(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

PEOCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF PHILADELPHIA. 




I860. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE ACADEMY. 

1861. 



I 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF TUE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

1860. 



January 3(7. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Forty members present. 

Papers were presented for publication entitled, 

"Descriptions of new species of fossils, probably Triassic, from Vir- 
ginia," by Wm. M. Gabb. 

<' Descriptions of new species of Cretaceous Fossils," by Wm. M. 
Gabb. 

" Catalogue of the shell-bearing Mnllusca found in the vicinity of Mo- 
hawk, N. Y./' by James Lewis, M. D. 

Permission being granted, the Report of the Biological Department 
for December was read and ordered to be printed with the Proceed- 
ines of the month. 

Mr. Lea, in referring to the death of Augustus E. Jessup, one of our old 
members, mentioned that the deceased was elected iu 1818, and that 
lie had been an ardent student of mineralogy and a most persevering 
collector, being iu the habit of visiting on foot and collecting largely from dis- 
tant localities. In 1819 he accompanied Major Long's expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains as mineralogist and geologist, and handed in his report to the Depart- 
ment, but for some reason, unknown at present, it was not inserted in the 
Journal of that Expedition as published. Having entered into an active busi- 
ness career, in which he was eminently successful, he retired in the year 
1853 with an ample fortune, having made many friends by his probity, punc- 
tuality and liberality. He was frank and open in his manners, prompt and 
just in his dealings and liberal in his views. While immersed in the cares of 
a large business, he did not forget his early attachment to the Academy. He 
was unable, from his residence being at some distance, to attend the meetings, 
but he watched with pleasure the groAVth and usefulness of our institution, 
and was always ready to contribute liberally to promote the objects of Natural 
History. He died suddenly, on the 17th day of December, 1850, at his resi- 
dence in Wilmington, Del., in his 63d year. 

In conclusion Mr. Lea offered the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That in the decease of our fellow member, Augustus E. .Tessup, we 
have lost an old, esteemed and valued associate, who, throuch a long and sue- 

I860.] 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

cessfnl career liad not ceased to promote the objects, which, in early life, at- 
tached him to the study of Natural History. 

Resolved, That while the members are sensible of the loss they have sus- 
tained, they are not forgetful of the sorrows of his afflicted family, to whom 
they offer their condolence. 

Whicli were adopted. 



Jamiart/ \Qtli. 
Mr. Lea, President in the Chair. 

Forty-nine members present. 

Ti^e following papers were presented for publication : 

" Appendix to the pnpor entitled New Genera and Species of North 
American Tipulidse with short palpi," by R. Osten Sacken. 

'' Contributions to American Lepidopterology, No. 3, "by Brackenridgc 
Clemens, M. D. 

Mr. Lea having stated some facts in relation to the history of Anthra- 
cite, Dr. Pickering mentioned that Mr. Shoemaker's first load of An- 
thracite was taken to the factory of Mr. Samuel Wetherill, at the cor- 
ner of 12th and Cherry streets, but in consequence of the impossibility 
of burning it, it was buried. 

Permission being granted, the following resolutions were passed, in 
relation to the application made this evening by Dr. Evans, for the co- 
operation of the Academy, in his efforts to transport the meteorite now 
lying near Port Orford, W. T. 

Resolved, That the Academy will cheerfully co-operate with Dr. 
Evans in bis endeavors to rescue for science the meteorite of Washing- 
ton Territory. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to prepare a 
memorial in such form a« may, in their opinion, conduce to the carrying 
out of the views of Dr. Evans, a draft of the .same to be reported at the 
next meeting. 

The death of Peter A. Browne, late a member of the Academy, at 
Philadelphia, on the 9th instant, was announced. 



January VJth. 

Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 
Forty-five members present. 

'The following papers were presented for publication : 
" Additional new species of Fossils to a paper by T. A. Conrad." 
" Notes on the nomenclature of North American Fi.shes," by Theo. 

Gill. 

*' On the pertinence of Alosa teres, Deltay, to the genus Dussumieza, 

Frr?.," by Theo. Gill. 
Pursuant to the order of the last meeting the Committee to prepare 

a memorial in aid of Dr. Evans' attempts to procure the meteorite 

near Port Orford, W. T., reported and was discharged. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 6 

January 24^7i. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Forty members present. 

A paper entitled the Mexican Humming Birds, No. 1, by Rafael 
Montes de Oca was presented for publication. 

Mr. Lea exliibited some specimens of Unionidce, and remarked that he had 
often been asked as to the number of species which inhabited the United 
States, a question he could not answer, as he had never made a separate cata- 
logue of such species. Recently he had been requested by the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution to furnish a list for publication by that Institution, 
which he had just finished and sent to Washington. In making the list he 
had used the manuscript which he had prepared for a new and enlarged edi- 
tion C4) of his " ^J/nopsi's, " From the list he had carefully eliminated the 
synonyms, and there remained in it the extraordinarily large number of 
five hundred and twenty species which have been described, inhabiting the 
Rivera, Lakes and Pools of the United States and Territories, and he stated 
that he had some 30 to 40 in his possession not yet named or described. 
These 520 may be thus divided : — 

Unio, 441 species. 

Margaritana, 26 do. 

Anodonta, 53 do. 

520 
New species in Mr. Lea's possession, but yet not described, 30 

550 
Mr. Lea further remarked that it was very probable that at least 100 more 
species would be added to this Ust, as inhabiting within the present limits of 
the United States, as almost every naturalist, searching in unexplored waters, 
was constantly discovering new forms. In reflecting on the profusion of tliis 
kind of animal life in the United States, the naturalist is astonished at the 
great number of forms characteristic of the various species, and he is the more 
struck with the extent of it, when a comparison is made with the small num- 
ber of species which inhabit the continent of Europe, there not being in the 
fresh waters of that quarter of the globe more perhaps than ten species, viz : 
seven Uniones, one Margaritana, one Monocondylosa , and one Anodonta. Mr. 
Lea stated that he had taken great pains to procure specimens from all parts 
of Europe, and he was satisfied that there were 98 synonyms made by Euro- 
pean authors, for the single species of Anodonta cygnea, Draparnaud, the 
Mytilus cygneus of Linnseus, and the synonymy is nearly as profusely erroneous, 
in Unio pictorum, Unio tumidus, Unio Batav us and Unio littoralis. 

Mr. Slack remarked, in connection with the bones presented this evening, 
that they were discovered some two weeks since by Mr. 0. C. Herbert, in his 
marl pits, near Marlborough, Monmouth Co., N. J., at a depth of twenty-five 
feet beneath the surface. Having received information of their discovery from 
Mr. Hopper, of Freehold, on Monday week, Mr. S. visited the pits and pro- 
cured the specimens from Mr. H. They consist of fragments of the femur 
and fibula of the Mosasaurus, and are of great interest, the long bones of this 
reptile having until recently been unknown. 

On motion of Mr. Slack, the thanks of the Academy were ordered 
to be tendered to Messrs. J. M. Hopper and 0. C. Herbert, of Mon- 
mouth Co., N. J., and also to Mr. Edward L. Perkins, for donations 
presented by them. 
I860.] 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Jan. 31s^ 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-four members present. 

The report of the Biological Department for the present month was 
rear]. 

On report of a Committee of the Biological Department, the paper en- 
titled " Remarks on errors in the Anatomical Diagnosis of Cancer, by 
J. J. Woodward, M. D.," was recommended for publication in a Medical 
Journal. 

On report of the respective Committees the following papers were 
ordered to be published in the Journal of the Academy : 

" Reflections upon the nature of the temporary star of the year 1572, 
an application of the Nebular Hypothesis, by Alexander Wilcox, M. D." 

" Descriptions of New Cretaceous and Eocene Shells of Mississippi 
and Alabama, also with notes on Eocene fossil shells, by T. A. Conrad. '^ 

*' Descriptions of new species of Fossils, probably Triassic, from Vir- 
ginia, by W. M. Gabb." 

" Descriptions of new species of Cretaceous fossils, by W. M. Gabb." 

" Additional new specisi- of Fossils to a paper by T. A. Conrad." 

And the following in the Proceedings : 

Contributions to American Lepidopterology.— No. 3. 

BV BRACKENRIDQE CLEMENS, M. D. 

TiNEINA. 

The plan of these papers will hereafter be changed, and no diagnosis 
of genera will be given, except when there is doubt respecting the identity of 
the European and American groups, and when the genera are new. The in- 
tention of giving some conception of the systematic arrangement of the group 
Tineina will therefore be abandoned, and the subsequent papers be confined 
simply to the description of species. I find myself compelled to adopt this 
course, in consequence of perceiving, as I advance in the recognition of generic 
groups, that the diagnoses of the families heretofore cited are too limited, and 
that, in order to represent my conception of these groups, I shall be obliged 
to make them more comprehensive. These changes, together with generic 
synopses of the families, will be best treated in a monograph of the Tineina, 
which will be undertaken as soon as the collection of the writer represents, 
with some degree of completeness, the genera found in our country. In order 
that the accomplishment of this may not be too long delayed, contributions of 
specimens are respectfully solicited from collectors, either in accordance with 
the call from the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in the Report for 
1858, or the request made at the present time. Contributions may be sent to 
the Smithsonian Institution, or to myself, but, in the latter case, the charges 
for carriage must be prepaid ; and should the contributor desire it, a suite of 
named specimens will be returned to him. Full directions for the collection 
and preservation of Lepidoptera are contained in the Smithsonian Report for 
1858, and may be had on application to the Secretary of the Institution. 

CoLEOPUoRA Zeller. 
Stalh of antenna clothed vnth erect scales to the middle, 
C. coruscipennella . — Labial palpi and head bronzy green. Antenns, 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 

basal kalf bronzy green, with a reddish violet reflection ; terminal half white, 
annulated with brown. Fore wings uniform, bronzy green, with the apical 
portion reddish violet, or of a reddish, coppery hue. Hind wings dark brown ; 
cilia the same. 

Stalk somewhat thickened, with scales not erected. 

C. laticornella . — Labial palpi and head brownish ochreous. Anteunje 
pale brownish ochreous towards the base, becoming white with an ochreous 
tinge toward the tip, and annulated witli dark brown throughout. Fore wings 
rather deep, uniform brown, with a whitish ochreous streak along the costa, 
from the base to the costo-apical cilia, narrowing behind, and not reaching 
beyond the subcostal nervure. Hind wings rather dark brown ; cilia the same. 

Antennal -"talk iimp'e; basal jo'nt thickened with scales. 

C. COS nosipennella . — Labial palpi and head white. Antennse white, 
annulated with dark brown ; basal joint white. Fore wings dull yellow, with 
a white streak along the basal portion of inner margin, one along the costa, 
and one along the subcostal nervure, sejiarated from the former by a narrow 
line of the general hue ; an oblique, white streak along the disk, and inclined 
to the inner angle, and one in the fold, with three rather faint, oblique, white 
streaks between the terminal portions of the costal and discal streaks. Hind 
wings rather dark gray ; cilia fulvous. 

C. infuscatella . — Labial palpi brownish gray. Head pale leaden gray, 
whitish on the sides and above the eyes. Antenna gray, annulated with dark 
brown. Fore wings grayish brown, with a white streak along the costa to the 
tip, and one along the inner margin ; a white streak along the fold, and one 
parallel to it along the middle of the wing, and somewhat dilated on the inner 
margin ; cilia grayish brown. Hind wings gray ; cilia the same. 

C. c ret at ico s tella. — Labial palpi white. Head white, tinged with 
yellowish. Antennae white, annulated with brownish. Fore wings shining 
yellow, with rather a broad white streak along the costa, extended nearly to 
the tip ; somewhat streaked with ochreous, and the tip rather deep ochreous. The 
inner margin of the wing is whitish. Hind wings ochreous brown ; cilia the 
same. 

Incuevakia Haworth. 

I. russatella . — Head ochreous. Antennx dark brown, ochreous at the 
base, and annulated with ochreous. Thorax purplish brown. Fore wings 
deep fuscous, with a beautiful purple reflection. Near the base of the wing 
is a very pale yellow band, broadest on the inner margin, and a costal and 
dorsal spot of the same hue opposite each other, a little beyond the middle of 
the wing. Hind wings pale fuscous tinged with purplish red ; cilia pale brown. 

The wing structure of the following species departs from that of the genus. 
Both wings are pointed, the fore wings with a sinejle discal nervure, given ofi' 
to the inner margin and the hind wings with two discal nervules branching 
from a common stalk. 

L Acerif oliella. — Ornix Acerifoliella Fitch, Reports, 1 and 2, p. 269. 
Head reddish ochreous. General hue a fine metallic green ; fore wings without 
markings. I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Fitch for a specimen of this 
insect. 

Plutella Schrank. 

P. vigilaciella . — Head white, with fuscous befojre and behind the eyes. 
Labial palpi white ; exterior of second joint fuscous. Antennse ochreous, an- 
nulated with white, especially towards the tips. Thorax white ; teguls dark 
I860.] 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

fuscous. Fore wings white, streaked with ochreous, with a dark ochreous streak 
at the base of the fold, margined on the inner side with dark brown. The 
inner border, from near the base to the tip of the wing, is closely dotted with 
dark brown ; and on the costa, toward the tip, are a few dots of the same hue, 
and in the middle of the wing an elongated dark brown dot ; cilia white and 
dark brown intermixed. Hind wings dark gray. Abdomen dark gray. 

P. limbipennel la. — Head pale ochreous. Labial palpi whitish : tuft dark 
brown. Antenna brown, slightly annulated with white. Thorax yellowish 
white ; teguL-e dark brown. Fore wings cinereous brown, dusted with dark 
brown, with a dark brown sinuated streak along the fold, and the inner mar- 
ginal portion of the wing pale yellowish white, with three rounded projections 
toward the fold. Hind wings brown, with a purplish hue ; cilia brownish 
ochreous. Abdomen dark brown. 

P. mollip edella . — Head and thorax pale brownish ochreous. Fore 
wings pale brownish ochreous, somewhat paler along the costa, and dotted 
with dark brown, with a fuscous, sinuated streak in the fold, narrowly edged 
vj'ith ochreous fjrmj. The inner marginal portion of the wing pale brownish 
ochreous, with three projections toward the fold, and the inner border dotted 
with dark brown to the tip of the wing. Hind wings dark gray ; cilia brownish 
ochreous. 

Gracilaeia Zeller. 

Gr. superbifrontella . — Labial palpi yellow, tipped with brownish. An- 
tennae dull yellow, with very faint brownish rings. Head stramineous, 
tinged with reddish violet on the forehead. Thorax stramineous, with tegulJB 
externally striped with reddish violet. Fore wings beautiful reddish violet, 
with a shining stramineous patch on the inner margin at the base, and a large 
costal triangle of the same hue, reaching almost across the wing, and extending 
along the costa from the basal third, nearly to the apex. Hind wings black- 
ish gray ; cilia dark fuscous. 

This insect must approach very closely the European SwedereHa. 

The larva may be found, in the middle of July, in cones, on the leaves of 
Hamamelis Virginica (Witch Hazel), and the imago appears early in 
August. The head of the larva is pale greeu ; body pale green, darker 
colored by the Ingesta, with the tenth ring whitish, and the cervical shield 
pale brown. 

G. fulgidella . — Head and antennse yellowish white. Fore wings white, 
with a silvery lustre, with a dark brown blotch near the base, not extended 
across the wing. Rather beyond the middle of the wing is a broad, dark 
brown band, with the exterior margin darkest, and sharply angidated just above 
the inner margin. The apical portion of the wing contains two rather broad, 
dark brown costal streaks, somewhat confluent in the middle of the wing, 
with a white costal spot between them. The extreme apex of the wing is 
dark brown, witli a white costal streak before it, and opposite the costal white 
spot is another, at the interior angle, sometimes two not distinctly separated. 
Hind wings dark fuscous ; cilia the same. 

G. venustella . — Labial palpi white, with a blackish spot near the mid- 
dle, and one near the tip. Antennee dark brownish. Head silvery white. 
Fore wings dark cinereous, with a purplish hue, and white along the inner mar- 
gin from the base to the middle. At the basal third of the wing is a small, 
white costal spot ; three oblique, equidistant, slender white bands, dark mar- 
gined on both sides, th.Qjirst about the middle of the wing, the second and 
third converging at the inner margin, with a white spot at the extreme apex, 
dark -margined on both sides by short streaks ; cilia cinereous and white in- 
termixed. Hind wings blackish gray ; cilia rather paler. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIEN'CES OF PHILADELPHIA. 7 

G. strigifinitella . — Labial palpi yellowisli white, dotted with dark 
brown, and with two-.dark brown rings before the tip. Head and antenu» 
dull yello.v. Fore wings brownish gray suffused witli dark brown, with the 
inner margin, from near the base to the middle, varied with white and dark 
brown ; on the middle of costa a wliite streak, and a few small, costal, dark 
brown blotches. Near tlie tip, on the inner margin, a slender, veiy oblique 
white streak, dark margined on both sides, which crosses an oblique streak of 
the same hue from the costa, likewise darlc-margined on both sides above the 
streak from the inner margin, and curved beneath, forming a wliite hinder- 
marginal line in the cilia, beneath the tip, and extending nearly to the apex 
of the wing. Beyond these, toward the base, in the apical third of the wing, 
are two oblique, dark brown costal streaks, witli a short, white one between 
them, the first irregular and somewhat diffused, the second margined behind 
with brownish yellow. Apical portion of the wing dark brown. Hind wings 
dark brown ; cilia somewhat paler. 

G violacella . — Head and face pale yellowish, tinged with reddish 
violet. Labial palpi yellowish white, annulated at the tip with brownish. 
Fore wings with the external half pale, shining, cream yellow, interior half 
suflFused with a pale violet iridescence. About the middle of the costa are a 
iew separated blackish brown dots, and in the middle of tlie wing a blackisli 
brown comma spot, and near the tip an atom of the same hue. The posterior 
part of the fold somewhat suffused with fuscous ; cilia reddish fuscous. Hind 
wings dark gray, with a reddish tinge ; cilia reddish fuscous. 

Akgykesthia Hiibner. 

A. crease 11 a. — Labial palpi silvery white. Head silvery white; fore- 
head and face faintly tinged with pale golden brown. Antennae silvery, annu- 
lated with dark brown. Fore wings silvery white, witli a pale golden brown 
streak at the base of the costa. About the middle of the wing is an oblique, 
dark golden brown band, broadest on the inner margin, and tapering to the 
costa, beyond which is a narrower, oblique band of the same hue produced in 
the middle, as a rather broad, somewhat curved streak toward the tip, behind 
which it is arrested ; cilia pale golden brown, with a darker hinder-marginal 
line ; hind wings dark gra}' ; cilia the same. 

Another specimen, on the middle of the inner margin, has a rectangular, 
golden brown patch, not extended to the costa, with an irregular, obliquely 
placed patch of the same hue on the inner margin, near the tip, and slightly 
connected with a small costal patch placed midway between the patches, on 
the inner margin. The tip of the wing is golden brown, and is scarcely con- 
nected with the second patch by a posteriorly produced portion. 

Taken on wing, June, July. 

Oexix Zeller. 

0. trepidella . — Labial palpi yellowish white, annulated with dark brown 
near the tip. Head dark brown. Antennae dark brown, slightly annulated 
withwhitisli. Fore wings dark purplish, dusted witli dark brown. Along the 
costa are several short, oblique, obscure yellowish streaks, witli dark brown 
streaks between, extending from the middle of the wing to the tip, obliquely 
placed till near the apex. Hind wings dark gray ; cilia the same. 

0. f es t inel la . — Labial palpi silvery gray, with the second joint at the 
apex annulated with dark brownish. Head dull brownish gray. Antennse 
dark brown, annulated with whitish. Fore wings grayish, somewhat suffused 
with brownish from the base to the middle, with the costa at base dark 
brown. From the middle to the tip freely dusted with dark brown, with 
several whitish, rather obscure costal streaks, becoming plainer near the tip, 
and two or three on the inner margin, near the tip. At the tip are a few dark 

I860.] 



O PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

browu scales, with the cilia of extreme apex white ; cilia grayish, with dark 
brown tipped scales intermixed. Hind wings pale gray ;* cilia similar. Ab- 
domen blackish, tipped with yellowish ochreous. 

0. Cratffigif oliella. — Labial palpi whitish. Head dark brown and 
gray intermixed. Antennae dark brown, faintly annulated with whitish. 
Fore wings dark brown, with a purplish hue. Along the inner margin, from 
the base to the anal angle, whitish, dusted with dark brownish. In the fold 
at the base is a dark brown streak, and a small blotch of the same hue be- 
yond the middle, nearly reaching to the inner margin. Toward the tip are a 
few whitish, costal streaks, and at the apex a small, round, dark brown spot, 
in a whitish patch, with a circular, dark brown apical line behind it ; cilia 
blackish gray. Hind wiugs blackish gray ; cilia rather paler. Abdomen 
blackish, tipped with dull yellow. 

