titaniferous ores, be- 
cause such ores have been successfully reduced many times. 
Insofar, therefore, as this work may have been intended 
to prove the limits of use of such an ore as Tahawus, it was 
a failure, for it proved nothing. But I suppose it was not 
so intended. It did prove, of course, that ores running up 
to 10 to 14 per cent. TiOg can be mixed in the charge at least 
to the extent given, without danger to the furnace or exces- 
sive cost in operation. It is unfortunate for iron metallurgy 
in general that the experiment did not go to the limit, so that 
metallurgists could tell just how much of a highly titani- 
ferous ore they might use in their charges, and the effect of 
such use on coke consumption. But it was impossible to get 
out enough Tahawus ore, even had the company wished to 
do so. 

Iron made from the ores used was not especially high in 
Ti. In pig iron analyses the highest Ti was .67, and it was 
found that the higher the silicon the higher the titanium, in 
other words that the heat of the furnace had a direct l^ear- 
ing on the slagging of titanium acid. A great deal of low- 
silicon iron was made. 

Titaniferous iron ore is usually low phosphorus, and com- 
posite analyses of many Tahawus drill holes are as follows : 



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226 TITANIFEKOUS ORES IN BLAST FUSKACES 

VA 

Fe SiOa P AI2O3 TiOj QO^ 

50.80 3.40 .004 4.20 20.70 .598 

35.30 18.02 .079 5.40 15.33 -371 

42.49 10.30 .005 4.60 17.63 .643 

51.96 1.55 .002 3.80 20.33 -906 

A general ratio of relationship is seen to exist between 
these analyses. Were it possible to utilize such ore in quant- 
ity, it would add materially to the bessemer reserves of the 
country. 

It is evident enough that this ore makes fine iron. In 1834 
the pioneers of the region erected Catalan forges and small 
blast furnaces on Lake Sanford and smelted this ore direct 
in cold blast, with charcoal fuel, a poor local flux and no other 
ore for a mixture. They had tremendous difficulties, but they 
made excellent iron. They did not know the ore carried any 
deleterious elements, and so could not account for their fail- 
ures. They piled on the charcoal, made of high grade hard 
woods, and got iron in their forges and cold blast 40-ft. fur- 
naces. That they could do it is wonderful. I have read, 
and have before me as I write this short paper, scores of 
letters written by the projectors of the enterprise at that time, 
and can but marvel at the undaunted courage, the ability, the 
mechanical and metallurgical skill they displayed. As to the 
quality of the iron one letter says : "I have been engaged the 
past few days in testing our iron in blacksmiths' shops. I 
took a flat bar and a square one. The flat I bent cold and 
drove the ends together without fracture. Of this iron I 
have tried everything in the way of a hard test; horse shoes 
and horse nails and even pieces hammered down to the size of 
needles which I twisted around a pipe-stem, and I had large 
pieces bent square on the angles without any giving or frac- 
tures. These tests excited the wonder of the smiths, who 
declared they had never wrought such iron. One of them said 
he had worked the Russian and the Livingstone iron — which 
is considered the best American — and that neither would do 
what ours would ; it was perfect at all heats." 

A few weeks ago a bar of this old iron was unearthed 
near Tahawus. Upon analysis it was found to contain : 

Si 065 

Sulphur 015 

Phos 060 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 227 

Ti 198 

V 038 

Gr. Carbon 025 

Notwithstanding extensive discussions, the work of Rossi 
and others, operations in England and Canada, and this re- 
cent experiment, the possibilities of smelting titaniferous ores 
in the blast furnace are still undetermined. That such ores 
have been smelted at many places and times, and that excel- 
lent pig iron has been made from them, are well known. It is 
also known that in many such cases the consumption of fuel 
has been excessive. In the early days conditions existed which 
do not hold today. Iron was made in Catalan forges or in 
blast furnaces of from 2 to 5 tons daily capacity; these were 
in wooded regions where the cost of charcoal was not an ele- 
ment of supreme importance; labor was inexpensive and pig 
iron brought $50 to $70 a ton. 

Many of those who have followed this experiment at Port 
Henry have remarked on the fluidity of this titaniferous slag, 
as unexpected and remarkable. While that may be true, I 
have wondered if, in this case, "fluidity" is not confounded 
with "fusibility," which is "something else again." The 
slags may be fluid by reason of the ability of the various com- 
ponents to enter into solution, one with another ; may not they 
be still difficultly fusible because of the presence of elements 
or compounds that require excessive heat or an undue propor- 
tion of fluxing material? I am no fumaceman, as these re- 
marks may indicate, and merely make a suggestion that en- 
ters my mind. 

Such concentration as was carried out on this Tahawus 
ore was magnetic separation, in Ball-Norton machines, such 
as are in regular use at Mineville. This separation was based 
on the fact that this ore — like many but not all titaniferous 
magnetics — is a granular aggregate of magnetite, ilmenite, and 
gangue. The further fact that the magnetite itself contains 
some titanium, and the ilmenite has iron as one of its integral 
constituents, makes magnetic separation a more difficult and 
wasteful process than it might appear to him who looks on 
the ore and is able to distinguish, easily, the different char- 
acter of the two minerals. In many experiments ilmenite 
grains were isolated and tested as to their magnetic permeabil- 
ity, and were invariably found to be almost non-magnetic. 

But, as indicated above, when separation was actually un- 
dertaken, the tails ran wastefully high in iron and the heads 



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228 TITANIFEROUS ORES IN BLAST FURNACES 

undesirably high in titanium. The following are results of 
United States Bureau of Mines separation tests on Tahawus 
ores: 



Average Ore. 


Concentrates. 


Tails. 


Fe TiOa 


Fe TiOj 


Fe TiO, 




62.66 4.00 


38-86 47-50 




60.43 8.93 


45-78 45-23 




60.60 9.66 


42.84 32.22 


0.58 14.00 


63.00 5.25 


.... .... 




65.02 5.90 


.... .... 




61.04 11.00 


.... .... 


5.07 19.02 


61.23 II. 15 


32.99 47.20 



With such results from careful separation tests it is ap- 
parent that little may be expected in ordinary practice except 
to reduce the titanium at the expense of the iron. 



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COLLINSVILLE FURNACE NEAR MaRQUBTTE. (FROM DRAWING IN CHARCOAL BY MRS. 

Pullman. Wife op One of the Employes Who Came to Marquette About 1860.) 
This is the Site op the Present Marquette City Lighting Plant. 



Locks at Sault Ste. Marie-This is the First Lock, CoNSTRugriQN Begun in 1853, 
Completed in 1855. 



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Cleveland Ore Dock, Marquette, 1873 



Scene on the Ismpeming-Marquette Highway. Typical of the Mar9Uettb Range 



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Timber Tunnel Neoaunbb Mi^.e— Used for Conveying Timber from 
Yard to Cage Below Collar op Shaft 



Approach to Hill Mine. Ouvex Iron Mining Co.. at Marble, Western End or 
MnABA Ramqe, (Mssnifo mt) 



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Marquettb. MrcH.. November, 1863. Stb. Marie's Canal Mineral Land Company's Ex- 
ploring Crew Enroute to Houghton After the Summer's Work In the Iron Fields. 
Prom Left to Right- (Upper Row) 

Rush Livermore. S. S. Curry. John Maroney, Lewis Whitehead, Moee Cheverette. Jacob 
Schwartz. Charles Griswold. 
Lower Row. 

J. H. Alward. Henry F. O. D'Aliquy. 

Photoflrraph furnished by J. H. Heardinir. Duluth. Minn. 



Marquette Docks and Shipping. About 1861 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 229 



MICHIGAN IRON-ORE RESERVES; METHODS OF 
APPRAISAL FOR TAXATION. 

By R. C. Allen^ Lansing, Michigan.* 

For nearly a half century prior to 1901, the annual pro- 
duction of iron ore in Michigan exceeded that of any other 
state. Since the year 1900 the production in Minnesota has 
been greater than that in Michigan, and is now fully two- 
thirds of the tonnage annually mined in the Lake Superior 
region and more than half of the total production of the Unit- 
ed States. Notwithstanding the overwhelming magnitude of 
the Minnesota production in recent years, Michigan had 
shipped at the end of 1913, 40.6 per cent (255,565,856 tons) 
of the total ore mined in the I^ke Superior region. 

Permanency of the Iron Mining Industry in Michigan. 

Michigan iron mining dates from 1845, when 300 pounds 
of ore was carried out from the Jackson mine at Negaunee 
and made into a bar of iron in a blacksmith's forge at Jack- 
son. Twenty years later the annual production was 1,000,000 
tons ; in 40 years it was more than 2,000,000 tons, and in 60 
years, between 11,000,000 and 12,000,000 tons; at the end 
of 1913 the total production had risen to 255,565,856 long 
tons. 

If all of the openings which were excavated in ore in 
mining the total production of Michigan were thrown togeth- 
er to form a single void of cubical form, each of its three 
dimensions would approximate 1,452 feet. The available iron 
ore reserves of Michigan at the end of 1913 have in the ground 
in their natural condition a volume of about 2,424,000,000 
cu. ft., which is equivalent to a cube whose dimensional in- 
dex is about 1,343 feet. For each 14 tons of ore mined since 
1844, 13 tons still remain in the ground accessible for min- 
ing; in other words, the acceleration in production, rapid as 
it has been, has been fully cwnter-'bal^inced by acceleration in 

•Steto Gkoloftet of ICtohlgan, 



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230 ORE BIESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

discovery and development. There is now available for min- 
ing almost as much ore as has been shipped in all preceding 
years. 

Were exploration and discovery to cease at once, produc- 
tion at the average rate for the 5 years preceding 191 4 would 
exhaust the known reserves in a little more than 17 years; 
corresponding figures for 191 1 and 1913 are 15.2 years and 
17.7 years respectively. Up to the present year the reserves 
have been maintained well in advance of production. Con- 
trary to the popular notion, there seems to be no sufficient rea- 
son for believing that this condition will be reversed in the 
near future, barring of course the possible effect of free for- 
eign competition or legislation unfavorable to mining and 
development of iron ore. The basis of this opinion rests on, 
(i) the assured development of large ore reserves at deeper 
levels than have been attained in mining, (2) expected devel- 
opments in unexplored and partially explored mineral landS: 
(3) reopening of abandoned properties, and (4) the future 
utilization of low-grade ores. 

Mining at Deep Levels. 

The results of deei>-level exploration have in recent years 
been decidedly reassuring. This is especially true on the Go- 
gebic and Marquette ranges. Large bodies of high-grade ore 
have been opened under 2,000 ft. in depth on the Gogebic 
range. The average depth of the mines on this range is now 
1,385 feet. Recent drilling on the Marquette range has dem- 
onstrated that ore exists, probably in great volume, at depths 
near 3,000 feet. In Iron county, exploration has not prog- 
ressed below 1,800 ft., but ore bodies are known to occur near 
this depth with presumption in favor of still greater depths. 
Many years will elapse before deep-level exploration will be 
generally necessary to maintain reserves, for there still re- 
mains in drift-covered areas and partially explored parts of 
easily accessible iron formations, . untested possibilities from 
which new tonnages are being annually developed. 

Development of Unexplored Mineral Lands. 

At the end of 1913, 71,726,559 tons of ore, equivalent to 
about one-third of the total reserves, was available for min- 
ing in undeveloped properties. The amount of ore which 
will ultimately be produced from these properties is on the 
whole much greater than it is possible to mnsur^ with as* 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 23 1 

surance in their present condition, although some of them 
have been so thoroughly developed by drilling that fairly close 
estimates may be made. 

In the following table is given the tonnage of reserves 
estimated in undeveloped iron properties in Michigan, Jan- 
uary I, 1914, not including prospective ore in developed mines : 

Tons. 

Gogebic range 15,610,463 

Iron county (Iron River and Crystal Falls District) 35,266,799 

Menominee range (Dickinson county) None 

Marquette range (Baraga and Marquette counties) 20,849,297 

State of Michigan 71,726,559 

In addition to the acreages in which minable ore bodies 
are known to exist there are 2,392 separate descriptions of 
land comprising 94,951 acres, wherein . there are known pos- 
sibilities for the occurrence of ore bodies. In the light of 
present information these lands may be divided into three 
classes which, in the order of relative probability for ore oc- 
currence, may be denominated, Classes A, B, and C. 

Classification of Iron Mineral Lands in Michigan, 
January i, 1914. 

(Ezcludiziff active mines and lands known to be ore-bearins.) 

Number of Descriptions < Acres ^ 

County Class A. Class B. Class C. Class A. Class B. Class C. 

Gogebic 71 45 93 2,825.62 1,781.31 3.651.92 

Iron 202 29 418 7.673.98 1.200 16.992.25 

Dickinson 153 21 221 6.225.16 840 8,924.78 

Marquette 666 213 ... 27.902 15 6.503.27 

Menominee 228 ." 9,160.75 

Delta 32 1,270.08 



ToUl 1,092 308 992 44,626.91 10.324.58 39,999.78 

A very long time will elapse before the mineral lands are 
adequately prospected, but the progress of exploration is an- 
nually demonstrating that large tonnages in these lands await 
discovery. They constitute a main source of future produc- 
tion. 

Opening of Abandoned Mines. 

At the end of 191 3 there were no less than 120 abandoned 
mines that had formerly made ore shipments; 80 iron mines 
were active and 21 temporarily idle. Of the 65 undeveloped 
properties containing proven ore bodies 24 were active and 
41 were idle. Of the 58 unfinished explorations 19 were in 
progress and 39 were suspended, 



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232 ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

Classified Numbers of Active, Idle, and Abandoned iRaN 
Properties in Michigan January i, 1914. 

• Undeveloped^— -> 

Developed MineB. With Proven Ore Bodies ^Expkwmtione-v AfaeadoMd 

Ranse Active. Idle. Active. Idle. Active. Idle. MiiMk 

Gogebic 23 1 8 4 2 3 13 

Iron County ..19 9 11 21 10 20 24 

Menominee ...10 4 1 10 24 

Marquette ....28 7 5 16 6 6 59 



State 80 21 24 41 19 39 120 

The changing condition of the iron trade, gradually de- 
creasing average tenor of shijxnents from the Lake Superior 
region, progress in beneficiation of low-grade ores, demon- 
strated possibilities in deep-level mining, the recurrence of 
periods of relatively easy finance, not to mention general ad- 
vances in the science of mining engineering and in geologic 
knowledge, have made possible from time to time the re- 
sumption of activities on properties formerly abandoned. A 
number of such resumptions have occurred in recent years; 
some are in progress at the present time, and it is to be ex- 
pected that a relatively large proportion of the abandoned 
properties will in the course of time receive thorough explora- 
tion by modern methods. Many of the abandoned properties, 
particularly some of those which were abandoned in early 
years, will be regenerated. No well-informed person will fail 
to consider these proj^erties, taken as a whole, as an import- 
ant source of future production. 

Utilization of Low-Grade Ores. 

The tonnage estimates which have been referred to above 
include only those grades of ore which are marketable under 
current conditions of the iron trade. In commercial practice 
the definition of iron ore varies from year to year with a 
well-marked general tendency towards the inclusion of lower 
and lower grades of iron-bearing rock. For any particular 
mine the definition of iron ore varies with the sale price of 
the available grades and cost of production. The grade of 
iron-bearing rock that may be profitably marketed is not the 
same in a given year in all districts, nor for all mines in any 
district. A year of lessened demand or of low prices, such 
for instance as 19 14, always curtails the production of low- 
grade ore, and invariably forces the suspension of many mines 
which have only the low grades in reserve. But although de- 
mand and price, and consequently the average t^ngr of th^ 



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LAKfi SUPEklOft MlNtKG INSTITUTE ^3^ 

Output, fluctuate from year to year, the increasing ratio of 
iron consumption to available high-grade ore reserves is grad- 
ually lowering the tenor of ore marketed from the Lake Su- 
perior region. A measure of this tendency is afforded in the 
following table compiled by W. L. Tinker, secretary of the 
Lake Superior Iron Ore association : 

Average Iron Content of Lake Superior Iron Ore Ship- 
ments 1902-12, ALL Ranges. 

