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LtM "'^'•*- 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OF THB 



MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 




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THE 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



LINNEAN SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



FOR TIIR TSAR 

Vol. XXI. 



VrXXK 8XXTY-OIVE PX^ATES. 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY 

F. CUNNINGHAME & CO., 146 PITT STREET, 

AND 

SOLD BY THE SOCIETY. 

^^ law. 



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SYDNEY : 

F. CUNNINGHAM E AND CX>., PRINTERS, 

PITT STREET. 



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CONTENTS OF PROCEEDINGS, 1896, 

PART I. (No. 81). 

(l89ued July 16th, 1896.) 

PAGE 
Observations on the Relations of the Organ of Jacobson in the Horse. 

By R. Beoom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plate i.) 9 

Descriptions of Farther Highly Ornate Boomerangs from New South 
Wales and Queensland. By R. Etbkridge, Junr., Curator of 
the Australian Museum. (Plates ii.-v.) 14 

On a New Genus and Species of Fishes from Maroubra Bay. By J. 

Douglas Ogilby. (Commtmicatedby T. Whitelegge, F.R.M,S.) 23 

On the Occurrence of Callosities in Cyprcea other than Cy, hicalloaa 
and Cy. rhinocerus; and on the Occurrence of a Sulcus in Trifia. 
By Agnes F. Ken yok. (Communicated by J. Brazier, F. L. S, ) 26 

Theoretical Explanations of the Distribution of Southern Faunas. 

By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S., Hon. Memb. L.S.N.S.W. ... 36 

Report on a Bone Breccia Deposit near the Wombeyan Caves, 
N.S.W. : with Descriptions of some New Species of Marsupials. 
By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plates vi.-viii.) 48 

On a Oalaxiati from Mount Kosciusko. By J. Douglas Ogilby ... 62 

The Entomology of Grass-Trees (Xanthonhcfa). By Walter W. 

KBfKJGATT. (Plate IX.) 74 

Observations on Peripatus. By Tho*». Steel, F.C.S 94 

DescriptioDS of New Australian Fungi. By D. McAlpine, F.L.S. 

No. i. (Communicatetl by J. ff. Maiden, F.L.S.) (Plates x.-xi.) 104 

Description of a New Species of Astralium from New Britain. By 
CuARLEs Hedley, F.L S., and Arthur Willey, D.Sc. (Plate 
XII.) 107 

On a Rare Variation in the Shell of Pterocera lambis, Linn. By 
Arthur VVillby, D.Sc. (Communicated by Jos. P, Hill, 
F.L.S.) (Plate xin.) 110 

Catalogue of the Described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, 
Part ii. By George Ma.sters.* [Title]. 

Elections and Announcements 1,30,31,89 

Donations 1,31,89 

Notes and Exhibits 28,88 



* Issued separately as a Supplement to this Part. 



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IV. 



CONTENTS. 



PART II. (No. 82). , 

(Imted SepUmber SSrd, 1S96.) 

A New Family of Australian Fishes. By J. Douglas Ogilby 

Descriptioos of two new Genera and Species of Australian Fishes. 

By J. Douglas Ogilby 

On the Australian Olivtnidea (Fain. CarabicUe)^ 
Rkvkion of tttK Australian Species of the Genus Clivina^ 
WITH THE Description of a new Genus (Glivinarchm). By 
Thomas G. Sloanb 

On the Bag-Shelters of Lepidopterous LarvsB of the Genus Ttara. By 
Walter W. Froggatt. (Plate xit.) 

Note on the Occurrence of Diatomaceoos Earth at the Warrum bungle 
Mountains, New South Wales. By T. W. Ei^bworth David. 
(Plates XV. -xvil) 

Appendix to the Australian Clivinides (Fam. Cardbidae), By Thomas 
G. Sloan e — 

The Clivinides of King's Sound and its Vicinity 275 

Elections and Announcements 114,270 

Donations 114, 270 

Notes and Exhibits 113,269 



PAGE 

118 
136 



143 



258 



261 



PART III. (No. 83). 

(limed December i2nd, 1896.) 

Description of a New Species of Ablepharus from Victoria, with 
Critical Notes on two other Australian Lizards. By A. H. S. 
Lucas, M.A., B.Sc, and C. Frost, F.L.S 

Descriptions of New Species of Australian Coleoptera. By Arthur 
M. Lea. Part iii 

Descriptions of some new Araneidce of New South Wales. No. 6. 

By W. J. Rainbow. (Plates xviii.-xx.) 

A new Genus and three new Species of Mollusca from New South 

Wales, New Hebrides, and Western Australia. By John 

Brazier, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., &c 

Note on a new Variety of Aaicia decurrens, Willd. By R. T. Baker, 

F.L.S 



PAGE 



281 



284 



320 



345 



348 



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CONTENTS. V. 

PART III. (cmtinued). 

PAGE 

Note on the Nidification of a Pouched Mouse, fPhascologaleflainpts), 

By Edgar R.Waite,F.L.S 349 

On the Australian Bembidiides referable to the Genus Tachyny with 
the Description of a new allied Genus Pyrrotachytf . By Thomas 
G. Sloajje 365 

Two new Species of Prostaii/hera from New South Wales. By R. T. 
Baker, F.L.S., Assistant Curator, Technological Museum, 
Sydney. (Plates xxi.-xxii.) 378 

A Monograph of the Australian Mai'sipohranchii. By J. Douglas 

OtJiLBf ... ." 386 

On the Botany of the Rylstone and Goulburn River Districts. Parti. 
By R. T. Baker, F. L.S., Assistant Curator, Technological Museum, 
Sydney 427 

Note on Cypnea angwUcUa, Gray, var. «t<6cam€a, Ancey. By C. E. 

Beddome 467 

Elections and Announcements 352,383 

Donations 352,383 

Notes and Exhibits 348,382 

Kol€,—Oii pp. 378, 380, and 381, /or Plate xxii. read Plate xxi.; and for 
Plate xxiii., rca«? Plate xxii. 



PART IV. (No. 84.) 

(Ismed May .i}st, 1897.) 

PAGE 

The Sooty Mould of Citrus Trees : a Study in Polymorphism. By 

D. McAlpise. (Plates xxiii-xxxiv). ... 469 

Note on the Range of the Platypus. By Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S. 500 

Notes on Boronia florihtmda, Sieber. By Baron von Mueller, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S 503 

Aostralian Ttrmitida. Part ii. By Walter W. Frogoatt. (Plates 

xxxv.-xxxvi.) 510 

The Occnrrence of Radiolaria in Pal{eo/x)ic Rocks in N.S. Wales. 
By Professor T. W. Edgeworth David, B.A., F.G.S. (Plates 
XXX VI I.. XXXV in.) ... 553 



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VI. CONTENTS. 

PART IV. (continued), 

PAOB 

Note on the Occurrence of Casts of Radiolaria in Pre-Cambrian (?) 
Rocks, South Australia. By Professor T. W. Edgeworth 
David, B.A., F.G.S., and Walter Howchin, F.G.S. (Plates 
xxxix.-XL.) 571 

On the Comparative Anatomy of the Organ of Jacobson in Marsupialf. 

By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plates xlt.-xlviii.) 591 

On a New Species of Macadumia^ together with Notes on two Plants 

new to the Colony. By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., and E. Betche 624 

Descriptions of some new Aramidoi of New South Wales. No. 7. 
By W. J. Rainbow, Entomologist to the Australian Museum. 
(Plate XLix., figs l-3o.) 628 

Contributions to a Knowledge of the Arachnidan Fauna of Australia. 
No. 1. By W. J. Rainbow, Entomologist to the Australian 
Museum. (Plate xlix., figs. 4-46.) 634 

Revision of the Genus Paropms. By Rev. T. Blackburn, B.A., Cor- 
responding Member. Parti 637 

The Silurian Trilobites of New South Wales, with References to 
those of other Parts of Australia. By R. Etheridge, Junr., 
Curator of the Australian Museum, and John Mitchell, Public 
School, Narellan. Partiv. The Odontopleurido}. (Plates l.-lv.) 694 

Two Additions to the Fungi of New South Wales. By D. Mc Alpine. 

(Plate lvi.) 722 

On some Australian ^/eo<ri rt<c. By J. Dougla.s Ogilby 7*25 

On Domatia in certain Australian and other Plants. By Alex. G. 

Hamilton. (Plate lvii.) 758 

Notes on two Papuan Thro wing-Sticks. By J. Jennings. (Plate 

lviii.) 793 

Observations on the Eucalypts of New South Wales. Part ii. By 

Henry Deane, M. A., F.L.S., &c., and J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., &c. 

(Plates lix.-lxi.) 798 

Description of a new Species of Pupina from Queensland. By C. E. 

Beddome 814 

Elections and Announcements ... 507 

Donations 508,586 

Notes and Exhibits 500,584,816 

Presidential Address. By Henry Deane, M.A., F.L.S 821 

Office-bearers and Council for 1897 863 

Title-page, Index, Contents, &c. ... 



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CORRIGENDA. 

Page 50, after line 20 add—PL vi. figs. 4-7. 

Page 71, line 32 — for schombtiryhii and hayi read schomhurghii and kayi. 

Page 85, line 16 — for C, alhUarsis read E. alhilarsis. 

Page 150, line 14 — for C. addaidce read C. tumidiptft. 

Page 171, line 20— for clypeus read clypeal. 

Page 173, line 20 — for Ceratoglosmis read Ceratoglossa, 

Page 180— omit line 2. 

Page 181, line 5 — omit ** South Australia," et seq. 

Page 182, line 27 — for C adelaida: read C, tumidipea. 

Page 195, line 18 — for C. adelaidcey Blk., read C, tumidipes^ SI. 

Page 253, line 7 — for C. addaidcB read C. tumidipes. 

Page 253, line 27— for on read in. 

Page 254, lino 29 — for C. ad^laidoi read C. tumidipes. 

Page 255, line 31 — for C. tenuipes read G. ffracilipes. 

Page 314, line 24— /or pcnctdlatum read pdnctulatds. 

Page 326, line \l—/or Tome xlvii. read Tome xlii. 

Page 345, line 30 — for Canthurus read CaiUharus. 

Page 351, line 3 — for Canthurus read Cantharus. 

Page 378. line b—for Plates xxii.-xxiii. read Plates xxi.-xxii. 

Page 378, line l—for Plate xxii, read Plate xxi. 

Page .380, line 3— /or Plate xxiii. read Plate xxii. 

Page 381, line 10— /or Plate xxii. read Plate xxi.; for Plate xxiii. read 
Plate xxii. 

Page 381, line 19— /or Plate xxiii. rend Plate xxii. 
Page 430, line 8 — for philirifofia read phylicifolia. 
Page 430, line 23 — for A. ixophylla read A. ixiophyila. 
Page 537, line 9 — for hrmnticomia read hrunneirornis. 
Page 567, line 13— for Pipettelella read Pipettella. 
Page 758, line 25— /or Naturliche rewl Natiirliche. 



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LIST OF PLA.TES. 

PROCEEDINGS 1896. 

Plate I.— The Organ of Jaoobson in the Horse. 

Plates II. -V. — Ornate Boomerangs from New South Wales and Queensland. 

Plates VI.- VIII. — Fossil Marsupials and Echidna (Macropus womheytnsis, 
Potorous tridactylus var. antiqmis, Burramys parvtuty Palaope- 
iaurus elegaiis, Pseudochvtts antiqxitis, Peramelea toomheyensis. 
Echidna sp.) from a Bone Breccia Deposit near the Worabeyan 
Caves, N.S.W. 

Plate IX. — Insects infesting Grass-Trees {XarUhorrhtea). 

Plates X. -XI. — Australian Fungi. 

Plate XII. — AstraXium moniliferuuu u.sp., fromXew Britain. 

Plate XIII. — Rare Varieties of Pterocera tamhisy Linn. 

Plate xiv.—Tcora corUraria, Walk., and larval bag-shelters. 

Plate XV. — Section showing junction between the Trachyte Volcanic Group 
and the Permo-Carboniferous Coal Measures, Warrumbungle 
Mountains, N.S.W. 

Plate XVI. — Sections showing the intercalation of Diatomaceous Earth in 
the Trachyte Series, and in association with Cinnamomvm Leich- 
hardtii, Ettings., Warrumbungle Mountains, N.S.W. 

Plate xvu.—CinjiaTnomwn Ltichhardtii, Ettings., Warrumbungle Moun- 
tains, N.S.W. 

Plates xviii.-xx. — New Araneidas from New South Wales. 

Plate XXI. — Prostanthera dUcolor, n.sp. 

Plate XXII. — Prostanlhera africia, n.sp. 

Plates XXIII. -XXXIV. — The Sooty-Mould (Capnodium cHricolumy n.sp.) of 
Citrus Trees. 

Plates XXXV. -XXX VI. — Australian Termites. 

Plate xxxvii. — Surface of Calcareous Radiolarian Rock etched with dilute 
HCl. 

Plate xxxviii. — New South Wales Palaeozoic Radiolaria. 

Plate XXXIX. — South Australian Pre-Cambrian (?) Radiolaria. 

Plate XL. — Sections and Map illustrative of the Occurrence of Pre-Cam- 
brian (?) Radiolaria in South Australia. 

PUtes XLi.-XLViii. — ^The Organ of Jacobson in Marsupials. 

Plate XLix. — New Austi-alian Arachnids {Epeira coronatu ( ? ), Pachygnatha 
auperha, ( 9 ), Attus splemleiiSf ( (? ); and Buthus Jlavicruris). 

Plates L.-LV.— New South Wales Silurian Trilobites (Fam. Odontopieuridce). 

Plate LVi. — A new Fungus {Capnodium caUUris) attacking the Murray 
Pine. 

Plate LVii. — Domatia in Australian and other Plants. 

Plate LViii. — Two Papuan Thro wing-Sticks. 

Plates Lix.-LXi.— New South Wales Eucalypts (Stringy barks). 



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SEP 8 1891 



OF TEE 

LINNEAN SOCIETY 

OF 



WEDNESDAY, 25th MARCH, 1896. 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 
ing, March 25th, 1896. 

The President, Henry Deane, Esq., M. A, F.L.S., in the Chair. 



The President gave notice that upon requisition he convened a 
Special General Meeting to be held on April 29th, to take 
precedence of the Monthly Meeting. Business: The Hon. 
Treasurer to move for the insertion in Rule xxiii. of an additional 
clause providing for the countersigning of all cheques drawn on 
behalf of the Society. 



DONATIONS. 



(Received since the Meeting in November^ 1896.) 

Manchester Museum, Owens College — Studies in Biology. 
VoL iii (1895) : Catalogue of the Hadfield Collection of Shells 
from the Loyalty Islands. From the Museum, 



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2 DONATIONS. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. viii. Nos. 27-31 (Oct.-Dec. 
1895); Vol. ix. Nos. 1-3 (Jan. 1896). From the Government 
Secretary. 

Royal Society of Victoria — Transactions. Vol. iv. (1895). 
From tlhe Society, 

Imperial University, Japan — Calendar, 1894-95. From the 
President. 

College of Science, Imperial University, Japan — Journal. Vol. 
ix. Part 1 (1895). From the Director. 

Soci^te Royale Linn^enne de Bruxelles — Bulletin. 21"*. 
Ann^. Nos. 1-3. (Nov. 1895-Jan. 1896). From the Society, 

McAlpine's "Systematic Arrangement of Australian Fungi, 

together with Host-Index and List of Works on the Subject." 

(4to. 1895). From the Trustees of t/ie Free Public Library j 
Melbourne. 

Geological Society, London — Quarterly Journal. Vol. li. Part 
4 (No. 204, Nov, 1895): Vol. lii. Part 1 (No. 205, Feb. 1896) : 
Geological Literature, &c., 1895. From the Society. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xviii. Jahrg. Nos. 4 S 7-4 9 2 (Oct.-Dec. 
1895); xix. Bd. Nos. 493-495 (Jan.-Feb. 1896). From the 
Editor. 

Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Frankfurt 
a/M. — Bericht, 1895. From the Society. 

Socit^t^ Geologique de Belgique — Annales. T. xx. 4* Liv. 
(1892-93); T. xxii. 2"*«. Li^. (Sept. 1895). From the Society. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxix. Nos. 347-348 (Nov.-Dec. 
1895); Vol. XXX. Nos. 349-350 (Jan.-Feb. 1896). From tJte 
Editors. 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xii. Nos. 8-11 (Nov. 1895-Feb. 
1896). From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

American Geographical Society — Bulletin. Vol. xxvii. No. 3 
(1895). From the Society. 



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DONATIONS. 6 

Hamilton Association — Journal and Proceedings for 1894-95. 
From the Association, 

Geological Survey of Canada — Palaeozoic Fossils. Vol. i. (1861- 
65); Vol. ii. Part i. (1874); Vol. iii. Parts i.-ii. (1884 and 1895) : 
Maps of the Principal Auriferous Creeks in the Cariboo Mining 
District, British Columbia, Nos. 364-372, 379-390 and 550-551 : 
Sheet No. 11, S. W. Nova Scotia: Eastern Townships Map — 
Quebec. N.-E. Quarter Sheet; Rainy River Sheet — Ontario. 
From tJie Director. 

American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. VoL vii. 
(1895), Sig. 20-24, pp. 305-388 (Sept.-Dec. 1895). From the 
Museum, 

Department of Mines, Perth, W. A. — "Mining Handbook to 
the Colony of Western Australia." 2nd Edition (1895). By H. 
P. Woodward, J. P., F.G.S. From the Secretary for Mines, 

Bureau of Agriculture, Perth, W. A. — Journal. Vol. ii. Nos. 
25-27 (Nov.-Dec. 1895); Vol. iii. Nos. 1-5 (Jan.-Mar. 1896). From 
tJie Secretary. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Osnabriick — Jahresbericht, 
1893-94. From the Society, 

^Michigan Fish Commission — Bulletin. No. 5 (1895). From 
the Commission, 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. Vol. xxvii. Nos. 4-6 (Aug. -Nov. 1895): 
Annual Report of the Curator, 1894-95. From the Curator. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal — Journal, n.s. Vol. Ixiv. (1895), 
Part i. No. 2 : Proceedings, 1895. Nos. vii.-viii. (July- Aug.). 
From the Society, 

Soci^t^ de Physique et d* Histoire Naturelle de Geneve — 
M^moires. T. xxxii. Premiere Partie (1894-95). From the 
Society, 

Royal Microscopical Society — Journal. 1895. Parts 5 and 6 
(Oct. and Dec.). From the Society, 



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4 DONATIONS. 

Geological Survey of India — Records. Vol. xxviii. Part 4 
(1895). From the Director. 

Hooker's "Icones Plantarum." (Fourth Series). Vol. v. 
Parts i.-ii. (Nov. 1895-Jan. 1896). From tlin Bentham Trustees, 

K. K. Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Verhand- 
lungen. Jahrgang, 1895. xlv. Band 8-10 Hefte. From the 
Society. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. x. No. 120 (Dec. 
1895); Vol. xi. Nos. 121-123 (Jan.-Mar. 1896). From the 
Editor. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. viii. Nos. 11-12. 
(Nov.-Dec. 1895); Vol. ix.' Nos. 1-2 (Jan.-Feb. 1896). From tlie 
Editor. 

Pamphlet entitled " Stratigraphical Notes on the Georgina 
Basin," <kc. (1895). By R. L. Jack, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. From the 
Author. 

Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging — Tijdschrift voor 
Entomologie. Deel xxxviii. Afl. i. (1894-95). From tJie Society. 

L'Acad^mie Imp6riale des Sciences de St. P^tersbourg — 
Bulletin. v«. S^rie. T. ii. No. 5 (May, 1895); T. iii. No. 1 
(June, 1895). From the Academy. 

Troisi^me Congr^ International de Zoologie — Guide Zoolo- 
gique: Communications Diverses sur les.Pays-Bas (1895). From 
the Netherlands Natural History Society, ffelder. 

Socidt6 d' Horticulture du Doubs, Besan^on — Bulletin, n.s. 
Nos. 59-60 (Nov.-Dec. 1895): S^rie Illustr^. No. 1 (Jan. 1896). 
From tJie Society. 

Pamphlet entitled " On Mediterranean and New Zealand 
Reteporas;' &c. (1895). By A. W. Waters, F.L.S. From the 
Author. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society — Proceedings. Vol. viii. 
Part 5; Vol. ix. Part i. (1895). From the Society. 



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DONATIONS. O 

Zoological Society, London — Abstracts. 19th Nov., 3rd Dec, 
17th Dec. 1895, 14th Jan. 1896, Feb. 4th: Proceedings, 1895. 
Part iii. : Transactions. Vol. xiii. Part 11 (Oct. 1895). From 
the Society, 

Royal Society of South Australia — Transactions. Vol. xix. 
Part ii. (Dec. 1895). From the Society, 

Soci^t^ Royale de G^graphie d'Anvers — Bulletin. T. xx. 
2»e.3«e Pages. (1895-96) : M^moires. T. iv. From tJie Society, 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney — Agricultural Gazette. 
Vol. vi. Parts 11-12 (Nov.-Dec. 1895); Vol. \n. Parts 1-2 (Jan.- 
Feb. 1896). From tfie Hon, the Minister for Mines and 
Agriculture. 

Johns Hopkins University Circulars. Vol. xv. No. 121 (Oct. 
1895). From the University, 

Xaturwissenschaftlicher Verein des Reg.-Bez., Frankfurt a/O. 
— Helios, xiii. Jahrg. 1895. Nos. 1-6 (Ap.-Sept.): Societatum 
Litterae. ix. Jahrg. 1895. Nos. 4-9 (Ap.-Sept.). From the 
Society, 

Scottish ^licroscopical Society — Proceedings, 1894-95. From 
the Society. 

Kaiserliche Mineralogische G^sellschaft, St. P^tersbourg — 
Materialien zur Geologie Russlands. Bd. xvii. (1895). From 
tlie Society, 

U.S. Department of Agriculture — Division of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy — Bulletin. No. 6 (1895): Division of Entomology — 
Bulletin, n.s. Nos. 1-2 (1895). From the ^Secretary of Agri- 
culture. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences — Transactions. 
Vols, i.-iii; Vol. iv. Parts 1-2; Vols, v.-vi. (1866-85). From 
tlt^ Acculemy, 

Bombay Natural History Society — Journal. Vol ix. No. 5; 
Vol. X. No. 1 (Oct. -Nov., 1895). From the Society, 



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b DONATIONS. 

Soci^t^ Enfcomologique de Belgique — Annales. T. xxxvi. (1892); 
xxxviii. (1894) : M^moires. i. (1892). From the Society. 

Pamphlet entitled " Analyses of the Artesian Waters of New 
South Wales," <kc. By J. C. H. Mingaye, F.C.S. No. 2 (1895). 
From the Author, 

Entomological Society of London — Proceedings, 1895. Parts 
iv.-v. From t/ie Society. 

Museo de La Plata— Re vista. T. vi. Part ii. (1895). From 
the Director. 

Australian Museum, Sydney — Records. Vol. ii. No. 7- 
(Jan., 1896). From the Trustees. 

Acad^mie Roy ale des Sciences et Lettres de Danemark^ 
Copenhague — Bulletin. Ann^e, 1895. No. 2 (April-May). From 
the Academy. 

Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademie— Handlingar. Bd. 
xxvi. (1894-95): Bihang. Bd. xx. Afd. i.-iv. From the Academy. 

Journal of Conchology. Vol. viii. No. 5 (Jan., 1896). From, 
the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Naturhistorischer Verein der Preussischen Rheinlande, West- 
falens, and des Reg.-Bez., Osnabriick — Verhandlungen. Ui. 
Bd. Erste Half te, (1895): Sitzungsberichte der Niederrheinischen 
Gressellschaft fiir Natur- und Heilkunde zu Bonn. 1895. Erste 
Halfte. From the Society. 

Society Beige de Microscopic — Annales. T. xix. 2"®. Fasc. 
(1895). From the Society. 

Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab. Bd. xvii. Hefte 
1-4 (Ap., 1894; Aug., 1895). From the Royal University of 
Upsal. 

Upsala Universitets Mineralogisk-Gleologiska Institution — 
Meddelanden. Nos. 11 and 17-19. From the Royal University 
of Norway. 



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DONATIONS. i 

Soci^t^ Royale Malacologique de Belgique — Annales. T. 
Tjivu. (1892): Proc^Verbaux. T. xxi. (1892), pp. 75-86. 
(Nov.-Dec.) ; T. xxii. (1893); T. xxiii. (1894); T. xxiv. (1895), 
pp. 1-83 (Jan.-May). From the Society, 

Soci^t^ Rationale des ScL Nat. et Math, de Cherbourg — 
M^moires. T. xxix. (1892-95). From the Society, 

Geelong Naturalist. Vol. v. No. 2 (Jan., 1896). From the 
Geelong Field Naturalists^ Cltib, 

Royal Society, London — Proceedings. Vol. Iviii. Nos. 349- 
352 (Aug.-Nov., 1895); Vol. lix. No. 353 (Jan., 1896). From 
the Society. 

Royal Irish Academy — Transactions. Vol. xxx. Parts 15-17 
(Feb.-Dec., 1895): Proceedings. Third Series. Vol. iii. No. 4 
(Dec., 1895) : List of Members, 1895. Froni the Academy. 

Entomologiska Foreningen i Stockholm — Entomologisk Tids- 
krift. Arg. 16, 1895. Haft 1-4. From tlie Society. 

Queensland Geological Survey — Report on the Leichhardt 
Gold Field and other Mining Centres in the Cloncurry District. 
1895 (No. 208). By W. H. Rands. From the Director. 

Sydney Observatory — Results of Rain, River, and Evaporation 
Observations made in New South Wales during 1894 under the 
Direction of H. C. Russell, B.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., Govt. Astro- 
nomer. From the Director. 

Bureau of American Ethnology—Bulletin W. (No. 23) [1894]. 
From the Bureau. 

Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery, Melbourne — 
Report of the Trustees, 1894. From the Trustees. 

Universitj^ of Melbourne — Examination Papers : Matric. (Nov., 
1895) ; Annual (Oct. and Dec, 1895). From the University. 

Comity Geologique, St. P^tersbourg — Bulletin. Supplement 
au T. xiv., 1894 : M^moires. Vol. x. No. 4 (1895). From the 
Committee. 



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8 DONATIONS, 

Department of Agriculture, Victoria — Three Reports by 
Messrs. Sinclair and Irvine: Guides to Growers, Nos. 6-7, 18- 
20, and 22. From C. FrencJi, Esq., F.L,S. 

Grordon Technical College, Geelong — The Wombat. Vol. i. 
No. 2 (1895). Frwn the College. 

L'Institut Colonial de Marseille — Annales. Vol. ii. (1895). 
From the Institution, 

Revista de Sciencias Naturaes e Sociaes. Vol. iv. No. 14 (1896). 
From the Directors. 



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OBSERVATIONS ON THE RELATIONS OF THE ORGAN 
OF JACOBSON IN THE HORSE. 

By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. 

(Plate i.) 

In Herzfield's recent paper " Ueber das Jacobson'ache Organ 
des Menschen und der Saugethiere "* he calls attention to the 
peculiarity in the Horse in that in it there is no naso-palatine 
canal opening into the mouth, and that the duct of Jaoobson, 
instead of opening into the naso-palatine canal as in most higher 
mammals, opens into a deep depression in the nasal floor. This 
condition he found to exist in both the Horse and the Ass, and 
he states that aeoording to Gratioletf a similar condition is found 
in the Camel and Giraffe. 

As I had from my studies on the organ of Jacobson in different 
Orders come to the conclusion that though the degree of deyelop- 
ment of the organ may vary greatly in different genera the type 
on which it is formed is remarkably uniform in each Order, I 
naturally became anxious to find the explanation of how it was 
that the organ in the Horse differed apparently so remarkably 
from the normal Ungulate type as found in the Sheep. 

Being fortunate in having in my possession the head of a foetal 
Horse I have made a study of the relations of the organ by 
means of a series of vertical sections. Though the examination 
of a younger specimen would doubtless have been even more 

* Zoolog. Jahrbuch, Abtheil. f ilr Anatomie und Ontogenie. Bd. iii. 188J. 
t Kecherches sur Torgane de Jacobson. aris, 1845. 



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10 RELATIONS OF THE ORGAN OP JACOBSON IN THE H0R8E, 

satisfactory, as the present series sufficiently elucidates the nature 
of the peculiarity, I think it well to publish the present results. 

The Horse differs from most mammals in having the premaxil- 
laries developed in such a way as to carry the palate forward in 
advance of the nares and forming a sort of rostrum — a condition 
seen in a much greater degree in the Tapir. As a result of this 
development a large portion of the anterior part of the nasal 
septum is clasped between the premaxillaries, and the lateral 
cartilages, which in most mammals become the " cartilages of the 
nasal floor," are here confined by the premaxillaries and prevented 
from developing laterally to any great degree, and seem to com- 
pensate for the want of lateral expansion by developing down- 
wards. 

Figure 1, Plate i., represents a section immediately behind the 
point where the premaxillary gives off its palatine process. A 
portion of the lateral cartilage (I.e.) is seen passing downwards 
from the nasal septum (n.s.) between the premaxillary and the 
palatine process. A little below it may be observed an oval 
cartilage cut across — this is an anterior process from the lateral 
cartilage. It passes well forward, approaching nearer to the 
palate, and ending a little behind the rudimentiary papilla. The 
most noteworthy peculiarity of this section is that there is no 
trace of the naso-palatine canal to be seen, nor is there in any 
anterior section. Even by the sides of the papilla, where the 
anterior opening of the canal would be expected, I have failed to 
find even a rudiment. 

A little distance behind the plane of figure 1 the anterior 
process of the lateral cartilage is seen united with the main part, 
which though still attached to the nasal septum is becoming 
constricted off. In a slight concavity on the inferior end of the 
cartilage is found on this plane the anterior closed end of the 
imperfect naso-palatine canal (ri.p.c). 

In figure 3 the naso-palatine canal is found to have a distinct 
lumen, and on its inner side it is supported by a small downward 
cartilaginous process. 



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BY B. BBOOM. 11 

In the next succeeding planes the relation of the duct to the 
cartilages is very similar, but the lateral cartilage is found 
becoming shorter and broader and detaching itself from the 
nasal septum (iig. 4). 

On reaching the plane shown in fig. 5 the nasal cavity is found 
to be approaching the lateral cartilage, which here becomes for 
the first time a " nasal-fioor cartilage " proper. At its outer 
ajigle it is seen sending up a process which further back is found 
to represent the rudimentary cartilage of the nasal wall. Here 
the naso-palatine canal is seen flattened out and about to give off 
Jacobson's duct. The inner part or Jacobson's duct is almost 
surrounded by cartilage. 

In figure 6 the ducts are seen separated, and a cartilaginous 
partition passes between thein. 

In the following figure the outer part of the cartilage is seen 
detached, while the inner forms a complete investment for 
Jacobson*8 duct. Between the two portions of the divided 
lateral cartilage is found the naso-palatine canal aboUt to open 
into the nasal cavity. 

Behind this region the organ and its cartilages are found quite 
to follow the ordinary mammalian form. 

It will l)e observed that the points in which the Horse differs 
from the normal type are these : — (1) occlusion or absence of the 
anterior part of the nasopalatine canal, leading to the secretion 
from Jacobson's organ passing backwards into the nasal cavity by 
the upper part of the naso-palatine canal; and '2) the anterior 
processes of cartilage usually given off from the nasal-floor or 
lateral cartilage and passing forward supporting Jacobson's duct 
and the naso-palatine canal, here for the greater part remain 
united with the lateral cartilage. In the absence of even a trace 
<if the canal in its anterior part, it is doubtful whether the 
anterior cartilaginous process represents Jacobson's or Stenson*s 
cartilages or a fusion of both — probably the latter. 



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1 2 RELATIONS OP THE ORGAN OP JAC0B80N IN THE HORSE, 

In almost all other respects there is a close agreement between 
the condition of parts in the Horse and those in most other 
Ungulates. 

Fig. 10 shows a section of part of the nose of a very small foetal 
Calf. Here both Jacobson's and Stenson's cartilages are well 
developed and seem distinct from the broad nasal-floor cartilage. 
If this be compared with figures 4 or 5 the close resemblance will 
be seen; in fact the only marked difference is that in the Horse 
the cartilages of Jacobson and Stenson are united with the nasal- 
floor cartilage, in the Calf distinct. But all the corresponding 
parts can easily be observed. 

Figure 1 1 represents a section of the foetal Calf corresponding 
to figure 6 in the Horse. Here the duct cartilages are united 
with the nasal-floor cartilage as in the Horse. The resemblance 
is, however, somewhat marred by the enormous development of 
the cartilage of the nasal wall in the Calf. Such variations in 
cartilaginous development, however, occur in very nearly allied 
forms as the Cat and Dog. 

The agreement of figure 1 2 with figure 8 is most striking. 

The peculiarities in the Horse are probably due to the strong 
development of the premaxillary bones leading to the occlusion 
of the anterior part of the naso-palatine canal and to the vertical 
direction assumed by the lateral cartilage permitting the duct 
cartilages to remain united with the main body. 

The similar condition in the Camel is probably accounted for 
by the fact that its very recent ancestors had remarkably well 
developed incisors, e.y , Protolabes from the Upper Miocene of 
Oregon. 

In the Giraffe the explanation is not very manifest. 

I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. John Mackie 
and Mr. A. Robb, F.R.C.V.S., of Glasgow, for the fcetal horse 
examined, and to Mr. Alf. Swan, of Taralga, for the fcetal calf. 



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BY R. BROOM. 13 



REFERENCES TO PLATE I. 

aJ.c, ADterior procesa of lateral cartilage; /.c, Jacobson's cartiFage; 
J.d., Jacobson's duct; /.o., Jacobson^a organ; I.e., lateral cartilage; Mx., 
maxillary; tl/.c.^ nasal-floor cartilage; n,p,c.y naso-palatine canal; t?.ir.c., 
nasal- wall cartilage; n.«., nasal septum; p.Pnix,, palatine process of pre- 
maxillary; Pmx,, premaxillary. 

Figs. 1- 9. — Transverse vertical sections through snout of foetal Horse 
(bead length about 7*5 cm.) x 7. 

figB, 10-12. — Transverse vertical sections through snout of foetal Calf (hnad 
length about 2 cm.) x 30. 

Dotted portion represents cartilage; parts shaded by lines represent the 
regions of ossification. 



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14 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FURTHER HIGHLY ORNATE 

BOOMERANGS FROM NEW SOUTH WALES 

AND QUEENSLAND. 

By R. Ethbridge, JuNft., Curator of the Australian Museum. 

(Plates ii.-v.) 

The boomerangs described in the present communication may 
be regarded as supplementary to those of an ornate nature 
figured in these " Proceedings,"* and the " Macleay Memorial 
Volume."t They are from the collections of Dr. J. C. Cox, and 
Messrs. P. R. Pedley and N. Hardy, and my best thanks are due 
to these gentlemen for the loan of the weapons. 

The first 6ve boomerangs generally resemble one of those first 
referred to, J where the incised ornament consists of loops returned 
on themselves, either continuous along the whole length of the 
weapon or disconnected one from the other. 

The most highly ornate of the five (Fig. 4) bears three incised 
loops formed by from three to five continuous grooves, the loops 
gradually increasing in length. The free end of the shortest loop 
commences near one of the apices of the weapon, passes down 
the middle line for about one quarter its length, then turns 
to the left or concave side of the boomerang and is returned 
again to the apex, at this point rounding on to the convex side, 
which it follows to a point a trifle beyond the centre of the 
weapon. Here it turns to the left as far as the middle line, and 
is again returned in that plane until meeting with and joining 
the first bend, the loop curves on itself to the left and follows the 
concave margin throughout the remaining length of the weapon, 
i e.j to the further apex, then returning on itself to the right, 
passes on to the convex margin, which it follows until coming in 

• Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S Wales, 1894, ix. (2), p. 193. 

t P. 237, t. 32, f. 1-3. 

t Pioc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, l.c, t. 15, f. 1. 



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BY R. ETHBBIDGE, JUNR. 15 

contact with the first return of the second loop, again returns on 
itself to the middle line of the boomerang, pursues its course 
along that plane, and terminates as it commenced in a free end ; 
hence there are in this figure four turns to the left, and two to 
right. When there are more than three incised grooves, the 
additional ones are made by interpolation. Some of the inter- 
spaces of the loops are quite plain, one bears seven crosses in three 
and a half pairs, three others have continuous zig-zag incised 
lines, whilst outside the central loop on the convex side of the 
boomerang, the marginal space is occupied by a similar zig-zag, or 
almost festoon-like, figure of two incised grooves. One of the 
apices is similarly marked transversely, whilst the other is devoid 
of sculpture, but just within the return of the loop, and above 
the free end is a figure resembling an unsymmetrical letter W. 

The length of this weapon across the curve is two feet four 
inches ; the breadth two and a quarter inches ; and the weight 
ten and a half ounces. It is from the collection of Mr. P. R. 
Pedley, and was obtained at St. George on the Balonne River, a 
branch of the Maranoa River, in South-east Queensland. 

The second boomerang (Fig. 3) differs from Fig. 4 only in detail. 
The loops are identical in number and execution, but at the 
returning points instead of four deflections to the left and two to 
the right, there are two and four respectively. The interspaces 
are also sculptured in the same manner, ^ although not within 
corresponding loops. The apices on the contrary are differently 
marked, both bearing a diagonal of four incised lines, the spaces 
on either side carrying sharp v-shaped figures. 

The length is two feet four inches; the breadth two and a half 
inches; and the weight eleven ounces. It is from the same 
locality and collection as the last. 

The third weapon (Fig. 2) resembles Fig. 3, except that only two 
loops have been incised, almost equally dividing the surface, with 
two deflections to the right and two to the left. Only one inter- 
space beara a single zig-zag line, the others are devoid of sculpture. 
At one end the loop is contiguous to the apex, at the other the 



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16 BOOMERANGS FROM N.S.W. AND QUEENSLAND, 

free space beyond the return of the loops is occupied by sigmoidal 
6gures of two incisions each, and a central gently lunate outline. 

The length is two feet three and a quarter inches; the breadth 
two inches; and the weight nine ounces. Jt is from the same 
locality and collection as the two previous weapons. 

The two succeeding boomerangs (Figs. 1 or 7) have disconnected 
loops, or rather half-loops placed back to back and touching in 
pairs. Cross bars are also present, but differ in the two weapons. 
In both the loops are formed of six undulating grooves, producing 
a figure along one margin of each weapon, then returning on 
itself, and proceeding along the other margin, leaving a wide space 
in the middle line. In Fig. 1 there are seven of these half -loops, 
and in Fig. 7 six. In Fig. 1 the apical half-loops are turned in 
opposite directions, and one is smaller than the other. That at 
one of the apices is cut off by a single incised transverse line, 
and is followed by two half loops abutting against one another, 
and again divided off near the middle of the weapons by another 
transverse incised line. Two further half-loops repeat the same 
order, separated by the third transverse incised line from the first 
large half-loop referred to as occupying one of the apical portions 
of the boomerang. The arrangement in Fig. 7 is practically the 
same, but in consequence of the penultimate apical half-loops 
being nearly of a size, the sculpture is almost bilaterally 
symmetrical. The cross-bars are only two, wide quadrangular 
spaces, vertically incised with close grooves. The interspaces 
between the two parts of each half-loop are occupied in the 
middle line of the weapon with a zig-zag figure of two incised 
lines, the angles of the zig-zag either continuous or broken. In . 
Fig. 7 there is only one such figure, but in Fig. 1 three of the half- 
loops are infilled with an additional series of a siqgle incision. 
Again in Fig. 7 an additional zig-zag line is represented immediately 
along the central convex edge of the weapon. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 7. 

Length 2ft. 9in. 2ft. 6in. 

Breadth ... 2 Jin. 2 Jin. 

Weight ... 12oz, 12oz. 



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BY B. ETHERIDGE, JUNR. 17 

Both boomerangs are from Angeldool, on the Narran River, 
near the Queensland border, and are from the collection of Dr. J. 
C. Cox. 

The next weapon to be described (Fig. 6) is well ornamented 
wiUi four parallel series of small conjoined ovals, extending 
nearly the entire length of the boomerang, the two nearest the 
convex margin being the shortest. This margin is also scalloped. 
The ovals are obliquely incised with single grooves not all in 
the same direction, but the scalloped edge is plain. 

The length is two feet eight inches; the breadth two and a 
quarter inches; and the weight thirteen ounces. It is from the 
same locality and collection as Figs. 1 and 7. 

The original of Fig. 5 like that of Fig. 6 is a large boomerang, 
with the sculpture excellently done, consisting of a median line of 
six inequilateral rhombs, the intervening triangular spaces on each 
side being vertically incised with grooves. The surfaces of the 
rhombs are smooth, and devoid of sculpture, with the exception of 
* the shaped nicks, in from one to four series in each rhomb, but 
too disjointed to assume a zig-zag pattern. 

The length is two feet nine and a half inches; the breadth two 
and a half inches; and the weight thirteen and a half ounces. 
This example is also from Dr. Cox's Angeldool collection. 

Fig. 8 represents a boomerang imperfect in itself, but exactly 
coinciding in its sculpture with one of those described by me 
from Norley, on the Bulloo River,* and therefore need not be 
described further. We have here either an example of wide 
distribution of a certain pattern of sculpture, or a case of a 
weapon passed on by barter. The specimen is again from 
Angeldool. 

Deeply scalloped margins distinguish Fig. 1 2, the scalloping edged 
with a wide groove, and itself obliquely incised. The middle line 
or crown is quite smooth with the exception of a fluctuating or 
serpentine line of two grooves, fairly well coinciding in its 
fluctuations with the groove edging the scalloped figure on the 

• Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1894, ix. (2), t. 15, f. 2. 



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18 BOOMERANGS FROM N.S.W. AND QUEENSLAND, 

concave side of the weapon. The immediate apex at one end is 
cross-incised, and bears a few irregular v-shaped nicks. 

The length is two feet three and a half inches; breadth two 
and a quarter inches; and the weight twelve ounces. It is from 
St. George, Balonne River ( Mr. P. R. Pedley). 

Fig. 10 is again a bilaterally unsjnnmetrical boomerang as 
regards the incised sculpture. There are three cross-bars formed 
of one obliquely cross-notched incised line. One of these is near 
the centre, another half way between this and one of the apices, 
and the third at the apex referred to, thus dividing the surface 
into three unequal lengths. The middle line bears acute small 
rhombs, extending throughout the two larger divisions. On each 
side the line of rhombs are the usual rolling or fluctuating grooves 
four to five on either side; whilst the middle line of the division 
unomamented by rhombs, is occupied by similar grooves. The 
apex at this end bears a transverse double zig-zag pattern, and a 
single similar series is intra-marginal on the convex side of the 
boomerang. 

Length two feet three and a half inches; breadth two and a 
quarter inches; and the weight eleven ounces. This is a much 
shorter and more highly curved weapon. 

St. George, Balonne River (Mr. P. R. Pedley). 

The middle line of this boomerang (Fig. 11) instead of rhombs 
is ornamented by deeply incised rolling grooves. Flanking these 
are two similar grooves, intra-marginal in position, and between 
the latter and both edges of the weapon are a series of crosses. 
There are four cross-bars, one towards each apex, and one on 
either side the centre of the weapon. At the apices are broad 
semi-lunar transverse bands, both concave in the same direction, 
and vertically grooved. 

The length is two feet four and a half inches ; breadth two 
inches ; and weight ten and a half ounces. 

This boomerang is again from St. George, and in the collection 
of Mr. P. R. Pedley. Like Fig. 10 it is a good deal curved. 

Another very bilateral lyunsymmetrical boomerang is represented 
by Fig. 9. The principal sculpture consists of three ranges of 



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BT B. ETHERIDGB, JUNB. 19 

^uctnating grooves, four to six grooves in each range, one group 
in the middle line, and one on either side, extending from apex to 
apex, but twice interrupted by cross bars, that differ widely, how- 
ever, from those figured on preceding weapons. That on one side of 
the centre consists of two parallel grooves, united by transverse 
incisions, the other near one of the apices of two such bands, some- 
what separated from one another, the plain interspace carrying five 
v-shaped figures placed transversely. On the concave side of the 
boomerang, and along one part of the edge, is the ever-recurring 
single zig-zag line, whilst between the fluctuating lines over the 
general surface, either the same kind of incised sculpture or v- 
shaped figures parallel to the longer axis of the weapon. 

Length two feet five and a half inches; breadth two and a 
quarter inches; and weight twelve and a half ounces. This 
boomerang was received from Normanton, Gulf of Carpentaria, 
by Mr. N. Hardy, to whom it belongs. 

A very peculiarly ornamented boomerang is represented in Fig. 
13, Along the convex margin is a series of very deep scallops, 
reaching transversely to near the middle line of the weapon, and 
grooved parallel to its longer axis. The middle or centre line is 
occupied by a single zig-zag, and between this and the concave 
edge are three deep and wide slightly fluctuating lines of two 
grooves each. The whole produces a very marked pattern. The 
apices in this weapon are very sharply pointed. 

Length two feet six inches; width two inches; and weight ten 
ounces. 

From Angeldool, on the Narran River, in the collection of Dr. 
J. C. Cox. 

The last boomerang but two (Fig. 14) bears on each side of the 
sculptured face long moderately deep festoons, five on either side, 
and obliquely grooved, but not reaching to either apex. The 
middle line is occupied by five large ovals, so arranged that each 
more or less falls into the space left between opposite re-entering 
angles of the festoons. These are also deeply and obliquely 
^rrooved. Clear spaces are left at both apices, one containing two 



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20 BOOMERANGS PROM N.S.AV. AND QUEENSLAND, 

and a half rhombs placed transversely, whilst at the other is an 
oblong enclosure, with two parallel zig-zags of a single line each. 

Length two feet five inches; breadth two and a quarter inches; 
and weight eleven and a half ounces. 

From Angeldool, on the Narran River, in the collection of Dr. 
J. C. Cox. 

In the last specimen but one (Fig. 15) runs a sub-central longi- 
tudinal line of eleven large ovals, and along the concave and convex 
margins respectively rows of fifteen and eighteen narrower ovals. 
Intervening between the central row and that on the convex 
margin at one end of the weapon is an additional row of larger 
ovals, but this only extends for half the length of the w^eapon. 
At each end this larger row dies off into a single zig-zag line, 
whilst between the sub-central line of ovals and that on the con- 
cave margin is another. All the ovals are grooved obliquely. 

Length two feet four inches; breadth two and a quarter inches; 
and weight eleven ounces. 

Again from Angeldool, on the Narran River, and in the 
collection of Dr. J. C. Cox. 

The last boomerang (Fig. 16) is figured with some hesitation, 
not as to the genuineness of the weapon itself, but of the carving; 
the former betrays nothing out of the common. The natural 
objects represented are a large fish in the centre, bounded by two 
incised lines, and filled in with single diagonal lines in two 
directions, producing a series of rhombs probably representing 
scales. Following this, and in front of it, is a by no means bad 
representation of a bird; below this again four rhombs, one within 
the other, followed by a nondescript object, infilled with incised 
lines coincident with the outline; and finally at the apex a heart- 
shaped body. It is the execution of the bird, with the appearance 
of the nondescript and heart-shaped bodies that might raise the 
suspicion that the carving on this weapon is not purely " black- 
fellow." Birds, however, are by no means uncommon on the 
highly decorated dilly-baskets of North Australia, whilst the 
heart has on more than one occasion been observed amongst rock 
paintings, undoubtedly the work of the Aborigines. The 



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BY R. ETHERIDGE, JDNR. 21 

boomerang is the property of Mr. Norman Hardy, and is from 
Queensland. 

Figs. 2 to 4 are obviously after the type of the ornamented 
boomerangs from the BuUoo River, figured by myself,* differing 
merely in minor details; the loop pattern is here paramount. I 
think it very possible also that the sculpture fore-shadowed on a 
boomerang from Queensland, figured by Smyth, f is only this 
pattern in an incomplete state. Knight figures J a boomerang 
exhibited at the Philadelphia International Exhibition, said in 
the same breath to be }x)th from N.S. Wales and Victoria, and 
bearing those serpentine figures that are probably of the same 
nature. 

Figs. 1 and 7. — The half -loops do not correspond to any 
preWously published illustrations known to rae. The weapon 
represented by Fig. 6 is to some extent allied in its pattern to 
another figured by Srayth,§ from Rockingham Bay, that from 
C39aiooboolaroj given by Lumholtz,|| and one of those from the 
Alligator River Tableland, figured by myself in the Macleay 
Memorial Volume,1I except that Fig. 6 is wanting in the marginal 
festoon work and possesses an additional row of ovals. Fig. 15 
also stands in much the same relation. 

The pattern of the broken boomerang. Fig. 8, again corresponds 
to one from the Bulloo River.** 

The remainder of the figures are not related to any published 
forms so far as I know. Broken zig-zag double lines, as in Figs. 1, 
7, H, 15, <kc., are by no means uncommon on aboriginal weapons, 
whilst crosses are very uncommon (see Fig. 11). For instance a 
Bull-roarer, figured by Angas, from S. Australia, and called 
Wimmari, is decorated in this manner. 



• Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1894, ix. (2), t. 15, f. 1. 

t Aborigines of Victoria, 1878, i,, p. 285, f. 37. 

Smithsonian Ann. Report for 1879 [1880], p. 227, f. 28, lo!¥er Hg. 

§ Smyth, loc. cit. p. 329, f. 112. 

,1 Among Cannibals, 1890, p. 51, f. b. 

IT t. 32, f. 3. 

•* Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1894, ix (2), t. 10, f. 2. 



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22 BOOMERANGS FROM K.S.W. AND QUEENSLAND, 

On taking a general glance over the figures of these boomerangs 
one is struck with the limited number of designs that appear to 
have been used amongst the aboriginal artists, notwithstanding 
that so far as detail goes no two are precisely alike. The designs 
are confined to the loop, half -loop, rhomb, oval, cross, rectangular 
bars, and semilunate, festoon, and zig-zag patterns, with modifi- 
cations of one or the other. The chevron or herring pattern is 
also often met with. Circles and spirals are conspicuous by their 
absence on boomerangs. True it is the incised work of our 
Aborigines is devoid of that finish and delicacy of execution seen 
iu the carvings of many other dark races — for instance, compare 
some of the beautiful designs employed by the Dyaks to ornament 
their wood work. At the same time the incised patterns of our 
Aborigines have a character of their own not to be mistaken for 
those of any other race. 

Whenever natural objects are represented they are always to a 
greater extent recognisable at such, and do not seem to be 
degenerate representations of a higher and more advanced art 
previously existing, the realism being maintained and not 
abandoned. Writing on the " Decorative Art of Torres Straits," 
Professor A. W. Haddon says* : — " We see that the animals are 
always represented individually, and are not utilised for the purpose 
of making patterns, or of telling a story, or for conveying infor- 
mation." At present there is no evidence to show that figures of 
the animate creation were otherwise used by our Aborigines on 
their boomerangs. 

In the majority of instances the designs run parallel to the 
longer axis of the boomerangs, although not in all. Etched 
designs appear remarkable by their absence on this class of 
weapon, so far as my observation goes, although they are met 
with on some Womerahs; neither does there seem to be that 
appreciation of the grotesque that forms so marked a feature in 
carvings from New 2^ealand and the Pacific Islands. One very 
noticeable character exists throughout the whole series, without 
exception, the emargination and produced centre of all the apices. 



* R. Iriah Acad. Canningham Mem. 1894, No. x. p. 65. 



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23 



ON A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF FISHES FROM 
MAROUBRA BAY. 

By J. Douglas Ogilby. 

(Communicated by T. Whiteleggey F.R.M.S.) 

It is again my pleasing duty to record yet another new fish 
from Maroubra Bay, where it was obtained by Mr. Whitelegge 
early in February. The constant recurrence of new forms of 
animal life in this small bay, probably the only spot on the 
Australian coast which has been systematically and scientifically 
explored, is an additional proof, if one were needed, of how 
imperfect a knowledge of our littoral fauna we possess. 

I am puzzled to know in what family this genus should be 
placed; a casual glance would indicate aflinity to the ApogonidcBy 
but the absence of vomerine teeth and the number of the dorsal 
spines apparently deny it a resting-place among these little fishes, 
unless indeed it should be considered to be an aberrant Apogonid 
with sciaBnoid affinities. 

Apogonops, gen.nov. 

Body elongate-oblong and somewhat tapering posteriorly, 
compressed. Head large. Mouth rather larj;e, with oblique cleft, 
the premaxillaries protractile and forming almost the entire 
anterior margin of the upper jaw; maxillary exposed, without 
supplemental bone; lower jaw the longer. Two nostrils on each 
side, the anterior rather the larger and situated much nearer to the 
eye than to the extremity of the snout. Eye large. Preorbital 
entire; preopercle with a double ridge; the inner ridge entire, the 
outer with a few weak spines round the angle; opercle with 



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24 A NEW FISH FROM MAROUBRA BAY, 

two spines; the membranous portion produced and pointed, 
extending well beyond the lower spine; posttemporal spiniferous. 
Gill-membranes separate from the isthmus; gills four, a slit behind 
the fourth; seven branchiostegals; pseudobranchise present; gill- 
rakers moderate, rather slender. Narrow bands of ^-illiform 
teath in the jaws; vomer, palatines, and tongue edentulous. A 
single dorsal fin, deeply notched, with x 10 rays, the spinous 
portion longer than the soft; anal short, with iii 7 rays, the 
second spine strong and laterally grooved; vcntrals inserted below 
the base of the pectorals, close together, with a strong spine; 
pectorals pointed, with 14 rays, the second the longest and much 
stronger than the third; caudal emarginate, the peduncle long 
and strong. Scales moderate, cycloid, concentrically striated, 
very deciduous; head partially naked; soft dorsal and anal fins 
with a basal scaly sheath; no scaly process between the ventrals. 
Lateral line continuous, extending on the base of the caudal fin, 
the tube straight and simple, not quite reaching to the extremity 
of the scale. 

Etymoloyy : — Apogon; c5^, resemblance. 

Diatrihution : — Coast of New South Wales. 

Apogonops anomalus, sp.nov. 

D. X 10. A. iii 7. Sc. 55. 

Length of head 2f, depth of body \^^ in the total length;* 
depth of head IJ, width of head 2'r in its length. Eye very 
large, situated on the upper half of the side of the head, it« 
diameter one-third of the length of the head; snout obtuse, shorter 
than the eye; interoii)ital region flat, its width 3 J in the length 
of the head. Maxillary not quite extending to the vertical from 

* In this and all future papers the totiU length, as taken in connection 
with the comparative measurement?, is tiie distance between the extremity 
of the jaws and the base of the caudul tia, unless special mention to the 
contrary is made; in giving the length of the fish this fin is of coarde 
included. In taking the measurement of the head the free opercular flap 
is not included, nor, unless definitely stated to the contrary, such portion 
of the lower jaw as may project beyond the upper. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 25 

the middle of the eye, its length half of that of the head; its 
distal extremity is expanded, two-fifths of the diameter of the eye 
in width, its posterior margin sinuous. The preorbital and the 
inner ridge of the preopercle are entirely unarmed, while the outer 
ridge has a few feeble spines at or near the rounded angle; lower 
opercular spine the longer; posttemporal with five spines. About 
22 gill-rakers on the lower branch of the anterior arch. The 
dorsal fin originates above the base of the pectoral; the spines 
are rather weak; the first short, about one-third of the second 
and sub-equal to the eighth; the fourth spine is the longest, two- 
fifths of the length of the head and Hve-sixths of the anterior 
soft rays; the ninth spine is very short, and the tenth is inter- 
mediate in length between the sixth and seventh: the anal 
originates betneath the fourth soft ray of the dorsal; the first 
spine is very short and stout, the second much stronger, but not 
so long as the third, which is one-third of the length of the head, 
and not much shorter than the anterior rays : ventral not 
reaching to the vent, the outer I'ay the longest, four-sevenths of 
the length of the head: pectoral two- thirds of the head: caudal 
emarginate, the peduncle long and tapering, its depth immediately 
behind the dorsal fin 1 J, its least depth 2| in its length. 

Brownish-green, the sides strongly tinged with yellow; thorax 
and abdomen silvery; upper surface of head bluish, the lips, inter- 
orbital region, and an angular band on the occiput darkest; 
opercle bluish: a series of five large olive brown spots along the 
side; lower side of tail with three groups of crowded brown 
specks; dorsal fin sparsely, caudal densety covered with similar 
specks, the latter with two large dark basal spots. 

The single example collected measures 54 millimeters and is 
apparently full grown. 



CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF 
AUSTRALIA. SUPPLEMENT, PART II. 

By Georgb Masters. 



I*sut^ sf^paratvly as a Supplement to the Part. 



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26 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CALLOSITIES IN CYPR^A 
OTHER THAN CF. BICALLOSA AND CY. RHINO- 
CERUS; AND ON THE OCCURRENCE OF A SULCUS 
IN TRIVIA. 

By Agkks F. Kexyon. 

(Communicaied by John Brazier^ F.L.S.) 

I have lately come across several specimens of different species 
of Cypr(Ea (helvola, tabescens, miliaris, erosa), which have the 
termino-dorsal arches adorned with callosities. Though these do 
not occur in every specimen, still finding it in several specimens 
of the genus, it proves that it is not an abnormal incident; and 
therefore I think the circumstance deserving of being recorded. 

Cy. helvola (callused variety) possessing a double or twin 
callosity at the posterior extremity; the callus is not so well 
defined anteriorly, though in some specimens well marked; 
extremities white. 

Cy. tdbescens (callused var.) : extremities with a callus more or 
less conspicuous, and in some instances furnished with two at the 
posterior extremity. 

Cy. erosa (callused var.) : differing in no respect from the nor- 
mal type except in having at both extremities more or less well 
defined callosities; some specimens bear double ones on the 
posterior terminal arch. 

Cy. miliaris (callused var.): evidently a lighter variety, but 
bearing a well marked callus. 

Cy, cameola (pustulated var.): I have several specimens of this 
species, in which the margins are pustulated; this I should say 
was rather a rare occurrence, though evidently not unique. 

Cy. lynx (pustulated var.): I have several specimens even 
more pustulated than those of Cy. carneola. 



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BY AQNE8 F. KENYON. 27 

Cy. angustaia (var.): I found at Flinders, Victoria, several 
specimens with the margins unspotted and dorsal surface 
uncoloured. 

On the occurrence of a SiUcus in Trivia avstralis It is some- 
what unusual to find any species of the genus Trivia with a 
dorsal impression or sulcus, as the authorities have agreed in 
defining them with none. I have, however, several specimens 
distinctly marked; also one in which the base is not white; and 
one which has only one spot at each end may be pronounced a 
Victorian variety of T. Tiapoliniy it having been found at Flinders, 
Victoria. I have also a pair of T. napolini from West Australia 
with a distinct sulcus. 

It will therefore be noted that some of the distinguishing 
marks of this genus are absent in these specimens. 



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28 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Mr. Hedley called attention to specimens of Fiona marina, 
Forskal, collected at Maroubra Bay, on February 9th, 1896, by 
Mr. T. Whitelegge, who tirst found the genus in Australia last 
year, the discovery being recorded in Proc. Malac. Soc. I. p. 333, 
footnote. The first examples found were swimming free, and 
were tinted that shade of dark blue common to lanthina, Glauctufy 
Porpita, Velella, Physalia and other pelagic animals. In the 
present instance they were of a pearl-grey colour, and were sunk 
in deep grooves evidently gnawed by themselves in fragments of 
an indeterminate species of Sepia shell, upon which grew examples 
of Lepas ansifera about 10 ram. in length. With them were 
associated several masses of ova, resembling those figured by 
Bergh (Result. Camp. Scient. Prince Monaco, Fasc. iv. PI. i. f. 
16). In support of the sui^i^estion that the coloration of these 
specimens was a protective adaptation to the colour of the Sepia, 
the molluscs, ova and cuttlebone were exhibited. 

Mr. Hedley also reported that on March 8th last Mr. White- 
legge had further increased the list of Australian genera by the 
discovery of the specimens of Firol .iilf^a (ieamarestl, Lesueur, which 
were exhibited on behalf of the tinder. Two males and three 
females were thrown by the waves on the sandy beach at 
Maroubra Bay, and were so little injured as to swim about 
actively for some hours in a vessel of sea- water. The species had 
been identified by the excellent tigures in PI. xvi. of the " Voyage 
de la Bonite : Zoologie." The bibliography of this species brought 
down to a late date would be found in Challenger Reports, Vol. 
xxiii., Heteropoda, p. 22. Like the preceding, this genus is not 
included in Prof. Tate's census (Trans. Roy. Soc. 1888, pp. 70-81), 
but an undetermined species of Firoloides had been recorded from 
Bass Straits by Dr. Macdonald (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, Vol. 
xxiii., 1862). 

Mr. Edgar R. Waite exhibited a large number of living young 
Green Tree Snakes ( Dendrophis jmnctulatajy the property of Mr. 



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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 29 

A. P. Kemp, of Kempsey. These snakes were hatched in 
captivity, the eggs having been obtained at Unkya, on the 
Macleay River. In a gully, at this place, individuals of the species 
were said to exist, not in scores, but in hundreds; and in view of 
the large number exhibited at the meeting the statement was by 
no means difficult of belief. 

In illustration of Mr. Kenyon's paper, Mr. Brazier exhibited 
specimens of Cyprcea helvola, C. tabescena^ C, erosa, C. miliaris, C, 
If/nxy and C. cameolay all showing callosities; a colour variety of C. 
angustala; and examples of Trivia auatralia with a distinct dorsal 
sulcus, a character not in conformity with the generic definition. 

Mr. Turner exhibited some well grown fruits of Pyrus domestical 
L., the True Service Tree, from a garden at Camden, a species 
which, it is believed, has seldom been observed to fruit here. 



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30 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29th, 1896. 



The following Meetings of the Society were held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday 
evening, April 29th, 1896. 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

The Hon. Treasurer read the report of the Auditors, who, after 
an examination of the books, vouchers, and securities, certified the 
accounts for 1895 to be correct. 



On the motion of Mr. P. R. Pedley, the report was adopted. 



SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING. 

On the motion of the Hon. Dr. Norton, M.L.C , Hon. Treasurer, 
the following addition to Rule xxiii. was adopted : — 

xxiii. bis — All moneys received on behalf of the Society shall 
be paid to an account in the name of the Society in the Commer- 
cial Bank of Sydney or such other Bank as shall be approved by 
the Council. 

No moneys shall be drawn out of the said account except by 
cheque drawn by the Treasurer and countersigned by the 
Secretary and no claims on the Society shall be paid except by 
such cheques or out of petty cash from time to time authorized 
by the Council to be paid into the hands of the Secretary. 



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DONATIONS. 31 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The President gave notice thAt upon requisition he convened a 
Special General Meeting to be held on May 27th, to take pre- 
cedence of the Monthly Meeting. Business : Professor Haswell 
to introduce the subject of the establishment of a Biological 
Station on the Society's grounds at Elizabeth Bay. 



DONATIONS. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. Bd. xix. Nos. 496-498 (Feb. -March, 
1896). From the Editor, 

K. IL Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Yerhand- 
lungen. Jahrgang 1896. xlvi. Bd. 1 Heft. Fro7n the Socief>y. 

Societe Hollandaise des Sciences k Harlem — Archives N^er- 
landaises. T. xxix. 4"' et 5"® Livs. From tJie Society. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris — Bulletin. Ann^e 1895. 
Nos. 1 and 8. From the Museum. 

Soci^te Scientifique du Chili — Actes. T. iv. (1894) 5"« Liv- 
raison. From, the Society. 

Field Columbian Museum — Historical Series. Vol. i. No 2 
(May, 1895): Geological Series. Vol. i. No. 1 (Aug. 1895): 
Botanical Series. Vol. i. No. 1 (Aug. 1895). From the Director. 

American Philosophical Society — Proceedings. Vol. xxxiv. 
No- 147 (Jan. 1895). From the Society. 

Portland Society of Natural History — Proceedings. Vol. ii. 
1895. Part 3 : The Portland Catalogue of Maine Plants. 
Second Edition. From the Society. 

Academy of Science of St. Louis — Transactions. Vol. vi. No. 
18: VoL vii. Nos. 1-3 (Jan.-Feb., 1895). From t/ie Acalemy. 



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32 DONATIONS. 

U. S. Geological Survey— Bulletin. Nos. 118-122 (1894) : 
Monographs. Vols, xxiii. and xxiv. (1894): Fourteenth Annual 
Report (1892-93). Parts i. and ii. Fr(yni the Director. 

Smithsonian Institution — Report of the U.S. National Museum, 
1893. From tlie Imtitulion, 

Seven Pamphlets by Prof. J. F. James. (From the Journal of 
the Cincinnati Society of Natural History; July, 1884-July, 
1894). From the Author. 

American Museum of Natural History — Memoirs. Vol. i. 
Partii. (Aug. 1895): Bulletin. Vol. viii. (1896), Sig. 1, pp. 1-16 
(March). From the Museum. 

Naturhistorisches Museum in Hamburg — Mitteilungen. xii. 
Jahrg. (1894). From the Museum. 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin — Verhandlungen. Bd. 
xxii. (1895), Nos. 4-6 : Zeitschrift. Bd. xxx. (1895), Nos. 2-3 
From the Society. 

Pamphlet entitled " G^ogenetische Beitrage." By Dr. Otto 
Kuntze. From the Author. 

K. K. Naturhistorisches Hof-Museum in Wien — Annalen. 
Bd. X. (1895), Nr. 1. from the Museum. 

Verein fiir vaterlandische Naturkunde in Wiirttemberg — 
Jahreshefte. li. Jahrg. (1895). From tlie Society. 

Konigl. bohmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Prag — 
Jahresbericht fiir das Jahr 1895: Mathematisch-Naturwisaen- 
schaftliche Classe — Sitzungsberichte, 1894. Fro^n the Society. 

American Geographical Society — Bulletin. Vol. xxvii. No. 4 
( 1 895). From the Society. 

Natural History Society of New Brunswick — Bulletin. No. 
xiii. (1895). From the Society. 

Geological Survey of India — Records. Vol. xxix. (1896), Part 
1. From the Director. 



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DONATIONS. 33 

Soci^t^ Imp^riale dea Naturalistes de Moscou — Bulletin. 
Annee 1895. No. 3. From the Society. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. ix. Nos. 4-6 (Feb.-Mar., 
1896). From the Government Secretary. 

Bureau of Agriculture, Perth, W. A.— Journal. Vol. iii. No. 
6 (Mar. 1896). From the Secretary. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. ix. No. 3 (Mar. 
1896). Fram the Editor. 

Soci^te d'Horticulture du Doubs, Besan^on — Bulletin. S^e 
lUustree. No. 2. (Feb., 1896). From the Society. 

Zoological Society of London — Abstracts, 18th Febry., March 
3rd (and Rules for the Scienti6c Naming of Animals, &c.), and 
March 17th. From the Society. 

Royal Society, London — Proceedings. Vol. lix. No. 354 (Feb., 
1896). From the Society. 

L'Academie Royale des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemark, 
Copenhague— Bulletin. Annee 1895, Nos. 3-4: 1896, No. 1. 
From tlte Aeculemy, 

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom — 
Journal. N.S. VoL iv. No. 2 (Feb., 1896). From the Associa- 
tion. 

Royal Microscopical Society — Journal, 1896. Part 1 (Feb.). 
From the Society. 

Societas Entomologica Rossica — Horee. T. xxix. (1894-95). 
From the Society. 

Seven Conchological Pamphlets. By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., 
dec. From the Author. 

**The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales, 1894." From 
th«i Governm^rU Statistician. 
3 



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34 DONATIONS. 

Department of Public Instruction, Sydney —Technical Educa- 
tion Series, No. 11 — "Gems and Precious Stones." By H. G. 
Smith, F.C.S. From the Curator, Ttchnoloyicnf Miiseum. 

Royal Society of Queensland — Proceedings. Vol. xi. Part 2 
(1896). From the Society. , 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein in Hamburg — Abhandlungen. 
xiv. Band (1896) : Verhandlungen, 1895 (Dritte Folge, iii.). 
From the Society, 

Soci^t^ des Sciences de Finlande — Observations M^teorologiques 
faites k Helsingfors en 1894. VoL xiii. l*** Li v. From thn 
Society. 

Societfe Royale Linn^nne de Bruxelles — Bulletin. 21"* Ann^. 
Nos. 4-5 (Feb. -March, 1896). From the Society. 

Museo di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata del la R. Universita 
di Torino— Bollettino. VoL x. (1895), Nos. 210-220; Titlepage, 
<kc.: Vol. xi. (1896), Nos. 221-226 (Jan.-Feb.). From the Museum. 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh — Proceedings, Session 
1894-95. Vol. xiii. From the Society. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. xi. No. 124 (April, 
1896). From the Editor. 

Johns Hopkins University — Circulars. Vol. xv. Nos. 122-123 
(Nov., 1895, Feb., 1896): Annual Reports. Tenth, and Twelfth- 
Twentieth (1885 and 1887-95). From Hie University. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxx. No. 351 (March, 1896). From 
tite Editors. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. Vol. xxvii No. 7 (Jan. 1896). From the 
Director. 

Gordon Technical College, Geelong — The Wombat. VoL i. 
No. 2 (April, 1896) : Annual Report, 1895. From the CoUeye. • 



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DONATIONS. 35 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney —Agricultural Gazette. 
Title Page and Index to Vol. vi. (Jan.-Dec., 1895): Vol. vii. 
Part 3 (Mar., 1896). From the Hon, the Minister for Mines and 
Agriculture, 

Pamphlet entitled " Remarks on the Past, Present, and Future 
of the Australian Flora." By the Rev. W. Woolls, Ph.D., F.L.S. 
From Mrs, Woolls, 

Archiv fur Naturgeschichte Iviii. Jahrgang (1892). ii. Bd. 3 
Heft : Ixi. Jahrg. (1895). i. Bd. 3 Heft. From the Editor, 

Auckland Institute and Museum — Annual Report for 1895-96. 
From the Institute, 

Woods and Forests Department, Adelaide, S.A. — Fourteen 
Annual Progress Reports (1881-95). From the Conservator of 
Forests, Adelaide, 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xii. No. 12 (March, 1896). From 
the Field Xaturalists Club of Victoria, 



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36 



THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS OF THE DISTRIBU- 
TION OF SOUTHERN FAUNAS. 

By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S., Hon. Mkmb. L.S.N.S.W. 

On considering the present geographical distribution of land 
and purely fresh-water vertebrates the first and most obvioua 
generalisation is that while the same or closely allied species are 
widely spread in the northern hemisphere — through Europe, Asia^ 
and N. America — there is, in the southern hemisphere, a great 
difference between those inhabiting S. Africa, Australasia, and 
S. America. When we turn our attention to the marine verte- 
brates — including the migratory fishes which pass a part of the 
year in fresh water — we notice that the opposite is the case; for 
while closely related species are widely diffused in the southern 
hemisphere, the seals, whales, sea-birds and fishes of the N. 
Pacific differ considerably from those of the N. Atlantic. ' The 
reason for these peculiarities is, of course, the peculiar configura- 
tion of the land and sea, giving most of the land to the northern 
and most of the sea to the southern hemisphere; and a necessary 
conclusion is that the present configuration of the oceans and 
continents must have remained much as it is now for a very long 
time. Indeed oceans and continents could not have been widely 
different from what they now are ever since most of the present 
genera — and in some cases even families — of birds and mammals 
came into existence; for, if such had not been the case, we should 
not now find these genera and families isolated from each other 
by barriers of land in the northern, and of sea in the southern 
hemisphere. We may, therefore, safely infer that the physical 
geography of the earth has not altered greatly during the latter 
half of the Tertiary era. 

But when we pass from the general aspect of the question to 
s!}udy the details, we find many exceptions (especially in the 
diitribut'on of tie land plants and land animals of the southern 



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BY CAPTAIN P. W. BUTTON. 37 

hemisphere) which do not bear out the conclusion forced upon us 
bj the majority of the facts, and the question arises : Have these 
relationships been brought about by the former existence of more 
land in the southern hemisphere, or can they be explained without 
any such assumption ] 

The first discussion of the question was by Sir Joseph Hooker, 
who, in 1853,* advocated a * larger and more continuous tract of 
land than now exists " in the Antarctic Ocean to explain the 
distribution of the flowering-plants of the Southern Islands. He 
assigned no date to this extension of land, but, no doubt, supposed 
it to be not very ancient. 

In 1870, Professor Huxley, in his Anniversary Address to the 
Geological Society of London, said that the simplest and most 
rational mode of accounting for the differences between the 
mammalian faunas of Australia, S. America, and Arctogaea, as 
well as for the sudden appearance of Eutheria in the latter and 
in S. America, is the supposition that a Pacific continent existed 
in the Mesozoic era which gradually subsided, Australia being 
separated at the end of the Triassic period before the higher 
mammalia had come into existence. These Eutheria subsequently 
migrated into North and South America when the Pacific conti- 
nent finally sank. He says: — "The Mesozoic continent must, 
I conceive, have lain to the east, about the shores of the N. 
Pacific and Indian Oceans, and I am inclined to believe that it 
continued along the eastern side of the Pacific area to what is now 
the province of Austro-Columbia, the characteristic fauna of 
which is probably a remnant of the population of the latter part 
of this period."t 

In 1873 I proposed the following hypothesis to explain the 
compUcated problem of the origin of the New Zealand fauna. 
An Antarctic Mesozoic continent which subsided in the upper. 
Cretaceous period. During the Lower Eocene a second extension 
of land from New Zealand northwards so as to include New 



* Flora Novse Zealandiie, IntrodaoUoD, p. xxi. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vol. xxvi. p. Ixiii. 



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38 DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHERN FAUNAS, 

Caledonia and part of Polynesia. Subsidence in the" Oligocene 
and Miocene, followed by a third elevation in the Older Pliocene 
when New Zealand was connected with the Chatham Is , Auck- 
land Is., and perhaps others to the south, but did not stretch 
north into Polynesia. This large island was broken up by sub- 
sidence during the Newer Pliocene.* 

In 1874 Prof. A. Milne-Edwards presented to the Academy of 
Sciences, Paris, a report on the fossil birds of the Mascarene 
Islands showing that they were related to those of New Zealand. 
As an explanation, he supposed that land communication had 
formerly existed between these islands and New Zealand, which 
was also joined to some islands in Polynesia, while it remained 
separated from Australia. The connection with Polynesia was 
to explain the occurrence of Rhinochetus in New Caledonia and 
Didunculus in Samoa. 

In 1876 Prof. H. N. Moseley supported Sir Jos. Hooker's 
theory of a former greater extension of land in the Antarctic 
Ocean t; and in the same year Mr. A. R. Wallace published his 
"Geographical Distribution of Animals," which treats of the whole 
question. 

In 1880 Mr. Wallace published " Island Life," in which he 
proposes the following hypothesis relating to Australia and New 
Zealand. During the Cretaceous period, and probably throughout 
a considerable portion of the Tertiaiy era, S. W. Australia (includ- 
ing the southern part of S. Australia) was separated from Eastern 
Australia by a broad sea, which contained some islands in what 
is now Northern Australia. This western island had received its 
mammalia at an earlier epoch from Asia, and no mammals existed 
in Eastern Australia. New Zealand was connected with the 
northern p)art of Eastern Australia, the land forming a horse-shoe 
• open towards the Tasman Sea. Probably the Bampton Shoal, west 
of New Caledonia, and Lord Howe's Island formed the western 
limits of this land; but it is possible, though hardly probable, that 



• Trans. N.Z. Inst Vol. v. p. 227, and A.M.N.H. Ser. 4, Vol. xv. p. 25. 
t Linn Soc Joum. Botany, Vol. xv. p. 485. 



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BY CAPTAIN F. W. HUTTON. 39 

it extended northward to the Kermadecs and even to Tonga and 
Fiji. Whether it also extended to the Chatham Islands and 
Macquarie Island we have, he says, no means of ascertaining, but 
such is possible. Separation of New Zealand from Australia took 
place at the close of the Cretaceous period, or in the early 
Tertiary. At a somewhat later date a southern extension of 
New Zealand towards the Antarctic continent seems probable 
'* as affording an easy passage for the numerous species of South 
American and Antarctic plants, and also for the identical and 
closely allied fresh- water fishes of these countries."* 

In 1882 M. Eraile Blanchard contributed a paper to the 
Academy of Sciences, Paris, called " Proofs of the subsidence of 
a Southern Continent during recent Geological Epochs."! 

In 1884-5 I made a further contribution to the subject, J in 
which 1 abandoned my former idea of a Mesozoic Antarctic 
Continent, and substituted for it a Mesozoic Pacific Continent, 
stretching, more or less completely, from Melanesia to Chili. I 
still adhered to the other portions of my former paper, but laid 
more stress than before on a greater extension of Antarctic 
islands during the Older Pliocene. 

In 1888 Dr. Theodore Gill published, in the Memoirs of the 
National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, a paper called "A 
comparison of Antipodal Faunas," in which he also advocated the 
existence of " some terrestrial passage way" between Tasmania, 
New Zealand, and South America, " at a time ^ late as the close 
of the Mesozoic period. The evidence of such a connection 
afforded by congeneric fishes is fortified by analogous repre- 
sentatives among insects, molluscs, and even amphibians. The 

* Island Life, p. 455. 

t See N. Z. Journal of Science, Vol. i., p. 251. In the same Journal 
will be found a paper by Dr. H. Filhol on the Geological and Zoological 
Relations of Campbell Island with the neighbouring Islands. 

t P»rt I. m N. Z. Joum. Sci. Vol. ii. p. 1, and A. M. N. H. (5), xiii., 
425; Part IL in N. Z. Joum. Sci. Vol. ii. p. 249, and A. M. N. H. (5), 
XV , 77. 



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40 DISTBIBUnON OP SOUTHERN FAUNAS, 

separation of the several areas mast, however, have occurred 
little later than the early Tertiary, inasmuch as the salt-water 
fishes of corresponding isotherms found along the coasts of the 
now'widely separated lands, are to such a large extent specifically 
different" 

In 1 892 Dr. H. von Jhering published a paper in the Trans. 
N. Z. Inst. Vol. xxiv. ** On the Ancient Relations between New 
Zealand and South America." He here supposes that during the 
whole of the Mesozoic era a continent — which he calls Archiplata 
— existed which included Chili and Patagonia and extended into 
the South Pacific. This gradually subsided, throwing off first 
the Polynesian Islands, then New Zealand, and finally New 
Guinea and Australia. All this took place before and during 
the Eocene period; after which Archiplata was joined to Archi- 
guyana, which occupied the high lands of Brazil and Venezuela. 
Dr. F. Ameghino has also, quite independently, advocated a 
Pacific Mesozoic continent to explain the relations of the Eocene 
marsupials of Patagonia to those of Australia, and Prof. Zittel 
has expressed a favourable opinion of this theory.* 

In 1893 Dr. H. O. Forbes published a paper in the "Geo- 
graphical Journal (Supplementary Papers ") called " The Chatham 
Islands : their relation to a former southern continent," in which 
he reproduced the old theory of an Antarctic continent, but made 
it last until late Pliocene times, when, he thinks, the Antarctic 
fauna and flora were driven north by the coming on of a glacial 
epoch. Tlus continent is supposed to have been unconnected 
either with S. Africa or with W. Australia (which formed a large 
island); but sent out prolongations northward, (1) to Madagascar 
and the Mascarene Islands, (2) to Tasmania and E. Australia, 
thence through New Guinea and the Solomon Islands to Borneo 
and Sumatra, (3) to New Zealand, New Caledonia and Fiji; and 
(4) to S. America, reaching to beyond the Amazon. 

In the same year Mr. C. Hedley published in the Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S. W. a short note advocating the existence during Mesozoic 



♦ See Geol. Mag. New Series. Decade iii., Vol. 10, p. 612 (1893). 



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BY CAPTAIN P. W. BUTTON. 41 

and early Tertiary times of a strip of land extending from S. 
America across the pole to Tasmania; New Zealand, in Tertiary 
times, reaching near this antarctic land without joining it. And 
in " Natural Science " he had a paper " On the Relations of the 
Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," in which 
he supports the idea of an ancient continent, or ** Melanesian 
Plateau,"* which included the Solomon Islands, Fiji, New 
Hebrides, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and New Zealand, 
but was separated from Australia and New Guinea. No date is 
given to this island-continent, but it is supposed to be later than 
the "Australian Tertiary and Mesozoic beds"; later, therefore, 
than the Antarctic land. 

In 1895, Mr. Hedley returned to the subject in a paper to the 
Royal Society of N.S.W. called "Considerations on the surviving 
Refugees in Austral Lands of ancient Antarctic Life." Here he 
advocates an Antarctic continent, which was a very unstable area, 
" at one time dissolving into an archipelago, at another resolving 
itself into a continent." He thinks that snakes, frogs, monotremes 
and marsupials passed across this continent, from S. America to 
Tasmania, during a warm. Mid-tertiary period. He also now 
thinks that the southward extension of New Zealand, mentioned 
in his former paper, was synchronous with its northern extension 
to the Melanesian plateau; thai is, it was late instead of early 
Tertiary date. 

This short historical sketch will, I think, make it clear that a 
considerable amount of ingenuity has been expended in trying to 
solve the interesting problem of the distribution of southern 
faunas. The differences of opinion are due p>artly to some of the 
authors having taken only a small number of the known facts 
into consideration, and partly to constant additions to our know- 
ledge; either by the discovery of new facts, or by the correction 
of old errors. No doubt our knowledge will still increase, but it 
scorns hardly possible to make any more theories. The problem 
is a very intricate one, and we may be sure that the true solution 
18 not simple. 

* Called Antipodea by Dr. Forbes. 



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42 DISTRIBUTION OP SOUTHERN FAUNAS, 

It is evident that in any large district, like Australasia, there is 
no reason to suppose that the ancestors of the animals and plants 
now inhabiting it all came from the same direction or at the sacae 
time : consequently the first step to take is to try to separate the 
fauna and flora into groups which find their nearest relations in 
different directions. Thus in Australasia we have — 

1. An Australasian fauna and flora which have no near 
relatives now living. 

2. A northern fauna and flora related to the Oriental fauna 
and flora of the present day. 

3. A south- tropical or sub-tropical fauna and flora whose nearest 
relations at present are either in S. Africa or in S. America north 
of 40° S. That the differences between these countries are far 
greater than their resemblances does not do away with the 
existence of these resemblances, but rather accentuates them. 
They are vestigial remains with all the importance that vestigial 
remains always possess. 

4. A south-temperate or cold-temperate fauna and flora, with 
relations to plants and animals in Patagonia or Chili and the 
Antarctic Islands. This is usually called the Antarctic element. 

Judging by the relative closeness of the relationship of these 
different faunistic elements to their foreign connections, we must 
conclude that the first and third are much older inhabitants of 
Australasia than the second and fourth. The second element, 
which is best developed in north-eastern Australia, presents no 
difficulty and everyone is agreed as to its origin. The fourth 
element, which is better developed in New Zealand than in any 
other part of Australasia, consists of marine animals with a few 
migratory fresh-water fishes and possibly some land moUusca and 
worms; and there is a general consensus of opinion that these 
spread by means of a greater development of land in the Antarctic 
region. This may have been as late as the Older Pliocene, but 
not later, as considerable changes have taken place in the animals 
since it occurred. Also, as pointed out in the first paragraphs of 
this paper, this land could not have been continuous between S. 



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BY CAPTAIN F. W. BUTTON. 43 

America and Australasia, for in that case there would have been 
a far greater commingling of the land faunas and floras. It is 
the origin of the first and third elements which has given rise to 
such differences of opinion. These are developed far more 
strongly in Australia and Tasmania than in New Zealand; and 
the explanation of the third will probably explain the first also. 
I will, therefore, briefly review the three hypotheses (variously 
modified) which have been proposed. 

1. The first explanation is that the different groups of animals 
and plants in question have migrated from the northern hemisphere 
into the southern by the present continents and have since then 
become extinct in the north. With regard to the South African 
connection, this explanation will be readily accepted. The fact 
that Proteaceous plants — now almost confined to S. Africa and 
Australia — were formerly abundant in Arctogsea is a proof, so far 
as they are concerned; and we may accept the same explanation 
for the occurrence of the Baobab-tree (Adansonia) in W. Australia 
and the Fern-bird (Sphenceacus) in New Zealand. This theory 
also explains the occurrence of the curious genus of wingless 
\ocust»—Ano8tostoma — in Madagascar and Australia and the 
connection of some birds of Madagascar and the Mascarene 
Islands with others of New Zealand and Polynesia. It will also 
explain the abundance of parrots in Australia and S. America, for 
these lived in Europe in the Miocene period, as well as the 
occurrence of tapirs and trogons in Central America and Malaya; 
for these, like the large camivora, must have passed from one 
continent to the other by a northerly passage. Probably also it 
will explain the relation of the curassows of S. America to the 
megapodes of Australia and Polynesia, and the connection 
between the lower passerine birds of both continents, as these 
relationships are all very distant. 

But, however this may be, there are certain facts of distribution 
which this theory cannot solve. A typical case is the distribu- 
tion of the tree-frogs belonging to the genus ffi/la. This contains 
83 .species in S. America, 28 in Australia, 17 in N. America, and 
one each in India, China, and Europe; while Hylella is found 



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44 DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHERN FAUNAS, 

only in Australia and tropical America. Again the fresh-water 
tortoises belonging to the family Chelydidat are restricted to 
Australia and S. America. The fresh water fish Osteoglossum is 
represented by species in S. America, Queensland, and Borneo; 
and the South American beetles are more closely related to those 
of Australia and Africa than they are to those of N. America. 
Indeed the connection between S. America and Australia is so 
marked in the Buprestidce and Longicornia that Mr. Wallace, 
who as a general rule strongly supports the northern route, says 
that " there must probably once have been some means of com- 
munication between the two regions better adapted to these 
insects than any they now possess." And as several of the 
Eocene mammalia of Patagonia were closely allied to those now 
living in Australia the evidence for a former land passage between 
the two countries may be considered as conclusive. The northern 
route therefore fails to give a full and satisfactory account of the 
whole of the facts, and we must look to some other route to 
supplement it. The portions of the faunas unaccounted for are 
all old forms of life, and consequently we must conclude that the 
means of communication used by them has been long ago destroyed; 
for if not it would also have been used for modem groups. 

2. Turning now to the proposed southern route by an Antarctic 
continent, it has this in its favour that, as the greater extension 
of Antarctic land in the late Tertiary era has been allowed, it is 
not difficult to suppose that at a still earlier time, that is in the 
Mesozoic era, a large continent might have existed there. One 
difficulty is in the climate. How could tropical, or sub-tropical, 
snakes, insects, and fresh-water tortoises and fishes pass through 
such high latitudes ? The example of Greenland is pointed to, 
but in Greenland the climate indicated is temperate only, not 
sub-tropical or tropical. Again it is stated, in explanation, that 
there is evidence of a much warmer climate having obtained in 
the southern hemisphere in Miocene times than now. But this 
appears to have been a period of depression throughout southern 
Australasia, and it does not follow that the climate would be 
equally mild when an Antarctic continent existed. I do not 



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BY CAPTAIN F. W. BUTTON. 45^ 

think that the climatic objection is fatal, for we cannot tell what 
the climate may have been in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, 
but it is a difficulty, and I cannot go so far as Mr. Hedley, who 
supposes that venomous snakes, frogs, monotremes and marsupials 
passed round the head of a deep bight of the Pacific Ocean which 
•* stretched within a few degrees of the pole." 

A fer greater difficulty remains for consideration, which is this: 
Aplacental Mammals — both Multituberculata and Polyproto- 
dontia — existed in Europe and N. America in the Triassic and 
Jurassic periods, and these Polyprotodontia were, no doubt, the 
ancestors of the living Polyprotodontia of Australia In the 
Eocene strata of Patagonia remains of a large number of Poly- 
protodontia have been found which are far more closely related 
to the Polyprotodontia of Australia than to the Mesosoic forms of 
Europe and N. America; consequently a direct land communica- 
tion must have existed between these two southern countries. 
'Sow there is strong geological and palaeontological evidence that 
no land ridge existed between N. and S. America during the 
Mesozoic and early Cainozoic eras; consequently we must assume 
that the southern forms migrated through the Malay Archipelago; 
and, if they went to Patagonia by means of an Antarctic conti- 
nent, they must have passed through Australia. But mingled 
with the Eocene marsupials of Patagonia there are a number of 
£!utheria of typically South American character — Edentata^ Toxo- 
dontia, Tt/potlieria^ Periasodactyla, Rodentia, and even Flatyrrhine 
monkeys — without any northern forms of Artiodactyla, Carnivora^ 
or Insectivora; and it is hardly possible that these should have 
passed through Australia without leaving any record behind. 
This is, to me, a fatal objection to the theory of migration by 
means of an Antarctic continent. 

3. The theory of the former existence of a South Pacific 
Mesozoic continent seems to be the only theory left; but it has 
been objected to both on account of the present depth of the 
ocean and because, it is said, no record has been left in the 
Polynesian Islands of the supposed passage of the plants and 
anioials. Both these objections apply equally to the former 



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46 DISTRIBUTION OP SOUTHERN FAUNAS, 

existence of an Antarctic continent. According to the latest 
maps the ocean south of Tasmania, and the Pacific below 45" S., 
are considerably deeper than the Pacific between 10* and 30** S., 
and the answer in both c€ises is that this continent existed a very 
long time ago. The answer to the second objection is that no 
record has been preserved of the fauna and flora on the Antarctic 
continent because of a change in climate, and in the Polynesian 
Islands because the continent disappeared entirely below the sea, 
the present volcanic and coral islands being merely outgrowths 
on its submerged back. But the statement that no record exists 
in the case of the Pacific continent is not quite correct, for the 
Iguanas of Fiji can hardly be explained in any other way. 

The theory of a Mesozoic South Pacific continent not only 
explains the origin of the Australian and S. American marsupials, 
but also the almost simultaneous appearance of different Eutherian 
mammals in North and South America. We must suppose that 
this continent threw off first New Zealand, then Australia, then 
Chili, and finally disappeared under the waves. The reasons 
why we must suppose New Zealand to have been at one time 
attached to the continent are the existence in that country of 
Sphenodon, Unio, and Astacidw, none of which are found in truly 
Oceanic islands*. At a later date, as I pointed out in my former 
papers. New Zealand must have formed part of a large island 
joined to New Caledonia, but not to Australia. This has lately 
been called Antipodea by Dr. Forbes, and the Melanesian Plateau 
by Mr. C. Hedley. Still later again. New Zealand must have 
stretched south and obtained its Antarctic fauna and flora from 
Patagonia through a number of islands. 

From a biological point of view I see no reason to object to this 
theory. The objections are geological, and most geologists at the 
present day would, I think, say that the doctrine of the persistence 



* It is also hardly possible to account for the distribution of frogs, slugs, 
wingless and feebly flying insects, earth-worms, inyriapods, and fresh 
water animals generally, except by the supposition of land passage. 



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BY CAPTAIN F. W. HUTTON. 47 

of continental and oceanic areas negatives it. This doctrine — 
which is not accepted by all geologists* — is founded on the 
undoubted fact that the principal mountain ranges in the northern 
hemisphere, and, perhaps, in Australia also, are formed of shallow 
water sediments representing all periods from the Silurian upwards; 
consequently land must have existed in their neighbourhood all 
that time; and from this it is inferred that the present oceanic 
areas have always been sea. The proof, however, is far from 
being complete, and no explanation has, as yet, been given either 
(1) of the remarkable submarine plateaux found in the basins of 
the S. Pacific and S. Atlantic Oceans; or (2) of the sudden 
iiTuption of mollusca, bony-fishes and dicot3'ledon8 into N. 
America during the close of the Cretaceous period, followed by a 
host of Eutherian mammalia in the Eocene; or (3) of the place 
of origin of the peculiar S. American mammalia. The former 
existence of a Mesozoic Pacific continent seems to me, as it did 
to Professor Huxley, the simplest explanation of all these 
difficulties; we can never expect to attain certainty in the matter, 
bttt I think that the weight of the evidence is in its favour. 



* Gardner, Geol. Mag. 1882, p. 546 ; Hntton, N.Z. Journal of Science, 
Vol I. p. 406 (1883) ; Blandford, Q.J.G.S. XLVI. Proceedings, p. 69 (1890); 
Oldham, Geol. of India, 2nd Ed. p. 211 (1893). 



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48 



REPORT ON A BONE BRECCIA DEPOSIT NEAR THE 
WOMBEYAN CAVES, N.S.W. : 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF 
MARSUPIALS. 

By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. 

(Plates vi.-viii.) 

About 18 months ago I discovered a small bone breccia deposit 
in the neighbourhood of the Wombeyan Caves. The deposit is 
situated in a small depression near the top of the hill above the 
present caves and no doubt is portion of the floor of an older cave 
whose walls and roof have long since been weathered away. The 
deposit consists of a rather hard light brown calcareous matrix 
containing imbedded in it innumerable small bones. In some 
parts the bones are almost all small and packed together so 
closely that there is very little matrix; in others the matrix is 
comparatively free from bones, only containing a few of the larger 
forms. As the deposit is unquestionably old and contains some 
forms new to science — two of which I have already described* — 
I have thought it well to give a detailed account of the forms 
found, as it will give a fair idea of the smaller animals living in 
later Tertiary times. 

Macropus (Halmaturus) wombeyensis, n.sp. 

(PI. VI. figs. 1-3). 

Though the deposit is essentially one of small bones, there are 
a number of bones of a species of Macropus. Besides a nimiber 
of vertebne and long bones, I have succeeded in finding three 
imperfect fragments showing the upper molars, and four 
moderately well preserved lower jaws — two of which are pre- 
sumably from the same individual. In size the form was apparently 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2) Vol. x. (Pt. iv. 1895). 



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BY R. BROOM. 49 

about that of Mucropua icalabatus, but the dental details are 
decidedly different. Of existing species the only one to which it 
comes at all close is M. agilitt; but from this species it differs 
in the narrowness of the molars and in the jaw being considerably 
■ thinner. Among extinct forms the only ones approaching it in 
dental details and measurements are some fragmentary specimens 
from Queensland, referred to by De Vis.* Thinking my form 
might possibly belong to the same species as one or other of the 
fragmentary Queensland specimens, I submitted a specimen to 
Mr. De Vis, who kindly writes me as follows : — " I have com- 
pared the Halmaturus jaw with my types — it agrees with none 
of them. In size and general features it is like H, agilisy but 
appears to me to be quite distinct from that species." As my 
specimens thus appear to differ from all existing or previously 
observed extinct species, I have conferred on it the above dis- 
tinctive name from the locality in which the form has first been 
observed. 

In general form the lower jaw resembles that of the larger 
Wallabies; there is, however, a greater disparity between the 
anterior and posterior depth of the jaw than is usually the case 
in existing forms. The dental portion of the jaw is comparatively 
narrow — more so than in any of the existing larger Wallabies. 
The angle is more inflected than in the Wallabies, closely 
resembling the condition in the Rock- Wallabies. The premolar 
(p*) is well developed, rather narrow without internal cusp. It 
U slightly ridged, there being three very shallow vertical grooves. 
la Uie specimen figured (PL vi. fig. 3) there are also on the outer 
aspect two small horizontal furrows. The molars resemble very 
closely those of M. ualabattts — the crests being curved and the 
links well developed. 

Though two specimens illustrate the palatal region, in neither 
are the teeth well preserved. The upper premolar (p*), however, 
appears to have had a moderate internal cusp. One point of 
^great interest is the presence of large palatal vacuities. In this 

• Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2) Vol. x. (Pt. i. 1895;. 
4 



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50 BONE BRECCIA DEPOSIT, 

the form agrees with the smaller Wallabies and Rock-Wallabies 
and differs from the larger sorts. 

Though the form thus equals in size the larger Wallabies, its 
affinities are probably more with the smaller sorts, and in some 
respects it seems to come very near to the Rock- Wallabies 
(Petrogale). 

The following are some of the principal measurements : — 
Depth of mandibles behind p* (4 sp.), 17, 18, 18*4, 18*4 mm. 

„ „ infrontofm* (3sp.), 15-4, 16*9, 16*9 mm. 

Length of p^ (2sp.)... 6-8 mm. (worn), 7-4 mm. (unworn), 

m^-m* (2 sp.)...13-4, 13-5 mm. 
m^-m^ (2 sp.)...21-8, 219 mm. 
„ m'^-m* (2 sp.)...25, 26 mm. 

„ m^-m* (3 sp.)...29-2, 308, 31*4 mm. 

„ m^-m* (3sp.)...17-8, 18-, 18-8 mm. 

„ p*-m* (3 sp)... 36-5, 37, 37-4 mm. 

Width of m» (3 8p.)...5-7, 58, 58 mm. 
Thickness of mandible below m^, 9*3 mm. 

PoTOROUS TRIDACTYLUS, var. ANTiQUUS, n.var. 

In the deposit are the remains of a small Potorous. Though 
not abundant a number of specimens have been obtained. As I 
have been unable to obtain a skull of the existing Potorous 
trUctctylus I am in some doubt as to the exact position of the 
fossil form. Potorous tridactylus^ as defined by Thomas, is 
apparently a very variable species, and it seems probable that the 
fossil form is but a variety. As regards the premolar of this 
species Thomas (Brit. Mus. Cat.Marsup.) says: — "P* very variable; 
in the large Tasmanian form (* apicalis *) 7 or 8 millim. long, with 
four distinct grooves; in the smaller New South Wales examples, 
and in the still smaller Tasmanian form described as * rufus ' 6 or 
7 millim. long with only three grooves." In the fossil form the 
upper premolar measures 6-1 mm., but has four grooves. The 
three anterior grooves are well marked, but the fourth, though 
well marked at the edge, does not extend so far up the tooth as 
the others. In the deciduous p^ there are but three grooves. In 
the lower p* there are four grooves, all well developed. 



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BY R. BROOM. 51 

Dental Measurements. 

Length of upper p* ...61 mm. 
„ „ dp*... 3-4 mm. 

„ „ m* ...4*8 mm. 

., „ m'* ...4*9 mm. 

„ lower p* ...5- mm. 

BuRRAMYS PARVUS, Broom. 
(PI. VII. figs. 1-2). 

This most interesting little form which I recently described 
before this Society * occurs in the deposit pretty abundantly, but 
from its minute size and the obliquity of the large premolar it is 
difficult to extract perfect specimens. Since I described the form 
I have succeeded in discovering a few more points in its structure. 
In my paper on this species I expressed the opinion that it forms 
a connecting link between the Phalangers and the Kangaroos, 
finding in the large grooved premolars a relationship with the Rat- 
Kangaroos and in the entire masseteric fossa, and the small teeth 
between i^ and p* an affinity with the Phalangers. No perfect 
specimen has yet been dLscovered of the upper jaw, but a few 
fragmentary specimens enable us to almost complete the dental 
formula. Within the upper large premolar and a little in front 
is a minute two-rooted premolar similar to p"* in the lower jaw. 
In front of this is a very considerable diastema where the palate 
has a rounded edge somewhat like that in Macropus, and with 
apparently no anterior premolars. In front is a small but well 
formed canine implanted in the maxillary more after the manner 
of the small Macropods than of the Phalangers. The dental 
formula so for as known would thus appear to be, in the notation 
ased by Thomas : — 

... 1 0054 1280 

C - P M 



150 1 S i 1234 



• "On a small fossil Marsupial with large grooved premolars." Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2) Vol. x. (Pfc. 4, 1895). 



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I'i 62 BONE BRBCCIA DEPOSIT, 



u 



There appears to be no upper m*, while the rudimentary lower 
m* is apparently variable. The dental formula shows much 
resemblance to that of H tjpsipryninodon as regards the upper 
teeth, but in the possession of the two small teeth 'between i* and 
p** there is considerable difference in the lower jaw. As regards 
the number and arrangement of the teeth in the lower jaw the 
agreement with some of the smaller Phalangers is very marked; 
Dromicia nana, for example, having an entire dental formula 
almost exactly like that of BurramyH. To Dromicia nana 
there is also a marked resemblance in the lower minute teeth and 
some resemblance in the molars. 

A considerable fragment of the skull gives a fair idea of the 
outline, but adds little to the settlement of the affinities of the 
genus. The skull has been apparently sharp-snouted as in 
Petaurus or Dromicia. The lacrymal foramen is placed distinctly 
in front of and beyond the orbit. The infraorbital foramen is 
large, and placed in front of the large premolar — in this resembling 
the condition in the Phalangers and differing from the normal 
Macropod arrangement. The interorbital region of the skull is 
comparatively broad, but there is no distinct supraorbital ridge. 
The olfactory lobes of the brain have been well developed, and 
the whole brain appears to have been relatively large. The 
zygomatic arch passes out from the maxilla in the usual manner: 
it arises near the posterior part of the large premolar and is com 
paratively slender. 

Petaurus breviceps, Waterh. 

Some time ago I found an imperfect fragment of a lower jaw, 
with the roots of three teeth in position. Though the fragment 
was manifestly that of a Petaurus and in size agreed with /*, 
breviceps, I hesitated to refer it definitely to that species on such 
imperfect evidence. Since then I have found a fragment of the 
cranium with the frontal bones almost perfect, and from the size 
and the formation of the supraorbital ridges, there is no doubt in 
referring the specimen to P, breviceps, and there is little doubt 
but that the lower jaw fragment also belongs to this species. 



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BY R. BROOM. 53 

As these are the only remains found the species must have been 
very rare in the district at the time of the deposit. 

At present the species is found in the district and may be 
regarded as not infrequent, though I am led to believe that 50 years 
ago it was very abundant, the present scarcity being due 
apparently to the havoc made amongst them by domestic cats. 

Pal^opbtaurus blegans, Broom. 

(PL VII. fig. 3). 

This small Petaurus-like Marsupial I recently described* from 
some jaws and a well preserved specimen with the maxillary 
teeth Since then I have found besides numerous jaws a 
moderately good portion of the skull (Plate , fig. 3) and a 
number of other fragments. The frontal bones differ from those 
of Petaurus, and agree apparently with Gymnobelideus in being 
without supraorbital ridges; and the hinder part of the frontals 
is considerably broader and flatter proportionally than in 
Petaurus. The snout though narrow appears somewhat broader 
than in GymnohelideK^s judging by the figure. In one of the type 
specimens the upper p^ was found to be single-rooted, or rather 
its two roots were united together. This, too, appears to be rather 
variable as in two other specimens one is found with the roots close 
together but distinct, while the other has the roots somewhat 
apart In all the observed specimens, however, p^ is double 
rooted. 

Dromicia nana, Desm. 

One of the most interesting discoveries is that of Dromicia 
miui^ of which I have found a large number of both lower and 
upper jaws. There can thus be little doubt but that in later 
Tertiary times Dromicia nana was very common in New South 



• "Ooa 8m%ll fossil Petmrus-like Miwupijil," Proc. Liun. See. N.8. W 
(2| Vol. X. (Ft. 4, 1895). 



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'1 * 



54 BONE BRECCIA DEPOSIT, 

Wales. From the existing species being believed to be confined 
to New Guinea, Tasmania, and West Australia, Thomas regards 
it as practically certain that Dromicia existed in former times in 
Eastern Australia. The correctness of this conclusion is now 
established. The fossil form so far as known does not differ from 
the existing D. na/iia. 

As regards the present distribution of this species Thomas con- 
siders it to be exclusively confined to Tasmania. In this, however, 
it is probable that he is in error. For though the species must be 
excessively rare in New South Wales it most probably still 
survives, as it is quite certain that it existed within very recent 
years. In the Grand Arch at the Wombeyan Caves there are 
near the entrance numerous ledges of rock frequented by Rock 
Wallabies, and on which the animals leave quantities of their 
excrement. Mingled with the dry and decomposing dung are to 
be found quantities of small bones — chiefly those of PhascologcUe 
fiavipes, Fetaurus breviceps, and of the Bush Rat ( J/u« sp.), but 
with also a few of Pse^idochirus p^.7'egrlnu8, Peranieles oheaula^ and 
of small birds and snakes. While searching among these I dis- 
covered, to my surprise, two jaws of Dromicia nana in tolerably 
good preservation. It is hard to say what may be the age of the 
bones, but as the ledge is quite exposed to atmospheric influences 
and as the bones show little sign of weathering, it cannot well be 
more than a very limited number of years since the animals 
died. Considering the wild region in which the caves are situated 
it is very probable that the species still survives in the district, 
though I have sought it in vain. On mentioning my discovery to 
Mr. J. J. Fletcher, he kindly called my attention to KreflPt's dis- 
covery of Dromicia unicolor [= D. nana^ at North Shore, Sydney, 
in 1863, and to the fact that Thomas regards the specimens as 
almost certainly Tasmanian specimens which had escaped from 
captivity. Such an explanation will not do for the recent bones 
found at the Wombeyan Caves, nor is such a theory now required 
for even Kreflft's specimens, considering that in former times 
Dromicia nana was one of the commonest of New South Wales 
marsupials. 



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BY R. BROOM. 



55 



PSEUDOCHIEUS ANTIQUUS n.Sp. 

(PL VII. Pigs. 4-6). 

One of the commonest forms whose remains are found in the 
deposit is a species of Pseudochirus. In size and structure it 
much resembles the common ring-tailed Phalanger (P, peregrinua)^ 
but the careful study of a large series of specimens has satisfied 
me that the remains are those of a distinct and new species. In 
average size the teeth are appreciably larger than in P.peregrinus, 
yet on the whole the form comes nearer to that species than to 
either P. cooki or P. orientalis. 

The following table illustrates the features so far as known and 
the points distinguishing the fossil form from P, pereyrinus. 



P, peregrinfis. 

Upper p^ small, about 1 mm. 

in front of p'* 
Length of m^-m^ — 11-2-12-6 

mm. 

Cusps of upper and lower molars 

moderately developed 
Post Ext, Cusp of upper m^ 

(4 sp.) min. 1*7, max. 2*0, 

average 1*85 

Ant Int Cusp of lower m* 

(3 sp.) min 1-6, max. 1*8, 

average 1*7 

Palate with a distinct lateral 

depression in region of p^ 

and p* 
Angle of jaw produced well 

backwards. 



P. antiquum. 

Upper p^ moderate size, placed 
close to p^ 

m^-m^ in only three specimens, 
showing complete series — 
12.7, 12-9, and 13- mm. 

Cusps of upper and lower molars 
well developed 

Post. Ext. Cusp of upper m^ 
(5 sp ) min. 2-1, max. 2*3, 
average 2*22 

Ant. Int. Cusp of lower m* 

(3 sp.) min. 2*3, max. 2 5, 

average 2*4 

Palate moderately flat, no dis- 
tinct lateral depression in 
region of p® and p* 

Angle of jaw relatively small 
and passing backwards but 
a short' distance 



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56 BONE BRECCIA DEPOSIT, 

It is unfortunate that I have not succeeded in getting any 
specimens with the upper p* in position, and only one specimen 
(PL fig. 4) showing the socket. From this specimen the tooth 
appears to have been almost double-rooted and placed much 
closer to p' than in P, peregrimis, and in this resembling more 
P. cooki. 

Pebameles wombeyensis, n.sp. 

(PI. VIII. figs. 1-8). 

The above name I propose for a species of Perameles which 
must have been very common at the period when the bone 
deposit was formed. Though from the nature of the matrix I 
have been unable to develop a single perfect jaw, yet I have 
succeeded in finding sufficient fragmentary specimens to enable 
me to give almost all the important details of dentition. The 
species seems to have been a form a little larger than P, obesula^ 
and to have resembled it in being short-nosed. 

The upper incisor teeth are unknown, the premaxillary being 
absent from all the upper jaw specimens I have. The canine is 
moderately developed and rather larger and flatter than in P, ohe9vla. 
P^ is considerably larger than in P. obestday and directed some, 
what forward. It is placed about 2 mm. behind the canine. P^ 
is about equal in size to p^ and placed a little less than 1 mm. from 
it. It has a distinct anterior secondary cusp and a less marked 
posterior one. P* is unknown. The upper molars resemble those 
of P. obesula in being soon worn down, and in old specimens 
leaving no trace of the cusps. In shape there is considerable 
agreement with those of P. obesula^ the section of the worn tooth 
being quadrangular, with rounded angles. M* is unknown. 

The lower jaw bears more resemblance to P. obesida than any 
other existing form. The anterior edge of the coronoid process i» 
straight and the process itself passes back obliquely. The angle 
seems less produced than in P. obesula, though it is possible a por- 
tion of the slender tip may have been broken off in the figured 
specimen (PI. fig. 1). The lower incisors are absent, but in fig^ 



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BY R. BROOM. 57 

3 the anterior part of the jaw is seen. The canine appears to be 
small, though as the specimen figured (PI. viii. fig. 3) is from a 
joung animal, the canine has probably not attained its full size. 
P^ and p* resemble the upper teeth in size, and are both fur- 
nished with small anterior and posterior secondary cusps. P* is 
relatively large. Lower molars resemble those of F. obesula. 

The following are some of the principal measurements : — 



Height of canine 


31 mm. 


Length of p^ 


2 8 mm. 


„ unworn m^ 


4 mm. 


„ worn m^ 


3-6 mm. 


„ worn m-* 


3-4 mm. 


Estimated length of unworn m^-m^ .. 


. 11-3 mm. 


Lower p^-m*, aged specimen 


21 3 mm. 


intimated upper c-m* ... 


. 28-28-5 mm. 



Thylacinus cynocephalus, Harris. 

Of this species I have found two teeth — a perfect lower canine 
and a perfect lower premolar — but no bones. 

Phascoloc.ale FLAViPiiS, Waterh. 

This small pouched mouse is represented by a very large num- 
ber of jaws and other remains. It appears to be the commonest 
species in the deposit with the exception of the Bush Rat. So 
far as I have been able to make out, the fossil animal in no way 
differs from the existing species. Phascologale Jiavipes is still 
found in the district, and though it is very rare if not extinct in 
the settled parts, in the wilder regions it is fairly common. 

Phascologale penicillata, Shaw. 

This species though met with is distinctly rare. I have only 
found one complete lower jaw, a fragment of a second, and two 
fragments of the upper jaw. The anterior premolars and canine 
are a trifle larger than in the recent skull in my possession (a 
female), but there is no doubt that the remains belong to the 



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58 BONE BRECCIA DEPOSIT, 

existing species. The form is still met with in the district, though 
by no means common even in the mountainous regions, while in 
most of the settled parts it appears to be extinct. 

Echidna sp. 

(PL VIII. figs. 9-10). 

A number of bones of a large Echidna have been found, and 
which in all probability belong to the described form Echidna 
oiveni, Krefffc. The specimens are, however, too fragmentary to 
enable me to refer them definitely to this form. The remains 
comprise the greater portion of the left ilium, with a fragment 
of the sacrum attached, the lower portion of left femur, the 
articular head of the femur, two vertebral centra, and a number 
of fragments of long bones. 

The femur differs in one or two respects from E. aculeata. 
The constriction of the shaft immediately above the condyles 
is much less marked, and the shaft at this part is more flattened 
than in the common existing species, while the depression above 
the patellar surface is more marked and broader. 

The ilium is very considerably stouter proportionately than in 
E. aculeata. From the union by complete anchylosis of two 
small fragments of the sacrum with the ilium it is evident that 
the extinct species agrees with the living in the complete 
anchylosis of the sacrum with the ilia. 

Max. width across lower end of femur ... ... 32*5 mm. 

„ „ „ in E, aculeata (adult male) ... 22-5 mm. 
Oblique measurement from outer depression of shaft 

to inner condyle ... ... ... 26-4 mm. 

Oblique measurement in E, aculeatfi ... ... 17*8 mm. 

Trans, measurement above patellar depression ... 24* mm. 

„ „ „ in E. acii/eata ... ... 14*5 mm. 

Besides the above forms there are a few remains too fragmentary 
for certain identification. Two fragmentary teeth probably repre- 
sent Thylacoleo, while a detached molar belongs to a small species 



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BY R. BROOM. 59 

of liacropuB. There are also innumerable remains of Bush Rats 
{Jilts sp.) which I have not had an opportunity of identifying with 
certainty. Of birds there have been found the perfect cranium 
of one about the size of a Sparrow and some small bones, while 
of lizards there occur the remains of a moderate sized member 
of the Scincidm, 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

Though a few of the forms found in the deposit are still 
surviving, the general character of the fauna is very different 
from that of recent times. With the exception of Thylacintcs, 
^e Macropus and the EcJddnay the animals may almost all be 
classed as feeble and defenceless, and have apparently flourished 
owing to the absence or scarcity of natural enemies. Dromicia^ 
FalcBopetaurua and Burramys were probably all of very similar 
habits, the conditions suitable to the one being equally so to the 
others, while those inimical to any would probably tend to the 
destruction of all. The two species of Phaacologale^ though 
probably suffering from the same adverse condition which has 
destroyed the small Diprotodonts, have been less affected and 
able to sundve. The cause of the destruction of the smaller 
forms is probably to be found in the introduction into their midst 
of some common enemy. A glance at the recent fauna of the 
district suggests a not improbable explanation of the change. 
To-day the forms which may be said to be numerous are Tricho- 
gurus valpeculaj Phaacolarcttis cineretM, Dasyurus viverrinus^ D. 
maetUatuSy and Macropus ualabattts. All these are absent from 
the deposit, and though their absence does not prove that they 
were not then in the district, it may safely be taken to indicate 
that they were at least rare. The absence of the common 
Phalanger for example could not have been due to unfavourable 
conditions, as the abundant remains of the species of Ring-tailed 
Phalanger show there must have been plenty of suitable trees. 
The conclusion thus seems probable that Trichosurus is a com- 
paratively recent addition to the local fauna. If it could be 
proved that with it came the Dasyures we would have at once a 



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60 



BONK BRECCIA DEPOSIT, 



satisfactory explanation of the disappearance of the small Dipro- 
todonts. It is at present, however, impossible to say more than 
that at the time of the deposit Dasyures were absent or rare, 
that in more recent times they have become numerous in the 
district, and that their introduction or increase has been the 
probable cause of the destruction of the smaller forms. The 
fact of Pfttaurus brevice/ftt having not only sui-vived but 
increased, while the closely allied Dromicia has been all but 
exterminated, seems to suggest that the former with the parachute 
expansions was able to escape from some enemy to which Dromicia 
fell a prey. Palceopttaurtis^ if we may assume, as is quite 
probable, that it resembled GijfuuohpJuieu^ in being without 
lateral expansions, would fall as easily a prey as Dromicia. 

I must acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. J. J. Fletcher, 
Mr. R. Etheridge, Junr., Mr. De Vis, and to my father for kind 
assistance they have rendered me. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 

Plate VI. 

Macropus womheyensis. 

Fig. 1. — Right jaw — nat. size. 

Fig. 2. — Right lower teeth — nat. size. 

Fig. 3.— Lowerp*(x 3). 

Poiorous tridactylus, var. antiquus. 

Fig. 4. — Left upper molars ( x 4*6). 

Fig. 6. -Ps (left upper?) ( x 4*5). 

Fig. 6.— Left upper p (4*5). 

Fig. 7. —Right lower p* ( x 6). 

Plate VII. 
Burramys parvus. 

Fig. 1. — Side view of skull of ( x 3*4). The lower jaw is seen somewhat 
obliquely to represent its true side view when placed in the 
skull. 

Fig. 2. — Upper aspect of fragment of skull ( x 3*4). 



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BY B. BROOM. 61 

PaUxopeiaurus elegarig. 
Fig. 3. — Upper aspect of fragment of skull ( x 2). 

PaeudocMms anliquus. 

^. 4.— Upper premolars ( x 3*6). 

Kg. 5.— -Lower m* (x 4). 

Pig. 6.— Back part of lower jaw — nat. size. 

Fig. 7 — Exactly similar aspect of lower jaw of Pseudochirub peregrinua, 

Plate vni. 

Perameles wcmhtyetms. 

Fig. 1. — Back part of lower jaw with m^ ( x 2). 

Fig. 2. — Anterior part of upper jaw ( x 2). 

Fig. 3.— Inner view of anterior part of lower jaw of young— nat. size. 

Fig. 4. — Inner view of adult lower jaw — nat. size. 

Fig. 5.— Right upper m* unworn ( x 4). 

Fig. 6. — Left upper m' somewhat worn ( x 4). 

Fiif. 7. — Inner view of lower m* ( x 6 '5). 

Fig. 8. — Outer view of lower m< ( x 6*5). 

Echidna sp. 

Fig. 9.- 
Rg. 10.— 



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62 

ON A GALAXIAS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO 
By J. Douglas Ogilby. 

At the meeting of this Society in March, 1882 (Vol. vii p. 
107) the late Sir William Macleay read a paper descriptive of a 
species of GcUcudas which had been forwarded to him by Baron von 
Mueller to whom examples had been sent by Mr. S. Findlay, who 
found them inhabiting the streams which drain the southern 
slopes of Mount Kosciusko and form a section of the watershed 
of the Snowy River; for this form he proposed, at the request of 
Baron von Mueller, the name of Galaxias findlayi in honour of 
its discoverer and collector. 

With the exception of its inclusion in the " Supplement " to 
Macleay's "Descriptive Catalogue of Australian Fishes" there does 
not appear to be any further published information respecting the 
Kosciusko Galaxiid, nor do any specimens from that district seem 
to have been collected until the autumn of 1889, when a few 
examples were secured and brought to Sydney by Mr. Richard 
Helms on the occasion of his visit to that mountain, a short account 
of which is published in the Records of the Australian Museum, 
Vol. i. pp. 11-16. These specimens were also obtained from 
streams flowing into the Snowy River, and writing of their 
distribution Mr. Helms observes (p. 13): — "The absence of 
Galaxias at this elevation " (Wilkinson's Valley) " struck me as 
peculiar. It Ls, however, remarkable that on the Snowy River 
side these fishes are met with almost everywhere." 

The paragraph from which this quotation is taken is not clear, 
but the most reasonable deduction from it is that, in Mr. Helms' 
opinion, Galaxiids were scarce or even absent on the Murrum- 
bidgee slope. 

Pressure of business prevented a full examination of these 
specimens being made at the time, and they were put on one side 
and neglected until the commencement of the current year, when 
Mr. Helms requested me to furnish him with a report on these 
fishes, and it was then discovered that owing to the changes 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OOILBT. 63 

which had taken place in the Museum and the consequent shifting 
ci specimens from place to place the examples in question were 
not immediately forthcoming. 

In de&ult of these the next best thing to do was to endeavour 
to get other specimens from the same locality, and an opportunity 
for effecting this occurred through the visit in January last of the 
Rev. J. M. Curran and Mr. C. Hedley to Mount Kosciusko, and 
the writer thereupon called the attention of the latter gentleman 
to the subject in the hope of procuring a good working series for 
examination; however, the specimens thus obtained, two or three 
in number, were, on Mr. Hedley's return, handed to the authori- 
ties of the Australian Museum, and became, therefore, unavailable 
for the purpose required, which included such an exhaustive 
examination as the difficulty of determining the species of this 
intricate genus and the interest attaching to this particular form 
as an inhabitant of a greater altitude than is reached by any 
other Australian fish warranted. 

In this unsatisfactory state our knowledge must again have 
been indefinitely left but that, the Rev. Mr. Curran having 
occasion to return almost immediately to Kosciusko, the writer 
took advantage of his going to request him to collect sufficient 
material to enable the complete examination which was deemed 
necessary to be made. So well was this request acceded to that 
on the return of that gentleman from his second trip I ;*eceived 
a fine series numbering no less than sixteen individuals in perfect 
condition, and this collection was afterwards supplemented by a 
further contribution of eleven, and I take this opportunity of 
acknowledging my obligations and tendering my grateful thanks 
to that gentleman for the trouble which he took in procuring so 
fine a series of specimens. 

A critical investigation of these examples reveals facts which 
greatly invalidate certain apparently well established characters 
which have hitherto been considered of sufficient importance to 
justify specific separation. As an instance, it will be remembered 
that the fishes of the genus Galaxias have naturally fallen into 
two groups, characterised — the one by a short, stout body, of 



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G4 QALAXIAS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO. 

which group truttaceua may be taken as typical, -the other by a 
long, slender body, to which atienuatua and its allies are to be 
referred; yet in this one small species I am confronted with 
individuals varying from one-fifth to one-eighth in the propor- 
tionate measurement of depth to length, and with a corresponding 
difference in colour from a dull dark brown without or with but 
very slight indications of markings to bright golden beautifully 
blotched, spotted, or barred with black. These differences, how- 
ever, great as they appear to a casual glance, are entirely 
attributable to the nature of the locality and the water which 
the individual fish inhabits, the stout, sombre-coloured form being 
found in the deep still pools and small subalpine tarns, the slender 
brilliant one in the more rapid gravelly or sandy shallows where it 
is exposed to the sunlight; but between these twolimital forms every 
conceivable variation, both of contour and colour, may be found. 
The distribution of Galaxlas, comprising as it does the southern 
extremities of the three great continental areas which converge 
upon the Antarctic Circle, is unique among fishes, though the 
Marsipobranchians of the genera Geoiria and Caragola and 
the recent members of the clupeoid genua Diplomystus* somewhat 

* The genus Diplomt/HtuH was instituted by Prof. Cape (Bull. U.S. GeoL 
Survey Terr. 1877, p. 808) for the accommodation of certain fossil forms of 
Tertiary Clupeidsfrom the Green River portion of the Wasatch Beds, which 
are situated in the central region of the United States, where it is numerous 
both in species and individuals. Three recent species are known, two of 
which — iwce hoUandus and HprcUtdlide^ ^he\ong to the fauna of south - 
eastern Australia, and the third {Glupea notacanthuSy Giinth. );to that of Chile. 
Not being aware of its earlier severance by Cope, I proposed (Records Austr. 
Mus. ii. p. 24, 1892\ to separate, under the name Hyperlophus, all those 
Herrings in which a predorsal serrature was present, but, my attention being 
kiu'lly drawn thereto by Dr. Smith Woodward, I used Cope's name for 
Valenciennes' Meletta novce-hoUandice in a subsequent work (Edible Fish, 
and Crust. N.S Wales, p. 184, 1893). At present, however, lam uncertain 
whether Diplomy^iUis can properly be retained for these forms, as Dr. 
Eigenmann in 1891 diagnosed the family Diplomystidce — of which presum- 
ably the central genus is Diplomyitus — for certain South American Nema- 
tognaths, and I have not as yet been able to learn the date of this genus; 
if, however, it is prior to Cope's the clupeoid fishes must take the name 
Bt/perlophus. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 65 

closely approach it, but in other biological Classes a much more 
intimate geographical relationship between these Regions may be 
discerned.* 

Several theories have been enunciated to account for this 
singular distribution of a family of fresh-water fishes in such 
widely separated regions as western South America, south-eastern 
Australia, and South Africa. Apparently the most favoured of 
these theories, as it is also the most natural and the most strongly 
supported by recent facts, is that, at some remote period of the 
world's history, there existed a great austral continent, which 
has now largely disappeared beneath the surface of the ocean and 
which extended northwards on the one hand through Tierra del 
Fuego to the southern and south-western parts of South America, 
on the other through Tasmania to south-eastern Australia, and 
possibly also to New Zealand and South Africa. 

So far as Australia and America are concerned I see no reason 
to doubt that they were at one time connectexi at their southern 
extremities by a belt of land stretching across the south pole, and 
that the antarctic continent so formed enjoyed a mild and equaV>le 
climate, and supported a large and varied flora and fauna, the 
remains of which are abundantly visible in both to the present 
(lay, but especially in Australia, where forms of animal life, 
elsewhere extinct or nearly so, still constitute characteristic 
features in the faunic aspect, among which may be mentioned 
the Marttupialia among Mammals, the Struthionids among Birds, 
certain Lizards such as Chlamydosaurus, and Fishes such as 
yeocemtodit*. 

With regard to the claims of New Zealand and South Africa 
to a post-mesozoic junction with Antarctica the testimony is by 
no means so convincing, in fact the weight of evidence clearly 
points to the conclusion that at no more recent time was there 
any intimate connection between them, while there are many 
indications that the distance separating them was not so wide as 



• For references see Hedley, Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1895, p. 3» 
bote 1. 

5 



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60 



GALA XI AS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO, 



to preclude the possibility of many plants and animals finding 
their way across " either by flight or drift."* 

In the case of Gcdaxias the ova might easily have been carried 
across on the feet or plumage of water-birds, or, as seems to nie 
a more simple and natural solution, some individuals having been 
swept out to sea by floods in their native rivers, have survived the 
passage across the intervening belt of ocean and successfully 
colonised the shores to which they wandered, t 

Galaxias findlayi. 

Galaxias JincUayi, Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1882, 

vii. p. 107. 

B. ix. D. 12-13. A." 11-12.J V. 9. P. 16. C. 16. Vert. 
37-38/23. 

Body stout to slender, the head broad and depressed. Length 
of head 4 J to 5^, depth of body 5^ to 8 in the total length; 
width of body equal to or a little less than its depth, 1 J to 1 J, of 
interorbital region 2^ to 3^, diameter of eye 4 to 5f in the length 
of the head ; snouth obtuse, from three-eights to three-fourths of 
a diameter longer than the eye, which is very small. Lips thick 
and fleshy ; the maxillary reaches to the vertical from the middle 
of the eye or not quite so far; lower jaw included. Seven or eight 
gill-rakers on the lower branch of the anterior arch. Jaws with 
a single series of moderate hooked teeth of somewhat irregular 
size; palatines with a similar series along their inner border 
directed inwards and backwards; a series of five strong hooked 
teeth on each side of the tongue and a single median tooth in 
front; vomer toothless. Dorsal fin obtusely pointed or rounded, § 



Roy. 



* He<lley, I.e. p. 6. 
1 For an analogous example of colonization see Ogilby, Proc. 
Dublin Soc. 1885, p. 529, re Cortgonua pollan. 

X The small rojl-like rays in front being variable in number are not 
included, the computation being made from the first normally articulated 
ray. 

§ In the largest example all the fins are rounded except the caudal. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBV. 67 

the space between its origin and the base of the caudal 2| to 2 J 
in its distance from the extremity of the snout; the fourth and 
fifth rays are the longest, 1| to 2 in the length of the head; the 
base of the fin is 1^ to 1 J^ in its height and 1 J to If in the space 
between its origin and that of the anal: the anal fin is similar in 
shape to and originates beneath the last fourth of the dorsal; the 
fifth and sixth rays are the longest, as long as or a little longer 
than the dorsal rajrs; its base is l^V *^ H ^^ ^^"^ height, and 1 to 
1 1 in its distance from the caudal: ventral inserted nearer to the 
anal than to the base of the pectoral, not reaching to beneath the 
dorsal fin; the distance between its origin and the base of the 
caudal is 1^ to 1 J in its distance from the tip of the snout; the 
middle rays are the longest, 1 J to If in th^ length of the head 
and 2 to 2J in the distance between its origin and the anal: 
pectoral cuneiform, 1 J to 1^ in the head and 2| to 2| in the 
space between its origin and the ventral: caudal slightly emargi- 
nate with the lobes rounded, 1 J to 1 J in the length of the head, 
the peduncle rather slender and compressed, its depth 2g to 3|^ 
in it« length. 

Colours variable: from dark greenish-brown above and yellowish- 
brown below, the sides with more or less distinct darker markings, 
which may take the form of irregular transverse bands, or of 
minute spots, which again may be concurrent so as to form 
blotches or may be distributed so as to almost obliterate the 
ground-colour, generally with a more or less well defined series of 
dark spots along the middle of the body, with the fins shading 
from yellowish-brown basally to orange distally; to golden with 
regular transverse bands or large blotches of a black or dark 
chestnut colour, with the tins yellow. Irides silvery. 

In addition to the above, the Rev. Mr. Curran tells me that 
there is in the living fish " over the eye a crescent-shaped area 
cjloured reddish like metallic copper " ; that the opercles " are 
metallic gold and green," and that the sides are irradiated with 
" peacock hues." As to its habits he repoi'ts it as being " very 
sprightly and lively," and hiding cunningly under stones or in 
holes in the bank when pursued ; also that it leaps to the fly, and 



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68 



QALAXIAS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO. 



can be easily caught in this way." "I saw some stockmen 
amusing themselves in this manner, the whole outfit consisting of 
a piece of black thread, a bent pin, and a fly." 

Distribution : — Streams and tarns on Mount Kosciusko and the 
neighbouring uplands, including the head waters of the Snowy 
River and its tributary, the Crackenback, where they were 
obtained by Messrs. Curran and Hedley. Later on the former 
gentleman obtained specimens from the streams draining the 
northern and western slopes of Kosciusko and flowing into 
the Murrumbidgee. Spawning in February. 

Eleven specimens measuring from 63 to 105 millimeters, were 
utilised in drawing up the above description. 

Appended is a list of the species of G ataxias at present known, 
arranged in chronological order : — 

1801. alepiiiotuSy Forster, Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth. p. 
395; New Zealand. 

1817. trtdfacensy Cuvier, R^gne Anim. ii. p. 283; Tasmania and 
Victoria. 

184:2. fasciaticsy Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 73; New Zealand. 

1842. macufatus, Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, Fish. p. 119, pi. xxii. f. 
4; Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. 

1842. alpimis, Jenyns, I.e. p. 121; Alpine Lakes of Hardy 
Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego. 

1842. attennatus, Jenyns, I.e. pi. xxii. f. 5; New Zealand, Tas- 
mania, Victoria, Falkland Islands, Western South 
America northwards to Peru. 

1846. scriba, Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat Poiss. xviii. p. 
347; Port Jackson, New South Wales. 

1864. gracillimusy Canestrini, Arch. Zool. Anat. e Fisiol. iii. p. 
100, pi. IV. f. 2; ChilL 

1866. ocellattis, McCoy, Intern. Exh. Ess. p. 14; River Yarra, 
Victoria. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OOILBY. 69 

1866. olidui^ Gunther, Catal. Fish. vL p. 209; New Zealand. 
1366. krefii^ Gunther, I.e. p. 211; New South Wales. 
1866 pmctUtu, Ganther, I.e. p. 213; New South Wales. 

1866. brmpinnis, Gunther, I.e.; New Zealand. 

1867. wU^.fhouseiy KreflFb, Proc. Zool. Sac. Land. p. 943; South 

Australia. 

1869. nchoinburgkii, Peters, Monatsb. Ac. Wiss. Berlin, 1868. p. 
455; Adelaide, South Australia. 

1872. rostratiM, Klunzinger, Arch. f. Nat. p. 41; Murray River. 

1872. versicolor, Cjtstelnau, Pf03. Zool. So3. Vic. i. p. 176; Marsh 
near St. Kilda, Victoria. 

1872. Cj/lindrlcu8j Castelnau, l.c. p. 177; Lower Yarra, Victoria. 

1872. delicalultuty Castelnau, l.c. p. 178; River Yarra, Victoria. 

1872. amoenus, Castelnau, I.e.; River Yarra, Victoria. 

1873. orncUus, Castelnau, l.c. p. 153; Cardinia Creek, Victoria. 

1880. campbelliy Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) iv. p. 229; 
Campbell Island. 

1880. coxi, Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1880, v. p. 45; 

Mount Wilson, New South Wales. 

1H81. coppingeri, Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 21; Alert 
Bay, Straits of Magelhaen. 

1H81. planicepsj Macleay, I.e. vi. p. 233; Rankin's Lagoon, 
Bathurst; New South Wales. 

1881. bongbony, Macleay, I.e.; Mo.ssvale and rivers at Bongbong; 

New South Wales. 

1881. nebulosa, Macleay, l.e. p. 234; Long Bay, Sydney, New 

South Wales. 

1882. Jindlat/t\ Macleay, l.c. \-ii. p. 107; Streams on Mount 

Kosciusko, New South Wales. 

1882. auralus, Johnston, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. p. 131; Great 
Lakes, Tasmania 



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70 



GALAXIAS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO, 



1882. toeedoniy Johnston, I.e.; Mersey River, Tasmania. 

1882. cUkinsoni, Johnston, l.c; Pieman River, Tasmania. 

1886. kayiy Ramsay and Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2) 
i. p. 6; Fifth Creek, Adelaide, South Australia. 

1888. indicuH, Day, Fish. Ind. Suppl. p. 806, fig.; Littoral 
districts of Bengal and Madras. 

1892. nigothoruk, Lucas, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. (2) iv. p. 28; Lake 
Nigothoruk, Gippsland, Victoria 

1894. cap'.nffis, Steindachner, Ichth. Beitr. (xvii.) p. 18; Lorenz 
River, South Africa. 

There can be little doubt that many of the species, 32 in num- 
ber, here catalogued are merely nominal, but, though detailed 
descriptions of each would doubtless prove of great assistance in 
indicating the various degrees of affinity which connect the local 
forms with their antarctic progenitors, it is plainly impossible to 
even approximately delimitate the species in a satisfactory manner, 
until a full series of each variety or subspecies shall have been 
brought together for examination. The local variations in the 
same form inhabiting the same little subalpine runlets is shown 
to be so great, as is manifest by the study of the present species, 
that the wonder is, not that so many nominal species have been 
created, but that there are not infinitely more. 