The larva mines the leaves of Crataegus tomentosa (Black Thorn), in 
September, and becomes a pupa early in October, weaving a reddish brown 
cocoon in a turned down edge of the leaf. The pupa case is thrust from the 
end oF the cocoon at maturity, the imago appearing early in May. There is, 
doubtless, a summer brood, but I have not sought for it. The head of the 
larva is brown ; the body greenish white, with the dorsum reddish brown. 

Htponomeuta Zeller. 

H. multipunc t ella . — Labial palpi, head, antennae and thorax, white. 
Thorax with a black spot on the fi-ont of tegulae, and a few spots of the same 
hue on the disk. Fore wings white, with the costa at the base blackish, and 
longitudinal rows of distinct black dots ; two of which, one along the inner 
margin and one along the fold, are very plain. Hind wings blackish gray. 

Bedellia ? Stainton. 

This genus is represented by a single species, in Europe. It was, therefore, 
a surprise to myself, when I found the species described below, corresponded 
to the European not only in structure but in ornamentation. There is, how- 
ever, a slight difference in the neuration of the posterior wings of the two in- 
sects when compared with Mr. Staintou's delineation, and hence I give a full 
generic diagnosis of the American species. 

The anterior wings are narrow and pointed, and the posterior very narrow, 
almost setiform. The discoidal cell of the anterior is acute behind, with three 
subcosto-marginal nervules, the last of which arises at the apex of the cell, 
together with the apical nervule, which sends off, at about its middle, a ner- 
vulet to the inner margin, and is furcate near the tip of the wing. The median 
nervure sends only a single branch to the inner margin. Both the costal and 
sub-median nervures are short. The posterior wings without discoidal cell ; 
the costal nervure is very short ; the sub-costal runs through the middle of 
the wing, and sends a branch to the inner margin, rather beyond the middle, 
and is furcate at its extremity, the lower branch proceeding to the tip, along 
the inner margin. Above the subcostal nervure is a rather indistinct, paral- 
lel fold. The median nervure is long, weU marked, and simple ; placed near 
the inner margin of the wing. 

Head rough above, and in front, between the antennre, almost tufted ; face 
smooth, moderately broad, and rounded. Ocelli none. Eyes moderately 
prominent, round, and i)artially covered with hairs from above. Antennae as 
long as the anterior wings, filiform, simple ; basal joint squamose. No max- 
illary palpi. Labial palpi very short, pointed, and rather porrected, with two 
joints only distinguishable. Tongue naked and short. 

B. ? Staintoniella . — Labial palpi and head ochreous, the latter some- 
what reddish oclireous above. Antennae ochreous. Fore wings ochreous, 
dusted with dark fuscous, but leaving a streak of the general hue along the 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 9 

inner margin. Hind wings dark gray ; cilia rather dark ochreous. Abdomen 
dark brown and ochreous mixed. 

COSMIOTES. 

Fore wings ratber narrowly ovate-lanceolate, with the discoidal cell closed 
acutely. The sub-costal uervure is attenuated toward base of the wing, and 
subdivides into three marginal branches, the first of which arises at about 
its middle, and sends from the angle of the disk a trifid branch, which is 
either forked on the costa by an exceeding short branch before the tip, and 
gives rise at about its middle to a branch to the inner margin, or is trifid at 
its extreme tip. The median is two or three-branched near its end. The 
sub-median is simple. Hind wings are without a discoidal cell ; and the 
costal nervure is moderately long. The sub-costal runs through the mid- 
dle of the wing, (is central), and is furcate near the tip. The median is 
well indicated, with two or three short, approximated branches about the mid- 
dle of the inner margin. 

Size very small. Head smooth. Without ocelli. Forehead rather elevated 
and rounded ; face rounded, and nearly equally broad. Eyes very small, 
oval, and somewhat sunken, scarcely visible in front. Labial palpi mode- 
rately long and slender, smooth, pointed, and somewhat reciirved ; the second 
joint slightly compressed laterally. No maxillary palpi. Antennae inserted 
laterally ; basal joint short and rather thick, with a few cilia at the base be- 
fore ; stalk simple, slender, and scarcely as long as the body. Tongue naked, 
and about as long as the labial palpi. 

§ Median vein of hind wings two-branched. Apical vein trijid at the tip. 

C. illectella. — Labial palpi and head yellowish brown. Antennae fus- 
cous. Fore wings fuscous, dusted with dark brown, with a broad, transverse 
silvery white band near the middle of the wing, a spot of the same hue on 
the costa near the tip, and an opposite one on the inner margin, nearly join- 
ing it in the middle of the wing. The extreme apex of the wing has a silvery 
streak in the cilia, margined behind with a row of dark brown atoms on their 
ends. Hind wings grayish fuscous ; cilia the same. 

§§ Median vein of hind icing three-branched. Apical vein forked on the costa, 
with a nervulet to the inner margin. 

C. maculosce 11 a. — Labial palpi dull yellowish. Head dark brownish. 
Antennae fuscous. Fore wings shining silvery grayish, suffused with dark 
golden brown, with a rather obscure silvery band in the middle of the wing 
and a silvery spot on the costa just before the tip. The extreme apical por- 
tion of the wing is blackish brown ; cilia grayish brown. Hind wings grayish, 
dusted with dark brown ; cilia grayish brown. 

§§ Medio-posterior and central veins opposite the space betiveen the second and 
third sub-costo marginals. 

C. madarella . — Head dark silvery gray. Antennae dark brown, yellow- 
ish white at the tips. Fore wings dark golden brown, silvery gray at the 
base, with an oblique, pale golden band near the middle of the wing, the 
costal portion being nearest the base. On the costa, near the tip, is a pale 
golden spot, with a .spot of the same hue opposite on the inner margin, and 
one in the middle of the wing before the tip ; cilia pale brown, dotted with 
dark brown. Hind wings grayish brown ; cilia rather darker. 

CosMOPTERYX ? Hijbner. 

The anterior wings are rather narrow, and slenderly caudate. The discoidal 
cell is elongate and very narrow, and closed acutely behind with three sub- 
costo-marginal nervules, the first arising about the middle of the wing. The 
median sends/owr nervules to the inner margin, the first arising midway be- 

1860.] 



10 rROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

tween the first and second subcostal branches, and the last from the apex of 
the discoidal cell, together with an apical branch, which almost immediately 
sends off a nervulet to the inner margin, whilst the apical proceeds through 
the middle of the slender, acicular caudate extremity to its tip. At the basal 
third of the wing, the sub-costal nervure becomes attenuated. The costal is 
nearly coincident with the margin ; the sub-median furcate at the base. The 
posterior wings are narrow, almost setiform, and without a discoidal cell. 
The sub-median is central, simple, and faintly indicated until near the tip, 
when it becomes furcate. The median, which is better defined, runs near the 
inner margin, and subdivides into three branches to the inner margin. The 
costal is coincident with the marginal. 

Head perfectly smooth, advanced, long, and flattened above ; forehead very 
convex and globose ; face full, rounded, and somewhat retreating. Ocelli 
none. Eyes flattened, scarcely visible in front, oval. Antenna nearly as 
long as the anterior wings ; basal joint long, slender, and clavate ; stalk seta- 
ceous and simple. Maxillary palpi extremely short, scarcely perceptible. Labial 
palpi very long, slender, much recurved, and pointed ; the second joint some- 
what compressed toward the end, shorter than the third. Tongue scaled, as 
long as the thorax beneath. 

C. ?gemmiferella . — Labial palpi dark greenish brown, with a silvery 
stripe on the front of the third joint, and another behind, continued to the 
second joint. Face, head, and thorax, dark greenish brown, with a narrow, 
central, silvery line continued to the thorax, and one of the same hue above 
the eyes on each side. Antennre dark greenish brown, with two silvery lines 
on the basal joint, the stalk annulated with silvery, and a broad, silvery ring 
before the tip, which is likewise silvery. Fore wings dark greenish brown to 
the middle, and from the apical third to the tip, with an orange-colored patch 
rather beyond the middle of the wing, extended across the wing, and a little 
produced along the costa behind, having a large, transverse, oval, smooth 
patch of elevated, silvery scales somewhat violet-hued, on its internal margin 
the patch extending nearly across the wing ; another smaller and similar, 
nearly round one behind it, on the inner margin, and another small one on 
the costa, behind the produced portion, with a white costal streak above it in 
the cilia. All these patches are somewhat black-margined. Near the base of 
the wing are three short, silvery streaks, one nearly on the disk, one near the 
fold beneath it, and an obliqae one above it, near the costa. The cilia of the 
extreme apex is silvery white, black-margined above, with a violet silvery 
scale in the middle of the wing, before the tip. The inner margin, at the base 
of the wing, is silvery. Hind wings dark brown ; cilia somewhat paler. 

The ornamentation of this insect is very elegant. Taken on wing in .June, 
July. 

ECDAKCIA. 

Head and face rough. Without ocelli. Eyes small, hemispherical quite 
prominent, with a naked space above ? Labial palpi short, rather smooth, 
and separated ; the third joint somewhat less thick than the second, and 
nearly as long. Maxillary palpi long, folded, and five or six-jointed. An- 
tennae, basal joint moderately long, approximated on the front, simple, and 
full as long as the anterior wings. Tongue naked and very short, scarcely as 
long as the labial palpi, and not reaching beyond the front. 

Fore wings with the subcostal nervure attenuated at the base ; at the basal 
third arises a long marginal branch, and about its middle a furcate branch, 
and thence the subcostal is faintly indicated to the discal nervure, beyond 
which it reappears as a furcate branch to the costa behind the tip. The dis- 
coidal cell is closed, and sends a single branch to the inner margin behind 
the tip. The median subdivides into three approximate branches. The sub- 
median is furcate at the base. In the hind wing the costal nervure is 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 11 

rather long aud distinct ; subcostal simple, and obsolete from the middle to 
the base ; discoidal cell unclosed, with au independent discal nervule, faintly 
indicated from the base, and furcate at the apical third. The median strongly 
indicated and bifid rather beyond the middle of the inner margin. 

E. s imn latricella . — Head brovrnish ochreons. Antennae ochreous, 
annulatod with dark brown. Fore wings dark brownish, with a white band 
about the basal third of the wing, a white spot on the costa, near the middle, 
and one on the inner margin, a little behind it, and a white transverse streak 
near the tip. Hind wings dark brown ; cilia the same. 

This insect has considerable resemblance to an Incurvaria. Its neuration, 
however, places it in a very distinct group. 

AxTisriLA Herrich-Schaffer, Frey. 

A. Ny s £ef o 1 i ella. — Head above dark brown. Face, labial palpi, and 
fore feet shining yellowish ochreoxis. Antennae dark brown ; basal joint yellowish 
ochreous. Fore wings dark brown, with a greenish reflection, and the base 
with a bright coppery hue. Near the base is a rather broad, bright golden 
band, broadest on the inner margin, where it is nearest the base, and con- 
stricted at the fold of the uing ; a spot of the same hue on the costa, at the 
apical third of the wing, and one on the inner margin, midway between this 
and the band ; cilia somewhat coppery, and rather grayish at the inner angle. 
Hind wings purple brown ; cilia grayish ochreous. 

The larva mines the leaves of Nysa multiflora in September. The head 
is dark brown ; first segment dark brownish ; body very pale green with dark 
atoms along the dorsum ; ventral surface with a line of two black spots. After 
the last molting the first segment is black, and the dorsal spots become a 
black, vascular line. When full fed, the larva weaves an oval cocoon within 
the mine, and cutting the two skins of the leaf into a correspondent form, 
permits it to fall to the ground. There is thus left an oval hole in the de- 
serted mine. The images appear during the following May. 

A. CO mi f oliella. — Head, face, labial palpi, and fore feet dark broion. 
Antennae dark brown ; basal joint somewhat ochreous. Fore wings rather 
dull dark brown, with a coppery hue. Near the base is a rather narrow, 
golden band, not constricted on the fold, and rather indistinct toward the costa, 
where it is somewhat sufiused with a coppery hue, and nearest the base on the 
inner margin. At the apical third of the wing is a small golden spot, and 
nearly opposite, on the inner margin, another of the same hue, with the 
hinder portion of the wing tinged with a bright reddish coppery hue ; cilia 
dark grayish. Hind wings purplish brown ; cilia somewhat paler, with a cop- 
pery Jiue. 

The larva mines the leaves of Cornus f 1 o r i d a, in September. It may pos- 
sibly be a variation of Nysaefoliella. The larvae of the insects are very 
like each other, but I don't know whether that ofCornifoliella undergoes 
the same change of coloration after the last molting as that of Nysaefoli- 
ella. The head and shield dark brown ; body nearly white, with seven 
minute, black points along the dorsum, and eight on the ventral surface, 
somewhat larger, and more distinct. Its mode of preparing for pupation is 
the same as the previous species, but whilst the individuals of Ny s ae f oli- 
ella on a single tree are almost inniimerable, those ofCornifoliella are 
not abundant, 

ASPIDISCA. 

Fore wings with no discoidal cell. The subcostal nervure traverses the 
middle of the wing, attenuated from the base to the basal third, where it gives 
origin to a long, marginal branch, which reaches the costa at the apical third 
of the wing ; near the tip it subdivides into three short branches, one of which 
is delivered to the costa behind the tip, one to the tip, without attaining the 

I860.] 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

extreme apex, and one to the inner margin, somewhat behind the second 
marginal branch. The median nervure is wanting. The sub-mediau simple. 
Hind wings with no discoidal cell. The subcostal nervure is central and 
attenuated towards the base, and at about its apical third delivers a 
branch to the inner margin, and is bifid behind the tip of the wing. The 
median is simple. The submedian obsolete or wanting. 

Size extremely small. Head and face smooth, covered with closely ap- 
pressed scales. Face rather broad, and somewhat produced beneath into a 
point. Forehead rounded. Ocelli none. Eyes extremely small, not visible 
from above, and scarcely visible in front. Antennae held extended at the 
sides, very short, scarcely one-half as long as the anterior wings, ratlier thick, 
obtuse, and roughened with scales. Maxillary palpi none. Labial palpi 
none. Tongue none. 

A. splendori f er ella. — Head golden. Antennae fuscous, tinged with 
golden. Fore wings, from the base to the middle, leaden gray, with a splen- 
dent lustre, and from the middle to the tip golden, with a broad, nearly 
straight, metallic, silvery streak, extending from the costa near the tip to 
the middle of the wing, and dark-margined on both sides. This is nearly 
joined by a dorsal streak of the same hue, almost opposite to it, with con- 
verging dark margins, and with a blotch of dark brown scales adjoining it be- 
hind. In the costo-apical cilia is a short, blackish brown streak, parallel to 
the dark mai'gin of the silvery costal streak. 

At the tip is a black, apical spot, with metallic, silvery scales in its centre, 
and a few silvery scales in the cilia above and beneath it. A blackish brown 
hinder marginal line in the cilia, interrupted by a silvery streak in the cilia 
beneath the apical spot, and the cilia yellowish brown. Hind wings leaden 
gray ; cilia j^ellowish brown. 

The larva mines the leaves of Crataegus tomentosa early in September. 
The mine appears at first as a very narrow line, and is subsequently expanded 
into a small, transparent blotch. At maturity, the larva weaves a cocoon 
between the cuticles, and cuts a small oval disk. This is sometimes carried 
quite a distance, and is ultimately secured to some object by one of its ends 
tied down on a little button of white silk. It enters the pupa state toward 
the latter part of September, and appears as an imago early in spring. 

The mature larva has a head much smaller than the first ring, rounded 
above, and elliptical. The body is flattened, and tapers posteriorly from the 
anterior rings. The segments are rather deeply incised, the thoracic ob- 
tusely rounded at the sides, and the rest with a minute lateral nodule or 
mammilla. It is without legs or prologs, but on the second and third thoracic 
rings, on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces, are spots or cup-like depres- 
sions, one on each side, capable of being contracted and expanded. So, like- 
wise, from the sixth to the ninth inclusive, on the ventral surface are 
transversely placed oval spots, similar to the thoracic, and one on each seg- 
ment. On the segment next the last is a protuberance, both dorsal and ven- 
tral, with two cup-like depressions on each surface. These are not supplied 
with hooks, and if they are substitutes for feet, must act like suckers. They 
are all pale brown. The head is dark brown ; the body brown, with blackish 
along the dorsal and ventral surfaces. 

When the larvae are young, it is extremely difficult to discover their mines, 
and the transparent blotch is not much larger than the cocoon, leaving a space 
in which the " frass " is collected. 

DiACHORISIA. 

Fore wings pointed, narrowly ovate- lanceolate ; discoidal cell closed behind 
by a very faintly indicated nervure, with a faintly indicated secondary cell. 
The subcostal nervure obscurely indicated from the secondary cell to the base 
of the wing, with a long and distinct marginal nervule from near the base, 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA, 13 

one from the middle of the secondary cell, and three from the end of it to the 
costa. Three nervules from the discal nervure to the inner margin, beneath 
the tip. The median without branches ; beyond the discal, it proceeds to the 
inner margin, aa a single short vein ; perhaps it may be bifid. The submedian 
is simple. Hind wings lanceolate, clothed with scales, with the discoidal 
cell closed by a very faintly indicated nervure. The costal nervure is long, 
and extends nearly to the tip of the wing. The subcostal is simple, and 
wanting from near the origin of the discal nervure, where it is slightly pro- 
duced inwardly, but well indicated thence to near the tip. The discal ner- 
vure gives rise to a discal branch which quickly becomes bifid, and its 
branches well defined near to the tip, above and beneath. The median is 
well indicated, and is three-branched, the last very faintly connected with 
the second. No submedian nervure. 

Size very small. Head rough and hairy above and in front. Ocelli none. 
Eyes rather large, round, and salient, not set on a naked circular portion of 
the head, nor with a naked space above the eyes. Antennse about one-half 
as long as the anterior wings, inserted laterally, and microscopically pubes- 
cent beneath ; basal joint moderately long, stalk roughened with scales. 
Maxillary palpi rather long and folded. Labial palpi moderate, slender, 
smooth, cylindrical, separated, and somewhat drooping ; the third joint nearly 
as long as the second, which has a few bristles at its end and beneath. 
Tongue ?. 

D. velatella . — Labial palpi dark brownish. Head brownish gray. An- 
tennse grayish fuscous, with the basal joint whitish, having a blackish, ex- 
ternal streak. Fore wings whitish, dusted with dark fuscous, with a few 
dark fuscous spots along the costa, and one of the same hue about the 
middle of the disk, beneath which, on the fold, is another of the same hue. 
Toward the apex, in the middle of the wing, beneath the last costal spot, is a 
small, dark fuscous spot, sometimes connected toward the base of the wing 
with a dusted streak of the same hue ; cilia whitish, somewhat dotted with 
dark fuscous. Hind wings grayish brown ; cilia the same. 

The relationship of this insect tolncurvaria and its allied genera, espe- 
cially to Acerifoliella and toEudarcia, is very obvious. 

Bdccclatkix? Hiibner. 

The anterior wings lanceolate ; the discal cell is closed acutely behind, with 
the subcostal nervure faintly indicated from the middle of the wing to the base, 
and sending /o?<r nervules to the costa, the first about the basal third, and its 
origin from the subcostal faintly indicated ; the three others arising near the 
apical portion of the wing, with the subcostal between the second and last rather 
faintly indicated ; the third nervule scarcely noticeable, and the last branch 
arising from the apex of the discoidal cell. The median is strongly indicated 
throughout, and sends off to the inner margin at its posterior end, a very 
faintly indicated branch, whilst t"he apical branch, which appears to be a con- 
tinuation of it, becomes bifid behind the tip of the wing. The posterior are 
narrowly lanceolate, without discoidal cell. The subcostal nervure is central, 
and subdivides beyond the middle of the wing into three branches, two to the 
inner margin, and one along the exterior margin to the tip. The median ner- 
vure is simple. 

Size extremely small. Head rough, tufted in the middle. Face smooth and 
retreating. Eyes salient, visible in front. Antennee with a spreading, basal 
eye-cap, expanded above the eyes ; stalk very slender, simple, scarcely more 
than one-half so long as the body. No labial or maxillary palpi. Tongue 
naked, very short, not one-half as long as the anterior coxse. 

B. ? coronate 11 a. — Face yellowish-white. The head with the tuft pale 
orange chrome ; the eye-caps pale yellow, touched behind with orange chrome. 
Antennrc yellow, dotted above with dark brown. Fore wings pale orange 
I860.] 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

chrome, with a -whitish patch near the base above the fold, one nearly oppo- 
site, on the inner margin, and one about the middle of the wing, on the costa- 
Near the tip of the wing is a rather indistinct, narrow, whitish band, becoming 
somewhat diffuse on the inner margin, about the middle of the cilia ; extreme 
apex of the wing whitish, mixed with scales of the general hue: cilia grayish 
fulvous. Hind wings dark gray; cilia fulvous gray. Abdomen pale orange 
chrome, with a dark brownish stripe along the dorsum, varied with fulvous. 

