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Full text of "Proceedings of the Illinois State Convention of Colored Men, assembled at Galesburg, October 16th, 17th, and 18th, containing the state and national addresses promulgated by it, with a list of the delegates composing it"

12 143 
1866 






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PROCEEDINGS 



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ASSEMBLED AT GALES BURG, 



OCTOBER 16th, 17th, and 18th. 



CONTAINING 



THE STATE 4ND NATIONAL ADDRESSES 



PROMULGATED BY IT, 



WITH A LIST OF THE DELEGATES COMPOSING IT. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE CONVENTION. 



CHICAGO 



CHURCH, GOODMAN AND DONNELLEY, PRINTKRS. 

& 1867. 



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The bequest oF 

Daniel Murray, 

Washington, D, G. 

1925. 






PKOCEEDINGS. 



Pursuant to a widely circulated call for such an assemblage, a con- 
vention of the colored Americans of the State of Illinois, met at the 
city of Galesburg, on the morning of October 16th, A. D. 1866. 
The purpose of the body was to thoroughly canvass the subject of 
the disabilities, educational and political, that dwell upon persons 
of color in this State, impeding their rightful progress, and to devise 
and set in motion effective agencies for the permanent removal of 
the same. 

The place of meeting was the lecture-room of the church of the 
Rev. Edward Beecher, D. D. At ten o'clock the convention was 
called to order by Mr. Edwin R. Williams, chairman of the Chicago 
delegation. At his request prayer was pronounced by the Rev. T. 
Strother, of Cairo. Mr. J. H. Barquette, of Galesburg, was elected 
temporary chairman, and Mr. Lewis B. White, of Chicago, and Rev. 
T. Strother, of Cairo, were elected temporary secretaries. 

The call of the convention was then read by Joseph Stanley, of 
Chicago, as follows : 

To the Colored Men of Illinois : 

A year ago the long and bloody war for the preservation of the Union was 
terminated. One of its immediate results was the abolition of slavery and the 
partial recognition of the rights of the colored race. That recognition, how- 
ever, after a year of discussion, is as yet but partial. The question which still 
divides the country into two great parties is whether we shall receive, in their 
entirety, those rights to which we are entitled from the Legislature of the Union 
down to that of each State. This has been the great point of controversy. 
And now that we are enabled to express, more fully than ever before, our un- 
qualified opinion about those questions which affect the entire interests of a 
people who have ever proved loyal to the government of their country, it has 
been deemed advisable to issue a call for a Convention of the colored men of 
this State, for the purpose of expressing their views in relation to the present 
condition of public affairs, and of agreeing upon a course of policy which may 
enhance the best interests of our people in general, and one which we can 
unitedly pursue, in order to obtain those God-given rights to which we are 
entitled, as citizens and men. 



. 



V \ * 

* iinon^tho questions whie%will receive the especial attention of the Conven- 
course to pursue in order to obtain equal rights for colored 
■'i at the ballot'bo.i ami in courts of justice. While relying with unwa- 
vering faith upon the genial action of the Congress of the United States, and of 
tie of the . it is necessary for us to take measures look- 

' the removal of ^abilities as now affect us by State laws, and with- 

J of whicb any favorable action on the part of Congress can be of 
but little avail. And of those invidious features of State legislation in regard 
tizen, no one more eminently demands our utmost i r its 

abolition than the proscription under which we labor, so far as educational 
re concerned. We desire to take strong grounds, to the end that 
a common school education may be shaved by us in unison 
with others, and that we may have an opportunity of proving not only our 
ur capacity for improvement. 
We desire, too, to consider in what manner we may utterly remove those 
linsl u- pie, which still obtain in the minds of so many — 

prejudices which are the effect of slavery. We desire to make known to all 
our intention to puisne the even tenor of our way, never obtrusive nor permit- 
i from others ; trampling on the rights of none, but defending to 
of ourselves and of our posterity. 
And it will bo our peculiar duty and our highest pleasure to commemorate 
- of those colored soldiers who have proven on many a battle-field, in 
. a weary siege and many a toilsome inarch, their fitness for defenders of 
Republic and for freedom most wide. Pointing to them, as we fondly do, 
of our devotion to a country that had enslaved us and is still unkind, 
will speak of them with pride and with greatful remembrance. 
These are among the chief features for which we have issued this call for a 
avention of colored men, to be held on the lGth day of October next, 
. Illinois ; and that there may be a thorough representation of the 
colored c of the State a desire to impress upon their minds the import- 

ance of every city, town and village within its limits appointing delegates to 
in in the Convention. 
Any further information may bo had on application to the Corresponding 
1 -. I.. B. White, G. L. Thomas, E. R. Williams. 

rus Richardson, Alton. John Jones, Chicago. 

I ward Whi u G. L. Thomas, u 

John J. Byrd, Cairo. Joseph Stanley, 

T. Strotl •■ John James, 

Bamuel Witherspoon, Bloomington. A. Cary, 

inl Smith, Shawneetown. L. B. White, 

l; !'. Etodgers, Springfield. Wm. Baker, 

S. D " E. Hawkins, 

R iHtrong, Rockford. R. W. Stokes, 

Wylie Wald " E. K. Williams, " 

.'. B. Finchure, G-alesburg. E. 0. Freeman, " 
.1. II. Barqui " 

All communications can be addressed to 

LEWIS B. WHITE, 
ite Central Committee, Bos to i, Chicago. 

A Committee on Credentials was appointed, consisting of Messrs. 
D. William-. L. B. White, ('. Richardson, A. Pleasants and E. 

■ii. 
A Committee on Permanent organizations ted, comprising 

lowing gentlemen; George L. Thomas, of Chicago, C. S. 



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IC 

1 1 
( I 



Jacobs, of Decatur, B. Smith, of Shawneetown, G. "W. Faulkner, 
of Galesburg, R. Holly, of Bloomington, J. McSmith, of Galena, 
J. W. Smith, of Tuscola, M. Richardson, of Mercer county, G. H. 
Denny, of Henry county, E. W. Lewis, of Peoria. H. Hicklin, of 
Springfield, J. W. Coleman, of "Will county, G. T. Fountain, of 
Adams county, James D. Davis, of Knox county, and Wm. Baker, 
of Cook county. 

This committee of fifteen was ordered to report at half-past two 
o'clock p. m, 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The house was called to order at half-past two o'clock, by the 
chairman. Prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Patterson. 

George L. Thomas, chairman of the Committee on Permanent 
Organization, made the following report : 

For President — "William Johnson, of Chicago. 

" First Vice President — B. A. Green, of Champaign, City. 

" Second Vice President — C. C. Richardson, of Alton. 

" Secretary — R. C. Waring, of Chicago. 

" Assistant Secretary — T. Strother, of Cairo, 

" Treasurer — A. Pleasants, of Adams county. 

" Sergeant at Arms — J. D. Davis, of Galesburg. 

The report of the committee was adopted, and the officers elect 
were introduced to the convention neatly and briefly by Messrs. 
Joseph Stanley, L. B. Trusty and M. R. Richardson. Brief and 
appropriate speeches were made by the retiring chairman and the 
President elect, and the officers entered upon the discharge -of their 
respective duties. 

On motion of E. R. "Williams, all delegates present without cre- 
dentials were invited to seats in the convention. 

At the instance of Mr. J. H. Barquette, a call of the roll was 
ordered. 

On motion of Rev. J. Dawson, Rev. T. Strother was appointed 
reporter for the " Christian Recorder," published at Philadelphia. 

On motion of E. R. Williams, a Committee of five on Ways and 
Means was appointed. The chair selected Messrs. Barquette, Davis, 
Thomas, S. D. Williams and M. Richardson. 

On motion of Mr. Barquette, a Committee of three on Printing 
was ordered, the chair appointing Messrs. Barquette, S. Richardson 
and Coleman to comprise it. 

On motion of E. R. "Williams, the following named gentlemen 
were elected a Committee on Resolutions : Messrs. Joseph Stanley, 
S. D. Willkms, E. R. Williams, B. Smith, D. Fletcher, C. S. 
Jacobs and H. Hicklin. . 

On motion of L. B. White, it was ordered that all resolutions 



presented to the convention be referred to the Committee on Reso- 
!ut ions, without debate. 

A Committee of -i-vm on Suffrage was, on motion of E. R. Wil- 
liams, created, composed of Messrs. .1. J!. Dawson, C. C. Richardson, 
B. Al. Green, G. T. Fountain, J. D. Davis, R. DeBaptiste and R. 
W. Stokes. 

( >n motion of J. Stanley, a Committee of seven, to present an 
address on the State of the Country, was elected as follows: li. W. 
S 'kes, of Chicago, J. 1'.. Dawson, of Chicago, C. S. Jacobs, of De- 
ur, <i. T. Fountain, of Quincy, .1. II. Barquette, of Galesburg, 
M. Richardson, of .Mercer county, and E. A. Green, of Champaign 
City . 

The committee were ordered to report at three o'clock p. m., on 
Wednesday, I 7th of October instant. 

On motion of II. W. Stokes, it was ordered that a committee of 
five be appointed to prepare an address to the people of the State 
that they report the same to the house at two o'clock 
p. in., mi J;he 17th instant; that it be made the order of the day 
until disposed of, and that Messrs. R. DeBaptiste J. B. Trusty, 
1 1 rge Brent, G. II. Eenry, and R. Holly be said committee. 
i»n motion of J. B. Dawson, Messrs. B. R. Williams and T. Stro- 

were added to the Committee on Suffrage. 
On motion of R. DeBaptiste, Messrs. Joseph Stanley. George T. 
Fountain, Walter Coleman, If. Bicklin and C. S. Jacobs wen- ap- 
ited a Committee on the Educational Statistics of the State. 
On motion of J. B. Dawson, a Committee of seven on tin- Moral 
■l' the Color.*,] |v,,|,l,. of the State, was ordered. Messrs. 
.!. B. Dawson. R. DeBaptiste, A. Pleasants, J. W. Smith; R. B. 
Ji eph Faulkner and George Graves were appointed said 
iait tee. 

a of G. L. Thomas, the credentials of J. B. Smith, of 
Knoxville, were referred to the Committee on Credentials. That 
body reported favorably upon the matter referred to them, and Mr. 
Smith was admitted to a -■ at in the convention. 

On motion of George L. Thomas, il was ordered that the morn- 
ing f the convention commence at half-past nine o'clock, 
and end at meridian, and that the afternoon session be from two 
ick to five ■''clock-. 
tin motion of George L. Thomas, a rule was obtained, allowing 

"" membi c to -peak- i ■<■ than twice upon the same subject, with- 

ioii from the chair. 
On motion, the convention adjourned to meet at hall past nine 
a. m.. on Wednesdav, 1 7th. 



MORNING SESSION. 

Wednesday, October 11th, 

The Convention was called to order by the President at half-past 
nine o'clock, and prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Jackson. 

Doctor P. B. Randolph and A. J. Gordon, Esq., were introduced 
to the Convention by J. H. Barquette. 

The proceedings of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

On the motion of E. A. Green, George T. Fountain was elected 
Assistant Secretary of the Convention. 

The proceedings of the meeting of Tuesday morning were read 
and approved. 

A call of the roll was ordered. 

The Committee on Credentials reported the following gentlemen 
as duly accredited delegates : George P. Morris, Thomas Steven- 
son, R. B. Catlin, George Phenix, H. H. Hawkins, C. C. Rich- 
ardson, C. Barbour, Philander Outland. 

The Committee on Educational Statistics, through their chairman, 
Joseph Stanley, made the annexed report, which was adopted. 

ADDRESS FROM THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION. 

Fellow Citizens op the State op Illinois, — Among the great questions 
which claim our special consideration, is that of education. The past and pre- 
sent history of our native country, as well as of all other countries which have 
attained to any degree of greatness, has proven that, without education, they 
are lost to virtue, intelligence, and to that usefulness which have made a people 
great, good, happy, and contented. 

If a nation, republican in form, loses her virtue, she can no longer claim pres- 
tige with her sister republics. The same is with communities and individuals. 

What is it that makes a nation, a people, a community, or even an individual, 
great, good, and happy? It is a pure, unsullied love of virtue ! And how 
shall this virtue be obtained, so as to become beneficial to all, irrespective of 
color or condition ? 

Judging from the past and looking at the present, we can see, through the dim 
vista, the future of a race of people, who are giants in intellect, whose energies 
have been crushed by the power of might — a people claiming the admiration 
of men and angels, still entreating you, by all that is patriotic in government 
and sacred in religion, to be the witness of what they will do to establish their 
claim to be recognized as men worthy of a chance in this your noble State, to 
earn their bread, to educate themselves and their children — a people full of 
love and humanity, ever ready to yield to those christian impulses and feelings 
which characterize those whom God has chosen for his elect from all eternity. 
Such characteristics must eventually have their reward ; such virtues must 
ever live. And, as a part of that race, living in your midst, tilling your soil, 
loading your ships, and by our labor enriching you — willing to forget that you 
have oppressed, trampled us under foot, shot us down like dogs, treated us as 
beasts of burden, having watered the soil of our fair country with the blood 
of our fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters — still, we feel it to be our duty to 
show, not only to the people of the State of Illinois, but to the nation, that we 
are men and American citizens ; that we desire to acquire all your virtues, 
shunning every evil calculated to retard our moral, physical, and social condi- 
tion. To do this, we ask you, in the name of twenty-two thousand colored 



citizens of the State, to open wide your doors, and admit our children into your 
lie schools and colleges. We appeal to you, in behalf of eight thousand 
boys and -iris, with expansive minds, ready and willing to drink from 
fountain of Literature and learning. 
Slaves, many of us have !■• it if you give us those advantages which 

the Constitution guarantees to all citizens, we shall soon rise in the scale of 
being so high that it will blush the cheek of many who have spent their golden 
moments at the shri dee and infamy. 

Looking at the i mal statistics of our State, we find less than one hun- 

d "four colored children in public schools, or less than one in every eighty. 
II. ns- long shall Buch a state of things exist ; how long will you encourage pau- 
perism, and charge us with having minds not susceptible' of culture. Your 
-lature. less than two years ago, wiped from the escutcheon of our great 
and im'nlc Stair, a part of her Mark code. 

Thi i, you took from your midst twenty-five hundred true and loyal 

ks, to help till up your qaota. and your generals led them to a scene of car- 
ath. As men and soldiers of Illinois they fought ; as American 
they died, defending the honor of the State and the government. 
eving that the State, the government, and the entire people, irrespective of 
all political differences, would honor their memory by doing justice in the edu- 
cation of their children, the protection of their widows and orphans, and 
proving to the world that the genius of the American people is liberty unpro- 
Bcribed to all. How can you hope for success in the establishment of the 
government on the eternal foundation on which your fathers built, if you persist 
in denying an education to a persecuted race. This is a world of compensations, 
and . would himself be great through the means of i ducation, must not 

we the mind of his fellow-being. Then, fellow cititizens. accept the 
aphorism, and enlarge upon it : say that, as the colored man is now free, he 
may live a better patriot, a belter mau and a better christian. 

JOSEPH STANLEY, 
Chairman aj Com. on Education. 

GEO. T. FOUNTAIN, A lams Co. 

WALTER COLEMAN, AVill 

C. S. JACOBS, Mkkcer " 

II. 1 1 UK LIN. Sangamon 

Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, J. Stanley, 
made, (,u behalf of that body, the following report, which was 
tpted. 

REPORT OF Till' COMMITTEE OX RESOLUTIONS. 

Whereas, Taxation without representation is contrary to the. genius and 
spirit of our republican institutions, and 

Wi The colored people of the 3tate of Illinois are taxed for the sup- 

port of the public schools, and denied, by the laws of the State, the right of 
tin- their chUdri therefore, 

l: '■ That we regard il ss usurpation, unjustly shown toward the 

ired citizens of Illinois, and that this Convention do hereby n imend-to 

olored | pie of the state to Bend their petitions to our legislature, asking 

for tin- repeal of said law. 

our sin,, legislature, having ratified tho amendment to tho 

' titution of the United States, abolishing slavery, and repealing a pan of her 

le, giving to colored men the right to testify i must 

id remiss in her duty, until she ed the children of three 

Ihon red men who helped to lill the quota of the S.tato. 



Resolved, That to deprive us and our children of this invaluable right (honor- 
ably and patriotically defended by the blood of our fathers, brothers and sons), 
is treating us with wrong and cruel injustice, unheard of in any civilized land 
or country whose government, national or State, have received the services 
of black soldiers in defending the liberties of the entire people. 

Resolved, That in view of the services rendered by the loyal and patriotic 
black men of the State of Illinois, during the war which has just ended, wiping 
from our national escutcheon the foul stain of slavery, that we ask the legisla- 
ture to give us the free exercise of our inherent right, namely, the elective 
franchise. 

Resolved, That the constitutional disability under which colored men labor in 
this State, calls loudly for redress ; it insults our manhood, and disgraces the 
name of our great State. 

Resolved, That, in spite of every opposition, we recommend to our people 
the propriety of getting an interest in the soil, believing that there is power in so 
doing : moreover, to cultivate and improve the same is one of the great means 
of elevating ourselves and every disfranchised American. 

Resolved, That we believe the times require an earnest co-operation of the 
colored citizens throughout the State, in securing a recognition of our rights, as 
men and citizens, by the next legislature, and that we will unite our efforts with 
those of our brethren elsewhere in securing the aforesaid end. 

Resolved, That we believe that, under our present form of government, no 
man is secure in his life, liberty, or property, while he is deprived of the elective 
franchise. 

Resolved, That, as the government called upon us to help defend it in the 
hour of danger, and thus recognized us as citizens of the republic, it should 
now give to us the right of the ballot box, for the protection of ourselves and 
families ; and that we will not cease to agitate the question, until we shall have 
been recognized in law as the equals of every American citizen. 

Resolved, That among the means to be adopted by the colored people of 
Illinois, for insuring confidence from their white fellow citizens, is to form 
themselves into stock associations, for raising cattle of all kinds, thereby proving 
that we have the same pride and taste in enhancing the farming interests of the 
State, as those who have, and are still laboring for her future aggrandizement. 

Resolved, That our efforts for the achievement of the suffrage question, the 
admission of our children into public schools, the acquirement of lands, and the 
raising of stock shall be unceasing ; that we feel our manhood, and must exer- 
cise it on every occasion, until we are satisfied that the prejudice which now 
exists against us is done away, and that we shall be treated as men and brethren 
throughout the State. 

Resolaed, That as a people whose characteristics are religious, we will con- 
tinue to preach and pray, and, if necessary, fight against all laws making a 
difference on account of color, either in Church or State. 

Resolved, That we do not ask our white friends to elevate us, but only desire 
them to give us the same opportunities of elevating ourselves, by admitting us 
to the right of franchise, and an equal chance for educating ourselves, by open- 
ing the doors of their free schools and colleges. 

J. STANLEY, Cook Co. 
E. R. WILLIAMS, Cook Co. 
C. S. JACOBS, Mercer Co. 
GEO. T. FOUNTAIN, Adajis Co. 
BRYAN SMITH, Gallatin Co. 
P. FLETCHER, Knox Co. 
H. HICKLIN, Sangamon Co. 
S. D. WILLIMS, Knox Co. 



8 

I '11 the motion of Rev. R. DeBaptistc, Dr. P. B. Randolph and 

Mr. A. J. Gordon were invited to participate in the proceedings of 

Convention this p. m., and in the general speaking of the 

this evening. 

On the m ; James D. Davis, "that a hook of subscription 

joint b1 ompany be opened this afternoon," the Convention 

v ted affirmatively. 

On the motion R. D( B tiste, Messrs. L. B. "White, Joseph 
aley and G-. P. Morris, were appointed a committee to report 
iroceedings of the Convention to the public journals. 
The Convention adjourned to meet at two o'clock p. m. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Convention was called to order at two o'clock. 

The proceedings of the morning session were read and approved. 

The resignation of •). Stanley of his membership of the report- 

1 immittee, was offered and accepted by the Convention. 
< >n the motion of R. C. Waring, George L. Thomas was 
lointed to fill the vacancy thus created. 

Committee on Credentials reported S. R. Smith a? a duly 
accredit'''! delegate from Knoxville, and lie was thereupon admitted 
il in the ( lonvention. 

Committee on the address to the people of the State of 
tois, made, through their Chairman, Rev. R. De Baptiste, the 
owing report, which, after brief speeches in its support, was 
pted. 

AN ADDRESS 

TO THE 

PEOPLE OF TILE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 
low < 'mz mi'. State of Illinois : 

A-- a part of the people of this ; and prosperous common- 

th, we have assembled in Convention for the purpose of 

idering such matters as relate to our intellectual, moral and 

il prosperity. And we wish, by a calm and judicious discussion 

ms that are intimately connected with our most vital 

- our rights of liberty and the pursuit of happiness, 

iclusions as will com il,,,' all of the justice of 

, and the reasonableness of our demands. 

Receiving, as conclusive upon that question, the legal decisions of 

• authority known in the nation, including the judicial, 

i legislative and the executive departments of its government, 

oitizens of the State of Illinois. And yet, strange and 

, wearodw/ i ed in the State of our residence, 



9 

without the commission of any crime by ourselves, as a reason for 
our disfranchisement. 

Therefore we address you, but not for the purpose of intruding 
upon you, in this address, our opinions on the question of the 
reconstruction of the rebel States' Governments into the Republic 
again, but Ave address you upon " the subject of State legislation, 
which immediately effects and controls the most important rights 
of the citizens." In the exercise of the commonest right known 
to man, — the right of habitation, — we have chosen this State as 
our dwelling place — our home. 