This perplexing number of local varieties finds its analogue in 
the common Brook Trout of the North of Ireland,* where every . 
angler is well aware that the Trout from each stream difier so 
greatly in outward appearance from those inhabiting the next, 

* I only meDtion this locality because it was there that I observed the 
local (liSereuces in SaUmo fario, but no doubt sportsineu frum other districts 
can testify to the accuracy of the above remarks. Salmon also vary much 
in ditferent rivers, and even when taken in nets set in the sea many miles 
from the mouths of the rivers in which they spawn, the individuals belong- 
ing to each water way can be unhesitatingly selected {vide Ogilby, Proc 
Roy. Dublin Soc. 1885, p. 526). 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 71 

that, to any one who knows the waters, the fish from any given 
stream may be selected at a glance from those of a dozen other 
streams, but no one now-a-days would venture to assert that they 
were of different species, even were it not well known that on 
beiog transferred from one stream to another the colonists soon 
assume the characteristics of the local race.* These variations 
are attributable (in both genera, Oalaxias and ScUmo) to similar 
local causes, such as the depth, stillness or rapidity of the water, 
the quality and the supply of food, the character of the bottom, 
the composition of the water, *fec.; indeed as to the latter trout 
taken from streams fed from limestone springs are as different 
from those residing in waters which have their origin in peat 
mosses as Oalaxias tnittaceus is from G. attenuaUis, 

As to the affinities of the species, it is useless in the present 
state of our knowledge to attempt any generalisation, and it is 
only by obtaining a series of specimens from the localities whence 
they were originally described that such species as Castelnau's 
and (in a less degree) Macleay's can be with certainty identified; 
nevertheless the following corrections and suggestions may be of 
use : — 

Galax»as olidwt, GUnth., doubtfully attributed by that author 
to Queensland, proves to l)e a New Zealand species, and must be 
erased from the number of Australian fishes. 

Oalaxias tcaterlioiiseiy Kreffb, is a variety of G. aUenuattis 
according to Klunzinger, as is also G. obtusus, Klunz. (Sitzb. AJc. 
Wiss. Wien, 1879, Ixxx. i. p. 412). I mention this latter fact 
because Lucas includes both alteimatics and ohtns\is in his 
"Census of Vic toriaw Fishes, 1889 ";t although Klunzinger had 
himself pointed out his own error {I.e.), while he omits truUace.v^ 
which that author had received from "Port Phillip." G. 
ichomburgKii, Peters, and G. hayi, R. and O. are possibly varieties 
of WaterJioiisei. 



* This does not apply with equal force to the anadromous Salinonids. 
t Proc. E3y. Soc. Vic. 1889, pp. 15-47. 



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72 



OALAXIAS FROM MOUNT KOSCIUSKO. 



GalaxiaR nebulosa, Macleay, is probably the same as G. scrt'bo, 
Val. The variation in the number of the dorsal and anal rays 
cannot be considered of any value in this genus if the small unar- 
ticulated anterior rays be included, the number of these being 
extremely inconstant; there is no other character of sufficient 
consequence to warrant their separation except the size of the 
eye, which is stated by Valenciennes to measure " two-fifths of 
the length of the head," a proportion which is quite unknown 
among the members of the genus, and is very unlikely to be 
correct. G. rostratus, Klunz., should also be compared with 
scriba. 

Galaxias auralus, Johnston. Through the courtesy of Mr. 
Alexander Morton of the Tasmanian Museum, I have had an 
opportunity of examining two fine examples — 225 and 185 milli- 
meters in length —of the form inhabiting the Great Lakes, Tas- 
mania, which lie at an altitude of 4000 feet above the sea level. 
These specimens I believe to be mere varieties of G. truttaceiiSy 
modified by their surroundings. 

Galaxias indicus, Day. From the first I looked with distrust 
on the possibility of the occurrence of a species of this genus in 
Indian waters, and I am, therefore, pleased to find that Dr. Gill 
not only shares that distrust, but has had the courage to publish 
his disbelief (Nature, liii. p. 366). Should the species on further 
examination prove to be a true Galaxias, its presence in the 
Indian littoral would seriously interfere with the theory of an 
antarctic origin for these fishes. 

It will be observed that no less than seven species {truttaceus, 
alteniialuSy ocellatus, versicolor, cyliudricu^, lielicatuhts, and 
amcenus) are said to be resident in or in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the Yarra, and since the two first are well known to 
be of wide distribution and variable appearance I must be per- 
mitted to doubt the specific value of all or most of the residual 
forms, for none of which have their authors pointed out such 
distinctive characters as would enable one, from a study of the 
descriptions alone, to determine their specific value. Too much 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 73 

importance has evidently been placed by Australian authors (I 
might perhaps with equal truth say by all authors) on the shape 
and colour of these fishes, both of which characters I have shown 
above to be quite worthless in distinguishing the species. 

Finally I am not satisfied, notwithstanding my scepticism with 
r^ard to the number of Australian species, to accept as proved 
the identity of the New Zealand and Tasmanian attenuaius with 
the Falkland Island and Peruvian form, referred to by Giinther 
under the same name, nor am I prepared to go as far as Macleay 
in considering that " it is more than probable that they " — all 
the known forms of Galaxias — " are one and all only permanent 
local varieties of the same fish." 



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THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE GRASSTREES 
(XANTHORRHCEA). -. 

By Walter W. Froggatt. 

(Plate IX.) 

Four species of Xanthorrhcea are recorded from the County of 
Cumberland, within the limits of which all my entomological 
specimens have been collected; as their general structure is 
similar, it is not surprising that the same species of insects are 
to be found frequenting all four alike. 

At first sight a grass-tree might not appear to be a profitable 
field for investigation by the entomologist; yet whether alive or 
dead it is the home of a considerable number of interesting 
insects, some of which are born and die in it, while others are 
only passing visitors. A grass-tree presents three distinct parts, 
each with its special frequenters; first the stout cylindrical stem 
or trunk, generally two or three feet high, and consisting of a 
tubular sheath composed of the basal portion pf the fallen leaves 
matted together into a solid ring, and thickly impregnated with 
the yellow resinous gum, and in which nothing lives; this encloses 
the caudex, composed of close fibrous matter, which in a living 
tree contains nothing, but after death it decays very rapidly, and 
soon becomes the abode of much insect life, for which the outer 
covering or sheath forms a protection. Secondly, there is the 
coarse grass-like foliage which is the resort of many small beetles, 
spiders, &c., which lurk about the bases of the stalks; it is also 
eaten by several beetles and is visited by others. Thirdly, the 
flower-stalk and scape which both alive and dead furnishes food 
or a home to certain beetles, bees, and ants. 

As the grass-trees generally thrive best in poor sandy country 
covered with low scrub, great numbers are scorched up by the 
bush fires every season. It is in such burnt patches that most 
of the grass- trees examined by me occurred. 



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BY WALTER W. FROGOATT. <0 

COLEOPTERA. 
MiCROPCECiLA BREWERi, Janson. 

Larva about 1^ inches in length; white, rather elongate and 
cylindrical; head reddish-brown, rugose, rounded behind, slightly 
impressed in the centre with a wavy line running across on either 
side to the base of the antennae; stout black jaws armed with 
three small blunt teeth; a broad elongate brown patch" on either 
side of the first thoracic segment, above the first spiracle; legs 
long, covered with long ferruginous hairs; thoracic segments and 
first seven abdominal segments furrowed into three ridges covered 
with short dark spiny bristles, together with a transvers.e row of 
longer hairs across the tip; 8th segment smooth and shining, 
covered with scattered short spines, and tinged with blue from 
the internal food, the anal segment rounded at the tip. 

Beetle 10^ lines in length, all the underside, legs, head, the 
centre of the thorax and elytra smooth, shining black, with a 
broad marginal band encircling the thorax and elytra deep orange 
vellow; sides of the wing-covers showing shallow punctured 
parallel striae. 

Near Homsby I obtained a large number of larvae early in 
July from a patch of dead grass-trees in which they were living 
in the rich black vegetable mould into which the inner portion 
of the caudex had been transformed by the action of the weather 
and their jaws. Towards the beginning of May they began to 
form earthy oval cocoons on the bottom of the tin, where they 
ronained until the end of Kovember, when the beetles began to 
come out. 

The beetles are found with many others feeding upon the 
flowers of the dwarf Angophora. 

CiSSEIS 12-MACULATA, Fab. 

' 1 have never found the larva of this pretty little buprestid, 
and do not know anything* about its life-history, but the beetle 
is common about Sydney in early summer, feeding upon the 



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10 



THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE GHASS-TBKBS, 



leaves, clasping the foliage with its legs, but dropping to the 
ground at the least alarm. 

Beetle 5 lines in length, with the head bright metallic green, 
thorax and elytra of a much darker tint, the whole deeply and 
closely punctured; sides of the thorax ornamented with a pale 
buff patch on either side, with four transverse rows of the same 
coloured oval spots, the first and last containing two and the 
middle ones four each; undersurface of a bright metallic green, 
with a patch of buff below the hind legs, and at the margin of 
each abdominal segment. 

Trigonotarsus rugosus, Boisd. 

(Plate IX., figs. 1-3.) 

Larva with smooth castaneous head; thoracic segments pale 
reddish-brown and not more than half as thick as the centre of 
the pale yellow abdominal ones, which are generally arched up 
behind the head; length in repose about an inch, but when 
moving about it extends its body half as far again; thoracic 
segments rather flattened upon the dorsal surface, with the 
abdominal ones of a uniform length and very much wrinkled; 
anal one terminating with two short truncate tubercles of a 
reddish-brown colour, with several smaller ones round them. 

The larvsB bore holes into the fibrous caudex near the bottom 
of the trunk of the grass-tree, where they must feed for some 
time, as I have taken the larvae, pupae, and beetles in the same 
tree about the middle of the year. 

Pupa 14 lines in length, white to dull yellow in colour; snout 
very thick, and curved straight down over the breast, both it and 
the rest of the head lightly clothed with stout bristles, which 
also extend over the sides of the thorax; wing-cases drawn round 
the shoulders, short, and rounded at the tips, and deeply and 
regularly striated; thoracic segments bearing a transverse ridge 
of coarse irregular spines across the centre of each segment 
except the anal one, which is ornamented with a crescent-shaped 
mark turning downwards, clothed with a few scattered hairs. 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 77 

Beetle is 16 lines in length, stout and rather flattened on the 
back, of a uniform black colour, with the broad head and thorax 
finely rugose, the elytra being deeply ridged with regular punctured 
striae. The curious form of the tips of the tibite which terminate 
in a long slender spine projecting beyond the tarsi enables it 
if touched to cling very tightly to anything when laid upon its 
back. 

ACANTHOLOPHUS MAR8HAMI, Kirby. 

This is the common Amycterid about the neighbourhood of 
Sydney. Most of the members of this large genus live upon the 
grass, but this one climbs up the leaves of the grass-tree, and 
clinging round them gnaws pieces out. 

Beetle slightly under an inch in length; of a sooty-brown 
colour; the head stout, an angular spine on eitlier side between 
the antennae, a stout double pointed knob in front of each eye, 
and the antennie and mouth parts hairy; thorax rather oval, 
flattened on the summit but very rugose, with three stout conical 
spines along the outer margins, and two irregular lines of shorter 
ones divided by the stout median suture; legs stout, with tibia* 
and tarsi hairy; elytra broad, flattened on the summit, the sides 
transversely corrugated, the upper margins ornamented with an 
irregular line of large conical spines and numerous smaller ones 
covering the whole of the back; abdominal plates beneath covered 
with fine silvery scales or hairs. 

Tranbs sp. 

Beetle 6 lines in length, all black; head small; snout long and 
stout; antennae thick at the tip; thorax rounded in front, the 
«de8 flattened on the summit and thickly covered with fine 
circular punctures; legs short and strong; dark ferruginous, with 
the tarsi lighter coloured; elytra much broader than thorax, which 
is arched slightly in front, flattened on the back, and thickly 
ribbed with parallel deeply punctuate striae. 

This beetle is not very common; it occurs towards the base of 
the flower stalk and the young leaves. My specimens were 
obtained from trees at the Hawkesbury. 



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78 



THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE GRASS-TREES, 



Symphyletes solandri, Fabr. 

The life-history of this tine longicorn is given by me in detail 
in the Proceedings of this Society (Vol. ix. (2), p. 115, 1894). 
Though not generally a very common beetle unless in an excep- 
tional season, it is one that is very easily bred from infested 
flowerstalks if kept in a box. 

Xantholinus erythropterus, Erichs. 

(Plate IX., figs. 4-5.) 

Larva slender, flattened, 7J lines in length, with the head, 
prothorax, and legs ferruginous, the rest of the thoracic and all 
the abdominal segments pale yellow, lightly fringed with hairs; 
head longer than broad, rounded behind, and armed with long 
slender black jaws; antennse 4-jointed, 2nd and 3rd joints long, 
slender, and swollen at the apex, 4th shorter and rounded at the 
tip; prothorax rounded in front, truncate behind, both head and 
thorax with a slight median suture; legs short and thick, with 
slender tarsal claws; abdominal segments uniform with meta- 
thorax, the anal one tapering to the tip and armed with a slender 
hairy appendage on either side. 

Pupa is a tightl}' swathed ferruginous bundle, the thoracic 
portion forming a roof-like covering over the turned down head, 
the legs in front, the hind pair forming a rounded projection in 
front of the upper abdominal segments, which are round and 
cylindrical to the tip. 

Beetle six lines in length, all smooth, shining, black, except 
the wing covers, which are bright reddish-brown; head rounded, 
much broader than the thorax, deeply impressed above the long 
sickle-shaped jaws, and lightly fringed in front with reddish 
hairs; antennae with brownish pubescence, the terminal joint of 
palpi ferruginous; thorax broadest in front, sloping on either side, 
and rounded at apex, lightly fringed with blackish hairs; legs 
short and spined, thickly covered with blackish hairs; elytra 
finely punctuate, broadest at apex, truncate; abdomen rather 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 79 

short, thickly fringed and lightly covered upon both sides with 
long blackish hairs; first four segments of uniform size, fifth 
nearly twice as wide and tapering to the small anal segment. 

The larvie are plentiful in spring between the sheath and the 
caudex, preying upon the many minute creatures attracted by the 
decaying matter. Like others of the StaphylinicUey the beetles 
are very active, and are found in the same stumps with the 
larvae; the pupa bred out in the Museum under glass in some 
damp earth. 

HoLOLEPETA SI NENSis, Marsham. 

This is one of the commonest beetles found in the top of the 
decaying caudex, or between it and the outer sheath. Though I 
have examined great numbers of the stems at all seasons of the 
year, I lk«,ve never come across the larval or pupal forms. 

Beetle half an inch in length, smooth, shining black, broad and 
flat; the head armed in front with two curved stout pointed horns 
projecting in front of the eyes and touching at the tips, hollowed 
<mt in front at base of horns, with an excavation behind the 
eyes, and a small blunt spine on the side; thorax with a faint 
impressed line in the centre, and along the outer edges slightly 
pitted with small punctures; elytra without any punctures, but 
a slender purse-like cavity on either margin caused by the edge 
of the elytra turning upwards; chitinous plates covering the apex 
of the abdomen impressed with larger rounded punctures on their 
edges; underside except the central plate between the legs also 
finely punctured. 

I have never collected this species any where else, though others 
in the north are often found crawling on tree trunks. 

Platysoma sp. 1 

This beetle evidently passes through all its transformations in 
the decaying caudex, but after examining a great number of 
plants in all stages of decay, and at all seasons of the year, I 
have never been able to identify the larva, though once or twice 
I have found the pupa just ready to turn into the perfect insect. 



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80 THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE GRASS-TREES, 

, from which it only differs in colour, being dull white. The beetles 

I are often very numerous, twenty or thirty being obtained from 

one stump. 

Beetle IJ lines in length, broad and oval, black and shining; 

head small, round in front; thorax smooth, truncate behind; 

elytra smooth in the centre, with four very distinct striae on each 

side, and truncate at the apex; the tip of the abdomen sloping 

downwards. 

Allecula sunsuLCATA (?), Macl. 

Larva is a typical heteromerous wire worm; slender, cylindrical, 
smooth, and shining, about an inch in length, of a uniform ochreous 
colour; head and tip of the abdomen ferruginous, and an apical 
narrow Imnd round the abdominal segments dark brown; head 
small, rounded in front, with slender sickle-shaped jaws, short 
'♦ . antenna', and long drooping palpi; legs are comparatively long, 

1 with slender tarsal claws. 

They are very active little creatures, living in the rich black 
mould left by the decaying caudex; sometimes they are very 
numerous; common in July and August. 

Pupa pale yellow, short and angular, with the head drawn down 
over the thorax, antennae curling round under the fore legs, and 
coming over the hind ones, labial palpi projecting over the fore 
legs and showing the peculiar axe-shaped terminal joint; outer 
edges of the abdominal segments flanged and finely serrate, the 
anal one terminating in two fine spinas, wing cases short and 
wrinkled. 

Beetle 7 lines in length, all black, except the last three joints 
of antennae and last two joints of the tarsi, which are pale 
ferruginous; head and thorax closely and finely punctured; 
antennae 11-jointed, long, slender, and cylindrical, 2nd joint very 
short, 3rd longest, apical joint of the labial palpi large and axe- 
shaped; legs long, apex of tibiae and the tarsi clothed with fine 
re<ldish hairs; elytra rugose and deeply grooved with parallel striae, 
thickly and deeply punctured; all the ventral surface closely 
punctured. 




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BY WALTER W. FROOGATT. 81 

The beetles began to emerge from the earth, in which the larva? 
had buried themselves, about the middle of November. 

They are often found in the summer time hiding among the 
dead leaves among the bushes or clinging to the twigs. 

HYMENOPTERA. 

Lestis bombiliformis, Smith. 

This beautiful carpenter bee forms its nest in the flower stalks 
of the grass-trees found about Sydney, after they have borne the 
flower and have become dry and hard. It begins by boring a cir- 
cular hole, 3 J lines in diameter, about three or four feet up the stalk, 
in towards the centre, when it turns downwards, excavating 
nearly all the pith out for a distance of about four inches down, 
then working upwards, so that the tunnel is about eight inches 
from end to end, with an average of half an inch in diameter. 
The cells are made about half an inch in length, with a ball of 
l*e-bread and an egg deposited in the far end, each being 
partitioned off from the other by a stout pad or wad of triturated 
pith. IJiave never found the whole length of the chamber filled 
with bee larvfe, a space being usually left unoccupied in the 
centre. 

LanaaduU white-coloured grub of cylindrical shape, attenuated 
towards both extremities, about half an inch in length when full 
grown. They can be found in all stages about November. 

(J. Bee 7^ lines in length, bright metallic green, with the face 
yellow, eyes brown; antennae, ocelli, and mouth parts black, sides 
<rf the face, back of head, thorax and legs thickly covered with 
*^ golden yellow hairs, with three dark parallel bars of blackish 
^ crossing the centre and on either side; above the wings 
clouded with brown, covered with fine brown spots over the 
, marginal cells, and having fine metallic purple iridescence; upper 
surface of the abdominal segments finely rugose, without hairs; 
[ under surface covered with dark brown hairs, the tip with black. 

$. Bee 9 lines in length, of a brilliant metallic blue colour, 
with the abdominal segments showing coppery tints, face and 
G 



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82 



THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE GRASS-TREES, 




head behind the eyes covered with greyish white hairs, thorax, 
legt, and under surface of abdomen thickly clothed with blaci 
hairs except the sides of the anal segments, which are fringed 
with white hairs; wings darker than in the male. 

Mr. F. Smith gave a short account* of the habits of this bee, 
communicated to him by Mr. Ker, who stated that it inhabited 
the hollow stem of a Zamia or grass tree, the entrance to the 
tube being rounded like the mouth of a flute. 

DoLicHODERUs DORiiE, Emery. 

These ants are very common about Hornsby, and are very fond 
of the sweet sugar}' lerp formed upon the leaves of the Eucalypts 
by the larvae of several species of Fsylla, so that where the lerp 
is plentiful the leaves are often covered with them, all intent upon 
the enjoyment of their sweet food. They form their nest between 
the caudex and dry outer sheath of the dead and dry grass trees, 
often in such numbers that the cavity between the caudex and 
the outer mass is a living mass of ants. 

Ant 2, 4 lines in length, head and thorax black, very rugose, 
the latter armed with a pair of stout spines projecting in front of 
the prothorax, with a similar pair at the base of the metathorax, 
longer and pointing downwards; antenna? and legs ferruginous, 
the node short but stout; abdomen black, covered with a brownish 
pubescence, heart-shaped, hollowed out in front down the centre, 
with the outer margins rounded and forming regular rounded tips, 

Tridomyrmex gracilis, Lowne. 

A small slender black ant that makes its nest in the dead 
flower stalks of the trees, hollowing out the interior in irregular 
parallel passages, a large nest of them often occupying the whole 
stalk. 

J. Ants are under 3 lines in length, pitchy brown, with very 
long slender legs covered with a very fine grey pubescence; head 

• Notes on the Habits of Australian Hymenoptera, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
London, Vol. i. (2nd her.) p. 179, 1850. 



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BY WALTER W. FUOGOATT. 83 

large, smooth, and shining, truncate at the base, and rounded 
towards the jaws; thorax narrow, smooth and shining; abdomen 
short, rounded and pointed towards the tip. 

DIPTERA. 
Orthoprosopa nigra, Macq. 

(Plate IX., figs. 6-8.) 

LArv& 8 lines in length, dirty white to brownish, rounded at 
the head, widest about the centre, tapering towards the tip of 
abdomen which is produced into a stout homy ochreous appendage 
truncate at the tip and armed at the base with a short fleshy 
spine on either side. 

The maggots, frequently in great numbers, are found living in 
the slime and putrid water which accumulates between the outer 
shell and the caudex of the dead stem, about midwinter; numbers 
kept under observation remained about six weeks, before changing 
into pup«e. The latter were simply the skin of the maggot 
hardened into a brown oval case covered with particles of earth 
attached to it, and the anal appendage shortened and retracted. 

This handsome fly (one of the Syrphidce) is 7 lines in length, 
shining black, with the antennae and face bright yellow; thorax 
covered with a very short fine blackish down and ornamented 
with a pair of rounded naked black spots in the centre; wings 
slightly fuscous, legs black; abdomen stoutest at the base, rounded 
towards the tip. 

Orthoprosopa sp. 

(Plate IX., figs. 9-11.) 

Larva dirty white, 10 lines in length, but able to retract or 
extend its segments considerably; head rather truncate in front, 
with the sides round, narrow, with segments of uniform size, 
tapering towards the tip which is produced into a slender fleshy 
tail; two-thirds of the length of the whole of the body terminating 
in a slender homy tube or spine, truncate at the tip. 



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84 THE ENTOMOLOGY OP THE GRASS-TKEES, 

The larvfB live in the decaying wood and putrid water that has 
accumulated between the caudex and the sheath, crawling alxjut 
mixed up with the maggots of the last descril>ed species, sometimes 
in considerable numbers. Specimens kept in a damp jar pupated 
among the rotten wood at the bottom about three weeks after they 
were taken. Pupa case light brown, covered with bits of dirt; 
the apex and sides rounded, oval, with the long slender anal 
segment produced into a slender tube curving sharply round, and 
retaining the anal tube at the tip. 

Fly 5 lines in length, steely blue, thorax and abdomen smooth 
and shining; face and antennae covered with fine hairs, the latter 
short with the last segment oval and flattened, ornamented with 
a fine bristle; legs piceous, covered with fine hairs; wings hyaline^ 
very slightly clouded. 

Ephippium albit arsis {?), Bigot. 

(Plate IX., figs. 12-13.) 

Larva 8 lines in length, 2 in width, varying from greyish- 
brown to black; head much narrower, slender, horny, broadest at 
the base, sloping up to a truncate tip, with an eye-like spot on 
either side, and several short bristles along the sides, the mouth 
concave; thoracic and abdominal segments broad, convex on both 
dorsal and ventral surfaces, the hind margin of the first five 
sloping back, first arcuate behind the head, narrow, the following 
ones gradually increasing in size to the fourth, and of a uniform 
width to the ninth, tenth smaller, the last spatulate, with a round 
impression on the dorsal surface; outer margins of each segment 
fringed with two long bristles, a few scattered ones over the 
dorsal surface. 

The pupa undergoes its transformation in the larval skin, the 
fly emerging from the base of the head. They are plentiful in 
decaying stems between the caudex and sheath, living among the 
rotten matter, and are very sluggish in their habits. Specimens 
I collected remained among some rotten wood and mould for 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 85 

aoout three months before the flies began to emerge about the 
^nd of September. 

fly vaiying from 4 J to 3 lines in length, all black except the 
white tarsi; head broad, rugose between the eyes; antenna? 
spindle-shaped, pointed towards the tips, standing straight out, 
Without any terminal bristle; thorax rounded in front, broadest 
about the middle, finely granulated on the dorsal surface; scutel- 
*uni almost square, the apical edge having a short spine on either 
^We; legs stout; wings dusky, nervures black, the wings creased 
^ the centre and folded down over the tip of the abdomen; the 
latter constricted at the base, large and round, finely granulated, 
^»th the apical segments turning downwards, and the extreme 
tip truncate. 

^is is a typical form of the family Strati omyiidoiy and is, I 
"slieve, identical with Bigot's C. albitarsis, one of the few described 
Australian species. 

Another very pretty little fly also lives in the rotten caudex, the 
"^■ffi of which I have never observed, but have bred several from 
tfle pupie, which are oval brown cases covered with particles of 
^rth, the front broadest, with a cylindrical short truncate spine 
^ either side, standing out like a little horn, the apical tip rather 
pointed. 

The fly, which belongs to the family Trypetina*, is often found 
'^pon the leaves, moving its wings up and down (as many members 
^ this family do when resting), but is very hard to catch ; 
^^inmon in November. 

Ry 3 lines in length; head black, narrow; last joint of the 
•iiteniUB large and circular, terminated with a stout bristle; head 
^ thorax hairy, the latter steely blue; scutellum large, yellow, 
"ith black markings on the apical edge which is truncate and 
fnnged with hairs; legs long, pale yellow; wings hyaline, thickly 
fDOttled with irregular black blotchas over the apical half; abdo- 
^n broad, heart-shaped, pale ochreous yellow, rounded on dorsal 
^'orfaoe, with a curious imprinted brown mark in centre; thin 
*wi flat on the underside, tinged with black towards the tip, and 
tofted with silvery white hairs on the sides. 



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86 THE ENTOMOLOGY OP THE GRASS-TRKES, 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Aphomia latro, Zeller. 

Larva half an inch in length, dark brown to black upon the 
dorsal surface, with lighter parallel stripes down the centre of 
back, and along each side; head large, smooth, shining, and 
divided in the centre by a suture; prothorax rounded and large; 
other thoracic segments uniform with the abdominal ones; legs 
moderately stout, with small pointed tarsal claws; ventral surface 
pale yellow. 

The larvae live in small communities, feeding upon the scape 
of the flower stalk, gnawing up all the undeveloped buds, which 
become matted together with their loose web. They move about 
very rapidly, and pupate on the flower head, forming elongate 
white silken cocoons. 

Pupa long and slender, reddish-brown, with the wing-cases 
curving round in front and covering the first five segments; a 
raised ridge running down the centre of back; anal segment 
armed with a number of short conical spines. 

Moth IJ inches across the wings, which are long and slender, 
and rounded at the tips; creamy buff colour shot with fine black 
spots, and divided down the centre with a broad parallel stripe 
of white. Hind wings silvery grey, thickly fringed with long 
semi-opaque hairs along the tips and lower margin; body slender, 
apical segments darkest. 

Mr. Ernest Anderson, who identified this species for me, says 
that it is common in Vict^jria, where it also feeds upon grass-trees 
and stems of rushes. Bred in the Museum about the end of 
October, from infested flowers received from the Curator. 

HOMOPTERA. 
AspiDiOTUS ROSSI, Mask. 

The foliage is often quite discoloured with the number of black 
scales (adult females) infesting the leaves, often overlapping each 
other like a lot of oyster shells. 



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BY WALTER W. PROOGATT. 87 

Chionaspis eugenic, Mask. 

I found this scale very plentiful upon the leaves of a patch of 
grass-trees last March at Botany, but it is more generally found 
upon Leptospermum, Melaleuca, and Eugenia. The adult female 
coccids are pale yellow at the tip, with the long slender test 
pearly white, and are attached along the outer edge of the under- 
surface of the leaves. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Trigonotarsm rugosnSf Boisd. 

Fig. 1. — Larva (oat. size). 

Fig. 2. — Larva— froot view of head (enlarged). 

Fig. 3. — Papa (nat. size). 

Xantholinus erythraplertiSy Erichs. 

Fig. 4. — Larva (enlarged). The line beside shows the length. 
Fi>;. 5. — Pupa (enlarged). The line beside shows the length. 

Orthoprosopa nigrny Macq . 

Fig. 6. — Larva (enlarged). 
¥ig. 7. — Pupa (enlarged]. 
Pig. 8,— Fly ienUrged). 

Orthoprosopa sp. 
Fig. 9. — Larva .enlarged). 
Fig. 10.— Papa (enlarged). 
Rg. II.— Fly (enlarged). 

Ephippium albitarsu (f)^ Bigot. 

Fig. 12. — Larva (much enlarged). 
Fig. 13.— Fly (enlarged). 



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88 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Mr. North exhibited the types of the new genus and species 
of birds obtained by the members of the " Horn Expedition " in 
Central Australia, and described by him in the July number of 
"The Ibis" for 1895, also more fully in the "Report of the 
Horn Scientific Expedition," Part ii Zoology, just published. 
The genus Spathoptenis formed for the reception of the Princess 
of Wales' Parrakeet is a most extraordinary one. The fully 
adult male, of which a beautiful specimen was exhibited, has 
the end of the third primary prolonged half an inch beyond the 
second and terminating in a spatulate tip. It is entirely 
difterent from the wing of an}^ other bird found in Australia, 
but the peculiar terminations of the third primaries resemble 
somewhat the tail-like appendages to the lower wings of the 
Queensland butterfly Papiiio ulysse^. The new species comprised 
the following : — Rhipidura albicaudoy Xerophila niyriciucla, 
PtHoiis keartlandtf Climacteris supercilioaa^ Turnix leucogaster^ 
and Calamanthus isahellinus, a sub-species of G, campestris^ 
Gould. 

Mr. Hedley exhibited on behalf of Mr. J. Jennings some living 
Stromhus luhuanus from Vaucluse. As none had been observed 
alive for several years it had been feared that this interesting 
colony, the most southern recorded of this species, had become 
extinct, a fear happily now shown to be unfounded. 

Mr. Rainljow showed a Sydney spider f CeJceria excavata, Koch) 
which mimicks the excreta of a bird. Also examples of the egg- 
bags of the same species, which in appearance resemble the 
kernels of the Quandong (Fusanus). 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited specimens of the insects frequenting 
the four species of Xanthorrfuea to be found in the County of 
Cumberland, together with drawings illustrative of the life- 
history of some of them. Also a living specimen of the "Thorny 
Lizard" (Moloch horridus, Gray), received by post from Kalgoorlie, 
W.A. Mr. Froggatt likewise communicated some observations 
on the habits of this specimen. 

Mr. Pedley also exhibited a living specimen of Moloch horridm 
from West Australia. 

Mr. Lucas showed a fossil fish in Wianamatta Shale from 
Marrickville. > 



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89 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 27th, 1896. 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday 
evening, May 27th, 1896. 



The President, Henry Deane, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., in the Chair. 



Mrs. Agnes Kenyon, Richmond, Victoria, was elected an 
Associate Member of the Society. 



The Special General Meeting, of which notice had been given, 
was postponed. 



DONATIONS. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. ix. No. 4 (April, 
1896). From the Editor, 

Society d' Horticulture du Doubs, Besan9on — Bulletin. Ser. 
niustree. No. 3 (March, 1896). From the Society, 

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture — Division of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy — Bulletin. No. 8: Division of Entomology — New 
Series. Bulletin. No 3. Technical Series. No. 2. From the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal — Journal. N.S. Vol, Ixiv. (1895). 
Part L No. 3 ; Part ii. No. 3. From t/te Society. 



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90 DONATIONS. 

Royal Society of Victoria — Proceedings (1895). Vol. viii. 
(New Series). From the Society. 

Geelong Naturalist. Vol. v. No. 3 (April, 1896). From the 
Geelony Field Naturalists^ Club, 

K. K. Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Verhand- 
lungen. xhi. Bd. Jahrgang 1896. 2 Heft. From the Society, 

Bureau of Agriculture, Perth, W.A. — Journal. Vol. iii. Nos. 
7, 8, 10 and 11 (March-May, 1896). From the ^'S'icretary. 

Pamphlet entitled " Sur la Deuxi^me Campagne Scientifique de 
la Princesse Alice. ' Par S. A. S. Albert P*"., Prince de Monaco. 
From the Author. 

Papuan Plants. No. ix. ; Iconography of Candolleaceous Plants. 
First Decade (1892). By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G, 
M. & Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. Frojn the Author. 

Museo de la Plata — Anales. i. (1890-91); Seccion de Arqueo- 
logia. ii.-iii. (1892); Seccion Geologica y Mineralogioa. i (1892); 
Seccion de Historia General, i. (1892); Seccion Zoologica. i.-iii. 
(1893-95); Paleontologia Argentina, ii.-iii. (1893-94): R^vista. 
T. i.-v. (1890-94). T. vi. Primera Parte (1894). T. vii. Primera 
Parte (1895) : Pamphlets entitled " The La Plata Museum." By 
R. Lydekker, B.A, F.Z S.; and "Le Mus^e de La Plata." Par 
F. P. Moreno, /^rom the Director. 

Gordon Technical College, (xeelong, Victoria — Annual Report 
for 1894. From tJie Secretanj. 

Journal of Conchology. Vol. viii. No. 6 (April, 1896;. From 
the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 

Entomological Society of London — Proceedings, 1896. Part i. 
From the Society. 

Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris - Bulletin. Ann^e 1896. 
No. 1. From the Museum. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xix. Band. Nos. 499-500 (March- April) 
^1896). From the Editor. 



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DONATIONS. 91 

Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica — Acta. Vol. v. Pars iii , 
Vok ^-iii.-x.; Vol xii. (1890-95): Meddelanden. 18-21 Haftet 
(1892-95): Herbarium Musei Fennici. Ed. 2. Pars ii. (1894). 
From the Society, 

Naturhistorischer Verein der preussischen Rheinlande, ike. 
Bonn — Verhandlungen. Jahrgang li. Zweite Halfte (1894). 
From the Society. 

Geological Survey of New South Wales — Records. Vol. iv. 
(1894-95), Title page, <kc.; Vol v. Part i. (1896). From the //on. 
t/ie Minister for A/ines and Agrictdture. 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xiii. No. 1 (April, 1896). From, 
the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

Soci^te Royale de Botanique de Belgique — Bulletin. Tome 
xixiv. (1895;. From the ^Society. 

Perak Gk)vemment Gazette. Vol. ix. Nos. 7-8 (March- April, 
1896); Title page, <fec., to Vol. viii. (1895). From the Government 
^Secretary. 

Geological Survey of India — Memoirs. Vol. xxvii. Part i. 
(1895); Palseontologia Indica. Ser. xiii. Salt-Range Fossils. 
VoL ii Part 1 ; Ser. xv. Himalayan Fossils. Vol. ii. Trias, Part 
2 (1895). From the Director. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History — Journal. Vol. xviii. 
Nos. 1 and 2 (April- July, 1895). From t/ie Society. 

Field Columbian Museum, Chicago— Zoological Series. Vol. i. 
N08. 1-2 (Oct. -Nov. 1895). From Uie Director. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Science — Proceedings and Transac- 
tions. Session 1893-94. Vol. i. Second Series. Part 4. From 
the Institute. 

Tufto College, Mass.— Studies. No. iv. (Sept. 1895). From 
the College. 

New York Academy of Sciences — Transactions. Vol. xiv. 
(1894-95). From the Academy. 



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92 DONATIONS. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences — Proceedings. New 
Series. Yol. xxii. (1894-95). From the Academy, 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia — Proceedings, 
1895.' Part ii. (April-Sept.) From the Acadtmy, 

\ Boston Society of Natural History — Memoirs. Vol. v. Nos. 

1-2 (July-Oct. 1895) : Proceedings. Vol. xxvi. Part 4 (1894-95). 
From tlie Society. 

Rochester Academy of Science — Proceedings. Vol. ii. 
^ Brochures 3-4 (1894-95). From the Academy, 

I L' Acaddmie Royale des Sciences, &c., de Belgique — Annuaire 

lx.-lxi. (1894-95) : Bulletins. 3""'^ Ser. Tomes xxvi.-xxix. 
(1893-95). From the Academy. 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin — Verhandlungen. Bd. 
xxii. (1895). No. 7 : Zeitschrift. Bd. xxx. (1895). Nos. 4-5. 
From the Society. 

Soci^te Helv^tique des Sciences Naturelles — 77™® Session 
reunie k Schaffhausen (July- Aug. 1894): Actes et Compte Rendu: 
Mitteilungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern, 1894. 
From the Society, 

I U Academic Imp^riale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg — 

Bulletin. T. xxxii. Nos. 1 and 4 (1887 and 1888); Nouvelle 
Si^rie iii. (xxxv.) Nos. 1-4 (1892-94) : Memoires. vii«. S^r. T. 
xxxviii. Nos 9-14 (1892); T. xxxix. No. 1 (1891); T. xl. No. 1 

\'' (1892); T. xli. Nos. 1-7 (1892-93); T. xlii. Nos. 1, 3-9 and 10 

J (1894). From the Academy, 

Four Excerpts from the " Report of the Horn Expedition to 
Central Australia. Part iii." — [Physical Geography, General 
(Geology, Palaeontology, Botany]. From Prof. R Tate, F.L,S. 

' Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. xi. No. 125 (May, 

1896). From thf. Editor. 

JJ Acad^mie Royale des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemark, 
Copenhague — Bulletin, 1896. No. 2. From the Academy. 



) 



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DONATIONS. 93 



me 



Societe Royale Linneenne de BruxeUes — Bulletin. 21 
Annee. No. 6 (April, 1896). From tJie Society, 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney— Agricultural Gazette. 
VoL vii Part 4 (April, 1896). From the Hon, the Minister fo% 
Mines and Agriculture, 

Societe Imp^riale Mineralogique, St. Petersbourg — Yerhand- 
lungen. Zweite Serie. xxxiii Band, i. Lief. (1895). From the 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxx. No. 352 (April, 1896). From 
the Editors. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. VoL xxix. No. 1. From the Curator. 

Societe Scientifique du Chili— Actes. T. v. (1895) 1"., 2 .«• 
et 3**. Livs. From the Society. 

Canadian Institute — Transactions. Vol. iv. Part 2 (Dec., 1895,: 
Archaeological Report, 1894-95: Inaugural Address (Nov., 1894). 
By J. M. Clark, M. A, LL.B. From tlie Institute, 

American Museum of Natural History, New York. — Bulletin. 
VoL \'iii. (1896). Sig. 3-4 (pp. 33-64). From the Museum, 

Konink. Natuurk. Yereeniging in Nederl. Indie — Tijdschrift. 
Deal Iv. (1896): Supplement-Catalogus (1883 93) der Biblio- 
theek. From the Society, 



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94 



OBSERVATIONS ON PERIPATUS. 
By Thos. Steel, F.C.S. 



The following remarks refer entirely to the ordinary New 
♦ South Wales Peripattbs^ the form for which the name P, Leuckarti, 

I var. orientalis has been proposed by Mr. Fletcher.* 

For some years past I have taken a good deal of interest in this 
creature amongst other of the cryptozoic fauna of Austraha; 
and having had numerous living specimens of all ages under 
constant observ^ation in vivaria during a continuous period of 
over a year, I have thought that my observations would be of 
interest to naturalists. 

In the course of a number of visits to the Moss Vale district 
during the summer of 1894-5, and again in 1895-6, 1 was success- 
ful in collecting a considerable number of specimens. 

The most remarkable feature about my collectitin, apart from 
the unusually large number of individuals of both sexes secured, 
is the very interesting range of colour variation which it 
illustrates. 

It is not my intention to enter into any details regai-ding 
classi6cation or structure, but to give a statement of such facts 
in connection with the habits and life-history of the creature as 
I have observed ; together with a few details of the individual 
range of colour, and the relative proportions of the sexes in the 
specimens collected. 

The summer of 1894-5 was remarkable, in the district above 
mentioned, for the abundance of various cryptozoic forms of life, 
particularly land Planarians, and the conditions seem to have 
been peculiarly favourable for Peripatns, judging by the number 
of individuals which I observed. 

The total number of adults which I collected in the Moss Vale 
district during that summer was 579, of which 390 were 



• P.L.S. N.S.W. (2 Ser.) Vol. x. 186. 



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BY THOS. STBSL. 95 

females and 189 males; that is 67 per cent, of the former and 33 
per cent, of the latter. Besides these a large number of young, 
ranging from newly born upwards, were noticed. 

The summer of 1895-6 having been preceded by a prolonged 
spell of very dry weather, the organisms mentioned were found 
to be very scarce. Where in the previous summer I found hun- 
dreds of land Planarians, only scattered individuals of the more 
hardy and common species were to be met with, and it was only 
by diligent searching over a somewhat wide area that I was able 
to secure a very moderate number of Peripati. Particular spots 
which I specially remembered as being where I met with plenty 
of specimens in 1894r-5, in lf^95-6 I found to be quite deserted or 
only very sparingly populated by Peripatus, while the other usual 
forms of life — with the exception of ants and termites, which 
aeem to flourish under any conditions — were equally scarce in 
proportion. This collection, though a good deal smaller, contained 
much the same relative proportions of males and females, and a 
similar range of colour variation, as that mode in 1894-5. 

When collecting in 1894-5, whenever I saw young Peripati 
under logs I made it a rule to replace them in the position in 
which I had found them; and as I noted numl>ers of these logs I 
was able to examine them again in 1895-6. In many cases where I 
had left large numbers of young of "various ages I found on my 
second visit not a trace of any, and in others only a few. 

My friend, Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., informs me that in Victoria, 
where the summer of 1895-6 was similar to that experienced in 
New South Wales, he found the land Planarians exceedingly 
scarce, and in some cases altogether absent, in districts such as 
Fern Tree Gully, which are known to be usually prolific in these 
forms of life. 

Such dry conditions, and the attendant "bush fires," must 
cause an enormous mortality amongst these lowly creatures, and 
it IB greatly to be desired that as much information about them 
as is possible should be gained, as many local forms are certain to 
be now rapidly approaching extermination. 



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96 



OBSERVATIONS ON PBRIPATUS, 



t 



I 

II 



In the favourable summer of 1894-5, the individual adult 
Peripati ranged very much larger in size than was the case in 
1895-6. The dry conditions of the latter period appeared to 
have stunted the growth of the creature. In 1894-5 large 
numbers of females were IJ inches in length when crawling, 
not counting the antennae, and the males 1 inch; while in 1895-6 
the longest female seldom exceeded 1 inch and males about | inch. 
These are the dimensions when crawling naturally, and not when 
stretched to the fullest extent. What became of the large 
sized individuals of 1894-5, I cannot say. They may have 
perished, or could they have shrunk in size as a result of the 
unfavourable conditions 1 Whatever may be the cause, their 
absence was very marked. 

In his account of the Mammalia of the Horn Expedition,* 
Professor Spencer gives exceedingly interesting information on the 
effect of the prolonged spells of arid conditions on the bodily 
development of some of the mammals of that region; and of the 
remarkable manner in which, on the other hand, they respond to 
the more favourable state of matters when a wet period inter- 
venes. 

A somewhat analogous series of observations is quoted in 
Nature from The Entomologist^^ in which Standfuss, of Zurich, 
has investigated the effect on the dimensions, and on the patterns 
and colours of the wings of certain butterflies; of the sub- 
jection of the eggs, larvte and pupie to various periods of exposure 
to different conditions of heat, cold, and moisture. Amongst 
other results arrived at was this, that the effect of abnormal heat 
on the larva was to hasten the development, but to cause a notable 
reduction in the size of the wings. 

A very noticeable peculiarity was the intensely local nature of 
Peripatus. Considerable numbers would be met with in a very 
restricted area, and without any apparent cause none at all, or 
very few, would be found on precisely similar ground adjoining. 

• Account of the Horn Expedition to Central Australia, Part 2, 1896. 
t " Nature," Vol. liii., 540, April, 1896. 



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BY THOS. 8TBEL. 97 

After a little experience I got to know the likely-looking parts, 
and even the most promising logs under which to search. All. 
the specimens were underneath logs, either on the ground or on 
the undersurface of the log, and in the cracks and crannies in the 
soil beneath the logs. Small easily rolled logs yield the best results 
for Peripatus as well as for land Planarians and the other ci'^atures 
that live under them; large heavy ones lie too hard and close to 
the ground, and do not give the necessarj-^ room underneath. 

The colours of the individuals were exceedingly variable. 
Adopting a similar method of comparison to that used by Mr. 
Fletcher* in his description of the collection made by Mr. Helms 
at Mt. Kosciusko, my specimens very naturally divide themselves 
into four groups : — a. Black or blue-black, b. Black, sparingly 
speckled with rufous brown. c. Rufous brown with black 
antenni^ and with or without visible scattered black spots or 
speckhngs. d. Entirely rufous brown or red, including the 
antennae, and without any visible black. 

The relative numbers of individuals in e^ch of these classes 
was: — 

a. Black or blue-black ... ... 77 1 per cent. 

6. Black, speckled with brown ... • 6^ „ „ 

c. Brown, black antennae ... ... 10 ,, * „ 

d. Entirely brown ... ... ... 6 „ „ 

In the Mt. Kosciusko collection the proportion of entirely 
black individuals is very much smaller than the above, amounting 
to only about 9 per cent, of the whole, the greater number being 
^uk, sparingly speckled with brown. 

No specimens with antennae and body both entirely brown are 
mentioned, and indeed, judging from the published descriptions 
and my own experience, this particular form appears to be much 
less common than the others. Such being the case, it may be 
»^ell for me here to briefly describe those in my collection. To 
the naked eye or the microscope there is no trace of black visible. 
The lozenge-shaped pattern which has been so fully treated of by 

• P.L.8. N.5i.W. (2 Ser.) Vol. v. 471. 



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98 OBSERVATIONS ON PBRIPATU8, 

Fletcher and Dendy, while quite distinct, is not nearly so boldly 
outlined as is commonly the case in P. oviparusy Dendy; it is 
marked out by alternate light and dark areas of skin, the pattern 
being entirely due to differences in intensityof the brown pigment. 
This form of Peripatus is exceedingly beautiful; it is a very 
striking object, and from its bri$?ht colour, much more conspicious 
than its black brethren. When a number of specimens of the 
brown form are put in spirit together, I have noticed that the 
latter acquires a distinct brown tinge, which would show that 
the colour pigment, like that of land Planarians, is to some 
extent soluble in alcohol. 

Most if not all of the specimens which to the eye or the pocket 
lens appear quite black, under the microscope present numerous 
scattered skin papillee and minute patches of the skin of a brown 
colour. The antennae appear to be the last part to lose the black 
pigmentation or the first to gain it, whichever the case may be. 
It very commonly happens that the entire body may be brown 
and the antennee alone black, and I have not observed a specimen 
having entirely brown antennae which had black on any part of 
the body. 

This recalls to my mind a matter in connection with dogs which 
I have noticed for many years, that they invariably have the tip 
of the tail white if there is white on any part of the body, and 
frequently the tail tip is the only white part. 

It may also be noticed that in Peripatus the colour variations 
. ! are pretty uniformly proportionately divided between the males 

and females. 

The adult females are, in my experience, invariably larger than 
the males, t^he former being usually from J to ^ longer than the 
latter; and the females are also a good deal stouter in proportion 
to their size, the males being more slender. 

The males are distinguishable under the microscope from the 
females by the white leg papillje, when about 12 mm. in length, 
corresponding to about eight months old. 

Judging from the rate of growth in captivity I think the 
females do not mature before they are over two years of age, and 



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BY THOS. STBBL. 99 

it would appear very probable to me that the young are not born 
until the mother is at least three years old. 

In life both blades of the jaws lie with their convex edges out- 
wards, the outer simple bladed jaw lying close up to the inner 
toothed one, with the points close together. When feeding the 
jaws are moved very rapidly, with a circular sweep. 

I have counted the claw-bearing legs of several hundreds of 
specimens, and have found them invariably fifteen pairs, ex- 
clusive of the oral papillae. In living individuals the narrow 
white line in the centre of the dorso-median furrow, described by 
Prof. Dendy in P. ovipuruSy* and by Mr. Fletcher in P. Leuc- 
karti^f is very readily seen under the microscope in the dark 
coloured specimens, and can be distinctly observed in the light 
brown ones also, especially when it crosses patches of the darker 
brown. In young ones it is even more conspicuous than in adults. 
In adults a somewhat similar line lies at the bottom of the 
numerous horizontal skin furrows which cross the median line, 
and indeed wherever there is a furrow in the skin its course is 
more or less distinctly marked out by white. 

These lines are well seen when the animal is extended in the 
act of crawling, but when it is at rest they are closed over by the 
skin folds. 

The food of Peripatus consists of insects, wood lice, and such- 
like. Termites are a favourite article of diet, and are eaten 
freely. All the soft parts are eaten, including the legs of small 
insects. The skin of the outer integument of such creatures as 
wood Uce is scraped completely off. Its feeding, as one might 
•expect from the nature of its jaws, is by no means confined to 
sucking the juices of its prey, but all parts, save the hard integu- 
ment, are devoured. Of Termites only the hard part of the he?id 
w rejected, the remainder, including the antennae, being entirely 
eaten. 



♦ P.L.S.N.S.W. (2Ser.)x. 19^. 
t Ibid. 183. 



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i 100 OBSERVATIONS ON PBRIPATLS, 



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It is rather interesting to observe the behaviour of wood lice, 
the creatures with which I have most frequently fed my Peripati, 
when dropped into the vivarium. At first they scramble under 
the little pieces of rotten wood, under which the Peripati are 
Hl^ lurking, but they Very quickly appear to recognise the presence of 

an enemj'' and crawl out again, finally clustering together as far 
as they can get from their foes. Wood lice eat any sort of 
organic matter, vegetable or animal, and I have seen one biting 
and nibbling at a sickly Peripatus which was too weak to defend 
itself. 

I have never observed Peripati eat one another; even when 
kept without food they do not attack each other or the young. 

When feeding the movements of the animal are very graceful and 
deliberate. The antennse are endowed with a high degree of 
sensitiveness, and are used by cautiously touching the insect, 
when so occupied being carried somewhat erect with the tips 
curved downwards. From the manner of using them sometimes, 
by bending them round and over an object which is being 
examined, without touching it I think it is highly probable the 
antennse are the medium of a sense analogous to that of smell. 

In securing its prey Peripatus does not always use the slime 
secretion, but appears to resort thereto only when the insect which 
it is endeavouring to secure appears likely to escape, or when it 
strugi^les violently, or again when the animal is hungry and wants 
to make certain of the capture. It then becomes animated, raises 
the front part of its body and ejects the viscid fluid from both 
papilla? simultaneously. The secretion is ejected with sufficient 
force to project it several inches. The slime appears to be of an 
albuminous nature. It is not at all acid or acrid, but is merely 
useful mechanically, through its tenacious stickiness. When 
freshly emitted it is rather liquid, but quickly toughens in the 
air. It is tasteless and has no effect when applied to a sensitive 
mucous surface of the human body. It mixes with water, but is 
at once coagulated and rendered insoluble by alcohol. 

When the creature is alarmed by sudden exposure to light, the 
slime is often discharged, the object obviously being self-defence. 



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BY TH08. STBBL. 101 

Peripatus is a very aociable creature. They do not molest one 
another, and love to crowd together in congenial lurking-places. 
I have often observed several of them around one insect feeding 
in perfect harmony. 

Although they will readily feed on dead insects, I have not 
been able to induce them to eat raw or cooked meat. Occasionally 
one will after a long examination pull at the meat for a little 
while with its jaws, but very soon leaves it. 

The skin is cast at apparently somewhat irregular intervals, but 
I have not observed how often. The earliest casting which I 
have noticed was in the case of young ones bom in captivity, 
which shed the skin when between one and two weeks old. The 
skin spUts along the median dorsal furrow, and is gradually 
worked off by expansive and contractile movements of the 
animal, the front end being first worked forward out of the skin 
and then the whole gradually crumpled off in a very perfect state, 
including that of the antennse, feet, and appendages. The exuvia? 
are pure white, the colour pigment being situated entirely in the 
inner skin layer which remains. 

During the shedding of the skin, the operation is frequently 
assisted by the animal bending round and pulling at it with its 
jaws, and as soon as it is cast the skin is often eaten, being taken 
up by the mouth, worked about for a littie while by the jaws, 
and then swallowed entire. 

By watching the creatures I have been able to secure several speci- 
mens of the cast skins, and with a little careful floating on water 
have uncrumpled them and caused them to spread out to their full 
extent, when they form a very delicate and beautiful object. 
Examples of these, both y ing and adult, are amongst the 
specimens exhibited. The young appear to be usually born fully 
extended, but at times doubled up in a thin membrane I am 
not sure, however, that in the latter case the birth is not 
somewhat premature. However, the newly-born young soon 
crawl about, though they generally remain about the mother for 
several days. When bom they are nearly white, but the colour 



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102 



OBSERVATIONS ON PERIPATUS, 



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ttl"iiti 



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pigment is plain on the antennie and those parts of the sk 
which, in after life, are darkest. I have frequently witnessed t 
natural birth of the young, and have succeeded in keeping the 
alive for over twelve months. When newly born they are abc 
5 mm in length, without the antennae, and from freque 
measurements I have found the rate of growth during the 
months which I had them under observation to be rather 1( 
than 1 mm. per month. 

Pregnant females somewhat readily extrude the young wh 
distressed by close confinement or uncomfortable conditioi 
Frequently soft adventitious eggs are laid. These bear 
resemblance to those described by Dendy from F. oviparus * l 
are quite smooth and have a very flaccid thin envelope. Th 
\ery soon break up into a drop of turbid liquid. My suppositi 
is that they are merely ova which have escaped fertilization, a 
are thus making their natural exit from the body. 

From my own observations I have seen the young born at ; 
times, from the middle of November till the middle of Man 
Females which I had in captivity from January, 1895, began 
give birth to young at the former date, and continued doing so i 
over a month, while specimens collected in Deceml^er, January a 
February of different years, had young in the course of these a 
the following months. • 

8o far as my observations go, the young follow the colours 
the mother. Mothers, in whom brown is the prevailing coloi 
have young of a similar character, and those that are black ha 
dark progeny. 

T have never noticed the presence of external parasites of a 
kind on Peripatus. 

During the colder months they become sluggish, and remain : 
considerable periods without eating, but in the warmer part 




P.L.S.N.S.W. (2Ser.)x. 195. 



\ 



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BY THOS. STEEL. 103 

the year they move about very freely at night, crawling all over 
the accessible parts of the vivarium in which they are confined, 
and in the day time hiding away in crevices and beneath lumps 
of earth or pieces of wood. 

The kind of vivaria in which I have been most successful in 
keeping my specimens alive, consist of ordinary glass jam jars 
having metal lids, which slip or screw on not quite air tight. 
These are filled with lumps of moist earth and odd pieces of rotten 
wood. An arrangement such as this is very convenient for 
observation, and allows of taking out the contents when desired 
for examination, without injury to the specimens. 



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104 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 

By D. McAlpine, F.L.S. 

No. I. 

(Communicated by J. H. Maiden, F.L.S,) 

Meliola funerea, n.sp. 

(Plate X., figs. 1-6.) 

Amphigenous, but most developed on upper surface of leaf. 
Spots velvety, funereal black, with hair-like pile, orbicular or 
irregular, usually confluent, ^^^ inch or in a continuous mass 
J inch or more, and very conspicuous. 

Mycelium of dark brown, thick-walled, septate, branched inter- 
woven threads, about 8 J ^ dia., springing from deeper-seated, 
delicate, colourless hyphae, about 2 fi dia. Bristles on surface 
looking, like masses of black hairs, rigid, sooty -brown, septate, 
curved, tapering to a point, generally about II fi broad. 

Perithecia globose, apparently black but with a distinct purple 
tint, slightly warted, 310-350^ diameter. 

Asci generally 4-spored, ovate to fusoid, up to 90 x 45 ^i. 
Sporidia brown or yellowish, sausage-shaped or elliptic, 3-septate, 
constricted, 54-62 x 18-20 /li. 

On leaves of Grevillea robusta, Cunn., in March. Lismore, 
N.S.W. (Maiden). 

The spots and patches are very conspicuous, often almost 
covering the pinnae of the fern-like leaf, as well as the leaf-stalk. 
The sporidia are seen in the same perithecium at different stages 
of development, varying in colour from hyaline to grey, then 
yellowish, and finally brown. 

CyATHUS PLUMBAGINEUS, n.Sp. 

(Plate X., figs. 7-12.) 

Peridium cartilaginous, campanulate, narrowing towards base, 
externally colour of substratum of dried cow-dung, rough, 



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BY D. McALPINE. 



105 



internally steel-gray, smooth, up to 9 mm. high, and 8 mm. across 
mouth, rigid when dry, flexible when moist; margin slightly 
reTolute at maturity. 

Peridiola or sporangia black-lead-like, discoid, irregularly oval 
in shape, surface slightly wrinkled, with distinct umbilicus, about 
2 mm. dia., with white elastic cord stretching to 7 mm., and 
attaching it to inner wall of peridium. Sometimes the sporangia 
are attached to outside wall of peridium. 

Spores colourless, globose or sub-globose, 24 fx dia., or 24-27 x 
21-24 /i, wall sometimes 3 /x broad. 

Gregarious, in clusters on cow-dung in March. Near Mercey- 
road, Homebush, Sydney, N.S.W. (Maiden). 

The generic nature of this fungus is seen in the three-layered 
peridium shown in fig. 2, and in the sporangia being umbilicate 
in the centre of one side. The wall of the peridium is composed 
of three layers as seen in microscopic section, an outer dark 
bfovn layer about 56 ^ thick, an inner paler brown layer about 
34 ft thick, and a central layer comparatively transparent and 
looee in texture like a central medulla or pith about 1 1 2 /x thick 
The average thickness of the entire wall is about 200 /i. 

Several species of this genus have been found on dung in 
Australia, but differ from this one in various respects. 

C. baU^yiy Mass., is externally tomentose and cinnamon colour, 
and the spores are only 18-20 x 15-16 /n. 

C fimkola^ Berk., is minutely velvety and umber-coloui'ed, and 
sporangia are of the same colour, while C\ fimetarius, DC, is 
tawny-rufous and extemaUy velvety. 

The specific name is given from the appearance of the sporangia 

Phoma stknospora, n.sp. 

(Plate XL, figs. 13-15.) 

Spots small to largish, roughly oval, grey, with distinct reddish- 
brown margin. 

Perithecia on upper surface, minute, black, punctiform. semi- 
immersed, globular to oval, opening by pore, 1 1 2-280 /x diameter. 



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! •> DESCEIFKOXS OF SKW aCSTElUJAX FCXGI. 

Sc'.-fTijPs hpLiiie, cyliniricaL n^iia-ied ax bc»th ends, on short 
*-raizst hyaline >t&lk, with 3 ;ri:nile>, one at each end and 
^r-'.-ther central c»r eecvntrio. 4^1.*. 

•^ living leaver .%£ X /^w? i .V ■:/ 'i'. Vent., in October. New 
>. uih Waie^ iJ. H. Maiden*. 

Bet«>re the <T>irTiIe> are expell--i a yellow plug of matter is 
ex'mded. and then the sp.^mles imS?'ii«?d in a glairy substance. 



EXPL.\NATIOX <»F PLATES. 
PLire X. 

Fig. I.— P rtiun of upper »n*i un.itr scrface of leaf, showing spots 

acii blctohes wljlX, size . 
Fig. 2.— a. bristle ', x 1 1 '> : *, p»rtI'^n of IrUtle showing septum ( x 600). 

Fig. 3. — Per.theoinni split acd uns^Iit :v>*2 /* and 310 fi in diameter), 

with stifi p».>iateii bristles . x 65 ». 
Fig. 4. — Asci ^ith ?i><->iirrA \ x 60»;^'. The sporidia were still pale in 

co!(..ar, and con;i-ani:iveIy thin-walletl. 
Fig. 0. — Asci with spori'iia < x 2»>.'> . o, four sporidia dark brown in 

colour: 6, |aleyelk»w; -, greyish; d, ', hyaline. 
Fig. 6. — Two groups of four fully developed sporidia ( x 265). 

• Ct/ J''. '* /-'Kn^KT'/r/.t ••'», n.sp. 

Fig. 7. — Peri'Hum .nat, size . 

Fig. S. — Section of wall .»f pt^riHuin x ^5'. 

FiL'. 9.— Portion of middle layer of wall 1 x 600^. 

Fig. 10. — Sporangia (enbrgul . 

Fig. II. — Section of s;>oiangium '.enlarged^. 

Fig. 12. — Spores ( x tJODi. 

Plate XI. 

Phoma sitno^x>ra^ n.sp. 

Fig. 13. — Upper surface of leaf with perithecia (nat. size). 
Fiii. 14.— Peritheeium with projecting yellow matter ( x 115). 
Fig. 15.— Sporules ( x 1000*. 



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A NEW BPECrES OF ASTRA iJUM 
DM NEW BEITATN. 

E\% F.L.8*, AND ArTEIUK WlLLEV, 1KS*I. 

(Plate XI r.) 

68 was dredged up hy uiie of \x^ m ThUH 
i8t ooBiit ul the Gazflle Penini^ulai, N*5w 
ms on a shelly fftior* in cc^mpany with spt'cie?^ 
7a, Onweia, Pieuiofonui, FumL% .Vriwj*ai 

I at our diapowal coiiKij^tt'd of s(>iiif^ thrtH> 
i^as obtained in une haul of the tmwh Tlie 
bitpfl mngf^d frutn young shpllw alKml 10 
sive of spines, to mlult ^helb of sour^ 4r» 

II is Ji6are>*t allied to the wcll-knuwn 
mmphaiu^ from whicb it differs chierty by 
eripbeml spines in the adult aiirl in tlie 

clftsaificatioti an given in th(^ Manual \4 
t should enter the sul>genuj^ GuiU(/nrffin 




^}e9cHfdifm of S)jecUs. 

\LIUM MOXLLTPERUM, W.^L 

Drm, imperforate. 

liih Ijead-H mi aground of old i*nhl, ^vjih a 



H 



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108 



NEW SPECIES OP ASTRA HUM FROM NEW BRITAIN. 



W9\ 



Whorls. — Seven, inclusive of the embryonic portion of the 
shell; the upper whorls convex, the last whorl becoming distinctly 
concave towards the aperture. 

Sculpture, — The first three whorls are comparatively smooth, 
with oblique wavy lines between shoulder and suture; they are 
angled at the shoulder by a ridge, which commences as a raised 
thread and at about the fourth whorl breaks up into beads. As 
growth proceeds, additional bead-lines are intercalated until they 
reach the number of 8 or 9 rows* on the last whorl, where the 
subsutural row is composed of large, somewhat oblique, trans- 
versely flattened, and closely appressed beads. 

Below the subsutural row, the outer rows are placed closer 
together, the median ones further apart. 

The impressed suture is sinuously wound, the spines of the 
preceding whorl being absorbed. 

Periphery is set about in the adult with ten to twelve short 
forwardly directed, stout, compressed spinesf of a maximum 
length corresponding to about one-third the width of the last 
whorl; but at the age of four whorls the periphery is armed with 
1 1 closed tubular spines, as long as the whorl is wide. 

Base is flattened, becoming convex towards the lower lip of the 
aperture; a double row of beads, about 50 in a row, forms the 
margin of the spiked periphery, within which occurs a wide 
shallow furrow, normally devoid of beads, but frequently contain- 
ing one or even two intercalated rows; then three or, exceptionally, 
four rows of beads encircle a heavy boss of callus, excavated at 
the centre; proceeding from this boss a stout rib thickens the 
anterior margin of the lip. 

Ai)erture. — Oblique, ovate, angled, and channelled at periphery; 
peai4y within, and reinforced at the upper angle by a heavy 



• Sometimes there is indication of a tenth row. 

t Sometimes there are indications of as many as 14 spines, 
the peripheral spines may be locally quite suppressed. 



In the adult 



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ES URDLKY AND ABTHtTR WJLLEV, 



10^ 



i deep BiniJ*! ia formeil b}* the jirojeutioTi of 
?ou9 altell, as ^be^^ii in the figumn acooinpAfiy. 

tly hollowed out on it^ external sui-faee, very 
'■ dist-al margin, thick and i-egularly ovnL 

ilt alwlL —HQi^hi 26 ram., major diameter 
leaj^iirenaent), rmngr diameter aljout 39 mm. 



:plahation of platk. 

;triei^ of caIIus is Hliown at the upper Fingk of tli^ 
^ *i portiori of tlie be*jrl-ro\va have been iiia«it^- 
nws fibmit the centr.^1 <>aUu3, and a tow of v©ry 
imi of the sTibmij-giiiLil furmw (imHe&tvti by tlu^ 
in Fig. 2, thtj lirjo- nacreous t'liigtie pt tin- < niter 
jienticmtf.l in tUo text, is indm\teA\ hy the ili»t(.e<l 
lb€5 nacr^oBs purtL4:;in of ftjiKituic. 




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ON A RARE VARIATION IN THE SHELL OF 
PTEROCERA LAMBIS, LINN. 

By Arthur Willey, D.Sc. 

^Communicated by Jas. P. Hill, F.L.S.) 

(Plate XIII.) 

With the view of ascertaining the nature of the variations 
which the shell of this common tropical species presented, I 
recently made a collection, amounting to 67 specimens, both from 
New Britain and from the Eastern Archipelago of New Guinea, 
the majority coming from the latter locality. 

As might be expected from such a comparatively large series, 
variations of greater or less intensity were very numerous. I am 
indebted to Mr. Charles lied ley for his kind assistance in 
arranging and classifying the collection. 

As is known, Bateson (Materials for the Study of Variation, 
London, 1894) has divided variations into two main categories, 
namely, (1) Meristic variations, comprising numerical variations 
in members of a series, as the rings of an earthworm or, what 
concerns us at present, the digitations of Pteroceray and (2) Sub- 
stantive variations, comprising variations in the form and bulk 
("substance") of individual parts or regions. 

My collection shows numerous substantive variations, the more 
striking of which relate to the curvature of the digitations, their 
lengths, the intervals between them, and to the extent to which 
the apical whorls of the shell are involved in, concealed by or 
fused with the posterior digitation. The last point is essentially 
co-terminous with the extent of the ascent of, the last whorl 
upon the spire. 

Excluding, about 15 of the shells as being young, i.e., with 
unthickened outer lips, in the majority of the adult shells a 
greater or less number of the apical whorls are free. In two 
specimens only, that is to say in about 1 per cent, of the 



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BY ARTHUR WILLEY. 



Ill 



apex of the spire entirely fused with and, in 
ly imbedded in the 'base of the ponterior 
)ther shell the apex was not imbedded in the 
but was applied very closely against it. 

•ies very much as to the stage of growth nt 
of callus on the outer lip of the shell tiike** 
, this deposition of callus eventually leads to 
up of the canals which, in theyountcersht^Ils, 
th of the shell into the tubukir digitatiujiH. 
s to what has been observed in some other of 
amely, that they can become sexiutliy mature 
3, and then cease to grow in linear diiiiensions. 
%\ of P. lambis, therefore, the border of tfie 
;ed. 

to the description of the rare variatio:i 
le of this paper. 

collection only three specimens; exhibited a 
to the number of the labifil d imitations. 
«rcalated digitation occurred Ijrvtwren the 
nal digitations. Although small, its prt^sem-e 
)ntrast to the other shells. Of the thrf^e 
this variation, two (Figs. 1 *k 2) came from 
both cases the rudimentary dicritation was 
ite ridge on the outer surface uf the sh£41 ii^ 
lal digitations. 

3n, from New Guinea (Fig. 3). presented a 
jt. The intercalated digitation liad a duuble 
aot backed up by a prominent rid^'e cm the 
>peared to have had a distinctly Liter origin 
cases. Two furrows proceed»xl from it to 
hell, one being independent and tlie utltrr 
ation of the furrow belonging bi^ tlie secojfl 

the position of the above described ru li- 
digitation in F, lambis should be <'inphasized. 



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112 VARIATION IN THE SHELL OF PTEROCERA LAM BIS, LINN. 

It can be identified, I think, with absolute certainty, with one of 
the digitations of P, *mUlepeda, Linn., namely, the fourth. I 
obtained four specimens of P. millepeda^ which has nine labial 
digitations, from New Guinea. In two of these the fourth 
digitation was markedly smaller than any of the others, while 
agreeing in position with that above described in /*. lambis. In 
fact, in P. miHepeda the intercalated digitations are obviously the 
second and fourth, and probably the seventh. 

It may also be remembered as indicating the significance of 
the appearance^ by variation, of an extra digitation in P. lambisy 
that in P. elongata, Swainson, there are eight labial digitations, 
in P. violacea, Swainson, ten, and in P. chiragray Linn., five. 



EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES. 

Fig. I. — The canals leading into the tubular digitations are still open, the 
deposition of callus having only commenced. 

Figs. 2 and 3. —The canals are closed up by callus, their previous existence 
being indicated by shallow furrows. 

i,d.y intercalated digitation. 

The shell represented in Fig. 1 was the same in which th*e apex of the 
spire was imbedded in the posterior digitation as mentioned in the text. 



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113 

NOTES A!iD EXHIBlT^t 

Jibed specimens of the fungi describ&d in Mr. 

ited a fine series of beautifuUv^ preserved 
mtus from Australia, Tasiliimitt^ and New 

ibited tiving speeimeiu^ (^ and Q) of (*fj-hj,<fomit 
in 1-SWlij Mr. 3Ia?^kell in tlir* Sotif^tya Pi-o^ 
;ries» v., :i80). The male is a very lieautifuJ 
ix were taken, round the stiunp uptin which 
kl, the fii^st examples the exhibitur laul evur 

Ml exhibited a nunilier of the iapvM> **f iUt- 
Zf'uztra {EudoA'i/h} titca^ypti^^ victimrt *>f an 
gi*owth allied to Corch/ccps^ and turned Into 
Lfis,'* no called, 8orae of the specimens were 
iks of Acacias (A, foufp/ofiaj gruwioj^ near 
ij were fonnd in the tunueiti forrat*d by Lhr 
from larviii taken alive and kef it in breed it j^ 
had become infected prev iouslvj as ^it'Ur living' 
aged into similar hard nmsaen. Tlic hae Mr. 
Ltest papers in the Agricultural Gazettt* upon 
>hytea, in de^icribing the lioi^ts of VurdifvrpH 
\ only subtermnean root-feeding larvjf, and 
wood borei'T*, as so ofU:*n f^t^itod liy **nt<niioli>- 
is exhibited bear out biss HtatejijeTit«, C<ir tin* 
I a Hpecies without the projecting* clubbrd 
be at a diaiidvantage in the cunfiuerl turiT(t^U 
!ati:Tpiliar, It may l>clong to thf^ geniis 
» often found in the centre of deeaying ivrvn^ 

hi hired a ** Cotton -ILCrass 8nakt " f 7)/phf*tp.'i 
Meaindie, N.SAV^^ by Mr, A. G. Litlk% 







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114 



WEDNESDAY, 24th JUNE, 1896. 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 
ing, June 24th, 1896. 



The President, Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., F.L.S., in the Chair. 



The President announced that Professor Haswell would be glad 
to receive and forward contributions to the Huxley Memorial 
Fund. 

The President also announced that Mr. Duncan Carson had 
presented to the Society his collection of British plants; but as 
the utilisation of such a collection was hardly within the scoj>e of 
the Society's operations at present, the Council, with the donor's 
approval, was prepared to offer the same for distribution among 
Members desirous of supplementing their British collections. 



DONATIONS. 

Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjol^enhavn — Videnskabelige Med- 
delelser for Aaret, 1895. From the Society. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Yerein zu Bremen — Abhandlungen. 
xiii. Band, 3 Heft (1896); xiv. Band, 1 Heft (1895). From the 
Society. 

Bombay Natural History Society — Journal. Vol. x. No. 2 
(March, 1896.) From the Society. 



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DONATIONS. 



115 



Gazette. Vol. ix. Nos. 9-11 {April-May, 
ernment Secretary. 

Oxford-Catalogue of Boo...s added during 
, tiie Radeliffe Trustees. 

de Belgique-Annules. T. xxiii. I" Liv. 

Society. 

atanische Gesellschaft in Wien-Verhand- 
1896), 3 Heft. From the Soctelj/. 
,mal of Australasia Vol. ix. No. 5 (May, 
Htor. 

ture, Perth, W.A-J...urnal. Vol. iii. N<«. 
une, 1896). From the S^.crHar>j. 
IaturalHi8tory)-Catalogueof Bird.. Vols. 
.5.96) : Catalogue of Fossil Fislu's. Purt ui. 
f the Fossil Plants uf the Wealden. Part u- 
ction to the Study of Rocks {1H9G> . Guide 
iozoa (1895). From lh« Trmt^es. 
■ of London- Abstract, April 21st, May r.th : 

Part iv: Transactions. Vol. xiv. Part i. 
n the Society. 

,ndon-Proceedings. Vol. lix. Nos. 3.^>3:.G 
). From ihfi SociHy- 

^boratorj', Cambridge University - Stu.li.s. 
Worn the Balfour Lihranh 

,eiger. «x. Band. Nos. 501--.02 (.ApnlMuy, 
Editor. 

IntomologischeVereenigin^— Tij-tHcln-ift. xxvi. 
582-83. Afl.1-2: xxxvii. Deel. Jaurga.vg l^.i.i- 
rm the Society. 
edesNaturalistesdeMoscou-lUilletin. Ann^e 

)m the Society, 




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116 



DONATIONS. 




Soci^te des Naturalistes de Kieff — Memoires. Tome xiii. Livs 
1-2 (1894) : Tome xiv. Liv. 1 (1895). From the Society. 

Socie't^ d'Horticulture du Doubs, Besan90ii — Bulletin. Serie 
Illustree. No. 4 (April, 1896). From the Society, 

Zoologische Station zu Neapel — Mittheilungen. xii. Band, 
2 Heft ( 1 896). From the Director. 

Report on the Work of the Horn Scientific Expedition tc 
Central Australia. Part ii. Zoology : Part iii. Geology and 
Botany; From W. A. Horn, Esq., per Profeaaor Baldwh 
Spencer, M.A. 

University of Sydney — Calendar, 1896. From the Senate. 

L*Acad^mie Royale des Sciences, Stockholm — Oefversigt. Iii. 
Argangen (1895). From the Acaflemy. 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xiii. No. 2 (May, 1896). Froin 
tlie Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society- 
Proceedings. Vol. ix. Part ii (1895). From the Society. 

Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Fourth Series. Vol v. Part iii. 
(May 1896). From the Benthaiii Trustees, 

Societe Royale de G^graphie d'Anvers — Bulletin. Tome xx. 
4™« Fascicule (1896). From tJie Society. 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney — Agricultural Gazette. 
Vol. vii. Part 5 (May, 1896) From tlie Hon. the Minister for 
Mines and Agriculture. 

Museo di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata della R. Universita 
di Torino— Bollettino. Vol. xi. Nos. 227-242 (Feb. -May, 1896). 
From the Museum. 

Royal Society of New South Wales — Journal and Proceedings. 
Vol. xxix. (1895). From tlie Society. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. xi. No. 1 26 (June, 
1896). From the Editor. 



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DOJffATlOKS. 



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Society of JMuntreal — Cauadian R^eoixi nf 
w. 3^7 (1^94^95), Fi'om the SocUif/. 

riculture, Brit^baat^^Botfiny Bulk'tiu. Ncu 

arative iSixihugy at Har^^ani College, Cam- 
tin. Vul xxis. No* 2 {March, 18DG). Frwu 

St. VoL XXX. No. 353 (May, 1890). From 

I of Natiiral Hi.story, New York — flu Hi? tin. 
55-80^ April, 189*jJ. From the Musfni/n, 




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118 



A NEW FAMILY OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 
By J, DoLGLAS Ogilby. 

The family, of which the following diagnosis is given, is in- 
tended to accommodate those forms of percesocoid fishes in which, 
among other characters which separate them from the Sphyrce- 
nidcB and Atherinidw, the first dorsal fin is composed of a single 
pungent and two or more flexible, unarticulated rays, and by the 
position of the anal fin, which is more elongated and advanced 
than in the typical Atherinids, and which on account of its 
anterior insertion pushes forward the position of the anal orifice 
and of the ventral fins so far that the latter become thoracic, and 
the family thus makes a distinct advance towards the more 
typical Acanthopterygians. 

To Prof Kner and Dr. Steindachner, and subsequently to 
Count Castelnau, the claim of these little fishes to rank as a dis- 
tinct family has commended itself. Prof. Kner, in 1865, alluded 
to the expediency of forming a family, Pseudoinugilidfe, for the 
reception of certain small fishes, alleged to have been obtained by 
the collectors of the Novara Expedition at Sydney, and to which 
he gave the name of Pseiidomugil signifer; he, however, gave no 
definition of the proposed family, though during the following 
year he, in conjunction with Dr. Steindachner, again makes 
incidental mention of the family while describing a closely allied 
genus, Straho'y these authors also neglect to formulate a diagnosis. 

In 1873, Count Castelnau, aft<T describing as new a genus 
which he named Zantecla, notices the difierences in "its characters 
from all the families established till now," he being doubtless 
unaware of the previous discoveries of Drs. Kner and, Stein- 
dachner; this author also places his genus "near the Atherinida,^ 
and considers that it " will be the type of a new family, which 
might be called Zanteclidce.'^ In the previous year the same 
author, after diagnosing a new genus as Atheinnosoma, had 
suggested that it might prove necessary to form a new family for 



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BV .T, DOOCLAS OGILBV. 



II 'J 



ain in 1H75, having formulated yet aootht?r 
* name of Ji'fxmfh^^ina^ he returns to th€» sul* 
jrmiii^'on it a family to be called Seottihfn- 
io to contain the genus Aiherimmtma. 
•e, already three different families ^^P^eift^^^i* 
(t, and J{eoaikennidfe - propoBetl for the 
t geaera of the.se fishes^, for not one of which 
E'H e\'en attempt-ed. 

ion with these older undefined ii*im*^s^ U Itais 
D me to suggest a new name for the fauTily, 
hich I give l>elow 1 am constrained to mrike 
hich from its flight Hf>ecialization is the Umnt 
(, sinc« Dr, Gill has ali^ruly form u hit ed for 
ea a suhfaiuily of the Atheriniflw utidor (lu* 
sg, I do not feel justified in proposing trj 
the more suitable one of Wwmhaf/ytetkf^t. 
togent rea»ona which point to thii^ c^jurse aa 
^ to purs tie under the circumstance?^ Taking 

faniiliei* firnt : — 

^i(/r^ in precluded, ita typical j^enus ^tt/iht'tfi 
ith and of later date than M*'Uiifdirnlii, iuu\ 
p; while Nf't* ifhf^rin'fdir., as well as lpein>^ thi^ 
md Ix^loijging to a less diistinctly H|»crijdizc{] 

a l>aAr*%ra title, the employment uf vvliii h 

possible deprecated, at. any rate sn far- ms 
*j* are concerned; be?iides which it hdnmrs 
>f having been assctciated by its author with 
btodly l>elonj^?j tt* the Afkennldif proper. 
^, i» restricted to the use of Fsi^ttdtimHiflidie 

three pro[K>fled ntimcN which in the autiiur'M 
to consideration— or tii the sldJ^^tirutMH( v4 

1 believe that I am cnuHultiuj,' iIh^ \\v>.\ 
Y taking the latter coursi;, f<M' the fu]li>\Mrii^ 

diso a baisitard name, and therefore i>]>en fti 
^ ^eoa4Mrimd€C"iH mif^leadinir, ^iie*' the 






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120 



A NEW FAMILY OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



genera which are here segregated have little in common with the 
true Mugilids, but form conjointly a connecting link between the 
percesocoid and acanthopterygian types; furthermore, Pseudomugil 
is a small and obscure form, not ranking either in distribution or 
importance with Mefanotoinia or Rhomhatractus. 

I shall now proceed to give a diagnosis of the family, in which 
I include five genera — Neoatherina, Psevdomugil, Bhombotractifs, 
Aida, and Melanotmnia— which form a very natural group, 
characterised by the structure of the first dorsal fin, the advanced 
position of the ventrals, &c. 

The metropolis of the family appears to be in north-eastern 
Australia, where no less than four of the genera have their home: 
thence it has spread northwards into the rivers -of south-eastern 
New Guinea, westwards to Port Darwin and the Victoria River, 
south-westwards into the central districts of South Australia, and 
on, in the aberrant Neoatherina, to Swan River, and finally south- 
ward to the Richmond and Clarence Rivers District of New 
South Wales, and perhaps even as far as the Nepean watershed. 

MELANOT^NIIDiE. 

Paeudomugilidce, Kner, Voy. Novara, Fische, p. 275, 1865 {m 
definition), 

Pseudomugilida?, Kner k Steind^chner, Sitzb. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 
liv. 1866, p. 372 {no definition). 

Zanteclidwy Castelnau, Proc. Zool. & Acclimat. Soc. Vict. ii. 
1873, p. 88 (no definition), 

Neoatherinidce, Castelnau, Res. Fish. Austr. p. 32, 1875 (no 
definition), 

Melanotceniince, Gill, American Naturalist, 1894, p. 708. 

Body rhombofusiform to elongate-oblong, more or less com- 
pressed. Mouth moderate, terminal, oblique. Two nostrils on each 
side. Premaxillaries not protractile, forming the entire dentigerous 
margin of the upper jaw; maxillaries narrow. Gill-openings 
wide; gill-membranes separate, free from the isthmus; five or six 



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BT J. DOt^GLAS CGI LEY. 



131 



^is^ pseudubrancliifl& present; gill-mkt^r« 
[IPS entire; prt^operele with ;i double n^lj^fj* 
thedi palate with or without teeth- toj*jL,^uo 
te dorsftl Hna; thf tirst with ;i ^tioiifjj HL^iite 
Ivj followed h}' two or more flexible, often 
^ rays; the second with a similar titrotig 
rticulaterl and branched rays: anal winiilar 
i than the j^eLxmd dorsal : veiitral>s Hej>arate, 
pinoua and live soft ray§: jieetorals woll 
audal einarginate. the j.)edtinele stotih B<»dy 
Im cycloid or ciLiateih smoijth; cheeks ajid 
mly sheath to the vertical tins; nti nealy 
the ventrals; lateral line inonn^piLninus or 
"Oieiit, simple. Py 1 ori c append a lyfes want in g, 

\ie fresh and brack rtsh waters of tropic?il and 
tind aouthem Kew (»uinea, 

previous pa^e T propiine to a^yociate in thin 
e diagnoses of which, so far a^ the f^canty 
J me permits, will be found Ijelmv, l>ut 
lack of specimens, I have not Iwen In a 
examine any of ih^m ^^enera except Ikhmi- 
detaileil description is given, the firinoipal 
aining genets Ijeing taken from the Wfukn 
thors. 

NEOATnERINA. 

naw^ Res. ¥mK Austr, p. .11, lS7n, 

t'ompre?5sed, with the anterior jjortion of ihti 
lointed, rather projectin,i,s nitmth nuMlcrat^ 
*r jaw the longer. Teeth rather strung, in 
3r jaw, long and blunt anteriorly, ti4aognlar 
r they are very numerous in pavetiient turnij 
of enlarged eoniral one>*; anteriui' ti'-'iJi U\ 
rwiirduL palate with Hp\i?nd transverse so nes 




122 



A NEW FAMILY OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



of strong teeth.* Two dorsal fins, well separated; the first formed 
of one rather long spine and of four much longer filamentary 
rays; the second dorsal long, composed of one spine and eleven 
rays : anal fin long, with one spine and seventeen strong, spine- 
like rays : ventral s inserted far behind the base of the pectorals, 
and very little in advance of the insertion of the first dorsal, 
with one spine and sixf elongate rays : pectorals small, with 
twelve rays : caudal forked. Scales large, ciliated; cheeks and 
opercles scaly; lateral line indistinct 

Etymology : — u«or, new; A therlna. 

Type : — Neoath&i'ina aicstralis, Castelnau, 1 c. p. 32. 

Distribution : — Swan River, West Australia. 

In the increased number of the ventral rays (if correct), the 
ciliation of the scales and the character of the dentition 
Neoatherina differs from all the other Melanotaeniids, while it 
approaches PseaJomugil in the presence of a lateral line; its 
affinity, however, to the melanotienioid rather than to the atherinoid 
forms is shown in one character, incidentally alluded to by 
Castelnau in the following terms : — " The small specimen has a 
more elongate form; the upper profile being much less convex . . 
This character was passed over as of little or no value by that 
author, probably because he was unaware of the sexual differences 
in^ form which are so strongly marked in his Aristeus ( = Rhomba- 
trcictus), but, in my opinion, it is significant of the systematic 
position of the genus, which, from the more backward insertion of 
the ventral fins, some authors might l>e inclined to retain among 
the true Atherinids. 



* It is probable that, either through insufficient knowledge of the lan- 
guage or carelessness on the part of the author, there is some error in this 
sentence; either "vomer" should be substituted for "palate," or "longi- 
tudinal " for " transverse," probably the former. 

t If this character be correct it is unique in the Pcrceaocids. 




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SV .r. DOLT a LAS OGILBY. 



Pseud oMUGiL, 



123 



Voy\ Novara, Fische, p. 275, iH65. 

compre^ged, mth convex central pratile; 
Lt; 8iiDut short, with the uiouth ul4ii|ue; a 
I both jaws; eyes large; preorbitd nmuoih; 
fiuHj the first with four or five rtfxible, 
alas large and cycloid, the lateral line httle 
ml ainaple. Dorsal and ventral fiuES with 
in the male, (Enery 

n of the only known ^ifKi^cies we also learn 
DJects slightly l)e3'unLl the ijjiper: the max- 
ij the eye» and is ahno.st enth^ely eoncealed 
; that tlie teeth in the jaws am small , aeule» 
arranges 1 in a narrow band, the outer serit*rt 
noBt caninoid^ while there are no perceptible 

latine t^&eth, presence of an incons|picaau?* 
larit^v in form of the sexes are the only 
which are available for the ?ieparation of 
ag genus, and it is ([iiit*? ]X)ssible that, when 
can be compared, the line of deniarcatioTt 
ble, and Rhombatraettt^ will have to niorLrt* 
\yiL 

fv^or, false; Mugil. 

gU iiffui/er^ Kner. 

-York Peninsula. In the Voya^^e No\ar'a 
^ flMhes from which Piofcnsur Knrr's <lcs- 
ip, were collected at Sydney, but this is 
no meuibei' of the fannlv being so fur 
t« exist on the coastal watersheil of our 
of the Richmond and Clarence l>ifitiicT» 
Sir William Macleay descr-ibtHl a species 
riMleui (ineahut. The localdy biTe ^^^iven 




124 



A NEW FAMILY OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



is that from which Dr. Giinther received his Atlierina signatQ 
which is said to be identical with Kner's fish. 

Rhombatractus. 

Aristeus (not Duvernoy) Castelnau, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales 
iii. 1878, p. 141. 

RhonibalractnSy Gill, American Naturalist, 1894, p. 709. 

Body rhombofusiform or oblong, strongly compressed, with thi 
dorso- rostral profile more or less emarginate, and the ventral profil 
convex; head small, the snout broad and depressed; moutl 
moderate, anterior, with oblique cleft, the lips thin; jaws equal o 
the lower a little the longer; premaxillaries not protractile, formiuj 
the entire dentigerous margin of the upper jaw, broad and pre 
jecting horizontally in front, narrow and oblique behind; maxiJ 
laries narrow, extending a little beyond the premaxillaries 
entirely concealed beneath the preorbital except at the extrem 
tip. All the bones of the head entire, the preopercle with i 
double ridge. Gill-membranes separate, entirely free from th 
isthmus; gill-openings wide; five branchiostegals; pseudobranchi? 
present; gill-rakers widely separated, moderate, stiff, and serrulate 
Jaws with a band of short, stout, conical teeth, which ar 
more numerous in the lower, the outer series being much enlarge< 
and recurved; vomer and palatine bones with narrow bands o 
small, stout, conical teeth; tongue toothless.* Two separat 
dorsal fins with v-vii, i 9-14 rays, the first not so long as th< 
second and composed of one strong and a variable number o 
flexible, unarticulated, spinous rays, the second with a simila 
spine and several branched rays: anal fin originating beneath th 
base of the first dorsal and more developed than the second, witl 
i 17-21 rays : ventral fins close together, thoracic, inserted a shor 



• The teeth on the vomer and so^ne or all of those behind the anterio 
series upon the horizontal portion of the premaxillaries are occasioDall; 
wanting in adult specimens, and are probably more or less deciduous witl 
age. 



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r J. DOtlGLAB OOILBT. 



iL'fl 



»e of the pectorals, with a slender spinotiis 
jctonils rather small, TOfwierately f torn ted, 

in the upper lialf cjf the fin the lungesit, 
ml somewhat inspiii^ate : caudal fin eniargi- 

fied uncle* Hcaleg large, cycloid, smooth* 
terior liorder bc^iug mure f>r less truncated, 
cheek H, opercle^ except tlie imter ridj;'e of 
jciput scaly, the rest uf the head mLked; 
dthcjut a basal sc^ly sheath; no erdarged 
le lirst (loFfefal, pectoral, or ventral Hiis, and 
en the latter; lateral line wanting; a seriea 
m the maxillary symphysis along the lnwer 
III, parsing upwards in frtint rif and above 
t^ where it connecti^ witii n similar series 
latidibulary symphysiH bfdow the eye and 

preopercular j^ui-faco. Yertehi'ai 33 t<j 37 
iracius Jitfrmiiliit). Air-\esNel laj'ge and 
nvity very large, extending hackwjirds far 
ntes tines very long and convoluted. 
IfA^os^ rhomb; itrpaitTo^j a [^pbidle;iri allusinr; 

lis royensis^ Caiite hi an - 

-Fresh waters of Australia as far nnuth 
Jid of southern New fkunea 
ns are strongly marked in the^e finluLS, hetih 
the Wly and the devrlopmi'nt of thi^ fm^. 
depth of the body ia much gnjatcr tlian m 
^p-; for initauee, in a sseries of »5pwimt*ris uf 
tifia^ cftllected from a single havd in Yuljni. 
n, tiie depth of the males is innw '21 tt> '1'^, 
I to 3^ Iq the total length: this ^ajiatioii is 
ght development in the hitter of the [MJHt- 
irhich isi ao pnmoiinced a chftractei^ iu the 
tk\ contour in the females heing gently aud 
bb& ejttreiuity of the ^uduL Uy llie caudal 




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126 



A NEW FAMILY OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



The caudal peduncle in the male is a little deeper than long, i 
the female a little longer than deep. 

The development of the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins sho^ 
similar sexual distinctions; thus, the flexible spines of the firs 
dorsal, the posterior rays of the second dorsal and of the ana 
and the outer rays of the ventral fins are prolonged int 
filaments in the males, while in females and immature males thi 
character is inconspicuous or absent. 

Though not the oldest, this genus is by far the most importan 
of the group, whether as regards its degree of special izatior 
area of distribution, or number of species. 

Up to the year 1878, when Castelnau first described this genu 
under the name Aristeus, all but one of the authors (Richardsor 
Giinther, Kner, and Steindachner), who had written on the tishe 
which are here collected together in one family, had recognise 
their affinity to the Atherinids, the exception being Dr. Peter 
and though Castelnau himself, tirst in proposing to separate in 
distinct family his closely allied genus Zantecla ( = Melanotanid 
which, as he says, "comes near the Athen'nit/ee,^' definitely give 
in his adhesion to this view, and two years subsequently endorse 
this recognition by proposing to separate from that family hi 
two new genera, Atherinosoma and Xeontherinn^ which he couplec 
notwithstanding their manifest differences, as Xp.oatheriuuicey h 
nevertheless, in spite of his acquaintance with two of the gener 
— Mnlanot(Rn{a and Neoathfrina — and his acknowledgment o 
their connection with the true Atherinids, commits the extra 
ordinary error of referring Aruteus to the Gobiidce, a family wit) 
which it has not the slightest affinity, either in its external o 
its internal structure; this error is perpetuated by Macleay an« 
others. 

In 1886, in a paper on the fishes obtained by the collectors o 
the New South Wales Geographical Society's Expedition to Ne^ 
Guinea, I described two very distinct species from the Stricklanc 
River, substituting for Aristf.ns Peters' name Neinalocent ris, thi 
being, so far as I knew at that time, the earliest attempt t< 



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m^ 



IT J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



m 



nus to itjd true STsteniatio poaition; ho^'everj 
out t^ me by Dr. (rill, Stoindaelmer had 
the close I'elationiishjp of these two genera 
p, 1G61). 

st writer on tbe subject, who has followeti 
e in making Ari»(fins sjiionymaus with 
!4 fi-oni enjiglitening us ah to his views of the 
: this genus; two new Kpecien froin Centrnl 
efl by this author, who place*? them (Horn 
pp. 178-9) between the Theraponidrt and 
, below which G oft i nit itself i^ ranked, thui^ 
r;^n fcir selection that we are left in doubt 
lieh he is in favour of leaving it, though we 
nferring that iie amsiders Castebiau eutreet 
ud, therefore, by hiB own tulniisHiiai uf the 
?nera A^emaffH^eiitri^ — with ElftdriH, %\uri' by 
le percesocoid fishes l>e so placed. 

a^telnau himaeli, in the fiame pampbfi't in 
rif Nfioaihrrinn i« publish€d, de.^cHbi'tl yet 
Aifitt, oi the close ndationHhii> of which to 
11 have ssoiuetbing to say further on, joai 
lerable doubt in the family of the I\i fifh-,'' 
it section of Udntiier^Ji Percttitf\ whi^'h we 
pmhifv ur Chilodi^dtirultPj there it in left 
Macleay, 

the pulilication of Cnvtelnau's pajjc^r, Or, 
"^ij^ned to his genus Xfninfoi^fttfrfif^i jHiAium 
althiiuj^h the species on whieh his dia^i^isis 
m deftcril>ed many years previously by 
fta niijr'aHit^ and holdj^ a place in triinther*^ 
hfh^B ni(ffan4\ Kner and SteindaehiH r. li<»u- 
pir point out the alhiiity exinting between 
? Atherinids, tlumgh none nf these auUnirs 
ted the identity of their re^peelivr s]n'cii»s5 
»on. 



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128 



A NEW FAMILY OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



-V^ 



The above remarks will, however, suffice to show how diver 
the views of authors have been as to the position which the 
fishes and their allies are entitled to hold in the ichthyologic 
system. 

AlDA. 

-lu/d, Casteluau, Res. Fish. Austr. p. 10, 1875 

Body very oi^mpres^^ed: up}vr jvirt of the head unequal; openii 
of the numth very obli.|ue. ahm^it perpendicular; opercle ai 
pivojMMvle wiilioui teeth or opines, the tii-st with a double edg 
Teeth fine, minute, dis|x*!>eil on one line: two very feeble cani 
teeth in fr^^nt of the upper jaw: a transverse line of teeth on tl 
}>alate. Two don?al fin-^ the tir<t cv^mpo^ed of five spines, tl 
four last pn»'.«.iijeij: the ^o^nd wiih one spine and thirteen ra) 
which increii.<C' in ler. jth Ijaokwards : anal with two spines ai 
se^enteen ray>. forni'rd like the sevXMui dorsal : ventrals inserts 
l)ehLnd the frf^t* rdk'> ai.<i united at their base, formed of onespii 
and ^\e rays : i*rct»»ra'.>> placed at aKmt half the height of tl 
body, rather -insJi: caudai bilol^. Sciiles rather large and enti 
on their e'i;:^^. the pMterior part of the head and the operc 
covered with ^:i%[fn similar to thi-^se of the body; no lateral liu 

Etymology:— unknown. 

Type : — A ida inomata, Castelnau. 

Distribution : — Gulf of Carpentaria. 

If an analysis Ije made of the differences between tl 
alx>ve description and tliat of Jihomb.Uractun, it will l>e four 
that they are but slight and such as, bearing in mind the car 



• With the exception of rearraog'ng the sequence of the sentcncea ai 
of omitting some unnecessary words no change has been made 
CARtelnaa's own phraseology; und these transpositions have been undfc 
taken merely to bring the above diagnosis into sequential accordance wil 
that of lihornhatractus, and so make the comparison of the two genei 
easier for those who follow me iu the study of these interesting forms. 



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IIY J, DOUGLAS OGILBY, 



1-20 



teriaes Cftstelnair>5 wurk, may be easily set- 
ay: tlie njain differenees are an fullowg : — 

wtelnau >Yrite8 : " opercle and prei>p>€»rclo 
Sft, the first with a double edge/' Thia is 
^ssiiess- by sul>sti tilting "la^it" for^Mii^t** 
be <|i)it4? curnsct. 

y turning to the foot-note p, 124 luy i-eaderw 
suggest that cer tain of the teeth in Bhomha- 
lous with age, and it m merAy net^i^ssury Ut 
ess a little further Uj arrive at a tltuititruu 
[.hat descril]>ed by Casteinau. 

Anal with twa i^piiies*" J do not think iL 
iivh importance U} Xhh character^ seuinjtc that 
•yi*i\ of but one Hpeciujeu from whieli to draw 
[t may be takt^n for ^'rantfil that hi nil Xhi^*i^^ 
m the first i^oft j-ay is liable Ut take Ibf form 
&^ and it woulrl, of course, be hut natural ( u 
1 iiavin^' two anal ?5piiies if thtr tluvjtu^.^'i^ wan 
In having thi.s iudividvutl peeuliaritVi 
ihrn tendency I may meat iuti tliat when non^r 

Amffiifi?iit was present in gri;at abinidariti' 
md fJe^jrge's Ri^Rr^i| J notiwd that in a 

taken at rantlom ahmmt aK many w^mlcl hi' 
iiys, in front of the s^^^ond dorsad as thi»s(* 
! lucreaHe wa.s always cmtrdinatcrl wirli .i, 
i© in the numljer of soft rayn, tlm^ phdidy 
m not a Htni'j^turai characl^*r, but a ■^ifn]»l<', 
nation caused by the mU-itkalion <jf iUf 

the one hand wan eitlier unaware of or pajil 
tendency U> acanthi nation in fresti water 
iier hand placing undue prondnencH on tin* 
ire mlditsonal spines, we know from iiiK own 
lis treatment of Mttcf/trann rtuMfnthtMiett^ at 




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130 A NEW FAMILY OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

which fish he makes, in a single paper (Proc. Zool. & Acelim 
Soc. Vict. i. 1872, pp. 57 & 61-64), no less than five new sped 
which he distributes in three different genera, two of which j 
described as new,* the principal reason given being the disagr 
ment in the number of the dorsal spines; thus, referring to Dm 
christyi, he writes : — " It is so much like Murrayia cyp^inoides 
form that I should have thought it belonged to the same spec 
had it not been for the difference in the number of the spines 
the first dorsal." And in the diagnosis of River ina the followi 
passage occurs : — " This genus is very nearly allied by its form 
Murrayia, but the dorsal has twelve spines." Murrayia has ele\ 
spines and twelve rays, Riverina twelve spines and eleven rays 

(iv). Lfjndosis. — Of the gill-covers only the opercle, accordi 
to Castelnau, is scaly; but even here by the simple suljstituti 
of " opercles " for " opercle " the diagnosis would be sufficient 
close for that author. 

I think, therefore, that it is quite possible that when Castelni 
penned his description of Aida he had a specimen of Rhombatrnct 
before him, and in any case, until I am satisfied that the differenc 
relied on are constant and are supported by other structui 
characters, I am content to consider Aida a true Melanota^niid. 

MelanuT^enia. 

MelanotcEnia, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 280 

Xpmatocentris, Peters, Monatsb. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1866, p. 51 

JSfrahoy Kner it Steindachner, Sitzb. Ak. Wiss. Wien, li 
1866, p. 372 (1867). 

Zanffcla, Castelnau, Proc. Zool. & Acclimat. Soc. Vict. 
1873, p. 88. 



♦ Tliese are Dnles chrititi/i, p. .^7 ; Murrayia (ji'ditheri, p. 61 ; M. cyp 
iioidts, p. 62 ; M. hramoidtH, p. 63 ; and Birerijia /uviatilis p. 64. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OOILBY. 



131 



tie conopresiRed, with the dorso-rostral profile 
lit nliortj depra*^s*Mjj prominent; nioiith smalJ, 
, Opercle Kpinele?*?^: preopercle with a double 
lix branchiost€gals; paeudo^iraiichiii^ present 
atiiiea with a band of villifurni teeth»the outtir 
r being enlarged^ conical, and curved. Two 
, the first ^vjth one stout aiul four tir five 
1^ the seconfl longer, with one spine and nine 
I and branched rajs: anal long, witJs a 8in|,de 
a thoriieic. Scales of modem te fiizu, cycloid, 
?ebly ereniilated. No lateral line. Pyloric 
number. Air- vessel ainiple. 

fttXa^^ black; ratma^ a hand. 



1 :• — Fresh and hrapkish waters of northern 
[ift, extending si juth wards at lea«t as far a:* 
r District J and j:>oPii*il)ly further since, after 
ffmHoftliH, Cmidium remarks: — ^* I have two 
Dj one, two and a half inches km^'. \t Cdines 
idgee . . , . the other waw ft no it 1 by 
:>j>es Creek, and in three and a hM 'mvUvA 
feebly mai^ked black lon*:fitudinal strijn* on 
,ter specimen is probably a M*'htf*fitftj{itt, mid 
otild bring the range of thrit trmuH us tar 
ilitan disitrict, 

pgretted that o w m g to 1 1 1 r u n * -^ r ) a i n t y \U 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 
Tect name of the genus which 1 have callKl 
is paper, I have been obliged to adopt aw tlu^ 
y a genus which is distinctly less sptciaiii^t^d 
prej^sed, non-ven trad i form boil^- mort; cltisejy 
; fomis than the others. If I cuuld have 
,t future irivestigatitjns would justify ihn 
Uraetii^ fvotB P^ta luh tt t tt tj il n.]u\ A i* hi^ 1 s 1 1 o u 1 1 1 




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132 



A NEW FAMILY OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 



certainly have preferred to name the family Hhomhntractidce, that 
genus being the most highly specialized and most widely diflRisec 
of all the forms at present known. 

In reference to the position w^hich this family is entitled t( 
hold in the system, I am unable to agree with those authors wh( 
would place it between the Atherinido' and the Mitf/iHdce^ mud 
less with those who would associate' it with the Elpotrince. or th( 
Apogoniflcf; but though the position of these fishes near Apogon i 
untenable, it cannot l>e denied that there is considerable externa 
resemblance between them and some Ambassids;in Xannoperca^^ 
for instance, we find the same posterior insertion of the ventrals 
reduced number of branchiostegal rays (six as in the Ambassids 
not seven as in the Apogonids), absence or irregularity of th( 
lateral line, and concavity of the dorso-rostral contour. 

That, however, its affinities are distinctly percesocoid I believ( 
that no one, who is ac(juainted with one or moi*e of the various 
forms, and who has more than a superficial knowledge of tishes ii 
general, will deny, and it is only, therefore, with regard to the 
degree of aflSnity which exists between it and the other Percesocid; 
that I am at issue with those scientists w^ho would make it i 
link between the Gray Mullets and the Atherines. 

The forward position of the ventral fins, which is so character 
istic of this family, marks a decided advance in the direction o 
the more typical Acanthopterygians, while the increased strengtl 
of the dentition clearly points to relationship with the c^lplu/roenidit 
in which family we find, in our Ditioiesteif, an example of th< 
tendency towards an enlargement of the anal fin and consequen 
advancement of the position of the ventral fins. 

It seems to me, therefore, that the most natural sequence ii 
which to place the Percesocids with relation to other fishes wouk 
be as follows : — 



• ParcuhdeSf Klunzingcr (not Bleeker) and Microperra^ Castelnau (no 
Putnam) are synonymous, and very closely allied to if not identical witl 
Nannoperca; Microperca yarrce = Paradtdes obHcnrus. 



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BX J, DOUGLAS 0<3IUn\ 



133 



ler^S Y N ENTO il N A T H I. • 
ki-PERCESOCES, 
Family— M u o i l i d -e. 

„ A T II K K I S 1 D .t:. 

„ 8 P H V R >1 X I II ,E. 

„ SI E L A N D T M N I I l> .E, 

Ur—A C A X T H U VT K R Y i\ I L 

at of tilt? Mt'knutwfuiid» d&sci-ilwd up to tlie 

>f^f'afi>, Cajitehiaii, Hew. Fisli. Austr. |>. ^VJ, 
L liiver. Wast Austnilin. 

1*3% New 8oulb Wales. 

\tlftrhta nitjnatat Ountlier, Ann, it r^lut;. Nat. 
1867, p, 64. Oipt* York, QufenshifKL 

fif z f tit/^ ti #it, = id r**^« fi H Jit:: Vf ytnH t^, Cus t u 1 1 J a u » 
^oc. N.K. Whh», ill. 1H7S, p. i4L Fih/niy 

* ( I '£.<^' ^/ *f ///* II? rt^ i/m, Cfis t t?l t i a u , ] . f . M u f tin n - 
, N^w Bouth WahtH. 

J i*i'jj If (?r< J* rfi/mi:*nti*, Ma^lray* Fr^ir^ Linn. i^nr. 
V. 1880, [i. 625 [1881]. Hivi^vH u£ N^jrthmi 



I 




drlatruM litmafuif^ MaclHay, l.<' |>. r»2<r. Kit-li- 
New Ht>utU Wales, 

At*iMf^ug cavifroti}<, yUit\i-,i\\ 1 tv vii, Is^lf, 
ler Hiverj Qui^eii Miami. 



holir-mchiftto tiihc»s *Hatilil ititiTWiii Iri-tVMLai the 



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134 A NEW FAMILY OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

9. E. (/oldiei;= Aristeus goldiei, Macleay, I.e. viii. 1883, p. 269 
Goldie River, New Guinea. 

10. R. perperosun; = Aristeus perperosus, De Vis, Proc. LinD 

Soc. N.S. Wales, ix. 1884, p. 694. 

11. IL novit'i^tiiHfa; = K einatoceiHris jtma-f/vihecf, Ramsay < 

Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales (2) i. 1886, p. 13 
Strickland River, New Guinea. 

12. R. rubrostviaUis; = XeniatoceiUris nib rostr talus, Ramsay <j 

Ogilby, l.c. p. 14. Strickland River, New Guinea. 

13. R. loriw; = Aristeuts loriiv, Perugia, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2 

xiv. 1894, p. 549. 

14. R. talei; = Nematocentris talni, Zietz, Rep. Horn Exped 

Centr. Austr. Zool. p. 178, f. 2, 1896. Finke River 
South Australia. 

15. R, wiunexkei; = Neinatoceittris winnech-.i, Zietz, l.c. p. 179 

f. 3. Finke River, South Australia. 

16. Aida ntomatay Castelnau, Res. Fish. Austr. p. 10, 1875 

Gulf of Carpentaria. 

17. MelanoUbuia nigrans; = Atherina iiiyrans, Richardson, Ann 

ik Mag. Nat. Hist. xi. 1843, p. 180. Rivers of Nortl 
Australifu As before remarked (p. 131) the same specie 
may range nearly as far southward as Sydney, bu 
much confusion exists as to the members of this genus 
Dr. Giinther apparently is content to consider the fou: 
species identical, but I think that any such conclusion 
based on the small material available to him, is hasty, am 
that judging by analogy with the allied genus Hhomba 
tractus, the distribution of which is also wide but th( 
species of which are known to be numerous, it is unwia 
to unite in one species all the black-banded forms fron 
widely separated parts of the continent. 

18. M. spleitdfda; — XHmatocentr'tn spf^indida, Peters, Monatsb 

Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1866, p. 516. Fitzroy River, Queensland 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OiSILBY, 



135 



a; =s Sirttho nif/rtffmcialus^ Kner tt Stein- 
tk Al'. Wiss. Wien, liv. ISGCJ, pp. 373, 305, 
[1807], ftnd Iv, 1867, p. 10. BiishiLm' aiiri 
i-H, Queemjiand, 

Ztintada ptmUn, Ciy^teliiau, Prix- ZunL it 
c. Yict, 1873, iL p. 88. Fort Durwiu, North- 
iia. 

I Itave made no attempt to indicate the degree 
%ny of these specie?*, but it is ^uiierallj con- 
I HigiUiiit^ Gijiyther, i« idejitiL'ttl with i'muflo- 

thsit Nfimatijc*>ntriit Hplfitidiiin^ Pi^tei"'^, ami 
jf, Krter tt' Steindachuer, amm\t he fsepa-rated 
t*rtfi/«c/im nigrani<: Zattteclu puMilf'tt^ i'a.stehmu, 
riy opinion. 

ijrohable that all the twelve described spt*ciea 
B tenable, hut I truiit soon tr* he inii ptisition^ 

of other ssicientific Hi.Hjietie.H urn I of mdividiial 
in thif^ Journal a nioiiograph of the t^mnly 
tion8 of nil the species. 




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136 



DESCRIPTIONS OF T^^O NEW GENERA AND SPECIE 
OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 

By J. Douglas Ogilby. 

Macrurrhynchus, gen.nov. 

Body elongate, compressed; head moderate, the snout somewha 
pointeil, conical, deep, projecting, convex above; mouth smal 
prominent, subinferior, with transverse cleft; lips thin; dent 
gerous portion of the upper jaw slightly curved, of the lowe 
semicircular; cleft of mouth extending to beneath the middle c 
the eye; nostrils superior, the anterior pair rather close togetliei 
about as far from the eye as from the tip of the snout; th 
posterior pair more widely separated, midway between the ey 
and the anterior nostril; no nasal nor orbital tentacles; eye 
lateral; interorbital region moderate and flat. Gill-opening 
reduced to a small foramen in front of the upper angle of th 
base of the pectoral. Teeth in a single series in both jaws, fixec 
those of the upper well developed, laterally compressed, of rathe 
unequal length; with the tips truncated and slightly bent Imck 
wards; of the lower smaller, more slender and crowded, and c 
equal length; upper jaw without, lower with an enormous! 
developed tusk-like canine at the out^r extremities of the serie 
and fitting into a sheath in the upper jaw when the mouth i 
closed. One dorsal fin, with the outer boixier entire, w^ith xii 3( 
rays, the spines flexible, the spinous portion about half as long a 
the soft, all the rays of which are unbranched, the membrane o 
the last ray not extending to the caudal fin: anal fin originatin, 
beneath the commencement of the soft portion of the dorsal, witl 
30 soft rays, the tips of which are but slightly inspissate and free 
ventrals in contact at their bases, inserted in advance of th 
base of the pectorals, with i 3 rays: pectorals small and rounded 
with 12 equally developed simple rays: caudal emarginate, witl 
the middle ray somewhat thickened. No trace of a lateral line. 



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\Y J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



m 



Maenirnn; pvyx^^f snout; in alhisimi t^> i\v** 
iicli bears a marker? reseiiil dance ta tliiil lA 
riffti', sueh for o,\' ampler as Cf£^arhi/*o'htt4i 

— Western Pacific. 

e given to this f^eiuiJ* thf^ namo Aa/iifitittfuH 
it I am unaware whether any diaj^liu^i*^ uf 
mblisheth Dr. Giinther apparently dUl not 
in it ion. And merely (|Ui>tr'y tjiioy tt (Taiuiitrd 
it synonymous uitli Hiipp.^H'K Pfd/unirirhrs, 



D. xn SO. A. 311 

[ft! depth thronghfjuL Fjengtl) of liead I If, 
he kit-ttl length; depth of liead l^^ width ttf 
iterorhitfil re^^ion 3J{, diameter of the ey«' 4 
*wd; snout projeetinjL?, jnaeruriform, w iUi the 
g iirt the eye, the lower surface hne/ir and 
J upper. The posterior ant,'le of the imiut h 
d fniiin the middle of tlie eye, the iiak<^<i 
jhw cleft on eaeJi wifle as long an the iMitira 
nd 4^ in the length of the fieail. Jji>isal 
5fl lately l>ehind the po>iteiiof honlei of Hie 
^e l>etween it3 origin ainl the extremity at 
xtb* of the length of th*^ \unui-^ t lie rays are 
ngth tliroughout, the nmhile tme^ Ikmm^ a 
the length of the hetul: tlie anal originates 
tical from the laBt spinous ray of I lie dursal 
rer than that tin: the ventralaare eotn[MiM'rl 
ui^vpnths of the length of I he head: the 
Ih rounde<l, and i^ynnjietrieah their lengtli 
f the bead: caudal fin -imall, sliglilly atid 
in the t*jtal length, its pL^uneh* nhort and 
a half of tliat uf the ImmIv. 




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138 TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

Back olive green, lower half of the sides and the abdomii 
region silvery white washed with rose-colour; these tints j 
sharply defined, but from the lower border of the green numerc 
short vertical bars, as wide as the interspaces, extending dow 
wards encroach on the sides; a narrow bright blue stripe exten 
backwards from the snout, above and in contact with the ei 
along the side almost as far as the base of the caudal fin, abo 
equally dividing the darker ground colour; they meet on t 
upper lip, where also they connect with a similar band whi 
traverses the side of the snout, immediately below the rosti 
ridge, and is continued backwards below the eye to the opercl 
a third stripe runs along the median line of the head to t 
dorsal where it is broadly forked, the branches being she 
extremity of the snout orange on the lower surface; dorsal a 
anal fins silvery, with several broad dark vertical bands compos 
of numerous, closely set, blackish dots, and with a narrow margic 
band of the same; ventral, pectoral, and caudal tins unifo] 
grayish silvery, the latter with a dark band formed like those 
the dorsal along the middle ray. 

A single specimen was washed ashore during the month 
May, on the beach at Maroubra, and was secured by Mr. Whi 
legge, by whom it was presented to the Australian Museum; 
length is 52 millimeters. 

Petroscirlei tdpeinosonia, Bleeker, and P. rhinorhijnchus, Bleel 
(Giinther, Fische d. Sudsee, p. 195, pi. cxv. d. <fe E.), woi 
belong to this genus, as well as AxpHontua tceniatus, Quoy 
Gaimard (Voy. Astrolabe, Poiss. p. 719, pi. xix. f. 4). 

Dermatopsis, gen.nov. 

Body elongate and compressed, especially behind; head modera 
the snout short and blunt; mouth anterior and rather wide, wi 
moderate cleft. Premaxillaries slightly protractile, forming t 
entire dentigerous portion of the upper jaw; maxillary narrow 
front, greatly expanded behind, extending backwards well behi 
the eye; anterior border of the expanded portion bent down war 



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F J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



139 



ity s<> as to form a stronjtf, comprR^tsed^ 
itril8 lateral, \vidc?Iy sepitrated, the anterior 
CKSterior, surrounded by a skiiiiiy, veHicular 
ateral, completely cavere<l b}- similar skin. 

c<jntinuouH skin; operelt* with i^o strong 
Fliich pierces the skin. Ci ill-openings of 
ing forwards to below the po^^terior lK>rdei' 
I lus wi de , Hn \ en hrane \ 1 1 tm tpga h\ no p^e ud o- 
duced t-i^ smalli Berrulatfi tuberdes. Upper 
Hi form teeth and a single nmall, eurved, 
^•h side of the i^ymphyaib; lower jaw with 
prill t«eth anteriorl}^ the inner series niueli 

htuekwanli* along the side"^ in the tV*nn nf 
ted, curved, uauine-like teetli; vomer wiUi 
til, acute, conical teeth^ the posterior Umth 
^nlarg'^d; palatine teeth in a trian^uhu' 

and conieaJ, with a single central aiul 
lar;y^ed ones; pterygoidis and tongue «nuioth. 
esented by «. ??ingle npinou?* tubercle vvliiirh 
; dorsal and anal fins low, separated frojn 
it interi^pace: ventral firiB close togHtlierj 
imus, reduced to a slender li lament, which 
mat*^ly connected rays: ]>ecti>ralH modera- 
, composed of twenty blender hninched 
tie caudal Jin narrow and pointed, St^idei* 
widely sepirat'etj; head, except ttn^ nnout, 
tjrtical fins for the most paj-t co\'ereti ^vith 

the body. A seriea of large pores along 
iBout and preorbital, and a pair of Mindliir 
a preopercle, lateral line ini-ous]>iLui.ms. 

Coa^st of K^ew South Walt- •?. 

I taberclo represent)^ the ru«iimf*nt^ trf a 
presence would, therefore, neces-sit^tti rhrt 
>m the Brotulid/f to l\\^ iwUiMn^^ it course 





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140 TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

which I am very unwilling to take since in all other characters 
is a true Brotulid; in fact its affinity to Dlnematichthya is so eh 
that its disassociation with that genus would be out of < 
question, the dentition and the form of the maxillary being l 
only prominent external differential characters. I have not 1: 
access to Dr. Bleeker's paper diagnostic of Diiifmatichthya, a 
am, therefore, unaware as to whether or not he notices any si 
rudimentary first dorsal in that genus; certainly no other authc 
such as Drs. Ayres, Giinther, Gill, and Jordan, who have mi 
personal examinations of the various species, have mentioned 
It would be interesting if some scientist, possessed of a series 
that genus, were to investigate the matter with a view to detecti 
the existence of the same structure in Dnfiniatichthyi', sin 
should it be so discovered, the two genera would, I presume, h? 
to be removed from the BrotuUd(e^ or at least one of the structu 
characters which separate that family from the Gaal'if^. woi 
have to be modified. Perhaps Dr Jordan would examine one 
his examples of Dineinatichthys ventialis, and letus know whetl 
any such rudiment is present. . 

Dkrmatopsis macrodon, sp.nov. 
D. 78. A. 52. 

Body elongate and compressed; the tail very strongly so, 
posterior portion tieniiform. Head moderate, with the che< 
and opercles rather swollen, its length 4 J, the depth of the be 
6§ in the total length; depth of the head 1^, width of the he 
1^, of the interorbital region o^, diameter of the eye 7 in 1 
length of the head; snout blunt, its profile linear and sligh 
oblique, covered with a loose skin, three-fourths of a diame 
longer than the eye; interorbital region convex, the supracilij 
lx)nes slightly prominent. Mouth rather large, its cleft extendi 
to the vertical from the middle of the eye; the premaxillaries a 
very little protractile and form the entire dentigerous surface 
the upper jaw; they are moderately broad anteriorly, but i 
slender and rod-like on the sides; maxillary narrow in fro 
greatly expanded behind, its lower border curved downwards a 



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f J. DOUGLAB orrir.TiT. 



141 



a ^tnmg, ctimprt'sweii, tooth-like proems, 
>i wliiuli tlie n>undoc] diJ^tal ex'treTnity nf 

l>ehin(i thiw pruoesr^ the maxillarv lame 
veil arc, of f^tjUiil width tliroughuut, the 

dir«.*ct<^ slightly upwaR^; the nrnxiliiiry 
diatueter lj<?liind tlie tye^ iiuti its li^ngth 

that, of the hf^adi the lower |aw k n httli^ 
r, and is provided with an inff*riur li*w 
nrk entirely atTuss lis anteviov hordvr nml 
jtje; the mftiiciilruLir lume refM?hejs fu^ tar 
, iilon^ the iiiiier surtWe uf which it lief^, 
are siinall and circalarj mid are wituaU'(l 

1 the edtre of the laaxillary and dh*(^ctly iri 
iiTf which bmucli larger and siddrianguhu', 

I ti rwl vaf i ee of the eye ; 1 n 1 1 1 1 a le su m auui n 1 
Hieular lip, which entirely conceals the 
h entirely covered by lojj^se skin. Opercle 
harp spines; the upper one vtinriing in a 
lAv its Qpj.ier Itorder; the lower ri,sing fnmr 
d downwards and a little hackwardw; IhuIi 
jeneath fche loose skm^ which m contitiuijus 
ith the exception of tiie t^xtreme tip of the 

pierces the skin, Twehe rudimentary; 
p^teli of them crowned with a few sh*trt 
[*r branch of the anteriiir arch. Tiie haml 
the premaxiilanes is hrt»arl in frotit^ Imt 
idth on the nidmy abi>iit midway ^il^o^' 
ch Mide of the S3*ni]>hysi.s aiiterior!y i^ a 
ninedike t-ooth; tlie njani lil in lary band in 
■hat of the preniaxilhu ie^, .iiid iloen not 

there are no enla-rgtvl teilh anlerii»rly at 
ui inner series is consiflt*rably etilar;,ferl, 
le lat'eral dentition cnnHiHt;^ uf seven fnr 
piy ftoparateib caninifurm terth, wbiili are 
iiiwiu'dsj the largest tenth lieiti^ idMiui tin* 
lere is an anj^ular rid^^e nn the head **f Uie 





I 41 li 



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142 TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OP AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 




vomer, which is armed with a single series of acute, conica 
separated teeth, those at the apex and along the sides being ( 
moderate size, while the posterior tooth on each limb is similar i 
the largest mandibulary teeth, and is directed backwards an 
slightly outwards; palatine teeth in an acutelj'^ triangular pate 
with the apex pointing forwards, and consisting of small, stroD 
teeth, with a central and three basal enlarged and conical one 
The dorsal tubercle is situated immediately behind the base of tl 
pectoral; it does not pierce the skin, but is distinctly perceptibl 
to the finger-nail; the origin of the dorsal fin is above the middl 
of the pectoral, and rather more than a diameter of the e} 
behind the dorsal tubercle; its distance from the extremity of tl 
snout is 3§ in the total length; the rays are very slender and bi 
little branched, of almost equal length throughout, those whic 
are inserted somewhat behind the middle of the fin being a litt 
the longest and about one-third of the length of the head: tl 
anal originates beneath the commencement of the middle third < 
the dorsal, and is in all respects similar to that fin; the distan( 
between its origin and the tip of the snout is as long as v 
distance from the base of the caudal fin: ventral inserted beneat 
the hinder margin of the preopercle, not quite so long, the pecton 
half as long as the head: caudal fin truncate at the base, nc 
quite as long as the pectoral, with thirteen rays. 

Reddish-brown, the upper surface of the head and the vertia 
fins rather darker; sides and lower surface of the head, the abd< 
minal region, and the paired fins yellowish-brown. 

The single example from which the diagnosis is taken wa 
picked up dead, but in a perfectly fresh condition, on the beac 
at Maroubra by Mr. Whitelegge in May last, after a heavy gal( 
and measures 80 millimeters. 

From the small size of tlie eyes, and the fact of their \mn 
protected by a complete covering of skin, one is led to infer tha 
in its natural state this fish is accustomed to burrow in the sam 
or mud for purposes of concealment, or perhaps as a means c 
seeking food; a similar protective eyelid is present in Leme. I 
is probably an inhabitant of the littoral zone or, at most, o 
shallow water in the neighbourhood of the shore. 



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M 



lU 



^TRALIAN CLIVINIDES (FAI^L 
CARAliW^E , 

STRALIAN SPECIE8 OF THir OKNUS CLIVIKA 
TIO4N OF A NEW rjENLfS, CLIVISAUCJIVS), 

^ Tno^iAS {}, Sloan K 

a division of the tnln* Smrififfi of worlrl- 
found rao^t plentiful ly in thp wurrnrr [lor- 
Y are very plentLful in Au8tralia 
[T. Horn's classificatiun af the Vtirah'id{^\ 
tvS follows ;^ 

amily CARAlilD.^. 

j-Fauiily Car a h i x m. 

Tribe ^cahitinj. 
^Je di\idetl into two nmm Uivtsiojm tltun; — 

ding flt sifle» 1 a&e of maxiltffs .*, ,,..iSnJtift'tfr\. 

CUVIKICKS, 

the Austrttlian fauiui, tin* CffviHifJ''!< c^*m- 
rhirius^ Clu'lnfi,^ Clinnfirr/tns i\tu\ ^9^7/'^- 
mt I have* to \msn over Sff^fftynnrnfu't u hit'li 
specif^s, S. p^jr ^rt / t^ m , M acl . , i a 1 1 it* U im I on y 
I very eloscdy allied to Cli ('*'/* a. 
the Australian fiiunti the *;^eiiera Dyarhnutt^^ 
ntit mftj l>^ tabuUUed thus : — 



k fctroiigty impreai^etl »ai mch siile of 



sml impr**aioiiB.. 



, Ciiriutii'f'htf*. 





i 



M^NiiK 



1 1 




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f 



144 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

Genus Clivina.* 
Scolyptusj Putzeys (in part): Ceratoylossa, Macleay 

The following features of universal application in the genu 
Clivina are extracted from Dr. Horn^s definition of the trib 
Scaritini.] 

Eyes not distant from mouth. Head with two supra-orbits 
setje Ligula- small and prolonged, bisetose at tip, paraglossi 
slender. Palpi with penultimate joint bisetose in front. J Thora 
with two lateral punctures. Body pedunculate, scutellum dc 
visible between elytra Sides of elytra narrowly inflexed, margi 
entire. Metasternal epimera distinct. Posterior coxae contiguous 
Legs stout, the anterior femora especially stout. 

To the universal characters given above I would add for th 
Australian species the following : — 

Labrum usually truncate? ( sometimes the middle lightly advanced 
gently declivous to anterior margin; five ; rarely) or seven (noi 
mally) setigerous punctures above anterior declivity — the laten 
puncture on each side larger than the others and the seta risin 
from it longer than the other setie and erect (in species with onl 
five seta* the one next to the lateral is wanting'; anterior angle 
rounded, ciliate. Mentum emarginate with a wide median toot! 
Clypeus with a seta on each side. Vertex with a ridge on eac 
side above supra-orbital punctures (facial carina — " caren 




* Latreille, Con8i«l. Cien. sur les Cr. et lea Ins. 

f Trans. Am. Eut. Soc. ix. 18S1, pp. 119, 120. 

X The following are Dr. Horn's words in reference to the palps of ll 
Scuridni : — "Palpi moderate, terminal joint variable in form, short* 
than penultimate (Scarifes) eqnal or longer (Clivimt)^ the penultimal 
bisetose in hont (Cliviiiai ) plurisetose (Scaritts).^' It is evident he onl 
refers to the labial palps, but for all that the differences sought to I 
established cannot be maintained, for in his "group" Clivince some Aui 
traliau species (e.q.^ C, planiceps, Putz.) have the penultimate joint of th 
labial pulps evidently longer than the terminal, and in Carenum too th( 
relative proportions of these joints varies. 



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av XnOMAS Q. SLOAXS. 



14» 



a sulcus on inner side of each of the facwd 
L Throat and terapleii normally rugulose; 
mrt; a &*hort obliijuo ridge (fjular ckairtjc) 
each i^itle of base of neck ami dividing the 
lions. Prot borax and disc canaliculate, and 
^' erse arcuat-e impression fautgrior line i near 
fep channel along each lateral margin, i\m 
fore the posterior marginal puncture by a 
of the lx>rtler at posterior angle. Bo^iy 
vitb a concavity on each side (normal ly 
itermcdiate femora. Elytra normally with 
and a lateral channel; tliiitl interstice with 
res along course of third stria. Presternum 
anterior margin; the epis tenia normally 
antt-riorly— (the antennte pass under the 
the aidea when in rept>iie). il etas te mat 
era— normally elongate and narrowed poy- 
Ventral segments transversely sulcate. 
ith an acute spur on external side above 

above are normally present hi Australian 
refore little^ and often no use ban bcitn made 
ptiona which follow; but in all uaj^cs where 
s normal form ha.-^ I^een observed it has l>een 
aae of difTerences of the gular and tcmptu'al 
be gular sutures, the gular cicatrix and the 
\ labrum), and where no allusion l-^ rnmie to 
J enumerated alx>ve in my tlesjcriptions of 
it is ta be assumed that the i\yv\i\ is nonnal. 
acters seem to call for special notice, tlio 
e Ijeen compelled for the sake of descriptivts 
\ new terminology for some features not 
losing Bpecies of Cliviiia, and to vary JHunie 
M. Putzeys for -certain features. 
dinaOy impressed on each side, the antiTior 
i inopreaaiona usually forming a wide and 





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146 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUV IN IDES, 




'f: 




irregular depression of variable depth (frontal impressions); tl 
seta found on each aide of the clypeus is situated in the front 
impression, often the puncture from which it rises is lost in tl 
rugosity of the impression : from the frontal impressions t] 
facial sulci extend backwards on each side of the face, and 
some species (e.g., C ohliquata^ Putz.) a short light internal impn 
sion extends from the anterior part of the facial sulcus oblique 
inwards and backwards on each side of the face — the facial suJ 
may then be said to be recurved (this is a feature of evide 
classificatory importance). The clypeus is large, usually n 
divided from the front between the frontal impressions; when 
is so divided it is by a wide usually irregular impression. It 
necessary for descripti\e purpostes to divide the clypeus into thr 
areas, viz. — (1) The ch/peal elevation ("elevation ant($rieure" 
Putzeys) being the raised part of the clypeus between the front 
impressions — (reference is usually made by me only to the sha 
of the anterior margin of the clypeaj elevation); {'!) tfie medu 
part ("epistome" of Putzeys) being the central part of the clype 
in front of the clypeal elevation (usually I refer to the anteri 
margin only as the median part); (3) the wivgs ("petites aile 
of Putzeys) being the lateral parts of the clypeus (usually a fine 
marked suture is noticeable between the wings of the clypeus ai 
the supra-antennal plates). The form of the anterior mai^n 
the clypeus varies greatly, these variations l^eing important f 
grouping the species; among the Australian species there a 
three well marked forms of the anterior margin of the clj^peus, 
one or other of which all different forms may be considered 
merely modifications; these are : — 

(a) The median part projecting on each side beyond the winj 
in which case it is aiif/ular, the lateral angles being more or 1( 
marked (e.g., C. angnstula, Putz.). 

(b) The median part in no way separated from the wings ale 
the anterior margiji (e.g., C, australasios, Bohem.). 

(c) The wings projecting strongly beyond the truncate medi 
part (e.g., C. procera, Putz.). 



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< I 



tY TOOMAS G. SLOANS. 



117 



t>ft€n definf^d on each side from the wiij»*w 
isH distinct (I have made hut httle use at 
the^G ridges seem not without value for 

platp.H (**gi*ande.s tiilen" of Putzt*ys) are the 
rn) of the head under which tlie aiittuime 

%Krm at the l:»a.se either {n) nf! fre^^, or (h) 
he fifth uniting with the sixth, or (c) iJie 
biirth uniting with the fifth at the hase. 
f gpfi'iit cUssificatory iiiipurtanoe and :^eem 
iahle means of gruu[iing the species into 
rhe first fitrio. of the elytra rise.s in an 
le Ixu^e, iuid in aome specie.^, eHpeeially thf* 
and secontl stria^ unite at the hast*; Kome- 

stride is very noticeahle at the Ims^^ of tin* 
M an important feature). The inti-i^nces 
ly forming a narrow carina near \h\} rtjRW. 
li carina is generally present at the hurnoruf 
it may vary in lengtti and proniinenrn jiiid 
B ba.^l part of («) the seventh jnlei"stin', 
36, or (c) the seventh and eighth togetl^i-r. 
soaterior puncture of the third inter^lh f^ 
ehi] when comparing speeimenH, I have md 
ionn. 

f Ije dividaJ into the prctontl part arid flir 
int of union hetween thej^c parin varyiu;^ iu 
►gi^*e:^ of width may be u»ed; (n) ivr^ ir^V/r- 
, {b) wiilff (C. kptda, VuVi.f ttcj, (c) Hanttft^ 
Jtn.j kc.\ (d) 'mry imnrtw (V. uhUqnttht^ 
uftie fC. tnefattop^fja^ Putz., ttc). 'Vlyv. 
id the intercoxal part anteriorly in of 
Lportance nud of the greatf^st afiHistaih'f' 
ralian specie*** The pectt*ral part iw «ftnM*- 
h aide posteriurly by a prominent hordrr; 
ilt^ pectoral ridges (vide C IqndaJ, Tlje 



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148 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDBS, 

base of the intercoxal part may be either transversely sulcal 
or not; this seems a useful feature for separating species. 

The differences in the legs are of great classificatory importanc 
but need no special note beyond attention being drawn to tl 
differences between the terms used by M. Putzeys in describir 
the digitation of the anterior tibije and those adopted by me. \ 
Putzeys disregarded the external apical projection and only mac 
reference to the teeth on the outer side above the apex, whil 
in conformity with the usage of writ-ers on the Carenides, 
include the apical projection in counting the external teeth i 
the tibia. 

I have made no use of the maxilla?; in all the species which 
have examined the inner lol^e has been found to be hooked an 
acute at the apex; this form I believe to be invariable amon<; th 
Australian species of Clivina, but Dr. Horn^s drawings* of tt 
maxillae of North American species show that sometimes th 
inner lobe is obtuse at the apex. 

M. Putzeys reduced the genus Ceratoghssa, Macleay, to 
synonym of his genus Scoli/ptus, and, as far as the Australia 
fauna is concerned, I would merge Scolyptns in Clivina. Thei 
is no doubt in my mind that the species placed by me i 
the ^^ procera gi'oup," several of which M. Putzeys put i 
^'colyptus, are congeneric with C. basalts, Chaud., tfec ; ( 
planiceps (with allied species) might be thought to require 
different genus from C, basal is, but, if so, other species (e.g., ( 
/renchiy SI.) are equally deserving of separation from both ( 
basalis and C. pfaniceps. On the whole I think the only cours 
is to place in the central genus Cliviiia all those Australia 
species which have been put in Scolyptus, at least till someone i 
prepared to give sound reasons for the generic separation of an 
of them from the other species of Clivina; this I am not, a 
present, prepared to do. 