PYRALIDINA. Fam. HERMINID.E. 
Epipaschia. 

Anterior wings with two approximated, subcosto-marglnal nervules arising 
near the end of the disk, with a short nervulet to the costa, from near the tip 
of the subcosto-apical nervule ; the origin of the post apical is midway between 
the discal and marginal nervulet; the subcosto-inferior and discal have coinci- 
dent origins. The discal is nearly circularly curved, and is continued to the 
disco-central nervule which anastomoses by contact with the medio-superior. 
Median three-branched. Submedian furcate at the base. In the posterior 
wings the discal nervure is long, with a sweeping curve, and, as in the anterior 
wings, is continued to the disco-central nervule, anastomosing by contact with 
the medio-superior.' 

Head with ocelli. Eyes round, rather large and salient. Maxillary palpi 
short, scaly and porrected. Labial palpi smooth, recurved, but not exceeding 
the vertex, cylindrical and pointed; third joint rather short, and indistinctly 
marked. Tongue scaled at the base, and nearly as long as the thorax beneath. 
Antennae with an articulated appendage arising from the hasal joint, thrown back- 
wards, and as long as the thorax, arid clothed icilh scales and spreading hairs at its 
tip; the stalk is exterior to it, slender, its joints roughened with scales, and 
finely ciliated beneath. 

E. super a talis. — Head yellowish. Labial palpi yellowish, dusted with 
dark ochreous, with a dark brown spot at the base of the third joint. An- 
tennte brownish, annulated with yellow , the antennal appendage yellow, dusted 
with blackish brown, especially exteriorly. Fore wings pale yellowish, dusted 
with dark brownish to an irregular dark brown line, crossing the nervules from 
the costa to the inner margin, beyond which it is dull reddish brown. AbouJ 
the middle of the costa is a blackish brown spot, a small one of the same hue 
on the discal nervure; a minute one at the base, and the base of the fold, with 
the inner margin at the base tinted with reddish brown. On the posterior 
margin of the wing is a line of dark brown dots. Hind wings fuscous, with a 
dark brown round spot near the exterior margin of the base, and a brownish 
marginal line, with one of the same hue in the cilia. 

From Edward Norton, of Farmington, Conn. 

SPHINGINA. Fam. ^GERIID^. 

Trochilium Scopoli. 

I regard this genus as synonymous with the ^geria of Dr. Harris; it in- 
cludes, likewise, the group he has characterized by this name. 

Both wings transparent. Antenna little thickened at the tips. Abdomen sessile, 
tufted at the tip. Jlind tarsi very slender and smooth, as lo?ig as the tibia;. 

T. A cerni . — Head and labial palpi deep reddish orange, the former white 
in front of the eyes. Antennas bluish black, the basal joint reddish orange in 
front. Thorax ochreous jellow, with the tegular in front touched with pale 
bluish black. Abdomen bluish black, varied with ochreous yellow; terminal 
tuft deep reddish orange. Fore wings with the margins and median nervure 
bluish black, dusted with yellowish ; a large discal, bluish black patch ; termi- 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PniLADELPIIIA. 15 

nal portion of the wing ochreous yellow, with a blackish, subterminal band, 
and the nervules blackish ; the hinder margin bluish black, and the cilia deep 
fuscous. Hind wings with a black discal patch ; nervules blackish, and hinder 
margin blackish. Under surface of the body ochreous yellow, with a bluish 
black patcb on each side of the second abdominal segment. The middle and 
posterior tibiaj annulated with bluish black at their ends, the anterior blackish, 
with the coxce touched with reddish orange. All the tarsi touched with 
blackish above. The larva bores the trunk of the maple. 

Note. — In the November number, 1859, the following corrections should be 
made : 

In the first line of the note on p. 311 , preceding should read succeeding. 
In Divsion II., of the Table of species, on p. 318, an should read no. 
On page 327, for vitcgcnclla read vitigenella. 



Appendix to the paper entitled New Genera and Species of North American 
Tipulidse with short palpi, &c. 

BY R. OSTEN SACKEN. 

The following are some additions and corrections to my paper, suggested by 
the examination of the entomological collections of the British Museum, the 
Jardin des Plautes, and the Museum of the University of Berlin, as well as of 
some private collections. 

The British Museum afforded me the desired information about the Lim- 
nobiae described by Mr. Walker in his "List of Specimens, etc." 

L. simulans Walk, is my Dicranomyia defuncta. Mr. Walker, (1. c. 
p. 45) describes this species as '^pale yelloiv, legs yellow, tips of the thighs, of the 
ukanks, and of the feel, black,'' ^ etc.; whereas, in reality, the body w cinereous, the 
legs are dark brotvn, almost black, with a whitish ring before the tip of the femora, 
etc. Mr. Walker's description was drawn from a single old and faded speci- 
men ; no wonder, therefore, that it could not be identified. 

L. badia Walk, seems to be my Dicranomyia humidicola. The only 
specimen in the British Museum is without legs. The characteristic mark of 
the species, the while ring at the tip of the tibice, was therefore not mentioned in 
the description. (Walker, 1. c. p. 46.) 

Anisomera longicornis Walk, appears to be the species which I have 
identified for it. 

Not having seen Mr. Saunders's collection, I have not been able to identify 
the Limnobiae ignobilis, prominens, biterrainata, and t u r p i s de- 
scribed by Mr. Walker in the Diplera Saundersiana. 

In the Museum of Berlin I have found a considerable number of undeter- 
mined L i m n o b i CE and Eriopterae from Georgia, most of which I have been 
able to identify with the species described in my paper. Only a few were new 
to me. I will give here a list of these species, as an addition to the knowledge 
of their geographical distribution. Some observations and corrections to my 
descriptions, especially when they were drawn from a limited number of speci- 
mens, may also find llieir j)lace here. 

Limnophila adusta in two (rj* 9) specimens. The brown line in the middle 
of the thorax was hardly apparent. The tips of the femora were distinctly in- 
fuscated. 

Limnophila imbecilla(?) A single (^ specimen, which had the neura- 
tion of the wings, the long vercicils, etc.. of said species, but the coloring of the 
body of which was somewhat different, namely, brownish ferruginous, shining on 

I860.] 



16 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

the thorax. This coloring may have been merely accidental, and produced per- 
haps after the death of the specimen. 

Limnophila pavonina, a single (^ specimen, slightly dififerent from the 
specimen from which my description was drawn. The first joint of the antennae 
is cinereous, the second brown, the following are orange. The tip of the an- 
tenna is brownish. The abdomen shows a brown stripe along the middle of the 
tergum and indications of such stripes along the lateral margins. The brown 
spots on the wings are more confluent than in my specimen, so that the outlines 
of the ocelli and ocelliform marks are less distinct than is mentioned in my 
description. 

Limnophila tenuip es Say. Limnophila k. sp. (onespecimen.) Ama- 
lopis inconstans. Teucholabis complex a. Teucholabis n. sjs. (with a 
ferrugineous, shining thorax.) Geranomyia communis. Gnophomyia t.' i s - 
tissima. Gnophomyia lugubris. Dicranoptycha s o b r i na. Ticra- 
noptycha sororcula. Erioptera v e a u s t a . E r i o c e r a n. sp. (? very like 
the cinereous specimens menlioutd at the end of my description of Eriocera 
full gin osa.) 

Nov. gen. et sp. (?) of my group of Tipulae anisomeraeformes, and very 
like Eriocera, but distinguished by the presence of a petiolated areolet 
and the antenuEe, which are a little longer, especially those of the (J\ The 
species is easily distinguished by the color of the tarsi, which are white, except 
at the base. 

In the same museum I saw Gonomyia blanda and Limnophila lutei- 
p e n n n i s , from South Carolina ; Rhipidia domestica, from Brazil, (!) and 
Rhamphidia brevirostris, from South Carolina. The latter had the tho- 
rax a little darker, and the three stripes on it more distinctly marked than in 
my specimens ; nevertheless, I hardly doubt of their identity. 

I succeeded besides by examining the dipterological collections in Europe, in 
ascertaining, as I had hoped, the occurrence, in other parts of the world than 
in North America, of some of the new genera adopted in my paper. 

Gnophomyia occurs in Brazil and in Europe. I saw two elegant species 
of this genus (Gnophomyia n i gr i n a Wied., and 7i. sp. ?) in the Berlin Museum, 
and a European species (taken near Berlin) in a private collection. 

D ic ran o ptyc h a is also European. The Limnobia ci n e r as ce n s il/ea'^., 
(syn. L. rufescens Schiim.'!') belongs to this genus, as I ascertained in Mr. 
Loew's collection. 

Antocha is also found in Europe ; a species very like my A. opalizans 
occurs there. (Mr. Loew's collection.) 

Dactylolabis the L. d i la tata 7/oew from Croatia, (described in his 
Neue Beitriige, 4te3 Heft,) belongs to this subgenus. The remarkable dilata- 
tion of the anterior margin of the wing, in the stigmatical region, which is 
peculiar to this species, is hardly perceptible in my D. montana; still it 
exists, although in a rudimental state; besides this, the structure of the (^ 
forceps, (as far as could be ascertained from dry specimens,) that of the at- 
tennffi, and the situation of the spots on the wings, coincide in both species. 

Epiphragma. A Brazilian species of this subgenus, very like my E. 
solatrix, is in the Berlin Museum; another, from Venezuela, is in Mr. 
Loew's collection. 

Teucholabis. Two species from Brazil in the Berlin Museum ; one of 
them is exceedingly like T. complexa. 

A further object which I had, in examining the collections in Europe, was 
to ascertain the possible identity of some of the American species, which I had 
described as new, with European ones. The general result of my observations 
is, that allhouyh cases of apparent analogy are not unfrequcnt, those of real identity 
seem to be much rarer. My L. tristigma is very distinct from L. tripunctata 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 17 

Meig. The position of the clouds round the stigma is quite diflferent in these 
species; likewise, the insect which I have redescribed under the name of L. 
morio Fabr. is different from the European insect of that name. Although 
I had no American specimen at hand for comparison, I could perceive at once 
that the wings of the European ones were less infuscated. I restore, therefore, 
to the American species the name of L. m o r i o i d e s , which I at first intended 
for it. 

Limnophila f a s c iata Z/?n?i. and Rhipidia m acul at a Meig. have not struck 
me as being different from the American species which I have re-described 
under the same names ; still, as I had no specimens of the latter for comparison, 
I would not rely on a mere impression. 

My Amalopis inconstans has the greatest resemblance with Limnobia 
1 i 1 1 r a 1 i s Meig. My A. a u r i p e n n i s is closely related to A. o c c u 1 1 a . 
0th <• cases of analogy which I observed are between Pedicia albivitta 
Walk., and P. rivosa, Dactylolabis m o n t a n a 0. 5'«f/f ., and Limnophila 
sexmaculata Meig., Limnobia c i n c t ip e s Say. and L. annu lu s Meig., 
L. solitaria and L. quadrinotata. 

In establishing the genus Elephantomyia, I had ventured the suppo- 
sition that Toxorhina Loew had been founded on female specimens only, 
and that, if the males were known, the neuration of their wings would be found 
to be like that of the males of Limnobiorhyncbus Westic, that is, 
considerably different from the females. This supposition has proved correct. 
Mr. Loew has obtained since several male specimens ofTexorhina (fossil.) 
They have a distinct radial vein, which, as usual, runs between the cubital and 
the radial areas. The question of the synonymy of Limnobiorhyncbus 
and Toxorhina may therefore be considered as settled. 

The examination of specimens of Macrochile Loe^o included in amber, 
proved that this genus, like my Protoplasa, has the anal angle of the 
wing square and not rounded. 

Note. — In the analytical table on p. 232 (Proc 1859,) the fifth line should 
be continuous with the fourth, the species L. fuscovaria forming in fact 
the group Dicranophragma. 



Catalogue of the MoUusks in the vicinity of Mohawk, New York. 

BY JAMES LEWIS, M. D. 

The following Catalogue embraces the various species of shell-bearing Mol- 
lusca, observed in the vicinity of Mohawk, Herkimer Co., N. Y., and in various 
small Lakes a few miles south of Mohawk. Some of the species referred to 
have been entered here, from a single dead specimen. 
Unio complanatus Lea. Erie canal and Mohawk river. Common, 
radiatus Lamarck. Lakes. Abundant, 
cariosus Sag. Mohawk river. Nearly or quite extinct, 
ochraceus Sag. " " " •' " 

Tappanianus Lea. " " Very rare, 

luteolus Lam. " " Very rarely seen. 

Margaritana rugosa Barnes. Canal and river. Common. 

marginata Say. " " Not plenty, 

undulata Say. Lakes. One seen in river. Rare. 
Anodonta fluviatilis Zm. Canal. Rare. Streams south, less rare, 
lacustris Lea. Lakes. Abundant. (Nov. sp.) 
Lewisii Lea. Canal. " " 

edentula Say. " Rare. Streams south, common. 
Ferussaciana Lea. Canal and rivers. Small and rare 
imbecilis Say. " " " '■ 

subcylindracea Lea. Herkimer. 
I860.] 2 



18 PROOEEDINOS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

Cycl59 siilosita /,<»/«. (similis Sdi/.) Lakes. Common. 

? River, llaio. (nov. sp)? Rare. 

striiitiiiiv 7/<iw. (edentulrt .*?«//•) Ciuial and rivers. Common. 
Iransver.^'u Sn;/. Canal and rivers. Smaller than from the west, 
rhoinlioidea Sai/. (elegans Ad.) Lakes. Rare, 
parlnnieia Sai/. Stagnant waters. 

t)eeidentalis rrimc Boggy streams and meadows. I'lentv. 
risidintu virginienm B<j(. (dubium Soil.) River. Not very plenty, 
ahiiitum ITiild. Stagnant waters. I'lenty. 
oornpressum I'liine. Rivers and small stroums. Not rare, 
equilateiale Prime. River east ol' Herkimer. Rare, 
lerruginenni Prinw. River and lakes, 
ventrioosnni Prime. Lakes and stagnant pools. 
I'aliulina Integra Saij. Canal and river. Very plenty in canal, 
deelsa Sity. " " Very plenty in river, 

rnl'a flald. " " Not plenty. Recently introduced. 

Melaniasnhnlaris Afrt. " " Common, 

exilis llald. •' 

virginiea Sa;/. Canal. Recently introdncod. Not plenty. LocaL 
Vmnicola limosa Say. Canal and river. I'lenty. 

Instrica Sii(t. '■ " I'lenty in river, 

pallida Lea. Lakes. Not very plenty, 
tennipes? Ifiild. Lakes. Not very plenty. 
Valvata triearinata ^^',v^ Mohawk river plenty. Canal less plenty. 

var. simplex of triearinata Saij. in Thompson's Vermont shells. 

Whorls round, simple, (inornate) ; apex elevated ; umbilicus 
wide and deep ; epidermis blue, varying to brown, but not green, 
nor iridescent, 
sincera S(»,v. Lakes. Very rare. I to 1000 of the above. 
Lynuuva elodes iSiiij. Canal, ditches, pools^&c. varieties emargiuata and catas- 
copium. I have ascertained, may be produced from the eggs of 
elodes, by change of station, 
desidiosa S,n/. Stagnant pools, margins of streams and lakes. 
humilis //.»/</.? " '• " " 

umbilicata /lt/<ims " " ill wood lots, (is not caperata (Soy.) 

gracilis Jo;/. Schuyler's lake, Otsego Co. Plenty, 
appressa Sat/, Little Lakes, A single dead shell observed, 
columella .S<).v. Lakes. Not abundant nor large, 
riiysa heterostroplia Sat/. Everywhere in pools, lakes and small brooks, 
ancillaria S,u/. May be a var. of preceding. Rivers, very rare, 
hypnorum lh;f/>. Stagnant pools. Small and rare, 
riauorbis trivolvis Stii/. Common. 

bicarinatus Sat/. Commou. In some localities, (lakes) white, 
canipanulatus Sa;/. Lakes. Less commou than the preceding, 
armigcrus Sa;/. Stagnant waters. Commou. 
hirsutus Sa;/. Lakes. Rare, 
ex icutus So;/. Lakes. Very rare, 
parvus So;/. Stagnant waters. Very plenty. 
Ancylus tardus <^.jy. Mohawk river. Commou on stones and Uniones. 
parallelus Hold. Lakes. Commoi\ on water plants. 
fu>cus Adams. Lakes or waterfalls. Less abundant. 



' .\ variety occurs ii» Little I-ikes. which presents much diversity of c.iriii.ition. some 
<l«H:\nieiis boinji almost entirely destitute of ciriiur, but ret.iininir the cli.Tracteristic iri- 
>iosceiu j^roen tuisio. Those specimens in which ilu^ c.iriiur are olwolete have the upper 
•tirlace of tlu' whorls (lattiMunl. ,tiu) the spire somewhat deprcsseii The conclusions of 
authors, who suppose these varieties run into the loUowing, are erroneous. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 19 

Helix albolabris Say. 

alternata Say. 

arborca Say. 

chersina Say. Rarely seen. 

concava Say. 

electrina Gould. 

fallax Say. Small var. 

fuliginosa Griffith. Rare and solitary. 

hydrophila Inyalls. Very plenty and gregarious. 

indentata Say. Rarely seen. 

intertexta Binney. 

lineata Say. Not plenty. 

inornata Say. Rare. 

minuta Say. Very plenty in damp groundi. 

minuscula Binney. Only very recently observed, and quite rare. 

monodon Kackett. Our most common Helix. 

palliata Say. 

ijayii Binney. Very rare. 

striatella Anthony. 

thyroides Say. Rare. 
Succinea obliqua Say. 

vermeta Say. (Is not avara.) 
ovalis Gould. 
Bulimus lubricus Bruy. 
Pupa pentodon Say. 
contracta Say. 
Vertigo ovata Say. 

Gouldii Bin. 
Carychium exiguum Say. 

I have made some experiments for the purpose of ascertaining if various 
species of Uniones would bear transplanting. The following species have been 
placed in the Erie Canal, at various times, but no evidence has yet been had of 
their multiplying: Unio radiatus from Schuyler's Lake. Unio campto- 
don .S'ay, from Ohio ; U. parvus <S'ay, from Ohio ; U. undulatus Bar.., 
from Ohio ;U. cariosus Say, from Troy, N. Y.; An. i m p 1 i c a t a Say, from 
Troy, N. Y. 

A variety of Lymnaea known as catascopium Say, abounds in the 
Canal, and it is very usual for their eggs to be washed over the sides of an 
aqueduct into a small creek, where they come to maturity, to be washed into 
the river with the fall floods. One or two favorable seasons have enabled 
me to ascertain that those which came to maturity have the form of 
el de s. A small pool of stagnant water, formerly the bed of the Canal pre- 
vious to its eulargement, is populated by thousands of L y m n a; a that for- 
merly formed part of the Canal family. These vary in their forms in different 
seasons ; some retain the form of catascopium, others diverge to e m a r- 
g i n a t a, but a larger number are e 1 o d e s. The P a 1 u d i n a of the Lakes I 
regard as d e c i s a, but they are probably not the same as the shells of the 
Canal and River that have that name. 



Notes on the Nomenclature of North American Fiahes. 

BY THEO. GILL. 

The following notes are selected from a large number on American and foreign 
fishes in the possession of the author. Others upon North American fishes are 
reserved until a more complete examination can be made; it is hoped that the 
following may, in the mean time, be of service to the student of American 
Ichthyology. 

I860.] 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

1. Labrax chrysops Girard. — There is little doubt that the Labrax 
alb id us of Dr. Dekay* and the Labrax osculatii ofFilippif are identi- 
cal with the Labrax chrysops. Filippi, although acquainted with the work 
of Dekay, compares his Labrax osculatii only with the L. 1 i n e a t u s Cuv. , 
and chiefly distinguishes it from that species by its higher body and lingual 
dentition. The specimens, from which the species of Filippi was described, 
were sent to the Museum of Milan by the traveller to whom it was dedicated, 
(M. Osculati,) and are stated by Filippi to have been obtained in Lake Ontario. 
Notwithstanding this, Filippi has stated that it is an inhabitant of the sea and 
the rivers of the United States. "Hab. in mare et fluvis confederationis Amer- 
icanae." 

2. Lepomis achi gan Gill. — RafinesqueJ first indicated the Cicha fas- 
ciata of Lesueur or Centrarchus obscurus of Dekay, under the name of 
Bodianus achigan. His specific name must be preserved. 

3. Ambloplites rupestris Gill. — The Bodianus rupestris of Rafin- 
esque, described in December, 1817, § appears to be the same as the species 
subsequently named Cichla ae n e a by Lesueur. 

4. Pomotis maculatus Gill. — The common sun fish of New York was 
first named Morone maculata by Mitchell. || His specific name should be 
retained. 

(Corinia oxyptera Dekay. ^) — This is a species of the genus Serranus. 