Here many of us have purchased lands upon which we have 
settled, and by the cultivation of the soil we propose to gain an 
honest livelihood, and add to the material wealth of our adopted 
State. Others of us have invested our means in the different 
branches of mechanical trades and commercial pursuits, while yet 
others are engaged in useful industrial occupations, by means of 
which to maintain themselves and those dependent upon them, to 
acquire property, and accumulate wealth. Having established our 
family altars upon this soil, here erected our churches for worship, 
and our houses for habitation, we propose to pursue our callings, 
serve our God, our country, and our State. Our purpose is to be 
intelligent, loyal, and peaceable citizens of the State, and to 
maintain such a standing among the rest of our fellow-citizens as 
will command their respect. To attain to this end we require the 
same means in its. accomplishment as do others ; we need the same 
immunities and privileges that are accorded to others. To become 
intelligent and useful citizens our youth need the same free and 
unrestricted common school privileges that others have, but which at 
present they have not, except in a few particular localities, that 
renders this great privilege — very justly esteemed as the pride of 
our civilization and christian sentiment — by no means general and 
free to us. 

We wish to call your attention to Section 80 of " An Act to 
establish and maintain a system of free schools in the State of 
Illinois, as amended February 16th, 1865," which reads as follows : 
" In townships in which there shall be persons of color, the board 
of trustees shall allow such persons a portion of the school fund 
equal to the amount of taxes collected for school purposes from 
such persons of color in their respective townships." 

Here under the specious pretence of " establishing schools for 
persons of color," we are in reality cut off from the common school 
privileges of the State. No portion of the funds derived from the 
sale of school lands granted by the National Government for 
common school purposes, or that derived from other sources of 
school revenue, except that of direct tax, is to be given to " such 
persons." And even the "portion" "of taxes collected for school 
purposes" " the board of trustees shall allow such persons" is so 



10 

carefully guarded, and so adroitly set apart, as not to lc in ••' amount 
in proportion to the number of children under twenty-one years of 
age," as is the case with others. No provision is made for school 
houses, or the management of such schools, or, inshort, any thing 
thai is necessary to "free schools." 

Thus it is that the colored citizens of this great State, that 
prides itself on its "system of free schools,'' must, under the 
presenl partial and unjust enactment, submit to see their children 
driven from the well organized and ably conducted schools in the 
districts where they reside, for no other delinquency than the crime 
of being created with a darker skin than their neighbors. What 
an insult to Eim who " hath made 61 one blood all nations of men." 

\\ e protest that this is an unjust and unchristian discrimination 
againsl a portion of your loyal citizens, and appeal to yen to remedy 
what is equally a reflection upon your sense of justice and christian 
principle, as it is an injury to us, by taking out of the school laws 
of the State all discriminations on account of color or race, and give 
to all the people the benefit in common of the free schools. 

The citizens of every free and enlightened governmeni have 
accorded to them the right of jury trial, before a jury composed of 
their " peers," whenever their rights of person or property are 
brought in question before a court of justice. And where is the 
American citizen who does not deem this very sacred and time- 
honored right an essential part of his citizenship? Certainly there 
is not one to be found. But by the laws of this State, thai portion 
of its citizens who are not white are debarred, even in the most 
petty case, the right to sit as a juror in any of its legal tribunals. 
So thai no colored citizen of the State of Illinois whose life, repu- 
utation or property may be on trial in its courts, can have the 
reasonable privilege or right to be confronted by a jury composed 
either wholly or in part, of his equals, in the persons of his colored 
fellow-citizens. 

The right to sit in the jury box, in common with other citizens of 

the State, we deem essential to our full citizenship. Necessary it 

ii many instances, to insure us a, fair and impartial trial : and 

yet more necessary do we regard its p.. a in order to vindic 

our character againsl the unfair aspersion with which the withhold- 

ails US. 

Therefore, we call upon you to demand of our legislature to so 

nd the statutes of the State, that the humblesi of its eitizens 

may l>e assured of a lair ami impartial jury trial, by removing tin; 

bar that now Bhuts oul from a seat upon the jury, <^rry honest and 

intelligent citizen who is not a white man. 

\\ a require these rights at pour hands, because we believe ■ ■■■ 
American citizen in each State to be entitled to equal rights bef 
the law ; that the Constitution of the United States contemplates 
as much, when it Bays : " The citizens <>] each State- shall he cnti- 



11 

tied to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several 
States." That the " Civil Rights Bill," recently passed by more 
than a two-thirds majority through both houses of Congress, is 
designed to enforce this principle, and secure these " privileges and 
immunities " to all alike. Therefore, we ask of you that they be 
restored to as, by an expression of your consent, through the ballot- 
box, since we should be no longer deprived of them. 

There is yet one more question to which we wish to call your 
attention, and that is the most. important of them all, as it is the only 
safeguard to those we have already named, and all other rights of 
the citizens. We refer to the elective franchise, or the right to vote. 
"We wish to have a voice in the government which " derives its just 
powers from the consent of the governed." By the Constitution of 
the State of Illinois, the elective franchise is restricted to its 
•• white male citizens " who are twenty-one years of age, and in 
consequence of this, the colored citizens of the State are deprived 
of the right to vote. This feature of the organic law of the State 
is at war with the fundamental principles of this and all other truly 
democratic governments. Foremost among these principles is the 
one often repeated, but none the less forcible, since it is moved by 
the power of eternal truth : that taxation and representation are 
inseparable. 

It is inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, which declares 
that " the United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
Union a republican form of government." And we protest to you 
that that is not a republican government, that constitutes a govern- 
ing class or caste of a -portion of its citizens, on account of the com- 
plexion of their skin. An aristocracy of race or color is as repug- 
nant to the principles of republicanism, as one of birtli or wealth 
would be. 

Again, the system of restricting suffrage to the whites only, gives 
countenance to that wicked, pernicious, and false doctrine, that has 
arisen since the days of "Washington and Jefferson, and which is at 
present openly preached by some, and secretly cherished by more, 
that " this is a white man's government." This injurious and 
undemocratic sentiment is elevated to a degree of respectability, 
and its advocates furnished with a pretext upon which to predicate 
a sort of consistency, when they are backed up by the unjust political 
discrimination of which we complain, and by which a whole race 
are debarred from all participation in the government, upon mo 
other ground than that they are not, and cannot be, " white male 
citizens." "We have characterized this doctrine as false, because 
the wise men who established this republic did not hold any such 
doctrine ; and if they did entertain such sentiments at all, they 
were wise enough, and careful enough, in the performance of the 
grand and noble work that fell to their lot, to rise above their 
prejudices, and, as if guided by an inspiration scarcely less than 



12 

divim r e to their children, for generations yet unborn, a Declara- 
tion ni' tndependence, and a Constitution for the United 31 tes, 
without a trace of such a weakness, without the stain of such an 
iniquity, that know no white man. no black man; but embrace in 
their God-like fold •• all men," and are lor the "People." 

In manyofthe States, fr tolored citizens voted for the adoption 

of the I'V leral Constitution, at the same Fallot box, and in common 

with their white fellow-citizens, which circumstance furnishes that 

iment with a commentary at once truthful and reliable, 

the sophistry of ambitious and unreliable politicians, 

and the preconceived opinions of unjust judges; and soiling forth 

in the clearest light, so that he that runs can read, the moaning of 

thai ; and just expression, - We, the people of the United 

States, in order to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and 

• ■Hi- posterity, lain and establish this Constitution." This is 

then, by the intention of its founders, simply a white man's 

' at, and those who labor to make it such, because they 

are in the majority, pervert it from the high purpose for which it 

was established, — to "secure the blessings of liberty " to all its 

people; and all legislation, whether State or National, that gives 

countenance to such a perversion, and encourages those who are 

•ring to accomplish it, shows a recreancy to the trust imposed 

upon their posterity by the fathers, and a departure from the faith 

which they proclaimed, "That all men are created equal." 

Therefore we hope that the Ci ation of our State will be 

amended by striking out the word •• white." so that it will accord 
with the Constitution of the United States, making no distinction 
among its citizens on account of their complexion, but " promoting 
the I welfare and securing the blessings of liberty" equally 

to all. 

_ T »ugh strong, is not the only ground upon which we pre- 

dicate our title to the elective franchise. We have claims to the 
right oi suffrage, which we wv<_:r upon your consideration ; and such 
too as, il they were |, f, ■<, ■ i , | , ., 1 | lV ;mv other class of our fellow 
citize,,-. would ensure to them that right, the dearest and most 

red to the American citizen — to have a voice in the selection of 
those who are to make ami execute the laws by which in is to be 

erned. 
We are native American citizens "to the manor horn." and have 

er known allegiance to any other Hag than "The Star Spangled 

1 '■■ which to-day waxes more proudly and gloriously than 

when it was first thrown to the breeze of heaven. That Hag our 

■ ith yours, made sacred by sprinkling its altar with their 

•de us blood, during tl rdeal through which it pas 

j" the that trie i men's souls," in the Revolutionary war. 

That our lathers served their country in the war of Independence, 
and ma > at Boldiers," remarkable for their braverv, as well 



13 

as "distinguished for their soldierly appearance," there are abun- 
dant historical proofs found upon the records of all the Northern 
md some of the Southern States during that period. In the secret 
journal of the old Congress, Vol. 1, pp. 105-107, the following 
record occurs : " On the 17th of March, 1779, it was recommended 
by Congress, to the States of Georgia and South Carolina, to raise 
3,000 colored troops, who were to be rewarded for their services by 
their freedom. The delegations from those States informed Con- 
gress that such a body of troops would be not only formidable to 
ihe enemy, but would lessen the danger of ' revolts and desertions ' 
imong the slaves themselves." 

When British temerity insulted the dignity of our flag in the 
tvar of 1812, and defied its resistance to their encroachments, the 
colored citizens of the Republic came forward at the call of their 
country, to defend its flag against the invading foe. General 
Jackson addressed them as " fellow citizens " with the whites, and 
said, " as sons of freedom you are called upon to defend our most 
nestimable blessing. As Americans, jour country looks with 
confidence to her adopted children for a valorous support, as a 
iaithful return for the advantages enjoyed under her mild and 
equitable Government. As fathers, husbands, and brothers, you 
ire summoned to rally round the standard of the eagle to defend all 
;hat is dear in existence. Your country, although calling for your 
exertions, does not wish you to engage in the cause without remu- 
lerating you for the services rendered. Your intelligent minds are 
wt to be led away by false representations. Your love of honor would 
'■ause. you to despise the man iclw would attempt to deceive you. In the 
sincerity of a soldier and the language of truth I address you.'' 

The Hon. Mr. Clarke in the Convention which revised the Con- 
stitution of the State of New York in 1821, said in regard to the 
■ight of suffrage for colored men, " In the war of the Revolution 
,hese people helped to fight your battles by land and by sea. 

" Some of your states were glad to turn out corps of colored men, 
md to stand shoulder to shoulder with them. In your late war 
1812) they contributed largely towards your most splendid vic- 
,ories. On Lakes Erie and Champlain, where your fleets triumphed 
)ver a foe superior in numbers and engines of death, they were 
nanned in a large proportion with men of color !" 

In the late rebellion, which has been so recently subdued, and 
vhose smouldering embers are yet threatening with danger the 
)eace and prosperity of the country, colored men, without excep- 
;ion, either North or South, ranged themselves on the side of the 
)ld flag ; and when called upon by our worthy Governor in this 
State, we flocked to its standard and bore it in triumph in the face 
)f its rebel foes to certain victory. We offered our lives to defend 
t and redeem it from the sin of slavery and the curse of rebellion. 
Jur blood was freely contributed to the red sea that deluged this 



14 

land, drawn from patriot veins by tlm instruments of death in the 
hands of its enemies. Our sons and brothers suffered starvation 
with yours in the Loathsome prisons of a barbarous foe. Our slain 
sleep to-daj with yours on the battle-fields of the wicked rebellion, 
having given their lives, their all, in defence of their country and 

"And are we to be thus looked to for help in the 'hour of 
danger, 1 but trampled under foot in the hour of peace? 1 ' Are we 
to contribute' our blood and treasure to support and defend the 
government when threatened with destruction, and yet to be denied 
all participation in its management when the crisis is passed and 
issue i- settled? If so, what shall we say of the justice and 
magnanimity of the white Americans : that it is clean gone forever ? 
V\ e belies tter things of them, and shall still hope on for im- 
partial justice to be meted out to us. If a residence in this country 
that antedates the organization of the government in its duration, 
is long enough to entitle to vote, then it is ours by right. If a 
loyalty, tried, unswerving and well attested at all times, commands 
y-our admiration and gratitude, and entitles those who possess it to 
a voice in the government, then we present the same, and why 
should it be longer withheld from us? In short, there are no 
claims thai can be presented, or arguments that can be urged in 
behalf of other American citizens, to insure them a ricrlit to vote, 
that we do not present, except the all-powerful one that we are 
white men. 

From the genius of our government, frrom the considerations of 
consistency, from the sears of war and the proofs of loyalty, aye, 
from cmr very birth-right as American citizens, we appeal to you 
for impartial justice, for equal political and civil rights with our 
fellow-cil izens- in t his State. 

With our whole hearts we endorse the following noble sentiment 
uttered by the Hon. Horace Maynard, of Tennessee, and which, 
with much propriety, may be said to be •• the Word for the Hour:" 
•■ Let our laws and institutions speak not of white men, not of black men, 
not of in' a of mil/ race or complexion, but like the laws of God, the Ten 
' 'ommandments, and the Lor$s Prayer, let them speak of People." 

After the adoption of the reporl the Convention was addressed 

length by 1*. B. Randolph, of Louisiana. Mr. J. II. 

rquette introduced to the Convention Rev. Dr. Edward Beecher, 

ffhora the bodj riefly and pertinently addressed. 

On the motion of J. II. Barquette the Convention tendered a 

unanimous vote of thanks to Rev. Dr. Beecher and Dr. Randolph, 

for the remarks made by them before it. 

The Chairman of the Committee on the state of the country. R, 
\\ . Stokes, by direction of that body, made its report which was 



15 

On the motion of Eev. R. De Baptiste, the adoption of the 
report was made the special order of business for this evening. 

On motion the Convention adjourned, to meet at half-past 
seven o'clock this evening. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The Convention was called to order at half-past seven o'clock. 

Prayer was pronounced by Rev. T. Strother. 

On the motion of E. R. Williams, the Committee on printing 
were ordered to procure fifty- five copies of the Chicago " Tribune," 
and a like number of the Galesburg " Free Press," for the use of 
members of the Convention. 

The address reported from the Committee on the State of the 
Country, the adoption of which had been made the special order, 
was next considered. 

The measure elicited considerable discussion. 

On the motion of E. R. "Williams, the address was referred back 
to the Committee reporting it, for condensation. 

Mr. A. J. Gordon, on being called, addressed the Convention at 
some length. 

On motion the Convention adjourned to meet at half-past nine 
o'clock on Thursday morning, October 18th. 



Third Day, Thursday, Oct. 18th. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The Convention was called to order at half past nine o'clock by 
the President. The opening prayer was made by Rev. Mr. Faulkner. 

The following telegram from the Convention of Men of Color, in 
session at Albany, New York, was received, and communicated to 
the Convention : 

" To President and Committee of Colored Convention: 

" Over one hundred (100) delegates in convention greet you, and 
pledge cooperation in your and our work. 

" M. B. CASS, WM. RICH, ) r 

J. W. LOGUEN, WM. HOWARD DAY. j" oom ' 

The despatch was most cordially received, and the Convention 
created Messrs. Wm. Johnson, President of the Convention, R. C. 
Waring, and L. B. White, a Committee to return a reply to it. 

The proceedings of the afternoon session of Wednesday, October 
17th, were read and approved. 

The Committee on Credentials reported the names of Tilford 
Richardson and Joseph Perkins as duly authorized delegates, and 
they were thereupon admitted to seats in the Convention. 

On motion, Mr. A. W. Jackson was admitted to a seat in the 
Convention. 



16 

The Committee on replying to the Albany telegram reported the 
Following, which waa approved, and ordered to be forwarded : 

fo the Officers and Members of (he 2Ceiu York State Convention <<f 
1 \ My n : 

•• niinois, through fifty six (5G) delegates assembled, sends greet- 
ing, and joins in the onward inarch to freedom and equality. 

"WM. JOHNSON, ) 
L. B. WHITE, [■ Com." 
R. C. WARING. ) 

On the motion of C. Barbour, the Convention suspended the rule 
to adjourn at twelve o^elock m., and ordered a continuance of the 
on iint il five o'clock p.m. 

chairman of the Committee on Suffrage. Mr. E. R. Williams, 
made a report from that body, which, on motion, was received : 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX SUFFRAGE. 

The time has come for action. He that would be free, himself must strike 
the blow. 

In times like these, when the public mind is being absorbed in deep thought 

concerning the welfare of the country, which has just passed through one of the 

most terrific struggles thai ever befell a civilized government, and our loyalty 

to the government during that struggle was such that should entitle ug to all 

the rights, privileges, and immunities in common with other American citizens ; 

and it is right, and important as it is right, that colored people who live in the 

old the 1'nit 3, should understand and know from the 

how to appreciate the great value of liberty, and all it and 

36 them to use every means in their power for the purpose of ed g the 

the full height of our situation; and that we should never remain 

cont Qtil we have obtained all the rights enjoyed by other men. 

And for t ho purpose of obtaining these great priviliges, of which we are so 
unjustly deprived, we, your Co'mna ttee would r< commend the following plan as 
a basis of operation to pted by this Convention. 

That there shall he a State Central Suffrage Committee, consisting of 

thirteen members — one from onal district, and a general agent 

at large, all to be < lected by this Convention. 

2d. Ii 11 be the duty of the State Central Committee to adopt such mea- 

v.ill enable them successfully to accomplish the great objects set forth 

in t 

3rd. Upon stion of the said Committee, they shall immediately proceed 

tool ir action by electing the following pfficers : viz., President, Vice- 

tary, and Treasurer. 

4th. Che duties of the General ageni shall be, to canvass the form 

rculate petitions and urge the people to action, and collect 

- - he may be able from time to time, and pay the same to the 

i Siate Central Committee, and to perform such other 

duties as may be required in the accomplishment ofthe greal objects for which 

the;. appointed ; .and for such services rendered, he shall be paid, from 

of dollars, and traveling expenses, 

It shall also be the duty of the State Central Commi nil all vacancies 

cur during the time for which they are >ver, the 

d Committee and General Agent shall be elected by annual 



17 

State Conventions, held on or about the twenty-second day of September of 
each year, at such places as the Convention may hereafter determine, the said 
Conventions to be composed of delegates from the various Suffrage Leagues 
of the State. 

E. R. WILLIAMS, C. RICHARDSON, J. D. DAVIS, 

J. B. DAWSON, E. A. GREEN, R. W. STOKES, 

R. DeBAPTIST, GEO. T. FOUNTAIN, T. STROTHER. 

On the motion to adopt, Mr. L. B.White moved that the last clause 
of the report be so amended as not to make it obligatory to summon 
a Convention annually, but to leave the calling of such an assembly 
discretionary with the Central Committee. The amendment pre 
vailed, and on the motion to adopt the report as amended, the House 
recorded an affirmative vote. 

A communication of a suggestive nature, by a friend to rightful 
human progress, was received from Muscatine, Iowa, and laid on 
the table for future action. Its animus was competent to have 
secured for it a careful canvass by the Convention ; but the accu- 
mulated unfinished business of the body, in view of the impending 
final adjournment, precluded the consideration of the propositions 
presented in it. 

On the prevailing motion of L. B. White, that the Chair appoint 
a committee of nine, to nominate candidates for the State Central 
Committee, the following gentlemen were assigned to that duty by 
the President: Win. Baker, C. C. Richardson, Rev. Bryant Smith, 
M. Richardson, G-. Brent, W. Coleman, E. A. Green, Philander 
Outland, O. T. Fountain. 

On motion, the Committee were requested to report at two 
o'clock p.m. 

The Convention voted a recess of thirty minutes. 

On the re-assembling of the house, the Committee on the Moral 
Status of the colored people of the State, made, through their chair- 
man, Rev. J. B. Dawson, the annexed report, which was adopted : 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MORAL STATUS. 

Tour Committee on the Moral Status of the colored people of this State res- 
pectfully report as follows : 

We are fully persuaded that the morals of a people are very closely connected 
with their permanent prosperity, and are impressed with the fact, that those 
who disregard the laws of this part of our complex nature can never hope to be 
either great or prosperous ; and it is with pleasure that we present the following 
of statistics, as an indication of the moral status of the colored people in the State 
Illinois. There are, among the colored people of this State, forty churches, whose 
church property is valued at one hundred thousand dollars. The number of 
members in these churches is about five thousand. Ministers of the gospel, 
ordained and licensed, about eighty. Sabbath schools, about forty ; Sabbath 
school scholars, three thousand. All of which we respectfully submit, 

J. B. DAWSON, R. DeBAPTISTE, ) 

J. W. FALKNER, A. PLEASANTS, [Committee. 

J. McSMITH, J. W. SMITH. ) 



18 

On the motion of Joseph Stanley, that a committee of five he 

appointed to revise and publish the proceedings of the Convention, 

the following gentlemen were created such committee: Joseph 

. L. B. White, R. C. Waring, Win. Johnson, E.R.Williams. 

On the motion of George P. Morris, it was ordered that the 

printing be done in Chicago. 

I Mi the motion of C. S. Jacobs, it was ordered that the proceed- 
- of the Convention be published in pamphlet form, to the num- 
ber of from five hundred (500) to one thousand copies (1,000) copies, 
at the discretion of the Publishing Committee. 

On the motion of George L. Thomas, the members of the Con- 
vention were assessed one dollar each, to constitute a fund for the 
it of the expenses of the bodj. 