The first Australian Clivina to be described was C. basalis b 
M. de Chaudoir in 1843, and this remained the only specie 

* Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix. 1881, pi. v. 



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;Y THOMAS G. SLOANB. 



H9 



I Bohemann described C. austral aum from 
Putzeys published his "Postscriptum/' in 
r new Australian species. It may be noted 
ies, all founded on unique specimens, tfiree, 
ata, and C suturalis, never seem to have 

II be seen from my notes on them, 1 susp<*ct 
entity of two of them with subsequently 
species. In 1863 Sir William Macleay 
18 from N.S. Wales as Ceratoglosaa Joveicep» 
e are species of Clivina, but both have 
le Australian list for reasons stated l>elow. 
Lshed a Revision of the Australian species 
descriptions of thirteen new Australitin 
tions he afterwards embodied in the 

I do not think it will be easy, it" indeed 
itify C. juvenisy C. prominenSf and C\ 
utzeys published his " Revision Gt^nerale/' 
Lustralian species; and also he received 
hole of Count Castelnau's colleetion of 
I he found fourteen species of Cliviita irom 

new; of these I have been able to idi3atify 
i 1873 Putzeys added three species to our 
own to me. After 1873 no more npeeies 
were described till 1889, when the Rev. 
bed nine new species, and since that date 
! additional species, bringing the imml>er 
ip to fifty- two. I have now thirty-one to 
Lghty-three species for Australia, a nuiriW^r 
Tgely augmented when the continent has 
rched for these insects, 
and colour in reference to distinguishing 
viiia from one another will not Yn^ out of 
ms to have regarded slight differeiires in 
:itimate value in determining closely allied 
ions of C.juveniSj C. lepida and C. ruhn'/tfis^ 
J differentiated among themselves or fiiim 




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150 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

C, australasice, by mere size, though it is made a point of t 
first importance in the original descriptions* 

Occasional dwarfed specimens of probably most species 
Clivina occur, which are so much smaller than the average size 
their species that if only two specimens, one small and the oth 
of normal size, were placed in anyone's hands for description th 
would more likely be regarded as different species than as repi 
sentatives of the same species. It is only when we have befc 
us a large series of specimens from one locality that we realise t 
amount of variation in size, and therefore in appearance, whi 
may occur in a species of Clivina. For instance, a specimen 
C. biplagiata only 5 5 mm. in length is in my possession — 7-7 "5 m 
being the normal length of the species; and small specimens 
some species, e.g., C. mUiaiihBy appear to the eye too narrow a 
light to be associated without hesitation with large specimens 
the same species. 

It appears to me that too much importance must not 
attached to mere colour for distinguishing species; immatc 
specimens are always more lightly coloured than those that a 
mature; and speaking as a practical collector I would call att^ 
tion to the fact that several immature specimens will sometin 
represent all those of a species taken at one time and place; 
this way immature specimens may be considered as typical 
colour of a species, and so confusion may arise. A good exam] 
of colour-differences in a single species is afforded by 
stilatOy three specimens of which in my collection taken at t 
same time and place differ in colour as follows. One, sho\v'i 
the mature colour of the species, has the head and prothor 
black, the elytra reddish testaceous with a black dorsal spot; t 
second has the head and prothorax testaceous-red, the elyl 
testaceous with the place of the dorsal spot a little obscured; ( 
third has the upper surface wholly testaceous, the elytra bei 
paler than the head and prothorax. 

* For a note by M. Piochard de la BrAlerie criticisiDg M. Putzc 
work aa an author of specieB, vide Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1875, (3), v. p. 1 



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BY THOMAS G. BLOA?rE- 151 

Australian speeiea of CUinmi into thirteeu 
\iew of theBR gi'oups is given in the table 
re formed in an arbitrar}' way, and no cloubt 

aflvantageously be i-©duced hfwl T a syrer 
litlea of the species. 

mtfi the Aimireman tpteirjt t*/ dim tin, 
at b«.se. (SnbmJirginal humeral cariua wanting). 

prost&miim wide aiiberiarly. ,,. bipfa^ieUtt gr^up. 

ctjrved, elypeua with ittftbau 
inter €oitd part of pruatenmrn 
mfceriorly . . ....,...,. * .,..,.. rHlfroaa grttu|n 

ler striiB free at base, fifth Joiniug sixth at Uwe. 
&l hameirftl caiina nortiiy^lly preac^iitf. 

fjvti triangolar projt^L'trons in 
,...*..,,,, , roronaia gronp. 

h inudian part itmro or Iq^a 

irtdly, ...... , ..*..., oUi quai a groiiih 

with border reaching base on 

tie. .,.*..,.,.....,...,.. phtiiici^pii grt'U 1 1. 

3£ with border not reacb in g lifluae tjmnflicerp'f j^'foijp* 

mer atriii] free at bi^ftt*, fourth jaioing tifth ut ^Jixae. 
al humeral earinft vianally t^pH develaptnl). 

fiedioa part more or leas dis- 
tleil from witiga along anterior 
lUuUy more protnin@nt ihati 

ra with poBterior edge of bwcr 

y d i Ifttate in midd h,. ............ pu mtftfktp^ gro u p, 

morA not greatly dibtRii? '.*ii 

wide acroM oooiput, eyof^ not 
it. 



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152 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

H. Size small; protliorax longer than 

broad, without anterior line hlackhurm group. 

HH. Size moderate; protlinrax broader 

than long, anterior line present... oUiffi. group. 

GG. Eyes prominent. 

I. Prosternum with intercoxal part 

attenuate heterogtna gtoxi^ 

II. Prosternum with intercoxal part 

narrow bomllcB group. 

EE. Clypeus roundly emarginate, median part 

not divided from wings. australasuB grou| 

EEE. Clypeus deeply truncate-eniarginate, wings 

strongly advanced; (size usually large) .... procera group. 

Following M. Putzeys' example, I define each group as I con 
to it. 

I begin the descriptions of species b}'^ treating of two specie 
viz., C, attrata, Putz., and C. o6Zi^era<a, SI., which I have feltunab 
to place in any of the thirteen groups into which I have arrange 
the species of Clivina found in Australia. C. attrata may not I 
an Australian species at all. C. obh'terata seems a species < 
anomalous position, and, in view of its strong resemblance to ( 
australasice, Bohem., even of doubtful validity. 

C. ATTRATA, PutzeyS. 

M^m. Lit^ge, 1863, xviii. p 54; Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvi 
p. 36; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. x. 1866, p. 179. 

" Nigra, an tennis brunneis, palpis pedibusque dilutioribu 
Mandibulae latse, breves. Antennae longse, crassiusculse. Labiu] 
[? labrum] bisinuatum. Clypeus emarginatus, alis prominentibu 
Vertex 3-impressus denseque punctulatus Oculi prominentes posti< 
cupulati. Pronotum subquadratum, antice subangustatum, bai 
vix prolongata. Elytra elongata, basi truncata, punctato-striati 
striis apice evanescentibus, punctis maxime distinctis. Femor 
antica subtus unidentata ; tibice sulcatae, extus unidigitatsB atqu 
nnidentatae; intermedise calcaratae. Long. 1 1 J, El. 6 J, lat. 3 mill 



X. 



\ 



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BY THOUAa G. SLOAXE. 



149 



I HI 



itzeys' original fie. script ion^ which hf; aupplf^* 
tifl more niLntitp one in Frenchj from which 
tares a.^ follows :— * 

iel y emarginate, its angles are prominent and 
the wings which are roim fieri and a little more 
are very pi-utninont; posteriorly they are en- 
[largins of the heatl. The impres?^ion which 
fiin the neck h hardly di.'^tinctj ehipecially iti 
tie of the elytra are rather weak, but their 

distinct; they are les^s strongly impres-sefl 
margin mid har-dly perceptible at the apex, 
unites rerj indistinctly with the marginal 
jlder: not one of the stride toiiclies the base 
.ve at the apex a rather short di^itfition and 
:ed tooth, 
rern^rale" 3kL Putzeys forms a [separate f«Toup 

ail rain; and treiita of it in the following 
miqtte up t.o the pj-esent, has ao much reaem- 
f*wp, that at hr^t sight it might Ijc taken 
rhe tcKjth of the mentura is lojigei'j attaining 
etal lobes. The mandiblea are very iihort, 
5SS acute, only caiiiiate at the l)ase. The 
>re COB vex, hardly narrowed in front, almost 
e.H rounded and the anterior aogle.^ very 
-a are truncate at the base, the shoulders 
der and more fleeply punctate. The fifth 
th touches the eighth interstice at the basse, 
the pros tern ura is ratlier strongly narrow^ed 
Lortl_v and lightly canaltcuhite; the apt;x in 
on the ba!5:e. 



n ten fled for th<3 ime of atujleiiti iii AustriiUn,, wh'> 
r to the nlder (aafl ac tret) lUf r:\tiirc fff ntker 
* species have been rletUt with, fxml traiiaJiUiona uf 
1 diagnoees) ou all «p«dea tlittt ivre uokbown to the 




154 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 





In regard to its habitat, the original description states that th 
author had seen only a single specimen which came from Ne^ 
Holland. The " Revision Gene^rale " rather throws doubt upo 
this by saying that this insect, formerly received as coming froi 
South America, appears rather to be Australian. 

It may be noted that in his tabular view of the species c 
Clivina in his " Postscriptum," p. 32, M. Putzeys gives as a dii 
tinguishing character of C. a^^ra^a— eighth interstice not prolonge 
above the shoulder. 

The species for which I propose the name of C. ohliterafrr , is a 
anomalous one among Australian species. It so closely resembl< 
0. auslralasice, Bohem., as to seem merely a variety of that specie 
but as five specimens are before me, all agreeing in the ba« 
characters of their elytra, I have felt compelled to regard it a 
distinct, and to place it with C. attrata, Putz. It requires mor 
study, and should it prove to be a " sport " of C. australasu 
of which there seems a possibility, it is a remarkable fact tha 
the strise free at the base should be accompanied by the tot^ 
obliteration of the submarginal humeral carina. 

Clivina obliterata, n.sp. 

Facies as in C. auslralasice,^ only the elytra more truncate at has 
with stria? free at base and submarginal humeral carina wantinj 
anterior tibiae 3-dentate. Black, four posterior legs piceous. On! 
differing from C. australasioi as follows : — Head more evenl 
narrowed before eyes, (the sinuosity between the supra-anteniu 
plates and wings of clypeus nearly obsolete), clypeus less deepl 
emarginate, the wings narrower; elytra with shoulders moi 
marked (though rounded), more declivous, lateral border very fini 
marginal channel very narrow behind and at shoulders, interstia 
flatter, eighth more finely carinate on apical curve, stride lightt 
especially towards sides, fourth free, fifth hardly joining sixth a 
base; external teeth of tibiae a little weaker. Length 9*5, breadt 
2 6 mm. 

Hab. : N.S. Wales — Carrathool, Mulwala (Sloane); Victor 
(Kershaw). 



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BY THOMAS G. 8L0ASE. 



155 



^ti oFtbe elypeus is exactly as in O, ausir ^ti- 
lth the wiugs not divided from the median 
1 18 exactly ^a in C. att^tniiffm'a. Ajjart from 
1 tlie form of the clyjj^us mid anterior tilling 
Uj preJient a remark a Ijle re^emblaiic-t* to C. 

B i plag i aia gro v p. 

, Hitnjogiy and roundly anguatate in fruni nf 
r pmarginatej median part imt (li\ idrd fnjui 
h. ^trift* free at ba^e; siibmarginal iiumf*ral 
j?iternimi with int«rcoxal part wid^? anteriorly, 
interior femora wide, lower mde rounded; 

866» xicvti. p. 43; Ann. Sije. Enl. Be%. lN(ilj, 

Blitck, with a rtHiflish spot nii eaoli elytron 
Bolivity: anterior legi^ piceous, four- |HPsti?ritir 
lead wide; a shallow punLTtulate dt^firession 
nd front; vertex aranoth: clypeu^^ ci-^t^ply 
imall, not divided from median part; eyes 
rax ablaut as Vjroad as long (IH k I 75 nnn,), 
dedly narrowetl anteriorly; anterior ajiLfleei 
urve short, rounded, Klytra ccmvrx, ovatn, 
ruptly and deeply derlivims to petlanein; ntrirtJ 
iy punctata townrds« ba.^e, b;(bter and luiu-e 
inls apex, seventh interrupted towards api'x; 

base, depreBsed tow a rf Is ajiex, eighth carina to 
mai'ginal hnmeral cariria wanting. Pn>Ht4?T^ 
[ part wide anteriorly, transversely »uleate on 
Ij tranavei'^ely striolate. Anterit>r t'emora 
ie, lower (side rounded; anterior tibia- <J-deri- 
8, breadth 2 mm, (One ^peeiinen in niy 
mi. in length). 



M • 



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I 

) 



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156 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



Hah. : Queensland — Cape York (from Mr. French), Port Beni- 
son and Wide Bay (Masters); N.S. Wales — Sydney [common], 
Goulburn and Mulwala [rare] (Sloane); Victoria — Melbourne. 

An isolated and easily identified species. The red subapical 
macuke of the elytra vary in size and brightness; in one specimec 
from Sydney in my possession they are wanting, the elytra bein^ 
entirely black. I have not found any perceptible punctures on 
the prothorax as mentioned by Putzeys. 

C ribr osa group. 

Size moderate. Head short, wide and convex on occiput; 
clypeus with median part angular; facial sulci recurved; eyes 
depressed. Prothorax short, parallel; anterior angles marked. 
Elytra with five inner striae free at base; submarginal humeral 
carina wanting. Prosternum with intercoxal part very narrov; 
anteriorly, sulcate on base. Anterior tibiae strongly 4-dentate. 

The species known to me may be divided into sections thus :— 

iC. cr»6ro«i Putz- 

I. Clypeas with angles of median part obtuse iO, boops^ Blkb. 

[C. fortis, SI 

II. Clypeus with angles of median part prominent, 

dentiform C./renchi, SI. 



■^^ 



Clivina cribrosa, Putzeys. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1868, xi. p. 20. 

Robust, cylindrical, parallel. Head large, convex, coarselj 
punctate, eyes depressed; prothorax short, not narrowed anteriorly 
anterior angles marked; elytra truncate on base, shoulders marked, 
striae not deep, punctate, free at base; anterior tibiae 4-dentate 
Black (or piceous), legs reddish. 

Head very convex, wide at base, sloping from vertex to anterior 
margin; vertex and occiput coarsely punctate, the punctures 
extending to middle of front: clj'^peus short; median part truncate 
(obsoletely emarginate between angles), angles prominent, shoit, 
triangular; wings wide, short, external angles wide, obtuse, 




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BY THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



1:17 



aarked sinuosity between w trigs and supra- 
se wide, rounded external!} ; f n^ntal impressions 
rdly marked; facial sulci liardly marked, 
1 marked; facial carinjo distant from eye«, 
eyes not enclosed behind. Protliorax hromier 
■4 mm.), very declivous to b?ise; iiitper surface, 
jlivity, densely and stron^Lj^ly rugulose-punctate; 
rior margin truncate; anU*riur un;L?l*^s niarkerl, 
iced; posterior angles rounded; median and 
ictly marked; lateral basal impressions obsolete, 
ir than pro thorax (3*2 x 15 mm.); base trun- 
abruptly declivous to peduncle; apex widely 
illow, strongly punctate, ^nitire, wc^aker near 
:, obsolete on apical curvt; marginal channel 
Prosternum with intercoxal part very narrow 
on base; episterna overhani^^ng aut*-riorIy, \'ery 
tr lateral margins. Ant^Tiur tibia" wide, 4^- 
ite tibiae with external spur distant from apex, 

sadth 1-5 mm. 

ustralia — King George's Hound ( blasters \ 

3les C. boops, Blkb., some differences being its 
' form, the whole of the disc of the pruthorax 
and the less strongly impressed elytral striie, 
en above is founded on specimens sent to me 
leir colour is coal black; a specimen sent by 

Putzeys gives the colour as pieeous. 
lent that Putzeys' measurenii^nts aro incorrect; 
iT a stoutly built little one, and, even in the 
ies of Clivina, such a shape for the elytra as 
Duld be unheard of. 

Clivina boops, Blackburn 

=;89 (2), iv. p. 719. 

led to C. crihroata, Putz., which it exactly 
head, shape of prothorax, elytra, legSj dire,; for 








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h iff "1^ 



^ 



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158 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



some apparent differences between them see description of C. 
cribrosa (ante, p. 157). 

These species require careful study with large series of fresh 
specimens from different localities. 

The dimensions of a specimen sent to me by Mr. Blackburn are: 
length 7; head 1*2 x 1-4; proth. 1*6 x 1-75; el. 4 x 1*9 mm. 

Hab. : South Australia — Adelaide, Port Lincoln (Blackburn); 
Victoria — Melbourne (Kershaw). 



\H 




Clivina fortis, n.sp. 

Robust, cj'lindrical. Head punctate, large, wide and convex 
posteriorly, declivous in front, facial sulci recurved; prothorax 
broader than long, not narrowed anteriorly, striolate-punctate 
towards sides; elytra with striae free at base; prosternum with 
intercoxal part very narrow anteriorly, sulcate on base; epist^rna 
hardly rugulose, very finely transversely striolate; anterior tibije 
4- dentate. Black. 

Head large, finely punctate on base of clypeus and middle of 
front; Vertex and occiput very convex, not punctate; a wide 
shallow impression between clypeus and front: clypeus deeply 
declivous and rugose to median part, this narrow, strongly emargi- 
nate, its angles not marked; wings small, anterior margin sloping 
roundly and very lightly backwards from median part; supra- 
antennal plates rounded, bordered, divided from wings of 
clypeus by a light sinuosity, a submarginal ridge extending 
backwards from this sinuosity; facial sulci lightly impressed, 
recurved part elongate and very distinct ; facial carinae 
short, strong ; eyes very depressed. Prothorax transverse 
(1*75 X 1*9 mm.), widely convex, strongly declivous to base, 
smooth anteriorly, rugose-punctate towards sides of disc; sides 
parallel; anterior angles obtuse, but marked; posterior angles 
rounded; basal curve short; border narrow; median line strongly 
impressed; anterior line very lightly impressed. Elytra wider 
than prothorax (4*2 x 2 2 mm.), convex, parallel, truncate and 
abrupt at base, widely ronnded at apex; striae lightly impressed, 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



159 



3; interstices lightly convex, eighth narrow 
A curve. Intermediate tihtie wide^ incrassate, 
jections above external spur, 
h 2-2 mm. 

(unique in Rev. T. Blackburn's Collection), 
jly allied to C\ boops, Blkb, from which its 
Ferences are its larger size, more depre.sf*ed 
interior angles of the prothorax, 
sent to me. for examinatiuii by i^Ir, Masters, 
lia, only differs from the ab<ji e hi having the 
head spread over all the posterior part; and 
ion of the prothorax over iirarly the whole 
s of the median part of the clypeua a little 
rior angles of prothorax more prominent; I 
that it is conspecific with C./t*rti^f but am 
I distinct. 

Clivina frenchf, n.sp. 

I. Head large, facial sulci recurved; prt>- 
ong, not narrowed in front; elytra with five 
ase, submarginal humeral carina ubwolete; 
ite. Head, prothorax, and lei^.s pieeoiis (fmir 
ghtly coloured than anterior); elytra l>ruwn. 

•8 mm.), wide behind ej-es, convex, on upper 
icturation, except on posterior part of veitex: 
from front; median part truucaU^ its anodes 
Qgular projection; wings about as prominent 
nglesof median part, defined posteriorly by an 

angles rounded; lateral set i^^^erous puuetiires 
ingles of median part a little in front of the 
js behind; supra-antennal |ilates large, pro- 
ond wings of clypeus; facial nulci not clearl} 
irds in front, an ill-defined aliort impression 
inwards and backwards fri^m their anterliir 
f vertex; facial carina? whort; eyes deei>ly 



i) 



I 




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160 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



embedded, hardly more prominent than supra-antennal plates; side 
of head behind eyes finely and densely rugose-punctate; gul 
hardly rugulose. Mandibles short, flat. Mentum deeply an 
obliquely emarginate; lobes rounded at apex; median tooth \to^ 
long, triangular. Prothorax a little broader than long (2-1 : 
2*25 mm.), not narrowed anteriorly, convex, transversely striolal 
towards sides; anterior margin truncate; anterior angles light! 
advanced; posterior angles rounded; basal curve short; bord( 
narrow; median line well marked, linear; anterior line variah 
(sometimes well marked, sometimes obsolete); lateral baa 
impressions usually well marked, elongate (reaching beyon 
middle of prothorax), rugulose. Elytra convex, a little wi(l( 
than prothorax (5 x 25 mm.), parallel on sides, truncate at has 
widely rounded at apex; stri« punctate for whole length, moi 
lightly impressed towards apex; interstices lightly convex towan 
base, eighth not carinate at base, distinct and wide (not carinat^ 
on apical curve. Prosternum with intercoxal part attenuai 
anteriorly, transversely sulcate on base; episterna minute] 
shagreened, with fine wav}' transverse striolte. Ventral segmeni 
smooth. Anterior femora short, wide; anterior tibiae 4:-dentat 
the upper tooth prominent, triangular; intermediate tibiie wit 
external spur long, acute. 

Length 7 6-9, breadth 2-2-5 mm. 

Ilab. : North Queensland (from Mr. French); S. Australia- 
Lake Callabonna (Zietz). 

The specimen of which the measurements are given in tl 
description is 9 mm. in length. 

Cor onata group. 

Size small. Head depressed; eyes not prominent; clypeus wit 
five triangular projections along anterior margin; supra-antennj 
plates also triangular in front. Elytra with four inner stria? fre 
fifth joining sixth at base. Prosternum with intercoxal pa 
attenuate anteriorly. Anterior tibia* 4-dentate. 



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CV THOMAS a aLOANK. 



Ul 



IVrXA CO HON ATA, P«tKt*yB. 

Ig. xvL 1873, p, 17, 

I. Clyp45us with tive pmiiiinf'nt prnjt*t'tions 
parallel on sides; f-^Iytrti jj?irallel on sides, 
h at hw^i pro^temum with ini+^rcoxftl part 
antenur tibm* sli'^tiigly 4-*lentiiti'. Testa- 
h t ly e< »lo u ivf 1 titan b e jul at i d p r o t h o i n x . 
t^'btly impressed, finely punctuittte; frontal 
; facial sulci ol isoIett% t'urmiu];* a vi itle sbftllow 
Je of vertex; facial cariiiw* distant frorn eyes, 
>ra antennal plates hirge^ uverbibadowing the 
y pjiuted in fnnit; eyen Jiut pi'omin^nt, 
iger than broad (l':25 x 1-2 iiiui.)^ finely 
iateral baaal impreasions el ou gate. Elytra 
rothoram (2 7 mm. x I 35 mm*), punctatt^- 
int«i'»tice3 lightly convex, eighth mtirked nti 
■giiiai huDJtfral cariria very tine anfi wejikiy 
urn with epistt^rna minutely sha^reened, not 
Anteriiir feiuora wide, \v»th luwcr etlge 

h 1 i'5 mm. 

B^lia — King George's !<mind (Manh-r^). 
lily distin^idjed by the form of tlieniu* rior 
witij iseven trianguhir prnjeetiuns, | ha\o 
tibit^ punetmie*^ on tbe side:^ of the prothorax 
mys* I iiave not l>een able to observe the 
m with acfuracyjin my specimen^ so (%'innol 
'ly suleate or not. 

Ohliquat a t/ r o u jk 

nail Front punctaU^^ clypeiis with imgles 
rked; facial syici mon' oi' IrsiH recurved, 
ytra with four inner sti it*- tree, fiftli joiiiii 
r^dnai humeral caniia^[ireHenu not strongly 
lum with iritereoxal parf \i rv tifni'ow or 




Mt 



iii 





162 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

attenuate anteriorly, sulcata on base. Anterior tibiae 4-denta 
(the upper tooth sometimes feebly indicated or obsolete). 

TaUe of Species. 

I. Elytra pimctate-striate. 
A. Unicoi orous. 

6. Dorsal surface depressed. 

C. Prothorax as long as, or longer than- broad. 

D. Size medium, fourth stria of elytra out- 
turned at base C. ohliquata, Putz 

DD. Size 8mall,fourth stria of elytra not out- 
turned at base C. debitia^ Blkb. 

CC. Prothorax broader then long (none of the 

elytral stria? outturned at base) C. riverince^ SI. 

BB. Form cyliudrical. 

E. Anterior tibiae 3- dentate, interstices of 

elytra convex G. cylindrifcrmh, S 

E£. Anterior tibisB 4-dentate, interstices of 

elytra depressed C. ohnoUta,^\, 

AA. Bicolorous. 

F. Elytra with basal part red, apical black .,.G. melanopyga. Pa 
FF. Elytra reddish with a black suturalvitta C. dor salts ^ Bikh, 
FFF. Elytra entirely ferruginous red C. hkolovy SI. 

II. Elytra with strin? simple C. denticoUis, SI. 

The members of this group which I do not know are (7. tml 
Blkb., evidently coming near C. dehilis; C. eremicoh, Blkb., alii 
to C. obliquata; and C. adelaidce, Blkb. 

Clivina obliquata, Putzeys. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1866, x. p. 188; and 1868, xi. p. 16. 

Parallel, rather depressed. Head widely convex, eyes r 
prominent, front lightly punctate; facial sulci recun^ed; prothor 
depressed, parallel, not perceptibly narrowed anteriorly: elyt 
parallel, punctate-striate; fourth stria outtnrned, but not joini 



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ItV THOMAS G, 6L0AXE. 



im 



tices lightly convex on Imsal part uf dim^ 
, eighth tiarnjwly i^arinate at ajtex; ituhmar^- 
lort, feebly earinale. Prusterouin witli intar- 
rerj D Arrow aoteriorl}'^ sulcate on ba«e; 
tiagreened, the transverse strioliv: hardly per- 
f€«Dom wide^ lower sidt^ rounded; tibiie 

I; froDtal impressions wide, well i narked; 
iHtMl and prominent; cl}^>eu^ di^idt'd frdjn 
mctulate impreb-sion, depr&'ised near anterior 
n i^mar^nnate truncate, its an^len luirilly 
j^'fl, Imnlly marked; wings t runt-ate, external 
ae; supra-antennal plates large, ]>rojecting 
y Ijeyond winj^n of elypeiiM^ round(*d and 
yes lightly convex, not prominent, Htrun^Iy 
othontx rather longer than biTiad (1 To x hi 
and very feeljJy sinuate liehind ariLi^rior 
fin trimeate, anterior angle?^ inttrked, tibtnMi', 
little wider thitn prothorax (3'S x l'7."i mm ); 
ongiy impressed, fifth and sixth ^Lrongly 
^p l>e<ii.>ming ol>solete after anterior third, 
etly inipr6B!*edj posterior puncture "f third 




III } I (• 



1*7S mm, 

ralia — Port Lincoln (Coll Cast el nan), (Tvvn 
', t-u me by Mr. Masters, ticketed Sou til 

!^ that tlie identification of C Miquftfa has^ 
lit by a certain vagueness in Put?,ey?9' des- 
u nays that C\ ohU/pmUi may I**' dihtinguiwlied 
>y itsi long, narrow an<i aluntst cylindrical 
f libfrtild be read as comparative b> (* 
le only other inemljer of tlio jxroiip in wlucti 
kt^ known to him, and of v^hicli he savi* I be 
mmt cyUndricttl (though, bring a more lliati 
j^cieiSp I ahould not eall them ao); again, 



liii Hi^ 




164 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



though he places C. ohliquata in a group characterised by t 
fifth stria, not the fourth, reaching the eighth interstice, he sa; 
in the description, that the fourth unity's more, or less distiiie 
with the eighth at the base; in C. ohliquata it turns out at t 
base, but does not actually join the fifth. 

Clivina debilis, Blackburn. 

P.L.S.N.S.W, 1889 (2), iv. p. 722. 

Black, legs testaceous. Narrow, elongate, subdepress< 
Clypeus with median part truncate, hardly distinct from winj 
its angles very weak; wings truncate, external angles squan 
obtuse; supra-antennal plates projecting strongly beyond wings 
cl}T>eus. Prothorax quadrate (1-2 x 11 mm.). Elytra paral 
(2*8 X 1-3 mm.); fifth stria joining sixth at base, seventh w 
marked in all its course. Prosternum with intercoxal part ve 
narrow anteriorly, transversely sulcate on biise. Anterior tib 
narrow, 3-dentate (only an obsolete trace of an up{)er prominenc 

Length 5, breadth 1*3 mm. 

Hah. : South Australia — Adelaide, Port Lincoln (Blackburn 

Closely allied to C. ohliquata, Putz., from which its small s 
will at once distinguish it. The description above is found 
on a specimen for which I am indebted to Rev. T. Blackburn. 

A specimen brought from Lake Callabonna (Central Austral 
by Mr. A. Zietz, in 1893, differs slightly, being a little lar< 
(5*3 X 1*4 mm.), and having the prothorax with longer sides (ba 
curve short), (1-4x12 mm.), the disc punctate near the sides;! 
angles of the median part of the clypeus more prominent, t 
" wings " more angulate, tkc. It may be a different, but clos< 
allied species ; to study it satisfactorily several specimens woi 
be necessary. 

Clivina RivERiNiE, n.sp. 

Wide, parallel, very depressed. Prothorax quadrate; ely 
punctate -striate, four inner strise free at base; prosternum v 
intercoxal part very narrow anteriorly, transversely sulcate 
base; anterior tibite 3-dentate. Black, shining, legs piceous. 



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BY THOMAS Ci. SLOANS. 



166 



.III 



15 mm,)i anterior part depressaJ; veridx 
more or less punctate: clv^eus dedivijus^ 
y a wide— usually piiiicttilafce^deprcMjjiMn; 
d, wide, lightly aoiarginate'trunciaf, its 
Lusely Ijeyund wiiigs; these f^mall, alniurtt 
angle obtuse; aupra-anteiiual [ilates large*, 
strongly and nquarcly beyond win«;i of 
;le obtusej but inarketi; ffieial sulci deep, 
I (8<>metiine6 feebly Indieated); facial ctirinio 
rather prominent, hghtly enclosed bwiiiud, 
f and obliquely muarginatre; lobes widely 
xlian tooth triaiic^ular, acute*. Prothorax 
ii K 2'1 mm.) J widest l>ehind in id die, "yi'ry 
Lse, a little narrowetl anteriorly (ftnt* width 
lightly munde<i; posterior angles rouudetl, 
ve short; anterior uiargin truncate; anterior 
t little prominent; border narrow; median 
Higly impreasetl; lateral basal impresfiiou.'i 
ly mar ke*l . Elytra d epre^s sed , b a n 1 1 y w id er 
: 2 ' 2 m ni . ) , j)ar ai lei, w irlely r o u nd f f 1 a t fi. jie x , 
If punctate, weaker tosvards apeXj 11ft b and 

ne-ar Ijase, seii'enth lightly marked, ni>t 
stice narrow, subcarinate an apical enr\e; 
atemum not protuberant; episterna finely 
Lth wavy trans vnrj^e lineji. Anterior Femora 
ibifl? strongly 3<lent;Ue, a nmall triangular 
u|ipcr t<ioth- 
idth 2-2 "7 mm. 

.¥an Rill (C. French); N.8, Wales- Uranji 
ierately plentiful on the edgeti of n. large 
from Urana,) 

ia, Putz-t which it greatly re!iembie>i; it m 
depressed species (being the most depi^sHed 
the protborax in more trannveri^e, beting 
nd \em parallel on the sides, Tlie biib^ 
-ina of the elytra is very short and hfiidly 





166 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 




carinate — it might be described as nearly obsolete. The specim< 
{$) from which the measurements used in the description we 
taken was 8*4 mm. in length. 

Clivina cylindrifobmis, n sp. 

Narrow, cylindrical. Head with recurved facial sulci; pi 
thorax as long as broad, longitudinally convex; elytra strong 
punctate-striate, fourth stria free, lightly outturned at base, fif 
joining sixth at base; prosternum with intercoxal part ve 
narrow anteriorly; anterior tibife 3-dentate. Head, prothora 
and under surface of body piceous black; elytra piceous brov 
(piceous black near suture at beginning of apical declivity;; und 
surface of prothorax piceous red; legs ferruginous. 

Head convex (11 x 1-3 mm.); clypeus divided from front I 
a wide punctate impression, an elongate punctate depression 
middle of front extending backwards from this impression; sid 
of head punctate behind eyes, the punctu ration strong on ea 
side above base of facial carinse; median part of clypeus emar^ 
nate-truncate, bordered, its angles widely obtuse, hardly projectii 
beyond wings; these small, subrotundate in front with exteni 
margin widely rounded (their margin extends in a slightly unevi 
curve from median part to supra-antennal plates); supra-antenu 
plates large, explanate towards margin, projecting strongly ai 
sharply Ijeyond wings of clypeus, rounded on external margi 
facial sulci strongly impressed, a short impression extending bac 
wards from their anterior part on each side of vertex; faci 
carinje strong, elongate; eyes convex, rather prominent, light 
enclosed behind; guise lightly striate on anterior part. Prothon 
la^vigate, convex, as long as broad (1*8 x 1*8 mm.), widest a liti 
before the posterior angles, lightly narrowed anteriorly (ant. wid 
1 -6 mm.); sides very lightly rounded; posterior angles not mark€ 
basal curve rounded; anterior margin truncate; anterior ang] 
subprominent, obtuse; border narrow on sides; median li 
linear, deep; anterior line obsolete; lateral basal impressions light 
marked. Elytra hardly wider than prothorax (4 x 1-9 mm 
very convex, sides lightly rounded; base roundly truncate; seven 



/I 



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BY THOMAS O. SLOANE. 



im 



[ towaiMitj apex: intersticess convex, eighth 
on apical curve; ^ubmarginal humeral 
\y developed; lateral lx»rder narrow. Pro- 
-ant^ traoHversely swlcat^s on baa*?; e pi f^ tern a 
not. transversely striolate. Anterior femora 
B canaliculate, with posterior edge roundecl 
r9 ram. 
— Giili of Carpentaria (one specimen sent to 

)^ 

}Uquaki, Putg,, in cijlour, fiK-i^Hj ajxd the 

die. 

!7livina obsoleta^ n,sp. 

L Head wide; facial nulci obsolete?; clypen* 
ti part projecting beyonrl the wing*i;eyea not 
3c about as long as wide, very lightly 

elytra parallel, fifth stria joining wbttli at 
ith int^t^rcoxal jmrt attenuatt? anteri*»rly; 
ly 4-dentato. FeiTuj^inous, t^l>ara a little 

than head and prothorax. 
1 eyes and Jicro^s uceipnt; front Knely, rtut 
Bvtex trnel}'' punctate on each f^ide beljiJid 

elevation truncate; ruerliau part i>f i'ly|R'UH 

each mie by a carinate riijge^ triinr;tto, it^ 
idedly beyond win^^s in the fonn of obtusn 
ig» small, concaw^, ipiadrate^, ext<^rnsLl an,Lrl'* 
nal platen projecting beyorni and dlv ulvtl 
by a sharp ainuo^ity; facial carina* nhnit^ 
yes cc^nvex, not prominf^rtt, liar<lly at all 
thorax convex, Hmooth (i^xcept iav a f w trans- 
*r margin truncate; antfriur loiuh's ohtuHt'i 
terifrr anglea widely n*nn<l<Ml; hasid enrvii 
nipresiwionf^ short, liglifly iujpivHHml; uiediun 
nterior hne hanlly marked* Elytra longi 
m*)i truncat^^ and stron^^ly d(H*Hvuu^ at bast.*, 
[tt'X, verj"^ dechvouj? to sides and a]>ex; Htrit« 




/i 



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168 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLfVJNIDES, 



1 



lightly iQipressed, entire, finely punctate; interstices not conve; 
eighth narrow near apex; submarginal humeral carina shor 
narrow, weak. Prosternum with episterna minutely shagreens 
Anterior femora wide, lower side rounded; anterior tibiae wide) 
palmate, upper internal spine thick, curved, incrassate. 

Length 6, breadth 15 mm. 

Bab. : Queensland — Cape York (unique in the collection of tl 
Rev. T. Blackburn). 

This is an isolated species; in general appearance it is rather lil 
C. blackburniy SI., but its nearest ally known to me seems to \ 
Cfreiichiy SI., which it resembles in its widely palmate tibise; i 
C. frenchi the upper internal spine of the anterior tibiae is great 
developed, though not so thick as in (\ obsoleta. I have plac( 
it in the ^^obliquata grou)\^ because it has the elytra with the fifl 
stria joining the sixth at base, and has a submarginal carina i 
each shoulder. 




Clivina melanopyga, Putzeys. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii. p. 41; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. : 
1866, p. 187. 

This species is at once distinguished from all other Australia 
species by its colour, its rather depressed form, and by having tl 
four inner striae of the elytra free at the base. The following bri( 
note will sufficiently characterise it. 

Head, prothorax, under8urface and apical part of elytra blacl 
elytra reddish on more than anterior half; legs piceous. He» 
including clypeus, as in (7. obliquatay Putz., prothorax quadra 
(1*5 X 1*5 mm.): elytra depressed on disc (3 x l'5mm.), punctat 
striate; four inner striae free, fifth joining sixth at base; sul 
marginal humeral carina short, weakly developed; prostemu 
with intercoxal part attenuate anteriorly; anterior tibiae 3-<lentat 
a fourth upper tooth feebly indicated. 

Length 56-6 '5, breadth 15-1 8 mm. 

Hab. : N.S. Wales — Urana District (Sloane — one specimen 
Victoria — Swan Hill (French), Melbourne (Kershaw); Sout 
Australia. 



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m 



Iff TBOJIA? C, SLOAKK. 



1G9 



IK A DoBsALis, Black burn* 

(2), iv.p. 719. 

mvex. Black; elytra red with a blaok 
ripe occupying only first interstlue at Ijsise, 
%tid extending over thveti inner mim-Alm*^, 

anterior legs farmginous, four pos^tmior 
mctate; clypeus with median part liglitly 
i^ angles hardly marked, its wiiig:^ small with 
ite, their exterior angles obtuse but market I; 
Pmthftrax <}uadmte (1*3 x I'S mm.), 
tireXj punctuiat43. Elytra a little brttader 
: l'3o mm ), widely rounded at apex, evunly 
Btriie strongly imprets^edj entiix:*, punctate, 
. lime. Prost^rrmm with int^reox^,] pjirt 

transversely sulcate on base; f|iiHti*riia 
obsoletely tran.sversely striulatt\ Antt^rioi- 
pper tooth very feeble. 
i^^b mm. 

ershaw); South Australia — Adelaide, Pi^rt 
Wast Auiitralia^Kiug Oeorge'a S<jnnd 
Lea). 

with M. Putzeys^ original d ascription of f\ 
irrticular, ejccept that from the gr"oup in 
^nttiralis it isbowld have the tVnntfi shua 
lie l>ase, but he placed C. /jlantCf^pn in thi* 
laving the fourth atria joining the fifth at 
eori'ect, and it is impossible for me tc* avoiil 
rio7^snlisi^ Blkb.j-C mtlffrfitiH, ¥\it'£. If ho, 
s erroneousj and nothirkg )jut an iii-^pi^fiiuji 
jovery of a species coloured like C. */orHahM^ 
1 and fifth Btriee of thf^ elytra conlluent, at 
tie the point-* 

C. maumliM and €. ctrtirafh i^tott) fur fLii-tSidr 




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4p 



170 



ON THE AlJSTRilLIAN CUVINIDES, 



(II' 




Clivina bicolor, n.sp. 

Narrow, parallel, subdepressed. Head short, convex, facial 
sulci recurved, eyes not prominent: prothorax longer than broad, 
parallel on sides; upper surface densely and strongly punctate; 
elytra parallel, finely punctate-striate; four inner striae free, fifth 
joining sixth at base; interstices depressed, eighth carinate at 
apex, and shoulders; anterior tibiae 4-dentate. Elytra ferruginous^ 
red; prothorax and head piceous, under surface piceous. 

Head convex and smooth on vertex, a few fine punctures or 
anterior part of front: clypeus with median part truncate, it; 
angles prominent, triangular; wings wide, subquadrate, hardly as 
advanced as angles of median part, external angles stronglj 
marked, obtuse at summit, external margin straight; supra-antenna 
plates large, projecting sharply and strongly beyond wings oi 
clypeus; facial carinse hardly marked; eyes convex, not at al 
prominent, weakly enclosed behind. Prothorax longer thar 
broad (12 x 11 mm.), lightly convex, lightly declivous to base 
upper surface — excepting basal declivity and anterior coUar— 
strongly punctate; sides parallel, a little narrowed at anterioi 
angles; anterior margin truncate; anterior angles marked; lateral 
basal impressions lightly marked, elongate. Elytra very littl( 
wider than prothorax (2-5 x 1*25 mm.); sides subparallel (hardh 
rounded), a little narrowed to base; shoulders obtuse, but marked 
base lightly emarginate behind peduncle; strite entire, lightl; 
impressed, finely punctate, seventh entire; interstices depressed 
submarginal humeral carina long, narrow. frosternum witl 
intercoxal part cordate, narrow anteriorly; episterna sublievigat4 
(very minutely shagreened). 
Length 47, breadth 1-25 mm. 

Hab. : West Australia— King George's Sound (unique, sent b; 
Mr. Masters). 

Allied to C. dor sails, Blkb., from which its colour and th 
prothorax with the whole of the disc punctate at once distinguis] 
it; the angles of both the median part and the wings of th 
clypeus are far more prominent than in C. dorsalis 



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fipr 



3V THOMAS G. WLOASB. 



I VINA D^KTICOLUS, li,fip. 



in 



ex. llewd depressfl^l, trauHversely imprt^ased 
large and convex; protliorax subquiidrate; 
ed, shortly dentat-e: elytra parallel, niniply 
im free at l>a,se: a well marked strlole at 
ce; submar^nnjii liumeral carina wanting- 
reoxal part canaliculate, wide anteriorlyj 
n baiie; episterna very finely transversely 
png in front; lateral cavitiess of pe<Jttncle 
ibia? btmngly 3<leiitate; interrat^diate tibijii 
' s tou t, acu te, v^rj near apex, Ferr ii gi mm h, 

idelj' impressed at'n>3rt occiput; front rle- 
Rtal impre^dinm vev}^ Hhallo^-; facial Kidoi 

ibsolete; vertex smooth, nuimtJL'ly pun^tia- 
e, iihort, lightly raised; clypea^ with niediarj 
gle« small, obttir^e, very li^ditly advanced; 
[less arlvanced thao median jMirt), external 
rnntennal plates rather depresaet^, rQianrled 
n Hi m ty d i v i d i n^ the m from cl y p i-4**t w i u j^; 
Kj prominent J projecting far beyond wupra- 
smoother than usual, lightly punctate ucar 
)ut, terminal joint Htout, sul>fuHiforrii (obtusu 
browii e r th an long { 1 ■ 3 x 14 m m . ) , 1 i ^ h l ly 
diac covered with fine trans ver^^i stncrlsi'; 
icate» vertical at f^ide^ of neck; anrerior 
evenly rounded; posterior anfj^lesii markeil 
ed dentiform project ion; banal curve sUurt: 

relieved on sides, vei'v fine (ii*>t refiexed) im 
unlian and anterior Hues iitron^ly im|iiesscd, 
ions wanting Elytra much wider xUan 
? niOL)^ lightly rounded on sides, witlely 
t?*e truncate; ^tria* simple, eritircT li^hlly 
ig sixth at l>ase. ^^evtnth i^nE-ire; intt*rsticcs 





172 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVIHIDBS, 

depressed, eighth hardly carinate on apical curve. Anterii 
femora not channelled below, lower side not dilatate or rounded 

Length 6, breadth 1 '8 mm. 

Hab, : West Australia— N. W. Coast (]); (sent to me by Mr. < 
French). 

A remarkable and isolated species, not nearly allied to ai 
other Australian species. In facies it resembles C pectoral\ 
Putz.; its head is much like that of C, hovillce, Blkb., but tl 
eyes are larger; the form of the clypeus is like that of the speci 
of the " ohliquata group "; the intercoxal part of the prosternu 
is as wide as in t}'pical members of the *^ australasice group 
Although I have placed it in the ^^obliquata group" it might we 
be regarded as the type of a new group, of which the characte 
would be those of the preliminary paragraph of the descripti( 
above. 

Planiceps group. 

Size large. Mandibles long, decussating. Clypeus with medis 
part truncate; wings wide, truncate, sharply advanced. Labru 
truncate, 5-setose. Labial palpi with penultimate joint slende 
longer than terminal. Elytra with four inner strite free at has 
fifth joining sixth; submarginal humeral carina present. Prostc 
num with intercoxal part very wide anteriorly, non-sulcate ( 



7'able of species. 

A. Anterior tibiae 3-dentate 0. planiceps ^ Vviiz. 

AA. Anterior tibiae 4-dentate 

B. Head rugulose -.. C. quadratifrofus, i 

BB. Head smooth C. Carpentaria^ SI. 

C. crassicollisy Putz., allied to C. planiceps, is unknown to xru 

Clivina planiceps, Putzeys. 

M^m. Li^ge, 1863, xviii. p. 42; Ceratoglossa ruyiceps, Mac 
Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S. W. 1863, i. p. 72; Scolyplus planiceps, Put: 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1866, x. p. 24. 



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I ri i 



BY THOMAS O. SWANK, Xf$ 

dm, whicli mny Ite distinguisherl hy tlio 

t, under Hurfitct* piceoii»ij leg:^ reddbJi or 
Eul Jjirgt^ (2-3 X 2'^ mra,), deproK^ed, rujufu- 
igs &trrHi^ly and cibli^piely iuhanctd Ijeyimd 
wL Protliorax longer tlmtj hvimd (3'5 x 3-3 
?d Jintmurly (jint. wujlli ;i mtn.). Elyti^ 
cQ.)j ert*riulttte-!^triate; tiRir irmer striae frye 
1© outtiirned at base, fifth joining sixth 
ice fiistiuct cm apioal curve; a submarginal 
Antjerior ti[>it(- 3 dentate, 
r^^adth 3-4 mm. 
-Murra}^ and Murrumbidgee Rivers. 

PcmtsLTipturir* place« this Hpecieii in u group 

tig the fourth fuid fifth atnn^ ^^ontluent at 

iferenue to tlm fe^Ltui'e in \d^ description, 

it in yt^tt. EiUv Zoit., nor in hit^ ''* R*f vi.Hum 

merely puts it in Sat/ppfttfe^ luul plttt^es 

I, MiicL, aa a s^^nonym witluiut cumni(*nt- 

?Tstice (loQi^ turn outwaixis at tlie Uise, and 

one such example is in my cuJletlitnj fnmi 

n,y, where thia ^fiecies is very connmtin. 

IK A cii Assi COLLI s, Pnti'.eys. 

tt. Puts,, Ann. Hoe. Knt. Beig, ]-SIj6, x. p. i^l. 
translation of Putzey^* whole descrii^tijm 

nicfpif^ its elytra are proportiunatily nnnv 
*ax in very noticerihly more convex, intn-e 

towards the aiiterior an^lesi; tlie rinterior 
lat'e. 

■ea^Uh 4 mm. 
-two specimens, 
»x^mple of ihii lusek^sKUeati of bouk' of M, 

it might lie fiiundtMl (Ni th^* hii^»^ spi'oiiurn^ 




174 



ON THE ACSTRALIAN CLIVlStDSS, 



\ 



from the Gulf of Carpentaria mentioned below under C. quadr 
tifrons, SI.; but, if so, the description does not aid one in dete 
mining it, besides the inference is that the anterior tibiae a] 
3-dentate as in C. planiceps, 

Clivina quadratifrons, n.sp. 

Robust, parallel, cylindrical. Head flat, rugulose; prothora 
about as long as broad; elytra with fifth stria joining sixth i 
base, eighth interstice distinctly marked on apical cur\e, a wel 
developed submarginal carina at shoulders; anterior tibiae 
dentate. Black, under surface piceous, anterior legs reddis 
piceous, four posterior legs and antennie testaceous brown. 

Head quadrate (2 x 21 mm.), flat, rugulose: clypeus nc 
divided from front; median part truncate; wings divided froi 
supra-antennal plates by a light linear impression, lightly an 
obliquely advanced beyond median part, wide, truncate, extemi 
angle marked, rounded; supra-antennal plates depressed, dechvou 
before eyes, divided from clypeal wing by a light sinuositi 
external margin sinuate; facial sulci lost in facial rugulositj 
facial carinte distant from eyes, feebly developed; eyes convex 
prominent; orbits narrow, abruptly truncate behind eyes. Mai 
dibles wide at base, decussating. Mentum concave; lobes rounde 
at apex, lightly longitudinally striate; median tooth large, rounde 
at apex. Pro thorax of almost equal length and bread tl 
(36 X 3-5 mm.), parallel on sides, very little narrowed to apes 
convex, roundly declivous to base; anterior margin truncate 
anterior angles obtuse; posterior angles not marked; border widi 
and explanate near anterior angles, narrow backwards, not inter 
rupted at posterior angles; median and anterior lines well marked 
lateral basal impressions short, shallow, subfoveiform. Elytri 
parallel, cylindrical (8*5 x 4 mm.), truncate on base; striie entire 
lightly crenulate, deeply impressed, becoming shallow towards 
apex, first outturned to join second at Irnse, fourth free at base 
interstices lightly convex, eighth forming a narrow carina or 
apical curve; border narrow. Prosternum protuberant; inter 
coxal part very wide in front, widely and lightly channelled. 



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IV THOMAS G, SLOANE. 



175 



; an l*ase; epiBtenia coTered with fine wavy 
ntral segments *^nooi*th. Anterior femora 
I, lightly t4iHnni4l^ Ijelow, posterior emrgin 
oiddle; tibiie wide, palmate, external teeth 
ther; interroediat^? tibia- wide, incrjLHsnte, 
above liuhapieal spur, this strong, acute, 
twith 3'3-'i-2iiim. 
Wales— Urana District (81oane); Tictoria 

nfi have been Rent to me by Mr. C. Frent-b 
* Burkt>town on the Gulf uf Garpentriria, 
ing at first flight to be a dttlerenl gpetues 
j«f, yet, on a elose examination, reveal no 
see, except their larger size. I regard them 
srn fomi of a widely distriljuted qiecies 
x2-S mm,, protborax -to x 4 3 mm., tdytra 
i possible this may be C cra^sicoili^, Put 2., 
2 a more elongate and convex speciei^ than 
Putzeys' brief not^j (not a description) on 
to infer only 3-dentate anterior tibiii' ftjr 



ll! 




s cloj*ely allief.I to (/ phtttii^'pH^ whirh it 
Lppearance; but decided dilT'erenees tu \% hlfh 
ri-^t*ted are the shorter and more par'Sillel 
. with the wings less advanced beyond the 
tnlr-otiite anterior tibif»\ 

[VINA CIRPKNTARU, n.sp. 

,L Head not nigukttte; p rot ho rax h>ijger 
i th striie entire, fi f t h joining s ix t h a r ]taxr\ 
gbth not visible on apical i-urvt*: ventral 
tf*niilyj anterior tWni*^ l-dtjntate. Hla^kj 
browtJ. 

?^ depressed (1^6x2 mm.); a jnlialluw trann- 

peu» from fronts and a stroiig kuIcus dl\ iibn^ 

supra-antennal plate^^ j clyiieal tlevatiun 




176 



ON THE AUSTRAUAN CLIVINIDES, 



well defined, almost semicircular: clypeus with median p 
truncate; wings lightly and abruptly advanced beyond med 
part, wide, flat, truncate, rounded at extern6,l angles and lateral 
supra-antennal plates depressed, declivous externally, ligh 
rounded, narrowly margined; facial sulci short; supra-orbi 
setae placed near each eye in a short depression, upper edge 
this depression forming a thick round carina, lower edge form 
a narrow carina; eyes globose, very prominent, projecting stron 
from sides of head. Mandibles large, wide at base, decussati 
Mentum deeply and obliquely emarginate; median tooth wi 
short; lobes strongly striolate, rounded at apex. Prothoi 
levigate, longer than broad (28 x 25 mm.), widest a little 
front of posterior angles, a little narrowed anteriorly (ant. wi< 
225 mm.); sides lightly and widely sinuate; posterior an^ 
rounded; anterior margin truncate; anterior angles obtuse; bor 
reflexed on sides; median and anterior lines strongly impress 
lateral basal impressions wanting. Elytra cylindrical, paral 
hanlly wider than prothorax (5*7 x 26 mm.); base widely* 
very lightly emarginate; shoulders obtuse; apex strongly declivc 
strife strongly impressed, crenulate; interstices convex, sevei 
and eighth uniting and forming a short carina at base; late 
border narrowly reflexed. Prosternum protulxjrant; interco 
part wide anteriorly, not transversely sulcate on base; epistei 
finely rugulose and transversely striolate. Ventral segme 
smooth in middle, first and second strongly and closely longi 
dinally striolate, third striolate-punctate, fourth, fifth and sL 
rugulose-punctate at sides. Anterior femora short, wide, ligh 
channelled below, posterior margin of lower side wide; antei 
tibiae wide, palmate, three external teeth very strong and cl 
together. 

Length 11, breadth 2*5 mm. 

I/ab. : Queensland — Gulf of Carpentaria (sent to me by - 
C. French). 

Grandiceps group. 

Size large. Head large; clypeus with median part w; 
rounded, a light wide sinuosity dividing it on each side fi 



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Y THOX18 O* SLQ^XE, 



177 



le, rfmiidedj hardly more advanced ifian 
t, Mandiblefi long, decussating, wide at 
e. Palpi filiform; labial with penultimate 
than terminah Prc>t borax transversa j 
ase on aides of basal curve; antt?nor mar- 
ar anterior angle. Elytra with four stri^i' 
nal ivameral carina short, feebly devoI(j|M^d. 
.■o:3cal part gi-eatly narrowed (not attejuiatf*) 
:ibiit^ 4'dentate. 

VIITA GRANDICKPS, n.Hp. 

t. Head large, smooth, vertex convex; 
1 bordrr not attaining Imtse; anterior tibiae 
lining; leg? light piceuua bmwn; palpi 

se (24 X 2-9 mm.); vertex convex, Ij^vi^ate; 
^e, divided from front by a atraiglit tran«- 
I impression hardly dii^tinet in niiddlp): 
e; m^-lian part lightl}^ roundi^d in midijle; 
ded from median part hy a light Hinnosityj 
mt and laterally, a little more proiitincnt 
sral seta^ placed in a .sharply defineil (*t\ ei- 
liddle of each wingj gupra-antennal plaleti 
from clypeal wings by a Hght sinu1>Hit^^ 
nd margined laterally; facial sulci li^btly 
rhital j^etsB on each .side placed a consldiH- 
m a deep groovei the lower as w^ell as tbe 
ve carinate; eyes convex , projecting boyond 
orbits encU^iiing cycj^ liglitly behind, ^lupijig 
andibles large, wide at baf^e, dficusf^ating, 
r margin subrotun<iate (ligbth^ truncati* in 
um lightly and s^jU-irelyemarginate; nii-dian 
ri angular; lobes rugulose^ wirle^ ohjiijucly 
pjctemal side. Palpi filiforiM- Ant^iiin^ 
*iHat«, tirat joint lon^ (about a?^ long as lun 
othor ax a hort, truins v e nsf ' { 2 ■ 2 x 2 ' D mm,), 



P 



\ , 



m 



t. 




I 



178 



ON THE AUSTRALUN CLIVINIDES, 



widest just behind anterior angles, cop vex, slightly depressed 
each side of medfan line, abruptly declivous to base; sides paralj 
anterior margin emarginate in middle; anterior angles obtu 
explanate: posterior angles wide, but marked; basal curve she 
lateral border wide and reflexed on sides, interrupted and uptun 
at posterior angles just before posterior marginal puncture, thi 
and indistinct on anterior part of basal curve, obsolete on poster 
part and not reaching base; border strongly reflexed and margii 
channel wide on base; median and anterior lines strongly i 
pressed; lateral marginal punctures large, anterior placed m 
anterior angle on the explanate border. Elytra convex, ve 
little wider than prothorax (5*7 x 3*1 mm J, hardly narrowed 
base, wide at apex; sides lightly rounded; base truncate; shouldi 
rounded; striee entire, crenulate, strongly impressed, weaker 
apical declivity, fifth joining sixth at base, seventh obsolete 
apical curve; interstices convex, eighth obsolete towards ape 
submarginal humeral carina short, thick; lateral border wk 
reflexed. Prosternum with intercoxal part lightly conca^ 
narrow (not attenuate) anteriorly, base abrupt, not transversa 
sulcate; episterna overhanging in front, transversely rugula 
striate. Yentral segments smooth, excepting two basal on 
lightly longitudinally striolate. Anterior femora light, lower si 
straight; anterior tibije 4-dentate, apex strongly outtume 
external teeth wide apart, strong, triangular; external spur 
intermediate tibiae fine, acute. 

Length 105, breadth 31 mm. 

Hab. : Queensland — Gulf of Carpentaria (one specimen, givi 
to me by Mr. C. French). 




Punctaticeps group. 

Size small. Facial sulci not recurved; clypeus with medii 
part emarginate, its angles more or less « marked. Elytra wi1 
fourth and fifth strisB confluent at base, seventh not interrupts 
at beginning of apical curve; submarginal humeral carina w€ 
marked; a distinct elongate striole at base of first interstic 



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BY THOSIAS G, SLOA3fB. 



m 



rcoxal part attenuate ftnteriorly, suleafce un 
ora with postii^rior margiu of lower side 
iddle, tibi;^ 4-deut^te. 



JVtWfi of t/peciefi< 

I3f longer thfta bi 
\y (^nothorax broiuler than 



ihomx longer thfta broad.., j ^ ' . -. ^,„ 



Fjl>f'«, SI. 

£7. lobtpf^^ 81 



NA puxcTATJCEPs, Putzeys. 

g. 1868, XI. p, la 

[7, tmrtidipes, SI., of wliich it seems the 
rom which it only appears to d lifer by its 
)thorax proportionately widerj elytra a little 
.he interstieefl more convex. The legs are 

f brief diagnosLs founded on a sfiecimen sent 
I by the Rev. TJios. Bla^?kbiirn :— 
'al. Head moderate; front punctulate; 
ilate in middle and po-stf^riorly from ^ide to 
lian part projecting strougly beyond v^ings, 
i angles prominent, triangular; wings small, 
ideil from me<iian part and lightly from 
. Prothorax a little longer than broad 
le narrowed anteriorly (ant- widtli 1-3 mna.). 
■75 mm.}, f^trongly puiictate-striate; fourth 
lase; a d^tinct atriole at ham of first inter- 
onvexj eighth well defined for wholo length, 
roatemum with int^reoxal part att<?nuat6 
femora t h ick , >* t rong I y a r i d r n u n f 1 1 y d i bt t a le 
le; anterior tibia? ^nileutate. 
ith 1-74 '75 mm, 

-Cape York ; Rockhampton (Coll Blaok- 
m). 




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180 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLl VIA IDES, 



m 



II 




Clivina tumidipes, n.sp. 

-prfcSr^^^ W - . 1889 (a), ir. p. 720 . 

Elongate, parallel. Head punctulate anteriorly, eyes prominen 
prothorax longer than broad, convex : elytra parallel, conve: 
punctate-striate; fourth and fifth strice confluent at base; a shoi 
distinct submarginal carina at shoulder; an elongate fine strio 
at base of first interstice; anterior femora with posterior margi 
of lower side strongly and roundly dilatate, anterior tibije 
dentate. Black, shining; under surface piceous; anterior le< 
piceous brown; four posterior legs, antennie and palpi reddis 
testaceous. 

Head moderate; front closely and finely punctate; verte 
smooth (sometimes some fine punctures near posterior extremit 
of each facial carina): clypeus not divided from front; media 
part deeply and rather angularly emarginate, its angl( 
obtuse, very lightly advanced beyond and hardly divided fro: 
wings; these small, hardly divided laterally from suprsrantenn; 
plates; lateral setae of clypeus placed in a rugose depression i 
base of each wing; supra-antennal plates small, depressed: ey 
globose, prominent, lightly enclosed behind; orbits abrupt behim 
Prothorax smooth (sometimes a few transverse wrinkles on disc 
longer than broad (1*7 x 1*5 mm.), widest near posterior angle 
very little narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 1*4 mm.); sides light 
subsinuate behind anterior marginal punctures, decidedly narrowc 
from these to anterior angles; anterior margin truncate; anteri< 
angles projecting very slightly: lateral basal impressions obsolet 
Elytra narrow, parallel, hardly wider than prothorax (4 x 1-7 nmi 
base truncate; striae entire, narrow, lighter towards apex, close 
punctate, seventh strongly marked in all its course; interstic 
lightly convex, eighth well developed on apical cur\ e. Prostemu 
with intercoxal part attenuate anteriorly, transversely sulcate ( 
])ase; epistema overhanging greatly anteriorly, shagreened, trac 
versely striolate. Ventral segments minutely shagreened und 
a strong lens. Anterior femora short, wide, compressed; anteri 
tibiae with two strong external teeth and a short triangul 



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BV THOUAS O. etOANE. 



lit 



cal projection; anterior trochanters projectmg 

beyond ba^se of feoiaiii. 

dtb 1 '3-1*7 mm. 

k — Junee Bmtrict., Uratia District (j^loane); 

(French); 8cm t ^ Auotwi i Lift AJoUiirk ( Hlnrkt 

Eie veiy closely allied to C efnargitmttx^TuVi.^ 
in colour. I took it plentifully twenty miles 
town of Urana on the mttrj^nn of tanks dug 
only permanent water), in the months of 
ttry; af3 many an 32 afx^cimens were wanhed 
ddy margin of one tank in less than lialf tm 

VIKA EMAKQIHATA, Ptltzeys. 

ig. \ms, xi p. 15. 

ant'eniii?^, pcdibus, elytrorum l>a.si apirctiue 
lypeiiH eQiarginatii», alis subjequalis. Vertex 
le*us*^ puni'taturi. Prothorax Rubquailrafus, 
Irica^ Imsi intui? oblique Iruncata, humeri^ 

aiitica extus in medio inferiore dihitata. 

IJ mill/** 

men ted this diagnosis by rem ark js which I 

a link l>etween the twenty-seven tli fCrnnp 
I winga of the epistoma extend coiisidirahly 
itself tt,ml the twenty-eighth,! in xvliieh lln* 



i »ri error in these raenBureiinuits; lliu kijyrtli ^twdn 
f too great. 

ani) twenty- eighth griiups M. l%it^cyi» appears t<> 
i*imi, tht groups of which C\ tti/Jtxti/lohkM^ Putj«., 
b new tweiity^scjverFth group in iilnt'i ot liiy r>lil 
VI ht'ing treinigferred to ,HrfJfjphff^Mn\ C. hfhriujntat 
be types; but m *>u the f^jlloMiug prii^t; h« refcrtt f \ 
^7•ottp it iA apparent tlmt tu <:'Dty-«it;ljtli i^ a miatakr. 





182 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

epistoma, more or less emarginate, has its angles prominei 
extending beyond the wings, which are usually angular. 

In C. emarginaia the epistoma is deeply emarginate; its angl 
are not more advanced than the wings, from which it appears 
be separated by a depression which there is between them. 1 
anterior elevation, broad, though but little raised, is stron* 
punctate the same as all the anterior part of the head; t 
puncturation almost disappears on the vertex, which is v€ 
convex and the fovea of which is shallow. The prothorax 
almost square, just a little longer than broad; the sides i 
lightly narrowed at the anterior third, but then regain th( 
width up to the anterior angles, which are obtuse and declivoi 
The surface is smooth, the median line is very deep from the bi 
to the anterior line; one can hardly distinguish a feeble trace 
k il the two lateral foveee. The elytra are cylindrical, obliqw 

1 M truncate, internally at the base; the shoulders are rounded; t 

efl striae become hardly distinct towards the apex; they are strong 

punctate. The anterior femora are thick, their lower surface 

H^ _ dilatate externally so as to form a rounded prominence, but t 

I |l trochanter projecting at' the apex makes a prominent angle. 

1 I Australia. One specimen (Coll. Casteln.) 

In facies C emarginata must resemble C. tumidipes, £ 
but it is differently coloured. The clypeus may resemble that 
C. lobipes, SI., but seems as if it should be not unlike C. bovili 
Blkb. I should expect the tibiae to be 4-dentate, and t 
prostemum with the intercoxal part narrow. Its colour shoi 
>••*• •• • i render its recognition easy. I have associated it with C. adeletii 
on account of the form of the anterior femora. 

Clivina lobipes, n.sp. 

Robust, parallel, subdepressed. Head short, wide, fine 
rugulose-punctate;. prothorax subquadrate, punctate on dii 
elytra punctate-striate, fourth stria joining fifth at base; proste 
num with intercoxal part attenuate, transversely sulcate on ba* 
epistema strongly rugose and transversely striolate; anteri 




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BY THOMAS U. SLOAKB. 



188 



gtrongly 4-dentate. HeddiJ^h piceouu; elytnt 
lieati and prothorax, with a dark pici'uUH 
t of disc. 

jsaefl; front and elypeiil eJevation clusely 
round fove^ id middle l>ehiDd piiuetttt<? jtari ; 
frontaJ impresHiona wide, slialluw; fAifiul 
d; clypeal elevation hardly raised i ^lyjjeuxS 
tnt; median part deeply emargiimtHe, deliireil 
ht ridge» not an gu late laterally; wings Kuudl, 
[ian part, sloping roundly backwards to and 
iteunal plates by a faint wide sinuosity; eye** 
rical, lightly enclosed be hind, ProthoraK 
1 '55 mm.), lightly con vex, coai-^ly puiietatt? 
irt of disc and near sides; aiiterior mar^xin 
He^ but marked; mhs^ parallel, lightly and 
oaten or angles marked; basal enrve sloping 
ach Hide; median line deeply, anterior line 
Elytra very little wi(Jer than proth(^rax 
nTex — not cylindrieah^ — parallel on xides; 
lers roanded, with border proniinont; stria- 
interrupteii at Ijeginning of apical curve; 
vex, eighth finally carinat-t^ at bane, nan'i»vv 
lear apex* Anterior femora with lower side 
pr*jtul)erance; external :spur of interniediate 

\i r6 mm, 

—Kings Plains Station (^8 miles S,W.fn*Tn 
nen sent to me by Mr. N* H. OibHon). 
d to C. emar^maia^ Putz. j the elypeus an<l 
pparently simihirj but C lohipen is e^ ifliTitly 
Bering in having the protiuirax not longer 
dy punctate on the disc. From V. tumifit/i«ft^ 
icep»^ Putz., Bpecies with lobate anterior 
&tinguishe*i by it^ wider and less cylindrical 
e prothorax, ifcc* 



I* PI 





Cinfcl, 



184 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



Blackhurni group. 

Size small, form cylindrical. Head large, convex; occi 
short, wide; eyes not prominent; facial sulci recurved; clyp 
with angles of median part very lightly advanced beyond wii 
these with external angles rounded, but marked; supra-anten 
plates prbjecting strongly beyond clypeus. Prothorax longer tl 
broad, anterior line wanting. Elytra with fourth and fifth st 
confluent at base. Prosternum with interco.xal part attenu 
anteriorly, sulcate on base Anterior tibise 4-dentate. 

The facies of this species, the short wide head, the long nan 
cylindrical prothorax and elytra, the non-prominent eyes, « 
have caused me to separate C. blackbiirni from C, heterogt 
Putz., and form a distinct group for it. 

Clivina blackburni, n.sp. 

Narrow, parallel, cylindrical. Head large, facial sulci reciin 
eyes very depressed; prothorax longer than broad, anterior \ 
wanting: elytra lightly punctate-striate, fourth stria joii 
fifth at base, interstices depressed, eighth carinate at base, nan 
and carinate on apical cur\'e; anterior tibiae 4-dentate. Pice 
brown. 

Head large, convex; vertex smooth; front finely punct 
clypeus not divided from front, declivous to median part; 1 
depressed, truncate-emarginate, its angles projecting lightly i 
obtusely beyond wings, lateral ridges short, wide, distinct; wi 
subquadrate, with external angles rounded; supra-antennal pb 
long, lightly rounded externally, projecting sharply and decide 
beyond wings of clypeus, bordered; a longitudinal ridge extend 
backwards from base of clypeal wings; facial sulci ligl 
impressed, an elongate impression extending backwards fi 
their anterior part; facial carinae distant from eyes, short; e 
depressed, deeply set in head, hardly projecting; orbits fo 
ing a thick ridge above eyes, projecting sharply but ligl 
from head behind. Antennae moniliform, incrassate; joints a 
very short, transverse, compressed. Mentum deeply emargini 



1 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOAKE. 



196 



lie, trmngukr, pointed* Majicliblea short, 
nooth {a few light r»^ near sides )»piiml1i:"l, 
L head with vyts^ Jrm^^er than l>road (I'-l x 
3ti*i>nKl y declivous to ba^; anterior mar^xin 
Imaal curre short, rtmnde^^l; posterior angles 
I angles obtuse; median line well marked, 
llel* cylindnual (3 \ 12 mmO^ truncate at 
at a|>eK; apical detlivity roundly alniipt; 
npreBse4» finely pnnct^tte; intprf?tict:*s not at 
puncture of third niueh nearer apex than 
with intei"^oxal part attenuate anteriorly, 
on base; epiaterna obaoletely transvertii^ly 
r anteriorly. he^a short; anterior tenner a 
I on lower side; anterior tibisi^ s^trongly 4- 
1 short, triangular; poi^teriur tibial/ rHimI, 

h r2 mm* 

raUa— Ijake Callabonjia. 

>cies; its narrow cylindricfd shape, ^vith the 
lely terminatetbgite it a general rewenil»laru"i:- 

ClIVINA OLLIFFI, n sp. 

Head large; prothora^t ti little bniadt^r tliao 
farallfl; fourth j^tria joining fifth at base: 
carina feebly developed; eighth intei^tir^ 
late on apieal curve; a well marked Htri<jle 
r^tice. Pn>aternum with intercoxal part 
transvers*^ sulcus of liaise ob^5olete. Anterit»r 
tck; pitj thorax piceous black; anterior leg?^ 
r po»tert4jr le;^ Lestacpou.s. 
1"5 mm.)t di^nnely rui;ose-piin(^tulatiMin guhi' 
[ex convex, Ijcvigate; front lightly in»[»in"HWHl 
ddle, lightly and widely imprej^sed un tr^yli 
a little ruf^ulose); t43''|>eiil i"Ie%!itjun -^fjLfhHv 



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mm 



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186 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES. 

raised, narrow, arcuate : clypeus wide, depressed; median ] 
truncate, its angles small, triangular, projecting; wings stroi 
divided from median part, anterior margin sloping lightly for^ 
to external angles, these prominent, obtuse at apex; su 
antennal plates depressed, very strongly divided from clyj 
wings, prominent and rounded externally; eyes convex, not pror 
ent, lightly enclosed behind; facial sulci obsolete; facial cai 
?^hort, distant from eyes. Mandibles wide, short, ligl 
liecussating. Labrum 5-setose. Mentimi rugulose-stri 
Labial palpi slender, two apical joints of about equal lenj 
Antennae short, lightly incrassate. Pro thorax a little broa 
than long (1*8 x 19 mm.), lightly convex, subdepressed al 
median line, lightly declivous to base, transversely strioL 
tightly punctulate except near anterior margin on middle of ( 
and on basal declivity; sides parallel, not narrowed anterio 
posterior angles rounded, not marked; anterior margin trunc 
»in each side, emarginate in middle; anterior angles obtuse; bor 
narrow; median line deeply impressed; anterior line well marl 
lateral basal impressions hardly marked. Elytra hardly wi 
than prothorax (4*5 x 2 mm.), widest behind middle, subpart 
on sides, very lightly rounded, a little narrowed to should 
disc subdepressed; sides and apex strongly and deeply decliv( 
base truncate; shouldera marked; striee deep, except towards aj 
htrongly crenulate-punctate, seventh entire; interstices sul 
pressed, hardly convex, eighth convex, narrow (hardly carini 
on apical curve, greatly narrowed about basal fifth, shortly i 
feebly carinate at humeral angle; lateral channel shallow; poste: 
puncture of third interstice placed at extremity of third i 
fourth striae. Prosternum protuberant; epistema shagreeE 
obsoletely transversely striolate, overhanging anteriorly. Antei 
trochanters projecting strongly and obtusely at apex; femora wi 
compressed, posterior edge of lower side rounded; tibiae wi 
palmate; external spur of intermediate tibiae long, acute. 

Length 8, breadth 2 mm. 

Hob, : West Australia — Beverley (sent to me by Mr. A 
Lea). 



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3V THOMAS tL SLOANK. 



m 



is4ilat€d sijeciea, for which I ha\e fcminl \i 
sieparate group. In general appearance, 
%Xi elytra, prtrnteroum and legs it re;9t*mlilifs 
ihrasa ^roitp*^; but the fourth striu, is out- 
fth at the Imae. The crenulations of the 
and punetiform, and from thetn Ene .shiirt 
[veu oflj causing the interaiices to huve an 
The external aiiglehJ of th^ elypeal wings 
tsd quite af?i advanced as (if not a little more 
the median part; the anterior margin of the 
ind thu:* causes the median part to pt^oject 
ich side. The elytra are concave on the 
near the base, and have a distinct elongate 

jipeeies in memory of my friend Mr. A. 8, 
t Entomologii4t for New South Wale^- 

eter a ^ *' h a g r o u p. 

omineut; clypeuH with median part angular, 
tjeyond the wings, these angular laterally. 
1 tifth striae confluent at bane, seventh not 
ing of apical curve; submarginal hunn^ral 
iole Doticeahle at base of first intersiti*!e- 
coxal part attenuate anteriorly, sulcate uri 
4Hlentate» 

p. migtistida^ Putss., €. auAtralmi^'^L^ C 

Putz., C. oodnadiitUp, Blkb., and 6". titft^^t*' 
to belong to this group; of these I kntfw 
not attempt to tabulate them. 

FA KBTEROGEKA, Put^eys. 

16, JotYji. p. 41; Ann* Hoc* EnL Belg. l^iiO^ 




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188 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

Although I have a suspicion that C. heterogena will ultim 
prove to be identical with C. anguatulay the evidence befor 
\H insufficient to enable me to feel absolutely certain about 
1 t herefore append a translation of the description of C. heterc 

Ttie anterior elevation, well marked and rather shoi 
sejiarated from the vertex by a punctate impression of but 
depth; the summit of the head bears a wide longitudina 
ptHission containing some large punctures ; the punctun 
each side near the eyes are of the same size. 

The eyes, of which only half is distinct, are very promi 
Tlic prothorax is square, a little sinuate on the sides, as bro 
fri^nt as behind; all the surface, except the anterior part i 
piiddle, is covered with very distinct punctures. 

The elytra are very elongate [and] cylindrical; their roi 
shoulders are reflexed; they are of a piceous brown, but 
external border, the suture before and behind, and the shoi 
ars^ of a testaceous colour. The fourth stria turns out a 
hnm and reaches the eighth interstice. 

The under surface of the body is black; the legs, excep 
upper side of the femora, the palpi and the antennae are testa< 
The anterior tibiae have externally two very long t-eeth i 
small not very distinct tooth. 

I^ength 5 J, El. 2f, breadth Umm. 

Australia. One specimen belonging to M. de Chaudoir 
roiioived it from M. Melly. 

The specimen noted under form " e " of C. angustida, ] 
fickle post), from Windsor, N.S.W., agrees in all respects wit 
dfiscription of ('. heterogena. If "e" be merely a form 
<ingu8tulaj then that species must sink to a synonym of C. heterc 
but this is a point which, with the identity of C. difformin, 
tmd C. odontomera, Putz., cannot be determined till exhai 
s3eries of spex;imens of 0. angiistula and allied forms, 
%'arious localities (including Rockhampton) on the east co 
Australia, have been examined. 



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V THOMAS G. 9LOAH1. 



18§ 



6, x:svii. p. 43; Ann. SiX', Eat. Belg. 1866, 

XJylmdricaL Black , heatl and protliomx 
Fith Htiture and margins (excepting huae) 
our posterior paler than anterior. Head 
*;*Sj front and vertex punctate : cl3"|(eus 
i wide shallow punctate depression; ch^peal 
idely rounded; a wide depressed i^pace near 
an part emarginate-truncate^ the angles 
and wings, obtuse j wingn square, with 
ed, supra-antennal plates wide, rounded 

decidedly beyond cly].ieal wings; eyeii 
i hardly impressed, facial carinte narrov^", 
>rax abaut as long a.-^ broad (13 >; 1 *2 nim . } 
iorly (ant > width 1*1 nun.), con vex, punctate; 
sinuate behiiid anterior marginal puncture* 

1-3 inm-)> convex, punetate-striate- stria-' 
« carinate at base and on apical curve, 
joxal part attenuate anteriorly; episterna 

Anterior tibis:^ -i-dentate, 

1th 1-1*4 mm. 

Clarence River, Windsor (Lea), Carrathool 
allydale. Fern tree Gully (J^loane); Suiith 

?n above Is founded on Hpeciniens taken at 
Gully, near ^lelbouruk^, Putzey.s" descnj*- 

renee tbat the pro thorax is not narrowed 
^pecimenB, which I have no duubt arc 
the prothorax certainly h natrowrtl ; 

j in degree In this respect-, which I hriii ^k 

;e* 




m 



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\ 



i 



'M' 






190 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

C. angustula seems to present considerable differences in co 
and size;* its constant features are the puncturation of the 1 
and prothorax, the form of the clypeus, the striation of the el] 
the anterior femora not dilatate on lower side, the trochai 
prominent at base of femora, and the digitation of the ante 
tibiae. 

I offer the following notes on some variations that have c 
under my notice : — 

(1). A numerous series of specimens sent to me by Mr. A. 
Lea, taken at Windsor, N.S.W., vary as follows: — 

Length 4*2-5-2, breadth 1-1-4 mm. Colour (a) testae 
(immature); (h) ferruginous (slightly immature ?); (c) ferrugii 
with interstices 2-5 of elytra obscurely piceous on posterior 
of disc; {d) ferruginous with interstices 2-5 wholly piceous ex 
at apex; (e) head and prothorax piceous brown, elytra red 
with interstices 2-4 piceous black on posterior part of disc 
apical declivity. 

(2). Specimens from the Clarence River, also received f 
Mr. Lea, are apparently narrower and more depressed, testae 
with posterior part, excepting apices of interstices 2-4, obscv 
piceous. This form seems a variety or closely allied species, 
requires studying with more specimens than are available to 

(3). Specimens from Carrathool (Murrumbidgee River) 1 
the elytra more depressed; one specimen (immature) is 
testaceous, the others are coloured as in the description ab 
This form has also been sent to me by the Rev. T. Blackburn, f 
South Australia; it seems likely to be C. deplanata, Putz. 

(4). A specimen has been sent to me by the Rev. T. Blackb 
which cannot in any way be distinguished from " No. 3 " ab 
except by having the anterior femora with the lower edge f< 
ing a decidedly acute triangular projection about anterior tl 
This might be C. odontomeray Putz., but I should be un\*allin 



• Vi(k Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1866, x. p. 190, where seven varietie 
noted by M. Putzeys. 



\ 



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BY THOMAS O. SLOAITE. 



m 



mf» 



lo. 3 " oil a single sspeciinenj and \^'ithnut a 
>rm of the lower side of the tibije was con- 
ng that gummed on the same card, and 
frorn the same locality, wjis a specimen 
but with fL'inora a^ in C. tf nffimtuhi. 

FIXA DEPLANATA^ Puty.eys. 

g. 1860, X, p, 190 

ry note oo thii* species all that M, Putzejs 
it is witli hesitation he Rep»arat€s thin 
si tiki, which it resembles in every respect 
horax in a little broarler and especially 
le cakmr ia as variable a,s in f\ afif/u.^f}fJa. 
1 came from Melb:)urne. 

LlviNA FLAVA, Pntzeytj. 

g, 1868, m. p. IT. 

pite prothoraceque obscurioribtis- Cijput in 
nde foveolatnin, parce punctulatnm. Prn^ 
trlratuf*. angulis antieis detlexiH, laterilms 
ledio pni^*»ertim punctaluB, Elytra sub* 
cata, huaieris rotund ati.^, striis iiitp^ris 
J'' quadripunctato. Tibiae antiee lata-, Mptce 
}idigitata- dentienlot|ue superioce armata^ 
Ut IJ mill" 

n this species are \Bry full. I HelcM/t for 
ing on important features. 
^ with the head, prothorax, and apeat of tin- 
brown. The epis^toma i^ rather nan tn\, a 
angles are prominent and jirojeei la^ytjnd 
I are very definitely ftepai"att.^d from thero; 
is hardly marked, glabrous, separated fmni 
rregular punctate injpresrtiun. 
r longitudinal fovea, in the centre of wliicb 
ure noticeable; tire i^cciput and the sidoK of 



'r 



Iff 



'1 




II 




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192 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

the head alike bear some punctures. The eyes are very pn 
nent and project decidedly beyond the large wings; the poste 
border extends over half their breadth. 

The prothorax is almost square, a little broader than long: 
anterior margin is not emarginate; the sides are straight; 
anterior angles are obtuse, but depressed; the border widei 
little and forms a slight prominence at the posterior an^ 
which are marked by a large puncture; the surface is very hg 
convex; the median line is wider and deeper anteriorly t 
towards the base; each side of the prothorax is covered \ 
punctures, which are particularly distinct in the middle and 
not extend to the base; the two lateral impressions are obi 
and very lightly marked. 

The elytra are a little wider than the prothorax, cylindr 
truncate at the base; their shoulders are rounded; the strisB 
deep and very distinct for their whole length, punctate almos 
the apex; the interstices are hghtly convex. The head is stroi 
rugose beneath; the prothorax is much more finely rugose 
transversely striolate. The abdomen is smooth. The ante 
trochanters form a feeble prominence at the base of the fem 
the tibiae are wide, strongly digitate externally, and sulcata 
upper surface; the intermediate tibiae have three or four spinif 
bristles above the spur. 

Uah, — Rockhampton (Coll. Castelnau; several specimens). 

I have been unable to identify C. flava among the speci( 
have seen. 

Clivina difformis, Putzeys. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1868, xi. p. 19. 

"Castanea, capite elytroque singulo in medio piceo; pal 
antennis pedibusque brunneo-testaceis. Prothorax elonga 
aritice angustatus obsolete punctulatus. Elytra cylindrica, 
truncata. Tibiae anticae extus bidentatfe. 

"Long. 5i, El. 3i, Lat. \\ mill." 



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*n' TUOMA^ O. SLOANE, 



U)f^ 



Known to me :— 

ict,.t.; it bean, a ]ig,,Uv- ia,p«««d „i,,,, 
^punctures are tb„.er. The an.en,.^^ ..; 
Th. eye. are prominent, h„t greatJy ™do.ed 
* « Ue«. The protliora, i^ 1o«k«.- tlian broad 
'"t part,c„Jar]y behin.l tl.e anteri,..- an-^les- 
»n^-e.l- th« posterior angle, are di«,i.K-t; ,|,b 
. be.™ some striol* and some .small s..,,ttor«l 

indrical- their U.s i, truncate. I.ut ti,„ 
ro«nded; under a strong len« it u .eea that 
em] .vth .maU transverse undulation. a«t 

-fytra arc. piceoiiH. ,rith all their ,n«,.„j„, 

"f a rather clear browi^. 
row. The anterior tihia., sulcate ..» upper 
- very .tro,.^, teeth. Th. apic-al di,.itatio„ 
E longer tlwn the inner apical spine. 
J north-west of Austmlia ^Coll. Custel,.a«; 

VJ.VA AUaiRALICA, n.8p. 

">.TlH'drical. He.ul «hort. convex- eve. 
nm.„t; facial sulci ligl.tly rec-urv.,]; p,.,, 
than broa<J: elytra lon^., parallel; fc,uV.h 
^«^; eighth inte.-.t.iee .li.tinet on a,.i..,d 
eral eari.ia n,«.Jerat.e. nan-.u-; prost.,r,n„n 
teimate anteriorly; episttrna v.mv finnlv 
largins, overhanging andrioriy; antfnior 
?ijiou.s. 

I «'ith minute, nearly ot«olete punttiire.. 
^rt w„Je. trmicate (oW.letelv em.-HKin=,t.. 
obtuse, haHly prominent; winf,. .„,a|| 
lot so prominent as anjjles of median p,.r( ' 
rnal «de straight; supr.-,-a.,tt.nn,.l ,,lut„.i 




Hi 



ft 



I 





194 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIV [HIDES, 

projecting sharply beyond wings; recurved part of facial s 
well marked, lightly oblique; facial carina? well developed, narr 
eyes very lightly enclosed behind. Prothorax longer than br 
(1*15x1 mm/, hardly narrowed anteriorly, declivous to b 
transversely striolate near sides; anterior margin trunc; 
anterior angles marked, not prominent; posterior angles wic 
rounded; border narrow; median line strongly impressed; antei 
line lightly marked; lateral basal impressions obsolete. EI\ 
hardly wider than prothorax ('2 -3 x 1*1 mm.), parallel, com 
widely rounded, and very declivous to apex; base ligl 
emarginate; shoulders rounded but marked; striae ligl 
impressed, entire, finely punctate, seventh not interrupted n 
apical curve; interstices lightly convex on anterior part of d 
Anterior femora short, wide; intermediate tibiae wide, exter 
margin arcuate, external spur long, slender, acute. 
Length 4*3, breadth 1*1 mm. 
Hab. : N.W. Australia fsent by Mr. Masters.) 
Allied to C angustula, Putz., but distinguished by its n 
cylindrical form, impunctate prothorax, &c. The form of 
clypeus is as in C. dmsalis, Blkb., but the outer angles of 
wings are more rectangular. It should resemble, judging fi 
the description, C. vfirfirnHs, Putz., but is smaller, its protho 
is exceptionally long, and the outer angles of the wings of 
clypeus should be more marked. It is evidently disti 
from C. diffo^mis, Putz.; attention may be directed to the foil 
ing points of difference from Putzeys' description, the smaller s 
different colour, eyes lightly enclosed in the weakW devela 
posterior part of orbits, anterior femora wide, tibii« 4-dentate. 

Clivina odontomera, Putzeys. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1868, xi. p. 18. 

" Dilute brunnea. Caput undique gi^osse rugoso-punctati 
Prothorax latitudine longior, convex us. antice parum augustai 
parce punctulatus. Elytra subeylindrica, basi intus trunc 
humeris rotundatis, striis integris punctatis, interstitio 



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iiv Tno:^TA.s u^ SLOAiraj 



im 



. Lat 1| mill/' 

tmn^Jation nf ins further mmxrks on ihin 

iiice of C\ p^^n^'tfifjWj,^: JioxroN-er, the r.n.tJaorax 
rower, partbuJarly ant, -nnrly; it Lh usually a 
y punctate, 

rider, more truncate: titt^ head i« euvered wjtfr 
b] much more niimejMju.s jiod almont ni-uioHe 
, las. widi. aiir! fe.H thi*.k, haVB not li^inath 
iH t^ that of r, lohau^, but thoy have, a little 
Ktrong ?MJute t<M>th, and tlie apex uf Urn 
y raised in tlie farrii uf a tonth. 
that C. ixitmtmmrn tniist he allied rather to 
thun to C. ^hiiiiw ^ Bikli. 

\mn part, and Nvings almost on sauip |,.vel; 
fnm win-. u,i Padi srdc Kv a .small trian^r„| J 
ith fourth and mh ^trm confluent at hane, 
carina prm^nt. ProHternum with inter.oxal 
id canalbulate anteriorly, sulrat«> ui. 1,^^,.; 

wnll developad Anterior ti laa^ -| . (nntntr, 
Imt I am right in seimratin^' C. A^^^r7^^tV,>Ml 
^j''; this has been don*> an aeccujut of the 
■ int^'-caxal par^t of the pruMternum. Pru- 
7m, hiael'/mrm, offij/i, hrtervg,na, and ^.r;//.. 

M^lvanta^^f^ he regarded an *?eeticin^ uf uni^ 

imh imwthM, Biiukhurn. 
(2), iv. p, 717. 

i**bu«t, parall.^h !{,Htrl widiv dnpre^Hecf 
tuition prominent, runvt^x, hardly arcuaUt: 



/u^.^.^m 





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196 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUV IS IDES, 

clypeus widely depressed near anterior margin; median partwi 
subtruncate (hardly emarginate), its angles obtuse, very ligh 
marked, hardly advanced beyond wings; these small, w 
external angles rounded; supra-antennal plates projecting shar 
and decidedly beyond wings; facial carinae wide; eyes promine 
enclosed behind. Prothorax convex, subquadrate ( 1 -65 x 1 65 mi 
lightly narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 1'5 mm ); sides han 
rounded (not sinuate); basal curve short. Elytra wider tl 
prothorax (3*6 x 1*9 mm.), convex; sides parallel; lateral chan 
wide and strongly bordered at shoulders; striiF entire, dee 
impressed, finely crenulate; interstices convex (depressed n 
apex), eighth narrowly carinate at base and apex. Prostemi 
with intercoxal part small, narrow and canaliculate anterior 
base sulcata; pectoral ridges short, distinct; epistenia coars 
rugulose. Anterior femora wide; tibiae strongly 4 -dentate, 1 
upper tooth small. 

Length 6-6*8, breadth 1-7-1 -9 mm. 

Hob. : Northern Territory of S.A. (Mrs. Bovill); West A 
tralia; Queensland — Gulf of Carpentaria (received from 2 
French). 

The position of C. bovillce is between C, australnsio', Boh., a 
C. heterogenttj Putz. The clypeus conforms nearly to that 
C. heterogena, but the intercoxal part of the prosternum, thoi 
narrower than in C, australasioi, is wider and does not foni 
narrow ridge, as it does in C. heterogena. It appears to 
widely spread along the north coast of Australia, and judgi 
from specimens in my possession varies considerably in faci 
the form of the clypeus and the intercoxal part of the prostemi 
are its constant features. The description given above is found 
on a type specimen kindly lent to me by the Rev. T, Blackbur 

CliVina cava, Putzeys. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii. p. 38: Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 18( 
x. p. 184; I.e. xi. p. 13.* 

Convex, parallel. Head wide, depressed; eyes prominei 
prothorax subquadrate: elytra with striae entire, punctate, foui 



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BY rnOMAS O. SLOA?rK. 



197 



se: Huljmarginal humeral carina ishort, weak; 
u^iivexj eighth cariiiate at apex: prnsttTnum 
irt ang'ti^tate (narrow/ but not attenuate) 
on base: epi sterna Vi^ry finely trans ver:ielj^ 
ibiat^ stronglj -i-dentvate. Ferruginous brown^ 

atifJ vertex depressed, fi nelj but rlistinctly 
ennai plates and wln^^n of clypeus flat; cl3"]>eal 
sed, subtruncate {lightly roundfld;: dypeuj* not 
depressed ne*ir anterior margin; median part 
rounded; wing^t abort, wide, stron-^dy arhaneed 
:, external angles rounded but a little marked; 
tes projecting strongly and sharply lieyond 
syes prominent convex, very lightly enclosetl. 
rate (1*8 % I'H mm.), veiy little narrowed 
Itb 1 '6j mm.j; disc smooth; ba?^al declivity 
larallel, hardly rounded or sinuate; post^'nor 
t lightly marke>d; anterior niar;i(in truncate; 
inded, not marketl; harder retli^'xed, passing 
les; mt^dian and anterior linens well marked; 
isionn rather long, deep, narrow, puiietulate, 

prothoi'^x (3H ji 2 mm.), parallel on g*idi^s 
p^s I bise truncate toirards i^ide'^, ernarginate 
5 rounded » seventh stria entire, not int^Truptrd 
al eurve. Anterior fmnora short, wirlr 
h ^ mm. 

t Australia (two tijmcimejiK sent by Mr. 
id— Rock ham p ton (Putvseys; ColL Castiilnau). 
iich the above description is founded a^'i't'es 
s' deHcriptiun of C t'tmr^ that I have Mlthj 
i ng it as tha t spec Les, T ho w t ro t i '^ 1 y 1 d e n I u t e 
wiate it TJvdth ('. hiivUht'^ UlLh., hut the 
the clypeus deeply truncate emargiufitp, \\\[\\ 
it from all other Australian ^peeifs. 1 ha\ «^ 
ng the species of the ^'tittsfrnfif^ltt ijffutfi^" btit 
tu form a separate gi"*tUf> l<ir il> ^n ha\n Irt'i il 




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198 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUV Ih' IDES, 

in an intermediate position between the " bovilke " and ^^ausi 
Icutifs groups." 

Australasia' g ro u p. 

Mandibles short; eyes prominent; clypeus with anterior marj 
emarginate, wings widely rounded, not divided from median pi 
Elytra with fourth and fifth striae confluent at base; submargi 
humeral carina well developed; eight interstice carinate near ap 

The ^* austral asice group" may be divided into four sections 
shown in the following table : — 

A. Prosternal episterna more or less riiguloae-strlolate, Dot punctate. 
B. Presternum with intercoxal part 

attenuate anteriorly, anterior i 

tibiae 4-dentate Section I. (Type C. Hellala). 

BB. ProBtemum with intercoxal part 

narrow anteriorly, anterior 

tibitG with two strong external 

teeth and a slight prominence 

above apical projection Section II. (Type C. anstralam 

BBB. Prostemum with intercoxal 

part wide anteriorly, anterior 

tibiae 3-dentate Section III. (Type C, basalis). 

AA. Prosternal epistema punctate Section IV. (Type C. ^}ectoral\ 

Section I. 
Table of Sj)ecie*i known to me. 

c. Bicolorous C. stlfaia, Fatz. 

cc. Unicolorous. 

d. Anterior tibiae 4-dentate C. ftrniginea, Pt 

(Id. Anterior tibite 3-dentatc. 

c. Black, convex, interstices of elytra con vex C. occtUlcL, Sl. 

ee. 7'estaceou8, depressed; interstices of elytra 

flat (size veiy small) C. nana, SI. 

It appears as though 6^. stUuralis, Putz., C. verticalis, Put 
€. dimuiiata, Putz., and C. (fqualis, Blkb., should be placed 
this section. 



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BX THOMAS fl. aCOAKB. WIf' 

AXIS A hELLATA, PutzOJS. 

l''<5*»» xxvih p. 40; Ann, Sr*/. Ent. BeU^. 

ic black; elytra testaceous, with &, large black 
art i>f cliac; frmr pt^uiteri^ir k^;;'^ te!*tH,i't*im,s, 
OU8; under surface picetJWH. Niirnnv, evliu- 
e-puiictate; vertex foveatt^ Id luiddle; clypeuH 
it divided from wings, li^Hitly emar^niuite^ 
linen t^ arcuate; a decitled Ninuiijiity iM'tw<*cn 
m* 1 win;:^?5 ot elypeuH. Pititborax smut »th (diw 
triolate and covered witli seattererl miiiyt** 
rther long*?r than broad {\'3i} x 1-25 i rim.}, 
riorly ( an t - wid t h ! m m .% Ely ti-a in i n ve x , 
m.), wtrongly punctate-striat«; striie eiitire, 
base: interstices con veitj eighth distinct un 
'giniil carina at ahonlder, Prosteroum with 
ate anteriorly, trans veri^ely Hulcate on ba^e; 
?ened and trans verwely atriolate. Anterior 
ae<i; tihiie 4-dentate (upper tooth a small 

)■ 

idth 1*25-1*5 mm. 

-Gayndah (Masters); N.S. Walen— Hieh- 

rthj Sydney i Lea), Narrandera, Carrot tliuut, 

ioanej; Victoria — Melbourne (Kershaw |; 

ters). 

featui-es of thin widely diatributr-d spccii^s 

liiv, the attenuate intercoxal ^aart at tlie 

j!our> Immature specimens are oft er» taki»Ti 

0UI3 colour. 

ISA FERftUGINBA, PutZeys. 

g, 1868, xi. p. 14. 

3ut in vertico foveulatnut, \nirvt* |i(hm.'(u 
fiubquadratttSj antice leviler an;,aHhihis, 
n meflio <?% in foveis lift>iabbfi>. ohloni-dH 



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200 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



il 




punctulatus. Elytra subcylindrica, basi tnincata, humeris i 
rotundatis; striis integris punctatis, interstitio tertio qas 
punctate. Tibiae anticse apice longe digitatse, extus bidigii 
danticuloque superiore armatae. 

"Long. 6, El. 3, Lat. li mill." 

After the I^atin diagnosis M. Putzeys has some remarki 
which the following is a translation : — 

The epistoma roundly emarginate and closely united to 
wings, which are rounded, classes the species very clearly am 
those of the twenty-seventh [? twenty-eighth] group. 

It has a very great resemblance to C. Jiava^ in which, howe 
the epistoma is quite differently shaped; but the colour of 
elytra is the same as that of the head and prothorax; 
prothorax is less quadrate, more elongate, decidedly d 
convex, the sides are less straight; ' the vertex is more con 
less punctate, and the anterior elevation is less distin 
separated by a transverse impression. 

The episterna of the prothorax are hardly distinctly strio 
on their internal part. 

Ilab. : Rockhampton (Coll. Castelnau). 

Specimens sent to me by the Rev. T. Blackburn as con 
from Cairns, North Queensland, agree with the descriptioi 
C. ferruginea, except in the following points : — size a 1 
smaller, prothorax smooth (a few very minute punctures 
discernible in and near the lateral basal impression with a 
powerful lens). The following brief diagnosis gives particula 
some characters not mentioned by Putzeys. 

Narrow, cylindrical. Head with a light lateral sinue 
dividing the wings of the clypeus from the supra-antennal ph 
prothorax as long as broad (1*25 x 1*25 mm.), very lightly narro 
anteriorly: elytra (3 x 1*35 mm.) with striie entire, lightly punci 
fourth joining fifth at base, eighth interstice carinate 
base and apex: presternum with pectoral part protubei 
intercoxal part small, attenuate anteriorly, sulcate on I 
episterna very finely rugulose and trans\ersely striolate. Ant< 



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BY THOMAS C. SLOAFM. 



mt 



^ l>eyond \hi^i* *A femaraj these not dilftt^ite 

H It: n late. 

Ii I 35 mm. 

' Mr. IMfiT^tt^r^, lis tiurain^ from N.W, Auh* 

rat^d from tin* apecimeiu? fi^oin Cairns. 

He^l wide befure eyes; prutliorax iiurruw. 
^ly punctate-f^tnatt?, fourtli .stria outltjniBl 
tse: prosterniJKi with inteifuxal part Hmali» 
iulcateon base: anterior tibiae wid»?, strongly 
liining; ant4?iinie ferruginous, legs reddish 

depre«s©dj sparsely and coarsely pmit^tate; 
foveie veiy wide: clypeus h'ghtly daelivous to 
iati part trunrat4?, not divided from wini^s; 
»r aide to tiiedian part, deLrit^Giily advanced 
, widely and lightly rounded in fi'ont; 
'.^ wide, rounded external ly^ projei^tin;( 
beyoml winjir** of clypeus; eyes proniitient; 
1. Prothorax wQiallt narrow, haidly bnntder 
I mm.), a little narrowed tt^apex (ant. widtli 
rongly decH\'ouH to base; dise trans\<'rs<dy 

And very Ii^'btl3^ sinoate Ijehind antt^'jur 
Lvteral ba^sal inipresijsious distinct, narnuv, 
Klytra narrow (3 25 x l'()5 mnj.j^ wi«le>ir 

width as prothorax^ at ha^e^ trunt/at*' *tu 

imprcH^edj entire, coarsely puoctaie (the 
ail usual towa rcb ape j£ ), seventh Si tria entire; 
fre**«fMl towards apex, eighth sliortly cariimte 

b 1'65 aim. 

— CatK^ York (ColL BUickbnrn; a siiiLilf 



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202 ON THE Al'STRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

This species must be associated with C. sellata, Putz., the 
the form of its clypeus is more that of the ** obliquata gro\ 
than of C. sellata. In general appearance it resembles C. que 
landica, SI., and (7. dilutipes, Putz.: from C. queenslandica it i 
be distinguished by its more convex shape; clypeus \ 
median part more truncate, the wings wider, concave, n 
decidedly advanced beyond median part and roundly subtrunc 
elytra with striaj more coarsely punctate; prostemum with in 
coxal part attenuate: from C. dilutipes the wider and punei 
anterior part of the head, the stronger external teeth of 
anterior tibiae, and the shape of the intercoxal part of 
prosternum thoroughly differentiate it. 

Clivina nana, n.sp. 

Small, depressed, parallel. Head wide, depressed; protho 
subquadrate; elytra lightly crenulate-striate, fourth stria joii 
fifth at base, interstices flat, eighth weakly carinate at base, fii 
and weakly carinate near apex; prosternum with intercc 
part narrow anteriorly; episterna minutely rugulose-striol 
anterior tibiae wide, strongly 3-dentate. Testaceous, eyes blac 

Head depressed; vertex roundly concave in middle; cly] 
elevation well marked, lunulate: clypeus divided from front Y 
shallow depression, anterior margin subtruncate (hardly ema 
nate); wings small, not divided from median part, roun 
laterally, divided from supra-antennal plates by a decided sinuos 
supra-antennal plates convex, prominent before eyes, extend 
obliquely backwards without interruption above eyes to form 
wide facial carinae; these reaching behind base of eyes; facial 
pressions wide, shallow, not sulciform; eyes depressed. Protho 
depressed, about as long as broad (0*75 x 0*8 mm.), very ligl 
narrowed anteriorly; disc obsoletely and minutely punctuli 
sides roundly subparallel ; basal curve short, lateral chan 
feebly marked; marginal punctures wide, shallow, the antei 
distant from anterior angle, the posterior behind postei 



1 



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ir THOMAS fi. ELQUNE, 



'203 



vr^m. Elytra ^^ry little* wider than pn*- 
f depremed; sides pii.raUt?J; Uih*^ tmno^ite. 
0-9 mm. 

^Tam worth (Iwea), 

amoti*^ ihiy&a knc^wn to me, and the smallest 
; descriljed. 

nnx suTDiiALiii, Pufczeyg, 

Lvlii. p, 3D; StetL EiiL ZeiL 1806, xxvii. 

Belg. IH66, X. p. 186, 

antennif^ pedibua elytriwciuc tijat*€*5o-ferr\j- 

turali nigra ornatia. Clypetifs tranoatms 

iiinulis. Verti»3t depre^sus, pullotatu^5. 

-o-quadratum^ punctiitumi ba.si utfini|Ut* 

ei!?sutiL Elytra tilongata subeylindricu, 

ita. Tibi^ arUieff extua obtuse bidentrtta*. ' 

t, IJ iimi." 

to Iijs liatun dia^joisif* a fuller deworiptioii 

ring is a traonlation of the niore Balieut 

(Mi truncate, bordereil; ita angles ]>rc>jot't. 
eminent teeth; the wings are hattlly 
upm-antennal raarginR, The vert**x is 
?, irregularly foveijlate and purict^itt^; the 
the sides of the head are very diBtinet and 
y&come brofider t<> wards their souree, 
tie longer than braad; it>^ sides are parallel; 
li^'htly roanded and very declivous; the pon- 
narketl by the interruption of th*? raary;inal 
ferous puncture placetl witliin it; all tln" 
ginsj is covered with rather lar^c punctures, 
tid more numerous on the sides near tli*> 
oblong, rather widt% but shallow, 
he fiame %vidth as the protliorax, eloni^^at*:; 
jRrwlIol; ih© base appearn truiitjati^ and the 




204 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



I 



apex is rounded; they are strongly punctate-striate. 
scutellar striole is oblique and short. The suture is occupiec 
stripe of brown-black which, at the base, covers the first inte 
and becomes wider after the basal fourth without ext€ 
beyond the third interstice. 

ffab. : Australia — Port Phillip; (one specimen). 

In his *' Revision Generale " the following is all that is s 
this species : — 

In a great many respects it comes very near C verlica/i 
prothorax has the same form, but it is less convex, long( 
still more enlarged behind the anterior angles; it is coverec 
a very distinct puncturation. The epistoma has the ex 
angle of its wings more marked, simply obtuse, and the 
are not separated from the posterior wings. The ar 
elevation is less marked, the vertex has only some sea 
punctures anteriorly. All the external teeth of the tib 
obliterated, which may well be only accidental. 

Length 5, El. 2 J, breadth IJ mm. 

In spite of M. Putzeys' having placed C. sutiuah's in a s 
in which the fourth stria joined the fifth at the base,* I c 
help a suspicion that it did not do so, and that C. suturai 
founded on the same species that Mr. Blackburn has since i 
C. dorsalis.^ The dijQTerence in the dimensions given in Pi 
two descriptions, apparently founded on the same specime 
the absence of any comment thereon are unsatisfactor3\ 

Clivina verticalis, Putzeys. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii. p. 40; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 

X. p. 186. 
The following is a translation of M. Putzeys' whole descript: 
It differs from the preceding [C. 8ellata\ by its wholly 

ceous colour, a little darker on the head and prothorax, the ! 



* He placed C. planiceps in the same section, vide (in ft, p. J 72 
t Vide description of C. dorscdisy ante, p. 169. 



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r TIIOMAB Q. Sl^AXE, 



L*05 



Th** deeitletl difierenee is found tu tlm 
, which h alniQHt square, a** lir<m<l hffore 
luars^hi is a little sinufit'e l^efore the anterior 
t» more cylindrical, not at all narruutirj 
t*spects it resembles C. tfdlata, 
readth 1 J mm, 
audoir; two specimens), 
le Bpecimeii of C\ dorsaliiiy Blkb,, iixnn 
ily testaceous in colour, and I eimnot Jit*lp 
rtknUs has been founded on immature 
reality eonjipeeitic with C. dor^fdis. Tri 
ton it may be noted that the charaicterw id 

elytra do not appear t4t have l*een tjtken 
tzey8 at the time he desc rilled C* v^t'tjeolhi 
s tJhere is notliing for it but to retain bi*tli 
:ht in my auapicioii as t<i their identity, a 
I the part of M, Putzey>i haw saddltd tlie 
t least one name for which no ^pecirs is 
iture. 

Wh DiMiDiATA^ Pufczeys, 

6, xjcviL p. 39; Ann. *S(>e. Ent. Bel<,^ Isijti, 

ie coloui*s is almOftt the same as in C ta/^ttfj)f^ 
; so large, very obliijue from the lateral mar- 
:j it is prolongiid beyond the middle of the 
ilour iojstead of lieing a dull red is a li^hr 
? legs and antf*nnfe are aku of a t;le,uer 
* promment; the prothorax m le^s narroweil 
linate in the middle of the anterior mar<£iiii 
m<l narn>wer. 
'eadth 1| mm. 

ne if) {Coll. Chaiidoir; two specimens). 
i from the Revision O^nerale (j>. IS.3) that 
the pro^teriium in very narrow itt C. dtml- 
itly resemble 6^ }ti<'htwjj*[i'j/t^ rut^,, and 



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206 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLI VISILES^ 

indeed on account of its having the intercoxal \mrK ul 
prost-ernum very narrow, and from the fact that >r PuUe; 
his memoir in the Entomologische Zeitung placefl t\ imfntm 
in the same group as C. basalis, taking no notit-t^ <if i\w 1 
characters of the stria? of the elytra, I suspect l\uii it \s 
unlikely to have been founded on specimens of '* tH^Jnunf 
which, probably chiefly on account of their larger Hm\ had 
taken to belong to a distinct species. 

Section II. 

Table of Specie.^. 
J. Unicolorous. 

(J. Size large C. t«*/m/a*iVf, Qq 

f7.7. Size small ... C. ipt*f'ifi*ff»trti*rm^\ 

ff. Bicolorous. 

h. Black, with apex of elytra reddish C. htfi^ !^)* 

hh. Elytra black, with a reddish vitta on each 

side C. n"//r//f4. HL 

The species I do not know are C. jicveuis, Put/.., anrl 0. /w^ 
Blkb. 

Clivina AUSTRALASiiE, Bohemann. 

Res. Eugen.' Coleoptera, 1858, p. 8. 

Robust. Head wide, punctulate on each std«* ut jio^li 
extremity of facial carinse; prothorax not lonjLjer tliao « 
decidedly narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 2-15 nitii); o| 
strongly punctate striate, fourth stria outturned and joining 
at base, interstices convex, eighth carinate at bane ftud h 
anterior tibire strongly 3-dentate (hardly 4-dentate); i«rn*r ii] 
spine (jj) not obtuse at apex. Black, antennae, lihhv /iinl i 
piceous. 

Head large, wide before eyes, obliquely angustat^, with & 
marked sinuosity between supra-antennal plat»»8 and wing; 
clypeus; front and vertex rather depressed: cly|w?HH obaoll 
divided from front; anterior elevation arcuate; niit€'rior imi 
wide, lightly and roundly emarginate; wings ^^it^t*, cone 



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HV TnOHASi a. SLOA?fE. 



20T 



1 from merfian part; 8Upra*aiUGiinal plates 
Hied iieiir fly^K^u?); f^ojal Kulei <Iee[i, pariilh*! 
[>mx ligiitly t'lmvfx, nt nearly e^jual IcTJ^^th 

!!'6 mm. J; anterior anglea rotiiidefi» borilcredt 
sinnH obp*riletej or verv faint Klvtra lonj^, 
im.), lightly t^onvex: durKal surfnLT lutiier 
ncate; m'rii'ginal cliarinel wide at liwnitTal 
id HtroTigly pimctatR on diKC, ijei^oniin^^ faint 

towards apex; interstices convex, exi ept <*n 
PruHtemum with intereoxal part narrow 
1 Imsp; episterna closely rii|Tulo5^. An tenor 
itate, a sinut^yity above upper lar^e t.ooth 
th to he weakly fieveloped- ,J with arit-priftr 
ongly dentate than C; the inner apioal hpin^- 
t^d, but not obtu.se at apex. 

^adth 2 4-i?S mm. 

s, Victoria, and Bonth Australia (wiflely t\is- 
ve Island (IMaelcav Mni^eum); New Zealand 

ven above ist founded on wpecimeiiH ^vnl \u 
taken by hinj at WiinlKcir, near Kytlney; Hie 
Murray and Miirrumbid^ei? Rivor« kpimih tn 
the typical form, being a lighter ami mnn^ 
[ raniiot find any diflfereuees betwt^rn Um tn 
dering of even varif*tal value. Thi* >*rii:in;il 
exact in giving the .shape of thi^ jfrntlmnjx an 

ftrngioKji'^ and the elvtr*^, *' p t'oihifr ffn- hfuul 
s the anterior part of the front i> ilrt*s<dy 
the pu n ctrU iH?si that are nl w ays | > r e sf 1 1 J nn i\\ ( ■ 
U (1 t*ar the facial ca r i n j i\ i^ x t e n< 1 a r r< j s>i the 
J* tjf C. ttftHirti^ftiitff' from Lonl Ho\\t* Ishuir! 
HuHeum; they are probably irlentieal with the 
:. vn(ians by the late Mr. A, H. OlliJl'tMenL 
A specimen (^) nent tn me many y<*ars ai^^o, 

by Capjt. Tho^ Tpniunv umlrr tlif nitmr of 




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208 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVISJDES, 



C. riigithorax, Putz., in no way differs from C, av^tralas 
it appears as if C, rugithorax should be regarded as a syn 
of C. avstralusuH. 
Specimens only 8 mm. in length are rarely found. 

Clivina juvenis, Putzeys. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii. p. 37; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 
X. p. 183. 

Subjoined is a translation of Putzeys' entire descriptioi 
seems quite useless as a means of identifying any species 
appears to be founded on an immature specimen. Tlie qu( 
of whether, in spite of the differences given as distinguish] 
from C. oust I ala step, it may not be that species, I leave foi 
who can to decide. 

Entirely of a slightly reddish testaceous colour. Behind 
anterior elevation of the front a wide deep impression is no 
The impression of the vertex is short and less marked [th 
C. aufttralasice]. The prothorax is narrower, its anterior angl 
less rounded; the elytra are a little shorter; the teeth of the 
are finer. 

Length 8, El. 4, breadth 2 mm. 

Hab. : Melbourne (Coll. Chaudoir). 

In addition to the particulars given above we learn froB 
Revision Gen^rale that the base of the elytra is more disti 
truncate than in C. australasice. 

Clivina queenslandica, n.sp. 

Form light, rather depressed. . Head wide, lightly pun 
on vertex; prothorax depressed; elytra lightly striate, f< 
stria joining fifth at base ; prosternum with intercoxal 
rather wide in front; anterior tibiae ^trongly 3-dentate. B 
shining (prothorax sometimes piceous black); legs piceous ret 
four posterior lighter coloured than the anterior. 

Head wide, subdepressed; front lightly punctate: clypeus 
divided from front, lightly and widely emarginate, a 



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UY THOMAS O. SLOANE. 



20B 



pace along anterior marginj wings sniallj 
:rom median part; clypeal elevation depreaaed, 
ight 8inuo3ity dividing wings from aupra- 
iciaJ sulci lightly impi*essedj wide apart, 
facial earing wide, depresBed, Pro thorax 
*(1*7 X 1'7 mm*), narrowed ant^^riorly (ant. 
s lightly rounded; lateral basal impressions 
>w, Klytra a little depressed^ ver\' little 
% (3 5 K IB mm.), very little narrowetl to 
el; shoulders rounded; stride entire^ lightly 
nulate; ioteraticeji lightly convex on dise, 
se and apt^x. Prosternuni with base Kulcate; 
nd ti^an^sversely striolate. Anterior tibiie 
Fith a feeble projection ahi3vo large teeth, 
pine longy ai'cuate, 
itith l-()5-l'9 mm. 

^Darling Down^ District (Lau); BoiJth 
[alionna (Ziets). 

led by the form of the anterior tibiie in lll(^ 
Jie Iiead to 0* aiintralasia.'^ Bobem., rather 
i which resemble €. lepitku Putz., in the^e 
I, Put?., and C. diliUipEs^ Puts:. Tt is very 
teral appearance^ but may bi^ distinguiinhHiJ by 
■ and punctate, eyes less prominent, prtithoi^ax 
nil Htrtm more finely punctate^ pros tern inn 
rnal teeth of anterior tibiiv' ^tronji^'Br; it has 
fiance to C oQcaiia^ 8L, but differs in nimpe 
prothorax, prostei*num witii the int^n'coxal 
, (fee. 

ClIVINA LEAl, n,»jK 

Head depresaed, wide befon^? eyns; prothoriix: 
I breadth^ decidedly narrowed anttriorly; 
ite-*itriate, fourth stria outturned m\<\ juining 
ibmargmal czarina at shoulder; anteriur tihin^ 






\ 



210 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDBS, 

strongly 3-dentate. Black; elytra with apical third testae 
red, under surface piceous; anterior legs piceous brown, four 
terior legs testaceous. 

Head wide before eyes (1'2 mm. x 1-2 mm.), vertex with a 
shallow rugae, not punctate except finely on each side near extrei 
of facial carinse: clypeus not divided from front, lightly and wi 
emarginate, anterior angles (wings) widely rounded; median 
depressed, bordered, defined on each side by a short, nar 
longitudinal ridge; wings small, concave; clypeal elevation 
tinct, arcuate; supra-antennal plates rather depressed, large, ^ 
strongly rounded and bordered externally, projecting sha 
and decidedly beyond wings of clypeus; facial sulci lig 
impressed, facial carinse short, wide; eyes convex, projec 
slightly, deeply enclosed by supra-antennal plates in fr 
lightly enclosed behind; orbits abruptly constricted beh 
Prothorax smooth (a few transverse striolse on disc), as 1 
as broad (1*8 mm. x 1*8 mm.), widest a little before poste 
angles, decidedly narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 1-5 mm.)^ b 
curve short; border rather wide on anterior part of sides, mec 
and anterior lines well marked; lateral basal impressions sh 
distinct. Elytra convex, very declivous on sides, widest a li 
behind middle (4 x 21 mm.), a little narrowed to base; s 
lightly rounded; base shortly truncate in middle, rounded 
each side; humeral angles not marked; striae deeply impr« 
on basal two-thirds, becoming faint towards apex, closely punct 
the punctures strong towards base, weaker towards apex. I 
sternum with intercoxal part narrow (not attenuate) anteric 
transversely sulcate on base; epistema finely rugulose and tri 
versely striolate. 

Length 7-7-5, breadth 21 mm. 

Hah. : Queensland— Pine Mountain (Masters); N.S. Wale 
Clarence River (Lea); Central Australia (Horn Scien 
Expedition). 

The colour of the elytra, with the whole apical part testace 
red from just behind the third puncture of the third interst 



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BY TH03IA3 O, SLOAN B, 



m 



^ijt specieii, whieh waa first sent to me by 
whofi! I have named it, 

A sfjecimen sent to me by Mr. Masters, as 
aatralia, fUffers from the type fonn of t\ hat 

hearl smooth; the prothor'ax ti little shorter 
re conveXj more rounded on the sides, the 
JUS obBolet^; the strife of the elytra deeper 
net ate* 
1-7 mm, 

iatinct species, but reijuires studying with n 
s before one; itsi general resemblance to 
s very noticeable. 

Clivina vittata, n.sp. 

Front punctate-foveate; protborax convex, 
35 X 1*45 mm,), lightly narrowed anteriorly 
), Klytra rounded on sides, widest btOiind 
wed t43 Imae (3 ntm. -^ 1-6 mm,), strongly 
notices convex, eighth narrowly carina ie at 
curve* Prosternuto with intercoxal paj^t 
te) anteriorl3% sulcate on bawe; episterna 
te. Anterior femora wide; tibiae 4-dentAte, 
7 feeble, Pieeous black; a redtlinh lateral 
) on each elytron, not rendu ng apex; ie.g>i 



n 



w 




h I '0 mm* 

!«— Sydney (one specimen Heiii by Mr. 



, labelled Victoria, ia in the collection ot" riie 
Ti, who has kindly forwarded it to iiHi tor 
I a Her (4-3 x TS mm, \ and ha?* the prothora% 
rwise agrees with the type* 
lied to 0, sfUakt, Putz.j !)ut, Ijesidcts being 
it difi'ersi by it& wifler and more con \ ex 
Lx; elytra leaa parallel, more rounded on the 



liPW 




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li 



212 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUV IN IDES, 

sides, widest behind the middle and evidently narrowed to 
shoulders, more widely rounded at apex; intercoxal part of 
sternum wider anteriorly: the clypeus is very similar to tha 
6\ /tellatay but the wings are smaller and recede a little mon 
the sides, which causes the angles of the median part to be just 
Iqast indicated; the clypeal elevation is less prominent, and 
head is less rugulose. 

Section III. 

Head with space between facial impressions smooth, usu 
convex; lateral sinuosity between supra-antennal plates and clv] 
obsolete or hardly marked. Prostemum with intercoxal part ^ 
anteriorly. Anterior tibiae 3-dentate (in ^ narrower, and witb 
teeth much less developed than in J); inner apical spine i 
longer than in J, curved and obtuse at apex, in J pointed at a 

Tcible of Species, 
t. Bicolorous. 
j. Eljrtra with basal part reddish, apical part black... C. basalU, Cb. 

jj. Elytra reddish, with a large discoidal piaga { p . *. *oi 

a. Unicolorous. 

k. Prostemum not transversely sulcate on base 

I. Size medium, head narrow and obliquely angus- 
tate before eyes 

m. <? with external teeth of anterior tibiae obtuse... C. dilutipe^, I 
mm. S with external teeth of anterior tibi«B slender 

and prominent C. angusiipes, 

U. Size large, head wide and roundly angustate 

before eyes C. simidarUt I 

kk, Prostemum transversely sulcateon base 

n. Elytra with sides very lightly or not percep- \ C. vagans^ Pi 
tibly narrowed to base i C. lepula,l^\ 

nn. Elytra with sides strongly rounded, decidedly 

narrowed to base C. sydneyenH 

Evidently C. microdon^ Putz., (7. ruhripes^ Putz., and C. isa 
Putz., come into this section. 



b 
i^ 



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IT THOMAS G. SLOANB. 



213 



VINA BASALis, Chaudoir. 

7. p. 733; Putzeys, M^m. Li^ge, 1363, xviii. 

» red (the red part about one-third of elytra 
d sloping backwards to half the length on 
Idish testaceous. Head smooth, convex, 
1 a perceptible sinuosity ou each side before 
ided from front, anterior margin bordered, 
iterior angles rounded. Prothorax convex, 
qual length and breadth (1-8 x 17 mm.), 
;ant. width 1-5 mm.); sides lightly rounded; 
teral basal impressions well marked. Elytra 
le depresed on disc, Ughtly rounded on aide«, 
»wed to base (4 X 2 mm.), strongly punctate- 
itire, but weaker towards ape.x, fourth ...it- 
fifth at base; five inner interstices convex 
,ning flat towards apex, eifihth .listinctly 
curve; a subraarginal carina at shoulder. 
>ntercoxal part wide anteriorly, tran.sverse 
Bte Anterior tibiae 3^entale: in ^' narr..w. 

strong, short, .second shorter, projectnig Imt 
I of tibia; inner apical spine elongate, curv...! 

in 2 external teeth much stronger; .nn.-r 
and acute, 
■eadth 1-6-2 mm. 

Bs -Sydney, Tamworth (Ua), Junee, T^arran- 
lulwala(Sloane); Victoria; South Australia, 
id easily identified species 

CUVINA FKLIX, n.sp. 
.orax black; elytra red-lish testaceous with a 
plaga on the posterior two-thirds of disc ..ot 
lateral margins and under surface piceous; leys, 




I, 



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214 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLl VI SIDES, 



HI 



411 



antennse, and palpi testaceous. Facies, head, prothorax, el; 
prostemum, and legs as in C. hasalis, Chaud. 

Length 6-7, breadth I -5-1 -9 mm. 

Hah. : Queensland — Port Denison (Masters); N. S. Wa 
Junee, Karrandera, Carrathool, Urana, and Mulwala (Slo 
Victoria; South Australia (Blackburn). 

This species is rather common in Southern Riverina durin 
summer months. It resembles C. basalis so closely that it 
be taken for it at a casual glance, but the colour differentiat 
the black discoidal patch of the elytra in C. Jelix never re; 
the margins (as it does in C basafis), but is separated b 
testaceous seventh and eighth interstices; on the average 
smaller than C basalis; the only specimens more than 6 5 m 
length that I have seen have been those from Port Denison 
specimen from Narrandera has the base of the elytra clc 
with black. From C. sellatUy Putz., it differs by its larger 
lass cylindrical shape, smooth head, intercoxal part of prostei 
not attenuate anteriorly, anterior tibiw 3-dentate, &c. 



II 



Clivina eximia, n.sp 

Robust, broad, lightly convex. Head as in C. basalts^ 
prothorax broader than long, basal curve short, lateral 
impressions strongly marked; elytra wide, parallel, trunca 
base, punctate-striate, fourth stria outturned and joining fifl 
base, interstices convex, eighth carinate at base and apex; am 
tibiae 3-dentate, with a small protuberance above upper t 
Head, prothorax, and a large dorsal plaga on elytra black; 
(widely), sides, and apex of elytra reddish; under surface re< 
or reddish piceous; antenna*, mouth parts, and four posterioi 
testaceous, anterior legs reddish. 

He^ convex, smooth (vertex and front covered with m 
punctures); lateral impressions light: clypeus not di 
from front, wide anteriorly, and very lightly emarginate; ^ 
small, rounded, not divided from median part; eyes convex 
minent, very lightly enclosed behind. Prothorax trans 



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BY THOMAS G, SLOAJfB. 



315 



J nsLTTOwmi antertoriy (ant. width 1 u nun.), 
base, finely transversely HtriolHte: ^iirJes 
"ly jjtraightji posterior angle?? roundeti but 
giti lightly and widely emarginftte; antyrior 
marked; l3t:^i\ler narrow^ not weaker on «ides 
and anterior lijie^s strongly impressed; latenii 
t, deep, narrow. Elytrti wide (4 '5 k 2"4 mm. ), 
i*essed on diae, sliortjy declivous to j>ediinc]ei 
roundly); slnmldei>i rounded; striie deeji, 
ecoming lighter towards apex, first atrin 
uture a little before base and turning out 
al extremity; int.e rat ices con vex, depjesHed 
rium protul>erant; intercom al pat't wide 
n base; epis tenia strongly rugulo^e an<l 

2 '4 mm, 
Austraha- (Two HpeeiinenH aent by .Mr, 

resembling C.f*'lLt\ St., in eoluur^ butlargfvi', 
esJied. The discoidal black patcli on tb*^ 
-ends in its wide^^t part over the four nr tivr 




IVIKA MICRODOT, PutzeVS, 

g. 186G,^. p. 183 

' testfieeons colour thati C. JaVi ttis^ tin.* hi>i 
L more obsicure than the ba^sr. Thf ?uifi hum- 
Hie anterior elevation of tho head h iu*\ 
iil l>ebind tm m C. Jii*'t'ftis^ wbore it luis tJht 
,} the vertux ban mti a centnil fov<'?i; t!ir 
flatter^ widf*r, anrl tliM im precisions ni f)ii< 
'Aiid rounded towariln liase, The antermr 
very short ami triant^^ulrLr Teeth abov** i\h' 

roadth 1| mm. 

OMl. Chaudoir ; two s|»eeiinens,) 



m I 



I 




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IM 



216 ON THE AUSTRAUAN CLIVINIDES, 

The above is a translation of the whole of Putzeys' descrip 
of C. microdon. I cannot help thinking that it looks not ur 
a description founded on an immature specimen of C. basalis, < 
(/J), discoloured with age. 

Clivina dilutipbs, Putzeys. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1868, xi. p. 12. 

It appears to rae likely that M. Putzeys confused two spe 
under this name, viz., the Victorian species which I cons 
C. vagansy Putz., and a species from the coastal districts betv 
Sydney and Brisbane, to which I attribute the name C. diliU\ 
It is to be regretted that M. Putzeys gave no indication of 
differences which divided C. dilutipes from C, vagans, for it sc 
not unlikely that both may have been founded on the s 
species; however, as there appear to be two closely allied spei 
to either of which either name seems equally applicable, 
probably best to apply the older name, C. vaganSy to the spc 
which it strikes me as being most fitted to, and then to allot the ] 
name to the remaining species. The resemblance between these 
species is very great, the only points of difference apparent t< 
being that, in C. dihitipes the elytra are more deeply striate, ^ 
coarser punctures in the striae, and the prosternum is not sul 
on the base. The following is a description of C. dUulipes :- 

Narrow, cylindrical. Head small, smooth, lightly bi-impres 
prothorax convex, sides rounded; elytra narrow, strongly punci 
striate, fourth stria joining fifth at base; prosternum with ii 
coxal part wide anteriorly, non-sulcate on base; anterior t 
lightly 3-dentate. Black (sixth and seventh interstices somet 
piceous red on anterior third), legs piceous (four posterior o 
testaceous). 

Head small, narrowly angustate before eyes; front and ve 
lightly convex between facial sulci; clypeus not divided i 
front, roundly emarginate; facial sulci lightly impressed, 
parallel, hardly divergent posteriorly; eyes convex, end 
l^hind. Prothorax as broad as long (1*75 x 1*75 mm.), con 



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nv TBO»AS G. 8LOAKE. 



8iy 



itv width 1*35 mm.): lataral banal impresaioT is 
ked. Elytra narrow (4 x 1 -9 mm. ), wiriest 
le; iiides subparallel» hanJly nari'owecl io 
ite; whijiilders rnunded, ucrt iiiarked; striaj 
>e|>ly punctate, ligliter to ward 8 ap.?^; inter- 
Bt depressed behind \mml third^ eighth finely 
lear apeif. 
id til 1*8-2^2 mm. 

-Windsor, Clarence River, and Tweed Kiver 
Brisbane (Ct lilted). 

the Tweed River and Brisbane are darker 
reatar tendency to Iwse the piceous re<:l patch 
L>f the sides than those from the Clarence 

IN A ANGUFTIPES, Putzeys. 

I 1868, xi. p. 12. 

Blaek; legs dark piceous; antennas^ pal pi » 
s. Head small^ BmtMjth, convex, narrow, 
f sinuosity before eyes; clypeuw burdei'«<l, 

frontal impressions arcuate, deep; eyes 
rothorax longer than broad (1*75 x 1*7 mm), 
riorly (ant. width 1-1- mm. ', li^j^litly nmrnltHl 
vex^ anterior angle*^ olituse; median lin*^ 
enor line strongly impressed; lateral banal 
ar, distinct. El^^tra a little ljn>iider than 
m.}, Hghtlj convex, parallel on sides; hasie 
lUTided; sfcrite moderate, Ijecoming .'^hallow 
f- punctate (the punctures verj^ fine tnwai^ij« 
»ar baite, fourth out turned and joining iit'th 
fbtlv convex near baspj depreNsed towards 
near nhouldeni, narrowly carinate on apical 

without pectoral ridges; intercoxal juirt 
e but remaining wiile antfn'iorly; ti'ariHVi't^HH 
ly marked, ^wmetimen oljHolete; episteina 
irsely atriolate. Anterior iibife narrow, 




f: 



* 



w 




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<l'l 




218 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 

3-dentate; apical digitation long, lightly arcuate; external t^ 
short, prominent; inner apical spine as long as apical digital 
truncate, not incrassate. 

Length 6-5-7-5, breadth 1 •9-2-2 mm. 

Ilab. : West Australia — Swan River, Newcastle, and Do] 
brook (Lea). 

Very closely allied to C. lepida, Putz., with which it agree 
facies; the head is similar, the prothorax seems a little narn 
and longer, the elytra present no diflferences. The reasons 
regarding it as distinct from C, lepida are that the proster 
is without pectoral ridges, and not so decidedly (if at all) tr 
versely sulcate on base; and, that the anterior tibiae differ sligl 
their external teeth being longer and more prominent, the aj 
digitation longer and less obtuse, and the inner apical spine 
incrassate at apex. 

Clivina simulans, n.sp. 

Robust, elongate, parallel, subcylindrical Head smooth: 
thorax as long as broad, narrowed anteriorly; elytra with fo 
stria outtumed and joining fifth at base, eighth interstice she 
subcarinate at base, narrowly carinate near apex; anterior i 
3-dentate, ^ with external teeth much weaker than 5, and ' 
inner apical spine long, incrassate, obtuse. Black, shining; ant< 
legs piceous brown; antennse and four pasterior legs ferruginc 

Head smooth, strongly roundly angustate before eyes; 
lateral sinuosity between the wings of clypeus and supra-antei 
plates hardly perceptible; front and vertex convex, Isevig 
clypeus not divided from front; a wide depressed space 1 
anterior margin; clypeal elevation raised, lunulate; anU 
margin roundly emarginate; wings not divided from median j 
small, external angles rounded. Prothorax convex, almost e< 
in length and breadth (2*48 x 2*5 mm.), narrowed anteriorly ( 
width 2mm.); lateral basal impressionselongate,decidedlyinipres 
Elytra truncate oval (5*9 mm. x 2*8 mm.), convex; sides para 
striae strongly impressed, crenulate-punctate; interstices con 
on disc, depressed towards apex, seventh and eighth uniting 



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ny THOMAS a, sloane, 



219 



buraeral caritia; margiDal chaniit^l narrowed 

Presternum with pec torn I part prut ul>e rant; 

anteriorly, non -sulcata on ba^e; epi sterna 

I J, ttiinutely mgulose and finely transveraely 

'eadth 2"7-2'8 mm- 

— Urana Distnct (Sloane; eomraon on th^ 
oanent creeks and swamps), 
blea C auif(raiaifi€¥^y Bohem., bo closely that 
istingujsh them except by a close scrutiny. 
, it is not puiiutatc an is always the casa in 
aith 6". tfttiftralf.tsiff; the i^imjosity between 
iates and the wingH of the clypetia iti l^s 
ise are a little lighter and slightly leys 
antennal plates diverge from the head more 
es; the pruthorax. m more convex^ more 
front, the lat<?ral basal impression** more 
are more convex, the sides being more 
fth stria to the margin, the basal decHvity 
a little more distinctly erenulate, the siib- 
■ina shorter and leas developed; the Ijtise oi 
:>t sulcate, and the wavy ruguloKity nf tin* 
B external teeth of the anterior tibiiL* txr*^ 
(especially in ^), the npper being srivjiller 
le upper internal spine m longer, Kti"f!ightt*(\ 
nl spine is lighter in Ijoth sexes, atul in .-J 
{in C, austral atita\ though the irrnei* apieiil 
than in $, it is bent and piJinted at tb" 

LIVIKA VAGANS, Putzeys, 

i66jxx™. p. 38; Ann. Sof- Ent. ll^^lg. isili;, 

Head small, smooth; pro thorax smooth, 
oad ; e ly tr a narrow^ ; p rem ten i u m w* it 1 1 ^t r< m g 
;oxal part wide anteriorly, sulcate tm ba^se. 
egs black J four poiiteritn' tibia^ piceous. 