5. Orthopristis fulvo-maculatus Gill. — If the genus Orthopris- 
t i s is valid, the Hsemulon fulvo-maculatnm of Dekay** must be referred 
to it under the above name. That species differs very little, if at all, from the 
Orthopristis duplex of Dr. Girard. ff The two are probably identical. 

6. Sargus ovicephalus Gill. — The common sheep's-head was first named 
by BlochJJ from the description of Schoepf.^§ 

Palinckichthys Gill. 

This name is proposed as a substitute for P a 1 i n u r u s of Dekay. The latter 
name having been applied to a well-known genus of crustaceans, it is inadmis- 
sible in any other branch of the animal kingdom. 

Y. Palinurichthys perciformis Gill. — Syn. Palinurus perciformis 
Dekay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 118. 

Percisa Haldeman.llll 
The type of this genus is congeneric with the type of the subsequently estab- 
lished genus, P i 1 e o m a of Dekay. The latter name is therefore a synonym of 
P e r c i n a , and must be suppressed. 

8. Percina semifasciata Gill. — Syn. Pileoma semifaciata Dekay, 
Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 16. 

AsTBOScopus Brev. 
Under this name, Mr. Brevoort proposes to separate from Uranoscopus the 

• Dekay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 13, pi. 51, fig. 165. 

+ Filippi, Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 2d series, vol. v- p. 164, 

t Rafinesque. American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, vol. ii. p. 120. 

§ Loo. cit, vol. ii. p. 120. 

II Mitchell's Report in part on the fishes of New York, p. 19, Jan., 1814. 

V Dekay, loo. cit., p. 77, pi. xxx. fig. 96. 

** Dekay, loo. cit., p. 

tt Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1859. 

ttBloch. Schneider., Systema Ichthyologiae, p. 280. 

ii Schoepf in Schriften der Gesellchaft Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin, vol.viii. p. 152, 1788 

flHaldeman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. viii. p. 330, 1842. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA. 21 

American U. a n o p 1 o s of Cuvier. Astroscopus differs from TJ r a n o s - 
c o p u s by a less completely armed head, and by the absence of an exsertile 
filament to the membrane behind the symphisis of the lower joint. To this 
genus is also to be referred the Uranoscopos y-graecum of Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes. 

9. Astroscopus a n o p I o s Brev. — Syn. Uranoscopus a n o p 1 o s Cuv. and Val. 
Hist. Nat. des. Poissons, vol. viii, p. 493. 

(Lepisonia cirrhosum Dekay.*) — This fish, described as a new genus of 
the family of Percoids, is the common Chinus pectinifer of Valen- 
ciennes,! ^ West Indian species, which is the type of the genus Labrosomus 
of Swainson.J 

Leptoblennius Gill. 

This genus is founded on the Blennius serpentinus of Dr. D. H. Storer. 
It diifers widely from Blennius by the elongated form of the body, the shape 
of the head, absence of superciliary tentacles, &c. It is equally distinct from 
the genus P h o 1 i s . 

10. Leptoblennius serpentinus Gill. — Syn. Blennius serpentinus 
Storer, Hist, of the Fishes of Mass., p. 91, pi. xvii. fig. 1. 

MoLACANTHUa Sw.§ 

The genus called by Dekay Acanthosoma had been previously named 
by Swainson llolacanthus, and that appellation has been accepted by the 
Prince of Canino.|| Swainson founded his genus on the Diodon mola of 
Pallas, a species to which Dekay has referred in his remarks on Acanthosoma 
carlnatum. 

1 1 . Molacanthus carinatus Gill. — Syn. Acanthosoma carinatum Dekay, 
Zoology of New York Fishes, p. 350, pi. 4, fig. 179. 

Dr. Richardson has figured in the Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Sulphur,^ 
a species of molacanthus, which he has named Orthagoriscus spinosus 
Cuv., citing for that name the Regne Animal, vol. i. p. 370. On reference to 
the volume of Cuvier, it will be seen that the name of Orthogoriscus spinosus 
is attributed to Bloch of Schneider; in a foot note to the geuns enumerating 
the species, it is again referred to as Orthogoriscus h i s p i d u s . The latter is 
the name given to the species in the Systema Ichthyologiae,** and the former was 
probably due to an oversight of Cuvier. The species of Richardson is also, 
perhaps, a distinct species from the Molacanthus hispid us ^o«., and is an 
inhabitant of the Chinese seas. 



On the Pertinence of the ALOSA TERES Dekay.to the Genus DUSSUMIERA Val. 

BY THEO. GILL. 

In the ichthyological volume of ■' Zoology of New York,f f " Dr. Dekay has 
described a halecoid fish to which he has given the name of Alosa teres. He 
has characterized the genus Alosa as having the characters of Clupea 
(body compressed,) but distinguished by the tongue and the roof of the mouth 
being smooth or edentulous. Notwithstanding this definition, he has without 

* Dekay. loc cit., p. 41, pi. 30, fig. 91. 

tCuv. Val. Hist. Nat. kes Poisons, vol. xi. 

t Swainson, Nat Hist, of Fishes, &c., vol. ii, pp. 7.5 and 277, 1839. 

g Swainson, Nat. Hist, of Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, vol. ii. p. 329. 

II Bonaparte, Catalogo Metodico dei Pesci Europei, p. 87. 

IfRichardson, loc. cit., p. 125, pL 2, figs. 10 and 11. 

**H1. Schn., loc. cit, p. 511. 

tt Zoology of New York Fishes, p. 262, pi. 40, fig. 128. 

I860.] 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

hesitation, referred to the genus the above fish which he describes as having 
the " body cylindrical," and with its tongue covered " with asperities on its surface." 
In the " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons,"* Valenciennes, misled perhaps by the 
generic definition of Dekay, has described what appears to be a true Alosa, 
as the Alosa teres of Dekay. In the same volume f he has described a fish 
to which he has given the name of Dussumiera acuta; this fish is there 
stated to have a most close superficial resemblance to the sardines of the 
Clupeoid family, but as being separated from them on account of the 
smooth belly, and as being more nearly related to Butirinus, between 
which genus and E 1 o p s it was believed that it should be placed. 

Subsequently, Mr. James C. Brevoort, in his •' Notes on the Figures of Japan- 
ese Fish, "J (originally published in the second volume of the Narrative of the 
United States Expedition to Japan, under Commodore Perry,) in a note on 
Clupea micropus of Temminck and Schleger, corrected the erroneous ref- 
erence of Valenciennes, and noticed the nearafiBnity of the Alosa teres to the 
genus Dussumiera. 

Recently, in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy.^ Dr. Charles 
Girard has referred the same species to the genus Harengula of Valenciennes, 
on account of the presence of teeth upon the maxillar bones, the tongue, the 
palatines, and the pterygoidians, whilst the vomer is toothless." In dentition, 
A. teres does indeed agree with Harengula, but is totally separated from 
that genus by the form of the body, and is correctly referable to Dussumeria, 
which has teeth upon the same bones, and otherwise agrees with Alosa t er e s . 

The species must, consequently, be hereafter called Dussumiera teres, and 
its synonymy will be as follows : 

Dussumiera teres Brevoort. 

Synonymy. 

Alosa teres Dekay, Zoology of New York Fishes, p. 262, pi. 40, fig. 128,1842 
" " Troschel, Bericht in Archiv. fur Naturgeschichte, 1844, vol. ii 

p. 245, (abstract). 
" " Siorer, Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, p. , ib. in Memoirs 

American Academy, vol. ii., p. 460, (compiled,) 1846. 
" " Baird, Report on Fishes of New Jersey coast, p. 35 ; ib. in Ninth 

Annual Report Smithsonian Institution, p. 349, 1855. 
Dussumiera sp. Brevoort, Is otes on some figures of Japanese Fish, p. 27 ; ib. in 
Narrative of Expedition to Japan, vol. ii., p. 279, 1807. 
Harengula teres Girard,VTOC. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad'a. p. 158, May. 1859. 
(Not "Alausa teres Dekay," Val. Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xx. p. 423.) 



Prodromus descriptionis animalium evertebratornm, quae in Expeditione ad 
Oceanum Pacificum Septentrionalem, a RepublicaFederatamissa, Cadwaladaro 
Ringgold et Johanne Rodgers Ducibus, observavit et descripsit 

W. STIMPSON. 
Paks VIII. CRUSTACEA MA CRURA. 

THALASSmiDEA. 

359. Gebia subspinosa, nov. sp. G. majori affinis. Foeminae manus pe- 
dum primi pans intus spina una prope pollicem, || et duabus ad basin dac- 

* Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xs., p. 423. 
t Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xx., p. 467. 
t Loo. cit, p. 27. 
5 Loo. cit., May, 18.59. 
fi PoUex nobis est digitus immobilis. 

[Jan 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 26 

tyli armata ; poUes intus bidentatus, dentibus minutis ; dactylus superne ca- 
rinatus, carina crenulata. Pedes primi, secundi, tertiiqiie paris prope basin 
spina acuta armati. 

Bab. — In sinu " Simon's Bay" ad Promont. Bonae Spei ; in fundo arenoso, 
prof. 8 org. 

360. Gebia carixicauda, nov. sp. G. majori affinis. Carapax antice angus- 
tior, dentibus minus prominentibus, fronte spinulis erectis sat validis pectina- 
ta. Pedum primi paris manus infra spina versus poUicem instructa ; pollex in- 
tus subtiliter denticulatus ; dactylus superne carinatus, carina laevi. Pedum 
tertii paris foeminae coxa spina parvula super aperturam genitalem armata. 
tjulci laterales segmentorum. abdominalium validi, segmenti penultimi validi- 
ores. Abdominis segmentum ultimum carina transversa acuta prope basin 
ornatum; lamellae laterales valide carinatae, marginibus terminalibus spin- 
ulis crenulatae. Long. 1.77 ; carapacis long. 0.56 ; carap. regionis anterioris 
lat. 0.19 ; regionis post. lat. 0.29 poll. 

Hab. — In portu " Hong Kong ;" sublittoralis in locis limoso-sabulosis. 

361. Gebia pugettensis, Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., i. 510, pi. xxxii. 
f. 1. Stimpson ; Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., vi. 48, pi. xxi. — Ad oras Californiae. 

362. Callianassa petalpba, nov. sp. Parva. Antennae externae carapace 
plus duplo longiores. Pedes primi paris foeminae eis maris similes ; pedis 
dextri merus brevis, robustus, subtus dente valido basali instructus quam 
merus ipse vix tertia parte breviore, antrorsum porrecto, serrato ; carpus lon- 
gior quam latior et quam merus multo longior, marginibus parce dilatatis et 
laevibus ; manus elongata, quam carpus angustior ; palma quam carpus non 
brevior, superne margine laevis, subtus serrata et ciliata ; digiti palma quarta 
parte breviores, sat graciles, pilosi. Pes primus sinister gracillimus, mero in- 
terne edentato. Lamellae caudales parvae, laeves, glabrae, rotundatae, subae- 
quales ; segmentum caudale in foeminis quam in maribus latius, margine pos- 
teriore leviter sinuatum ; lamellae externae marginibus externis incrassatae 
vel pulvinatae, in maribus longe ciliatae. Foeminae long. 1.57 ; long, carapa- 
cis, 0.36 ; long, carpi manus dactylique chelipedis majoris, 0.70 poll. 

Hab. — In portu * ' Simoda' ' Japoniae. 

363. Callianassa californiensis, Dana; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vii. 
175. Stimpson ; Bost. Joiir. Nat. Hist. vi. 489, pi. xxi. f. 4. — Ad oras Californiae 
prope urbem ' ' San Francisco. ' ' 

ASTACIDEA. 

364. Ibacus NOVEsrDESTATUs, Gibbes ; Proc. Am. Assoc. 1850, p. 193. Inter 
/. ciliatum et I. peronii ; — an distinctus ? Specimen nostrum dentes octo la- 
terales habet. In Mari Sinensi prope "Hong Kong;" fundo limoso prof. 20 
org. 

365. Paekibacus antaecticus, Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., i. 517, pi. 
xxxii. f. 6. Scyllarus antarcticus, Fabr. Ibacus antarcticus, M. Edw. — Ad in- 
sulas Hawaienses et ad insulam "Tahiti." 

366. Scyllarus Sieboldii, De Haan ; Fauna Japonica, Crust. 153, pi. xxxvi., 
et xxxvii. f. 1. — Ad insulam "Ousima." 

367. Arctus soedidps, nov. sp. Carapax latus, sed non latior quam longior ; 
crista mediana tridentata, dente anteriore parvo, juxta frontem sito ; crista 
laterali dentibus duobus super oculum et dente uno paullo remote armata ; 
angulis antero-lateralibus prominentibus. Antennarum articulus secundus 
utrinque dente uno solum valido armatus, angulo anteriore acuto prominente, 
crista valida sed laevi ; articulus quartus margine antico dentibus quatuor 
magnis obtusis, et dente uno acuto intus uni-denticulato introrsum sito arma- 
tus. Sternum antice bifurcatum, fiircis triangularibus, dentiformibus. Fusco- 
1860.] 



24 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



luteus ; pedes nigro quadri-annulati ; abdominis segmentum primum nigro 
uni-maculatum. Foeminae long. 2.2 poll. A. urso (Scyllaro arcto,) Auct. 
affinis. Ab A. rugoso differt abdominis segmento tertio non gibboso. 
Hah. — In portu "Hong Kong ;" f. conchoso p. 8 org. vulgaris. 

368. PALiNXTBtJS Lalaxdei, Milne-Edwards ; Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii. 293. — 
Ad Promont. Bonae Spei. 

369. Paxulikus OKNATUS, Gray. Palinurus ornatus, Bosc, M.Edwards; Hist. 
Nat. des Crust, ii. 296 (?J — Prope oras insulae " Hong Kong." 

370. Pancliecs iSTERRTJPTtJS, Stimpsou. Palinurus interruptus, Randall ; 
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Piiilad., viii. 137. — California. 

371. Paxuliecs penicillatus, Gray, Dana. Palinurus penicillatus, (Oliv.) 
M. Edwards ; Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii. 299. — Ad insulam " Tahiti." 

372. Paxulircs japoxicus, Gray. Palinurus japonicus, Siebold, De Haan ; 
Fauna Japonica, Crust. 158, pi. xli. et slii. — Ad oras Japonicas prope urbem 
"Simoda." 

373. AsTACus NiGRESCEXS, Stimpsou ; Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. vi. 492. — Califor- 
nia. 

Cabidea.* 

374. Cran'gox capensis, nov. sp. C. vulgari paullo affinis, in spina mediana 
carapacis, etc. Carapax medio parce carinatus, carina dente minuto in medio 
armata ; dentibus v. spinis lateralibus mullis. Maxillipedes externi squamam 
vel appendicem antennalem superantes. Pedum primi paris palma obliqua, 
fere longitudinalis. Pedes quinti eos primi paris superantes. Abdomen vix 
carinatum; Cauda valde compressa. Long, foeminae, 0.9 poll. C. affini, De 
Haan, proximus. 

* Simulacrum carapacis Carideorum. 




Regio pastrica. ]. Spina supraorbitalis, (interdum duae) 

Re2:io branchialis. 2. Angulus orbitae externus, interdum 

Regio cardiaca. spiniformis, 

Regio hepatica. 3. Spina antennalis. 

Regio orbitalis. 4. Spina branchiostegiana (in generibus 

Regio antennalis. Leander et Pandalus conspicua.) 

Kegio frontalis. 5, Spina pterygostomiana 

6. Spina hepatica (in Palaemonibus, Pen- 
aeis, etc.) 

Sutura V. sulcus cervicalis ;— pars dorsalis in Stenopis, Sicyoniis, Alpheis etc plus 

minusve distincta, pars antero-lateralis in quibusdam Penaeis et Leandris. 
Sutura cardiaco-branchialis, raro distincta. 

Sulcus antennalis, et c hepaticus, in Penaeis multis valde conspicuus. 
Sulcus gastro-orbitalis, in Crangonibus. 
Sulcus gastro-frontalis, in Fenaeo monocero. 
Sulcus gastro-hcpaticus, in Stenopis, Penaeis, etc. 
Sulcus orbito-antennalis, in Alpheo et Spongicola. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 25 

Hah. — In sinu "Simon's Bay," Promont. Bonae Spei; f. arenoso, prof. 12 
org. 

375. Ceaxgon cakixicauda, nov. sp. Carapax depressiis, pubescens, sep- 
temcarinatus ; carinis levibus, retrorsum distinctis ; mediana antice obsoleta ; 
tribus lateralibus approximatis, quarum prima et tertia unispinosis, spinis ad 
quartam anteriorem carapacis sitis. Rostrum valde angustatum, longitudinal- 
iter sulcatum, extremitate bifidum. Pedes primi crassi, palma obliqua magis 
longitudinali ; secundi quam tertii robustiores sed dimidia breviores, non in- 
flexi, carpo manuque quam merus breviores, manu chelata digitis rectis pa- 
rallelis ; tertii filiformes ; quarti quintique valde graciles ; quiuti primes su- 
perantes. Abdomen insculptum, sulcis plerisque transversis, pubescentibus ; 
segmentis tertio, quarto quintoque gibbosis, valide carinatis. Long. 0.66 ; 
carap. long. 0.16 ; carap. lat. 0.139 poll. 

Hab. — In portu Sinensi " Hong Kong." 

376. Ckangon FEANCISCOK0M, Stimpson ; Crust, and Ecbin. Pacific Coast of 
N. Am., 55. ; Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. vi. 495, pi. xxii. f. 5. 

Hab, — In portu "San Francisco," Californiae. 

377. Ceaxgox nigeicauda, Stimpson ; Crust, and Ecbin. Pacific Coast of N. 
Am., 56. ; Bost. Jour. Nat. Ilist. vi. 496, pi. xxii. f. 6. C. vulgaris, Owen, Dana, 
(non Fabr.) 

Hah. — In portu " San Francisco," Californiae. 

378. Craxgon PEOPUfQuus, nov. sp. C. vulgari et C. nlgriratidae valde af- 
finis, sed abdominis segmento quarto (et interdum tertio quoque, ) in adultis 
carinato. Segmentum ultimum extremitate spinulis sex armatum. A C. nigri- 
cauda diifert pedum primi jiaris manu angustiore, palma magis obliqua, digi- 
toque immobili longiore. A C. affini maxillipedibus externis et pedibus quin- 
tis brevioribus ut iu C vulgari. Long. 2.5 poll. 

Hab, — Prope oras boreales Japoniae ; in fundis arenosis limosisque prof. 4-20 
org. 

379. Craxgon salebeosus, Owen ; Beecbey's Voy. Zool. 88, pi. xxvii. f. 1. — 
In sinu " Avatska" Kamtscbatkae ; vulgaris in fundo limoso, inter Eudendria 
ad prof. 10 org. 

380. Crangon BOREAS, Fabr., Milne-Edwards; Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii. 342; 
Regne Anim., pi. li. 2. Owen ; Beechey's Voy., Zool. 87. Brandt ; Sib. Reise, 
Zool. 114. — In freto Beringiano et in Oceano Arctico ; ad prof. 10-26 org. 

381. Craxgox AXG0STICAUDA, Dc Haau ; Fauna Japonica, Crust. 183, pi. xlv. 
f. 15. — In portibus " Simoda" et " Hakodadi, " Japoniae ; sublittoralis, vul- 
garis inter algas. 

382. Craxgox ixteemedics, nov. sp. Carapax laevis, nitidus, medio cari- 
natus, carina bi-spinosa, spina anteriore debili prope rostrum sita, altera me- 
diana, valida ; latera spinis quatuor armata, duabus in margine antico, una 
valida in superficie laterali, et una minuta prope carinam. Rostrum elevatum 
prominens, non acuminatum. Maxillipedes externi graciles, appendicem anten- 
nalem superantes. Pedes primi apicem appendicium non attingentes ; secundi 
tertiis pauUo breviores ; quarti quintique longi, eis C. boreae multo graciliores, 
Bed dactylis longis, curvatis. Sternum inerme. Abdomen superficie marginibns- 
que inferioribus laeve ; carina parvula, sed in segmento antepenultimo acuta, 
in penultimo duplicata ; segmento ultimo valde elongato, minuente, extremi- 
tate fere acuto. Foeminae long. 1.7 ; carap. long. 0.38 ; segmenti abdominis 
ultimi long. 0.32 poll. Facie et armatura carapacis Nectocrangoni lari similis. 

^ Hah. — In mari Beringiano prope Promontorium ' ' Cliepoonski ; " ad prof. 40 
org. 

383. Nectoceaxgox l.vr, Brandt ; Sib. Reise, Zool. 115. Crangon lar, Owen, 
I860.] 



26 PKOCEEDINGS Or THE ACADEMY OP 

Beechey's Voy., Zool. 88, pi. xxviii, f. 1. Argis* lar, Kroyer; Tidsskrift, iv. 
255; pi. V. f. 45-62. — In sinu " Avatska," in freto Beringiano, et in Oceano 
Arctico ; fundis limosis prof. 10-20 org. 