Year Tonnage. Averace % Iron (NaturaL) 

1912 44,365,100 51.9603 

1911 30,265,438 51.8869 

1910 41,172,143 52.0703 

1909 40,582,405 52.1130 

1908 24,774,668 52.9551 

1907 38,574,136 53.4020 

1906 36,179,170 53.8652 

1905 32,353,475 54.6072 

1904 ...20.529,719 55.5791 

1903 22,357,876 55.5049 

1902 24,930,701 56.2233 

The average yearly decHne in iron content for the period 
1902-12 is 0.4263 i)er cent, or 4.263 per cent for the decade. 
It is obvious of course that this decline must cease at some 
future period. 

There is no doubt that ores of very low grade will event- 
ually have to be mined in the Lake Superior region. Ex- 
periments in the beneficiation of the various types of low- 
grade ores are already under way. From what has been ac- 
complished it begins to be apparent that nearly all types of 
low-grade ores will eventually be subject to beneficiation at 
the mines. Wet concentration methods are now in use on a 
tremendous scale by the Oliver Iron Mining Company near 
Coleraine, Minn., while other plants are located near Nash- 
wauk, and at the Madrid mine, near Virginia, Minn., and also 
at the American-Boston mine at Diorite, Mich. In Canada 
magnetic concentration is operating at the Moose Mountain 
mine, near Sudbury, and at the Magpie mine on the Michi- 
picoten range low-grade carbonate ore is treated in rotary 
kilns. A number of other plants are planned on the Lake 
Superior ranges. (Table "A.") 

It is needless to remark that each decline of i per cent in 
the average content of ores mined adds millions of tons to 
the ore reserves. How far this decline will be forced cannot 
be foreseen. An issue of immediate and growing concern re- 
fers to encroachment of foreign ore into territory which here- 



Digitized byVjQOQlC 



234 



ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 



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236 ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

tofore has, been tributary to the Lake Superior mines. This 
question has a bearing on the matter under discussion, but its 
complexity does not admit of its consideration here. When 
the time shall come for general utilization of lovv-grade, iron- 
bearing rock from the Lake Superior region, the Michigan 
reserves alone willbe ample for the needs of the country for 
generations. The supply is so enormous that estimates at this 
time have no significance. 

Recent Estimates of Michigan Iron Ore Reserves. 

Careful estimates of the iron ore reserves of Michigan are 
made annually under the direction of the Board of State Tax 
Commissioners. The first estimate was made in 191 1 by C. 
K. Leith; the estimates for 1913 and 1914 were made by 
the writer assisted by O. R. Hamilton. 

The reserves are divided into two classes, viz: developed 
ore and prospective ore. The developed ore is that which is 
expressed by mining engineers by the term "ore in sight," 
and is limited to ore blocked out above bottom levels in de- 
veloped mines. The prospective ore is included in undevel- 
oped properties, extensions below bottom levels, and in lateral 
extensions of partially developed levels. 

Inasmuch as each of the three estimates above referred to 
were made by the use of the same methods the resulting to- 
tals may be considered strictly comparable. The managers, 
superintendents and engineers of the various mines should be 
credited with the indispensable aid which they rendered in the 
work of each of these tonnage estimates. 

The Cost of Mining Iron Ore in Michigan. 

The following table of costs is compiled irom the annual 
reports of the mine operators to the Board of State Tax Com- 
missioners. The two sets of figures represent an average for 
the 5-year period preceding 191 3, and the 5 years preceding 
19 14, respectively. For the former period there is included 
only those mines which were on an operating basis rejwesent- 
ing 96 per cent of the total tonnage mined during the period. 
The figures for the latter period, however, include total costs 
for all mines, excluding charges for exploration on undevel- 
oped properties and all capital charges. The figures for both 
periocls include freights and represent the cost of delivery of 
ore at the sale points, viz: mainly the Lake Erie ports. (Table 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



237 



Value of Michigan Iron Ore in 191.3. 

The figures annually reported to the Michigan State Tax 
Commission aflford the means of ascertaining the value of 
Michigan ore at any stage in the process of raining and mar- 
keting, from its natural location in the ground to point of de- 
livery. The table herewith shows the calculation of value of 
Michigan ore by ranges f. o. b. mine in 1913. 

To Ascertain Valup per Ton of 1913 Iron Ore Ship- 
ments. 

f 4 1^ . I 

Gos«bic $16,960,386.61 $ 4.n7.877.71 $11,842,608.90 8.886.789 $8.08 

Iron Riyer. Crystal Falls. 8.688.761.74 2.248.846.02 6.4891916.72 8.088.691 2.06 

OUMeoominM 6.806.965.61 1.227,781.28 4.079.184.28 1.706.847 2.88 

Marquette 1U06.79980 2.687.628.19 9.021,171.61 8.790.666 2.88 

State 41,664.918.66 101282,182.16 81,382.781.61 12,424,-748 2.62 

Royalty and Ownership. 

The term royalty refers to payment by operators for the 
ore in properties in which they own a part or none of the 
mineral value. The royalty is proportionate to the number 
of tons of ore shipped and is calculated on a flat or a graded 
rate per ton, or a combination of the two. Nearly all of the 
modern leases provide for a graded royalty based on sale price 
of ore, or on its composition. The sum paid for the privilege 
of holding a lease is called the minimum royalty. The royalty 
paid by the operators on shipments is commonly charged 
against the minimum, but in the event that the amount is less 
than the stipulated minimum royalty, the difference must be 
paid to the fee owner. 

The ownership of more than three-fourths of the Michigan 
iron mines resides wholly or partially in fee holders in distinc- 
tion from operators. In the period 1908 to 1913, 88 per cent, 
of the producing mines paid royalties. There have been few 
recent transfers of title to minerals in undeveloped iron lands. 
Mainly because of the uncertainty of values, both owners and 
operators prefer to deal with these lands on a royalty basis 
under the leasing system. 

Royalties which were actually paid by producing Michigan 
mines for the period 1908 to 191 3 range from 0.864 cents to 
0.055 cents per ton. Average royalties are highest on the Go- 



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238 ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

gebic range ; then follows in decreasing order the Marquette, 
Iron River-Crystal Falls and Menominee ranges. The figures 
in the table take no account of the partial ownership of min- 
erals by operators of some of the royalty-paying mines, and 
are consequently somewhat lower than the average royalties 
expressed in leases. The figures are obtained by dividing the 
total royalties paid by the total tons shipped, excluding the 
mines wherein full ownership of minerals is vested in the op- 
erator. 

Royalties Paid by Michigan Mines (1909-1913). 

I III a I I ll 

Gogebic 26 26 .52723 .22372 .37633 .34765 

Iron River, Crystal Falls.. 32 32 .54279 .08142 .28393 .23148 
Menominee, including Met- 
ropolitan & Calumet.... 16 15 .36077 .05494 .24198 .23605 
Marquette, Gwinn 36 23 .86400 .02766 .44452 .19877 

State 109 96 34105 .25249 

Michigan Iron Ore Reserves by Ranges in 1914. 

SI i m iJ i 

Gogebic 45,785,870 13,000,664 28.4 32,785,206 10 71.6 

Iron county: Iron 

River and Crystal 

districts 59,468,551 2,777,455 4.6 56,691,096 26 95.4 

Menominee range 

(Dickinson Co.) .. 13,778,283 5,831,845 42.3 7,946,438 7 57.7 
Marquette: Baraga 

and Marquette 

counties 83,391,451 24,937,490 29.9 58,453,961 19 70.1 

State 202,424,155 46,547,454 22.9 155,876,701 57 77.1 

In the 5 years preceding 191 4, 109 mines controlled by 
64 operating companies including subsidiaries, made ship- 
ments; of these 96 paid royalties. The Oliver Iron Mining 
Company of the United States Steel Corporation is the largest 
shipper, but does not hold the position of preponderance in 
Michigan as it does in the Lake Superior region in general, 
as shown in the table. Of the total reserves in 1914, 46,547,- 
454 tons, or 22.9 per cent, is controlled by the Oliver Iron 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 239 

Mining Company, while 155,876,701 tons, or 77.1 per cent, is 
controlled by i6 other companies. The number of independ- 
ent companies becomes 57, if the larger organizations are 
broken up into their subsidiaries. 

The Michigan System of Appraisal of Iron Mines for 

Taxation. 

The following discussion is oflFered for the general infor- 
mation merely as an exposition and not as an argument : 

What has come to be known as the Michigan system of 
iron-mine appraisals is an outgrowth of the methods intrcK 
duced by J. R. Finlay in 191 1, modified in such manner as 
the experience of the past 3 years has shown to be advisable. 
The Finlay appraisal of 191 1 demonstrated conclusively that 
Michigan iron mines, prior to that time, had been assessed, 
on the whole, for purposes of taxation at figures far below 
their actual value. The total assessed value was not only too 
low, but some properties in particular were far under-assessed, 
while others in comparison were assessed at a much higher 
proportion of true value. 

The first valuation of the iron mines by J R. Finlay in 
191 1 demonstrated the wisdom of control over assessments 
by the central authority of the State Tax Commission. In 
order to maintain this control, and at the same time do sub- 
stantial justice to the properties affected, it is necessary to 
make an annual appraisal, for the reason that the value of 
mines fluctuates to far greater extent than any other class of 
real estate. While ore is being taken out of the ground and 
shipped away, additional ore is being added through discov- 
eries of new properties and progress of developments in the 
producing mines. Furthermore, the quality of the ore in the 
different properties is subject to change, as are also the econ- 
omic or trade conditions of the iron and steel industry, which 
determine the value of the crude material or iron ore. The 
fluctuation in total value of all of the mines is of course not 
reflected in the oftentimes enormous fluctuation in the value 
of individual properties. 

Having determined on the control of iron mine assess- 
ments the Board of State Tax Commissioners was confronted 
with the problem of securing trained assistants, without in- 
curring an expense out of proportion to the benefits to be de- 
rived by the state, counties and local assessing districts. Thus 
originated the plan of co-operation between the Board of State 



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240 ORE RESEKVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

Tax Commissioners and the Board of Greological Survey un- 
der which the State Geologist acts in the advisory capacity of 
appraiser of mines. The plan was given legal sanction through 
an appropriation of funds for the purpose by the legislature 
in its last session. 

The final results of the appraisal of iron mines for taxa- 
tion are determined through the application of four distinct 
procedures. 

First, It is the duty of the State Geologist and his assist- 
ant, who is a mining engineer, to secure adequate informaticm 
on which to base the value of each mining property. To 
this end he requires to be made by each mine operator an 
annual report to the Board of State Tax Commissioners, as 
of date December 31 of the year preceding, comprising: (i) 
a detailed financial statement of the operations of each mine 
or mining property owned, oi)erated, or controlled by him, 
executed on forms especially designed by the appraiser for 
the purpose, and duly executed before a Notary Public, cov- 
ering a period of the preceding 5 years. (2) The financial 
statement is required to be supplemented by a complete set 
of mine maps showing each mine level, together with cross 
sections, records of drill holes, pits, shafts, etc.; also a map 
showing the boundaries of each property and the relation of 
ore bodies to adjacent properties. All maps, plats, records, 
etc., as are required are signed, dated and duly executed by 
the operator or a responsible official of the cexripany, and form 
a part of the report of the operator to the Board of State Tax 
Commissioners. 

Second, After the receipt of the above information the 
State Geologist and his assistant make an inspection of the 
mines above and below ground for the purpose of making cal- 
culation of total ore reserves in each property and obtaining 
such other data as may have a bearing on values. 

Third. After the appraiser has calculated the value of each 
individual property his findings are reported to the Board of 
State Tax Commissioners who consider, with the appraiser, 
each of the several properties in detail and take formal action 
on the figures recommended by the appraiser. 

Fourth, The figures which are determined upon by the 
Board of State Tax Commissioners are then reported to the 
operators. The operators are then given an opportunity of 
appearing before the Board of State Tax Commissioners for 
the purpose of submitting any additional arguments or in- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 24 1 

formation having to do with the value of their respective 
properties. These hearings are conducted in public, usually 
in the counties in which the properties are located, in order 
that any other interested party or parties may appear and 
submit information, arguments, and data having to do with 
the mine values. At the conclusion of these public hearings 
the various properties are again considered in detail by the 
Board of State Tax Commissioners, and final values for as- 
sessment purposes are fixed and reported to the local assessors 
by whom they are placed on the tax rolls. 

Theory and Method of Appraisal. 

Stated briefly, the value of an iron mine under the Mich- 
igan system is the present worth of the sum of money repre- 
senting the calculated difference between total receipts from 
sales of ore and the cost of marketing the product based on the 
entire tonnage which the mine may be exi)ected to produce. 
This difference exceeds by a large amount the rxtual profit to 
operators, for it includes the item of royalties and makes no 
allowance for sinking general outside exploration charges. 

We have now to consider how the total profits, thus de- 
fined, expected to be produced by the operation of a mine, 
may be calculated. The calculation is the product of three 
factors, viz: (i) total tonnage of available ore; (2) average 
annual excess per ton of the receipts over actual cost of opera- 
tion; (3) the present worth of one dollar to be paid in equal 
annual installments for a period of years equal to the pro- 
ductive life of the mine. It is obvious that the alteration of 
any one of these factors will alter the result in the same pro- 
portion, and the result will approach correctness only in pro- 
portion as each factor is given proper numerical value. 

I. The Factor of Tonnage — There is no general method 
or set rule for measuring tonnage which may be ajyplied indis- 
criminately to all iron mines. It is necessary to adapt the meth- 
od of tonnage estimation to each individual property, because 
of the wide variation or dissimilarity in the natural or geologic 
conditions in the various mines and districts. The ore which 
is expected to be realized is considered under two classes ; first, 
the ore in sight, and second, the prospective ore. In most of 
the undeveloped properties much the greater part of the ore 
must be considered as prospective pending the development 
by underground mining. The amount of developed ore in 
the producing mines may be calculated with comparative ease, 



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242 ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

but the amount of prospective ore must be determined in the 
judgment of the appraiser by use of principles of geologic and 
mining practice. It would not be proper to assess a mine, un- 
der ordinary circumstances, on the basis of developed ore 
alone, inasmuch as it is patent in nearly all of the mines that 
there are certainties, probabilities and possibilities for the oc- 
currence of ore beyond that which is actually developed. As 
a matter of actual practice the amount of prospective ore on 
which the mines are assessed for purposes of taxation exceeds 
the total amount of developed ore. For instance, on January 
I, 1914, there were 81,261,238 tons of developed ore in the 
mines to which was added by the appraiser 116,208,087 tons 
of prospective ore. These figures do not include 4,954,830 
tons in stock on the same date which is treated as developed 
ore, but assessed as personalty in distinction from realty. In 
estimating total reserves in a mining property the appraiser 
attempts to ascertain the total amount of ore which may rea- 
sonably be expected to be produced from the property. In 
the calculation of values "prospective'' and "developed" ore are 
treated on the same basis, i. e., each ton of reserve ore whether 
"prospective" or "developed" is considered as a unit of value. 

2. The Factor of Average Annual Profits — The actual 
profit per ton mined is ascertained for each particular mine 
as nearly as possible from its actual operating financial record 
over a period of 5 years preceding. It is obvious that the 
value of an iron mine for purposes of taxation should not 
fluctuate from year to year in harmony with fluctuating costs 
and ore prices. By the use of the 5-year period large fluc- 
tuations in the total valuations on account of sharp annual 
variations in costs and receipts in individual properties have 
been eliminated. 

It is obvious of course that an undeveloped property has 
no operating record from which profits may be calculated. 
For these properties the expectations are measured by the ex- 
perience of mines under operation under similar conditions in 
the district in which the undeveloped property is located. 

3. The Life Factor atid Interest Rate — The product of 
total reserve tonnage in the mine by a calculated profit per ton 
expected to accrue under operation is in most cases far in ex- 
cess of the present value of the property, because the rate at 
which ore can be mined is limited by both physical and mar- 
ket conditions. Only a fraction of the total ore reserves are 
annually marketed, and the income from operation is there- 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 243 

fore realized from year to year as the ore is mined and sold. 
The value of an iron mine resides in the ore, and it follows 
that when the ore is exhausted, all assets are dissipated, except 
of course the junk value of the equipment and surface value 
of the land. An ore body in process of mining is, therefore, 
a wasting asset, and the valuation of an iron mine involves 
the determination of the present value of this wasting asset. 