^Ht * 



ft 





•f 



"UJ 




220 



ON THE AU8TRAUAN CLIVINIDES, 



i 



I 



r* 



g. Head small, smooth; front and vertex lightly convex; cl; 
not divided from front, lightly emarginate, wings not di 
from median part; supra-antennal plates narrow, not di 
from wings of clypeus by a lateral sinuosity; frontal foveas s 
shallow; facial sulci lightly impressed, diverging lightly 
wards; facial carinse wide, depressed; eyes not prominent, 
thorax a little longer than broad (2 x 1-9 mm.), evenly co 
narrowed anteriorly (ant. width IGmm.); anterior angles li 
rounded, lateral basal impressions shallow, elongate, min 
punctate; median and anterior lines distinctly impressed. £ 
convex (4 x 2*2 mm.); sides lightly rounded, a little narrow 
base; shoulders rounded; base truncate; lateral channel m 
at humeral angles; striae lightly impressed, finely punctate 
entire, others (excepting seventh) becoming obsolete on t 
declivity; interstices lightly convex near base, flat on apical 
seventh carinate at base, eighth narrowly carinate near 
Prosternum with pectoral part flat, margined by strong ca 
these oblique, but becoming parallel at anterior extre 
episterna finely rugulose and transversely striolate. An 
tibia) narrow; the apical projection short and but little outtu 
the external teeth feebly developed, the upper not proJ€ 
beyond edge of tibise; inner apical spine very long, curved, o 
at apex. 

J. Anterior tibiae wider, with strong external teeth, the i 
lightly prominent; prosternum with pectoral ridges shortei 
more feebly developed. 

Length 6-5-7-75, breadth 1-8-2-2 mm. 

Ilab. : Victoria — Lillydale (Sloane). 

It appears tome that this must be C^. vaganst^ Putz.; it cert 
should be the species he mentions as from Melbourne, at th( 
of his description; if so, the type specimen was a very small 
though one equally small has been sent to me by Mr. Black 
It is very closely allied to C. lepicfa^ Putz.,. of which it seem 
Victorian representative; the more convex and less parallel € 
seem the most decided character distinguishing it from (7. k 
The black leg^ seem characteristic of the typical form of C. va 



k^. 



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tY^ THO^WAS G. SLOAKS. 



221 



e from Swan Hill by Mr, C. French have 
testaceoiia. The l>lack species allied to 
refill *tudy with large series of freshly 
JIB many different looallties. 

LiviKA LEFIDA, Put^eya, 

m, Mvil p. 38; Ann. Hoc. Ent. Bdg. 1860, 

Head small, smooth; prothoraK convex, not 
cide^Hy narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 1'7 
on Hidet^, punctttte-striate, fourth stria out- 
ifth at base. Frosternuin with intercoxal 
snicate on ba.se; ant4?rior tibiae anlentato; ^ 
it^noT tibiffi^ much weaker than io J, aiirl 
Ell spine stout, curred and obtuse at apex, 
poaterior legs tisstaceous red, anterior legs 

quely auguatate, with hardly any trace of a 
a«h side Wiind wdngs of clypeut^, t^onvex and 
lI ioipre-fisions; clypeua not divided from f tijnt, 
tUy emarginatet wing.s small, not divided from 
mx rather longer than broad (2 2 x 2i5 mm.), 
I, not sinuate Vjehind anterior angleis; anteritir 
giaatc behind neck; anterior angles obtiwily 
id anterior line^ well marked; lateral ba^al 
linear. Elytra very little wider than pnj- 
2-3 mm.), lightly convex; mk^ pandl^d, not 
5d to shoulders; base trunr-ati-i shonlch^rs 
?livity lightly decli\oua; strifo. morf^ ntniiv^ly 
itfi on disc than towards apex; inter^ti<.-es 
*e, depressed towards apf^x, seventh sliortly 
;htly finely carinat« near apex; lateral \nmlvv 
eptiWy wider posteriorly. Pi-oHternum with 
Qgly developed; epistenia linoly rvi^nilor<<^ and 




J- fi 



mi 



ii 



J. 

* 




222 



ON THB AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



mi 




transversely striolate. Anterior femora dilatate, upper side 
arcuate. 

Length 7-8-5, breadth 21-2-3 mm. 

ffab. : N.S. Wales — Windsor (Lea); New Zealand (BrouE 

This species is readily separated from C. australasice, Bol 
by its smooth head, narrower before eyes, by the weaker ext 
teeth of the anterior tibiae in both sexes (the fourth tooth is c 
obsolete); and by the $ having the inner apical spine more ci] 
and obtuse at apex. A specimen sent to me from New Zes 
by Capt. T. Broun, under the name of C. rugithorax. Put 
identical in every respect with the 5* of C. lepida; it seer 
have been confused with C. australaaice by New Ze^ 
coleopterists. I believe C. lepida is also found in Victoria 
South Australia. 

Var. 1 C. tasmaniensis^ SI. Coal black, shining, legs b 
DiflTering from C. lepida by its darker colour; more convex i 
prothorax with lateral basal impressions feebly developed, sha 
short; elytra less parallel, more rounded on sides, strise less strc 
impressed. 

Length 72-8, breadth 1 •9-2-2 mm. 

Hah. : Tasmania (sent to me by Mr. A. M. Lea, as from 
mania). 

It requires further study and comparison with C. vnganSy I 
it is doubtless the species that Mr. Bates considered C. va 
(Cist. Ent. ii. 1878). 

Clivina sydnkyensis, n.sp. 

Robust, convex. Head small; frontal sulci diverging I 
wards; prothorax of equal length and breadth; elytra 
narrowed to base, fourth stria outturned and joining fifth at 
anterior tibiae 3-dentate; the external teeth much weaker anc 
inner apical spine longer (obtuse) in ^ than in 5. Black; 
piceous red, anterior darker than four posterior. 

Head small, smooth, narrow, convex; clypeus not divided ; 
front, roundly emarginate; eyes not prominent. Proth 
convex, of equal length and breadth (1-9 x 19 mm.), decid 
narrowed anteriorly ;ant. width 1-6 mm.); anterior angles lig 



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BT THOMAS G. BhOA^E. 



983 



■ior margin lightiTT emarginate; lateral baafil 
linear < sometimes oVi^olet-e), Elytr^i o^l 
ideBt behind middle; .sides roiinded^ decidedly 
lOulderw not marked; base roundtxl; stri^ 

lighter towards apex; their pxinetiiration 
i narrow; convex towai'ds base, eight li finely 
lort dis^tinct submarginal carina at sbotilder, 
reo^al part wide anteriorly, sulcftte on ba^; 
iveloped. 
th l-8'2 2 inm. 

-Sydney Bistrict (^Sloane, Lea), 
to €. l^pi&mj Puta., but evidently a dit^tinct 
character di-stinguishing them in the shape 
^ »2idn€4fonsiii the elytra are more convex^ 
ptly decrlivoua on base, sides^ and apex» the 
[Jed and stronj^ly narrowed to the base, the 
&r and more convex, the fourth Ijeing much 
i the lateral Ixirder is wider on the widewj 
[deris. From C dihitipe^^ Putx-, which it 
iatinguii^hed by t!ie more rounded side^ of 
& presence of a sulcus on the l>age of the 
V. vagan», Pntjj., it is separated In the 
re convex interatice,s of tlie elytra, ite. It 

the commonest species of CHvina in the 
ney. 

risfA ttUHKiPES, Pufczey^- 

I IH68, xi. p. 13, 

•anslation of Putzey.^' entire note (it cannot 
) on this species : — 

lan C lepida. Very distinct by its Icg?i 
ja^ceou^ colour; its prothorax wider, tlatter, 
square, scarcely a little narrowed to the 
are a little more rounded; its elytra lonjL^'er, 
marked, 
eadth 1} mra» 
\ (ColL Casteinau), 



nil 





:. i 




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224 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINJDES, 

Clivina isogona, Putzeys. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1868, xi. p. 13. 

" Fusca, elytris pedibusque 4 posticis fusco-testaceis. CI 
vix emarginatus; vertex in medio oblonge profunde foveola 
antice panim punctatus. Prothorax quadratus parum con 
sulco medio profundo, transversim undulatus neque punc 
Elytra cylindrica, basi truncata, humeris rotundatis, pre 
punctato-striatji. Tibiae anticae apice digitatse, extus unidig 
denticuloque superiore vix perspicuo armatse. 

^ ' •■ " Long. 8, El. 3^*, Lat. 1| mm." 

'^^ I translate the remarks which follow, as under : — By it 

and general appearance it comes near C. rtUyripes, but the 
are a little longer and the shoulders less rounded; the prot 
is shorter, still less narrowed in front, a little less conves 
median line is more deeply impressed and the surface bears 
more distinct undulate striae; the two impressions of the ba 
less marked. 



H 



i 



Hi 




The vertex bears in the centre a deep oblong fovea wl 
preceded by some large scattered punctures. The episto 
much less emarginate and more strongly bordered in the n 
the antennae are a little less thick. 

The collection of M. de Castlenau contains a single spe 
without exact locality; presumably from Melbourne. 

Section IV. 

Submarginal humeral carinae of elytra nearly obsolete, 
sternum with intercoxal part narrow anteriorly, sulcate on 
episterna punctate. Ventral segments punctulate laterally 



• There is evidently a mistake in these figures ; judging from the 
me lit which follows that the elytra are longer than those of C. riibrii 
probable we should read 4 J. 



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tfV THOAIAB ii* SLOAXE. 



225 



ilg. 1868, %l p. 14. 

irotlxorax broader than longj elytra uvtil with 
ilat-e-punctatej fourth .stria joining fifth at 
unaeral carina haixily developed; pruyternurn 
isliarply narrowed ^ not attenuate ant^sriorly, 
terna finely punetat^: anterior tibitB strongly 
ro thorax, leg-^, ayture and lateral margins of 
i; elytra piceous brown, 

punctate i>etweeo posterior extremitie!^ oi 
i; vertex and front convex: clyjieus not 
it, antei'ior margin widely enuirginat-ej 

divided from median part, widely rounded^ 
3a convex, rounded externally, projecting 
y heyijnd witig^ of clyfx^UJi; frontal foveai 
trin^e wide, merely a backward prolongation 
il plates; facial Huki wide, divergent; eyeij 
vnt; orbits pronunerit and convex behind, 
tgreened, convex, widest a little before po!i- 

1*35 mm.), narrowed anteriorly (11 rnm,); 
funded j ant-erior margin e margin ate; angl«-3 
^les niarke*i; median line tatrongly iniprcw^rd: 
Elytra wider than pro thorax (L* 9 x I ti 
rsi rounded, not marked; striae entire^ deoj-iJv 
lulate, seventh not interrupted at beginning 
ort dsstinet atriole at base of first iutersticr; 
iiinutely shagreeuedj eighth bmad, Imrdly 
Intermediate tibit^ with eKteriial margin 
leare-st the apex a little ntnimger than oilirr^. 

t;adth 1*354*6 mm. 

^- Rock Immptou ( Coll > Castelnau ) : X. H, 
iver (LeaV; West Australia (sent hy Mr* 
m N,W* Coast), 











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226 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 





A completely isolated species among the Australian mem1 
of the genus. The external spur of the intermediate tibiae is \ 
weak and situated not far from the apex. 

The description given above is founded on specimens ($1) from 
Clarence River, sent to me by Mr. Lea, which, although appearin 
differ slightly from M. Putzeys' description of C. pectoralis in ha^ 
the puncturation of the head, prothorax, and prostemal epist€ 
weaker, seems undoubtedly that species. One specimen 
probably), of which only the elytra now remain, is much am* 
(4*5 mm.), differently coloured — the elytra being black, with 
suture and lateral border reddish — the puncturation of 
metastemum and ventral segments stronger, and the ven 
segments foveate laterally. In the specimen described above, 
puncturation of the prothorax is so obsolete as to requir 
powerful lens to distinguish it; the metasternum is finely punci 
near the sides, also the episterna, and the ventral segments 
without punctures or lateral foveaa. A specimen sent to me 
Mr. French, as from West Australia, is of an entirely femigii 
colour. 

P roc era group. 

Size large, or above the average. Clypeus truncate-emargii 
(median part truncate, wings projecting strongly forward, 
roundly obtuse at apex). Elytra with fourth and fifth striae 
fluent at base, a submarginal carina at shoulder (someti 
feebly developed, e.g., C. nyctosyloides, Putz.). Prosternum > 
intercoxal part very wide anteriorly, not sulcate on base. Ante 
tibiae 3-dentate, external teeth weaker in ^ than in J; ir 
apical spine in $ long, cur\'ed, obtuse at apex. 

Fifteen species are associated in this group; of these, tw 
known to me, are tabulated below. The group could readil; 
broken up into seven sections represented by 0. procera, C. mo 
cornisy C. oblonga, C. reyufaris, C. nyctosyloides, C, mastersr\ 
C. marginata. The species I do not know are G. elegans, P 
C. prominens, Putz., and C. obscuripes, Blkb. 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOA!^E. 



Tabit qf Sptcit^ known to me. 

p^duDclfl pnDiitat^ tit roguloae. 
iBterna elongate (metaattirnttm 
Ledmteittid posterior cox® longer 
coxfl&V> 
i loiiger thjvEi broad, cnniidibles 

ODger thaa broad, miLit dibits 
a^ {anteuiii^ v«L-y &hr>rt* Dioaili- 

^Uterna very Bhyrt (m^toaterniim 
:ennediate and posterior cuicf^ 
posterior coxce), 
etr^Dg t rati averse occipital ini- 

^ut a traosverse occipital Im- 
at most only lightly indicated 



227 



(7. procem, Vutz, 



O. m&nUkorim SI 



€. oMofi^fit, Ptita, 



wtthout a DoticeabliiJ lateral 
fsity bt^tween aupm-a&tential 
a and wingi of clypeoft. Fro- 
al epifit^ma rugose on baenl 
vities, ..... U* ahbtrmsbtai Fntz. 

i with a deoi/led lateral sinuosity 
veeti snpra-antetinal platea and 
ga of clypeus. l'rf>9t;erTial 
terna J»nior»tb {>□ basal decUvitlea tUdchttt/i^ '^\. 

of pet! II tide smooth. 

L brfiader tb.in luiigt nom^ally 

teriorly, . , ..*,...,....,,. C refftdart^^ HI 

reader than long, greatly nar- 
riorly. 
abort, 

t'ith atri«? deep, entire, Htron^ly i , , , . . . n * 
tc; antennae BU oh III orm, seuond f ^ . .. .- t^i 

scidedly longii^r thau third,. »»,, ' 
ft Binooth OEi eidt'n find apc^. 
ante (iliforni, iliird jidiit unt 
ter than tecmiiL 




•^ 




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228 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLiVlHIDBS, 

I. Striae of elytra simple, interstices 

not convex C. mnstt^ti, SI. 

JI. Striae of elytra punctate, interstices 

convex on anterior part of disc C. oi'ipennU, SI. 

GG. Mandibles long, decussating. 

K. Elytra with testaceous margin ... C. marginaiOy Ps 

KK. Upper surface entirely black ... C. gracilipeMt SL 



Clivina procera, Putzeys. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii. p. 34; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 18 
X. p. 180; Scolyptus procerus^ I.e. xi. p. 8. 

A widespread and well known species; the following diagn^ 
will enable it to be identified : — 

Elongate, parallel, subcylindrical. Black, shining: legs pice^ 
Head smooth, lateral margin sloping obliquely and evenly forw 
from a little before the eyes: clypeus not divided from front; med 
part truncate; wings strongly advanced, rounded at apex; fa 
sulci lightly impressed; ayes prominent, lightly enclosed Ijehi 
Mandibles short. Antennae not short, submoniliform, ligl 
compressed. Labrum 5-setose. Prothorax subquadrate (4 x 
mm.), lightly convex, narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 3-3 nu 
declivous to base; anterior margin very lightly emargin 
Elytra a little wider than prothorax (9*5 x 4-5 mm.), para 
atria3 crenulate, strongly impressed near base, becoming ligl 
towards apex and sides, fourth outtumed and joining fifth at b 
seventh interstice carinate at humeral angle, eighth very narro 
and lightly indicated (sometimes obsoletje) near apex. Prosten 
protuberant; intercoxal part very wide anteriorly, bordered 
each side by a strong wide carina, vertical and non-sulcat€ 
base; epistema covered with a faint wavy mgulosity. Lat 
cavities of peduncle punctate. Metastemum longer bet^ 
intermediate and posterior coxee than length ofj posterior c( 
episterna elongate. Anterior femora thick, not channelled b( 
in (J; tibia 3-dentate (much narrower and with external t 



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Br TnOMAS O. 9L0AXE. 



229 



jM« 



hail in ^}; muer apical spine in J very lufjg, 

truncate at apex. 

r£^!th 3-75-4-7 mm. 

I — Burket^^wn District (French), Roekbamp- 

); N S. Wales — Murray and MurnimbidgB© 

mth Austmlia, 

a in the possession of Mr* Masterfi from Port 

jOuwing dimensions :— Hefi^l 3 '5 k 3-5, prcn 

eljtra 13-5 x C, length 23 nun. It in the 

IV© seeDj but*, beyond its apparently heiivifir 

nentiate it from C. prttcem. 

LI YIN A PRaMUJ^ENS, Putzeys. 

J^66,xxvii. p, .55; Ann, Soc. Ent. Be%, 1866, 

promiuf^rmi Lc, 186?^, xL p. 8. 

icription is in fcliree lines as under : — 

^era^ of which it is jjerhaps only a viir'it*ty. 

[>rot]iorax m a little .shorter and le^s Inroad 

ra are a little narruwer at the apex, ami tlt8 

[leiit. 

f Ijat» 3 mtn. 

-Melbourne (Coll. Chaudoir ; two ripecnnen& 

U¥1N4 MONiueoiiNlH, n.-^i*. 

rallel. Head shorty subilepi'eHsed; marjtlibles 
ng; cly]>eus emarginate-trunnite; nntf^nnw* 

prothoruJC longer than broad, nan*ti\v«Hl 
i?ery eonveXj crenulate-striatej fourth stria 
eighth inter^^tiee very narrowly earinatc nt-ar 

carina at shoulrler; pfo^ternnm with inter- 
riorly, lateral cavities of |ieduncle de*^p, ttrn ly 
rnal epiftterna of niediuui length; anterior 
ate, Blaekt under surface piceous black, leg** 



|. 




'I' 




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330 ON THB AUJSTRALIAN CUV IN IDES, 

Head short (1^6 x 1-8 mm.), wide before eyes; vertex a 
front smooth, wide, lightly convex; clypeal elevation prominei 
rounded: clypeus divided from front by a strong tranavei 
impr6?58ion, depressed near anterior margin; median part trunca 
bordered- wings strongly advanced, rounded externally, vc 
obtuse at apeXj oblique on inner side; supra-antennal plates wi( 
rounded externally, a light sinuosity dividing them from clyp 
wings^^ eyea globose, prominent, projecting lightly beyond sup 
entennal plates; orbits narrow and abruptly constricted behii 
facial sulci diverging backwards from ends of clypeal suture; fac 
carinEB thick, prominent. Labrum 5-setose. Palpi stout; penu 
mate joint of labial about ^ame length as terminal. Anten 
with set^ond joint decidedly longer than third, joints 4-10 she 
quadrate, Prothorax Rm*x>th, longer than broad (3 x 2*8 nm 
narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 2*3 mm.), very convex tra 
veraely, lightly convex loiigitudinally, very declivous to ba 
anterior margin subti"nncate (lightly emarginate behind nee! 
anterior angles obtuse, hardly marked; posterior angles round< 
basal cur\'e short; border narrow; median and anterior lii 
lighUy impressed; lateral basal impressions distinct, rom 
foveiform. Elytra very convex, suboval (6x3 mm.), lighi 
rounded on sides, widely rounded at apex, very declivous 
humeral angles, thense rounded; striae finely crenulate, strong 
impressed on dine, weaker towards apex and sides, seventh hare 
marked; interstices convex near base, becoming depressed towai 
apeXj lirRt of each elytron together forming a wide lightly raifl 
sutura) ridge; the four large pimctures of third interstice stron| 
than usual. Prosternum protuberant, not canaliculate betwe 
coxa- or sukate on base: epistema minutely shagreened and v( 
finely transversely j^triolate. Anterior femora short, wide, cc 
pressed: anterior tibife wide, strongly 3-dentate; upper toe 
prominent, triangular- inner apical spine long, curved, points 
upper internal 8?jHne lung, slender, acute; intermediate tibiae wi< 
compresBed, external spur strong, erect. 

Length 0*5-1 1-5, bread fcli 2^6-3 mm. 

Sah, : Queenaland—Port Denison (Masters). 



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Ur THOMAS n. SLOAN E. 



231 



jpecief* ; the arrHUgement of the atrite at the 
and the form of the cljpeua associat*? it with 
and 0, abiri'^viala, Putz.; prolmljly it is more 
'*. abbreinMta^ Put^.j than to any other specien 
it the longer raetasternal episterna seem tu 
put with that apeoieii* The metiistertiftl epis- 
!>rter than in 6^ /rf^m^tiraj heing very little longei' 
w#, SI., C. eniarginafti^ PuU.,or 6'. H^rfo^i/ltdfleei^ 
rrower, especially in frontj than in thoise speciet^. 

CLiviifA ELEGAxa, Putzevs- 

63, xTiii. p, 44; Stett. Eiit. Zeit. LSijij, xxvii. 

^nt. Belg, 1866, x p. 179. 

palpis tAm&ntie testaceis; labro, ant'eniiis pedi- 

Clypeua truncatus, alls angaiatim prominenti- 
planiusculumT ohlongos^ubquadratinn, antice 
j rotundatunij angulis postiris nee pntmiiiulis. 
bJonga, punctato-stnataj interstitio 3-' quatlri- 
antica^ S4ll]cat«^ extui fortiter hidentat*; 
.tie. 

% Lat. 4 milL" 

Putxeyn' original liiagDusi!*; it is followed V>ya 
a which, only ((xnitting a few uniiiipiji'tant 
IS translated : — 

"6 pshortj rather thick, inera&^ite, nionilifdrni 
L 

re short, hroad, partiL'nlarly at. f lie l>f.ise, ijitfier 
ot very acute at apex, 

very light!}" sinuate, ch>sidy uuituti tu itn wingy 
ingly in an acute angle, the apex of whieli is 

are less than uf^ually divided from Hio sii|iim 
The anterior elevatiiin haw [losteriorlv a 1 1 road 
(Jecreaaes a little in depth at the centre and at 
bole head i;^ finely punctate. On the vertex a 
8m all iinpr€!?-sion m seen, and a little further 
^ two tran&verse impressions, which extend a 




.'ftf 




kh Pi.« M 




232 



ON THE . AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDBS, 




4 




little backwards. The eyes are not very prominent, th^ir^x \ 
third being embedded in the lateral margin of tlie heaJiin^ 
impression which divides the head from the neck is hardl}isv( 
in the middle. ><^ 

The prothorax is quadrate, a little longer than bniadj iiar* 
anteriorly, very rounded at the posterior" angles, not 
prolonged posteriorly; the surface is lightly convex, the ant 
margin is widely emarginate; the angles are a little proiui 
the sides, cut obliquely for their first half, are regularly ctin' 
the base; the posterior angles form no prominem+s <^nly a 
internal puncture is seen above a tubercle, which th^m not pi 
beyond the marginal border. The transverse anttnior iiiipre 
is rather close to the margin; the longitudinal impresi^ion exl 
a little past the first. In the middle of each side of th* 
thorax, facing the posterior angles, a rather wide hIuiUkw foi 
noticed, which extends forward in a straight impn?s^e*i aiiH 
marked line, reaching beyond the anterior third of the proth 

The elytra form a very elongate regular oval; their upper sii 
is depressed longitudinally along the suture on tlie f ulterior \ 
the striae are punctate, but the interstices are not i^ised. 
a prolongation of the seventh interstice, which at the shf 
unites with the marginal border; only the interstices 1-3 t 
the base. 

The anterior tibiae are wide, sulcate on upper side; ejcter 
they have a rather long strong tooth, and above this a second 
and broad tooth. The intermediate tibiae are widt\ spincjssse i 
the posterior side, which is armed with a spur. 

Underneath all the body is covered with undulating tvmm 
striolep, dotted with rather scattered punctures. 

Hah. : Australia (one specimen). 

In his " Revision G^n^rale " M. Putzeys has formed a sep 
group for C. elegans, of which he treats as follows, bei 
translation of his remarks in the Entomolgische Zeituiig: — 

Twenty-sixth Group, 
It has much resemblance to the twenty*seventJi j 
[C procerd]. It differs by its less shining colour, Its dj 



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BY THOMAS fU SLOAIWE, 



233 



f a blackish- brown, its epistoma with hsn 
clcer antenna?, its eyes enclosed on all mleH^ 
ion of the head i\ little deeper^ its heoil niore 
punctate, its prothorax more oval and mfjre 
, its el^^tra more ctmvex, of s^^ very regular 
its striie deeper, the under surface of the 
riolate-punctate, and particularly by tlie 
pjWhich are sthort and square; the paronychium 

m of tbe prosternum is broad, erinaliculattt 

mys that \w. had jxisseased thia insect a J*fiig 
I given to him as coming from SSouth Americji, 

of its features show an atlinit)' to the Aua- 
Ida that be sugpects that this country may 
;at. 

it upon nij mind by a study of Putzeyi** 
scimens of C. obhitya^ Putk!., lief ore me, is 
ve been founded on a specimen [k^} of thafc 
e regretted that M. Putzeya when describing 
nupare it with C. f^lfga}ii^. The only featuiea 
peciea seem to be tlie punctate istrito and the 
, with the striolate-pimctato uiidpr surfae*^ oi 
a specimen of C. oblungti^ referred to uinh-r 
\i:^\ Vi'iih CeratmjkiMii faveiet^ps, Mad, (r/^/n 
ral characters that might l)e described as iire 
It is pc»ssible the tine punctures of tli^ lit-a<l 
ly l>e a poni morttiH effect; still, as M, Putzeyd 

he named C\ olthmtia as undescribed. hitt 
k, l>e upheld, though uiit without, doubt on 

uviNA OBLOXQA, Putzeys, 

, Putz.j Ann. Hoc, Ent. Belg. IS73, xvi, [i. U>; 
tf, Macleay, Trans. Ent* iSoc, N.8.W, li^i'»3, 





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234 



ON THE AUSTRAUAN CLIVINIDBS, 




Robust, elongate-oval. Head strongly transversely im 
behind vertex; antennae moniliform; mandibles short: 
oblong-oval ; strise deep, entire ; lateral cavities of p 
punctate; metastemum and metasternal epistema short; i 
tibiae 3-dentate. Black, shining; under surface minutel 
reened. 

5. Head smooth, narrowed to a neck behind eyes; 
margins sloping obliquely and evenly forward from 1 
before eyes; a deep oblique impression dividing clyp 
each side from supra-antennal plates — these impressions 
times turning inwards and dividing the clypeus from the \ 
each side: clypeus not divided from front in middle, < 
declivous to anterior margin; this bordered, deeply tr 
emarginate; wings concave, strongly advanced, widely rou 
apex, sloping gently to median part on inner side; supra-ai 
plates large, convex, not divided from the wide convex 
carinse; facial sulci strongly impressed; eyes convex, 
enclosed in orbits; these large, strongly protuberant 
two-thirds size of eyes) behind eyes; supra-orbital pu 
distant from eyes; temporal region strongly rugulos4 
finely rugulose. Antennae stout, moniliform, incrassate 
5-10 short, strongly compressed. Palpi with apica 
thick, oval. Prothorax smooth (faint transverse striolae 
able under a lens), a little longer than broad (3*7 x 3-{ 
narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 3 mm.), depressed, 
decHvous to base; sides very lightly rounded; posterior an^ 
marked; anterior margin emarginate, widely and obtuse] 
cate on each side of neck; border narrow, reflexed or 
lateral basal impressions weakly developed or obsolete; 11 
line deeply impressed. Elytra a little vnAev than pn 
(7*7 X 3-8 mm.), subdepressed; sides lightly rounded; base 
and subemarginate between humeral angles; striae 
impressed, entire (the inner ones often obsoletely crei 
fourth joining fifth at base, but not out turned; int 
convex, eighth shortly carinate at base, narrowly c 
on apical curve; border reflexed; lateral channel wide. 



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Y THOMAS G, SLOANS, 



2Sb 



il part channelled, wide anteriotlj, almost 
on base; pectoral carinie weakly developed, 
orly. Metasternum much shorter between 
3nor coxie than length of posterior coxtij. 
lar to tho8e of C\ procera. 
dth 3*8-i'6 mm. 

— Richmond Kiver (Macleay), Narrara 
^ang (Fletcher). 

tUf Putz,| from which the strong transverse 
^rhich ia characteristic of C. oblonga^ at 

;ures on the third interstice of the elytra 

the posterior puncture in C, ohlon^a is deep 

extremity of the fourth interstice, and is 

than in VkUj other of the large species of 

Tlie form of the apical extremities of 

ratices is worthy of note — these iiiteraticeii 

confluent at their apices, the apex of t\\^ 

lating in a rather deep depression formed 

ird and fifth. 

my collection which I have cumpared am I 
B type of Cfratoi/iosna/oimicepti^ MacL It 
.) and more convex than typical speciiuens 
>rathorax a little shorter (3*^ x 3*iH mm.), 
I. dhtinctly erenulate, and the posterior 
third interi^tice a little further from the 
hink it a different 3j>ecies. The name 
id in Ciiuina when Sir William ^tauleiiy 
iea; the later name obionga thei^fore has 




i» 



p* 



HA ABBREVIATA, Putzeys* 

f, Putz., Ann. Boc. Ent. Belg. 1^73, xvi, 

itb C, ohlonga^ Putz., in most features, llje 
g that the transverse occipital impres^iori i^ 



f'^-%. 



It 




236 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDBS, 

-f 

wanting; the metostemum and its episterna are similar; \ 
are similar, but the external teeth of the anterior tibise ar 
stronger. The following brief description will enable ii 
recognised : — 

Black, legs piceous, or reddish. $. Pro thorax as long a 

(3-1 X 3*1 nmi.), decidedly narrowed anteriorly (ant. wi( 

I 3 nmi.), lightly convex; sides lightly rounded; basal curv€ 

^ anterior margin emarginate; anterior angles lightly ad 

I widely rounded. Elytra oval (6 5 x 3*4 mm,); striae and in t 

as in C. oblong a, eighth interstice feebly and shortly c 

near apex. Prosternum as in C. oblonga, the pectoral 

i more strongly developed. Anterior tibiae 3-dentate, the e 

teeth strong. Under surface minutely shagreened. 

Length 12-5-13-5, breadth 3-4-3-8 mm. 

Hob. : Queensland — Wide Bay District (Spencer, Mast€ 

^ote. — In the specimen before me, the third interstice 1 
punctures on each elytron, the three anterior ones not 
placed quite similarly on each elytron. In C. ab&reviata ( 
terior puncture is placed at the beginning of the apical de 
not on the declivity at the junction of the third and fourtl 
as in C. oblonga, Putz. 

Clivina macleayi, n.sp. 

Short, robust, convex. Head convex, facial carinas di^ 
strongly backwards, clypeus deeply truncate-emarginat 
thorax subquadrate, lightly narrowed anteriorly; elytri 
strongly striate, fourth stria outturned and joining fifth a 
interstices equal, lightly convex, seventh forming a wej 
marginal carina at shoulders, eighth obsolete on apical 
lateral cavities of peduncle minutelj'^ shagreened, not pu 
metasternal episterna short; anterior tibiae 3-dentate. ] 
brown, prothorax and upper part of head darker. 

Head wide before eyes, abruptly constricted on sides 
eyes; front and vertex wide, convex; frontal impression 
shallow; clypeal elevation convex, declivous in front: < 



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THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



237 



' an irregular shaiJow impression^ this 
iniddle; median part not divided frotii 
uJvaricw], rounded at apex and externallyj 
jue; sTjpra-anteanal plates shorty wide, 
jjec'ting strongly beyond clypeal win^; 
in orbite behind, small, convex, hanliy 
supra-antenna! plates; orbita projecting 
bead bebiiid eyea; facial carina* sjtj*onjifly 
roundly in fixjnt and reacliing clyp€*u^, 
iim 5-seto3e* Labial palpi stout; jjetiulti- 
ban terminal; tbis thick^ obtuse at apex, 
irni: thiid joint shorter than s«BCond; joints 
'rothorax f^ubquadrate (2-3* x 2 45 mm.), 
erior angles, a little narrowed anteriorly 
, convex^ very declivous to })ase; «ides 
ate, rounded t^j anterior angl^^s; ant-prior 
?ply emarginate; anterior angles fli.Ktunt 

marked; f»oaterior angles rounded, not 
■ry «hort; lateral channel well devi^lopfnl; 
impresjied, reaching ba^^e; anterior line 
Lrgin; bortier narrow, not upturned at 
ra oval (4*5 k 2*5 mm.), widest a little 
trongly rounded; nhouldera rounded; apex 
deepi stmplei aeventh hardly less deeply 
PraHternum with intercoxal part wide 
an base^ ep interna very feebly trans vi^rwely 
near anterior angles. Anterior fenittra 
arcuate above^ rounded not ehaninillod 
le, apex short, wide, curved, fir^t pxternal 
, upper ttiotb wide, not prominent, inn*n" 
Gate, longer than apical d imitation (as long 

of tarsut), upper internal spine fbiely 




t the mitldle; fruai nDtcfiut siu^le ta bi^bs llit* 




Hi! 



pn 



m 



It 



S38 



ON THE AU8TRAUAN CLJVINIDES, 



acuminate; intermediate tibiae with outer edge spinulot 
external spur prominent and placed considerably before tbi 

Length 9, breadth 2*5 mm. 

Hc^. : Queensland — Port Darwin, Roper River (sent 1 
Masters). 

A very distinct species, in general appearance much reae 
a small species of Froviecoderus, Its affinity is to C. abbt 
Putz., but it differs greatly from that species by its smalli 
head much wider in front of eyes, more strongly rouu 
strong sinuosity behind wings of cl3rpeus) to anterior angl 
facial carinse long, incurved, forming a border to the inn 
of the supra-antennal plates, eyes more deeply enclosed in 
these more abruptly constricted behind; prothorax more quj 
the sides sinuate, the basal curve still shorter; prostemui 
intercoxal part not bisulcate, tkc. 

Clivina regularis, n.sp. 

Robust, parallel. Head as in C, procera; clypeus 
emarginate-truncate; prothorax as long as broad, lightly na 
anteriorly; elytra parallel, simply striate, striae deep on dis4 
on sides, interstices convex on disc, eighth feebly indicate 
apex, submarginal humeral carina short; prostemum wit! 
coxal part very wide anteriorly, epistema smooth; lateral c 
of peduncle deep, not punctate; metasternal epistema of n 
length; metasternum between anterior and posterior co: 
longer than posterior coxje; anterior tibiae 3-dentate. Bla< 

Head smooth, large (2 x 2*2 mm.), convex, obliquely an| 
Ijefore eyes; lateral impressions light; clypeal elevation c 
clypeus divided from front on sides, depressed along a 
itiargin; median part truncate; wings concave, strongly ad'^ 
obtusely rounded at apex; eyes prominent, convex, enclo 
orbits. Prothorax as long as broad (2*9 mm. x 2*9 mm.), 
narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 2*4 mm.), smooth, convex 
nearly straight, obsoletely sinuate; posterior angles round 
marked; anterior margin widely and very lightly emar 
anterior angles obtuse, but slightly prominent; medis 



> 



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T THOMAS G. SLOA?fE. 



239 



\j impres!*ed; lateral basal impressions 
Elyti-a trtincatye-aval (6*2 x 3mm.), a 
f, very convex; sides rounded- apex widely 
tej shoulders rounded; stri^ obsoletely 
ies very strongly impreaaed, weaker towards 
i seventh Buocesrtively weaker (seventh 
r Interstices convex, seventh and eighth 
rjrming a ^hort., rather bnuad and lightly 
al anofle. Legs stout; anterior trochanters 
I of femora; tibifi! with apical digitatioo 
rnal teeth short, thick, prominent, inner 

I apical di|^tationi oljtuse at apex; external 
biie a!^ in C. atuiratunME. 

h 3 mm. 

V'^ates— New England. 

b apparently ^j wei*© sent to me by Mr. 

atinct species^n general appearance it 

mwVp, Bohem., but the Mmootli prosternal 

le, the emarginate- truncate c]ypeu.s» tVc, 

i> C, jifr^fTff^ Putz., and C\ ohtongttj Piitz,; 

II y is C* mrmilicoi-niHj 81 , with whicli il \^ 
p.h of the metastemal episterna, hut iti4 
liform, are longer; the liead is larger, with 
tlate.^; the prothorax is shorter, less strongly 
nd without the rounded ha»al foveje of ('. 
a are lesH convex From C. mmtfhtjiny Nl » 
led byitH thieker antenna^; the forni of the 
>unded on sides, the striie not punctate; the 
>t rugulose on the basal declivities, ttc 




PI) 

r 



fA NrcTOSYLOJDESt Put^eyft- 

5. 1868, %h p. la 

c, Hea^ large^ eyes prominent; protliora.v 

idj very convex; elvlra o'v al, (k^epiy puocU^le* 

arth joining fifth at bai^e. interstices rcjm »*x. 



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240 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDBS, 



4 



eighth interrupted at beginning of apical curve, very nam 
carinate near apex, submarginal humeral cahnte obsolete; 
sternum with intercoxal part very wide anteriorly; lateral cav 
of peduncle smooth, wide, shallow; anterior tibise 3-den 
external spur of intermediate tibise oblique and near a 
Black, legs piceous, antennae and tarsi reddish. 

Head large (1-8 x 2*2 mm.), smooth between lateral im 
sions; a punctiform impression in middle between eyes; a st 
lateral sinuosity between wings of clypeus and supra-ant( 
plates: clypeus not divided from front, depressed along ant 
margin; median part truncate; wings concave,- strongly adva 
beyond median part, roundly obtuse, oblique on inner side; tl 
vary convex, gulae with a few faint wavy striolee; eyes coi 
prominent, enclosed on lower side posteriorly. Labial palpi s 
penultimate joint about same length as terminal, this s 
fusiform, truncate. Antennge not long, lightly compressed 
incrassate; second joint decidedly longer than third. Protl: 
smooth, transverse (3*2 x 3-5 mm.), widest a little before post 
angles, greatly narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 25 mm.), rou 
on sides, evenly convex, gently and roundly, but deeply decl 
to base; anterior angles obtuse ; posterior angles obtuse, 
marked; border thick, widened at and passing round an1 
angles; median line deeply impressed; anterior line distinct 
near margin; lateral basal impressions wanting. Elytra 
(7*5 X 4 mm.), convex, wide across base; shoulders rounded; 
widely rounded; striae strongly impressed, entire, coarsely ] 
tate, the puncturation strong on apical third, seventh hi 
impressed, but distinctly indicated as a row of punctures; i 
stices convex for whole length, seventh wide and convex on a 
curve, joining first at apex. Prosternum with intercoxal pai 
sulcate, non-sulcate on base; episterna smooth (only some mi 
wavy transverse scratches), hardly overhanging anteriorly. ] 
stornum a little longer between intermediate and posterior 
than length of posterior coxse; episterna rather wide poster 
Anterior femora compressed; tibiae with apical digitation 
stout, strongly curved, first external tooth prominent, j 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOAXE. 



9141 



■ominentj upper internal spine slender, very 

iate femora long; tibixt with external spur a 

nting obliquely downwards, 

h 4 min. 

— ^Rockhamptofi {Coil. Ca^^telnau), Dawson 

I a separate group for the reception of this 
pl^Lced it among the large assemblage of 
1 the ^^ procera group^^* in which it i** the 
stinct section, Putzeys de^cribej? the inner 
iterior tihtBe as equalling in length the apical 
[falling in widtli and tnincate at apex in the 
the 9; I only know the Ji i'^ which it does 
e apical digitation in length, 
f a apecimen are \n my collection received 
i. Barnard from CGomool>*x>laroOj Daw sort 
bnrth stria is free at the ba^e* 

[VINA INTEIISTITIALIS, n.sp, 

ex. Hejwl convex, eyes convex; prot borax 
>id, longitudinally convex; eljlra ovate, wide, 
re^ fourth stria joining fifth at base, inter- 
eighth intt^rriipted at beginning of apical 
near ap?x, ?iubraarginal c irina^ of slKiuldHrs 
n with intercDxal part bisukate, wide 
e on ba-He; epir^terna smooth, not overhang- 
eavitieH of peduncle wide, very i«ballu\v» not 
d episterna .shorter than usual in gt*num; 
, onien tat4^. aj;>ex long, ^virh?^ curved; f^vt^'r^al 
tibiie short J st^ut, nearer apex than ii^sual, 
^ni piceous, 

} X 1'8 mm.), conve3f, smooth i>^*tsveen facial 
ly transversely imprpsssed behiiirl vertex; 
arrow, extending on h> wings of clypcuw: 
Bep, divergent : clypoun with inodiau ynvl 




ttf ' ii 



.'V 



^^ , 1 

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•i! 



242 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CUV IN IDES, 

truncate; wings concave, strongly advanced beyond medif 
obtusely rounded anteriorly; guise convex, hardly at all n 
Labial palpi with penultimate joint stout, rather short 
same length as terminal; this wide and obtuse at apex. A 
with third joint shorter than second; joints 4-11 short, 
compressed. Prothorax smooth, transverse (2*6 mm. x 2' 
widest a little before posterior angles, greatly narrowed an 
(ant. width 2 mm.), very convex, strongly and roundly d« 
to base; sides rounded; anterior angles obtuse; posterior 
obtuse, but marked: basal curve short; border thick, wi 
reaching neck at anterior angles: median line weak; antei 
strongly impressed; lateral basal impressions obsolete, 
ovate (5*5 x 3*5 mm.); striae deep, entire, very coarsely p 
on disc; interstices subcarinate for whole length, narr 
more carinate on apical declivity. 

Length 10, breadth 3-5 mm. 

Hah, : Queensland — Cook town (from Mr. French). 

This species agrees in all points of structural detail ^ 
nyctosyloicfes, Putz., of which it may possibly be a marked 
though I regard it as a distinct species. The following dii 
from C. nyctosy hides may be noted; the smaller size; men 
form; more elongate head; prothorax more convex, narrow 
strongly narrowed anteriorly; elytra more convex, striae 
interstices more convex, especially towards apex. 

Clivina mastersi, n.sp. 

Very large, robust, convex. Head as in C. procera: pi 
smooth, greatly narrowed anteriorly, convex, strongly d 
to base; basal curve short, rounded : elytra oval, smooth 
and apex; five inner striae impressed towards base, fii 
entire, fourth and fifth confluent at base; sixth interstice 
not carinate at humeral angle,* eighth not visible nei 



* The weakly developed subraarginal humeral carina is a contis 
the sixth interstice; it is very narrow and hardly raised. 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



243 



rcoxal part wide anteriorlyjbi.Hulcat€ l>etweea 
Ijase; epbterna amooth, hardly overhanging 
*iial epiflterna short ; lateral cavities of 
^lop6^dT impuiictate ; anterior tibia^ blender, 
Lte tibiie narrow, external spur shurt, placed 
enna* and t^m piceous red. 
rge (2-7 X 3mm,)jeoove3C, (^naooth^ ok-iuletely 
sely impiifssed behind fauial carinif ; siide.4 
tnd %videly sinuate i>efore eye» : clypeiis not 
erlivous; mecHan part wide, truncate: wings 
jtrongly and obtusely iulvanced; facial im- 
tipr*?8sed, sinuate; facial eariuiv shoit^ witlei 
'aissed; eyes prominent, sitrongly enckAsetl by 
trt of lower aide. Palpi filiform; labial with 
^t longer than tei'niinal. An tenuis HHfnnn^ 
ter than second* Prt^thorax nearly as lung 
am.), widest a little behind middle, greatly 
(ant. width 3 5 mm), round!}' and deejil^' 
fes oblif[ue, hardly rounded; anterior margin 
anterior angles rounded; pjsterif>i' anglei^ 
rkj hardly reflexetl on sides, weaker behirjrl 
uding round anterior angles to tieek; median 
anterior line lightly but decidedly impressed; 
uouii shallow^ wide, distinct. Elytra t>va] 
nvex; side.'* rounded; Hhoulrjers rr funded, not 
\ four inner ones strongly impreshied tn^wu'dH 
iiBg second at biv^e, others not rt achiiii^^ h|)ox, 
fourth not oat turned at ba-ie, iifilj iiiturniMl to 
?, sixth and seventh obsolete; thrt'c inner 
jnvex near base, sutural interstice ivt" earh 
rivex on Utsal third, after that tc^getlirr form- 
utural ridge; lateral iM^nler narrowly re Hexed, 
peiluncle at bane. Anterior fyiuura thick, 
lower side rounded: tibia- slendcrj apiciil 
*ow, curvedj obtusely pointc^d, lirst ejitero^tl 
'iangular, tiocond obtuse, feebly develuped, 






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244 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



'i' 



V 



middle of lower side greatly raised and forming a pron 
triangular tooth above upper internal spine, inner apical 
about as long as apical digitation, cylindrical . curved, q 
upper spine long, slender, very acuminate; four pofifceric 
light. 

Length 19, breadth 5*5 mm. 

Hab. : Queensland — Port Darwin. 

A single specimen of this fine species was ^ent to i 
description by Mr. G. Masters. Excepting a specimeii sent 
by Mr. Masters as from Port Darwin, which I cannot se 
from C. procera, Putz., this is the largest Cliviim I have 
It represents a distinct section, its nearest ally being C. oti^ 
SI., which degrees with it in facies, and in form of metas 
episterna and legs. 

Clivina ovipbnnis, n.sp. 

Elongate-oval, robust, convex. Head obsoletely imprc^ 
each side behind vertex; prothorax greatly narri3iwed antt*! 
elytra oval, smooth on sides and apex; four innt^r strite 
impressed and coarsely punctate on basal half; eighth int 
obsolete on apical curve; a very feebly develop<*d Hubmj 
carina at shoulder : prostemum with intercoxal part bis 
very wide anteriorly, non-sulcate on base; episterna sinotM 
overhanging anteriorly (the inflexed margins of the pru 
projecting a little at the anterior angles) : lateral cavi 
peduncle smooth ; metastemum short : anterior tibiai ol 
3-dentate ; external spur of intermediate tibia* narroWi 
placed at apex. Black, shining; under surface and feoior 
piceous ; four posterior tibice and tarsi clear lirown; ai 
ferruginous. 

Head not large (2 x 1*9 mm.), smooth, convex, larteral i 
sloping obliquely forward from a little before eyt?s : clype 
divided from front, not bordered on anterior mai uHo; in^dii 
wide, truncate ; wings not divided from the supra an ten nal 
concave, narrow, strongly advanced, rounded -it api^j^; 
antennal plates narrow, convex; facial sulci strtingly iiufs 




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y THOMAS G. B1.0ANE. 



245 



eyes globose, prominent; orhi!^ feebly 
Mandiblesi short. Antennae stotit, Iong» 
it not shorter than necoud; joints 5^10 
sfied. Prothorax Bmooth, of equal length 
X 3 "5 mm*), widens t a little before post*^rior 
»d anterior] J {ant width 2 6 him.)* c-onvox, 
?eli%'oua to base; sides roundefl; po^^terinr 
rior margin lightly emarginate, angles 
short; bortler narrow, reflexed on nicies, 
rior angles to neck; median line lightly 
e Jitrough'' impre^ed; lat^3ral basal impres- 

elongate Elytra oval (8 x 4*1 inm,)^ 
>nvex; a wide Binw>th f?pace on sides and 
tween shoaldei's; humeral angles rounded 
ked; stria? deeply impressed and s^tr^jngly 
of disc, first entire^ joining seeond at fja&f\ 
Gaining apex^ snccessively shorter towards 
[th but not outturned at base; tirBt inter- 
:>gether forming a convex riilgt^ for whole 
ri4ti<?es 2-4 eon vex towards base, Hat on 
ided from one another, sixth finely carinate 
xed, reiiohing very nearly to peduncle, 
epistema short (distance between int*^"- 
!0X^ a little shorter than iengtli of posterior 
mts smooth. Anterior femtjra stout, not 
ae narroWj first external t^Hjth shoil, wide, 
iere* obtuse prominence, inner apieal ^piTU.^ 
leat-e. 

4-1 mm, 

^land. (A single sfiecimen given to infj oy 

is e viden tl y the ^J , C ovrpt^tiyn'.'* i^ nWwt ] 
eh it resembles in general a[»pt^iiraiRH; the 
itft smaller si^e; prothorax slightly shi/rtiT 
1 front; elytra witii deeper and ^strongly 



Iff 



Nl 



fi 



if 



^,! 




246 



ON THE AUSTRAUAN CLIVIHIDES. 




I V 



1*11 



punctate striae on the basal part of disc, the interstiif - ti 
more convex, the suture not impressed near the base, ki:. 

Clivina marginata, Putzeys. 

Scolyptus marginatus^ Putz., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 18t>8, jci 
(J. Black; sides of elytra for posterior twi>thirds^ (excef 
border) apex and legs testaceous red; antennte ami palpi te^tac^ 
Robust, convex. Head smooth, convex, not traiLtsvtfi'selj impn 
behind vertex; front depressed : clypeus not divided from t 
median part wide, truncate; wings shortly but dec id p,dly ml tm 
widely rounded at apex; frontal impress tons lightly impre 
facial carinse feebly developed. Mandibles loiig» decus^ 
Palpi long, filiform; penultimate joint of labial nithf^r longf»r 
terminal, of maxillary as long as terminal. Antennae fiJil 
third joint not shorter than second. Prostemum a little \m 
than long (3*8 x 4 mm.), greatly narrowetl anteriorly (ant. v 
3*1 mm.), smooth, convex, roundly and deeply deelivons to 1 
basal curve short; sides hardly rounded^ anterior margin \x{ 
emarginate; anterior angles obtuse; posterior angles rounded 
marked; border extending round anterior angles; meduUQ 
lightly impressed; anterior line strongly impressetl; lateral 
impressions distinct, wide, shallow. Elytra wide, o\ al (8 8 x ii r 
five inner striae strongly impressed, lightly crenulati?, first ei 
others obsolete near apex, fourth a little tjutiurned and jt.i 
fifth at base, sixth lightly impressed except near ba^se, se \ 
only indicated by a row of fine punctures; five inner inter- 
very convex at base, becoming more and more depressed U\\' 
apex, two inner ones together forming a Butural ridgBi 
lateral ones confluent except at base, seventh narrtiw, suboar 
at shoulders, eighth feebly indicated near apex l>y a very na 
carina. Prostemum with pectoral ridges well developed; i 
coxal part very wide, not narrowed anteriorl}'-, uon-sulcate on 
epistema not overhanging anteriorly, covered with wavy 1 
verse striolae. Lateral cavities of peduncle well developed, kib 
Metasternal episterna not long, wide poesteriorly, IjegiR 
anterior femora long, thick, not compressed, rounded on \ 



Jlx 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOANB. 



24T 



, narrow, apex short, lightly curved, fii"at 
naugular^ prominent, upper feeblj developed, 
f tibia forming a ridg^ and ending in a strong 
r upper internal spine; inner apical spine 
a apical digitation, thick and very obtuse at 
inder, tineJy acujniiiate; four pas tenor legs 
iate tibiae narrow, external spur very near 

!th 5 mm, 

^Port Deniaon (MaHtera)* 
^'en above is founded on a specimen kindly 
IS tens. This species may Ije considere*! tbe 
section ciinsisting of C marffinata and C\ 
oUowijig will be the characteristic teatureij of 
bles decussating; clypeut^ with median part 
shortly but d<?cirledly a4:Jvanced; aiitennaj 
%& long SUA second: palpi long, filifoi'aj, the 
lultimate joint longi^r thun the tt^nninal; 
timat<? joint about as km^ its tei'Uiiiial; jji'u* 
posterior anglea and greatly mirnivvud 
angles marked; proHternuni wide hi4.wH<^u 
i not overhanging in front ; mebusterrjal 
i much wider than in C* anstrahtmtf, Bolii-jn.* 
C, obldnga^ Putz.; legJi lights extenuil n^mr 
* small aiid placed almost at apex^ tin* tar^^i 

\LTVrSA GRACILLPES, H.Sp. 

i<l small; mandibles df'Ciissating, lahirtl pjjpi 
)int long, blender: pruthorux lubtrajiHajid; 
^renulatc-atnate- fonrth stria jinnin^r lifih at 
e; eighth inter?%tiee shortly carl mite at baNi-, 
cal cui'vt?, proi^ternum with inters ox a I jjiirt 
nteriorly; lateral eavitins of jH^dunclr smooth, 
interior tiljjw narn»w» li dentate. lut^'rumliatH 
iial Jipur short, uhliipje, vivy ni*ar aj)i*x. 







Gom 



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- 4l 




II 



248 



ON THE AUSTRAUAN CUV IN IDES, 



Black, under surface piceous black; legs, antennse and ] 
testaceous. 

Head small (1-5 x 1*5 mm.), convex, smooth; a shallow al 

obsolete fovea in middle of vertex; lateral margins sic 

obliquely and roundly forward from a little before eyes: clj 

not divided from front, lightly emarginate-truncate; median 

wide; wings small, not divided from supra-antennal plates, li^ 

advanced, rounded at apex, sloping very gently on inner sid 

median part; supra-antennal plates small, rather depressed; f 

sulci lightly impressed, parallel; facial carinas wide, not gn 

raised; eyes large, convex, prominent, lightly enclosed bel 

Mandibles rather long, decussating, wide at base, narrow 

acute at apex. Mentum deeply emarginate; median tooth 

wide, short, obtuse. Palpi slender; penultimate joint of maxi 

nearly as long as terminal, of labial longer, terminal joint fusii 

Antennae filiform, very lightly incrassate; second and third j( 

of about equal length. Prothorax smooth, broader than 

(2*8 X 2*9 mm.), widest considerably before posterior an 

greatly narrowed anteriorly (ant. width 2*2 mm.), convex, stro 

declivous to base; sides rounded; posterior angles lightly mai 

base of disc curving gently between posterior angles; ant 

margin truncate; anterior angles widely obtuse, finely bord< 

border narrow, fine on basal curve; median and anterior 

well marked; lateral basal impressions lightly marked, ra 

long. Elytra ovate, much wider than prothorax (6*5 x 4 n 

lightly and evenly convex, rounded on sides, narrowed to a 

humeral angles not marked; base very lightly emarginat 

middle; striae crenulate, 1-5 deeply impressed on basal 

becoming faint towards apex: interstices convex on disc, mini 

shagreened under a strong lens; border reflexed, reaching ba 

fourth interstice; marginal channel wide. Prosternum not 

tuberant, abrupt and non-sulcate on base; pectoral ridges si 

hardly carinate; epistema minutely rugulose. Metasten 

shorter than usual, distance between intermediate and posU 

coxae equal to length of posterior coxae; episterna consider 

longer than broad. Legs light: anterior femora compressed. 



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IT THOMAS Q. SLOAKEJ 



249 



below; anterior tibite narrow, apex long, 
Bth amall^ pi-omincsnt; posterior tlhm light, 
arcuate. 
i mm, 

-Gulf of Carpentaria (a single specimen 
Frencli, m from the Burketown District). 

Dlivi?jarchus, n.gen. 

'tegioa a little rai&ed above occipital regiori, 
eciian part angulate, 

per ii^nrface depressed; outer margin obtusely 
ial third- 

arginate; lobes? widely rounded at apex; 
long, obtmielj^ pointed, keeled, projecting 
' aa lobes, Hubmentum large^ projecting 
erticaily from throat; a ridg« vertica^Uy 
roat^ extending l)atwpen subraentuni and 
nd defining suborbital channel behind. 

pen ultimate joint shorti etout (about an 
al), bieetoae, terminal joint stoiit (stouter 
ite), truncate (hardly narrowed) at FL|>ex; 
J penultimate joint sliort, coniciil^ terminal 
d, oval, obtuse at a{>ex. 

b" four l>asal joints cylindrical, first ^trmt 
lecond not long (but longer than third) 
rtj compreasedj decidedly separated from 
ical joint obtuse. 

lan wide, convex, not decHvou!? to base; a 
A '^ coUai^ *^ (or wide l)oi\Jer) along unt-erior 




/.' 




i! 






cylindrical, punctate- at ri ate ; fourth ^trin 
ned and joining fifth at bane; no salh 
t at shoulder; third interstice 4-puuctAte. 



f...,..4 



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i 



^ 




250 ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVIHIDES, 

Prostemum with pectoral part not protuberant, inter 
part wide anteriorly, non-sulcate on base; epistema 
hanging along anterior half, smooth — a few faint t 
verse striolse perceptible with a lens. 

Mesosternum smooth, without a lateral impression on each 
of peduncle to receive intermediate tibiae. 

Metasternum large, long, transversely striolate on each 
epistema very long and narrow. 

Legs: Anterior tibite wide, 3-dentate, apical projection $ 
strong, external teeth short, wide at base, the edge o 
tibia triangularly excised above upper tooth so as to 
a fourth small non-projecting tooth, inner spines 
intermediate tibiee with two short prominent trian 
external teeth, the anterior at the apex, the upper a 
distance above the apex. 
Peduncle wide. 
Body winged. 

This genus is thoroughly distinct from Cllvina. E> 
differences that may be noted are : its very elongate form, 
peduncle without lateral cavities, the raised and declivous 
along anterior margin of prothorax and the bidentate intermi 
tibiae. The formation of both the upper and lower surfaces < 
head is also very different. There are two supra-orbital punc 
and two prothoracic marginal punctures as in Ctivina. 

Clivinarchus perlongus, n.sp. 

Very elongate, narrow, cylindrical. Head, prothoraj 
under surface piceous black ; elytra reddish brown ; anteric 
and antennae reddish piceous; palpi and four posterior legs p 
red. 

Head (with eyes) broader than long (2-3 x 2-6 mm.); c 
suture, facial sulci and facial carinae lost in rugulosity of ac 
part of head; this rugose part raised and sharply defined p 
orly between base of eyes; frontal impressions wide, sh 



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BY TBOMAS G. 8L0ANE. 



SSI 



pens with median part divided froni wings 
widely and squarely emargiiiate* its angles 
rongly forward in a- triangiUur proininenee; 
, anterior margiij truncate fuid about nn a 
I meflian part; suprikantcnnal plates iih«»i't, 
qjly ami widely Ij^yond wiiig^ of clypeuj^, 
ly i*ounded; eyes large, globose, proraint*nt, 
otliorax cylindrical, parallel, very widely an(l 
;ach side, longer tbao broad {4 x 3 mni*), 
iudiiiaily, lightly tranj^vei'sely striolate (the 
re stran^ly iuipreai«e<l near Hitles); antorior 
mnded fitJm anterior marginal puneture IQ 
je roonded, not marked; basal curve short; 
rrow and refiexed on asides, a little upturned 
ride on base, r^ry wide and declivous along 
■rgioal channel obuolefce on sides. Elytra 
(10-D X 3-5 mm,), shortly, not vertically, 
oiilderss rounded, not marked: stria:? eiitin\ 
mnctate, the punctures becoming finer froni 
cesiiai'dly convex; three po:^terior punc lures 
apical half; marginal channel iiarrow\ not 
i. Anterior legsi stout; femora thick, uom- 
e of lower tiide roundly and widely dilatate; 
ncra*i!sate, external edge arcuate, Hpiiiom?^ 

i 3-5 mm, 

{sent to me by Mr. C, French an ciMuing 
pentaria, opposite Weliesley I^landss), 

Ittn qfih^ Auslrafian CiuuHi'ff'H, 

tt a few notes on the geographical distribu- 
! in Australia may be not witlnajt i n teres t, 
ms I can offer on the subject must Iw* \ eiy 
e acantines^s of my knowle^lge tif the range 
The onlypart?* of the continent that fuue 
searched for thcKe insects seem to \>*} lln' 




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ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVISIDES, 




F\ 



r 



Sydney coastal district; the Melbourne district; the southern 
of South Australia, where the Rev. T. Blackburn has coll< 
and a part of iiiland New South Wales lying between Narrai 
on the Murrumbidgee River, and Mulwala on the Murray 
which I have collected, though not with sufficient care, 
collections have also been made by Mr. Masters at Port Dc 
and Gayndah in Queensland, and at King George's Soun< 
Mr. Froggatt at King's Sound; and by Mr. Lea at Tamwoi 
New South Wales. No use can be made by me, from wa 
accurate knowledge, of the collections from Melbourne, 1 
Australia, Gayndah and King's Sound. 

The Clivinides are a well defined division of the subfi 
Scaritini. They reach their greatest development in the 
parts of the earth, and it is, as might have been expectc 
tropical Australia that they are most numerous and sho^ 
greatest diversity of form. All the Australian genera 
Dyschirius, Clivina, Steganomma, and f 'livin'trchiishAYe repi 
tatives in tropical Queensland; the two last being peculiar U 
region. 

Dyschiriua (5 species) seems spread over the continent. 

Clivina (83 species) has representatives wherever the 
water of any permanence all over Australia. The followin 
a few remarks on the dispersion of the thirteen groups into ^ 
I have divided the Australian species : — 

(1) C. biplagiata extends over eastern Australia from the 
of Carpentaria to Melbourne. 

(2) The ^^ crihrosa gro2ip " (4 species) is typically a w< 
and southern one. C. frenchi from Central Australia 
Queensland is not closely allied to the other three species. 

(3) The "obliguata group'* (11 species) has its headqui 
in the southern and western parts of the continent. Th 
species, C. cylindriformia and C. obsokta, from tropical Qi 
land, are both isolated species, not closely allied to one anotl 
to any of the other members of the group. 

(4) C. coronata is from south-western Australia. 



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BY TeOMAS O, 8LOANB- 



253 



m group,'' though spread from the Gulf of 
Strait, hi probablj of tropical on gin; it hag 
1 from the western half of the contioent. 
is from the neighlwjurhood of Burke to wn on 
-da, 

ctfps group " (4 species ) ig evidently a tropical 
eg, C. ijji^"j'uLi/ji, in the Murray River water- fuMf^ti)i#c. 

ft frc^m Lake Callabii^nna in C&ntral Auitralia, 

m West Australia. 

ena tjroup'' (9 fspeciea) has rpprenentati^W 

1 most parts of Australia^ thoiigii none is* yit 

u^tralia, south of the tropics. 

eiBs to have a wide distribution along the 

on. 

^fitfiiv group '^ (27 species) is spread ov*^r the 

ba\e further tJivideil it into four mt^iiottH^ of 

pe, C. M^liata, Putz. — -8 species) apparently 

ustralia, and seems to l>e of tropical origin. 

r?i^/rfi/ri#m\ Boheni. — 6 spec it? a) in of eastern 

>und over the jt^eater part ijf the c<intinentj 

entative in New Zealand and Loi-d Howe 

, (type (7* btisfiU^, Ch.-— 12 >iipeL'ie.s) is spreaii 

wid Tasmania, and hai* a species in New 

^., founded for C. pMorali^. is uiKlouhle/lly a 





\ f/i*oitp*^ {15 Hpeeiosi) ha^i its headquarter^ on 
It nj»iy be divided into seven seetiuns, uf 
Heritativei^ in tropical AuHtraba. 
tie genus Cfii-ina are strong tliers; ofieii in 
ey may be noticed flying to the lamps iti 
the species are foinid in rlamp poured mar 
*s, marBheH| ponds, or, inrlef-d^ anv tolerjibly 
eir hahitA are fus,mii'ial. Suini' s|itA"ieM luay 
ar round* lln>u^h Kn^re rarely in lii«* winler 



MA 




254 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVINIDES, 



when they hibernate, hidden in the earth, often away froi 
immediate proximity of water. During floods they may be 
plentifully in the debris drifted along by the swollen at 
Owing to their habits it is evident that their dispersion n 
aided by streams, and there seem no reasons, except th 
climate and food-supply, why a species having once gai 
footing on any watershed should not spread along all the st 
of such watershed. 

With the insufficient data at my command no conclusit 
inferences of any practical worth in regard to the distribut 
the Australian species of Clivina can be attempted; bi 
following suggestions may be offered : — (1) The sameni 
climate will have permitted a wide range for species from e 
west. (2) The number of different species may be expected 
greater on the coastal side of the mountain ranges owing 
greater number of separate river systems. (3) The largi 
included in the watershed of each of the two great river a] 
which collect the waters flowing from the inland slopes 
dividing ranges of Eastern Australia, from the boundary hi 
The Northern Territory of South Australia and Queenslf 
Western Victoria, viz., the Barcoo watershed and the A 
watershed, will have been conducive to a wide range f< 
species found in the areas of these river systems. There cei 
seems to have been a migration from tropical Queensland tc 
South Australia by way of the Barcoo watershed, and 
into Victoria and New .South Wales by way of the Mum 
its tributaries; this is evidenced by the range of C. proo 
quadralifrons^ and C felix; while C. australasice, C. basa 
sdlatay C. anguslula and C. adol * ti f f « e are species that evi 
have had their distribution helped by the Murray river-sjrsi 

In conclusion, attention may be drawn to the great scan 
the Clivinides in New Zealand (only two species) in comp 
with their great development in tropical Queensland as o 
sjme evidence against an actual land connection in i 
geological times between New Zealand and North E 
Australia. 



\ 



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m TH0a4AS a 8L0ANE. 255 

Df spe^i&s give those known to m© a.s coming 
nsland, (2) the Sydney district, (3) the part of 
w^fen thf^ M«iTay and Murrumbidgei? Rivers 
lal of longitude (Riverina), (4) South West 

' *' AuatrQua., 

tmfiQia 1^ * p , C* Wi it« ro/a , . , , . , C, rr thrown .,,,,.,„ 

aki .,,...., C mtidimpyga . , f7* dorsaliA . , 

if^'a^wift , , . {?» n" t^vrr t «ti% ....... C^. ida^ior ,,....»,.., 

7jia ♦.***,.* 01 planictpM,,^...^ C o^/t|?f 

if/<j... ....H. C. quad rat [frovs €. angUitiipeH 

'uHpfM, ,,.„ £?. iitmidipe^ .. ,..,,..,,.., ,,,„., ,.^. 

tnrtftfiJtiM ,, fC, nngmfttJa*J. ,., ,.. 

irt/M. ,...*,.,♦ £7. stthta ..H...K.. .................. *.►.. 

on^a. , 0, muftralaititv ... ,. 

..... . ....... C, vagann 

.....,,, ., .t* C mmidana... ,,.. ,.,. 

........... C./e^ir. 

»..-,.t*». C, proceri^.. ..,,-.. 



les Kouveaux, Bull. Mosc. 1843| xv'u p. 733. 
sa Reaa, Coleoptera, 1858. 



, atifjnM-tdfi further east than (.jimthnol, on the 
uiilea eabt from Hay. 



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list of th^ authors who have dealt with tht? 

Autstralian Clivinldes, with rpferent:L»s to | 






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256 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN CLlViNJBBS, 



PuTZBYS, Jules. Postscriptum ad Clivinidamm Monogri 
atque de quibusdaDi aliis. (Men^ 5 
bris 1861.)* M^m. Soc. Roy. Sc. lifege 
xviii. pp. 1-78. 

. Revision des Clivinides de rAustralie. 

Ent. Zeit. 1866, xxvii, pp. 33-43. 

• Revision G^n^rale des Clivinidea. An 

Ent. Belg. 1867, x. pp. 1-242. 

• — Supplement k la R^^ ision Gen^rale di 

vinides. l.c. 1868, xi. pp. 5-22. 

Deuxi^me Supplement k la Revision Gi 

des Cli vinides. l.c. 1873, xvL pp. l-&> 

Macleay, William. On the ScarituUe of New Holland. 
Ent Soc. N.S.W. 18C3, i. Part l,pp. 

Blackburn, Thos. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with l> 
tions of New Species^ Part Iv. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2). iv. IB^ 
717-722. 

Coleoptera (of Elder Exploring Expeci 

Trans. Roy. Soc. 8. A, {1892), xvi ] 

Notes on Austral ian Co 1 eopt^ra^ wit h D 

tions of New Speeies, Part xr. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W, 1894 (2) ix, pp. 

My thanks are due to friends who haM' helped me 1 
gift and loan of specimens, viz., to Mr. C. French, Go vet 
Entomologist of Victoria, for his generosity in giving me spe 
of a great many new and rare species; to Mr, G. Masters, C 
of the Macleay Museum, Sydney, for sending me for exami 




* 1 believe this memoir appears in M6m. Lr^ge, Vol. xviii», 1 
separate copy bears the following date, '* Leodii, ISG-/' so th&t 
evidently published in 1862. 



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BY THOMAS G. 9L0AXE- 



257 



of 120 spet'imens, repreftentmg 40 different 
w^ere new, and for the gift of many rare 
?v. T, Blackburn, of Adelaide, for loan of 
I rare sf>eeieR, and for the gift of specimens 
Mr. A. 3L Ijca, of the Bureau of Agricul- 
for generously plaeiug his whole collection 
m in New South Wales at my dispasai, and 
Vest Australia; and to Mr. W, Kershaw, of 
Victorian specimens. 





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258 



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ON THE BAG-SHELTERS OF LEPIDOPTERi 
LARVuE OF THE GENUS TEAuA, 

By Walter W. Froggatt. 

(Plate XIV.) 

In many parts of the Australian bush one frequently 
across brown liver-coloured silken bags of an irregular f 
shape, spun round a stout twig enclosing several othen 
frequently a few leaves, all matted together and rough c 
inner surface, but smooth and regular on the outsida The 
in size from 3-8 inches in diameter at the broad end, 
may be quite open or loosely covered with a few silken sti 
upon examination, if freshly constructed, they will be four 
of very hairy caterpillars mixed up with their casting? 
moulted skins. 

When they have served their purpose, and are abandon 
the full grown caterpillars, they will remain for a consid 
time, a solid mass of skins and castings, compact and fim 
tected by the strong silken coverings. These curious stru 
are woven round the twigs by the gregarious larvte of s( 
different species of moths belonging to the genus Teara (F 
Liparidce). They arc constructed for shelter during the da; 
are not used for pupating purposes. Hiding therein durin 
day, the caterpillars issue forth at dusk, feeding all nighl 
the tree and returning to cover at daj^break. When m 
about they travel in procession. The tirst large nest I 
across I carried home, and was very much surprised next mo 
to see a string of large hairy caterpillars stretching right j 
the roof of the tent; they had emerged from the nest ii 
night, but were unable to find their way back. 

Some twenty species of the genus, which is peculiar to AusI 
have been described; most of them are short thickset moths 
feathery antennae, and the tip of the abdomen bearing a ti 
fine hairs. Our commonest species, Teara tristis, is generally 



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Y WALTER \V. FROGOATT. Jj^f, 

its habitgj und m usually found clinging to 

last sfjaHoiij heeii fortunate in l>re€?rlinjLf out 
3cies> which j^pmn a ^omewljat d liferent fonu 
ie.scri>>ed Ijeluw with the life-history of the 

EAKA cosTRARiA, Walker. 

full growriy is two incheii iji lerigthj at n 
tb the head ferniginous, roujide<:l on auminit 
edian s^uture running intt> the trijin|y;iili4!* 
aws small; all the head thiL*kly coveivd with 
tiaiiv4 Bt^indijig out in front. ThorfR'i*! txnd 
black a<^ras-H tlw centre^, wfjieh i-4 rai^^t^d intu 
cUi^y out uf which spring a nnmlier uf lung 
b-fiixiwo hair^; lietw^^en tlic^ segnR>!it.s tldckly 
white spot«, from each of which spi'iugHs a 
id^r side pale* oehreous ^vllow, with a douUI** 
[jious tubercles tiiftt^d with reddish* browji 
UH^ black at the ti[>8, covertil with Mliort 
PS on tlie lilt and 2nd abdimiinal segnjerits, 
he following segments cove reel ^vith stunt 

om muni ties of a luimlred **r in\n\\ f^ininn^ it 
net of a dark reddish brown (.oluur uii the 
tree truak, ekne to thf grouod, nndre whit-li 
lay, half buried in the ca^t nkinHruid <'X[rot;i 
*neath. They crawl op tlm trtM^ al du<k, 
age, and ret ur rung t^j their reti-eui at dav- 
a clump of very tine wattk>^ {Antrifr pnt- 
'XAy defoliated by them near the P»4ishttrst 
^ry other tree ha<l a lar^^e ba^^ at the foot of 
shes and trunk were t>s>totfnrd wiilt ^l^MUMls 
[own to the top of the bag. 
leuH of nearly mature larvie were euJ tec 1*^1 
gi* glusi* jar in the Museum^ where* iliey 






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260 



ON THE BAO-SHELTERS OF THE GENUS TEARA, 




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remained huddled together in a hairy mass, unless dis 
when they would all set off in a procession round the ¥ 
their prison, one behind the other, often keeping it up foi 
together. In about a fortnight they began to burrow ii 
loase sand at the bottom of the jar, constructing soft 
cocoons out of the hairs upon their bodies. The pupse wei 
and short, smooth, shining, of a reddish-brown colour, w 
anterior portion small and the tip of the abdomen 
upwards. The first moths emerged about the end of Sepi 
and the last two months later; but from the fifty specim 
more than eight moths were obtained. 

The moths vary considerably in size; the male about 2 
across the wings, and the female often over 2 J inches; the] 
a general dark brown colour, with a small oval white spoi 
centre of the forewings; and a very small and indistinct 
the hind ones. The head and thorax are thickly clothe 
long brown hairs, bright yellow and lance-shaped at the t: 
upper surface of the abdomen is covered with bright i 
orange barred with black at the apex of each segment, and 
with hairs of the same colour. The moths are very diff 
breed, those mentioned being the first I have obtained 
seasons. Mr. E. Anderson, of Melbourne, to whom I 
debted for the identification of the moth, tells me that he 
no other instance of success in breeding them, though th 
are conmion in Victoria and New South Wales. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 
Teara contraria, Walk. 
Fig. 1. — Larva. 
Fig. 2. — Pupa in cocoon. 
Fig. 3.— Moth. 
Fig. 4. —Bough sketch showing bag shelter formed at the 

tree stem. 
Figs. 5-6.~Form8 of bag shelters made- by laivse of Teara s] 



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2fif 



OCCURRENCE OF DIATOMACEOUS 
HE WARRUMBUNGLE MOUNTAINS, 
WALE8. 

r. W. Edcieworto David, 

(Plates XV. -XVII.) 

I. — Jntf*odiicti(/7i , 

iceous earth have been recroi-deii as occurring 
t the fuMu wing localities; — Bar raba(ljet ween 
am); the Lismure District; the Richmonfl 
iver; Ccjoma; Newbnd<^e; and the Waj^rum- 
rhe deposit near Barraba h*vs Ijeen descnl>ed 
lan, the Government OeologLst^ in general 

i that the diatomaceous e^rth i;^ cap|H?d by 
thick neiss of about 8 feet, liavirjg a la^'ei* yf 
s thiek) aboat 3 fe^t from the top. Tlit^ 
t on a bed of sandy muds tune, abjut I ft mm 
lich is an impure infusorial depoHitcontainifi»j; 
'agments of imbedded la^a, pointing la tin* 
ruptioiiy wei'e common at the tiaio uf lis 
an overwhelming flow of lava titled up what 
ig the Miocene epoch, a lake?, and it mm 
tbleland. As far as I am aware^ thin is tlit* 
5 mode of occurrence of diatomaceous L-artli 
is. Descriptions have been given by uthrr 
ecimens of the diat^jmaceoun eartli- 



s, 1881. pp> 142-143. By Authority. Syil [icy, 1882. 




262 OCCURRENCE OP DIATOMACEOUS EARTH, 

In 1888 Professor Liversidge published an account of Trip 
Infusorial Earth* from Barraba. 

He states that the " tripoli " at Barraba is made up a] 
entirely of the remains of Diatoms resembling Mehsira. 
same author refers to a deposit {op, cit. p. 194) of "cimc 
from the Richmond River. There can now be little doubt 
this material, described as "a very white and porous hy 
silicate of alumina,! often sent down to Sydney as meerschj 
must graduate into a clayey diatomaceous earth, as Diatoi 
some numl)ers have been obser^'ed by me in a similar rock 
the same locality. Professor Liversidge gives analyses o 
rocks from both the above localities. 

Mr. R. Etheridge, Junr., has published a short descripti 
some hand specimens of the diatomaceous earth from 
Warrumbungle Mountains, and also of similar specimens n 
tively from the Lismore District, Tweed River, and Rich 
River Districts. J 

He refers the barrel-shaped Diatoms, so conspicuous in 
deposits, to Melonira, and notes the association with the 
spicules of freshwater sponges. 

Last Septemlxjr Judge Docker and the author were affoiti 
opportunity, through the kindness of Mr. W. L. R. Gipj 
Bearl)ong Station, of examining the deposit of diatoma 
earth in the Warrumbungle Mountains. 

II. — General Geological Features of the District. 

In the neighbourhood of the diatomaceous earth d< 
there are two formations represented: — (1) The Permo-Cai 
ferous Coal-measures, and (2) Trachyte lavas, dykes, and 

* The Minerals of New South Wales, &c. By A. Liversidge, 
F.R.S. p. 177. Triibner & Co. London, 1888. 

t Ann. Rept. Dep. Mines, for the year 1887, pp. 165166. By Autl 
Sydney, 1888. 

X Ann. Rept. Dep. Mines, for the year 1888, p. 190. By Autl 
Sydney, 1889. 



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T. W. EBOEWORTTl DAVID. 



96S 



isociatecl the depositn of ijiatomateotia earth, 
. Jt m not my intention here to attempt tu 
rifjtion of that grand chain of traehytie 
the Warrumbuiigk* Mountains form a not 
8urtice it t*} S4vy that they are the wrecks 
d their cores of coarsely crystalline tnifhyte, 
leep down in tlie volcanic chimneys, now 
.rds as gigantic oiouolitliH, between IljOOOand 
ea, and over 2,000 feet aljove the surrounding 
ith alternating' tit'fis i.*f c<jiirsc* trachyte tuff 

proUahJy from at lea>it an far soutli as the 
[e, nortl)waiTts^ |M"i'ha[>s, with intervals, to the 
iH on the coast north of Ih'ishaoe, a dint ni ice 

A^ the diatomat'eou!^ earth depo&il*t iini 
It- tnirhyte.^ it h ohvious tliat any e\idt*tice 
Min the a^'e of the tracliytes has nu *'<jnally 
Kill the <{Uestion ii,s to the age of the i J latti- 
ce XV,, Jit'companyin^Li tlii>^ |'a|M'r, thtn is 
nv that the tracliyteH luivt^ inti'inl<^ii ihr 

C(Pid-nieasure*i in thiw neitrbhtmrh I I'he 

[btone*, cjuartzites, chH't>i cnnhdninM well 
f Gimm/deirtA^ finely laniinatefi bla4^k shalcH, 
of coal, over feet in thiekncfss. The ci«il 

the traehyte dyke>i, and at the ixlrrnie 
led s5 (if trael ly te t u IF ar*- m^^u n ^'^ i i o -^^ w i r 1 1 
% on the PermO'Carhonifi^niUH f^ti-ita. 
iption of the traeln-tes was Uuer than PtnoMi- 

Bs in the A\"an"\i u 1 1 n\ n g I r .M i m n 1 1 h E r i ^ 1 1 1 ( ' 
n to overlie wimlstrincK, which nvv ahiii»st 
^t% and in this case tht* traiu^hvt* s won Id lie 
L>r Post^Triansie. 

if trachj^tic volcanoes he- fullowiHl iqp intra 
id north of the 01asH'?liius<' Mimiitjiiris, it 
\t Port Mack ay trachyte la\a^ and little arc 




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264 



OCCUR REBGE OF DIATOM ACEOUS BAETH, 



abundantly interstratified with rocks of the Desert San( 
Series, the age of which in Upper Cretaceous.* 

It ia unlikely that these extensive eruptions took pis 
Lower Cretaceous timej ivs that waa a period of prolonged 
denee, and Mi\ R. L. Jack has cominented on the fact t 
Queensland, at any rate, no lava^ nor tuffa have as yet 
noted in the Rolling Downs Series (Lower Cretaceous) 
regards the downward limit in time of these eruptions, 
improbable, therefore, that it wan earlier than Upper Crftn 

As regards the upward limit, the following confide i 
suggest themselves : — It is improlmble that the Warrunil 
trachyte volcanoes, at the time they were active, were far li 
from the sea. They are now over 300 miles irdand fro 
Pacidc, but during the Lower Cretaceous epoch the wai 
the inland sea, which, at that time, must have extended 
the Gulf of Carpentaria to the Australian Eighty must very : 
have wfished the leases of the Warnimbungles, In Upper ' 
ceous time elevation took place, and marine conditions 
largely replaced in Central Auatralia by ^liaHow lacuatrin 
ditions. There is no evidence to show that marine eonc 
obtained within a hundred miles of the Warrnmbung 
Tertiary time. On physical evidence therefore it mig 
inferred that the age of the trachyte series might be placed 
close of the Cretaceous, or at the commencement of the I 
periods. There is also some palE^ontological evidence m si 
of this supposition, as will Ije stated in the next diFiaiQii u 
paper, 

m.—DetaiU of the Diatamaceotm Earth Deposit 

The deposit makes two distinct outcrops at the bottom • 
shallow valley or gully through which flows Wantialable ( 




* ^* Geological Peaturea a.nd Mineral He80iirv;«a of th« Hiickay Dh 
By A, G, Maitland, By Authority. Brlsbame, 1SS9. Aim jct G 
4md Falft^outology of Qu(»t!QBiami an J Kti^w Guitiea, J&ck & Ethi 
Junr. Text. pp. 546-547, 1802. 



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T, W. BDOBWORTH DAVID. 



m 



r aection on Plate xvi. a, sheet of trachyte at 
Ds the ridge overlooking Wantialabk Creek, 
leas of about 30 feet of trachyte tuff varying 
I to coarse, A remarkable rock succeeds 
a ttiljcified trachyte tuff, H ft. to 2 it. thick. 
f Ijeen ablj described by Mt, Q. W, Card/ 
he Geological Survey of the Department of 

in another alao very remarkable bed of 
excluBivelj composed of traiiBlucant crystals 
LCtion of an inch up to ^ an inch in diameter, 
eirusual tabular habit, the clinopinacoid faces 
sloped. The Wl being only loosely coherent, 
titles of the larger sanidinea out of it, And 
iature snow-wliite talu8 slopes, 
d of diatom aceous earth, 3 feet 9 inches thick; 
3 inches* of strata, chieliy trachyte tuffs, 
e of a sheet of vesicular trachyte. HaH-ti- 
reek, the lower section shown on Plate xvr. 
resembles the section above quoted, but iti 
occur on a horiitoii imoiediately above and 
with the diatomaceoiiH earth, as was shown 
ipps. We had here the good fortune to din- 
y vvtdl preserved in the tine tuli', which Mr, U. 
fir, W, S. Dun^ Assistant Paliconttilugist to 
y, identify as Viniutmoftttun Lek'hharillii\ 
Plate accompanying this paper). This leaf 
tlia a-^sociated with Eocene deposits. 
f the Diatoms and of the freshwater sponge 
bh them at thiM spot may, I think, be pro- 
early Eocene or late Cretaceous, 
jstaiueil from attempting a detailed dei^crip- 
jpecies of Diat*>mii and Hponges representee I 





N.a Wttloa. Vol iv. Ft. ih. pp. U 54 11. 
ey. 1§95. 



rkt« 




i\\ 



r\ 




266 



OCCURRENCE OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH, 



in this deposit, as I understand that this is a work wkii^l 
already been commenced by Mr. W. S. Dun and Mr. G. W, 
and an interesting paper from them on this wuhjwt raay kI 
be expected. I would merely add that Ahht^it'tt appe? 
greatly predominate among the Diatoms, but iHft to tlie 
exclusion of other forms. The sponge s]>ii.ul<!^s mv ncan 
fusiform, slightly arcuate, and some are thorn \% Imt t]ie us*i 
smooth. 

I should like to emph.-isise the fact that liitlK^rtM t\]\ oin* 
maceous earths in New South Wales have been fount! hi m 
tion with volcanic rocks, and I would ventuiv tc" f^ug^ei^t tin 
association is probably far from accidentjil Tlif^ super I 
water flowing from hot springs and from the la\as tiieiE 
during the trachytic eruptions would be certain Ui rnrvy tii 
less silica in solution, and its high t'emperattirt', rornl^iTin 
its dissolved silica, would probably render it u v+^ry ftKM^ 
medium for the development of Diatoms to tlit" rxt^lnHiun ui 
other kinds of plant. While some species uf Diatom*- j{ 
luxuriantly in the cold waters of the Antarctit^ * hrju^uthrt 
be found equally flourishing in the hot and lii^ldy niifiei 
waters of geysers. For example, Mr. H. N. ^bst Iry* hns i\v^ 
the occurrence of Diatoms near the Boiling S]>rin«;'s at Fum 
Michael's, Azores, and their neighbourhood. 

Mr. Moseley states (op. cit. p. 322) "The* Chrof^enrt^H^ [/ 
coccus Braunii, Ktz. , as would appear from the footnote. T, W! 
was not so abundant in the samples of incrusiingnnitter \ 
hot spring as in those from the spring at Furna.^. Aiiioii| 
green matter are a few skeletons of Diatomctcein (a ^Wir 
but these are very probably derived from a vmA 19 
situate just above the sulphur spring, tin* wattr of 
mingles with that of the sulphur springs rund indeed a] 
to supply a large share of the water of mo^t of the hot ej 
the water being merely heated and impregDate<J with v 



* Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. Vol. xiv* p. 32i2. 



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W, BDGE WORTH DAVtO. 



•367 




large of steam and various gase^ fr*jii)i 
I haj*ina mto which it finds its way. , . . 
alK>vf? referred to contaiijR abiindnnce af 
ftbijms, saich aa thost* met with amun^st the 
n very hot water.*^ He also olaner^rH (op. 
ater, which wan too hot to bear th*- tiiiji^iT^ 
i ol>8erv*Ml at the k firings near the lak*^ waw 

. **A littk* hnver ciowii in a small i><-itil of 
hot that the ti Hirer couJd only lie borno m 
'OWR a ^efl^e , , . and an aljundarit 
twciiJt^ Oifviiiftfnriie [Tftt^p/iothrif f* AriiJior. 
lii^tcjras with endoelirome complete.'^ 
he sprinfT^ in the lake of FurrjtLs Ls ijuoled 
rtiitig*^ as from 7H' to 190 Fahr. The 
r(MK'occti4i grew is estimated to have hinl a 

15H Fahr., and th^U in whitli tlie si^dgijii 
^ahr. 5In W. T. TluHelton l*yer, in nob»s 
ctions (fj/v etL p. 326), states that in th** 
him *' fruni anion ji( t lit* sedju^es at Furnas hi 
h'ntitiefl a nnml>er of I.Kjttoms, which ho 
[e Mkb that they uere n<4 rvunierrnjsly 
iTid sajH (JK ^i'-7), '^The>if are iiU torn in of 
id fteemcd in no way atleet+^ci )>y tlie liii^li 
ter." A U-Bffid hii*Hography <jf ivtV renin i^ 
lot wati^rs ii^ contained in Nintli Uejiorl^ 
7-88, pp, 6i20-0-i>«. It in niiteil (r^^ riK 
^lanual of Geology, by Janus D. iJjuui, 
hat ** Mr. Jauies lUake found diatom?* lu 
rat u re of 163' F. at Pueblo Hot Sprirv^S 
itated (iiji(f<^m}, '* At tlie Mj on moth Hot 
den observed the fut'currenreof pale y^'llow 
ring^i and the green eoniVrvoiil V4.^getiiiiun 
ks the preisenee of diatoms iii tlie I>a?*int5 of 
pecieBof the latter, Palmttffttimd Oinu'''faria^ 




I 



' Leipzig, W. Englenmi^n. I860, p. iT^i 




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Jl 



ZOC OCCURRENCE OF DIAT0MACB0U8 EARTH. 

being recognized by D. Billings." . . . (Op, cit. ] 
" The extreme temperature at which vegetation has been ol 
is 200" F., recorded by Prof. W. H. Brewer at the Ca 
Geysers." 

It is clear therefore that Diatoms are capable of flouria 
the waters of hot springs, the water of which must neces» 
more or less highly mineralised, though apparently they 
flourish in water at so high a temperature as that in whi< 
algse, such as the Oscillatoriwy can flourish. The fact m 
be forgotten that spicules of Spnngilla are at the Warrun 
Mountains associated with the Diatoms, and obviously 
Diatoms flourished in hot water the Sponges must have 
under similar conditions. 

Animal life was well represented in the neighbourl 
Furnas by Rhixopods, but no mention is made of frei 
sponges. 

It is at all events certain that at the Warrumbungle Mo 
the Diatom Meloaira and a variety of Spongilla occur in 
tion with trachytic lavas and tufls of early Tertiary, pos 
late Cretaceous Age. 






EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate XV. 

Section showing junction between the Trachyte Volcanic Grou 
VYarrumbnngle Mountains, and the Permo-Carboniferous Coal Mei 
a tributary of Uargon Creek, WoUongulgong, near Tooraweena, N 

Plate XVI. 

Upper Figure, 

Section in Wantialable Creek, near Tooraweena, Warrumbuogl 
tains, showing intercalation of Diatomaceous Earth in the Trachyt 

Lower Figure, 

Section in Wantialable Creek, near Tooraweena, Warrumbungl 
tains, showing Diatomaceous Earth in association with Cinm 
Leichhardiii. 

Plate xvn. 

Cinnamomum Leichhardtii, Ettings. 



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yOTES AKl) EXHIBITli. 



2m 



F, M. Bailey, Irovernnieiit Botanist of 
tary exhiVnted tin interefsting ooMection of 
fjecially brought together to illustrate the 
which are known to posses active or 
A ^ such it might he euiusitlered to illti.4triito 
knowledge summarised, in a paper liy the 
ledicinal Ptfints of Qucen.'jiliind " in the 
'or IHSO Vol, V. Fit's t Hei'ies, p. 4). 
3room, the Seci*^taiy exhibited specimens 
ill Marsupials from a Ixtne-breccia depi>sifc 
Caves, described at the fleeting of April 

)r exhibition, and contributed a not€ upon, 
orms of C'y/»vftt. 

] a specimen of rock from Newcastle Iwjred 
h% with examples of the molluscs in m£u. 
a building in Sydnf^y a piece of aheet-lejwl 
itetl by Termite*;, 

an elegant fungus, probably Polfipornjs 
n Butidanoon, 

ted drawings and specimens of the larva, 
[lelters of Teara coniraHa from Pensihurs*:, 
[►cality during April many tree^ of Acai*iit 
lefcely defoliated by the eateqiillar,^, the 
at the foot of the trees, AIho the more 
er of a species from KalgCHirliej W.A.;and 
of the coimnoner specie a of tlie genus 
h Wales. 

libited a rare and remarkable spidfT, 
?d by Mr. A. G. Little, Railway iSur%ey(ir, 
is is apparently the first recorded occurrence 
,lia. In respect of the length of the palpi 
be abdomen it appean:* to come nearest to 




I' 

It 




fif >ff//' 




270 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 29ih, 1890. 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held i 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth B^iy, on Wediiesday 
ing, July 29th, 1896. 

The President, Mr. Henry Deane, M.A*, F.L..S.^ iu i.h« | 



Mr. J. Douglas Ogilby, Livingstone lload> Petersham, 
elected a Member of the Society. 



DONATIONS. I 

Natural History Society of Montreal — Canadian It^«a 
Science. Vol. vi. No. 8 (1896). Froin the SociHy. 

American Geographical Society — Bulletiii. VoL xxi'iiL, ' 

(1896). From the Society, 

Zoological Society of Philadelphia — Twenty-foiirtli Aj 
lleport of the Board of Directors ( 1 895-9 G). From ih^ Soe 

Soci^t^ d' Horticulture du Doubs, BeBan^n — Bu] 
>^ouvelle S^rie. Nos. 43, 55, and 58 (1894-95); Serie lUn 
No. 5 (May, 1896). Frovi the Society, 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris — Bulletin. Ann^ 
Nos. 4-5, and 7. From tlie Society. 



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DOirATlOliB, 



271 



icl^cas de Marae^ille — Anuales. Tome v. Fwac. 
1-3* From ihe Faciiitff. 

)si>phical Society — Proceddinga . Vol , bw. Part i i, 
pical Society— Journal, 1896. Part '1 (April). 




i ^licn^Bcopie^ — ^Bulletiii, Tome xxii. Kost, 5-7 
the hocUiy, 

Rty> Ltmdon ^ Quarterly Jnarnal. Yol lift 
May, liStl6). From ih^ Socif'fi/, 

rizeiger. xix. Bel. Na*^. 503-505 (May-June^ 
Editor. 

h-lwtariiscW Oa^iiellschaft in Wien^ — Verliand- 
(189G), 4 u. 5 Hefte. Frotn the Social//. 

ri%is^en»chaftliche Unterhraltuug zii Hamhuvg 
1894-^5. L\. Band. From th^ Soeit/fif. 

Mines iihd Agriciilturej Sydney — AiniiiiLl 
r ISlIfi: A(:ci'ieulturid (iazette. Vol. vii. Piirl (^ 
HH fJtf- Hon. the Alinwt^Jhr Mines mid At/rtiutl* 

!*»*otiUtioii for the Advanceraetit of Scli»i*iM* ^ 
:th Mffeting held at Brisbane, January^ Istlj, 
mi. 

Journal of Austtralaaia Vol. i.^. Noh, ti 7 (J uiir- 
fft th^ Edifar. 

i^riuukurp, Brislmnt* — Builetiri. No, 8, H+H^Mid 
om the Secrt^iary for Agncnlturp. 

:ijiltnre, Perth, W.A* — ^Jourtml, Vi»L lii. ^^m, 
\. from fJw Secretary. 

il bourne — Examination Papers — Matricu btliou, 
t ths !Juiv^r»iiy. 



ft . 




wiiji 



III (ill 



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272 DONATIONS. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal — Journal, Vol. Ixiv. (1895 
No. 4; Part ii., Title page and Indent: Vol. Ixv. (1896; 
No. 1: Proceedings 1895, Nos. ix.-x. (Nov.-Dec); 18J 
(Jan.): Annual Address. By A. Pedler, F.R.S. etc. (Fel 
From ilui Society. 



Zoological Society of London — Abstract, May 19th, J 
and 16th, 1896. From the Society. 

|| Madras Government Museum — Bulletin. No. 4 (1896 

the Superintendent. 

Museo Nacional de Montevideo — Anales iv. (1896). 
Museum. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. ix. Nos. 13-14 (Jur 
From the Government Secretary. 

Soci^te Royale Linn^enne de Bruxelles— Bulletin. 21' 
No. 7 (May, 1896). From the Society. 

Soci^te HoUandaise des Sciences ^ Harlem — Archives 
daises. Tome xxx. 1** Livraison (1896). From the Si 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xiii. No. 3 (June, 1896 
the Field Xaturalists Club of Victoria. 

Entomological Society of London — Transactions, 1 896. 
(June). From the Society. 

Pamphlet entitled ** Ueber die Palpen der Hhopalocc 
Beitrag, etc." By Dr. Enzio Renter. 4to., Helsingfo 
From tlie Author. 

Geological Survey of India — Records. Vol. xxix. 
(1896). From the Director. 

Soci^te des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle-Russie — 3ki 
T. XX. Part 1 (1895) : Memories de la Section Mathc 
T. xvii. (1895). From the Society. 



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I>0NAT10NS. 



37S 



tomologmche Vereeniging^-Tijdschrift YtKrr 
1 Deel Jahrn:aijg 1894^95. Afl. 2, 3, ami 

ide Finlanda— OeheraigL. xxxvii. (1S1>4'[K>). 

8outh Australia - Tmiieart ions* Vul. x\u 
), Plrom iht' Socitit/. 

cYimikti^titm Society of Vict uria— Thirty- 

1 (Fell,, 1SL>B), Frmn ih* Sochttf, 

ntitled *^ Report uf tfio Uf'w**aivli O^MiitiUtt**^ 
Ivirleneea?* loCl£i<.'ial A^lrtiri itr Aiistrulittia/* 
. Mr. W. Howchfn, and Prtite,^?^or T. \V, K. 
r^s.s by the Pr^sidnnt: iSeetioii of (jt'^olu^y and 
Af4H0c\ for Adv. Kci. By ProtVsstjr IViivjil 
rit^irctic Rocks," itc. (18^5). Irom Frf>ftitsor 

ihI of Pliarmacy. Vol, xl No. lii? {iluiy, 

ttt. Vol XKX. No. 354 (Jiiiif, lSi)r,). /^Aj/^* 

imtive Zoology at Harviinl ColJej4<% Cjuji- 
in. Vol. xxix. No. 5 (April, iJ^Drt), Fnun- 



'I 




mitiLre— Division of EnU>mt»|ii|fy — liiillinih. 
: ( I896)v From the Secrrtan/ ^>/M tfrif u It u rf\ 

, St. P^tersV>ourg— DiillHin, T. xiv, Nns. 
M^BQoires. Vol. xiii. Ko. 'J ( If^lM), Fnuth 



i Awfrtmlian Entomology, By Rt*v. Tlionins 



fH|ftf; 




274 DONATIONS. 

Two Pamphlets entitled "Further Coccid Notes, etc.;'' 
" Contributions towards a Monograph of the Al^urodid 
Family of HemipterarHomoptera." By W. M. MaskelL (] 
r I Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. xxviii. [1895]). From the Author, 

Indian Museum, Calcutta — Natural History Notes. Seri 
No. 18 [1 19] (1895). From the Museum, 

Geelong Naturalist. Vol. v. No. 4 (July, 1896). Fron 
Geeloug Field Naturalists* Club. 

L'Acad^mie Royale des Sciences, etc. de Danemark, Copenh 
—Bulletin, 1896. No. 3. From the Academy. 




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'275 



THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVIKIDES 
(FAJM. CARAMWJ^). 

By Thomas G. 8i.oane. 

£S OF KlHG^S SOU^n AXD ITti VlClNlTY. 

Sir WQliam Macleay deacriberj the Camhidm 
W. W. Fnjtggifttt m the vicioity of KirigK 
parsed ov^T t\\B Cliviniiim^ mt*rel}' remark iifU( 
contained seven tee Ji speciea.t During a ^isit 
impletiag the ** Revision of tlie Austral iaii 
iible» thr'ough the fuurtewj of Mr, Miish^rn, 
kity Museum, t/j examine the Viltiufdea hum 
an the coHectiou HeeniB a rcpreHeiitiitjve nne 
L on it will not be without intere?4t. 
i* list of the specit^K : — 
i. j (var. 7) Ciivinn HrJ^Hin, Put/.. 

1. C, krrfiyint'ji, Put?^ 

SL €, ftximm, SI, 

C. Uai^ SI. 

var. apitmflsi^ SL 



..S.N.S.W, J888p iii- (2) pp. 44ti-45«. 

t Lc. p. 4(i2. 
L»ie« mentionod antler C^ pronrti. {^idr Aftpra^ \f, IflSO) 
^fwin; und though probuhiy liiiiUtujt from C /^rof^era, 
DO ubiLttu:ters to di^tiuguibb it frniii that ^pcci<:^a 




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276 APPEinMX TO THE AVSTRALIAN CUVINIDES, 

My exaiDLuation of this collection leaves the inipresaion 
mind that all the specimens are not actually from King's S 
but that some J a.s C. procsra and C qnadratifronBy may h 
Port Darwin or some other more easterly port of call, at 
Mr. Frogf^att may have touched. 

Clitina eiveri?t.b, Bloane.* 

The single representative of this species seems to agre 
tj'pical specimens in c'V'^ery thing exc-epting colour. It is 
with the elytra ferruginous. 

Clivjna poKOTATicKPa, Putzeys (var, auLCicoLLis). 

A species wiiich is plentifully reppeaented in the coll 
agrees with C punctatitepff^ Putz,, in respect of the headj i 
prosternuiUj and eyea, but diHers by liaving the prothorax a 
and rather more convex, the mefiiaji line more deeply impi 
the basal curve shorter^ the Ijaae more deejily and ah 
declivous, the marginal channel across the base much widi 
deeper. It may be a distinct species, though it seems pr 
that C. puiictfitimp$ will be found to be a widely spread \ 
varying sufticientJy to take in this form as a variety., 
following is a brief description : — 

Narrow, jiarallel, convex. Pieeous red, elytra with firs 
of each elytran usually dark piceou«, thiji sutural infuscatioT 
spreading over the first three interstices above the apical dec 
a very distinct crenulate striole at Ikiae of first interstice; ai 
femora lobate on lower side; anterior tibia; i-dentate. 

Length 5*5-7, breadth 1-45-1 75 mm. 

The characteristic feature of this variety ib the wid* 
channel of the base of the pro thorax which interrupts tin 
ginal border at each aide, and prevents it from actually j 
the basal l>order, as is usual in Odvinft. 

* Vida mprmji. I6i. 



x 



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Bf TO0HA5 G. SLOANE. 



m 



,xi\\^ PutzeTTs (var. 1 lycoKflPlcUA). 

rp^^nted by seven specimens ^ two imf nature ) 
Riiit(8 Sound, It agrees ao closely witb 
I have placed it under that species bs a 
reni.'es I cau Bnd aiie that it seeius a smaUei* 
the black dorsal spot on the elytra i^ quite 
canuot separate ini mature specimens from 
>f C mUrda. It i,s qiiit^i likely that when 
>wii it will come to be regard e<l a^ a afrtjcies 
t, etnd it is with this impmHsion ui niy mind 
?tiil name» for I feel that it would be mis- 
range of C. $t'lh:iiti to King'?^ f:4ound on the 




iption will ?^uffice for ifcii recognition :— 
tlleL, convex. Head short, vert^ex witli a 
jresaion: clypeua emarginate, median part 
% the^e Am all, rounded, a atroiig ,'^iiiuoHity 
upi'a-antennal plates. Protliorax about as 
11 ram/ J rlecidedly narrowed anteriorly, 
f, fourth stria joining fifth at base, seventh 
with intercoxal part attenuate anteriorly. 
Lte. 
wlrli 1-1*15 mm. 

STRALASi.*;, Boh e man u I (vai*. f). 

« is pientifully I'epresented in the King'8 
L general appearance it exactly resembles 
., the only noticeable diifereuccs that J can 
m^ punctate and more roundly angw^tatf 
3g8 ligbter coloured, the loner apical Kpirin 
anger and more obtuse at the a|>ex in l\\^ ,-f . 
the clypeuft more deeply emarginate than 

th 1^-21 mm. 



It' 








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278 



APPENDIX TO THE AUSTRALIAN CUV IN IDES, 



Itl 



U 



Clivina froggattj, n.sp. 

Robust, convex. Head short, wide, clypeus truncate 
nate; prothorax subquadrate, with all its angles njunded 
oval, seventh and eighth interstices uniting at Ijase l 
a short, not strong, marginal carina, ei^chtli interstice indii 
a fine carina near apex; prosternum with intereoxal pii 
anteriorly, non-sulcate on base; episterna very finely ^ha;. 
finely transversely striolate; metasternumj between inter 
and posterior coxae, about as long as post+'riDr coxf*?; epist4*i 
elongate ; anterior tibiae 3-dentate. Black, shilling, li 
antennae reddish piceous. 

Head transverse, convex; anterior part ruguloi*e: verte 
clypeal elevation arcuate; clypeus irre^rularly divided frtin 
deeply and widely truncate-emarginaU', wtiii^ri^ advanoefl 
obtuse 1}' rounded, concave, gently oblique on inner siile; 
antennal plates convex, rounded externally, bonlered, 
from wings of clypeus by a light sinuusity; facial i^ulci d* 
divergent posteriorly ; frontal impressions strrmgly 
irregular; facial carinas short, wide, prominent; j*upri 
[junctures distant from eyes, set in a longitudinal groov 
edge of this groove carinate; eyes >4lylK>-^e, prominent, 
enclosed behind ; orbits abruptly confitricteti l*ehin 
Antennje moniliform, short, incrassate. Prothurax rather 
than long (2-2 x 2*25 mm.), widely convex; sides parallel, 
and roundly narrowed in front of anterior marginal f>i 
anterior margin lightly emarginate in middle; anterioi 
obtusely rounded; posterior angles roundetl; basal eurv 
border wide, reflexed; median line well marked; antti 
strongly impressed; lateral basal impressions obsolete, 
oval (4*3 X 2-35 mm.), convex; sides strongly rounded; si 
rounded; strite deeply impressed, strongly crenulate 
towards apex; interstices convex near Imsej depreH^ed g 
declivity; lateral border strongly reflexed near shoulders; 
channel wide. 

Length 7-2-8-5, breadth 2-2-3-5 mm. 



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r THOMAS ii^ SLOAN K, 



279 



e ont? measuring 7 '2 mm. in length i;*, 
thrt't^, an unusually small Hipecini*?n* 
tmirJ^*ii/i^ 81.J bat difl'erin^^ in having the 
mi aphttrical, the facial sulci shorter, ]e^ 
rg^nt in front, the frontal fovefe dt^eper; 
iveXj the side?; not sinufiti^ and mtich mnrf? 
nterior angles, the anteriur niarjLfin hnn 
r fingieB obtusely ruurifled anrl \^m marknl; 
ctlj crenulate stritt*, the ei*j;hth intei'stier 
fe laetasternum longer and with a de*fj>Iv 
Hxti^njal njargin, thf^ mfttiist*>rnal epinterna 
I 11 Btrongly miLrked channel neiir iniier 
> bliuck. 



(/ 



IJHIItlUS MACLlAYIi n.f^p. 

md istrunglj dejireased Ijetween eyea, inml 
peuH depply and roundly enmr^nate with 
a; elHra convex, basal part — in fi'Ont of 
igly punctate^striate {eigbt row?s of punu- 
-dentftte. lioarl piceouii Ijlack; prothor/ix 
elytra ferruginous with a bronzy tingi/, a 

acroiss apical third; letCJ*, antennie and 
irax reddirth, iMxiy redditih ]uceuuB. 
it*frior margin roundly enmrginttte, lat4?ral 
Me at aj-M?x; supra-antcnnfil plates lar^i\ 
jecting widely and sharply iw?yondclypi'UH, 
^, anterior angles obtuse, anterior margiiiH 
ed, a longitudinal carina in centre, tw+i 

on each bid*? lietween cent nil canna tiui] 
vertex convex, smooth; suprororbiial carina^ 
:; eyeft glolxtse, fjromment. Vrf^thorax 
ight transiverae impression near anteri**!* 
anting; marginal chauriel of base punctate, 
^; shou Id ei^ rounded; at rite cun^il'^ting nf 
luncture^T first stria only reaching apex, a 
margin on ea^ch side of a^tex; internticeH 




280 



APPENDIX TO THE AUSTRALIAN CLIVISIDBS, 




convex on basal part of disc, third, fifth and seventh 
some setigerous punctures; apical part of elytra smooth ex 
for these punctures; marginal channel narrow on sides, a 
and more deeply impressed behind shoulders. Anterio 
with apical digitation long, arcuate; two upper teeth suco 
shorter, well developed, prominent, acute. 

Length 4, breadth 1*15 mm. 

Evidently allied to D. torrensis, Blkb., but differing in 
and apparently in the sculpture of the head. 

Note. — It seems worthy of notice that there are eight f 
each elytron of this species; the eighth stria consi«t« c 
or four punctures, and rises where the marginal channel i 
behind the shoulders. D. zonatus, Putz., a specimen of ' 
have seen in the Macleay Museum, has only seven stiiro « 
elytron (the normal number among the Cfivinides), and 1 
marginal channel wider and more punctate. 




) 



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837 



281 



jf a kew species of ablepeahus 

rORIA, WITH CRITICAL NOTEfcS ON 
a AUSTRALIAN LIZARDS. 

Lucas, M.A., B.Sc.j ahd Q FrosTj F.IiS» 

.EPHARUS EHODONOIDES, sp.nOV. 

buae; rostral projecting. Ey^ incompletely 
inule!^. Nasals large, forming a short suture 
frontonasal much broader than long, fornuiig 
future with the frontal; prefrontals wi\[iAy 
^ the fronto-prefrontal suture; frontal large, 
itoparictals and mterpariefcal together, nearly 
Auce from the nuchala, in contact with the 
Eulars; thre*? ^?upraoc^lla^B, second largest; ^\'fi* 
nt4^parietab unit^^d ; iuterparietal *li?«tiriut) 
ice as broad as long, forming a suture behind 
three or four pairs of nuchak; five ui>pHr 
w the eye; five lower laliiab. Ear-opening 
B^jdy much elongate, scales in ovef aisty 
?tween axilla and groin, arranged in twenty 
; doraak largest, laterals* smallest. Two 
Limbs .^hort, tridactyle, widely separated wlien 
» liinb shorter than the dist-ance from the i^m] 
e ear-opening; hind limb a little .short^er tlian 
h© end of the snout to the shouldera; length 
the length of the middlcj four times that of 
1 ahnogit a8 long as head and bixJy. 
i above J each of the dorsal scalee with a black 
ling four longitudinal series; a black lateral 
ril through the eye* Tail brownish. Under- 







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NEW SPECIES OF ABBLPHARUS FBOM \lUmRIA, 



Dimensions : — 

Total length ... 

Head 


79 mm. 
5 . 


Width of head... 


3 5 n 


Body 

Fore limb 


39 „ 

4-5 ,, 


Hind limb 


9-5 p. 


Tail (reproduced) 


35 „ 


Locality, — Mildura^ Victoria. Two speciiuens obtain 



favour of Rev. Walter Fielder. 

Remarks. — This species is allied to A, gr^yi^ OraVj hy tliu 
scaling, but in habit resembles A. linecUiin^WiAX^ and J, mi 
Fischer. It differs from A, lineatus in head scaling, in nuiu 
digits, and in the number of longitudinal series of body 
and from A. muelleri in the head-scaling. The genus AhU^ 
is characterised by its snake-like absence of movable e 
and the three species, A. m^ielleri, A, lineatti^^ and A. rhmto^ 
show a further approach to the snake typa in the re*luet 
size of the limbs and in the number of the digit?i. 

It is convenient here to add remarks on two other lisAfdl 

(1) Abhpharics greyif Gray. 

Within the year, Mr. H. J. McCooey obtiiinetl «pi?cimi!i« 
Ab^f^pharus in the Boggabri District, whicli he suljseqt 
described in a country paper. He has lieen go*yd enau 
forward examples to us. They do not dLffer in any part 
from A. greyi, Gray, which was first describefl fn>m W. Au* 
and was obtained by the Horn Expedition from the (J 
The species is thus one of those which in charaf!teri*i 
found in the interior regions of scanty rainlaJL 

(2) TTemisphceriodon tttsmanicum^ L. tt F. 

After carefully examining a larger scrie^i of Host\&\ 
caiinnrinoi, D. k B., from New South Watof^, and a Ktiri 
examples kindly forwarded to us by Mr. A. ^lurton oi Uh* H 



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U O. S, LUCAa AKD C. FROST. 



283 



come to the conclusion that our specimens 
it Clair Lake, Tasmania, in the P, L.B.N. 8. W, 

nsphcermdati ta^Tnanwujrif are only among the 
f (lomolepida ^OHnarint^^ D, k B. Our chief 

the apparently new specie.^ under the genua 
\ the relatively laj-ge size of one of the teeth 
jaw. 

hmrv^don was separated off from Blnulia In 
t is stiU considered, and we think rightly, aa 
mu^ in which fliiitUin and BomoUpida^ with 
by Boulenger (B,MX\) 

Honioif^pida casum^hitp^ D. & B., then consists 
arintf^ Gray, CifcloduM camtarinfF, Bum. et 
lif/rteuns, Peter?^, 1874, Lygogoma muelhrif 
mtmidttfriodmi tagmanicum^ L. & F,, 1891. 
I separated from //omoiepida thus : 
n (1) the pterygoid bones are separated on 

the palate, the palatal notch extending; 
fmary line connecting tlie centre of the eyt^s; 
h rrmndeti oruwns, one on each side of eacJj 
hers small 

molepklijia) (1) the pterygoids are usually in 
le palatal notch nr>t extending forwaids to 
the cye^; (2) the maxillary teeth conical or 

fcagtmrififTJ {\) the palatal notch extends 

Ijorder ol the eye; (2) lateral teeth with 

in each side of each jaw much larger than the 

Quch larger as in young fl, g^frar<liL Thus 

elaime*tl on tht? fir^t ground by Homotfypida 

the Bocond ground by Hemisph(sriodnn, 

proac^h //. fferrardii to some extent al*in in 

ii pending a more satisfactory claiif^ifieatiun 

Lyfjogoma^ it is probably best to leave tlii^ 

the d&'signatifin Ltjijmt^nm ( Romntrpuia) 




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284 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF AU8TEi 
COLEOPTEIIA. 

By Arthur M. Lea. 

Part II L 

TENEBRIONID^, 

PTEROHELiEUS DaHWINI, Tl.t^p, 

Elliptic, convex, subnitid. Piceous; under surfiieir } 
brown. Head minutely punctate; protlioi*ax jiod e!}irA wii 
minute punctures, the latter with veiy feeble traces oi 
towards the base; under surface and iegia with very minuti 
tures, those on the legs more distinct; alxlomen ftHiblj I 
dinally strigose. Apex of tibiae and tarsi with dense, r 
brown, short setse. 

Head large; clypeus broad, very feebly euiarginail^ 
oblique, not at all reflexed, its suture with epicraniuui ioi 
except at sides; feeble trace of a groove between eyea. Pns 
transverse, at base wider than elytra: margins tlat^ mod 
wide, widest at ba,se; angles acute, p*!Mt<?rior slightly pru 
on to prothorax, anterior passing eyi^s; disc fram ultwrjj^t 
direction without trace of median line. Scytelltun witiah 
verse, feebly raised. Elytra soldered toyfAhf^r^ narrowiB^ 
base .to apex, margins narrow, flat ami feebly rallied »bc 
middle. Wings rudimentary. Legs moderate; tlin^ biisa] 
of anterior tarsi dilated (especially in ^), 4th joint very 
the two apical slightly longer than the three Wsal, intern 
longer, two apical shorter than three basal; baaal joint tif pt 
very long. Length 16, width (at base of prothoraic) \^\ m: 

Hah. — Dongarra, West Australia (two specimena re« i r > 
Mr. G. W. Ward). 

A peculiar looking species, which J look upon aa tb 
interesting in the whole subfamily. It evidently beJu 



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OY ARTHUR M. LEA. 



2Bn 



Ls rudi mental^ wiugs and ©Ijtra soldered 
!^ are gauisy, the veins connecting them with 
trong but short and abruptly terminated, the 
hout venation; near the terniination of the 
contract in width, thence parallel almost to 
•ate. Length 6, width near base % width in 
n li mm. 

{ehmw echinalftHf Sfiragfii rudis and Sijmpel^!^ 
that in all three the metanotum is degraded, 
i; and thei'e are but the veriest rudimentsi of 
ith the metanotum of P. lmffafH» or of P. 
of the present speeie^^ diffei*ti in being much 
apex of a groove in a line with the scntellum 
f a triangular extension, whilst in the two 
jtanotum is parallel; at the base in Darwini 
jtellar groove are strongly rounded olfj and 
ation — enclose a transverse puinteii areolet; 
wmu4culus the angles are right angles and 
jhtly convex depression, the outer edge of 
the groove in Darwini ha-s a strong flattened 
hole length, in hulla&ui there is a faint trace 
in convH^iusct^ui* 

^HEUiiiis Broabhurs^i, n.sp. 

glabrous. Red dish -brown, nmrgina [laler; 
d and niandibk^ piceous. Head den^sely and 
tate; prothorax with very minute puneturea; 
>ut seventeen rows of small punctures^ and a 
sterna minutely punctate; abdomen very 
ad feebly longitudinally strig^jse, 

3 sutttfc With epicraniura distinetj both with 
kallow and motlerately dtatinet impresBioii 
^nie reaehing intermediate coxft% Brd jgint 
Uh-5th combined. Prc^thorax widely trans- 
le truce of mf^dian line, base sin n ate, margins 





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286 



NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTERA, 



n 



l'.Mt 



*l 




wide, very feebly raised at borders, anterior angles re 
posterior acute, slightly recurved. Scutellum transverse 
circular; in some lights appearing feebly strigose. Elytri- 
as long as head and prothorax combined^ margms ^ide oj 
half, narrowing thence to apex. Legsi moderate, Int j* 
anterior tarsi scarcely as long as the re^t, of intermediate dis 
shorter, of posterior as long as basal joiut Length IS, 
10 mm. 

Hab. — Pelsart Island (Houtman's Abrolhos), W,A. 

In size and shape much the same as confustJis, Mi 
have named this species after Mr. F. C. Broadhui^s^t, t 
whose kindness I was enabled to visit this interesting gi 
islands. 

PTEROHBLiEUS ABDOMINALia, H.Sp, 

Oblong-elliptic, slightly convex, feebly shioing, gl 
Piceous-black, under surface and legs j>aler; margins, tib 
palpi piceous-red. Head and prothorax densely minute 
obsoletely punctate, the former densely and minutely gn 
at base; scutellum impunctate; each elytrun with about ei 
rows of small punctures, becoming obsulete towards apex : 
Surface irregularly and feebly punctata; metasternum obi 
the abdominal segments longitudinally strigose; legs id! 
punctate. 

Head wider across clypeus than the length to base <j 
clypeus feebly convex in the middle^ apex feebly emai 
sides slightly raised, its suture almost obliterated. Pre 
convex, with a feeble trace of a median line^ deeply an< 
circularly emarginate in front, sinuate at base, anterior 
somewhat rounded, posterior acute, ant-eriorly feebly ma 
lateral margins broad, slightly reflexed. Elytra convex, p 
sided to one- third from the apex, a little wider than proth 
base, about twice as long as head and prothorax com bin 
once and one-half as long as wide, margins broad, 
reflexed, much narrowed from apical third to apex^ a veri 



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BY ARTHUE M. LEA. 287 

I base to a little beyond the middJe, Lt^u^tli 

W.A. {Master Percj SaelJing). 
tion of P. diapar^ the above s?pecies differs in 
\aA decidedly broad in front, and the elytra! 
d; my specimen is minua antennti; and tarsi, 

i^EBOeKL^US TRISTIS, n,sp. 

igbtly convex, feebly shining, Piceons-black; 
s, tard, antennae and palpi obscure r-eddish- 
dth a few scattei^ shoi't brownish hairs, 
ihe naked eyej under surface with extremely 

pubescence. Head densely, minutely and 
?, and densely and minutely granulate at base; 
and not sio densely punctate as head, but in 
mely dense and almost microscopic punctureH; 
y minutely punctate; elytra Htriate-punctat*:^ 
rowa), the atriai irregular at lioth base and 
obsolete to wan Is apex; under surface of head 
?at*?rnuin sparsely and obsoletely, metast-ernum 
aent^ distinctly pnnctarle, the three basal ^pg- 
feebly longitudinally atrigoae. 
te; clypeus truncate, almost flat, He suture 
jsj antenjiae flattened and widening to apex, 
ite coxfe. Prothorax slightly convex, brotMlly 
line unmarked, deeply emarginat^ in front, 

broad, base feebly bisinuate, posterior an.^les 

transvei"sely triangular. Elytja convex, 
-third from apeXj as wide as prothorax at b{Ls*_\ 
ag ivA wide, about once and one-half as lon^^ as 
%K combined, margins very narrow^ feelily 

Length ^0, width [^ ram. 
*r, W. A. (obtained under bark of a dead tr^^e). 
igH to the 5rd subsection of Sir* Wm* Macleay^s 
le genua; from either P. jmralldus or P. aen^us 




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288 



NBW SPBCIBS OP AUSTRALIAN OOLEOPTEEA, 



li 



(the only two species belonging to the subsection from Wj 
size will at once distinguish it. I do not know any speciea 
it closely resembles. 

P. PABALLBLUS, Br^me; Mast. Cat. Sp. Na 3756. 
Hob, — Bunbury, W.A. 

P. BULLATUS, Pasc; Mast. Cat. Sp. l^o. 'S74± 
^a6.— N.S.W., W.A. 

P. CEBBU8, Macl.; P.L.S.N.S.W. 1887, p. 545. 
Hob. — Beverley, W.A. 

P. coNVEXiuscuLUS, Macl.; l.c. p. bid. 
Hob, — Cootamundra, N.S.W. 

P. OLABEB, Macl.; l.c. 547. 
^aZ».— Inverell, N.S.W. 

P. HiBTUS, Macl.; l.c. p. 532. 
Ba^,— Forest Reefs, Sydney, N.S.W. 

P. ASBLLUS, Pasc; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3740, 
ffab, — ^Tweed and Richmond Rivers, N.8.W. 

P. LATicoLLis, Pasc; l.c. No. 3760. 
Zfa6.— Forest Reefs, N.S.W. 

P. coNFUSUS, Macl.; l.c. No. 3743. 
Hab. -Armidale, N.S.W. 

HELiEUS FULVOHIBTUSj H.ap. 

Oval, shining. Piceous-brown, margins It.^. ^li^h-r|?d, 
surface brown. Elytra with four rows of lon^; icliu vcd Ijtc 
red hair placed in small tufts. Prothorax and under &\irim 
minute punctures, a minute hair arising ivom each. M 
very minutely granulate. 

Antennae reaching intermediate coxae, 3rd joint longer thi 
5th combined. Prothorax with wide margins raii^ed &t an ?i 
about 45°, feebly curved at outer edge, the right side ci\i^i 



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BT AtiTntTR M. LE^. 



289 



ftd, its point obtiis€, posterior angles very 
on t4J prothoraxj disc with a short narrow 
gular or pointed. Scute Hum transTersely 
micircular row of shallow^ irregular fovew. 
d the Diiddle» margins at liase raised at atw^ut 
owftrds apex^ their outer edge raot^ noticBahly 
othorax. Four ba^iial segments of alxiainen 
d at aides. Legs l<^>ug^ claw joint of anterif»r 
as the rest combined, of interiDediate as km^ 
terior not as long as basal joint. Length 20, 

W.A. (Mr. a W. Ward)- 
thifi species will sem^e to distinguit^h it frciTo 
srs possessing hafry elytra: froni the de^crii^- 
e clonest to //, Kirbi/L 

B[£L£UB ORANULATUS, n.sp. 

antennsB piceous-reiL Heatl with shallow, 
punctures; protborax covered with amaU, 
Qg ^*rauiilea, margins feebly punctate and very 
llytra feebly striat'C-punctate, punctures almost 
fig a minute erect bristle; seen from ab*>ve the 
5 all of the same height, but when viewed from 
m to be live row.s, between each of which are 
■ mioroecopic setiej epipleurse rather strongly 
actate; under surface with minute punctures 

oved between eyes; an ten nee reacliing inter- 
joint longer than 4th-5th combined. Pro 
uargins— subtriangular, not i^nce and a i^uarter 
margins feebly curved, modei'ateh^ wide, at 
s pof^terior anglei^ slightly projecting on tr> 
lea subtruncate, right croH^ing left; disc with 
ioa continuous from head almot:it to basiej near 
in angle of alwut 80"*. Bcutellum feebly raiHedj 



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290 



HEW SPECIK9 OF ATJSTBALlAJf COLEOPTERA, 



widely ti-unsveree. Eljtra with suture carina te, each with a 
costa on ^th interstice terminat^^d at posterior declivity; 
moderately wide at base^ suddenly narrowed and then i 
apex. Legs moderate, claw joint of antarior tarsi thit'l^ 
than the rest combined, of intermediate as long^ and of | 
nut quite as long. Length 10, width 6 J mm. 

J?a&.— Mdlewa, W.A. 

Described from a specimen taken alive; in two fonnd d* 
of which me^ijures 11x8 mm.) the elytral punctures an 
able to the naked eye, and the setie are sparse and minus 
more elongate rowvs- The species appears to be cli 
falcattis from Soutli Australia, from the description of ^ 
differs in not having the anterior angles of prothorax 
pointed, the elytra dull, and nai-row margins without grai 

Hkl^us echidna, White , Mast, Cat. Sp. Ko, 377 

Sir William Macleay's description of this species is sc 
misleading, as he fails to mention the two tubercular sj 
the prothoraiL, and that the autural rows of spines tc 
before the apex of the elytra. The species is readily ide 
by the figure accompanying the original description. 

Sympetbs acotiprons, n.sp. 

Broadly ovate, feebly shining. Piceous-brown, mar^ 
taceous, their edges brow^n, apices of aljdominal segment 
with testaceous. Elytra with very minute, fwUe, depress^ 
under surface w4th moderately dense and very short pul: 
Head densely and irregularly punctate; prothorax minu 
mai^gins more noticeAV>ly punctate; elytra with dense an( 
minute punctures, their epipleura? very distinctly punctata 
surface minutely punctate. 

Clypeus convex, its disc within a circular depression; a 
shallow impression between eyes, Prothorax widely tra 
iMse trisinuate, irregularly transversely impressed in mid 
more feebly towards sides, a feeble median carina becomiti 



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HIT ARTHUR M. LEA. 



291 



targius wide, edges recurved; anterior aD^fkn 
moet to apex of htead, posteriur shajp itud 
Seutellum widely tiaiLSvense. Disc of t^lj^ti-ii 
L&n that of pi-otborax, bulged bpfoi'e niidtJle, 
jx, suture strongly raided, in tenttieea irregular, 
Q6 wide, their edges recurved, L-egs miKleralely 
Length J 16, $ 17, width $ 1% $ 13A mm. 
mAFgioj; are proportionately l>roa4ler than in 
f are also reflex ed. 
, W.A. 

^YHPETES UHDUIiATlIS^ n.sp. 

apanilleL Reddish-brown, margins paltn*; 
IS. Upper surface with very minute setie, 
head and marginii than elj^where. Elytra 
trly punctat-e, aMainen densely and minutelyj 
nia more coarsely punctata. 

ing beyond prothorax; clyfieuii wide, perfectly 
*ry ft^bly eon vex, notched at the skies; *?yes 
itennie thin, joints lat-7th cylindrical, Hth 
:h circular. Protboriix almost thrice m wide 
led on each side of middle, at sides and base; 
' than diaCj each forming the foui'th segnieul 
mgles almost right angles, not at all produc^^il, 
*ved and scarcely acute. Be u tell u in widely 
jf elytra as long as prothorax is wide, ovato 
•ngly raised, each with si?c or seven feeble 
alternate ones stronger; margins Wiived, in 
de as each elytron, distinctly wider elsewhere, 
rved and very little darker. Legs long and 
rfdth 13 mm. 

ig broader and more rounded; a more distinct 
>n at ba^ of prothoraXf the anterior angles 
c of elytra broadly ovate^ and, except at base, 
argins, outer ed^jea of margbis below level of 




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NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTEKA^ 



suture (in ^ they are higher than the sutural crest), wide! 
middle (in ^ the elytra are widest near bi^^^e, the mm 
the middle being slightly inwardly compressed); punci 
epipleurao coarser. Length 17 J, width 14 mm- 

flab. — Geraldton and Walkaway, W.A. 

A rather fragile-looking species, having somewhat the 
ance of an Encara; the clypeus is atraighter than in anj 
of the subfamily with which I am acquainted. When 
against a light the margins appear to l>e thickly impress 
somewhat angular punctures. I have seven specimeiu 
examination, two of which (sexes) meaaiire but 16 mm, 

Sympetes Duboulayi, Pasc; Mnst Cat. Sp. Na 37 

This species was evidently unknown to Sir Wm. Mallei 
simply quoted Pascoe's description, and allowed it to n 
Saragua. Mr. Champion has since (Trans. Ent, Soc. L'^94 
referred it to its correct genus. The apeciea L^ moderately i 
along the coastal regions from Swan River to Gerald to 
posterior angles of the prothoracic, and the anterior 
elytral margins are turned down, a most unusual chariictt 
family. 

S. Macleayi, Pasc; Mast. Cat. Sp. No, 3789. 
//a6._Northam, W.A. 

S. TRIC08TELLUS, White; Mast. Cat. Sp. No, 3825 
Hah, — Swan River, W.A. 

Saragus sTRiATiPENNis, MacljRL-S.N.S. W. 1867j 
Hah, —New South Wales. Widely distributed. 

S. RUDis, Macl., I.e. p. 659. 
Hah — New South Wales. Widely distribute*:! 

S. L^vicoLLis, Oliv.; Mast. Cat. Sp, No. 3807. 
Hah.—^ew South Wales. 



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BY AETimE M. LEA. 



293 



nrcaA3f0Sj Pasc,; Mast Cat, Bp» Ko. 3944. 

Trans. Eat Soc. 1895, p. 393) doubts the viilue 
[ am convinced that it is a got^ti une, as T have 
lit. Kosciusko which agrtjea very well with Mr. 
m, and which is certainly not sulci coUis. My 
! and has faint traces of elytral atriie. From 
ilcicoliis in tnj poaaession it dififcrs in having 
the upper part of the eyes distinctly transverse 
r granulate; the prothorax is larger and more 
argins deflexed, a much more diiitijict impren^iun 
la^; elytral epipleurse hirger, except at biu^e^ 
lUer; proatemat keel bnmder, its ajiex narrower 
?rcoxal process depressed and mar-4:ined; Ith 
t BmaUefj with the 5fch bi-oader; and there are 
iticeable diiferences. The entire abaentte of 
ralj and not due to ahn^sion. The species m 
Sjand my specimen is the only one I ha%'e aet^n, 

APASia PUircTiCBPSi n^sp. 

ghtly convex, shining. Dlack, with a faint 
:.arsi and palpi piceous. Protliorax with a few 
aird (not always present); inner apical half of 
ff'ith dense short brownish pubescence; ant^jnnu? 
Head distinctly and densely punctate, 
on clypeus some stronger punctures; prot borax 
minutely punctat'C, elytnd interstices with 
es, Qanks of pros tern am and femora obsolett*ly 

ze irregular transverije impression in the tnid-llp, 
intermediate femora^ slightly thicken iuj,' 
*rothorax trans versep the sides and base \rvy 
feeble deprftasion at the |H'>sterior angles; base 
loat m, Scutellum slightly raised, transverse, 
-a about once and one-half as long as h*.Md 
ibined, and not much broader than prothora^t, 



^' 





294 NEW SPECIES OP AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTKRA, 

suboval; striate, the 4th and 6th interstices slightly the 
the sutural marked by irregular punctures. Under Hurfa 
shining than upper. Femora stout; two small spurs at 
tibifie; anterior tarsi dilated. Length 22, width 7 (vix) n 

9. Differs in being a little larger and duller, antennm 
and thicker, femora thinner, and the anterior tarai no wit 
the others. 

//a6.— Mt. Kosciusko (Mr. W. E. Rayniond), 

Through the kindness of Mr. G. Masters I am enabled 
pare the above with A. Howitti, from which it dLflfei^ i\ 
larger, the head distinctly punctate and le.*?a shiny, fj 
shorter and thicker (in both sexes), palpi much darker in 
the pro thorax is decidedly transverse (in A. Howifti it is- 
thing — a little longer than wide); the scute Hum is a littJe 1 
the scutellar stria more distinct, and the other striae &r 
what different at the apex. 

MELANDRYID^, ANTHICID^, MORDELLH 

A paper by Mr. Champion (Trans. Ent. Soc. I^nd. 18S 
two by myself (P.L.S.N.S.W., 1894, and \m^ have clash 
unfortunately several of the names proposed for specie^ 
above families will have to rank as synonyms. The syi 
will be treated of by Mr. Champion; but I would here 
offer a few brief remarks on three of the species described 

DiRC^A LiGNivoRA, P.L.S.KS.W. (2j X. \mb, p. 26 

This species is very close to venusla, Champ.; neverthele 
satisfied that it should be considered as distinct, Fro-ni 
it differs in being narrower {$Q)'y the thorax m much 
apical macula on each elytron sublunulate Hn that ftpeci 
dunib-bell shaped), basal macula much smaller amJ morei^ 
not continued to lateral margins, and withimt a small 1 
paler marking behind it; there are also be\'eral oth^ h 
noticeable differences. 



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BY ARTHCR M. LEA. 



295 



utrs, PX8.N.B.W. (2), ix. 1894, p, 616. 

been used hy Mr. Cliampion for an American 
i alter the name of the AuatraLian species to 



LHOUSEi, RKS-KaW, (2X 3E. 1895^ p. 300. 

a (Tmns. Ent. ^oc, 1895, p. 2^7) has sub- 
■ Wai^rhmisei for obUqtMi^ Waterh-, my name 
e propose to alter the name of the Australian 

CURCULIONID^. 