384. Sabinea septemcaeinata, Owen ; App. to Ross' Voy. 82. Kroyer ; Tids- 
skrift, iv. 244, pi. iv. f. 34-^0 et pi. v. f. 41-44. Crangon septemspinosus, Sa- 
bine. — In Oceano Arctico, prope oras Siberiae. 

385. NicA EDULis, Risso ; Milne-Edwards ; Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii. 364. — In 
sinu "Funchal" insulae Madeirae ; f. arenoso, p. 15 org. 

386. NiCA MACKOGiVATHA, nov. sp. Corpus robustum, minus compressum. 
Carapax sat latus, leviter depressus, laevis, non carinatus, rostro brevi, 
quam oculi multo breviore, acuminato. Antennnularum tiagellum breve. 
Maxillipedes externi grandes, extremitates antennularum fere attingentes ; 
mero crasso, pedibus primi paris non angustiore, et carapace vix tei'tia 
parte breviore. Pedes primi robusti ; pes dexter vel chelatus robustior, sed 
quam sinister pauUo brevior. Abdominis segmentum terminale dorso longi- 
tudinaliter late sulcatum et paribus duobus aculeorum annatum ; extremitate 
aculeis sex peetinatum, duabus longis, duabus mediocribus et duabns brevi- 
bus. Long. 1 poll. N. eduli etc. valde affinis. Ab N. eduli differt corpore 
robustiore, et rostro breviore ; ab N. hawaiensi, oculis minoribus, et pedibus 
primi paris brevioribiis ; ab N. japonico, maxillipedibus externis longioribus, 
et segmento ultimo abdominis aculeis dorsalibus armato. 

Sab. — In i)ortu " Hong Kong ;" f. conchoso, p. 8 org. 

HippoLYSMATA, nov. geu. Carapax rostro sat longo verticaliter dilatato et 
dentato instructus. Antennulae flagellis duobus longis instructae. Mandibulae 
valde incurvatae, uec bipartitae nee palpigerae. Maxillipedes externi elongati 
exognatbo flagelloque instructi ; articialo ultimo gracili. Pedes Imi— 4ti 
flagello instructi. Pedes primi crassiusculi, cbelati, manu oblonga ; secundi 
filiformes, clielati, carpo multi-annulato. Abdomen dorso laeve. Lysmatae 
affinis, sed antennulis iiagellis duobus tantum praeditis. Ab Hippolyte differt 
mandibularum forma. 

387. HippOLYSMATA viTTATA, uov. sp. Carapax per dimidiam anteriorem 
carinatus, rostro apicem articuli penultimi pedunculi antennularum attingente, 
superne septem- dentato, dentibus gracilibus antrorsum porrectis, dente pos- 
teriore vel primo parce ante medium carapacis sito, et dente secundo intervallo 
duplo remoto ; rostro infra prope extremitatem tridentato, dentibus parvis. 
Margo carapacis anterior utrinque spina sub oculo et dente minuto acute 
pterygostomiano armatus. Antennularum flagellum externum corpore fere 
duplo longius ; parte basali incrassata, pedunculo non breviore, infra ciliata. 
Appendix anteunarum extremitatem pedunculi antennularum attingens. 
Maxillipedes externi appendices multo superantes ; exognatbo longitudine 
tertiam partem endognatbi adequante. Pedes primi paris apicem appen- 
dicium attingentes ; pedum secundi paris carpus 20-articulatus ; pedes postici 
longi. Segmentum caudale triangulare, dorso paribus duobus aculeorum 
armatum. Color pallide ruber ; corpus coccineo-vittatum. Long. 1.3 poll. 

Hob. — In portu " Hong Kong ;" f. limoso p. sex. org. 

TozEUMAj, nov. gen. Corpus valde elongatum, lanceolatum, utriuque at- 
tenuatum, compressum. Rostrum gracile longissimum, interdum corpore vis 
brevius. Antennulae breves, flagellis duobus instructae. Appendix antennarum 
longa. Mandibulae sat robustae, valde incurvatae, nee bipartitae nee palpi- 
gerae. Maxillipedes externi brevissimi, exognatbo nuUo, et flagello nuUo 
praediti. Pedes breves epipodis destituti. Pedes primi brevissimi, crassiores, 

^ ^ 

* Nomen Kroyeri praeoccupatum est. 
t ti^ivfAa, telum. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 27 

chelati ; secundi filiformes, chelati, carpotri-articulato. Abdomen dorso den- 
tibus armatum ; articulo ultimo elongate fere lanceolato. 

388. TozEUMA LANCEOLATCM, nov. sp. Corpus gracillimum, in maribus valde 
compressum, Carapax ecarinatus. Rostrum aciculiforme, quam corpus vix 
quarta parte brevius, superne obtuse-rotundatum, superficie carapace con- 
tinuum ; infra serratum et versus basin lamellatum. Margo carapacis anterior 
sub oculo acutus, et ad angulum antero-lateralem spina acuta ai-matus. An- 
tennulae appendicem antennarum adequantes, flagello externo omnino incras- 
sato et quam internum multo breviore. Antennae rostro breviores ; squamis 
elongatis, longitudine tertiam partem rostri aequantibus, vix minuentibus, 
latitudine quartam longitudinis aequante. Abdomen superne earinatum et acute 
tridentatum, (segmentis 3tio 4to 5toque dentigeris) ; segmento ultimo lamellis 
lateralibus longiore, dorso paribus tribus aculeorum armato. Animal vivum 
fere pellucidum, rostro, cauda, et ventro rubris exceptis. Long., rostro in- 
cluso, 2.5 ; alt. thoracis, 0.18 poll. 

Hab. — In portu "Hong Kong;" in fundo limoso prof. sex. org. sat vul- 
garis. 

Latreutes,* nov. gen. Rhynchocyclo affinis. Carapax dorso spina mediana 
armatus. Rostrum grande, elongatum, lamellatum, cultriforme, margine 
superiore recto j^vel rectiusculo. Antennulae bi-flagellatae, squama basali 
brevi, orbiculata, sub oculo celata. Antennarum appendix acuta. Mandibulae 
robustae, breves, valde incurvatae. Maxillipedes externi breves, exognatho 
flagelloque instructi. Pedes primi, secundi, tertii, quartique paris flagello in- 
structi. Pedum secundi paris carpus tri-articulatus. 

389. Latreutes ensiferus. Hippolyte ensiferus, Milne-Edwards ; Hist. Nat. 
des Crust, ii. 374. Goodsir ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. xv. 74. Dana ; U. S. 
Expl. Exped., Crust., i. 562.— In Oceano Atlantic©, lat. bor. 30°— 35° ; vul- 
garis in Sargasso. 

390. Latredtes dorsalis, nov. sp. Elongatus et compressus. Carapax 
dorso carinatus et dentibus duobus armatus, dente anteriore spiniformi an- 
trorsum porrecto, dente posteriore obtuso fere obsolescente. Rostrum cultri- 
forme carapace non breviiis, antennulas et appendices antennarum superans, 
paullo reflexo ; marginibus supra infraque subtiliter partim denticulatis. 
Margo carapacis anterior prope angulum antero-lateralem dentibus minutis 
spiniformibus pectinatus. Aatennularum pedunculus flagellorum tertiam 
partem longitudine adequans ; flagella aequalia. Antennarum pedunculus 
eum antennularum non superans ; appendix elongato-triangularis, vel lanceo- 
lata, valde acuta. Maxillipedes externi apicem pedunculi antennarum attin- 
gentes. Pedes breves, et, primis exceptis, graciles. Pedum secundi paris 
carpi articulus secundus articulos primum tertiumque junctos adequans. Abdo- 
men obtuse-carinatum, dorso undulatum, marginibus infemis inerme; segmento 
caudali aculeis dorsalibus carente, aculeis extremitatis longis. Color coccineus ; 
dorsum albo univittatum. Long. 0.8 poll. 

Hab. — In sinu " Hakodadi" Japoniae ; vulgaris in fundo concboso, prof. 
8 org. 

Rhynchocyclus, Stm. (Cyclorhynchus, Be Haan ; — nom. praeoc.) Rostrum 
grande, orbiculatum, lamellatum. Antennulae flagellis duobus instructae ; 
pedunculo brevi ; squama basali orbiculata, sub oculo celata. Maxillipedes 
externi breves, exognatho flagelloque instructi. Pedes Imi — 4ti flagello 
instructi. Carpus pedum secundorum tri-articulatus. 

391. Rhynchocyclus planirostris. Cyclorhynchus planirostris, De Ilaan ; 
Fauna Japonica, Crust., 175, pi. xlv. f. 7. — In sinu " Hakodadi, " et prope oras 
boreales insulae "Niphon;" in fundis sabulosis arenosisque prof. 10 — 20 org. 

*KaTfiu'ryi^, cultor. 

I860.] 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

392. Rhtnchoctclus muceonatus, nov. sp. Dorsum carapacis spina una 
selum armatum, mediana, valida et spiniformi. Rostrum ovatum, quam in 
C. planirostri angustius, appendices antennarum pauUo superans, extremitate 
valide mucronatum, margine antico supra infraque sex-denticulatum. Margo 
anterior carapacis spina sub oculo armatus, et ad basin antennarum spinis 
minutis octo pectinatus. Abdomen ecarinatum ; segmento tertio dorso sat 
prominente. Color pallida fuscus, albo-maculatus. Pedes subrufi. Long. 1 
poll. 

Hab. — In freto "Ly-i-moon" prope Hong Kong ; f. conchoso p. 25 org. 

393. RHTNCHOcycLus coiiPREsscs, nov. sp. Corpus compressum. Carapax 
crista valida dorsali instructus bi-dentata, dentibus obtusis, dente anteriore 
majore et spina minuta antice armato. Rostrum latins (altius) quam longius, 
appendices antennarum superans, oblique truncatum; margine superiore con- 
cavo, laevi ; margine supero-anteriore sex-dentato ; margine inferiore convexo, 
arcuato, laevi. Spina infra-ocularis minuta. Margo carapacis ad insertionem 
antennarum tri-denticulatus. Maxillipedes externi extremitate obtusi et 
spinis validis corneis septem armati. Pedes toti valde breves. Carpus pedum 
primi paris obtusus. Abdomen dorso obtusum. Color purpureo-fuscus, dorso 
pauUo ceruleus. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Sab. — In portu "Jackson" Australiae ; f. algoso p. 2 org. 

894. GrNATHOPHTLLUM FASCioLATPM, uov. sp. G. eleganti valde affinis, colore 
excepto. Corpus obesum. Carapax dorso obtuse carinatus, carina retrorsum 
obsoleta et antrorsum rostro continua ; rostro brevi, apicem articuli antepe- 
nultimi antennularum pedunculi non attingente, superne oblique truncato, 
paullo concavo et sexdentato, extremitate acuto, carinis lateralibus juxta 
marginem inferiorem laevem sitis. Oculi grandiores. Segmentum caudale 
aculeis duobus marginalibus versus extremitatem, et duobus longis ad ex- 
tremitatem armatum. Corpus album, pellucidum, fasciis linearibus trans- 
versis purpureo-fuscis ad 10 ornatum ; pedunculisoculorumbi-vittatis ; max- 
illipedibus externis superficie annulis quatuor eidem coloris notatis. Long. 
0.8 ; carapacis lat. 0.23 poll. 

Hab. — In portu "Jackson" Australiensi ; in fundo limoso prof, sex org. 

395. Atyotoa BisuLCATA, Randall; Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. , viii. 140; 
pi. V. f. 5. Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exped. Crust, i. 540, pi. xxxiv. f. 1. — Ad in- 
sulam ' ' Hawaii. ' ' ♦ 

396. Atyoida tahitensis, nov. sp. A. bisulcatae valde similis, (an diversa?) 
sed rostro paullo breviore, latiore et magis depresso ; flagello externo anten- 
nularum quam internum dimidia breviore ; et angulo postero-inferiore seg- 
menti abdominis quinti minus acuto. Long. 1 poll. 

Mab. — In aquis dulcibus insulae " Tahiti." 

397. Cakidina geandirostris, nov. sp. Rostrum carapace vix brevius, 
appendices antennarum superans, extremitate gracile paullo reflexum ; crista 
dorsali supra oculos fere recta et denticuUs minutis ad 20 serrata, denticulo 
postico supra basim pedunculorum oculorum sito ; cristae parte quarta an- 
teriore edentula, denticulo uno mediano et duobus apicalibus exceptis ; rostri 
margine inferiore obscure 8 — 10-denticulato. Pedum primi paris carpus quam 
manus multo brevior ; secuudi paris carpus valde gracilis et manu parce 
longior. Segmentum caudale lamellis lateralibus quarta parte brevius, dorso 
paribus sex aculeorum instructum. Long. 1 poll. C. denticulatae affinis sed 
rostro longiore. A C. longirostri differt dentibus rostri superne magis numero- 
sis. 

Hab. — Ad insulam "Loo Choo." 

398. Caridina leucosticta, nov. sp. Rostrum circiter carapacis longitudine, 
pedunculo antennularum longius ; margine superiore recto, dentibus tenuibus 
ad 17 -f- 3 armato, apicem versus parce resimo et edentulo ; margine inferiore 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29 

10-dentato. Spina antennalis alte posita. Pedes gracillimi ; posticorum 
merus margine inferiore spinulis'longis 2 — 5 armatus. Color obscure-fuscus, . 
maculis vel stigmis miniitis crebris albis notatus. Long. 1 poll. A C. den- 
ticulata differt rostro recto magis denticulate 

Hab. — In flumine prope urbem " Simoda" Japoniae. 

399. Caridina multidentata, nov. sp. Rostrum medium articuli ultimi 
pedunculi antennularum attingens ; crista dorsali lamellato-dilatata, arcuata, 
supra bases oculorum oriente, et denticulis 20 — 30 serrata ; extremitate ro- 
busta, acuta, vix denticulata ; margine inferiore 14-denticulato. Margo 
carapacis anterior spina antennali armatus. Pedes secundi paris pedunculum 
antennularum superantes ; carpo manu longiore ; digitis depressis, penicillis 
densis, latis, fere fiabelliformibus. Dactyli pedum posticorum breves, septi- 
mam partem articuli penultimi longitudine non superantes. Segmentum cau- 
dale dorso non concavum, paribus quinque aculeorum instructum ; lamellae 
laterales grandes, segmento caudale fere duplo longiores, extremitatibus pro- 
ductis subtriangularibus. Long. 1.5 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulas "Benin;" in rivulis montanis. 

400. Caeidina serrata, nov. sp. Rostrum breve, articulum antepenulti- 
mum pedunculi antennularum vix superans, elongato-triangulare et ad basin 
sat latum in piano horizontal], extremitate acutum ; crista dorsali sat dilatata, 
arcuata et dentibus 14 serrata. Pedes secundi paris longi, appendices antenna- 
rum superantes ; carpo valde gracili ; manu robusta, penicillis quam in 
manibus primis multo longioribus. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulam "Hong Kong;" in rivulis. 

401. Caridina acuminata, nov. sp. Thorax sat compressus. Rostrum 
breve, oculos parce superans, trigonum, ad basin horizontaliter latum, ad ex- 
tremitatem pauUo deflexum ; marginibus totis levibus ; crista dorsali non 
dilatata, dorso continua. Antennularum flagella longitudine aequalia. Manu- 
um penicilli parvi, breves. Pedes postici spinulis asperi ; tertii et quinti 
paris quam quarti paris longiores. Color olivaceus, punctatus. Long. 1 
poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulas "Bonin;" in rivulis montanis. 

402. Caridina brevirostris, nov. sp. Corpus gracile. Rostrum brevissimnm, 
oculis brevius, trigonum ; margine superiore obtuso, laevi. Margo carapacis 
ad basin antennarum inermis. Manns primi paris digiti breves, quam palma 
multo breviores. Pedum posticorum dactyli robusti, vix curvati ; et quartam 
partem articuli penultimi longitudine aequantes. Long. 0.5 poll. C. acumi- 
natae affinis, rostro breviore. 

Hab. — Ad insulam "Loo Choo ;" in aquis dulcibus. 

403. Caridina exilirostkis, nov. sp. Rostrum ei C. typi fere simile, sed 
minus ; — valde gracile, compressum, angustum, acutum, medium articuli pe- 
nultimi antennularum pedunculi parce superans ; margine superiore laevi, 
carapace continuo ; margine inferiore obsolete 2-3-dentato. Pedes secundi 
paris longi, valde graciles ; manu parva, compressa ; carpo manu longiore. 
Pedum posticorum dactyli tertiam partem articuli penultimi longitudine ade- 
quantes. Long. 1.25 poll. 

Hub. — Ad insulam "Loo Choo ;" in aquis dulcibus. 

404. Alpheus eapax, Fabr. ; Suppl. Ent. Syst., 405. De Haan ; Fauna Ja- 
ponica. Crust. 177, pi. xlv. f. 2. — Prope eras Sinenses in lat. bor. 23° ; in fun- 
do limoso prof. 6-20 org. 

405. Alpheus avarus, Fabr. ; Suppl. Ent. Syst., 440 A. strenuus, Dana ; 
U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust, i. 543, pi. xxxiv. f. 4. — Ad insulas "Hawaii," 
"Bonin" et "Ousima;" in portibus "Simoda" et "Hong Kong;" et in freto 
I860.] 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

"Gaspar;" littoralis vel sublittoralis sub lapidibus in sabulo habitans ; — in- 
terdum in aquis sat profundis. 

406. Alphecs Bis-DicistTS, De Haan; Fauna Japonica, Crust, pi. xlv. f. 3. 
A. avarus, De Haan ; (non Fabr.) 1. c. p. 179. — In sinu " Kagosima" Japoniae ; 
in fundo nigro-arenoso ad prof. 20 org. 

407. Alphecs pachychiecs, nov. sp. Frons lata, truncata. Carapax inter 
oculos carinatus, carina postice obsolescente, antice marginem frontalem vix 
superante ; palpebris valde tumidis, sed aeque marginem non superantibus. 
Antennularum pedunculi articulus penultimus quam antepenultimus paullo 
longior. Antennae carentes spina basali externa ; appendice quam pedunculus 
multo breviore. Maxillipedes externi sat graciles, articulo ultimo brevi, elon- 
gato-ovato, extus depress© et parce concavo, marginibus longe ciliato. Pedum 
primi paris manus extroversa, digito exteriore. Manus major crassissima, ro- 
tundata, laevis, superne et versus digitos pilosa, sinibus nuUis ; digitis valde 
brevibus ; dactylo dimidiam palmae non aequante, hamato, apice acuto. Manus 
minor maris dimidiam majoris magnitudine adequans, valde robusta, superne 
pilosa ; digitis palmii non brevioribus ; dactylo dilatato, intus concavo et dense 
pubescente, prope apicem contracto. Manus rmnor foeminae parva, valde gra- 
cilis, digitis brevibus, teretibus. Pedum tertii paris merus paullo dilatatus et 
apice inferiore dente armatus. Dactyli pedum sex posticorum breves. Seg- 
mentum caudale medio depressum. Long. 1 poll. A. frontali, M. Edw., af- 
finis, sed fronte minus prominente et paullo rostrata ; articulo pedunculi an- 
tennularum penultimo breviore, etc. 

Bab. — Ad insulam "Loo Cboo." 

408. Alpheus STREPTOCHiEcrs, nov. sp. Frons inter oculos sat angusta, le- 
viter carinata ; rostrum breve, spiniforme ; orbita rotundato-convexa, spinula 
minuta armata. Articulus antennularum pedunculi penultimus antepenul- 
timo sesqui longior. Antennarum spina externa basis obsoleta ; pedunculus 
longitudine appendici fere aequalis. Maxillipedum externorum articulus ulti- 
mus angustus, minuiscens, extremitate pilosus. Manus major versus extremi- 
tatem extrorsum torta, et constricta vel utrinque excavata ; palma superne pi- 
losa, antice spinulis duabus armata, latere externo vel inferiore tri-sulcata, sulco 
mediano longiore postice deflexo, sulcis exterioribus antice sinibus margin- 
alibus confluentibus ; pollex brevissimus; dactylus exterior, brevis, iatus, valde 
curvatus. Manus minor maris robusta ; digitis compressis non biantibus, pal- 
ma paullo brevioribus ; dactylo perlato. Pedum tertiorum quartorumque me- 
rus compressus, sed non dilatatus, extremitate infra dente armatus. Long. 
0.5 poll. 

Sab. — Ad insulas "Cape de Verdes ;" inter nuUiporas ad prof. 20 org. 