V I XANCIAL ST A TEMENT. 
The Committee on Ways and Means reported as follows : 

Dr. 

October 16. To Cash collection $4 46 

IT. " " 3 71 

11 18. " from assessment of delegates at one dollar each 56 00 

Total cash receipts $64 17 

Cr. 

October 18. By Cash paid for printing $3 50 

11 18. " " 52 copies of "Free Tress" 2 60 

« 18. " " Rent .>!' hall 20 00 

" L8. '« " Stationery, to S. D. "Wilh>ms 90 

is. " " Posting billa 50 

November 14. " " Paper for revising Min. (by R. C. "Waring) 50 

$28 00 
dance 36 17 

The chairman of the Committee on the nomination of candidates 
for State Central Committee reported the names of the following 
lemen : William Johnson. Joseph Stanley. L. B. White, Chi- 
o; George T. Fountain, Quincy ; 11. Hicklin, Springfield; C. 
('. Richardson, Alton; S. D. Williams, Galesburg ; E. A. Green, 
Champaign City : C S. Jacobs. Decatur; liev. I>. Smith, Shawnee- 
town ; A. Bill, Joliet ; G. P. Morris, Monmouth; G. Ellis, Cairo. 

On the motion to create these gentlemen the State Central Com- 
mittee, the ( invention recorded an affirmative vote. 

The chairman oi the Committee on Resolutions reported the 
following resolution of Mr. It. W. Stokes, which, on motion, was 
adopted : 

/.'■ ■■>, That in view of the groat interests involved in the pending political 

hi our country, and tho desirableness of our being united upon a course 

of action tor the Becuremenl ol all our rights as American citizens, the 

ral Cotnmittei created by this Honse be, and they are hereby instructed 



19 

to corrospond with all other colored State Central Committees, as to the pro- 
priety of, time, and place for holding a Congress of colored men, representing 
all parts of the country. 

On the motion of J. Stanley, " That this Convention tender a 
vote of thanks to the citizens of Galesburg for the courtesy exhibited 
to its members while in their beautiful city, than which we know of 
no place where there has been so little prejudice shown to colored 
men — this glorious city of colleges and churches," the house gave 
a unanimous affirmative vote. 

The chairman of the Committee on the State of the Country, 
R. "W". Stokes, under the direction of that body, reported back, in 
its original form, the Address to the People of the United States, 
which, by an order of the Convention, had been recommitted for 
abridgment. Briefly recapitulating the scope and purpose of the 
Address, the previous question was called by him, and under its 
operation the Address was adopted. 

Upon its original presentment to the house, the chairman of the 
Committee said : 

Mb. President, and Gentlemen of the Convention, — To stand 
in the collective presence of a thousand intelligences, and utter 
" right words " before them, is a work which only the learned and 
experienced can reasonably hope successfully to achieve. To 
address the entire sovereignty of a State of the American Union, 
is a task of still profounder difficulty of performance. But when 
we address a great nation of thirty millions of people, we have the 
whole earth for our auditorium, and civilized humanity every where 
for our eventual hearers. At the threshold of such an audience-cham- 
ber, the wisest may well pause, ere entering upon the view of tens of 
thousands of intelligences, all direct emanations from the grand 
over-soul Himself. In obedience to the law of circumstances, how- 
ever, there sometimes devolve upon men duties — solemn duties — 
the performance of which it were unmanly to even seek to evade. 
Pursuant, therefore, to the decision of the Committe on the State 
of the Country, of which I have the honor to be a member, I beg 
leave to submit the Address, which they have instructed me to 
report : 

ADDEESS 



ILLINOIS CONVENTION OF COLORED MEN TO THE 
AMERICAN PEOPLE. 

Fellow Citizens of the United States, lend us your ears. 

" We hold these truths to be self-evident : that all men are created 
equal, and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, 
and that governments derive their just powers from the consent of 
the governed." 



20 

Such were the principles enunciated by the patriot fathers of 
American nationality, and under their inspiration they waged the 
war of independence against the domination of the mother country, 
which culminated in the formation of the great political community 
named the United States of Xorth America. The intelligence of 
mankind will bear us witness, upon a review of the national history, 
that had these fundamental principles — emanations, as they are, 
from the eternal verities — bee 11 P erm itted to imbue the life and con- 
trol the action of the people government of the nation, it would have 
been spared the inestimable loss of the precious lives of half a 
million of men, and the taxing the industry of the country to the 
extent of three thousand millions of money. 

To-day we face a prospect, to properly appreciate which recourse 
may suitably 1"' had to retrospection. 

The animus residing in, and the complications arising out of, the 
existing atrocious rebellion ("existing " because, though as a physical 
entity it has been conquered by cannon, its spirit, intensified in 
venom by defeat, permeates the quarter once dominated by it; and 
is seeking, through ten thousand agencies, political, moral, and 
physical, to regain in the forum what it lost in the field) — a rebel- 
lion for magnitude of extent and wickedness of incentive without 
historic parallel — have eventuated in the advancement of human 
liberty on this continent. » 

Candor, pur et simple, compels the admission, that this conclusion 
is due as much, or more, to the obstinacy of the rebellious power — 
an obstinacy born of infatuation — than to the existence in the 
Northern people ami government of a disposition to discern and 
accept the fitness of things as seen in the light of the justice of God. 

Born of resistance to tyranny, and taking her place as one of the 
family of nations upon the great democratic idea of the natural 
equality of rights of all men, America has, since the commencement 
of her national life, been vainlv endeavoring to render homogeneous 
two actively opposing and wholly irreconcilable principles — right 
and wrong; freedom and Blavery I This compromise with wrong 
seems to have been made by the fathers of American liberty, to 
whom it was a confessed anomaly in their system of government, in 
the belief that the wrong principle thus admitted to a co-partner- 
ship witn the right would soon be eliminated by it. But the pro- 
- "]' event- demonstrated the impolicy of nations or men doing 
"<>d may come, for the wrong principle became a collossal 
nt of political power in the general State, and the ever fruitful 
V.-iti mal dissensions in the nation. Essentially aggressive, 

the slave power has been unceasing and persistent in its opposition 
to liberty — subsidizing to ]\< interests the pulpit and the press of 
almost the entire country. Submission to one of its behests, 
became the parent of a numerous progeny of demands, each ambi- 
tious, rapacious, inexorable I [ts sanctuaries were the dwelling 



21 

places of its victims — its altars their hearth-stones, and its sacri- 
fices their life's blood, wrung out by refinements of cruelty, and 
with inexpressible torture. 

In the midst of its empire it set up its idol Moloch,_and made 
reverence for it the price of admission to the blood-stained privi- 
leges of its realm. The lash was its stern ukase — the manacle the 
sacred symbol of its power, while incest and adultery were at 
once among its means of commerce and the hand-maidens of its 
pleasures. The deity of its worship was the demon of injustice 
and oppression, while it exultingly trampled beneath its sacriligious 
feet the mandates of the God of the universe ! Clothed in purple 
and fine linen, with its haughty brow decked with a diadem dipped 
in blood, it held forth its golden sceptre, promising the rewards of 
its empire to those that should become worshipers at its shrine. 
The psaltery, the harp, the sackbut, and the dulcimer of its pro- 
gramme, were the passions of lust, cupidity, prejudice and ambition ; 
and upon these it played skillfully, drawing myriads to the worship 
of its unhallowed rites, until, all over the land, from rostrum and 
pulpit — from the gilded halls of mirth — from the 'place of prayer, 
and from the couch of the dying, the smoke of its offerings ascended ! 
Boasting itself to be the embodiment of a civilization ordained of 
God, it assiduously labored to dim the lustre of God's " true light," 
to chain the human intellect to its chariot wheels, " and shut the 
gates of mercy on mankind !" 

However great the accessions to its power, such was the rapacity 
of its lust of dominion, that, like the insatiate daughters of the 
horse-leech, " Give, Give," was its ever-resounding refrain. 

When it had instilled its virus into the heart, and placed its 
incubus upon the brain of almost the entire nation, grown more and 
still more arrogant by success, it committed a cardinal error against 
its own being, in that it forsook the forum and assumed the sword ! 
The forum had been the scene of its profoundest triumphs. There, 
it had been wont to receive the adulations of its worshipers, and 
the abject submission of its opponents. There, for decades of 
liberty-throttling years, its northern foremen — with a few_ thrice 
honorable exceptions — had been used, as a fitting finale to their con- 
tests with the blood-loving and tear-bathed Moloch, to fall down 
in its presence with their hands upon their mouths, and their faces 
in the dust, and to cry before it, " Unequal and unclean I" 

But not content with the " great concessions " made, times almost 
innumerable, to its rapacity, or freely proffered to its acceptance as 
a subsidy for its unhallowed support, and fearing that the ancient 
spirit of liberty inherent in the organic law of the land, and still 
extant in the great heart of the nation, might survive the ponderous 
compress under which it had placed her, and shine in her own un- 
bowed splendor, to bless this continent and mankind ; and desiring 
to secure and to perpetuate its' own unimpeachable supremacy in 



22 

the nation, it threw a = i<le and trampled upon its senatorial robes — 

limed the helmet of battle — drew the sword of rebellion — cried 
•• ha\ oc," and •• let slip the dogs of war !" 

For four-score years, the American people had gone forward in a 
career of industrial prosperity relatively unparalleled among the 
nations of the earth. The wings of their commerce swept every 
known sea accessible to civilized traflic, and beside the ensigns of 
all the maritime nations of the earth, the American flag floated, the 
respected and honored emblem of a nation's greatness. Out on the 
sounding sea, it had waved from the peak amid the thunder of battle, 
and when the smoke of the contest lifted, " the flag was still there,'''' 
the earnest of many hard-gained victories. On the dry land, amid 
charging squadrons and the deep : mouthed bay of cannon, it had 
been borne into the fray on many a battle-field; and although war- 
torn by the enfilading tire of the foe, and stained with the blood of 
heroes, victory had again and over been domiciled within the temple 
of her pleasun — upon its crest . 

Into the lap of America, the earth, the sea and the heavens 
pound their selectest treasures, to build her up and make her of 
the greatest among the cations. But while she was thus prospered, 

inguished, and honored, there was rioting in the innermost 
recesses of the national life, the canker-worm of a great national sin! 
[gnoring God, in her conducl as a nation, she had gone forward in 
the greatness of her strength, laying iniquity to sin, in her oppres- 
sion of the poor of the land, and beyond her borders, until the national 
transgression was piled a monstrous mountain of abominations, 
towering to the skies I 

For 3cores of years, within her boundaries, the cry of the soul- 
anguish of the oppressed — mothers bereaved of their children — hus- 
bands separated from their wives — sons and daughters put to the 
torture before the sorrowing eyes of their helpless parents — the 
marriage tie desecrated — the family relation, with all its tender 

>ciations, its hallowed influences, ignored — woman robbed of her 
virtu< — the human intellect persistently darkened — the honor of 
manhood, the dignity of womanhood, insulted and outraged in a 
thousand ways — the ground opening her mouth to receive the gush- 
ing blood from the lacerated, quivering flesh of the innocent — the 

nized death-cry of the immolated victims of the great tyranny, 

wailing upward to the throi f the universe, from out the Bmoke 

and ashes of their funeral pyr< — the embodiment of all these horrors, 

and t.-n thousand more, had I n ascending to God. until the ear of 

mercy was pained, and tl glittering sword" of justice Leaping 

from its -■ abbard, hung suspended over the favored land ! Impartial 
history will record the poetic justice ol the retribution meted out to 
the foul power that, sought, in the spirit of its own philosophy, to 
perpetuate :istence and extend its authority, by rebelling 

inst the pillar that sustained its throne I Blinded by a mistaken 



23 

belief in its own invincibility, it ruthlessly unchained the thunder- 
bolt that was destined to destroy it. It spoke, through the mouths 
of its cannon, directed against Fort Sumter, its bold defiance to the 
authority of the nation. Not more brave were the defenders of the 
celebrated pass of Thermopylae, than were those courageous few to 
whom first, in the ushering in of the great American conflict, came 
the fiery baptism of battle — the garrison of that beleaguered fortress. 
Succumbing, at length, to the unequal force of seven thousand 
against seventy men, they yet, in evacuating their stronghold, re- 
tained possession of the flag they had so heroically defended — it, 
glorious, though trailed in the dust — they, invincible even in defeat! 
At a later day that flag waved again over Sumter ! Roused by the 
rattling thunders of artillery, the nation sprang to arms with an 
earnest avidity, for which history supplies no parallel, presenting 
to mankind a spectacle of sublime grandeur — the uprising of a great 
people ! 

Prom the mountain and the vale — from the hill-top aud the plain 
— from the anvil and the axe — from the shuttle and the ship — from 
the cloister and the desk — from the bench and from the bar — from 
the hamlet and the town — from all life's varied callings, they came, 
with an almost continuous " tramp, tramp, tramp," at the call of 
the Executive, to the defence of the Government, ordained by the 
labors, and consecrated with the blood, the sacred blood of their 
fathers ; and heralding before their advancing standards the sup- 
porting response, — 

""We are coming Father Abraham, 
Three hundred thousand more!" 

Nor did the Sons of America alone respond to the call of their 
country. Woman, the central point of generous impulse and 
enduring love, added new leaves of laurel to her glorious bays, 
during a nation's baptism in a nation's blood ! 

What praise can be beyond the merit of America's loyal women in 
the hour of America's supremest need ! Upon their brows shall 
history bind true fame's unfading chaplet, and honored shall their 
memories be by coming generations ! 

1 ' They also serve who only ivait and hope. ' ' 

The widowed mother with an only son — the hope, the confidence 
of her declining days — laid that dear son upon the altar of her 
country and smiled to know she had a son to give. 

The devoted sister gave her cherished brother, and dwelt alone 
in sadness, but in hope. 

The fondly clinging wife, gave him, around whom her heart 
strings closelv twined, and shedding o'er the pledges of her love for 
him, the pearly symbols of the anguish of her soul, yet strong in 
love of country, liberty and duty, she gently bid him go. 

The tender, girl, with all a maiden's mantling blush upon her,, 
yet in true heroism strong, with a parting kiss that left its impress 



24 

on her lover'a lips forever, gave him, her heart's most cherished idol, 
died herself to happiness and hope that liberty might live. 
These all deserve well of their country, for freely have they laid 
upon that country's altar their choicest offerings, and schooled 
themselves to "suffer and be strong." 

I' will be within your recollection, fellow countrymen, that such 
were among the agencies called into vigorous action by the commis- 
sion of the overt act of treason to the Hag. But, neither Govern- 
ment nor people seemed to comprehend the plainly written lesson 
hour. By acts too historic to be questioned, they demon- 
strated their willingness to make, for the salvation of the country, 
y sacrifice, save one, — and that the indispensable condition of 
w — the sacrifice of wrong upon the altar of right. 
I li Miing .-imply to restore the original .status of the States, they 
were unwilling to lay the axe at the foot of the tree of the national 
. to strike home upon the arrogant monster who had, with- 
. Inaugurated war upon the ancient regime, that it 
overthrow the Government of the people, and build upon its 
3 an oligarchy, the chief corner stone of which should be human 
slavery, while lust, cupidity and prejudice — a most unhallowed trium- 
virat( — should form the fitting key stone to the principal arch of 
infernal structure. But when the lengthened contest assumed 
proportions almost infinitely more vast than had been conceived 
probable, or even possible, on the part of either contestant, when 
dark shadow east bv the wine of the angel of death had rested 
upon half the households in the land, the Government and people, 
zing, through the implacable logic of events, that, in seeking 
untly to crush the slaveholders' rebellion, and rivet the shaekles 
still more firmly on the enslaved portion of the American people, 
they were simply assisting in the creation of a vortex in which 
ir own liberties would assuredly be engulphed, measurably gave 
up their idle purpose, and sought to assume a policy based upon 
:i sense, and supported by common justice. 
As the initial, and yet cardinal, act of thai policy, the President 
oi the United States, Abraham Lincoln, of happy memory, pro- 
ued to a large proportion of the chattel bondmen of America, 
Be Free! Nor was thai clarion note of the Executive an edict of 
' "ii to these alone. It was the herald of freedom to all 
immunities and men who were subordinate to the require- 
ments of the so-called " peculiar institution." 

It was the master key to unpadlock the lips of " the American 
Tract Society," — lips (dosed in the fear of man, from uttering hold 
onciations in the fear of God, against, the prime iniquity of the 
nal ion. 

I - was the lever, designed and calculated to heave from its base, 
the cause thai made an acre of laud in North Carolina of less pecu- 
niary value than the sami rficial extent of soil in Pennsylvania. 



25 

It was a measure calculated to restore to labor the acknowledg- 
ment of its true dignity, by the dethronement of a power that had 
placed its " mudsill " brand of degradation upon it, while itself 
rioted in a stolen opulence that gave to it a fictitious respectability. 

It was within the competency of its scope to increase the defen- 
sive power of the Eepublic by eliminating its principal element of 
weakness, — to uplift the literature, enlarge the culture, and improve 
the morals of the entire country. Not only did it bid the enslaved 
be free, but it solemnly pledged the faith of the Government, and 
thereby the honor of the nation, to "maintain the freedom of such 
persons." 

Shall the sacred honor of the nation, plighted amid the rattle of 
musketry, the clash of sabres, the loud-mouthed bay of cannon, 
" the thunder of the captains, and the shouting," " and garments 
rolled in blood," be " maintained " under the peace which the war 
has purchased, in its letter and in its spirit? 

Fellow citizens, for your answer to the solemn interrogatory here 
propounded, universal humanity pauses ! 

The Baltimore Platform, upon which the second election of Mr. 
Lincoln to the Presidency occurred, not only re-affirmed the abolish- 
ment of slavery within the United States, but boldly pronounced 
for its " extirpation" from the soil of the country. 

Following the issuance of the great proclamation — the funda- 
mental act in the redemption of the country from the crimson record 
of the past America — came the enlistment of colored men as soldiers 
of Republic. Through the diabolism, pure and simple, of American 
prejudice, they had been deemed not only unfit to be defended by 
the flag (purchased as well with the blood of their forefathers as 
that of other men), but also unworthy to bare their bosoms to the 
iron-hail of the opposing power, in that flag's defence, and die for 
it and liberty, as died vainly many of their forefathers on revolution- 
ary and other battle-fields. 

But there came an hour in which the voice of the government, in 
accents invitatory, went forth to them, saying: " Your country's in 
danger, and calls for you now." And nobly did they respond. Two 
hundred thousand of them went forth, and stood in armed defence 
of the cradles, the hearthstones, and the hearts of the people of the 
United States. They did this that the Republic might not perish, 
and that liberty might live. Impartial and inevitable history will 
lend a haloed leaf to the record of the great fact that, mightiest 
among the mighty changes wrought by the great conflict of princi- 
ples, producing the clash of gigantic armies in America, a people 
" robbed and peeled " arose from the dust, and on fields of blood and 
carnage, already as imperishable as Thermopylae, and Marengo, and 
Austerlitz, and Flodden Field, and Pharsalia, and Yorktown, sus- 
tained, amid the collision of arms, their long derided assertion of 
their God-given manhood. Many of these brave soldiers of the 



26 

Republic — falling with their feet to the foe, battling beneath the 
banner of their country — Bleep now their last sleep on the gory 
plains of war, with no stone raised to mark their crimson sepulchre ; 
yet shall the muse of history, weeping above their sacred manes, 
write them down with honor on her tablets, as among the patriot 
heroes of Olustee, Port Wagner, Milliken's Bend, Port Hudson, 
ami many other well fought fields of strife. 

Millions of this class of citizens have domicil amid communities 
whose infidel power they so largely assisted to overthrow. If, being 
so placed, they be left by the military power of the government, 
without the protecting shield of equality of rights lefore the bur, what 
must become their status? Shall serfdom or peonage succeed to the 
chattel slavery, out of which, at the fiat of "military necessity," 
they have been lifted by the national arm? Shall they, from being 
slaves of individuals, : the slaves of communities — the pariahs 

of society? To "maintain" their "actual freedom" intact, the 
faith of the nation stands solemnly pledged. 

Sigismund violated his safe conduct — the word of an emperor — 
and blushing scarlet in the assembly of notables, blushes still in his- 
tory, and must blush through all coming time ! Shall the fullness 
of blushing become the historic mantle of America, because of her 
dereliction of duty to any class of her citizens, that in the hour of 
the common danger, stood forth in the common defence? 

The proclamation which proved itself to be no mere brutem fulrnen, 
as was affirmed of it, did not make free all the chattel slaves within 
the United States, but the adoption of an important amendment to 
the organic law of the land did. For, under the plastic hand of cir- 
cumstances it had become the ratumaleof American liberty, that the 
perpetuity of her reign required that her safeguards should be 
enshrined in the constitution itself. Because the war, through the 
ncy of two hundred pounder Parrott guns, armored ships and 
spherical shot, had been productive of an iron-clad logic, previously 
unknown to American executive power, Ameriean legislation, or 
A merican jurisprudence. 

It is a part of the usual course of legislation, in the promulgation 
of a law regarding matters already legislated upon, to make the 
latest enactment the repealer of all laws and parts of laws incon- 
sistent with itself. The logic of this rule n Is no exemplification 

— it bears its own comment. When the abolishment of American 
ery transpired, all laws, ordinances or enactments thai had 

1 ii made in its interests and for its support, fell with the legally 

defunct tyranny and became extinct — " null and void, and of none 

effect." Whatever enactment, therefore, lias since been formed, 
and for its Bustainment, has been bo formed in contraven- 
tion of the Bupremc law of the land — is contumacious and nullifying 
in its essence, and is of no force or riirhtful authoritv with anv crea- 
ture whatever. 