A M V G T E R I D E S. 
ILBPTOPUS ECU IN AT US, n.Sp. 

mgate-elliptic, nuboj^aque. PiceouN; protljo- 
tnl">ers and legs clnll red; antennit^ redfU&h* 
and spi^e about elytra! suture with long 
of prothorax with abort setir; head with veiy 
teacence above and below eyes, & patch of 
en eyes; prothorax with t^parse elongate and 
at sides; oenhir lobes fringed with siilvery 
: elytra and tul>ercles witli whitisli yeales 

bro%\Tl along suture; laU^ral punctureH Riled 

scales; apical segment of abdotoen with 
spot of whitiab scales, 
[j puncta^te, grooved in the middle, the ndges, 

formed by »cn>be8, forming the letter M. 
[evated twifisveraely granulate ridge on eacb 
Igea not conjoined at ajiex l>ut separately nviT* 
presaion ^^elwecn the nd.L?e^ deepest, near iip*^s» 
and witb scattered granules near Uase; an 

by two irregTilar rnws of granules ham bfise 
>Ws, a few scattered granules helu>\ ; t lie re in 
ermtdiate basal ridge «if oltHoU^e granide?^. 



f if 




p* 



|"„.CoW 



296 



NEW SPECIBS OP AUSTBALIABT GOLEOPTKItA, 




Elytra narrow, with two distinct rows of sharp uonical 1 
united at base and projecting on to pro thorax; the o 
contains six to ten and the inner slightly more tuberc] 
is also a short sutural row of from three Uj iive smaller I 
commencing at about the middle and teriuiimting at si 
posterior declivity; space between tubercles irreguUiirlj 
sides with four rows of large punctures, two ui ^ 
marginal; posterior declivity with small gi-aiiulea and ji 
apices rounded, very feebly emarginate. Sterna spai-sely 
and with irregular depressions. Two basal segments of 
with irregular depressions and ridgey, all irregtiL 
(especially the apical) coarsely punctate at sides^ a fe 
punctures across the middle; apical ss^gment with i 
circular squamose fovea in its middle. Legs long, set^^s 
moderately stout; anterior tarsi with an elongate pad 
side, the rest not padded. Length 17, rastrum 2h; ^\idt 

Ilab. — Geraldton and Mullewa, W.A. 

I have two specimens, one of which is nlni^st sca^lelesj 
the elytral extension larger, more obtii.si> and tuort* 
granulate than in the other. The species, on accom 
number of rows and sharpness of its elytral tubercles, < 
very distinct from any previously describcnl. The iiuml; 
tubercles in each row is never to be depended upoOj as ii 
the species I have examined they vary in number eve 
same specimen. 

DiALEPTOPUS LONGIPES, n.ap. 

Narrow, deep, elongate-elliptic, subopaque. Black 
tubercles dull red, legs piceous, antennn? black, Rost 
apex of prothorax with short blackish setfy; muddy-bro 
on head between eyes, and very small and indistinct mm, 
on prothorax and elytra. 

Rostrum almost impunctate, otherwise a^ in the p 
Prothorax as in the preceding except that the cre^l^ 
united at extreme apex and overhang the liea^i as one, tl 
oblique ridge being more pronounced and less granulate. 



I 



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BY ARTHUR M. LEA. 



29T 



ws oi elongate Ln angular tul>ercle3 conjoined 
ing on to pruthoraXj the out^r row contain- 
)ercles and the inner three ki five, becoming 
♦e; punctui^s foroiing two Hutnral rowK, two 
clea unci live larger and latersil rows, two uf 
, and one irregular touching outer row of 
declivity punctate and not granulate, ajiex 
emarginatc and separately sharply niucronate* 
ctAt«. AlxJuinen irregularly and somewhat 
%t sides, suture between l«t and 2nd segment 
[jct at sidesj :ind oljlii|uely scratched, apical 
le and flepri-ssed on ea^h side- Lej^ h>ng, 
I not paddetL Jjength 121, rostrum 1^; wi^lth 

ac*, is a species larger thaUj but intt^rmediate 
tiis and the. foUowing species, fi^oni either nf 
{listinguishHi by its much larger Kutural 
lomen also in cHUci-ent from that of either of 

iALKFL'OFUa SOttntDUBj tl.sp. 

Miei'ately Irtimth Blitck, njjica! tubercles on 
the re^t etitinfly ao. Ro*<trum and apejc of 
rt black isli setw, Muddy Kcalen on hejul 
« of prtithoraK, and rather df^n^ely coveriii;^ 
e (except ajwx of ali* lomen) jjflaijrouj^. 

punctate, a shallow parallolsided gro4>vn ex- 
rjgth, Pr*ithoracie create oa in the precfwling, 
I they are more visibly unitj^cl, oblique rid go 
enne^liate ridji^ more <Ihtinct than in either 
id raoi"e olisuUstely granulate. Elytra ovate, 
e tiiangular tul>ei'cles conjoined at Ijase ;ind 
ulate extension un to prothorax, outnr row 
iatinct tui>i*rck*s, the inner ^►f three »*r four 
is apex, «pace abt>ut suture aTid lictwef^n rnw^ 





t»l 



^8 



KEW SPECIES OF AUenULIAN COLEOPTERA, 








of tubercles irregularly punctate and oljsolet-ely grannl 
lateral rows of pimctureaof which oniv one is distinctly in 
the upper row irregular and tone Ling tubercleSj puat^rlor d 
irregularly punctAt^ and obsolete ly granuiat-e; apex aemicij 
emarginate and each obtusely mucronate. St-erna sparse! 
tate. Two basal segments of abdomen 'W'ith slia How b 
impressions, except at sides of suture where they are d 
2nd segment irregularly feebly obliquely ridged at apex 
segment with an outer row of coarse punctures, middle 
foveate elevation. Legs moderately longj thin, tarsi not \ 
Length 13, rostruDi 1|; widtb 5 A mm. 
Hob, — Bwan Kiver, W,A. 

L ^ 31 s A c c I D E e. 
L^MosAccus AKciBNTEua, n.sp. 

Entirely black. A median stripe on pro thorax, a short 
spot on each elytron conjoined at base (lying on the 1st a 
interstices, the two conjointly subobcordate), a small spot 
side of apical abdominal segment^ clotheiil with silver 
scales; a few wliitish scales at ap6x of elytra, on ster 
between eyes. 

Eya4 large, altnoHt touching; rostrum long, yhiuingj cyh 
feebly curved, punctate* at Ijase and apex, almost inipunc 
middle; Ist joint of fimicle nearly twice the length of 2i 
almost as long a.s funicle. Prothorax suVjuadrate, 
naiTOwed in fi'ont, and with a feeble median inipi*essiQn, \m 
an impression on each side. Scute Hum transversely trir 
Elytra with angles slightly rounded at base and apes, eatl 
convex in consequence of a sutural depression, intersti* 
feebly granulate. AMomen, with meso- and metas 



* lu the apeotts here described I have oot consi^Iered it nect;asiki 
the punctiirj^tiOQ of any paita but the ro»trum^ as It m much thi 
ftll and therefore of little noe ft>r tdentifiGatifjn. 



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BT ABTHUR M. LEA. 



299 



Femora edentate, 3rd tarsal joint small. 
^; width l^ mm. 

r.s.w. 

on prothorax and about the scut<3llum (itself 
rely black colour of this rather pretty little 
distinguishing features. 

ii^MOSACcus Pascobi, n.sp. 

A patch of yeUowish pubejscence about tlie 
f on to the 1st and 2nd interstices to about twi> 
i a much shorter distance on 3i*d, the whole 
V; base of pygidium with silvery pubescence, 
i of prothorax, sides of sterna and alxlominal 
yellow and moderately dense puljescence, rest 
ith sparser and lighter coloured pubescence; 
iabrous. 

almost touching; rostrum short, thick, coin- 
oved, feebly bent and coarsely punctate; Ist 
ker and but slightly longr-r than 2nd. Pro- 
feeble irregular carina; on each side of middle 
■illow impression feebly open tuwanls apex, 
angular, nude. Elytra aliout once antl une 
wide, interstices irregular. Anterior le^'s 
Qora very minutely dentate ; 3rd tai-sal joint 
claw joint rather small. Length :ij, rostrum 

.S.W. 

MOSACCUS CARINICOLLIS, n.sp. 
ra occasionally piceous) and antennie dull ivrl, 
7e with dull orange-coloured and rather hmg 
7s — on the head between eyes^ on prothorax 
3 (becoming elongate spatulate scales lower 
I continned from head, at middle of base a 
ommencement but becoming bilo}>ed at the 
date in shape), on elytra irregularly X-shaped 



f" 







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^^ 



II 



300 NEW SPBCIBS OP AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTERA, 

and sparse at sides and apex. Pygidium witb spar^ 
scales. Beneath with yellowish moderately elonga 
sparsest down the middle. Legs somewhat densely pu> 

Eyes very large, depressed; rostrum long, Bhining, 
curved, widening to apex, in $ densely punctate at lm.se 
sparsely punctate in the middle and with ublong ptii 
sides, in 9 more regularly and sparsely punctate; Isl 
f unicle once and one-half as long as 2nd. Protliorax with 
longitudinal impression at apex, and a circuhir one on en 
middle; carina raised, shining, distinct, continuous from 
middle almost to base. Scutellum triangular, piul*cordat< 
moderately long (3J x 2J mm.), parallel-ssided^ inters 
granulate. Pj'^gidium obsoletely carinate. Anterior tm 
a small tooth moderately distinct in ^, smaller in 5; ! 
joint large, padded beneath with silvery hfiir, pun eta 
Length 6, rostrum If; width 2|; range of variation 4-6] 

Hah. — Mt. Kosciusko (Ra3rmond); Quean hey an, T 
Forest Reefs, Cootamundra; N.S. W. (Lea) : BenalJa, Vic 
Common on freshly felled Eucalypts. 

The shining pro thoracic carina and long curved rostn 
render this species easy of identification. The piiliesceK 
upper surface varies from a pale to a dark orange c 
scutellum is always bare, the pattern on the prtithoni 
always constant, varies in dimensions; on the elytra the p 
occasionally almost covers the entire surface, a small t 
space close to the apex and several very small spots bei] 

Var. OCCIDENTALIS. 

Differs only from the above by its mueli p^maller 6»L 
pubescence of prothorax continuous across apex, that t>D 
forming a transverse H, and continuous across apex, i\n< 
interstices somewhat smooth. Length 3, rofstrum |; wid 

Hah. — Champion Bay, W.A. 

L.EMOSACCUS CRUCIC0LLI9, IKSp* 

Black, funicle piceous-black. Pale yellow or whitiiili | 
at angles of protliorax, four elongate sputn at hms^ 



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BY AETUUH M. LB A. 



301 



b if unitedj would form an inverted crof^^; 
about acutellunij from the shouldera ubli<|U.e 
pi, then feebly widening for a short diatani'e 
ut the apical 4thj apex slightly pubescent, 
ightly pubescent at apical thirds and 8th-9th 
der surface with raoderat-ely dense pube^ccnee 
greyer hi the middle* 

touching. Rastrum mu<lerately long, curved, 
rather finely punctate. Fir^t joint of funicle 
Lstinctly longer than 2nd; dub an long aa 
bulged out in the middle, a longitudinal 
ad apijx^ and a trans versf^ one on each side of 
round eii, nhinirig. Elytra moderately long, 
ely gi"annlat«, Pygidium carinate. Uudei- 
mx; intermediate segrnentf* of abdomen wiih 
m. Femoral tooth very small ^ claw joint nf 
mnc^nt. Length 3 J, roatmm |; width IJmjii. 
rerj slight* 

ikton, Poreat Reefs, KS.W, 
ing carinicaUis^ but somewhat narrower, and 
pi-othoracic carina bo diutinet in that, i^pecies* 
osseis the patch of elytra! pube.scence is much 
nds to about the basal third, with a few sputs 
rd near the suture, and two very small sp^itH 

KEEBUB, Paao.; Mant. Cat. Sp. No. 5325. 

set from Arm idale which agrees very well VfliU 
tion of thi^ apeGie.% except that tho rostrum 
jted) are black; but aa lx>tb these are liai>le 
of colour, and Paacoe'a specimen may have 
e considered it inadvisaVjle Uj descrilje it as 
jstrum i; width 1| mm, 

[.i^MD^AOCUa DITBIUB, n,sp. 

ffi red, club and tai'si reddish-piceuus. XJnder 
roacopically pubescent* 



mi 



•I 






lit'* 



!; 




W 



IT* 




302 NEW SPECIES OP AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTERA, 

Eyes large, distinctly but not widely separated* 
straight, moderately elongate, shining, eyliudrical, 
punctate. Antennae long, scape alnn>ftt siraigJit, t 
thickened at apex; 1st joint of funicle lar^^^:*, twiee as Ion 
club large, almost as long as funicle. Pro thorax witli 
tudinal impression feeble in the middle, much stmngt^j 
apex, causing the surface near it to appear niiseilj eac 
base with an oblique elliptic and distinct irnpreHsioiL & 
transverse. Elytra wide, rather coarsely gmnuliitej h 
convex, 4th interstice widest. Pygidium large^ withou 
carina. Legs moderately long, anterior femora with a V( 
basal tooth, the intermediate with a larger, sharper and moi 
tooth, claw joint distinct. Length 5^, rostriini 1 ; width 

/Taft.— Braidwood, N.S.W. 

This species also almost fits Mr. Pascoe's deijcnptioD of ^ 
but as it was obtained in a mountainous diHtrict mud 
south, and both species cannot be /uncrem (which 
belongs to the group about subsignatus, carinicol/i^^ tian 
I have given it a name. From the specimen mentioned 
possibly fune.rexLS it diifers in being conniiieriibly larger 
trace of pubescence on the upper surface, longer and i 
scape, darker tarsi, longer claw joint, and in s*»veral oth 
which may possibly be sexual. 

LiEMOSACCUS COSSONOIDES, n.sp. 

^? Dull red; club and under surface pioeous. Sparse i 
what elongate yellowish pubescence on head, prothorax 
spot on each side at base and apex nude) and elytra; 
with a bare transverse space about the middh^fcontinueti 
base at sides) and a spot occupying the 5th I.Hh intGrni 
apex; pygidium densely covered with whitisli ^icaleft. undi 
rather densely (sparser in middle) covere*.! with elongate 
short greyish-yellow pubescence; legs with ^hort pube'^c^' 

Eyes large, somewhat flat, widely separated. E*>»itrn 
short and flat, widening to apex, densely and mther Bn 
tat«, feebly curved. First joint of funicle large, twice * 



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BY ARTHUR M. LEA- 



303 



n^ a« Jmnts 2nd-7tli. Prothorax rounded, a 
iuipr^fision down middle, and a feebJe trans- 
. Scttbellum smallj rouud^ not in a depression 
e and one-half a.s long as wide, convex, 
y minutely granulatrej thojie near the iuture 
i the side. Pygidiutn with traee^ of a long^i- 
*gt5 short, anterior fcmoi^ with a moderately 
ird tarsal joint deeply bilobed, hut not much 
law joint long, very distinct. Length 4|, 
I mm. 

raw. 

joro convex, with the interstices more feehly 
Li4ual in the genus. A nUght resenihlance t4> 
' !!ipecies of Cosmjius has ituggetited the Bpecific 

^MosAcctrs coiiPACTua, n.sp. 

^se (club piceous) and taT*si dull reti. Above 
y aparae greyish pubeaeence. 
rat^j . Ros trum short, th ick j r t rai gli t, opaqu e, 
lid grmrved for it« entire k»nL^th. Ant^^nnse 
L*e the length of 1st joint of funiele; club large, 
Lx roundecl; a feelvle carina at ba-se, on eacli 
almost circular and vfiiy distinct impression, 
we, placed in a sutural depreiiaion. Elytra 
fi wide; interstices broad, coarsely granulate, 
urinate. Legs j^hort; anterior femora with a 
joint very distinct. Length 1|, ror^trum ^ 




.8.W. 

and rather ^strongly marked speeies, the size 

one lie sufficient to render itf^ identification 



uEMOSACCUS PEBTIVUS, n.sp, 

tftiM and apex of tibitt? dull red. fTuIden 
) prt>thoi'ax at isiides and a[>eX| and encroaching 







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304 NBW SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN rOLEQPTfiRA, 

on the base, leaving a large discal patch nude; elytra with 
verse patch at base narrowing and then sli^^'hilj uideniq 
middle, behind it at a third from apex a Hniall pat^h, and 
these on 5th-7th interstices another Egimill patch, th 
enclosing (to the naked eye) an elliptic Imr** .^pm^e; pjgif\ 
apical segment of abdomen with spar.^t? q-rt-vi'^h scalei 
surface bare. 

Eyes moderate, approximate. Eusiruin short., i 
cylindrical, shining, almost impunctate; srajie whort, cor 
joint of funicle enlarged, not once and ane-half the Ii 
2nd; club large. Prothorax sub(]uadrciti', a dUtinet liii 
on each side at base; a median line invi^ihle from moat di 
Scutellum small, subtriangular, not in a depiTs^iun. M\yi 
what convex, about once and one-third as I^Tig as wlA 
stices narrow, transversely granulate. Pyjxi< liuna with 
moderately distinct carina. Femora edf^iiUitej claw joii 
partially concealed. Length 2 J, rostrum l] \^idth { mm 

^o^.— Tamworth, N.S.W. 

A prettily marked little species but with no disLiiict At 
features. 

LiEMOSACCUS OBSCURUS, n,sp, 

(J. Black. Golden yellow pubescejice hwnung a .HtiiiUl 
base and apex of prothorax, a moderate: ly K*ng seutelli 
oblique from shoulders to about basal thin I; Ihyiiec* j^^niU 
very slightly widening at the middle; pygidititri with 
pubescence; under surface and sides of pi'i:ithi»rax with 
yellow pubescence. 

Eyes large, almost touching. Ro.;trum sliorl, i^traighti 
slightly widening to apex, rather flat and deii*«tly p 
Antennae inserted at basal two-fifths; 1st joint uf funtcb 
thickened, not much longer than 2nd; club lar^e, R 
rounded, a depression at base, apex and ufi eacli side df 
Scutellum small, elongate, shining, not di^preeised. Mj 
once and one-quarter as long as wide, tiliouldeni olili4|tJ 



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UY AKTHHIt M. LEA. 



305 



1 J wide, trans V e^rsely granul a t e . Pi'opygid i um 
dl, feebly carinate. Antjeritu' leg* modtiv^uAy 
te; t^rsi narrow, 3rcl joint deepl}' but not vir-ry 
led with silvery hair beneath, claw joint bniiilJ^ 

Length 3^, rostrum J (vix); width f mm. 
"ing the ruatrum shLuing, much less dens<3ly 
indrical; club smaller; puljesccuce paler and 

and Armidttle, N.S.W. 

)e€ie3 in which the ^eut^liuxn ia not Bituntdd 
[iral dep revision; it ia rather ubiicure and may 
<u identify J though evidently distinct from any 
From the preceding it diHei-s in coloui- nf 
markings on prothomx and elytra, slightly 
id has a more angular outline. 

L^MDSAGCUB ATER, n.sp. 

QED (club pieeoius) and tai^ni i^ed. A few t^hi irt 
ut base and across apical third of elytra; 
, with sparse and very minute seales. 

ddely separated. BoBtrum short, straight, 
[inely punctata. Scape short, feebly curved; 
I large, the re^t indistinctly jointed, cluli 
anicle. Prothorax convex, a short distinct 
L feeble impression on each side at base, and 
.lmo8t at side,^ in middle* Scutellum ^mall, 
eaaion. Elytra moderately long, interstices 
sXj transversely gi'anulate. P3'gidium vi^iy 
Jit^rior femora edentate, claw joint smull, 
Length 2\, roatiTim J; width ^ mm, 

menK, Iwth apparently females. The claw 
hi not so minute a^ in cr^plonyx and a 





Il>'l«j 




306 



NBW SPBCIBS OP AUSTRALIAN OOLKOPTBBA, 



LiEMOSACCUS VARIABILIS, n,^p, 

(J. Head, base of rostrum, prothorax (apex tinged wii 
scutellum, pygidium, under surface and Wse of feiuora. 
brown or black; rest dull red, sides and base of elytra S4:ii 
tinged with piceous. Under surface and mien of pr 
microscopically and very sparsely pubescent. 

Eyes moderately large, prominent, subappn^xiniate. F 
short, thick, curved, coarsely punctate, the two ci>iours ee 
by a raised and triangular emargination, Im^e foe lily jy 
Antennae short, 1st joint of funicle thick, ckih almost aa 
funicle. Prothorax with an almost obsolete nn^iian and pi 
carina, each side of base with a distinct trans?i?rse irapi 
and an almost invisible depression on eaeh side of 
Scutellum small, elongate, depressed. Eh tni noticeabli 
than prothorax, shoulders produced, oblique, apex fei^hly n 
suture depressed, more distinctly towards scutt4luni, int 
narrow, strongly (for the genus) convex. Pygidium 
punctate. Basal segment of abdomen with n shallow but « 
impression in its middle at suture with J rid, Anterii 
moderately long, femora edentate, claw joint very t^iuall, i 
extending beyond lobes of 3rd. Tjength 2, r*Mtrum J 
width |; range of variation l|^-2^ mm. 

9. Differs in having the prothorax (except for a pic^on 
about the basal impressions) red, without carina, and witl 
tinct median line; rostrimi longer, thinner, smooth, 
entirely red, and much less densely punctiile: abdomen m 
and more convex, and anterior femora shorter, 

Rob. — Forest Reefs and Queanbeyan, N,8.W, 

The entire absence of pubescence on the upper aurfao 
the colour of this species, and the peculiar rostrum of tfc 
(appearing fractured in the middle) should n?nder thm 
easy of identification, though the following one sti\>ngly re« 
it. 

LiEMOSACCUS VBNTRALIS, U.sp. 

5. ? Dull red; head, scutellum, extreme lia»e of pyg 
meso- and metasternum (except their sides) pictMju&'Hladl* 



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BY AETHCR M. LEA. 



30T 



e 5 of precediag (which it atnmglj reaemblea) 
Dnun iir Htble broader and shorter, the pro thorax 
igitudinal impression with a feeble trnriHver&e 
[kg its middle^ ahort^p legs, and fcmiov^rv with a 

Length 2^ rostrum |; width 1 mm. 
ivar, W.A. 

rierona Hpecimens of varitibUiR I hare examiuiMi 
pygidium are entirely Ijlackj and neitlier of the 
femoral tooth; in my specimen of the above the 
lU, is di«jtinct and would see in to imply specific 

L.EMOSACCUS BUPIFEKXIS, n sp. 

except aides and apexji antennfi' {chib tinged or 
), and tarsi dnll reci; ajiex of prothnras and 
r ti nged with red . P ygid i u m wi t h !? i 1 ^ery seal r^n ; 
?r HXirface e^ich with a small whitiwh ijcale. 
proximate. Ro>itnim ^liort, straiglit, whining, 
loely and sparsely punetate, tSca^ie ?^hurt, diw- 
t joint of funicle large, twice tlie length of 2nd; 
ks fanicle, Prothorax ronnded, a longitudinal 
Lstinct at apex, feebly or not at all eiiii tinned to 
n almost obsolete oi* morlerately distinct imjvreH- 
BS of a transverse impression on each side of 
small, round J situate in a deprension. Elytra 
one-third as long a^ wide, coujointly feebly 
peX| aeparatelj towards biune, interstices narrow^, 
very minutely granulate, the fifth with several 
laveraeand d i(^ tine t granulations towards it?sapex. 
f punctate and with a shining impunctat*:! 
a. Femora with a small tooth, '3rd taisal joint 
d» claw joint nimall l>«t distiut't. Lf*rigth 2 J, 
ridth 1; range of variation 2|-3|mm. 
th. Forest Beefs, X.8.W. 

•^embling varuthUu^ but at once separated from 
l^ perfectly straight rostrum- If, in th*3 iive 



m\ 



to 



I. 



i 



\S 



i|' 



c* 






^ SOS NEW SPKCIES OP AUSTRALIAN COLBOPTERA, 

1, 

specimens of this species I have under examination, boil 

are present, the difference is but sHght: those I take to b 

I* have a slightly larger club and broader elytra, the pn 

[ alwajrs entirely black, and the tarsi feebly tinged with pic 

L.EMOSACCrS 1NSTABIL19, n.sp. 

^, Black; antenna and tarsi pale red, rostrum piceou:^ i 
sometimes dull reii, tip of femora and tibiae and extreme 
elytra tinged with red. Pygidium and under surface almos 

N Eyes large, prominent, almost touching. Rostrum tjl 

short, shining, perfectly cylindrical, with feeble elongat*' pur 
Antenme short, scape very short, inserted at eyes, alin*j^ 
culate, 1st joint of funicle large, transverse, distinctly wid 
scape, rest of the joints short, thick, their combined lea^ 
equalling club. Prothorax with bulged sides, much more e 
punctate than usual in the genus, with a distinct longi 
furrow extending its entire length, a small and distinct 
sion on each side of middle. Scutellum small, circular, ^ 
depression. Elytra about once and one- third as long a 
feebly cursed inwardly behind the shoulders, interatiee^ i 
convex, transversely granulate. Pygidium feebly earioai 
from the head appearing minutely mucronate. Anterior 
long, strongly toothed, tibiae short, 3rd tarsal joint wiJ 
joint small but moderately distinct. Length 2J, rostrum 
width \'j range of variation 2-'2\ mm. 

J. Diflfers in being slightly larger on an average; rostn 
red, tinged with piceous across its middle or apejt; thorax 
at apex with red; elytra either entirely red or red with tJ 
and apex black, sometimes with a transverse band at apic^ 
and piceous along suture, sometimes with four red spot^ (V 
apex and two near base), and occasionally with only two i 
spots near the base; tibife and apical third of femora i 
rostrum is slightly longer and narrower. 

jyoA.—Tam worth, Sydney, N.S.W. 



"I. 



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BY AJtTHUH M. LEA 



309 



nse inserted so close to the Bjm as to leave no 
ien tliena, the atn^ngl}* bent scape, the unusually 
'unicle, and the tiij^tinct meflian groove on the 

this species^ — despite the variable colour of 
aps the most distinct of any in the genus, 
hiUit at hrst sight, the straight ro.^trum alone 

it ; the precefiing species (which it reHeinblea 
the antennae inserted about the ba^^l thiril. 

L^MOSAGCUS RUFiPEBj n,ap. 
im, antenne and legs recL Pygidium feebly 

f separated. Rostrum short, straight, ahining, 
punctate. Antennie hiserte<i moderately uloBe 
■t, curved^ not twice the length of Ist joint of 
small. Prc^thorax rounded, a feeble irupres^ion 

but very feel)ly tu near Imsej bas^e with a Bub- 
[ on each aide, ycutellum siaallj tnangalar, 
ision. Elytra parallel-sided, alxrut once and one- 
ide, interstices narrow, convex, Rcarcely granu- 
ot cariuate. Anterior femora with a «mall liut 
th, claw joint very small. Length 2]^^ rostrum 
im, 

Galium, N.8AV. 
■allel-sided apeeies, somewhat resembling lusta- 

a diatinct median prothoracie line, an<l the 
ted at extreme base of rfjstrum though clijtjer 
I have two 8j>ecimens, Iwtli fcjnales. 

GIBBOSUS, Pasc; Ma-it. Cat. Sp. No* 5*J2fj. 

s described from a male specimen; the feniaKt 
#. mm/dcdmdt's liy the stunt' autlior. I think it 
sexes of other ispecies have received weparate 
\vi\e I have a pair taken hi vtip, Tlii> rusLium 
3 bgs are oft^n subject Uj sexual variatiun; in 




tH< 



^1' 



-i 




310 



NEW SPBCIB8 OF AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTKRA, 



^ome species the eyes are much closer to each other in 1 
than in the female, and the length of the anterior femora i 
ally varies. 

LiEMOSACCDS QUBRULUS, PaSC.J Mast. Citt. 8p. No. 5 

Mr. Pascoe has described only the female ol this spe 
male differs in having the rostrum thick, compressed, 
narrowing to apex, coarsely punctate and u^ooved fi>i' i 
length, or sometimes even carinate. I have iiumemmsg s 
from various parts of New South Wales and iSwan R 
size ranges from 3 to 6 mm.; the elytral fasciito are varin 
in size and completeness; L. narinusy Pa^if., is poseibl^^ 
variety. 

L^MOSACCUS AUSTRALis, Boisd.; Mast. Cat. 8p. No, 

I do not know how this species crept into the Cat^ 
Boisd uval described it from New Guinea; ami neither Pi 
Bohemann (the only two who have descril>ed Australia 
sacci) mentions it as coming from Austialia, tbougl] 
compares several species with it. 

LiEMOSACcus CRYPTONYX, Pasc; Mast. Cat, Sp. No- 1 

In this species the clothing varies from fiale yellow 
orange; the size also is slightly variable. I have specimi 
Bridgetown to Swan River. 

LiEMOSACCUS DAPSiLis, Pasc; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. f)- 

Mr. Pascoe doubtfully records this species f ram 8outh A 
I have specimens from Queanbeyan and Forest Re^ 
The (J differs from the § in being smaller, with a sbo 
thicker rostrimi, and the antennsB inserted much nearer 
than in the J. 

L. ELECTiLis, Pasc; Mast. Cat. Sp. No, 5323. 
Hab — Whitton, N.S.W. 



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BY ARTHUR M. LEA. Sll 

vs, Fmc; la No. 5328, 
Pasc; Ic, I^o. 5330. 

Pasc.; Lc. No. 5331. 

mr, N.S.W, 

Pasc; l.c. No. 5332. 
BfB, N.S.W.j Darling Ranges, W.A. 

us, Bohem,; l.c. No. 5336. 
[8imson's No. 2566). 

3, Paac; l.c. No. 5337. 
ifs, N,S,W. 

tabulatioD of species known to me I have 
fWHsible ail characters sttliject to sexual 
Q not know both sexes. 

oticBably curved. 

tinct circuUr or el lip tic impres- 

L on ©fmh side at htt-^e. 

Dg. 

*...*► ,.*...-......-... .,...,.,,* ai'genitu^t n.sp* 

k. ................ « ., tYirMi&tfi^, ii.sp. 

r separated *..►..,.,►.*.,. .... - if'it*iVi i^^, Paec, 

r with almoat inviaiblc Laipres^ 

depre«sio!i. 

pnse iti g py gidiuni ,..,.,.,., ^ ...... * iM)f 't/ 1 w^ Paac. 

uot reaching apex of elytra. 

ftft^i aLining..<,», ,......, ocif/ami Paac. 

liiid opciqiie ,.*...- , ► tfr.ctiiMj Pasc. 

in ft d€|3reBaioQ. 



<w*wf 




312 NEW SPECIB8 OF AUSTRALIAJT COLEOPTRKA, 

Prothorax with shiaing carina „..„ .. form 

Prothorax without shining carina. 

Anterior femora edentate .,^,,+,,^,, ttffnof 

Anterior femora with small tooth. 
Prothoracic impressioDS piib^cent. ,,.,*..... cnteM 

Prothoracic impressions impubest^L-ni. ... , . Fn^i. 

Rostrum straight. 
Scape inserted at extreme base of rostrum. ........ ., . , . mHial 

Scape not inserted at extreme base of rostrutii. 
Form short and thick. 

Size very small ..* tofftpt 

Size larger. 

Prothorax without basal impressions ,..,... ^ . dap^l 

Prothorax with basal impressions. 

Elytra more or less red ..*.,.,, (ftitm 

Anterior legs moderately long. 

Anterior femora reaching apex of rogtntin iuHifii 
Anterior femora not reaching fipex of 

rostrum .., .„ mihw^ 

Anterior legs short. 

Feebly pubescent above ,.,., /unen 

Glabrous above dnhiu 

Form rather elongate and subcylindrical. 
Elytra and prothorax with distinct pubescence 
forming patterns. 

Claw joint moderately distinct .,. olmcm 

Claw joint almost concealed. 

Anterior tibiaB red ..,......,-. trgpk 

Anterior tibiae piceous-black ..„,..„,. fentm 

Upper surface glabrous or feebly pubeseent. 

Elytra red rm/^ 

Elytra black. 

Rostrum and femora red ..,. rm/ip6 

Rostrum and femora black. 
Prothorax with a circular impression on 

each side of disc ,,.,.„„ ^tttr^ 

Prothorax without circular imprcsfefoa.**,,, ffibho^ 



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BY ARTHUR M. LEA. 



:^]3 



COSSONIDES. 

Mastersinella, n.g. 

^yes small, prominent, coarsely granulate?, 
tl, parallel, elongate. Ante-nmit thick; funicle 
minted. Proth^yrax distinct l}^ widest hehiTid^ 
lan wide. Sen fell um smalK distiticL h'l/fra 
1 prothorax, subcyjindrical, apex acuniinate. 
ipproximate; tibial hook sharps very distinct; 
lerous. Bodi/ fusiform, atronjijfly sculptured, 

1 funicle renders this genus at urice distinct 
3y Mr. WoUaston; though, had specimenn been 
[t have considered it necessary to form n MjsHfial 
omimsfidp.M) to receive it. So far as I aui 
its nearest Australian ally (although poHbiPss^ing 
lie) appears to be Microcossoititf^ (itf which a 
sorded from New South Wal es ) . Co n se< j u e n tl y 
; it as an aberrant form belonging to tlie 

FERSINELLA 8-ARTICULATA, n.SJ). 

m and base of prothorax feelily tinged with 
I feeble greyish pubescence. Heafi iuifiunotatt% 
res between eyes, rostrum with l-outsh scattereci 
owards apex; prothorax with regular nhallow 
triate-punctate, the punctures large, shallow, 
I with piceous, interstices smuuth. Lhider »ide 
sversely strigose, sterna and alternate portions 
^rge shallow punctures. 

nd one-half as long as head, feebly etjually 
x; Ist joint of funicle wider than long, narrow 
»te, rounded outwardly, inwardly excavated. 
ex, not once and one-half as long as wide, 
narrowed and feebly constricted, base feeljly 
dightly wider than prothorax, parallel-sidjd t<.i 



MW! 




1 1 



'N 



* 



»|*« 



4f 



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ft»4 



314 



NEW SPECIES OP AUSTRALIAN COLEOITENA, 



Itll 



i 




apical third. Meta- twice as long as meso^terjnim, th<* V 
bined as long as abdomen. Third tarsal yniit strongly 
entirely concealing true 4th joint except fjxnn helov^\ L 
eyes IJ, rostrum J; width J (vix) mm. 

Hab. — N. Queensland (Mr. G. Masters), LJArruu Fa.lk 
Koebele). " In decaying timber." 

Hexarthroides, n g. 

Head rather small. Eyes small, prominent, Lrjar^^ely g| 
Rostrum subcylindrical, parallel. Antemife niuJeratelj 
funicle 6-jointed; club 3-jointed. Prolliorax widest ficrcm 
longer than wide. SculeUum almost invisihlp. Eit/frn i 
drical, parallel, apex acuminate. Anterior coxtt- aubappr 
tibial hook distinct; tarsi pseudo-tetramerous, 3iy1 joint mc 
bilobed. Body elongate, narrow, strongly sculptured 
pubescent. 

Although possessing a six-jointed funicle, I think tfa 
should go in with the Cossonides as limit od by Mr. W 
he himself places IJ exarthrutn (also with a six -join ted 
with them, and the present genus certainly cannot be pli 
the Onycholipides. I possess no Australian genus with 
can be satisfactorily compared, and from Hfxafthrmn it 
to differ widely. 

Hexarthroides punctulatdm, n.f!p. 

Narrow, subconvex. Piceous-black ; eye^ l*rawn, ante 
red, base of femora, apex of tibiae and tlie t^irsi tinged ^ 
Punctures with microscopic sparse pubescence, lotigest 
Head feebly transversely^ strigose at baae, it, the rost 
prothorax with coarse dense punctures, f lytra striate-] 
the punctures coarse, approximate ; under surface wit 
regular punctures; head almost impunctate, and micros 
granulate; intermediate abdominal segments feebly and 
apical more densely and strongly punctata; femoim r 
punctate and strigose. 

Rostrum parallel-sided, except for a feeble tiilatation i 
the antennae. Prothorax very feebly constrict*.*il near j* 



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BY ARTHUR M. LEA. 



315 



rostrum elongate pear-shaped. Elytra much 
IX at base, but not much wider than across its 
ed to near apex, interstices very narrow, 
►nger than meso- and metasternam combined, 
rostrum J; width ^ mm. 

sr.s.w. 

1CR0C0SS0NU8 PANDANI, n.sp. 

II red, antennoB and under side of head paler, 
mattered pubescence. Head both above and 
nsversely strigose; rostrum with shallow 
■ax with shallow, almost regular punctures, 
tate, the punctures large, shallow, approximate; 
scattered large shallow punctures, and minutely 
jrsely or obliquely strigose; femora feebly 

ved, slightly longer than the rest of antennae; 
longer than 2nd-3rd combined. Prothorax 
near apex, which is decidedly narrower than 
jebly trlsinuate. Elytra feebly and equally 
»l third. Length to eyes H, rostrum J (vix); 

d Richmond Rivers, N.S.W. 
ig portions of the trunks and in old nuts of 
le species is moderately common and I have 
and pupa;, specimens of which are now in the 
apartment of Agriculture of New South Wales. 

TEREOBORUS LAPORTB^, n.sp. 

ing, glabrous. Black or piceous-black, or piceous- 
itrum and prothorax densely punctate; elytra 
he punctures large, subquadrate, intei*stices 
ely punctate; under surface sparsely, sides of 
y punctate. 

res indistinct; rostrum very broad, not much 
feebl}' decreasing to apex, a feeble impression 







i 



it 



i 



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316 



NEW SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN rOLEOPTEBA. 



between antennoe; aiitennse short, scape rmv^'d, ns louir 
Prothorax slightly narrowed in front, as long ns ht^&d nm 
combined, without trace of median line. Si^utellum ^nv. 
verse. Elytra parallel to near apcTt, suture sliglitlv 
Sutures of intermediate abdominal segrnt^iits very 4e*^ 
short, anterior tibice fossorial. Length 5, ro(Strum J; witlt 

Hob. —Clarence River, N.S.W. 

I^umerous specimens taken from partly deciiyed tniD 
large stinging tree (Laporfea gigaa). Thv ^n^^i nuniVtpr 
allied genera described by Mr. Woliasiton r^nd^frs s* 
determination of any but those with itroiigly niarkt^ 
somewhat difficult, and as this and the fullowin^ij apiuni 
least very close to Slereoborus (a species of whit'h hjv« alix 
recorded from Australia) I ha^e consMon' I ir ailvjsablt 
them in that fjenus. 



m 



«i 



StEREOBORUS INTKRSTITIAIJi*, n.!*|X 

Elongate-elliptic, subconvex, shining, glabrous. Dlivck, 
and tarsi piceous. Head (except hf\^v) mid nKtriifu 
punctate, prothorax less densely; elytra striak* 
punctures moderately large, approximate, irik^r^tices fin 
but distinctly punctate; sterna with morierat*^ly larg« 
punctures, smaller on abdomen. 

Head wide, eyes moderately distinct, a small foie^i 
them; rostrum short, broad, feebly dilating to iipi*x. 
curved; antennre inserted nearer base than fipejf of rtiHtn 
curved, as long as funicle and club combined: e hi li shorts, 
Prothorax constricted near apex, widest behind mtti: 
feeble trace of median line. Scutelluni Kiuall, transvifi%^ 
decreasing almost from base to apex, strjji:* tlet p at \*n 
shallower towards apex, suture flat. In termini iata ^e** 
abdomen small, suture deep, apical segment feebly depreje 
middle. Legs long, anterior tibije subfrissonal. IvPi 
rostrum j^; width H mm. 

//n^>. —Tweed River, N.S.W. Obtained iiiider mttm 




^ 



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BY AUTHVR M, LIA* 317 

EREOIJEKU8 Maclkavi; n.sp, 

it rum alfU'i-^t im|iiuiulr*te, muuth piirt*^ w ith 
profchorax; with sparse diHtinct punctureit, 
fp; Hytra with rt^gular row^i of smali lii^tinct 
a liftt, not punctAtf. 

; eyoa laieml, indiHtinct, a very fee hie impj'tn- 
rti*4truui vtirynhort, wiiler than kiiii,', ajiiminju 
le of rtjstruin, Hi'<i|Mi yary short, widening' U* 
Prothom:« fih:mt (>nc« and oiin-tUini a** 
y €on>*tni*t«d o^ar apexj which i^ slightly 
iddle, Hud almuHt a^ wide tis hitse. f^LnUeUuni 
i!, withirj a tlt^prfa-sion. Elytra paralh?! to 
Ti iiiiiiHtiiir t Hilt 11 evil Htntt. rt]U'riiiHdial*^ 
II f§hurt> tlieir KutunjH deep and wide. J^egH 
traugly fonaoml. Leogth \\y roRtrum k\ 

4 (Ma<'k*ay ^Museum), 

Lpe of l.h« pruthvHAx thifv spi^cies agi'tJt"< with 
^(icwis of the geaui^ Sifr^^odfru^*^ tht* ba*ie uf 
ree amall fculjerdes iminediately behind iIia 
fch whicli the muuth k friugp<;J. 

»«90!«17B im"B«RlCOLLia, fhSp. 

freUy shiijiiig. Jlead and pri>thorn\ hlatk, 
I 111 II hruwniHih-re<l, th*^ tuiriiii* lifii^eil with 
rji; under surfmje, legs and aiderum* piieviu^ 
dth deiiH<* small punt^turefi, pro thorax with 
Lifibs exoept nt apex wJierc thf^y i^^*' sniidliT^ 
about twelve rows of large, HulM|Urtdr!it*i 
» acurt-^ely visibly punet^tte^ about ii< widt* a^ 
irfiLee rleiH**ly piint1»te, punelures of sttirna 
rjd itiftsosatamunu Ktroager, 





318 



NEW SPECIES OF AUSTKALtAV COLEOPTERA, 




Eyes lateral, distinct; rostrum iiarri:»w at ba.^e, si 
widening to insertion of ant/eniKt^, parallel thence t< 
antennae inserted about middle of rostrura, scape straight, 
as funicle, club short, obovate. Prdthunix niiliccmical, 
line invisible on apical half, carinjite towanls base/base hi 
Scutellum small, distinct, circular, within a depression, 
wider than prothorax, parallel to apic?til thinl, imei^Htii: 
scarcely raised (except posteriorly). Mjiluint*tt with n 
depression at middle of 1st and '2ii(l segni<^nts; apical a-s 
two intermediate com})ined. liefi^s luii^^, fenioni (espieeiallja. 
thickened. Length 4 J, rostrum 1 (vix); width T^ mm. 

Hah,— Foreat Reefs, N.S.W. 

Crawling over fences and logs at nu^'ht time, 

COSSONIJS IMPRKSSirRON.% n,sp. 

Elongate, depressed, feebly shining, glabrous. Ficeou 
under surface (except prosternuin)^ legw and antenna' : 
brown. Head and rostrum densely punctat^^ the pr«>tho 
densely but more strongly; elytra striate-ponctatej pu 
large, subquadrate, interstices scarcely visibly punetate, p 
mesosternum with dense coarse punctures, on tire nieso; 
and two basal segments of alxlomen tlmy are smaller an 
what irregular, intermediate segments sfMiri^ely puiiclat« 
densely and strongly. 

Head with a moderately large distinct fovea betwa* 
rostrum moderately narrow at hme^ widening to inaei 
antennie, parallel thence to apex, flat^ a groo\e con tin uo 
ocular fovea almost to middle, where it flij^tinctlj ten 
from thence at the sides a feeble impresiiion; acape s 
thickening to apex, as long as funicle, club olK)vat«, ad 
four preceding joints of funicle. Prothoraix with feebly 
sides, an impunctate elevation extending almost from i 
base, with a depression on each f?ide of it. Scutellum c 
obtriangular, a feeble impression in its middle. Elytn 
than prothorax, feebly decreasing to near afiex, alternat 
stices feebly raised, all flat and ratlier narrow; A de^ 




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ts\ AHTIlllN SL tKA, 



310 



Be of Ut. U* rtpex of 2nd aWofninal jw^gment. 
ini^« ft?murn (espptrinlly itnterinr) tbicktintici* 

h Wale?! (pn>hiibly from 8ydiiev)" 

LEDSTU&S Upflt.; >[iiHt Cut. 8p. N<K 5620, 
w id«^ ly d bt riljii ted . 

4 rtaV.vrHOLlFORMlS, Woll,; J.e, No. TyiW'y, 

Mik, W.A. In floweriii^r stHtjjs nf Xniifhttr- 

'LATUH, WolL; I.e. Nu. Tti)\i. 
ilLlNKATL'S, Pasc; I.e. N**, Tifi^l 





1? 



i\ 



320 



DESCRIPnONS OF SOME NEW AliANEID^E 
SOUTH WALES. No. 6, 

By W. J. Raimiow. 

;Platos xviii.-xx.) 

Family EPEIEIlJ.E. 

(ieilUS N E P H I L A^ I^'lM-ll. 

Xephila ornata, R|>,nov. 

(Plate XVIII. figs. 1, la, \h,) 

J. Cephalothorax 5 mm. long, 4 mm* hruad; abdtimei 
long, 4 mm. broad. 

Cephalothoni.r dark mahogany bru\Mi, tlriekly cloth 
silvery white hair; caput elevated, roundind oq aide« •'wi 
part, deeply comjjressed at junction <►£ cepbaiic and 
segments; two coniform tubercles at posterior extremity of 
segment. CJypeus broad, moderately cunvexj a dei*p US 
groove at centre, indented laterally; ind en tuitions bam, tt 
groove sparingly clothed with hoary ptilK^aeenee. 

Eyes glossy black; the four cent ml eye-s are n^hU 
moderately convex eminence and fornt mi almost t\nw\ 
figure; of these the two comprising \\v' hnmi row n:te m 
closer together than the hinder pair; ibe lateral eyft* ai 
the smallest of the group, and are pltictni oljlH|adj ( 
tubercles, but are not contiguous. 

Legs long, slender, yellow-brown, a fi'vv fine yellow h&i 
dark brown. Relative lengths 1, 2, 4, *^; of tUa^ t\m ^ee 
fourth pairs are almost equal, and the tlunl timoh tb*» «h< 

Palpi rather short, somewhat darki^r than the Jpp 
thickly clothed with short dark hairs. 




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ri/r 



m W, .1. RAIN'DOW, 321 

'O, conical, smcsoth, inner nmr^'in frin^jj^ed with 

jneb diifker; t he marj^ins of the fniTow of t?ncli 

row of three strung t^eth. 

}ifLsei ivpcx s^hiny, fiilf* yellowkh. 

.hull th*^ hftsft iH bfuaii; UiJ^e And nppx similar 

I*. 

hiipefl^ .^Lriiw colon r^ with i^nuill tliivk pat^^hea 

, hiinuuuri in initlint^, moil»^rati*lv c<nivt*x, pra- 
ct*p I la It? t ho ra x ; s n per ior s 1 1 r f a ve dull ye 1 1 o \v t « h, 
rl pastftriot extremitieH, clothed ^[lannjjjly with 
HiiifMne^ntrAJ with a few durk nptits, and from 
luitt^ritn* extremity with &> n^twurk pal tern nf 
ud inferior surface dark brown^ oi-nann'niiMl 
pnio Vf'UowiHh and uneven lines. 
*?rfte ijval, dm'k hruwn eniinence^ puifitt'rior lip 
ii^il rind convex than the antenor. 



NipniLA pKTA, ^p.nov. 
(Plftle XIX. % ].) 

c 6 muL knig, 5 mm, IxiiMid: nhiloniML 11 mm* 

iny hlttck, thickly clothed with ailvery futirs; 
d w i r h si I v t- ry I uu rs, n f e w i >hick h h i i vv j >a 1 1 1 1 es 
ction vi c^fjlmlic and thnnunt? segments ole:irly 
h|iR*k co«ift>rm tuljereles ut biisu uk' eefphnlic 
hrtiafi, slightly ui'cheil^ elothed with nilvMry 
► e« diJitJUct, hlntk, nhiny^ .^inel devoid i>f luiirs; 
centre. Marginal ha t\tl linrrnw, fringed with 



fiif 





^22 



SOME NEW ARANEID^ OF K,8.W., 



Egt'if hln^ck; the four central eyes are siwiU*d 4it( n nniflfmtdjj 
convex eminence, and form*an almost cjuadmng^ulitr li|j:un"; 
laUnif pair are much thi-* Kmalle^tfc, and ar*^ plncA.1 obliijUylyflO 
small tiibernk*h» but are not 4!ontiguous. 

Lf^ga long, slender, black, witii \mj%d y^^llow annulnuoiu; 
irnehfiiiterit and frmnrs nf first :J fmirN and feaiurs unly i)f thtpi 
and fourth pair.^ fnrnish*?d at lower i*xtrt*tiiitie^ >**ith Ioti*( \tWk 
hairy plumea; iibiaf jniniH^ mtftat^rm n-ml fnviti black. 

Palpi lung, black, clothed with lonj^ black hairn *>r bri?itW. 

Fa^(*r.» black, arched in fronts slightly divergt-^ut, « f<*ft' jh»irt 
bliujk hairs on iuner margins; w row of thrti* tpeth mi rm*h «a%f^nu 
of the furrow of each falx wherein the fanjj li*^^ wL**n »( rwl; | 
fangs black. 

J/aj?j//i*f cluh-shapefl, arched, out^r margins iUa\?k. inripf ma 
shiny, yellowish. 

La ilium eonic^ih rather longer tlian broad, bh^^k at Imt^, i 
and yeUowish at apex. 

Shmmu con late, lonn^er than broad j Murfat^e au»*vmu 
with fonr small yellow lateral palcbe**, a broad tratisisver^ cur 
yellow Imnd at anterior part, nnd a sniriJl yelh»w pntrh hi jMwt^ 
extiiemit}'. 

Ahimn^n ovate* projecting fiver liasp of cephalothoniv. 4ti{« 
Hiirlface sparingly puheHCHntj olive-^'reen, sjiDlti^d with y«*ll«iw i 
oriianient^rl with a network pattern of triicery, and frwi^ 
Itirge yellow spotn at centre; sides similar in colour tu ^trp 
surfa<:e; inferior surface dark, ornamented witli a hnwl 
trauflverBe yellow band 8ituat«d just lielo^v epittyn**; ll»^fide9 \ 
there are tiiree other transverse yellow linea &eat4^fl lowrT A*»% 
the first oi which is curved in a posterior direetiiin, and limW 
others forwarfJ. 

Epiyyue dark, strongly arched, concavt* witliin* 

7/«A._.CondoV>olin, N.H.W. 

Type specimen in the collection of the AUiitrnUan Mii"ir!MiK ' 
the Trustees oi %vhicb Institution T am indebt*'d for the priv: 
of describing it. 



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(IV W. A. liAIT^fiOW. 



323 



KpEjRA ricT_dt sp.nov, 

(PJAtf XV 11 1. %?*, 2, 2n,} 

i 3 nun. longj 2 mm, brriacl; alxJomrn ~> nmi, 

ie yelltiw. Caput elex^ated, roaiitlecl un niden 
ew whort fifi*? pile y<^llow hairs in front and at 
wi, strimgijcimvex; noniial ^rocjv**.s indistuicit. 

our intermediate oin^>s .runted un n huiuru tutt 
l«?rHne»% furrnin'^ a sijuaiv uv \umv\y wit; ■(! 
[irisiiig the iirst ruw are H<*pfinitt*tJ I' rum tjui'li 
L« &<|ual to their individual diameter, i\\\y&^ i>f 
one-half, an*! emrh row is sc^jiaratpd fn^ni th<* 
dianiotcr of one eye; lateral paij'>> inm^h the 
up, placed obliquely on flmall protul>fritiuM?B, 

long and Htrong^ palp yellow^ armed with 
and sparingly clotliptl with shnrt hm^ y«41*iw 

h^ 1, % 4, 3. 
yelloWj cloth(*d witli line yellow Imirn, cori- 

iD those of the legs. 

r, wfcrong: the margins of each falx armefl with 

; fanga yellowish'bivjwii. 

Ihiw, afcheMJ, inner uiHrgins thickly fringed 

ni«, broad at ba^se, strongly arolit^d* r>rie -hulJt 
[a^ 
yellowhh-green, truncate in fmrit, liar^ ^iml 

ovatt', overhanging bafie t\i cephalo thorax 
*f?n coltmr; with two largt^ yellow t4pol&, etlged 
ward !* an te rio r e x t rem i ty ; ef m t i g u i >us U \ eae h 

much KinaJler yellow Hptit etl^'*n| with d^irk 




l\ 




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3:i4 SOME XRW ARAKEID^ OF N^S.W., 

bruvvn; towurdn pOAtenDr extremity there is* a nfjtwi^rk uf fmv 
ihkvk und uneven lines; sides of a somewlml darktir ^r^i^n tk^n 
mipcriHr fturfaee; underside olive green. 

£pii/ifnf^ an eievau^d t^mtiience; tlie two nfu^ning?^, ihm^h 
at^iLsibly .^eparated^ are cunueL'ted at antedrir pari with a p*l<* 
jellowisli curved har; iniinediately aV>ov(^ the eiirved bar Tnemli'Jn"^ 
tbere is aiiutht^r biii^ linger, stronger, and imicb more art'fiwd ikiJ' 
th<^ Erst mentioned. 

//ft/'* ^ New England District, 

(Plat© xvin. fii,', X) 

^ CephalutlNirax 3 mm, lon^, 2 mm. brorMl; al)diMii^n Ti uiQt 
bogi 5 mm* ImjjwJ. 

Capfiitlntkurax pale jellow. Ca//w.t ele valet 1, royndml uu ^ii 
And upper part, a few short iVne pale yellow lmir:< in fn- 
fiides. C7y/Mii*f I jruad, strongly etjn vex; normal grfKivivs i 
Margintt^ ho tit f narrow. 

iPyi^jf, U^», pafpi^ Jtilc^jf^ fna^'ifht, tab htm ami Mt^rnum itniiila] i*-* 

AhJfmifin brniwi^ iwiite, overhanging base of r<^phAh)tb«it| 
modc^rattily convr^x^ gt*(*^n* ^^ ith a liroad trans\'cr«e irr*.%'ular paJdl 
of tlull white towanLh anterior extrernityj aiirl whicli i?i hn>iwli* 
laterally: then^ are two large dark browu une%fe*nly formed 
^*atehes so Hituatefl ms to lie surrounded by pfrrtitms of tl^r irfnt'' 
patch referred to; ui *widitiou to tln3He there ai*e twoHUtaU nmi ^i 
depresisionw or dent*i, the th*pths of whieb are of a dark lie^-*^ 
colour; from about the cc^ntrp t^o the jioaterior extrrmity ther*i>* 
network of tine uneven liiie^, side^^ green; under side dull sjrt^fu 

Epifijut an elevated eminence; the two Ofietiini^ more ♦MHf 
separnloil than in E.Jit:ttif and not conuecttHl at antt-rior p«it» 
in that species, with a curved bar; abovu tin* ojieniiijif^ 
sh;;^htly overhanging them^ there is a large strong Brelie<l Wr 
in tJie former speeies* 

IMk — ^Nnw England Di,itriet, 




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jtv w. J. UAmBim. 



iSB 



tf XIX. Hga. 2, lift, 2b, !ir, 2fA) 

t 5 cam. iotigi 4 mm. wide; absJomen (j miiu 

llow-brviwu. Cffpnl^ **levtttef], iTiunded on sidew 
t/f^tt$ broafl, coll vex I nurajal grLJOvesindistirii-ti 
left at C5€mir«\ .Ifargtnai band narrow, bliick. 
our central fn^'es foniiing a squjire or nearly Mr, 
I from each other bj about one eje's diameter, 
Estance etjual Uy about thi^e-fuuribs uf tlieir 
*; lat-eral fwiirs f^eat^d obliquely on tuberele^, 
tf the ^roup. 

ctothed with short black bairs lind apoi«??; i*i>?esi' 
t'odi>*nlf^rf^ with Iow(*r half pale straw rolonr, 
liKb-broMii; J'-itiiftV'f^ tibiw anil tijviti retldiBb' 
^iij^'this 1, -2, 4, a. 

ir in t'olour and armattire to kgn- 
own, rthiny, inner margin fringed with >iiiurt 
M'gin of the furrow of eat^h falx arroed with 
* inner two: fangs Strang, dark Ijrowii, 
rown, convex exttiriorly, i\ thick fring*^ *if t>hort 
r margins, a few long black onns on the outrr 

\wM tbft height of maxillHe, roumled oil' iit 

hapeci, dark bnjvvn, lighter at the middhj; 

, convex, sliglitly projecting over b^if^r uf 
5er surface mottled yellow and brown; at 
two large dark and brown patches laterally; 
n^lentaiitm!^ at thf? centre; a large leaf- like 
its outer etlgesj run^ th:^ entire le^^^th of the 
i mottled dark brown and yellow, with i^'reen 
surface yellowish, with fhu'k Vruwti juUr^hes. 





326 SOME NEW AIIANKID^E OF K.S^W*, 

The malen of thia species are pi^mie^ in cutnpiirisoii Ut tiit* 
lamales, but are exiictly like them in colour aiicl formation* Tlift 
sexes pair during Junusiry and February, and livi* ictgethfit in rlw» 
same nest during that peritnl. A more detailed ac^fxjunt of *li(ar 
nidififatiun, ttc, will be found in another part of thii* fiRj.w»r, I 
have much plet*$urf^ in detlieatinp this spet:ie» t-o mj e*i«*io«i 
contempuntry and ciirre.sp>ndent; Profe^ijur Waldemar WagritH^irf 
MgsctTO^ who han publinlied an afhiiirable work, '* LMndustni' de* 
Araneina^" in the ** ^leiuoires de L" Acud^niie Jiiipt'tiAk ♦W 
Sciences de St. P^tersbourg* vii*^ S^rie, Toirti^ xlvii. Nu. 11 

Mab. — Sydney 

Family LYCOSID^. 

GenUB D o l o m e d e s, LiiLr. 

r Plate xvjn,, tigs. 4, 4/?,) 

Q. Cepli a! u thorax 4 muu lon^, 3 mm. broad ^ abdoiniill 3 fuui 
iong, 5 mm. broiul. 

(kphuhdfumi^t pale yellowi?4h, strongly convoXi clothcK? with [Wy 
yellowish pubeKcen^e; noimal grooves and indentttUanis indi«<tmrJ- 
Manjiiml itctnd broad, 

Mf/fM black; front row smallest fif the i^roup^ and Hlightlj j*^ - 
curved, middle ©yes somewhat larger than their lateral Jieii?bbwn% 
all etjuidistant; eyes of sectmd row large, separated by ti ^f^w* 
equal to onca their individtial diameter; tliirtl row large, st^paraW 
from each other by four dian^etersi* 

Lf'j/» strong, moderately Jong, pale yellowish * clotht*ii ^»llil 
yellowish pubescence, and short, strong hlwak spines* H**Uttvift 
lengths 4, 1, % 3, 

Palpi moderately long; similar in colour and armatnit^ ti* te^^ 

Falcm slightly divergent, strong, pale yelh»wiHh, clulht»«^ v '1' 
pale Yellowish pulje-ferceueeT archer 1 in front; ii ix*w nf O^^' 
black teeth aloii^ the amrgin^ of the furrow of m^ 6^1^* tJii*^ 



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ttV W. .T. RAIl^ROW. 



327 



•at^J much neai-er to the apex th^n those 
; faug^ loBgj dark hrowii. 

ed in front, incliDing inwards, thickly clothed 

ng aa mnxiUffi*, coniform^ arched in front, pale 
jthetl witJi yellowish pubescenco. 
in outline, dark brown, ahiny, clothed with 

>ttle yellow, ^s lightly projecting over bttso ol 
4 1 with yellowish putieseeni^e, and ornamented 
jjM3t», flecks, and at |>osttirior extremity a 
ide*i and inferior surface pale yellowish with 

transverse slit. 
of Port Jackson, 

)U>BIBDI£S 8F1XIPHS, i*p,nov, 

(Plate xvjiL, hg, 5), 
3 mm. long, 2 mm. broad; alxlomen i nun. 

\e yellowish, t!onvex, clothed with coarHO 
mal grooves and indentation^i indis=itinet. 
ided on sideti and upper part, shiny, a few 
*ides and in front. Mar gaud band broad, 
row smallest of the group, f^lij^ditly proturved, 
]&t larger than their lateral neighbourK, all 
second row larg€% separated Viy a space equal 
ual diameter; tbirrl row- aame size an thoRe of 
rated from each other by four diameters- 
on^% strong, yellowish, thickly elulhed with 
irs, and on upper sides of trocbanterH .^i-jirl 
\ bhick spines; on the under sides of tht^se 
lack ftpines; tibial nnd im'^al juintH furni^lifd 




% 




^L 



m 



I 328 SOME NEW ARAXBID^ OP N SAX-^ 

f abov« aad Wlow with long, struDg black s|nneM. Hi^lati%e kti;fiiti 

1, 4, 2, 3. 

ralpi moderate] V long, similar in colour U\ legs, duthrd vnLJ^ 
long, coarse jellowisb hairs. 

Ff^tcss slightly divergent, strong, pale yellowjalit clothed witk 
pale y^Howisli kali's, louge-^t on the inner mi^rgin^i, tireh^l m frvaii: 
a row of three black t^^^th im each ni virgin uf each futx. fttuf* 
long, strong, dark brown, 

MojrMiis pale yellowish, long, arched in fr^nnt, clothi*d With listfu 
coarseT pale yellowish hair^^* 

Labium pale vellowieh, sbiny^ half aw long tin iuaxdk>. hn*>l 
rounded off at ap*»x, a few long yellowish hairs, a thick frui|ic«i 
long hairs at under side of apex. 

Sfi^rnifhi shield -!iha|:*ed, j>ale yellowish, thickly ^lothf^l w-tih 
long yellow hairji. 

Ahdomf'n oblong, ovate, moderately convex, ttligbtly jjrt*je«M^ 
over IwL'^e of eephalothorax; ?!uperior (Surface, nidp's and trtf»?n*jf 
surface pale yeliowii^h, thickly clother.i with long, coai^c, yelk** 
hairs. 

EpitjfpiP a curved transverie slit, tht* curvatunp diii?cl<^ 
forwards. 

//a6.^ The shores of Port Jajekson. 

Fikmih MYGALIDvE. 

OenuH A c^ t i n o p n g, Klug 
AcrriKopUft FoimoBV'n^ sp.n0v. 

(Plate XX ) 

^, Ophalothorax 4 mm* long, 5 mm. broad; abdomen I mm: 
long, 2 mm. broa<J at base, 4 mm. at pjsterior extremity 

Ctphalothnrttx broarb (^a/^nf broail, high, atnirrg^l'. '■ 

truncate in front, bright rotl: j unction of oc^phalii^ ani 
ftegmont^ sharply defined. Vfyp^u* broad, blue-blatsfe, nwMlirt^fly 
convex, noriimi groovtjs anrl indentations fairly distinct. .Vi«^ 
^inal hand broad. 




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UY W. J. RAINBOIT. 



31B 



a three groups j central pair darlcj ehiiaj, 
r nih^d dark brown eminence, and separated 
1 space eijiial to once their inrHvi^lual dianieter; 
)3 of three, ea'^h group forming a triaD^ular 
eral eyes ai^e sensibly the largest of tbe eight; 
e trian^irular fignrai? are the iimallest of the 
1 opaline tint with black ringa. 
, shiny, dark bi*own, almost black, furnished 
ine black hairs, and few short stout spines. 
2. 4, S. 

J, similar in colour to legjii, and fiirnished with 
th joint much the strongest; copulatory organs 
ected Ijackwanls, spiral at ba^e, taj>ering^ and 
ong strong spine, the apine directed outwarda 
Aon. 

i^f bright rf*d, strongly arched, diverijent at 
? furnished with long coanie black hairsj fanga 
brown, 

, Vmxid at base, tjvpering outwarda to a point, 
^r margins clothed with king coarse black and 
es, 

[givsrchedj longer than broad, conical, fringed 
apex. 

at elliptical, red in front, darker laterally; 
reddish-brown lateral indentations towards 
len; a deep inrlentation in front under labium, 
lar, slightly projecting over base of cephah> 
>o??terior extremity; dark brown, nearly black, 
I long coarse hair is; a long, rather deep ioden- 
the abdomen from nejir its anterior to the 
J wher« it is slightly indented; sidea and 
lar tij superior. 
N.S.W. 

firat of ita genuR recorded from Auistralia, and 
nore than ordinary interest. The spider waa 
, G. Little, Railway Surveyor, Menindie, I 




« 



"I'^l 




330 SOME NEW ARANEIDiE OF K.S.W,, 

am indebted to Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., fur ih^ priv 

describing this species. 

Of the eight species described in the present pfiper, five 

(Ept'ira ficta^ E, sinii/arisj E. wagnen^ DoftuH'^te^t iieptm 

D. spinipes) are especially interesting froui tlit^ fiu't that 

common with hosts of other animals, are protected from i 

of predatory foes either by colouration <jr mimicry- T^ 

along our sea- beaches certain small spiders are uecitsiaiml 

lurking amidst the masses of small antj broken Eiheltn < 

high water mark, and corresponding hu accurau^ly ii 

to the sea-wrack referred to, that it is utterly im|Ki^ 

detect them unless they are in motion; and not only h 

but their habit of feigning death, upuii the approach 

they suspect to be danger, adds greatly to the deoepi 

these, Dolomedes neptunus and D, spinipes are instances i 

One day last summer, while helping my boys ttf 

some shells at Taylor Bay, Port Jackiioii, I disoovijire* 

the spiders referred to (D. neptuniui). In ende&voi 

catch it, it eluded me in the manner described^ aad ao 

fully that it was only by probing the shells and pebbles 1 

forceps touched " something soft " that I succeeded in nu 

capture. Throughout the entire range of natural hiatorj 

no chapter more replete with interest than the marvellous | 

of Nature in clothing her subjects, not otherwise proteei 

colours identical with their surroundiug!^, thus enabfi 

not only to baffle the vigilance of their faes» but also bj 

disguises to aid them in successfully stalking thfi 

Numerous and extraordinary are the di^-^g^uiisea tuism 

although many have been recorded ami describod, m^ 

yet remains to be done. This will require the exarcise 

patient observation and labour, and wtll be i>f immdiiid 

science. 

Many spiders that are exceedingly eoni^piuaous whili 
in their webs are practically hidden from > iew when *1 
among leaves and twigs, the hues of which harmoni*** 



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BY W, J, RAJKMJW, 



331 



I shadea of green^ brown^ and grey are found 
rkluals. Mr. Arthur Lea gave me a nuoiber 
ly him bath in the New England district and 
long which there are exaoipJes, not- only 
ed leaves, but some are green and marked 
in Ep*tira ficta)^ and others with discohjured 
[ice^ liavjng the appjearan^e ol leaves attacked 
R E. miniiarls*). Quit^? a host of exampleSj 
Ijeetles, whoae colouration is protective, may 
ing a branch of any shrub over an inverted, 
long the specie!!? whoBe haunts are confined to 
mQ that ramble among ro^^ka, the isame rule 
I arm on is in g with the colour of the soil, while 
>t only the variim^ tints of the rockB^ but 
16 lichens growing upon them. 

sayj^ that tlie Ash Grey Harvest Spider, 
J Weed, '* is pre-eminently what may !.>e called 
It abounds especially in sheds, out-liouges, 
piles, being rarely found . . . in the 
IT especially fite it for crawling over weather- 
[g it inconspicuous against such a background. 
% usually t|uietj but at dusk and on cloudy 
quite rapidly." t 

aw of natural selection, the tints of animale 

'ertain modifications in order to suit them to 

surroundings j. In tracts of bush that have 

we find specimens so closely resembling the 

tubject of his obserratioDa lit Per&, Mr. H. W. 
a uuiBber of a p id era ornamented witli (*lK>wy ctolnurs 
iiblc. Some double tbeni^elvea up At the bnae of 
lenLble flower- budif, eiod tiiiiu deeeivtj tho hiaecta on 
?\iQ Naturalist nu the River AmiLEOL]/' p. 64. 
^mcricAn Njitu rails t/' 3l%v\. p. 'M. 
ropie/il Nature," pp* 1 67- 17 2* for eomo iiitft'e»tiug 

\U<t paper hy :Jr. R. ^leldolu, on '* VririuWe Pro- 
ie«t<." Fcoc. 5^i3oL SfiQ. Laml, l«7'i I*, 153, 




i 



(■'»■♦■ 




RkM 



332 BOMB NBW ARAITBIDA OF K.S.W.^ 

charred branches or bark that when motion leaa it is 
impossible to perceive them.* In some species the modifij 
very gradual, while in others the change is iDore rap 
American author, Mr. J. Angasf states that when he ] 
white variety of what he terms the " little flower spide 
sun-flower it became quite yellow in from two to three d^ 

The habit of lying motionless when alarmed ia comraoi 
sedentary spiders, such as the EpeiriJce and Theridiidce; 
badly developed in some and entirely aTisent m others 
jumping and swift-running species. Among the orb wea 
G aster acayithidce are singularly and effectively protected 
the raids of insectivorous birds. Resting in the centime 
orbitular snares, fully exposed, the need of a protective & 
is obvious, and this is afforded by their hard, homy an 
abdomens. Likewise, the spines of Acroiiotna^ rendei 
spiders similar in appearance to thorny leaves, knots of 
acacias, (fee, are also protective, and make these animals d 
objectionable to insectivorous birds and reptiles. As in 
of the Gasteracanthidce, the spiders of the genus Acrojgo 
construct their webs in exposed situations, and sit feari 
the centre of the snares as though conscious^ of their secur 
attack. 

In many instances specimens, when "viewed in the 
would not be likely to suggest the idea that their fo 
colouration are protective, yet when obs^erved in the u 
their natural surroundings the fact that sttch h the case i 
upon the observer. Again, some specimens lose their 
colours when placed in spirit. This is the case with 



* Mr. A. T. Urquhart in an interesting paper obfer^'ej th; 
generality of spiders found amongst burnt manukaT before it hai 
bleached, have the brownish- black colour of their euviroumeu 
cause* them to be almost imperceptible at a vei-y abort digtancc 
the Proteotive Resemblances of the Araneidea of New Zealand, 
N.Z. Inst. Vol. XV. 1882, p. 175. 

t ** American Naturalist," xiv. p. 1010. 



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BY W. J, RAlJfHOW. 



3'y^ 



aiif,CfLmb,,OD the other h&ud, reel iaplajs all it» 
m out of the tube acid the gpirit has evAporatad 

a ted bodiea of the Teiragnaiha, of which T. 
ad T. lupaia^ Koch, each found in the vicinity 
dniirttbly fitlapted for concealmt^nt. Th<^ae 
ed seek refuge iipun the steniii or branchlets of 
lely do their titits iigree with their eurround- 
n ia exceedingly difficult, Epfira higgin^ii^ 
red by Koch, and recorded by that eminent 
g DowDS, but whose range extends far auutb 
Lngularly interesting example as far as its 

but in addition Ut that, ita colouration and 
are admirably aflapted as a shield and protec- 
rbed it runs out of iti snare to one of the 

guys, and there remains suspended, with its 
* exact imitation, both in form and colon r, of 
?"nting to jne u]^H>n tlie subject of protective 
ere» mj esteemed correspondent and con tern- 
;, Esq. J M.A., of Cheniaton, Upper Macedon, 
With regard to th*t protective colouring of 
uently been aflked if they have not sometiniea 
iQg colour like chameleons in accordance with 
I tnufit corifeBK that all 1 have aeen tendiH to 
tpo8it«, and that while many, if not moat^ are 
ff stages, they get darker aa they grow older 
^ticeable in laterigradeft* The colouring matter 

fikina and haira, is of a pvarticularly laating 

in spirits takes a long time to fade,* eo that 
take a guoii many generations Uy alter the 
iatic colouring of different specie a bo a?? to 
lar soils or ve'retAtion. At the same time I 



I 




, '/ il \"'H 



U 



mimeroua upeclmeni of E. ica^gn?,riy and not udo 
WD and yellow colours two or three hpura after 



I \ 




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334 



SOME NEW ARANEIDJB OF !f.B.W., 




*Mi 



have found a delicately-tinted green Mpfiira on thc^ 
coloured green leaf of a lily, and a friend i-ecently told in 
found a very brightly coloured yellow Hpider (which iie 
bring me) on a yellow Cosmos flower." 

Not only do spiders, in addition to colourat ion, possess th 
of mimicry as a protection against bircln, reptileSj ttc», I 
cocoons in some instances are also protected, Tlie ci 
Epeira herione, Koch, is made of withered leaves closi^ 
together, and suspended to one of the sivpporling line; 
above the orbitular portions of the mesh, iind lonkn more 1 
coloured mass of rubbish rather than a nest contaiiii 
Writing "On the History and Habits of IIk^ ^/mrti 
Spider,"* Mr. Frederick Pollock remarks :—** The favouri 
of F. aurelia is the prickly pear — a plant f rxmi whieh tb 
can scarcely be distinguished in colon r» rand so cios 
resemblance that the first time I saw one of the»© © 
could hardly believe that it was not a withered pieo 
cactus." Anton Stecker also records a fti-^f* Lit* protecfciv 
blance in the nest of an Epeira at Sokna (Triprili),t cov« 
debris and the elytra of beetles, ttc, and f.hlewalin I obt 
Gawler (South Australia) some globular spiderr^^ coeooi 
on branches of trees, and resembling the frait of Lepim 
the spiders of which were hanging near tlieiu, and rc^iiE 
excrement of some bird in appearance, a wonderful 
mimicry to which I shall presently have occasion t-o n^tti 

In Cyrlarachne caliginosa, recently described anrl fte 
mo,§ we have, indeed, an extraordinary form. It h w*! 
that hairy caterpillars are exceedingly distasteful to hh 
sequently it is only reasonable to assume that the longli. 




• Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist. Srfl Bf^rie^p VoL xvtj 
June 1,1865. 

t Mittheilungun der africanischen Gescllsoluift ia DcutecIibLQ 
78-80. 

t Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864. p. 37. 

} P.L.S.N.S.W. Vol. ix. (2nd series) pp. 154 157; {sl i, tx^f^. *J 



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BY W. J. IIAINBDW, 



335 



, abdomen and lega of this remarkaljle tipiiJer ha.ve 
effect upou predatory birds — that they form, la 
*i\t of safety. Mr. G. R Atkinson lias drawu 
niericaD form of CyHmu^hne^ tliat mimicks a, 
ihjibit«anti^ of whieli ar«^ exceedingly common 
^T and autumn* The alMJomen of tlif; spider 
phtthithorax, in broMl at the liayic — bruader, in 
^h of the spider, and ronnded off at tlir apex. 
»n the underside of a leaf, vrith its legs fetracted^ 
blt'd one of th^ an ail !?helb by the co!iHir ami 
men. Two specimens collected liy Mr, Atkinson 
rM, hut a few threafis of silk led hini to make 

The (*j>ider seemed so eontident of its prolcetion, 
t lnove when he jarred thf^ plant, and otdy dis- 
riVi*mt?nL wheTi tran^ifen^d to the cyanide bottle. 
C* fnuliiCtneuLa were alno descrilxfd tliat strongly 
•jalln. Kpf'ira irnf/iifri is a common spider in 
Sydney, It is brightly coloured with gre»^u and 
dmirably adaptinJ for concealment when itdTOps^ 

and ftreks shelter amon^c the coarse lirrhage, 
'hen alamied. It ifs chieily intercyistinix, h<iwever, 
s web and leaf neist. The web is placed low 
tpe ilfje?^ mjt form a complete tn-b. The main 
from which the mesh depends, are j^tn tehal 
)bli*|ue|y, and from the centre of the^e tln^ vmlii 
reeted. The irregular linew at tlK- upper part of 
iiewhat rcKemlile the architecturf* of th** Ivpieal 
\ li*af-nest is placed at the ba«e fr'no wliiili I ho 
I thi»^ during the period of mating, tmib ^exej^ 
^r pTiiicis the female is the only tenant. The 
aly used is that of a Euealypt, which U worked 

shape according to the leaf unetl : thuM, for 
w leaf is rolled spirally, and a broader ^vne i^ 

r!<lg»8 l»eing tightly bound flown with .^Hk. In 




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SOME NEW ARANBID^ oK NS.W , 




localities where Eucalypts are not abiiiiilaiit, i^thi^r lea^ 
used, and those of Lantana camara are not uncouiniuu. 

The interior of these nests is l^eautifidiy lined with «i!fc 
cocoon is attached and suspended ainon;r the supfKirtiug I 
one side of the web; it consists of a Eut'aly])t leaf doubl 
80 that the tip and base nearly meet. The eg*r5 are d« 
inside the folded leaf, and then it is sealed up firmly and 
the female mounting guard during the peri«xl of ineulmiii j 
Waterfall and Fairfield, I have met wjth another npt^ 
Epe'ira (at present undetermined) that tNin?^tructs a mc 
makes a leaf-nest like the one just descrilK^ti 

Among the ThoniiaidcB there are some inturestitig exait 
protective colouration and mimicry. Two spider*^ found 
the vicinity of Sydney, but whose r^uj^e fxtond?* buth 
northern and southern colonies, namely Vf'hjsnia t^xtatata 
and Thlaosoma J^ihiuin, Caml)r., mimick tho excreta of bi 

When awaiting their prey these spiders lie on their hma 
in this position their appearance suggests that of a bird*!«i dr 
the denser part of the body on the uiider.side l»ein|f of a 
colour, spotted and streaked with dark rrmrkiogs; tben^ l 
legs, owing to their colour and being clost'ly pressed up lo tfc 
add greatly to the deception. In addition to all tliiii a UU 
silk is spun over a portion of the surfiu^e of a leaf, in tiie © 
which the spider lies; this completes the deception aa it re 
the more liquid portions of the fjecet? running off the li 
thickening at the edge as it trickles o^*: r. The decQptioc 
as complete as could well be imagined Ko one looking m 
one or the other of these spiders in the situation descril^iN 
ever imagine, unless previously aware of the fact, that aji 
lay before them patiently awaiting the descent of some i 
insect in quest of food, yet such is the case. These spide 
themselves in position by inserting the strong spinea will 
their legs are armed, under the loose silk referred to. C* 4 
makes a nest of dead, brown leaves; the cocoons of egg-ba 
in number. Mr. F. A. A. Skuse recently showed me i 



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HV W, J. HAlNBgW. 



:m 



been forwarded to the Autitralian Museum 
tlie WiiMtern District of Yictoria: it was a 
itmtin^ guard over exactly nne dojceii t^gg-hagH^ 
tierkal, uuifurm in ake, ijomewliat brittle, tiud 
nible the kernels of: the Quandoug {Fii:in7iu» 
H. O, Forljes, RR.G.S.,* discovered a likts 
Jii\ a, bat bifl book is bo well-known that it 
m here to recapitulate t he facte as cuinmunicated 
only be mi ted, therefore, that the !^jM*cit'S clif*- 
med the? type of a new genus, Oritithoi^catoid^^, 
Atkin^un aho iioteis a cm^e of mituicryt b^* a 
a family — TAoniisns aiealorius^ Hentz. This 
[nniou on grass, to the sninmit of the cuhiia 
li&, where, clinging with its poj^terior legs 
it« anterior legtj oti each «ide approximated 
ward a, it thus forms an angle with the 
similar to that formetl by the .spikelet^, 
a/^iV, Cambridge, is another group of remark- 
he form and arrangements of their lege, which 
If' can move forAvanij^t backwards, or hi a lateral 
ity. The}^ fire generally fouml lurking under 
[g the r^igulofiitie*^ of trees. Their colour and 
— closely refisembling hiark— not only nldeid 
Is of eneniienij Imt aid them in the capture of 
ike either Ij)' stealth or pursuit. The coloti ra- 
tion of the genuti Ci/inhfiehtj are akii protective, 
have laiengrade ambulatory liinljs. They are 
calitien to the Slephanopitf. 0. Jcstivn an<l C\ 
ith in (^ueeualantl and New 8011 th Wales, and 
d in the vicinity of Sydney, While upon the 
at not omit to mention tho*4e of the genua 
ese huge uncanny spiders are common enough 

mderiDgfi in the Eastern Archipola^o, pp. 63-05, and 
efiGun K»taraUit, ^%ih pp. 545, 540. 



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S38 



SOME NSW AHAKHID.E OF Jf.S.W., 



in the bush aroiaed Sydney, as well as in the interior. If a jmk \ 
of ]oos€ bark he stiipped off the trunk of a tree, or from a deioiT- 
ing log, several of them may be seen scampering off with greil 
rapidity. Representatives of this and allied genera are alw ttf 
be found lurking under stone.'?. Theae spiders have largr, flat, 
hairy bodies, and remarkably long legs, and so are well odApto^ 
to the Bituatioos in which thoy are found, while their geiMnl 
dull colour hannoniiaes ti:^ a nicety with their sur 1*011 ndiiigir 
AJ though the su):»erior surface of the alxlomen of some* of thoB \ 
spiders in ornamented to a certain degree^ their appearance 1 
theletiB is hardly such as could be expected to inspire confiikno^'^ 
Bushmen have a dcH'^p-^eated horror of them^ and istafce that tll# 
reiiultft of their bite is not only painful, but exc^edinj^ly dan^*rtia»> 
V. irnmanitff V, (hhm^ and F. hmifjnis^ each of whicii m dF^rii«d 
and tigured by Koch in his admirable work, ** Dk* Arachnidod 
d©K Australiens,'' ai*e to be found in tlie buiilt, not only in llift 1 
vicinity of Sydney, but ako at Brisljane and Rr^c^hamptoa, Iftj 
a small collection forwardeii to mp by Dr. Roth, from Winl«it] 
Central QueeiLHland, there were sjiecimen^ of 1' iinmamM au'l f. 
dolosa^ which, he informs me, he captured in his house. 

The obnoxious odours and da^'ours gf noism iuiH.'ctA, ha in th 
butterflies of the M^h'conu and Danniffp^ re tidier rhem nafe from] 
tlie raids of natural enemies. Thus Mi% Bc^lt, in bin deli^bUtliJ 
work,* &jtatea that when he tried to feed iiht jjet nitmkey 
some of the former, though he {the monkey) would Ukke thMft] 
when oifered, and .sometimes smell them, he would invariably ( 
them up in his hand, and drop them quietly again in a 
minutes; also, whenever he placed any of the //r/i.>«>iH'i in 
web of a sps-'cies of iV*ipfiiltti the npifler woidd ilrojj them tiu^ 
although another epeciea of Afatttsidit seemed fond of thMti. 

It baa lM?en observed by naturalists working in diff**nsnt 
of the world that some species of Auidm are n^markai^p for th 



• "■ The Nntnmlkt in Nicamgiia,*' pp. 310, SIT. 



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BV W. J, R ATX BOW. 



339 



Bertkati* La,s recorded the fact from Prussian- 
e«tphalia: Walsh, t from Bengal; Bates, J ^^d 
the Uiiibe<I 8 tat en ; Belt/K from Nicaragua; 
mi Africa; Rothiiey, ** f roni Barrack piir; besides 
tp ants that are chi<^rf^3' mimicked hy spiders are 

trees or Hhriil.is. 0\\ing to their powers of 
iecretions which they can eject tv> a consiflerable 
rojR'hing enemy, the obnoxious ixloui'si emittedi 
:!omraurntieH, and tight injt( battle.s in a nniir*] 
Qon good, they are admirably protect" h I from 
liinalH that pvey upon inserts. This beitjg so, 
mimick them and wander about their haujit?* 
:mt ab^oluta imnmnity from dangers that lieset 
The AUidfp do not hjAu wtdis fur tlic irujfhn'e 

their vk'tiins by stealth, stalkiui^ tbeui, arul 
frii from beliintl. Ho great b the ref^enib lance 

the tint?^ that experienced i^olleettirs viewiiif^ 
ir»? freijuently df*ceived,f+ Not only doe^ the 
with that of the itiseet niitxiiekedj hut the 



iktit imter Spintitm," ke.^ V*.*rhniHh t\v<» ualnihist- 
clien KlieiiikmleuiidWfsilfrilern! (BornOt xHii. (INSO), 
ulaa mtttis in the SAiiiti pnpur timt. <:» ] luiii Dnt^skl'f 
p£iirtLcii1«rly the gerier^ J^rnrofiffiftM and Jf/cvrnV*. 

* aod Efttrithf^f he observer, this kind of iniuiiLry in 
heriiiiuttp furniEsh a bfautifid eXcimjik' in Fonnif*imt 
infested hy Ln^hi^ and For^mha a speeies of Ltimota 

biL^h ^IchDe rcs^enibles ants, 
Asiatic Society of Betigtil, 1801, No. 1, pp. J 4, 

* Tiaiia. Linn. Soc* Vol. XX lu. 

tie Nat Hist- Soc. Wisconsin^ 1892, pp. 1 aU^ 
' Niitunilbt m Xicuragua/' p. 3\^. 

^ "Nfttme/' Vol i[T. p. f>08. 
of the Bombivy Niit. HiMt* Sou. VoL v. p. 44. 
ggatt InfonnA me that a Hinall hlivi'k Chnfrid on Ike 
lau's B&y nifniiiciks a Bmall Jinnpio|t^ gpiJer, luid \\a.A 




<r 





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340 



SOME NEW ARANEIDJE OF N.S.W., 




contour of the body and the manner of carrying the first 
legs, so as to appear like antennie, and which, ant-like, th 
in motion when running about, make the deception cu 
All observers, whose works I have consulte^i^ with the ex 
of Dr. E. G. Peckham, are unanimous in their teatimom- lu 
manner in which these ant-mimicking Attida*. carry the tii 
of legs. Of those species I have observed minii eking an 
carried the first pair of legs in imitation of ant*.*nnje, 1 
Peckham says that an American s^Qcie&fSynitgpUspit^itaj 
up its second pair of legs to represent aateuiias," Tuil 
considers that this peculiarity of habit may be accounted 
a difference in the relative lengths of the legs, although 
American species ( Sipienioayna formica) observed by PeckJ 
uae its second pair of legs in imitation of antennre baa U 
formula of legs — 4, 1, 3, 2. 

Tull Walsh in an interesting paper t says : — "I liav© 
that the spiders are probably protected from birds ani 
enemies by their resemblance to ants, but there can 1m? n 
that frequently they also thereby gain another v^- consi 
advantage. The ants with which these spiders moat do 
gate are fairly omnivorous feeders, but show a decided jjn 
for sweet juices often to be found exuding from fcreea^ 1 
flowers. To these juices come also flies, small l>eetlea at 
insects which form the natural prey of the spiders, aiid w 
not, under the circumstances, particularly fear the ants 
while the flies are sucking up sweetness in company with tl 
the spider is no doubt able under its disguise to approa^ 
enough to make a spring upon the un8ust>eeting victim, 
fix his sharp falces into its body. As regards the ante thei 
they do not seem to take any notice of the spiders, and 
apparently attack them." It would be absurd to suppt 
spiders delude the ants by their disguise; on the contra 

♦ ** Protective Reaemblance iu Spiders." Paper* of tbe Hsit. £ 
WiBcousin, 1892, pp. 174-76. 

t Journal of tbe Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, 1391, No. I, p. 4 




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BT W. J. HAINBOW. 



341 



I* 



bo assume that the disguiae is solely for the pur- 
them from the attacks of insect ivorouh foe« and 
I stalk their prey. 80 far a,H tlipse spidera are 
it^like Aiiid<e), the ants have little to fear from 
ougli I have watchtid eloHcIy on numerous 
!* yet saw an ant attacked by a spider. Indeed, 
icity, hardneas of body, and faculty of combining 
Lultj would t^iid to ^how that spiders were more 
acked by antr^ than that the ants would 1>e 
iers. This view wuh licld liy Mr, Belt» who 
B use that the decejithe rp>rniblancf^ h to them 
x3 to be the facility it aflTordH them for approaeli- 
tb ey prey, I am con vinned t ha t tl 1 i h ex j > Ian ation 
^ as the Centra! American sp<*cies are ciuieerned. 
ially the stinging species^ are, ao far ik^ my 

not preyed upon by any other insectri. No 
Mlopted to approach theni, an tliey are ^o hold 
»re likely to attfick a si>ider than a spifler them* 
al U!M5 is, I doubt not, the protection the disguise 
nsectivorous bird-s. I ha\e found the ertip;^ of 
drds full of small Htjft- bodied spiders, ami many 
on them. Btinging antSj like bees and waapa^ 
lied by a ho^t of otlit^r injects; imleed, whenever 
ct provided with any i^pecial means of defence, I 
ive forms, and was never disappointed in finding 
T the Australian Atlnfru that mimick ants are 
r?fa, Koch, recorded from Port Maekayj LeptQr- 
Kfjch, and L. ccif/naiits, Koch„ These two latter 
be vicinity of Sydney, I have in my posset^sion, 
rt« of New Boutii Wales^ several unflet'Cnnined 
J' that mimick ants, and which will hereafter 
fur deseription. 
F. A, A* SkusG informed me *>f a remarkable 

mimicry of a dipterous inject l>y a ."!spid*?r 
ut proba.bly an Atf.itJ) that came under his notice 

Naturatjat in Nfenragon," pp. 314, :il5. 



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342 



SOME NEW ARANEIDf OP N.S,W,, 



1 




^ 



at Thomleigh. Both spider and fly were equal in size^ 
brightly coloured, the thorax bright red, aiid the abdor 
green; the tips of the tarsi of the spider were white 3il 
of the wings of the fly, and each were found on lli 
(Pteris aquVina, var. esculentaj. When in want of a 
spider throws up two legs on each side of its body, 1 
together by hooking the tarsi, and beats the air vigoi 
result being that the light striking through the loops 
appearance of a pair of bright transparent wings in raj 
and the fly, evidently convinced that it is one of ii 
alights, only to fall a victim to a remorsele^is eiietny- 
also informed me that the spider in question m capable c 
a considerable distance — not less than six incheSj and 1 
in the air it has the appearance as if flying.* 

Summary. — Now it has been abundantly proved b; 
Beddard, Wallace, Darwin, and others^ that colour 
mimicry in animals play an important and essential | 
for pi'oteclion against natural enemies, as ft wamifig to 
aitraction for prey; and the more they are studied, and 
histories investigated, the more clearly do we understac 
tints of some animals are so bright and glaring, and 
dull and sombre. After much patient work and inv 
and the collection of a vast array of fact8 such i 
enumerated, but which included observations from a 
field in animated Nature, Wallace divided living orgai 
five groups in his classification of " Organic Col ours,"! 
[\. — Protective colours. 

da) of creatures spei 

2. — Warning colours 



Animals. 



(6) of defenceless c 
mimicking a. 



3. — Sexual colours. 
4. — T}^ical colours. 



* Alius volans, Cainb., the ** Flying Spider," whidi bo fur iia 
found at Sydney, is small and exceedingly bright 

t "Tropical Nature," p. J72. 



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BY W, J, RAIJffBOW. 



343 



ctive eoJaere. 

s of this paper it will stifBce to divide the 

groups, namely:^ 

k'e colouration, aod (h) formation. 

rnimick : (^ct^animate and (h) inanimatre objects, 

irs are attractive. 

aima and Formation. — Yn the course of my 

awTi attention to the fact tliat certain apidei'^ 

e uniformity of their colouration to s^urround- 

i we have seen that while th<) colour of one 

B-ith that of the small and broken shells on our 

r group (Stephanopis) finds shelter by itji closie 

! biirk of tree-i; then again, t lie re are others 

aation is protective , and of such are the genera 

family of GasteracafUhuhPj whose luinl, horny, 

■ epidermis make them anything but tempting 

orous birds. 

[ick animai^ and inanimaie ohjttcts^ and whose 

m, — Thifi group eont^iins those spidera whose 

d, or who capture their prey by the mimicry 

Lnimate objects, and in thia class we have the 

uf mimicry reported by Mr. 8kiijie, in whichj 
f one pair of legs on each side of its l)ody, 
tier by the tarsi, and beating them rapidly up 
I species of spider, in ajJdition to itti colon ra- 
the mimicry of a pair of wings, and thud 
erUiin dipterous insect. Agalr^ there is the 
mimicry by certain spiders, even to the most 
lirds* droppings — a form of mimicry that not 

from the raids of their eoiumoa enemie^j^ but 
inssccts upon winch ihe>" prey, 
ken collectively, these facts atid an important 
lain of evidence upon wIul-Ii the lauv of natural 
md built. Much more mii^ht lie added, hut 
given to illvistratB the j^reat trutliH cuniprised 

am indebted ttJ my coUeriguc, ilr, EtJgar 
e admirable coloured drawing of AtHiUiipus 
LJi Wen reproduced in Plate XX. 





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344 SOME NEW ARANEID^ OP N.a.W. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate xviii. 

Fig. 1 . — Nephila omata ? . 

Fig. la. — ,, ,, abdomen in profile. 

Fig. 16.— „ „ Epigyne. 

Fig. 2. -^EptHraficta ? . 

Fig. 2a.— „ „ Epigyne. 

Fig. 3. — ,, stmilariH ^ . 

Fig. 4. — Dolomedes neptunus 9 • 

Fig. 4a.— „ ,, eyes. 



I Mf Fig. 5. — ,, spinipes ?. 

I jy Plate xix. 

■ j] Fig. 1. — Nephila picta ?. 

f' Fig. 2. —Epcira loagneri $ . 

Fig. 2a. — ,, ,, Folded eucalypt leaf nest J 

Fig. 26. — ,, ,, Rolled eucalypt leaf nest J 

, Fig. 2c. — ,. ,, Folded leaf (Lantana ramara] nest | 

* Fig. 2d, — ,, M Leaf of a eucalypt folded over to fori 

Plate xx. 
1 1 Fig. Actiriopus formosui $ (x3). 



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34B 



S AND THREE NEW SPECIES *)F 
k FROM NEW 80UTH WALE8, NEW 
% AND WESTERN AUHTRAIJA. 

sf Brazier, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., etc, 

aORELLA{?) WaTEHHOOSE.E, n.sp, 

turreteti, mcMleratHy solid, yt«Iluwish w(n"t^, 
>le blackish brown noiflen or spyts on tJie Lxnt 
ish nmrkingH being occasionally apparvnt here 
s€? aii(i ufjper portion o£ the wliorls; wbortw I', 
te smtxith, the others hli^litly eon vex ^ kingitu- 
TOHHed with tranti\erse spiral st riy\ Ijecoming 
jently notlulous ij(.H>n the ribs; spire shnrp, 
iperfcure ovHt*», coluinelli* Homewliat .'^trfiigbt, 
mtBr lip more or less broken^ barely showing' 

^i; length of ap*>rlur6 5 mm, 

5ui of Botany Bji}', New tSouth Walesa {Mrn. 

Y little speeiea proviHionHlly in Cfuf/ntnJftt -ah 
:en, showing a very suNill sinus; the cenlre nf 

two row!^ of Ijhick niKies an thi' rib^ irrrtiJ- 
l wliori above the suture: three mniilar ti^vs hii 
dear and di?*tinct, large blackish lirown wpit*. 

the remaining wliorl?^ with a p;ingle row of 
ies above the suture with tlie sjmts beri' and 

interesting apecies wjis fnund by Mrs, (t if, 
*r son^ on June 11^ IStlH, under a large stimt* 
€*ad; the specimen was in the jKj?nse.ssum n^' a 

ityvr be rpf erred to CattfhuruM. A perfect iktlnlt mimcs- 
n^ wt28t aiile of V'ontilu«o» reaontly foini"! by my *nii 
ter Up erenulflteil, tliiiikctieil exteriinlly ei-h^I t!t:!t»tHU- 
5 i diam, i>4 ; lc?iigth of Hperture 6 mm. ^—"25 xi i>f1, 




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346 



SEW GKXCS OF MOLLUMTA, 



I 




hermit crab; the suture of the third whorl has been | 
by a Xa^sa or Satica. 

Type in the Waterhouse Collecticm. 

Coxis Kbxtoxje, ILsp, 

Shell solid, oblong, coronated ; spire %'ery little rai 
obtuse, whorls 6, with white nodes, the inrerspace^t with 
brown spots, spirally sulcated at the lower part with 
narrow grooves, the upper being the finest; csalour crea 
with snow white flexuous streaks and blotches in th 
columellar base dark brown, ornamented with ^now-flake e 
straight, somewhat thickened, interior of the aperture n 

Long. 43; diam. maj. 24; aperture 39 mm. 

//aZ>.- Shark's Bay, W.A. (JM Podesta). 

The tmique specimen of this new cone h slightly iea-^ 
quite distinct from any of the species known to me, T\ 
half of the shell is quite smooth, the lower f^art ha via] 
rather narrow spiral grooves, and the centre ornamen 
snow white flexuous streaks and blotches. 

I have seen a second specimen formerly for many ye4i 
collection of the late Mrs. Brazier, which diiTers very nn 
in colour and markings. I define it under a new variety 

CoNUS Kenyon^ var. Arrowsmithcnbis, var.nov 

Spire more raised, apex pinkish, less obtuse; colour fle 
ornamented in the centre with somewhat bioad wJiit^ arro' 
markings, with the points to the right, spirally eulcate 
rather narrow but deep grooves rather wide apart, v 
others below close together; columella tinged with v\c 
tipped with brown intermingled with snow white spots, 
of aperture very light violet; lip thickish^ straight 

Long. 36; diam. maj. 21; aperture, 28 nira. 

I/ab, — Arrowsmith Isl., Marshall Islands (,/. B.^ 22, u 

Types in the Kenyon Collection. 

Kenyonia, g.n. 
Shell subcylindrioal, smooth ; spire much elevated j 
tabled at the suture, each whorl being connected wi' 



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BY JOHN BRAZIER, 



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tes numbeting about forty-four, giving the edge 

m appearance of being i-oronnted with tiiiingular 

^uter lip sinuuua, forming an oblique [josteriur 

a. 

rted with Oomis and Pletiroloma aud may fie 

former genus for the present until the animal is 

KkNYONIA PULCUKKIilMA, u.ap. 

irical^ rather thin, ?imooth, sonje times markt*d 
y eui'ved long:itudinat line^ of gruwtli; wliorls 8, 
ire, eacli one being connected with small (.mrioua 
I'jok like small deep pit.^ wht-n the shell is lunkfrl 
the apex, giving the edge of the shoulder n 
ance, with triangular pointed nmles ; hvst whtjH 
tlie length of the whole shell, ornamented with 
Ish brown streaks and blotehe^i, some of a z\g£i%^ 
i upi>er or apical flesh colon r^ smooth; oui*ii* lip 
n olj I if ] u e poste ri< >r deep narrow sin us; <.■ 1 4 u u u* 1 hi 
of apertur*^ white, 

whorl 17, the others l!*; diam. maj. lU niuh 
©brides (A. F. K'^ayou). 

^y shell Mrn. Ken yon showefl me«ome tijree yearn 
ney; fihe now writes (19,5:i)6j : — **Tln.? ouriKii,-^ 
I uaed to think was a Cone. I <lo not Uiink jmy 
\t are likely to l»e found, I got it from a man who 
ad been over ten yearsj resident in Fiji and tlio 
The natives used to eulleet and bring bija shells, 
hurricanes during th<nr residence, after whic^i 
up shellii, I have \\iu\ it in my poftitie,S8iou about 

I thin, T should take it to bo a deep water ajjecit^s, 
little curve*] «heUy plates at the suture mak(! it 
uall triangular shaped n<:(des; in phiees thft suture 
tnd &raall rough shelly phite^ nt^uid up suioewhnt 
rfway. 



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. 




348 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. Baker contributed the following N<jte on a new v 
Ac'icia decurrens, Willd., a flowering specimen of wl 
exhibited : — A. decurrens, var. Deanei, a shru[>, from 3 
hoary, pubescent, the extremities of the !frrinches silvet 
branches and branchlets terete, occasionrilly ^^li^ditlj ri 
faint decurrent lines from the base of the liranciilets, 
to 12 pairs, leaflets 15 to 25 pairs, oblong, ubtuse, 1 !:<] 
long, 1-nerved, minutely pubescent. Glaiuis rei^ularly o 
along the rachis, one under each pair of itiiuKit, Flow 
small, few, in axillaiy racemes or forming a lotise teniiina] 
Flower.^ not numerous, about 20 in a heiMJ^ i^Enall, 5 
Calyx turbinate, broadly lobed. Petals minutely pu 
Pod about 4 inches long and 3 lines bruad, much cu; 
between the seeds. Seeds oblong, arillus cluVslmjiedj g 
tapering off into a short, straight funicle. 

Ilab. — Gilgandra, N.8.W. (Mr.^ Henry Deanf'}, 
This variety differs from the A. decurrma vj^r. nm% 
Bentham, (1) in not having the stron*^ly decurrent 
that variety, in fact, the branches aad briinelileia 
but terete, and in that respect resemJilt^ J. deearm 
mollis-. {'2) in having shorter and broader liMHets ; »nd 
the narrower pod. It resembles this variety in having * 
gland between the individual pairs of piniij*\ ft^ 
affinity is with A. decurreyis var. jnolli^, of Benthaiii, re?$ 
that variety in the terete branches, shape of pinnules iuu\ 
but instead of the young shoots being giflden yellow ji 
they are silvery white, as in A. dealbata (from which sj 
differs in the size and shape of pod as well as the aeeci 
glands are also fewer in number than in A, decurrens var 
there being only 1 to each pair of leafletj^^ and ahu the ] 
longer and broader and more varicose than in that vari' 
decurrens var. mollis flowers in Decern Ker and this 
flowers in June. In regard to A. decurrens var. paut*itjht\ 
var. Leichhardtiiy and vars. a and /3 of MaiJen (Ag. Gai, 
v., G07\ its varietal differences are too well marked i 
enumeration. 



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JfOTES AND EX I!! BITS- 



Md 



Wait€ exliibited a female Pimchecl Mouse and 
oneii, FhfuCQlogale ^fiftvipf.^ Wat^^rJicmne ; and 
following u<ite on the iiidiJication nf thia 
e hiks l>een recanle^l of the brt^edini^^ liiibits 
mice that tJte fril lowing exlrat-t from my 
November 23rd, 181*3, and referring tu the 
ehihitedj may l>e uf interest. The mice were 
•vera Creek^ an arm of the River TTawkpHhurT. 
nx^'ky &lopej T nutieetl that on*? of the weathered 
I In the sandstone l^otilders of the district, was 
' leaves. The hole waw in a vertiLal fac^ of the 
ir feet from the ground j atid as the leaver?, all of 
tegular ly placed in a compact miLssi, T l>egaii to poke 
ahat^fuU hati been removed a rustling wa.s lieard 
er leavers were cautiously withdrawn. A little 
' of sparkling eyes appeared for a moment, and 
lore leaver, of whieli there seemed to be no end, 
out and was climbini( up the perpendicuhir tV^e 
1 seeared. It was a half ;i:jrown Pfid^co^ogaht 
he hole wan evidently not merely a retreat but 
mI an actual nest, 1 continued to remove the 
ngs within indieaterl that the ijceujiantf^ were 
The nest Nvas linally reached and contained 
be sue of the one tirst caught. It was^ composed 
Vpt leaves and wan completely domed over^ but 
aen hand lei 1, as the ieuve^ were not secured 
i?ay. A larger, and eviflently the mother mouse, 
ening fur an instant unacc<impanied : almost 
reappe^^red and left the hole, thi?5 time with some 
ging to her back. Although thun hciLvily 
arlv escajjed me. She ran under a horizontal 
d clung like a fly, back downwards. When 
and that she had four youug one^ clinging to 
er must have equal IcmI more than her own weiglit, 
raouiielings it wa(^ ne^n that e^ich luid a tuft of 
, showing how they had retained their bold, I 



WH 



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t' 




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350 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

now had the mother and seven young ones and on feelin 
hole, which received my arm nearly to the elbow, 1 se 
eighth. The everted pouch exposed eight teats, so 
mother had her complement of young. 

Although constantly stated th?it no true pouch exists in 
of the Phascologale, this is scarcely correct. When very j 
offspring are completely hidden by the outer wall of tl 
closing over them. As they increase in size the mouth di 
no longer conceals the young. Mr. Oldfield Thomas* does i 
Kreffb's statement that this species is provided with 1 
Although 8 is the usual number, I have examined severs 
with 10 teats, and there is one preserved in the A 
Museum with not only 12 teats, but also a young one 
teat. As far as can be judged without spoiling the' ext 
animal does not otherwise differ from typical examples, 
therefore appear that in the Dasytiridce, or at least in Pha 
the number of mammae is not such a constant charactc 
been insisted upon, or three otherwise similar species wo 
to be admitted ; characterised by the possession of 8, IC 
mammae respectively. J 

Mr. Rainbow showed the spiders described in his pa] 
drawings of the same. 

Mr. Lucas exhibited a specimen of the lizard describe 
paper by Mr. Frost and himself. 



* B.M. Catalogue, Marsupialia, 1889, p. 289. 

t Trans. Phil. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1862, p. 10. 

X When writing the foregoing, I overlooked the fact that Pro 
had already drawn attention to the variability in the number c 
members of the smaller DaisyuridcB ; (Report of the Horn E 
Zoology, p. 42), and that Mr. J. J. Fletcher had previously e: 
specimen of Phascologale flavipes with nine mammary foBtusc 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2), I. p. 164.) 



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NOTES AHU EXHIBITS. 



351 




t for exhibition apecimene of the shells descrilKHJ 
ly, a new species of Ciafhurella (I) [Can /hums — 
the North He^ of Botany Bay, a iit*w Cone 
'alia^ and a rem&rkable Shell from the New 
h a new genus is proposed, 

exhibited three albums of mounted specimens <if 
m wild flowers. 



^Hrlip 





35S 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 2Gth, 1S96. 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was liel 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesdi 
ing, August 20th, 1896. 



P. N. Trebeck, Esq., J.P., in the Chair- 



Mr. George William Card, A.R.8.M., A.R.C.a, Cun 

Mineralogist, Geological Survey of New South Wales; n 
fessor Richard Threlfall, M.A., Sydney Univergity, were 
Members of the Society. 



DONATIONS, 

University of Melbourne—Examination Papers— Final 
Degrees, etc. (Feb., 1896). From fh^ Umv*'.Tsit^. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. ix. No6, 15-17 (Jul; 
From the GovernmeiU Secretary. 

Johns Hopkins University Circulars. VoL xv. Noa, 
(May- June, 1896). From the University* 

Bureau of Agriculture, Perth, W.A. — Journal. VoL 
18-20 (July- August, 1896). From the S^.€r^.tary, 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xix. Bd. Koe. 506-508 (Ji 
1896). From the Editor. 

Zoological Society of London— -Proceedings, 1R96, 
(June). From the Society. 



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DONATIONS. 



353 



it:altura du Douba, Besmnjiin — Bullt^tin. 
u. t) (June, 1896), From lite SuciHj/. 

AjLfriculture, Bmhane — Bulletin. Nos. U-10. 
^-_May, 181*6). From the Stf*refarij for Af/rt- 

ralist. Vol. xiii. No, 4 {July, ISHlVj. Fram 
fiv Club of Vieioria. 

m] '^ The Geological Structure* of Extra Aus- 
rSaBin^;' By A. 0„ Maitlaiid, CR, Ra.H,, 
^rtmi the Gtolofjical Stit*v*'if of Queensland, 

holo^y, Vol. iii. No, 7 (July» l^^DCi)- Frttm 
itK'irti/ of Great Britain and I/'tl^imh 

Tasmania — Papers and Procet-diiigs for L^IM- 
ititled ^^Tlie Ht^alth of Hobart/' Hy K M. 
89G), From the Societt/, 

Jin^enne de Bruxelle,s — Bulletin, '2 1 ''^* Anne**, 
FrOffi the Society. 

ical Society — Journal^ 1896. Part iii. (Junr), 

ilitute^Transactioiiw and Prue'eedinsr^. V^L 
om the Institute. 

um, B^^finey— Report of tlu' Trustet^s for lUo 
hs Truiitees. 

Juneums, and National Gal! pry of Virtnriu — 
tee^ fur 1895. From ikr 7%'Niifo'i. 

jtte of New South Wales, Vol vii. P-irt 7 
m the Hon. lite Minister /or J/inrti uttd Aijri 





I fc 



'I 



4 



^ue du Chili— Actea. Toiiie v. (I8!)ri). 4'^'" 
he Soeieitf. 

m of Natural History, New York — BuUiHin. 
l^. 7-9 { p p. 9 7 - 1 4 i ) [ J u n e]. Ft -n m i he Mnumi m . 




I» 



354 



DONATIONS. 



1 



i 




Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard CoUej 
bridge, Mass. — Bulletin. Vol. xxix. No, 4 (June, 1896) 
the Curator. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture— Division of Omitho 
Mammalogy — North American Fauna, No, \ 1 (June 
From the Secretary of Agriculture, 

American Greographical Society — Bulletin. Vol. xxxn 
(1896). From the Society. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxx. No. 355 (July, 1896] 
the Editors. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Elljerfeld — Jahrei- 
viii. Heft (1896). From the Society. 

Societas Entomologica Rossica — Horai, T. xxx:, I 
(1895-96). From the Society. 

K. K. Zoologisch-botanische Gresellschaft in Wiea— ^ 
lungen. Jahrgang 1896. xlvi. Bd. 6 Heft From thr 

Royal Dublin Society - Transactions (Series ii,) Vol 
5-12 (Aug., 1894-Jan., 1896): Vol. vi. Part 1 (Feb. 
Proceedings. (N.S.) Vol. \-iii. Parts 34 (Aug., 1894-Sepl 
From the Society. 

L'Acad^mie Royale des Sciences, Stockholm — Hai 
xxvii. Bd. (1895-96). From the Academy. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vyl, xL Nu. VI 
1896). From the Editor. 

Pamphlet entitled "Synoptical List of Coccidee," (181 
W. M. Maskell. From the Author. 





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355 



Ent. Soc. N.S W. 1873, iL [ip. 115 120. 
Mftql. J ifl a aynoDym of B. tjfiijatimim^ MacL^ beitig 

(peoimeu; ibe spedeSt which extiiin^B nti far south 
\i^ b& known in future as l^jmrof^^i ^^TitvnHt 



mi 



.VLIAN BEMBIDIJDES REFERABLE 
U8 TACHY.% WITH THE DEBCRIP- 
EW ALLIED OEN U8 Z' VEEOTA CM r>\ ^ _ 

By Thomas G. Bloan£, 

er r have placed in the genua Tacky s all the ' i 

lea which Imve the anterior tibiae decidedly b y 

X on the external side; normally also a striole • 

Lpit'al dech^nty of each elytron, but tJiis 

rial lie. • 

tnt eontri button to the knowledge of the , 

tra-lia is Bir Williara Macleay's notice and ^ 

teen sj>ecies from tray nd ah, all of which lie I 

18 Hemhidhim* I have seen the typef^ of ; 

the Australian Museum, Sydney- Three of 
mney B. blpariitian and B. sf^xafriatiim^ I am 
J as I do not posHc^s specimens ; and, not 
cannot see the types at present. 8|>ecimens Ij 

to which the remaining fourteen muiit be 
^seission. Nine are dealt with in the present 
mihidinm jacksotiMTiSfi^ Gu^r., = B. iubviride^ 
J Bembidrum gagatinMrn^ MficL, is not a 
a Harpalid Avhich may be referred^ at lp?t*it 




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356 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN BBMBIDIWSS, 



» > 




PI 



The principal features used in the synoptic table 
which follows seem to divide the species here placed 
into distinctive groups that are readily st^paratfd 
another; indeed the most important of these groupss are i 
so distinct that they might be removed from Tachys 
and formed into separate genera; but to do thi« would 
fuller knowledge than I possess of the genera now n 
xjapable of maintenance among the Subulipalpi, and of i 
adopted in classifying them. The minor features used ii 
for separating closely allied species from one anothe 
perhaps always the best that could have been chosen, tb 
have seemed to me to be so. 

The following species of Tachij8^ describetl by the I 
Blackburn, are unknown to me in nature, and, for ih, 
have not been included in the table, viz., T. baid 
infubcaticSy and T, adelaida*. 

Genus Tachys. 

Owing to the variable number of striie on the elytra i 
species of the genus Tachys (the full number is eight st 
marginal channel, but this only occurs in T. j/arr&nA 
among the species known to me) the ordinal iiuml>er U 
the stria next the marginal channel would Y«n% and as 
seems a feature of great classificatorj' import-arjce it 
needful to use an unvarying term for it. I therefore c 
suhmarginal stria. The interstice between the suljDiar|j 
and the marginal channel I call the lateral inUvBiic^ 

Table of Species knoum to me* 
I. Elytra with submargiual stria well marked. 
A. Prothorax with a sub marginal lateral carina 
near base. 
b. Upper surface shagreened and finely 

punctulate (unicolorous) T. hrunniptH 

bb. Upper surface shagreened, impunctata 

(bicolorous) T. tctrammd 

AA. Prothorax without a submarginal lateral 
carina near base. 




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UY THOMAS C. SLOAXE, tSf 

Limel of elytr'a simple, 

utice cori%**js. 

without a dentiform fno- 

cdiridtte on each side uf 

ucidnniaculate, fifth etria 

g bonier ijf base 7\ frnpn^fto'dti*, HL 

limaciilMte, Mth stri^i not 

g base. . 7\ /fOf/gnHit SI. 

iDi|iicafcriAbe on each sidt* 

f| iiftiiiriraa'Culatii. .,.,...,.,.. T. 'itriolafuSt M^ol . 
I bimaculftt* . , . H . . , . . ►.,..,*■ T. hipiiJtiidtiftt»t Mnrl, 
)iiAtriAtc r»Ei each aide of 

,...,..,..,,..,......... 7*, ritrHffJfit^ S^b 

iDistnate on eAch side of 

,_„,,„.,..,.,,....,...,,.„... 7'. iifipithuM^ SI. 
^itb ar dentiform projection 

little before b&sc. 

biatiiate on each side of 

le.,. ,.... , T. Mpttti'm, f^h 

•A 'imialnate on each side 

aonel of tilytr.^ pnncta.fce, 
sritice depress-^d. 
;h eight pyneUto atria- on 
venth as well mtitk etl aa 

..,,....,.,....*...... ,. , T, tfarrrrmx^ Blklj, 

th seventh stria f>b5)i>lcte. 
basal fovese of [*rn thorax 
;^ b^rilered by the wirltj^ly 
sd lateral border, 
aeitatriato on eadi sIiIh nf 
re, lateral margin of prn- 
LK with one setigerous 
tare anteriorly ...,..,., T. mo7tofh}'on4,f^ii}u\um. 

peclvnon of wlifoh I ruueiveii f mra Mr. Rliwkbtwn whjk' tliit 



ii 




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Mi 



1 




' 358 ON THE AUSTRAUAN BEMBIMIDBS, 

kk. Elytra qainqaestriate od each 
side of sature, margin of pro- 
thorax plarisetose near an- 
terior angles *...,,»». T. aUieoilU/* 

jj. Lateral basal foveae of prothoiuE 
concave, divided from lateral 
border by a raised space ........ T, jiindtrm, ] 

jjj. Posterior angles of pro thorax 
I forming the apex of a trianguliu' 

marginal process. 
/. Colour piceous red, elytra with 
\ testaceous ante-apical macular 71 ^m%iirlai> 

W '• //. Colourblack T. ha^iUjtm, 

II. Elytra with subroarginal stria obsolete on skiei. 

M. Form short, very convex; prothorax not 

perceptibly narrowed to baae; elytra Ia!vi- 

i gate, unistriate on each side of 'suture T. oeaiw^^ M 

MM. Form varying, prothorax evideotly 
narrowed to base. 
N. Head impunctate, frontal impresaioos 
deep, oblique (converging anteriorly); 
third interstice of elytra bipunctate on 
disc, 
o. Elytra with six re ws of strong punc- 
tures on each side of suture. . . ..... 7*, mitchelli, 

00. Elytra with three or four punetulate 

strise on each side of suture... T. auMralicit 

NN^. Head punctate, frontal imprb^Hlons 
long, deep, narrow, parallel. 
p. Surface of prothorax impunctate T* Um^ SL 
pp. Surface of prothorax minutely 

and rather densely punctulate T. murrttmh^ 
NNN. Head impunctate, frontal im- 
pressions wide, shallow. 
q. Each elytron bipunctate on disc, 

recurved stride of apex obaolete T. captiu^ 1 
qq. Each elytrou unipunotate ou disc 
r. Elytra more or less diitinetly 
striate on disc, recurved striole 
of apex well marked. 




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B¥ THOMAS 0. 8L0AKK. 



359 



iCoidAl puuctare of «Iytm 
iju:ed !i Httle before mtdi^Ue 
Durer 9utnre than TDiirgii]. 
bllytra depressed ^ aides 
^amlltfl; pro thorax piceoiia 

>Uck ,.. T, un\fmmk, Blkb, 

Llyira lightly coDvcx^ aides 
candid I prothofAX tea* 

Elytra with sLroogly im- 

preeat'd punctulate atriiE 

on disc, b&6e tcat^ceOLia 

(& i%'i<1e blikck faaciti eicroBS 

m i d i\\ e of ely tra) .... . T. mirtcipfi^ Maal* 

^ Klytfi* with laiDtly im- 

prtjsatid strife^ oo diae, 

irikhUtvof bafco pi ceo us. T. Hndi^ Blkb. 

seoldal ptinetur© of elytra 

fcced about anterior third, 

arer iiiargiu than suture... 1\ trailil*€rekolliii^ Min.1. 
tra lie V (gate, noDatriate^ 
[purred atriole of apex 
aoUte ...,. ...,..,,.. T^ ptojch^ifi, SI. 

lYS BRU!CNiPENNis, Macleay. 

iiunpennUf MacL, presentt* the characterirttio 
z,, the anterior tibue oblique above apex uri 
e elytra with the sutural ntria, ret^urverl at 
pical striok is very near the margin^ ami is 
ibm$Lrgina.l atria by a narrow aubcarinat*^ 




»»ifi I 



—Cairns (Froggatt), Port. DeniHon iiud 



CilYS ECTR0MiaiDE8, n*sp. 

Prcithora?t transvers^e, much wider at ha>i^ 
■ angles rectangular : elytra oval, lightly 

men ot whkh was rffisrired fftiiin Mr. Biftckburn too Intt,* to h^ 
Sfito leGlloii ^' t>" [t mcmbiai T, i»7it/ormMi} blkb. ^ in fadcdi. 



i 




ato 



ON TSE ACSnULlAK BKMBIDitDES, 



4 



COB vex, finely stri&te ; third stria iDor« strongly imp[csw<i uQ 
ApiciiJ declivity and joining sutura,! stria at apex; siiliniar^^t]*! 
s^tria faintly impressed, very near naargin. HemJ dark pi< i'u'Ja, 
labrum testaee*:>Tis- prothorax piceotis brown, lateral margin noA 
middle of l>ase testaceous; elytra t^taceousT a very wi^f A»rk 
piceouii fascia across disc eon&ideriilily behind liasje^ api-i wtliU 
picetmH; legs testaceouis, antenna^ infnscat*', l*asal joints teslar'tiu*' 

Head deprcsise<l, hardly inipressetl laterally; a feebli* t»bVn|*«» 
ridge on each side near eyess; clyjieal an tare fin<?ly imprf^*!^; 
clypeuB hifoveolate; eyes large, convex. Antenna? ftlifarn), tw*- 
long. Prothorax trail sverae (O'Go x 0*85 mm*), widest Jibiul 
anterior third, roundly declivous to lateral margin ant^wfly; 
sides strongly rounded lo apex, straiLfht posteriorly and IsAnllf 
narrowetl to Imse; anterior margin truncate; anterior anL'k'^ w* 
market); basal angles rectangularj ifcoute; imse lightly anil nniJi*% 
pnxluced ImckwaiM^s in midtlle- lateral Ixirder T*eBi*xt^d, nm^iiiii 
to sides of head at apex ; lateral channel wiile, nftn>j^i^i *'-• 
anterior angles; median line deep, a strongly marked ntvBftt* ] 
t ran s ve rse 1 i ne d e fi n i n r^ basal pa rt t »f pro t! i orax ; a I i gh I ly <■ u r 1 1 vaIk 
lungitndinal ssubmarginal ridge near eai^h ba*ial angie, t-^^f* 
oval, convex, mut^h wider than prothoraK (2 x 13 mm.); 
rnundtHh shoulders rounded; five inner strm* lightly tmj'h'^'i 
finely crenu late, sixth and seventh ol)f*olete; hit<.T«ticeJN df-]'iv^*'ii 
l3rst narrow on apical decli\^ty, aeeond and third amphftte i 
apical declivity^ thiitl with two small KetigerouH piincture*-Ul^] 
anterior junt Viefort"^, the poiiteritir just iM^hind dit^cimJid pitwfflt] 
fascia; lateral interstice very narrow^ not convex, having iflUT 1 
setigerons punctures behind shoulders and al>fnit s.*;iae v^xm^in^ 
towards apex; base not Ijtirderedi lateral botdt^r narn>w» nfl" xnl. 
forming a very sHght prominence at Ijunieral angles, An!<fciit \ 
tibiiT? incrassate, oblique above apex on exU^iial eide; a 
actit^ spur alxjve obliquity, 

f #en gt h f\ bread th 1 * 3 m m . 

Hah.; West Australia — *Donnv brook (Ijea; Ci*lL IjTA, nvai\ 

T am not sure that T atn right in putting thi*i «ipe*tieas in ( 
geiiu!^ Tachys; no allied species h known to m»; (ht#agh 1 



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BT THOJiAB O. SLOANE. 



361 



•unnipennUj Ma-cl., in the table of species iit p. 
Mien done on aecountof the snljmarginal carinfi 
f protborax, and not l^ecauBe 1 have thought. 

affinity between these sj^ecies. In general 
a resemblance to a Lebiid of the genua Suro- 
ma. If the ground colonr of the elytra bo 

then the base {widely}, tlie margin and a 
aliove tlie apical declivity would be deHcril>e€l 
Jark-<;oloured parts of the elytra do not any- 
the aides than the submarginal atria. 

'ACHY8 BUPHESTIOIDKS, n*«p. 

vex. Head wide; prot borax tran averse, ^Ider 
tpex : elytra ovate, six inner itrine strongly 

elytron; lateral i^tria and marginal channel 
, interstice between them convex. Bronzed 
with an elongate macula behind Bhoukler aud 
on apical third testaceous^ legs (excepting 
itetinjp infu.scate, under surface piceoti.s, apical 
m reddi.%h. 

lely sb agree ned, lightly bi impresbed; clypi*al 
distinctly marked ; eyes large, convex, not 
^ palpi with penultimate joint elongate, thick, 
pical joint very small. Prothorax tranB\**rse, 
narginal puncture; sides atrongly rounded on 

lightly narrowed poateriorly, straight before 
gin emarginate; anterior angles obtuse liOt 
es rectangular; base truncate on each t^ide, 
ackw^ards in middle; border narrow'^ relJexed; 
litly impressed; a straight transverse line ticar 
sly impre-Sised in middle; lateral banal imprew- 
at each eide of rounded jnirldle part oi base, 
prothorax, convex; sides rounded; aboulderh! 
>le, only lirst reaching apex^ first, second and 
i, secondj third and fourth extending past 
t>©tween macula and euture) of ante-apical 







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OS Wm ACgmifJiS MMMMOHiBM^ 

I maoda, %iih rm^aag hmal boiler, nxUi nut reik^hipg 
^ («ly "ftri— Mo mndet a ]«i$ qh blick |«rt 
I Mtb and e^^sl!); latet^ ^trm deeplj iiii|)iW9ed. 
ciiniiig lomrtk B^rgm pas«eriiirhr; inBer mUrstic^ «j«m; 

f rf apical evrte- laieta] border e^t«iidmg on tu liHse m 
W «» fifHi Afia. Aiitmfv tibii^ ^oraj Dbli<|Be above aj^x tio 
i^t€nial sack*; a sbcvt mmMe sfiar alwvo ^iljijiiily, 
I'pnftli 3 1, brpudili I Snat. 

tbor»% i« mijft* muijcr«i«6 mad wider iicross tb© base, less mmrM 
m the skies, ibi? antwkir aa^ka iii4ai« sti^glj loarbd; the port- 
bumerml matmU ct the dijtm i& elongiitei there are mx (not fiit) 
:*trie OD «a.eh eljtf«, tbe Gf^l, MKynd and Ef th ^tri* rea^^hiog the 
iMflO. n>e wMb ttf the dark part of tbe eljtra, exefipdjig th* 
sides, 15 stTOfigJj %triat4?: the Oiird utid fourth strise do not^h 
(jDite to the bi»8t% but tbeup b not Uw wide Ii^^Tgate ba^al ^piin 
that b so noticeable in T. slrmlaiug. 

TaCUYS PEOOGATTl, Il.Sp. 

Robust, craJ, convex. Head wide, ii^hllj bj-impressi«l; p,t>^ 
thocax traDsrerse, wider wcftms base than apex; elytra i^xmfi, lir 
inner «irU« atrongly impreesed, lateml striii and manrtial 
channel »trunj^Ir impressed. Interstice be^tween thom cuiive*, 
Bkck, ht?iwl and protbomx with & greenish tinge; e^ch vlyitm 
with a te?*t«ceinis macula about p<Mtteriop ihiH; under mtUm 
pit^nm, leg^ (excepting eoxw?) testiieeonH, anteniiw mi 
towards apeic. 

Hf^ad, pnUhorax and leg?^ in rvery wj4y reM*nibIlng ibiMi^ of 
hjipreMiaides, 8L Elytra similar ti:. ihimi of 71 buprmioidtt ' 
shape, sides and ajie-x; strif*.* hardly so deep, first entirw^, 
anri thir*i reaching ^Immt to li«^c» 4*0 rising at a com 
disfJirK'e from haae on one level. 

Length *M^2% breadth 1-M5 mm, 

Had. ■ King's Sound (Froggatt; Macleay Muaeum). 



I 



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BY THOMAS G, StOAXE. 



36S 



upre^tioiden by ita smaller size, by the absence 
I maculae of the elytra, and l)y the fifth stria 
jase. It is closely allied to 1\ bipustidatug^ 
t differa by having six (not five) strife on etich 
r-ini reaching nearer the base — ea{>eciiilly the 

cflYs sTRioLATus, Macleay, 

stria fn tun y Mael., has been redesscriljed and 
the Rev, Thos. Blackburn,* 
m, running l>e-side the marg^iriH of atreami=f, or 
i pooli^, during f^unimer months- 
d — ^Gay ndah { M as ter s ) ; N , B, Wales — N arran - 
Bloane); Victoria — near Bnght (Blackburn), 

MYB BiPuaTULATUBj Macleay. 

hipnslufaius^ Miicl., agi'ees in all potntsi of 
nd in *<triation of elytra with T. HtrudiUu»^ 

m ; two specimens occurred to ine on the 
J in Houlaghan't? Creek near Junee. 
rj — Gayndah (MasterH)- N.?:?, Wjiles^Foresb 
District (Sluane), 

rothorax transver^^e, evidently a little ^siihr 
pex, posterior angles rectangular :ukI jxrute; 
disc, birttriate on each Bnie of suture, lightly 
:ond stria. Blacky or piceims lihick ; each 
reddish spot near shoulder ii\\i\ anutln^r afc 
tle^jlivity; leg^ pale t-estaceuUH. 



1891 v« (2), p. 7^^i i*nd Tmn«. Rtiy, Soc. H, Auat. 



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364 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN BEMBIMSDES. 



Head smooth ; frontpal impressions long, straight, din 
backwards, extending forward to la brum; ^y^^ prominent, 
spherical. Prothorax Iwvigate, convex, short, transverse, i 
just behind anterior marginal pmncture; basal part define* 
transverse impression; sides lightly rounded anteriorly, \ 
narrowed to base, meeting base at right angles; ba^se s 
lightly forward on each side to posterior angles; Jateral 1 
reflex ed, becoming wider towards base; median line obs«M 
flattened depressed space near eac-h ba^al angle; a light Iran 
linear impression (hardly punctu late) connecting the lateral 
depressions. Elytra much wider than prothorax, oval, tn 
at base (shoulders rounded), convex, declivous to l:»ase; 
simple, first entire, second as strong 13- impressed as firs 
reaching base or apical declivity, a deep lateral stria \ 
marginal channel on each elytron. Anterior tibisB oblique 
apex on external side, a spiniform spur above obliquity. 

Length 2, breadth 1 mm* 

Hah.: N.S. Wales^Tweed River {I^ea; Marcli, 1892), 
mundra District (Sloane). 

At a casual glance this species might be taken for a sma] 
of T. hiatriatua, Macl., but it diifers decidedly from that 1 
by having a second stria outside the aiitural one extendin- 
the anterior discoidal puncture to the apical declivity i\ 
the shape of the prothorax, which is much wider at tli 
and has the basal angles rectangular, the sides not ba 
prominent angular projection above the base as in 21 bisi 
It is somewhat like T, ovensensig,* Blkb., from which it 
by having a post-humeral reddish spot on each elytron; 
form of the frontal impressions which are further from th 
narrow, and extend obliquely forward till they reach the a 
margin of the clypeus; by .the sides of the prothorax beii 
rounded on the sides and wider at the l>ase. 



* In T. ovensensis, Blkb., the head aqc] prothor^^ are limilar 11 
&c., to thoee of T. striolcUuSf Macl. * 



^ 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



Tachys iabpideus, n.sp- 



365 



prothora^; transverse (not short) ; Hlytra 
tron u III striate near suture and witli reeurvecl 
tinct. Shining, poli-^hed, reddish or reddish 
ter coloureri than prothorax near ba«w?, ahiiost 
ile and near apex, a large yellow is h-re^^l spot 
isondal puncture oa each elytron* 

mweXj lightly bi-imprejssed between eyes; the 
not ext-ending to cly|>eiiB; eyes large*, convex. 
Lraoxsverse, a little wider than head, widest a 
le, li;2fhtly nan'owed to ba5^e3 convex, hcvigate, 
iddle of hase, not transversely impres.'^ed across 
Y rounded, gently narrowed (not sinuate) to 
tpex and base truncate; posterior angles obtUiie» 
rder narrowly reflexed; niediaii line wanting; a 
ide oblique impresaion at each banal angl<^, 
ler than prothorax, suljoval, conv€*x, a little 
; base aubtniucate; humeral angles rounrh-d; 
nded; one simple stria on each side of suture, 
ria besides the marginal channel on each elytron ; 
on vex and depresse^^J posteriorly; lateral mar^^in 
jehind shoulders causing the margin of the 
projeet slightly; two puncture?^ placed luugitu- 
each elytron. 

A4ith 1'3 mm. 

— In\erell, Tamworth (Lea)* 

fictly renembles T. ap^nryri^ f^l-s, in shajic^ and 
marked features distinguishing it froi»i that 

absence of any projection at the basal angli*.s 
and (b) the elytra having only one stria on earh 

not two as in T. spenceri. The penultimatr 
lary palpi m large and pyriformi the apical joint 
ce. The general colour is like that of polished 
i£|>er. 




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366 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN BEMBIIfilDMS, 



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Tachys spenceri, Sloatie. 

Habits : — Found under stones besides r^tlge iA wat<?r 
Ilab.: Central Australia — Larapintine Itegion (8pt*nc 
Australia — King's Sound (Froggatt). 

Tachys bistriatus, Madefy. 

T, (Bemhidium) bistriatus, Macl. (^ Bfrnihiditim 
Macl.), has a short recurved striole on the middle of ti 
each elytron; the posterior angles of the profchyrajt for 
triangular prominence on the sides a little Isefure the 1 
I have carefully compared the types of liemhidlum i 
Macl., and B. convexunif Macl., with one another and 
one species. 

ffab. : Queensland — Gayndah (Mastei^) ; N,8. Wal 
and Clarence Rivers (Lea). 

Tachys yarrensis, BlaLkVmrn. 

Habits : — Found under logs and debris in very doiop 
Ilab. : Victoria -Upper Yarra (French); ?^^. 8. Wj 
wala and Urana (Sloane), Tamworth (Lea). 

Tachys monochkous, JScliaum, 

No doubt remains in my mind, after coniparmg «fn 
Benibvlium punctipenne, Macl., with the description i 
monochrous, Schaum, but that the 8peci«?s are synonym 

Habits : — Found under logs in very damp situfttions. 

Hob.: Victoria — Lilydale (Sloane); X. 8. Wales- 
and Tamworth (Lea), Ourimbah (Fletcher) ; Quoen-^La 
dah (Masters). 

Tachys seticollis, u sp. 

Oval, robust. Prothorax lightly trans\ er^se, wtrotigly 
to base, basal angles rectangular, margin pturinetijde nm 
angles: elytra widely ovate; five rows of punctures n 
marginal stria on each elytron; recurved striole of apej 
rather short; two fine setigerous disqoidal paiiettires 



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BV THOMAS O. 8L0ANE* 



367 



ferruginous red, rubles taueoiis abo^'e apical 
4; legii tejiUifCeous; aiiteniiaj ferrugint>UH, liasal 

front widfily but rather deeply bi-ifupreasetl; 
. AjiteniiK; i^hort, stout, filiform (rericbingback 
e of protborax). Prothonix broiuler than long, 
fore anterior thirtl^ eviflentlv" narro\vi?r across 
disc lif^ditly convex^ rather depreswfi in middle, 

ba&ai areaj sides strongly rounded anteriorly, 
nd roundly narroweti Uj anterior angles^, fitroiigly 
r^ meeting bas^e at rigJit angles; anterior margin 
• angles not marked; base widely truncate in 

each side; ba^ialangle.s prominent, aoute; basal 
sll marked, extending to lat<*r!il border at eaeh 
iorly by a Htrongly marked trannverse punctate 

1 txjrder very narrow on roundod part of sides, 
y reflexed near Vjasal angles; median line very 

on disc; four or five Retigorous marginal 
a anterior third and anterior angles. Elytra 
s rouiidly truncate; humeral angles nut marked; 
it stina eotirHj punctate for more llian half its 
teriorly; stride :2-5 consisting of rowy of closely 
ires extending from base to bghfcer-coloured 
>art of elytra ; submarginal stria piojotate ; 
lot c<jn%ex; marginal channel clu.sely punulJite; 
El nhoulder to apical curve each bearing a long 

width 1 mm. 