409. Alpheos beevipes, nov. sp. Carina frontalis et orbitae antrorsum acu- 
tae.apicibus marginem frontalem vix superantibus. Apices orbitarum intror- 
sum curvati. Antennae spina externa non armatae ; appendice parva, acuta, 
quam pedunculus breviore. Maxillipedes externi parvi. Manus major cras- 
sissima, inflata, rotiandata, laevis, extrorsum torta, antice paullo contracta 
sed non excavata ; dactylus exterior, brevis, obtusus. Manus minor exilis, 
digitis brevibus, nee biantibus nee dilatatis. Pedum secundorum articulus 
carpi secundus primo duplo longior. Pedes tertii quartique breves, compress! ; 
mero lato, infeme unidentato ; art. penultimo inferne spinuloso ; dactylo gra- 
cile, curvato, simplici vel inermi. Pedes quinti quartis multo breviores, valde 
graciles. Long. 0.5 poll. 

Hah. — Ad insulas Hawaienses ; inter ramos madreporamm. 

410. Alpheus coLLUMiAxus, nov. sp. Frons inter oculos carinata ; rostrum 
breve, spiniforme : orbita margine spinula armata. Antennularum pedunculus 
hirsutus ; articulo penultimo antepenultimo sesqui longiore. Antenna extus 
basin spina parva armata ; appendice parva, gracili, acuta, pedunculi apicem 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 31 

vix attingente. Maxillipedum ext. articulus ultimus gracilis, dense setosus. 
Manus major ei A. streptochiri similis. Manus minor maris compressa, digitis 
non dilatatis, vix hiantibus, longitudine palmam adaequantibus. Pedes tertii 
quartique mediocres, compressi, basi spina minuta armati ; mere lato, inferne 
spinuloso et apicem unidentato ; articulo penultimo spinulis sex validis inferne 
armato ; dactylo longo valde gracili, minus curvato, versus apicem dente mi- 
nuto armato. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulas "Bonin ;" inter corallia viventia ad prof. 1 org. 

411. Alpheus neptunus, Dana; U. S., Expl. Exped., Crust, i. 553, pi. xxxv. 
f. 5. Maxillipedes extern! elongati, apice spinulosi. Manus majoris palma 
spina ad basin digitorum armata. Pedum secundorum articulus carpi quar- 
tus tertio duplo longior. Pedum posticorum dactyli bi-unguiculati. ungui- 
culo secundo dorsali vel in facie anteriore posito. 

Hab. — Prope insulam " Ousima ;" in fundo arenoso prof. 30 org. Etiam in 
portu '-Hong Kong." 

412. Alpheus biuxguiculatus, nov. sp. A. neptuno valde affinis, sed denti- 
bus frontalibus brevioribus ; palma manus majoris sjiina ad basin dactyli ca- 
rente ; pedibus posticis brevioribus, dactylis biunguiculatis, unguiculo secun- 
do ventrali. Pedum tertii quartique paris merus inferne spinulis non armatus. 
Long. 0.5 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulas Hawaienses ; inter madreporas. 

413. Alpheus spiniger, nov. sp. A. neptuno affinis. Corpus robustum. 
Dentes frontales validi, acuti ; rostrum apicem articuli pedunculi antennula- 
rum penultimi fere attingens ; spinae orbitales rostro dimidia breviores. An- 
tennae basi spina brevi sed gracile armatae. Antennularum squama basalis 
acuta, brevis. Maxillipedum externorum articulus ultimus brevis, pilosus, 
apice spinulis gracillimis armatus. Manus major crassissima, rotundata, lae- 
vis, nuda ; palma inermi ; poUice intus bidentato ; dactylo compresso, mar- 
gine superiore acuto. Pedum secundorum carpi articulus primus articulos 
quatuor sequentes adequans. Pedum trium posticorum merus linearis, iner- 
mis, nudus ; unguiculus secundus dactyli minutus ventralis, retrorsumcurva- 
tus. Long. 1 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulas " Amakirrima" prope "Loo Cboo." 

414. Alpheus laevis, Randall ; Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., viii. 141. 
Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust, i. 556, pi. xxxv. f. 8. — Ad insulam "Ha- 
waii." 

415. Alpheus gkacilipes, nov. sp. ^A. laevi frontem affinis. Orbitae antice 
acutae, potius quam spiniferae. Antennularum squama basalis apex spinifor- 
mis, apicem articuli pedunculi antepeuultimi attingens ; art. penultimus ante- 
penultimo fere duplo longior. Antennae basi spina minuta armatae ; appendice 
pedunculum superante. Maxillipedes externi graciles, articulo ultimo quam 
penultimus tertia parte modo longior, apice sparsim longe pilosus. Manus 
major recta, elongata, triplo longior quam latior ; margine superiore versus ba- 
sin dactyli canaliculato, inferiore levi. Manus minor mediocris, digitis palma 
parce brevioribus, non hiantibus. Pedum secundorum carpi articulus secundus 
primo vix brevior, quintus quarto longior. Pedes postici valde graciles, mero 
angusto inermi ; articulo penultimo infra quadri-aculeato : dactylo gracili, 
longo, unguiculo unico. Long. 0.6 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulam " Tahiti ;" inter corallia ad prof. org. una. 

Genus Betaeus, Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exped., i. 558. — Frons superficie levis 
ecarinata, margine recta, sinuata, vel dentata. Antennularum squama vel 
spina basalis longissima. Manus forma similes, et plerumque subaequales. 
Pedum secundorum carpi articulus primus praelongus. 

416. Betaeus australis, nov. sp. Corpus et abdomen gracilia, sub-compres- 
1860.] 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

sa, levia. Prons superficie aequalis, margine convexa, levis, interdum media 
convexa. Anteunularum pedunculus robustus, cylindricns, ei antennarum 
aeqiialis ; squama basali longa, apice spiniformi, articulo penultimo superante. 
Antennarum appendix pedunculi apicem non attingens ; fiagellum mediocris 
longitudinis, parte basali crassum. Maxillipedes ext. apicibus non spinosi. 
Pedes primi paris elongati, aequales ; mero interne aspero ; carpi marginibus 
anticis dilatatis et 4^5-dentatis, basin manus circumdantibus ; manu elongata, 
levi, punctata, interne pauUo pilosa ; digitis gracilibus, longitudinalibus, palma 
brevioribus, hiantibus, intus bidentatis, apicibus decussatis. Pedum secun- 
dorum carpi articulus primus tres sequentes conjunctos adaequans. Pedes 
postici graciles ; mero carpoque cylindricis inermibus apicibus incrassatis ; ar- 
ticulo penultimo carpo multo graciliore, subtiliter spinuloso. Segmentum can- 
dale elongatum. Color viridis. Long. 1 poll. 

Hah. — Portu Jacksonensi Australiae ; sublittoralis inter rapes et algas. 

417. Betaeus trispes'osus, nov. sp. Frons rostro longo aciculiformi et den- 
tibus duobus orbitalibus acuminatis rostro dimidia brevioribus armata. An- 
tennulae grandes ; pedunculo appendicem antennarum multo superante ; ar- 
ticulo pedunculi penultimo ultimo fere duplo longiore et antepenultimo ae- 
quali ; spina basali medium penultimi attingente. Antennae extus basi iner- 
mes ; pedunculo apicem appendicis non attingente. Maxillipedum ext. articulus 
ultimus gracilis, quam penultimus plus duplo longior, apice tenuis, breviter 
ciliatus. Pedes antici fere aequales ; manu elongata, palma duplo longiore 
quam altiore, pauUo compressa, laevi, margine inferiore Integra, margine su- 
periore longitudinaliter profunde canaliculata et prope dactylum sinuata ; digi- 
tis palma vix dimidia brevioribus, compressis, intus versus basin dentatis ; 
dactylo lunato. Pedum secundorum carpi art. primus dimidiam longitudinis 
carpi formans, art. secundus tertio parce longior et quinto multo brevior. Pe- 
des postici valde graciles ; quartorum quintorumque merus nee dilatatus nee 
interne armatus ;■ articulus penultimus apicem interne aculeo longo armatus ; 
dactylus tertiam partem art. penultimi longitudine aequans. Segmentum cau- 
dale elongato-subtriangulare, apice parvo truncato. Long. 0.6 poll. 

Sah. — -Portu Jacksoniensi ; inter spongias e fundo limoso prof, sex org. 

Arete,* nov. gen. Betaeo affinis, sed oculis sub carapace non celatis. Cara- 
pax sat compressus, dorso elevato, arcuato. Rostrum breve, elongato-triangu- 
latum, superne obtusum. Antennulae bi-tlagellatae, squamis basalibus grandi- 
bus. Maxillipedes ext. eis Alphei fere similes. Pedes primi grandes, aequales, 
manibus inversis depressis, dactylo exteriore. Pedes secundi breves, carpis 
quadriarticulatis . 

418. Abete doesalis, nov. sp. Corpus lave, nitidum. Dorsum obtusum. 
Rostrum apicem art. penultimi anteunularum pedunculi attingens ; basi 
utrinque profunde canaliculatum. Oculi retractiles (?), pedunculis sub cara- 
pace semper celatis. Orbita angtilo extemo spina armata. Antennae breves. 
Antennularum pedunculi art. ultimus articulos duos praecedentes conjunctos 
adaequans ; squama basali medium art. ultimi attingente. Antennarum ap- 
pendix brevis, lata, pedunculum vix superans. Pedes primi paris leves ; car- 
po crasso, margine antico^basin manus circumdante ; manu (digitis inclusis) 
duplo longiore quam latiore, et carapace dimidia breviore ; digitis depressis, 
non hiantibus, extus laevibus, intus denticulatis, apicibus hamatis ; dactylo 
palma tertia parte breviore. Pedum secundorum carpi art. primus art. se- 
quentes conjunctos adaequans ; art. quartus articulos secundum tertiumque. 
Pedes postici inter se aequales, sat breves, leves, subcylindrici ; dactylis bi- 
unguiculatis. Color obscure-purpureus. Long. 0.5 poll. 

Hah. — In freto "Ly-i-moon," prope insulam "Hong Kong;" inter rupee 
sublittorales. 

* 'A/wTJt, nom. propr. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 33 

419. HippoLTTE ACULEATA, M. Edw ; Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii. 380. Cancer 
aculeatus, 0. Fabr., Fauna GroenL, No. 217. Hippolyte armata, Owen, Bee- 
chey's Voy. Zool., p. 88, pi. xxvii. f. 2. H. cornuta, Owen, 1. c, p. 89, pi. 
xxviii. f. 2. — Infreto "Seuiavine" et in sinu "Avatska;" e fundo limoso prof. 
10-15 org. Etiam in Oceano Arctico ; prof. 20-30 org. 

420. Hippolyte kectikostkis, nov. sp. Robusta. Carapax cristatus, tertia 
parte posteriore excepta ; margine antico, spina antennali et spina pterygosto- 
miana praedito. Rostrum horizontale, apicem antennularum pedunculi attin- 
gens, margine superiore recto, sex-dentato,* dentibus aequalibus et aequidis- 
tantibus ; tribus posterioribus in carapace sitis ; margine inferiore autice paulo 
dilatato et quadridentato, dentibus minutis. Antennulae appendicem anten- 
narum vix superantes. Maxillipedes externi robusti, appendices antennarum 
superantes ; epignatho,t neque exognatho praediti. Pedes primi graciles, manu 
elongata, digitis gracilibus palma multo brevioribus. Pedes primi, secundi, 
tertiique paris epipodof praediti. Abdominis dorsum leve, ecarinatum, sed 
segmento tertio pauUo acutum. Segmentum caudale quatuor paribus acule- 
orum dorsalium armatum. Long. 1.5 poll. 

Hab. — Porta " Hakodadi" Japoniae borealis ; in locis profundis maris. 

421. Hippolyte cristata, noT. sp. Carapax tertia parte anteriore carinatu? ; 
margine antico spina antennali et spina pterygostomiana armato. Rostrum 
gracile, fere horizontale, peduuculo antennularum parce brevius ; crista supe- 
riore sex-dentata, supra oculos arcuata, dentibus duobus posterioribus in cara- 
pace, dente posteriore aliis minore et remotiore, dente anteriore etiam minore 
et ab apice rostri pauUo remoto ; apice subtus bidentato. Antennulae apicem 
appendicis antennarum non superantes. Maxillipedes ext. graciles, hunc at- 
tingentes apicem, epignatlio non vero exognatlio instructi. Pedes primi, se- 
cundi, tertiique paris epipodo instructi. Pedum secundorum carpus septem- 
articulatus. Abdomen ecarinatum. Tria aculeorum segmenti caudalis ultimi 
lateralium paria. Long. 1 poll. Ab H. palpatore, brevirosti-ique |difFert max- 
illipedibus externis brevioribus ; ab H. picta, pedibus secundo tertioque epi- 
podo instructis ; ab H. laj/i rostro breviore. 

Hab. — Portu " San Francisco" Californiae ; fundo arenoso prof. 5-10 org. 

422. Hippolyte bkevirostris, Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust, i. 556, pi. 
xxxvi. f. 5. — In portu " San Francisco." 

423. Hippolyte borealis, Owen ; Appendix to Ross' Voyage, p. 24, pi. i. f. 
3. Kroyer ; Monog. Fremstilling af Hippolyte's Nordiske Arter, p. 122, pi. iii, 
f. 74-77. — In profundis Oceani Arctici. 

424. Hippolyte polaris, Owen; App. to Ross' Voy. p. 85. Kroyer; Monog. 
Fremst. Hippol. p. 116, pi. iii. f. 78-81. Alpheus polaris, Sabine. — In profun- 
dis sabulosis Oceani Arctici. 

425. Hippolyte camtschatica, nov. sp. Gracilis. Carapax antice breviter 
carinatus ; margine antico spina antennali et spina pterygostomiana minutis- 
sima armato. Rostrum subcultratum, carapace non breviore, apicem appen- 
dicis antennarum attingens, supeme quinque-dentatum, dentibus subaequali- 
bus et aeqiiidistantibus, dente secundo supra oculorum basin sito ; crista infe- 
riore paullo dilatato, quinque-dentato, dentibus primo ultimoque minutis ; apice 
gracillimo, acutissimo. Antennarum appendices grandes. Maxillipedes ext. 
antennarum pedunculum paullo superantes et medium appendicis attingentes, 
epignatho non vero exognatho praediti. Pedes longi, epipodo destituti. Ab- 
domen leve, ecarinatum ; articulo tertio modice prominente. Segmentum cau- 
dale paribus quinque aculeorum dorsalium armatum. Long. 1 poll. Ab //. 
sitckaensi differt rostro magis acuto et inferne magis dentato. 

* Margine cristae carapacis dorsal is semper incluso. 
f t Epignathus et epipodus=flagelluin. 

I860.] 3 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

426. HippoLYTE PANDALoiDES, nov. sp. Corpus gracile, fusiforme. Carapax 
per dimidiam anteriorem carinatus ; margine antico spina antennali solum ar- 
mato. Rostrum gracillimnm, fere rectum, horizontale, quam carapax mnlto 
longius et appendices antennarum multo superans, superne 10-12 dentatum, 
dentibus duobus posterioribus in carapace, anterioribus fere obsoletis ; crista 
inferiore decemdentata, dentibus quam superiores majoribus. Appendices an- 
tennarum grandes carapace non breviores, antennulas superantes. MaxiUi- 
pedes externi brevissimi, pedunculum antennarum non superantes, epignath* 
non vero exognatlio instructi. Pedes epipodo destituti ; secundi paris carpus 
septem-articulatus ; posticorum merus margine inferiore spinulosus. Abdo- 
men ecarinatum, sed segmento tertio prominens ; segmento ultimo paribus sex 
aculeorum dorsalium armato. Color viridis. Long. 1.75 poll. 

Hab. — Sinu " Hakodadi ;" inter lapides ad prof. 2 org. 

427. HiPPOLYTB GENicuLATA, nov. sp. Maxillipcdes ext. epignatho non vero 
exognatho instructi : pedes epipodo destituti. If. pandaloidae valde affinis, ro- 
bustior, rostro breviore, quam carapax non longiore, superne quadridentato, in- 
terne septem-dentato, medio paullo dilatato. Abdomen segmento tertio forte 
geniculatum, valde prominens, compressum, cristatum. Color obscure-pnr- 
pureus, linea dorsali alba. Long. 2 poll. 

Hab. — Cum praecedente. 

428. HiPPOLYTE GUACiLiROSTEis, uov. sp. Carapax levis, antice brevissime 
carinatus ; margine antico spina pterygostomaica solum armato. Rostrum gra- 
cillimnm, rectum, paullo deflexum, breve, articulum penultimum peduncnli 
antennularum non superans, superne sex-dentatnm, dentibus aequalibus, duobus 
posticis in carapace ; apice bi-denticulato ; margine inferiore denticulis duobus 
approximatis apice paullo remotis armato. Maxillipedes ext. appendices anten- 
r:arura parce superantes, exognatbo epipodoque praediti. Pedes primi secundi 
tertiique epipodo instructi ; tertii quarti quintique paris graciles. Abdomen 
dorso leve ecarinatum ; segmentum ultimum paribus quatuor aculeorum dorsa- 
lium praeditum. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hub. — Portu "Hakodadi ;" in regione lamiuariarum. 

429. HiPPOLYTE LEPTOGNATHA, nov. sp. Carapax per dimidiam anteriorem 
carinatus et dentatus ; margine antico spina antennali et pterygostomiana 
armato. Rostrum pedunculum antennularum superans, appendicis antennarum 
apicem vero non attingens, horizontale ; crista superiore antrorsum Integra, re- 
trorsum 4-5-dentata, dentibus posticis tribus vel quatuor in carapace; crista in- 
feriore antice paullo dilatata et dentibus parvulis tribus vel quatuor instructa. 
Appendices antennarum antennulas adaequantes vel paullo superantes. Maxil- 
lipedes ext. exiles, pedunculum antennarum superantes, appendices vero multo 
breviores, exognatho epignathoque instructi. Pedes Imi 2di Stiique pari* 
epipodo praediti ; 2di paris carpus septem-articulatus, articulo tertio aliis lon- 
giore. Abdomen dorso laeve, ecarinatum ; segmento tertio sat prominente : 
segmento ultimo paribus quatuor aculeorum. Pallide rubra, albo variegata. 
Long. 1 poll. 

Ilab. — Sinu " Hakodadi ;" vulgaris in fundis algoso-arenosis, prof. 2-6 org. 

430. HiPPOLYTE TCRGiDA, Krover ; Monog. Fremst. Hippol., 100, pi. ii, f. 57- 
.j8 ; pi. iii, f- 59-63. — In Oceano Arctico ad prof. 35 org. ; et in freto " Senia- 
vine : " fundo sabuloso, 10-20 org. 

431. HiPPOLYTE ocHOTENSis, Brandt. ; Sibir. Reise, 120, pi. v, f. 17. — In sinu 
" Hakodadi." 

432. HiPPOLYTB SPINA, White; Brit. Mus. Cat. Crust., 1847, p. 76. Bell: 
Brit. Crust. 284. H. sowerbei, Lam'k ; Kroyer ; Monog. Fremst. Hippol., 90, pi. 
ji^ f. 45-54. — In freto "Seniavine;" (prope fretum Beringianum ;) in fundi? 
limosis prof. 10-20 org. ^ 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 35 

433. HippoLYTE GiBBA, Krojcr ; Monog. Fremst. Hippol. 80, pi. i, f. 30, 31, 
et pi. ii, f. 32-37. — In freto "Seniavine" et in Oceano Arctico ; fundis limosis 
et arenosis prof. 20-30 org. 

434. HipPOLTTE PECTiNiFEKA, Dov. sp. Corpus brevc, altum. Carapax lamina 
dentata antrorsum latescente cristatus ; regione orbitali utrinque spinis tribus 
in serie longitudinali instructa ; margine antico infra oculum spinis duabus 
(antennali et pterygostcmiana forti) armato. Rostrum latissimum, suborbicu- 
latum, (ei Rhynchocycli simili,) antennularum pedunculum superans, superne 
25-dentatum, dentibus posterioribus majoribus, dente postico ad tertiam partem 
anteriorem carapacis posito ; margine inferiore bidentato, dentibus antrorsnm 
sitis et quam superiores majoribus. Antennularum squamae basales validae 
acutae ab pedunculo divergentes ; flagella brevia subaequalia. Antennae cor- 
pore breviores; appendice ovata, antrorsum acuta, rostrum superante. Max 
ext. exognatho epignathoque instructi. Pedes toti (secundis exclusis) breves 
et robusti ; primi secundi tertiique paris epipodo instructi; dactyli pedum pos- 
ticorum eis //. aculeatae similes. Epimera abdominis segmentis 1-6 dentibus 
spinisve 4-5 pectinata, spina anteriore vulgo longiore. Segmentum caudale 
paribus tribus aculeorum dorsalium munitum. Color pallide purpureas, margine 
carapacis antico et apicibus digitorum albis. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hah. — Sinu " Hakodadi ;" f. conchoso org. 8. 