The time or life factor must therefore be taken into ac- 
count. The productive life of an operating mine, for purpose 
of appraisal, is the ratio of total ore reserves to the average 
annual shipment which in practice is based on the experience 
of the preceding 5 years. The life of an undeveloped ore 
body is measured in the same manner, on the assumption of 
an average shipment indicated by other developed properties 
of the same class, with proper allowance and discount for the 
time necessary for development to the producing stage. 

After ascertaining the average annual profit or dividend, 
and the number of such annual dividends, (which is repre- 
sented by the number of years of productive life) the total is 
reduced to present worth by the annuity method, using an in- 
terest rate of 6 per cent, for both principal and sinking fund. 
It has been argued that the sinking fund should bear interest 
not to exceed 3 or 4 per cent., but in actual practice profits are 
usually invested and reinvested in the mining business, and 
treated in exactly the same manner as capital, and for this rea- 
son profits are treated in the calculation as capital. 

The above methods are applicable in general, but miist be 
modified by such considerations as are pertinent to individual 
cases. Such modifications are applied in accordance with the 
judgments of the appraiser and the Board of State Tax 
C6mmissioners. It will not be necessary here to explain the 
multiplicity of cases which demand the application of judgment 
involving departure from the general method set forth above. 

The results of three appraisals are shown in Table "C" : 

Are the Michigan Iron Mines Assessed at Full Present 

Value? 

Irrespective of methods employed in the assessment the 
important question refers to whether resulting figures actually 
represent the true present worth of the iron mines. As bear- 
ing on this question there is introduced a statement of the rela- 
tion of profits, as heretofore defined, to the valuation of the 
mines : 



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244 ORE RESERVES AND METHODS OF APPRAISAL 

Valuation of iron mines January i, 19 14, including ore in 
stock, $91,572,100. 

Tonnage: Developed ore, 81,261,238 tons. 

Tonnage: Prospective ore, 116,208,087 tons. 

Tonnage : In stock, 4,954,830 tons. 

Total, 202,424,155 tons. 

Total assessed valuation per ton, 45+ cents. 

Average annual shipment 1909-1913, 11,863,450 tons. 

Life of reserves, 17+ years. 

Total average annual receipts over and above costs of pro- 
duction 1909-1913, $1 1,359730- 

Ratio of total average annual receipts over and above costs 
to total assessed valuation $0.12 or 12 per cent. 

The average annual return of 12 per cent ($1 1,359,730) on 
the total valuation ($91,572,100) will return an annual inter- 
est of 8 per cent and provide for a sinking fund at 4 per cent 
with which to replace capital ($91,572,100) in 17.7 years, 
which represents the life of total reserves of developed and 
prospective ore in 19 14. 

Relation Between Sale or Exchange Value of Iron 
Mines and Assessed Value in Michigan. 

Iron mines in Michigan are rarely bought and sold, and 
we have therefore no safe means of comparison between as- 
sessed valuations and exchange values of iron mines in this 
state. During the past year, however, an instance has come 
to oiir attention which is cited as evidence, so far as it goes, 
of the relation between assessed values and exchange values 
of Michigan iron mines. The Republic mine located at Re- 
public, Mich., was assessed in 191 1 at $942,000; 1913 at $1,- 
040,000; in 1914 at $1,110,299. This mine was sold a few 
months ago by the Republic Iron Company to the Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Company, including ore in stock, equipment, and 
more than 4,000 acres of undeveloped lands for $600,000. This 
sale w-as urged by the new owners of the mine as an argu- 
ment in a general contention that the assessed valuation of the 
Republic mine should be reduced. No reduction was granted 
by the Board of State Tax Commissioners. 

The point of the matter lies in the fact that the purchaser 
of an iron mine not only expects the return of his investment, 
but a rate of interest on the same which can not be measured 
by rates used in ordinary mercantile and industrial transac- 
tions. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 245 



THE CAVING SYSTEM OF MINING IN LAKE SU- 
PERIOR IRON MINES. 

J. PARKE CHANNING.* 

The recent statement by me that the late Mr. Joseph Sell- 
wood was responsible for the introduction of the caving sys- 
tem of mining in the Lake Superior iron mines has called 
forth criticism as to the accuracy of my statement, and it is 
claimed that this method was first used at the Cleveland Hem- 
atite mine, which was a soft ore property lying about half way 
between Ishpeming and Negaunee. 

In 1886, when I went to the Gogebic Range for the first 
time, the Brotherton mine, near the Village of Wakefield, was 
being operated by Mr. Joseph Sellwood, he had for the su- 
perintendent the late Mr. John Pengilly, who had as his two 
foremen Mr. John Harris and Mr. Thomas R. Hocking. The 
mine was wrought on the sub-level system of caving, which I 
fully described with illustrations in an article entitled Lake 
Superior Iron Ore, published in Volume III of the Mineral 
Industry, being for the year 1894. Later on when Mr. Sell- 
wood took charge of the Chandler mine on the Vermilion 
Range, he transferred Mr. Pengilly to that property, and this 
mine was wrought on a similar system. 

In 1890 I left the Gogebic Range and went to Ishpeming, 
Michigan, to take charge of the East New York mine, and 
took with me for mine foreman Mr. Hocking, who had, up 
to that time, continued as one of the foremen at the Brother- 
ton mine. We changed the method of mining at the East New 
York from square sets to caving, and at the same time 
Mr. Thomas F. Cole, who was in charge of the Queen Group 
of mines at Negaunee, introduced this system at his mines 
with great success and economy. After coming to reside in 
Ishpeming I visited all the mines in the district, among them 
the Cleveland Hematite, and I am quite sure that the caving 
system was not in use there at that time. 

*Coiwaltlng Ensinecr, 61 Broadway, New York City. 



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246 CAVING SYSTEM OF MINING 

I have been told that Mr. George W. Wallace, afterward 
manager of the Fayal mine on the Mesabi Range, introduced 
the caving system at the Cleveland Hematite at the sugges- 
tion of two north of England miners, who had been accus- 
tomed to its use at home. If this is so, evidently the ex- 
periment was not considered a success, or else at the time 
of my residence in Ishpeming it would have been in use at the 
Cleveland Hematite. 

It is a well known psychological fact that similar problems 
are often solved in an identical manner by men who have had 
no communication with each other. It is said that Wallace 
was at work on the Origin of Species at the same time as 
Darwin, and it is interesting to note that Mr. Guy R. Johnson 
introduced a sub-drift system of mining at Lx)ngdale, Va., at 
the Longdale mine, which w^as almost identical to that of the 
Brotherton. This method he described in a paper on page 
96, Volume XX, of the Transactions of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers for the year 1891, under the title of 
"Methods of Working and Surveying the Mines of the Long- 
dale Iron Company, Virginia." Mr. Johnson, himself, told 
me many years ago that he had never heard of the Brotherton 
use of this system, and if my memory serves me right, he also 
said that he had not known of it as the North of England 
system of mining, but that he and his staff worked it out as 
the best solution of the problem presented them. 

Time is passing and a new generation of mining men are 
coming in. The Lake Superior Mining Institute is becoming 
a recorder of the history of Lake Superior, and I, as one of its 
charter members, would welcome any information on this inter- 
esting question. Most new inventions and discoveries are 
95 per cent, past experience of others and 5 per cent, novelty. 
He who adds but a little to the world's efficiency deserves 
credit, and I would be the last one to hold it from him. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Yungbluth : We have a letter from Captain Thom- 
as Walters of the Pittsburgh & Lake Angeline Iron Co., at 
Ishj:>eming, regarding his experiences with the caving system, 
which will be published. 

From my own experiences at the Cleveland Hematite mine, 
I know that the caving system was started, in some of the 
stopes, in 1884. As I left there in 1885 I cannot say whether 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 247 

the system had been changed at the time that Mr. Channing 
visited the mine after coming to Ishpeming in 1890. 

We shall endeavor to bring out as much information on 
this subject as possible, and I would be pleased to hear from 
the members present who have had any experience or informa- 
tion regarding the caving system. 

Mr. Jewell: I was working for the Oliver company 
and when Captain Walters got back from the North of Eng- 
land, where we worked the same system, we all left and went 
to work for the Lake Angeline and I think that was about the 
first time the system was started in this part of the country. 
We worked that system in England before coming to this 
country in 1888 — about four years before or 1884. 

Mr. Pascoe : I never had any experience in soft ore mines. 
I should judge it was in the eighties sometime that they adopt- 
ed that method of mining. 

Mr. Keese : My first experience along the caving system 
of mining was in the old Florence mine in Florence, Wis- 
consin, in 1889. There was a little of that work carried on 
at that time. Since then it has been carried on more or less 
on the different ranges where this system would work. Fur- 
ther than that, I have had no experience with the caving sys- 
tem. 

Mr. Jopling: The matter of introducing the caving sys- 
tem in the iron mines of the Marquette Range is one of which 
I have some recollection. As to Captain Walters, it is more 
particularly fixed in my mind because w^e both returned to 
England for a visit during the same year, namely, 1887. Mr. 
Walter Fitch accompanied Captain Walters to the North of 
England where they investigated the caving system in use 
in the Lancashire district. I cannot say just when Captain 
Walters introduced the caving system into the diflferent mines 
with which he was connected but I am sure that it was soon 
after his return in 1888, even if he had not previously worked 
under this system. 

The following is an extract from a letter written by Cap- 
tain George W. Wallace, dated San Francisco, March 25, 1914. 
It was written in answer to my inquiry whether he did not 
use this method at the Cleveland Hematite mine, where he 
was in charge when I first met him in 1882. 

"Now as to your question about the caving system: Yes, I think 
I was the first one in the United States that used the method, having 
secured the ideas from two miners from Dalton-In-Fumess, Lancashire, 



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248 CAVING SYSTEM OF MINING 

England, where the method was extensively practiced, we modifying 
the system somewhat to meet our requirements. It proved so satis- 
factory, and was such an improvement over square setting for soft 
ore mining, that most every one in the soft ore mining business read- 
ily recognized it and it was only a short time before a great many 
mining men of different districts made claim that they were the orig- 
inators. 

"I wrote up the whole system about four years ago, describing in de- 
tail everything as completely as I possibly could, and believe me it is 
quite a long story and I am very sorry to say that moving West the 
manuscript got lost and I do not think I could write it all again 
without a good deal of trouble, and then too, the photographs and 
cuts were lost and I am sure I could not secure others. Otherwise 
I should like very much to give you the story for publication.'' 

You will note that Captain Wallace does not state the year 
in which he first used the method but from a letter written by 
Mr. D. H. Bacon this method was adopted in some of the 
stopes of the Cleveland Hematite mine shortly after the com- 
pany took it back from the lessees, which was in 1881. It 
is to be regretted that Captain Wallace's article was lost at the 
time he moved away from Lake Superior. 

You will see from my recollections that Mr. Channing can 
hardly be right in claiming the first use of this system in Lake 
Superior in 1889. 

Mr. Eaton: I have talked this matter over with Cap- 
tain Collick. Captain CoUick is one of our oldest employes 
and is one of the oldest men who worked this caving sys- 
tem. He has been captain of the Lake mine since 1896 and 
heiore that worked at the Hematite mine, and he said the 
system was in use in part of the Hematite mine before he was 
captain there, when he had a contract sinking a shaft. 

Mr. Johnston: I know that Mr. Cole introduced it in 
the Queen mines while he was there and got such excellent 
results that it was talked of a good deal. It cheapened the 
cost of mining the ore very much, but I cannot tell you just 
what year it was introduced there. It was while he was 
agent of the mines for the Schlesingers or Corrigan-McKinney 
& Company. 

Mr. Yungbluth : I took this matter up with Mr. Bacon 
in the early spring. I had in mind a paper to treat this sub- 
ject and for that reason had written to Mr. Bacon. The claim 
is made that the caving system was worked at the Cleveland 
Hematite mine in 1884. Captain Collick, whom Mr. Eaton 
mentioned, was at that time a miner at the Ckvetod Hem- 



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Lake suPEkiOR mining institute ^49 

atite mine and I talked with him the other day and his recol- 
lection of the matter was quite clear; that it was worked at 
the Cleveland Hematite mine before he became mining captain 
and during the time that George Wallace was captain. Wal- 
lace left the Cleveland Hematite in 1887. 

Mr. Cory : I will say that Captain Collick had charge of 
the Hematite mine in 1888 and I worked for him there in 
1890. We had the caving system in use pretty generally at 
that time. 

Extracts taken from a letter written by Captain Thomas 
Walters of Ishpeming, dated August 31, 1914, in regard to 
the first mining operations by the caving system. 

"Mr. Channing is somewhat in error in reference to the under^ 
ground mining and caving system. The underground square set sys- 
tem was started in 1877 in the Mitchell mine and this system was 
carried on very successfully for. a small property, and possibly one 
of the first hematite mines of the underground system on Lake Su- 
perior that operated at a profit. This was continued until 1882. 

"In early 1883, I took charge of the op^iing of the Lake Angellne 
mine, which gave me a better opportunity to work out various sys- 
tems. Having about 86 feet of surface over-burden, I started the square 
set system in this mine. After working out the stope about fifty feet, 
I then put, raises to the surface and used the over-burden and rock 
from the mine to fill these stopes, before taking the pillars, and this 
worked very satisfactorily and we mined this out at a fair profit to 
the stockholders. However, on account of the character of tho ore 
in this body, it was hard to separate the Bessemer from the Non- 
Bessemer in this system of operation, and about 1885 or the spring 
of 1886, I changed the system and started what is now universally 
known as the slicing system. I found there was a little higher cost 
attached to this system on account of all the ore being handled with 
shovel, whereas in the square set system we used to run it into the 
cars as it accumulated on top of the sets, but I was able to make a 
very satisfactory separation from this system of operation, raising 
to the top of the ore, or close to the 'gob' from the main level. I 
put a crosscut in each raise and took samples every foot and after 
the crosscuts were in we made diagrams showing where the Bessemer 
and Non-Bessemer ore lay. 

"This method was jvery successful and increased our Bessemer ore 
at least 20 per cent, over what we were getting with the square set 
system, and aside from this, it reduced our accidents to the minimum. 
We have been working this system constantly at Lake Angeline and 
lately at the most hazardous work of all — ^taking out the pillars — 
and it is all of ten years since we have had a fatal accident under- 
ground in this mine. 

"I was very much criticised when I started the slicing system. 



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250 CAVING SYSTEM OF MINING 

but as time went on we began to make some money and it is now a 
universal system in underground iron ore mines. I am sure it has 
reduced the accidents, both minor and fatal, to the very low minimum 
we have today in comparison to the accidents with the square set 
system as, when the sets were three or four high, the men would 
sometimes fall as the caps would become very slippery and they 
would neglect to take plank to walk on. 

"The slicing system, then, has two yery high points of merit, one 
being the lessening of accidents and making the work less hazardous 
for the operators, and the fact that it enables the operator to sep- 
arate or classify the ores. 

"As to the late Mr. Sellwood, mentioned in Mr. Ghanning's paper, 
he had not started on the mines Mr. Channing speaks of at that 
time, nor had Mr. Pengilly; both these gentlemen being warm friends 
of mine." 

The following is an extract of letter received from Mr. D. 
H. Bacon, New York City, under date of September 8th, 1914, 
on the caving system at the Cleveland Hematite mine . 