West Austral i a— K i n g m S< t u m i ( Fr oggat I ; 
I, 

noehroui?:^ Schaum, hut diftering by its nhorter, 
Ie«8 convex form; the pruthorax widor, more 
I to ba»e, disc flatter and loss strongly declivniih! 
uriaetose behind anterior angles; elytra jihorfer, 
J five- (not six-) striate, 





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368 



ON THE AUSTRALIAN BEMBIDIIDES, 




ii 



ft 



Tachys flindebbi, Blackburn. 

T. Jlindersi, Blkb. = Tachys (Bembidium) rtihicuwh 
I have no doubt about the correctnesB of this a; 
Macleay's name was used in the genus Tachys aa long ag 
therefore the later name must be adopted.* 

Habits : — Found under logs and stones in veiy damp s 

Hah. : Queensland — Gayndah (Masters); N,S. Wal 

worth (Lea^, Sydney and Wagga Wagga (Slcmne)" ^ 

Upper Ovens River (Blackburn), Lilydale (Sloane) : 

Australia (Spencer); West Australia — Darling Ranges 

Tachys habitans, n.sp. 

Oval, convex. Prothorax convex, aubcordate : eh 
convex, six rows of punctures on basal pait; apex Iwvjj 
marginal stria indicated, punctate; lateral interstice vet 
not convex; recurved striole of apex well marked. BWl 
legs piceous, mandibles piceous brown. 

Head convex, smooth; front widely bi-impressed n 
Prothorax small, Isevigate, widest rather before mi 
narrower across posterior angles than a^^roes apes; lide; 
rounded on anterior two-thirds, shortly sinuat-e before 
angles; anterior margin truncate; anterior anglea not 
posterior angles prominent, acute; base lightly oblique 
side behind posterior angles; lateral border narrow, reacl 
of head; median line obsolete; a lightly marked impuncta 
Bion across base near margin; lateral bassal fove« roi 
placed near margin at basal angles. Elytra much wi 
prothorax; six rows of punctures and a aubmarginal stri 
elytron; first stria entire, finely and closely punctate 
simple posteriorly, others (consisting of rows of punct 
reaching base, fifth and sixth short (sixth sometimes i 
of only two pimctures); third interstice with two fine i 

• Vide P.L.S.N.S.W. 1894, ix. (2) p. 90, for & note by the 1 
Blackbam on thia subject. 



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BY THOMAa G. 9L0AKE. 



369 



rior hardly noticeable among basal punctura- 

>n IsBvigate portion of elytra a little before 

xternal margin of apical stride carinate ; 

nely punctate; border passing round huroeral 

far as fourth stria. 

ti O'Smm. 

ralm— Darling Ranges Bridgetown, Pinjarrah 

trmhis, Blkb, but dil!'«ring in colour; its more 
prothorax with pof=t«rior anglei^ mnre promi- 
e; tbt^ elytra proi-iortionately narrower, Ichh 
with fewer punctures in the row^ especially 

Tachys ovi^TUS, Mad 
7V(Uui, MmU^Bembidiuui bifoveatum, Mairl.; 
«s and End these two i^pecies synonymous. It 
rved striole at apex of each elytron. Though 
^taceous colour, a q:.ecimen that i. subpiceoua 
ma by Mr. A. M- Lea, as coming from tlie 

^ atones in very damp situatitma, 

ad— Gayndab (Mastei-a); N.8. Wale^^Twerd 

ver, Tnverell, Tamworth and Sydney (Lea). 

TaCHVS Atf^TRALICUf!, n.Sp. 

nvex. Prothorax convex, trans ven^o, rounded 
Ider acroHH base than ajieit; elytra very convex, 
,r sutare, siden smooth, Heml and prothorax 
■ed, eyes blaek, elytra piceous or piuef>tiH black. 
convex; front with two ratlier wide nearly 
n^- apace between these impresHions convex, 
1, tran^^verse, convex; aidea strongly rounded 
)8ity ijefore posterior angles, oblique to base on 
pi>sterior angles; basal area short, convex, 
ng traniverBe impression; posterior angles not 




s 



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370 ON THE AUSTRALIAN BEMEimiDES, 



I prominent, their summit acute; larterarl hasa.} favm 

Elytra wider than prothorax, oval, very convex, d< 

peduncle, truncate on base; shoulders roundedj not nil 

( or at most three, lightly impressed stum near the a 

I ^ ^^ 1 , entire, b'ghtly punctulate on disc, others only marked o 

I r ^9 T reaching base), lightly punctulate ; space between 

margin smooth and without discoidal punctures; reci 

I L. oi apex obsolete; marginal channel not deep along g 

I . ^9 I strong punctures near margin Ix^hind each fshouldei 

1 , \ i strong submarginal foveiform impressions on apical th 

a > Length 1 7, breadth 0*75 mm. 

ffab. : N.S. Wales— Tweed Riven Windsor (I^a). 
The affinity of this little species is to T. fnitcheh 
which it differs by its smaller size; dark coloured eljt 
and less oblique frontal impressions; elytra with only t^ 
striaj next the suture marked, tlie remnining part gj 
striae are linear and hardly punctulate, not rows of p» 
in T. mitcIieUi), &c. 

Tachys lkai, n.sp. 

Elongate-oval ; prothorax convex, transverse, i 
narrower between posterior anp[les than at apex; elytr« 
truncate at base, finely punctitte- striate. Black, sih 
and under surface piceous brown; antenme piceous brc 
infuscate towards apex. 

^^ ^ Head convex, smooth; front and vertex minutely 

j|^^l| front bi-impressed; the impressions long, straight, di 

^^if diverging backward, extending forward to base of lab 

^f between frontal impressions convex; clypeal suture 

clypeus declivous to labrura; eyes convex, not very 
Prothorax a little wider than head, transverse, widi 
before the middle, lightly narrowed to base, convex 
anterior margin truncate; lifise truncate across pedun 
oblique on each side behiml poHiterior angles; sides 
rounded on anterior three-fourths, shortly sinuate befo 
angles; these acute, prominent, placed a little before 



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BY THOMAS G. 8L0ANE. 



871 



i traos verse impression ex tending across bane 
ur angles and defining the Imsal part; median 
impress^. Elytra wider than prritliorax 
>res6ed on disc; sides hghtly roumlcd; I wise 
ar^nate; shoulder;* rather prouiriient, roun^ied; 
ftte lightly impn^stsed stria* uii each elytron 
nal channel), first entire, flexuaus (approaching 
lecond almoi^t equally inipreHsed as first on diHC, 
lase and apex^ tliinl and fourth much more 
not extending towards base beyond anterior 
(ifth strongly impressed on anterior fourtli 
obsolete tor remainder of its t'ouraei hcutellar 
interstioes flat, fuui^th with two diHcoidul 
inor at alx>ut one-fourth the length of elytr^i 
er a little behind middle on eoursp ui thinl 
ce very fijittly punctulate on apical declivity; 
deeply imprefasetl along Hides, thi^e or four 
tures behind the shoulders; apical declivity 
iipresaioos on euch side^ the external wtronLrly 
margin (extending round the apex to join th«B 
riner short, pkice^^i ck»sed to the external one. 

dth 1 mm. 

ss — Tarn worth {Xiea). 
Mr. A. M. Lea, to whose generoKity I ;nn 
meJij and to whom I dedicate it. 
itructure this spe<;ies i^e^^eniblijH 71 murfiiiii- 
which it diffem bv its larg*'r sizji, wider and 
*r, im punctate p rot borax » i>lat^k colinir, iVc, 
>rm a well marketl group among the AuetrahaTi 
is evident they can only provisionally be cmi- 
with s^uch species a?* Tacki/s nwnochriffHi^ 
II j BIkb,, tfcc. 





m — Narrandera (Sloane), Tamworth (Leti\ 



ill 




p I' 



372 as THK ArSTlLAUATf BMMSIDIIPEX 

Tachts captus, BUckbum. 

Habits : — Foond mider scdcks and stones in damp i 
Hah.: S:»iith Aastnuia — ^Port LuicijIdh, Adelaide (1 

y.S- Waks — Mulwala, Urmna, yarrandera and Jim 

Windsor azid Tamworth iLea). 

Tachts uxipormu, Blkb, 

Hah. : S<:»uth Australia — Adelaide and Port lisc 
bnm); West Australia — Beverley (Lea^. 

Tachys atrickps, ilacleaj. 

Habits : — Found under logs in damp places near wj 

Hah.: Queensland— Gayndah (Masters); N.S. W.* 

tho< jl, y arrandera and Mulwala (Sloane); Kind's Sound 

Tachts lixdi, Black hum. 

Among the Bembidiides from King's Sound, in t 
Museum, the commonest species is one that I take to 
Blkb. (var.) It differs from a type specimen of T. Ih 
from Mr. Blackburn by being smaller {length 2 '5 mn 
lighter build. T. lindi seems to be a Tariable speciaii 
colour marks; its constant characters appear to be (a^ 
less testaceous macula behind the shoulder and anoti 
the apex of each elytron, (h) the anterior *liscoidal 
the elytra placed about the middle of their length on th 
the third stria. Many of the specimens fi'ora Ki 
(evidently immature) have the elytra aliiKist wholl) 
with variously placed cloudy dark marks. 

Hah. : South Australia — Port Lincoln District (1 
N.S. Wales — Windsor (Lea); West Australia— Swan 
Beverley (Lea); Variety? King's Sound (Froggatt), 

Tachys transvbrsicollis, Mticleay. 

The colour varies from pale testaceous (iniraature sj 
testaceous with the disc of the elytra infusciito, or e^ - 




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BY THOMAB O. SLOAKK, 



373 



lie; the heacl is blackish in mature specimens; 
ly iridescent; the discoid al piincture on each 
along the fifth stria, conKiderably l>efore tlie 
constant character anrl vahiable as an aid in 
this species; the atriie of the elytra are faint 
jent after the third, 

nnder sticks or stones near water in very 

ri d — G ay nd ah ( M as te fb) , Bria bane ( Cy ates ) ; 
snee River (Lea), Junee^ Carrathcfolj Urana, 

Tachys maclbayi, n,3p. 

?fi^ IffiTigate* Head large, wide between eyes, 
ite ; posterior angles strongly marked, acute ; 
ior angle 3) narrower than apex: elytra i^tnooth, 
r convex; two discoidal punctures? on each 
OU9, prothorax obscure testaceous; elylra black 
tte spot at shoulder, and a smaller round i^pot 
ity on each elytron pale teataceous; hg^ pale 
5 pale testaceous with joints 3-6 infiiscate, 

w^idely bi- impressed Ijetween eyes. Ajitentne 
er. Prothorax lightly trans verae, widest at 
ancture, angu state posteriorly; sidea stron^ily 
, decidedly sinuate before p<jsteriur angles ; 
ided; posterior a ogles triangular, prominent, 
i rounded; lateral bonier narrowly retlexed, 
head; median line distinct; a well marked 
rue line defining basal part oIl protlioi-ax and 
ind posterior angles. Elytra much broader 
le between shoulders; Imse lightly roimdeil aiiil 
ide of peduncie; humeral angles obtu?^e; sides 
rather obliquely to apex; each elytron obtusely 
three faint subs tri ate impressions at ape,^ of 
rior discoidal puncture jitst behind humeral 




it) 




374 ON THE AUSTRALIAN BEMEfBUDBS, 

macula, posterior puncture in middle of subapical ma« 
finely reflexed, extending from peduncle Uy apes; tl 
setigerous punctures near margin behind shotilders, 
form submarginal impressions towards apex of each < 

Length 3, breadth 1*25 mm. 

Hab. : King's Sound (Froggatt; Macleay Muse una), 
I know no Bembidiid closely allied to T. machatfi : ; 
probably with Bembidium bipartitum, MacL, a si>eeies " 
critically examined. The legs and antennae are long, 1 
reaching back as far as the posterior maculae of tht! 
elytra are smooth without a submarginal stria on sk 
marginal channel is not impressed. 

^ Pyrrotachys, n.gen. 

I • 

Form parallel, depressed. 

Head setigero-punctate, strongly constricted be 
frontal impressions arcuate, extendiiig backwi 
eyes. 

Mandibles long, prominent, decussating. 

Palpi with penultimate joint Isevigate, swollen; t«r 

elongate, cylindrical. 
Antennoi long, light, compressed, not narrowed to api 

joint long, oval. 

Prothorax setigero-punctate. 

Elytra setigero-punctate, substriate, without striolo 
submarginal stria on sides; margin not intermp 
orly by an internal plica. 

Anterior tibtce elongate ; external side hardly obi 
apex; a short acute spur a little above apex ex; 

Apparently this genus represents a distinct group 
Subulipalpi The absence of the slightest interrupt 
margin of the elytra towards the apex or of any sign 
on the inner side of the elytra near the margin ^ema an 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOAI^E. 



375 



I. Horn, in bin definition of the Bembidiini^ 
interrupt-Bd posteriorly and with a distinct 
mportiint feature of thu tribe. 

OTACflYS CONST HlCrr PES, n,sp. 

^ depresHed- Mandiblei* long, deousstttiog ; 
:inate; anterins?^ with all the joints puliescent; 
3, narrowed to busej elytra pubescent, finp^ly 
A ; head i-eddi^h, eyes and luljacent parts 
obscurely coloured than prothomx, fuscous 
ward?^ apex; legj? testacecuis; under pai^a of 
reddish, of body fuscous; antennse testuceouK 
arards apex. 

LmprcHfted; vertex convex, finely pnnctulate; 
diverging anteriorly and pobteriorlyj extend- 
id behind eyes ; front depressed lietween 
Ijetween impressions and eye^ ctmvt*x, pro- 
lase l^yond sidew of hea^J; eyeni primiijient. 
Y emarg^inate, a transverse linear iinpi^ctsiiion 
Prothorax depressed ^ transverse, vvifit-.st at 
uncturej lightly oarrciwed to base, e^i(ienlly 
1 base; skies very lightly roumled, !«;lHirtly 
ior angles: anteiiur niarj^in truncate; anterior 
runcatej a little oblfijue on each sidt- liefnrid 
Bse prominent, ubtusely dentiform ; a short 
ig ba^se, the ijnpresf*i*jn detining Lhis npuee 
iddte; mefiiitn line well inarkedj nut reaching 
tra narrow, a little wider than profhorax 
^ed^ parallel on sides, truncate at base, widely 

(mtbout sinuosities) at apex; whole uppi^r 
1 a short puljejr^cence ; stria^ verv \u\i% ntit 

fourth; marginal cluinnel hardly impressed 
and punctate near t^houlders; interstices^ flatf 



Am. l*:nt Rtm ISH\ , is, p. \^X 




J """" 




376 



ON THE AUSTRAUAN BBMBIDJIDES, 



\-\'r 



y/ 



three discoidal punctures on each elytron pUced as ti 
SI. 

Length 225-3, breadth 0*75-1 mm. 

Hah. : N.S. Wales— Tamworth (Lea). 

The description is founded on a specimen of the 
Mr. Lea regards the smaller specimens as represent] t 
species from the larger ones, but I have l>eeii una! 
him in this; though, as the collector of a large nun; 
mens and a careful observer, his opinion in this tc 
outweigh mine. 

Appendix. 

Specimens of a new species of Tcuihys were recei^ 
A. M. Lea after the completion of my notea on th( 
too late to enable it to be put into its proper place \ 
the table of species *given on p. 356; however its affii 
found indicated in the note following the description 





Tachys olliffi, n.8p. 

Robust, oval, convex; prothorax rather short, &\ih 
discoidal punctate striae, a finely punctate submargit 
a well marked apical striole on each elytron. Black: 
side of mandibles and basal joint of antennae testaceo 
and palpi fuscous. 

Head Isevigate, convex; front lightly bi- impressed 
short, stout. Prothorax laevigate, transverse^ Hubco 
rounded, narrowed to base, shortly subsinuate liefore 1 
anterior angles rounded, not marked; posterior anglei 
gular, slightly obtuse at summit; lateral border refle 
basal impressions wide, deep, short, extending to mai 
angles; a light impression across base between la 
median line obsolete. Elytra a little wider than 
convex, declivous on base; sides lightly rounded; first 
punctate anteriorly; strise 2-5 consisting of rows of p 
disc becoming successively shorter (the punctures i 
and more distant from one another in fourth and 



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BY THOMAS G. SLOANE. 



377 



a not impressed on sidea, but eonsisting of a row 
near margin; marginal channel hardly im pressed, 
siibmArgiDal interstice depressed on Bidm; third 
wo fine eifttigeroiis punctures, 
readth 085 mm, 
^V^ales^Foreat Reefe. 

imifrsif Blkk, from which it diflerR by its more 
I ooloiir; itg prothorax witli the sides less strongly 
rly, the base narrower, the bttsal fovea) deeper^ 
^s leas prominently acute, ifec. The prothorast 
fo of about equal width at base and apes:, 
imory of Mr A, 8, Olli£F, late Government Ento- 
w South Walesa 



reference to my paper "On the Australian 
k Carabido^) *' in the preceding Part of the Pro- 
on is called to the following : — 

COEEIGENDA. 

line 14 — for C. iidtiaidjs* re«Ml C iumidip^a* 
lino 20— /err cJfpeus read olypeml* 
—omit Line 2. 

line 5 — oimt South Australm ti scq, 
line 27 — for C. uddtiidm read €. iumldipes, 
line 18 — fci^r C* addaid^^j Blkb,, read C tumidip^s^ SI, 
line 7 — for C* addaidm rcjad C. IttMidipf^M^ 
line 27 — -for on read in, 
line 29— for C ddcsilawiia road C. iumidipes. 
lime 31~>{or C C£iiiitp«i read C ^rad2ipL>^. 





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378 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF PROSTANTHEIL 
NEW SOUTH ^ ALES. 

By R. T. Baker, F.L.S., Assistant Ci kator TgG 
Museum, SYD>Ey. 

(Plates xxii.-xxuL) 

Prostanthbra discolor, ap.aoir, 

(Plate xxii.) 

A tall slender shrub, 6 to 9 feet higli, bninchej* t*?i 
lets only slightly angular; branches, brtinclileb^, ajid 
hoary; branchlets slender and often nodding. 

Leaves quite glabrous, lanceolate or ol^long-lajicec 
narrowing into a petiole 2 to 3 lines ]<»iig» J to over « 
and 1 J to rarely 3 or 4 lines broad, i3at^ entire, light 
dark coloured above, the midrib very promiiient on 
side, particularly towards the petiole^ but impressed \ 

Flowers small in terminal compact heitda or ra^ 
leaves reduced in size and very deciduous. Fed ice In 
half the length of the calyx. Calyx striate, very 1 
cent particularly towards the base, the lips ^* blue/* 1 
both lips entire, the upper one slightly lunger than tl 
not so broad. Corolla about twice as long na the caJ 
pubescent, the lower lip exceeding the others. I 
exserted. Anthers mostly without any appendage 
nective, in fact, only rarely present, quit^ glabrous. 

Hob.— At the foot of Cox's Gap Koad, Murruml 
River, N.S.W. (R.T.B.) 

As the anther appendages are only rarely met with iJ 
it might perhaps be placed in the Section K I a 
Bentham's Table of the species of this genua, but tl 
not similar in shape to that described under this g: 
this latter feature is such a well marked cLaract^ 



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BY R. T, BAEER, 



Wf 



r the species under conBideration to the Section 
era. lam in flue need in such a decision hy ita 
cencc an well as hy the fact that one or two 
mdimeiitary appf^nclages are already includefl in 

of Section K 1 a n d tt r i a of Proitanihera the 
) very distinctive, being *' narrow at the base^ 
and dilated upwards, the upper lip erect, concave 
er lip shorter or at any rate not longer and spread - 
^ species the corolla tube has the lower lip 
labeSj La not incurv^ed or narrow at the liase,-^ 
[ not justify \i% beiijg classiiied with this Section* 
be included under any of the species enumerated 
Series C o n v e x le and 8 u b c o n c a v a^ ^ts all 
y flowers and anthers with one appenda|,'e aI>out 
he cell. 

deticribed under Euprostanthera it most 
midifoHa and P. bnolacea in it« close terminal 
rs from them in the form and size of ity leaves, 
and, of course, virtual want of anther appco- 

rooi P. mcana^ P. kirtulaj and P, dsnlindata iii 
erfeetly flat, also in iniorescencej indunientuin, 
ither appendage;^; and for the same reason it m 
. rugo^df P. m^rijhlia^ P. rhojnbeay P. spinvsia^ 
ineai^u^ P, phylkiJolHi^ P, d*:cutuaia^ and P. 

Bnity is jjerhap:^ with P. incisa and P. Sieberif 
so distinctly or uniformly entire that I prefer to 
Loecting link between those two species and P. 
*m the description of /*. Ineisa one might be Jed t^D 
at 8pecie8, bat when specimens of each aro 
e the differences are very marked. 
w considerations I conclude that in botanical 
1 come after either P, incha or P. Siebarif and 
, rotundi/olim. 



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380 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF PEOSTANTBMMA, 



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Prostanthbra strictAj sp.nov. 
(Plate XXIII.) 

A densely bushy shrub, drying black, with hii*p 
branches and branchlets. 

Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, sometimeti broadly so, 
obtuse, entire, the margins recurved, scabr* »us-hispicl abc 
rugose, dark coloured on the upper surface, whitish v 
4-9 lines long, 2-3 or even 4 lines broad, the tnidrib i 
veins prominent underneath and impressed above, : 
surface a bullate appearance. 

Flowers opposite, in pairs in terminal compact 
spikes or racemes, occasionally leafy at the base, Pedio 
above 1 line long. Bracts linear-subulate, almost as 1 
calyx. Calyx 1| to 2 lines long, strongly riblxKl towan 
hirsute, glabrous inside except towards the mouth, i 
hoary pubescent, lips of about equal length and orbic 
surrounding the fruit. Corolla not twice the length ol 
glabrous, the lower lip longer than the other lol>es. Ai 
one appendage exceeding the cell, the other ad n ate anc 

I/ab. — Mt. Vincent, near Ilford, Mudgee Road, N,S 

The compact terminal spikes or racemes give t! 
distinctive appearance, and by this mixle of infloi 
naturally falls into Bentham's Series R a c e m o s a\ 

Its nearest ally in that Series is perhaps P. rhntu 
species resembling it somewhat in its leaves hut not in ini 
indumentum, disposition of leaves, or anther appendft« 

Its leaves bear a strong likeness also to tliose of P, \ 
P. viari/olia, but the attachment is quite different, am 
also from these two species in its terminal inflorescetti 
also a much more rigid shrub than P. murifdut. Th 
ment of its leaves would incline one fnvm a casual ea 
to designate it P. decusaata, — a Victorian species 
the rocky summits of the McAlister Range and Mi 
with leaves narrower and smaller and not rugose, ai 
inflorescence, which is axillary, and a transverse doW 



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BY R. T. BAKEB. 381 

»ase of the upper lip of the calyx, — characters 

38. 

classification of Bentham, I have placed thiB 
ties Racemosae from its terminal spiken ; 
sequence after P, denticulata, having greatest 
species, whilst resembling and possessing also 
ters of P, rugoaa and P, mari/olia. 



KPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate XXII. 
ProstarUhera discolor. 
>wlng inflorescence, 
daal flowers (enlarged). 

Ls, back and front views (enlarged). 
I ovary. 

Plate xxiii. 

ProstarUhera stricta, 

h mflorescence. 

il flower (enlarged). 

owing bracts (enlarged). 

IS with appendages (enlarged). 

bh seeds (enlarged), 
arged). 



ND LORANTHS IN THE RELATION.^ 
PARASITE : AND AS FOOD PLANTS. 

By J. J. Fletcher. 

is paper was to introduce a discussion of the 
as has been stated, certain Loranths may lie 
calypts. 





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382 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS, 

Mr. Rainbow exhibited a spray of SOver wattl 
decdhata ) with hymenopterous galls simulating the apj 
Liepidopterous larvae. The specimen wast pnK:ure< 
Affleck, M.L.A., at Bundarra, N.S.W. 

Mr. Baker exhibited specimens of the plants referrc 
paper. 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited a collection of Anitralii 
comprising representatives of thirty genera and tdii* 
and including a number of rare species described by M 
in some of his recent papers on this fauiily. Among 
species of note were Cerotiema hanksiat found upcM 
aei'TcUa, Aspidiotus pallens on Macrozamiu^ MytUaspi 
upon Acacia pendula, Eriococcus spinige}* and Ciemyel 
lyti upon Eiicalyptics ; also the well known St. 
(Aspidiotus perniciosus) upon an apple bought lo a B} 
shop. 



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383 



:SDAY, SEPTEMBER 30th, 1896. 



[onthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
aca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 
th, 1896. 



Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., F.L.S., in the Chair. 



imer. The Ridges, Mackay, Q., was elected a 
ciety. 



DONATIONS. 

Fersity — Calendar, 1897. From the University. 

ed "Interzooecial Communications in Flustridse." 
;, F.R.M.S., F.L.S. From the Author, 

Journal of Australasia. Vol. ix. No. 8 (Aug., 
Editor, 

oumal of Pharmacy. Vol. xi. No. 129 (Sept., 
Editor, 

Acclimatisation Society of Victoria — Twenty- 
irst Annual Reports (1888 and 1894). From 

»mparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cam- 
illetin. Vol. xxix. Nos. 5-6 (July, 1896). From 



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384 DONATIONS. 

Tiifinftan Society, London — Journal — ^jtany^YoL 
211 (Sept., 1895); VoL xixi. Nos. 212-217 (Nov, If 
1896): Journal— Zoology— Vol. xxv. Noh. 16M62 f. 
—Feb., 1896); General Index to Volumes L-xx. (1838 
ceedings. Session 1894-95 : List, 1895-96. Frt^m the S 

Linnean Society of London — Transactions* Secom 
Zoology. Vol. vi. Parts 4-5 (Feb. -June, 1896) : Secon 
Botany. VoL iv. Parts 3-4 (Dec., 1895^March, 189i 
Parts 2-3 (Oct., 1895— May, 1896). From O, He^ 
F.LJS. 

Royal Society, London — Proceedings. VoL lix- 
(June, 1896). From the Society, 

Royal Irish Academy — Proceedings, Third Series. 
No. 5 (^lay, 1896): Transactions. VoL xxx. Parts 
(March- April, 1896) : list of Members, 1896. Fnw* tfu 

Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging— Tijdsc 
Entomologie. xxxix. DeeL Afl. 1-2 (June, 1896). 
Society. 

Soci^t^ d'Horticulture du Doubs, Besatujon^Btdlel 
Ulustree. No. 7 (July, 1896). From tfie Society. 

Perak Government Gazette — Vol. ix. Nos. 18-19 ( 
1896). From the Government Secretary. 

Department of Mines and Water Supply, Victorii 
Report, 1895. From the Secretary. 

Field Columbian Museum, Chicago — Anthro}>ulogi< 
VoL \. No. 1 (Dec., 1895). From tlie Director, 

Chicago Academy of Sciences — Bulletin. VoL \ 
(1895) : Thirty-eighth Annual Report (1895). From fh 

American Philosophical Society— Proceediags, V 
Nos. 148-149 (July-Dec, 1895). From tlm Society. 



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DONATIONS. 



385 



aum of Natural History, K. York — Bdletio. 
Vol Fill. (189G). 8igs. 1042 (pp. 145492^ 
Museum, 

ieray of Sciences — ^ Annals* Vol. viii* K<ja, 6»12 
raoir i Part 1 (1895). From th^ AeatJemy. 
atural Sciences of PhiIad[olphia--Proceeflitrga, 
>ct>-Dec.) From t^te AcmietHy, 

iemy of Sciences — Proceed ingi*t* Second Series. 
^95)» From the Academij. 

Museum — Anniiiil Report, 1893; Pi-oceediugs. 
Bulletin. No. 48 (1895). Frmn the Director, 

t Gf^aelhchaft zn Freiburg, i. B. — Berichtc. ix. 
June, 1894^Nov,, 1895), From th*^ SacitiN/. 

r ErdJcunde zu Berlin— Verhandlungeu. Ikl. 
8-10. From ihe Soeuty. 

m and Geological Survey of New Zealand — 
^eiith, Nineteenth, and Twenty-lit'th Annual 
Colonial Muaeum and Laboratory (188:^-iU): 
ical Explorations during 1881, 1882, and 1883- 
lal of the New Zealand Coleoptera* Part?^ iii. 
'rom Pro/e»»or 7\ J. Parker, D.Se,, F.R.S. 

lieal Society of Auittrala^a, Queensland Branch 
I TraoBactions. Uth Session (1895-96). Vol. 
iet^. 

ely of Lond on -= Quarterly Journal, Vol. Ui. 
Aug , 1896). Fmta the J!iocief.t/. 

daise de Zoologie— Com pte- Rendu dm Sdancea 
igi^s Interna fcional (Sept, 1895). From i/ie 

L'ulture, Perth, W.A,— Journal Vol, iii, Nus, 
IBM), Ftmi iki$ Burmu. 




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386 



DONATIONS. 




Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Fourth Series^ VoL 
(July, 1896). From the Bentham TniMsss. 

Verein fur Erdkunde zu Leipzig — Mitteilungen, 1 891 
schaftliche Veroflfentlichungen. iii. Bd, 1 Heft (189 
the Society. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein des Reg,-Bez., Fran 
—Helios, xiii. Jahrg. Nos. 7-12 (Oct., 1895— Ap 
Societatum Litterae. 1895. Jahrg. ix. Nob, 1042 ( 
1896, Jahrg. x. Nos. 1-6 (Jan.-June). From tim Socit 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney — Agriculturs 
Vol. vii. Part 8 (August, 1896). From tfm Iloft, the i 
Miues and Agrictdlure, 

Pamphlet entitled "The Submarine Leakage o 
Waters." By R. L. Jack, F.G.S., F.K.Q.S. (July, 181 
the Author, 

American Naturalist. VoL xxx. No. ^b^ (Au^ 
From the Editors, 

U.S. Department of Agriculture — Division of En 
Bulletin. No. 31 (1893) : Division of Ornithalugy and ] 
—Bulletin, Nos. 5 and 7 (1895). Froin the ^'ccTGia 
culture. 

Zoological Society of London — ProcwdingSj 189G 
(Aug.) From the Society, 

Geological Survey of India — Records. YoL X3 
(1896). From the Director. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta — Natural History Notes, 
No. 10 (Sept., 1894). From the Museum. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xix. Band. Nos. 509-510 (^ 
From the Editor. 

Archiv fur Naturgeschichte. Ixii Jahrg. (1896), 
Heft. From the Editor. 



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DONATIONS. 



m 



m|>^riale ties Sciences de 8t. P^tcrslxjurg — 
ua^e Zoologique. 1896. Nou* 1-2. From ihs 



f'l 



pieAi Society — Journal, 1806. Part- 4 {August), 



daise des Sciences ^ Harlem^ — ArchiTeB Noerlan* 
2^" Liv, (18D6). From //*^ 6^c?e^//. 

Lmneenne cle Bruxelles— Bulletin. 21""* Aiiti^ 

of South Aostralift — Transactions, Vol. XK. 
96), From tfu Society, 



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388 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE AU&^TRALIAN M 
BRANGHIL 

By J. Douglas Ogilby, 

In the present paper I have endeavoured to red 
appearance of order the history of the Australasian Li 
such meagre and for the most part inaccurat-e li 
appertains thereto. It is undeniable that some sue! 
become necessary owing to the diversity of the views 
various writers who have approached the subject, and 
minated in the recognition by Sir Willi aiD Macleay of 
and six species, two of the former and an equal iiuj 
latter having been founded on ammocoetal or immature 
this list I have foimd it necessary to reduce to three \ 
of which is represented by a single species. 

The first author to whom the honour of recording t 
of a hyperoartian Marsipobranchiate in the southern 
is due is Sir John Richardson, wlio, under th 
Petromyzon uwrdaXy described and figured a spe< 
Ichthyology of the Erebus and Terror; six years lat€ 
Edward Gray published a " Synopsis of the Petromi 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Jjondc 
Richardson's species is made the type of a new genu 
while for a closely allied form from the rivers of Ch 
genus, Caragola, is proposed. Besides these the aum 
tains descriptions and figures of two other austrog 
namely, Geotria, founded on a specimen picked up oi 
in Hobson's Bay (see p. 425) by Mr. K. A* Pain, anct 
warded to the British Museum; and Velasia^ the ty 
was a Chilian specimen in the collection of the same 

In a series of three papers (1857-li?63) Philippi 
particulars as to the Chilian Lampreys, and dea 
new species as Petromyzon amoandteri and aculi 
papers appeared in Wiegmann's Archiv. 



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BY .1. DOUGLAS OGILRY- 



38^ 



of the Museum of Buenos Aires for 1868 
bed a very curious form iind<?r the iiamf» of 
igtoffins, and aa this Lampi'ey haa no place in 
luna it may he dismissed here witli the reraurk 
ype of a genus £a'omega,% QUI (aee p. 425), and 
two examples being known to seieDce» the first 
is\ up in the istreet^ of Bueitoa Alre.s, anri the 
\ the Bay of ]\Ionte Video. 
H^qnently to the publication ()f BiiiTneiater's 
vohiroe of Dr, Oiintber'a Catalogue of Fishes 
treatment of the eonelusiona of preiiouK autlion* 
ist of it, revolutionarj; as a commencement 
Grav, from Tasmania, Carago^a Jnpundfiy (iray, 
ndttti^ Philippij and P. ucutidens, Philippi, all 
, are ansociated under the conunon name 
though the author had at his di&poj^l only Dr* 
^1 sfieeimen?*, one of which was in a notor'itmsly 
ven the selection of the generic narno was 
gala haTing a slight precedence over Mordncia, 
reasoHi^ hereafter stated, I ba^^e atiopted the 
i is not to be expected that all other authors 
nplaiHant,* and we shall, therefore, Ije cumlier- 
a dual Hynonymyj one Bcliool of writers ail he t^ioi^ 
the other as sfcrenuously upholds the claims of 
L'b confusion would have been avoidorl by the 
} the Htrict mle!^ of nomeoclatiire. Continuiog, 
UhI Grav^is ijeofria and Velasiaj a conclusion 
B out by a more cai'eful examination of the two 
meed the occun*ence of the latter in New 

g«[imann in ** A Catalogue of the B^reBh-Wttt^r Fialii?.? 
ProG, U,8. Nat. Mus. xiv, 1891, p. 24) Lidl the Chilian 
da^t thus pcae^ilily farther confusing thi2 bj, Jiouyrny iis 
nt tiie Auetralmn and Chilian forms arti ideutiLa), anrl 
iaeoverieti in regard to the markcrd cliiTeivnces ht:'U\t+t3ii 
it is at lt.'a.et poeeihle tJiat both Chira^jofa And Monfaria 



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MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSIPOnRANCl 



Zealand waters, determining the species found thei 
chilerms, in which identification also I am not prepai 
him; he also records under the same name a Lai 
" Swan River," but whether this is the well known r 
Australia or some other does not appear (s^e /?. 41 
following year the same author described a new speci 
from Tasmania as G. allporti, a proceeding wh 
unnecessary. 

With this description the history of the Australasi 
as species, so far as exotic writers are concerned, cea^ 
exception of two notices by Dr. Klunzinger of the a 
Mordacia inordax in the estuary of the Murray in 
Geotria australis as far west as King George's Sound 

With the cessation of outside intert?st in our Lj 
the conclusion of the British Museum Catakigue, c 
and most gratifying activity on the subject of our fis 
be manifested by Australian writers, and among 
Lampreys came in for their full share of attention. 

The year 1872 is memorable for the production oi 
tant essays, one of these being " The Fisiies of New . 
Capt. Hutton, to which was appended a short aci 
edible species from the pen of Dr. Hector; the o 
many respects the more important of the two, was co 
Count Castelnau to the Proceedings of the Zot 
Acclimatisation Society of Victoria under the title oi 
bution to the Ichthyology of Australia/' Bath tli 
and indeed all subsequent Australasian writers, 
Giinther's synonymy without comment or protest. 

In the first essay alluded to only Gun therms GeoU 
is mentioned, his description being copied direct from 
work, with the addition of certain rivers specially re 
being frequented by that species. And» aa it must hi 
or later, I may as well take this opportunity of entei 

* O, australis was added to the New Zealand fauna in the 
by Capt. Hutton. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



391 



he practice which is so prevalent among-'Writers 
copying the descriptions and remarks from the 
Catalogue without any attempt being made to 
cy, and by so doing perpetuating error, creating 
[definitely postponing the dawn of that accurate 
)ur native fauna which every admirer of the 
lets of our country must ardently desire. 
, however, is Count Castelnau's contribution; in 
ir the best account of two of our species as yet 
[lough in the case of one of them the author had 
lined the species wrongly, this does not detract 
of his remarks, while the very accuracy of his 
enabled me to correct his error without difficulty, 
ould have been impossible had he also been con- 
e copyist. Following his usual practice he has, 
generic and specific names to two individuals, one 
L ammoccEte while the other had only just passed 
amorphosis and assumed the habits and in part 
the adult. Count Castelnau's long experience 
^ht him to avoid this pitfall. His paper, there- 
he number of Australasian species to six, distri- 
lur genera, and at this they have been left up to 
ae by all writers, even Sir William Macleay 
hout comment the descriptions of these nominal 
^talogue of Australian Fishes, where, at least, we 
ected that some effort would have been made to 
•s of his predecessors. 

! in parallel columns the names of the species as 
ay and those which I recognise as valid in the 




4:ia mordax Mordacia mordcLX, 

rrdficia howiUii"\ 
a chilensia 
singularis 
a avstrafis 
a allporli 



y Velasia stenoatomus. 
\Geotria australis. 




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392 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSlPOBJiAHC} 



In connection with the reinstatement of Gray's Vei 
to call the attention of those who niny ha\ e tlie op| 
examining this genus and Geotria durine; tlie amiiv 
and immediately after the metamorphcisis hs^s taketi fi 
significance of the dental furrows in the latter genu 
examination of the adult it appears to me that tlip < 
the laminae in Geotria will prove to be matjerialiy dii] 
that which holds good for Velasia. 

Finally, it is hoped that the present paper will not 
some light on the affinities of these various formf^ but 
some of our southern naturalists to spare time for t 
these interesting animals, of whose Mv history much e 
to be learnt. 

Class MARSIPOBRANCHTI, 

The Myzoks. 

Skeleton membrano-cartilaginous; skull imperfectly 
not separate from the vertebral column, which conidsi 
notochord enveloped in a fibrous sheath; neural eartlli 
small; ha3mal sheath present in the caudal region on 
jaw, ribs, limbs, shoulder-gii-dle, and |>elvie eleincni 
Gills six or more on each side, represented by fixi 
destitute of branchial arches. Moutli f^uctoHal and 
more or less circular, with or without lips* N^u^al ajie 
Eyes present or absent. Vertical fins piNfisentv n^uall^ 
around the tail, supported by feeble rfkyi^f which 
articulated or branched; no paired finsi, Hkin niik 
without arterial bulb. Air-vessel absent, Alinu« 
straight, little dilated, without pyloric appendages, j 
spleen. Generative openings peritoneal. 

Etymology : — fiapa-imov, a pouch; ^p^yxit^s giUa; 
to the sac-like formation of these organs. 

Distribution : — Seas and rivers cif the tempoi 
of both hemispheres, no species having a>i yet !>een 
either in high polar latitudes or within the tropics. 

Geologically the Cyclostomes date back U> the lowe 



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BT J, BOUOL^S OOJLBY. 



393 



nt time but little haa Ijeen definitely proven with 
gi-ee of reiationMbip wliich exists lx*twt?eti the 
es on the one hand and the more recently and 
Teleofit^mea on the otherj but the preponderance 
to ahow that the former are the sur^*ivors of a 
pe of the Chordates, the oldest living repreien- 
i.re t-u be found among the Reptairmnatidie, 
ftn^hii are divisible into two Orders, which may 
eriaed aa follows* :^ 

3a-!ike, penetrating the palate; mouth without 
Lnting; snout with barbels 

Htperotbeti* 
>lind mc, not penetrating the palate; lips and 
no barl^els 

HYPEROARTIlt 

?fi© Orders contains two FamiMen, the Heptatre- 
[fl/xinidijej the membera of which are ^"arionsly 
&hes or Borers; they are amall, colourless, more 
narine anirualsj living at a moderate depth, and 
la. In places where they are common they do 
( damage to the fishermen by destroying the 
;o whose body they burrow and upon wboa© 
internally. They inhabit nearly all the se^s of 
, and three genera, Poluiotreina^X H*tpkitretmi^\\ 
e been diSerentiated. 

Tptf6t^ perforated. 

apTiti^^ entire. 

11, Pro©, U.S. Nat. MuB. 1881, p. 30. Type, QfiUru^ 
ic^p^de. TToXi^E, maDy; io-rds, vertical; rp^^o, » per- 
to the increased number of external gjllH^penitjgs. 
imeril, ? DLae* Pota«. Cydost. Type, Pttromyz^n 
Block h Schneider, iTiTci, neren; rp^^a, a perforation; 
er. Abb. Ak. Wion, 1834, p, 79 (1836). 
na, Sy»t, Nat. i. 1758. Type, M^xine giutinam^ 
%. iUmy fiih, from ^v£ft, elime; so named od n^count of 
t oF slime aecreted by the mncQUA lacA of the^eaoimo-lH, 
tiiat the exmlfttinn from a singlt^ living exnmplc in 
m & pailful of i^u^er. 




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MOXOGIL&PH or THE AUSTSAUAX Md&SfPOBRANCB 



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♦: 



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So itLT^ however, no Hjperott^le can be latiafactori] 
as baling aeeurred withm chit lioiits, but Hepiatrtti 
being an inhftbttant of the New Zealand seaf), maj o 
repr^^nted br an aUied form on our coast ""^ 

The following synopsis will sen'e to show the mo 
characteristic* of the three genera. 

Eleven or more bi^nchial apertures on each side; the 
tongue situated between the seventh and eighl 
branchise 

POLlSTOt 

Sir or seven hi^ochial apertures on e^t'li side: the b 
tongue j^itoated l^etween the anterior pair of bran 

Heptats 
A single branchial aperture on e^ch side 

Myxih 
In all probability each genus is represented by a s 
species only; sexually they are* hermaphroditej but tli 
sperm attain oiaturity in each indiridtial at a different 
rijiening of the latter taking place earlier in Hfe th 
the former. 

Older HYPEROARTII, 

The Lampreys, 

Body anguillifonn, naked, compressed or subcylindrii 
compressed Isehindj mouth ^ul)circular or oval, sue 
pre^^nt, usually fringe*:!, but without barbels; nostril a 
isurface of the head» the nasal duct a blind sac, not ] 
the palate. Eyes pre.sentj Kraall. Branchial aj>erture 
each side, situated Ijehind the liead, the inner bran^ 
tenninating in a common tube. Teeth euticular, horn 
multicuspid J re^sting on soft papilla*, those immediately* 
iinmi^diately below the opening of the c^sophagv 



* Krefft ind^ied (Auatralijui Vertebrata^ p. 779) givte, undet 
of Bfff'i/osfonm rirrhafufttj the locality " New Zealand aii' 
Htvetfe " ; but tbi<i i« abviouely a ntlitako and refer* U% one of tl 




1 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



395 



ecialised. Dorsal fin more or less deeply divided by a 
the posterior portion usually continuous with the caudal, 
ine with a rudimentary spiral valve. Eggs small, fertilised 
ixtrusion. Sexes separate. 

»r m o 1 o g y : — uTrcpwa, palate; aprios, entire : in reference to 
n-perforation of the palate by the nasal duct. 

1 1 r i b u t i o n : — Seas and rivers of the temperate zones of 
emispheres. 

the Lampreys are subject to a metamorphosis; during the 
stage of their existence, when they are known as 
^cetes, the eyes are in a rudimentary condition and they are 
y without teeth, their food consisting solely of vegetable 
nces gathered from the mud in which they live, 
se ammoccetes are not unfrequently found of an equal or 
irger size than individuals of the same species in which the 
nd teeth have already undergone development, this being 
> arrested growth of these organs on the part of the 
iual. 

jral distinct genera, such as AmmocoeteSf Scolecosortia^ (fee, 
>een constituted for the inclusion of these immature forms, 
suctorial disk which is so characteristic of the Lampreys is 
to them in various ways; it serves as an instrument by 
of which they are able to adhere to rocks, piles, sunken 
id the like, and so resist the force of the current and escape 
cjessity for such continuous and idolent muscular exertion 
lid be imperative in an animal possessed of such feeble 
ling powers; by it they are able during the spawning 
to remove stones and similar obstructions from that portion 
river bed which has been selected as suitable to the for- 
of the nesting-place or " redd," and, after the task of 
:ing the ova has been completed, to replace the stones, and 
imise the danger to which the eggs would be exposed in 
?nt of the occurrence of heavy floods during the period of 
tion; and finally, by it they are enabled to attach them- 
AJ the substances which form their food. 





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396 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRAUAN MARSIPOBRANCH 



n 



f> 



Up to the year 1894 ichthyologists were content tc 
the various species of Lampreys in a single family, to 
name Fetromyzontidce had been given by Risso as ear 
(Fur. MSrid. Hi, p. 99\ the title being altered six yea 
Bonaparte (Saggio, dx, p, 41) to the more correct or 
reading Petromyzonidce. So long ago, however, as 18^ 
{Froc, U.S. Nat. M%m. v. p. 524) proposed to separate 
Mordacia ( = Caragola) from the remaining Hyperoarti 
family Caragolince. In the volume of the same per 
1894 (p. 109) the same author went a step further and 
Caragolince to family rank under the name Mordaciidce^ 
in the meanwhile become reconciled to the use of Ifon 

In this later paper the author, in support of the 
family, pertinently remarks : — " It behooves those who 
to these families to consider why the character used to < 
them should not be of equal value with the union or 
of the lower pharyngeal bones and like modifications 
used." 

As Dr. Gill's contention appears to me to be perfecti 
have accepted the families as here defined by him. 

Analysis of the Families of the Hyperoartii, 

Two distant lateral tuberculigerous laminsa develope( 
upper arch of the annular cartilage .. 

MORDACIIO 

A single median tuberculigerous suproral lamina deve 
the upper arch of the annular cartilage 

Pbtromyzo] 

There is one other character separating these two famiH 
t^e labial fringes, which taken in conjunction with the m 
dentition of the former, appears to me worthy of spec 
all the Fetromyzonidoi are prodded with a more or 
spicuous fringe of papillsd around the outer rim of th< 
disk, which fringe is rudimentary in Mordacia. If we 
these papillse as having developed from the oral barbels < 
ancient Hyperotreti — and in so doing I scarcely think t 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



397 



(uming too much — it follows that both in this character as well 
in the dentition the Mordaciids have attained to a higher 
^ree of development than the Petromyzonids. 

MORDACIIDiE. 

Oaragolina, Gill, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. v. 1882, p. 524. 
Mordaciidat, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sc. vi. p. 129, 1893 {no 

definition) and Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xvii. 1894, p. 109. 
Fwo distant lateral tuberculigerous lamin® developed from the 
per arch of the annular cartilage. Labial fringe rudimentary, 
hier characters similar to those of the Order. 
>ne genus only. 

Distribution : — Seas of South-eastern Australia, Tasmania, 
i Chile; entering fresh waters for the purpose of breeding. 

MORDACIA. 

jaragola, Gray, Proc. ZooL Soc. London, 1851, p. 239. 
Uordacia, Gray, Lc. 

3ody elongate and slender, subcylindrical in front, the tail and 
art of the body compressed; head small, oblong, attenuated, and 
lewhat depressed, with slightly pointed snout; suctorial disk 
derate, oval, subinferior, extending backwards to the orbital 
ion, with a well developed simple external lip, between which 
i the rim of the disk is inserted a regular series of short papillae; 
I of disk thin, forming a free, simple, cutaneous flap behind; sur- 
e of disk feebly plicated on its outer, smooth on its inner moiety, 
gular pouch.* Branchial orifices small and subcircular, with a 
raised rim and a well developed valve inserted anteriorly, 
xillary dentition consisting of two subtriangular plates, each of 
Lch is provided with three strong, sharp, hooked cusps, arranged 
the form of a triangle; mandibular plate low and crescentic. 



I 



The Cbiliao Mordacia is said by Phillppi to be occasionally provided 
b a galar sac ; this has never been observed in the Australian species, 
is meet onlikely. 



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398 MONOGRAPH OF THE ALVnULUAX MA RSIPOBRA NCH. 

cuMpidate; dink with three strong anicuspid teeth 
th« haHal pair followed by two or three similar teeth, th( 
liindor j)ortion with a series of broad tri- or bicuspid 
row (if Miiiall teeth inside the rim of the disk; tongm 
paii'H of narrow multicuspid plates inserted on its dor 
and a fbw^ly cuspidate transverse plate below. Dorsal 
ting a sliort distance behind the middle of the body, d 
two jHU'tions (in the adult) by a short interspace, tl 
muull, the jHxsterior much larger and more or less conti 
tho oaudal, which is free or nearly so. Tail moderat 
Hituatini well behind the middle of the second dorsa 
iH»n!«piouous series of pores on the head or body. 

K { V u\ v» I o g y : — Mordax, voracious. 

r \ ^» ^* : - MorJacia mordax. Gray = Petroinyzoi 

\^ I s. V V i b u t i o u : — South-eastern Australia, Tasr 

V*N^ »•»c^^^^v v^' tills giHius from the New Zealand f 
v,\^i»'uixfv\i \fci;h i^^ Ss>uth American range is somewh 

VV U u^^uu to cbtf propriety of retaining the gei 
V w.N^ ..ft tvc •Jx*>i«i« IjLJjt'jcvYs in place of Carctgola, ' 
Vv A v: .;.••: yr^.'c'ty Ar:d ':y a more accurate diagnos 
i-uu',A\t :o >»:Vv:i' CI. I :ik::,'2^:z 'io better than to quote tl 
v>j: IVx Oi-l AZL'i E.-rLl«-ru?'r Jt* !X'u«jw>i : — 

Tzi^ f cnier r^rdATiL* J-zc. C v XxL JIus. 1894, 
^ I2. I>"^L I z.*^ril ^ crrftTvr.i.tf :ate tirst name (Caragol 
a f^erf^.-: . -j : . • . 1 -*-il I *:^v« >i..n,>? been led to belie 
pre»->:t:-rr_..v: X oc^ n-ini^ '^j si.c a M::Ie margin as Ca 
CT^r J/.'^.' r.'T L'-^- n- va1«^^ jtr.i "^c^kz aptness of diag 
er^ c*^.j"i' .■^- L* n 1 iir>:v-s>vJiry :o procun? priority, ai 
tr.r:?srf ',*•=:. f ...;^^i I^r. G u":::ber ia acwpting the nam( 

L^. F^ '^^n^-er wr::*;> v^ %.•/ : ** I cannot agree wit 
•L-*^ li. - ot cri-er CAi^e A;:r«cArinj: Ivt^of another in the 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OOILBY. 



399 



titutes priority, and it would be a pity to alter the well 
¥n name Mordacia to Caragola" 

is only in deference to the opinions as expressed above, of 
so eminent scientists, that I have decided to adhere to the 
3 generally accepted name Mordacia; nevertheless it is due 
lyself to say that the substitution of that name for Caragola 
stinctly repugnant to me; so long as the rule remains in force, 
h provides that the earliest name, all other requirements 
ng been complied with, shall take precedence, I cannot 
nde with the contention that the accident of two names 
g published in the same volume, or even, as in this case, on 
»me page of the same volume, can under any circumstances 
fy our rejection of the earlier in favour of the later name; 
> doing we are assisting to open a rift which may in course of 
imperil the stability of the entire fabric; while the plea that 
me should be retained because it is better known is sentimen- 
nd unsound, and therefore unworthy of consideration. 

i is the case with all the Lampreys the dentary plates are 
ided with a homy covering, which may easily be removed in 
s, but except for the necessary decrease in size both of plate 
cosps consequent on the removal of each separate layer, no 
ition in their appearance is noticeable, unless the entire 
sous lamina be lost, and the underlying papillary prominence 
lUJB exposed to view. 

ay's description of Mordacia was based on a specimen from 
ania, the dentition of which was imperfect through the loss 
e corneous lamellae of many of the plates, while his type of 
jola was a Chilian example in which the lamellae were intact; 
iagnosis of Caragola is therefore more correct; surely an 
Lonal argument for the retention of that name. 

ae interesting remarks on the pineal eye in this Lamprey, 
the pen of Prof. Baldwin Spencer, will be found in the 
edings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. ii. 2nd Series, 
L 1890. 



Ill 




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400 MOSOCSLAPB or THE ACaTBALUkS MAMSIPOERAXCI 

MOKDACIA MOKDAX. 

Ichth. PL 62, pL xxiriiL S. 3-^, 1S45. 

Mordacia m/inrjaxy Graj, Proc ZocL Soc Landon^ 1 
pL ir. 1 6f, aiuf Calad. Chondn^ p. U4^ pi i 
Gontber, CataL Fish. pL 507, ISIO: Klumingt 
Natur. xxxviiL 1S72, pL 45, a9ui SiuU Ak, ^ 
L 1879, pl 429 ilS^SO); Castelnao, Proc. £ool 
Soc Tict, L 1872, p. 229, mmd Edib. Fish, Vict. 
Macleaj, Proc linn. Soc y.& Waka, rl 18 
Johnston, Proc Roy. Soc Taa. 1SS2, p. 141 {1883 
p. 39 (1891); St^ihois, Proc Linn. Soc. KS. 
L 1886, Pl 506; Lucas, Proc Roy. Soc Yict. ( 
p. 46. 

Skart-haaded Lamprey. 

Disk oval, its width when folly expanded somewh 
its length, its posterior margin roaching to or nearly 
of the eyes. Eyes conspicuoos, the nasal tube openiin 
advance of their anterior margins. The distance I: 
extremity of the snout and the nasal opening h 21 t< 
total length and If to 2 in that preceding the fin 
orifice, which is situated a little nearer to the last ori 
the tip of the snout; the space between the last| orif 
eictremity of the snout is 6|^ to 6^ in the total length. 
plates widely separated; each plate is armed with tj 
acute cusps, the tips of which are directed slightly 
they are arranged in the form of a triangle, having \ 



* Richardson's figure is unreliable, being taken from a 
which the lateral comeoos lamells had been lost, & sin 
prominence alone being left to represent each plate. 

t Copied from Richardson. 

X In Richardson's description this measaremeat m errone^ 
the space in front of the^r«^ gill-opening. 




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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



401 



the anterior cusp being rather stronger than the basal pair; 
bular plate with nine cusps, the last but one (rarely the last 
n each side much enlarged, the median one generally so ; 
jcal dentition consists of three strong teeth anteriorly, the 
pair being on a line with the inner borders of the maxillary 
; they are similar in shape and arrangement to eckch triad 
kxillary cusps, but differ in being entirely disconnected , 
1 contiguous, at their bases; behind these a series of broad 
;r-ridged lamellae extends backwards along the sides of the 
lOse to the gular cavity and is continued behind the mandi- 
plate; each lamella is furnished with a strong cusp near its 
extremity and a smaller one at its outer, the lateral ones 
: a supplementary cusp outside and partially behind the 
oisp; between the discal lamellae and the rim of the disk 
is a row of small, sharp, hooked teeth ; tongue with two 
f elongate plates arranged along eckch side of its dorsal 
; the anterior pair are almost parallel, the distal extremity, 
Br, being curved outwards and backwards, and armed with 
yr eight fine subequal cusps and an enlarged terminal cusp, 
>n the linear portion seven cusps are present, the middle 
eing the longest and the terminal one small; the posterior 
ter pair of plates are inserted obliquely, with the convergent 
n front and in contact with the middle of the base of 
ler plates; each is furnished with from twelve to fourteen 
sps, which gradually decrease in size from the front ; the 
I surface is armed at the base with a deep, transverse, 
)i&d plate, the apex of which is radical ; the outer border of 
mb forms a deep concavity, which terminates in a stout, 
\ cusp, outside the base of which the plate is curved 
is and backwards, both the recurved portion and the Umb 
being armed with comb-like cusps, two or three of which 
ler side of the apex, are somewhat enlarged. The vent is 
d beneath or a Uttle in advance of the commencement of the 
ird of the second dorsal fin ; the length of the tail is 6f to 
be total length. The distance between the origin of the 
fin and the tip of the tail is 1^ to If in its distance from 



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402 



MONOGBAPH OF THE AUSTRAUAN MAEBIPOBRA^' 



4 

f 

I 



mm 



p^ 



the extremity of the snout ; the anterior portion 
small and evenly convex, and passes impereeptiblj u 
integument at both ends; the length of itn bas« is ! 
in the interspace between the two divisions of the f 
2J in the base of the second portion, which is conne 
caudal fin by a more or less conspicuous ray less men 
lower lobe of the caudal is more developed than 
which it is joined round the extremity of the t^ail b^ 
similar to that which connects it with the dorsaL 
body without conspicuous pores. 

In the ammocoete both the dorso-cauctal and thi 
membranes are well developed and the dorsal is coi 
in large examples the intervening membranes k 
disappeared. 

In the Nepean specimen (125 millimeters) the doi 
nected by a low cutaneous fold, as also are the seeon 
caudal, the fold in this case being almost as high as 
but rayless; the lower lobe of the caudal extends foi 
vent, and there is also a distinct fold for a eonsiden 
in front of the vent ; the maxillary teeth are aa lar 
adults. 

Upper surfaces rich olive brown, the sides golden b 
below; lower surface of the head and the throat 
greenish yellow. 

Castelnau's description of the colours, taken fr 
specimen, is as follows : — 

" Bluish gray, darkest on the back; head yellowish; 
first dorsal gray ; second bordered with pink, it« p 
black ; caudal black, with a pink margin." 

The earliest intimation of the occurrence of a Lai 
Australasian Colonies is to be found in the Ichthy 
Erebus and Terror, where Sir John Richardson d 
species from a Tasmanian example, without, howeve 
it from the arctogsean genus Petroinyzon; nix years la; 



* In large examples even this i!i»ipf»ears. 




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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



403 



ijf when engaged on his Catalogue of Chondropterygians 
removed the Tasmanian species from that genus under the 
foi'daciaf and further proposed for a very similar Chilian 
y the name Caragola lapicida, the generic diflferences 
a being due to the defective dentition of the former. 
^63 Philippi {Wiegm. Arch. p. 207, pi x.f, b.) described 
ired a Chilian species under the name of Petromyzon 
teri, and in the following year (I.e. p. 107, and Ann. d: 
li. Hist. Srd. ser. xvi. 1865, p. 221) described yet another 
rem the same territory as P. cicutidens. 
lese various forms, Tasmanian and Chilian, were united 
by Dr. Giinther in 1870 under the common name Mor- 
ordax, a conclusion which — seeing that he had but a 
ample from each so widely separated locality, and that 
lese (the Tasmanian) was admittedly in bad condition — 
lifestly inconsiderate that I prefer to regard the Chilian 
;iact from that described by Richardson until conclusive 
to the contrary shall have been brought forward.* 
ding : — The habits of the Short-headed Lamprey during 
ding season are quite unknown, but it is not probable 
J differ in any marked degree from those of the more 
studied arctogaean species. 

I typical genus Petromyzon the eggs are minute, of 
form, and number many thousands; the ova and sperm 
into the body cavity and are emitted from thence through 
oinal pores; each ovum is enclosed in a delicate gelatinous 
e ; fertilization takes place in the water after extrusion; 
ggs arrive at maturity simultaneously aft^r the lapse of 
jrtnight. 

eresting account of the spawning habits of a species of 
m is given by Prof. McClure and Dr. Strong, from 



confusion arises from calling them"— i.e., species from remote 
' different until shown to be the same, than from calling them 
iho wn to be differeDt " {David S. Jordan, in lit. ). 





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404 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSIPOBRAJ^ 



'f>i 



observations made hy tham in the neighbourhood 
New Jersey. 

According to these^authorities the eg^ are deposi 
and clear water, so that the iiio%^e merits of the 
readily be followed; the breeding season is in sp 
Lampreys remain upon the spawning grounds for 
weeks; the nests are scattered thickly about the gi 
often only a few feet apart. Each nest is occup 
males and but a single female, which is conspicuous 
its greater size.*^ "When engaged in the act of 
Lampreys press together and cause a flurry in the 
moment when the eggs and milt are in process 
Three or more layers of egga are thus de|x>sited, ea 
covered by a thin sheet of sand or gravel, the p 
returning to the same nest. When all the 01 
deposited, the nest is strengtheued by a dorae^ 
pebbles and stones which the Lampreys carefully dn 
the nest is thus marked out b& well as protected, au 
made use of during the ensuing season. f 

The suctorial disk is uaed to keep the parents in p 
the period of the emission of the »pawn. 

Uses : — All the Lampreys are esteemed a.i food 
no reason to believe that the present species differ i 
from the others; in fiicfc, Caatelnau distinctly states ' 
good food." 

Distribution :— South-eastern Australia and 

Athough long known from the neighbouring co 
mania and Victoria no record of the occurrence of 
New South Wales waters had been furnished up t 
the late Prof. Stephens exhibited a young example 




* Other observers insist that only one pair fr^uent each 
t See Bashford Dean^ Fishets Living i^ad Fossil, p. 1$2: cc 

Lake and Brook Lampreys of New York, m Wilder, Quarts 

pp. 421-493, 1893. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



405 



Iday meeting of the local Linnean Society; this specimen, 
8 in the Macleay collection at the Sydney University, was 
d from the Nepean River, near Camden, but though efitorts 
ice been made to obtain other examples in the same dis- 
ey have hitherto resulted in failure. 

bional and reliable evidence of its presence in the 
ibury watershed has, however, been aflForded by Mr. J. P. 
the University, who informs me that a friend of his is 
ted with this Lamprey and has caught it in the WoUon- 
r the following ingenious method : — a pickle bottle is 
Hrith a piece of raw meat and, a string having been tied 
ts neck, is sunk in a likely spot; the animals enter the 

feed, and on perceiving the motion consequent on its 
al withdrawal, attach themselves thereto by means of the 

1 disk, and are found enclosed when the bottle is drawn 
1 the bank. 

can be little doubt that its presence has been overlooked 
mthem rivers of New South Wales, such as the Towamba, 
lyde, Sboalhaven, and others, and that when opportunity 
I afforded for a thorough investigation of the fresh-water 

the colony, this and many other species which are now 
ad rare will be found to be comparatively plentiful, 
u-liest published record of the occurrence of this Lamprey 
mainland is that of Dr. EUunzinger in 1872 (Arch,/. 
K 45), and consists of the curt notice " Mordacia mordax, 
array River. 12 Cm." We learn by a note (I.e. p. 17) 
the species sent to Klunzinger from the Murray River 
:en near its mouth, and this therefore is the most westerly 
»n which I have been able to ascertain its presence, 
g the same year in which Klunzinger's paper appeared Count 
.u contributed to the Proceedings of the Zoological and 
tisaticm Society of Victoria a more full and interesting 
7f this Lamprey than any of his predecessors; his examples 
ected in the lower portion of the Yarra, where he considered 
be common. He remarks that " their motions are very 
ley are very voracious and pursue any object in the water, 






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406 



MONOGRAPH OF TBE AUSTRALIAN MARSIPOBRA. 



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and they adhere to it with an extraordinary 
tenacity." 

From the above quotation one gathers that prior 
Lampreys were not only common in the Yarra, I 
an easy matter to study their habits there; how dL 
the present day may be judged from the following 
seems sporadic and very rare generally; we got 
dead during the summer before last in the tidal 
Hall, in lit. July, 1896). 

In his Catalogue of Tasmanian Fishes (Froc. . 
1882, p. HI) Mr. R. M. Johnston records thi 
" abundant at certain seasons, clinging to the sic 
dicular rocks under mill-shoots, Cataract Grorge 
Launceston; " and again {p. 62) speaking general 
manian species, " the Lamprey, though abundant u 
seems not to be in favour in the market, as they a 
there." Notwithstanding this alleged abundance 1 
impossible to obtain a single specimen from the isls 

Total length to 450 millimeters. 

Type in the British Museum. 

In the preparation of this article I have been al 
seven specimens having a length of from 125 to 41 
four of these were collected in the lower Yarra, an 
forwarded to me by Sir Frederick McCoy (1) and \ 
(3) of the Melbourne University; two are in the Mai 
from the Nepean River and Tasmania respecti^ 
seventh, also from the Yarra, belongs to Mr. J. ] 
Sydney University. 

For the opportunity of seeing two ammoccet 
indebted to the kindness of the latter gentleman, 
were given by Prof. Baldwin Spencer. 




Petromyzonid^. 

Peiromyzontidce, Risso, Eur. M^rid. iii. p. 99, 18 
Petro7nyzo7iidfe, Bonaparte, Saggio, <kc. p. 41, 18 



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ItY J. I>OUOLAa OGILBV. 



407 



B tubercultgerouia suproral lainina de re loped 
*eh of the annular cartilage, Lal>ial fringe 
icuout*. Other fharaetei"^ similar to tlios^ of 



lera are re<K)giuse<]l as v alici 

— irtTpas^ a stone ; ^t;^tiw, fco suck ; in allusion 

igiiig to stones and other substances by means 

[1 : — Ei^eas and fresh waters of the teniperate 
[ionii of l>ejth heminpheres, four genera belong- 
in and threi^ to the austTOgiean fauna, two of 
it Australian waters. 

fymi of the AuMralasian Gtnera. 

aid slender; head small; aucfcorial disk very 
than broad) extending' hackwaKlK midway to 

lip present, continuous Ijehind; surface of <Hsk 
alar pouch; dentnl plates smooth; diacal t^eth 
ventri basal plat€? of tongue tiaually tricuj^pid; 
dorsai on the middle third of the body; lie4MJi 
h conspicuous aerie^i of open porea, forming on 
?11 -mark ed t ateral lin e . , . 

Yelasia, p, 407, 
>rt and atout; head large; suctorial disk very 

than long, extending backwarda more than 
! eye; outer Hp rudinientary; surface of disk 
pouch pre^nt; dental plates grooved; discal 
eparated; ventri basal plate of tongue bicuspid ; 
firiBt ciorsal on the last third of the lxM.ly; no 
i on the head or trunk .., 

Gjcotria, p, \20, 
Telabia. 

roc. Zoiil Hoc, London, 1851, p, 14li. 
inther, CataU Fish. viii. p, 50H, 1S70. 
Caittelnau, Proc. 2ool, d' Acclim* fc^oc. Vict, u 



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408 



MOKOORAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSIPOBRAM 




Body elongate and slender, strongly comprea^; h^ 
oblong, attenuated and depressed, with narrow ro 
suctorial disk small, oval, snbinferior, extending hsu-] 
midway to the orbital region, with a smooth free oi: 
the inner border of which a regular series of short 
tant papillae is inserted anteriorly and laterally; on 1 
disk is a second series of broad, profusely fringe 
papillae, which is continued entirely round the tiiod 
the disk where it is widely separated from the 
surface of disk traversed by numerous seriea O! 
cutaneous ridges arranged more or less obliquely 
pouch. Branchial orifices moderate and slit-like, 
functional valves in front and behind, the la 
Maxillary dentition consisting of a single traiLsveri 
quadricuspid plate, the outer cusps being a moot; 
larger than the inner pair, their extremitiei^ entire ; 
plate low and crescentic, strongly cuspidate; disk ^ 
series of moderate, diversely shaped teeth, from 
which radiate series of small, contiguous, graduated 
are embedded in the hinder margin of the dincal ric 
sidiary teeth behind the mandibular lamina ; to 
single large plate, smooth on its outer ^ tricu 
inner margin, along either side of its dorsal au 
with a strong, transverse, basal plate, provided 
(sometimes two*), slender acute cusps directs 
Two well developed dorsal fins, the anterior inserta 
the middle of the body, the posterior mach th 
separated from the caudal by a moderate intersp&i 
well developed, continued around the extremity of 
low, rayed membrane. Tail long, the vent situate 
origin of the second dorsal fin. Head with series o 
pores; a series of widely separated pores along the ii 
trunk and along the bases of the fins. 



*When the median cuip is abaeat the remaining two are if 
at the base, not oontigaoas as in Oeatria, 




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ilV J, DOUGLAS OGILBT, 



409 



— ^tJnknuwn. 

a ekiMiitijt^ Gray. 

II :— Coatita aiitl nAers uf .Houtli-eatiteru and 

i; hSou I h- western AuMtralia; Taamaniii; New 

Yklasia btenostomus. 
, l^'irL, Giintlier, Catal. Fisli. viii, p. 509, 1870, 

#, (not CTray) CasWlnau, Pruc. Zool. il- Acclim* 
872, p. 227 (1S73) a^t/ Edik Fish. Viet. p. 17, 
Proc. Ray. Siic. Yict. (2j li. 1890, p. 47. 

, Hutton, Fiah. N. Zeal. p. 87 ami (Hector) p. 
iTnuH. N.Z. limb. v. 1872, p. 271, pi. xii. t 
id viii IH75, p. 21f) (1876) awi xxil 18M<j, p, 
Miwrleay, Proc. Linn. 8oc. N,B. Wales, vi, IHSI, 
in, Haiiclk N.Z. Fish. p. 36, 1886; Gill, Meuj, 
^Va^sLingt* vi, p> 1 10, 1893 (not Velasia chiltfusw^ 

, Kner, Yi>y. Kovara, Fisch. p. 451, 1865, 
rittt CastelnaUj Pro«. Zooh *fe Acclira, Soc. Vii*t. 
i (1873); Ma^'leay, Lc, p. 385; Lucaa, Ix, 

mwittii^ Cast<*lnaii, l,c. p, 232; Macleay, Lc. p. 
c. p, 46, 

Narrow-mouthed Lamprey, 
idth when fully exploded leas than ita length, 
in reaching backwards midway t^j tha vertical 
the eye. Eyes rather inoonspicuouSj the nasal 
ween their anterior margins. The distance 
nitj of the snout and the nasal opening in lf>| 
length and If to I J in that preceding thi3 firHt 
which is situated a little nearer to the last 
lan to the tip of the snout; the space between 
[ the <^3£tromity of the anout ia 5| to 5| in tlip 
jiillary plate smooth; thi^ inner cu^Apss triangular 





410 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRAUAN MARSIPOBRAXC 



11 




and acute, the notch between thenoi deeper than 
separate them from the lateral cusps, which are mucl 
broader, with the inner border acute and convex, the 
and the outer border obtusely rounded and almos 
separated by a groove from the basal portion o 
mandibular plate with eleven short, blunt cusps, the 
each side and the median one inappreciably larger; ii 
discal teeth large, triangular and acute in front, 
chiselled on the sides and behind ; the middle teetl 
maxillary plate are as large as the lateral ones; th< 
twenty-six in number, and the anterior pair corres 
inner maxillary cusps; in front of the interspace 
anterior pair a series of five teeth, which gradually 
size from within, extend in a straight line to the out^ 
disk ; from each of these a curved series of similar 
teeth radiates outwards and backwards on either sid( 
armed laterally with similar series of graduated teel 
corresponding to one of the enlarged inner teeth i 
strongly bent backwards towards the outer margin a 
a subconcentric appearance; the surface of the disk is 
series of low dermal ridges, on the inner posterior bor 
the toeth are embedded; these ridges are set so cl 
that the teeth of one ridge overlap the succeeding ri( 
the mandibular plate there are no teeth outside of 
gular series; the tongue is armed with a single pa 
lateral plates, each of which is swollen and entire 
border and bears on its inner three strong acut 
anterior of which is the smaller, the others beir 
the transverse ventribasal plate is strongly tri< 
its inner surface, each of the carina; being prod 
long, slender cusp, the tips of which are acute 
curved upwards ; the median cusp is as long as th 
The vent is situated a little behind the origin of 
dorsal; the length of the tail is 4 to 4| in the total 1 
distance between the origin of the first dorsal tin an 
the tail is 1 J to 1 § in it« distance from the extremity c 



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BY' J* DOUGLAS OGILHV. 



MI 



ritfe gratJually from the dorisal iiit<?gunit*nt in 
tte in a distinct though isliort post^rifjr Uonler; 
li the tirst dors^al tin is cpnv*^x, its ripicMl portion 
13 G what in aflvance of the middle i>f tlie fin, and 
base \M a little mora than the inteixlomal »p&ce 
he ha^se of the second, the outer iKJnier of whioh 
l^ruptly Ui above the origin of the median basal 
gradually downwards from thence to its juiiction 
sterior border, the anterior l>order beinfi: linear 
ex; it^ height at the apex h one- third to one-half 
the Unit dors^al ; th© length of the tail behind the 
to li in the base of that fin, whjcli is entirely 
e caudal by an interHpaee equal to ai>out half 
latter fln; the caudal lobea are equally developed 
[ round the extreinitjof tlie tail by a low rayed 
Tieries^ of open pores extend^s from the throat 
can thus to the anteixwi^ujierior angle of the 
ves downwards, and tiltiniately encircles three- 
rbital ring, from the posten>sui>ei"ior an-^Io of 
lekward!* and downwards; in the direction of the 
iice; there h a short serien of similar poref^ above 
jHterior angle of the eluseil di^k, anrl a few others 
urface of the head; the lat^iral line is indicated 
^e?4 which extend along the middle of the ^idea 

I ther^ are nimilar series along each side uf tln^^ 

te-ealour, belly and the greater portion of tlm 
line of demarcation well defined et^pectally on 
rk gray above, silver gray on the Glides and lielovv^ 
extending l*ackwards along the Viranchial region; 
mtlly marginal with slate-eolour. 

II Caste inau^s description of the c^Jluur•^ in l]m 

the back, Bilverj on the sideH and licliyi on the 
ek, a little Ijefore the in>?ertion of the llr.st duriaal, 





412 MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTBAUAN MARSJPOBRAAC 

begins a space of brilliant green, which extends to t 
red, bordered with black." 

Capt, Hutton describes the species as having " a b 
green down each side of the back, the median line a] 
of the lower surface being pale brownish- white." 

The brilliant green stripe on each side of the b 
therefore, to be very distinctive of this Lamprey w 
recently killed as compared with the uniform bb 
brown of the upper surface of Geotria australis. 

It will be seen from the synonymy that I have ir 
of Castelnau's new species as synonyms of Velasia 
though from the size of the specimens, the insuffic 
descriptions and the destruction or loss of the type,* i 
be impossible to say whether I am justified in my cc 
indeed, to what species his immature and amm( 
should be united. If, however, the types are ext 
examination show that my identification is correct ii 
instance, Castelnau*s name must necessarily have 
mine. 

Yarra tsingvlaris. 

The following are the points in Castelnau's desci 
induce me to believe that his Tarra singularis is fo 
ammocc^te of the Narrow-mouthed Lamprey. No gen 
of Yarra was attempted by its author. 

(1). " The body is elongate, being twenty-three til 

high." 

This character might apply with almost equal f 
this species or to Mordacia inordax; but when these t 
(in the adult state) are laid side by side it will 
Velasia is noticeably the more slender of the two. 1 
could not possibly apply to Geotria, 



* These types may possibly be in the Paris Museam, wher 
of Casteluau^s collection is said to have gone. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



41 S 



("i 



)er lip is flat and considerably prolongated over 
are." 

)osition of the disk is also true of Mordaeia and 
of Geotria. 

iral line is well marked in all the length of the 

ult examples of the Narrow-mouthed Lamprey 

juous series of open pores down the midd \v of 

body, homologous to the lateral line in the true 

of the other genera is there any trace of such 

i only one dorsal, which begins at about two- 
igth of the body and is joined with the caudal 

position of the origin of the dorsal fln is a distinct 
Australian Petromyzonids, and entirely precludes 
this example being a larval Mordacia, in which 
mmences in the adult at no great distance — one- 
hs — behind the middle of the body, and it is nut 
the permanent anterior portion of the fin should 
le metamorphosis has taken place, rather ihixn 
le isolated by the absorption of the intervening 
) want of accuracy in the expression " about two- 
t impossible to judge absolutely between the 
% and Geotria, but the balance is somewhat in 
ter, in which the insertion of the dorsal fins in 
nctly more posterior than in the former. 

r of the two dorsal fins and of the second don^al 
is merely indicative of the ammocoBtal character 
I, as also is the absence of eyes and teeth. 

aracters in Castelnau's description apparently 
J of Geotria; namely, that the body "is entirely 
lar rings " and that " the skin of the throat is 




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414 MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRAUAX MARSIPOBRASi 

Taking into consideration the small size and impel 
ment of the specimen, I do not consider that thei 
can be held to equal in importance the tenuity of ( 
the presence of the lateral line. 

Castelnau's reason for rejecting this ammoccete t 
form of a 6>' tria seems to be mainly based on the 
had previously received " a very young individual 
inches long. ha\-ing exactly the same form, the same 
and the same dentition " as the specimen of Geoiria a 
which his description and measurements of the aduli 
up, and which I shall sliow further on to have be< 
Velasia st^nostomiis. HLs words are : — " I should \ 
this might be the tirst state of Geotria* but we h; 
that I had a still smaller specimen of this which has 
form of the adult." 

That the length of the unique example of Yari 
was " four and three-eighth inches," or one and a-ha 
length of the perfectly formed individual mentioned 
sufficient reason for denying its identity with the ; 
Velasia; the difference in size is capable of explanati 
two ways, thus : — On the one hand the smaller spe< 
having developed teeth, must have passed the amm 
may possibly have been the young of the true Geot 
which, as we shall subsequently show, occurs also on 1 
coast, while on the other hand the metamorphosis 
individual case have been retarded from some cau 
events incomplete. 

I^eamordacia hotcittii. 

In his diagnosis of Neomordacia Castelnau re 
validity of his genus on the following unstable chan 

It " has no first dorsal, or rather has only one doi 
and rather distant from the caudal." 



* Lege, Vekisia. Castelnau does not appear to have ev« 

(itoUia auxtralis. 



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BY J. DOUGLAS OGILB^. 



415 



ited connection of the dorsal fin is of course only 
»wing the immaturity of the individual, and is, 
alue as a generic character; this last sentence, 
lent to separate the species from Mordacia, in 
3 the dorsal and caudal tins are more or less 
and in examples up to 125 millimeters are con- 

l " fringes round the mouth " is also peculiar to 
ia, the external lip and discal rim of Mordacia 
oth. 

the body and the absence of dilatation in the 
:, characters which belong to Velasia as opposed 
have, therefore, decided to associate Castelnau's 
iltii with Velasia stenostoimis. 
ihe adult Lamprey, my reasons for considering 

specimen was Velasia stenostomus and not 
as determined by him, will be found below, the 
points of that author's description being taken 

xillary lamina is formed of four teeth, the 

are flat lobes, and the two interior ones long, 
eeth." 

r description of the maxillary cusps of Velasia 
r cusps are as described and the outer are simple 
3 in Geotria the inner cusps are lanceolate and 

and grooved. 

. teeth in numerous transverse series, those 
is larger than the others." 

the series of discal teeth in Velasia and Geotria 
e, but from the great expansion of the disk in 
tppear to be much less numerous than in the 

therefore, the wording of Castelnau's paragraph 
irally point; in Velasia too the posterior discal 
J as the inner lateral ones, while in Geotria they 




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416 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSIPOBRAXl 



{3). " Lingual teeth two in number, straight, 
conical" 

Without a re-examination of the specimen it is ; 
say whether there were in fact only two ventribasal 
third one might have been overfookedj either throug] 
defective examination as is the case with the sp 
kindly forwarded to me from the British Museum 
median cusp is as fully develoj:>e<i as either of thet 
sometimes, however, it is absent as in Mr. H ill's apc^ 
that case the bases of the lateral cusps are widely sej 

(4). "The distance between the two dorsals and tl 
caudal is a little more than the diameter of the mou 

It appears to me that this character in itself 
proves the identity of Castelnau's Lamprey with Vt 
be seen by the following measurements; taken fr 
specimens : — In my Tasmanian type of V^iasia gfei 
longitudinal (longer) diametor of the closed suctor 
millimeters and the dorso-caudal interspace - which i 
what Castelnau intends — is 15; in Getttria australi 
trary the longitudinal (shorter) diameter of the exp 
therefore, further shortened — disk is 27 millimeters a 
caudal interspace only 12, or less tlian a half, 

(o). " The diameter of the mouth is equal to half 
from the end of the snout to the anterior edge of th 

This applies much more closely to the emall-mou 
than to the large-mouthed Geolrm^ in which the disk 
two- thirds of the preorbital p>ortion of the head, 

(6). The colours are those of Veiasia, 

In the table of measurement's given by Castelnau 
corroborative evidence of the correctness of my views, 
other hand certain of the dimensions given are ci 
versive of those Wews but more in the direction of M 
of Geotria. The following table ha-i been drawn up foi 
the measurements in columns 1, 3, and 4 being 
specimens in my collection, tv hile those in column 



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BY J, DOUGLAS OOILBV. 417 

the circumfereace of the body bemg omitted 





I 


1 2 


3 


4 








1 


:^ 


miUimetora) 


468 


613 


373 


413 


a of eys in total length .. 


^H 


184 


8* 


m 


lirfl^nchml on bee to total 












10 


m 


fli 


124 


braucliial orifiee to total 










+.. 


5i 


«4 


3J 


«A 


lorsal to tip of tftil to its 










a tip of soout ... 


H 


lit 


n 


lif 


'e to Hr^t doriRul 


H 


'A 


H 


1 


rsiii to that «)f ac^^Dttd »*. 


n 


lA 


1ft 


2* 


tsrval to caudiil .,. 


^ 


n 


2« 


28 


gth , 


^ 


3A 


6A 


7t 



L"9ureinentB onlj one (vii.) of Castolnau's ^hows 
^l t<3 my Geatria augtralh than ta V*'Ui^u^ 
the two mogt impoilant {\\ anH ix.) diaiiuLrtly 

irementfi connected with the head {ii. t-o iv. ) art? 
r to thone of my Mordaeia that I cannot refrain 
that Caatelnan had an example of each spnt'tehj 
\riia/na) Ijefore him^ and sartiehow gfjt the 
and If further evidence is nece^isary as tu the 
this CDnJecturej I may mention that in lheta))le 
of M. mordax given hy Castolnaw (Ic. p. 2S0) 
!en the extremity of the Hnout an<l the centre of 
ed \i\ times in the totiil lenj^th, or nearly the 
f V. 9iefW9tCfmii»^ Tn the same ta-lile the length 





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' 'H 



n 



418 MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALEAN MABSlPOBRAJiC 

of the first dorsal is erroneously given aa 6 J inches 
evident lajysus calami for 1 \ inches. 

Taking all the characters which T liave referred 1 
or against, together I consider that I am quite ju^ 
association of Castelnau's species with Vekmia *itnm^ 

Petromyzon sp. 

Kner's description of the ammo<?iete from the Ws 
New Zealand ( Voy. Novara, FiscL p. 4-^2) gives bo < 
which any accurate judgment as to its relationship o 
the remark, however, that "the cavity of the suet 
closely beset with papillae " is clearly more indicativo 
Vdasia than to Geotria. Giinther is, therefore, prob 
conjecturing that "it is perhaps the yoitng ^tate 
chilensis ( = Velasia stenostonius). 

There is, however, one other character given by 
puzzles me ; he says : — " The large triangular nostri 
above the margin of the sucking disk in tlie middle 
head." Now in none of the species is the nostril situ 
middle of the forehead," though it ih of coui*se pli 
middle longitudinal line of the head l^etween or nej 
J the anterior borders of the eyes; again the posteri 

the suctorial disk does end beneath the middle of t 
i.e., of the preorbital space, in V^Jtuia^ but not 
nostril; it ends beneath the nostril only in Moidacia^ 
is not found in New Zealand; if it were I should ui 
consider this little animal to be the larval form y 
genus. 

Breeding: — As with Mordaria mord^x nothin 

known of the propagation of this species, hut it is \v< 

that such ammocoetes as have hitherto been Fecor( 

obtained in tidal waters, and as befon^ their uietamo] 

( animals remain buried in the mud, it would appear th 

I do not necessarily seek fresh water before depositing 

I nor is the purity of the element requisite to the dai 

the ovum. 



] 



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m J, DOUaLAS OGILBY. 



419 



tlieae Lampreys were a comnion finrl fax ou rite 
tong the Maoris we gather from the New Zoa- 
rrin tells us that " they are gi-eatly esteemed Ly 
cal! them Piharau ttiid UJ^d to p^it thera in hirgo 
"i chief a J a,s well a,*i Henry I., have died from i% 
ys, the chiefs hiiving the pick of large ctitches 
i wt apart fur them." 

ritas : — ** It hi iieeejv'iarj t^j bear the c*oiiBtriictii»n 
the Lamprey in mind t*> understand what the 
en they !§ay they see them * sucking their wrty 

Btrearas in hundre<Ia at a time.' Wlieu tlma 
[ac«d at the foot of the fall, and the fish l»eing 

the net and are thus capturecL Tliey arfi aljio 
eir cehweirs. They rtscend the Waikatu {an<l 
era) when the whitebait is also fi®cendin*ij. It* 

they ha%'e to he eaten with care, and a certain 
, the Natives stay, must l>e expresaetl, uritsefTect 
that induced by the eating of a certain kind of 
I the goiirmand's i^kin. Cooked as Europeans 

thb apprehension would not be entertained." 
> writes : " ^' ^b^st of the New Zealand nveris ai^ 
immer by shoals of Lampreys, which are tstat^c! 
rielicate and well flavoured/' 
9 Wiis written the t^ccurreoce of Gsufria au»frti!is 
ir'a« nnknowUi nevertheless ai^ the statement was 
evidence it must be taken as referring to both 

>n : — Coasts and rivers of Victoria, Sijutli Au**- 

and Hew Zealand; t West AuHtr-alia. 

nd the Whanganui, "Waikato, and Raiwaka 

■lly referred t-o; the ^pecie^ inhabits, theref<»re, 

id the 8outh iKlandB^ 

a note of interrogation against the West Aus- 

n ujikuwily accorded to this sjiecie:^ on the -Strength 

useuin Catalogue, in which it h roeonlcd frnju 

though without doubt the Wc^t AtislrHlian 





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420 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MARSlPOBRANi 



f 



n 



V-\ 




river is the most widely known, the name itself is 
tinctive that I am inclined to believe that some streai 
Tasmania, where it has now been proved lieyond ques 
is intended. 

Type in my possession. 

Total length to 550 millimeters. 

Three specimens have been available to me in the 
of this description; for the first I am indebted to th 
of the British Museum, who, on learning that I wa 
the Australian Lampreys, with great kindness sent i 
New Zealand examples recorded in Dr, Giinther'a 
Geotria chilensis, while a second example frf>m the saa 
lent to me by Mr. J. P. Hill, only the anterior 
individual having been preserved; the thirfi was for^ 
from Tasmania by Mr. Morton and measures 46S mi 

Geotria. 
Geotria, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851, p, i 
Body rather short and stout, strongly compressed 
oblong, with broad, rounded snout; suctorial disl 
elliptical, subterminal, extending backwards more tt 
to the orbital region, without free external lip, its ri 
fleshy, and bearing on its inner margin two aerie- 
foliaceous papillae; the hinder margin of the ditikis ] 
a single series of similar but much enlarge<l papilbi 
disk smooth. Gular pouch present. Branchial onli 
slit-like, with a rudimentary valve in front 
Maxillary dentition consisting of a fiingle ti-anaver; 
qnadricuspid plate, the basal portion divided from 
a deep groove; outer cusp notched at the extremity] 
plate low and crescentic, smooth or feebly cuspidate; 
inner series of rather large, diversely shaped teeth, 
which radiates a series of small, distant teeth; t 
curved obliquely backwards and widely separat^ed; i 
verse series behind the mandibular plat^?, the med 
smallest; tongue with a single large plate, smooth 



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DOUGLAS OGILBY. 



421 



iniiBF margin^ along mtlier side of ite dorsal 
bh a strong, trauaverae, Ijasal plate, pruvided 
harp cusps directed forwards. Two \\ell 
IS separated by a moderate iaterapace, inserted 
I'd of the IxMivj the secood en tilt; ly disconn&cted 
[id not much larger than the first; caudal iin 
d around the extremity of the tail by a low 
Tail ^hort; the vent j!ituat<^l l>eIow or nearly 

the second dorsal Jin, Head and body with- 
ies of pores. 

—Unknown. 

I a*tiftralu^ Gray. 

Q :— -Co*^ts and rivers of Southern Anstrftlia, 
w Zealand; CliHe and the Ar^i^entine Ilepnldic, 

the coursse of tni^me rem ark h on Geotria tnut- 

jm. Arch. ISS7, p. JGfJ)'^ has descril>eil a 
iile under the name Veh»ia ehileasis; the 
Jed with the sac at the throat and the descrip- 
^otria an$lralw-j so that we must a?!sunie either 
cies occurs not only in Australia but also in 
\^ia chih^tsis at a certain Btage of development 

a gular sac. If the latter be the caise the 
[ of the tiro species would Ije questionable '^ 
p. 509). 
J f|U<>tatirjn it is e\ddent tliat "iome i^pecit^h i»f 

with a ^^ular sac inhabits the rivers of Cliile, 
;t in attribntingthat cliarfu^ter to fteolria iiloiWf 

grntia is represented there ; but I cannot a^L^ree 
that the species is necessarily identieal with //. 
!h le^is tliat the latter species is indistinguidialjle 

iftbie la refer lo & copy of ihU publicihtioD. 






422 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN MAHSIPOBRAy 





The function of the extraordinary pouch with wi 
bers of this genus are furnished is quite unknown^ 
observations as j^et been made showing wliether its 
any way connected with age, sex, or season, 

GeOTRIA AUSTRALIA. 

Geotria aufttralis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
pis. iv. f . 3 ife v., and Catal. Chondropt. p. 14S 
ii. 1851 ; Giinther, Catal. Fish. viii. p. 508, ll 
Trans. N.Z. Inst. v. 1872, p. 272, pi. xii. f. 
and xxii. 1889, p. 285 (1890); Klunziiige 
Wien, Ixxx. i. 1879, p. 429 (1880) ; Macleaj 
Soc. N.S. Wales, vi. 1881, p. 384; Sherrin/ 
Fish. p. 56, 1886; Gill, Mem. Nat. Ac, Sc. W 
110, 1893. 

Geotria allporti, Giinther, Proc. Zooh Soc. I^t 
675, pi. Ixx; Macleay, I.e. p. 385; Juhnt^too, P 
Tas. 1882, p. 141, and 1890, p. 39. 

Wide-mouthed Lamprey. 

Disk elliptical, its length when fully expand^ 1 ^ 
and 15 to 1§ in the space between its anterior mi 
eye. Eyes conspicuous, the nasal tube opening 
anterior borders. The distance between the ext 
snout and the nasal opening is 7^ to 8| in the toti 
1|- to li in that preceding the first branchial ori 
situated much nearer to the last than to the tiji 
The space between the last branchial orifice and 
of the snout is 3 J to 3i in the total length. ^ 
grooved; the inner cusps are lanceolate and strongl 
are entirely distinct from one another, the notcli 1 
being as deep as those which separate them froi 
cusps, which are much longer and broader, and &n 
two subequal portions by the prolongation uf the 
the free edge of the inner portion is strt^ngly com] 



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BY J, DOCOtAS OGtLBY. 



43S 



^maiiider of the cusp Iming swollen and the tip 

the exterafil portion if* bn>acler tharj the inner 
i^ tru nested; it is as long as or shcrrtt*r than the 
jidibular plate with t«n cu&pa, the outer one on 
mci directed inwards and backwards, tho tither 

sometimefi rudimentary ; the inner serieH uf 
?nlarged, triangular and acut-e m fronts broiwi 

the sides, th<>He behind the mandilmlar plate 
T Timaller towards the middle; thene teeth m*o 
ttuiber and the anterior pair eorrespond U) t\m 
usps; in front of tlie iiiLeri*paee l>etween the 
series of six teeth, which gi'aduallj* decreii*ie in 
itid extend in a straight line to the rim of the 
Lnd fixim the enlarged eirenn^^'wla^ teeth extend 
'aduatefl t*^eth; the.ne series are widely sepam ted 

And the teeth themselves are not in corita<:"t- 
e no small teeth behind the [.K»struandibular 
f ia armed with a single pair of dorHO-lnteral 
tiich ia deeply grooved near He outer Iwjrder, 
* convex, blunt, and entire, while the inner 
Li8pid, the anterior cu^p t>eing only aU>ut half 
^ other three, wldch are Mil^eijual in j^ize; tlie 
laHflJ j>ljat4* ia al^o groovetl round the base of t f je 
ifwise smoc^th ; the cuspn are two m n inn her, 
reeted outwapit:^ and slightly upwardn; there in 
Itasal cusp Viehind the plane of tlie funrtioinil 
iw situated beneath the origin of the Betnind 
(rf the tail ih 5J to 6| in the total length. The 
the origin of the first dorsal tin and the tip of 
in its distance from the extremity of the snont ; 
■ise gradually from the dorsal integument in 






cfl tlie outer ou»ps In 0\ allpoHi rb heing *' Ihiul) 
mwrgiDj*' but tliere is no truce of atjy ^licti Berriiture 
ineaii thow^h thej aj^rec puiEuctly ia t'le tmoaverj* *ly 




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421 MONOaRAPH OF THE AUSTKiLLIAN MAnSIH>BMAyCBil 

front) but terminate in a diatjnct though abort poeterio 
the outer border of the anterior fin is avenlj oonrex, i 
partioti }}€mg situate above the middle uf the \)am* ol 
aiid the length of it« Ijase m from one-fourth to three- Efi 
interdorsal s^pace and 1^ to If in that of the »6cancl d< 
onter border of which is al&o convex throughout, iti^ apt 
little beldud the coiniDencement of the median third; i 
at the apej£ is cne-Mth more than that of the fimt d« 
longth of the tail behind the second dorsial i« a little m< 
to, or a little less than the base of that iin» which is 
separated fr^jtu the caudal by an iiiterspacet, which ib 
alxmt two-fifths of the length of the latter fin; tht? cau 
are subetjua! in height, but the lower extends fi>rwni 
further than the upper; thej are connected togethnr ar 
extremity of the tail by a low rayed membrane. Head 
without series of conspicuous pores. 8kin trans verisely 

Black or dark brt^wn above, lighter below; upper s 
head with a V^luishH, side^ of head with a hronie tin] 
surface of head, throats, and pouch grayt^h-wMUc 

Breeding : — Unknown, 

Uses I — Similar to the other apecies. 

Distribution :— Having already showT:i that O 
Geoiria an^traiii belonged in truth ti> the preceding « 
are now reduced to a bare statement of the habile t 
Lamprey in so far aa it can be separated with certaj 
that of Veiasia^ 

Gray*!* type sj^ecimen h ?aid by Dr* OUnther ti> hnvri <:! 
the "Inkarpinki Riverj South Australia"; but I have 
ceeded iu finding the locality of any river with such a c 
it must be remembered that thnjughout the Britijih 
Catalogue ** South Australia" is Uied to denote our entir* 
s&t^a-board, and not restricted in the territorial seiissi^ 
eui^toraary hei-e; tliis, however, is in this case of little con 
aK Count Castelnan informs ns ttiat Sir. Pain, by v 
a|:>@cimen was forwarded lo the British ^laaetmi, had t 



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BY J. llOUr-LAg OOILBV, 



425 



e " picked it up on Brighton Beac^h, Hob&on** 
r, Klunzinj^er records tliia Ltimprey from l^itig 
may ]m pre^uuiecl that the species visits tlit? 
^ro c<jaHt iu greater or less immljtn's during I lie 

le uflpoHi^ Johnston deacriljeH th«? Pouched 
**not uncommon in fi*eah water, DerweiH^ 
maixlK.*' 

md I can find no record except tliat of CapL 
s to have received it from 8 tew art I.'jland, 

jOO millimeters* 

lab Museum, fis &im in that of allprHi. 

lens were availal>le to me for examination, for 
ive t-o Uiank Mr. Alexander Blortonj U\ wliose 
e I am ^I'eatly indebted for thi,s upportunity of 
^ition of o«r Australian Hy|>eroartiaus on a more 
Ivey have hitlierto enjoyed. B^Jtll my examph h 
raamania and niea^sure respectively 325 and 375 



der tbia paper tvs peiieet as tlie means at my 
ap]>end the following brief diagnosis of the 
jenus aa given by its author. 



V\ 




EXOMEGAS. 

Proc. U.S. Kat. Mum, v. \m% p. 524. 

in cQficentiic series, the outer containing t\\<' 
ut 24 on i^ach side); lingual teeth three, laT';,'ej 
♦hI, the median smallest, all standing on tho 



: l^a>, without; ^lyor* large; in alhi.Hion In tha 
le ijuti*r diHcal teeth, 




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426 



MONOGRAPH OF THE AUSTRALIAN JiAliSIPOBMAJiC 



Type : — Exomegaa macrostomus, GiU = i^Uromy^ 
mus, Burmeister. 

Distribution : — Atlantic coast of South Am^ 
tine Republic); very rare. 

For further information concerning thiii farm consult 
Anal. Mus, Buenos Aires, pt. 5, 1868, Act Soc. 
XXX vi., and Berg, Anal. Mus. La Plat»j 1893. 



fH' 



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4^7 



BOTANY OF RYL8T0NE AND THE 
JRN RIVER DIKTRICTS. PART T- 

% F.JLS., ASSISTA^ST CofiATOB, TBCUJfOU)iflCAL 

Museum, Sydxky, 

le cotoaj treated of in thia paper comprises th^ 
of the Cmiiities t»f Phillrp and Roxliurgh, — a 
kiuth Walefjs, whiLth I believe htis not preyioualy 
tauically. 

boundary of thi^ area i^ the Goulhurn Hivei% 
be eaatem slope of the Dividing Ran^e^ a few 
of the town of Ulan, and flows easterly in tt 
e%-entU£iJly joining the Hunter River a littla 
It runs mostly through preeipituuH anci moun- 
L« ridges, and consequently is subject to 
od-markri being founcl at a cunsideniljle iiei^ht 
y level* The fouiitiy betv^een the river and tlif 
cjonsists principally of i noun tain ranges j with 
'S of good 3oil^ derived from the diFsintegration of 
I'oleani*? outcrops, appinximating in area about 
[t in sparsely {x^pulated, ihere being only about 
I Public Schools scattei'ed throughout this Im'gB 
ts are therefore few and far between, and eonse- 
the indigenous flora i"emains» ao that it is a 
for botanising. 

>iindary if? farmed by Widdin Brook, a stream 
rricuddy Mount-tiin and flow?^ north into the Uoul- 
m main Dividing Range as far south as Cupertee, 
lundary is the Barrigan Ranges and a line drawQ 
tln'ongh the town of Cudgegong t-o Ilfoi-d. 




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428 BOTANY OF RYLSTONE AND GOULBURN HIVBR DIS 

The main Dividing Range divides the district intc 
and western watersheds. 

The western slopes of the Range are much more f 
settlements are more frequently met with, it will he 
stood that the indigenous vegetation has Ijeen oonsirier 

The geological formation of the Main Rriixge i.sthe 
sandstone (Triassic), which extends in outcrops dawr 
the Groulburn River. Interspersed witli the sandstoi 
and the Tomago Series, which extend inland to liei 
a fact that may account for the occurrence on the en 
shed of several western species. 

The sandstone of the Range is succeeded on the w^ 
towards the Cudgegong River by the Newcastle Series 
have the Upper Marine Series, followed hy Silurin 
crops of granite, quartz porphyries, felsites and linie^ 

I have not been able to obtain any authentic rec 
trips made by previous botanical collertnrs, but juc 
references to localities in the " Flora Australiensis/ 
the impression that until visited by me this count rj 
callv a terra incognita. A. Cunningham must have 1 
outskirts, for in the *' Flora Australiensin '^ ( VoL i. p 
Cri/ptandra huxifolia, Fenzl, the locality is given 
Hills on the meridian of Bathurst, on the parallel of 30 
Yongo, on the route to Hunter's River and Goulbui 
Cunningliam.^' This naturalist collected on the 
branches of the Hunter River; so that the Census 
fills the gap l>etween his collectings and thtJse of o 
Blue Mountains. 

Mr. A. G. Hamilton's Mudgee Census includes tlic 
country to the east of the southern half of this disti 

My collections were made during the months of 
October, November and December, in the years 189S 
and 1890 respectively, the actual collectin^^ days lieiti 

Summarising the results of my expeditions, I fu 
Species were collected representing 56 Natural Chdei 
10 were new species, and 7 have already i>een dosei 



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BV n, T. BAKER. 



429 



I;. H, br&videeurrenSt J. H.M. et R.T. B.; Daviesm 
I. et R.T.B.; Impoyon Dnwsoni^ R.T,B,; PtQUan-- 
;r.B.; F, 8irk&a, RT.B. 

new to the Colony were also found, viz. : — 
ttfphlom, F.v.M.^ GreviUea ionfjistt/la, Hook^, Lor^ 
Benth, Th e ran ge of ot her form s hi therto regaixi tni 
, has been extended to the eastern waterahetL 

is Bk Uafc of the Natural Orden*, with the number 
;«d: — 



1 


C0MPOSIT.E 


.., 32 


4 


Stylide^ 


1 


1 


GoODENlAfTE^ ,*, 


y 


5 


Campanulace,!:... 


... 3 


1 


Epachide^ 


. . 14 


4 


JASM1NE.E 


... I 


3 


Apocvni5.t: 


... I 


1 


ASCLEPIAOE^ ,,, 


... 1 


2 


LOOANE^ 


... 1 


^ 


GENT1AKE.E 


2 


1 


BOEAGINE.E 


.„ 2 


1 


SOLANE.^ 


... 6 


3 


BCKOPnULARlMEJE 


... 2 


4 


Myoporine.e .,. 


5 


58 


Laiiiat-e 


S 


3 


M0NIMIACE.1: 


1 


2 


Laurine^u 


2 


1 


Pkoteace^ 


... 27 


38 


TnYMELEiT. 


i 


1 


EuPnOHDlAQE.E ... 


-"* 


1 


UllTlCACE^ 


1 


4 


Casuarixe;e 


... 3 


5 


Hantalace.e 


,.. 7 





I 



^m 



V 



^ 


JCNOCAE.f: 


1 


Cyperack^ 


5 


QRAMmB.1: 


1 


Lycopodiack* . 


6 


FiLlCES 



4M BQffAWT OF BYI2TONE ASTD GOULBtEN RtVBE DlSfB 
Co!C1FERj; 

Cycjldk^ 

OKCfflDEX 

lEIDILi: ... 
LiLLACKJt 

KieludiDg nair species^ Ibe next most iBtere^ting ^t\ 

{b) PmnatUrris philltijofuty Lodd., a species only rec 
Ihis Contment from the '' banks of subalpLni* streiutts 
Atistr&tiaii Alps, deseeodiDg iDto the plain h of Gippsli 
Hame and Mnrmj Rivers, F.tf. Mn^lf*^.^^ It aJso occ 
ttiAnuit >^d abundantly ao in the nciftUem island of N« 

(djw OremUm im^ia^i/i^ Hook. 

A.tl Ute^ Hifoe $|>»ci(*s iicciir in Noribern QaootLikD 
vronld liArdlj havis expected to kare found them ftt Mu 
tli^ have merer been ooJiected in this Colony boloni. 

I paid p«rtica3ar Attention to the Acacias and b&v© © 
to eliicictat€i some of the difficultiea surroonding the r 
ol the nunwruuji species of this genus. Borne paint 
still remain un^v^ttled frimiii want of |ierfect niat'Ttrial; f 
the <3C4?urrence in this Colony c*f A . ij^hyUa is stilly 
open qnt*4^tioo; i^d the frtiit^ obtained were not 
mature for me to gpeak with any oertainty, lor m^ t 
able to judge they dtlteretl entirely fnjin those dt 
Jk^ntham. 

A. criMmifis^nhi^ WeudU, and J* /arHola, Bteb.t are i 
I hope to deal with m a future papery aa the speci^c 
were not alto^ther satisfactory'. 

To the Euoaljpts I gave perhaps more attention th^ 
Acadas, aa the bie J>r, WooIIe and Mr« A, G. Hai 




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BY R. T. BAKER. 



431 



the Mudgee representatives of this genus, and 
js as the connecting link between the Mudgee 

I was surprised to find E. obliqua bo far north, 
ly only been recorded from southern New South 
t was recently found at the National Park by 

The shape of the fruit in the northern speci- 
3ly from the southern form, as will be observed 
p this species. 

►arks dispersed throughout the district are E, 
icrorrhyncha, and E. capitellata. Three species 
3 met with, but they were not plentiful. The 
jr is perhaps "Slaty Gum," E. polyanthema^ var.; 
and I consider it a distinct gain to the botany 
> have the correct botanical sequence of this 
de clear. E. albens, Miq., is a tree also valued 
aber. E. globulus occurring at Nulla Mountain 
note. 

ses is poor, as most of my specimens were lost 

Bentham and Hooker's classification. 

ider my sincere thanks to Mr. J. Dawson, of 
le, Surveyor for the District, for his invitations 
r in, his several camps, from which I was enabled 
any expense what would otherwise have been 
>ry; and I must also mention his kindness in 
30sal men, horses, and buggies in order to make 
Qplete. He himself is no mean collector, for I 
lim for some valuable botanical material and 

nowledge my indebtedness to Mr. G. Harris, of 
lear Ilford, for his kindness while staying at his 
my visit to the district in 1893, for it was from 
collections of the flora on the watershed of the 
yoe Rivers. 





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132 ftOTA^V OF &TLSTONK AND GQULBtJAN MIVRB tJjHTlUCTS, 

Clara I. DICOTYLEDONS. 

SubHslass L POLYPETALE.^. 

Serifes L Tha^lamiflora, 

lVANUNCUtACK*E. 

Clematis aeistata, R. Br. Burrigan Ranges; only slew 
seen, not m flower. 

C, QLYcmoiDEE, DC. Thd most common Clematis 
tUsjtrict; September and Octoborp* 

C, MicROPHYLLA, DC. Murrain bo and Talooby; 8fp1 
I have placed mj speciiuena provi>jionally iind 
species as they very closely resemble it in funa 
but differ in having anther appendages. 

BAsroKCULtm LAPPACEOi, Sm. Mnrrumbo; September (fli>i 
fruit). 

DlLLENlACE^. 

HjBBERTiA BtLLAnDiBRi, F.V.M, var OBOVATA, Benth* Mil 

October. 

H, ACicuLARis, P.v*M, Only found on thn Imrrei 
iioil at the top of the Gulf Koad; Itfaven very r 
pungent-poLnt«dj quite a distinct vaiietj frotii t 
form; November, 

H. DlFFUiA, E. Br,, var. dilatata, Benth. An toco 
narrow leaved form uf Lliin vari&ty ia found iiv« 
the whole district; November, 



'Throughout thiu paper, milesii otberwisfi itatstl, refe?ott«?et of 
«re user) to dcQtjt^ tUc tuontha iti whicb tkti spectof w#ro fou 




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BY H. T. BAKER. 



433 



iSj R. Br, var. 1 oBTuaiPOLiAj Beiith. Murrumbo 
^[rowing amongst tlie Iron bark !=ij M. Buie^'oxylofK It 
tu agree better witli thia doubtful variety of 
am than any other described Eihlmrda, I cannot 
myself tc» regard it as a variety of //, Uimaris^ km 
Mil i nation of the anthei^ shows^ it tci have no 
i with the type of //. liiiaarw^ which has 15^*20 
IS, while the Murmmljo apeoimena have from 60 
if my apecimees ai^e thia variety, then I think 
ecific name of IL oblusi/oiia^ DC. (Syst. Veg. i. 
ihoald stand, 

DKNTATA, R. Br. On the western wat^raoumea 
main Dividing Range at Garwell, near l^*yUtone, 
a the eaetem watershed on the Ijanka of the 
im River, near Murrumix*; September. 

PlTTOBPORE^. 

[iLLVR/^oiuiiLs, DC Near the summit of Range 
i right bank of By long Cret^k, near Bylong; 
iber. Never Ijefore recorded ^a far eaat, being 
- a dry countrj' plant. 

SAi Cav. All over the district and in some 
ea a perfect pest. At the foot of the Barrigan 
a iii a variety with very long leaves (2"), and 
spineless. 

ictTMBKSi^, Be nth. Rare; Oct<>ber. 

jTIFLOIUJsi, a. Cunn. Barrigan Ranges. 

i^KABiSf A. Cunn. Near Ryl stone; rare] Deoem- 

Caryophylle,e. 

ENJi, Brongn. Exceeding!} commuti oq saadstone 
Mt, Vineent; November. 




Hi m 




j.ik 




♦• 



434 BOTA?IV OF RYLSTONB AND QOULBUBIf BIVEE DiatI 

SiDA OOBRUGATA, Lincll., vtir. ORBictJLARis, Benth. Hi 
only one plant apen, and that at MuiTUml 
ooiiaiil©re<l an inland species, with the eawsi 
specimen obtained at Broad I and, on the ^ 
Kiver, by Roljert Brown; and it^ presence i 
Goulbura supplies the connectiojr link wii 
country varieties; Oc toiler (ilower and fruit) 

Abutilon TttoDLOSUM, Hook. By long; th©maj*t south 
recoi'tied; Septemljer. 

Hibiscus Stuktu, Hook* Rare; Ocu^he^ (t!«mpr am 

Bterculiack.^, 

Stbroc-lia DiVEHSiFOLiA, G. Don. ** Kurrajong/'* On 
ridges in the district; November and I>ecem 
treCvS are never cut dowUj as the ftjUagtj i 
stock during times of drought, A pi^culiar ; 
nection with this species was relate*'! to tai 
Dawsf)!!, surveyor for the district. Hf^ ^tat^ei^ i 
living tree of any other specie^s i* blazerl and 
Bap wood and bark eventually grow Oliver tho 
ftft.er a few years no trace of the cicatrices 
on the ti'ee, but if the bark aaci albumuju 1 
then the whole lettoriugj ifec*, in almost as clei 
day it was originally cut. I havo seen m* 
inclieif of the outer growth had been removi 
and difitinct as w^heu chiselled 36 years 
With the "Kurrajong" (^^. dierrst/o^m) 
mark is never covered by tlie nlburnuio or 
always remains on tlie suifaco to wliatever h 
may increase in girth- 

HuLUfQiA ELTaoBAf Steetz. Murmjiibo; the mo^t *'^-\^u 
rooorded; October* 

B. PAJTBTOSA, E. Br. Oiiulbttni River. 




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n 



BY R. T. BAKER. 



435 



Series II. DisciflorSB. 
LiNEiE. 

LE, A. Cunn. Goulburn River; September* 

Geraniacb-s:. 
C3TUM, Linn. Talooby and Murrumbo; October. 
RUM, Nees. Murrumbo; in fruit in October. 

RUTACEiE. 

HOIDES, A. Cunn. Murrumbo ; October. The 
•evious recorded localities for this Colony are 
igton and Hunter River. 

ES, Sm Mt. Vincent and Rylstone; October and 
iber. 

s, A. Cunn, Bylong; the most northerly record 
;e specimens are those of B. mollis; November. 

fiFOLiA, A. Cunn., var. anethipolia, Benth. 
mbo; not common; September. 

;mbum, a. Juss. Goulburn River; October and 
iber. 

OSUM, Hook. Only found at one spot, at the toot 
's Gap (Murrumbo side). I have my doubts about 
I the specimens under this species, but do <o as 
)me nearer it than any other N.S. Wales spt?cieii. 
mbles the Western Australian P. tuberculosum in 
ives being channelled above and the margins 
y, or not at all, recurved, and the flowers are in 
umbels exceeding the last leaves; a showy shrub; 
about 10 feet; September and October. Since 
r the above, Mr. Dawson has found it at Kenabie. 
s on filiform pedicels. 









436 BOTANTJ OF RYLSTONE AND GOULBURX RIVBR D1B1 

P. 8QUAMUL0SUM, Benth. Common on all lb 
ranges from Ry Is tone to Goulbum Rive 
perhaps the most conspicuous shrulj in tl 
September, when it is in hill flower. Heig 
20 feet, the coast representatiire rarely 
dozen feet. 

Philotheca australis, Rudge. On sandstone tldgi 
the specimens incline to 8ieber-s F. Esici 
but as the leaf varies in nearly every p] 
placed them all under Rudge's specit^s as i 
Baron von Mueller; September to Noveml 
white or pink, as distinct from the maiive c 
coast plants. 

Olacine-e, 

Olax strict a, R. Br. Murrumbo; October (flower a 

Stackhousih.*:. 

Stackhousia monogyna, Labill. On moist damp tlat«j 
and October. 

Rhamne.1:. 

Alphitonia bxcelsa, Reissek. *' Red Ash; '" undei 
of the high rocks on the hanka of the G^iil 
(Macdonald's Flat), Murrunibo; only small 
in early fruit; bark white and smooth. 

PoMADBRRis LANiGERA, Sims. Kelgoola and Barri| 
Bylong; September. 

P. PHYLiciFOLiA, Lodd, Only found at one spot 
two miles from the foot of Cox's Gap^ Mm 
on the banks of a creek, and only one shru 
that about 5 feet high. T first collecttM.! 
October, 1893, and again visited the su 
September, 1895, but was iinfortnnate in i^ 
it only in bud, — owing no doubt to the 3e\ 
from which the whole Colony waa aufierlng i 



I 



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BY R. T* BAKEH. 



437 



thin speciiiiieo as a particularly interesting find 
fai:t that it han only |>reviou^ly l>e^n recorded 
s Continejit fn>ra the ** liauks of siibalpine 
tinder the AuatraHan Alps," so that now thi*^ 
iity brings its range very much farthf^r rn>rtli. 
i abundantly in tin? northern island of New 
and also in Ta'imania. I liave compel red this 

form with New Zealand and subalpine speei- 
i it differs little fi-om them. It has fewer le/if 
the stems, and lei« numerous leaves; ite liei^ht 
little greater. 

A. Cunn, Mount Vineent^ near II ford; 
?r. 

TtA, Wendl. By long, Murrumlxt ; in fruit in 

4, A, Ciinn. Mount Vincent, near Ilfurd ; 
*r. 

Rudge. Murrumbo ; in fi'uit in October. 
■ in fruit in December. 

m. Barrigan Ranges; Septenilier. 
Series Hi Calyciflorse. 

JATUM, Benth, filurruinljo ; on sandilatsi near 
I River, and Kelguola. 

LOR A, Ait. Kelgoola; Septemlier. 

rct^fATUM, A. Cunn, ByKui"^ Ranges; Novem- 
ic p^icel^ are longer and the fiuvverw larger 
m d*^crilked by Benth am (FI. Ausl. iL 4lj}Jiut 
think it can l^e refen^d to any other specie^^. 

* Benth* A few miles west of By Intone : 








438 BOTANY OF RYLSTONB AND GOULBURN RIVER D 

Davibsia corymbosa, Sm., var. linearis, Lodd. . 
leaved form found at Talooby^ October. 

D. LATiFOLiA, R. Br. Mount Vincent, ne 
Talooby. It is called "Native Hops" 
the bitter principle contained in its le 
flower in October, and in fruit in Noveml 
ber. 

D. GBNiSTi FOLIA, A. Cunn. Only seen in on 
Murrumbo; September and October; mc 
levels. 

var. coLLETioiDES, Benth. Kelgoola; 
Cudgegong River. 

D. RECURVATA, J.H.M. et R.T.B. Bylong; IS 

PuLTBNiEA SCAB R A, R. Br., var. MONTANA, Benth. 
Talooby; October. 

P. SCABRA, R. Br., var. microphylla, var.n 
November. As my specimens possess smaj 
any described specimens, and are much she 
than the tyjpe, I propose to designate it a 

P. MiCROPHYLLA, Sieb. Portland and Camboc 

P. TERN AT A. F.v.M. Only found in one spot, 
west of Murrumbo Plains; September to 

DiLLWYNiA FLORiBUNDA, Sm., var. SERiCEA, Benth 
and Talooby; October. 

D. ERiciFOLiA, Sm., var. phylicoidbs, Benth. 
sandstone ridges. 

BossiiBA MICROPHYLLA, Sm. Rylstone and Cambo< 

B. BUXiFOLiA, A. Cunn. Camboon; October. 

Templetonia Muellbri, Benth. Murrumbo; Sepi 

HovEA linearis, R. Br. Murrumbo ; Septembe 
fruit). 



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BY K, T. BAKEH, 



439 



YLLA, A. CaniL Kelgooln; in flower in Septum- 
ialou Vjy in fruit in October. 

A, R. Br., %^ar. lanceolata, Beoth. F<miid 
mt the whole district under shelving rocks; 
»lue, not showy ; in flower iu Sept«BQber, and 
n December. 

A, R. Bn, van pannosa, Bentb, Murrumbo and 
k^ineenfc; Septemljer. This is a very marked 
cQiuparetl with the previous one, the leaves 
aller and the petioles shorter; tomentum on the 
B of the leaves, branches and petiole, dense, 
■nd rusty-coloured. 

Andr. Camlioon, Bylong, and Murrumlxi ; 

FHYLLA, A. Ciray. Bylong; September. 

[A, R. Br. Throughout the district; in flower 
io November; eaten by cattle* 

iifA, Wendl, Talooby; Octol>er. 

*rs, Endl. Bylocg; October to November. 

, Benth. Murrumbo; in fruit in October. 

LfYLLA, Bonth. MurrumUj ; Oetol>er (flownp 
; fairly common; Cox^a Gapj with leaven largo 
dea persistent. 

;ULATA, WilkL Murrambo; in fruit in October. 

t, A. Cunn. In flower at Bylong in Heptcin- 
Tiimbo; in ft^uit in October, 

SiniH. Nut oomuaon; Bylong and Murrumbo; 
Lij Deoembftr. 



Introdiio^d. 



r 





\ 



-i 



1 




iMk imATSY OF R^LSTONB AND GOULBURN RIVAR Dlitl 

AaiciA LANiGEHA, A. Cunn. Henbury and Hylgtonc 

in Septeml^er and in fruit iu Deeenilrier. 
authentic poch oi this species wen^ abiaifw 
locaiitY (P.L.S.N.8.W, 2nd Sen Vol. ^,f 

A- J u N I FK R I s A , Wi lid , M ur rum bo, Ri jttd to Gou I 
Sep torn Ix^r. 

%'ar. BHOWNii, Benth. Barrigan Tlring^^s, 

A* ARMATAj R, Br. Cox*s Gap, Murrunilj^>: 8i*pt 

A VOMER! FOB Mia, A, Cunn. Rare; Kel^nola; 
In the specimens collected there is a fitHiuli 
point or hook instead of the glancl u finally fi 
phylliMlia *d this species. 

A nNDULiFOUA, A. Cunn,; var. sbrtiforhis. Bent 
DYSOPHYLLA* Ben til. Both fornix are met w 
whole district on ^and^tone ridges ; var, m 
most abundant in the Capertee Valley, Iji 
intersfierst^d with var, dyftophtjlta at Camho 
and Murriimbo. 

A VEEKlciFLUA, A Cunn* Between Ryklone 
Vinevut; September. 

A- PENJfjXERYis^ Sieb. This giant A^nein is foui 
owt tlie wholi? difttrieti on both MideH of tl 
Range. 1 1 is known a.s '' Black^vattIli 
Iwirk IK V ahied for its tannin properties* A 
of the Capeilee Valley some tree^ attain 
from 50 to 70 feet or more. It ii not i 
Mudj^ee in Mr, A. G* Hamilton's Ceii?5Us, 
occurs plenttfullj not very f*ir ea^st «ilf thut X* 

Of ail the wattles known to me I think I 

as8i^ I he first place to this one for jHH>.f-.-i 
iiMnieraas varietal forms. 

Bontham only give« one vari^tyj vi$., Mm^ 
which he includes A. Jak-\fimnw^ DC,, Add 4, 
A, Cunn. 



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BY B, T, BAEKR, 



441 



*ii&l tkift? disHfU*t forruH are to l.*e found in tliis 

\r^ iwrinalin.^-^liyUijtVm hnnjcoIatP'fu.leiLt<jj obtuse 
dnate, tUiiiljconaceons, 3 to 5 indtes long aud I 
imU, 1 -nerved and promin flatly peiininerved, tlie 
i iiervc-like^ and almast always with a short 
Liy nerve* t-etminaliiif,^ m a glarifl a short distance 
li? base* Pixl st?vfTal iiicht^s long and lin. broad, 
argins pajiklki, oft^n glauooU9» A tree, up to GO 
feet high. It in the bark of this tree that is* 
prized for tanning. 

ar. fanc^ohtta.^ A tall shrub: branehJets tiiinj 
", phjUocha utiiformlj lanceolate, narrowed at 
ridw, H(>f?ondary ner^ e vpiy iodijitinct ; alwaya 
?r than in var, 1. PofJ rainjh lighter in t-olour 
ly of thi* other foitn^, about J in, broad and f> to 

ir. tfifiiiCiU — A^hrubof a few feet in height, lirauch- 
I, terete, much 9t«juter than in other vari«^tioM, 
l*?tj broadly obtuse, glaucous, coriftccous, central 
md margins very promin«^nt, the gland rarely 
, 3 to o inches Jong, 1 t^j ]1 inches broad, PihI 
coriac&oua, 2 to i inehes long, mider oaa inch 

8eed mostly orbicular. 

E, Dawiion collected tho whole :icrie3 uf pods 
mx% upon which the^c remarks arcs Imssed* ) 
[A, A, Cuna, Talooby and^Murrumbo, on santl' 
idge#. Appears to have no local name. At 
tibo Gate there are a few fair stised trefs^ 
ng 18 inches in diameter and 20-30 feet ni 

September, 
Rjtfis, A, Cuan, Ryhtone; Heptember. 

KSf A. Cunn. Tahxiby ; the nearesit locality to 
M yet rceoH*>il for this dry country ^species ; 
ber. 




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442 BOTANY OP RYLSTONE AND GOULBURN RIVER E 



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4P 




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A. SUBULATA, Bon pi. Quite local; only founc 
Gate, growing amongst Ironbarks, F. «i 
tall, graceful shrub, with long pendulent i 
September and October. The first recorc 
species were obtained from this locality 
2nd Ser. Vol. \'iii.) 

A. IcRAssiuscuLA, Wendl. A common wati 
the district; flowers in October and Septei 
in December. I have preceded the name 
as I have never seen an authenticated A 
but as I am acquainted with almost ever}^ c 
Acacia found in New South Wales I ca 
specimens under any other than this oi 
does not agree with Bentham's descriptioi 
his were wrongly matched. It attains al 
of a young tree. 

A. NEGLECT A, J.H.M. et R.T.B. Perhaps the 
of all the Acacias found on the sandstoi 
ranges. This is considered by some as - 
the pods are entirely diflerent from those 
Bentham (B. Fl. Vol. ii. p. 373). 



A. HOMALOPHYLLA, A. Cunn. *' Yarran." 
recorded so far east before. 



T« 



A. ixioPHYLLA, Benth. I have obtained only ; 
this plant, so cannot speak with certaii 
identity; and yet if it is not this species I 
what other it can be, as its phyllodes are tl 
of all the Acacias known to me. It is by 
common wattle throughout the district 
growing under the hills in dense, almost 
masses, and is in fact quite a pest. It att 
of alx)ut 1 5 feet; September and Octol)er. 

A. ? sp.nov. Rylstone; September. Tliis I re 
species, but have not been able to obtain t 



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BY R T. BAKER. 



44S 



shrub of a few feet, with long linear plurinervod 
38 and short axillary racemes, with very few 
in the head. 

YLON, R. Br. Only small trees seen; foot of 
n Ranges, Mt. Vincent and Kelgoola. The 
s not valued; August. 

Benth. Barrigan Ranges; in early fruit. 

[A, Willd. (a). Var. Bylongenm,^, %'ar nov. ThiJi 
El distinct variety from any descriln?d by Bent ham 
i. 398). The length of the phylKxle has ali-eady 
K)rded (RL.S.N.S.W. 2nd Ser.' Vol. vili. p. 311), 
2mes are shorter and more compact than the type 
3r known varieties, resembling in some re-spects 
A. iloi'ntoxyton\ in fact it might Ije looked upon, 
titermediate form between tht-se two species. 
•ad and Camboon. 

^ar. TYPiCA, Benth. This variety is found on 
rigan Ranges. 

LON, A. Cunn. *' Hickory." At Mqi rumbo, on 
^es on the right bank of the (iuulbum River, 
probably extends to the Hun tor River, as a 
a of "Hickory" timber from that locality, which 
compared with the Murrumb(» '* Hickory," is 
identical. I consider the findin;^ of this .species 
some importance, as it has only previously been 
[ in this Colony from the interior, as the *' Spear- 
certain tribes." Height generally from 15-30 
imeter up to 1 foot; in flower in SeptemlM'r and 
in November and December. 

lAMii, Hook., and also var. loncmspicata, lltnith. 
rap; September. I am indelitcfl to Mr. J. 
for the pods of this Acacia. They hanily agree 
ly previous descriptions. Bentham had only 
pods as he mentions (B. Fl. ii. p. 407), and 




,«<(*. 







I# 





444 BOTANY OP RYLSTONE AND GOULBURN RIVER I 

from the pods now in my possession I 
think his were not properly matched, 
specimens of fruit are attached to t^ 
phyllodes, and stout, strongly 3-angL 
early flowers, so that there can be n< 
their identity. They are not ** long . 
flexuose or twisted," but are straight or j 
2-3 inches long, under 2 " broad, valves lh\ 
the seed. Seeds small, oblong, longitud 
first straight and filiform, and gradually 1 
3 or 4 folds under the seed. 

A. DISCOLOR, Willd. Kelgoola; September; i 

A. DEALBATA, Link. Occurs throughout th 
Rylstone to the head of the Cudgegon 
Its bark is never used as a tan, the inhs 
found out the superior tanning properti 
wattle (^ J cacia penninervis^ Sieb.). An int< 
of this Acacia here, is that the plants 
have short leaflets, 2-3"' long, and the 
glaucous, whilst the plants growing on tl 
gullies have linear leaflets, 4 to 6 li 
glabrous; and the tree could very easily I 
A, dectirrens, var. not'malis, but for the j 

A. MuBLLKRiANA, J.H.M. et R.T.B. Foot 
Ranges and Road to Cox's Gap, Murrumi 
August, in fruit in December. 

ROSACEJB. 

RuBUS PARViFOLius, Linn. Murruqibo, and on t 

creek at Kelgoola. 
A CMS A oviNA, A. Cunn. Kelgoola. Only a few s 

Saxifragkjs. 
Ceratopetalum apbtalum, D. Don. In the gulli( 
of the Cudgegong River. Vernacular i 
wood ;" timber used for lining boards of 1 



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BY It, T. BAKEE. 



4 |-> 



ATX, D. Bon. GiiUies at the source of the Cud 
; Biver. 

FA, Sm* CamlxMJO* 

Myktace-b, 

RAGONA, Labill. CamlxKjn and Mtirrumbo ; in 
and fruit from September to Dt^ember. 

^rijiAMii, Benth. Found on the eastern iind 
II slopes of the Dividing Range at Muiruoilx* 
I the Goull»ui"n River and Camboon, respectively* 

the first time it has been recorded on the eastei^n 
hed; October. 

FLAVE&CENs, Sm., van ORANDirLOEtlMf Bt^nth, 
5^ Nov^ei*il>er, 

UMp R, <fe G, FoFst. Sandy fiats t)i wards the 
irn River; in fruit in Septembt^r, 

MDKUM, Bm, Carai>oon; in fruit in Octolier, 

PM, Htn. CamlKxni ; in fruit in Oe toiler. I am 
together certain a^MJUt my determination in thi^i 
!i I failed to galJiei* tiie flo\*'ers. The leaven are 

piingeot-p:nnt<Kl and the fruits large* It fa 
ly Beotham s vimety (fl) of thia species. 
AVM, Hm. CambixjD and Murrumlxi; SepteDil^er 
Lrtulx^r. The Murrum1>i:j spc^eimetia ai*.^ eharaf- 

by an almost glabruua calyx, with triangular 
mt lolief^. 

4<iNU8j DC, van angusti folia, Denth, Mun tun- 
itober. I also collected a large-lenaved variety at 
iw place. 

Efi^Ei>!A, DC, Found niusily on the alluvial 
ery abundant at Bylong; Feliruaiy. This its a 
Kider trt^e in thue of drouf^dit. It is^ abo an. 
tit ahmle tree for cattle. The timlier in of very 
aine, but works up well in aniall cabinet work* 




r 




446 BOTANY OF RYLSTONE AND GOULBURN RlVEIt DI 

Eucalyptus stellulata, Sieb. On the hills ov 
Capertee Valley. Small trees with lead-c 

E. AMYGDALINA, Labill. Known locally as " ! 
rare; only one tree seen, at Kelgoola on tl 
River; in bud and mature fruit in Septem 

E. OBLiQUA, L'Her. " Stringybark." Gulf 
species has never been found so far north 
fruits differ from those figured as E. obliqi 
•* Flora of Tasmania" (i. 136, t. 28), and 
delineation in Baron von Mueller's *Eucaly] 
both instances the fruits are shown with 
countersunk rim, but in mj' specimens 
henvsplierical, with a flat, broad truiica^ 
shape of the leaves corresponds in every p 
all the descriptions and figures published ( 

A microscopial examination of the ai 
them also to agree with Bentham's descr 
iii. p. 204). 

This form of E. obiiqna is evidently pe 
JSouth Wales, as it has also been found nea 
Park (F. Williams). 

This s[>ecies probably occurs also at Afuc 
not collected by Hamilton (P.L.S.N.S. 
Vol. ii. p. 279). 

E. CAPiTKLLATA, 8m. Found throughout the 
in lH»th lKi>iiiIticand sandstone country. I 
to tl.o Cioulburn River it goes by the nair 
SStriiiLryUirk/' the same as E. eiigenioides 
settlei-s KK>k ujK)n them as one and the sar 
on the watershtxl lietween the Capertee and 
it is c;ille<-l "^Silvertop" and ** Messmate,"— 
tunate terms and not mentioned here to hi 
but only twi a wiirning, as it is now genera 
botanists to reserve those terms for E. 



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BV R, T. BAKEB, 



4 47 



rge-fiTiitecl form, the same as that found on **Korth 

WoolU" (B. Fl iii. 200) pn^clomiDates* Tlia 
r fryited forms are oecasioimlly met with, tind a.^ 
miaides in ako to be n?cordefi from here, I i^liould 
r3 vernturo the opmion that thi^ kttet- ^wQieH 

Im? raerge^i into E. ca/nielinla or the v^rm, iunl 
o regarde<l as (extreme formn of the same si>ecieH, 
ani places A\ eugenioidei^, Sieb,, as a variety of A\ 
Vi, but tliere appears to me very little connection 

in the niritter of bark. 

type fruit© of this species reseml>le the frwiti* of 
euioid^s in ev^^ry partieular execpt size, ami flie 
r varieties canuiit be distinguirthetl fnnii thos^e of 
fenioides ; m fact, they are the E. F.ugemoid^^ of 
mthors. 

liHYKCHA, Fv.M, ''Wed Striu^ybark.^' This is 
ered the be.st atringybark iu regani Ut dijrnliility 
iber, and is highly prized. It occurs «iuly on the 
•n sJopen of the ranges; November and December. 
U Sm. " Blackbutt." Mount Vinc<>nt, near Ilford, 
SYLON, A. Cnnn, van pallets, ReriLb. ** Iron- 
' This variety previously hfw.l ^>een recorded only 

one Iw-fdity, New England (C. Htnart). Its 
?rn ext^^nsion muat now \>e brought to the Mur- 
> Plaitia, where it is the only Ironlmrk. The buds 
waller than the typieal Liveriiool and Parrjiomtta 
Jens of £.Mi^krox^lon,tim} veiymmli rt*sembl<> tlio^^e 
pfiuienlfUa. The blue glaucous leavej5 eoittra^tinfj 
Lb© hhvck bark give eertain pat<jhes of Viu.sh a vt^ry 
f a^pefu-aiiee. The timber is not considered uf any 
Flowers proiusely from 8ept4?mljer to December. 
[)OiiA, A. Cunn, ^* YeUowljox/' Throughout tlie 
cU mo4!itly on flat^. Tiniber ^^!vy dundile, Imt 
lU. Uj obtain in any siae, m most «»£ tbr- tree^ liu\o 
iency Ui Imrrel in the trunks. 





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448 BOTANY OP RYLSTONB AND 60ULBURN RIVER E 



\m^H 




As A. Cunningham, C. Moore, and 
each record a different bark (B. Fl. iii. 2. 
tion here that in all instances I found the 1 
and presistent," and its inner surface, wl 
from the tree, has a very yellowish appeal 
the exposed sapwood, hence its local nam 

E. H^MASTOMA, Sm., var.MICRANTHA. "Brittl 
boon, on the western slope of the Rar 
Vincent, near Ilford. 

E. POLYANTHEMA, Schau. " Red Box," * 
There are three distinct varieties of th 
found in the district. 

(a). In the neighbourhood of Rylston^ 
name of " Red Box," and the timber i* 
no value whatever. The trees are of n< 
have a dirty scaly bark at the butt but sm 
and are found on poor sandstone countr 
are uniformly oval, on fairly long petioles 
marginal one removed from the edge, und 
long, and glaucous on both sides ; flo\ 
flower in December ; fruit turbinate, u 
long in diameter. 