435. HippoLYTE Fabricii, Kroyer ; Monog. Fremst. Hippol. p. 69, pi. i, f. 12- 
20. — In sinu " Avatska." 

ViRBius,* nov. gen. Hippolytae affinis. Dorsum carapacis rostrique ecari- 
natum. Mandibulae non palpigerae. Maxillipedes externi breves, exognatho 
non vero epignatbo instructi. Pedes epipodo destituti. Pedum primi paris 
carpus antice excavatus ; secundi paris carpus tri-articulatus. Hippoh/te acu- 
minata, viridis, smaragdina, obliquimana, exilirostrata, varians et Prideauxiana ad 
hoc genus pertinent. 

436. ViRBics AUSTRALiENSis, noT. sp. Carapax levis, spina orbitali instructiis. 
spina antennali parvula, pterygostomiana nulla. Rostrum carapace vix brevius. 
superne laeve, basi horizontaliter latiuscum, apice acutum, margine inferiore cris- 
tatum et sexdentatum. Antennulae breves, pedunculo quam rostrum dimidia 
breviori, flagello interno externo duplo longiore. Antennarum appendices 
grandes, oblongae, rostrum superantes, intus apicem antrorsum dilatata ; pe- 
dunculus extus spina armatus ad basin appendicis. Maxillipedes ext. apicem 
antennarum pedunculi non attigentes ; articulo ultimo valde compresso, non 
duplo longiore quam latiore et quam art. penultimus non longiore. Pedes 
secundi apicem antennarum pedunculi non attingentes. Pedes postici parvi, 
articulo penultimo subtus spinalis armato ; dactylo intus multi-unguiculato. 
Abdomen laeve forte geniciilatum. Segmentum caudale paribus duobus acule- 
orum dorsalium munitum. Color viridis. Long. 1.5 poll. 

Hab. — In portu Jacksoniensi Australiae ; inter algas ad prof. org. 2. 

437. ViRBins ACOTUS, nov. sp. Carapax spina supra-orbitali et antennali 
armatus ; angulo antero-inferiore acuto. Rostrum gracillimum, peduiiculnm 
antennularum superans, appendices antennarum vero brevius, superne in medio 
unidentatum ; crista inferiore prope apicem quadiidentata. Max. ext. breves, 
versus basin lati. Pedum secundorum carpi articuli subaequales, ultimus paullo 
longior. Pedum posticorum dactyli intus breviter spinosi, apice bi-unguiculati. 
Abdomen ecarinatum geniculatum, segmento tertio acute prominens. Appen- 
dices caudales parvi. Segmentum caudale paribus quatuor aculeorum plerum- 
que munitum, tribus approximatis, pari posteriore remoto. Color purpureus, 
variegatus. Long. 0.5 poll. 

JIab. — Ad insulam " Loo Choo ;" littoralis in rupibus algosis. 

* Virbina, Hippoljti filius. 
I860.] 



36 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

438. ViRBiDS Kraussianus, noT. sp. Carapax latiuscnlus, spina supra- 
orbital! et antennali armatus ; spina pterygostomiana nulla. Rostrum gracile, 
pedunculum antennularum pauUo longius, apicem appendicium antennarumvero 
non attingens, superne basi bidentatum, apice tridentatem, margine inferiore 
quadridentatum. Flagella antennularum subaequalia, appendices ant. vix 
superantia. Max. ext. articulus ultimus penultimo fere duplo longior. Abdo- 
men ecarinatum, forte geniculatum ; segmentis caudalis aculeorum paribus 
duobus. Long. o.7 poll. 

Hab. — In sinu " Simon's Bay," props Promontorium Bonae Spei. 

439. ViRBius ACUMiNATUS. Hippolyte acuminata, Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., 
Crust., i. 562, pi. xxx, f. 1. — In Oceano Atlantico. 

Genus Rhynchocinetes, M. Edw. Maxillipedes externi exognatho epignathoqne 
instructi ; pedes primi, secundi, tertii, quartique paris epipodo praediti. 

440. Rhynchocinetes rugulosus, nov. sp. R. typo Chilensi valde afBnis, sed 
superficie carapacis transversim striolata vel rugulosa, rugis quam in R. typo 
magis conspicuis et crassioribus. Rostrum parte anteriore marginis superiorid 
tridentatum, subtus 12-dentatum. Digiti pedum primi paris superne nudi. . 
Long. 2 poll. 

Jlab. — In portu Jacksoniensi Australiae ; sublittoralis inter rupes. 

Ogykis*, nov. gen. Carapax parce cristatus, non rostratus. Oculi longis- 
simi, pedunculos antennarum superantes, pediculis gracillimis. Antennulae 
bi-flagellatae, pedunculo exius processu spiniformi ad basin piaedito. Anten- 
narum appendix parvus, pedunculo multo brevior. Mandibulae graciles, pro- 
funde bipartitae, palpo laminato, biarticulato instructae. Maxillipedes secundi 
non pediformes ; externi grandes, longi, exognatho gracili instructi; articulo 
endognathi ultimo brevi, pilis phimosis longis vestito. Pedes exopodo des- 
tituti ; primi secundique paris chelati; carpus secundi paris triarticulatus. 
Pedes 3tii 4ti 5tique paris inter se dissimiles, non chelati. Abdomen inerme, 
lamellis caudalibus brevibus, externis angustis. 

441. Ogyris okientalis, nov. sp. Carapax pubescens, crista dorsali laevissima, 
dentibus 4 — 5 minutis antrorsum armata. Orbita angulo externo acuta vel 
spina armata. Oculi carapace non dimidia breviores, pedunculos antennula- 
rum superantes, pediculis pubescentibus basi valde incrassatis. Antennulae 
carapace non longiores, flagellis gracilibus, longitudine aequalibus, externo 
verus vasin paullo incrassato. Antennae corpore tertia parte breviores, ap- 
pendice parvo subovali. Maxillipedes externi extremitates antennularum fere 
attingentes, ad commissuram ultiman geniculati. Pedes sex postici pilosi, 
tertii quartique paris crassi, tertii breviores, quinti longi filiformes. Abdomen 
dorso laeve convexum, extremitate segmenti ultimi laie rotundata, laminis 
caudalibus exterioribus incrassatis, extrorsum curfatis, acutis. Long. 1 poll. 

Hah. — In mari Sinensi, et in sinu "Kagosima ;" in fundis arenosis 5 — 25 org. 
prof. 

442. Pandalus goniorus, nov. sp. Corpus gracile nudum. Rostrum tenue, 
carapace tertia parte longius, superne 9-dentatum, dentibus sparsis, tribus pos- 
terioribus in carapace sitis, duobus posticis minoribus approximatis et ab aliis 
magis remotis ; marginis superioris parte dimidia anteriore edentulo ; apice 
bifurcate vel bidentato, dente superiore minore; margine inferiore T-dentato. 
Antennulae rostro non breviores. Antennarum appendices carapacis longitu- 
dine. Pedes primi omnino graciles, pedunculum antennarum superantes. Pe- 
dum posticorum dactyli longiores. Abdomen segmento tertio geniculatum, 
plus minusve acute compresso, prominente, vix vero dentato. Long. 2 poll. P. 
annulicorni afBnis, rostro longiore, et abdominis segmenti tertii dorso compresso. 

* ^'dyvpK, nomeu insulae maris Indici. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 37 

Hub. — In sinu " Avatska" Kamtschatkae ; in fundo limoso prof. 10 org. vul- 
garis. 

443. Pandalus prensou, nov. sp. Gracilis. Rostrum thorace vix brevius, 
apicera antennarum appendicium non attingens ; margine superiore 14- dentate, 
(dentibus 6 posticis in carapace,) tertia parte versus apicem edentulo ; apice 
tridentato ; margine inferiore quinque-dentato.* Antennula, roslro fere duplo 
longiores. Maxillipedes externi apicem antennarum appendicium fere attin- 
gentes, esognatho destituti. Pedes primi omnino graciies. Pedes tertii ma- 
jores, subprehensiles ; articulo penultimo plus minusve dilatato, subcurvato, 
postice convexo, palma spinulosa, dactjlo longo, ad palmam retractili. Pedes 
quarti quintique paris tertiis minores, dactylis brevibus. Abdomen dorso laeve, 
rotundatum ; segmento penultimo carapace demidia breviore ; segmento ultimo 
quinque aculeorum instructo paribus. Subtranslucidus, pallide coccineo-macu- 
latus. Long. 2 poll. 

Mab. — Sinu " Hakodadi;" fundo conchoso, prof. 8 org. 

444. Pandalus robustus, nov. sp. Corpus breve robustum. Rostrum carapacis 

8+11 

longitudine, appendices antennarum paullo superans; dentibus 1-3 arma- 

7 
turn, margine superiore versus apicem edentulum. Antennulae rostro vix longio- 
res. Maxillipedes ext. apicem appendicium ant. attingentes ; exognatho destituti. 
Pedes primi e basi graciies. Pedum tertiorum articulus penultimus rectus, super- 
ficie asper; dactylus robustus et quam iste pedum quartorum quintorumque 
multo longior. Abdomen dorso laeve, rotundatum ; segmento sexto perbrevi, 
longitudine carapacis tertiae partis ; segmento caudali dorso pubescente, 
quinque aculeorum armato paribus. Long. 2 poll. 
Hab. — Sinu "Hakodadi," in profundis. 

443. Pandalus gracilis, nov. sp. Corpus gracile. Rostrum carapace lon- 

7-flO 

gius, appendices antennarum superans, et dentibus \-3 armatum, margi- 

8 
nis superioris tertia parte anteriore edentulum. Antennulae rostro parum lon- 
giores. Maxillipedes ext. medium appendicium antennarum vix superantes ; 
exognatho destituti. Pedum tertiorum articulus penultimus gracilis, laevis, 
sparsim pilosus, margine inferiore sparsim aculeatus ; dactylus quam iste quarti 
quintique paris parum longior. Pedes quarti quintique graciliores, mero sub- 
tus spinuloso. Abdomen dorsi medio prominens, sed rotundatum; segmento 
sexto carapace plus dimidia breviore ; ultimo quinque aculeorum armato paribus. 
Long. L25 poll. 

Jlab. — Sinu "Hakodadi." 

446. Pandalus escatilis, nov. sp. Corpus pubescens coccineo-variegatum. 
Carapax dimidia anteriore carinatus, margine aniico spina antennali, et ptery- 
gostomiana prope antennae insertionem sita armatus. Rostrum longum gra- 
cile, horizontale vel resimum, carapace multo longior, superne regulariter 60- 
denticulatum, (dente postico ad quintain anteriorem long, carap. sito.) inferne 
serratum, dentibus quam superiores minoribus. Maxillipedes externi exognatho 
instruct!; endogna.tho ei P. annuUcornis simili. Pedes gracillimi ; primi paris 
apicem rostri attingentes, secundi paris eum maxillipedum externorum. Pedes 
3tii 4li 5tique paris rostrum multo superantes; mero subtus spinis sparsis 
armato; articulo antepenultimo quam merus multo graciliore. Long. 2. .5 poll. 
P. narwal affinis, sed ditfert rostro magis subtiliter et regulariter serrata, et 
pedibus posticis spinosis. A P. priste differt in maxillipedibus externis. 

Ilab. — Prope insulam Madeirae ; in profundis. 



6+8 , 
* En formula talis dentitionis, —i: — 1-3. 



I860.] 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

447. Pandalus leptokhynchps, nov. sp. Corpus gracillimum. Carapax vix 
eristatus, spina una dorsali in regione gastrica armatus ; margine antico spina 
supra-orbitali, antennali etpterygostomianainstructo. Rostrum tenuissimum, 
fere filiforme, carapace non brevius, superne dente unico antrorsum porrecto 
versus basin ai-matum, subtus dentibus minutis duobus, uno mediano, altero 
versus apicem acutum sito. Antennularum pedunculus gracillimus, rostro 
quarta parte breviore ; squama basali lata, apice externo spiniformi ; flagelluna 
pedunculo non longius. Antennarum appendices rostro non breviores. Pe- 
des exiles ; tertii quarti quintique paris subprehensiles ; — dactylo ad latus pos- 
ticum art. penultimi retractili. Abdomen forte geniculatum, segmento tertio 
carina perobtusa armato ; segmento sexto praelongo. Subpellucidus, lineis 
flavis, punctisque nigris ornatus. Long. 1 poll. 

Hab. — Portu Jacksoniensi Australiae ; ad littora arenosa et algosa. 

448. PoNTONiA MACCLATA, nov. sp. Foeminae corpus sat gracile. Carapax 
inermis. Rostrum art. penultimum antennularum pedunculi attingens, gra- 
cile, superne depressum, subtus acute cristatum, apice truncatum, marginibus 
edentulis. Oculi grandiores. Antennularum flagellum pedunculo brevius 
sed appendicem antennarum multo superans. Antennae corpore dimidia 
breviores, appendice carapace plus dimidia breviores, sed pedunculum antennu- 
larum pauUo superantes, apice rotundato-obtusse. Max. externorum art. ante- 
penultimus gracilior. Pedum secundorum manus minor (?) gracilis, digitis 
intus edentulis ; (manus altera deest.) Pedum 3 posticorum dactyli uncinati, 
intus dente armati. Abdomen spinis nuUis ad basin segmenti caudalis arma- 
tum. Pellucida, maculis minutis purpureis conspersa. Long. 0.75 poll. A 
P. tridacnae differt forma elongata, rostro graciliore, etc. 

Hah. — Ad insulas "Benin ;" in Tridacnis. 

449. CoRALLiocARis* GHAMiNEA. Oedlpus gramifieus, Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exp., 
Crust, i. 574, pi. xxxvii. f. 3. — Ad insulam "Hong Kong;" in madreporis. 

450. CoEALLiocAKis SDPERBA. Oedipus superbus, Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., 
Crust, i. 573, pi. xxxvii. f. 2. — Ad insulam "Tahiti;" in corallis. 

451. CoRALLiocAEis LAMELLiRosTRis, uov. sp. Corpus depressum. Rostruna 
longum, pedunculum antennularum superans sed apicem appendicis antenna- 
rum non attingens, basi angustum ; crista superiore dilatata, sexdentata, 
dente postico supra oculos sito ; apice acuminato ; margine inferiore apicem 
versus etiam dilatato, 4-5-dentic-ulato. Antennulae appendices antennarum 
non superantes. Antennae corpore dimidia longiores. Max. externi planati 
sed sat angusti. Pedes primi apicem appendicium ant. attingentes, manibus 
vix hirsutis. Pedes secundi inaequales, manu majore (foeminae) valde gra- 
cili, digitis parvis, palma dimidia brevioribus, dactylo distorto non dilatato. 
Pedum posticorum dactyli eis C. macrophtkalmae similes, vix setosi. Abdo- 
men segmento tertio prominens. Color viridis ; carapax longitudinaliter, ab- 
domenque transverse rubro-fasciata. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hub. — Ad insulam " Loo Choo ;" inter corallia ad prof. 2. org. 

452. Harpilius depkessus, nov. sp. Corpus late depressum. Carapax spi- 
na hepatica armatus. Oculi grandes, et, lateraliter porrecti, margines carapa- 
cis multo superantes. Rostrum longum, apicem antennarum appendicium 
fere attingens, ci-ista inferiore parce dilatata, septem-dentata, dente postico 
parum post oculos sito ; crista inferiore versus apicem valde dilatata, quadri- 
dentata, dentibus validis. Antennulae breviores, appendicem antennarum ap- 
rum superantes. Antennae corpore non longiores. Maxillipedes externi valde 
graciles, articulis ultimo penultimoque conjunctis antepenultimo adequanti- 

* Etym. KcpaKKtov, corallium ; K*pT;, squilla. Nomen Oedipus Danae praeoc- 
cupatur. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 39 

bus, hoc in foeminis quam in maribus multo latiore. Pedes secundi grandes, 
laeves ; ischii, men, carpique apicibus dentibus splniformibus armatis ; manu 
carapace duplo longiore, digitis palma dimidia brevioribus, intus forte 2-3-den- 
tatis. Pedes postici robusti, dactylis curvatis apice fere obtusis. Abdomen 
gracile ; segmento ultimo acuto, pari unico aculeorum dorsalium instructo. 
Long. 0.7 poU. 

Hab. — Ad insulam "Hawaii;" inter madreporas. 

453. Anchistia Danae, nov. sp. Corpus breve robiistum. Carapax satlatus, 
spina hepatica armatus ; margine antico spina supra-orbitali et antennali in- 
structo. Rostrum parce dilatatum, pedunculum anteanularum non attingens, 
dentibus superne septem, subtus tribus armatum. Oculi grandes, lateraliter 
margines carapacis multo superantes. Antennulae appendices antennarum su- 
perautes ; fiagello robusto quam fiagellum tenue longiore, extremitate bifido. 
Appendices ant. apice sat latae. Mandibularum processus molaris ramus 
superior apice triSdus, ramus alter 5-6-dentatus, dentibus aliquibus scalprifor- 
mibus. Pedes primi carpum secundorum superantes. Pedes postici gracillimi. 
Segraentum caudale apice aculeis duobus longis instructum. Long, 0.5 poll. 

Hah. — Ins. " Tahiti ; " in corrallis. 

454. Anchistia brachiata, nov. sp, Carapax spina hepatica et antennali 
armatus: spina supra-orbitali nulla. Rostrum gracile, pauUo resimum, appen- 
dices antennarum non superantes, superne dentibus 5-j- armatum, dente 
secundo supra oculos sito, subtus dentibus 2-\- (apice in sp. nostro fracto). Oculi 
grandes. Antennarum appendices longae, angustae, extrorsum curvautes, car- 
apace longiores. Pedes secundi inaequales ; carpus sinistri appendices ant. 
superans ; carpo meroque basi angustatis, versus apicera incrassatis ; mero 
apice inferiore uni-spinoso ; carpo apicem superne bi-spinosa subtus uni-spinosa ; 
manu incrassata quam carpus plus duplo longiore ; digitis quam palma non 
dimidia parte brevioribus, pauUo contortis, intus singulo dentibus duobus 
parvis acutisque armatis ; dactylo margine superiore extus dilatato. Pes 
secundi paris dexter minor, digitis longioribus compressis nee distortis nee 
dentatis. Abdominis segmentum penultimum breve. Long. 0.8 poll. 

Hab. — Porta " Llojd " ad insulas •' Bonin." 

455. Anchistia grandis, nov. sp. A. ensifronti aflSnis, major. Rostrum an- 
gustius et appendices ant. non superans, margine superiore basi non concavo. 
septem-dentato, dente postico aliis paullo remoto, dente antico juxta apicem 
sito. Antennularum pedunculi art. penultimus interne extusque paullo dilata- 
tus. Appendices antennarum carapace non breviores, angustae, minuentes sed 
apice truncatae. Pedes secundi paris corpore longiores ; mero apicem append. 
ant. atlingente, subtus spina armato ; carpoad apicem intus uni-spinoso; manu 
robusta, carpo fere triple longiore; digitis palma dimidia brevioribus, medio 
hiantibus. Pedes quarti apicem appendicium antennarum attingentes. Long. 
1.2 poll. 

Hab. — Ad insulam " Ousima." 

Urocaris,'^ nov. gen. Corpus gracile, corapressum : abdomen longum, seg- 
mento penultimo praecipue elongato. Rostrum superne cristatum, dentatum, 
subtus rectum edentnlum. Oculoram pedunculi longiores. Antennulae eis 
Palaemonis similes. Mandibulae non palpigerae. Maxillipedes externi pedesque 
cum genere Pctlaemone conveniunt. — Typus U. lovgicaitdata in littoribus Carolin- 
ensibus habitans, rostro brevi, crista superiore supra oculos valde dilatata. 
arcuata, octodentata; dactylis pedum posticorum biunguiculatis ; abdomine 
quinquies longiore quam carapax, segmento tertio valde tumido, segmentC) 
penultimo gracile carapace non breviore. 

456. Urocaris longipes, nov. sp. Carapax spina hepatica et antennali 
armatus. Rostrum gracilp, rectum, minuens, appendicium antennarum apicem 
non attingens, crista superiore minus dilatata, septem-dentata, dente postico 

*Etym. ivm, cauda; Ka.fi;^ squilia. 

I860.] 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OE 

aliis pauUo remotiore, denticulo minuto inter denies sextum et septimum atque 
uno inter dentem septimum et apicem ; margine inferiore integro non ciliato. 
Antennularum fiagellum crassum breve, tertia parte extrema a fiagello tenui sep- 
aratum, lioc corpora non dimidia breviore ; fiagellum internum externo tenui 
brevius. Antennarum appendices mediocres. Pes secundi paris sinister long- 
issimus, inermis ; ischii apice apicem appendicium ant. fere attingente; mero 
carpo loagiore; manu cyliadrica merum carpumque conjunctos adequaate, dig- 
itis brevibus, palmae long, quartam partem vix aequanlibus. Pedes postici 
gracillimi, dactylis simplicibus. Abdominis segmentum penultimum minus 
elongatum. Pellucida, lineis duabus coccineis oruata, torporis facie inferiore 
etiam coccinea, manu majore pallide rubra. Long, corporis, 0.65 ; pedis gran- 
dis, 0.7 poll. 
Hab. — Prope insulam " Ousima; " fuado arenoso, prof. 20 org. 