"Early in 1881 Robert Nelson surrendered his lease of the Nelson 
or Cleveland Hematite mine near Ishpeming, to the fee owners, name- 
ly: the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, and thereafter until all of 
the ore had been removed (1893), the mine was under the care of the 
operating staff of this company, whose mines were then and until 
July, 1887, under my care. Mr. Nelson had removed nearly all of 
the ore that could be safely taken from open pita. As soon as we 
began underground work our troubles began; the ore was very soft 
and would scarcely stand vertically in the side of a drift; the foot- 
wall would barely sustain itself and the hanging resembled a pile of 
loose bricks. StuUs were tried, but we found every foot of the hang- 
ing must be laced, making the laying of the stull pieces on the ores 
necessary. With square sets, then known as the 'Nevada System,' 
we had but little success. With each method the cost per ton far 
exceeded its market jvalue. Two men who were employed at the mine 
described a method of timbering that they had seen in use in an 
English mine and, although the conditions were unlike, we decided 
to give the English method a trial. It proved a success and the sys- 
tem was followed as long as I was with the company and I believe 
was continued by my successor, Mr. F. P. Mills, until the mine was 
abandoned. One o! the first mines opened on the Gogebic Range was 
the 'Brotherton,' and the writer was asked to engage some one to 
take charge of the mining. I, therefore, sent John Pengilly from No. 
3 Hard ore mine of the Cleveland, to the Cleveland Hematite to leam 
the caving method; then I put him in charge of the 'Brotherton.' It 
may have been two years later that I put him in charge of the ex- 
plorations that were being made by the Chicago & Minnesota Ore 
Co., on the Vermilion range, in Minnesota. Mr. Pengilly found what 
was later known as the Chandler mine, and in the mining followed 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2$t 

the system of timbering that he had learned at the Cleveland Hem- 
atite under Mr. George W. Wallace. With the mining methods in use 
on tlie Marquette and Menominee ranges, Mr. Wallace and myself 
were familiar, and we are satisfied that the calving method was not 
in use in any Lake Superior iron mine at the time it was tried at 
the Cleveland Hematite." 

Summary. 

(From the above discussion and quotations from letters, 
It appears conclusively proved that the caving system was 
adopted at the mines on the Marquette Range previous to 

1887). 



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252 LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES OF MICHIGAN 
AND WISCONSIN. 

COMPILED BY CARL BREWER, ISHPEMING. MICH.* 

The accompanying lists of mining properties on the Mar- 
quette, Menominee and Gogebic Ranges contain nearly all 
the properties that have been credited with iron ore shipments, 
or whereon are known ore deposits. The lists are in alphabet- 
ical order according to ranges. The information r^^rding 
the various properties includes the government land descrip- 
tion; other names, if any; names of present curators and sales 
agents, where the properties are either operating, temporarily 
closed or are reserves; and an indication of the present condi- 
tion. In giving the government land description, great lati- 
tude has been necessary because of the difficulty of defining 
what is meant by "description." I have endeavored to use 
the following rule in compiling the lists. The location of 
abandoned mines are the forty acre tract or tracts, whereon 
the actual mining was done. The reserves are described ac- 
cording to the territory included in the tax lists. The other 
properties are described according either to the limits of the 
mining lease, to the forties considered by the operators as per- 
taining to the mine, or in the case of fee ownership, where the 
boundaries are not too extended, to the forties so owned. 
Lack of definite information makes it impossible to indicate 
these distinctions. 

Properties in Wisconsin are so described, all others are in 
Michigan. In the column for remarks are given whatever 
names a property may have had; the present operating com- 
pany and sales agents. All the names under which any prop- 
erty has made shipments are listed in their place and reference 
is made to its other names. Where no operators or agents 
are mentioned, it indicates that the property has been aban- 
doned as a mine. In the last column are dates either of last 
shipments or when name was changed, or the letters "D," "P/' 
**U.'' **D" indicates that the property is being developed, no 
ore having as yet \yeen shipped. "P" indicates that ore has 

*Of Enirineerinff Staff . The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



253 



been shipped during 1914. "U" indicates that the property 
contains ore reserves upon which no mining operations have 
been done. The presence of a date in the last column and the 
name of operating company indicate that the property is only 
temporarily closed. The names of the sales agents are en- 
closed in brackets. 

Any correction or addition is earnestly requested. I wish 
to thank all those who have aided me in compiHng these lists. 

Marquette Range. 



Properties marked "B" are situated in Baraga county, 
all others in Marquette county. 



Property 



Sec T 



Description 



Operating Company (Sales Asrents) 



Albion 19 47 27 ne% of nw»4 

Allen 8 47 26 se% of nw% 



American 32 48 28 w% of sw% 



Ames 2 47 27 

Argyle 2 47 29 

Athens 6 47 26 

5 47 26 

Austin 20 45 25 

Barasa 32 48 26 

Barniun 9 47 27 

Barron 11 47 29 



88 !4 of 8W^ 

sw% of se%, 
se^ of sw^ 
part of 8€^ 
part of nw^ 
of sw% 
n% of sw% 
sw^ of seM 
B% of ne^ 
8^ of nw% 



Bay State 8 47 26 w% of nw% 



B Beaufort . 
Bessemer 
Bessie . . . 
Blue 



..22 
..35 
..35 
.. 5 



48 31 

48 27 

48 29 

47 26 



Boston 32 48 28 

Braastad 21 47 27 

Breitung Hematite. 6 47 26 



nw% of sw% 
sw^ of se% 
ne^ of sw% 
part of 8% of 

se% of sw^, 
sw^ of se^ 

SW14, w% of 

8e% 

part of 8% of 

se% 

se^ of sw^ 



Now part of Mary Char- 
lotte 

Formerly Sterling. Am- 
erican-Boston Mining 
Co. (M. A. Hanna & 
Co.) 

Formerly Edwards, now 
Sampson 

Athens Mining Co. 
( Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Co.) * 

Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co. 

Now part of Cliffs Shaft 
Washington Iron Co. (E. 
N. Breitung & Co.) . . . 
Formerly Green Bay, In- 
diana, part now in 
Mary Charlotte 



Now Lillie 



Oliver Iron Mining Co.. 



1879 
1874 



P 

1894 

1883 



D 
P 

1902 
1891 



1883 
1911 
1884 
1906 
P 



American-Boston Min- 
ing Co. (M. A. Hanna 
& Co.) p 

Now Winthrop and 
Mitchell 1899 

Breitung Hemaite Min- 
ing Co. (E. N. Brei- 
tung & Co.) P 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



254 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property 



See T R 



Description Operating CkMnpany (Sales AceDti) 



Buffalo 6 47 

Bunker Hill 6 47 



Cambria 35 48 27 

36 48 27 

Carr 33 47 26 

Cascade 30 47 26 



nw^ of se^ 
part of ne^ 
of 8W%, 
part of nw^ 

lot 8, se^ of 

se% 

w^ of lot 5 

nw% 

8e% 



1901 



Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. 

Republic Iron & Steel 
Co. (M. A. Hanna 
Co.) 



P 

1874 



Champion 31 48 29 sV^ 

Chase 3 47 28 ne^ 

Cheshire 18 45 25 se% 

Chester 7 47 26 s% of ne% 



Chicago 7 47 

Cleveland 10 47 

11 47 

Cleveland Hematite 2 47 

Cliffs Shaft 3 47 



4 47 

9 47 

10 47 

. . 6 46 

.. 7 47 

18 47 

..28 47 



Columbia 
Conrad . . 



Consolidated 



26 
27 
27 

27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
29 
28 
28 
26 



8^ of se^ 

e\^ of ne% 

nw^ of nw^ 

nw^ 

sw^ of se^, 

part of sw^ 

of sw% 

8^ of Be% 

n% 

n% of n% 

lot 4 

8W% of 8W% 

nw% of nw% 
8^ of se% 



Same as Palmer, former- 
ly Howe, now in Vol- 
unteer 1894 

OliiVer Iron Mining Co. . 1910 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
Now part of Princeton 

No. 1 1898 

Formerly and later Roll- 
ing Mill 1903 

1883 

Part now in Cliffs Shaft 

and Moro 1898 

1895 



Dalliba 29 48 

Davis V 47 

Delaware and Lack- 



29 8^ of nw^, 

n% of sw^ 
26 sw^ of nw% 



awanna 5 47 26 ne^ of se% 



Detroit 
Dexter 



Dey 3 47 

East Buff^o 5 47 



3 47 27 ne^ of ne^ 
3 47 28 e% of nw%, 
w^ of ne^ 
28 w^ of ne^ 
26 ne^ of se^ 



East Champion 32 48 

East Hill 12 47 

East Jackson 6 47 



29 se% of sw^ 
29 n^ of nw^ 
26 nw% of sw% 



Part formerly Bamum 
and part formerly 
Cleveland. Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Co P 

Formerly Kloman 1883 

Formerly Michigan .... 1880 

Formerly Gribben, Me- 
sabe Friend, now 
Moore 1897 

Now Phoenix 1883 

Formerly Grand Rapids, 
Wheeling 1913 

Formerly Sam Mitchell, 
Section 5, East Buf- 
falo 1888 

1890 

1807 

Now part of Chase 1884 

Formerly Sam Mitchell, 
Section 5, now Dela- 
ware & Lackawanna. 1887 
Formerly Keystone ... 1889 
1875 
Formerly PendiU, now 
part of Lucy 1893 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



255 



Property 



S«e T R DMcription Operating Company (Sales As«nto) 



East New York.... 2 47 27 

Edwards 2 47 29 

Empire 19 47 26 

Erie 28 47 30 

Etna 7 47 26 

Eureka 11 47 29 

Excelsior 6 47 27 

Fitch 24 47 28 

Forest City 35 48 27 

Foster 22 47 27 

23 47 27 

Foxdale 10 47 29 

Francis 27 45 25 

Gardner 2 44 25 

35 45 25 

Gibson 29 48 29 

Gilmore 26 47 26 

Goodrich 19 47 27 

Grand Central 6 47 26 



Grand Rapids 7 47 26 

Green Bay 8 47 26 



8W% of sw% 
SW14 of se^, 
se^ of swVL 
e^ of sw^ 



1905 



now 



Later Argyle, 

Sampson 1880 

Empire Iron Co. (Ogle- 
bay, Norton ft Co.).. P 
ne^ of nw% 1883 
ne% of nw!4 Formerly part of Man- 
ganese 1883 

nw^ of sw% Same as Peck, Hunger- 
ford and Harlow 1873 

1879 
1895 



se% of se% 
sw% of ne% 
lot 6, se^ of 
sw% 

se% of se^ 
sw% of sw% 
e^ of ne^ 
sw^ of nw^, 
sw% 

nw% of ne^ 
se^ of se% 
n^ of se% 
nw% of ne%, 
ne% of nw% 
w% of nw^4 
se% of sw^ 



sw% of nw% 
w% of nw% 



Gribben 28 47 26 8% of se% 



Gwinn . . 
Hartford 



.28 45 25 
.36 48 27 



Himrod 7 47 26 

Home 29 47 26 



Hortense 
Howe . . . 



.29 48 29 
.30 47 26 



Howell-Hoppock 
Humboldt 



.28 47 27 
.11 47 29 



nw% 

e^ of lot 5, 

lots 6 and 7 

n^ of se^ 
se% 

e\^ of ne% 

80% 



nw% of ne% 
n% of n% 



Hungerford and 
Harlow 



1881 

1898 
1905 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. U 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. D 
1887 

1879 
1882 

Later Iron Valley, New 
York Hematite, now 
part of Breitung Hem- 
atite 1878 

Later Wheeling, now 
Davis 1895 

Later Indiana, Bay 
State, part now in 
Mary Charlotte 1873 

Later Mesabi Friend, 
Consolidated, now 
Moore 1873 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 

Republic Iron & Steel 
Co. (M. A. Hanna & 
Co.) P 

Later Orion 1873 

Same as Prout, later 
Wheat, now Star West 1879 
1890 

Later Cascade, Palmer, 
now part In Volun- 
teer 1885 

1874 

Washington Iron Co. 
(E. N. Breitung Co.) . . 1896 



.11 47 29 nw% of bw% Same as Eureka, Peck. 1873 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



2S(> 



List Of iron mining properties 



Property Sac T R 

B Imperial 25 48 31 

Indiana 8 47 26 

Iron Cliffs 12 47 27 

Iron Mountain 14 47 27 

Iron Mountain 

Lake 14 47 27 

Iron Valley 6 47 26 

Isabella 29 47 26 

Jackson 1 47 27 

Jopling 28 45 25 

Keystone 32 48 29 

Kloman 6 46 29 

Lake 10 47 27 

Lake Angeline ....15 47 27 

Lake Superior Hard 

Ore 9 47 27 

10 47 27 



DMcription 



Operatiiiff ComiMuiy (Sales Aveots) 

Formerly Wetmore. 
(Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Co.) isi: 

Formerly Green Bay. 
later Bay State, pan 
now in Mary Char- 
lotte ISTS 

Same as Section 12.... \^i- 

Now part of Iron Moqb- 
tain Lake l^'^ 

Jones & Laughlin Ore 

Co D 

Formerly Grand Cen- 
tral, New York Hema- 
tite, now part of Brel- 

tung Hematite 1S»:' 

Cascade Mining Co.... D 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
Clejveland Cliffs Iron Co. U 
Now East Champion... \%^ 

Now Columbia 1875 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
Pittsburg & Lake An- 
geline Iron Co. (Jones 
& Laughlin Ore Co.). P 



Lake Superior 
Hematite 10 



47 27 



Lillie 35 48 27 

Lowthian 20 47 27 

Lloyd ....'. 6 47 27 

Luf!ky Star 5 47 26 

6 47 26 

Lucy 6 47 26 

7 47 26 

Maas 31 48 26 

6 47 26 

Mackinaw 35 45 25 

Magnetic 20 47 30 



nw% 

w^ of nw% 

ne^ of ne^ 
lot 6 

sw% 

se% of 8w)4 



s^ of sw^ 
entire 

nw% of ne% 
se^ of sw^ 
lot 4 
8e% 

n% of n%, 
se^ of ne^ 

n^ of se^ 
s^ of nw%, 
w^ of nw^ 
of 8W% 
8% of 8W%, 

ne^ of sw^, 
e^ of nw% 
of sw^ 
SW14 of se^ 



e^ of ne^ 
sw^ of nw^, 
n% of s^ 
part of sw^ 
part of se% 

w^ of 8W% 
nw% of nw^ 



part of s^ 
part of n^ 
n^ of se%, 
sw^ of se^ 
sw^ of nw^ 



Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 



Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 
Formerly Bessemer. Re- 
public Iron & Steel 
Co. (M. A. Hanna k 

Co.) P 

1883 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
Breitung Hematite Min- 
ing Co. (E. N. Brcl 

tung & Co.) D 

Part formerly Pendiil. 
£2ast Jackson, Me- 
Comber. Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Co W12 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. D 

1881 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



257 



Property 



Sec T 



Description 



Operating Company (Sales Asents) 



Manganese 
Marquette . 



Mary Charlotte 



McComber 

Metropolis 

Mesabe Friend 

Mexican 

Michigamme . . 

Michigan 



7 47 



8 47 



6 47 

7 47 
2 46 



Miller .... 
Milwaukee 
Mitchell .. 



.33 47 

.19 48 

20 48 

. 7 47 

18 47 

.21 47 

. 7 47 

.21 47 



Moore 28 47 

Moro 10 47 

Morris 1 47 

National 16 47 

Negaunee 5 47 

. 6 47 

32 48 

New Burt 19 47 

New England 20 47 

New York 3 47 

New York 

Hematite 6 47 



Nonpareil 5 47 

North Champion ..28 49 
North Republic .... 2 46 



26 n^ of ne^, 
ne% of nw^ 



26 8% of nw%, 
n% of sw% 



26 
26 
30 



.28 47 26 



30 
30 
28 
28 
27 
26 
27 



sw% of sw^ 
nw% of nw% 
se^ of ne^, 
ne^ of se^ 
s^ of se% 



ne^ of nw^ 

lot 5 

sw% of sw% 
nw% of nw% 
n% of nw^ 
se% of nw^ 
w% of se% 



26 s^ of se^ 



27 s^ of ne^ 



28 

27 
26 
26 

26 
27 
27 
27 



n% of s^, 
se^ of ne)4 
se% 

part of nw% 
part of 6% 
of ne% 
part of sw% 
ne% of ne^ 
nw% of nw% 
se\i of se% 



Part now Etna 

Picked from old rock 
dumps, probably near 
Winthrop 1892 

Part formerly Allen, 
part formerly part of 
Bay State, Indiana, 
Green Bay. Mary 
Charlotte Mining Co. 
(E. N. Breitung & 
Co.) P 

Now part of Lucy 1885 

Same as North Repub- 
lic 1888 

Formerly Grlbben, later 
Consolidated. now 
Moore 1896 

Now part of Carr 1873 

1900 

Later Conrad 1873 

1874 
1913 

Formerly Shenango. 