(b). At Cambobn, 7 miles north of R} 
a variety with smooth bark, long lanceoh 
on both sides, the veins oblique, the mai 
to the edge; the petiole long, sometimes t 
larger than in previous variety, outer si 
fruits turbinate, 3 lines in diameter, rim th 
and similar to the coast E. polyanthm 
October; timber good. 

(c). On the eastern slope of the Divid 
extending to theGoulbum River there is 
important variety known as " Slaty Gui 
are large, with very straight barrels, and 



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Bf B T. BAKEH. 



lit. 



t'^silued and considered equal to if not auperior ttj 
k. The Iwvrk is smooth, with a siJvery slieen* 
i'ea differ fruru tliose of the two other varieties in 
lucli narrower and glaiiooufj, the ^'enation being 
e as in the CamlxK>n variety. The tiowers are the 
. of the three varieties, the stamens are all fertile 
he first ^^ariety, the fmit^ glaucous, 1 liue in 
r. 

& at first inclined t*> consider these as three dia- 
lecies (being so looked upon by the residents), 
nicroHcapial examination of the antlierH pro%'e<i 
jotical. The antljerw are cylindricjil, *Hrancate(i, 

by terminal pores'' in each variety, and ay 
\y figured by Baron vvm Mueller in hie " Euca- 
iphia,*' There is evidently an error in Beutliani a 
ion of the anthers (B. Fl. iiL 2U), 
[ising these remarks I would like to point out 

Xew *South Wales J^. j)o!i/aniJi*'ma diflera eon- 
y in the character of its bark from the Victoriaa 
hich ha-^ *' an a-'^hy*grey, persi^^tent, roti^li and 
ii bark" (Kv3L, k PI iii. t>13), while all tlio 
;n by me, and I ha^ e collected from the coant tu 
bern i*lo|je of the Dividing Range, are aninoth* 
The leavf's of tlte Sydney E. jmltianthcuni aro 
irger and more ovate than any of the three 
i above enumerated. 

! A, F. V, M, ' ' Box/' Th runghou L thi? d istric t un 
It is ni>t by any means the tine upstanding 
wing on the coast near Parramatta. 
» found in flower at By long and ^lurrunibo in 
Mr, A. G. Hamilton giveis the fiu wiring time 
geej 40 miles ea«t, a^ April and MaVj— an 
i of the uncertain timei^ of flowering of Eucalypti, 
B kept thia species apirt from the following, vlh 
ier them quite distinct uli*-n tht^ fi»l!<»wiug 






I? 



•> 

^ 



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450 BOTANY OF RYLSTONB AND GOULBURN BIVEB VU 

differences are taken into account, namely 
and venation of leaves; size of flowers an< 
shape of anthers, which in this case rese 
« Slaty Gum." 

E. ALBENS, Miq. (E. HEMIPHLOIA, var. ALI 
" Box; " " White Box." Bentham consid 
very distinct species " (B. Fl. iii. p. 219\ I 
Mueller has placed it as a variety of 1 
When seen gi'owing in juxtaposition with 
its characteristic differences are very mart 
ing to Baron von Mueller it has a dull gre 
bark, but I have always found it with a w 
tent chequered bark, somewhat approaching . 
from which it also differs in the larger, a] 
calyx (nearly 9"' long), larger fruits, and ii 
being usually glaucous or almost nearly whi 
globular, opening at the side by almost c 
connective much developed. 

The timbers of the two species are of eqx 
is always found growing under the Rai 
banks of Bylong Creek, and gradually as 
till meeting the " Slaty Gum," E, polyanth 
ber and October. 

E. siDEROPHLoiA, Benth. "Ironbark." On t 
ranges at Murrumbo, and only represei 
specimens of this grand forest monarch of 
fruit and bud in September. 

E. CREBRA, F.v.M. Found throughout the di 
most common of all the " Ironbarks," a 
one valued for its timber, the others never 
grow to any size. Shingles that had lain ( 
exposed to the weather for over five years, 
as when first split. None of the Ironba 
sidered equal in durability to "Slaty G 




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BY R. T. BAKKB. 



4»t 



i fi:>i*»jdt9 of this* grand timber ure being ring- 
by the selfK^torf^. The <!o Wei's m-e very much 
ffcer by beea, aud are their ataniid by i luring times 
bt when othr:r flowers are scarcf; September. 

Ltbilb A smalbf ruited variety occurs at Nulla 
Q, 24 mile^ east of Ryl stone. 

A. Cunu. '* Sallow." I ara not at all oErrtain 
diagnoslH in this instance La eurreet, but T piaca 
men collect«d at Ganguddy Cn^ek, 18mii^st;ast 
one, provisionally under this species* 

LabUl. Found throughout the diatricfc on low 
:nown under several vernacular namefi sueli its 
Gum/' "Swamp Gum," ^* River Gum/' " Brittle 
mber not used, 

Hm, Sm, '* Eed Swamp Gum ;" '' Red Gum/* 
Dut the district on flatf^. A profuse ilowt^rer 
October, Novetnl>er and Deceuiljer. It is the 
form with a long operculum. 1 am iiiidined 
this and the preceding species nndei- one naij^^^^ 

iA, F.wU. *^WriolIy Butt/^ At Mount Vin- 
r rifordtand Ganguddy Creek; tiniljer worth ]n>j!^. 

DC, Kelgoohij at the source of theCurrajoog 
The dark copper- coloured folia^jje of this h'f>e 
very conspicuous amongst oth^^r Euealypts of 
in this locality, where it g^ies by tlie local iiiime 
iwood/' At Mount Vincent, ni^ar Ilford, it is 
% " Red Gum " 

Kik, f, Oecura on both aidea of the Dividing 
Known a*i ** Mountain Gum" at Kelgoola, but 
L^rnacular name at Murrund>o. 

JHA, F.v.M. Only found at tw^/ places, Cox's 
I Murrumbo Gate, It has not b<.*en recorded 
r otlier loeaHty in thin Colony, and is known cudy 






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452 BOTANY OF RYLSTONE AND GOULBURN RIVER 



4 



A 



Um 



V 



-. i 



*» I 



^^^|h|I 



from the Burnett River, Queensland 
Kino exudes very freely. Timber hard, c 
Gum; not used. In fruit in September 
E. BUGENioiDBS, Sieb. "White Stringybai 
the watershed between Capertee and Tu 
also on the Barrigan Ranges, probably 
whole district. (See remarks under E, < 
Eugenia Smithii, Poir. Occurs plentifully in th 
extreme head of the River Cudgegon^ 
" Lilly Pilly." 

UMBELLlFERiE. 

Eryngium rostratum, Cav. Ry Is tone; in fruit i 

ARALIACE2B. 

Astrotricha ledifolia, DC. The narrow-lea-^ 
found at Camboon, in flower in October; 
leaved form with narrower panicles at I 

Sub-class II. MONOPETAL^. 

LORANTHACB.«. 

LoRANTHUS BiDWiLLii, Benth. Only at one local 
on Callitris sp. Previously recorded o 
Bay, Queensland. 

L. CELASTROiDES, Sieb. Rylstone; in fruit i 

L. PBNDULUS, Sieb. A long-leaved varie 

measuring sometimes over a foot. Mou 

Camboon; in flower in November and in i 

NoTOTHixos coRNiFOLius, Oliv. Bylong. On Si 
folia^ G. Don; September and October. 

RUBIACE.E. 

Cantuium oleifolium, Hook. Collected when 
Karrabie, by Mr. J. Dawson, L.S., and 
Goulburn River, Murrumbo, but not in 
Previously recorded only from the interio 



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BY R. T. BAKEIl. 453 

Aj LabUL Moimb Vincent, near Ilford; Novem- 

Soland. Gamboon; October, 
^A, Hook, Cam boon; October* 
ODii G. Don, Caujboon. Oetoljer. 

COMPOaiTjK. 

, Benth., var commus'is, Benth, The common 
land form, '* witb glabrous glandular achenes." 

iLi8, A. Rich„ Cambooni October. 

A. Tiich., var. DusgEcxAy Benth. Murrumbo \ 

ni, Benth. Camboon; Octo1>er. 
F*v.M. Talooby, Murnimbo; October, 
lA, DC. Cam boon; October* 
DC, Murrumbo; October, 
STALiSj linn Jlurrurnbo; October, 
3SA, F.v.M. Bylong; November, 
t, CasB. Murrumbo; October. 
;pnALA, F.v.M. In bud in Novemlier. 

s^iSp Benth* Murrumbo ; the niost easterly 
■ecorded ; generally regarded ns an inter" Lor 
k*ptember. 

AlTAj R. Br. Camboon; bracts vc^ry acuniinatr^ 
Bcimens; October, 

jQUAMATUS, LeM^. Talooby; October, 

RFioiDKS, Xtabill. Common ; some spec miens 
2 feet in height; October, 

UMj Willd. A t^U perennial of 2 feet, Avitb 
^r leaves; Murrumbo; October* 





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454 BOTANY OP RYL8T0NE AND GOULBURN RIVER DI 



H. APICULATUM, DC. 

December. 



Throughout the district; 



H. 8EMIPAPP0SUM, DC, and var. brevifoliu] 
Candolle considered this variety as a d 
(//. microUpis, Prod. vi. 195). I was at 
to agree with his view, but I have since foi 
from the root or base of the stem of the typ 
proving what Bentham suspected (B. Fl. 
there is only one species. The two form 
stem make a unique herbarium specimen. 

H. DiosMiFOLiuM, Less. Throughout the dis 
to December. Quite like the Sydney fon 

H. BREViDECURRBNS, J.H.M. etR.T.B. Murru 

H. TEssELATUM, J.H.M. et R.T.B. Murrumlx 
overlooking Bylong on the east of Torrie 

H. CuNNiNGHAMii, Benth. Barrigan Ranges, 
teml)er. I have placed my specimen; 
species, although they differ from Benthar 
in having leaves over 1 inch long (i" Ben 
florets (3 Benth.) 

Helipterum axtuemoidks, DC. Murrumbo; Nov< 

H. incanum, DC. Common everywhere; Octc 
ber. 

H. DiMORPHOLEPis, Benth. Fairly common 
^lurrumbo and Camboon; September. 

Gnaphalium luteo-album, Linn. Murrumbo; Gel 

Erechtites arguta, DC, var. dissecta, Benth. 
October. 

Also a variety which is not " scabrous 
hairs," and is without toothed auricle: 
not dense. 

E. quadridentata, DC. Camboon; October. 




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BY R. T. DAKER 455 

Sol. Murrumbo, Talooby and Mt. Vincent; 

;8, A. Cunn. Talooby, By long Creek; October. 

30NIANUS, Gaud. Cam boon; October. 

'BRI, Hook. Not very common; only found at 
bo; September. 

Sl'YLIDEiE. 

OLIUM, Rich. Camboon. 

GoODENIACEiE. 

i, R. Br. An undershrub; on the eastern and 
ilopes of the Dividing Range at Camboon and 
espectively. This is its most northern locality; 
md November. 

I, R. Br. Bylong Ranges; November. 

. Bylong, under the shelter of rocks, mostly 
lituations; November. These specimens are G\ 
a, R. Br., placed under the above species hy 
, The leaves are uniformly broadly lanceolate^ 
te, 1-1 J inches long, non-viscid and hoary on 
s. 

'LLA, Sm. Camboon; October. 

•A, Schlecht. Murrumbo; October and Septem- 

^, Sm. Murrumbo; October. 

PA, Cav. Bylong Ranges; November. 

[, F.v.M. Cox's Gap; September and Nov eni- 

A. Cunn, Murrumbo ; the most easterly 
locality; October. 





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456 BOTANY OP RYL8T0SK AND GOULBURN RIVEB D! 
CAMPANULACBiE. 

IsoTOMA AXILLARIS, Lindl. Bylong Rangas; Nove 

I. PLUVIATILI8, F.v.M. Bylong; November. 
Wahlenbergia GRACILIS, A. DC. Everywhere; N( 

EPACRIDEiE. 

Styphblia LiETA, R.Br., var. angustifolia, Benth 
and Murrumbo on the sandy flats and sai 
Bentham .B. Fl. iv. p. 147) queries the 
flowers, but in every instance I found thei 
never found this variety near Sydney. 

S. LiETA, R. Br., var. glabra, var.nov I 
about the specimens placed here under \ 
but I prefer this to proposing a new 
flowers are red, the sepals acute, and the '. 
lanceolate, — characters not included und 
description of the species; Cam boon; Octo 

AsTROLOMA HUMIFUSUM, Pers. " Groundberry." 
apparently in flower and fruit all the yea 
Murrumbo it is quite an erect shrub; from 

Melichrus urceolatus, R. Br. The specimens 
western slope at Rylstone and Mt. Vincei 
to A. Cunningham's M, niediiis ; while 
eastern slope at Murrumbo to his M. e 
think they are good species, but as Benth; 
them under J/, urceolatus, R.Br., I h 
his classification. September; in fruit in I 
December. 




Braohyloma daphnoides, Benth. 
no doubt common. 



Only seen at M 



Lissanthe strigosa, R. Br. Murrumbo; September 
Lrcjcopogon lanceolatus, R. Br. Kelgoola; Septe 



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BY R. T. BAKER. 



467 



fLLUS, R. Br. Kelgoola; September. 
I, R. Br. Camboon; October. 

R. Br. Camboon, Bylong Ranges; flowers and 
November. 

ros, R. Br. Very common on sandstone ridge»; 
ber and October. 

lTA, a. Cunn. Kelgoola, Camboon and Talooby; 

r. This is its most northern limit. 

LA, Cav. Only found on one patch of sandstone 

^oola. 

SECUNDUM, R. Br. Bentham notes under thiii 

(B. FL iv. 263) " the filaments are representee! 

Bot. Mag. [t. 3264] as free; I have always found 

dnate to the corolla-tube." In the specimens 

d at Kelgoola the anthers were free. 

Jasmines. 

!ABPA, R. Br. On the summit of the Dividing 
at Mt. Vincent, near Ilford; November. This 
Qost southerly locality for it yet recorded. 

Apocyne^. 

PTIPOLIA, F.v.M. Bylong ; the most easterly 
in this colony yet recorded for it. 

ASCLEPIADE^. 

EOLBNS, R. Br. Murrumbo. 

LoGANIACEiE. 

JNDA, R. Br. Common throughout the district, 
a lighter green than the coast variety, and also 
>t dry so black; September. 

Gentians^. 
. Br. Camboon; October. 
BALIS, R. Br. Camboon; October. 





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458 BOTANY OF RYL8T0NB AND QOULBURN RIVER Dl 

BORAOINEiE. 

Myosotis AU8TRALIS, R. Br. Only on the wea 
Dividing Range at Rylstone; December. 

Cynoglossum australe, R. Br. " A tall, erect « 
plant." Murrumbo; October. 

Solane^. 
solanum stelligbrum, sm. 

S. TiOLACEUM, R. Br. On the eastern slope oi 
Range from top of the Gulf to Murrmn 
and fruit in October and November. It d 
oixiinary S, violaceum in having broader < 

S. VIOLACEUM, R. Br., var. variegata, var.nov. 
specimen growing between the bark and sa] 
phora intermedia on the Gulf Road. Thev 
gave it a very attractive appearance, a] 
approaching it I thought I had got some 
propose to call it a variegated form of S, 

S. amblymerum, Dun. Talooby; October. Bei 
. that this may prove to be a variety of S. 
after comparing specimens of both I t] 
distinct species. 

S. CAMPANULATUM, R. Br. Mumimbo Ra 
(flowers and fruits). 

S. ciNEREUM, R. Br. Murrumbo; October; ra 

SCROPHULARINB^. 

Gratiola Peruviana, Linn. " Brooklime." In ci 
Vincent, and Kelgoola. 

Euphrasia Brownii, F.v. M. Throughout the dia 
ground; September. 




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BV B. T. BAKER. 



MYOFonmEM. 



459 



iMiifATUM, R, Br,, rar. a wousTTFOT.ru m, Banth. 
erne and at the foot of the Bjlong Ranges, In 
• IB SeptembeFj and in fruit in Koveraber. 

I, A* Cunn. Rylsitone and Murrumbo. I do not 
it has beeu recorded further east than these two 
lies. Benthaiu (B. Fl. v. p, 5) in hm deseription 
h apecies gives the number of stamens as five, 
J I found only four in my specimens ; September 
October (flowers and fruits), 

AHPUM, R/Br, Murrumbo; Octoten This species 
revionsly been recsorded only from the dry inteiior, 
[urr&y and Darling Rivera. 

fNGiFOLf A, F.v.M. On the western slopes of tlid 
3s to the east of Bylong Creek. This is the most 
ly locality yet recorded; September, 

Labi AT js. 

DLLia, H, Br, Cambuon, This is its most northern 
iy recorded j OctoJ>er* 

PRCNELLOIDKS, R Br, Muri"urabo Ranges j 
ler. A beaut if id shrub, the profusion of largo 
flowers making it most attractive. 

TA, Ti.T.B. At the foot of Cox's Gap, Murrumbo 
September. 

J R.XB, Mount Vincent, near Ilford; Novemtjer. 

! FOLIA, Steb. Murrumbo; October. 

■OUGiFOLiA, R- Br. Murrumlxj ; October and 
mljer. 

YMROsusi, R. Br., var, MtCROPBYiiLtrM, var.nov, 
umbo; October, 




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460 BOTANY OF RYL8T0NE AND GOULBUR.V RIVER D 

Ajuga AU8TRALI8, R. Br. This species grows verj 
Bylong, reaching sometimes 3 feet in h< 
form was found at Murrumbo. 

Sub-class III. MONOCHLAMYDE. 

MONIMIACE-fi. 

DoBTPHORA SASSAFRAS, End!. In the sassafras 
source of the Gudgegong River. 

Laurinba. 

Oassytha pubesgens, R. £r. Camboon; Octobc 
fruits). 

C. MELANTHA, R. Br. Mumimbo ; Octobei 
fruits). 

Frotbage^. 

Pbtrophila pulghella, R. Br. On sandstone coi 
ber (fruits). 

Isopogon petiolariS; a. Cunn. Bylong Ranges; 

I. Dawsoni, R.T.B. Murrumbo, on the s 
Ranges on the north of the Murrumb 
original specimen upon which this specie 
was not a true representative. A seco 
locality revealed a much larger shrub 
described. It is at least 20 feet high, in 
of Isopogons in Eastern Australia. The 
very showy and attractive, and as it fl( 
presents quite a picture, and is well ^ 
vation; September. 

OONOSPBRMUM TAXIFOLIUM, Sm., var. LANGEOL 

Bylong and Murrumbo; October and No 
variety was collected on the Hunter R 
Brown. 




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BY R. T. BAKER. 



461 



MiEPiTYS, A. Cunn. At the top of the Gulf Road, 
B loose sandy flat; October. 

s, Andr. The most common of all Persoonias, on 
less sandy ground and rocks; September (fruits). 

R. Br. Near the Goulbum River, Mummibo. 

)LiA, R. Br. Only found on the western watershed, 
b Camboon. This is therefore its most easterly 
it yet recorded; October (fruits). 

GATA, A. Cunn. Not common ; on sandstone 
y at Kelgoola. 

[NGHAMii, R. Br. I have placed my specimens 
ionally under this species as I was only able to 
I them in fruit. It differs from Bentham's descrip- 
l /*. Cunninghamii in having reflexed hairs on the 
les, pedicels not glabrous nor slender, and a 
3ent ovary, veins of leaf fairly prominent; Bylong 

iS. 

RONULATA, R. Br. A small shrub occurring only 
rrumbo, and having " leaves rounded at the ends 
lortly mucronate." This was the form found by 
nningham on the Hunter River (B. Fl. v. p. 443), 
made the type of the species by Bentham (Zoc. cit.)', 
aber and October. 

FLA, Hook. On the Ranges on the north side of 
mbo Plains. The specimens obtained are referred 

species on the authority of Baron F. v. Mueller, 
n giving his reasons, says that Bentham's des- 
n of this species is incorrect as regards the length 
dicel, style, <fec. My specimens differ from 
iescribed by Bentham in the length of the pedicels, 

are under 6 lines, whereas Bentham gives 2-4 
; the leaves are all under 1 line in width, whereas 
im gives 2 lines; they are linear, pinnatifid or 




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462 BOTANT OF RYLSTONB AND OOULBURN RIVtfR 

divided into long linear segments. It i 
shrub and worthy of cultivation, its 
crimson flowers and long linear leaves 
pleasing effect. It is considered the pr 
the bush at Murrumbo, where it was fir 
Colony by Mr. J. Dawson, of Rylstone. 

G. PUNIC EA, R. Br. Kelgoola. 

G. SBRiCBA, R. Br. Murrumbo; September 

G. TRiTBRNATA, R. Br. On the road to M 
Murrumbo; September and October (flo^ 

G. RAMOSissiMA, Meissn. Camboon and Ry 

Hakba migrogarpa, R. Br. Throughout the ( 
grassland and sandy flats; October to D 
and fruits). 

H. DAOTTLOIDES, Cav. On the eastern slope 
Range, at the top of the Gulf, Cox's Gap 
October. 

LoMATiA iLioiFOLiA, R. Br. Fairly common on 8 
at Kelgoola. 

L. LONGiFOLiA, R. Br. Kelgoola; Septembe 

Banksia MAR6INATA, Cav. A fair-sized tree at 
near Ilford; also occurs at Kelgoola. 

B. SBRRATA, Linn. f. var. hirsuta, var.nov. 
of this species seen, and that on one c 
Kelgoola. The leaves are larger than 
specimens, and covered on both sides 
hairs, which are also found on the 
species has never been recorded so far ^ 

THYMBLEiE. 

PiMBLEA GLAUCA, R. Br. Talooby. Specimens 
type in having the persistent portion 
glabrous; October. 



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BT B. T. BAKER. 



463 



R. Br. Camboon. The specimens are evidently 
lunninyhamii of Meissn., which Bentham doubt- 
aces as a variety of P, collina (B. Fl. vi 17); 



, Sm. Everywhere; October to December. 

RA, R. Br. A small delicate plant a few inches 
In flower at Murrumbo in October. 

Meissn. A variety of this species with crowded, 
iped leaves was found at Murrumbo ; October, 
the most northern locality recorded for it. 

EUPHOBBIAGEA. 

YMBOSA, Brongn. Top of Gulf Road and Mur- 
September to November. 

rLLA, Brongn. Camboon; October. 

, Miq. Murrumbo, on the banks of the Goulbum 
October (fruits). 

IRA, Planch. Banks of Goulbum River, Mur- 
September. 

lOiDES, Brongn. Mount Vincent, near Ilford. 

lants. 

Urticacejb. 

orst. Murrumbo; rare. 

ta) pumila, L, On the left hand side of the Gulf 

Casuarinea. 
CTA, Ait. This species occurs at Murrumbo, on 
>rth-western slope of one of the ranges bounding 
Lthern side of the Murrumbo Plains, and also on 
ie and summit of Bald Hill, Camboon. These are 
[)st northern localities recorded for this species, 
romedary in the south being the previous northern 
It is mostly a swamp species; height 30 to 40 
n fruit in November and December. 



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464 BOTANY OF RYLSTONB AND GOULBDRN RIVEK DIi 

C. suBBROSA, Ott. et Dietr. The only species ( 
at Kelgoola, not very common. 

C. DI8TYLA, Vent. On the hills on the left bai 
Creek at Talooby, and Murrumbo. A si 
10 feet high. In flower and fruit in 
November. This is the most northern loc 
for this species. It diflfers from the coast f< 
slender branches and much more elon^ratec 



^ 



•*fc 



SANTALACEiE. 

Choretrum spicatum, F.v.M. Camboon (western 
October. If this is a correct' diagnosis th 
range of the species very much furthe 
previously recorded. 

C. lateriflorum, R. Br. Kelgoola; Septemlx 

C. Candollei, F.v.M. Murrumbo; Septeml 
October (fruits). 

Omphacomeria acerba, A.DC. Mount Vincent, n< 

ExocARPUS CUPRE88IFORMIS, LabilL " Native Cherr 
Ranges. 

E. STRiCTA, R. Br. Goulbum River; Septembe 



Subclass IV. GYMNOSPERM^. 




CoNIFERiE. 

Callitris calcarata, R. Br. "Black Pine." ' 
Bylong. 

C. columellaris, F.v.M. "White Pine." Bj 

CYCADEiE. 

Macrozamia SPIRALIS, Lchm. On the foot and bro^ 
the hills at Bylong; in fruit in September. 



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BT R. T. BAKER. 



465 



Class II. MONOCOTTLEDONS. 

ORCHIDEiE. 

'BRETiFOLiUM, R. Br. Kelgoola. 

iVB, R. Br. Mostly in the forks of dead standing- 
8r (** Box," "White Box," and "Apple Tree") at 
ag and Talooby. 

Sm. Mumimbo; September. 

JREA, R. Br. Talooby; September. 

iNBA, R. Br. Barrigan Ranges; September. 

iRIDEiE. 

SICE A, R. Br. Murrumbo; October and September. 

LiLIACEiE. 

M CYMOSUM, A. Cunn. Rylstone; Septeml^er (fruits). 

tosA, Haw. Common throughout the district ; 
mber to November. 

)ioiCA, R. Br. Common; October. 

JuNC.\CBiE. 

FOLIA, R, Br. Barrigan Ranges and Kelgoola. 

LORA, R. Br. Camboon. 

iMis, R. Br. By long and Camboon. 

HASTiLis, R. Br. Rare; found only on the sandy 
X)wards Goulbum River, Murrumbo; September. 

CvPERACBiE. 

ETORUM, R. Br. Murrumbo; September. 

i, Spreng. Murrumbo; September. 

K)RUM, LabilL, var. (?) oxylepis, Benth. Kelgoola 




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4G6 BOTASY OF RTLSTONfi AND GOULBOJUf KlVrU Dl 

Caubtis flexcosa, K. Br. Kelgoola. 
Oakex PANicuLATA, Linn. Talooby; October. 

Graminej^. 

A^TTHisTiRiA CI LI ATA, LinD. fiL Mumimbo; DOt oc 

Dakthokia se hi ANN CLARIS, R. Br. Throughout tl 

Stipa set ace A; R, Br. Ryl stone. 

^ KoELERiA PHLEoiDES, Pers. MmxumW 

* Festuoa rigida, Mart, and Koeii. Mumiml3o. 

*Ci:RATOCBLOA UNiOLOiP^s, DC.) Tkis American gr 
at Murrumbo. 

Clasaiii. ACOTYLEDONS. 

Lycopodiack.e. 

AzoLLA RUBKA, R. Br. ^^ry plentiful on Bi 
During the drought of 1 89 5 it was the oij 
available for c&ttle, wliich seem to eat 
relish. 

FlLIOBS. 

To r>EA B A RB A R A , T . Moone. R a re ; only f on nd at Ca 
locality would probably be its western lia 
fication in October. 

Adiantum Aethiopicum, Linn. Barrigan Ranges. 

A- FORMOaUMj B, Br. Barrigan Ranges. 

PTERig AQUiLi^TA, L. Mount Viocent, near Ilford. 

PoLYPODiuM SERPENS, Forst. Found in dense i 
sui'faces of rocks in the gullies. 

KoTHOL^KA DisTANS, R. Br. Found on the eastern 
watersheds at Camboon and Murrumbo re 

* Introduced. 




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46y 



DTE ON CYPR.EA ANGUSTATA, GRAY, 
Var. aubcamea, Ancey. 

By C. E. Beddomb. 

variety of this species measures, from the syphonal end to 
erior apertural notch, 24 mm.j it is 16 mm. wide and 12 
., from the base to the most prominent part of the doi*sum. 
irefore in all specimens I have seen a shorter, broader, and 
depressed shell than the type. Of a uniform pale flesh 
a the dorsal surface, without any indications of darker 
bands or zones so frequently found in specimens of this 
base almost white from end to end, along the aperture, 
roacbing the thickened porcellanous sides of the base it 
»ff to a duller flesh colour than on the dorsum. This 
itensified coloration continues forwards and backwards to 
round which it is uninterruptedly continued with a dense 
lous deposit, which characteristically separates the 
from the dorsal aspects; this lateral thickening is sub- 
d, projecting Ijeyond the surface with a slight upper 

margin causing it to be shallowly channelled, most 
3n the peristome, which is also less uneven than in most 
of C. rinffustatn; in many forms of the latter the elevated 
K>ints correspond with elevated ridges, which can be seen 
distinctly running across the dorsurii of the body whorl. 
this character most marked in the zoned varieties of the 
:hey are less marked in this variety. Showing through 
kened porcellanous margin 8 to 10 small dark chocolate 

round spots exist on each side, but are only hazily 



ll 



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V 



)erture is proportionally wider than in the type form and 
lore bent towards the left posterior end. The peristome 



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468 



NOTE ON CYPR^A ANGUSTATA, VAl 



margin of the aperture is wider and more bent \ 
than in typical forms such as I have, by me ( 
Hobart Harbour on Coral; it has from 20 to 22 1< 
inclined forwards, blunter, and spread outward] 
base than in the typical specimens; in the latter 
are sharp pointed, projecting into the aperture, a 
tinge. 

On the left columellar margin there are 20 si 
pointed directly across the aperture scarcely ex 
base surface, but are seen extended down into th 
the columellar margin as it enters the cavity of 
base, unlike the typical angustata, is densely j 
white; as a rule in the type it has a bluish tinge 
the channelled ends of the aperture. 

There is an absence of the dark colorations 
the dorsal aspect of the anterior channel edge43 
of the type forms, and this syphonal channel is 
or notched, being obliterated by the more calloi] 
form being continued directly round the ends, 
specimens from the Derwent waters have many 
at least 30, and although the angulated margin 
the base from the dorsal surface are decidedly th 
not round off the chanelled ends of the aperture j 

Ilab. — Blackman's Bay, Derwent River, and 
beaches; Hobart Harbour, Tasmania (dredged). 

The type specimens are in my private collectic 
ferred to consider it only a varietal form in 
esteemed friend Mr. Ancey, who named it from : 
him many months ago. 




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OCT 13 18^7 

469 
[September 30th, 1896, contd.] 



S SOOTY MOULD OF CITRUS TREES : A STUDY 
IN POLYMORPHISM. 

(Captiodium citricolum, n.sp.) 

By D. McAlpinb. 

(Communicated by J, II . Maiden, F.L.S,) 

(Plates xxiii.-xxxiv.) 

CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

Introductory 469 

Source of Specimens Investigated — 

Doncaster Specimens ... 471 

Armadale ,, ... 481 

Kew „ 482 

Burnley „ 482 

Other Victorian „ 483 

South Australian ,, 483 

New South Wales „ 483 

General Development of Sporidia in Asci 485 

Characteristic Distinctions of the Special Repro- 
ductive Bo<lies 486 

Connection with Scale or other Insects 487 

Effect on Trees 490 

Treatment 490 

Scientific Description 491 

Polymorphism 493 

Appendix on Aficrocera coccophila, Desm 498 

disease has been known for a long time, chiefly in Southern 
, and now wherever Citrus trees are grown. It has had 

common names in diiferent countries, such as " Morfea," 
go," "Nero" in Italy; "Russthau or Sootdew" in Germany; 

Mould " in Florida; and " Fumagine," « Black Mildew," 
32 





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470 



THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITRUS TRKESj 



1 i KM 




** Black Blight" among ourselves. It m also often ( 
from its appearance, but does not belong to th 
Fungi which includes the true Smuts or Uiililat/ii 
scientific names applied to it have been equally 
assumes a variety of different forms to which di 
have been given. In fact this " Sooty Mould '* ; 
good illustration of what has been called Polymorph; 
fungus appearing under different guines at differei 
development, and it is this feature wliieh will i 
attention here. 

In order to prove the fact of poljTiiorphiHiu it wou 
to sow pure cultures and watch the deM?lo|iment o 
forms under strictly test conditions, for otherwise tl 
together might be really different, and constitute 
of association. It is quite conceivable that the e; 
of an Orange or Lemon leaf might be inviuiaJ b}* a i 
a dense felt by the intertwining of its filaments, a 
entangle, like a spider's web, any other spores waf 
that a small community of organisms might be ei 
necessarily genetically connected. 

Instead of making artificial cultures, however, 
examined a number of specimens under natural c< 
different parts of this colony, as well as New Sou 
South Australia, carefully noting the forms foui 
tion; and when I find a series of forms regularly 
constituting this " Sooty Mould," no matter wh 
specimens come from, I am led to the conclusion 1 
links in a chain of successive or contemporaneoui 
same fungus. And I am strengthened in this be 
ments made by Zopf* and others on closely allied s] 
studied his plants chiefly in pure cultures an mic 
in nutrient saccharine solutions of various degrees 
tion, and ascertained the agreement of the cultival 
those which occur in nature." 



N. Act. Leop. xl, 187a 




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BT D. MoALPINE. 



471 



already stated I have examined specimens from the three 
9s of Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia 
f the months of July and August. In Victoria I selected 
lens from an orange tree in my own garden at Armadale; 
mother garden at Kew, a suburb of Melbourne; from the 
Horticultural Gardens, Burnley; from a few other gardens; 
om lemon trees grown on a large scale at Doncaster. The 
obtained have been compared with those of South Aus- 
and New South Wales specimens, and there is no doubt 
e same fungus is conmion to all. The chief results will 
3 given from each district separately, to see how far similar 
ire associated together in widely separated districts, 
•e is not only variety in the number of forms met with, 
g with the gonidial and ending with the perithecial stage, 
iO in the different organs, and I have endeavoured to give 
lea of this by representing variations in the characters of 
^-same organs. 

Victorian Specimens. 

'^ster specimens, — Doncaster is situated about 10 miles 
[elboume, where there is a well-known orchard with 23 
lostly imder lemon-trees, and in some situations and on 
trees there was abundance of the "Sooty Mould." The 
ted lemon supplied the material, and as there was a 
variety of reproductive bodies met with than in any of 
er specimens, it will be convenient to begin with it and 
^neral description of the fungus. It occurs on the living 
particularly on the upper surface, but it may also 
DQore or less on the under surface. It is also on the 
!S as well as on the fruit, usually the upper or stem end 
ruits hang down. It forms black soot-like incrustations, 
rvering the entire upper surface of the leaf and peeling off 
«. It is entirely superficial, not penetrating the tissues 
sray, and therefore does not act as a parasite. There are 
i of gradations in the nature and extent of the fungus. 
appear at first just like a sprinkling of dust on the leaf 



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472 



THE SOOTY MOULD OP CITRUS TR 



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(in fact growers do confound it with dust), the] 
grey, peeling off as a thin papery layer, and 
crust, soiling the fingers when rubWd. At 
considerable admixture of dust with the fi]am( 
usually checked in its development. The depi 
evidently largely influenced by the amount 
colourless and coloured hyphae respectively, 1 
usually always present. 

Fungus described. — When examined under t 
seen to consist of a network of filaments anc 
bodies which they bear. These filaments are 
green, and darkly coloured, but there is a grfidi 
the one to the other. The thin- walled ca 
generally form a network in contact with t 
intermix with the thick- walled colonized filam< 
or less colourless may gradually become co 
coloured may produce a colourless portion. T 
loped, however, the colourless and the coloured h 
seen. 

\fycelium, — At an early stage the surface 
numerous more or less colourless hyphje cre€ 
there are two kinds which may be disitingi: 
septate, copiously branched hyphae, in contac 
and intermixing, so that a close-set pavement 
resembling a parenchymatous layer. The wt 
may become gelatinous, and thus not only a 
attach themselves more firmly to the epidermi 
(6) at other times only creeping, colourless or 
are seen, very distantly septate and with their 
as if thereby better able to adhere to the le 
early stage there are abundance of colourlt 
gonidia scattered about, which will be referred 

When further developed the dark coloured 
now there are the two kinds plainly diseeniil 
less colourless hypha? are branched, septate, ft 



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•ngated joints with mottled and usually vacuolated contents. 
Qoniliform hyphae averaged 3f ^ in breadth, and the other, 
I were often of considerable length, 5J ^. Elongated and 
ifonn joints might occur in the same filament, but there 
distinct, delicate, moniliform hyphse and stouter hyphse with 
lied joints. 

> dark coloured hyph» are generally greenish-brown to dark 
[j closely septate, either sparingly or copiously branched, 
walled, bulging joints, often with oblique or longitudinal 
9|-13 fi broad. The filaments often consist of several 
joints, and deeply constricted, so that their connection 
jach other is slight. The branches are very rigid, as may 
m when they are rolling about in a current, and the 
nts anastomose as well as branch. 

roduclice bodies. — There is great variety in the mode of 
uction, and as this forms the distinguishing feature of the 
1 it will be necessary to describe the different kinds with 
ulness. The different forms are so unlike each other that 
rlier mycologists assigned them to different form-genera, 
By are now known to be stages in the life-cycle of the same 
. The highest form or Perilhecium will be described last, 
is will enable us to fix the scientific position of the fungus. 

wonidia. — These are produced in great abundance both by 
•lourless and coloured hypha?, and no doubt contribute 
ally by their germination to weaving a web of hyphje of 
xture. It will be convenient to consider them as produced 
colourless and coloured hyphae. 

rbe gonidia produced by the colourless hyphse at their tips 
ler colourless or pale green, and very ^•aried. Some are in 
orm chains like a Torula^ others spherical or oval and 
■eenish, 7^13 x 3|-7J /*. Some are uniseptate and con- 
l at septa, 11-19 x 5^-11 ^, others biseptate, about 24 x 8 /n. 

ladrate 4-celled body is very common, producing three 
]g filaments, and bearing gonidia. 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITBU8 



(h) The dark coloui'ed kyph^E l>ear gonidi 
or n little paler, and ai'e usually elliptical an 
Are veiy variaWe in size, 7i-lG x r»|-8J;i. Tt 
Ufarm chama like a Torn In ^ ^o that this fot 
tbe transformation of the colour lens and cokn 

It has Ijeen shown by Zopf* that the tm 
dark coloured hyphis? are capable of gemiinat 

(2) Gmnmm.^Vhh is it convenient name 
which detach theni^ielves and reproduce the 
portions of the eoloiired filaments, consisting < 
rounded at the ends, are very cwjmmon. A 
of brawn cella, which germinate and grow, 
name of Toruia^ Pers,, wa*^ applied to the n 
repnxliictive Ix^dieSj ho the genus-name of ( 
was given to the irregular groups of cellj^ cap 
This form-genus would Ije represented hot! 
quaijrat* bodies already referred to and i 
elusters. 

There are ako gi'een mulljerrj-like cluj^iter 
Ciipable of gerniination and are really gomeuii 
belong to the next form. 

Tt will readily be seen that between the T 
ehim forma there i^^ no sharp line of dernareat 
chain a cell may divide in the different dire 
thus pa!^s into the other form. 

The muUiplication of the fungus is so far 
by tnean^ of gonidia, gemmae and detached jc 
evpfi these may pas.s, according to Zopf^ into : 
suiiply of food slowly diminishes* But whili 
multiply abundantly by means ol the alx» 
ailone, there are various other reproductiv*^ I) 
ao that its ra^id apreiui and exteri^iiive dilFu^ 
surprise. 



L,c. p. 13« 




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5) Glomeruli. — I apply this term to pale or dirty green, or 
a brownish capsules, generally more or less spherical or hemi* 
erical, and imbedded in and surrounded by the hyphse. They 
very common, and vary considerably in size from 75 to 470 /a 
iameter. The surface is raised into minute rounded elevations, 
ructure easily accounted for on crushing and examination. 
5' are often arranged in groups or in chains, and then they 
me somewhat polygonal from pressing against each other. 

bese capsules burst readily when ripe, and are found to 
ist of an outer green layer and inner colourless content i, 
outer laj'er is composed of numerous clusters of green cells, 

like a miniature mulberry, and measuring about 22 ^ in 
leter, hence the mammillated appearance of the surface, 
e clusters act like gemmse and reproduce the disease on 
ber Citrus-leaf, according to Penzig* Inside this green shell 
anumerable spherical, hyaline cells, large and small, imbedded 

gelatinous mass. They are either solitary or attached to 
other by slender necks. The contents are turbid, with a 
ively large vacuole, and while the larger are from 12-13 ^ in 
Bter, the smaller are from 5-8 /x in diameter. 
i« has been assigned to the form-genus Heterohotrys, Sacc.^ 
it is also found in connection with the " Sooty Mould " in 

[izigf describes and figures it as a stage in Meliola ptnzigif 
, as a third conidial form, hitherto known as H. paradoxa^ 
It is interesting to observe that it is a different form of it 
ive in Australia, as the following account of the Italian form 
►nzig will show (for the translation of which I am indebted 
'. Gagliardi). He says : — " //. paradoxa, Sacc, appears to 
iked eye as a small black globe, one-third of a millimetre in 
iter, closely imitating the form of a perithecium. In fact, 
we examine this small globe under the microscope, we can 



II 




• Annali di Agricoltura, p. 322, 1887. 
+ L,r. p. 321, and Atlas PI. xxiv. fig. 4. 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITRUS THII 



distinguiMh a parietal and a central part; but the 
solid structure, parenchymatous, aa it consists of i 
coloured glomerules, just like those described as 
fiecond cotiidial form. In the centre of thi^^ ps* 
we find innuuierablo spherical cellules, large, il 
deheat-e walls, and one or two small guttules 
isolated or united by a very narrow ligature. 
glomeruleSj as well as the central cellules, van 
germination, the * morfea ' on another leaf of 
This is rather an economical form of reproduetiv 
capsule itself J as well as its contents, is utilised i 
The Heterolx>trys stage is found Ixjtli in Ital 
with differences in detail, and it is concluaivel; 
frotu the New South Wales specimens, that it is ^ 
colouriess or pale green filaments of the fungui 
hyphfe give rise to several other reproductive I 
generally reeognised as of three kinds — Sperm 
and Perithecia— but when a nundjer of speciraei 
it is not always easy to assign the forms met wil 
categories. In the present instance^ if we coi 
with those of alHed and known species such as C 
num, Mort., there is no difficulty with the peril 
containing Asci, nor with the regular pycnidia a 
stylosporeH or pycnospores; but there is a residu 
cannot, with any show of consistency, be a 
spcrmogonia. And the settlement of the questio 
easier by the fact that one branch of tlie pycni< 
niim may produce spermatia and another Ijran 
There are at least three suthciently distinct kind; 
spores, and although we have not applied the tes 
lays down, that spermatia differ from spores in 
of germination, still the one which approache 
general type of a spermatia -bearing organ will 
such. 



Hor&uer'a PflanzeukrankheiteD, p. SSS, 




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BT D. McALPINE. 



477 



\e of these three will be regarded as a spermogonium and 
)ther two as gonidial receptacles or pycnidia, so that there 
be three forms of pycnidia distinguished — ( 1 ) what may Ije 
i the Antennaria-formy with colourless, oval, unicellular 
s; (2) the Geraio-pycnvlial-fonn^ with colourless, rod-like, 
llular spores ; and (3) the Pycnidial-form proper, with 
red, pluricellular pycnospores. 

Spennojonia. — The so-called spermogonia with spemiatia 
in great abundance along with the other forms. They were 
med by Tulasne, but as no male sexual function has been 
nstrated here, the name is a misnomer, but it may be retained 
istinction' sake. De Bary, however, considers spermatia to 
n-germinating gonidia, and that might serve to distinguish 

J spermogonia are dark coloured bodies, usually green by 
nitted light, oblong, ovate or oval in shape, rounded and 
h at the free end, with irregularly netted surface. They 
in size from 62-190 by 37-77|i. 

3 spermatia are hyaline, rod-like, minute, 4-5^ x 1-1^ /i. 
AnUnnarla, — These are dark green or brownish bodies, 
)le in shape and size, which may be swollen and flask shaped, 
i short neck, or elongated oval or hemispherical, and opening 
ilarly at the apex. The contained spores are quite distinct 
those of any of the other reproductive bodies, and I have 
d the genus-name of Antennaria, which is now generally 
led as a stage in the development of Capnodium, They are 
lUy in clusters, dark green in colour, with decidedly marked 
from 75-122 by 70-112 /i. Sometimes they are about as 
as long. 

I spores are hyaline, oval to ovate, with granular contents 
-5-guttulate, imbedded in mucilage, 5^-6^ x 2J^5 ^, average 
^ Their size, shape and nature of contents distinguish 
from the spermatia. 

Cerato-pycnidia. — I use this name for pale green, greenish- 
to dark brown, often swollen and curved, irregularly 



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THE SOOTY MOtJLB OF CITRUS THSSS^ 




shaped and sometimes branebing pjenidi^ They a 
appearanoa and contents from the two preceding foi 
be very common* 

They are so varied in character that it is difficu] 
them generally, but a specia-l form may be si? 
fig. G^«. It m an e!ongate<l, in-^gularly yhai*ed Uw 
three-fourths of a pale green colour with » tiii| 
and the upper foyrth of a decidedly darker tint. 
funrth is slightly swollen and tapering towanii* tiie i 
a round opening nt the very apex, and eontainti the 

The lower fioriion tapers towartla the ba^e and 1 
Hide t'Owaixls the centre, after wlucb it uarmwa w 
portion. It is euvelopetl by and has tiyphie gmwiiij 
while the upper fourth is bare. The wall is faintlj 
into smalt irrej^ular areas. The aiz*? i^ 240 x 72 
terminal smooth portion is 66 x 56 ^. There 18 no 
of tiistinction between the upper and the lower ^jor 
darker colour i^ conlined to the upper portion. 

Other specimens are common enoug^li, which tu*' 
or curved cylindrical 1 todies, branched or u n brand i* 
swollen at the base, and generally becoming pil 
towards the tip. They may i-eacb a length of 5,10 ^ 
down t-o a breadth k-tween 20-30 /i. Tiie wall is i 
pcised of elongatedj jointed filamenta, an'anged emi 
wpores escape by the opening at the apex, artd nn- 
like, rounded at the ends, minute, iraWJded in a gelat 
4-6J X 1-2 J*, average about 51-6 h 1|-2 ^. It will 
that the spores reaemble spermatia closely, but t! 
dilierent. 

(7) Pijcfiitlia, — Theae are not quite so connnon as \ 
ill the specimens examined by me, but they ai-e plea 
They are generally somewhat tlask-^^haped or lM>ttlr-€ 
bran chef! or unljranehed, dark coloured but ofte 
towaitls the top, witli walk resembling thOie 0f I 
and mouth usually fringed with haira, There Ih 
variety in the shape. It may be ehiiigateil and c 



^ 



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BY D. McALPINE. 



479 



ally tapering towards mouth, or swollen just below the 
ig. It may also be of a bright leek-green or greenish-brown 
k brown. The hairs fringing the mouth are simply tapering 
iuations of the cells of the walls, which are hyaline instead 
ng coloured. The pycnidia are sometimes very long, attain- 
length of 670 fi. 

pycnospores are olive- green, pale yellowish-brown or 
iah. They are also colourless, but probably they pass from 
less to green, then to brown on maturity, like the sporidia. 
ire ovate to oval, or even cylindrical, generally 3- (sometimes 
t-) septate, slightly constricted at the septa, and sometimes 
adinally divided, 15-22 J x 5J-9J /n, average about 19-20 x 

As already noticed, one branch may produce spermatia 
he other pycnospores. I have observed no connection 
?n spermogonia and pycnidia in their contents, but between 
ermatia and the spores of cerato-pycnidia there is a close 
lent. 

Perithecia. — They occur in large numbers at various stages 
elopment, but none were found naturally opened. They 
right and deeply imbedded in the coloured hyphse, so that 
black-looking, rounded, upper portion is only distinctly 
When crushed, the thick tough wall, as seen by trans- 
light, is regularly of a characteristic sea-green or sage- 
X)lour, and with a decided net^like surface. 
f are oblong to oval or variously shaped, smooth in the 
portion, but often with adhering hyphse in the imbedded 
L, and varying in size from 112-250 x 52-112 /x. 
asci are hyaline, cylindrical -clavate in shape, sub-sessile, 
»unded apex, 8- 6- 4-spored, and ranging from 49-81 x 15-20/li. 
lly mature asci average 70-80 x 19-20 /i. 
sporidia when mature are brown, oblong, sometimes a 
laoid, generally obtuse at both ends, constricted about the 
, 5-6-septate, often with longitudinal or oblique septa, 
5d mostly in two ranks, but occasionally in three, and 
ng 21-24 x8f9J^ 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITRU& TfiEEl^ 



The paraphyaes are hyaline, elongated-clavatej usi 
finely granular contentsif same lengtli n^ ascu^ and 
broadeat part. 

The asci and parapliyBes arise alongside of ea^h o 
ehort chains of colourlei^a et^lb* 

Asci were met witli in various stages of developmel 
ep^ridia pa-S3 through diJFerent colonred sftages, Al 
cuntenLs of the a^cu^s are finely granular, aIii»D%t i 
filling the interior and having a rid all oval nucleus u 
centre. Then the differentiation of this homogDn<*oii!8 
cuIoiirle*i.s aporidia takes place. As they ^ow they 
very pale gr€*en tint, and finally Ijecome brown, whil 
longer till the ascua, as the space l^t ween the topmost 
and the outer wall of the ai^eua ma^- be 9^ ^. 

It iH worthy of note that these elmnge^ of eolonr fn 
to ijrefsn and from gj-een to brown in the cowrKe ot dt 
of the gporidia may turn out to be chanujteristii? f*?ati 
genui! CajtttodiHtH. At any rate in the clusely ul 
Mdudm I fountl the gporidia ti:» pa.s8 from hyaline to \ 
from 3^eJlow to bro^Ti;* and in Plaonporii h^r^j^irttni, 
are first hyaline, then yellowisih, aad finally yellowij^h- 

Oidy a few mature sporidia were found, aod »« it 
peritbecia met with had opened t.bf»y are probably n|»e 
later in the aeanon. 

The |>erithecia are the most characteristic of the n 
bodieiS from their containing a3«i. They roowt rm 
^permogonia externally, liut they are larger and lew 
cally shaped. They are ijuite dii^tinet from the py< 
yc?t Dr. Cooke in bij? recent excellent '* IntroductiOD lu 
of Fungi" (L'^B^j has eonfuunded them. H« writ 
genua Oapnadititti. is distinguished by elongated lar^^ 



t On the life-hiitory of Mfitrtmft^riuin paratituum^ l%f»i 
MiyaW, Ann. Bot. iii. Ka. Ix, i%m. 




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3h are often branched, and usually opening at the apex with 
rge fringed orifice. These are seated upon and amongst a 
« subiculum of closely jointed or moniliform black hyphse, so 
:o form large velvety patches, and are possibly, in some 
inces, the more complete developments of mould belonging 
le genus Fumago.^^ The accompanying figure of Capriodium 
faUimy B. <fe D., with the spores leaves no doubt as to the 
ddium being meant. The pycnospores have a certain resem- 
ce to the sporidia, but the latter have more septa, and of 
se are contained in asci (figs. 1-12). 

rmadule SiTeciniens. — Abundant examples were met with in 
own garden, but only immature forms of perithecia were 
d. One side of the solitary orange- tree was decidedly less 
:ked than the other, and it was the most exposed and that 
:h received most of the sun, the sheltered side receiving less 
le sun being by far the worst. 

>lourle8s and coloured hyphse similar to the preceding were 
with, and gonidia, gemmae, glomeruli and antennaria forms. 
i/Cfriium and Gonidia. — On the surface of a leaf only slightly 
;ked, numerous colourless to pale green creeping hyphse were 
d, very irregular in outline, with very few^ septa and averaging 

in diameter. Also numerous similarly coloured, oval to 
tic, continuous or unis^ptate, and slightly constricted gonidia. 

colourless hyphae were generally branched, septate, thin- 
»d, and either with elongated or moniliform joints, and the 
lia were continuous, uni- or bi-septate. The dark coloured 
ae were generally closely septate and constricted at septa, 
ched, thick-walled, and stouter than the colourless. The 
lia were usually uniseptate or in moniliform chains. 
mm(f. — The colourless and dark brown clusters of cells were 
with germinating, also the mulberry-like clusters of green 

fjnieruli. — These were in great abundance, and showed the 
I clusters of cells composing the wall, and the large and 
colourless cells inside imbedded in mucilage, and often 
?cted by an isthmus. 



V', 




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482 



THE SOOTY MOULD OP CtTSCS TRS] 



Antennariorforms. — These were associated wil 
and seemed to be the most plentiful of all. Tlie 
in clusters among the hyphse and emitted the co 
great abundance, which remained in masses aroiii 
opening mouth. 

No pycnidia were met with, although careful 
a large number of leaves. 

Perithecia. — Only immature forms were ftninc 
and at different stages of developmtiit* The 
(fig. 21) was of fair size (150xll2/i) dark colo 
shape. On pressure the net-like ai-eas of the 
distinct, and by transmitted light were either s( 
green or brownish. It contained nuineruus oi 
few asci with paraphyses. The immature asei 
narrower than the average (39 x 9^ ^a) and sliowi 
colourless contents within an inner envelope, ; 
small oval spot towards the centre. In some c^-vs 
contents had begun, and probably there were boi 
of perithecia, but I did not happen to come n 
13-21). 

Kew Specimens. — The specimens from Kew d 
advanced stages. There were colourless to p^i 
bearing their unicellular or bicellular or sijnple j 
with Torula-like chains and the quadrate genu 
of these latter bodies was very clearly seen. A 
germinate and produce hyphae in one or more 
might divide into two and ultimately into four, 
rise to a filament, but usually one stopped ahoi 
were three radiating filaments. 

There were also greenish-brown to brown h^ 
gonidia and gemmie and detached joints. Bometi 
hyphae passed into colourless portions. The gloii 
were also met with, and these, together with the ( 
were very characteristic (figs. 22-25). 

Burnley Specimens, — The specimens from the 
tural Gardens, about three miles from Melbou] 



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BT D. MoALPINE. 



483 



inary colourless and coloured hyphse, together with glomeruli, 
I pycnidia (principally pycnidia), were in great abundance, 
I seemed to be the prevailing form. There were also immature 
lis of perithecia, but not as yet in great quantity. The 
nidia varied in colour from leek-green when unopened to 
lowish-brown when opened, and the specimen figured (fig. 28) 
\ 526 X 122 /*, The pycnospores were generally pale green in 
wir, but sometimes brownish, and the average size was 19 x 8fi. 
i. 26-30). 

^iher Victorian Specimens. — A few other specimens were 
lined from Brighton and Elstemwick, suburbs of Melbourne. 
Tie Brighton specimens were particularly rich in cerato- 
oidia and the antennaria (figs. 31-35), while the Elstemwick 
limens showed abundance of pycnidia (figs. 36-37). 

South Australian Specimen. 

Ji orange-leaf was forwarded by Mr. Quinn, Inspector under 

Vine and Fruit Diseases Act, with the " Sooty Mould " upon 

lut not very largely developed. 

here were the colourless and coloured hyphse, gonidia and 

nue and abundance of glomeruli. The colourless hyphae 

J septate, branched, with moniliform or elongated joints, and 

aging 3^-4^ fi broad. 

he brown hyphae were septate, sparingly branched, and varied 

readth from 4J-7J/A. 

le gonidia were similarly coloured and usually simple. 

le gemmae were either clusters of dark brown cells or the 

1 mulberry masses derived from the glomerules. None of 

colourless quadrate bodies were met with. 

le glomeruli were usually of a yellowish-green to pale green 

ir, and either isolated or in group. 

le presence of brown gemmae and glomeruli was the pre- 

nating feature (figs 38-39). 

New South Wales Specimens. 

e specimens sent through the courtesy of Mr. Maiden, Govt. 
nist, from trees in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, were badly 



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484 



THE SOOTY MOULD OF ClTRtTS Tara% 



infested with scale* but very little of the "aooty mc 
was also upon the scale a considerable quantity 
fungus knoTvn as Mkmc^Tfi coccophila^ Deam, 

In some cases on the upper surface of the le^ th* 
thin stratum of a mud colour, of just sufficient e 
hold together when peeled off, hut no more* It ^ 
largely corapoaed of fine dust, and scattered over 
dark punctiform bodies, ver}' variable in size when loc 
magrLifying glas8. 

Under the microscope it waa seen bo consiiit of i 
colourless hyplue, and numbers of the spherical c 
shaped bodies wt? have a I really called glomeruli. 

There were very few traces of the greeniih-l 
developed, as the dust had evidently kept the fungu 

The colourlct^s or very pale green hypha* were cl 
copiously branched and densely crowded so as to for 
of cells. The liyphm were either monOlfonn oi 
or shorter jojnt^, and l>ore various gonidia. Tliu 
the hypha^ varied considerably, but the broadest wau 
and narrowest about \ ^. 

The glonieriili were exceedingly numerous, acj* 
clum[m, and were yellovrish-green t-o pallid or es 
They varied considerably in shape fi-om spherical Ui 
or ovat, and in ^ixe some measuring 250 ^ or \ rnm. 
The Diult^rry-like green cluatern and the contents w 
those already described, 

No other reprorluctive bodies were found. 

Even in cases where to the naked eye there is n 
patch of dust on the leaf, there are the colourle^ hj 
a close network of ceils, and their gelatinous coatir 
dust to adhere. 

As the result of the ejcamination of a large numbei 
I find that the colourless filaments are the em 
liranching m%d int^^rtmning iso a.H to farm a cloiie U^m 
to the aurfjice of tlie leaf. 



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485 



md of the special reproductive bodies, the glomeruli originate 
Q the colourless hyphae, appearing in abundance when no other 
)resent. Even when the brown filaments are formed, the 
oeruli are seen to be surrounded and not produced by them» 
hey leave a perfect cavity among the filaments, with the clear 
»urless layer at its base. 

he remaining reproductive bodies are formed from the 
ured hyphae, and apparently appear in the following order 
n not developed simultaneously : — spermogonia, antennaria, 
kto-pycnidia, pycnidia and perithecia. 

his specimen served a very useful purpose in determining the 
in of the coloured from the colourless hyphae. At first 
ling was observed but colourless hyph?B and numerous 
leruli, and from the constancy of this appearance I was 
ined to the opinion that the colourless hyphao with their 
odactive bodies formed an independent fungus, afterwards 
laid by another fungus. But on further search, I found 
ared hyphae arising from the continuation of the colourless 
MB, and thus the connection was established (figs. 40-44). 
eneral development of aporidia. — Taking an ascus in the young 
lition and when only about half the size of the adult form, it 
»and to be filled with finely granular protoplasm, only the 
t stalk being without it, and there is a minute, slightly oval 
lary nucleus in the centre (fig. 21). 

Tien further grown the protoplasm recedes from the top, 
loped in its own membrane, and gradually gets further and 
ier away, until in the mature form it may be 9 /* from the 
>f the ascus. It divides meanwhile into the sporidia, which 
acquire a distinct outline and a few septa. There is usually 
rhtly knobbed pedicel projecting from the top of the topmost 
diam when immature, apparently indicating a contracted 
on of the protoplasmic membrane (fig. 12). 
le contents of the at first colourless sporidia soon change 
a pale green, increase in size and develop more septa (fig. 10). 
\\A colour next changes to greenish-brown and finally a decided 
l>rown like the mycelium, which is the mature form (fig. 12). 
33 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF 1 ITRUS TRI 



Alongside of each other in the siirae peritl 
different coloured stages may be ^een, but the 
individual ascus are all of the same ciilour. 

When treated with potassium ir>dide-iwline 
the colourless sporidia immediately assumed a 
canary-yellow tint, but the rest of the ascus n 
hyaline, showing that the epiplasm or glyeogen-ii 
as in Discomycetes, which gives a reddish- or \iol' 
The green and the brown coloured ?^poriiliii t\< 
this reagent. The contents of the paraph yses ^ 
bright canary-yellow, suggestive of their beinj^ s 
The number of sporidia in each amicus is typical 
6 were also met with. 

Characteristic Distinctions of the Speciai 

Bodies, 

1. Glomeruli. — They are generally of a dirty 
may be pallid or grepsh, or even brownish, apjn 
of dust, &c., and are more or less splierii^al or 
shape. They always originate from tlie cohuir 
hyphje, and are the first-formed of the sj»ecial re 
The covering is composed of clusters of iiuillxr 
and some of the hyaline cells in the interior a 
each other by narrow joints. They vary coi 
reaching nearly ^ mm. in diameter, and their \ 
and contents readily distinguish them from oth 

2. Spermogonia. — The spermogonia reserab 
antennaria in appearance, but ditTer in con 
resemble the cerato-pycnidia in contints, but di 
They vary considerably in shape and size, an< 
distinguish them from the smaller ftjrnis of ct 
the latter are usually elongated and slender, a 
regular cells composing wall, while the fonm 
surface. 

The spermatia so closely resemble eerato pyc 
cannot be distinguished from each other. 



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. Aritennaria. — The spores here are the characteristic feature, 
yare simple, oval to ovate, with granular contents, and usually 
ittulate, so that they are distinct from any of the others. The 
sules are too variable in shape and size to be relied on for 
inction, and they have a net-like surface like the preceding 
Q, but they are often borne laterally on a filament. 
. Ceralo-pycnidia. — When fully developed they are distin- 
ihed from the preceding forms by being very much elongated 

often branched, and the regular pattern of their walls; and 
n the pycnidia proper by the naked, round or oval mouth- 
aing, but mainly by their contents. The simple, hyaline, rod- 
minute spores distinguish the two forms at once. 
. Pycnidia. — The pycnidia proper, as already indicated, are 
inguished by their usually fringed mouth opening and the 
ured tri-septate pycnospores. 

Perithecia. — The perithecia are distinguished from all the 
srs by containing asci accompanied by paraphyses. They 
^times closely resemble spermogonia, although I was generally 
to distinguish them by their sea-green or sage-green colour. 
?ever, with the exception of the glomeruli, the various repro- 
ive bodies are so variable in size, shape and colour, that the 
ire of the contents must always be relied upon for final 
rmination. 

ynnection vnth scale or other insects. — Tt is generally believed 
this fungus is a saprophyte, since it does not penetrate the 
in any way, and consequently does not extract nourishment 

it. It must live at the expense of something else, and this 
pposed to be the honey-dew secreted by certain insects, and 
riated with which it is invariably found. As a matter of fact 
re never found "Sooty Mould" without the accompaniment of 
insects, and they secrete a sweet fluid known as honey-dew. 
:ell, in his work on New Zealand Scale Insects, writes : — 
many cases they exude, in the form of minute globules, a 
sh, thick, gummy secretion, answering probably to the 
^y-de-w ' of the Aphididae. This secretion drops from them 
> the plant, and from it grows a black fungus, which soon 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITRUS TEE 



gives an unsightly appearance to the plant, 
'smut' is an almas t invariable indicatign that a 
by insects, and may, indeed, give a useful i 
growers." The occurrence of the fungus on the 
the leaf may be variously accounted for. The 
most readily moistened; the rain and dew ai'e lon^ 
channel over the midrib at the tip. Bat tiie mail] 
is that the honey-dew is dropped there by the < 
found on the under surface of the leaves. Ii 
honey-dew the fungus might grow on the accu 
excreta of insects, &c., but the general rule is 
follows in the wake of insects, and to get rid of t 
also get rid of the other. 

Since writing the above I have received a nu 
Tepper, F.L.S., Adelaide, in which be showK ho\i 
of honey-eating birds may affect the prevalencf 
He says : — " Regarding the * Sooty Mould ' an 
now in many localities, it may be mentioned tb 
have been practically absent, when nature was 
by man, and for a very simple reason. It Ijeing € 
exudations of scale insects, &c., coating tlie tree 
depends upon that of its producers, and this uj 
of the sugar-loving, brush-tongued parakeets 
which formerly abounded so greatly. These I h* 
myself busy in the earfy niornivg among the foil 
upon which the honey-dew appeared. Later in 
occupied these in overwhelming DumberSj and 
away, protecting the insects and cleaning the £ol 
* " Now many plants have developed :^piecial c 
the ants as protectors against birds and animals 
foliage, flowers or unripe fruit, and though lender 
plants by reducing superfluous quantities of eit 
thus the greatest perfection of that remaining 
other insect life), the birds constantly tend to os 
certain critical periods. As our Kuealvpt^s A-c , 
duced plants have no such organs, they make i 





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BY D. McALPINE. 



489 



Aides, (kc., to secure indirectly the protective services of the 
its, wherever there were birds, &c., available to keep the former 
ider control within safe limits. Therefore the reduction of the 
rds, (fee, by man, stimulated the limitless increase of the scales, 
hides, psyllids, aleurodids, &c., and at the same time also the 
mbers of the ants, which helped to clean away the exudations 
those of their pets left by the birds, &c., were greatly diminished, 
aice excess of honey-dew insects and of their produce, which is 
rurally availed of by the low fungoid germ which, under normal 
ditions, had to be satisfied with the 'crumbs' left by the higher 
nte" 

liere is here a somewhat complex relation between the different 
ns of life used by the plant for protective purposes, and if one 
he checks is withdrawn or diminished, the balance is disturbed 
disorder ensues. 

The Scale or other insects are used indirectly to attract the 

by their sweet secretions. 

The Ants like a standing army protect the foliage against 
ittacks of leaf-eating animals. 

The abundance of honey-eating Birds is necessary to keep 

cale or other insects within reasonable bounds. 

The reduction of these birds by man tends to favour the 

ase of the scale insects and their produce 

The scale and other insects now get the upper hand, and the 

protecting the insects also favour their increase. 

The consequence is superabundance of honey-dew, and this 

en arlvantage of by the germs of the fungus to spread and 

ply. 

13 the destruction of the honey-eating birds has brought 

an increase of the honey-dew and of the " Sooty Mould " 

lives upon it, so that it is not only insectivorous birds 
ought to be protected for the benefit of the grower. 
9 interesting to observe the appearance of other checks to 
read of the scale or other insects. Here there are two 
*:ic fungi found respectively on the red and the white orange 
Microcera coccophitay Desm., and M. rectispora, Cooke. In 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITRUS TBS»|^ 



Floritla A»theri&m\.ia iokit^mim^ Mont, has been f<M 
nnd destroyuig the larvaj and pupn? of the ** ' 
{Aieyrodf^ii eUi% 11. and H.), and bids fair to Im? ai 
combating the pest This latter fungus has alfio ) 
in Queeni^land on the folLag© of a large climljer, hi 
is mad« of itfi conne<.^tion ^"ith scale or other insert* 

E£ecf OH tree4 -^This fungus does not produce 
injury to the tree at firsts mi when the ** sooty mi>ul 
frum a, leaf the i^nrface heneath is often as gn^n a 
healthy one. The injury h rather of a mechamc;* 
combined with the sscalo inRect^s sucking the juices 
there is of ben considerable damage done. The f un^u 
with the process of a-sBimilation, by preventing the 
and the escape of watery vapour and other gtisfi 
thisi will hinder the growth of the tree and aSeot \ 
of bloom and of fruit. The leaves are le^s able 
eiTeett^ of druught or other unfavourable conditio 
yijung fruit is attacked by it its development is hi 
jl^eneraUy remains^ insipid. 

TreaifttenL — It will he ©lident froiii the preec 
that the only sensible treatoient will be to get ri< 
provider; and whatever inspect provides the pabulum 
to flourish on, should be dealt witk Mr. French, tli 
Entomologist of Victoria, informs me thut tlie [ 
insects attacking the Citrus leaves infected by '*soo 
the re<l scale of the orange {i4*/;i'(//o^ii* cocf^itiiu^^ Uej 
black HdhlB (Licfj^nium oi^tBj Bernard), and for thttsa 
he recommends is the kerosene emulsion or rc^ii 
pamphlet ii^sued t.hi>i year hy the 1^.8. Department i 
on "The principal diseases of Citrons fruits iji Fl 
T. Swingle and H, J. Webljer, spmying with } 
fumigation with hydrocyanie acid is said to Imi ver^ 

In the course of this in^'estigation I found a fnnf^ 
the scale insects on leaves with "sooty mould" 
This fungus, already known in Euroiie and hitb 
with in Queensland, might become a useful ally fji 



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BY D. MoALPINE. 



491 



and 80 I have written a short paper upon this 

( Vide Appendix, p. 498.) 
ielf might be directly treated, but the only sure 
of the cause of the trouble, viz., the insects. 
is the formula recommended for the resin wash : — 

20 lbs. 

tic- soda (98%) ... 4^ „ 

oil (crude) ... ... 3 pints 

Br to make ... ... 15 gallons. 

: preparation, and when required for use one part 
)d is added to nine parts of water. 

Scientific Description. 
UM ciTRicoLUM, n.sp. — Citius Capnodium. 

k soot^like incrustations, peeling off as a thin 
covering entire surface of leaf. Colourless or 
lise creeping, copiously branched, septate, up to 
itertwining and forming a pavement of cells, 
cending, short, simple, septate branches, bearing 
le green gonidia, continuous, uni- or bi- septate, 
' elliptical, slightly constricted, smaller 7i-9^ x 4- 
4 X 5^-11 /*; or in moniliform chains, 
ise greenish-brown to dark brown, closely septate, 
ly constricted, sparingly or copiously branched, 
road, bearing similarly coloured gonidia, usually 
tate, 7^-16 x 5J-8^ fx. 

iermixed with spermogonia, antennaria, cerato- 
cnidia, sea-green to sage-green appearing black, 
)r variously shaped, rounded and smooth at free 
:e surface, 112-250 x 52-1 12;x. 
eal-clavate; sub-sessile, apex rounded, 8- 6- or 
c 19-20 fi. 

rn, oblong, sometimes a little fusoid, generally 
ends, constricted about the middle, 5-6- septate, 
tudinal or oblique septa, arranged mostly in two 
anally in three, averaging 21-24 x 8J-9J /x. 



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THE SOOTY MOULD OF CITBUS TRl 




Piiraphysies hyaline or finely granular, eloi 
long as asci and 9J ^ broad towards apex, 

Torula-, Coniothecium-, and Ileterobotrya-sta^ 

On living leaves of orange and lemon, part 
surface, also on branches and fruit; all the year 
New 8outh Walea, South Au^^traha, Queenslan< 

There has been a considerable difference, a 
say change of opinion, as to the true nature and 
of the fungus causing the " sooty mould '' on ( 
bably it is due to different fungi in different 
far AS I have examined specimens in Australia 
be referable t<:i the same fungus. Now whai 
Having obtained the various stages of it and 
highest or peri thee ial stage, there is plenty of m 
to a definite conclusion, 

Meliola penugiy Sacc, is now recognised as tli 
mould " in Europe and America, but the globu] 
the hyaline to brown sporidia 11-12 x 4-5 /a, disi 

Meliola ciirij Sacc, causes the disease known 
di cenere," on account of the ashy-grey crust J 
apart from that, the bay-brown perithecia and 
do not agree with this one. 

Meliola cameUitiSf Sacc, has also been fotmd 
branches of Citrus trees, but the absence of para 
it at once. 

CapnodiHtn citn\ Berk,, and Deam., has bei 
I>r. Cooke as being found on Citrus leaves in Yi 
no asci and no agcoaporea to guide him in 1 
The published descriptions are so meagre, in i 
most important reproductive organs, that it is ra 
distinctive characters for this species. The oi 
by Berkeley and Desmazieres* mentions the 
elongated, mostly acuminata, conicAl or lagi 



* Jomrn, Hort Soc Vol. iv. p. 252 {U 




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BY D. McALPINE. 



493 



ainute, oblong. Then Thuemen* speaks of the 
th net-like surface and oblong, very small, bright 
»tate spores escaping by a pretty large opening at 
3xt, Saccardot describes the perithecia as elongated, 
I mm. high, and spermatia as 7 /x long. As no asci 
t is doubtful if the bodies referred to were really 
it the 2-3-septate sporidia of Thuemen are very 

the 5-6-septate sporidia of the present form. 

salicinum, Mont., has been determined by Farlow 
es in America, and there is considerable resemblance 
bs, but the asci and sporidia show marked distinc- 
sici measure 40-45 x 24 /x, while here they are on a,p 

X 19-20 fXf or nearly double the length. Then the 
spond well in size in both cases, but instead of being 
e, they are 5-6-8eptate. 

Eilthough the " sooty mould " is so common in Aus- 
ir Citrus fruits are cultivated, it has not yet been 
letermined, and I propose naming it Capnodium 



sm. — Polymorphism literally means many forms, 
nee to the various forms assumed by fungi, especially 
iuctive bodies, in the course of their development. 
\e of form may be accompanied by a change of host, 
stinguished as heteroecism, or there may even be a 
le host, and then it is termed lipoxeny. The change 
red to here occurs consecutively or simultaneously 
adividual, and all the changes were found even on 
n of the same leaf. 

3nt instance there are two different kinds of hyphje 
le thin- walled, colourless or slightly coloured hyphse; 
walled, distinctly coloured hyph« — and each has its 
:ive bodies. 



• Die Pilze— Fungi pomicoli, p. 53 (1885). 
t Syll. Fling. I. p. 78(1882). 



1 



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THE aOOTr UOULD OF CITRUSJ TRKES, 



The colourlesH hyphre produce gonidia^ gemra^ am 
and the coloured hyphne produce gonidm, gemmae ar 
reproductive bodies kuowa a.3 spermogouist, pycaic 

Detaclied portions of the hyphre in both are abl« 
the fungus, but that need not be specially consider©* 

The starting point is with the colourless bypi' 
gonidia^ gemmaB and glome rtiles; and the iioal stag 
coloured hypha? pn^ducing perithecia. The various 
Indies of both the colourless and the coloured hyph 
respectively m close contiguity, leaving nr doubi 
genetic coanection, and the real point at is^sue i% d«: 
hyphae grow out of the colourless, or is it simply a a 
tion i Fortunately, in the apecimeiis^ from New Sou 
hyphie were nearly all colourless or pale green, an 
very occasionally that a brownish filament was f^eei 
in some iustancesj the pale green or c^^lourless f undai 
with projecting colourles.<4 filamenta was observed 
pass into a pale brown shade, and from these cells 
and comparatively thick -walled hyphie arose. So th 
less hyphffi may pass into the coloured, and sinci 
reproductive iKxlias may arise from the same or adj 
there is genetic connection and not mei-el j assoeiatic 
the different stages of this fungus. The forms ^i^ 
different reproductive bodies are very varied url 
general description, so that I have drawn a m 
different shapes in order to give st>me idea of t 
wealth of variety occurring among them. Btisidei 
specially examined this fungus during the winter £ 
remains to be seen what are the pe^vailtnj,' forms at 
of the year. I hope to examine it monthly j as it ci 
ad the year round, but at present at lewat seven si 
ductive phases in the development-cycle of thi 
known — (1) Gonidial and gemmal stage ; (2) Gl< 
{fIel6robotri/4}; (3) Bpermogonial sta^; (4) An ten 




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BY D. McALPINE. 495 

lidial stage; (6) Pycnidial stage; and (7) Peritliecial 

,nks are due to all those who kindly aopplied me 
; for this investigation, viz.: — Messrt^. CaiT^on, Kew; 
wick; Maiden, Sydney; Neilson, Burnley; Quinn, 
ler, Brighton; and Williams, Doncaster, 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 
>re magnified 1000 diameters unless otherwise indicated. ) 

cm., pros. 1 a-b ; fig. 2 ; figs. 3 a-g ; Ft&9. 4 ad. 

8pecimeTi8 — 

less hyphaB and gooidia. 

less quadrate gemma with three radiating hyphn; and 

ring gonidia. 

ed hyphse, moniliform and otherwise, heariog gonidia (fig. 

)40). 

PE XXIV., FIGS. 4 e-g ; figs. 5 a-c ; figs. 6 a-o. 

ogonia with spermatia and pattern of walL (tig. a x 540 ; 

, 6 and «x 145; fig. /x 540). 

[laria-form with spores and pattern of wall (fig. a x 270). 

Plate xxv., figs. 6 p-r ; pigs. 7 a A. 

IS forms of cerato-pycnidia with spores ; the origin is showTi 
wo instances from basal cells (fig. a x -270 ; fig. c x 540 ; 
e X 540 ; figs. gr-A x 270 ; figs, i-m x 145 ; fig. n x 270 \ fig. 
146 ; fig. p X 145 ; fig. 5 x 270). 

is forms of pycnidia, showing in some cases fringed opening 
I. a-d and /-A x 145 ; fig. c x 270). 

Plate xxvi., fig. 8 ; figs. 9 ag. 

IS forms of pycnospores— mature and immature ; two 

urless forms at upper right-hand witli finely gratmlar 

^nts. 

is forms of perithecia, some of them just peeping out from 

8 of hyphae ; and pattern of wall (figs, ti, c, /, and g x 540 ; 

6 X 270 ; figs, d and t x 145). 





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THB 800T7 MOULD OF CITRUS TRX£S, 



mm 



m\ 





Plate xxvii., figs. 10 a-d : rtfin. 1 1 ah ; figs. 1 

Fig. 10. — Asci with paraphyses, one with ha&al cell to left 

Fig. 11.— Two sporidia detached. 

Fig. 12. — Asoi nontaining 4-8 sporidin ; the jir^t cont« 
sporidia, the next two pale green Bporidiji, &n 
were brown and mature, only tlie last one al 
colourless ; paraphysie (fig. /) aleo shown. 

Plate xxviii., figs, 13 a-p. 

Armndale sjyecimena — 
Fig. 13. — Colourless hyph» showing their varied forms, 
gonidia, continuous or I- to 2-Beptate (figs, d i 

Plate xxix., figs. 14 a-h; figs. 15 am ; fig. 16 ; Fiaa. 17 a^ 

Fig. 14. — Quadrate colourless gemmae (tig. h x 540). 

Fig. 16. — Various forms of coloured hyphna and gonidm {fig 

Fig. 16. — Qreenisli-brown cluster of ceUa germinating. 

Fig. 17. — Mulberry -like gemms. 

Fig. 18. — Spores isolated and connected, large and tmall, 

Plate xxx., figs. 19 al; fio. 20 j Ffos. 21 ac : fig 

Fig. 19. — Antennaria-forms with S]>ore8 and portion of d€ 

a-d X 540 ; figs, e-i and k x 270). 
Fig. 20.— Immature form of anteunana ( x 540). 
Fig. 21. -Immature perithecium (fig. a k 145) and asci, ah 

latter from chain of colourless cells. 

Keuj ftpecimens — 
Fig. 22. —Colourless hyphse and gonidia. 

Plate xxxl, fig. 23 (ten figures); Fro. 24 {nin 6gnres) ; fh 
26 ; figs. 27 a-c ; figs. 28 a -6; fig3. 29 ah; fig. 30 ; j 

Fig. 23. — Quadrate gemmae with triradi^te hyphie shown t< 

a single cell. 
Fig. 24. — Brown hyphss and gonidia. 
Fig. 25. —Glomerulus (fig. a x 270) and spores. 

Burnley specimens — 
Fig. 26.— Quadrate colourless gemmie ( x270). 
Fig. 27. — Pycnidia and pycnospores (fig. a x 52 ; fig, 6 x 97 
Fig. 28. — Pycnidium ( x 145) and pycnospores more eulargt 



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BY D. McALPINE. 



497 



of pycnidium formed of elongated, filamentous cellB (fig. a 

ir the top ; fig. b lower down). 

I filaments of walls passing into colourless fringe at mouth. 

gpecimens — 

rate gemm» ( x 540). 

:ii., nos. 32 a-h; fios. 33 a-g ; fig. 34 ; figb. 35 a-b, 

inaria ( x 145) and spores. 

o-pycnidia and spores (figs, a, b, dy and e x 145 ; figs, c, /, 

1^x270). 

o-pycnidium conical and bullet-shaped ( x 540). 

[ated jointed filaments composing wall of cerato-pycnidium, 

netimes long and slender, sometimes short and stout. 

ck specimens — 

rate gemma ( x 540). 

r portion of pycnidium and pycnospores ( x 540). 

\stralian apecimena — 

brown gemms (figs, b and c x 540). 

sruli ( X 145). 

lU., FIGS. 40 a-d ; fig. 41 ; figs. 42 tx-b ; figs. 43 a-b. 

lA Wales specimens — 

hing and gonidia-bearing colourless hyphae. 

rless and coloured cells and hyphse. The colourless 

idually pass into the pale brown towards the right, and 

Kluce thick-walled hyphse, shown darker in colour. 

-ate gemmse ( x 540). 

eruli, in chains and in groups (Rg. ax 145 ; fig. 5 x 52). 

B XXXIV. (upper division of Plate), figs. 44 a-h, 
aes of various isolated glomeruli (fig. g x 145). 

allowing are the magnifications assigned to Zeiss's Oculars 

Oc. 2. Obj. A = 52. 
., 4. „ A = 97. 
„ 2. „ C=145. 
„ 4. „ C=270. 
„ 2. „ F=540. 
„ 4. „ F=1000. 




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498 THE SOOTY MOULD OP CITRU8 T 

APPENDIX, 

I ^ MicROCERA coccoPHiLA, Desm.— Cocciig-loi 

(Plate XXXIV., lower division of '. 




Minute, deep brick-red tubercles, rounded 
disc-like on surface, usually in small groups, v 
eye, hard and homy when dry, with short st€M 

Hyphse at base of gonidiophores hyaline, a 
pacted, 3-4 fi broad. 

Gonidiophores tufted, filiform, elongated (at J 
sometimes slightly constricted at septa, rose-; 
finely granular, and often vacuolated contents 

Gonidia same colour as gonidiophores to hj 

gated, usually blunter at free end than at tact 

granular, nucleated contents, variously septat 

^ . 8-septate, average 5-6, size from tip to tip of ci 

length 75-103 x 5][-8J fu 

jHIt Parasitic on Red Scale of Orange and 8h 

I coccineuSf Grennsid.). July, August, Jtc Botan 

t 9 New South Wales (Maiden). 

1 In the original description the gonidiophon 

j thick and the gonidia as hyaline, acute at ei 

and 4-5 fi broad. This European species has 
found in Queensland, where F. M. Bailey, th( 
observed it on a Coccus infesting the Lemo 
refers to it in his "Report on Insect and Fun; 
the natural enemies of the Red Orange Seal 
the Government Entomologist here, in his ''Hi 
tive Insects," calls special attention to it as a 
keeping down the Red Scale, and possibly ^ 



I 



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BY D. McALPINE. 



499 



ot been met with in Victoria, but I hope to test its 
Orange Scale shortly, 

allied to Fusariuniy but the small tubercles differ 
i^ed to be a conidial condition of Sphaeroatilbe, 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 
Microcera coccophUa, Desm. 

iophores and gonidia ( x 527). 
ia with from 3-8 septa ( x 1000). 







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NDTltS AND EXHIBITS. 




Mr, Henn exhibited a collection of 43 specifi 
tht.^ Fainily R urn* idm, collei^teil by himself in P*M 
toUowing^ which are found also in Tasmania, are i 
time re corf led from Port Jackson : — Rtsmina f*l 
ti. /htdia^ Petterd; E. spiraia, Sawerby; E eU 
EUaaia cydodom^^ Ten. -Woods; E. Mmcaogit 1 
FHt^rdt^ Braseier {—pukk^Ua, Petterd). No 1^ 
speciei^ ai-e apparently new; and Mr. Henn pn 
de&ling with them &t a fQtui*e date, after he had 
witli the Rjisagiidie of the neighbuuring eolai 
exhibited specimens of ^f^^ifer Lmlderm, Petteri: 
cymhalum, Q, and G., found by Mrs. Hean ai 
OeUber, \%{y^\ TiirhmiiU^^.rubmc^i^^^^Xw, OrmM 
Woiwls; and ZHdurm 'Pasmamcn, Ten. -Woods, fa 
in i^hell «and at Middle Harbour, all previously t 
Ne\ir BoEth W^le^, 

Mr. Efl.i?ar R. Waite contributed the following 

Mr. Old field Thomaa ( BriL Mils. Cat of Marsupid 

the northern range of the Platypus (Orn'thQrAtfi 
as '^southwards uf 18° S. lab.," and quite rec 
Eft Id win Spencer [Horn Expedition Report, Si 
writes of the *' absence of Platypus in the I 
eA'ideuces thb as agisting the conclusion IliAl 
Monotreine fauna enteretl Australia fn>ni tlie aoq 

Wliile agreeing with Prof Spencser^a inferenceji, 
ti* point out that the; northern rang« of the P 
extensive tlian lias hitherto been Ijelieved. 

Some little time ago, on thin questioTi being raj 
acid reigned to one of the Austrahan weekly tu» 
Bulletin "), and several replies were received. \1 



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NOTKS AND EXHIBITS. 



501 



detail habitats further north than has been pre- 
d, others give occurrences within the latitude 
►ut at the same time supply localities whence the 
ot previously known. Such letters, together with 
vately received, are therefore also reproduced, and 
1, within brackets, the latitude of the localities 

of Trinity Bay (16" 45' S.) is the most northern 
[ have record, and is supplied by two independent 
as follows : — 
are plenty of Platypi along from Mareeba to 

Barron River, which runs into Trinity Bay north 
isprint for 17 th] parallel. There's even a creek 
typus Creek.— i2. IF.//., CaiV^s." 
atypus certainly lives a long way north of the 
ricom. Years ago they were plentiful in the 

S.) just above the falls, and I believe they can 
along the North Queensland coast. I have seen 
le Herbert (18^ 33' S.) and Burdekin (19° 45' S.) 
utaries, but mostly above the range. On one 
)ne killed in Gowrie Creek, Lower Herbert Dis- 
ligators [Crocodilus porosus] are quite plentiful. 

liabitats are given below, which although further 
Barron River, are yet a long way north of the 
One of these observations (No. 3) is peculiarly 
t extends the range into the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
much further west (140" 56' E.) than any previous 
)rthern Australia, and is thus the most north- 
i at present known. 

nyself shot Platypi at Herberton (17° 25' S ), and 
Walcott, of Tenterfield, who has two Platypi shot 
e Norman River, Normanton (17" 28' S., 140" 56' 
rmanton is no further north than Herberton, the 
low that the Platypus is to be found over a larger 
•to believed. — Medicus, Drake^ N.S, ir." 




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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 







(4) Mr. W. W. Froggatt informs me that he 
Platypus on the Wild River (17' 45' S.). 

I am indebted to Mr. Ernest Favenc for tlie 1 

(5) " The highest point north, in Queensland, 
the Platypus is on the head of the Broken Rive 
rather a main tributary, of the Boweii River. 
Broken River is amongst the high ranges at 
Mackay, and up there the river is i>crmn.ner 
descends through a succession of gorges to the ] 
is sandy. The country is peculiar in every way, ai 
Southern Queensland than it does the general n 
about there. The latitude is about 21 S. Then 
up there, but plenty in the Bowen River/' 

The following letter supplies localities whjc 
within the known area of distribution, are defin 
worthy of record : — 

(6) " Quite recently a son of Mr. John McF 
wood, killed a Platypus in Melaleuca Creek, wh 
to exist in numbers. Melaleuca Creek (23° 34' 
Fitzroy about 20 miles from where the Plat 
There are no alligators, so far as I am auare, iti 
they are fairly plentiful in the Fitzroy. The 1 
is due west of Rockhampton. — J.T.SJL^ Ri^rkhi 

The known range of the Platypus, in time, 1 
extended by Mr. W. S. Dun, as detailed in ^ 
Records of the Geological Survey of N.S. Wales ( 

After the note was read, Mr,' J. J. Fletn^^her d 
to the fact that the Platypus had betMi previou 
the Normanton District by Capt. W. E, Armit 
Zoology, xiv. p. 413). 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited an Arachnid from tl 
belonging to the genus Tkelyphonns (Fam. Fhry\ 
fine specimen of the Bag-shelter of a moth {^ 
Quirindi, N.S.W. Also, on behalf of Mr. L; 
Victoria, who was present, specimens of tin 



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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



503 



ilun, Doubl, bred by Mr. Lyell. Also, for Mr. 
h of curious horn-like galls (Fam. Cynipidce) upon 
ucalypt. 

iker exhibited specimens of a Morell, Morchella 
om Moonbi Plains, Tamworth, N.S.W., found by 
er: also a fossil leaf and some fossil wood from 
mond River; the venation of the leaf is beautifully 
haracters being highly suggestive of Eucalyptus. 

Ltelegge exhibited a rare and curious Isopod, 
istraliensls, originally described from N.S. Wales 
2, since when it appears to have escaped notice, 
exhibited was obtained on seaweed at Maroubra 
when alive it was bright olive-green, and of a 
he seaweed to which it was adhering. 

ueller contributed the following 

^otes Oil Boronia floribunda, Sieber. 

' part of this century (during 1823) the Bohemian 
Wilhelm Sieber, formed extensive collections of 
t^ in the vicinity of Port Jackson and on the Blue 
I although his stay in Australia lasted only seven 
s limited to N.S. Wales, he extended largely our 
e indigenous flora there, more particularly through 
L of typic specimens, quoted in De Candolle's 
in other descriptive works. These records have 
I up to the present day, as will be instanced by 
Boronias, namely, B. Jloribunda, which Professor 
, of Berlin, some few years ago, on a re-examina- 
ant in Sieber's published set, restored to an 
cific position, Bentham in the Flora Australiensis 
it as having arisen from dimorphism. Authentic 
Sieber were not available in Melbourne when the 
the Flora became elaborated, and thus B. Jlori- 
to be considered a mere state of B. pinnata, until 
d Berlin phytographer opened up this question 





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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



anew, but I placed after his observation B, Jlo 
into full specific rank in the Second Census of A 
(p 18). Sprengel's diagnosis of this plant publ 
very brief and applied as well to some forms of . 
B. Jloi'ibii'uda^ the main distinctions not being gi 
much reduced size of four of the stamens and the 
much dilated stigma. It was only recently th 
from Prof. Urban's indications was directed to tl 
IVIiss Georgina King, the zealous amateur lady n 
colony, forwarded splendid specimens of B, florih 
the Hawkesbury River, her plant proving to 
one of Sieber. Unlike B, jnnnata, which abound 
of four of the Australian colonies, the B. j\ 
restricted to N.S. Wales, and I have it even fror 
only from Mrs. Capt. Rowan, the celebrated I 
who sent it mixed with B. pinnata from the vi< 
Bay, irrespective of the sendings of Miss Ki 
Sieberian specimens in the collections of Drs. St4 
Thus it remains to be ascertained what are the 
of B jioribund<i, and this might largely be settl 
re-examination of Sydney herbaria. The specii 
Jlorihunda will likely be affirmed still further by 
ripe fruit, which as yet is to me entirely unknot 
teristics being derived from pericarp and seeds o; 

Mr. Ogilby contributed a note pointing out tl 
genera of recent rough-backed Herrings in our 
them generically distinct from Diplomystus, whic 
characterised as follows : — 

a. Maxillaries narrow, 3 i to 4 in the diam 
Jaws, palatines, and tongue toothed. Eight 
Dorsal inserted well in front of the middle < 
moderate, its base as long as its distance ; 
ventrals inserted beneath the anterior tlii 
Scales with smooth posterior border ... 



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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



505 



iter Herrings, represented by a single species, the 
iralian Shad," Potamalosa iiovce-hoUandia (Cuvier 
alenciennes), Ogilby. 

58 broad, 2J to 2^ in the diameter of the eye. 
ely absent. Four branchiostegals. Dorsal inserted 
5 middle of the body; anal rather long, its base 
B than its distance from the caudal ; ventrals 
I advance of the dorsal. Scales pectinated 

Hyperlophus. 

Herrings, represented by a single species, the 
jh-backed Sprat," Hyperlophus sprattellides, Ogilby. 

bited some fine living specimens of Terehratulina 
h, attached to a stone, which he had recently 
ster. Cape Hawke, a new habitat which he thought 
record. Besides the Brachiopods, Dr. Cox stated 
iso dredged the rare Triyonia Strangei, and he 
le locality mentioned was the most northern at 
ihell had been taken. Dr. Cox also exhibited a fine 
ochama Woodsiy Petterd, from the Derwent River, 



s^id contributed the following note " On a remark- 
n Rock" from Tamworth, N.S.W. :— " On Sep- 
h, in company with Mr. D. A. Porter, I observed 
of a remarkable radiolarian rock on the Tam- 
•y Common. Of this rock a hand specimen and 
d for the microscope are now exhibited. The 
^ue one prepared by cementing a slice of the 
tenth of an inch thick on to an ordinary glass 
i balsam and then etching its upper surface with 
oric Acid. The rock being partially calcareous, 
radiolarian ooze, the lime filling in the delicately 
ttd interstices between the spines of the radiolaria 
and the siliceous shells of the radiolaria become 
. Some of them are exquisitely preserved for 



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506 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Palaeozoic radiolaria. The rock of which they c( 
the larger proportion weathers into a brown pu 
material like bath brick. The unweathered po 
bluish-grey and compact. The radiolaria appea 
referable to the porulose division of the Legi< 
This discovery confirms the previous determina 
radiolarian casts in the rocks of the New Engk 
of the Jenolan Caves, N.S. Wales. The geolog 
formation in which this rock occurs is probably eit 
Lower Carboniferous, as Lepidodendron austrak i 
on a horizon not far removed from that of this r 
The Moor Creek limestone, near Tamworth, I fin 
numerous radiolaria. I propose to offer a paper 
at the next meeting of the Society." 




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507 



DNE8DAY, OCTOBER 28m, 1896. 



y Montlily Mt^etiag of the Society was helil at tlm 
Ithaca Rufid, ElLsabeth Buy, on Wedne^duy cnoti- 



r, Mr. Henry Deane, 31. A., F.L.8., in tlie Chulr. 



It formally announced the death, on the lOth 
1 von Mueller, who waii one of the fir-st two 
hevs of the Society to be elected (Jan. 2:2nd, lHr6). 



im of Mr Jt H. Mj^iden, F.L.8., it was rf.»solved 

bers of this Society desire tu t^3£preH-s the prnfiiund 
eii the tidings of tlie decease of Baron \'on Mueller 
ved; and at l\u\ su-mo timt? e^j place on reeord tlieii- 
ton of the Barons lifts work, which has hi so 
?e contribnted to the advanced state of our Icnow- 
ira of Australia. 

ff thLn i-esolution Im? furwardud to tlie t^urvi viu^^ 
ate Baron with an expression of tlie Society *a 
r bereavement. 



t read a letter from the Royal Society of Tasmania 
-jemte in any nio% ement to i^ise sonu^ a|ij«ropriate 
te late Baron von Mueller. 




Ik 



r^ 






COS 



DOXATlONg, 



Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia Val i 
1896). From ihe EdUi>r. 

iDdian iliiieum, Cakutta^Natural Hisk^ry N 
No^ 25 (16^5): Materials for a Carcinological 
^<^ 2 (1896). From the Mumu$*i. 

Perak C;t3veminent Ga^dtte— Vol. i:x. Nos. :!< 

SocicU^ d'Horticultiire du Douba, BesAH^Hiii- 

IliusUiie. No. 8 (AuguBt, 1H96). Fit^ra t!i4 Soc 

K E. Zoulogiaeb-tHnanUche Ges*?ll»eli*iit in 
Imngen. xlvi. Band (1896), 7 Heft, Frt^m the 
Society iJe* Sciences de Finland e -^Observe 
gi^iue.. faite^ a Hel.ingfors en 1S95: Observa 
giques, 1881-90. Tome Supplementaire : P^ 
** MiH^H*mlogie et MAgnetisme Terre>stre." Frt*^ 
Manne Biological Association of tke Un 
Juunmi. New Series Vol. iv. No. 3 (Ai^gxl 

Bureau of ^Agriculture, Pt^rth, W.A.^ourm 

23 (Sept., 1S96). From th^ Stcj^Umj. 

2iK>logischer Anzeiger. xix. Band, Naa. 511 
1896). From the Editor. 

Department of A^^ncuUur^, Yicloria^Gu 
No^. f*7' 28 ( Aug. 'St^pt- , I Sm y From dm anvmrn\ 

American Natumli^t. Vol. xKst. No. a 
Ffonh die EdilifTi. 

Johnsi Uopkiiis Uiiiv t^r^ity Cireulars, Tal, x 

Lti Fiiculti^ dea .Scieucfea dm ^liii-seille— Ai 
(1H90), From the FacuHy o/Smsnc^^^ 

Manche^^tcr Museum, Owens CcFllege— Bej 
X895-y6. From Uie MiLH^unh 




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DONATIONS. 



509 



S'ftUir-ge.Hchiehte, Ivii Jahrg. (1891), ii. BftTid, 1 
rg, (1894). i. Band. 2 Heffc ; Ixi. Jiihrg. (1895). 
etlAi: liegmter, 26-60 Jahrg. (1895). Fro'U ih^. 

tMche Naiu rfur^hendeOesellsch aft, Frankfurt fi. M. 
PH. xix. Band. 1-4 Hefte (1895-i»6) : xxiL Band, 
i {imsy From Uis SocUt^. 

ttl Aeeoimt of the Seven Colonies of Auatralasia/' 
195 96). By T, A. Coghlan. From the Auiltur. 

urvey of Iri*lia^Palfet>ntult>gia Indtca. Ser. xvi, 
1H*J5). fntm ihi Director. 

of Agricuftarej Sydney —Agricultural Gazette, 
} (Sept,, 1896). From i^ie Hon. th^ Mmmhr far 
k*uHicre. 

Ixhibitioii — ^Handl>uok to the Afjuariura, Museum^ 
m (1B9C). FrOFft the Exhihitioa TruMm&. 

titled '^ Description of a Collection of Tsisjinanian 
, k^r By R. Etheridge, Jnnr. (1896), Fiom the 
f Tamnama. 

7 of Edinburgh— pTOceetlings, Vol xx. (1893-95) : 
Vol XXX viL Partr^ iiL-iv. (1893-95) : Vol. xxxviii, 
■t-95). From the Society. 

Hoy ale den Sciences, k^.^ de Ban em ark, Copen- 
\ 1896. No. 4. From th^ Acadnnuj. 

Jiiurnal of Pharmacy, VoK xi. No. 130 (Oefcp, 

of Agricaltiirej BrUbane — BoUetin* No, 11. 
1896). FtQ m the Sfscreta r^ Jo r Ag ric ultu r« 



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AUSTBALIAK TERM IT I DM, 
Part II. 

BV WaLTIK W, FitOOfiATT* 

(Platbs xxxt.-xxxvl) 

CLASaiPlCATlOK. 

£l dealing vrhh. the inseefca in thb^ remark able 
met with the difficulty that, whib staniUng a 
respects they combine the charaoteristic8 of two 
and though fitters iJickI by must of our leading entoi 
the Neuroptera or Pseud O-Neuroptcra, there arc 
reasons for placing them in the Orthoptenv, wiiil 
habits they conform to tlie ant45 aud Imjoh anion ^ tli 
It is well known that the termites cotne frtim 
stouk, a great number of species hanug hmn im 
st-ate in Europe and America. Brimer* cun>*idei 
highly modiJied forms of a type which departt*il 
ancestral simple Orthopt^ra, 

In working out the development of a sp^io? 
{Eutermes rippevtii) Dr. Knower, in a prelimiiiary 
" I think that the Tennite and those Orthuptt*ra ! 
ficial embryo iK'^anning in a disc which must t*brig 
to attain the tlefinite nuudjer of Begment^, ha 
adhered to the typical method of developracnt fgi 
probtibly best represent the development of the as 




• F. Brauer, *' Hyatematiseh zocitogtsche Studieu/' 8 
KiiserlicheD Akail. i:L Wissenadrnfteu* Wi^u, Biioti sd 

t H. Mc E. Kiio«er, "The Development nf lheTn»mi|<! 
tJaiveraily Cirtukra, Vol. xv. No. 126, 18&6» p. hi. 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 511 

who has given the termites a considerable amount 
n his Entomology for Beginners has erected the 
% (insects with wings flat upon the back) in which 
with the fsocvlce and PerlifJce; but they seem to 
ity in other respects with the stone-flies and the 

and the tip of the alxlomen be removed from one 
jrmites it might be very easily mistaken for an 
3 of our greatest authorities! on the Neuroptera 
ed a supposed "wingless termite" from Japan 
) of Hodoternies japouicus, but in the following 
d a note from the author, stating that upon 
1 a Japanese Forjicula he had found that the 
e proved to be a damaged earwig. Dr. Hagen 
it in his opinion " the three families TerTnitina, 
Forjiculina are co-ordinated, and very nearly 

)f the larger termites are compared with those of 
►ckroaches, it will be found that there is a marked 
he form of the parallel nervures with the recurrent 
ly true cross veins running to the extremities of 
cockroaches, while in the termites they generally 
but this is not always the case, for in the wings 
termite from Northern Australia (for which I 
Qe Afatstotennes darwiniensis) and some species of 
parallel veins are stout and thick, forking again 
ley run out at the tips, while in Maslotermes the 
several more stout nervures than the hind pair, 
ot closely resemble any of the lace- winged insects 
state; their metamorphosis is incomplete, as they 
[g to the active little larvae with perfect propor- 

external anatomy will be found in Third Report U.S. 
in, IS^, pp. 3'2d-320. 

, Proe, Boat, ^oq, of Kat. Hiatory, xi, p. 3Sm. 1868. 



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512 



AUSTRALIAN TERMITIDJi, 



tions, increasing in size with each successive in 
little termites from birth, even the soldiei>i in stmn 
the elongated form of the head long before they 

I consider they have a greater affinity to the 
the Neuroptera, and, without going into the 
family, which I leave to an abler pen, would si 
form a natural link between the two orders, c 
Forjicularid(E and Blattidct, 

I have followed Dr. Hagen in the terms ui*ed 
of the wings and general structure. I ivy also 
species with its habits and life history \\ Im ti rl, 
our coming entomologists will be able to ixcl*; 
without much difficulty. In a few instances I 
winged forms only, in the hope of afttruanls g 
forms to complete their life-histories. T have a 
winged sp>ecimens evidently l^elonging U\ differ* 
retain till I have completed the series fi>r the 
from which they were taken. 

Family TERMITirL^., 

Perfect insects slender, with a roun(i> -i hojid 
pound eyes more or less projecting on the ,^idts u\ 
two or in some groups wanting; an tennis long ; 
sisting of from 9-31 or more moniliforni joints; 
short, with a number of pointed or angular tee 
above with a large rounded labrum. 

The head is attached to the thorax by two \e 
placed on either side of the under portion uf th 
moderately large, with the prothorax very distiin 
istic in the different genera, sometimes heart^^ 
either side, or saddle-shaped; meso- and metaiho 
a pair of flat wings of uniform size resting over 
extending beyond the tip of the abdomen. T 
simple, consisting of four main parallel nt^rvares^ t 
subcostal, median and submedian, which send c 




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BY WALTER \V. FROGGATT. 



513 



or sloping transverse veinlets very variable m 
;position. The remarkable transverse suture near 
B wings causes them to drop off at the slightest 
ving behind attached to the thorax a small slender 
ive termed the scapular shield). In the legs tlie 
with a transverse trochanter at the base, to which 
attached and not to the coxae; the femora are 
and short; the tibiae slender and cylindrical, with 
ut spines at the tip; the tarsi consist of four joiiitH, 
■ound, with the terminal one slender, armed with 
laws, at the base of which there is sometimes a 

a consists of ten segments, forming an elon^'nted 
-ith a pair of cerci at the base of the 9th segmt rn, 
ecies there are sometimes two other slender jointed 
>wn as the anal appendices. 

jnt consists of chitinous plates, generally very thin 
lit in some of the larger species of considerable 




: in social communities, either constructing distinct 
nounds covering a woody nucleus, known an a 
• else simple tunnels or galleries under logs, stones, 
ers of houses. Each community consists, broafily 
ree castes or classes. Firstly, the winged malps 
hich are found in great numbers only at certain 
year, but always in the nests in a larval or imjn r- 
condly, the workers, aborted males and females, 
jrellow, or white, with a large oval body and no 
! characters in most species; these do all the wmk 
ding the walls, gnawing out the wood, and lookini^^ 
id young larvie. Thirdly, the soldiers, also aboitt d 
les, which have the jaws produced into long scisvor- 
, closing over or meeting at the tips like a paii; of 
istant in form in the diflerent species, and of use 



I 




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ArSTRALJAS TBRmTtD.lt, 



Pro. Hi. di.har^ « ^^^St 

Th« protective fluid i, ^Iso made „»e ..f , 
't t^-"jaw«J soldier anrl wh^ t»,« .1 '*"' 

>/ the base of the cl^eu, and th /"" *''" ** 

>.ijpeas, and the ejected fluid ;« »! 

After fenSi.au •' L L; JeT": '''""' *''^'"' 
ments forniia^, black !,«„, aLTv ^'"""''"' J-^"" 
M-e„ incapable of active LllZT "" '"'"* ^' 

-ith an enlarged «^^r JZ .T ''■"' '^'^^''"^ '^ *--'» 
appear t. he^. iefn ^ ^ I ^"'''^' *"^ «*' 

p^iucd dire. f.. ., ,.ti .^t;„rur; 






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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



515 



ngs as she has. I have as many as ten supple- 
taken from a single mound. Miiller was the 
le forms when working out the life-histories of the 
ba Catherina in Brazil*; in one nest he found 31 
peens. Besides these there are larvae in all stages 
I minute little creatures just emerged from the 
ith the wing-cases extending half way down the 
i young workers and soldiers, the latter showing 
I the form of the head before the last moult. 
Newcastle when turning over some logs I found a 
es fmnigatuSj Brauer, in which the queen was 
centre of the irregular galleries damaged by the 
og; and among the Eutermes I found six or seven 
perfect insects (excepting that they were minus 
some undetermined species of Calotermes) these 
be quite at home, but had evidently crawled in 
r shelter, and thus found their way into the nest. 
^rmitidfB has been divided into seven genera, and 
ieveral comprising both fossil and existing species, 
em forms, and three fossil species only, 
xl deal of work has been done by entomologists 
^ it has always been upon different genera. The 
*s Monograph upon the I'erniitii/ce is our only 
jneral classification of the family, and this was 
y 40 years ago. His proposed Monograph upon 
was never published, beyond a short paper on 
'tii.\ His classification is chiefly founded upon 
the wings, the ocelli, the number of joints of the 
ape of the prothorax, and the tibial spines. 
us very natural classification, I have considered 
lera as genera, and further grouped them into 




' Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Termiten." Jen. Z. Nat. vii. 
t Psyche v. pp. 203-8, 1889. 



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AirSTRALIAN TERMITID^U 



i 



HuhfaiBilie^ Imsed upon the neurfitiaii of the wia 
iiitc* Jiceount the hahitsj and the form of tht* %(M\\ 
to by very similar in mufit of the genera I h«vt* o\)^ 
ca.se of the getius Hoiht^rme^ imd the. two sjuhgeijuni 
PorotsTmaa^ I have heen somewhat puzKhnh Tti Ha 
of Ifitdoiermf^s he say& ** *3€ellis nuUis/' Imt in his iv^ 
{Tah. iii. %, 8) he shows lateral o<»elIi, and in 
Natm-al Hii5itoryj piibUslierl last year (Vol, v, p, 
of f/fHiote}*mf^& moMambicun is given '' af t-er Hiisjftjn 
lateral ocelli are moat dLstinctly drawn. The onl) 
group tliat I have in my eolle^:tion h a doabi 
Sioloteruifts ruficepsj Brrmer, which has no cwnfllij 
my Australian spcH^imena I have not yet fotmd ai 
placed ill thi^« group, hat an allied group for whicl 
name of itiyptuie.rmiiftw tiikes tiioir pla^e in Ui^ At 
I have placed the genus RhlnoUtmf^s after tlm C(th 
ti eareful study of their haliiits and the roliiiJ^t for 
T wa?» acquainted with a ver}' curious white ant 
(HfTei-ent-looking kinds of noldierf^j hut of whidi I 
winged forma among the New South Wales spt^l 
collection from Queensland I found a numl>er of wh 
that on comparison with a co-type of BrMuer'f^ It hi 
tn&^fius (for which T am indebted to the Director o 
Museum) turned cmt to }ye this species. 1 also 
speeiehs of the genus with identical habits which \u 
me fi'Om Kalgo<trlie, West Austral ia^ by my fath< 
jiccouut of itfi habits. 

In the term naed for the venation of the wings I 
Ha gen. But when using the word** "^^ scapular si 
that portion of the wing l*etween the body and tl 
(the "basal scale'' of 8c udder); its form and hirm 
be very con.'iistent in the difler^ent genera. 

Family TERMlTIDiE. 
i. Subfamily CALDTERMITIKK 

Winj^a robust; (ttt^^apnlar nyeld hroail, with fivii tir 
from the b:i*ie. Costal and 8ul>co3tal nervurc^i 



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BY WALTER W FROGGATT. 



517 



rvures forming a network of smaller ones at the 
s differing from the hind pair in the venation in 

1. Genus Mastotermes, g.n. 

lattened on the summit; eyes large; oceUI small; 
I ted; prothorax large, with the sides turned up; 
with more than five branches. 

Calotermes, Hagen. (Recent and fossil) 

eyes large, projecting; ocelli small; antenna? 16-20- 
ax large and broad. 

Bnus Termopsis. (Recent and fossil.) 

►roadest behind; eyes small, oval; ocelli wanting; 
3-37-jointed; prothorax small, not as wide an the 

4. Genus Parotermes. (Fossil.) 

large; eyes small; ocelli wanting; anteniire 20- 
ax subquadrate, not broader than the heacl 

aus HoDOTERMES. (Recent and fossil.) 

ircular; eyes small; not projecting, facet** coaise; 
antennae 25-27-jointed ; prothorax small, broader 

). Genus Porotermes. (Recent.) 

>yes small, facets fine; ocelli wanting. Venation 
y fine. 

. Genus Stolotermes. (Recent.) 

ircular; eyes small, facets coarse; ocelli present^ 
minted; prothorax heart-shaped. 

8. Genus Mixotermbs. (Fossil.) 

terzel upon a fossil wing from Lugau. Allied to 
ichte der Naturwissenschaftlen Gesellschaft zu 
B-80). 



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f » 1 8 AUSTRALIAN TERMITIDJR, 

ii. Subfamily RHINOTEBMITni 

Scapular shield broad, slightly convex at the 
four branches. Costal and subcostal nervures \ 
to the tip of the wing, and joined at the ext 
irregular thick nervures; median and submediar 
with a great number of fine oblique nervures, 
thickly covered with fine furrows. 

1. Genus Rhinotermes. (Rece 

Head broad; eyes small, projecting and coar? 
small; antennae 20-jointed; prothorax not as i 
rounded in front. 

iii. Subfamily GLTPTOTEBMITi: 

Scapular shield slender, angular, with the c 
verse, with four or more branches. Costal and j 
running veiy close to each other, the latter o: 
the former in the centre; median nervure run 
upper half of the wing, and the submedian al>o 
latter and the oblique nervures often formed of 

1. Genus Glyptotermes. (Rec< 

Head broad, rather flat and quadrate; eyes 
slightly projecting, coarsely faceted; ocelli rati 
the eyes; prothorax long, broadest and concave 
on the sides 

2. G^nus Heterotermes. (Rec 

Head very large, longer than broad; eyes sm^ 
ocelli wanting; antennse 16-jointed; prothora 
base and apex arcuate. 

iv. Subfamily TERMITINf. 

Scapular shield angular, slightly rounded abc 
below, showing four branches. Costal and s 
running parallel, but widely separated from e« 



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BY WALTBR W. FROGGATT. 



519 




ibmedian slender, the former divided into one or more forks 
I extremity. 

1. Genus Termes. (Recent and fossil.) 
id large, rounded; eyes large, and prominent, finely faceted, 
present; antennse 13-20-jointed; prothorax heart-shaped; 
led, smaller than the head. 

2. Genus Eutermbs. (Recent and fossil.) 

5 form of head and thorax very similar to that of Termes; 
always dark coloured, with the base of the nervures in the 
lar shield not as robust as in the latter. Soldiers always 
[. 

3. Genus Anoplotermes. (Recent.) 

genus formed by Mtiller on the internal anatomy of a 
mes from Brazil (A. pacificus). He also places Eutermes 
Elagen, and E, cingulalus, Burm., with the new species. 

Calotermitin^. 
Mastotermes, g.n. 
sul large, nearly as broad as long, flattened upon the summit; 
large, projecting ; ocelli prominent ; antennae 30 jointed; 
IS large, labrum rounded at the apex. Prothorax shaped 
lat of Caloterjfies, except that it is turned up on the outer 
with the scapular shield as long as the meso- and metathorax. 
wings differing from the hind pair in venation in having 
parallel nervures between the costal and subcostal, the 
portion of the wings crossed with stout nervures, with the 
of the wing finely reticulated with smaller veinlets. Tibise 
our spines at the apex; claws large with a small plan tula. 
I genus is founded upon a species from Port Darwin, W. 
ilia, and is allied to Calottrmes. 

Mastotermes darwiniensis, n.sp. 

(PL XXXV. figs. 3-3a.) 

-cl castaneous, thorax dark ferruginous; legs, under side and 
en dark brown; antennae yellow; wings, scapular shield and 



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AUSTBAUAN TBRMTTffKf-:, 



nerviires ferruginous; the rest yellowish- l>rown, 
of the wings 16, body 8 lines. 

Head large, nearly as broad as long, rduiidc 
behind, rounded on the summit, flatt^rie<] and 
truncate across in line with the eyes. Ej^es lar 
jecting, very finely faceted; ocelli large, oMil, close 
of the eyes. Antennte long and slender, oO-joint^ 
a depression in front of the eyes ; 1st joint 1; 
broad at ajpex; 2nd nearly as thick but shorter; 
liform to near the tip where they become more 
being the smallest. Clypeus arcuate ami brciad 
forming little angular flanges, with the midd 
lobed in the centre; labrum broader than long, i 
with the sides rounded and flattened, sUtill-s^ha 
with the base of each joint white; jaws Inoad ar 
two small angular teeth at the tip, and a flaii 
edge to the base slightly hollowed out in tlie mu\ 
as wide as the head, wider than long, conuave In 
with the sides and apical margin forming a half 
in the centre, with the edges (particularly on t 
up. Legs short, thighs stout, with the tibia^ c< 
hairs, and four stout spines at apex; tai*si s\ 
terminal joint slender, with four small sharp s| 
plan tula. 

Wings large, thrice as long as broad; s^capular -^ 
suture convex, with eight stout parallel uervun 
of it: venation of the fore and hind wind's differt 
with costal nervure slender, running round to tij 
ing four stout parallel nervures mergirifj from tin 
turning up at regular intervals before the mid 
into the costal; subcostal branching out into foui 
parallel nervures turning up into the coital Ijt 
the former ones, forming a regular pattern; 
closely parallel with the subcostal, bifurcated in 
third fork in the subcostal, the two branches n 
network of finer nervures at the margins; sul 



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BY WALTER W. PROGGATT. 



521 



irregular, running through the middle of the wing, with six 
stout oblique nervures at the base, and seven or more 
er nervelets running out towards the edge and forming a 
)rk all over the wing. Hind wings with only two . parallel 
ires between the costal and subcostal, one bifurcation less on 
ubcostalj median forked in the middle of the wing, upper 
h bifid at tip, lower one turning downward and again 
hing; upper one bifid, lower one simple; submedian as in 
ore wings, but irregular in the neuration of the oblique 
lets. Abdomen short, broad, and rounded at the tip, with 
cerci; anal appendices small, slender, close together, near 
p of the abdomen. 

f>.— Port Darwin, N.T. (Mr. N. Holtze); Northern Territory 
J. G. O. Tepper). 

long a number of pinned specimens of termites sent to me 
?. Tepper was a single specimen of this species, which was 
loticeable from the network of veins along the costal margin, 
1 as its large size. During the summer of the following 
I, Mr. Holtze sent me seven specimens in spirits, taken 
g round the lamp at night" in the Botanic Gardens, 
rston. 

re are two specimens in the Macleay Museum, one of which 
elled Cleveland Bay (Townsville), N.Q., collected, Mr. 
rs thinks, by Mr. Spalding; and another from King's 
, N.W. Australia, taken by myself, flying round the lamp, 
ation about 100 miles inland from Derby. 

Genus Calotermes, Hagen, 1853. 

;en, Bericht d. K. Akad. Berlin, 1853, p. 480 ; Linntea, 
xii p. 33. 

d rather small, triangular or rounded; eyes large and pro- 
from the sides of the head ; ocelli small ; clypeus small, 

ed; labrum small, quadrangular; antenna? as long as the 

[6-20-jointed, antennal cleft small; jaws short, stout and 
Prothorax large, as wide or nearly as wide as the head, 

r than long, truncate or arcuate in front, with the sides 





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593 



AUSTRALIAN TBRMITIDJ^., 



and apical edges forming a semicircle. Legs si 
ti bite with three or four spines; tarsi with plant 
narrow, twice or thrice as long as the body; 
widening out towards the tip and connected t 
eix veins, irregular in number, forming a net 
two; median nervure slender, running through 
wing, with irregular cross veinlets, the whole o 
of wing showing an irregular network : scapi] 
aii raeaothorax in the fore pair, and about \ 
metathorax in the hind pair. Abdomen sm 
than the thorax; cerci stout, short, and jointed 

Soldiers short and stout. Head large, cylin^ 
front and rugged or truncated before the jaws, "^ 
strong, about one-third the length of head,almos 
towards tips, close at the base, with short sto 
cm opposite jaws; labrum small, short, and ti 
nmgular. 

These termites do not construct regularly 
live in small communities in logs, timber, be 
under stones; many nests contain under a hu 
chiefly workers or immature nymphs, and son: 
dozen soldiers, though in others these are n 
hii\ e never found a queen among any communi 

Caiolermes has a pretty wide distribution, 
described from America and the West Indies, 
and the north of Africa, four from Australia 
each from Madiera and the Isle of France 
Europe known only as fossils. 

There are probably many species of this gem 
from their retiring habits they are seldom met 
looked for. 

Calotermes convexus. Wait 

Termes convexusy Walker, Brit. Mus. Cat. N 
Hagen, Mon. Linnsea, xii. p. ^. 

Ferruginous; lower surface, abdomen, antenn 
smooth and shining; wings subfuscous. Lengt 



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BY WALTER W. PROGGATT. 



523 



Head elliptical, much longer than broad, scarcely smaller than 
3 thorax. Antennae shorter than the head, probably 13-jointed. 
elli close to the eyes. Jaws small, two-toothed, with dark 
ints. Prothorax with an indistinct suture in the centre, much 
)ader than long, concave anteriorly, sides convex, flattened 
lind; body scarcely longer than the thorax. Legs stout, with 
; 4th joint of tarsi as long as the first three combined. Wings 
e brown, costal and subcostal nervures ferruginous, with about 
oblique branches; the other nerviires very pale and indistinct, 
h rows of finer ones between them, from the lower side about 
oblique branches, the wings generally feeble and wrinkled. 

hidpsr greyish, hairy, shining. Length 3 lines. Head oval, 
dish-yellow, flat on the summit, ferruginous in front, longer 
1 broader than the thorax ; jaws blackish, robust, almost 
light, bent in at the tips and armed with two broad teeth. 
\eunsd shorter than the head, the extremity of each segment 
t coloured, shorter towards the tip. Prothorax twice as broad 
mg, anterior angles concave, sides and posterior angles convex, 
y club-shaped, broader and longer than the thorax, 3 lines in 
:th. 

^orker grey. Head small, with a pitch-coloured spot between 
antennae, the latter almost as long as the head; body almost 
^shaped, very much broader and longer than the thorax, 
gth 3 lines. 
'ad. — Tasmania, and Swan River, W.A. 

tiis description is taken from Hagen's Monograph. He says : 
comparison with the t3rpe, the somewhat larger Termes 
irns from Swan River (long. corp. 2J, exp. alar. 7 lines), is 
}therwise different from T: convextis. Between the claws is 
a plan tula. This species closely resembles Calotermes 
ubuy, and whether it should remain separate is a matter for 
ler consideration, though it is much smaller. The workers 
soldiers described by Walker (Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 52) as 
iging to Termes auatrcUiey are very probably those of G, 
obnsr 



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AU^RAL14N TERMITID^, 



OALQTfiBMKS iHaCLARla, W| 



CaloUrmeM imidaris. White, Yoy. Erebua k 
(PL XXXV. fig, 4,) 

General colour bright ferruginous, win^ 
light brownish-yelluw. Length to tip of wi 
hody 5 linea. 

Head longer than broad, rounded behinc 
eyes, sloping on sides to apicftl margin, trun< 
on the sumniitj sharply sloping down on 
moderately large, round, cf>arsely faceted, p 
the sides; ocelli large, round, contiguous t* 
margin uf t!i e eyes. An t€ u nie br ok en ( p robal 
springing from a cleft in front of the ey< 
coloured, the a-pical edgea barred with p 
cylindrical, Imsal ODes largest^ 4th orbiculatc 
turbinate, lightly fringed with hairs. CIyp< 
very narrow, slopiug on the sldesi to roundel 
labrum l>i\iad, rounded in front Pnithora 
than long, deeply eon cave in front, njtundatn 
showing faint median auture ; meKu- aii! 
narrower. Legs short, thiglm broad and r 
with three stout spines at apex: terminal j<»i 
as lung as the first three combined; pluntuhi 

Wings very long, four times as long as bron 
tip ; scapular shiekJ large^ rounded, with the 
to subc<>stal, but transverse below, showing t 
subcostal nervurea slender, running round i 
parallel-oblique ner voire branching out of it ii 
connected with it lieyond the scapiilai* shield 
nervures and joining it again about one-rju 
subcostal nei^nire running parallel with five 
nervurea turning up intii tlie costal and 
forming a network between them at the t 
running close to the subcostal with no upw^ 



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BY WALTER W. PROGGATT. 



525 



the tip, where several short ones form an irregular network, 
laving a number of short spine-like nervures along the lower 
jn; submedian nervure running through the middle of the 
;, turning downwards before reaching the tip, with six stout 
ue unbranched nervures at the basal portion, and nine fine 
lie nervures beyond ; the whole wing finely covered with 
tinct veinlets giving it a frosted appearance. Abdomen very 
and thick, smooth and shining; with the cerci of usual size; 
appendices undistinguishable. 
i.— Melbourne, Victoria (Mr. Kershaw). 

ly one dry pinned specimen, from the National Museum, 
Durne, but very distinct from any of my other species, and 
rkable for the very long wings. 

Calotbrmes irregularis, n.sp. 

(PL XXXV. figs. 1, la, lb), 

ad ferruginous; thorax and abdomen ochreous; antenna?, legs 
nder surface lighter coloured; wings pale ochreous, with the 
res fuscous. Length 8 lines to tip of wings; body 4^ lines. 

id rounded behind, longer than broad, sloping in from the 
o the clyjpeus, lightly clothed with a few scattered hairs. 
very large, projecting; ocelli large, rounded oval, contiguous 
s centre of inner margin of eyes. Antennae 19-jointed, 
?; Ist joint large, cylindrical, springing from a shallow 
lal cleft below the eyes; 2nd cylindrical, smaller, and half 
igth; 3rd more rounded at the tip; 4th shortest; 5-12 moni- 
slightly increasing in size toward the extremity; 13-18 
turbinate, with the last elongate-oval. Clypeus small, 
d in front, sloping on sides, broadest behind; labrum large, 
laped, rounded in front; jaws large, stout, with the apical 
Arge, curved inwards, a short conical one below, with two 
ngul&T ones towards the base. Prothorax as broad as the 
lightly concave in front, rounded on the sides, truncate 
, showing a slight median suture; mesothorax narrow, with 






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II 



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ntB 



AUSTRALIAN TEHMITID.E, 



»II1I 




roundecl Imie, it alight mefimn auttire; metatb 
iwljijid, Leg.^ short, rather hairy; thighs s 
moderately long, with three short stoat n 
apex; tarsi with the terminal joint not quite 
thi'^e preceding ones combined, tarsal clav 
plant 12 la ovah Wings more than twice as 
and rounded at tips; scapular shi^^ld long; 
median uervurea running parallel to each oti 
apart to the tip of the fore wing; stulx:ostal m 
running upwards into costal; median furc 
median nervure slender, with about IS ohliq 
four furcate: median with a numlier of she 
along the lower ^d^tf and a faint irregular 
over the whole wing. Hind wing : oosital at 
running into each ot!ier i!i the middle of wir 
bhort distance from shoulder, the upper brai 
oblique veins, turning upwards into the cost 
running parallel, straight out to eat t remit j 
wini* as in foi^ pair* Abdomen large, smo* 
at tip; cserci short, stout and hairy. 

ioidier.^^Head rufousj jaws black; legs 
thorax pale ochreoii»; the rest dirty white. 
c^f jaws to ba'ie of head 2} lines. He^l longei 
at base, straight on sides, emarginate in im 
behind the clypeus, with a median furrow: t*lj 
short, rather broad and almost truncate in 
winged inseclj only more slender; Jaws vc 
oehreous at base, tlie rest black, rather Htraij 
at tlie curved -in tips, with several small teei 
aintl two large angular ones on the right -sid*); 
elongate-oval, nearly as broad ?vs the hei 
rounded tip. 

ir(37'^-«r.— Head pale yellow, jaws bliick, 
Length 5 lines. He^itl nearly spherical; j 
sharp-pointed teeth at apex^ and angular 



■ 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



527 



^e, rounded in front, with a dark spot on either side; labrum 
her long, narrow and truncate in front and straight on the 
es : anal appendices large, at right angles to each other; cerci 
in others; body long and cylindrical. 
Hab, — Mackay, Queensland. (Mr. G. Turner). 

Calotermbs improbus, Hagen. 

Hagen, Mon. Linnsoa, xii. p. 44. 

IJhestnut brown, head somewhat darker; antennie, legs, and 
ierside bright yellow; head and thorax smooth, not hairy. 
Qgth 6^ mm. 

9ead oblong, quadrangular, almost half as long again as broad, 
nded posteriorly. Eyes small, projecting slightly, well in 
nt of head; ocelli large, away from the eyes, a small central mark 
'alse ocellus almost in a line with the hind margin of the eyes. 
tennfe short and stout, longer than the head, 20-jointed, 
lesced, round; first joint larger than the following ones, 4th 
' last smallest. Labrum short, oblique l>elow the jaws; labial 
pi thicker and shorter than in the other species. Prothorax 
^, broader than the head, rounded and flat, sides turned down 
ront, concave, rounded posteriorly, the angles rather truncate 
ind. Scapular shield of forewings large, round and truncate^ 
fer than the mesothorax. Wings wanting. Legs short, with 
« spines at apex of tibiae; the only existing claw is short, 
p, and curved; if a plantula is present it is not noticeable in 
specimen. Body egg-shaped, broad; abdominal appendices 
' small, two small cerci. 

he above description is taken from Hagen's Monograph. He 
ribed this species from one imperfect specimen, without wings, 
with only one imperfect leg. 

ab. — Tasmania. It does not agree with any of my species 
Australia. But in the case of a species known only from a 
e imperfect individual it would be hard to identify it without 
xi series of specimens collected in the same locality. 




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§16 AUbTIUUAN TEkMiTlhJi, 



CaLOTEHMES L0NG1CEP8, D.ypt 
(Pi. XXX Y, tig, 7.) 

(Immatmre). Head jmle yelluw, jh%vs black, n 
white. Length 6 Hnes, 

Head spherical, a little longer than broad. 
ocelli (?). Antetiiiiu 20'jointerl; l^st stout, cyliiic 
very !ihort, orbieulate; the rest nioniJifuriii, I 
becoming broader at apexj the last smallei 
Clj'peus truncate behind, romiderl in front, narm 
convex in front : jawn siTiort and stout^ with tl 
and two angular ones at Ijase. Prothonix ma 
Blightly concave in fronts bruatlly round etl on a 
truncated at apex^ with a me<jian auture ext-enf] 
rest of the thorax; wing covers extend down to t ] 
of the alxJomen^ slender and pointed. Lei^K ralli 
graall, slender; tibiie whurt and thick^ with thrt*e 7 
spineij at apex; tarsi short, terra inal Joint large, v 
stout claw^. Abdomen hmg, cylindrical rounde( 
very small anal appendices, and the cerci small n 

Soldier.^H^iiul bright fertnginoUH, jaws blac 
jellowiAh brown. Length 6i ljne8; the hcjid ant 
thorax and alxlouien, Hejul vt^ry large, longer tli 
above but t* loping to Imte of the jawft, slightly 
sides, and emarginate in front of the antf^nni 
slender, 20-jointed; 1st stout, eyhudrical; :2nd i 
moniliforra to the tip : clypeu!* narrow, truncate 
in the front; labruni spa<le-sliape<i, straight on »1 
in front, and [irojecting to the baise of tint Inrge 
stout and large^ i^traight on the sides, curving 
and meeting at the tips, with three small irrep 
left hand jaw and one large angular one on the 
slight median and crosH sutarii uu head. ProtJu 



f 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



529 



the head, short, concave in front, truncate behind and rounded 
the aides : legs short, thighs thick : abdomen short, and very 
ad in proportion, flattened, anal appendices showing at tip of 
omen, cerci small. 

ra6— Sydney, N.S.W. (W. W. Froggatt). 

'his species lives in dead logs, in small communities of fifty or 
andred, and in several that I have cut out of firewood they 
e consisted of immature winged ones, with only one soldier, 

one or two workers. I have never been able to breed the 
ect insects, though a number of them lived for some months 

tin. 

Calotermes robustus, n.sp. 

(PL XXXV. fig. 8.) 

ead and prothorax dark ochreous, the upper surface of the 
of the thorax and abdomen lighter coloured; antennae, under 
ice and basal portion of legs light ochreous, with the 
e and tarsi slightly ferruginous; wings semi- opaque, with the 
ures ferruginous. Length to tip of wings 9; to tip of body 
nes. 

ead orbiculate, about as long as broad, convex, and rounded 
immit. Eyes large, coarsely faceted, projecting; ocelli large, 
contiguous, and in line with the front of the eyes. Antennae 
anted, long and slender towards the tips, springing from a 
lar antennal cleft in front of the eyes; 1st and 2nd joints 
, cylindrical; 3rd-8th short, moniliform; 9th' 12th turbinate; 
18th more stalked and elongate; terminal one much smaller, 
er, elongate, oval. Clypeus rounded in front, ver^ pro- 
fit, divided in the centre by a suture forming two convex 
; labrum large, rounded in front. Thorax with a fine dark 
m line running down to apex of metathorax; prothorax 
1 broader than long, as broad as the head, truncate at both 
slightly depressed in the middle of each, and rotundate on 
ides, smooth and shining. Legs rather long, thighs com- 



^ 



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980 



Al'STBALUS TBBMITtO^, 



1 





paratively slender, tibiai short aiad rather bent^ 
apines at the apexj tarsi long, claws stout, plantq 

Wings large, more than thriee as loog as bmad 
towards the tips; fore and hind i^-ings diffeniig \t 
scapular shield short, rounded, with the ciiosa 
round showing the base of tiie six brai>ching 
moi^e robust than usual, receiving two atoufc p 
running out of the scapular shield and sloping 
coHtal sending out four other cross nervure^ slopin 
be^'ond them, and a number of more transvers 
numerous short cells towards the tip of the wings, 
ininning close to subcostal and counect-etl with 
intervals by a number of transvei^se uervui^ 
towards the apex; subraedian running through tli 
wing^ with six oblique short thick opaque nerva 
five slender nervures branching out, turning i 
again dividing Ijefore reaching the margins; the wi 
reticulated with finer vein lets : bind wing with i 
aloping nerv ure between the costal and saulxxittla 
to the coQt-al with two very short oblicjue rmrvu 
the tip; eubcostal nerv\ire running imrallel and h\ 
obIic|uo nervures running into the costal, ami emi 
network at the tip; thei-e is no true median nrrM 
emerging from the suireostah in a line witli tht^ 
oblique nervure of the subraedian, takes its place; 
'ft'ith short transverse nervures to the tip; the 
as the forewing. Abdomen elongate, ovtil, rrmi 
with the anal appendices stout, but bidden wh 
above; cerci stout, conicaL 

J^tj^.^Sans Souci, Sydney {Mr. J. L. Brme«)* 

I have only one spirit specimen, hut in |*i^rfitct 
by Mr. Bruce in the house tlying to the lamp, 
like CtdolermeB hiMiiariSf Wliit^, in size auti colo^ 
having the head convene and not flattened in fa 
prothorax, neuration of wings atirl other im|»rliii 



; 



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BY WALTBE W. FROGGATT. 



531 



Calotermbs brouni, n.sp. 