27 

But an unenfranchised class, dwelling where public sentiment 
sanctions such enactments, can, and doubtless will be, as they unques- 
tionably are, made the victims of local legislation, in ways and under 
circumstances not at all likely to be remedied by the power of the 
Constitution, imperfectly or insincerely administered. The enfran- 
chisement of this class eliminates this never-sufficiently-to-be-depre- 
cated condition of things, by rendering catholic the benign operation 
of the organic law of liberty, where every man is made at once its 
subject and an interested sustainer of it. 

State action might, at least partially, accomplish this. But will 
even that, by all the States, be done? A learned, reverend and 
venerable American loyalist, at the collapse of the rebellion, declared, 
that if the enfranchisement of the freedmen should be left to the 
determination of the States whose slave-power over them had been 
broken by the war, it would never be effected. Do not all the indi- 
cations at present observable sustain that view? 

The nature of " the government under which we live " is three- 
fold — executive, legislative, and judicial — each co-ordinate branch 
of it having its own legitimate sphere of action assigned to it by the 
fundamental law creating them all. 

To take care that the laws are faithfully executed is the highest 
constitutional duty of the chief magistrate ; to decree laws for the 
government and protection of the American people, is the proper, 
legitimate office of the Congress of the United States, and of no 
other power whatever ; while the supreme judicial tribunal exhausts 
its functions when it has decided upon the constitutionality, or the 
converse, of any law so made. 

The Constitution has made it the duty of the United States to 
"guarantee" to each State a republican form of government. No 
government, whether State or national, is republican in form or in 
spirit, in which any portion of its citizens — except for crime or 
nonage — are denied the exercise of the rights common to the 
remainder. The subject of suffrage has hitherto been controlled by 
the several States respectively, and many of them, in controlling it, 
have excluded from the exercise of the ballot an entire class of Amer- 
ican citizens, or have admitted them only upon property, or other 
physical qualifications, unknown to the Constitution — the supreme 
law of the land. The power that created this " policy," and sus- 
tained its existence, having failed to maintain its own corporeal 
being on an appeal to the sword, every adumbration of an excuse 
for its continuance has passed away. 

Over the whole subject, we regard the power of Congress as ample ; 
else is the Constitution a nullity, and the Union under it " a rope 
of sand." But such a conclusion as is involved in the terminus of 
this proposition is not in any sense tenable, in view of the sea of 
precious blood, and the billions of treasure so lavishly and so success- 
fully expended by the American people for the preservation and 



28 

perpetuity of both. It is, then, within the competency of the Con- 
stitution-given authority of the Congress of the United States, to 
" guarantee " to every American citizen the unobstructed exercise 
of his inherent right " to take part in determining the laws, the 
magistracies, and the public policies under which he and his children 
are to live." Principles are deathless entities. " You can not 
hush up a principle !" Since the formation of the government, that 
attempt has been made continuously ; but principle has lifted her 
voice in the pulpit, on the hustings, upon the rostrum, at the couch 
of the dying, and at length in the thunder-clansr. of battle, while she 
has written her immortal presence all over the land in characters 
of blood. 

An able pen has written, " No question is ever settled that is not 
settled right." " Of the questions that came up for settlement by 
our fathers, those in which they touched principle were settled for- 
ever, and they never gibber or flit ; but those questions where, in- 
stead of touching principle, they only touched the quicksand of 
expediency, have been all our lives tormenting us. And if there 
was ever a people that ought to have learned that to touch the 
ground of principle is safe, and that to come short of that is unsafe, 
we are that people. So let us not commit another mistake." 

"Will you. then, seek to re-erect the national structure upon u the 
quicksand of expediency," when principle lies at your feet, not 
requiring to be quarried, but full of the fair proportions that follow 
the application of the line, the level, and the square, and ready to 
be used for the purpose of building for you and for your posterity 
" a sure house ? 

Loyal men, representing ''the South," from the Missouri to the 
Rio Grande, are giving evidence before the American people of the 
temper and tendency of the dominant class of the inhabitants of the 
insurgent section of the land. They tell you that, whoever, 
during the nation's bloody baptism, stood forth in defence of, or 
remained firm in allegiance to the old flag — the assaulted flag of your 
fathers — is proscribed and rendered unsafe in person and property 
by the friends and supporters of the unslain spirit of the rebellion 
— the spirit that invoked the war — thai engineered its forces against 
liberty — that starved, and slew in cold blood, the imprisoned defenders 
of the Republic — that, as its crowning act of deepest infamy, assets- 
sin, iii. i our beloved martyr President— and that now, though disem- 
bodied, lives, vigorously lives, and is couchant only where restrained 
by the military arm of the nation, and rampant wherever that arm 
is not. They stood by you in the dark and perilous hours of the 
nation'- life ; they know the deep diabolism of the power they con- 
front ; they know the sure and effectual remedy for the ills they 
ire; they knowyour righl and your power to apply that remedy, 
and tl ey come to you ami ask, as the deliberate conviction of their 
judgment, thai you give to them an efficient ally, by enfranchising 
the colored loyalists of the South. 



29 

They tell you, in words that burn, that the suffering loyal people 
at the South need this support as indispensable to their safety in 
person and property, and to enable them to stand up like men, and 
effectually declare, in the face of the actively malicious power of 
secession and treason, that American constitutional liberty, and the 
Union of these States, are and shall he u one and inseparable, now and 
forever' ! " 

"Will you stretch forth the mailed hand of the nation to save 
them, or shall your friends — the friends of the Union and liberty — 
be permitted to perish ? 

" A war of races," (so mis-called, we think, because, believing 
that there is but one race of mankind, the human race, divided as it 
is into multiplied families of the earth, but u made of one blood") 
such a war has been spoken of in high quarters, with no deterring 
sentence of condemnation upon it. With the spirit of the rebellion 
still stalking abroad in the land, such utterances might well be 
expected to bear fruit. Are not the sanguinary occurrences at 
Memphis and New Orleans their legitimate outgrowth? 

Whatever their origin and purpose, the verity remains that 
neither executive favor, nor judicial decisions, nor " honied lies " of 
legislation 

" Can blazon evil deeds, or consecrate a crime!" 

The universe possesses no power that can elevate error into the 
dignity of right. 

" I am a Roman citizen," had once to him who bore the title, a 
potency of protection in it, greater than that afforded by fleets and 
armies. Standing beneath the folds of the proud banner of his 
country, the American citizen should find in it immunity from 
wrong and violence. But, neither in the memorable occurrence on 
the banks of the Ogeechee, transpiring in the rear of the magnificent 
army that, under the leadership of its great captain, through the 
heart of an enemy's country, victoriously " marched down to the 
sea," nor yet in the more recent crimson baptisms, accorded to two 
of the cities of the South, did the flag avail to save the blood of 
loyal men. 

For the shedding of that blood a fearful responsibility somewhere 
vests. Will the nation assume it? These acts are constituent parts 
of a crime so despicable in its moral turpitude, so appalling in the 
pure diabolism of its character, that history can have for it no palli- 
ation, and mankind no pardon. 

Although the idol to which a great nation bowed low to do 
reverence, performed well its work of corrupting the public con- 
science, during its supremacy, we do not regard a war with the 
indicated purpose and result as impending. We worship an icono- 
clastic God! 

All adown the pathway of the centuries is the cumulative evi- 
dence discoverable, that no people, bowing down before the cross, 
have ever, by another so worshipping people, been exterminated. 



30 

The aboriginal man of America, once the undisputed possessor of 
this continent, preceding, by coercion, the "star of empire" on its 
westward way, stands now upon the Pacific slope, his footsole 
almost laved by the waters of that great sea. 

Acknowledging the God of the universe, beside the council fire 
in the wilderness, and on the war path red with the blood of the 
slain, — in the star that shimmerd its light upon his meandering riv- 
ulets, and in the storm-cloud charged with the thunderbolt, the 
God of revelation was to him as to the ancient worshippers on 
Areopagus, " The Unknown God." Scorning to adopt tin- civili- 
zation that grew up and became dominant around him, he did not 
" hiss the Son." His shrine was the shrine of the universe, but at 
the altar of revelation, he bent not the suppliant knee. And now 
the light of his camp fires is paling before the advancing beacons 
of civilization, and ere a few decades of years shall have grown 
hoary, tin- last of the primeval children of America will have sunk 
to rest beneath the clods of the soil, that once owned the sway of 
his ancestors, or within the bosom of the deep and calm Pacific, 
with all its wide expanse to form his mighty mausoleum. 

But though the track of his moccasin cease from the continent — 

though his war-path be replaced by the railway — though on the site 

of his wigwam shall arise the mansion palatial, and though he 

" perish from the way," yet shall the memory of America's child of 

the forest, long linger in the land that was his, 

"For his name is on your waters, 
And ye can not wash it out!' 1 

But, as Simon the Cyrenian bore the burden of the Great Prophet, 
when he was weak and had thrice fallen, up to the very apex of the 
hill of atonement, laying down his encumbrance only where the stan- 
dard of redemption was set up, so has the Africo- American, during 
all the two centuries of his thraldom on this continent, borne the 
weighl of the " throne of iniquity," and found his only refuge at 
the fool of the cross of the crucified! Surely, fellow-citizens, not 
even they that "sat down by the waters of Babylon," and wept when 
they remembered Zion, had the poisoned chalice so preferred to their 
lips, whose, bitter contents, we, for two hundred years, have quaffed. 
And yet, we number five million souls! We worship an icono- 
castic < rod— we, as a people, boio down before the Cross! 

During the war, a purpose briefly existed, of virtually ostracising 
an entire class of Americans'] •■ native and to the manor born," as a 
means of placating the unappeasable spirit, that at the moment was 
endeavoring, with tire and sword, to fulfill its long-cherished purpose 
to "rend the Union, from turret to foundation," that upon the 
debris of the government framed by Washington and the fathers, 
and consecrated with the blood, and tears, and prayers of the Ameri- 
can people of "tin- times that tried men's souls," a government 
should sted, having for its chief corner stone, a political class 



31 

distinction, subversive of the rights of, and degrading to universal 
humanity. The policy of their deportation finds now but few de- 
fenders, and no philosophic demonstrator. Its reenactment would 
be, not the, perhaps, excusable farce of a first attempt, but a stu- 
pendous, inextenuable, tragic crime! " Indissolubly connected with 
the great, body of the American people, we possess with it a com- 
mon destiny. Our record in the past, we think, warrants the belief, 
that, with it, we will be found willing to do, to dare, to suffer, and 
if need be, to die, in defense of American constitutional liberty, for 
the entire American people." "We are fully aware that the devotion 
to the flag, every where observable among us, is scarcely explicable 
to foreign peoples, and far too little understood by the majority of 
our own countrymen. An excerpt of a letter, written immediately 
after the receipt of the earliest intelligence of the battle of Shiloh 
Church, by a young man from among us, may serve to make that 
plain, and place us rightly upon record as having a reason for the 
faith that is in us : 

'• An American by birth, by residence, and in feeling, I love my 
country, and I love her flag. 

" ' Lives there the man with soul so dead 
That never to himself has said, 
This is my own — my native land?' 

" In every foreign port where I have seen it, and on the bosom 
of the wide, wide sea, I have greeted it with a feeling of affection 
that I may not undertake to describe. I knew — with unutterable 
pain I knew — that its bright stars and broad stripes had covered 
and protected the horrors of the 'middle passage I' I knew that 
while it flaunted in proud beauty from the dome of the capitol at 
Washington, the seat of the government of my country, ' the model 
republic,' all around it, and protected by it, were the shambles of 
the traffickers in human blood, and tears, and sighs, and groans ! In 
blood that would have sufficed in quantity to have changed to crim- 
son all the raiment of all the chief executives of my country's gov- 
ernment, since its formation. In tears sufficient in multitude to 
have filled to overflowing the brazen sea of the first temple. In 
sighs that for decades of years had pained the eart of mercy. In 
groans that for generations had been ascending as one great, em- 
bodied prayer of misery, to heaven, and with the earnestness of 
desperation, laying hold on the thrones of the Trinity ! All this, 
and more, I knew, and knowing, loved that flag ! I loved it because 
it was the symbol and the outgrowth of the great democratic idea 
of the natural equality of man. I loved it because beneath its aegis 
there was an evident vestige of the primitive rights of man. I loved 
it because, upon the waters of every sea, it held an independent 
osition beside the ensigns of all the maritime nations of the earth, 
loved it because it was the symbol of my country's greatness. I 
loved it for contests waged and victories won beneath its ample 
folds. I loved it because, while I knew that bitter things were 



1' 



32 

■written against it on earth and in heaven, I yet hoped for the day 
of its perfect purification from them all ; for the day when, in the 
strength and glory of its new birth, it should say to cupidity — to 
lust — to avarice — to prejudice — ' What have I to do any more with 
idols?' I loved it, while I believed that for it to reach the high 
goal of the hopes of mankind, it must pass through an ordeal of fire. 
Has not the hour of that ordeal dawned upon us? On the Potomac — 
on the 'sacred soil' of Virginia — in Missouri — in Arkansas — in 
Tennessee- 1 — in Kentucky — in the Carolinas — along the banks of 
' the Father Waters ' — shakes not the earth beneath the tread of 
martial men? And in how many places is not the sound of the 
groans of the poor slave — convicted of no crime, attainted of no 
treason — replaced by the sharp crack of the rifle, the rattle of mus- 
ketry, the clash of sabres, and the booming bass of artillery ? 

••And in this great conflict, this deadly 'wreck of matter,' the old 
flag is home upward and onward to the re-achievement of its right- 
ful heritage by the stalwart arms and courageous hearts of its heroic 
defenders. Surely, to-day, amid its glorious victories, it is receiv- 
ing its solemn baptism of fire and of blood!" 

And thus we loved and love the flag. 

Mr. Alexander H. Stephens, on being inducted into the second- 
ary position upon " the throne of iniquity " declared the new " gov- 
ernment " of which he was a pillar, to be reformatory in its character. 
But, if it be true that great reforms never move backward, it must 
be admitted that the armed insurrection of American slavery was 
not a reform, but a retrogression; evolving, however, out its very 
necessities, a true reform, of an animus deeply and implacably antag- 
onistic to itself. 

It Bought to unwrite the superscription of the Almighty upon 
humanity. To-day, the reform which it has engendered is re-ttit- V 
ing manhood on man. It sought to account the prayers, the tears, 
the trials, and the love of civil and religious liberty of the Pilgrim 
Fathers unholy; and to blot out " Plymouth Rock" from the sacred 
renii'inbraiH-e of Americans. Hut to-dav, from an hundred battle- 
fields, the bleaching bones of the honored sons of the " Mayflower's" 
ocean wanderers speak in thunder tones to the surviving descendants 
of the Puritans, to contend earnestly in the spirit of their progeni- 
tors, for that which the forefathers sought and found — •• Freedom 
bo worship God!" It sought to undeclare the most noble utterances 
of 177<",, the foundation-stone of American liberty, and American 
nationality. But today, these sentiments, haloed in fire, and a 
thousand-fold intensified by their baptism in a nation's blood, are 
far more than in the hour when the continent of America became 
VOCal with them, and distant thrones of power trembled before them, 
cherished in ten thousands of bosoms, by whom they are accounted 
as among t be eternal verities ! 

People of America ! in virtue of the sacred blood of the slain of 



33 

an hundred battle-fields, and of the noble naval heroes that have 
sunk to their last sleep beneath the engulphihg waves, that the 
country and liberty might not perish — in justice to the honored army 
of living witnesses, who bared their bosoms to the foeman's steel, 
that freedom might not die, and in the name of all who have suffered, 
and hoped, and striven for the redemption of the land, we ask you 
if this reform shall not be made perfect by being advanced to its 
legitimate, logical conclusion? 

The present is peculiarly an age of ideas. The invention of the 
Telegraph — perhaps the grandest achievement of uninspired human- 
ity, rimming the chariot-wheels of science with the fire of heaven's 
artillery — the improvements in fire-arms — new and superior modes 
of warfare, offensive and defensive — greatly advanced educatorial 
appliances — the dissemination in many languages of the world's 
great civilizer and purifier, the Holy Scriptures — the prosecution of 
the honored labors of the husbandman, upon principles elaborated in 
the studio of the philosopher — new and important combinations in 
the uses of steam, the great motor of the age — the ever-advancing 
and indispensable railway enterprize of the world — the tunneling of 
mountains — the bridging of rivers ; all these, and more than are 
mentionable, are but so many multiplied evidences of the birth and 
growth of ideas — the expansion of mind, the liberal unfolding of 
humanity's intellectual power. And amid them all, there stands 
prominently forth — colossal, majestic, commanding — the grand idea 
— solemn, sublime, immortal, of the inherent right of man to self- 
government ! That idea is stronger far to-day on this continent, 
and throughout Christendom, than in any previous era of the world's 
history. 

The institutions of the old world, founded upon a political class 
distinction in society, are being eliminated by the progress of libe- 
ral ideas, and by the sword. The Austrian Hapsburg power — the 
power that could create and sustain a Radetskv, the woman-whipper 
of Hungary — has been made to quail before the house of Loraine ; 
and through the liberalizing ideas promulged by the Prussian needle- 
gun, Bismarck makes his mark upon the century. 

Italy — classic ground forever — possesses now the citadel of the 
strength of her hereditary foe, the celebrated Quadrilateral, — the 
name of Garibaldi and freedom are as ever synonymous, and as ever 
honored, while Victor Emmanuel is King of an almost universally 
united Italy. 

In England, the mother-land, the popular cry is for "a redistri- 
bution of seats," an enlargement of the suffrage. The sturdy 
yeomanry of Britain, the stay and the staff of the throne of that 
noble woman, England's widowed Queen, demand that their voices 
shall be heard, and their rights and influence acknowledged in her 
Majesty's Government of the realm. 

In the far north, despotic Russia, through the courage, intel- 
3 



34 

ligence and patriotism of lier liberal-minded Czar, has loosed the 
bonds of serfdom, and elevated manacled millions of the human 
race into the beaut}-, strength and dignity of unfettered manhood. 

Spain is looking forward to an early cleansing of the crown of 
Castile from the foulest blot upon its jewelled disc ; and even the 
Island of Sumatra has decreed its atmosphere too pure to be 
breathed by a Binele chattel bondman. 

Fellow countrymen ! Shall America, the youngest born of the 
nations, in which man is put on trial as to his ability to govern 
himself, — shall America, the land of Bibles, of free : i and a 

free press, — shall America, whose every enfranchised citizen is a 
sovereign in his own right, — shall she require to learn a single lesson 
in human liberty from governments built upon, and peoples imbued 
with, the idea of " the divine right of Kings to govern wrong?" 

It is the distinguishing characteristic of the highest attained 
human governmental development — the American Republic — that 
the common people are not only " the power behind the throne," 
but the pillars and possessors of the throne itself. And, as if 
resulting from its reflex influence upon senior nationalities, the 
importance of the people as the true source of power, is being almost 
every where acknowledged. 

" Talk not to me of the State," in a former period, said the 
monarch of France, " I, Louis the XV, am the State." 

In a recent speech at Montbrison, France, the Due de Persigmy, 
aking through the populace to the Emperor, bids him " Onward 
King of the people ! " 

Whatever may be the political significance of such an utterance 
at tli" present period, by the distinguished relative of the astute 
Emperor of the French, it seems to be within the compass of 
human comprehension that the time approximates in which the 
popular cry of disenthralled nationalities will be "Onward, liberty of 
the people! Liberty is King! 

Christian people ! The retrospect ol the great contest adduces 
the painful fact that, throughout the di conflict of immortal 

truth with perishing error, the wide extended diabolusian war, the 
church has been led, and not bailing, as is her high prerogative, and 
her bounden duty. 

For, however swift, sure and comprehensive, may he the march 
of civilization, should Dot the human dm ' of the mind of Chris/ 

be unapproachably in adva it, preparing the highways for its 

age, and illumining them, not with the transient glare of the 
meteor, however brilliant, but with the steady radiance of the 
fixed constellation, a light as unerring and glorious as the resplen- 
dent birth Btar of " the Prince of the Bouse of David ?" 

not thi-' the day, is not this the hour, in which the American 
church, and the American State, each in its own order, should labor 
with the single-heartedness of christians, and the candor and fervor 
of patriots that 



35 

God, Justice and Humanity, 

shall be the sure base-work upon which the restored and regenerated 
Union shall rest ? 

The vestiges of the Dictatorships of the world do not prove them 
to have been peculiarly favorable to the existence and increase of 
popular liberty. The people of Rome had once the popular boast 
of Roman citizenship. But under the second Dictatorship of 
Julius Caesar, nineteen hundred years ago, that people had so far 
lost the ancient Roman lo¥e of liberty, that their popular cry, their 
highest aspiration, was "panem et circenses— bread and public shows." 
Such a people might well be held the vassals of the ambition of a 
bold, aspiring man. already possessed of place and power. Under similar 
circumstances other nations might exhibit a similar degeneracy. 

What the near future holds in reserve for our country can not now 
be divined. The elective pronouncement of the people may create 
a Congress equal to the requirements of the crisis. 

But cis-Atlantic lovers of their countrv and of constitutional 
liberty, will not be unmindful, in view of what is transpiring imme- 
diately around us, of the trans- Atlantic coup de etat of the second 
of December. We are no alarmists, but the public danger, though 
lessened is not destroyed. 

'Twere well the vanguard of liberty should pile high the faggots 
on the watch-fires of freedom. 

Fellow patriots ! the history of the human race, the records of 
the deeds of buried centuries afford incontestable evidence that 
" unfinished questions have no pity for the repose of mankind." 