Pittsburg & Lake An- 
geline Iron Co. (Jones 
& Laughlln Ore Co) . . P 

Formerly Grlbben, Me- 
sabi Friend Consoli- 
dated 1904 

Part formerly in Cleve- 
land. (Cleveland-Cliffs 
Iron Co 1913 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
1884 



Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
1882 
1873 
1900 



26 se% of sw^ Formerly Grand Cen- 

tral, later Iron Valley, 
now part of Brei- 
tung Hematite 1882 

27 nw^ of nw% Formerly St. Lawrence. 1887 



30 



s^ of nw^ 
se^ of ne%, 
ne^ of se^ 



Same as Metropolis. 



1888 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



258 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property See T R 

Northwest 

Republic 19 47 30 

B Norwood 22 48 31 

Ogden 13 47 27 

B Ohio 22 48 31 

Orion 7 47 26 

B Orieans 23 48 31 

Palmer 30 47 26 

Parsons 16 47 27 

Pascoe 29 48 29 

Peck 11 47 29 

PendlU 6 47 26 

Phoenix 29 48 29 

Pioneer 4 47 26 

Piatt 32 47 26 

Pontiac 12 47 27 

B Portland 26 48 31 

Primrose Valley.... 28 47 26 

Prince of Wales... 5 47 26 

Princeton No. 1 .... 18 45 25 

19 45 25 

Princeton No. 2 20 45 25 

Prout 29 47 26 

Queen 5 47 26 

Race Track 6 47 26 

31 48 26 

Republic 7 46 29 

Richards 33 47 26 

Richmond 28 47 26 

Riverside 35 47 30 

Rowland 17 47 26 

Rolling Mill 7 47 26 

Saginaw 19 47 27 



DeBcription 



Operating Company (Sal« Affato) 



n^ Of 8e% 

S^ of BW^ 

sw% of sw% 
s^ of 8e% 

n^ of se^ 

8W% 

w^ of neM 
nw% of sw% 

nw% of sw% 

s^ of nw%, 
n^ of sw% 
nw% of 8W% 
nw% of ne% 
nw% of ne% 
n^ of nw% 

se!4 of sw% 

part of ne)4 

of sw»4 

se% 

ne% of ne% 

nw% 
8e!4 



part of se% 
of sw% 
part of n% 
of ne% 
part of s^ 
of se% 
e%, sw%, 
nw% of nw% 
nw% of ne% 
sw% of 8W% 

lots 1, 2 
nw% of 8W% 
8^ of ne% 

nw% of ne% 



1892 
18S8 
1897 

Niagara Iron Mining Co. 
(Rogers, Brown Iron 

Co.). 1912 

Formerly Himrod 1879 

Same as Stewart 1878 

Same as Cascade, form- 
erly Howe, now part 

In Volunteer 1894 

1873 

1886 

Same as Eureka, Hun- 
gerford and Harlow.. 1873 

Later East Jackson, now 
part of Lucy 1884 

Formerly Dalliba 1887 

1888 
1896 
1895 
Niagara Iron Mining Co. 
(Rogers, Brown Iron 

Co.) 1910 

1896 

Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 
Part formerly Cheshire. 
Cleveland-ClifEs Iron 

Co 1912 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 
Same as Home, later 
Wheat, now Star 
West 1879 

Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 



Oliver Iron Mining Co.. U 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 

1887 

Richmond Ore Co. (M. 
A. Hanna & Co.) P 

1893 

1877 
Once Chester, Jones lb 

Laughlin Ore Co P 

1884 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



259 



Property 



Sec T R 



Deacription Opcntinff Company (Sales Asants) 



Salisbury 



.15 



Sam Mitchell 
Section 5 5 



47 27 8% of nw%. 

sw^ of ne% Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 



47 26 ne% of se^ 



Sampson 



2 47 29 



Schadt 

Section 12 12 47 27 

Section 16 9 47 27 

16 47 27 

Section 21 21 47 27 

Shenango 21 47 27 

South Buffalo 5 47 26 

B Spurr 24 48 31 

Stor West 29 47 26 

Stegmiller 17 45 25 

St. Lawrence 5 47 27 

Stephenson 20 45 25 

Sterling 32 48 28 

B Stewart 23 48 31 

Swanzy 18 45 25 

B Taylor 9 49 33 

Tilden 23 47 27 

26 47 27 

B Titan 21 48 31 

Volunteer 30 47 26 

Volunteer 30 47 26 

31 47 26 

Washington 

B Webster 26 48 31 

West End 31 47 26 

West Republic .... 7 46 29 

B Wetmore 25 48 31 

Wheat 29 47 26 

Wheeling 7 47 26 

Wicks 32 47 26 

Winthrop 21 47 27 



sw^ of se^, 
se^ of sw^ 

ne% of ne% 
se% of 8e% 
e% of ne%, 
nw^ of ne^ 
w% of ne%, 
8^ of nw% 
w^ of se^ 
sw^ of se^ 
8^ of nw%. 
n^ of sw^ 

lots 5, 6 
nw% of nw% 
8^ of 8W% 

W% of 8W% 

e% 

sw% of ne% 

ne!4 of nw54 

8W% of se% 

nwi4 of ne% 

lot 1 

w% of nw% 

8% of 8% 

n% of n% 



n^ of ne%, 
8e% of ne\i 
n% of nw% 
lots 4, 6 

nw% 
se% 

8w% of nw% 

nw% of ne% 

sw% 



I^ater East Buffalo, now 
Delaware & Lacka- 
wanna 1886 

Formerly Argyle, Ed- 
wards 1892 

Etna? or Manganese?.. 1895 

Same as Iron ClifTs 1882 



Oliver Iron Mining Co. . P 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. . 1913 

Now Mitchell 1877 

1895 

1886 
Formerly Home, Prout, 

Wheat 1900 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. . P 

Now Nonpareil 1883 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. P 

Now American 1886 

Same as Orleans 1878 

1887 
1883 

1902 
1887 

Volunteer Ore Co. (M. 
A. Hanna & Co.) P 

Parts formerly Howe, 
Palmer, Cascade, 
West End 1904 

Included in Barron, 
East Hill and Hum- 
boldt 

1900 

Now in Volunteer 

Now part of Republic. 1887 

Now Imperial 1889 

Formerly Howe, Prout, 

now Star West 1895 

Formerly Grand Rapids, 

now Davis 1887 

Now Piatt 1882 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. . 1903 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



26o list of 1.<0n mining properties 

Menominee Range. 

Proi>erties in Dickinson county are marked "D" ; in Flor- 
ence county, Wisconsin "F"; in Iron county **L" Dickinson 
and Iron counties are in Michigan. 

Property Sec T R Description Operating Company (Sales AsenU) 

I Alpha 12 42 33 sw^ of bw% 1890 

I Amasa Porter 22 44 33 e% of ne% Nevada Land Co D 

D Appleton 7 39 28 ne^ of 8W^ Formerly Sturgeon Riv- 
er 1895 

D Aragon 8 39 29 ne^, ne% of Part formerly Harriaon. 

nw^ Oliver Iron Mining 
9 39 29 n% of nw% Co P 

I Arenson 23 43 35 e^ of nw^ Republic Iron & Steel 

of 8e% Co U 

I Armenia 23 43 32 e^ of se^ Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) 1914 

F Badger (Wis.) ....34 40 18H2 se^ of se% 1900 

I Baker 31 , ' ' 8^ of 8W% Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan. Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) P 

X Balkan 13; . t^'.res in Part formerly Mastodon. 

se% of nw^, Balkan Mining Co. 
ne%, ne^ of (Pickands, Mather & 
nw!4 Co.) P 

I Baltic 7 ^49 34 w^ of w^ Verona Mining Co. 

(Pickands, Mather & 
Co.) P 

I Bates 19 43 34 nw% Bates Iron Co. (M. A. 

Hanna & Co.) P 

I Bengal 3G 43 35 n^ of se% Verona Mining Co. 

(Pickands, Mather & 
«" Co.) P 

I Berkshire 6 42 34 nw% of sw%, Brule Mining Co. (Ogle- 

sw% of nw% bay, Norton & Co.).. 1913 

J Beta 26 43 35 ne% of 8w% 1891 

I Blair 29 43 34 sw% Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Klnney & Co.) U 

nBreen 22 39 28 nw% of ne%, 

^ ni^ of nw% Mineral Mining Co 1907 

D Brier Hill 9 39 29 s% of nw% Now in Penn Group; 

connected with West 
Vulcan, 1892 

I Bristol 19 43 32 e% of 8e% Formerly Claire. Bristol 

Mining Co. (oglebay, 
Norton A Co.) P 

F Buckeye (Wis.) ...33 40 18E s% of se% Reserve Mining Co. 

(Oglebay, Norton & 
Co.) P 

I Buckholtz 27 43 35 ne% of se^ Enterprise Mining Co.. D 

D Calumet 8 41 28 seVi of nw%. 

8W% of ne% 1884 

I Carpenter 31 43 32 n^ of sw% Hollister Mining Co. 

(M. A. Hanna ft Co.) P 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING mSTITUTE 



261 



Property 



See T R 



Description 



Opemtinff Company (Sales Asents) 

Nevada Land Co U 

Verona Mining Go. 
(Plckands, Mather ft 
Co.) P 

Now in Penn Group; 
east part connected 
with East Vulcan, 
1892 

Part formerly Hamilton 
and Ludington. Oliver 
Iron Mining Co P 

Part formerly Riverton. 

Brule Mining Co. 
• (Oglebay, Norton ft 

Co.) P 

Munro Mining Co. 

(Rogers, Brown Iron 

Co.) P 

w Bristol 1898 

.oine Ore Co. (Ogle- 
ay, Norton & Co.).. P 
rmerly Shafer ft Shel- 
don, Union. Crystal 
Falls Iron Mining Co. 
(Conigan McKinney 
^ & Co.) 1912 

1892 
Antoine Ore Co. (Ogle- 
bay, i^orton ft Co.).. 1887 
Brule Mining Co. (Ogle- 
••ay Norton ft Co.) ... U 
1913 
1909 
1900 

1909 
Now in Penn Group; 
connected with West 

Vulcan, 1892 

Now in Penn Group 1892 

Same as Field 

Davidson Ore Mining 
Co. (New York State 
Steel Co.) P 

Formerly Goodman . 
Davidson Ore Mining 
Co. (New York State 
Steel Co.) P 

Verona Mining Co. 
(Pickands. Mather ft 
Co.) u 



I Carpenter 13 

^ Caspian 1 



D Central Vulcan 10 

D Chapin 30 

25 
I Chatham 35 

36 

I Chicagon 23 

26 

I Claire 19 

D Clifford 20 

I Columbia 31 43 32 



42 


33 


8W% of nw% 


42 


35 


ne% 


39 


29 


part of entire 
section 


40 


30 


8W%, SW% Of 

8e% 


40 


31 


n% of se%, 
se% of se% 


43 


35 


e% of ne%, 
ne% of se^ 


43 


•35 


w^ of nw% 
of nw% 


43 


34 


sw^ of se^ 


43 


34 


wMj of ne%, 
se% of ne% 
ne% of se% 


43 


32 


e^ of sei 


40 


30 


n^ of r 



nwW 



p Commonwealth 

(Wis.) 34 40 18Esw% 

D Cornell 20 40 30 lots 3. 4 

I Corry 6 42 34 ne% of 8W% 

I Cortland 34 43 35 e% of se% 

I Crystal Falls 21 43 32 e% of ne% 

D Cuff 22 40 30 sw% 

D Cundy 3 39 30 n% of ne%, 

ne!4 of nw% 

D Curry 9 39 29 w% of ne% 

D Cyclops 5 39 29 s% of se»4 

F Davidson 

(Wis.) 34 40 18B nw% of se% 

I Davidson No. 1 23 43 35 ne^ of nw^ 

I Davidson No. 2 14 43 35 w^ of se^ 



I DeGrasse 7 42 34 ne% 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



262 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property 



See T R 



Description Opcrmtinff Company (Sales Asents) 



I Delphic 24 

I Dober 1 

I Dunn 1 

36 

D East Vulcan 11 

jy Emmett . . •. 22 

J Erickson 21 

p Ernst (Wis.) 27 

I Fairbanks 20 

D Federal 25 

DFew 6 

F Field (Wis.) 34 

F Florence (Wis.) ..20 
I Fogarty 1 



42 33 ne^ of sw% 

42 35 nw^ 

42 33 w^ of nw^ 

43 33 8^ of se^ 

39 29 sw^, s^ of 
se^ 

39 28 ne^ of ne% 
43 34 sw^ 

40 18E sw^ of sw^ 

43 32 ne% of se)4 
40 31 s^ of nw^, 
n^ of sw^ 

39 29 8^ of nw!4 

40 18E nw^ of se^ 

40 18E ne^ of se^, 

se^ of ne% 

42 35 se% of se^ 



1887 
Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 
Dunn Iron Mining Ck). 
(Corrigan^ McKinney 
& Co.) P 

Now in Penn Group.... 1892 
1881 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. U 
Florence Iron Co. (M. 

A. Hanna & Co.) P 

Now Paint River 1883 



Oliver Iron Mining Co. 



I Forbes 14 43 35 e% of 8w% 



D Forest 25 

I Genesee 30 



I Gibson 15 

I Goodman 13 

14 

I Goodman 14 

I Great Western 21 



I Great Western 
Extension ... 



.21 



D Groveland 31 

Half and Half 

D Hamilton 30 

J) Harrison 8 

I Hemlock 4 

Hersel 

J) Hewitt 31 

I Hiawatha 35 

I HUl Top 28 



40 30 ne^ of sw^ 
43 32 se!4 



44 33 nw^ of nw% 

42 33 nw^ of sw^ 

42 33 e^ of se^ 

43 35 w^ o; se% 
43 32 e^ of sw^ 



43 32 sw^ of se^ 
42 29 n^ of ae% 

40 30 n^ of 8w^ 

39 29 8^ of ne^ 

44 33 sw^ of 8W14 



40 30 nw^ of ne^» 

ne^ of nw^ 
43 35 sw^ of 86)4 

43 3? sw% of nw%, 
l9t 3 



1910 



Same as Davidson 
(Wis.) 

Florence Iron Co. (M. 
A. Hanna & Co.).... 1913 

Verona Mining Co. 
(Pickands. Mather & 
Co.) P 

Jones & Laughlin Ore 

Co P 

1904 

Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (CoMgan Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) 191J 

1911 



Nevada Land Co 

Now Davidson No. 2... 

Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney ft Co.) 

CrysUl Fal!s Iron Mln- 
Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney ft Co.) 

Lake Erie Ore Co 

Picked from old rock 
piles 

Now part of Chapin 

Now part of Aragon... 

Hemlock River Mining 
Co. (Pickands, Mather 
& Co.) 



r 

1912 
ISOS 



u 

1913 

1891 
1S9.> 
1897 



P 

1S90 



Now Millie 18S0 

Munro Mining Co. (Rog- 
ers, Brown Iron Co.) . . P 

Cu^hoga Mining Ck).. , . . f 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



263 



Property 



S«c T R Description Opentinff CkMnpany (Sales Agents) 



I Hollister . 
I Homer . . . 



.13 43 32 
.23 43 35 



I Hope 27 43 32 

D Indiana 27 40 30 

I Iron River 35 43 35 

36 43 35 

I Isabella 36 43 35 



I James 
I JudsoD 



D Keel Ridge 
I KimbaU ... 
I Konwinskl 



...23 43 35 

...13 42 33 

...32 40 30 

...29 43 33 

...23 43 35 



1 Lament 20 43 32 

I Lee Peck 20 43 32 

I Lincoln 21 43 32 

D Loretto 7 39 28 

I Lot 3 20 42 32 

D Lowell 11 39 29 



D Ludington 
I. Manhattan 
I Mansfield . 



X Mastodon 

I McDonald 

I McGillis .. 

I McGovern 



..25 40 31 

.13 42 33 

.17 43 31 

20 43 31 

.13 42 33 

.23 43 32 

. 1 42 35 

.22 43 35 



D Metropolitan 
I Michaels 



.32 42 28 
.29 43 34 



I Michigan 9 44 33 

D Millie 31 40 30 

I Minckler 23 43 35 

1 Monitor 20 49 35 



w^ of sw^ Hollister Mining Co. 