(PL XXXVI. figs. Ma.) 

eneral colour dark reddish-brown, with the wings fuscous and 
nen-ures chocolate-brown. Length to tip of wings 5, length 
ip of body 3 lines. 

lead longer than broad, rounded from the base to the front 
le eyes, flattened on the summit and arcuate on the forehead. 
8 large, oval, not projecting very much, finely faceted; ocelli 
B, reniform, contiguous to the inner margin of the eyes, 
ennse springing from a cleft in front of the eyes; (]) 14-jointed; 
joint large, cylindrical; 2nd and 3rd of equal length; 4th 
Uest; the rest broadly pyriform, more truncate on the apical 
I towards the tip. Clypeus small ; labrum large, quadrate, 
i the sides rounded in front; jaws stout, with two teeth at 
tip, the others indistinct; palpi short and stout. Prothorax 
d, truncate in front, slightly concave behind the head, sloping 
be sides, slightly concave behind. Wings slender, more than 
je as long as broad; scapular shield large, with five branches, 
one parallel vein running into the costal behind the second 
averse from the subcostal ; subcostal nervure sending out 
Q transverse nervures running into the costal, and irregularly 
Bd at the tip; median nervure running parallel to subcostal, 
merging into it before reaching the tip either in the last fork 
le seventh transverse nervure of the subcostal, with three or 
oblicjue irregular slender nervures turning downwards; sub- 
an nervure with five thick oblique nervures at the base, and 
lender ones all forked at the tips; the whole wing finely 
alated between the nervures. Legs short; thighs very thick; 
short and stout, with the apical spines very large; terminal 
} of the tarsi large; plantula small. Abdomen short, cylin- 
I, rounded at the tip, with stout conical cerci. 

latter. — The head ochreous, more ferruginous towards the jaws; 
inae bright yellow, with the apex of the joints pale, the rest 
white. Length 3 lines. Head long, cylindrical, rounded 



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532 



Alt^RALIAN TERMlTiUM, 




mn 



■*' 



Ijehind, nearly twice iis long as broaiJ, sloping rjowi 
head J rugt»se behind the elypeus; an ten hep 13<jointi 
from a cleft on the sides of the head; 3rrJ joint shot 
hruadly pyriform^ the last elongate-oval; cljpeiis sn 
upon the sidea; l&brum large, rounds on the si 
palpi nlendefj short; jaws broad and stout, curved ai 
th^ tipji, with two angulai- teeth alxjut the t-etilre, 
large angular tooth at the base; jawa crossing ovf*r i 
the centre; It^ft jnw with only one tooth in the centre, 
rounded on the .^idea^ concave in itxmi ; abJonien € 
anal appendices long and hair}% cerci short and wlout 
Worker with tlu* head only pale yellow; length 2 
Jipherical; antenn;e shorter and thicker tlian those g« 
thorax not quite as broad as the head; abdotnen lon| 
pointed at the apex* 

//rr^.^— Drury, New Zealand {Captain Thom^A Br<j 
spirit specimens of this species were sent to uu 
Broujj under the impresBioti that it was Cafoterji 
White. It is, howevefj a very different forai, diffb 
tim\ colour, and other details- I am also indebtefl 
B rou n for tl i e f ol lowing in form ation : — * ^ Thi^ spec i 
inhaViited the ^ Ptiriri ' ( Vitex ItUaraUii) in our nori 
where I lia\e frerjuently cut out the nesta cont?iiiiin|; 
family. This species has Ijeen found in buil<iin^ iut 
Tauranga, and is widely distributed throughout th 
district even where the * Purlri ' does not gnnw Thi« 
for hy the pi-actice of uning blocks of this wood for 
BOtnetimes infested with the termites; wlien thq 
thi-ough the 1 blocks they attack the kauri Htxiring \m 
Home eases eat their way through the wall stud8 to l 
the softer ' Wauri ' timber the ooramunities htHHimi 
numerous and destructive." 

CaLOTKKMKS ADAMSOSl, n.S|l. 

(PI. XXXV, tigH 2, 2«, 2A.) 
Head ferrugiuuus, thorax oahreouai with darker mm 
hiiKf} ot wings ; upper surface of abdominal segi 




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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



533 



ireous; antennae, legs, and all the under surface lighter coloured; 
igs pale fuscous with the nervures reddish-brown. Length 7 J 
tip of wings, 3 lines to tip of body. 

Head broad, rounded behind, flat on summit, longer than broad, 
ckish and rugose along the front margin, with a small rounded 
in centre behind the clypeus. Eyes very small, round and 
nding out; ocelli wanting. Antennai 16-jointed, antennal cleft 
p; Ist joint large, broadest at apex; 2nd smaller; 3rd smallest; 
5th short; 6th-15th turbinate; 16th elongate-oval, smaller 
Q the others, Clypeus small, pale yellow, truncate behind, 
aded in front; labrum large, pale yellow, contracted at base, 
id and rounded in front; jaws stout, with two sharp-pointed 
h at tip, and two large flat ones at base. Pro thorax short, 
rly as broad as the head, almost truncate in front, with a 
resaion in the centre, rounded on sides, slightly arcuate behind, 
«ned on summit, with the edges slightly turned up; meso- and 
athorax large, with a dark median suture, round at apical 
^*n. Legs moderately long; thighs thick, short; tibiae long, 
ier, with three stout spines at base; first three joints of tarsi 
t, 4th twice as long as the three others combined; claws 
i'f plan tula wanting. Wings large, slender, rounded at tips, 
?e as long as broad; scapular shield small, round at base; 
d with ochreous yellow which extends slightly into the base 
le wing: costal and subcostal nervures running parallel to each 
r and turning round the tip, a stout parallel nervure running 
}£ the scapular shield and turning into the costal about the 
quarter; four stout oblique nervures running upwards into 
ostal, with a network of more irregular shorter ones round 
tips, forming irregular cells; median slender, running out 
rds the tip and branching out into three slender nervures 
ng downwards; submedian stout at base, slender beyond and 
Qg downwards a little beyond the middle of the wings, with 
oblique nervures, the first six short and thickened; the whole 
covered with an irregular dainty network of nervelets; hind 
with the oblique nervures fewer than in the former, the 
m nervure running out to tip of wing, dividing into a single 
36 



r 



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534 



AUSTRALIAN TBRMITID^, 



fork, the submedian extending nearly the whole 
with eleven oblique nervures, the 6th large and 
Abdomen broad oval; cerci large, long and hair] 

Soldier. — Head bright reddish-brown, with frc 
black; antennae and palpi dark reddish-brown at 
giving them a variegated appearance; the rest ^ 
ochreous, with the legs rather darker. Head lo 
broadest at base contracting slightly behind the 
flattened on the summit, a faint me<lian suture \ 
one turning down on either side into a raised 
antennal cleft: clypeus large, with a black protul 
margin; labrum contracted at base, rounded on $ 
downwards in front: antennae more slender, and 
the third joint to tip; palpi very long, extendi) 
tip of jaws; jaws short and stout, slightly curve 
with three sharp incised teeth on the upper 
large one below; right jaw with one curved f 
a broad angular tooth below; prothorax more sh 
tips, not as wide as the head, with median s 
through it to base of metathorax; abdomen lar; 
narrowest at tip; cerci large; anal appendices lar< 
standing out perpendicularly. 

Worker. — Head pale ochreous-yellow, with a < 
spot in front on either side of clypeus, the res 
pale yellow; length 4 J lines; head large, orbic 
broad; abdomen large, cylindrical, rounded at ti] 

/^a6.— Uralla, N.S.W. (Mr. G. McD. Adamso 

This termite differs from the other members 
having no ocelli, but the wings are so typical th 
remove the species from the genus Cnlotermes. 

This species is rather common in the Urai 
Adanison having sent me several families taken 
dead stumps and logs, with the winged termites i 
Of two different lots from different nests, one 
darker coloured and somewhat larger, but othen 




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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



Genus Tbrmopsis, Heer. 



535 



Heer, Insektenfauna von Oeningen, 1848. 

pad large, rather oval, broadest behind and suborbiculate; 
small, oval, not very prominent; ocelli wanting; antennae 
23-27-jointed. Prothorax small, not wider than the head 
circular, flat. Legs long, robust, furnished with tibial spines 
plantula. Wings as in Calotermes, Abdomen egg-shaped; 
appendages long, 6-jointed. 

is genus contains three species described by Heer and Hagen 
fossil specimens in Prussian amber; and two existing species, 
:n>m Manitoba and California, and the other from the west 
of South America. 

thing particular is knDwn about the habits of the existing 
5s, but the genus is evidently closely allied to Calotermes, 

Grenus Parotermbs, Scudder. 

Proc. Amer. Acad, of Arts and Science, 1883. 

is genus was formed by Scudder for the reception of three 
species found in the American Tertiaries of Colorado, U.S. 
ys, " These species are most nearly allied to Termopsis and 
'.rmes, but differ from each of them in points wherein they 
from each other, and have some peculiarities of their own. 
differ from Calotermes in their shorter wings (relative to the 
I of the body), which lack any fine reticulation, and in their 
of ocelli. From Termopsis they differ in the slenderer but 
orter wings without reticulation; their uniform scapular (sub- 
T) vein running parallel to the costa throughout, and pro- 
with fewer and straight branches. From both they differ in 
•esence of distinct inferior branches to the scapular vein, but 
ally in the slight development of the intermedian vein and 
^iian vein, the excessive area of the extemomedian vein, and 
urse of the latter,, which is approximated much more than 
to the scapular vein and emits branches having an unusually 
udinal course." 




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^ 




536 



AUSTRALIAN TERMITIDjE, 




ft 



m^\ 



A 



Genus Mixotermbs, Sterzel 

This genus is founded upon the fossil wing 
Lugau. From the description given of the w 
allied to Cahtermes. 

Genus Hodotkrmbs, Hagen 

Bericht d. K. Akad. Berlin, 18 

Head lat-ge, circular, with the median suture 
across towards the eyes; eyes oval, small, face 
jecting on the sides of the head; ocelli wantii 
convex; labrum small, shell-shaped; antennae a 
the head, 21-27-jointed; jaws short, powerfu 
thorax small, as large as the head, broader ^ 
shaped. Wings small, four times as long as 
length of the body. Tibias with five spines, 
wings similar to that of Calotermes, broac 
Abdomen somewhat broader than the thorax 
dorsal surface; anal appendages cone-shaped. 

In their habits the species resemble Caloterni 
have been described from Africa; four fossil sp 
and one from America. As yet I have fou 
species of this genus. 

The soldiers are remarkable for having true f 
Sharp has figured the soldiers of a remarkabl 
landi, from Africa, which move about in the 
protection. 

Genus Porotermes, Hagen. 

Mon. Linn. Ent. xiL 1858. 

Head smaller than that of Hodotertnes; eyes sc 
ocelli; venation of the wings similar but much 1 

This is one of Hagen's subgenera, and was 
species from Chili, S. America. 



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BY WALTER W. PROGGAIT. 



637 



Genus Stolotbrmes, Hagen. 
Mon. Linn. Ent. xii. 1858, p. 105. 

lied to Hodotermes, but having only about half the number 
jints in the antennse. Ocelli present. Prothorax heart- 
ed; first tarsal joint as long as those following. Venation 
18 wings as in Hodoternies, but the straight median nervure 
what like that of Eutennes. Habits resembling Calotermes. 

Stolotermes bruneicornis, Hagen. 

Mon. Linn. Ent. xii. 1858, p. 105, Tab. ii. f. 5. 

rk brown; mouth parts, basal joints of antennae, under surface 
ead and legs lighter coloured; wings fuscous, with the 
ires a little darker; head and thorax smooth and shining; 
rhole insect rather long and thickly covered with hairs, 
th to tip of wings 6J, to tip of body 3 lines. 
ad small, circular, sloping in front, with a distinct median 
B, summit rugose. Eyes round, large; ocelli in front of the 
margin of the eye; a large indistinct central false ocellus- 
ipot. Antennae 16-jointed; first two cylindrical, of equal 
\i; the last oval, the rest cone-shajied. Clypeus small, shorty 
oa circular, mussel-shaped. Prothorax much smaller than 
broader than long, flat, rounded l>ehind, contracted slightly 
)nt. Wings long, four times as long as broad; scapular 
truncate, with five branches : costal and subcostal iiervures 
cte<l by 7-9 very sharp transverse parallel nervures, some- 
forked; first two basal ones not springing from sul)costal; 
n nervure running through the centre of the wing, with 
1-9 oblique nervures; submedian nervure very short, turned 
with four short thick nervures. Legs robust; thighs broad; 
long, with two spines at the apex; tarsi one-third the length 
: tibiae, the last joint a little longer than the first three 
oed; plantula present. Abdomen broader than thorax, 
3erci large, cone-shaped; anal appendices in the male long^ 
r. 
'. — Tasmania. 



i ■ 



!♦ 



, I 



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.ll 




538 



AUSTRAUAN TUliMl JUL t', 



The above description is compiled from H&gen, 
he has seen three dried specimens in the Berlin 1 

Stoloikrmes RUF1CEP8, Braner. 
Seise Novara, Zool. Th., Neuroptera, ] 
{PL xjtxvL figs. 'Z-2m,) 

General eoloui" dark i^disli-bix>^'n, the ^indf*i 
ligbter, bajie of the jobitii of antt>iirne fuacoua. L 
of win^ 5t, to the tip of body 3 J linea. 

Head spherical; convex on the eummit, rouodei 
to behind the ejea. Eyea large, projecting, a 
ocelli wanting. Antennae long, thickest ti>wan 
Join ted 3 Bpringing from eleft in fnmt of the eyi 
joints stont, cylindrical; 3rd verj' short; 4th-Gth 
extremities, narrowest at the base; 7th to tip Una 
rounded at apex. Cly[>ei]H smalK rounded in fron 
broad, i-ounded at tip; palpi rather whort; jawH h 
three amali rather Vjltiht teeth near the tip and i 
distance lower down, the Imse n:junded. Protboi 
as broa^i f*^ the head, broader than long, abnusittr 
rounded on the sides^ *iloping to the hind marj^i, \ 
arcuate in the centre, flattened on the snnimit, 
suture running to baNe of abdomen, forntini^ a dai 
the centre of thti mftst>- and raetathorax. I^ej^ c 
thigbH very stout; tibhe long^ slender, anrl cylini 
tibial spines f^tout ; tarsi long, claws large, 
slender, cylinflrical, broadest at the Imse, rounde 
cerci sbort 

Soidier.—HeBA bright yellow, ferruginoti^ toti 
jawH black, upper s^urfatie of the thonix brown iiih 
dull whit^i. length 3 J lines. Head longer than 
behind, flattened on the aniomitT straight on the % 
from the anteunal cleft ti3 the l>jvse of the jaw**, ali 
ruguBe upon the f^irehead : i^dth verj" diitinut in 
upon the aides of the head behind the antennai: an 






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BY WALTER W. FBOGGATT. 



539 



a cleft in front of the head, IS-joinfced, the batsal juiiUs ius iu 
inged insect, with the apical joint stouter ami not ao stalked; 
us small; labnim broadest at base, r(iunfle<l an the nkhn to a 
led tip; jaws stout at the base, cur\ed in at the tiptfj, and 
ing each other in the middle, with two broad angular teeth 
i centre. Prothorax not as broad an tlie liead, arcuate and 
lest in front, rounded and sloping sharply on the aiden to 
pical margin; legs short; thighs verj thicks tibins slender, 
the two inner spines at base very close together; abdomen 
r large, oval: cerci small. 
6.--Drury, New Zealand (Captain T. Broun)* 
lave no workers in my collection, all other examples sent 
the soldiers being pupse with short wing-caBea. 
rit specimens of this species were sent to me by tlie Govern- 
Entomologist of New Zealand, but without any iiotea upon 
habits. 

I soldiers are remarkable for their <listiiictly fatetetl eyee, 
b some species of the Hodotermes gruup are also known to 
wldiers provided with eyes. In an Afdran termita (Hodo- 
havilantli) which is figured in the Cambridge Natural 
y, and described as going about Lri the liright sunlight^ 
^ eyes are very distinct. 




-f 






Rhino TBRMiTiN^. 

Genus RniNOTERMES, Hag^n, 

d as broad as long; forehead flattened, with a parallel cleft 
h the centre of the rhinarium, which prajecUi slightly in 
forming with the lobed clypeus a suout-llke process, Eye.^ 
coarsely faceted; ocelli present, with a circular t'al^ 
spot in the base of the cleft : antennie 20*jointed, Pro- 
not as wide as the head, rounded in frout. J>gs stout, 
wo spines at the apex of the liljiie; plantula wanting* 
short and broad, rounded at the tipn; Hcapular shield sjhort 
>ad, swelling out and slightly convex at the cross auture; 
amd subcostal nervures stout, well ^parated at the baae, 



• \\ 






> i 



'^l 



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540 



AUSTRALIAN TERMITllKf:, 



N 




slightly connected towards the tips with irregu' 
median nemire fine, but irregularly branched c-i 
median with a great number of fine bifui*cated ol 
the whole wing reticulated with furrows and rami 
Hagen placed in this subgenus of Tei^ieii thr 
Cuba, Surinam, and Brazil. A fourth s|>ecies w 
Brauer from Australia. The members of the Au 
live in communities like Calotermes. On fiocount 
veins between the costal and sul>costal neriures 
them in a separate subfamily. 

Rhinotermes reticulatus, n.sp. 

(PL XXXVI. figs. 3, 3a, 3^ 3o.) 

Upper surface pale ferruginous, ventral surf a 
wings light reddish-brown, semitransparent, n 
Length to tip of wings 5i, to tip of body 3 lines. 

Head slightly broader than long, broadest l)d 
on the sides in front of the eyes, and truncat 
flattened on the summit. Eyes small, not proj 
faceted; ocelli very small, in front of the eye 
Antenna? 20-jointed, springing out of a deep ant 
joint large, cylindrical ; 2nd about half the It 
smallest; 5th-20th moniliform, increasing slit^hth 
more stalked to the tip; the terminal one roui 
rather hairy. Clypeus large, truncate beliiiicl, di 
cleft which proceeds from the front of the for 
commences in a small rounded spot in a liiu* 
labrum spade-shaped, rounded at the tip, longer tl 
thick and stout, sharply curved in at the tip, ^ 
angular teeth, and a rounded edge at the base. 1 
wide as the head, rounded in front, rotuiidatc ai 
apical margin. Legs robust, thighs short and bf 
slender, hairy, with two long spines at the tip; 1 
Wings thrice as long as broad; scapular shield 
above, with the suture slightly convex; costal 




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BY WALTER W. FROOGATT. 



541 



•vures thick, running parallel to each other and curving round 
the tip, without true cross veins, but with a number at the 
;reme tip forming irregular cells ; median nervure slender, 
jgular, crossing the middle of the wing, turning downward and 
nching into three oblique forks, the first again bifurcated, the 
)nd simple and the last again forked; submedian running 
allel with median to middle of wing, turning downwards, with 
it oblique branching veinlets not always regular. Abdomen 
rt, broad, rounded at the tip; cerci short and stout. 

oUier, — Head pale yellow, darkest towards jaws which are 
nginous; the rest dull white. Length 3 lines. Head large, 
•t and broad, flattened on the summit, rounded on the sides, 

sloping up in front from the deep antennal cleft to the base 
aws; forehead truncate, with a sharp canal cut out in the 
re, forming a short gap with a circular spot or opening at the 
: clypeus concave behind, rounded on the sides and narrowest 
•ont; labrum very long, reaching to the tip of the closed jaws, 
d at base, contracted towards the middle and swelling out 

a rounded spatulate lobed tip; jaws short, stout, sharply 
ed over each other at the apex, with two sharp teeth below 
le left fang and a single one on the right. Thorax smaller than 
, with the prothorax more saddle-shaped than that of the 
;ed ones; legs rather slender; abdomen short and broad, the 
ler anal appendices showing beyond the tip; cerci hairy. 

idier {minor). — In this species a second form of soldier is 
ys present in about equal numl^ers with the larger ones. In 
ral structure they are similar, but with all the parts more 
er and elongated; length 2 lines. Apical portion of head 
it yellow, base much lighter; hearl broad at the base, sloping 
use of the jaws, of a somewhat elongated pear-shape ; jaws 
I elongated, slender, turning over at the tips; palpi nearly as 
as jaws; antennae 16-jointed ; labrum very slender, l)ut 
i,r to that of the large soldier. 

rrker dull white, lightly tinted with yellow behind the jaws; 
» in. length. Head very large and broad, sloping round at 






Hffff 



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542 



AUSTRALIAN TERMITIDJi, 



the jaws, with a curious bilobed pattern abo 
antennae very slender, 18- to 20-jointed; clypei 
rounded behind, with a deep median suture, a 
on either side at the base of the antennas; labrum « 
much smaller than the head, with a fine median 
from the base through the meso- and metathorax 
swollen in the middle, broadly rounded at the ti] 

Hah. : Kalgoorlie, W.A. (Mr. G. W. FroggJ 
Palm Creek, Central Australia (Prof. Spencer, H 

Specimens of these termites were taken by my 
sheoak (Casuarina) stump towards the end of Mi 
time the winged ones were more plentiful than 
soldiers. In their habits and general appearan 
CalotertneSf and take the place of the eastern ! 
iiiedius; both are plentiful in their districts. 



^m ■ 



Rhinotermes intermbdius, Brau 

Reise Novara, Zool. Th., Neuroptera, 

Upper surface pale ochreous, lighter colourec 
head and thoracic segments: under side, legs, a 
yellow; wings pale ferruginous, semitransparent. 
Length to tip of wings 7, to tip of body 4 lines. 

Head similar to that of R. reticulatusy but wi 
larger and more prominent; ocelli larger. Ant 
20-jointed. Clypeus broader and not quite so con 
broader and more deeply concave in front b 
Legs longer and tibiiu more slender. Wings t 
broad, larger, and lighter coloured, but wit 
identical. 

Soldiers and u^orkers as in the former species. 

This species is not very common about Sydne 
small colony in the stem of a dea<l honeysuck] 
serrata) near Sydney; but at Wallsend, near \ 
colonies under dead logs are common, gnawing ii 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



543 



ig the grain of the wood, and retreating into the log when 
urbed. They are at once recognised by the large broad heads 
he soldiers and the presence of two different forms of soldier, 
he soldiers, like those of Caloiermes, are very timid, never 
ving fight, but hurrying away to shelter when disturbed, the 
e soldiers being much the braver. I had never been able to 

the winged forms in our nests, but my friend Mr. Gilbert 
Qer, of Mackay, was more fortunate, sending me down several 
^ed ones with workers and soldiers 

arly last year Mr. N. Holtze sent me a small bottle full of 
;ed ones that had been taken flying round the lamps at 
lerston, Pt. Darwin. This species was described by Brauer, 
locality given being Sydney, N.S.W., but in a specimen sent 

the Vienna Museum, where his types are, the label attached 

"Thorey, Cape York, 1868." 

*6-— Sydney and Newcastle, N.S.W. (W. W. Froggatt); 
cay, Queensland (Mr. G. Turner); Port Darwin, N.T. (Mr. 
[oltze, Botanic Gardens). 

GLYPTOTBRMITINiE. 



/t 



Genus Glyptotermks, g.n. 

ad broad; eyes moderately large, coarsely faceted; ocelli 
to the eyes; antennte short, 13- to 15-jointed, springing from 
ular cleft in front of the eyes. Prothorax convex in front, 
led on the sides and convex behind, with a slight median 
K Legs stout and rather short, with short thick spines at 
>f tarsi; plan tula small. Wings slender, thrice as long as 
; scapular shield small and angular showing tl;ie base of four 
res: costal, subcostal and median nersures running close to 
>ther through the upper half of wing, subcostal generally 
ig into the costal in the centre, but always separated 
extremities; submedian running through the centre of the 
it and the oblique nervures often composed of fine dots. 
.11 dark -coloured termites, with clouded opaque wings, living 
ill coninQunities in the trunks and bark of trees; soldiers 
»w; these and the workers slender and cylindrical. 



I 



t n ' 



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M 



H 



^ 



541 AD^KvLIA3f TKiUtrTiD^, 



GlYPTOTERMES TtTBERCULATUa, I 

(PL xxx\. figH. [4, Da.) 

GenerJil colour pale oehreou»: legs aijd anu 
ritreoufs, with the nervures fuacous at \msi& mid 
tnwards the tips- Length to tip of wings 6, 
] iiies. 

Head broader thao long, broad behind, 
tfuncate in fronts convex on the summit, Eyi 
thf^ sides of the liead, large and circular, ervtrt 
round, in lin*^ with the aptciil niargitr of cy*«a, 
rather hairy* springing out of a deep aiiteiii 
of theeyes^ l5-jointed; l?^t stout, cylindrical; 2ii 
oylindrieal, br<jmlest at apex; ith-Hth sihort, 1 
ratlier broader tuwanJ?* the extremities, with t 
Clypeu^s roimded liehind, pniduoetl into flaTi 
narro^s^er, trunc?trt« Jind qusuirafce in front; laiirii 
in front, Bijell-shaped: jaw^ rather stout, with 
at the tip; palpal joints very abort and ovaL Pi 
slightly tnn^ed up on the edge, slightly concavr 
on the jiide.s^ truncated behind^ with a dep resit 
and a ^liglit tiutare, rough and ilattene^i on sum 
thighs thick, rath*^r cyHndrical; tibiic with th 
rtpine.4 at apox; tarsi with the laat joint vcr 
present. Wings more tJian thrice af* lon;^ as hn* 
whitish when dry, very thin and ea&ily Ujtb 
narrow and angular, the ci'obs Kuture iruncali 
fn?5t three norvure.^ meeting on the upp*r f^li 
median indistinct; costal, subcostal, and medi 
fii'st strengthened at the extreme ba^o by a 
parallel nervure running from the subemUil 
running parallel and close together to tln^ tip of 
nervure weak and irregular^ running through I 
wing, without any stout tibUc^ue nervurt^s at tJ 



X 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



545 



ne 12 or 14 irregular nervures turning downwards : costal and 
3costal of hindwings as in f orewings, but with median emerging 
ID subcostal at some distance from the scapular shield, and 
rning parallel with it to the tips; the whole of the wings 
ckly covered with scars or pustules. Abdomen elongate-oval, 
ider; cerci short and stout, well under the abdomen; anal 
)endices wanting. 

)oldier. — Head bright reddish-brown, jaws black, labrum 
?oiis, prothorax ochreous, the rest dull yellow. Length 3 lines. 
id a little longer than broad, cylindrical, sides straight, sloping 
'rom behind the base of the antennae to the centre where the 
head is deeply cleft, forming a rounded hollow with a stout 
bbed pr<)tuberance on either side, and truncate below, and 
hanging clypeus, which is small and indistinct; labrnm large, 
ened, spatulate, finely fringed with hairs; antennae springing 
of a circular pit in line with the base of jaws, 15-jointed; 
; short, ferruginous and very stout at the base, meeting at the 
with two stout angular teeth below the tip on the left side, 
jaw on the right side smooth to apex of labrum, where there 
Qe large tooth. A stout cylindrical finger-like projection 
ds out on either side of the apical margin of head in front of 
intennal cleft. Prothorax saddle-shaped, slightly arcuate in 
ty rounded on sides, and sloping back to apical edge which is 
tly concave in the centre; a fine median suture running 
ugh the head and whole of the thorax; thorax and abdomen 
ing a cylindrical body, narrowing towards the tip, rather 
r; legs short and stout. 

9rker about the same length and shape as the soldier, with 
exception of the head, which is almost spherical; labrum 
rate; anal appendices very fine, slender, projecting beyond 
[p of the abdomen; general colour dull white. 

j^ —Uralla, N.S.W. (Mr. G. McD. Adamson). 

scribed from specimens received from the collector in spirits, 
btained by him in a log. 



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546 AVSTRAMAM tBumtiB^n, 

GLYPTOTEltMKS lUmiPX^Nlt^ tl.»| 

(PL XXXVI » figs. 5, bn,) 

Cliilft>iBoii3 to pieeouS; ante tin sc anil \^pi At 
wings deeply clouderl with palp reddi'ihVi.imwn* 
brown. Length to tip of wingt^ f4, to tip of \>\m 

Head lunger than bi-oad, wldmt behind, c*n\^'' 
and sloping down on foreheaci. Eye?^ Hmall, roirn 
liw-'etttlj on the i?idea of the head projecting \*^ 
round, not contiguous but in linei with caiitre o 
short, stout, iind rather hairy, springing from it 
cleft in front of eyes, l5-jointed; Ut stout, cyl 
3rd smaller; the rest thieken<?dj stout, pyriftu i 
oval. Clypen^ large, ijuarirate; lai>nim convex u 
than long, roundetj in front. Ptothorjiii rail 
ln?ad, deeply concave in fcont, rotunda te with 
and the apex rounded. Leg?3 short, thighs \ 
tibim stout, eylindricah broarJ^st at the tipa, 
Htout spines lieautifully j^errat** on the edgr*i3; 
the ternnnal joint jiH long again a« the firnt thre 
alemlei% plan tu J a small. Wings slencler* four 
bftiad, rather jjointed at the tip; scapular slii 
with Hve nervuraH, cross suture trans verse; cohI* 
with a ar-out, parallel, oblique nervnii-e branchii 
i^bieUl and running up into coital; suWostal an 
ing out together, the latter sHghtly angular, 1 
trigether to the tip of wing; sul>CLJstal iii(*rging 
thr mid c lie of wingj but emerging again l>cforo ^ 
Hubm^?flian I branched on tht^ ncapular Hhield, 
unbranohed ol>lique nervurm at the baae, run 
c<?ntrt? of the wing, but nlenrh^r and turnw^ of 1 
work, with five main simihtrly fornnH-1 oiiUquf in 
uieimbranii of th© wing thickly covt^red with fit 
ing a network of irregular pattern* Aiidometi 
ix>uuded l>ehind; cerci small. * 



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i» 



BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



547 



^a^.— Frankston, Victoria (Mr. W. Kershaw, National 

iiseum). 

riiis species is described from a single pinned specimen in good 
58ervation: and is very distinct from any other species known 
me. 

GlYPTOTERMBS BREVICORNIS, n.sp. 

(PL XXXVI. figs. 6, 6rt). 

Jpper surface pale ochreous; wings semi transparent, nervures 
wn tinged with yellow ; under surface, legs, and antennae 
juineous. Length to tip of wings 5, to tip of body 2^ lines, 
fead a little longer than broad, rotundate, broadest between 
eyen, rounded on the summit, with a slight median suture at 
base. Eyes small, circular, not very prominent ; ocelli oval, 
iguous and in a line with the apical margin of the eyes, 
enn^e 13-jointed, 1st joint large, cylindrical; 2nd shorter, 
idrical: 3rd 4th orbiculate; 5th- 12th turbinate; the terminal 
oval. Clypeus widest behind, narrow, truncate in front, 
ing back on the sides ; labrum broad, rounded on the 
i, and rather truncated in front ; jaws broad, with three 
t blunt teeth at apex, the edge roughened towards base, 
horax not as broad as head, concave in front, rotundate 
he sides and behind, with a slight depression at the apex, 
irk median line running from the base through the meso- 
tnetathorax. Legs short and thick, thighs large; tibiae slender, 
?d with five stout spines at the apex; terminal joint of tarsi 
)] claws large; plantula small. Wings slender, twice as long 
road ; scapular shield slender, rounded at the cross suture, 
led with fuscous extending into the base of the wing; costal, 
>stal, and median nervures running parallel, close together, 
last extending a little further round the tip of wing; sub- 
an opaque at base, running through middle of wing, with 
! stout oblique nervures at the base, the apical one indistinct, 
t eleven in number, forming slender dotted nervelets turning 
iwards; the whole of the wings covered with minute spots 



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AVSTRAUAK TSnHJri».e, 






m 



or scars, Abdoraen broad, elongate, roimd^ n 
short and Btout. 

Soldier. — Head pale ferruginous ntlifk^t:^ l>eco!ii 
towards the antenna; ; jawgi castaneoas at ls*ww 
upfier surface of thorai^ and leg^ pale ot-hreou 
white. Length to tip of body 3| lines. Hewui t 
broad, rounded behind, straight upon the m\^^^ li 
of jaws J flat on the summit and akiping down s 
irregularly roughened ; with a luedian suture d 
and nmning out on either wide at Imse of atiteni 
jointed, short, not reaching l>ejond tip of jawsj 
flattjcmed, slightly rounded in fn>nt ^ lal »nim fl 
lying Ijetween the base of jawSj thin and &beU^ 
sht^rt, broad at the base, irregularly twitbefi, straij 
cur\ ed at tip and juj^t citis^ing each othcr^ w 
angular tejeth below on the left jaw and two lai 
right Body long and cylindrical . 

Worker. — Head and prothorax pale yellow, 
Length to tip of l>43dy 3 lines. HcjiaI apheriej 
median and transv^eiTRe sutures, and a dark niai 
margin on either side in front of imse of ant-eni 
cylindrical and rather hairy. 

//«&,— Maekay, Qiieengland (Mr. Gilbert Tunn 



^ 



GLYPTOTKaMKS KUCALYFTI, fLSp. 

(PL XXXV. !ig^ 5 5rt,) 

The entire insect dark ca«taneouS| antennie 
surface eomewhat lighter coloui'«?il; wings aeiiii 
nerviires darker, covered with fine dots or sftc* 
sunliglit. Tjength to tip of wing.-* 3 J, to tip uf ho 

Head slightly longer than broafl» broadly re 
arcuate in fit-uifc of e^^es, rounded on sunmdt, i 
clypeua. Eyes moderately large, projecting tiligfc 
contiguous tri> front margin of ©yea. Antenna' 1 * 




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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 



549 



? from an antennal cleft between the eyes; 1st joint stout, 
lindrical; 2nd shorter; 3rd rather pear-shaped; 4th-13th larger, 
Mculate, becoming more turbinate towards the tip; terminal one 
mded. Clypeus broad and short, truncate behind, overlapping 
! broad bilobed labrum; jaws small, straight on the sides, with 
tip curved in, a sharp tooth below, widely separated from the 
rd. Prothorax nearly as broad as head, broader than long, 
icave in front, rotundate on the sides and slightly hollow 
lind, a slender median suture at base to the apex of metathorax. 
fs short and thick; thighs broad, rounded; tibiie with three 
at spinas at apex. Wings slender, four times as long as broad; 
pular shield small and slender, fuscous, the colour extending 
) the base of wings, the cross suture straight: base of subcostal 
orewings robust, wuth a short nervure running out of scapular 
Id and turning up into costal just beyond the suture; costal 
sulxjostal only separated from ea<;h other at the extremities; 
median stout at base, running through the middle of wing, 
1 five or six opaque oblique nervures emerging from basal 
ion and six or seven finer and longer ones towards apex, all 
e more or less irregular from the many little dots covering 
wings. Abdomen long, slender, rounded at tip ; anal 
ndices very long and slender, close to the tip of abdomen; 
i short and stout. 

Miers. — Head pale reddish -yellow, the rest white. Length 
nes. Head longer than broad, rounded behind and straight 
»e sides, emarginate in front at the base of jaws, truncate on 
ead and rugose above clypeus; median and transverse sutures 
let, the latter running out on either side to base of antennje; 
on hidden; labrum broad, rounded in front and on sides, 
«sed in the centre and fringed with fine hairs: jaws a ery 
f at base, short, rounded, turning over each other at the tips, 
three sharp angular teeth. Abdomen long, slender, and 
Incal, tapering at the tip; cerci short and stout. 

^rker of a general dull white colour; head faintly tinged wuth 
i^; abdomen in life reddish-brown from the food eaten 
37 




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550 



ALTSTRALIAN TBEMlTiH.r., 



showing through the semitrfLnspafent skiii : h^Nn 
mg two lobes on foreliead, rouiwled t-owarHjii the 
with a dark spot ou either side of t-lyfieii,^; pr\>tli( 
bead, tliu rest c>f thuriix and alidomhwU segrtionts 
and cj^indricttl tfi thft tip. 

//fi/j.— Sydnpy, TSotany find Hi>rnshy (\V\ W* 
AUmt Sydney this^ ^^fHc^eies Ik only found by m 
Imrk upon the trunks of Euml^pim rohu^ia. 
upon tlie inner bark, and sometimes on tlie 
eviilently aa a general rule gnawing a ptisisn^ 
Vjehind, iiiS there are always iteveml tunnelw leiuli 
truiika^ which are nearly al^rayB rott**n and th^nx 
They live in iimall commtniities of from fifty 1 
individuals, the majority being workers or larvji 
only one or two soklierw in the eolony, Exeepi 
soldieru clo-^'ly re-^emble the \^ orkei*Sj and try t 
they are exposed. They form very slender tii 
all dii"4*ction,s in the bark, each individual I 
own account, no iTMum l^eing left to allow of t 
other. The wbigefJ ones are very Rinall in con 
workers and soldiers. Some well developed pu 
in a rather numerous colony in a dead tree (th< 
found them away from the living trees), and the 
perfect insects in Deeeral:)er. 




HKTEROTgRMlTIlf^ 

Heteuotermes, g.n. 

Head large, longer than broa^l^ nearly i|ua 
Bma I ! , not p roj ttjc ti n g ; oeel I i w a n i i ng i c ly f « * i 
Ijroad; antentne l(i-jointe<i. Prothorajt not a 
truncatefi im the sides; le;(H atout, witli four or 
at tlie apex of tihim. Wings nearly thriix? m 
Kcapular shieM Rmall timi angular; coatovl* suU: 
nervui-es running very idn-ie to ejtch oth»ir, liut l\ 
costal dirttinetly separated from e^wh other; yaliin 
nervures HJender. 



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BY WALTER W. FROGGATT. 551 

Heterotermks plat yceph ALUS, n.sp. 

(PL XXXV. fig. 10; PL xxxvi. fig. 4.) 

eneral colour castaneous, legs brown, labrum ochreous; 
Qn« barred ^4th white at the apex of each segment; wings 
fuscous with the nervures brown. Length to tip of wings 6, 
) of body 2 J lines. 

ead very large, longer than broad, almost quadrate, rounded 
id and straight on the sides to well in front of the eyes, 
ned upon the summit, slightly arcuate behind the clypeus. 
small, circular, well down on the sides of the head, not pro- 
ig; the ocelli wanting. Clypeus large, prominent, and 
led on the sides and apex, very slightly concave in front, 
a median suture through the centre dividing it into two 
labrum broad, rounded in front. Antennae 16-jointed, 
vith large thickened segments, springing from in front of 
1st joint long, cylindrical; 2nd and 3rd very small; 4th- 
increasing slightly in size towards the tip; terminal joint 
Thorax covered with long scattered grey hairs; pro thorax 
broad as head, truncated on the sides, rounded and arcuate 
centre of both base and apex. Legs short, robust; tibiae 
at tip, with four slender spines; tarsi slender. Wings 
thrice as long as broad, rounded at the tip; scapular shield 
", hairy, angular, showing the base of four nervures; costal 
ubcostal nervures running very close together to tip; 
I nervure very fine, running close to subcostal, divided and 
I down at the tip: submedian fine, with seven thickened 
I nervures; the first two ver}' smaU; the 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 
rcate, with four or five slender oblique apical nervelets. 
len short, elongate and oval at the tip. 
— Kangaroo Island, S.A. (Mr. J. G. O. Tepper). 
•e one mounted specimen from the Adelaide Museum. It 
y curious form differing from all other species in the long 
.e head and thick antenna?. There are also four specimens 
termite in the Macleay Museum, labelled South Australia. 




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^5^ AITSTRAUAK TERMITIBM^ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATS 

Fig. l^i,— Hindwbg uf ,, 

Fig. 1 Ik—K^A of a*,ld ler of Cti(otcrm^M irrt^ 

Fig. 2. ^Forewtog of Oaimrau^ mitimstmi, ^ 

Fig, ^f.^Hindmiig of 

Fig. 26.— Hemil of «oidior of Cal^rrmr^ mhtn 

Fig, 3. — Forfewingof Jtf(M^o/.:rw)*^*4&irM,ri(V/i 

Fig. 3a,— Head of 

Fig, 4, —l^&tewing of Cdloterme^ imuJtariK, \ 

Fig, 6. ^Ffjrewuig of Glf^pto/erm^s enmij^^i 

Wig. 5a.— Head Df floldier, „ 

Fi^n 7, — H&^of joldier, 6'a^«emwfoit<^iy; 

Fig. S. ^Forewiog of Cafottrmi^ rohustHn, d,- 

Fig. 9a.— Head af eoldier, ,, 

Fig. 10. —Head of mi*^rt^Hrmr^ pfatffc^tkfdmy 

Pl*4TJE 3UUCVT. 

Fig. K — Forewiug of Gi/f^frnw^^^ ^roum, n.&ii 

Fig. U.~-He&d of Boldier, ,, 

Fig. 2: — Forewing of Siolohrnm rtt/fLw, Bra 

Fig. 2a,^Head of foldier, ,, 

Fig, S. ^Forewin^- of MhUofeFimJs rHiculmu*, 

Fig. 3a..^aw of 

Ptg. 3fr. -Head of »olcK*?r (mftjur), miJ,Lmm 

Fig, 3<;.— Head of aoldicr (miuop), 

Fig. 4. — For&wriug of Ilrtf.rotfrtm^ piailtt'ppM 

Fig. 5, ^Huad of Gij^daterntfj^ iridimm^i*, q.« 

Fig. 5«.-Wiflg of ,, 

Fig. 0, ^Wing of Gf^pt^t^rn^. fri^^V^n»i\ «.«, 

Fig. 6flf.— Head of soldiep, „ ' 



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553 



OCCURRENCE OF RADIOLARIA IN PALAEOZOIC 
ROCKS IN N.S. WALES. 

►Y Professor T. \V. Edoeworth David, B.A., F.G.S. 

(Plates xxxvii.-xxxviii.) 

CONTENTS. 

bibliography. 

ocalities and Oeologieal horizons of radiolarian rocks in N.S.W. 

[acroscopic and microscopic description of the radiolarian rocks. 

ominarj. 

factions. 

L Bibliography. 

first reference known to me as to the occurrence of radio- 
rocks in Australia is in a paper by Dr. G. J. Hinde, 
I- 

rock was obtained by Capt. Moore, of H.M.S. "Penguin," 
891, from Fanny Bay, Port Darwin. "The rock in question 
lull white or yellowish white tint, in places stained reddish 
miginous material; it has an earthy aspect like that of 
rer White Chalk, but it is somewhat harder than chalk, 
it can be scratchefl with the thumb-nail. There are no 
t stratification, and it appears as a fine-grained homo- 
mat<irial." Under the microscope the groundmass is 
\ye made up of minute granules and mineral fragments, 
; for the most part, being probably amorphous silica. 
nute grains, however, and angular particles polarize : 
»pear to be quartz, others rutile. The organic structure 



J.S. Vol. xliv. No. 194. May lat, 1893. Dr. (I. J. Hinde. Note 
iolariaa Rock from Fanny Bay, P«)rt Darwin, Australia. 



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554 



R A DIO L A iU A IN PALEOZOIC ItiM 



of tlip gratiulefi iH only y^vy faintly niarkei 
Fi'Mnoidea, Discoidea and Cyrtoid^a are all 
g«*uiogical iiorizon to which thej belong is vei 
the Desert Bandstcjne Fonuati*>ii (Upper Creti 

What is probably an equivalent of thiii ri>ck 
by the Rev, J. E. Teiikon WticKlH*' ats follows 

*' What we Btid whenever a guocl ^^ection k 
layer of loose white^ or refi, dc>eonipotied rock v 
i feet thiitk, lit^s on the upturned edges uf i 
tbi.s a hiyer &ionie 2 feet thiek i>f luaiuy ejir 
surface aoLL Above thk frcno 14 to 120 fe 
f^arl^jnate ui majLrnesia, mun? nr hym iiupiir* 
alumina and imn, and mere tracer of iime, 1 
white, for the Btain^* of briiwn, red antl ptirpl 
permeate tlie whole.'* 

The above statement Ijy the Rev. .1, E. 
far as can be aj^uei'tained, I'ef^i^a to a rock i 
which has now lieen pro\ etl to l*«?, not a vmg 
hirian rock. 

Reference naayhere \m mad« to a note by E 
he describes a cherty rock from Simtli Austni 
derived from sponge *picul<^s rath*^r than rarb 
globules of opal silica which might easily 
radiolaria. 

The I'ock described in the note referrtnl to * 
of Tertiaiy age. The specimens weru colleete 
Brown at Yorke'f^ PeniuHula, near Adelaide, 
{op. ciL p. 115), ''The principtil t'nature in 
delached aponge-spiculee which in places ;» 
crowded together in tiie i-ock, , . « The i 




* Report ou Geology and Miti<jralojy;y *A llm Ni^rt 
Auatrnti*, p, i>» By authority* AdclititJc* 188fl, 

t '* Note on Spetjimena of Cherty Siliceous Rock fi 
Oool. M»g. New Hedm. thi^ m. Vol vaii, imi. 



/ 



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IJV r. \\\ EIHJEWORTH JJAVID. 



OOO 



•ules and quartz graius arn imbsdtJerl appears to Ijl* Jiiainly of 
)rphous or opal stlica, nearly entirely neutrtil to palarizecl 
It between crossed Nietih, and it is principally in the form of 
^'minute globules ur ciiacs u^iually aggregated together so as 
jxhibit a micrascopie Ijotryoidal appearance, the globules or 
s varying from 01 to *03 mm. in diameter. Tht* globular 
1 of opal silica in similar to that which 0€cui'^ in maiiy of the 
ige-beds of the Upper Gi-eensand in this eountry^ and there 
hardly he any doubt that in this Australian Chert it m due, 
1 the Chert of thin ct^untrVj to the solution and redepoiittion 
le organic silica of the spoTige-spiculeH*" 

s far as I am aware» the above are the only inferences to 
occurrence of radiolarian rocks in Australia; and in ijoth 
\ it would appear that the rock** mentioned are of lat« 
)zoic age. 

sfore proceeding to deserilje the horizons where radiolaria 
recently Ijeen ijbserved bynie in Paltuozoic i"oeks in N.S*W., 
ght be of interest, in view of the grand Rcale on which the 
larian rocks are now known to Iw developed in this colony, 
n view also of the fact that some of the literature relating 
diolaria is ratlier inaccessible to Australian geologists, to 
y summarize the moi-e important works relating to Paheozoic 
Vfesozoic radiolaria in Extra-Australian ai^as» 
diolaria have h.^u descril>ed by Dr. D. Rilst* from Mes^ozoic 
, the Gault of Ziili, and the Neocomian of GiiiTlenaKza, 
adiolaria in the best st*ite of preser\'ation wei^ thosf* found 
B Cretaceous Coprolite Beds of ZlWi^ in Saxony. The ho 
aria have been atlmirably figured and descril>ed by this 
►er. 

[likowski has desciilied perfect forms frtjm the Lower Lias 
? Austrian Alps; while Hantken believes that certain 
us limestones with Aptt/tmiij of Upper Jurassic age, in 
il Europe are almost entii*ely formed of radiolaria, 

laeoDtographica. Vol, xxxi* 1885^ and ihiikm Vol. xxxiv. pp* 181- 
8. xxii-xxix., 18SS, and Vol. itxxmL, 1892* 



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SADtOLAtilA IK l>AL.«OZOir ROCI 



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Gyjiiliell cites? them from the St. Ca^iaii Ijetl^; 
detected their reraaiiis in the Iafra-Li&^. 

HailiutaiHa have Ijeen deseriljed by Dr. Upo. J 
F. L. Ran>ioiDe* from Aiigel Island from *Me«*w 

ftarliohtria have Ijeen descrilied froai Juritissdc 
the ciia.Ht ranges olf California by Fairlnanks^.f 

HtMliohnia have IjieeQ deficriljed from Piilreoi 
folium ing : — Shrubsole hiks recorded them fivuii 1 
rocks of UreAt Britain, 

Dr. O, J, HindeJ has fJeHfnt>e<l radiolarki fn 
Caiwl^M* viM^k at Corstorphiyie, in the B, of SvutJ 

Tlie s»me author has di*scjril>ed nuliolitritt 
ehnrtN at Mullion iHland, Cornwall, England. g 

Ft?rhaps the most inipLirtAut contribution to 
t}ie Palaeozoic radiolaria is that of Dr. Rutit,t| & 
ha;^ an imjiMirtani bearings on the rfwiiolarian rt*cl 
take the Hl»erty of making abstracts from it. 

In the i*f^Hphm'iie from the Petsohom in tl 
well pre!*erved rwliolaria in the forni ijf deep h 
in a bright brown traiif^lutient Imse. Flinty f 
are prt^sent in the fihoBphatic limestone. In ca 
are repi^t^nimted by casts only. In the wh©t«i 
nwiiolaria are badl}' preserved, 

I{Mbi>laria are beau ti fully preaervt*d as tlark 
etyp toe rystal line quartst groundmass in the 
TeufeWeeke at Laut^ntbal 

* Tlie Geology of Augol laUad, Uai^rePiity of Cali 
thti Dtijjfcirtmeiit af Geology. VoL i. No 7» pp. I £13-240 

t **.StiMtigraphy of the Civliforuian Const Ri4ng;fB*'— 
L' I viertgo , Vol. i ii . , 1 S !).'», p. 4 1 5. 

4l Geol. Mag. Ntiw Seriea, Dttc. iii. Vol. viL, IS 
k Miig. Nttt Hiat. Ser. t>. Vol vi. (ISW), p, 40, 

§ Q.J.0.8. Vol. xlisr., im% pp. 215^'220. PI. U, 

I pAheotitogmphia. \^ol. j:xxviii,, 1891-92. B^-itri^ 
fo**ibtt Radiolad^n aun Geateinpn tJor Tn*» uitd 
Bohi«?hteii. Von. Dr, Riiatin UanoYtfr. 



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BY T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID. 557 

The red jasper from Sicily contains numberless radiolarian 
hells, coloured red, in a translucent siliceous groundmass. 

Fairly well preserved radiolaria have been found in red jasper 
»f Lower Devonian age. 

At Cabri^res, in Languedoc, a very hard black siliceous schist 
f Ordovician age contains radiolaria, mostly in a bad state of 
re8er>'ation. In the phosphorite of Cabrieres, however, dark, 
orous to dense, concretions contain numerous radiolaria. 

The following is an analysis of the phosphorite : — 

Water 1*08 

Lime phosphate 73*65 

Silicate alumina 25*27 



P 



I 



100- 
The radiolarian shelLs were black, yellow, or colourless. No 
"onge spicules were present. In pieces of rock (siliceous shale) 

jm Saxony, poor in radiolaria, fragments of graptolites are U I ll 

imerous. 

Black radiolarian fragments have been observed in fairly hard 
ij shale of Cambrian age. Others occur in flinty pebbles, but 
t sufficiently well preserved to admit of the species being 
termined. Fragments of graptolites and graptogonophores 
re associated. 

The fact must be emphasized that it is chiefly in concretions 
itaining phosphoric acid that the radiolaria are best preserved. 
[t often happens in all flinty rocks, not only Palseozoic but also 
sozoic, that the quartz filling the original hollows of the radio- 
lan shells shows a radial habit, and has the form of perfect 
erulites exhibiting dark fixed interference crosses in polarized 
It when the objective is rotated. 

n most cases the latticed shell has disappeared. Occasionally, 
rever, the pore openings of the shell are preserved, or one sees 
irk circle Ixiunding a clear space, with small regularly placed 
c indentations on the inner side. 

ery often perfect crystals are developed inside and around 
e little quartz spheres. Generally these are opaque 




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558 



RADIOLAUIA IN PALiEOZOIC ROCI 




octabedra of magnetite and clear or dark yel 
of calcite. These crystals are seldom observab 
forms, and are not visible in the Devonian, 
organic remains are associated with the radiola 
spicules, belonging to the Hexactinellidae, are 
with the radiolaria, sometimes in great numben 

Isolated examples only of foraminifera are 
siliceous limestone of the Muschelkalk. In the 
shales of Langenstriegis, Rehan and Steben fra; 
lites and gonophores are not infrequent. 

Playit remains. — Prickly macrospores occur i 
rocks of the Jura as well as in the Carboniferoi: 
of the Hartz Mts. These were found in greai 
Lower Silurian limestone from Koneprus in I 
hitherto radiolaria have not been detected. 

Another important contribution to the know 
radiolaria is that by Hinde and Fox*, from w] 
abstracts may be made. 

Radiolaria occur at Codden Hill. The Codd 
a baked appearance, are whitish, buff, or dark g 
have frequently a chertoid texture, consisting o 
fine-grained grits. 

In places in the radiolarian chert wavellite is d( 
joint planes. Sponge spicules are associated wi 
rock. The radiolarian series of the Culm is pro 
ft. in thickness, if the intercalated fine shales b< 

Individual beds usually are from 2-4 inche 
much as 1 foot. 

The beds are intersected by numerous fine 
planes, which have the effect of dividing the i 
paratively small rect^angular or rhombohedra 
smooth flat surfaces. 



• Q.J.G.S. Nov. 1895, Vol. 1. G. J. Hinde and Howai 
marked Horizon of Radiolarian Rocks in the Lowei 
Devon, Cornwall, and West Somerset." 



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BY T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID. 



559 



The radiolarian beds are composed of dark to black chert with 
a hackly fracture. Other portions are dull grey to white, or the 
rock is made up of alternate light and dark bands, so as to be 
striped. 

In places the rock is platy, siliceous, or mottled white and 
))lack. The soft grey to white beds are very rich in radiolaria. 
They disintegrate in some cases in water into a fine cream-coloured 
mud. 

The soft beds are of much less frequent occurrence than the 
bard cherts. 

The individual radiolarian beds are minutely laminated. 

Microscopic character. — Carbonate of lime is conspicuous by its 
ibsence. The radiolarian rock generally shows a siliceous ground 
oass, in some cases clear and transparent, in others dark and 
urbid from the pi*esence of fine particles of carbonaceous or 
irrom minerals, and minute crystal needles of rutile and zircon, 
"he siliceous groundmass shows between crossed Nicols the faint 
f)eckled appearance of cryptocrystalline silica, like flint from 
lalk. When radiolaria are abundant chalcedonic tints prevail, 
he radiolaria in the rock have been filled with clear nearly 
•ansparent silica free from the rutile crystals and from the dark 
ibstances disseminated in the groundmass, and either micro- 
ystalline or cryptocrystalline. Within the radiolarian casts 
e silica Ls often fibrous radial, and so shows a black cross in 
>larized light. 

The more distinctly crystalline character of the radiolarian 
sts facilitates their recognition in the rocks with a clear ground- 
iss where in ordinary light they are scarcely visible, but between 
wsed Nicols they appear as so many circles of speckled or bright 
ht on a nearly dark ground. 

Minute casts of rhombohedral crystals are frequently present, 
>bably of calcite or dolomite, sometimes inside the radiolarian 
Its, A similar occurrence has already been referred to in the 
irtz Mountains. ^Microscopic cubes of iron pyrites are present 
some of the rocks. 




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560 



RAmoLAHU IS PAL.EOZOIC EOGKi 




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In some ol the liaitler ruid moc^ eherty betb \m 
like those in th^ pTO-OaiUihrian phthanitit! qtiart 
are noticeiiblt?^ ^00 G to 015 mm There h no ei 
that these are organic. 

Undet" favourable eonditious of light tlie latt i 
the radiolariaii slielU can Ix* diiitinctty iieeu in th 
resulting from the disintegration of the soft i^hah 

A few minute dentated plates, perhaps rathdn 
of dark lirri^niwh tinge are a^KOciated with the* rml 
fra^cments^ except mica flakes, are either whi 
exti-emely minute, 03 to -065 mm. in diameter. 

Rarely limes tone ia aasociated with the rinliijlii 
tlie lime intone are casts of radiolaria in calcite m 
spicules, Entomostraca, criiioidsj and Enthdktp 
form limefttone.^ near thi;^ radiolarian horisMm. 

In the majority of the Culm siliceous n*ck^ tl 
now in the condition of stolid cants of the origi 
skeletal walls have entirely dii^appeare^j^ anri the 
an? only bounded hy the J^iliceous matrix of t! 
without detinite even oiitline«. In iiueh instances 
general form uriih tli^ rudiai spinas can be diHtinj 

In some erases the te.^ts have been naturally Mt 
amber tint, and in wuch eases the latticed charjn 
ia quite ii«ible. 

Mr. Fox in a later paper* thuH «ummari»*i 
**Thei4c rafliolarian rocks of Cornwall may b« 
similar rocks of S. Scotland and with tlioee d< 
from the T^artK, a;^ well as those from tiie iHJSiM 
fonaift, of Jurashie age or older. . * . It 
these examples that in the process of the foi-ma 
finer structures and tlie more delicate forms of 
organisms disappear nearly entirely, so that it i 
traces of them are now to be seen in the older cl 



* «*Tbo RiiliolariM Cliertu of Corawmll/ 



Tnji^. Rf 



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BY T. W. BDGBWORTH DAVID. 



561 



2. Localities and Geological Horizons op Radiolarian 
Rocks in New South Wales. 

With the exception of the opal rocks which contain numerous 
spherical casts, possibly of radiolaria, all radiolarian rocks at 
present known in N.S. Wales are of Palaeozoic age. Radiolarian 
rocks have so far been discovered by me in N.S. Wales at four 
lifferent localities— (1) Bingera, (2) Barraba, (3)' Tamworth, (4) 
Jenolan Caves. (See Map, Plate XL., fig. 3.) 

fhvonian. (?) — (1) Bingera and (2) Barraba. In my Address* to 
his Society in 1894, I stated "in the New England District of 
^.S. Wales possibly the red jasperoid shales of the Nundle and 
Ji'ngera Districts with the associated serpentines may represent 
Itered abysmal deposit^s, as has been suggested by Captain 
lutton for similar rocks in the Maitai Series of New Zealand, 
nless the red claystone represents rock locally metamorphosed 
iiere in contact with the serpentines." 

Since reading the above Address, as opportunity offered, I have 
om time to time studied the red jaspers of Barraba and Bingera, 
r means of microscope sections. These revealed the presence of 
imerous spherical bodies composed of translucent chalcedony, 
stributed through an opaque groundmass of red jasperoid material, 
appeared probable that these were internal casts of radiolaria, 
t the evidence was inconclusive. Last January, through the 
idness of Mr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., I was allowed to examine 
I carefully prepared microscopic sections of the Lower Silurian 
^olarian cherts from Mullion Island, off Cornwall, and from 

Culm of Devonshire, as well as sections of red radiolarian 
oer from the Antarctic regions. It was at once obvious that 

last mentioned rock in particular closely resembled the 
\f(era and Barralwi red jaspers. On my return to Sydney, last 
rcb, with the help of the third year University students, I 
imed my examination of the New England red jaspers. Dr. 

• P.L.S.N.S.W. Ser. 2, Vol. viii. p. 594. 




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562 



EA0IOLAR1A IN PAUE020IG BOOI 



G. J. Hinde had placed at my disposal, on Ip 
valuable collection rtf British Palatizoic rftdiolf 
proved of tlie utmost use far purposes of com 
nuniljer of sections of the red jasper pnwed 
radiokrian rocks werf* develofjerl on a larg^ waiiJ 
and Bingera. It is tlie opinion of Mr. K l'\ Pit 
ment Geologist, tliAt the tul colour of the ^mnprn 
colour of the beds at the tiuje of their depo-sition 
due simply t<> tionto^t roe tarn orpbi^m. A coUe* 
kindly made for me by Mr, Pittma^n coiifirmj!$ 
question as to whether tbeHC red jaspers lire a I 
of deep sea origin will \k- diseusjied lat^r. The 
of the red jasper may be pi-ovisioiially plmvd 
Devonian Hystem, pt*rhaps in the IVIiddle Dev 
with the Buixiekin formation of Queensland. 

Lepidod^iidron Ai'Mt^ale- oecurs in sfjme (f 
whieh seem to bt* somewhat new^er than the 
but it appears t-o l>e represented sparingly, ahno 
low down aa the hoi*izon of the radioJarian rmk 
is not yet an established fact. 

(3) Tarn worth,— Traced »outfi%vard8, the radi 
recently lieeii found Ijy me to attalri a t^mark 
in the neigh hour htiod of Tain worth. They 
aiUceous, dark bluish-grey, calcareous roek*%, fin€ 
grey el ay atones and ehert^si, and coralline nt] 
The coralline limest<me liedrt, of which there ajt| 
two, are from lOD to 1000 ft. in thickness, a 
ch i efly of t he f ol 1 o w in g f < issi h : — St rmnfi tnpn ra 
D iph yph tfU n m l*orf f n\ Cf/f^t iphifll a m , Farimfth 
F, (/rawlipora or Pipiiypunt (the tatter x^% 
charaeterisstic), Aivtolite^ (ais^i very aliundant), i 

Mr, Donald A:. Porter, of Tiwn worth, conductc 

where thewe liine*?tones can Iw studied to Iwa 
he concurs witli me iu my provLsimial detludiai 
the Tarn worth rucki. 



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BY T. W. EDGE WORTH DAVID. 



563 



The limestones have been considerably altered by cont-act with 
the New England granite. The claystones and cherty rocks both 
above and below the limestones have also been much altered by 
innumerable granite sills for a zone over five miles in width, 
measured at right angles to the junction line between the 
sedimentary rocks and the granite. A lamination, coincident 
with the planes of bedding, has been superinduced in the clay- 
stones. The sills vary from a fraction of an inch up to several 
feet in thickness, and at first sight had every appearance of being 
regularly interstratified with the sediments. A careful examina- 
tion, however, at once revealed their intrusive character, as they 
trespass slightly across the planes of bedding and have slightly 
altered by indurating and developing chiastolitic minerals, the 
Hedimentary rocks both above and below them. The claystones 
and cherts dip chiefly westwards at angles of from 45 to 60". At 
lamworth Common the dip is W. 20° S. at 52°. Radiolaria are 
ibundantly distributed through these claystones and cherts in 
he form of chalcedonic casts. Associated with the claystones is 
he siliceous calcareous rock previously referred to. A good 
ection shewing it in situ is exposed at the quarries on the Tam- 
«'orth Temporary Common. The chief bed is about 18 inches in 
hickness. It weathers superficially into a soft brown friable 
ock of the colour of Fuller's earth, much resembling bath-brick, 
'resh fractures, of unweathered portions, shew the rock to be 
luish-grey and compact. If a surface of the unweathered portion 
e smoothed and polished and then etched with dilute hydro- 
bloric or acetic acid, interstitial carbonate of lime is dissolved 
It, and well preserved siliceous shells of radiolaria become visible, 
hese will be descriljed in detail later. A second bed of siliceous 
kdiolarian limestone occurs at a point about a mile easterly from 
le preceding. It is a few inches only in thickness. For the 
neral appearance of this rock see Plate xxxvii. The radiolarian 
<?ks are probably at least 2000 feet thick at Tamworth. The 
stance from Bingera on the north to Tamworth on the south is 
► miles. Barralm, intermediate between these two places, is 34 
lies south of Binffera and 51 miles north of Tamworth. The 



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564 



BAI>l6LAniA IN PALAEOZOIC ROC 



nijdiolariau rckck is ahnost certainly eontiiiuoui 
Tarn worth. 

(4) Jenolftn Cav^i^t— Thiy locality is abcmt ^ 
wetit from Tain worth, Tlie rcick^ developi'ii 
hocMi ar^ the Cave Limestone, thin grey argUM 
and reddish-purple shale*^ and black chert;* wit 
and sills of i|uart./>fel.sitc» and lm.sic dykes rendc 
augite. The Cave liiuefttone is a i^omcwhat 
380 tti 420 feet in thifkne«H. Stratification W 
npper surface. It dips W. 10 8. at 60' as 
year in my Addi^i^s to the Tloyal Socii^ty of N. 

The fulkiwing fossils have 1>een I'eeordt'tl as 
Mr, R> Etherid^^e, junr,* :— Fttdmtwniji Kni 
Pahnani^o Bj'azitFrii Eth, Al; LfArtmr^tmi ftnitrpit 
large Fttixmieii, 

Mr. E the ridge conjiiders tliat the oceurii 
varieties uf Pentamt^rti^ Kuii^hlli \n ihi^ Cave \ 
it not improbable that it appi-oximatt*^ in a^ 
Limestone of England. At the giam*3 tintt? he 
fact that PmifamfirnH Knu^ktil hrwi not yet beei 
Yass beds of N.S. Wales, tJie horijion of which 
Upper Silurian, and Mu^opht/fiuTticrai^iroulns^ a 
and abundant ooral in thr Yass beds ha» not 
in the Jenolan Cave Limestone. SfromntQp 
hand, is very abundantj as it is in the Taniwort 
the whole, T am of opinion that the J«^nolan Ca 
their associated rtidiolarian ]mh are Hiimewlu 
Yass Imihf m that if the Yass beds are I'j 
Jen o Ian Cave Li me4^ tones may bo of Liiiwttr oi- 
Age. Immediately overlying tht^ lime&ttjno ari 
clay shale?* and argilHtes and l)1ack cherts. , 
the guide to the caves, infofM* me that these 



^ Ue^m^U C^o\. Surv. N.S, Wiilea. Vol. Hi. VuH 
Annual RtifMvrt Dtp. Miiicis, N,B, W»le«, J 893, p. 



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BY T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID. 



565 



1000 feet in thickness. They are capped by basalt. Near their 
unction with the limestone they are seen to be very much inter- 
ected by eruptive dykes, porphyritic by augite. It may be 
aferred from the circumstance that nearly all the dykes to the 
ast of the limestone are felsitic, while no felsite dykes occur to 
le w^t of the limestone, that the basic character of the former 
roup of dykes is due to the eruptive rock having assimilated 
luch lime in its passage through the limestone bed, for as the 
ip of the limestone is westerly at an angle of 60°, and the dykes 
•e nearly vertical, they could not have reached the surface 
ithout first passing through the limestone bed. The dark 
lales are not distinctly cherty except where they are in close 
fiximity to the dykes. The cherty character of the beds in this 
se is due therefore, I think, to contact metamorphisni rather 
an to silica derived from radiolarian shells. Both the black 
erts and the softer and less siliceous dark grey shales abound 
casts of radiolaria. The casts are in the best state of preserva- 
•n in the cherty bands. Below the Jenolan Cave Limestone 
? several hundred feet of dark indurated shales, greenish-grey 
^illites, reddish-purple shale and coarse volcanic agglomerates 
:h large lumps of Favosites, Ileliolites, &c. The argillites and 
y shales contain numerous casts of radiolaria, but in a very bad 
te of preservation. 

3. Macroscopic and Microscopic Description of the 
Radiolarian Rocks. 

Tie radiolarian rocks from Bingera and Barraba are hard red 
>ers, the base of which is very opaque even in thin section, 
places the red jaspers pass into a nearly white quartzite. 
h portions of the rock as approach quartzite and chalcedony" 
haracter show scarcely any trace of radiolaria, probably owing 
he shells having been completely dissolved during the meta- 
phism of the rock. The opaque red jaspers, however, especially 
e which have not undergone much metamorphism, contain 
abundant casts of radiolaria, so abundant as to make it 
3« 



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566 



lUDtOlJLItlA m f>ALu£OZ01C H( 



•, Jifc'iii I 



evident th&t the radiolaria must in this om 
vury largely to form the rock. 

Under the microscope nunierous sphi^ricnl i 
■05 mm, to 215 mm. in diaoieter, are se<^u Ui k- 
the hme. The outlines of the larger ciL**t« ttr^ 
iiig poiut-B represjenting c^ysts in ehalcedoiiy of 
original latticed fibel]. Most of the sma.lh?r 
those of the medullary ahelK The Istrger a 
oecur iu pairs. Only in one instance wa^ the 
of a rttdiolarian organisni noticed, Jt wa*i m 
ring of i^ jasper from the east of th<* nu 
iovm appeared to lie allied to Curpmphfrm. 
of tlie easts, about '215 mm, in diameter, an 
to Ceno:fphftni. Many of the radiolariari em 
in the numerous minute faults to which the 
jecteil. The Tarn worth radiolaiian i-ockj*, as 
are partly thin siliceous limestones, partly i 
cherts, partly massive coralline lime^tonett. 

The black cherts do not appear to owe the 
the radiolaria, but to have derived it largely 
of granitic sills with which they are so reguLai 
give the appearance of inters tratification. 

The casta of radiolaria in the:*e cherty J 
i>etter preserv^ed than thtuse in the red jassf 
thrjse in the bkck cherts of Jenolan. 

Many of them nhow distinct traces of the I 
the shell. Tlie radiolaria^ however, at^ in m 
preservation in the thin mliceous liniestone^^, ' 
a kind of " rot ten s ton e."^ On the weatheretl i 
the radiolaria can be very easily difitingui«htKi 
Thin section!^ of the rock do not show^ luticli 
the shells under the micrriseope on account of ^ 
respective refractive indices of tpiartis and calcti 
to show up plainly the structure of the radiu 
Ijest results were obtaineil by tliinning slic«% 
thick nesM of the full diameter of tho largc^r rm 




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BY T. W. EDGE WORTH DAVID. 



567 



len etching the slice with dilute hydrochloric acid. Much of the 
ructiire can be developed in this way as shown on Plate xxxvii., 
om a microphotograph kindly taken for me by Mr. W. F. 
Qeeth, ]VLA., B.E., Assoc. R.S.M. 

As I have forwarded some of this material to Dr. Hinde, who 
s kindly undertaken to describe the radiolaria specially, I will 
t attempt to do more than mention that some of the commonest 
BIS in the Tarn worth rock are figured on Plate xxxviii. 
ft is obWous that the legion of the Spumellaria is much better 
resented than that of the Nassellaria. Fig. 7, Plate xxxviii. 
)ears to represent a Xiphofphcera, but the spines appear to be 
forated by openings, giving the shell somewhat the appearance 
^ipclUtella (Challenger Reports, Radiolaria, Vol. xviii. PL 39, 
. 6). Fig. 2 shows the inner and outer shells fairly well pre- 
ed, and is probably a Haliomma. Fig. 5 perhaps represents a 
odisctis; and Fig. 9 perhaps a Staurolonche or an Astromma, 
s regards the state of preservation of the shells the original 
ecus skeleton is for the most part represented, but is some- 
« replaced by iron pyrites. Often internal casts alone, in 
ledony, are all that remain to tell of the former presence of 
radiolaria. Spicules of hexactinellid sponges are visible in 
«, in this rock. The radiolaria are so abundant as to give 
rock, when etched, the appearance of a Barbadoes earth. It 
)robably in its original condition a radiolarian ooze, 
the Jenolan Caves, as already stated, the radiolarian casts 
►est preserved in the black cherts, where they are very 
rous. Numerous traces of radiolaria can also be detected in 
►ft argillitee and hardened clay shales. 

J i:idiolarian casts are in a better state of preservation in the 
cherts than in the red jaspers of Barraba and Bingera. 
ed structure is, however, scarcely anywhere to be seen, 
(light traces of it as do occur are preserved in the form of 
5 black fragments of network entangled in a sub-translucent 
crystalline base, as seen in thin sections under the micro- 




J . 




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568 



RADIOLARIA IN PALAEOZOIC R0< 



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Casts of the inner and outer sliells are \\v 
form of a nucleus of translucent chalcedony s 
of the grey base from an outer lin^ of clf^ar ch 

Radial spines are indistinctly visiiile in mar 
and can be seen best under crossed Xicols, M 
spherical, and vary in diameter fiom 05 mm. t 

Internal casts of the medullar^' shell are u 
casts of the outer shell. 

Sponge spicules were not observed. 

4. Summary. 

The radiolarian rocks, as yet discovered in 
range for at least 285 miles, from the Jenolan 
to Bingera on the north. Their total thick lies 
ascertained, but at Tamworth it appears to i 
2,000 feet, and at Jenolan to not less thai 
radiolarian rocks consist of red jasper:*, black c 
limestones, and thin bedded argil lites. The 
discovered are in the best state uf preservatio 
the siliceous limestone. For the mast part, 
represented merely by chalcedonic casts, the ca* 
shell being more frequently preserved than 
shell. In the thin siliceous limest*)nes of Tamw 
shells frequently have the original substance t^l 
well preserved in the form of siil)4iansluepnt t< 
Rarely the original siliceous skeleton is fouutl 
iron pyrites. In the Jenolan Cave Cherts the n 
show obscure traees of latticing in the ftinn of f 
black nets. 

At Tamworth and Jenolan tlie radiolarian 
coralline limestone interstratified with tliem, j 
feet thick at the former, and o^cr 400 feet i 
locality. 

At the Jenolan Caves a volcanic agglomerat 
of coral is associated with the radif*lariaii j^hal 



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114 



BY T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID. 569 

The associated fassils prove the radiolarian rocks, at Tamworth 
all events, to be homotaxial with the Burdekin Formation of 
ieensknd. Mr. R. L. Jack, the Government Geologist of 
leeusland, and Mr. R. Etheridge, Junr., consider the age of the 
irdekin beds to l>e Middle Devonian. 

5. Deductions. 

(L) In New South Wales there is a great development of rocks, 
eflj argillites, cherts and jaspers, formerly considered to be 
fossiliferous, but now proved to be formed largely of the shells 
marine organisms, the radiolaria. 

ii.) The geological horizon of these rocks is probably Middle 
Lower Devonian, perhaps Siluro- Devonian. , ] 

iii.) The cherty character of some of the rocks containing the m I 

iolarian casts is due rather to the introduction of silica 
•ndarily from eruptive dyke^s and sills than to the silica con- 
ed in the radiolarian shells. 

V.) The preservation of the radiolarian casts in the black 
•ts is chiefly due to the silicification and induration super- 
iced by contact metamorphism. 

.) This contact metamorphism took place some time between 
ilose of the Carboniferous Period and the commencement of 
Permo-Carboniferous Period, and was the result of the 
ision of sills and dykes of granite. 

L) (a) The presence of thick beds of coralline limestone inter- 
iiied with the radiolarian rocks, and (6) the vast thickness of 
ad iolarian beds (several thousand feet being formed within a 
J epoch of one period of geological time) render it improbable 
the rocks were formed in very deep seas. This agrees with 
^sor SoUas' recent observations on the 'Soaps tone' of Fiji, con- 
d hy Brady to be of deep sea origin, but now proved to have 
ieposited in shallow water. At the same time the absence 
^Jomerates (with the exception of the volcanic agglomerate 
lolan) from the radiolarian beds and the abundance of inter- 
ied limestone indicates deposition in tranquil water at some 
ce from the shore. 



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lAli 



570 



BADIOLARIA IN PALiEOZOlC ROC 



(vii.) The red jaspers of Barraba and Bing« 
of deep sea origin, and represent con sol id a tec 
this is not as yet proved. 

My thanks are specially due to I)r. G. J. J 
valuable collection of radiolarian rocks which h 
comparison. I am also much indebtf^d to Mr. 
to Mr. Howard Fox, as well as to Mr. Vush A^ 
Caves, and to Mr. Donald A. Porter, of Taniw 

I would also beg to acknowledge tln^ kiiul ii 
throughout the year in the preparation uf thin 
larian rocks by the following students : — Alice 
Langley, Marion C. Horton and Berths V, S 
also to thank Mr. E. F. Pittman, Assiic. R.S 
specimens, Mr. W. F. Smeeth for his microj 
radiolarian rock. Professor Haswell and i\Ir. J. 
of their apparatus and laboratory, and Mi-. AV. 
Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of N.fc 
supplying me wdth references to the bibliugrapli 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate xxxvii. 

Surface of calcareous radiolariau rock, etched with 
how largely the rock is made up of radiolarian »t 
exhibit latticed structure and radial spices x 50. 

Plate xxxvih. 

Fig. 1. — X 200. Radiolarian shell of sub-translucon 
what resembling HeUosoma (?). Tarnwc 

Fig. 2. — X 200. Radiolarian shell of 8ub-trajialucei4 
HoUiomma. 

Fig. 3.-X 200. „ 

determined. 



Fig. 4. — Radiolarian shell of sub-translucent eilic*. 
Fig. 5.— ,, „ „ ,» 

Fig. 6.— „ ,, „ „ 

'^8' '• >» It »» J I 

^g- 8.— „ „ „ 

Fig. 9.— „ „ „ ,, 5 

Astromma (?). 
Fig. 10. — Radiolarian shell of sub-translncent iilic 

medullary shell outlasts the outer shell. 



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571 



IHE OCCURRENCE OF CASTS OF RADIO- 
[A IX PRE-CAMBRIAN (?) ROCKS, SOUTH 
FRALIA. 

FESSOR T. W. Edgeworth David, B.A., F.G.S., 
AND Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 

(Plates XXX IX-. XL.) 

CONTENTS. 

1. Introduction. 

2. Bibliography. 

3. Description of the Radiolaria. 

4. Geological Horizon of tlie Kadiolarian Rock. 

5. JSuininary and Deductions. 

1. Introduction. 

he kindne.ss of Professor R. Tate, of Adelaide Uni- 
l us was enabled last December year to make a cursory 
of some of the Pre-Cambrian rocks in the neighbour- 
ett's Cove, about fifteen miles S.S. W. from Adelaide, 
ms of some of these rocks, subsequently prepared at 
ersity, showed not only well marked oolitic structure, 
of some of the calcareous rocks, but also obscure 
it are probably radiolaria. The latter were visible 
ark greenish-grey siliceous limestone, as well as in a 
ined laminated dark grey clay-shale, 
ndence followed between us on the subject and, as it 
'ent that both of us had been working for some time 
the subject of micro-organisms in the Pre-Cambrian 
stralia, we decided to collaborate, and accordingly 
this preliminaiy note. 




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673 



CASTS OF BADI0L.\K1A IN FRE-CAMBl! 





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> 



± BiULlOUIiAPMV, 

Previous to uur discovery of itidiolark in Pi 
in Houth Austral i&j we are not aware that m 
laria h^ve 1>een observed ekewheTe in iyjg 
geolugiciil iiijtinuity, uiilesa nn exC(?plion is 
those recorded and figured bj M, L. Cftyeox, 
briaD graph] ti(^ phihanitG&i uf Brittany* 

M. L. Cayeux referji thc^ iwHuIaria to in 
genera, in wlxidi both Spnmefhria and 
represented . He states tl tat the | »rt>dt jminiuit 
The 45 figures givL^n in h'm plate, drawn h 
never ti£;are<I radiolaria, liut wh*i ^inipiy dr© 
certainly extremely sugf^estive oi the ra*Jiol 
he referii them, Ph xi., Hg. la, iu [narLiculu 
organit^ appearance. 

Dr. G, J, Hindef htun reviewetl this papfT 

He uoiuments specially on the exceedingly » 
laria, '001 to ■022 ram. in diaioQter, 

He sayji (op. ciL p. 4bS), '^Tbe difference i 
the microscope, and it may be expressed h 
average diameter of the 44 iij^uivd Utrnmot ^ 
are given is OlIS toiu.j whilst the avemsie di 
Palfeozoie Radiolaria figured hy Dr, Hiist (tj 
first da^seribed) is *2 mm,; thu'^ it would ri 
diameter^j of 17 of thf' Pre-Carabrian biMlie?* 
diameter of one o£ the Pahcozoic Radiolaria. 

Dr. EiiKt^ on the other hand, i^ inelini-tl 
figures! to detached oliambem of foraininit* 
genus allied to Ghbl^erttta. It ia olear h 

• Les preuves de I'exjJiteiice cl 'organ bin ea diktm li 
Premiijre note aur Yes Radiolaires prw-c&mbrieiia, h 
SL^rie, t, xxii,, pp. 197-228. pi li. (1804). See iil«o i 
xxiL, p. Ikxjx. 

t GeoL Mug. Kow Serttsa.— Dee. h\ Vat L No, 
pp. 417-419. 




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V. EDGEWORTH DAVID AND WALTER HOWCHIN. 



573 



the leading authorities on the radiolaria are not 
to the structure of the forms figured by M. L. 
correctly referred to the above group, and his 
ptions of the Brittany rocks are anxiously awaited. 
y be made here to what have been described as other 
Qs associated with the Pre-Cambrian radiolaria, or 
e. 

iix has described and figured what he believes to be 
rom Pre-Cambrian rocks at Saint Lu, at Lamballe 
d).* 

lo recorded the occurrence of remains "of sponge 
5 Pre-Cambrian rocks of Brittany, t 
found by M. Ch. Barrois, who also discovered the 
the Pre-Cambrian rocks of Brittany, from Ville-au- 
nballe. These remains are in the form of monaxial 
} being probably referable to the Monactinellidce. 
, Cayeux refers respectively to the Tetractinellidce, 
id HexactinellidcB. The spicules are from '05 mm. to 
ength, mostly •! mm. to '15 mm. The spicules are 
yrites : the particles of pyrites are held together in 
ting. The canal is not preserved. 
3nce of spicules of fossil sponges in Archaean rocks 
rded by Mr. G. F. Matthew. + 

if erred to Cyathospongia (?) Eozoica^ and to Halichon- 
ifertis. They are stated to occur in Upper Lauren- 

ticity of these remains has been called in question 
m Rauff.§ 



X R. Ac. Sc. Janvier-Juin 1894, pp. 1433-1435. 
»logique du Nord. Annales xxiii. 1895, pp. 52-64. pis. i.-ii. 
i Texistence de uombreux debris de SpoDgiaires dans les 
'r^-Canibrien de Bretagne. C.E. Ac. Sc. T. cxx.pp. 279-282. 
irrence of Sponges in Laurentian rocks at St. John, N.B. 

Soc. New Brunswick, No. 9, pp. 42-45. 
Ueber angebliche Spotigien aus dem Archaicumy Nenes Jahr. 

und Pal. II. Bd. 1893, pp. 57-67, and Palaospongiologie, 
ca, 1893, Bd. 40, p. 233. 




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CASTS OP RADIOLARIA IN PRE CAMBRIAN 



If Eozoon Canadeiue and allied forms be left c 
tion, the above comprise, as far as we are aware, ref 
more important papers relating to the microzoa 
brian Rocks. 

3. Descriptiok of the Radiolari 

Obviously the two most important points to Im 
note are (a) that tlie supposed organisms are ref era 
and (b) that the rocks which contain them are o 
Age. 

If direct proof of the first is wanting, the qu( 
age of the rocks does not so much matter. We 
proceed first to quote evidence which, in our opii 
in favour of the structures about to be describe 
to the radiolaria, and afterwards we will deal wi 
of the geological horizon of the rocks which conta 

Traces of the organisms referred by us pro\ 
radiolaria occur at two localities, (a) Brighton, 
S.S.W. from Adelaide; and (6) Crystal Brook, i 
N. of the same city. At (a) Brighton the for 
referred to tlie radiolaria occur scattered in 
throughout a greenish siliceous limestone Th 
places exhibits well marked oolitic structure. 

Thin sections of these rocks prepared by the 
Geological Lal^oratory, at the University of Sy 
these supposed, casts of radiolaria are partly 
opaque, partly replaced by lime and transluc( 
types are invested in places with a black netw( 
posed of iron pyrites, the intimate structure of '^ 
determine. Casts of what we consider to be the 
are most frequent, and are best preserved. A can 
however, of the material surrounding these sphei 
bodies frequently reveals the presence of an out^ 
sometimes showing a denticulated margin in cros 
PI. XXXIX. figs. 5-6.) That these bodies are radic 



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W. EDGEWORTH DAVID AND WALTER UOWCHIN. 



575 



yes nor oolitic granules, is rendered probable by the 
ts :— 

e Pre-Cambrian oolitic limestone of Hallett's Cove 
the grains are shaped irregularly, whereas the small 
>odies inside the nebulous rings in the Brighton lime- 
•fectly round or oval, and in some cases spinous, 
ict black netted material envelopes the spherical or 

ranslucent material enclosed inside the rings does not 
cross, seen in polarised light, though, even if it did, 
not of course he an insuperable objection to its 
)rigin. It proves, howe^ er, conclusively that they 
'ulites. 

are probably not oolitic grains, not only on account 
;hem possessing an external black network, but also 
are of exactly the same shape, size, and structure 
)dies in the Pre-Cambrian cherts of Crystal Brook, 
ructure, as far as we know, has not been observed in 

of the casts ver}' closely resemble those of MuUiou 
wall, and those of the Jenolan Caves and of Bingera 
h Wales. 

•able variety of forms appear to be present, most of 
;o belong to the Legion Spumtllaria. 
i PI. XXXIX. exhibit forms resembling Carposphcera, or 
osphcpra with the internal cavity partly filled with 

PI. XXXIX. is suggestive of the genus Cenellipsis. 
e, however, that the netted forms like those in the 
ef erred to, are of inorganic origin, the pyrites tilling 
paces between small crystalline aggregates partly of 
of calcite. 

'ical chalcedonic bodies, surrounded by the outer 
•ings, appear to us, however, to be very probably casts 
llary and cortical shells of radiolaria. The diameters 
ies vary from •! mm. up to '22 mm. 



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CASTS OF RADIOLARIA IN PRE-CAMBRIAN 




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(6) Crystal Brook. — In the black chert of Ci 
radiolarian casts are chiefly in the form of sn 
oval nuclei of chalcedony, with a more or less ( 
translucent outer rino; of chalcedony. Much bla 
is present in this rock, as well as small spherical 
iron pyrites, very su'jgestive of being inner casta 
The Crystal Brook forms, as to the radiolai 
which we think there can be very little questi< 
Figs. 1-3 of PI. XXX IX. Their diameter varies 
"2 mm. Figs. 1-3 are very suggestive of forms 
sphcera. 

4. Geological Horizon of the Radiolai 

As already stated, the two chief localities in 
where the supposed radiolarian casts have been i 
Brighton and (h) Crystal Brook. These localitie 
descriptions. 

(a) Brighton. — The rocks from Brighton wh: 
the casts abo^'e referred to were taken from th 
South Australian Portland Cement Company, situj 
about 10 miles S.S.W. from Adelaide, on a s 
Lofty Hanges, which at this point describe a curv 
marking the southern boundary of the Adelaide 

The limestones worked by this company fori 
from beneath the Pliocene clays of the plain, a 
for miles over the low hills to the south in a lin 
to the coast. The workings extend at intervals 
about 200 yards across the outcrop, and about a 
along the line of strike. The succession of b 
traced, and is as follows, in descending order : — 

1. Buff-coloured Limestone. — The uppermost b 
workings. It is very persistent and maintains i 
for a long distance. Distinguished by its colour, 
siderable proportion of magnesium carbonate, is 
hard. This bed is not quarried for cement, and n 




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T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID AND WALTER HOWCHIN. 577 

ch no limestones, serviceable for cement or lime, are 



colmired Limestone. — This bed is sharply defined from 
ing by a bedding plane. It is about 15 feet in thick- 
Dale pinkish colour, and carries about 86 per cent, of 
of lime — the purest limestone in the group. The 
faces of the vertical joints exhibit lines of false bedding. 

siliceous Limestone. —This immediately underlies the 
•ed limestone, and in the upper portions of the bed is 
mottled by various sized pinkish patches. It contains 
Bnt. or more of silica. The pink-coloured patches con- 
er proportion of silica and correspondingly higher pro- 
carbonate of lime, than the distinctly blue limestone. 

siliceous< dark-coloured Limestone of variable composi- 
arrying more silica than Xo. 3. This bed, as well as 
[mediately above it, is strongly laminated. Whenever 
•e is present it is said to be an indication of a high 

of silica in the stone. This limestone is the lowest 
►rked for cement, but the stone used by the company is 
1 from beds Nos. 2 and 3. Immediately above this bed 
K> siliceous shale of very close texture, 
s have a strike about N. 12° E. The dip varies from 
to 80" in a direction about W. 12° N. These Brighton 

be considered the foothills of the Mt. Lofty Range, 
id under which they appear to dip. Whatever, there- 
e age of the Mt. Lofty Range, the Brighton rocks will 
3 of at least as high a geological antiquity. 
. Lofty and associated ranges form the backbone of 
)Tn portions of South Australia, from Lake Eyre to 
Island. In the neighbourhood of Adelaide, the western 

the ranges show alternations of clay-shales (often 
or chloritic), quartzites, and siliceous limestones, with 
3 dip of about 45'', and are considerably folded. At 
Cove, about five miles south from Brighton, several 
clinal folds occur near the coast and in the gorge of 



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CASTS OP RADIOLARIA IN PRE-CAMBRIAN 



Field River. A few miles further south the n 
sea cliffs are contorted and overthrust from E. 
striking manner. If the coastline be followed 
48 miles south from Adelaide, the crystalline i 
morphic beds of the eastern flanks of the rang< 
The marked lithological distinction between t 
eastern sides of the Mt. Lofty Ranges is an int 
The greater part of the ranges, including the we 
highest portions of the watershed, show a series 
rocks metamorphosed to only a slight degree, 
easterly dip at a steep angle of from 40" to 8C 
flanks are composed of highly crystalline met 
felsites, hornblendic and micaceous schists, gnei 
which give distinctive features to this side of the 
200 miles in length. Intrusive granites are exten 
with this zone of extreme metamorphism. 

Professor R. Tate * regards tlie Mt. Lofty Rai 
their entire width as forming one great conforms 
Q.<rfrYega.te thickness of which he estimates cannot 
miles. Further, as the dip of these beds is in tt 
easterly one, it follows upon the above assumptior 
crystalline rocks of the eastern side of the waters 
superimposed on the less metamorphosed shales, 
quartzites of the western portions. If this readi 
graphical features be the correct one, the Brig 
must rank amongst the oldest rocks exposed ii 
series, as shown on Fig. 1, Plate XL. 

The geological age of these old rocks is a s 
interest. Selwyn, and other early observers, re 
Silurian, although the entire absence of fossils 
left the question an open one. The discover 
Tepper and Professor R. Tate in 1879t of a foss 
near Ardrossan, Yorke's Peninsula (subsequently 



* Presidential Address Aust. Assoc. Ad. Sc. Vol. V. (1 
t Trans. Philosop. (Royal j Society S. Aust. Vol. ii 



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W. EDGEWORTH DAVID AND WALTER HOWCHIN. 



579 



eridge, Junr., to be of Cambrian age),* resting un- 
f on an older series of mica slates and talcose schists, 
w data bearing on the possible age of the Mt. Lofty 
The basal or Pre- Cambrian beds at Ardrossan, exhibit 
ological resemblance to many portions of the Mt. 
and may provisionally be considered to be homotaxial 
ter. Unfortunately, in no other place in South Aus- 
we know of, are the Cambrian and Pre Cambrian 
n juxtaposition, but they have been observed in the 
Lnges in close proximity to the Pre-Cambrian rocks, 
been noticed that the two groups exhibit strongly 
ological differences as well as probable unconformity 

2). 

rate has for many years advocated the Pre-Cambrian 
i) age of the Mt. Lofty formation.! The chief Con- 
or this view aire based on — 

evidence afforded by the unconformity between the 
brian and the Pre-Cambrian rocks near Ardross^in, 
iral resemblance of the inferior rocks of that section to 
by beds (PL xl. fig. 1), (and so to the Brighton rocks). 
3 Flinders Range two formations have been noted 
•t seen in contact) in which the less altered beds with 
of dip have been determined by their included fossils 
iincB, OfenelhiSy isalterellay &c.) to be Cambrian; and 
nferred that the more highly metamorphic rocks with 
J of dip are unconformable and consequently Pre- 
The Mt. Lofty beds are continuous with those of the 
ige. 

>sence of fossils (macroscopic) throughout the whole 
Lofty series, even in places where limestones and 
so little metamorphosed that we have no reason to 
organic remains, if originally present, have been 
y molecular rearrangement. 

5. Au8t. 1890, p. 10, and R. Tate ibidem 1892, pp. 183-1S9. 
^ust. Vol. xiii. 1890, p. 20: Aust. AssocjAd. Sc. Oj). cit. ante. 



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CASTS OF RADIOLARIA IX PRE-CAMBRIAJT 



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Mr. H. Y. L. Brown, Qovemment Geologist of 
liolds, however, a sfimewhat ilifierent view fvfmi i 
Brown considers thiit the low degree of uiet^imvii 
the rocks of the wastern flanks of the Mt. Tjofty 
an age not earlier than tin? Canihrian, and that i 
IVIfc, Lufty Ix-ds really form one series. In his g 
Map of South Australia, published in 188G, Mr.' 
three okler forniiitiooa in the rangeSj s^ follows : 
(1). Pal-f-ozoic (Lower SiLtrEiAN). — Com 

altered shales, sandstones, and liraeston* 

portions, 
(2). Pal.bozoic, or More— The micace^i 

hornVjlendie seht«t«, qviartzitc^s and cri^t^i 

— a middle series towartJs the eastern si 
(3), ARCfi.i?:AN. — ^Metatnorphic gran ite, gnei 

lilendic and mica schisit^, crystal! 

quart^ites, itc.j with igneous intrusioiE 

group No. 2 on the eastern flanks. 
It will be obsetn*ed from tkia table thiit tbe su 
preied by Mr. Brown in an opposite w«iy from 1 1 
explained by Pn>l Tate, for whilst the latter eoii 
metamorphic group the high en t in the ^fTioa, M 
this group at t!ie base. 

On tlie whole it appears to us that Prof lessor 
tation i^ probably tlie correct ouo, and if so the 
must be low down in the Pre-Canibrian group, 

(i). Crystal Brook. —The rocks containing tl 
laria, at this locality, are thin laminat^^ ji 
ealcareouR layers altematinja: with thin Imnds 
Quartzite and Iwmded argillitn^ overlii? tiie lainii 
I.(enticular lied;* of black chert or clialcedony «jcc 
hnriiton« in the limestone earies. They appi^ar t*i 
til an the eoclosiing rockR, like the fbnts in the Ch 
KiU'ope. The portion o£ the bmestone serws nm 
bast 1000 feet in thickne-^s. The senen in hi 




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W. EDOEWORTH DAVID AND WALTER HOWCHIN. 



581 



are not uncommon. We think it probable on this 
well as on account of its lithological character, 
es is also Pre-Cambrian, perhaps on about the same 
he siliceous limestones exposed in the vineyards 
near Adelaide. Moreover, no macroscopic fossils 
«erved by us in these limestones, in spite of their 
ed extremely little through metamorphism, whereas 
>wer Cambrian limestones are abundantly fossili- 
Qly slightly inclined, without distinct folding. At 
e, the fact must be mentioned that the Crystal Brook 
ocality lies directly in the trend of the Cambrian 
orke*s Peninsula N. by E. towards the Blinman Mine 
E of Port Augusts. On the whole, however, we 
lie evidence is in favour of the radiolarian rock at 
t being Pre-Cambrian. 

JMMARY AND PROVISIONAL DEDUCTIONS, tkc. 

ghton and Crystal Brook in South Australia (their 
>sitions are shown on PL XL. fig. 3), rocks are 
lich contain what appear to be casts of radiolaria. 
locality there can be little doubt, in our opinion, as 
y of the casts with those of radiolaria. 
he age of these rocks is Pre-Cambrian is rendered 
►le by the following considerations : — 
cal Lower Cambrian rocks are gently inclined at 
n S° to 15" y and they are not folded, whereas the 
cks dip at 45' to 80", are considerably folded, and 
'lie unconformably the Lower Cambrian formation, 
wer Cambrian rocks of South Australia are pure 
>teropod limestones, whereas no such beds of pure 
les are to be noticed in the radiolarian group, 
^er Cambrian limestones of South Australia contain 
ibundant macroscopic marine fauna, whereas no 
)ssils have ever been found amongst the Brighton 
rook radiolarian rocks, although the rocks at both 




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CASTS OP RADIOLARIA IN PRE CAMBR1 1 



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these localities are very well adai>tefl for prt^s 
fossils, had they ever existed in them. 

(iii.) The evidence on the whole is decided! 
existence of radiolaria in Pre-Cambrian rocks i 

(iv.) Such radiolaria appear to differ very 
the forms described from Palaeozoic, ^lesozoic, 
Tertiary rocks, as their diameters appear to ra 
to -22 mm. 

(v.) Forms allied to Carposphcera and Cenos) 
to Cenellijjsis, appear to have been representee 
time. 

We desire to express our thanks to Mr. > 
manager of the South Australian Portland Ce 
Brighton, who has kindly given all the help 
facilitate our researches at Bright^jo. We b 
Mr. W. Lewis, of Brighton, for kind guidance i 
Mr. J. W. Jones, the Conservator of Water, we 
for the excellent arrangements which h(^ maile 
examinations of Crystal Brook and .\rdrussan 
to thank for much useful aid given us in the fi 
Mr. Hicks, Mr. C. C. Buttfield and Mr, E. 
W. S. Dun, the Librarian and Assistant Pal 
Geological Survey of N.S. Wales, we also di 
having obligingly supplied us with most of th€ 
in the bibliography. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE: 

Casts of Radiolaria from Pre-Cambrian (?) Roch^ j 
Brook, South A ujifraHa. 

(All the figui et X 2O0J 

Plate xxxix. 

Fig.*:. 1 and 3.— Internal cast of form purhaps Allied i 
black chert, Crystal Brook. 




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'. EDGBWORTH DAVID AND WALTER HOWCHIN. 



583 



I cast from Crystal Brook, genus uot determinable. 

[ cast in siliceous limestone, perhaps referable to the 
liolaria; Brighton, near Adelaide. 

internal casts in siliceous limestone, perhaps related to 
pospJutra; from Brighton, near Adelaide. 

>ubtfully referable to the Radiolaria. from siliceous lime- 
le, Brighton, South Australia; possibly allied to Cendlijms. 

cast in siliceous limestone, perhaps referable to the 
[ioh^ria; Brighton, South Australia. 

Plate xl. 

Section from near Ardrossan, Yorke*s Peninsula, to Murray 
ige, South Australia. 

showing probable junction between the Lower Cambrian 
the Pre-Cambrian Rocks near Ardrossan, Yorke's Penin- 
I, S.A. 

owing positions of chief localities where fossil Radiolaria 
'6 been found in S.R. Australia. 



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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Mrs. Keiiyon contributed a Not« in suppo 
tha.t Cyprcea caputranguisy Philippi, was entitl 
specific rank, and should not be merged in 
Linn. 

Mr. Brazier exhibited, for Mrs. Kenyoni, a 
of Cyprcea mentioned in her Note, namely, an 
Cyprcea caput-anguis^ Philippi, from Mai don 
fine variety C. Sophia^ Braz., as well as uf a lar 
solid specimen of Cyprcea tigris, Linn., and 
specimen of the same species showing the hf 
transverse bands. Also a young specimen ol 
from Mrs. Waterhouse. Two specimens of a su 
of PectunculiLS, from an unknown li>cality, wei 

Mr. Froggatt showed a large seriea of gpiri 
Termites treated of in his paper, together wit I 
wings, <kc. 

Professor David exhibited, in illustration c 
graphs, rock specimens, and, under the microE 
showing Radiolaria. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited specimens of two sn^all ( 
that from an examination of a number of spec 
vinced of the necessity for forming a third genui 
Herrings." The three genera, will l>e (lascril>e<i 
number of the Proceedings. Mr. Ogilby propc 
the Rough-backed Herrings, recent and fossil, 
name Hyperlophince, and points out that the 
(Cope, 1877) is hardly tenable, Bleeker havioj 
for a South American Nematognatli in 1863. 
which was arbitrarily changed by Giinther 1 
still in use and gives the title to the fa mil 
Eigenmann & Eigenmann. 

On behalf of Miss Georgina King, Mr. Flet^ 
several letters written during the last fortni 



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NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



585 



y sketches, from Baron von Mueller, on the subject 
yribnnda referred to in a Note read at the last 
! letters were expressive of the pleasure with which 
i seen for the tirst time specimens of the Boronia 

These were obtained by Miss King from the 
luring last month, and forwarded to Melbourne, 
as described by Sprengel in 1827, from specimens 
eber in 1823, somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
be Blue Mountains. By Mr. Bentham it was con- 
, dimorphic form of H. pinnata^ but by Prof. Urban 
us been restored to independent specific rank. As 

B pinnata its chief distinguishing characters are 
:he eight stamens are shorter and have smaller 
lyle is short, and the stigma large and globular, 
also expressed by the Baron that as the characters 
re yet unrecorded, an effort might be made during 
tson to obtain them for comparison with those of B. 

V exhibited a series of water-colour drawings of 
mals, of great intrinsic merit as well as of historical 

Y were the artistic work of Dr. J. Stuart, an army 
rom time to time for some years (circa 1834-37 or 
ndertook the duties of Medical Officer at the 
ation, Port Jackson. They are referred to in one 
(Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. viii. 1842, p. 242) by the 
, Macleay, into whose possession they subsequently 
itually the}' came to Sir William Macleay, who 
>ver to the Society. 



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»»i|'.!|l 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 25t 



The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Societ 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on 
ing, November 25th, 1896. 



The President, Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., F.L 




DONATIONS. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vo! 
1896). From the Editor, 

Soci^te d' Horticulture du Doubs, Besan9on- 
Illustree, No. 9 (Sept., 1896). From the Sociei 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. ix. Nos. 
1896). From the Government Secretary, 

Soci^t^ Imp^fiale des Naturalistes de ^ 
Ann^ 1896. No. 1. From the Society, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture — Division c 
Mammalogy — North American Fauna. Nos. 
and 1896) : Division of Entomology — Technic 
(1896). FVom the Secretary of Agriculture. 

Soci^te Scientifique du Chili — Actes T. ii. (] 
T. vi. (1896), Iw Liv. From the Society. 

Report on the Work of the Horn Scienti 
Central Australia. Part i. Introduction, Nai 
iv. Anthropology. From W, A. Horn , Esq., per . 
Spencer, M,A, 



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DONATIONS. 



587 



of the American Association for the Advancement 
''ols. xxxviii and xl.-xliii. (1889 and 1891-94): 
Essex Institute. Vol. i. (1869), Nos. 1-2, 4-6, and 
7-9; iii. 3 and 8; iv. 9; v. 1-5 and 11-12; vi.; vii. 
[2; viii.-ix.; x. 7-12; xi. 1-6 and 10-12; xii.; xiii. 
; By-laws, 1876 : Proceedings of the American 
Society. Vol xi. (1870), No. 85 ; Vols, xii-xiv. 
ence. Vol. iii. No. 49 (Jan., 1884); Vol iv. No. 
i; Vol. V. No. 100 (Jan., 1885); Vol. vii. from No. 
5); Vols. \'iii-xxii (complete except title pages and 
>. xiii. xiv. and xviii); and Vol. xxiii. Nos. 570-581 
B94) : Annual Reports of Geological Survey of (a) 
. (in six vols.) [1870-78]; (b) Wisconsin, 1877; (c) 
<87 : Biennial Report of the State Mineralogist of 
^73-74 : Tenth Annual Report of the California 
bureau for 1890 : Report of the Geological Survey 
Einds of Japan (1877): General Report on the 
esso (1877) ; Report of the Geological Survey 

Vol. V. 2nd Ser. Parts viii. and x. : Feather- 
«port of Geol. Reconnaissance made in 1835 

de Prairie: Bulletin of U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 6 
tlie Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciencei. 

ty of Bengal— Journal. Vol. Ixiv. (1895). Title 
X to Part i: Vol. Ixv. (1896). Part i. Nos. 1-2 : 
I, Proceedings, 1896. Nos. ii.-v. (Feb.-May). 

;ural History Society — Journal. Vol. x. No. 3 
From the Society. 

ns University— Hospital Bulletin. Vol. vii. Nos. 
^96). From the University, 

ituralist. Vol. xxx. No. 358 (Oct., 1896). From 

aturalist. Vol. xiii. No. 7 (Oct., 1896). I^rom 
aliitts^ Club of Victoria, 




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588 



DONATIONS. 



L'Acad^mie Imperiale des Sciences de 
Annuaire du Musee Zoologique, 1896. 
Academe/. 

Museo Nacional de Montevideo — Anales ^ 
Museum. 



Zoologischer Anzeiger. 
1896). From the Editor, 



xix. Band. Nos. 



Konink. Natuurk. Vereeniging in Neder 
Dl. ii. Afl. 6 (1851) : Dl. iv. Afl. 5 and 6 (1 
and 6 (1854) : Dl. vii. Afl. 1-2 and 5-6 (185 
(1855): Dl. ix. (1855): Dl. xvi. (1858-59): 
6 (1858) : Dl. xx. Afl. 1-3 (1859) : Dl. xxx. 
Dl. xxxii. Afl. 4-6 (1873) : Alphabetisch Re 
(1871), xxxi.-l. (1891) : Naamregister op D 
Society. 

British Museum (Nat. Hist.) — Catalogue c 
(1896) : Catalogue of Snakes. Vol. iii. (1 
Madreporarian Corals. Vol. ii. (1896): Ci 
Bryozoa (1896). From the Trustees. 

Royal Society, London — Proceedings. Vo 
1896) : Vol. Ix. No. 359 (Sept., 1896). Fro 

L'Acad. Royale Su^doise des Sciences — 
(1895-96). Sections 1-4. From the Acaderm 

Revista de Sciencias Naturaes e Sociaes. 
Title page and Index (1896). From the Edi 

Pamphlet entitled "Note on the Discovery 
in the Cairns Range, Western Queensland. 
F.G.S., F.R.G.S. From the Author. 

Soci^t^ G^ologique de Belgique — Annale 
Livraison (1895-96). From the Society, 

Societal pro Fauna et Flora Fennica — I 
vii. (1889-90). From the Society. 



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DONATIONS. • 589 

1 titled "Notes on Rare Lepidoptera in Wellington " 
en. From the Author, 

[ische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt 
, 1896. From the Society, 

:!onchology. Vol. viii. No. 8 (Oct., 1896). From 
:al Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

al Society of London — Transactions, 1896. Part 
rom. the Society, 

Lcademy of Sciences — Memoirs. Vol. ii. No. 5 
)6) : Proceedings. Second Series. Vol. v. Part 
From the Academy, 

useum of Natural History, New York — Bulletin. 
6 (pp. 81-96. May, 1896). Twenty-seventh 
b (1895). From the Museum,, 

se Institute of Science of Philadelphia — Transac- 
. (Jan., 1896). From the Institute, 

>ociety of Natural History — Journal. Vol. xviii. 
3ct., 1895-Jan., 1896.) From the Society, 

bian Museum, Chicago — Botanical Series. Vol. i. 
96) : Report Series, Vol. i. No. 1. (Annual Report 
From the Director, 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia — Proceedings, 
(Jan.-March). From the Academy, 

ty of Natural History — Proceedings. Vol. xxvii. 
, 1896). From^ the Society, 

3chaftlicher Verein fiir Schleswig-Holstein — 
Band, 2 Heft (1895). From the Society, 

fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin — Verhandlungen. Band 
5'os. 1-3: Zeitschrift. Band xxx. (1895), No. 6: 
$96), No. 1. From the Society, 

Station zu Neapel — Mittheilungen. xii. Band. 3 
From the Station, 



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DONATIONS. 



i 



Cambridge Philosophical Society — Proceedinj 
3 (1896) : Transactions. Vol. xvi. Part L (O 
the Society. 

Geological Survey of Queensland — Bulletin 
From the Governiiient Geologist, 

Bureau of Agriculture, Perth, W.A. — ^Jgurnj 
25-26 (Oct. -Nov., 1896). From the Buremi. 

Three Conchological Pamphlets. By E. j 
( 1 896). From the Author. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol* xl 
1896). From the Editor. 

Department of Lands and Survey, New Zeal 
the year 1895-96. From H. Farquhar^ Esq. 



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591 



MPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE ORGAN 
F JACOBSON IN MARSUPIALS. 

By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. 

(Plates xli.-xlviii.) 

le researches of Gratiolet, Balogh, Klein, and others 
amiliar with the structure and relations of Jacob- 
i numljer of the principal types of higher Mammals, 
snt years no examination appears to have been made 
1 any of tlie Marsupials. 

ymington published a paper "On the Organ of 
he Kangaroo and Rock Wallaby," in which he 

main features of the organ and its relations, and 
if transverse sections at the opening of the organ 
s most developed part. He concludes that the 
m agrees very closely with the Eutherian type, and 
lly from that found in the Prototherian Ornitho- 
is unfortunate that when his paper was written only 
Platypus type had been carefully studied, for had 
the Marsupial organ with the simpler Monotreme 

in Echidna, his conclusion would probably have 

lose, apparently ignorant of Symington's work, 
^ry short paper on the organ in the Wombat and 
5 gives two good figures of the organ in the young 
makes no remarks on the peculiarities of the organ 

^her papers, as far as I am aware, in which the 
angement is touched on are, Symington's recent 
le Homology of the Dumb-bell-shaped Bone in 



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592 THE ORGAN OF JACOB30N IN MkHB 

Ornithorhynchus," and sorae papers of my < 
references are made to points in the ilars 
purposes of comparison. 

In the present paper I shall confine invs 
consideration of the general morphology of the 
with their cartilaginous and Ixjoy relationship 
and glandular connections in t^-pical members 
of Marsupials, and to the morphological signifii 
peculiarities met with. In discussing the vai 
adopt tentatively the classification a^s given in 
Museum Catalogue of Marsupials and Monott 
polyprotodont Marsupials have lonjj l>een rec^ 
generalised — a view which is confirmed by the 
under consideration — it will l>e convenient to 

DASYURID^. (Plate xl 

Of this group I have studied, (1) Earl 
Phascologcde penicillata, (2) mammary fa^tal D 
(3) two-thirds grown D. vix^erritm^^ and (4) ad 

If a series of transverse sections l>e made of 

the snout of Echidna, it will Ije found that tli 

each side of the base of the septum a flat cartil 

to each nasal cavity. In tlif^ \ery young ar 

\ ] M Ij I Newton Parker, this cartilage is well developc 

it only remains as a floor to the inner half o1 
On reaching the plane of the nasopalatine cai 
cartilage is found to divide into an inner and ; 
inner becomes the cartilage of Jacobson^s orgj 
much reduced just behind the region of the 
on passing backwards becomes more developed 
below Jacobson's organ, unitin«^ with the corr 
of the other side Although there is no siro 
the posterior outer part of the nasal floor cai 
supial yet examined, the mode of division of 
the structure and relations of the anterior 
cartilage will be found to ha\'e an almost per 
the corresponding structures of the Day sure a 



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BY R. BROOM. 593 

e penicillata, Shaw, (mammary foetus, head length 
nasal-floor cartilage in front of the naso-palatine 
5nt as a well developed, slightly curved plate of 
ing outwards from the base of the septum and ' i 

nplete floor to the nasal cavity, uniting laterally [ 

sal. On nearing the naso-palatine canal, its inner ] 

ietached from the septum and curves upwards and 
rds (PI. XLi. fig. 10). The naso-palatine canal passes 
iquely backwards, as well as upwards, so that in 
>n it is seen connecting the nasal cavity with the 
its passing upwards the premaxillary is seen to , 

its palatine process as if to make a passage (fig. 10), 
)ehind this the nasal-floor cartilage divides into it^ 
3r parts. The outer part, which is small, disappears 
liately behind this plane; but the inner part, or 
•tilage, is well developed and appears as an upright 
arge process passing outwards from its upper end 
. support to the iriferior septal ridge* The lower 
•ted on its lower and inner side by the developing 
ss of the premaxillary. 

be naso-palatine canal has lost its connection with 
d above is seen to receive the opening of Jacobson's 
ner side, and on its outer side to be connected with 
ity. Jacobson's cartilage is here well developed, 
»bson's duct or organ in its concave outer side. If 
le compared with the similar section in the young 



which extends along on each side of the base of the septum, 
illy referred to as the ** glandular ridge." The term, how- 
priate, as the ridge is often quite devoid of glandular tissue, 
ifore proposed the above term instead and in contradistinc- 

more typically glandular ridge frequently present in the 
lie septal region, which may be called the '* superior septal 

present paper, as only the lower septal region is under 
rhen the term ** septal ridge " occurs, the inferior septal 
iderstood. 



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THE ORGAN OF JACOBSON IN MAI 



Echidna as figured by N. Parker, or in the 
myself, the striking agreement will be manif 

In fig. 12 is seen the condition of the or 
in the region of its greatest development, 
oval in section, there being but a very sligli 
outer wall : the inner and lower walls of the 
times the thickness of the outer. Jacobson's 
plat« which supports the organ on its inner a 
palatine process of the premaxilla, here just c 
occupies the lower and inner side of Jacobsoi 

Near its posterior part the organ is red 
simple columnar epithelium, and the cartij 
narrow thick plate passing more outwards t 
forming a floor to the duct and its neighbourii 

Dasyuiiis viverrinus, Shaw, (mammary 
15 mm.). In the somewhat older ftetus of 1 
we have the same type, but with the later i 
the details are better seen. The nasal-fli 
similar to that seen in the ftetal Phascologa 
feature is revealed. From the point where 
plate of the nasal-floor cartilage sends out th( 
basal ridge a detached process of cartilage 
porting the feeble anterior part of the ridge, 
in the adult, and is interesting from the fa< 
current process has not been found in an; 
Didelphys. 

Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate sections in the 
nasal-floor cartilage. In fig. 2 the outer 
cartilage is seen detached from the inner on 
detached bar is seen in fig. 4 to l>ecome com 
part of Jacobson's cartilage, and from its bei 
present throughout the Marsupialia connec 
the lower parts on the outer side, it will b 
following descriptions as the " outer bar of , 

In fig. 3 the naso-palatine canal is seen, on 1 
into the anterior end of Jacobson's organ. ' 



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BY R. BROOM. 



595 



id with squamous epithelium. On the left side, 
er back, the opening of the organ into the naso- 
is closing, while the connection between the canal 
cavity is seen. Immediately beyond this plane 
m is closed and the lower part of the inner plate 
cartilage becomes connected with the outer bar, 
to the organ; and what was the naso-palatine canal 
the general nasal cavity. 

;nts a section through the body of the organ. The 
tion assumes the appearance of an irregular L or a 
ter side shorter than the other — an appearance 
n Marsupial types. It is supported on its lower 
s by the scroll-like palatine-process of the pre- 
organ on section is kidney-shaped, with a much 
which accommodates the rather large blood vessel. 

^errinuSy Shaw, (two-thirds grown). In the grown 
idition of parts is essentially similar to that in the 
shows a section in the region of the hinder part 
-a portion of the papillary cartilage being seen, 
cartilage is moderately flat, and somewhat above 
' the side of the septum is seen the small precurrent 
age supporting the septal ridge. In fig. 6 the pre- 
out to give off its palatine process. The naso- 
Ls seen cut across below the isthmus, while above 
r cartilage is dipping down into the hollow. The 
le nasal-floor cartilage behind this becomes lost in 
,hough in D. macidatus it is seen for a short time 
fragment on the outer side of the nasopalatine 
rgan opens into the naso-palatine canal almost 
hind the plane of tig. 7. Fig. 8 is just behind the 
organ and immediately in front of the plane where 
le becomes part of the general nasal cavity. Here 
)fed over by the union of the inner plate of Jacob- 
^ith the outer bar. In fig. 9, a little further back, 
1 with the outer bar is lost and the lower connec- 




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J, t^ 596 THB ORGAN OP JACOBSON IN MAB 

tion complete, giving the cartilage the typ 

section. 

. The organ itself at its best developed pa 

jl I ^ moderately regular kidney shape, the lulu.s b 

JWlf i '^ quite upwards and having in it a single large 1 

I Ijri t ^ jg extremely little glandular tissue in eonneeti 

k and middle part of the organ. The sensory laj 

ti ■ ri5 1 developed, being about 3^ times as thick as 

?T J I* 5 layer. The outer wall of the organ has small 

about half the size of those of the nasal epith< 
Dasyurua macufatus, Kerr, (adult). The 
differs considerably in a number of ways 
viverrinus. In almost all large animals the or 
proportionately, and appears to have less of 
and to become to a greater extent a glamlulai 
the difference in the character of the org»] 
relations remain very constant in allied Hjiecii 
only difference in the cartilaginous develoj 
species of Dasyurus is a very slight one of 
maculates the cartilage is rather more deve 
rather less posteriorly than in the smaller s] 
the organs, however, the differences are mm 
layer is present quite characteristically, but u 
than in D. viverrinuSf while the whole c 
smaller in lumen, which means that it is « 
half the size. Instead of occupying almosi 
cartilaginous hollow as in the smaller speoiea 
one- third the available space, the rest being a] 
by a great development of mucous gland 
occuj)ied by the large hilar vessel. 

DIDELPHYID^. (Plate s 

In the American carnivorous genus Did^ 
nimiber of points of close agreement witli Di 
few features suggesting a considerable gap Ix 
genus I have been able to study through the 1 



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BY R. BROOM. 



597 



)lying me with three mammary foetuses — one small 
*ate-sized — of which I have sectioned the small one 
large. 

lurinay L., (mammary fcBtus, head^length 14 mm.), 
foetal Opossum the anterior portion of the nasal- 
agrees very closely with the condition in the 
mly is it comparatively flat, but from its ascending 
[ives off a precurrent process to support the anterior 
ital ridge. In the plane of the papilla (fig. 1) the 
Ben giving off its palatine process. The nasal-floor 
•e curved, the inner end passing up by the side of 
into the septal ridge, while it is slightly depressed 
r between the premaxilla and its palatine process, 
[lot very thoroughl}' chondrified papillary cartilage 
action; and by its edge the naso-palatine canal is 
In fig. 2 — a little distance behind — the nasal-floor 
md to have become divided as in Dasyurus, the 
ing become a well developed Jacobson's cartilage, 
n' part has on this plane become lost. If this 
ired with fig. 2 of the Dasyure the close agreement 
)rms will be seen in the structure of Jacobson's 
Te is, however, a slight difference in the relations 
eveloping palatine processes to the cartilages. In 
palatine process is mostly inferior; while in this 
hin the lower half, the bottom end of the cartilage 
rted by bone. This though apparently a small 
seen to be of considerable interest in connection 
lition in the other forms to be described. In 
i7ia the septal ridge is more marked, the lower 
nasal cavity passing well in below it. The naso- 
vill be noticed to have an almost vertical direction, 
^eing very slightly marked. The connections of 
Jacobson's organ and with the nasal cavity are as 
:cept that in Didelphys muriiia the organ becomes 
> a little roundish duct-like canal before opening 
alatine canal. This little constricted part is not a 



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598 



THE ORGAN OP JACOBSON IN MAJ 



true Jacobson's duct, as it is lined with < 
The organ where best developed, as seen i 
pletely fills the large lioUow cartilage. On 
j^haped, but the two poles are approximab 
(jrgan an almost circular appearance, folding 
clt>sely on itself. The cartilage is supported 
])alatine process at its lower and inner side. 
Didelphya marsupialisj L., (?)* (large n: 
length 37 mm.). Between this form and 1 
there are a number of little differences, in i 
be accounted for by difference of age. The 
is nearly flat, and on passing backwards tu 
the septum as in 2). muHna. The inferior 
less developed, and the precurrent cartilagi 
in D, nucrina, is practically absent. In fig. 
ill the plane of the opening of the naso-pals 
the papilla is well developed there is no 
cartilage, which is interesting as this is t 
have met with where it is quite absent. Ir 
cartilage is found divided and the premax 
jiidatine process; and in the space between t 
is seen the anterior part of the almost vertica 
Tlie outer part of the nasal-floor cartilage is 
sections behind this plane, as seen in fig. 6 
of the upper part of Jacobson's cartilage 
forming the outer bar. The palatine proces 
the same relation to the cartilage as in D. 
fig. 7 the naso-palatine canal is seen opening 
an well as into Jacobson's organ. This last 
Ijy means of a verj^ short duct of Jacobson. 
the organ. is closed from the canal which st 
cavity with the mouth. 



* The species of this specimen was unknown, 
iioubt that it is the young of the Common Opossam 
L. 



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BY R. BROOM. 



599 



*fH 



jelf in the region of best development (fig. 9) has 
isual kidney shape. There is some resemblance to 
►asyurus, with which it agrees in having a single 
5 hilus; in Didelphys, however, the blood vessel is 
laller. The sensory region is well developed, the 
r ends of which curve towards each other constrict- 
region slightly. In the hilar region are a few 
which open into the organ at the point of union 
id of the sensory wall with the non-sensory. The 
i as usual in the little triangular space above the 

PERAMELID^. (Plate xliii.) 

Lcoots I have confined myself to the study of one 
les nasuta; of which I have examined — (1) a young 
s; (2) a half grown specimen; and (3) an adult. 
Hamilton, of Mt. Kembla, N.S.W., I am indebted 
ad the adult specimen. 
isutay E. Geoff., (mammary fcetus, head length 

section through the developing first upper incisor, 
5 in front of and behind this plane, the nasal-floor 
•e found to be well developed and moderately flat. 

the base of the septum is a rather large inferior 
d into the base of it, at least, passes an ascending 
jal-floor cartilage, lying close to the septum. This 
1 is better developed anteriorly in this genus than 
iirus or Didelphys. On reaching the papillary 
im is found to have retreated, and its place to have 
d between the two ascending plates of the nasal- 
ly the two palatine processes of the premaxillary 
rery marked retreating of the base of the septum 
in the other Marsupials, and recalls the condition 
)ra. In fig. 1 is shown the moderately developed 
ige, by the edge of which the naso-palatine canal 
Here also the well developed nasal-floor cartilage 
up and curving round into the septal ridge forming 





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THE ORGAN OF JACOBSON IN M^ 



its support. In the immediately succeeding 
of the nasal-floor cartilages about to become 
are seen approaching somewhat and the pah 
ing more curved along their inner sides ; 
cartilage supporting the ridge becomes a dei 
thus becomes detached further forward th« 
or Didelphys. A very short distance behi 
posterior part of the papilla, the naso-pal 
passing inwards below the lower edge of Ja< 
even below the lower edge of the palatine 
point it passes outwards, upwards, and sligb 
hollow of the lower half of Jacobson's cartil 
short but distinct Jacobson's duct. It also 
backwards, as seen in fig. 2, opening into tl 
this plane the short duct of Jacobson is n 
part of the organ proper, which is almost sh 
palatine canal. In the relations of the can 
of the palatine process and of the cartilage c 
marked agreement with Didelphys, though tl 
part of Jacobson*s cartilage is much greats 
genus, and clearly suggest the development i 
Phalangers and the Kangaroos. Almost imi 
plane of the closing of the organ the lower e 
of Jacobson's cartilage curves round and u 
bar, giving on section the usual U-shaped ho 

The organ itself closely resembles that 
folding together of the feeble outer wall, 
marked difference in the support the cartiL 
palatine process. In Perameles the palatii 
developed, and forms a bony support to aln 
and lower sides of the cartilage. Alwut the 
organ, in fact, with the exception of a very 
upjK»r angle, the palatine process not only c 
it, but at its outer edge even replaces the ca 
the posterior end of the organ the cartilage 
lost in the whole lower region being repla 




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BY R. BROOM. 



601 



iltimately all that is left of it is a small plate lying 
\r and inner side of the reduced posterior end of the 

tasulGy E. Geoff., (half grown and adult). Between 
[1 half grown condition the chief differences are due 
at in the adult the bony development is greater and 
lous elements more degenerate. In the following 
the half grown specimen that is being described 
ise stated. 

ion immediately in front of the incisor teeth, the 
is rather broad and at its base has on each aide a 
d inferior septal ridge. The nasal-floor cartilage is 
ible on the whole, but its inner part is better 
d turns up close against the septum, then curves 
orm the support of the septal ridge. On reaching 
the first pair of incisors, the only difference worth 
- the septum has retreated somewhat, and only the 
the nasal-floor cartilage remains, 
lit, even in the region of the predental portion of 
ary, the nasal-floor cartilage is represented by little 
3 inner part. 

ne of 2nd incisor in the half grown specimen the 
ptilage is represented only by the skeleton of the 
>n the same plane the premaxilla is seen sending up 
rards the base of the septum. In the anterior 
on, as seen in fig. 5, the cartilage is found present 
>late and an outer bar. Though this is in front of 
iine canal, as there is no outer part of the nasal-floor 
will be better to call it Jacobson's cartilage, for 
is no organ at this point, from the condition of the 
1 other structures it is highly probable that the 
xtended forwards considerably in advance of its 
;he naso-palatine canal, as is the case in Ornitho- 
^ it is, the organ still extends some little way in front 
^ into the naso-palatine canal, and on one side of 
3rior extension is seen cut across. 





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THB ORGAN OF JACOBSON IN MAJ 




In fig. 6 and fig. 7 the very short iiaso-p 
first opening into Jacobson's organ aiul then 
cavity with the mouth in the usual manru 
the enormous development of the palatine [ 
noticeable feature. On the outer side of tlie ui 
cartilage is seen in section a precurreiit pr 
part of the palatine process of the [u^ema: 
side of fig. 7 the inner plate of JacobstiTi's ca 
down a process by the side of the caiial; on 
is a little further back, the inner plate of Jn 
united with the outer bar. 

In the adult in the region just con^idt-re^ 
of the premaxillary is very similnrj liut 
degenerated into a few irregular patcln-s, I 
the downward process of Jacobson's oiirlila 
nasopalatine canal is persistent (fig. II). 

In the region of greatest develi>pTnent 
similar to that in the other Polyprotiidont 
cartilaginous capsule is scarcely obsen able, tl 
entirely supported by the well devebjpwl pj 
sensory wall is fairly well developed, though 
Dasyurus viverrinus or Didelphys. Along i 
single moderate-sized vessel, and a rather 1 
the inner and under side of the organ. T] 
connection with the anterior part of the org 

PHALANGERID^. (Plat4>s s 

Although the Phalangers are probably r 
most nearly related to the Polyprotodunts, } 
most distinctly the typical differential ion of 
in the Diprotodonts, it will be more conveni 
first. 

Sub-family PHALANGERiNiE. (PJates : 

Of this group I have examined, (1) ea 
Pseudochirus peregrinus ; (2) adult l\ pt 




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BY R. BROOM. 



603 



}lan8; (4) adult Petaurus breviceps; (5) very early 
IS, Trichosums vulpecida; (6) early mammary foetus, 
(7) large mammary foetus, Trichosurus; and (8) 
irus. 

B genera the same type is followed, and the close 
ween the different genera is remarkable. 
< peregrinuf, Bodd., (mammary foetus, head length 
the anterior papillary plane and a little in front the 
bilage is well developed, but not of very great lateral 
nasal septum comes well down and anteriorly the 
tilage abuts squarely against it; but in the middle 
papilla the septum has begun to retreat, and the 
he nasal-floor cartilage curves up towards it some- 
is on each side a well developed septal ridge, and 
cartilage sends a feebly developed process towards 
/. fig. 1, the ridge process is not so well developed as 
In this section will be seen a feature which is 
11 the Diprotodonts as distinguished from the Poly- 
the great lateral development of all the structures, 
eptal ridges project more, making the base of the 
auch broader; the nasal-floor cartilages are further 

inner ends, and the palatine processes which are 
:jonnection with Jacobson's cartilages are, in their 
lent instead of closely together as in the Polypro- 
Y apart. The naso-palatine canal passes obliquely 
backwards, and opens into Jacobson's organ on 

same plane as that in which it becomes part of the 

javity. In PI. xliv. tigs. 2 and 3, the nasal-floor is 

Jacobson's cartilage is hollowed slightly on the 

ad in the hollow lies the palatine process of 

I. In the region of best development Jacobson's 

present as a slightly concave plate, which 
:edly outwards as well as downwards from 
the septum. The palatine process is present as 
1 bar lying along the middle of the inner side. The 

almost oval on section; the inner wall of which is 




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THE OEGAH OF JACOBSOK IN MA 



more than half the diamefcer, while the lunn 
tic, owing to the outer wall being much b 
central than hiteral portions. 

Pgeudochirus peregi'inuSj Bodd., (ftduJfc); 
Kerr, (adult), and Peiaurua bremcepBf Wati 
three genera agree with each other ao markec 
necesjsarj to def*crihe the condition in one- 
attention to the points in which the others c 

In a plane immediately in front of the pa 
the na^iiil-tloor cai'tilage is found to agree i 
described in Perameies, each inner end havii 
closely placed against the aides of the \mse 
only marked dlfiTerenee ia that the lateral pi 
much curve<l; thijs, liowever, is rendered net 
developer] tii'iit ineisoi-s. In the plane pas«ii: 
of the papilla the inner ascending plate of tli 
is mucli shorter, but has^ Ijecome hroadenetl i 
aeptal ridge, which anteriorly was develope 
cally, is hei^ a much more detinetl ridge^ and 
of the irrugalar square shaped inner pan 
cartilage a wligl it process patises into the ridg 
the naiial-floor cartilage becomes almost entin 
10 repi-esents a section through the third in 
part of the papilla. Here the nasal- llo^jr 
appearjmce which mny be regarded a« t3'^pic. 
Tlie inferior septal ridge is removini from i 
with the septum, and the process fi'om tlje in 
floor cartilage (which nmy even here hv. rv 
cartilage) supporting it, instead of coming t 
the cartilage, springs from a point conjiidt5rii 
an independent continuation of iht^ tmmlil 
on to the base of the septum. In Petnurn^ 
lies very obliquely outwai-ds on the pala 
Petauroides and Pseud oehiniis the caj^tilngp 
{ej\ fig, 4); otherwise, however, the stri 
Inferiorly the cartilage plate extends dov, 




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BT R. BROOM. 



605 



t>s 



r edge of the palatine process, a condition more 
*seudochirus than in Petaurus. On passing back- 
er part of the cartilaginous process of the ridge 
bed as the outer bar of Jacobson's cartilage. In 
I the anterior part of Jacobson's organ is indicated, 
palatine canal connected with the short duct of the 
, XLiv. ^g, 12 the organ communicates freely with the 
J the plane where the naso-palatine canal becomes 
'ity. 

IV. figs. 5 and 6 it will be seen that in Pseudochirus 
: the organ is more directly into the upper part of 
ile in Petauroides (fig. 8) the condition agrees 
ith that in Petaurus. The difference, however, 
slight one of degree. 

losing of the organ the lower part of Jacobson's 
3S with the outer bar in the usual manner. In 
the ridge is considerably lower than in the other 
> that when the lower part of Jacobson's cartilage 
stead of an irregular TJ-shaped appearance we have 
• L, as in PL xliv. fig. 7. In Petauroides (fig. 9) 
las the more usual appearance, 
in all these genera is well developed, and has on 
jr elongated kidney shape. In the small Petaurus 
all is larger proportionally than in the other two 
hilus is very broad and only but slightly depressed, 
jr lumen to the organ. In all three genera there is 
ous plexus usually composed of one, two, or three 
)rly, which branch into six or more posteriorly, 
few glands in connection with the organ, except at 
►art. 

vulpeculaj Kerr, (mammary foetus, head length 
I this very small mammary fcBtus, which may be 

size at birth, the cartilages are all fairly well 
i the ossification of the premaxillary bones quite 
ked. In the plane of the developing incisors the 
tilage is very well developed, as seen in PI. XLV. ^g. 1. 




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THE ORGAN OP JACOBSON IN MARSUl 



mm 





At its inner end it sends up a process by the si< 
which latter at this early stage descends down 1 
ends of the premaxillaries. At the outer em 
cartilage unites with the alinasal. On reaching 
papilla the nasal-floor cartilage divides into iti 
parts; before dividing, however, the downwai 
inner part makes itself manifest. On the left sid 
representing the plane a little behind the divi 
floor cartilage, Jacobson's cartilage is seen as a < 
near the middle of the inner concave side, thed< 
process, present as a minute spicula of bone, 
process, it will be seen, is more marked than in t 
chiru8. The naso-palatine canal has the usual 
first into Jacobson's organ and then becomii 
nasal cavity. The organ is present as a small c 
inner wall considerably thicker than the outer. 

Trichos^inis vulpecula^ Kerr, (mammary fa 
10*5 mm.). In this more developed mammary f 
of parts are better seen. In PI. XLV. fig. 4 is s] 
structure of the inner part of the nasal-floor ca 
division. From this figure it will be seen thi 
process is a structure superadded to the simple n 
as seen in the Dasyure. The same can probab 
the internal ascending process. In PI. xlv. 
cartilage is an almost vertical plate with the 
process along the middle of the inner side. ^ 
very large. 

Tricho8U7'it8 vtdpectUay Kerr, (mammary fa 
20 mm.). In the series of sections from this i 
the steps intermediate between the condition i 
and the adult. The nasal-floor cartilage before 
PI. XLV. fig. 7 may be compared with PI. xliv. 
the similar part in Pseudochirus. The only mi 
due to the unusually well developed posterior 
nasal-floor cartilage. In the Ringtail the out^ 
lage is only a rudiment, but hei'e it is larger th 




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BY R. BROOM. 



607 



•ocess, on the other hand, so large in the Ringtail and 
ingers is only slightly developed in Trichosurus. The 
process is very distinct; and the palatine process more 
jrtically than in the younger foetuses. In PL XLV. ^g, 
mlatine canal passes up almost vertically and opens 
►n's organ. At this stage there is no chondrification 
bar. In the following figure the organ is closed; and 
atine canal is merged in the nasal cavity. Even in 
he outer part of the nasal-floor cartilage is still well 
Jacobson's cartilage is an almost vertical plate, and 
js against it much flattened from side to side. 
us vulpecukiy Kerr, (adult). In the adult common 
here is considerable agreement with the condition in 
3taurus. All the main peculiarities are due to two 
, much less degree of development of the inferior 
in Trichosurus; and (2) a greater development of the 
ioor cartilage. 

[. fig. 1 through the posterior papillary region, the inner 
lasal-floor cartilage is very similar to that in Petaurus, 
the ridge process is more feeble here; the outer part 
il-floor cartilage though small is, however, better 
lan in Petaurus. The papillary cartilage is well seen 
J and is interesting from its having a distinct median 
i. XLVi. figs. 2, 3 and 4, is seen the mode of division of 
)or cartilage, which is more complicated than in any 
' common Marsupials. In the most anterior part of 
ween the premaxilla and its palatine process there is 
inct, rather large, descending process filling up the 
On the naso-palatine canal passing up, and on the 
r being farther removed from the palatine process, the 
^rtilaginous process remains only as a narrow internal 
jlose against the palatine process (PI. xlvi. fig. 2). In 
he ridge process though small is distinct, and is con- 
both the inner plate of Jacobson's cartilage and the 
f the nasal-floor cartilage. In PI. xlvi. fig. 3, a very 
d the previous plane, an anterior prolongation of 




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Jacobsoa's organ makes its appearance between 
the ridge process and the inner plate of Jaco 
dividing the one from the other; but thougli the < 
ridge process — clearly the outer bar of Jacob; 
becomes detached from the inner plate, it atill n 
tion with the outer part of the nasal-floor cartila^ 
fig. 4, however,