"With all the light derivable from an examination of the line of 
political knowledge, as developed by the histories of past and 
present nations of the earth, with all the war-learned lessons of the 
great conflict between tortuous, punctilious wrong, and simple 
logical right — lessons carried by cannon to the very lintels of the 
doors of the citadel of the strength of the American Government, 
the homes and the hearts of the American people, the way to the 
possession of a just and enobling national grandeur and perpetuity, 
is made possible and plain to you in the sight of all the civilized 
nationalities and peoples of the earth. Tbe curtain so long veiling 
the entrance to that way from the moral perception of the nation, has 
been lifted by the sword, and the dear old flag has entered upon its 
march to a brighter and better civilization, to the tenor clash of 
sabers, and the booming bass of artillery. 

That which the bullet saved from destruction, is now to be re- 
mitted to the ballot for preservation. The contest is, for the moment, 
adjourned from the field to trie forum! The questions arising out of 
it. or by which it was created, must now, or in the near future, be 
met and decided by the honor, patriotism, and statesmanship of the 
American people, or by the converse of these qualities in them. 
Under which dominion shall it be? 



36 

A voice from the tomb of the martyred Lincoln seems now to 
reach the national ear, saying, " The hour is come in which to en- 
franchise the colored American people, that they may 'help you 
keep the jewel of liberty in the family of freedom.'' To the test 
of man's fitness for self-government, as presented by " the model 
republic," the oppressed of every dime still fondly look. To 
cleanse and purify it — to make it a light casting its rays of grandeur 
and stability far into the dim vista of the future — to essentially aid 
in the redemption of the nations, from whatever tyrannizes over 
man — the image of his Maker — is your great work. And in the 
memorable words of departed excellence and worth, it is within 
your competency to " meanly lose, or nobly save, the last best hope 
"of the earth!" 

Our plea with the nation is based upon no prescriptive rights of 
complexional hue or of lineage. We plead simply as men with 
men, for the restoration of the exercise of the rights of men. The 
rights themselves inhere to us and to all men, and are inalienable, but 
their exercise by us, has been obstructed by an undue application, on 
the part of the majority, of the law of force. 

We plead with you. that you do not allow " the government of the 
people, by the people, for the people," to perish from the earth 
through any imperfect application of the true principles upon which < 
it is founded, in obedience to the behests of a prejudice possessing 
no element of greatness and no quality of logic competent to com- 
mend it to the favorable consideration of God or man. 

And now, fellow-citizens, our cause is before you. "We believe 
it to be the cause of our country and of human progress. To God, 
the universal governor, and to you, we commit it, and ask you to 
decree by your suffrages, Equality of rights for all loyal men in America, 
before the bar of Am r lean lata/ 

R. W. STOKES, Chairman, Chicago. 

J. B. DAWSON, Chicago. 

M. L. RICHARDSON. Mercer Count v. 

GEO. C. FOUNTAIN'. Quincv. 

JOSEPH II. BARQUETTE, Galesburg. 

CHAS. S. JACOBS, Decatur. 

E. A. GREEN, Champaign. 

On the motion of the Rev. R. DeBaptiste, the Convention elec- 
ted Mr. John Jones, of Chicago, to be the general agent of the 
State. On motion of R. DeBaptiste, the following was adopted : 

WHEREAS, Dr. P. B. Randolph, who is one of "our men." and a member 
of t aiii. ii of Loyal Southerners, and one of the Committee from that 

ention, who recently wen! I the country and publicly advocated 

equal colored peoplo of the United States ; and 

Wheeras, Dr. Randolph is now i l in Lecturing through this State, on 

the i mal rights of all men, thus aiding this Convention in the 

work ueforo it ; 



37 

Resolved, That we indorse the course of this champion of the rights of man, 
and bid him and his associate, Mr. A. J. G-ordon, G-od speed in their noble 
work, and that we will attend in a body his lecture this evening, at half past 
seven o'clock. 

On the motion of L. B. White, a vote of thanks was tendered 
to the reporter of the associated press, for the able manner in 
which the proceedings of the convention have been furnished to 
the public journals. 

On the motion of George L. Thomas, a vote of thanks, as an 
expression of the feelings of the colored citizens of the State, 
was tendered to John Jones, and all who were associated in the 
effort for securing the repeal of the " Black Laws" of Illinois. 

The following resolution was offered by Mr. Barbour, of Alton. 
It was referred to the Committee on Resolutions, who reported 
favorably upon it, and on motion it was adopted. 

Be it resolved, That this Convention request every delegate to solicit the names 
of his constituents, and send them to the State Central Committee, with the 
name of the County, and that the Committee send this document to the legisla- 
ture of the State of Illinois, as the prayer of so many thousands of her citizens 
praying for the right of suffrage. 

On the motion of Mr. J. H. Barquette, the thanks of the con- 
vention were tendered to the President and the remaining officers 
of the body, for the discharge of the duties belonging to their several 
stations. 

The patriotic hymn commencing with " My country 'tis of thee," 
was sung by the entire assembly. 

On motion, the third State Convention of colored men of Illinois 
was adjourned without day. 



LIST OF DELEGATES. 



it 

LI 






G. T. GRAVES, Galesburg, 111. 
R. RICHARDSON, " 
CHAS. HELMS, 

C. W. WILLIAMS. 
J. D. DAVIS, 
REV. FAULKNER, " 
J. MeGRUDER, " 
W. WEBSTER, 
S.RICHARDSON, " 
J. B. TRUSTY, " 
REV. PATTERSON, ll 
S. D. WILLIAMS, 

D. FLETCHER, 
J. H. BARQUETTE, " 
T. RICHARDSON, 

S. PERKINS, 

REV. A. McGILL, 

H. H. HAWKINS, " " 

REV. McSMITH. Galena, " 

G. T. FOUNT A IX. Quincy, " 

A. PLEASANTS. 

H. HICKL1X. Springfield, 

REV. D. BR EXT, " 

A. W. JACKSON, Jacksonville, 111. 

S. R. SMITH, Knoxville, 

.1. B. SMITH. 

T. STEVENSON, Monmouth, 

R. B. CATLIX, 



GEO. P. MORRIS, Monmouth. HI. 

P. OUTLAXD. 

GEORGE P11EXYX. " 

A. DOBBTN. 

C. C. RICHARDSON, Alton, 

C. BARBOUR, 

M. RICHARDSON, Mercer Co. " 

E. W. LEWIS. Peoria, 

W. COLEMAN, Will Co. 

J. W. SMITH. Douglas Co. 

R. HOLLY, Bloomington, " 

REV. P. WARD, " 

C. S.JACOBS, Decatur, 

E. A. GREEN, Champaigne Citv. " 

GEORG E 1 1 EX I! V. Henry Co. , " 

REV. B. SMITH. Shawn^etown, " 

REV. T. STROTHER. Cairo, 

J. B. DAWSOX\ Chicago, 111. 

E. R. WILLIAMS, 

J. STAXLY, 

REV. R. DeBAPTISTE, 

G. L. THOMAS. 

L. B. WHITE, 

WILLIAM JOHNSON, 

R. W. STOKES, 

R. C. WARING, 

WILLIAM BAKER, 

E. HAWKINS, 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



J. STANLEY. 
L. B. WHITE, 



R. C. WARING, 



E. R. WILLIAMS. 
WILLIAM JOHXSON, 



^ 



GRAND CELEBRATION 

a f 

IN HONOR OF THE PASSAGE OF THE 

#tiittana af tatmption, 

BY THE 

FREE STATE CONVENTION, 

ON THE 

ELEVENTH DAY OF MAY, 1864. 

HELD IN THE 

Place d'Armes, New-Orleans, June 11th, 

WITH THE 

PROGRAMME, PROCEEDINGS, SPEECHES BY REV. DR. ROGERS, 
FRANCIS BOISDORE, REV. W. A. DOVE, &c. &c. 

ALSO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
OF NEW ORLEANS, 

AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES, &c. 

HELD FIRST AUGUST, 1864. 



NEW ORLEANS, 

H. P- LATHROP, PRINTER, 74 Magazine Street, 

1864. 



Notice. 

It has been said by persons, both far and near, that the colored man has no intel 
ligence, and that when set free he will not work ; but we propose to test that mat 
ter, t>y showing to the world both the intelligence and industry of the colored 
men and women. I >nly give us u free man's chance ami have a little patience and 
we will manifest to the world, the true spirit of our Nationality. 

Permit us then in cur humble cottages Of the South, to announce the name of 
mir patrotic brother, Rev. Dr. S tephen Walter Rogers, who was born ami raised a 
slave in the Smith, who- educated himself, principally at night schools, lie pub- 
lished a beautiful little work in I80O called v Roger's Composition," and this was 
done two years before lie was free, and with that we have his two Orations. Besides 
this we we have the Oration of .Mr. Francis Boisdore', a French gentleman, who 
was live born and raised in this City. We also have the Lite of our able brother, 
Fredrick Douglas, who was also bom a slave ; and with the above we can test our 
talents. Dr. Charles Johnson, Dentist, paid for his freedom $4,500. .lack Smith, 
$1,400, William Washington and family $3,009, and there are many others, 
who have paid as much, or more and that will test our industry; and your 
Committee were all slaws once. Suffice to say, that surrounded as we are by a wall 
of law abiding citizens, and our Christian churches, we will move on in one 
Union Band protecting each other through life, and any man amongst us who 
•hall show himself a peaceble Law abiding man shall be protected. 

ESAU CARTER, \ { HENRY BERRYMAN, 

JOHN JONES, f ,, ... „ . \ JOHN F. WINSTON, 

MITCHELL STURGESS, r Comul'Hoe on Printing. -> JACOB JOHNSON 

Dr. B.SMITH, \ I KDWARD SIMMS, 

CHARLES HUGHES, ' WOSEPHLACY 



New Oki.kans, August 7th, 1804. 
Mum. Carter, Lacy, Hughes, and others, Oommittee'on Printing: 

Cl.YI LKMEN : 

1 'lease' give plaee in your l'amplet to the following recommandation of 
ilr». Mary l. Brine, principal of the Pioneer School, to which some of the little mem- 
bers of m) familj belong. Her unwearied labors among us for the elevation of 
our race, and as a Union lady, richly deserve the highest approval of all Union 
< 'ili/< 08, 

Respectfully, 

s.W. ROGERS, 

Potior, St. Thomas' Church. 



The Free State Convention- of Louisiana having on the 11th day 
of May decreed the abolition of Slavery throughout the State, the 
colored people of the city of New Orleans met together in Mass 
Meeting and resolved to celebrate the event in an appropriate 
manner. Saturday, llth June, was agreed upon as the time for the 
celebration to take place. A committee was appointed to make all 
suitable arrangements, who promulgated the following 

ORDER. OF PROCESSION. 

The grand place of assembly will be at Congo Square, on Rampart street, at 
10 o'clock a. M., where the oration will be delivered, after which the procession 
\.'i\\ move up Rampart street to Canal, up Canal (south side) to Carondelet street, 
up Caronde let to Triton Walk, up Triton Walk to St. Charles, up St. Charles to 
Fourth, up Fourth to Coliseum, down Coliseum and into Camp, down Camp to 
Julia, down Julia to St. Charles, down St. Charles to Royal, down Royal to 
lower Railroad, down Railroad to Craps, up Craps to Rampart, up Rampart to Con- 
go Square, where the procession will break ranks. 

First District. 

ESAr CARTER, Grand Marshal ; HENRY CLAY, CHAS. HUGHS, 
WADE HAMPTON. Deputies. 
Military Escort with Music. 
Clergymen. 
Dr. S. W. ROGERS, Crator of the Da v. 
FRANCIS BOISDORE. Orator in French. 
The " Pioneer School." 
All Benevolent Societies in order. 
Public Schools of the First District. 
Wagons with Young Ladies representing the States. 

Second. District. 

Captain. Eug. MEILLEUR, Grand Marshal ; N. YILLEREE, A. POPULUS 

and B. JOURDAIN, Deputies. 

Veterans of 1814 and 1815. 

Cities and State Authorities. 

Free State Committee, 

CLUBS-Republican, Radical, Economy Association, Arts and Metiers, Invited 

Guests, United Brothers, Congregation, and others Societies in order. 

Schools, Second District. 

Third District. 

Capt. Louis Lainey, Grand Marshal; John Kepperd, Edward Simm3, Deputies. 

Carriages with Capt. Caillou's family, ex-Ofticers and Privates of the First, 

Second, Sixth and Seventh Regiments Louisiana Native Guards. 

and Volunteers. 

SOCIETIES -Artisan. Amis, Francais Amis, and other Benevolent Institutions. 

Public Schools, Third District. 

Fourth District. 

THOMAS M. POREE, Grand Marshal ; Dr. R, Smith and John Scott. iDeputied., 

Col. HANKS and Friends of Freedom. 

Ships Hartford and Albatross. 

Benevolent Associations. 

Mechanics in Wagons. 

The Public in general. 

Public Schools, Fourth District. 

National Salute. 






4 EMANCIPATION* CETEBRATIO.V 

N. B.-Bouligny, Carrollton and Greenville are respectfully invited to join in the 
Procession- each lo choose their Grand Marsha], 

We, the undersigned Committee of Arrangements, do hereby tender our sincere 
thank-.; td Major Gen. Banks and Gov. M. llahn for offering such assistance and 
protection as are necessary for the occasion . 

All banners or transparencies having letters painted on them of an aggravated 
character, are strictly forbidden by this Committee, and any person or persons ac- 
ting any way contrary to the above shall be held strictly accountable for the 
same. 

COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

s. W. Rogers, Esau Carter, Thos. M. Poree, 

B.Clay, John Keppard, N. Villere'e. 



Approved. 



LUDGER POGTJILLE, 

Grand Marshal of the dav. 
(HAS. BULLER, ) 

P. Z. CANONGE. Grand Deputies. 

ALEX. BARBER.) 



THE EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION. 



From the New Orleans Era, June 12, 1864. 

Place d'Atmes, formerly called Congo Square, and its surroundings were swarm- 
ing with thousands of our colored population yesterday. At an early hour the 
different parts of the city where colored schools ars located, or colored societies 
unit, became alive with them dressed in their holiday attire and ornamented 
with national Bags, and colors. About nine o'clock they began to move towards 
the place appointed for meeting-Congo Square — and at about half-past eleven 
o'clock they had all arrived, the majority of them accompanied by field-bands, 
and with banners and flags floating in the breeze. 

In the Bquare a large platform, rising in the form of an amphitheatre, had been 
erected, with a stand for the speakers. The platform was decorated with flags 
and evergreens, and scats were arranged on and in front of it. The speakers' 
Btand was covered by a large awning, underneath we found a number of ladies, 
teachers of the colored schools established by Gen. Banks. Among those present 
on the platform, we noticed old Jburdan and some fifteen or sixteen of the colored 
veterans ol 1815. Some of them appeared m stotog and hearty as the day when 
thej Bhowed their devotion to the glorious Btars and stripes. 

The proceedings were opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr Forrest, who, as well 
as the other speakers, was introduced by Mr. ('. C Morgan. 

He called on all to thank Almighty God for his goodhess, which allowed them 
to ( ime together on this eleventh day of June, 1864, to celebrate the breaking of 
the chains ol Blavery. Thousands of their 1 brethren had lookedin vain for relief, 
but the} were the ones privileged to enjoy liberty. He prayed that (bid would 
give the Onion armies strong aims to help in breaking down this rebellion, and 
the chains of Slavery. He call on God to bless the Army of Virginia, bless Gen. 
Banks, and give Gen. Grant strength to light the battles of bis country. Bless 
Abram Lincoln, the Presidenl ofthe 1 I'nited states, and may he he President for 
the next four years. God bless the Convention and all the speakers of today. 



• EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION O 

A song in honor of emancipation was sung by the children, under the direction 
of the Rev. C. A. Conway. After which the following address was delived by the 
Rev. S. W. Rogers, the orator of the day. Mr. Rogers, although a colored man, 
spoke of the war, the existence and downfall of slavery, and other prominent 
topics before the country, in a manner that showed his thorough knowledge of 
thesuljects. He returned thanks to Major General Banks, for the interest he 
had taken in. and the benefits he had conferred upon them, since he took com- 
mand of this Department. The whole colored population would ever bless his 
name for the golden educational order, by which so many were being enlightened ; 
his instructions to the delegates to the Convention ; and most of all, for his great 
free labor system, by which his (the speaker's) race were made men, all of which 
had given the highest satisfaction to the colored people throughout the State. 
He also thanked Col Hanks, Gov. Hahn, and one or two others, for their labors 
in behalf of the colored man. 

During the time he was speaking, Gen. Banks. Gov. Hahn, Mayor Hoyt, to- 
gether with some of the General's staff, appeared on the platform, and were greet- 
ed by tremendous cheers from the assembled thousands, and the children singing 
a national air. The speaker delivered his address in a manner scarcely surpassed 
by many of our white orators, and was often interrupted by long and continued 
applause. 

He was followed by Mr. F. Boisdore" in French, who was also frequently inter- 
rupted by applause. 

After be closed, Governor Hahn being called on, remarked that he had not 
come there to take any active part in the proceedings, but merely as a looker on ; 
he was highly pleased with the propriety, order and zeal, with which all the pro- 
ceedings hadbeen carried on, and their conduct to-day would convince any one of 
their fitness for freedom. 

When in the month of February he had made the declaration, that if he was 
elected governor, no slave should be in Louisiana after his inauguration, some 
of his friends had thought it premature, but the subsequent election for members 
of the Convention, showed that he was sustained in his declaration by the people. 

As for the powers of the Convention, he considered their act of emancipation 
binding on the people. He did not consider it just that a man should be held as 
a slave, because his skin was black or any other color. 

About 12 o'clock, during the progress of the speeches, Capt. Pearson's battery 
fired a salute of one hundred guns, by order of Gen. Banks, and one hundred 
taps were struck by the Alarm Telepraph on the city bells, by order of Mayor 
Hoyt. 

After Gov. Hahn concluded, the procession began to file out of the square on 
Rampart street, headed by the 4th U. S. Cavalry (colored) on foot and followed 
by one or two other colored regiments « 

We were stationed on Rampart street, and observed the procession as it passed 
along, according to the programme published in the city papers, with music play- 
ing and banners flying. 

First came the military— three regimens of colored soldiers— looking extremely 
well, and marching like well-drilled soldiers. Then came the different societies, 
each with its appropriate banners ; then the pupils of the public school ; then the 
veterans of 1814 and 1815 ; City and Stale authorities, and Free State Committee. 
Then the different Clubs— Republican, Radical, Economy Association. Arts and 
Metiers, invited guests, United Brothers, Congregation and other societies. Then 
came carriages, with Capt. Caillou's family, ex-Officers and privates of the First, 
Second, Sixth and Seventh Regiments, Louisiana Native Guards and Volunteers. 
Societies— Artisan, Amis, Francais Amis, and other benevolent institutions. Then 
came Col. Hanks and friends of Freedom, gun boat Varuna, Capt. Harris and offi- 
cers, benevolent associations, mechanics in wagons, etc. The procession arrived 
at Canal street, and moved up Canal to Carondelet, up Carondelet to Triton Walk. 
up Triton Walk to St. Charles, up St. Charles to Fourth, and at the corner of 
Prytania and Fourth streets, in front of Gen. Banks' residence, the head of the 



EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION 

< 

procession halted and gave three cheers for Gen. Banks, three cheers for Gov. 
Hahn, three cheers for Mrs. Banks, three cheers for the free State Committee, 

three chi ers for the Army of the Gulf, and three cheers for old Abe. Gen. Hunks, 
and Mrs. Banks, and Gov. Hahn, returned the cor/ptiment by waving tbeir 
handkerchiefs from tlie gallery of the General's residence, where he reviewed the 
whole procession as it passed, and received the plaudits of the <:rateful people, 
who were now rejoicing over the act that has {declared them free. We here left 
the procession to wend its way down the course marked out for it. We give this 
as a simple statement of what took place yesterday in New Orleans, on the elev- 
enth day of June. Is not Emancipation a fixed fact ' 

Capt. Pearson's battery, the loth Massachusetts, came out at 12 o'clock, and 
fired T4 salute of Km guns. This is a very attractive corps, and shows evidence of 
painstaking on the part of the officers. Their evolutions were regular and the 
firing precise, and elicited the encomiums of the spectators. Capt. Pearson may 
well feel a soldier's pride in the execution of his command. 



T HE "PIONEER SCHOOL," 
Mrs. Mary W. Rrice, Teacher, 

Formed a most interesting part, which will be seen, in the general order of pro- 

ion. in front of the Benevolent Societies. 
On the large Banner, tastefully arranged in evergreen by the pupils of this 
school, and carried in their front, were the appropriate words : 

■• Tlie Pioneer School: opend September, 1800. We "re still marching mi." 
I >n the smaller Banners, seven in number, of different colors, were — 

1. "Everyman outs it to himself to guard, protect, and cherish the Unionofihe Stales." 

2. "This is tin' A</< of 1'ioijriss. and ire un for it new Civilization." 
'.',. ■ ■ Nature is our Mother, and ice arc tali ing our i>l/" e." 

■I. "Old things must past away." 

5. " Wi lire all for Freedom, 

6. "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of II '.tp/iiness, the gifts of Hod." 

7. '• I'nitif. iinalloi/id hi/ scr/ionai 'line* — no North, no South, no East, no Went — the whole 
< buntry !" 

About half-past nine o'clock, A. M , or near that time, the pupils, old and young, 
ol this school, neatly dressed tor the occasion, were formed into line at the school- 
room, and, with their teacher at their side, marched in a most orderly manner, to 
the place of assembly, (Place d' Amies.) distant about three- quarters of a mile or 
more from the school-room, attracting general attention as they passed through por- 
tions (j| Borne of tin' principal streets, their pretty and appropriate banners, glisten- 
in- in the -an shine and waving to the wind. 