(M. A. Hanna & Co.). 1911 
w^ of nw%, Wickwlafe Mining Co. 
nw% of sw% (Wick wire Steel Co.) D 

e% of se% Formerly Wauneta 1893 

ne% of ne% Thomas Furnace Co P 

e^ of ne% Later part oif Riverton, 
w^ of nw^ part now in Chatham. 1899 
sw% of sw% Formerly part of River- 
ton. Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Co 1900 

Now Osana 1910 



n^ of ne% 

se^ af nw% 

except 5 acres, 

ne% of sw% 

se^ 

se% of se% 

8w% of ne!4* 

8e% of nw% 

lot 6 

8W% of ne% 

w% of sw% 



Judson Mining Co. (Ne- 

fvada Land Co.) 

Now* part of Pewabic. 



Now Wauseca . . . 
Formerly Monitor 



P 

1899 
1907 

1911 
1910 
1889 



w% of sw%, 
sw^ of nw^ 
lot 3 
s^ of sw^ 



n^ of se%, 
se% of se^ 
nw% of se^ 

lot 5 

lot 8 

8^ of ne^ 

se% of ne^ 

ne% of se^ 

e% of neM 

n% of ne% 
Be% 

ne% of nw^ 
nwi4 of ne%, 
ne^ of nw^ 

ne% of sw% 
w^ of nw% 
of se% 
lot 6 



Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) 

Loretto Iron Co. (M. A. 
Hanna & Co.) 

Later part of East Vul- 
can, now in Penn 
Group 

Now part of Chapin.. 
Same as South Masto- 
don 



1908 

P 

1882 



Now part of Balkan 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. . 

Wickwire Mining Co. 

(Wickwire Steel Co.). 

Crystal Falls Iron Min 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. . 

Formerly Hewitt. Desau 
Mining Co. (M. A. 
Hanna & Co.) 

Republic Iron & Steel 
Co 



Npw Lament 



1894 
1890 

1911 

1895 

1913 

U 

U 
1888 



U 
P 



1909 
U 

1894 



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264 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property 



Sec T R 



DcaeripUon 



Opcntiiiff Company (Sak 1 A<ciit»l 



I Monongahela 



...36 43 



D Munro 6 39 

I Nan&imo 26 43 

1 Neely 12 42 

D Northwestern .. ..32 42 

D Norway 6 39 

1 Osana 23 43 

I Paint Rfver 20 48 

D Penn Group 6 39 

6 39 

9 3i9 



10 39 

11 39 

D Perkins 4 39 

Perry 

D Pewabic 32 40 

I Pufcell 14 43 

D Quinnesec 34 40 

1 Ravenna 19 43 

I Riverton 35 43 

36 43 

I Rogers 29 43 

D Saginaw 4 39 

I Selden 35 43 

I Sheldon and 

Shafer 31 43 

I Sheriden 26 43 

I Sherwood 23 43 

I South Mastodon ...13 42 

I Spies 24 43 

D Stephenson 4 39 



33 n% of ne^» 
se^ of ne% 
ne% of nw^ 

29 nw^ of se^, 
ne!4 of sw% 

36 nw% of sw% 
33 n^ of ne%, 
ne% of nw^ 

28 n^ of nw!4 

29 n^ of se^ 
35 n% of ne% 



35 
35 

33 



Hollister Mining Co. (M. 
A. Hanna & Co.) l^C 

Munro Mining Co. 
(Rogers, Brown Iron 
Co.) ir.2 

Mineral Mining Co.... mi 



32 ne% of 8W%, 
lot 5 

29 s% 

29 e% of 86% 

29 w% of ne%, 
Bw^, of ne^r 
B% of nw%, 
nw% of se^, 
e% of 80% 

29 entire 

29 6W%. 8% of 

29 8W% of sw% 

30 entire 

35 w% of sw% 

30 86% 

32 8% of n%. 

8W% 

W% of 86% 

35 6% of ne% 
35 w% of w% 

34 ne% 



CleYeland-ClUEs Iron Co. 

Now in Penn Group — 
Formerly James. Miner- 
al Mining Co. (Pick- 
ands, Mather ft Co.) . . 
Formerly Fairbanks ... 



U 
1903 

18?! 

P 
189! 



Formerly East Vulcan, 
Central Vulcan, West 
Vulcan Curry,. Brier 
Hill, Norway, Cyclops. 
Penn Iron Mining Co. 
(Cambria Steel Co.) . . 



29 8w% of sw% 
35 ne% of 86% 

32 nw% 



Formerly Saginaw — 1S91 
18S'> 

Pewabic Co. (Pickands, 
Mather & Co.) P 

isn 

1910 

Hollister Mining Co. 
(M. A. Hanna ft Co.) P 

Part formerly Iron Riv- 
er, part now in Chat- 
ham, and IsabeHa... 1^^- 

Munro Mining Ca 
(Rogers, Brown Iron 
Co.) P 

Now Perkins 1*'' 

Now part of Chatham.. 1SS5 



Formerly Union 
Columbia 



now 



86% of S<B% 

86% of n6%, Republic Iron 



1894 
190"} 



ne% of 86% 
nw% of 86% 



Steel 

Co ^ 

Same as Manhattan.... 1^^ 



35 6% of nw% Cl6velaii4'<7Uft^ Ir^D 9^- ^' 



29 nw% of 8w% 



m' 



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LA&t &\JPEki6K MINING INSTITUTE 



265 



Proi»erl> S«c T R Description 

D Sturgeon River 7 39 28 

I Tobin 30 43 32 

D Traders 17 40 30 

I TuUy 36 43 35 

I Union 31 43 32 

D Verona 14 39 29 

I Victoria 22 43 32 

I Virgil 24 43 35 

D Vivian 34 40 30 

D Walpole 29 40 30 

30 40 30 

31 40 30 
I Warner 9 44 33 

I Wauneta 27 43 32 

I Wauseca 23 43 36 

D West Vulcan 9 39 29 

I White 20 43 34 

I Wickwire 35 43 35 

I Young 6 42 34 

I Youngs 12 42 35 e% of e% 

I Youngstown 20 43 32 w% of 8W% 

I Zimmerman 7 42 34 e^ of nw% 



Opcntinff CkNBi»any (Sal«B Aflrents) 

Now Appleton 1879 

Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) 191d 

Antoine Ore Co. (Ogle- 
bay. Norton k Ce.).. 1907 

Crystal Falls Iron Min- 
ing Co. (Corrigan, Mc- 
Kinney & Co.) P 

Later Sheldon and Shaf- 

er, now Columbia 1882 

1904 

Cuyhoga Mining Co P 

Wickwire Mining Co. 
(Wickwire Steel Co.) 1914 
1912 



1891 
Hemlock River Mining 
Co. (PickandSp Mather 

A Co.) D 

Now Hope 1887 

Formerly Konwinski. 
Mineral Mining Co. 
(PickandSp Mather & 
Co.) P 



Now in Penn Group 1892 

Swallow and Hopkins.. U 
Wickwire Mining Co. 

(Wickwire Steel Co.) . P 
Verona Mining Co. 
(PickandSp Mather & 

Co.) U 

1913 
1887 



ne^ of 8W% 

sw% 

8% Of SW% 

8% Of se^ 

nw% 

n% of ne^ 
nw^ of nw% 
sw^ of nw^ 

s^ of sw^ 
8^ of Bhi 
e^ of se^ 
e^ of ne% 
e^ of se^ 



e% of se!4 
8W% of ne^p 
se% of nw^ 

8e% of ne%, 
nw% of se^ 
e% of Be% 
e^ of nw% 
nw% of ne%, 
ne^ of nw^ 
8% of sw% 



Spring 
Co.. 



Valley Mining 



Gogebic Range. 

Properties in Michigan are in Grogebic county, in Wiscon- 
sin in Iron county. 

Property Sec T R Description Operetinsr Ck>inpany (Sales Agents) 



/Ida 



Alpha 



.17 47 46 8% 



9 47 45 e% of nw% 



Formerly Ruby, Ironton, 
and Federal, now Pur- 
itan, Ironton, and Wi- 
nona 1903 

Part now in Pike 1895 



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266 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property 



See T R 



Deseriptioii Operating Company (JSaleB A^wte) 



Anvil 14 47 46 ne% 



Ashland 


..22 


47 


47 


8% of 8W% 




27 


47 


47 


part of nV& 
of nw% 


Asteroid 


..13 


47 


46 


ne% 


Atlantic (Wis.) . . 


.. 1 


45 


IE 


8% of ne%, 
11% of 8e%. 
8W% of se^. 
e% of 8W%, 
sw% of 8W% 




12 


45 


IB 


nw% of nw% 


Aurora 


..23 


47 


47 


e% of sw% 


Bessemer (Wis.) 










Blue Jacket 


.. 8 


47 


46 


8e% 


Bonnie 


..13 


47 


47 


se% of se% 




24 


47 


47 


ne% 


Brotherton 


.. 9 


47 


45 


n% of 8e%, 
se^ of ne% 


Gary (Wis.) .... 


..26 


46 


2E 


nw% 




26 


46 


2E 


n% of ne% 




27 


46 


2E 


8e% of ne%. 
ne% of 8e% 



Castile 10 47 45 e% 

Chicago 8 47 45 e% ot ne% 

9 47 45 w% of nw% 

Colby 16 47 46 ne% 

Comet 11 47 45 s% of 8W% 

Crown Point 9 47 45 n% of se!4 

Dangler 13 47 46 w% of nw% 

Davis 19 47 46 n% of nw% 

East Norrie 23 47 47 w% of sw% 

Eureka 13 47 46 n% of nw% 



Federal 17 47 46 e% of se% 

First National 19 47 46 nw% 

Geneva 18 47 46 sw% 

Germania (Wis.) ..24 46 2E s% of sw% 

25 46 2E nH of nw^ 



Newport Mining Ck>. (M. 
A. Hanna & Co.) P 



Hayes Mining Co P 

CastUe Mining Co. 
(Oglebay, Norton A 
Co.) P 



Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 
Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 

Now Royal 18J" 

Newport Mining Co. (M. 

A. Hanna ft Co.) P 

Part formerly Crown 

Point. Brotherton Iron 

Mining Co. (Pickands. 

Mather & Co.) P 

Parts formerly Kaka- 
gon, Nimikon, Super- 
ior, West Cary and 
Windsor. Odanah Iron 
Co. (Pickands, Mather 
Co.) P 

CastUe Mining Co. 
(Oglebay, Norton ft 
Co.) P 

Part formerly SparU.. 1903 
Corrigan, McKinney ft 

Co P 

Now part of Meteor.... 1&*^ 
Now part of Brotherton li^f 
Part now In Eureka... 18^2 
Formerly part of First 
National. Oliver Iron 

Mining Co P 

Olfiver Iron Mining Co.. P 
Part formerly of Dang- 
ler. Castile Mining 
Co. (Oglebay, Norton 

& Co.) P 

Later part of Ada, 

now Winona ^^l 

Part now in Davie.... 18«< 
Oliver Iron Mining Co. . P 
Harmony Iron Co- 
(Hayes Mining Co.).. 1^^^ 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



2(>^ 



Property 



Sec T R 



Deseription Operating Company (Sales Aflrents) 



Hennipin (Wis.) ..34 46 
Houghton County... 11 47 
Iron Belt (Wis.) ..11 45 



Iron Chief 10 47 

Iron King 24 47 

Ironton 17 47 

Jack Pot 16 47 

Kakagon (Wis.) ...26 46 

Keweenaw 11 47 

Meteor 11 47 

Mikado 18 47 

Minnewawa (Wis.). 24 46 

Montreal (Wis.) ...33 47 

Mount Hope 24 47 

Newport 24 47 



Nimikon 



.26 47 



NoiTie 22 47 

North Aurora 23 47 

North Nonrie 22 47 

North Pabst ......23 47 

Odanah (Wis.) ....27 46 

Ottawa (Wis.) ....27 46 



Pabst 23 47 

Palms 14 47 

Pence (Wis.) 32 46 

Pike 9 47 



2E 


ne% 


46 


8% of sw% 


IE 


ne^, se^ of 

iiw% 

ne% of sw%. 

w% of BW% 


46 


e% of sw% 


47 


nw% 


46 


w% of se% 


46 


n% of sw^ 


2E 


e% of nw% 


46 


s% of se% 


45 


8W%, 8% of 

nw% 


45 


nw%, nw% of 
ne^ 


2B 


lots 4, 5 


2E 


w% of ne%, 
nw% 


47 


nw% 


47 


nwi4 


2E 


n% of ne% 


47 


s% of se% 


47 


s% of nw% 


47 


n% of 80% 


47 


n% of ne% 


2E 


e% of 8w%, 
w% of se^ 


2E 


eMs of 8w%, 
w% of 80% 


47 


8% of ne% 


46 


nw% 


2E 


86% 


45 


8W% of ne%, 
se% of nw% 



Newport Mining Co. 



1912 
U 



1909 
Now part of Sunday 

Lake 1887 

Later Mount Hope, now 

Newport 1889 

Once part of Ada. Cor- 
rigan, McKinney & 

Co 1914 

Formerly part of Valley 1904 

Now part of Cary 

Newport Mining Co U 

Part formerly Comet. 
Castile Mining Co., 
(Oglebay, Norton & 

Co.) D 

Verona Mining Co., 
(Pickands, Mather & 

Co.) P 

Hayes Mining Co P 

Part formerly Section 
33, Trimble. Montreal 
Mining Co. (Oglebay, 

Norton & Co.) P 

Formerly Iron King, 

now Newport 1891 

Formerly Iron King, 
Mount Hope. Newport 
Mining Co. (M. A. 

Hanna & Co.) P 

Later Windsor, now part 

of Cary 1886 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. P 
Oliver Iron Mining Co. P 
Oliver Iron Mining Co. P 
Oliver Iron Mining Co. P 

Now Ottawa 

Formerly Odanah. Mon- 
treal Mining Co. 
(Oglebay, Norton ft 
Co.) P 

Oliver Iron Mining Co.. P 

Newport Mining Co. (M. 

A. Hanna &, Co.) P 

1912 

Part formerly in Alpha. 1910 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



268 



LIST OF IRON MINING PROPERTIES 



Property S«c T 

Pilgrim 18 47 

Plumer (Wis.) 6 45 

Presque Isle 21 47 

Puritan 17 47 

Royal 18 47 

Ruby 17 47 

Section No. 3 

(Wis.) 33 46 

Shores iWis.) ....10 45 



Detcription Opentinff Company (Sales Agents) 



45 

2E 
43 

46 



46 
46 

2E 
IE 



ne% of ne^, 

8% of ne% 

n^ 

w% of w%, 

ne^ of nw% 

8W% 



Spari:a 9 

Sunday Lake 10 



80% 
8W% 

e% of nw% 
80^4 of sw%, 

80% 

w% of nw% 
w% 



Pickands, Mather & Co. 
Oliver Iron Mining (3o.. 

Presque Isle Mining Co. 
Formerly Ruby and part 

of Ada. Oliver Iron 

Mining Co 

Formerly Blue Jacket. 

Oliver Iron Mining Co. 
Later part of Ada, now 

Puritan 

Now part of Montreal.. 



U 
P 



1899 



47 45 w% of nw% Now part of Chicago... 1895 
47 45 w% Part formerly Iron 

Chief. Sunday Lake 
Iron Co. (Pickands, 

Mather & Co.) P 

Superior (Wis.) ...27 46 2E se% of ne%, 

ne% of se% Now part of Cary P 

Tilden 15 47 46 n% OUver Iron Mining Co. . P 

Trimble (Wis.) 33 46 2E nw% of ne% Now part of Montreal.. 