This school, it must be borne in mind, was opened in I860, and has been success- 
tally taught ever since ; even when the city was in its darkest and most turbulent 
mood the night that, was to precede the day of Freedom -Mrs. B., aided hy her 
husband, and overshadowed by a glorious Providence, stood boldly up through all. 



OK ATION 

Delivered by the Rev. Dr. S. W. Rogers, on the 11th June, 1864, 

before the grand assembly in Congo Square, (Place d'Arraes,) 

New Orleans, on the Abolition of Slavery throughout the State : 

Fellow Citizens : 

We have assembled to-day in obedience to a call to celebrate the 
Act of Emancipation of the State of Louisiana, passed on the llth 
day of May, 1864. That auspicious day is now recorded upon the 
pages of civil history, and numbered with the anniversaries of events 
which indicate a speed} r national delivery of the children of Africa 
from the house of bondage. 

God has placed men, both temporal and divine, at the helm of the 
ship Civilization, and has bid them steer that vessel safely across the 
wide ocean of Heathenism, and to land the Nations safely in the 
harbor of Morality and Religion. As Civilization seems to predom- 
inate in the human heart, from the Garden of Eden even to the present 
day, Heathenism has been its opponent from time to time, and in 
its fury made war upon our earthly paradise, and after a momentary 
struggle Adam fell a victim to its pre} r . But Civilization revives 
again, and Heathenism makes the second assault. The struggle is 
long and tiresome, and at last God intervenes, and speaks from the 
eternal world, warning his servant, Noah, to make ready to meet the 
destruction of the nations of the earth. But Heathenism still leads 
off, and the inhabitants of the earth attempt to build a tower 
whose summits should reach the clouds* of heaven, and to plant 
thereon the flag of defiance. But the God of Heaven, whose broad 
burning eye surveys the secrets of every heart, looked down and 
changed their language into different tongues, and caused them to 
wander off into various lands. 

And as we lose sight of the nations for a moment, whilst they 
wander off and multiply the earth, our attention is called to the 
voice of God, as he speaks from the unclouded world, and tells Moses 



v 



9 ORATION". 

to go down into Egypt and tell King Pharioh "to let my people go." 
Here God proclaimed the downfall of Egyptian slavery ; moreover he 
said to Moses 1 am the God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, 
showing thai he was the God of the living and not of the dead. 
And after an acknowledgment of God's supreme power over the crown 
of Egypt, he leads the Israelites out of the House of Bondage with a 
high hand and an arm unseen by mortal man, amid the shouts of 
angel- Israel then began to multiply the earth, and to wander 
into distant lands and among foreign nations ; and all things seemed 
quiet until Columbus announced the name of America, which conti- 
nent he discovered on the 1st of October, 1492, 372 years ago, which 
excited all Europe! Expeditions were immediately fitted out for this 
side of the water, and on their arrival every thing was set in order 
for agriculture, for various trades, and for the arts and sciences , and 
whilst the inhabitants were quietly in pursuit of wealth and happi- 
ness, the peace and harmony of Boston harbor were disturbed, and 
the result was the British Government issued a declaration of war 
against this country, with a faint hope of Buecess. The war was 
long and stubborn, but to the ^creat surprise of Europe the golden 
Eagle with ber Stripes and Stars floating in the breeze, appeared in 
the British water.-, demanding the recognition of these United States 
of America. After the achievement of her independence the United 
States dispatched her war vessels to different ports, opening commu- 
nication with every nation for her merchant ships and her commerce, 
and sending into foreign markets her Cotton, Rice, Tobacco, Hemp, 
Mineral-, &c., and receiving in exchange their Silks, Tea, Coffee, 
[vory, Wines, Brandies, and other productions of foreign countries, 
a- well as the Art- and Sciences. But after the war between Eng- 
land and America, the former seems to have found out that Slavery 
was a great evil, and she sent out a naval force to suppress the Afri- 
can Sla\ e Trade . 

Was it England's love for the protection of that race of people — 
or was it hi r intention of weakening the U. S. Government, with a 
faint hope of Subjugating her again ? These are questions for impar- 
tial eon.-ideration . The overhauling of our American vessels in the 
GulfStream, by the British war stermer Styx, the burning of the 



OF DR, ROGERS. 



d 



American steamer Caroline, on Luke Erie by McCloud, the English- 
man, are questions yet to be settled . 

Late statistics show that 5,000,000 persons were supported in 
England by Cotton — 30,000,000 spindles employed in the production 
of the yarn, and the capital absorbed exceeds $150,000,000 Four-fifths 
of the cotton consumed in England, 800,000,000 fos, was American. 

The total number of' Slaves, according to the census of 1860, which 

were emancipated by the Proclamation of the President of the United 

States, was 3,404,925, viz : 

Alabama 435,132 

Arkansas • • • 11,114 

Florida 61,753 

Georgia 462,232 

Louisiana 333,010 

M ississinpi • • . . 436,696 

North Carolina 331,081 

South Carolina 403,541 

Tennessee 215,784 

Texas 180,682 

Eastern Virginia 375,000 

The increase will make the aggregate at the present time fully 
3,500,000, and some say 4,000,000. 

If the foregoing table be correct, then we can see very clearly why 
the British Government allowed rebel iron clads and rebel ships of 
war to be fitted out in her docks for action against the U. States. 
England has long had an eagle eye upon our cotton, rice and tobacco 
fields, and she perhaps has overlooked her table of recognition, but 
it seems that she has not yet forgot the lesson she received from the 
United States Government in 1814. There is little danger of the 
intervention of France whilst she can see those almighty dollars 
which we yet owe her on Louisiana, which she well knows would be 
confiscated the moment she snorted. 

The object of this celebration to-day is to bind the colored man in 
feeling ten fold stronger to the Union white man than he ever was 
before, and it is not possible the South can ever gain her indepen- 
dence over the United States after this and other acts of freedom 
which must be hereafter. .Had the South offered the same induce- 
ments to the colored man as the North has, at the breaking out of 
this rebellion, the position the colored people held in the South at the 

3 



10 ORATION* 

time, ;uk1 Looking forward to a brighter day, they would have joined 
the South, and the Nforth never could have conquered the South 
without foreign intervention. Bui such was not the case. 

There are four things the colored man wants to complete his do- 
mestic happiness, to-wit : Freedom, Suffrage, Work and Wages. 
Give him those four wants and it makes him a citizen in every sense 
of the word. We do not seek to hasten our spirits within the limits 
of the legislative bodies, nor to mingle our voice within the halls of 
the Congress of the nation, hut we simply ask permission to say hv 
our sacred votes whom we shall have to rule over us. Give us th< i 
four wants and then we can say thai slavery is done forever ; bul not 
until then. Bui after the manifestations of our loyalty to the United 
States Government, still we have a few thoughts to communicate 
which heai- important considerations. We ask the right of suffrage 
for these reasons : 

Thai we are loyal citizens and true to the ('. Slates Governmenl 
* we are ready and willing to defend our country's flag al a mo- 
ment's warning— that our forefathers fought, bled and died under 
Gen. Jackson in 1814-15 in the glorious cause of American liberty 
that our brothers are now upon the field, pouring out their hearts' 
blood in the support of the same cuse that when Gen. Shepley 
called upon us in defense of our then threatened city we responded 
to his call, and in the short space of 48 hours we had our regiment 
armed, equipped and ready for marching orders. 

That many of us are owners of real estate and personal property, 
and pay an annual tax throughout the State on many millions of 
dollars. 

That many of us are well qualified to go to the polls, and we ask 
that right by qualification only. 

But inasmuch as wejknow that God has the matter in hand, that in 
his own appointed time he will turn the national wheel, and the 
colored man will draw the capital prize of elective franchise. 

Although we are true lovers of our country and its flag, we can but 
show our objections to any intermarriages between the two races. 
As I could not permit any white man to marry my daughter, so I 
would ask the white man to take the same position as myself. Then 



OF DR. ROGERS. 11 

let us respect each other, and let us live together as friends — let us 
defend the Union together ; but when it conies to the marriage vow, 
let our motto be color to color. Otherwise it would seem as though 
the two races had lost all self-respect. It would bring about a 
national slander, and it would impair our reputation in the estimation 
of foreign powers. 

Then let us wait for two hundred years yet, which will give ample 
time for the agitation of such a question as that to which I am still 
opposed. But as there will be great changes in the policy of nations 
before that period, we know not what the future will bring forth ; 
yet I must oppose such intermarriages from the due respect I owe 
to the colored ladies. 

Many of our colored ladies are milliners, dress makers and other 
needle workers of taste and art. Amongst our young colored men 
are tailors, hatters, shoe makers, school teachers, clerks, secretaries, 
&c. Let these be encouraged for their future elevation in arts and 
sciences. 

President Lincoln said to a committee of colored gentlemen that 
called upon him at Washington, that the two races could not live 
together, and that they must separate. Then will the President and 
Congress give us a State or territory adapted to our race ? Say 
Texas — and if so, we will make it the brightest star that shines upon 
the American flag. 

But let us give thanks to the commanding General of this depart- 
ment, Major Gen. Banks, for his timely and wise Educational Order, 
his instruction to the delegates of the State Convention before its .» 
session, and his labor system — all of which have given general satis- 
faction to the colored people throughout the State. 

Let us also give our thanks to Gov. M. Hahn, Col. Hanks, Rev. 
Mk. Conway, Thos. J. Durant, B. F. Flanders, W. R. Crane, Chas. 
Fosdick, and many others of our Union friends,, for their good feeling 
towards our race in this great struggle. And many thanks are due 
Judge Durell and other members of the State Convention for their 
heroic act, in striking a death blow at Slavery in the State of Louis- 
iana, on the 11th day of May, 1864. 



12 



ADDRESS BY 



Wc arc now on board the national snip, crossing the Hattcras of 
Rebellion. She sometimes reels and totters, but her noble comman- 
der and her manly sailors spread her canvass to the breeze, and she 
(nitrides every storm, and will soon land in the harbor of peace and 
tranquility. 

The United States flag is destined to float over Cuba, Mexico and 
Canada, and in less than three hundred years it will float over the Tower 
of London — for the Lord will aflict England for this war now raging, 
of which she is the sole cause ; and the fear of going back into sla- 
very will keep the colored man forever upon the field of bottle- 
preferring death to slavery ; and he will defend the Stars and Stripes 
as his country's flag, under whose protection he enjoys his freedom. 

To God the Father, God the Son. 
To God the Spirit, three in one, 
Be honor praise and glory given, 
By all on earth and all in heaven ! 



ADDRESS 

(ORIGINALLY DELIVERED IN FRENCH,) ON THE 11th JINK, L864 
By P. BOISDORE. 
Fellow Countrymen — 

1 shall perhaps be taxed with temerity in having undertaken 

!«) :"iu a Mi, the occurrence of this solemn day— the 11th May, 

urged by friends, and grateful for the most courteous 

invitation of the administrative committee, 1 concluded once more to 

give tlii pr< of "I" my obedience, and above all of my humble devotion 

to the ca f my caste, but considering my incapacity 1 must rely 

on .>"iir frat) rnal indulgence. 



F. BOISDORE. 13 

Fellow Countrymen! — On this memorable day, which we have 
devoted to the celebration of the emancipation of our brethren, who 
but ^yesterday were in bondage, under the infamous yoke of slavery, 
let us begin by raising our hearts to the great Architect of the Uni- 
verse and tender him our lively and solemn thankfulness ! Who 
would not, in sight of those glorious banners displayed to our eyes, 
acknowledge the intervention of divine providence, which never 
ceased to watch over the destiny of our caste, for too long a time 
enslaved and oppressed. Yes, let us tender our homage to the great 
sovereign of the Universe ! Yes, it is in his name that we ought to 
celebrate the 11th May, 1864, the anniversary of the final emancipa- 
tion of our brothers ! Yes, we ought to understand that in celebra- 
ting this glorious day we honor the memory of our ancestors, who 
were slaves ! We honor the memory of our mothers, of whom three- 
fourths were born and died in slavery ! 

Fclloio Countrymen! What sweet and sacred emotions must 
cheer the hearts of those honorable sixty-three members of the Con- 
vention who had the noble courage to vote in majority for emanci- 
pation, in remembering this liberal action ! And the honorable Pre- 
sident of the Convention, in affixing his signature to this noble act, 
for the abolition of slavery, must he not have believed that his pen 
was sustained by the spirit of the immortal Washington ! 

Glory to you, members of the Convention ! in the name of the 1 1th 
May, 1864 ! Your names will be blessed forever in our grateful hearts! 
Our emancipated brethren will impress on the minds of their children 
to venerate the names of their liberators— they will bless them and 
hand them down to their posterity ! They will think and talk of 
you, and every one in singing praise to the immortal Abraham Lincoln, 
will find a gratification in joining your names with that of this great 
sage, in uttering with delight — long live the immortal Abraham 
Lincoln ! 

Long life also to Ariail, Austin, Bailey, Barrett, Beauvais, Bell, 
Bontant, Bromley, Burke, Cazabat, J. Cook, Crozat, Cutler, David, 
Duane, Edwards, Ennis, Fish, Flagg, Flood, Foley, Fosdick, Fuller, 
Geier, Goldman, Gaidry, Healy, Hart, Heard, Eenderson, Holls, Hero, 



14 ADDRESS BY 

Bowes, Kavagan, Knobloch, Kugler, Maas, Mann, Millspaugh, Morris, 
Newell, Norman, Oit, T. Payne, Pintado, Poynot, John Purcell, 
Schroeder, Seymour, Shaw, Smith, Spellicy, Stocker, Stiner, Stauffer, 
Talliaferro, Terry, Col. Thorpe, Thomas, Wells, Wilson, 

These, my Fellow Countrymen, are the names of the sixty-three 
promoters of the act of emancipation. They are those who, as if 
armed with the Holy Scriptures in one hand, and holding the Decla- 
ration of Independence in the other, energetically pronounced the 
sacred words — " Slavery is an effront to nature ! Slavery is a blot on 
our act of independence, which declares all men to be born free and 
equal !" 

My Emancipated Brothers! — 

It is particularly to you that I address myself. This day, for- 
ever memorable, should efface from your remembrance all your past 
misfortunes — all the cruel treatment which weighed upon you almost 
from your cradles ; forget all the extortions, all the insults, all the 
tortures which you have suffered — forget them in the name of the sun 
of Liberty which shone upon the event of the 11th May, 1861 ! 

more chains, no more pillory i Forget your numberless priva- 

ls — forget that but yesterday you were yet crushed under the yoke 
of the hardi -t slavery — forget all the crying injustice which you had 
to suffer. Be generous, like the first mail vis — forgive your cruel, 
inhuman masters ! Efface from you memory those scenes of horror 
which only slavery could give birth to ! Liberty claims you! You 

:;<>\\ free men ! you no Longer are the instruments, the beasts of 
burden to a man like yourself ! To-day you have a will of your own ! 
You are your own masters — you have your own free will ! What, 
do you fear to fall back to the days of barbarity ? with hands ever 

\\ tip obey fie- dark wickedness of a master or mistress, who 
just returned from holy communion with his God) castigates 
ami mutilates you with the scourging whip ! Finally, are you afraid 
..I' th'' renewal of those times, when yon were transported from one 
State to another, far from your families, your children, stripped and 
berefl of nil \<\ the caprice of a hard master, who knew no other law 
bu1 bis own will ! No. no more BUch cruel acts — those horrid time- 



F. BOISDORE. 15 

will not return any more ! Slavery, that genius of evil, has given 
way to that true Liberty, for such a long time profaned ! 

Let them tremble, above all those cruel masters ! Let them feel 
sorry for the unheard of torments they inflicted on you ! But in the 
name of God ! in the name of the 11th May, 1864 ! ! you ought to 
pardon — you should forget all and every thing ! Let that solemn day 
awake every sentiment of pity, and be you all inspired with one 
desire— of a general absolution and forgiveness to those who called 
themselves your masters — your superiors as creatures ! Pity for 
them ! Pity, a thousand times more pity ! Like so many old tigers 
they groan in their dens — their claws are pared forever ! 

Slavery, that scourge, has disappeared ; it exists as yet onlv 
in the States occupied by Mr. Jefferson Davis, the democrat, who 
says he is fighting for Liberty ! Mr. Jefferson Davis a democrat ! 
He who in spite of civilization intended to perpetuate the slavery of 
our caste ! What democracy, what derision ! Therefore he could 
not count on the scorn of that liberal France, that proud England, 
that of old Spain in particular, and of all Europe in general ! But 
he had not foreseen that punishment that he is on the eve of under- 
going — -chastisement by which slavery will be swept away and anni- 
hilated. Slavery, thou cursed anti-christian institution, thou shalt 
not any longer prosper in the United States ! The blood of John 
Brown has forever planted the tree of liberty in its bosom ! Vainly 
will the hurricane blow, its roots will propagate more and more, in 
the name of Christianity ! 

Therefore, my emancipated brothers, fear no more ! The sweat of 
your brow now belongs to yourselves ; no insatiable, inexorable man- 
masters to render accounts to ! you are sure to reap the benefits of 
what you possess. Work with eagerness and emulation — give proof 
that you fully comprehend that liberty does not consist in idlenes, 
and laziness ! Liberty does not mean to sleep from morning till night 
the belly turned to the sun ! Fight against the absurd and preju- 
diced arguments of the slave party, who by means of their news- 
papers and on the street corners, will not refrain from repeating 
" that the negro is indolent, so much given to laziness that he ought 



]f> ADDRESS BY 

to be ;i slave that he may be compelled to work" — for then they can cut 
him and whip him ad libitum, ill vise and abuse him ! Prove to those 
unjust slave partisans, my brethren, that they are in the wrong, that 
there absurdities are numerous ; prove to them that God has created 
us all free, that the earth is pleased to be cultivated by freemen and 
citizens ! Prove to them that any man may be white or black, or 
yellow, having all the same organization, subject to the same enjoy- 
ments, suffering from the same pain, having the same wants — that 
the black man. like the white man, is capable of the same activity, of 
the .-.une love of labor, when that labor provides him with the means 
of comfort and ease for himself and family. Yes, my brethren, go to 
work, go to work ! Encourage your brethren from the country to 
love their plantations. It is your duty to make them understand that 
mi ii, although free, ought to work, in order to bring up their children 
and give them a good education. True liberty is only preserved by 
the practice of all social virtues. Reprobate licentiousness, disorder, 
prostitution, debauch. Divide well your time, you will fiud enough 
to instruct yourself — learn to read, to write ! Remember that Fred- 
erick Douglass, (of Manchester. N. Y.) that celebrated orator, that 
eminent lawyer, of our own caste, that Frederick Douglas, who 
glories in the defense of his countrymen, has been a slave ! and that 
up to the age of 25 he did not know how to read ! What extraor- 
dinary genius ! Born under the brutish rod of slavery, all means of 
instruction were forbidden him; he owes to his energy all the 
display of his genius. Let those among you who as yet cannot read, 
courageously set to work to learn ; then our most inveterate enemies 
will lie obliged to submit to evidence derived from the right and 
privilege given to liberty. Your intellectual faculties will be dis- 
played with as much facility as theirs. Then their prejudice against 
the black race will give way to reason, the same as darkness gives 
way to the rays of the sun. 

Do not fear, your chains are broken! Fortify the ardor of the 
Northern philanthropists. Some of them are dodging as yet. They 
are occasionally captivated by tho tying writings of the slave party. 
Few of them have attained to that pure, rational radicalism which 



F. BOISDOKE. 1* 



is the gift of Freemont, Greely, Sumner, Phillips, Butler, Hanks, Con- 
way, and those of the creed of Thomas J. Duraut. 

Prove to the whole world that although stupefied, you are not de- 
moralized ; prove to them that Louisiana, delivered from that scourge 
which degraded her in the eyes of the European liberals, will attain 
a degree of splendor hitherto unknown to her. Remember always 
that submission to laws, just and equitable for all, and the respect. 
due to upright magistrates are sacred duties, which every man con- 
scious of his dignity, should never deviate from ; receding from these 
principles is the upsetting of all social order ; it is returning to bar- 
barity, to anarchy ! 

Brethren, the enemies of our caste, our former old satraps, try all 
possible means in order to render us contemptible in the eyes of for- 
eign nations— who are sometimes led estray by the lying, cowardly 
writings, which certain venal pamphleteers, without conscience, bring 
to light : and first impressions are done away with difficulty. To all 
those deceptive pamplets and speeches, let us reply by the opening 
and reading of the American Declaration of Independence. Therein 
will be found an answer to all these false inductions in the following 
words : " All men are born free and equal" 1 Let us prove that ire 
are aware that those words, dictated by virtuous men, are based 
upon the principles of religion, morality and universal justice. 

Ah, my countrymen, this prejudice of caste is the most absurd 
of all prejudice — shocking to man in the nobility of his creation 1 

My emancipated Brothers, it is your duty to remember on this 
great day, May 11th, that all men are alike the same, wherever they 
may reside, whatever may be their origin — that their degradation is 
owing to their vices only, and to the odious yoke of slavery. 

My Brethren, not wishing to abuse your indulgence much longer, 
permit me only to make a few more remarks in remembrance of this 
glorious day, forever abusing the odious and anti-christian principles 
of slavery. 

Therefore conscious of the past, present and future, we should be 
well aware that the act of emancipation is the beginning for us of a 
social position in the civilized world, worthy of the great covenant of 
the founders of the mighty American republic. 



18 ADDRESS BY 

The hour of your majority will soon strike ! Let us not be afraid. 
We cannot harbor the idea of ever seeing the revival of that time 
when the infernal Black Code shone in the clutches of our former 
magistrate's ! Can we expect the renewal of slavery, the times when 
our brothers were lacerated and tortured in the name of the ironical 
democracy of the South ! No, my fellow countrymen, no, brothers, 
those times will never return again — they have been struck down by 
celestial light ! 

The time la near when our oppressors in the name of reason, in the 
name of God, will take the oath, like yourselves, under this star span- 
gled banner, forever to detest slavery, to detest forever the so-called 
Confederacy — forever to reject any attempt to renew the prejudice 
of caste ! They will acknowledge and confirm to all and every one 
the right of citizenship — their right to be electors, and consequently 
their right to be also themselves elected. 

Christians as we are, let us remember forever that our holy religion 
is an edifying one ; let us fly from those, who by a usurped right 
pretend to domineer over us by their slave-love principles. Let us 
be aware that our Lord Jesus Christ, the only true democrat, by the 
bonds of mercy has united the men of all countries, and his holy re- 
ligion, like the rays of the sun, belongs to the universe. Therefore 
lot us do homage to that supreme omnipotent greatness. 

May the government of Lincoln prove a triumphant one, vanquish- 
ing this odious rebellion ! that slavery, bondage and tyranny, what- 
ever form it may assume, may disappear forever from the world. — 
May all nations enjoy their just rights and privileges, in the name of 
liberty, justice and fraternity ! 

Long live the 11th May, 18G4 ! 

Undoubtedly our worthy Governor Hahn, and our virtuous Gen. 
Banks are true patriots ; greal are the services they have rendered to 
the cause of liberty ; hut in view of that glorious star spangled ban- 
ner, and in the name pf the 4th of July, 1176, we predict that they 
have ii"! ye! reached the terminus which the decrees of divine Prov- 
idence have assigned to their liberal principles! Yes, honor and 



r, B0ISD0RE. 19 

glory to you Governor, to you General 1 It is under your auspices 
that liberty has succeeded our brethren's slavery ! The Black Code, 
that savage book, is destroyed — but as yet we are not citizens of our 
own country. That memorable day, 11th May, 1864, does not give 
us all our due rights, notwithstanding the rebel presses. On you, 
General, we rely, for our future ! On you are founded all our hopes ! 
It is from your powerful intercession that we expect to come in pos- 
session of those inalienable rights which characterize a people truly 
free ! Shall we forever occupy an intermediate place ? A place or 
condition only equal to that of the Indian pariahs ! 

No, unshaken in your principles, essentially radical, your dearest 
desire, we are sure, on returning to private life, will be accomplished 
if you can say to us — "We have restored to fellow-citizens their just 
rights, which the odious system of slavery had deprived them of I 
We have restored to them all their prerogatives ! I" 

This General and Governor is our dearest hope ; and that in the 
name of justice, of equity, and the spirit of the 19th century ! 



ORATION 

Of the Rev. W. A. Dove, recently from tb.8 North, delivered before 
the Union Brotherhood, in Wesley Chapell, July 4, 1864. 

" M. President, this is the first time that I have had the pleasure of 
meeting your honorable body and I feel thankful for the honor thus 
conferred upon me. Fellow citizens, I received your note inviting me 
to deliver an oration before you, but the notice was too short to al- 
low me to prepare one befitting the occasion, and I will simply make 
a few plain remarks — I will talk to you as I do my own beloved Con- 
gregation. 



20 ORATION BY 

When tho honorable gentleman was reading the Declaration of 
Independence, my mind was carried back to those days, and how long 
and how hard wera the struggles through which those brave patriots 
passed to achieve their Independence from the British yoke, and 
1 hope I may be spared to sec the day come that we can call our 
own Independence day, when we shall have all the rights of free- 
men. We have once been a nation, the first monarch that ever sat 
upon a throne wag an African . 

Allow me, Gentlemen and Ladies, to present you a golden chain 
with seven golden links. 

The first link is Union. 

The dying words of Washington, were " United we stand, divided 
we fall," and the truth of those words have been verified in the his- 
tory of the present rebellion. Look at the Anglo-Saxon race, one 
of the greatest nations of the earth of the present day, a nation 
whose banner floats over every sea, and respected and feared b}~ all 
nations. What do wo behold ? One of the bloodiest wars that ever 
•uraed a nation, struggling for ex i stance. Blood and treasure poured 
oul like water. This is the result of disunion. Brethren, if any peo- 
ple in the world ought to be united, it is the African race of 
America? 

It has always been the grand object of the Southern portion of the 

white race to keep tho black man disunited by fostering aud en- 

* 
couraging tale-bearing from the kitchen to the house. Telling news 

upon eae'.i other has been practised to an alarming extent ! This 

must be stopped. If we have been bad, we must change our course 

and be good. We are just emerging out of darkness into light. The 

eyes of the whole world are turned towards the Africans of America 

to see what will become of them. Let us be united, and help each 

other. 

Let us take for example tho German and Irish who come to our 

me without a penny ; did you ever have one to come to 

you for a place to sleep only one night? Xo. And why ! Because 

those who were here before them always made a provision for their 

own ; they would unite and assist their countrymen until they could 



REV. AV. A. DOVE. 21 

help themselves. And this is the secret of their success in life. And ' 
we must do the same if we ever expect to be a people. 

He also referred to the story of the bundle of sticks in the Bible. 

The second link is industry. We must be industrious if we wish 
to disappoint the enemies of our race, and refute the base charge 
that we are an indolent people and would starve if freed. When un- 
der bondage some of us had to be smart to make money for our own 
use to supply our wants and to enjoy ourselves. And now that we 
have such great responsibilities resting upon us, it becomes us to be 

i 

more industrious. 

The third link — look at a Yankee nation ; take them as our exemple 
in this respect. When this war broke out, "chivalry" thought they 
had all the money, as they had made a great deal from Uncle Sam. 
But they spent it too freely. Not so with Mr. Yank ; he made his 
money by hard work, both of brain and limb and he knew how to keep 
it. Go if you will and call upon a New England or Western planter, 
who was never known to wear a suit costing over ten dollars. Ask 
him for money to help to carry on the war. Watch him; you will see 
him go to his little bank (a hole in the ground) and bring 10 or 20 
thousand dollars in hard cash, although he is but a poor farmer. 
Where is the money that we have made in this city ? Gone, all was- 
ted. Brethren, this is wrong in us ; economy is the road to wealth, 
and we should pursue it. 

The fourth link in the golden chain is Honesty, in persuing the 
road to wealth, let honesty be our watchword. Cheating aud all 
fraudulent practices should and must be driven from our midst. De- 
ception has destroyed the colored race, and dishonesty has almost 
destroyed the Union. 

The fifth link is Temperance — deal carefully with that man des- 
royer, "fire-water," as the Indian term it, be temperate in our meats 
and drinks and in all things : by so doing we will always have all 
a clear head and be ready for business attimes. 

The sixth link is Piety. This virtue is necessary. Without it we 
are not respected as we desire to be. With it we are respected and 
trusted by all who know us. With Godly piety and fear we will be 



22 ORATION BY REV. W. A. DOVE. 

■constrained to be honest and industrious ; and having the love of 
God in our hearts in all time of need, will know where and to whom 
we can go for relief. 

The seventh link is Intelligence. 

Fellow-citizens, we must be intelligent before we can ever reach 
that standard of elevation for which we are now striving, and before 
we can expect to get our rights as freemen, we must first know how 
to use them. We will in future have to deal with the Yankees, (I am 
a Yankee,) and they work by the head. We must know something 
about figures before we can cope successful with them. 

When it comes to dollars and cents if we can keep up with them it 
is all right ; but if they beat you in figures, they will pocket the 
money and go on ; it will be none of their business if you loose your 
money. 

Educate your children. 

In war we are the white man's equel ; in the dance his equel ; in 
rough and tumble fist and skull fighting his superior ; but for the cul- 
tivation of intellect, I must say, we are most of us iaferior to him In 
former times, at the North, a handsome young man or women could 
easily get married for their good looks, but things have now changed ; 
they have discovered that true beauty lies in the brain. Hence an 
intelligent and iudustrious person — let them be ever so homely — is 
the first to marry ; they have learned to appreciate intelligence and 
industry. Had our forefathers been intelligent, we never would have 
been an oppressed, enslaved people. Had the Red Man of the forest 
bees intelligent, his race, instead of being broken up and scattered 
over the earth as they are, they would have been masters of the 
North American continent to day. The want of intelligence has 
In in a curse to the African as well as to other nations. 

Gentlemen and Ladies, I am done ; be firm, be faithful and true to 
your principles ami [>> yourselves, and this great and noble enterprise 
will lie crowned with success. 

Dr. R. Smith, Vice President elect, was called, but declined. Rev. 
J.Reese, President of the Third District Union Ib-otherhood Associa- 
tion, was called, he briefly addressed the audience touching upon the 



ARTS ASSOCIATION. 23 

various topics of the day, urging united action and the great necessi- 
ty of patronizing each other in business. After which the meeting ad- 
journed with singing. The benediction was pronounced by Rev. W. 
A. Dove, pastor of St. James Chapel. 



AMERICAN ARTS ASSOCIATION. 



This Society was founded July 1st, 1864, through the exertions 
of Dr. S. W. Rogers, Esau Carter, Henry Berryman, Dr. R. Smith, 
Chas. Hughes and Joseph Lacy. 



GRAND EXHIBITION OF ARTS. 



A grand Exhibition of the " American Arts Association," by the 
colored people of New Orleans, was held in the Lyceum Hall, over 
the City Hall, on Monday, 1st August, 1864, in honor of Emancipation 
in the British West India Islands, at the date of the Coronation of 
her Britannic Majesty, Queen Victoria, in 1834. 

At 10 o'clock oh the morning of the 1st, the colored people began 
to assemble at the first Baptist Church, Rev. N. D. Sanders, pastor, 
from all parts of the city, with duplicates of their various Trades of 
domestic Arts. At 11 o'clock the procession formed and took up the 
line of march to the City Hall, under the direction of the following 
named Grand Oflicers : 



24 



ARTS ASSOCIATION. 



Grand Marshal, First District, ESAU CARTER. 

Second District, CHARLES IIUGHES, 

Third District, R. SMITH, EDWARD SIMMS. 

Fourth District, HENRY BERRYMAN. 

Capt. E. MILLER, Grand Marshal of the Day. 

Rev. Dr. ROGERS, Orator of the Day. 

At half past eleven o'clock, the procession was seated in Lyceum 
Hall with all the specimens of their industry laid upon the different 
tables, for the inspection of invited guests and the public at largo. 
In front of the President's chair, was placed upon a beautiful 
mahogny table the bronze bust of Capt. Andre Caillou, who fell on 
the field of battle before Port Hudson, in defence of the United 
States Government. On different tables were spread all the various 
works of nature's hand; and many spectators expressed much but. 
prise to see so many specimens of the industry of the colored people, 
before unknown to them. At 12 o'clock Capt. E. Millier, Grand 
Marshal of the day, reported to Mr. Esau Carter, President, that 
all was ready. The President then declared the house in order for 
business, and introduced, Rev. Dr. Rogers orator of the day, who 
came forward in his usual calm manner and acquitted himself before 
the AmericartyArts Association with all the eloquence of an orator. 

After the oration and other addresses, the President of the Asso- 
ciation, invited the guests to walk round and inspect the various 
works of art and industry on exhibition. A Committee was also 
appointed to destribute prizes to different persons, in token of the 
high respect for their skill, a list of which will be seen immediately 
following the Oration. 

Resolutions were adopted, calling a Grand National Fair in New 
Orleans, on the 1st of January, 1865 ; under the authority and pro- 
tection of the Government, State and City, All passed off quietly. 

The President, with many ladies, Grand Officers, Orator of the Day, 
and many friend-, retired to the residence of Rev. N. D. Sanders, 
where a large table of refreshments awaited them, spread with all 
the delicases of the season, ifter they had enjoyed themselves as 
friends and christians, they all parted in friendship and retired to 
their respective places of abode. 



SPEECH 

Of the Rev. S. W. Rogers, delivered at the opening of the Exhibition 

of the " American Arts Association" under the auspices of the 

Colored Societies, at Lyceum Hall, New Orleans, La. on the 1st 

of August, 1864, in celebration of "Emancipation" in the West 
India Islands. 

Fellow Citizens: 

The records of the past anniversaries of this auspicious day, 
warrant this great assembly, which in concurrence, with our foreign 
brethren, join in the celebration of " Freedom's Jubilee." 

On the 12th October, 1492, some three hundred and seventy two 
years ago, Columbus first discovered land in America. May 5th, 1494, 
he discovered the W. India Islands, and in 1563, some three hundred 
years ago, Slavery was first introduced into the West India Islands 
by the English. In 1517, a patent was granted by Charles V for 
an annual import of 4,000 Slaves, to Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. 

In 1020, slavery was introduced into the colony of Virginia by the 
Dutch, who landed some twenty or more slaves and put them in. 
market for sale. 

In 1703, a duty of four pound sterling was levied upon every 
slave imported into the colony of Massachusetts, which gives us 
some idea of the intrinsic value of the same. 

Thus flourished the unholy cause, until the coronation of her Bri- 
tannic Majesty struck a final blow to its vitality, and brought about 
the Anniversary which we hail with glad tidings of great joy. 

As it is the ardent desire of the British Nation to rank high among 
the powers that be ; it was not reasonable to suppose, that her sub- 
jects would make a sacrifice of those Islands in one night, without a 
lingering prejudice to the same. But let us look for a moment at the 
world, its grandeur and the powers that be. Previous to the break- 



26 SPEECH BY 

ing out of this Rebellion, the population of the world, as estimated, 
wag 1,284,138,000, of which 861,118,000 were Christians. 

On the 13th August, 1581, the first Indian was baptised in Virginia. 
In November, 1620, the first white child, was born in New England. 
In 1632, the first Church was built in Boston. 

There are 51 cities in the world, which contain from 100,000 to 
200,000 inhabitants ; twenty-three cities which contain from 250,000 
to 500,000 and twelve cities which contain over 500,000 each. Before 
tin's war raged the population of Jerusalem was estimated at a little 
over 20,000 souls, whilst that of London, was 3,500,000, the city of 
Paris 2,000,000, St. Petersburg 000,000, Vienna 500,000, Berlin 
500,000, Naples 500,000, Pekin 2,000,000, New York, 900,000, Phil- 
adelphia 600,000. 

But lot us look for a moment at the annual expenses of one of the 
royal powers of earth, say that of England ; and we will there find 
the annual expenses of the Royal Family alone of Great Britian to be 
four millions dollars, of which the Royal Albert, during his life time, 
received an annual salary of $200,000, although he rendered no other 
assistance to the government than to introduce heirs to the crown . 
The Queen's coachman, postillions and associates, receive an annual 
salary of over $50,000 ; her milk bill $1,000 per year ; her hair 
dresser $5,000 ; her wines alone $50,000; the diamonds and pre- 
cious Stones that decorate the crown she wears at the opening of 
parliament, cost the people o\' England the sum of $5,000,000. 

Hut with all the earthly glories that decorate the Pritish throne, 
she is still hostile to the American Government. Many acts of hos- 
tility committed against the United States by the Cross of St. George 
lie on the table of time Bubject to call. The burning of the American 
steumer Caroline, on Lake Eric, some twenty years ago, by a British 
subject named McCloud— the overhauling of American vessels in the 
Gulf Stream, by her Britannic Majesty's war steamer Styx, in 1858 — 
Mr. Roebuck's resolution before the British House of Commons, askimr 
the recognition of the Southern Confederacy — Lord Clarendon's re- 
marks to the lion. George M. Dallas, the American minister, in the 
royal convention at London— again, the British Government's refusal 



DR. ROGERS. 27 

of admission to the American war steamer Kearsage to her docks for 
repairs and granting full permission to the rebel privateer Alabama 
for the same— and at the sinking of the Alabama by the Kearsarge, 
we are informed, that British officers were fonnd on board the rebel 
privateer in arms against the United States : 

The foregoing facts are sufficient to justify the belief of an unfriend- 
lv feeling upon the part of England towards this country. 

But let us look for a moment at American industry. We find at 
the breaking out of the present rebellion there were in the United 
States 1515 iron works, 882 furnaces, 488 forges, 225 rolling mills, 
which produced 850,000 tons iron per year, the value of which is 
$50,000,000, and the principal labor employed was slave labor. 

Since the breaking out of this unholy war the United States has 
emancipated her slaves, armed them as freemen, partially wiped out 
the rebellion, sunk the Alabama and is now on her march to Richmond. 

Her Stripes and Stars wave over this hall, in ■which her sons and 
daugters have assembled to exhibit to the world their handy work in 
the domestic arts and sciences. 

In this hall on the 11th May, 1864, by a sacred vote of the delegates 
of the Free State Convention, then in session, a death blow was 
struck at the accursed sin of American slavery. Then let us with 
gratitude and cheers announce this as the Hall of Liberty I And 
with gratitude painted upon every brow our colored ladies and gen- 
tlemen have come up en masse to show to the world at large the arts 
of their own industry — such as Music, Gallery of Arts, Dresses, Bon- 
nets, Needle Work — Flowers, Lace, Socks, Segars, Horse Shoes, 
Confectionery, Vegetation, Carpenter Work ; in fine, specimens of al- 
most all branches of industry. 

Let us return our heartfelt thanks to the Hon. Judge Durell, Pre- 
sident, and the members of the Convention, who' by their sacred 
votes, on the 11th May, 1864, struck a death blow to slavery in this 
very hall. 

And now since freedom has been declared, the colored people of 
this State will never go back into slavery whilst God sets upon his 
unclouded throne. The very thought of returning into slavery will 



28 



SPEECH BY 



forever keep the colored man upon the field of battle fighting for 
Liberty. Then let us be united as one man — lovers of our country's 
flag, protecting our poor, respecting the rights granted us either by 
the Legislature of the State or by the Congress of the nation — rights 
which we seek only through proper qualification. 

The colored man when armed and equipped for Avar knows no re- 
treat in battle, preferring to lose his life on the field rather than lose 
a victory. 

Let foreign nations question the power of the United State. Gov- 
ernment and agitate the same until war is declared, and then shall 
the American Eagle with her Stars and Stripes in the rear, expand 
her pinions and rise high above the clouds of every opposition, light 
upon the pinnacle of fame, and proclaim herself the champion of the 
world's freedom ! 

Then let us all unite as one people in defending our common 
country, its flag, and our poor; knowing that our children arc receiv- 
ing their daily education, under that golden order of Major General 
Banks. 

Then since we are thus far encouraged with our city Exhibition, let 
us look forward to a greater theme, and let the colored people of this 
Industrial League of Arts make ready to hold a Grand National Fair 
in this city on the 1st day nf January, in honor of President Lincoln^ 
Emancipation Proclamation. • 

Ij t each State be invited to send some work o( art of its own 
industry. Lei a committee of colored gentlemen and ladies he ap- 
pointed by the colored people of each State to take charge of their 

g Is, Lo be directed to the care and protection of the Governor of 

Louisiana, or the Mayor of New Orleans. The commanding General 
will give us a bouse to .-tore our goods in. 

Let there he a prize awarded to the colored people of the State that 
produces the Bnesl work of art ; and also let the income be divided 

a m: tin' poor colored people of each State that sends a committee 

with specimens of her industry. The sales of goods and refreshments, 
and the income at the door, would bring, I think, to the wants of 



DR. ROGERS. 



29 



our poor colored people at home and abroad, the net profit of about 
$50,000. 

Such an Exhibition will undoubtedly arouse a great spirit of emu- 
lation both North and South. New York, Pennsylvania, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Ohio, Rhode Island, Missouri and Michigan would 
all send their committees with specimens of their industry of the 
finest quality. 

Will Louisiana stand still and let another State come here and take 
the prize ? I think not ; and though she may lose in this friendly 
contest, her artizans will never rest satisfied until they have proved 
themselves the equal in skill of those from any part of the Union. 

England called a world's Fair in London, which sent all foreign 
powers in haste to their fields of art ; and the United States called a 
world's Pair in New York, which caused foreigners to come over to 
this side of the water with their various trades. Other foreign powers 
followed suit with their fairs, until they have become great stimulants 
to skill and industry. 

Let us conclude with thanks and gratitude to Abraham Lincoln, 
President of these United States, ; Lieut. Gen. Grant, Major Gens. 
Butler, Banks, Canby, and Sickles ; Admirals Farragut and Porter ; 
Col. Hanks, Rev. Mr. Conway, Thomas J. Duraut, W. R. Cram, H. 
Train and A. Fernandez. We would especially return our thanks to 
Col. A. C. Hills, editor of the Era, for the christian like manner in 
which he has spoken through his press of the glorious cause of Free- 
dom. To all other Union white men and women we return our 
sincere thanks. 

We mourn the loss of Capt. Andre Caillou and his brave compan- 
ions, who fell at Port Hudson, in defence of the honor of his race 
and his country's flag, and sympathise with their families and friends 
in their bereavement. 



L I S T (J F PRIZES 



AWARDED AT THE 



AMERICAN ARTS ASSOCIATION, NEW ORLEANS 



'• Banks' March," Piece of Music, by Saiu'l Saner prize . 

'• Romance of Mrs. Hanks" " " " prize. 

Photographic Gallery, by Dr. S. W. Rogers prize. 

Likeness of W. A. Dove, Gentlemen's First prize . 

Likeness of Mr. II. Clay, '• Second prize. 

Likeness of W. W. Ruby • " Third prize. 

Likeness of Miss Luda Green Ladies' First prize. 

Likeness of Mrs. Cora Ann Johnson Ladies' Second prize. 