Tylers Forks 

(Wis.) 33 45 IW nw% of se% 

VaUey 16 47 46 s% of nw%. 

n% of sw% 

Vaughn 23 47 47 n% of se% 

Wakefield 16 47 45 w% of nw%, 

nw% of sw% 
17 47 45 s% of n%, 

n% of 8% 
West Colby 16 47 46 s% of nw% 

West Cary (Wis.).. 26 46 2E w% of nw% 
Windsor (Wis.) ...26 46 2E n% of ne% 

Winona 17 47 46 e% of se% 

Yale 16 47 46 s% of nw% 



Part later West Colby, 
now Yale, part now 
Jackpot 1896 

Oliver Iron Mining (^.. P 



Wakefield Mining Ck>. 
(M. A. Hanna ft Co.) . P 

Formerly part of Valley, 
now Yale 1903 

Now part of Cary 

Formerly Nimikon. now 
part of Cary P 

Formerly Federal, part 
of Ada. Corrigan. Mc- 
Kinney & Co 1914 

Formerly part of Valley, 
later West Colby 

Lake Superior Iron ft 
Chemical Co. (Ogle- 
bay, Norton ft Co.).. P 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 269 



REPORT OF THE FIRST ANNUAL FIRST-AID 
CONTEST. 

BY C. S. STEVENSON, ANNOUNCER. 

Historical — Although the inception of the work of first- 
aid to the injured and the use of mine rescue breathing ap- 
paratus, in the Lake Superior district, followed the develop- 
ment of this work in other districts, yet since the inauguration 
of this w^ork four or five years ago, its development has been 
rapid throughout the entire district, and at the present time 
scarcely a company remains which has not given serious at- 
tention to the instruction of miners in work of this character. 

The development of the idea of safety in mining has per-, 
haps resulted largely from the tremendous "Safety First" 
movement which has invaded all industries throughout Amer- 
ica within the past 10 years. In the year 191 1 and 1912 sev- 
eral safety inspectors of mining companies and county mine 
inspectors from Michigan and Minnesota attended the Nation- 
al Mine Safety Demonstrations at Pittsburgh, Pa. These men 
returned with a greater appreciation of the development of 
safety work in other districts and with a renewed determina-? 
tion for the fullest development of safety in mining through- 
out the Lake Superior mining district. In the year 191 2 this 
interest resulted in a request from the Lake Superior district, 
which was presented to the Federal Bureau of Mines, asking 
for the permanent establishment of a mine rescue car in the 
district The Bureau of Mines acted favorably on this request 
and in November, 191 2. the government instructors arrived, 
followed shortly thereafter by the rescue car, which was in 
course of construction. This car has up to the present time 
given training throughout the entire district and the present 
development of the work of first-aid to the injured and in the 
use of mine rescue breathing apparatus is largely a compliment 
to this governmental assistance. 

In the year 191 2 the Institute appointed a Committee on 
the Practice for the Prevention of Accidents and this commit- 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



270 REPORT OF FIRST-AID CONTEST 

tee represented the first active interest by the Institute in safe- 
ty work. This committee in session with the President and 
Secretary of the Institute in a meeting held at Ishpeming, on 
April loth, 1914, considered the possibility of holding a joint 
program in first-aid and mine rescue work in conjunction 
with the American Mine Safety Association. The possibility 
of having such a joint program in connection w^ith the annual 
meeting of the Institute was fully discussed. However, the 
plans of the Institute were such that only one day could be 
devoted to this feature and as a consequence the committee 
recommended holding the first-aid contest under the auspices 



Treatment for Burns by the Lake Mine Team op The Cleveland-Cuffs Iron Co. 

of the Institute. The report also suggested that later coopera- 
tion with the American Mine Safety Association in such a 
program might be given. It was further recommended that 
the Institute hold a first-aid contest each year as a feature of 
its annual program. 

Preliminary Announcement — On June 18, 19 14, the Com- 
mittee of the Institute on the Practice for the Prevention of 
Accidents addressed a preliminary announcement to the min- 
ing companies of the Lake Superior district to the effect that 
a first-aid contest would be held at Ishpeming, Michigan, in 
connection with the annual meeting of the Institute and out- 
lining the rules to be followed in the contest and the discounts 
for judging. These rules and discounts are given below. 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2Jl 

ENTRANCE RULES. 

1. All entries shall close July 20th» and must be filed with Wil- 
liam Conibear, Ishpeming, Michigan. 

2. A team is composed of five men, including a captain. 

3. Each team will select its own patient in addition to the five 
operating members thereof, or will have a miner present, selected 
for them. 

4. All members of a team shall be bona fide mine workers. 

5. The teams will bring their own first-aid material, including 
bandages, splints, blankets, stretchers, etc., and will not be allowed 
to leave the patient to secure material. 

CONTEST RULES. 

1. The captain will select the patient and designate the member 
or members of the team to perform the event 

2. The captain will control his team in their field of work by 
giving audible commands. 

3. The captain may select himself as one of the members who 
will perform the event. 

4. The captain or other members will not prompt the person 
performing the event unless he is one of the performers. This will 
not apply to full team events. 

5. At the conclusion of any event the captain will raise his 
right hand and announce his team number. The team will remain at 
post until relieved by the judges. 

G. The triangular bandage will be the standard used in the con- 
test, but roller bandages may be used and equal credit will be given 
for their proper use as with the triangular bandages. 

7. All splints must be prepared on the field for each event re- 
quiring their use. Specially designed splints may be used, but they 
must be assembled during the time of each event requiring their use. 

8. No practicing will be allowed on the field before the beginning 
of the contest. 

9. The teiams will be numbered consecutively, beginning at No. 1, 
and they will occupy their consecutive positions on the field. 

10. Each Judge will mark the team number, event, and discounts 
for each team Judged, sign his name and deliver, to tbe recorder, his 
record. 

11. The recorder will foot up the discounts and mark points made 
by each telam in each event. The total points will be divided by the 
number of events and the quotient will be the average for each team 
for the whole contest. 

12. Time will not be an element unless the team or men perform- 
ing run over the alloted time or fail to give treatment properly. All 
events shall commence and be finished at the sounding of a gong. 

13. All exception to these rules must be made to the Committee 
. on the Practice for the Prevention of Accidents, Mr. Charles E. 

Lawrence, Chairman, Palatka, Michigan, not later than 30 days prior 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 



2^2 kEPORT OF FlkST-AtD COKtEST 

to the day of the contest. The decision of the Committee will be 
final. 

DISCOUNTS FOR JUDGING FIRST-AID CONTEST. 

Discounts 
(Points) 

1. Not doing the most important thing first . .- S 

2. Failure of captain to command properly 2 

3. Slowness in work and lack of attention 4 

4. Failure to entirely cover the wound or being unable to give 
location of injury 4 

5. Ineffective artificial respiration 10 

6. Splint improperly padded or applied 2 

7. Tight, loose, or improperly applied bandage 6 

8. Insecure or granny knot 5 

9. Unclean first-aid material 5 

10. Failure to have on hand sufficient and proper material to 
complete a dressing 5 

11. Lack of neatness 2 

12. Awkward handling of patient 5 

13. Assistance lent by patient 5 

14. Tourniquet improperly applied 5 

15. Failure to stop bleeding 5 

16. Not treating shock 5 

17. Failure to be aseptic 10 

18. Improper treatment 10 

19. Failure to finish in the allotted time should be discounted 1 
point for each minute over time. 

A second announcement was distributed on July loth to 
those companies who had signified their intention of entering 
teams in the contest. In this announcemetit the date and place 
of holding the contest was given and twenty first-aid prob- 
lems were submitted from which ten were to be selected for 
the contest. These problems and additional rules which were 
included in this announcement are given below. 

EVENTS. 

No. 1. One-Man Event — Treat a lacerated wound of the forehead 
and a lacerated wound in the palm of the right haad. 

No. 2. One-Man Event — Treat a lacerated wound on the point of 
the left shoulder and a scald of the right hland and right fore-arm. 

No. 3. One-Man Event — ^Right cheek cut and bleeding; right fore- 
arm <;ut and bleeding. 

No. 4. One-Man Event — Treat a simple fracture of the right collar- 
bone and simple fracture of the lower Jaw. 

No. 5. Two-Men Event— Treat a dislocated shoulder and simple 
fracture of right leg. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 273 

No. 6. Two-Men Event — Flesh torn off back of left hand; compound 
fracture of the right arm. 

No. 7. Three-Men Event — Left ear torn off; left afhoulder dislo- 
cated; compound fracture of left leg. 

No. 8. Three-Men Event — Head, face, neck, arms and hands burned 
with ignition of acetylene gas. 

No. 9. Four-Men Event — Patient unconscious from gas inhalation; 
right fore-arm broken; improvise stretcher and carry 50 feet. 

No. 10. Foui^Men Event — Man is found lying on his back on live 
electric wire, unconscious; back burned at waist line; demonstrate 
three methods of his removal, treat and carry on stretcher 50 feet. 

No. 11. Team Event — Treat a broken knee-cap and a fracture of 
the ribs. 

No. 12. Team Event — Treat a fractured right ankle and a frac- 
ture of the left upper arm. 

No. 13. Team Event— Treat a man insensible from drowning. (Any 
method of artificial respiration may be used.) 



The Winning Team of the Hartford Mine Applying Spunts for a Fractured Thigh. 

No. 14. Teem Event — Treat a man; insensible from gas or smoke. 
(Any method of artificial respiration may be used.) 

No. 15. Team Event — Treat a broken back. 

No. 16. Team Event — Treat a compound fracture of the middle 
third of the right thigh accompanied by violent bleeding. 

No. 17. Team Event — Left leg cut off six inches below knee; 
simple fracture of right leg. 

No. 18. Team Event — Right hand cut off by motor wheels; dislo- 
cated left hip. 

No. 19. Team Event — Simple fracture of right thigh; fifth and 
sixth ribs on left side broken; compound fracture of right wrist, with 
bright red blood bleeding. 

No. 20. Team Event — Simple fracture of both fore-arms; great toe 
on right foot cut off; treat and two men carry 50 feet without stretcher. 



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274 



REPORT OF FIRST-AID CONTEST 



The teams entered will be numbered consecutively. Those having 
even numbers will perform even numbered events and those having 
odd numbers will perform odd numbered events. Each team will be 
identified on the field by a number worn by the Captain, the same 
corresponding to the number on the primed list of teams on the final 
program. 

The beginning and closing of each event will be designated by the 
sounding of a gong. 

Judging — It was decided by the Committee to procure three 
men for judges of the contest who were in no way identified 
with the mining industry of the district and who as well were 
thoroughly informed in first-aid methods and contests. The 
three men finally selected were as follows : 

Dr. A. F. Knoefel, Vice President and Chief Surgeon of 
the Vandalia Coal Company, Linton, Ind. 

Mr. R. Y. Williams, Director, lUinois Miners' and Me- 
chanics' Institute, Urbana, Ills. 

Mr. G. H. Hawes, Rescue Engineer, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

These men performed their duties in an admirable manner 
and expressed themselves after the contest as being most fav- 
orably impressed with the standard of first-aid work in this 
district. The Institute is highly appreciative of the very val- 
uable services of these three men. A score card was prepared 
for the use of the judges which simplified their duties very 
greatly. A copy of this score card is given below. 

First Annual First Aid Contest 

LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE. 

Score Card 



(Reduced) Team N 


3 , 




Discounts 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1011 


i2;i3 


14 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


Grade for Ev'Dt 


Event No. 


— 


— 


— 




(( (t 




(( i( 








t( . (( 


— 


— 






— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 






(» (t 











Final Grade 

Program — The ten problems selected for the contest and 
the mining companies represented together with the personnel 
of the teams were given in a special program which was dis- 
tributed on the morning of the day of the contest. This 
program is given below. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 275 

ORDER OF EVENTS. 

No. 1. One-Man Event — Treat a lacerated wound of the forehead 
and a lacerated wound in the palm of the right hand. (6 minutes.) 

No. 2. One-Man Event — Treat a simple fracture of the right collar- 
bone and simple fracture of the lower jaw. (G minutes.) 

No. 3. Three-Men Event — Left ear torn oft; left shoulder dislo- 
cated; compound fracture of left leg. (12 minutes.) 

No. 4. Three-Men Event — Head, face, neck, arms and hands burned 
with ignition of acetylene gas. (10 minutes.) 

No. 5. Team Event — Treat a man insensible from drowning. (Any 
method of artificial respiration may be used.) (5 minutes.) 

No. C. Team Event — Treat a man insensible from gas or smoke. 
(Any method of artificial respiration may be used.) (5 minutes.) 

No. 7. Team Event — Treat a broken back. (12 minutes.) 



A General View Showing the Teams in Line at the Beginning of the Contest. 

No. 8. Team Event — Treat a compound fracture ol the middle 
third of the right thigh accompanied by violent bleeding. (10 min- 
utes.) 

No. 9. Team Event — Right hand cut oft by motor wheels; dislocat- 
ed left hip. (12 minutes.) 

No. 10. Team Evcnt^Simple fracture of right thigh; fifth and 
sixth ribs on left side broken; compound fracture of right wrist, with 
bright red blood bleeding. (12 minutes.) 

Each team will be identified on the field by a number worn by the 
Captain; the same corresponding to the number on the printed list 
of teams on this program. Teams having even numbers will perform 
even numbered events and those having odd numbers will perform 
odd numbered events. 

The beginning and clQSing of each event will be designated by 
sounding of a gong. 



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276 REPORT OF FIRST-AID CONTEST 

Announcer. 

C. S. Stevenson, Educational Director, The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Co., Ishpemlng, Michigan: 

Time-Keoper. 

W. M. Webb, Safety Inspector, Republic Iron & Steel Co., Gilbert, 
Minnesota. 

Companies Represented and Personnel of Teams. 

No. I Team — Oliver Iron Mining Co., Gogebic Range. Cap- 
tain, Edward Hancock, Thomas Sampson, 
William J. Sampson, Herman Kekoletic, 
George Bowater and Thomas Mills, (sub- 
ject.) 

No. 2 Team — Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., Lake Mine, Ishpeni- 
ing. Captain, Xavier Pepin, Wm. Wilcox, 
Thomas Home, Richard Lemin, Wm. Ben- 
nett and Edward Mandley, (subject.) 

No. 3 Team — Pickands, Mather & Co., Mesabi Range. Cap- 
tain, James R. Fayle, Greorge Crago, Reginald 
Coombs, Wm. Glanville, Maunce Westerlund 
and Oscar Creer, (subject.) 

No. 4 Team — Republic Iron & Steel Co., Mesabi Range, 
Captain, H. S. Hammond, P. Donahue, James 
Bresnahan, B. C. Hanson, Thos. Sheardy and 
F. R. Kane, (subject.) 

No. 5 Team — Oliver Iron Mining Co., Marquette Range. 
Captain, Harry T. Hulst, William Hatch, 
Chas. K. Doney, William Mitchell William 
Richards and Horace Jewell, (subject.) 

No. 6 Team — Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., Gwinn District 
Captain, Sidney Harvey, William Johns, W. 
H. Matthews, Joseph Andrews, Agner Blom- 
quist and WiUiam Goyen, (subject.) 

No. 7 Team — Republic Iron & Steel Co., Maiquette Range. 
Captain, Paul Mitchell, James Davey, An- 
toine Cesare, George Cumow and John Ga- 
viglio. 

No. 8 Team — Newport Mining Co., Gogebic Range. Cap- 
tain, Axel Holmgren, Joe Winn, Ernest Russ, 
Arthur Westergren, Tony Petruscak and Ot- 
to Peterson, (subject.) 

No. 9 Team — Clev'eland-CHffs Iron Co., Maas Mine, Ne- 
gaunee. Captain, Thomas Easterbrook, Ben 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 2^^ 

Remaly, James Hawke, Joseph Gambetti, 
and Wni. Waters, (subject.) 
No. ID Team — Pickands, Mather & Co., Iron River District, 
Captain, James Johns, Kyme Scuflfham, John 
G. WilHams, John Manning, Dan Cummings 
and William Bengry, Jr., (subject.) 
No. II Team — Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., Negaunee Mine, 
Negaunee. Captain, J. S. McNabb, Samuel 
Stephens, Knock Vincent, George Whitting- 
ton, Arthur Olson and Fred Staples, (sub- 
ject.) 
No. 12 Team — The Breitung Iron Co., Marquette Range. 
Captain, Fred Royce, Will Thomas, Herman 
Burgeson, Albert Larson and John Donni- 
thome. 
Prizes — The Institute is greatly indebted to several firms 
and societies who presented valuable prizes to winning teams, 
in addition to the fifty dollars in gold which the Institute has 
decided to offer annually. These prizes were as follows : 

E. I. DuPont DeNemours Powder Co., — Fifty Dollars in 
Gold. 

The Pluto Powder Co., Ishpeming, Michigan — Six Silk 
Umbrellas, with appropriately engraved silver mounted han- 
dles. 