Likeness of Mrs. Parthina Lockwood " Third prize. 

A work written by Dr. S. W. Rogers, called " Rogers' Composition'' prize. 

Mrs. Elvira Johnson, muslin dress made to order prize. 

Miss Alice Meilleur, crochet work prize. 

Miss Anaise Meilleur, letters in needle work prize. 

Miss Luda Green, Flowers in needle work prize. 

Mrs. Maria Johnson, muslin buff dress prize. 

Mrs. Susan Mitchell, pin cushion prize. 

Mrs. Martha A. Rogers, bonnet for milliner prize. 

Miss lane Day (laundress) tinting prize. 

Little Miss Sarah Tooley, doll's dress prize. 

Miss Elisabeth Humphreys, tidy crochet prize. 

Mi- - Mary Turney, hemstitching prize. 

Mrs. Maiia Young, gentlemen's pants prize. 

Mrs. Josephine Turner, (laundress) fluting prize. 

Mrs. Jane Roman, dress maker prize. 

Mr. Florence Hewlett, bronze bust of Capt. Andre* Caillou prize. 

Dr. Robert Smith, Dentist, style of sitting teeth prize. 



LIST OF PRIZES. 31 

Rev. N. D. Sanders, Holy Bible, Advice to Christians and Sinners prize. 

Miss Mary Hawkins, head dress prize . 

Miss Nancy Hughes, needle case and pin cushion prize . 

Miss Nancy Hughes, national scarf prize. 

Mrs. Winney Gibson, infant's shirt prize. 

Mrs. Maria Rowan, lady' b dress prize . 

Miss Willie Ann Porter, lace work prize . 

Miss Mary Verrett, lace work and net prize . 

Miss Harriet Wright, embroidery prize . 

Miss Elizabeth Bailey, lady's dress prize. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Bailey, head dress prize . 

Mrs. Harriet Sheppard, (laundress) vest prize. 

Mr. Jarne3 Turner, (blacksmith) horse shoe prize. 

W. J. Coleman, (sail maker,) specimen sail prize. 

Jessy AVinston, (tobacconist) manufactured tobacco prize. 

Mrs. Amy Temple, sweet wafers prize . 

Moses Reed, two cantelope melons prize . 

John Franklin, specimen ears of corn prize. 

Miss Lucinda Green, (confectioner.) ice cream prize. 

Nelson Minor, shoe blacking prize . 

Isaac Griffin, painter prize . 

Mrs. Susan Green, (midwife) lot of babies. prize . 

Charles H. Hughes, (baker.) loaf of bread prize. 

Mra. Nancy Henry, (seamstress) shirts prize. 

Henry Berryman, shoemaker, Government shoes prize. 

And some other mmor prizes were also distributed. 



fist 0f Ctalus in ?Ttto (Orleans, 



WHOSE CONGREGATIONS ARE 



COMPOSED EXCLUSIVELY OF COLORED PEOPLE. 



WITH THE 



NAMES OF THEIR SEVERAL PASTORS 



— *-^ * m » 



First African Baptist Rev. N. D. Sanders, pastor. 

Second African do Rev. Ceo. Steptoe, Pastor. 

Third African do Rev. J. Davenport, pastor. 

Fourth African do. (St. Mark) Rev. R. H. Steptoe, pastor. 

St. Thomas do. (branch St. Mark). Rev. S. W. Rogers, pastor. 

St. James, A. M. E Rev. W. A. Dove, pastor. 

Morris Brown, A. M. E Rev. C. C. Doughty, pastor. 

Weslej Chapell, M. E Rev. Anthony Ross, pastor. 

Winen Chapell, M. E Henry Green, pastor. 

Sonic Chapell, M. E Rev. Scott Chinn, pastor. 



\v 



OFFICIAL DIRECTORY 



OF THE 



KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS 




JURISDICTION 



OF 



N. & S. A., K, A., A. & A. 

COMPILED BY 

S. W. ST ARKS, 

SUPREME CHANCELLOR, 

CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA. 



DONNALLY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
Charleston, w. va. 

1901. 



Officers of the Supreme Lodge. 



S. W. Starks, Charleston, \V. Va., - Supreme Chancellor. 

L. M. Mitchell, Austin, Texas, - Suprem< V%& Chancellor. 

J. C. Ross, Savannah. Ga., - - Past Supreme Chancellor. 

C. D. White, Piqua, Ohio, - - Suprem< Prelate. 

N. A. Twitty, Suffolk, Va., - - Suprem< Lecturer. 

J. II. YOUNG, 405 Twelfth Street, 

Pine Bluff, Ark., - - Suprerru Master of Exchequer. 

C. K. Robinson, 3408 LaSalle Street, 

St. Louis, Mo., - Sup'ferra Keeper of Records and Seal. 

C. A. Shaw, Brunswick, Ga., - Suprenu Master- at- Arms. 

Frank Bkown, Jr., New Orleans. La., Supreme Inner Chuard. 

Alexander Johnson, St. Au£ustiue, 

Fla., ------ Supremt Outer Guard. 

Dr. A. L. Thompson, 118 Main St., Mem- 
phis, Tenn . - - - Suprerru Medical Director. 

K. K. Jackson, 3221 State Street, Chieaoro, 111., 

Major General Commanding Uniform Hank. 



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Horse Creek, 

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189 Lewis st. 
690S Cornell ave. 
100 Chicago st. 
3130 Armour ave. 
2833 Dearborn st. 
3547 Dearborn st , 
114 N.Hickory st 

Grape Creek. 
L030 Manson st. 

Spring Valley. 
808S. Delplane st. 
4801 Dearborn st. 

11)117 Gilbert st. 

Dewmaine. 
B« echwood. 
Elkville. 
1502 Poplar st. 
519 Eastern st. 
East St. Louis. 
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Bloomington. 


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A. Valentine, 
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W. M. Johnson, 
Jas Cro 
A. White 
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Sam'l 1 la\ nes. 
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B. Freeman 

(i< o. P. Smith, 
Dan'l Hovers, 
W. W. Bart 
W. II. Miller, 
U. A. Wheeler 
.1. H. An old, 

C. .J Poulston, 
J. 0. Coyce 
.las. Fulton; 
Sam'l Bostic, 
\V. 11. Turner, 

E. J Johnson, 

\ . Woodson . 
Wm Jenkins, 
W. A. Gunnell, 




No Location. 


1 St. Louis. 
3t. Louis, 
■i Louis. 
4 St. Louis, 
•eSoto, 
St. Louie 
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12 Huntsville. 
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26 Keota. 
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Crystal, 
Flora, 
Eureka, 

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Rich 

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Rising Sun. 

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Burleigh, 





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Address. 


1836 Ringold st. 
722 Clifton st. 
1716 Taoses st. 
Langhorne, 
Linwood, Del. co. 
916 Lombard st, 
923 Aulder st. 
604 Engle st. Ch'r 
2004 Lombard st. 
2281 S. 32d st. 


K. of R. & S. 


I). J. Lisby, 
B. Collier, 
L. 1). Downey, 
R. Cramer, 
W. 11. Green, 
P. H. Edwards, 
B. H. Armey, 
H. Shorts, 
D. C. Carter, 
G. Carter, 


Address. 


1 1 16 Hanson st., 
622 Clifton st., 
5h57 Reedy st., 
Langhorne 
Linwood, Del.co. 
614 S. 7th st. 
722 Lombard, 
•2200 Desimain st. 
3435 Ludlow st., 
2041 Sampson st., 


Chancellor Com. 


F. Mashing, 
G B Collier 
C. C Smith, 

B. Gibbs, 
J. Fox, 

Isaac Trobring, 
I). Thompson, 
T. Fountain, 
I). E. Ederton, 

C. Foster, 


Location. 
Philadelphia, 

u 

Langhorne, 
Linwood, Del. Co 
Philadelphia, 

Chester. 
Philadelphia, 
( fermantown, 


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King Solomon, 
St. Alburn, 
Reliance, 
Ethiopia, 

Damon, 
Mt. Olive, 
Progressive Pilg. 
Progressive, 
Sickle, 



38 



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58 Official Directory 



UNIFORM RANK. 



Jurisdiction of N. A. t S. A., E., A., A. & A. 



S. W. Starrs, Supreme Chancellor Commander-in-Chief, 

Charleston, W. Va. 



Robert R. Jackson, Major General Commanding, 3221 State 

Street, Chicago, III. 



STAFF : 

Brig. Gen'l Joseph L. Jones. 1 234 Chapel Street, Cincinnati,0. , 
Adj. Gen'l and Chief of Stall'. 

Brig. Gen'l A. C. CorHn, Dearborn Street, Chicago, III., 

Judge Advocate General. 

Brig. Gen'l B. J. Carruthers, 2619 Lucas Ave., St. Louis, Mo , 

Inspector General. 

Brig. Gen'l J. M. Hazlewood, 22£ Capitol St., Charleston, W. Va., 

Quar term lister General. 

Brigadier General J. G. Griffin, Dallas, Texas, 
Commissary General. 

Brig. GenM Dv. E. P. Clemens, 1017 5th Street, Dayton, Ohio, 

Surgeon (Jeneral. 

Col Rev. George F. Huntley, Shreveport, La., 
( !haplain-in-Chief. 

A1D-DE CAMPS ON MAJOR GENERAL'S STAFF. 

VValter S. Tyler, Chicago, Illinois. 

W. H. Turner, Columbia, Missouri. 

Harry G. Ward, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. F. Ferguson, Raymond City, West Virginia. 

C. H. La Prade, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

L. D. Lyons, Austin, Texas. 

Jesse II. Ringgold, Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Knights or Pythias. 59 



C. D. Creswill, Macon, Georgia. 

Henry James, Jacksonville, Florida. 

Albert Payne, Washington, District of Columbia. 

J. L. Logan, Jones City, Oaklohoma Territory. 

S. M. Davi?", Montgomery, West Virginia. 

George C. Washington, Dutch Kills, New York. 

J. J. Norris, Denver, Colorado. 

Dr. John H. Tompkins, Cumberland, Maryland 

W. E. Narcisso, Bluefields, Nicaragua, C. A. 



ALABAMA. 

H. Strawbridge, Brigadier General, 2007 Ave. A., Birmingham- 

Damon Company, No. 1 Birmingham. 

Capt. J. S. Stewart, 202 S. 20th Street. 

Jas. A. Garfield, No. 2 Johns. 

Capt. Young Williams, Belle Sumter. 

Gulf City, No. 4 Mobile. 

Capt. R. E. Johnson, 303 South Cedar Street. 

ARKANSAS. 

J. T. T. Warren, Brigadier General Box 46, Hot Springy, 

Little Rock, No. 1 Little Rock. 

Capt. R. M. Hammond, 1507 High Street 

Plateau, No. 2 Hot Springs. 

Capt. J. C. Ganter, Hot Springs, 

Sampson Co. No. 4 Hot Springs. 

Capt. J. R. Smith, 32 Wahoo Street. 

CALIFORNIA. 

T. A. Brown, Brig. Gen'l, 1024 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 

Albert Co. No. 1 . . .San Francisco. 

Capt. John A. Howard, 3 Williams Street. 



60 Official Directory, 



COLORADO. 

J. J. Morris, Colonel, Denver. 

Etna Co. No. 1. Denver 

Capt. H. L. B. Dinorimin, 38 Corbett Street. 

Pike's Peak, No. 2 Pueblo. 

William Jones, Pueblo. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Horatio N. Smith, Brig. General, 36 Patterson Street, N. E., 

Washington. 

Henry C. Garnet, No. 1 ... Washington. 

Capt. Henry Tudy, 1441 P. Street, N. W. 

Charles Sumner Co. No. 2 Washington. 

Capt. Paris Bussey, 1237 25th Street, N. W. 



FLORIDA. 

D. Taylor, Brig. Genl, W: Union Street, Jacksonville. 

Eastern Star, No. 1 St. Augustine. 

Capt. I). G. Adgers, 123 Poraar Street. 

Excelsior Co. No. 2 ........ .Jacksonville. 

Capt. B. Murray, !»1H Bridge Street. 

Victoria Co. No. 3 Key West. 

Capt. Lace Irvin, l(»06 Howe Street. 



GEORGIA. 

J. C. Ross, Brig. Getfl, 527 Gwinott Street, Savannah. 

Joshua Co. No. 2 Savannah. 

Capt. Frank J. Hilton. 6bl Park Ave. 

Seaside Co. No. 5 Brunswick. 

Capt. E. V. Cooper, 200 Wolf Street. 

Union Co. No. 6 Macon. 

Capt. L. B. Bennett, 157 Green Street. 



Knights of Pythias. 61 

Chas. A. Catledge Co. No. 7 Americas. 

Capt. B. W. Warren, Americus. 

Eureka Co. No. 8 . Albany. 

Capt. Chas. H. McCartha, Albany. 



ILLINOIS. 

J. E. Wright, Brig. Gen'l, 2955 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

Crispus Attacks Co. No. 1 • • Chicago. 

Capt. George H. Carter, 394 39th Street. 

Banner Co. No. 3 Chicago. 

Capt. G. A. Nevels, East 21st Street. 

Illinois Co. No. 4 Chicago. 

Capt. Fank B. Crau-haw, 3010 La Salle Street. 

Havanna Co. No. 5 Chicago. 

Capt. Edward Butler, 666 Madison Street. 

Damon Co. No 6 ... Greenville. 

Capt. Joel T. Lloyd, Cartersville. 

Lovejoy Co. No. 7- . Alton. 

Capt. Henry W. Jameson, Upper Alton. 

L'Overture No. 8 . . Danville. 

Capt. J. M. Batchman, 319 East Madison Street. 

Chivalric Chicago. 

Capt, Robert W. Harper, 510 South State Street. 



INDIANA. 

Damon Co. No. 1 Indianapolis. 

Capt. John Edlen, 322 W. Vermont. 



KENTUCKY. 

D. S. Miller, Brig. Gen'l, Box 506 Paris. 

lvanhoe Co. No. 2 Louisville. 

Capt Louis L. Watson, 1212 Eleventh Street. 

Garfield Co. No. 7 Paris. 

Capt, William Steubren, Paris. 



62 Official Director! 

Maceo Co. No. 8 Lexington. 

Capt. .J. H. Wilkerson, 9 So. Limestone Street. 

Grenadier Co., No. 11 Louisville. 

Capt Perry Rashsord, L422 W. Green Street. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



W. 



T. Jones, Brig. Gen'l, 108 Cray ton Street, Vicksburg. 



V 



atchez Co No. 1 Natchez. 

Capt. C. H. Russell, Natchez. 

Hill City Co. No. 5 Vicksburg. 

Capt. R. T. Goldsby, 312 Washington St., N. Vicksburg. 



MISSOURI. 

It. C. Carter, Brig. Gen'l, 2217 Gratiot St., St. Louis. 

Pythian Co. No. 1 St. Louis. 

Capt R II. Barton, LCI*. \ Morgan Street, 

Far West Co. No 2 St. Louis. 

Capt. P. T. Emery, 2638 Lucas Street. 

Mound City Co. No, 3 St. Louis. 

Capt. Robert L. Jones, 4Tlt> Washington Boulevard. 

Columbian Battle A.xe Co. No. 4 St. Louis. 

Capt. William F. Hyde, 2835 Adams Street, 



MARYLAND. 

John II. Thompkins, Colonel, Cumberland, Aid. 

Maceo Co. No. 1 Cumberland. 

Capt. A. G. Washington, Cumberland. 

MINNESOTA. 

Wm. R.Morris, Brig. Gen'1,807 Guaranty Building, Minneapolis. 

Hennepin Co. No. 1. Minneapolis. 

Capt. C. L. BrittaD, 211 Washington Ave.. N. 



Knights of Pythias. 63 

Pride of the West, Co. No, 3 Minneapolis. 

Capt. William J. Clark, 63 L Fifth Street. 



NICARAGUA, CENTRAL AMERICA. 

W. E. Narcisso, Colonel, Blnefield. 

Rosebud Co. No. 1 Bluefield 

Capt. Jacob Brooks, Blnefield. 

NEW JERSEY. 

A. F. Davidson, Brig. Gen 1 !, 122 Michigan Ave. 

Alpha Co. No. 1 Atlantic City. 

Capt. Andrew Paul, 132 Michigan Ave. 

NEW YORK. 

Chivalric Co. No. 1 New York. 

Capt. C. Chas. S. Bruce, 449 Seventh Ave. 

OHIO. 

E. B. F. Johnson, Brig. GenM, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Palestine Co. B, 1st Keg Cincinnati. 

Capt. S. T. Sneed, 725 Barr St. 

Elite Co. I, 1st Reg Piqua. 

Capt. George Gross, 714 West Boone Street. 

Excelsior Co. E. 1st Reg . . . Cincinnati. 

Capt. Charles A Schooley, 757 YV. Court Street. 

Langston Co. F, 1st Reg Cincinnati. 

Capt. Sidney L. Williams, 846 Wehrman Avenue 

Enterprise Co. F., 2d Reg • Columbus. 

Capt. R. F. Johnston, 76 Star Ave. 

Gold Leaf Co. 2nd Reg Youngstown. 

Capt. Chris S. Hamilton, 638 Mt. Pleasant Street. 



64 Official Director! 






Capital City Co. H, 2nd Reg Columbus. 

Capt. F. D. Lowry, 1542 AYalsh Avenue. 

Pride of East Co. E, 2nd Reg. . . Steubenville. 

Capt. Scott A. Wise, Steubenville, Ohio. 

Admiral Co. M.... Gallipolis. 

Capt. J. L. Anderson, Gallipolis. 

Forest City Co. B, 2d Reg Cleveland. 

Capt. W. A. IN .well. 38 Vine Street. 

OKLAHOMA TERRITORY. 

J. L. Logan, Colonel, Jones City, O. T. 

Christopher Columbus Co. No. I ... .Oklahoma City, 

Capt. Thomas Edwards, 322 West Grand Avenue. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Jos. E. Murray, Brig. (Jen 1 !, 412 Arch St., Philadelphia. 

Keystone Co. No. 4 ... Philadelphia 

Capt. Henry Hammond, 830 Lombard Street. 

Chester Co. No. 7 Chester 

Capt. David Wansley, 340 East 14th Street. 

St. Mark Co. No. 21 Philadelphia 

Capt. Ed, Kennedy, 625 Pine Street. 

TENNESSEE. 

J. D. Fagla, Brig. Gen'l, 8(H) E. 8th Street, Chattanooga. 

Hub City Co. No. 1 Chattanooga 

Capt. A. W. Mauldin, 706 E. 8th Street. 

Pride of East Co, No. 2 Knoxville 

Capt. W. L. Zimmermen, 312 Lee Street. 

TEXAS. 

L. M. Mitchell, Brig. Gen'l, Austin. 

Twin City Co. No. 6 Texarkana. 

Capt. G. E. Powell, 216*4 State Street 



Knights of Pythias. 65 



Mt. Franklin Co. No. ii El Paso. 

Capt. J. R. Ford, 408 Santa Fe Street. 

Mission Co. No. 12 San Antonio 

Capt. J. F. Van Duzor, Santonio. 

Foster's Co. No. 13 Paris 

Capt. R. S. Thweatt, Paris. 

Evergreen Co. No. 14 Denison 

Capt. D. W. Walton, Denison. 



VIRGINIA. 

John Mitchell, Jr., Brig. General, 311N,^4th Street, Richmond. 

Eureka Co. No. 1 Richmond. 

Capt. Bobert S Nelson, L West Duval Street. 

National Co. No. t> Norfolk. 

Capt. Alex Jones. 344 Brewer Street. 

Planet Co. No. 8 . • • • Richmond. 

Capt. Thomas M. Crump, 502 W. 2nd Street. 

Manning Co. No. 13 Portsmouth. 

Capt. D. White, 821 Queen Street. 

Joseph T. Wilson Co. No. 14 ... . Hampton. 

Capt. Samuel E, Blue, Box 33, Hampton. 

Peerless Co. No. 15 Lynchburg. 

Capt. W. J. Wells, 1006 5th Street, Lynchburg. 

Maceo Guards, No. 16 Newport News. 

Capt. Philip Brown, P. O. Box 679, Newport News. 

Pride of Berkley Co. No. 17 Berkley. 

Capt. Moses Perry, Berkley, Va. 



L WEST VIRGINIA. 

James A. Campbell, Brig. Gen'l, 28 Summers Street. Charleston 

Carlon Co. No. 1 Charleston 

Capt. John S. Mickev, Craigs Street. 

Hercules Co. No. 2 Wheeling 

Capt. W. D. Scott, Wheeling. 



66 Official Dihectoky. 

Golden Rule Co. No. '6. Raymond City 

Capt. H. Woods, Raymond City. 

Damon Co. No. 4. .... . . Huntington 

Capt J. H. Carter, 711 2d Avenu*-. 

Lincoln Co. No. 5. . Montgomery 

Capt. J. S Page, Montgomery. 

Stringer Co. No 7. . . Elkhorn 

Capt. D. L. Page. Box 14, Elkhorn. 

Blooming City Co. No. 8 McDonald 

Capt. Ottavvay Hunter, McDonald. 

Payne Co. No. 9 Mt. Carbon 

Capt. Aaron Reid, Mt. Carbon. 

Puschkin Co. No. i3 Clarksburg. 

Capt. S, H. Guss, Clarksburg, 

Evening Star Co. No. 14 Keystone. 

Capt. John Curry, Keystone. 

Garfield Co. No. 15 . Lawton 

Capt. J. W. Lewis, Quinni i ont. 

Douglas Co. No. 16 Thomas. 

Capt. S. J. Crank, Thomas. 

Santiago Co. No. 18 Bramwell 

Capt. R. C. Crute, Freeman. 



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