The American Mine Safety Association — Bronze Medals. 
The Draeger Oxygen Apparatus Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. — A 
Self Rescue Apparatus, valued at $50.00. 

The cash prizes offered were combined and distributed as 
is shown below : 

First Prize — Five Bronze Medals and $50.03 Cash. 
Second Prize — Six Silk Umbrellas and $30.00 Cash. 
Third Prize — One Self-Rescue Apparatus and $20.00 Cash. 
Decision of the Judges — The decision of the judges was 
not made known at the immediate close of the contest but some 
two hours afterward at a baseball game, which was given for 
the entertainment of the members of the Institute, the mem- 
bers of the first-aid teams and their friends. Previous to the 
announcment of the judges it was necessary to work off a tie 
existing for third place. Three teams, as follows, were tied 
for this position : 

The Oliver Iron Mining Company, Ishpeming, Michigan* 
The Newport Iron Company, Ironwood, Michigan. 



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278 REPORT OF FIRST-AID CONTEST 

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, Maas Mine, Xegau- 
nee, Michigan. 

The judges selected the following problem to decide the 
winner of third place : 

Treat a fractured knee-cap of the right leg 
and a right heel cut off. 

As a result of this second contest, the team of the Oliver 
Iron Mining Company, Ishpeming district, was declared the 
winner of third place. Between innings of the basel3all game 
Dr. A. F. Knoefel, first vice president of the VandaHa Coal 
Comi>any, and chief surgeon of that organization, in a well 
chosen speech, delivered in front of the grandstand, announced 
the names of the winning teams and presented the prizes to 
the captains. The decision of the judges gave first prize to 
the RepubHc Iron & Steel Co.-Hartford Mine team, Xegau- 
nee, Mich.; second prize to The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co.- 
Negaunee Mine team, Negaunee, Mich. : and third prize to the 
Oliver Iron Mining Co. Ishpeming team, Ishpeming, Mich. 



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LAKJE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



279 



PAST OFFICERS. 

PRESIDENTS. 



Nelson P. Hulst 1893 

J. Parke Channing 1894 

John Duncan 1895 

William G. Mather 1896 

William Kelly 1898 

Graham Pope 1900 

W. J. Olcott 1901 

Walter Fitch 1902 

George H. Abeel 1903 

(No meetings were held 



O. C. Davidson 1904 

James MacNaughton 1905 

Thomas F. Cole 1906 

Murray M. Duncan 1908 

D. E. Sutherland 1909 

William J. Richards 1910 

F. W. Denton 1911 

Pentecost Mitchell 1912 

W. H. Johnston 1(913 

in 1897, 1899 and 1907.) 





VICE PRESIDENTS. 






1893. 




John T. Jones 




Graham Pope 


F. P. Mills 


J. Parke Channing 
1894. 


M. W. Burt 


John T. Jones 




Graham Pope 


F. P. Mills 


R. A. Parker 

1895. 


W. J. Olcott 


F. McM. Stanton 




Per Larsson 


Geo. A. Newett 


R. A. Parker 
1896. 


W. J. Olcott 


F. McM. Stanton 




Per Larsson 


Geo. A. Newett 


J. F. Armstrong 
1898. 


Geo. H. Abeel 


E. F. Brown 




Walter Fitch 


James B. Cooper 


Ed. Ball 
1900. 


Geo. H. Abeel 


0. C. Davidson 




J. H. McLean 


T. F. Cole 


M. M. Duncan 
1901. 


F. W. Denton 


J. H. McLean 




F. W. Denton 


M. M. Duncan 


Nelson P. Hulst 
1902. 


William Kelly 


William Kelly 




H. F. Ellard 


Nelson P. Hulst 


Fred SmitU 


Wm. H. Johnston 



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28o 



PAST OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 
1903. 



H. F. Ellard 




Wm. H. Johnston 


Fred Smith 


James B. Cooper 


John H. McL»ean 


H. F. Ellard 


1904. 


John H. McLiean 


Wm. H. Johnston 


Fred Smith 


James a Cooper 


M. M. Duncan 


1905. 


John H. McLean 


Fred M. Prescott 


F. W. McNair 


J. B. Cooper 


M. M. Duncan 


1906. 


F. W. McNair 


J. M. Longyear 


Fred M. Prescott 


F. W. Denton 


J. M. Longyear 


1908. 


D. B. Sutherland 


F. W. Denton 


David T. Morgan 


Norman W. Haire 


W. J. Richards 


1909. 


D. E. Sutherland 


Charles Trezona 


D. T. Morgan 




W. J. Richards 


1910. 


Charles Trezona 


John M. Bush 


Frederick W. Sperr 


- James H. Rou^ 


E. D. Brigham 
John M. Bush 


1911. 
Frederick W. Sperr 


C. H. Munger 
James H. Rough 


E. D. Brigham 
Geo. H. Abeel 


1912. 
W. P. Chinn 


C. H. Munger 
W. H. Jobe 


Geo. H. Abeel 


1913. 


A. D. Edwards 


Francis J. Webb 


W. P. Chinn 
MANAGERS. 


W. H. Jobe 


John Duncan 
Walter Fitch 


1893. 
William Kelly 


James MacNaughton 
Charles Munger 


Walter Fitch 


1894. 


C. M; Boss 


John Duncan 


M. E. Wadflworth 


0. C. Davidson 


F. P. Mills 


1895. 


C. M. Boss 


Ed. Ball 


M. E. Wadswortb 


O. C. Davidson 


F. P. Mills 
Ed. Ball 


1896. 
C. H. Munger 


Graham Pope 
WlUii^m Kelly 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 28l 


M. M. Duncan 


1898. 


Graham Pope 


J. D. Gilchrist 


T. P. Cole 


0. C. Davidson 


E. P. Brown 


1900. 


Walter Pitch 


Ed. Ball 


James B. Cooper 


George H. Abeel 


James B. Cooper 


1901. 


James Clancey 


James MacNaughton 


(One Vacancy) 


J. L. Greatsinger 


James Clancey 


1902- 


Graham Pope 


J. L. Greatsinger 


Amos Shephard 


T. P. Cole 


Graham Pope 


1903. 


T. P. Cole 


Amos Shephard 


W. J. Richards 


John McDowell 


John McDowell 


1904. 


Thomas P. Cole 


Wm. J. Richards 


Graham Pope 


Amos Shephard 


John C. Greenway 


1905. 


H. B. Sturtevant 


John McDowell 


William Kelly 


Wm. J. Richards 


John C. Greenway 


1906. 


H. B. Sturtevant 


Jas. R. Thompson 


William Kelly 


Pelix A. Vogel 


James R. Thompson 


1908. 


J. Ward Amberg 


Felix A. Vogel 


John C. Greenway 


Pentecost Mitchell 


P. E. Keese 


1909. 


J. Ward Amberg 


W. J. Uren 


L. M. Hardenburg 


Pentecost Mitchell 


Prank E. Keese 


1910. 


L. M. Hardenburg 


Charles B. Lawrence 


William J. Uren 


William J. West 


Charles E. Lawrence 


1911. 


William J. West 


Peter W. Pascoe 


J. B. Cooper 


L. C. Brewer 


M. H. Godfrey 


1912. 


J. E. Jopling 


Peter Pascoe 


J. B. Cooper 


L. C. Brewer 


M. H. Godfrey 


1913. 


J. E. Jopling 


G. S. Barber 


Wm. H. Johnston 
TREASURERS. 


C. H. Baxter 


C, M. Boss 




1893 


A. C. LAne 




1894 



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282 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Geo. D. Swift 1895-1896 

A. J. Yungbluth ". 1898-1900 

Geo. H. Abeel 1901-1902 

E. W. Hopkins 1903- 

SECRETARIES. 

P. W. Denton 1893-1896 

P. W. Denton and F. W. Sperr 1898 

P. W. Sperr 1900 

A. J. Yungbluth 1901- 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED BY THE INSTITUTE. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 99 John Street, New 
York City. 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, 505 Pearl Street, 
New York City. 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 220 West 57tli Street, New 
York City. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Western Society of Engineers, 1734-41 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

The Mining Society of Nova Scotia, Halifax, N. S. 

Canadian Mining Institute, Ottawa. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Montreal. 

Institute of Mining Engineers, Neville Hall, Newcastle Upon-Tyne, 
England. 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Ehigineers, 
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England. 

Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, Jo- 
hannesburg, S. A. 

American Mining Congress, 1510 Court Place, Denver, Colo. 

State Bureau of Mines, Colorado, Denver, Colo. 

Reports of the United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Geological Survey of Ohio State University, Columbus, O. 

Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, N. S. W. 

Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Okla. 

University of Oregon, Library, Eugene, Oregon. 

Case School of Applied Science, Department of Mining & Metal- 
lurgy, Cleveland, Ohio. 

University of Illinois, Exchange Department, Urbana, 111b. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

University of Colorado, Boulder. Colo. 

Columbia University, New York City, N. Y. 

University of Pittsburg. State Hall, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

The Mining Magazine, 178 Salisbury House, London, E. C. 

Mines and Mining, 1824 Curtis Street, I>enver, Colo. 

Engineering-Contracting, 355 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ills. 

Mining & Engineering World, Monadnock Block, Chicago, Ills. 

Mining Science, Denver Colo. 

Mining & Scientific Press, 667 Howard Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Mexican Mining Journal, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Stahl und Eisen. Dusseldorf, Germany, Jacobistrasse 5. 

The Ex<5a,vating Engineer, 267 National Avenue, Milwaukee. Wis. 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 



285 



ABANDONED MINES ON MARQUETTE RANGE. 





(Partilally Complete.) 




Albion 


Etna 


Man^nese 


Piatt 


Ames 


Fitch 


Marine 


Primrose 


Argyle 


Foster 


Metropolitan 


Richards 


Asteroid 


Foxdale 


Mlchigamme 


Riverside 


Barassa 


Franklin 


Michigan 


Ropes 


Bay State 


Gibson 


Milwaukee-Davis 


Saginaw 


Beaufort 


Goodrich 


Mitchell 


Schouldice 


Bessie 


Grand Rapids 


Moore 


Spurr 


Brotherton 


Grant 


Nelson 


Star West 


Bunker Hill 


Himrod 


New York 


Standard 


Catherine 


Holyoke 


Northampton 


St Lawrence 


Cheshire 


Hortense 


Norwood 


Tilden 


Dalllba 


Humboldt 


Ogden 


Titan 


Detroit 


Jhn Pascoe 


Old Champion 


Webster 


Dey 


Keystone 


Palmer 


Wheeling 


East New York 


iKloman 


PendiU 


Whetmore 


Edison 


Lincoln 


Phoenix 




Erie 


Magnetic 


Pioneer 





IRON ORE 8HIPMENT8 FROM MARQUETTE RANGE. 
PROM Ikon Trade Rbview 

Mine— 1913. All Years. 

American 162,253 894.167 

AusUn 107.366 936,599 

Breitung Hematite 104.757 782.144 

Cambria 169.473 2,817.842 

Chase 52.930 52,930 

Cleveland-Cliffs Group (Ishpeming Mines) 997.520 24.752,424 

Empire 28,634 345,366 

Imperial 37 542 636,533 

Jackson 1,519 4,029,833 

Lake Angeline ? 104,357 8,950,359 

Lake Superior 203,964 15,831,604 

Lloyd 135,746 208,216 

Lucy 2,025 622,110 

Maas 170,705 670.595 

Mary Charlotte 264,120 2123,061 

Milwaukee-Davis 10,412 515,898 

Mitchell 15,970 114,794 

Morris 18,394 19.680 

Negaunee 326,877 4,924,546 

Princeton 53,476 1,604,778 

Queen Group 298,504 7,170,635 

Republic 137,063 6 751,142 

Richmond 138,394 1,088,761 

Rolling Mill 163,286 1,069,764. 

Stegmiller 45,431 230,227 

Stephenson 96,279 788,198 

Volunteer 47,698 1,527,143 

Washington; 60,581 352,032 

Shipped prior to 1913 by mines now idle 12,736 192 

Totals 3,966,680 107.298,821 



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286 



LAKE SUPERIOR IRON ORE SHIPMENTS 



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BIOGRAPHICAL 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 289 



James B. Cooper. 

Born at Springwells, which is now a part of the City of 
Detroit, in 1859. He was a son of James R. Cooper. Re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools of Detroit, be- 
ing graduated in 1877. He left shortly after for Hancock, 
Michigan, to take a position with the old Detroit & Lake Su- 
perior Copper Company at its smelter. His father had pre- 
ceded him to the copper country several years before to as- 
sume the management of the smelter at Hancock. The elder 
Cooper was one of the world's greatest copper smelters and 
the son followe<l in the paths of his father. 

After two years' work at the smelter, James B. Cooper 
decided to increase his technical knowledge and spent one year 
at the University of Rochester, N. Y., returning to the Han- 
cock smelter, where he held the position of foreman until 1888. 
In that year his standing as a smelterman was recognized and 
he was placed in charge of the old Parrott smelter at Bridge- 
port, Conn. In 1890 he returned to the copper country to 
assume the management of the Calumet & Hecla smelter at 
South Lake Linden, now Hubbell, where he resided contin- 
uously until his death. 

Mr. James B. Cooper was one of the authorities on cop- 
l>er smelting of this country and he worked incessantly to 
get his product on the market in a degree of fineness that 
could not be approached by the copper of competitors. The 
excellence of his reHning methods had much to do with giving 
Lake copper the reputation it bears. 

He was married in 1892 to Miss Antoinette Senter, a 
daughter of the late John Senter of Houghton. 

He died at Hubbell, Mich., Feb. 27, 1914. 

Frank D. Mead. 

Bom at Ann Arbor, Michigan, January 27, 1856. He 
attended the public schools of that city, and was graduated 
from the University of Michigan with the degree of Bachelor 



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290 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES 

of Arts in 1877. In that year he entered the office of Chandler 
Grant, in Houghton, to take up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1881. He was associated for a short time 
with John Q. Adams, at Negaunee, then moved to Escanaba 
to engage in practice. 

For thirty-three years he was prominent in the business, 
social, educational and political life of Escanaba. Being one 
of the best known attorneys of the upper peninsula he had a 
large practice and represented many of the large business in- 
terests of Escanaba and vicinity. He was attorney for the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company, Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Railway Company, and the Esca- 
naba & Lake Superior Railway Company, at the time of his 
death. He was a delegate to the Republican National con- 
vention in St. Louis, and one of the delegates who framed 
the new Michigan Constitution in 1908. 

He died at his home in Escanaba on February 20, 1914. 

Alfred Meads. 

Born at Brighton, County of Sussex, England, on January 
8, 183 1. Came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1859, 
locating at Ontonagon. He started work as a watchmaker 
and jeweler at that place. In 1869 he purchased the plant 
of the Ontonagon Miner, which he published for a number 
of years. He had the greatest faith in Ontonagon county 
and the upper peninsula and never failed to express his views 
through the columns of his paper. He served as deputy col- 
lector of internal revenue and collector of customs for the 
government and was elected probate judge of the county for 
several terms. 

In 1895, when Ontonagon was badly damaged by fire, Mr. 
Meads moved to Marquette, where he continued to reside un- 
til his death on June 2y, 1914. 

James Wood. 

Born in Glengarry, Canada, in 1849. One of five broth- 
ers who came to the upper peninsula and were prominently 
identified with the iron industry in the early days. They were 
pioneer explorers on the three Michigan iron ranges, the Me- 
nominee, Marquette and Gogebic. 

James Wood was the discoverer of the Norrie mine at 
Ironwood, exposing for the holder of the lease, A. L. Norrie, 



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LAKE SUPERIOR MINING INSTITUTE 29I 

what turned out to be one of the greatest bodies of high grade 
ore ever found in Michigan. The North Norrie, East Nor- 
rie, Aurora, Pabst and Newport mines being opened on ore