457. Palaemonella tencipes, Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., i. 582; pi. 
xxxviii. f. 3. — Ad insulam " Ousima ; " inter algas reticulatas in sinibus are- 
nosis minus profundis. 

Genus Leander, Desmarest, Ann. Soc. Entom. de France, vii. 87. Carapax 
spina antennali et spina branchios-tegiana armatus; spina bepataca nulla. 
Species plerumque maricolae. Typus Palaemon natator, M. Edw. 

458. Leander natator. Palaemon natator, M. Edw.; Hist. Nat. des Crust. 
ii. 393. Dana; loc. cit., i. 588; pi. xxxviii, f. 11. — In Oceano Atlantico, lat. 
bor. 30° — 35°, etc.; vulgaris in Sargasso. 

459. Leander debilis. Palaemon debilis, Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., 
i. 585 ; pi. xxxviii, f. 0, 7. — Ad insulas Hawainenses et ad '' Loo Choo ; " in 
littoribus arenosis. 

460. Leander longicarpcs, nov. sp. Kostrum longum, carapace paullo lon- 
gius et appendices ant. multo superans, gracile, reflexum, superne, ad basin 
convexumetquinquedentatum, (dente secundo supra oculos sito.) dimidia versus 
apicem edentulum; crista inferiore paullo dilatataet 4- vel 5-dentata. Anten- 
nularum flagella duo externa parce conjuncta. Max. ext. gracillimi, in adultis 
jjedunculum antennarum superantes. Pedes tenues ; primi paris apicem ap- 
pendicium ant. non atlingentes ; secundi paris hunc superantes apicem sed 
carpo longo cum non aitingente, manu debili. carpo dimidia breviore. Pedes 
postici nudi. Segmentum abdominis penultimum lamellarum lateralium fere 
longitudine. Long. 1.5 poll. P. debili afiinis, sed dentibus rostri inferioribus 
paucioribus et pedibus secundi paris longioribus. 

* Hab. — Portu " Hong Kong " Sinensi. 

46L Leander paucidens. Palaemon paiicidens, De Haan ; Fauna Japonica, 
Crust., 170, pi. xlv, f. 11. Rostrum in sp. nostris superne 5-6 dentatum, prope 
apicem non edentulum. 

Hab. — Prope urbem Japonicam " Simoda ; " in aquis dulcibus fluvii, mari 
non remolis. 

462. Leander PACiFicus, nov. sp. Corpus robustura. Rostrum carapace non 
brevius, antennarum appendices superans : crista superiore dentata, (dente 
tertio vel quarto supra oculos sito,) versus apicem edentula; apice tridentato : 
crista inferiore dilatala, 4- vel 5-deatata, dentibus fortibns, dente anteriore 
apice remoto. Antennularum flagella duo externa parce conjuncta, fiagello 
extrerao crasso, pedunculo paullo longiore et margine interno valide serrato. 
Maxillipedes ext. rairjuiscentes, antennarum pedunculum parce superantes. 
Pedes primi paris apicem antennularum appendicium attingentes ; secundi paris 
sat robusti, bunc superantes apicem, manu paullo incrassata, digitis palma 
brevioribus ; pedes postici robustiores, fere nudi et inermes, quinti paris anten- 
narum pedunculum parum superantes. Color pallide viridescens, corpore rubro- 
vel olivaceo-lineato. Long. 2.5 poll. 

Hab. — In Oceano Pacifico vulgaris, littoralis in rupium fossis ; — ad insulas 
" Hong Kong" et " Hawaii," etiam in portu " Simoda." 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 41 

463. Leander serrifer, dot. sp. Rostrum appendices antennarum non su- 
perans, crista superiore fere recta, novem-dentata. dentibus posterioribus 1 et 2 
inter se et ab aliis pauUo remotioribus, dente tertio vel quarto supra oculos sito, 
dente anteriore ab apice paullo remoto, (demium duorum spatio); apice acuto 
superne bi-denticulato ; crista inferiore dilatata, maxima tridentata. Antennu- 
larum flagella duo externa parce conjuncta. Pedes primi paris apicem appen- 
dicium ant. attingentes, ischio meroque quafn carpus robusrioribus ; secundi 
paris longi, sat robusti, carpo appendicium ant. apicem attingente, et quam 
manus non breviore, manu elougata, quater longiore quam latiore, digitispalma 
tertii parte brevioribus. Pedes postici mediocres. Segmentum abdominis pe- 
nultiraum lamellis exterioribus multo brevius. Long., 1.75 poll. 

Hab. — Portu " Hong Kong," et sinibus insulae " Ousima; " littoralis. 

464. Leander intermedius, nov. sp. Spina branchiostegiana longa, acutis- 
sima, retrorsum sita, margine paullo remota, ut facile pro hepatica haberetur. 
Rostrum tenue, appendices ant. superans, reflexura, superne septem-dentatum, 
(dente tertio supra oculos.) subtus quadridentatum ; apice bifido vel bidentato. 
Oculigrandes. Antennulae corpore non breviores ; flagellis duobus externis per 
dimidiam longitudinis flagelli crassi conjunctis. Maxillipedes externi peduncu- 
lum antennarum parce superantes. Pedes secundi paris appendices ant. parum 
superantes ; manu paullo incrassata carpo vix loogiore, digitis palmae longitu- 
dine. Pede^ postici mediocres, aculeis sparsim armati ; dactylis longioribus. 
Pellucidus, flavo-lineatus, et intendum sparsim nigro-punctatis. Long., 1 poll. 

Hab. — In portu Jacksoniensi Australiae ; fuudis algoso-areaosis prof.- 2 org. 

Genus Palaemon, Fabr. Carapax spina hepatica armatus. Species omnes 
fluvicolae. 

465. Palaemox asper, nov. sp. Descr. maris adulti. Carapax spinulis vel 
granulis acutis corneis plus minusve exasperatus. Rostrum apicem appendi- 
cium antennarum fere attingens ; crista dorsali dilatata, recta vel parce convexa, 
12- vel 14-dentata, dente posteriore paullo remotiore, dente quarto supra oculos 
sito; criita inferiore 3- vel 4-dentata. Pedes secundi paris corpore non bre- 
viores, cylindrici, instar carapacis exasperati, interdum breviter pubescentes ; 
raero apicem antennarum appendicium superante; carpo palma manus parce 
longiore ; digitis palma tertia parte brevioribus, non hinntibus, interdum dense 
hirsutis, intus prope basin dentibus 1-2 armatis ; pollice intus lobo marginis 
crenulato ad basin praedito. Pedes postici sat longi, extremitates versus 
graciles, minuiscentes ; dactylis tertiam partem long, penultimi adaequantibus. 
Pedes ultimi paris appendices ant. superantes. Segmentum abdominis ultimum 
apice leviter tridentatum, dente mediano prominentiore, utrinque aculeis duobus 
margine instructo, aculeo interno longiore. Color olivaceus vel glaucus, vi- 
ridescens. Long, corporis 5 poll. Juniores laeves, glabri, subpellucidi. A P. 
lanceifronti differt crista rostri superiore minus expansa ; P. ornato, rostro magis 
dentato, etc. 

Hab. — In fluvii et rivulis Sinenses prope urbem " Canton." 

466. Palaemon BONiNENSis, nov. sp. Carapax laevis. Rostrum appendicibus 
ant. brevius, crista superiore supra oculos plus minusve convexa, versus apicem 
parce concava, dentibus 11 ad 13 arniata aequalibus et aequidistantibus, dente 
sexto supra oculos sito ; crista inferiore tridentata. Antennularum flagellum 
internum breve, externo dimidia fere brevius. Pedes robusti ; secundi paris 
subcylindrici, granulati sed quam in multis speciebus leviores ; carpo manu 
plus dimidia breviore ; digitis palma tertia parte brevioribus, granulatis, non 
pubescentibus, sparsim pilosis, intus basi 2- vel 3-dentatis, dentibus interdum 
fere obsoletis. Pedes postici breves crassi, subtiliter et breviter spinulosi ; 
dactylis robustis brevioribus. Pedes quinti paris mediam appendicium ant. 
attingentes. Color obscure viridis ; pedum ambulatoriorum apices flavi. Long, 
corporis 4 ; pedum secuadorura 3 poll. 

Hab. — Insulis " Bonin ; " in rivulis montanis. 

I860.] 



42 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

467. Thalassocaris* lccida. Regulus lucidus, Dana ; U. S. Expl. Exped., 
Crust., i. 598; p!. xxxix., f. 5. — In Oceano Pacifico ; lat. bor. 27^°. long., orient. 
138^°. 

CAULURDSjf nov. gen. Carapax latiusculus, dorso sutura cervicali notatus. 
Rostrum breve. Oculi grandes. Antennularum pedunculus longus, gracilis, 
squama basali nulla. Antennarum appendix fere linearis, basi angusta, apice 
truncata. Maxillipedes secundi paris non pediformes, tertii paris pediformes, 
robusti, cylindrici, exognatho praediti. Pedes exopodo instructi ; primi secuu- 
dique paris chelati ; secundi graciliores loogi; reliqui simplices. Abdomen 
dorso inerme ; segmenlo sexto praelongo, gracillimo. Oplophoro ditfert ab- 
domine et appendice antennarum inermibus, segmento penultimo praelongo, 
etc. 

468. Caulcrus pelagicus, nov. sp. Rostrum spiniforme vel dentiforme, 
oculis plus dimidia brevius. Regio gastrica dente mediano erecto prope basin 
rostri armata. Margo carapacis anterior dente praeorbitali, spina aotennali 
parvula et spina pterygostomiana armatus. Antennularum pedunculus cara- 
pace non brevior, articulo antepenultimo articulos penultimum et ultimum junc- 
tos superaute. Antennarum pedunculus longissimus filiformis, ei antennularum 
multo gracilior ; appendix carapacis longitudine et sexies longior quam latior, 
apice quam basis latiore, rotundato-truncato, extus spina brevi armato ; mar- 
gine appendicis interno sparsirn fimbriato paribus 15 setarum plumosarum 
gracilibus. Pedes secundi gracillimi prope manum constricti. Manus primi 
secuudique paris breves. Abdominis segmentum sestum quatuor praecedentes 
junctos fere superans, gracillimum, subcjiindricum ; lamellae caudales seg- 
mento sexto tertia parte breviores. Translucidus, visceribus coccineis. Long. 
0.25 poll. 

Hab. — In Oceano Pacifico, lat. bor., 34°, long, orient. 126°; nocte repertus. 

Leptochela,J nov. gen. Carapax laevis, vix cristatus, latere margineqae 
spinis destitutus. Rostrum brevissimum, spiniforme. Antennulae bi-flagel- 
latae. Mandibulae inflexae, late compressae, palpo brevi, ovato, uoi-articulato 
praeditae. JIaxillipedes secundi non pediformes endognathi an. ultimo spinis 
longis armato. Maxillipedes tertii exognatho instructi. Pedes toti expodo 
instructi ; primi secundique paris compressi, chelati, manu gracili, digitis longis 
parallelis. Pedes postici breves. Abdomen segmenti autepenultimi angulo 
dorsali postico plus minusve geniculatum vel abruptum ; appendicibus ventra- 
libus primi paris birameis. Pasiphaeae afiSnis, mandibulis vero palpigeris, 
raaxillipedibus secundis non pediformibus. 

469. Leptochela gracilis, nov. sp. Corpus compressum. Carapax glaber, 
antrorsum acute carinatum, carina laevi. Rostrum acutum, oculis brevius. 
Oculi breves, grandiores, globosi. Antennulae oblique compressae, corpore 
dimidia breviores, flagello superiore longiore. Antennae vix antennulis longiores, 
appendice minore acuto-triangulari, gracili, sed pedunculos antennularum ali- 
quantum superante. Mandibularum corona margine interno dentata, medio 
profunde fissa. Maxillipedes ext. graciles, apicem appendicium ant. attin- 
gentes, exognatho endognathi art. antepenultimum superante. Pedum exo- 
podi longiores, primi secundique paris apicem ischii atticgentes, posticorum 
medium meri. Pedes primi secundique paris appendices ant. superantes ; 
carpo palma manus breviore ; manu ad basin digitorum constricta, digitis 
palma longioribus. Pedes postici compressi, minuiscentes, plus minusve late- 
raliter porrecti, quam secundi paris plus dimidia breviores ; ischio brevissimo, 
subtua spina armato; dactylo hirsuto, apice rotundato inermi. Abdomen 
compressum antrorsum ecarinatum, segmento antepenultimo acute carinato, 

* Etym. ^a.\a.<r(T(i mare ; mfi^, squilla. Regulus nomen Danae praeoccupatum. 
f Etym. KAvKo;, caulis, tu^a cauda. 



X Etym. xe-TTOf, tener ; ;;(^n\>t. chela. 



[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43 

angulo superiore postico spina armato ; segmento ultimo canaliculato, apice 
aculeis duobus longis armato, aliis brevioribus interjacentibus. Lamella cau- 
dalis interna supeme canaliculata, externa margine exteriore spinalis armata. 
Long. 1 poll. 

Hab. — Sinu " Kagosima ;" in profundis. 

470. Leptochela robcsta, nov. sp. Corpus robustum minus compressum- 
Carapax ecarinatns, rostro gracillimo, oculis brevius. Antennulae carapace vix 
longiores, pedunculo robusto. Antennarum appendix latior, sed acute trian- 
gulata. Mandibularum corona margine interno non fissa. Pedes latiores. Ab- 
domen segmento antepenultimo nee carinatum nee spina armatum. Praecedenti 
affinis, sed omnino multo robustior. Long. 1 poll. 

Hab. — Mari Sinensi, prof. 20 org. Prope insulam " Loo Choo" quoque. 

471. SiCYONiA CRiSTATA, De Haan ; Fauna Japonica, Crust., 194; pi. xlv. 
f. 10. — In sinu "Kagosima;" fundo conchoso et arenoso, prof. 20 org. 

472. SicYONiA PARVULA, Dc Haan; 1. c. 195; pi. xlr. f. 6. — In sinu "Kago- 
sima." 

473. SiCYONiA ocELLATA, nov. sp. Carapax tomentosus. Crista carapacis 
rostrique convexa, septem-dentata, dentibus antrorsum magnitudine decrescen- 
tibus. Rostrum angustum, parce deflexura, articulum antennularum pedunculi 
penultimum non superans, apice tridenticulatum, margine inferiore integrum. 
Antennarum flagellum depressum utroque margine ciliatum. Pedes graciles ; 
digitis primi secundi tertiique paris palmis longitudine subaequalibus. Abdo- 
men profunde insculptum, porcis transversis, rugatis ; segmentorum epimeris 
trangularibus, inermibus ; segmento ultimo basi lato, depresso, extremitatem 
versus, in medio profunde canaliculato, apice aculeis tribus instructo, mediano 
longiore. Color griieus, purpureo-varegiatus ; carapax utrinque ocello nigro 
albo-marginato ornatus, in latere retrorsum sito ; abdomen lateribus albo- 
maculatum. Long. 1.25 poll. 

Hab. — Porta "Hong Kong;" in fundo conchoso prof. 8 org. vulgaris. In 
mari Sinensi quoque, lat. bor. 24° ; ad prof. 20 org. 

474. Pbnaeds sten'Odactylus, nov. sp. Descr. foeminae. Corpus compressum, 
nudum. Carapax elongatus, carinatus. (quarta parte posteriore excepta,) laevis, 
nisi dorso subtiliter granulato; spina hepatica distincta, sulcis proximis brevi- 
bus et tenuibus ; spina antennali minuta, carina et sulco antennaii obsoletis ; 
margine antico alibi inermi. Rostrum rectum vel parum resimum, oculis vix 
longius; crista superiore 8-dentata, dente postico aliis remoto et paullo ante 
medium carapacis sito, dente quarto supra oculos ; margine inferiore edentulo. 
Oculi crassi, articulum antepenultiraum antennularum pedunculi non superan- 
tes, articulo basali (basiophthalmito) spina brevi ad angulum superiorem 
armato. Antennarum appendices longae. Maxillipedes ext. graciles, appen- 
dices antennarum superantes. Pedes compressi ; digitis primi, secundi tertii- 
que paris longis. Pedes quarti late compressi, hirsuti, antrorsum porrecti 
oculos non superantes; quarti paris gracillimi longissimi, appendices ant. 
multo superantes, nudi, extremitates versus styliformes, dactylo recto, dimidiam 
partem carapacis longitudine fere adaequante. Abdominis segmenta quartum 
quinium sextumque carinata ; segmenti penultimi appendix interna cultrata, 
quam externa multo augustior. Pallide carneus. Long. 1.5 poll. 

Hab. — Portu " Hong Kong;" fundo limoso prof, sex org. 

475. Penaecs PODOPHTHALMUS, nov. sp. Descr. foeminae. Corpus elongatum, 
compressum, superficie ut videtur glabrum, subtiliter vero punctatum. Carapax 
elongatus, leviuscnlus, cristatus, (tertia parte posteriore excepta), spina hepatica 
minuta, sulcis proximis distinctis sed brevibus ; spina antennali brevi, sulco 
antennali obsoleto ; spina orbitali nulla. Rostrum breve, oculis dimidia bre- 
vius ; crista dorsali septemdentata, dente postico aliis remoto et ad tertiam 
I860.] 



44 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

anteriorem carapacis sito, dente quarto supra orbitam sito ; raarginibus den- 
tium subtiliter serrulatis ; margine rostri inferiore edentulo. Oculorura pedun- 
culi valde elongati sed carapace plus dimidia breviores, articulis basi et coxa 
T^&v\\s^ podophthahnito longo gracili ad basin turgido. Antennulae praelongae, 
carapace multo loagiores ; peduuculo carapace tertia parte breviore, articulo 
antepenultimo ad podophthalmiti basin recipiendum superne excavato, pro- 
cessii laminiformi interno minimo; fiagellis aequalibus. Antennarum appen- 
dices anteunularum pedunculo breviores. Mandibularum palpi pergrandes. - 
Maxillipedum externorum exognathus non multiarticulatus. Pedes breves ' 
compressi; digitis manuum longis. Abdomen compressum. Pallide carneus. 
Long. 1.3 poll. 

Hab. — Portu " Hong K3ng ;" fundo limoso prof. sex. org. 

476. Penaeus canaliculatus, Oliv. ; Encyc. Meth. 660. M. Edw. ; Hist. Nat. 
des Crust, ii., 414. (Vix De Haan.)— In portu Sinensi " Hong Kong," et ad iasu- 
1am "Loo Choo." 

477. Penaeus semisulcatds, De Haan ; Fauna Jap., Crust., 191, pi. xlvi, f. 1. 
— Ad oras Sinenses prope insulam " Hong Kong." 

478. Pexaeus monodon, Fabr. ; Suppl., 408. M. Edw. ; Hist. Nat. des Crust., 
ii. 416. — Prope oras Sinenses, lat. bor. 23°. 

479. Penaeus monocerus, Fabr. ; Suppl., p. 409, M. Edw. ; Hist. Nat. des 
Crust., ii. 415. De Haan; 1. c, 192; pi. xlvi. f. 2. — Ad oras insularum "Hong 
Kong" et " Loo Choo." 

480. Penaeus curvirostris, nov. sp. Descr. foeminae. Corpus superficie 
granulis minutis acutisque asperum. Carapax fere ad extr. posticam obtuse 
carinatus non vero canaliculatus ; sulco cervicali antice distincto, profundo, 
prope marginem anticum oriente, retrorsumattenuato sulco cardiaco-branchiali 
continuo, hoc latiusculo, paullo conspicuo, porca laevi definito ; spina hepatica 
valida extrorsum prominente ; sulco gastro-hepatico laevi ; spina antennali 
longa, acuta ; carina antennali fere acuta, sulco laevi, postice tomentoso ; sulco 
gastro-frontali ei P. monoceri simile, minus profundo; spina orbitali minuta, 
distincta vero et acuta. Rostrum articulum ultimum antennularum pedunculi 
attingens, curvato-resiraum, apice gracile truncatum vel subbifurcatum; crista 
superiore octo-dentata, dente postico aliis spatiis duobus remoto, dente tertio 
supra orbitas sito ; margine inferiore edentulo ciliato. Rostri carinae laterales 
acutae, in carapace obsolescentes: sulci Laterales vero leves, fere obsoleti. 
Antennularum processus basalis internus gracilis, minuiscens, non spatulatus ; 
flagella pedunculo paullo breviora. Maxillipedes externi extus nudi. Pedes 
tertii paris basi secundis non angustiores, spina destituti. Pedes ultimi gra- 
ciles, oculis attingentes. Sternum inter bases pedum quartorum quintorumque 
plus minusve scutatum, inaequale, medio profunde excavatum ; antrorsum 
obtuse triangulatum, margine dilatato laminiformi, arcuato, paullo prominente ; 
uncis lateralibus nullis. Abdomen segmentis 3tio — 6to carinatum, brcviter 
quoque in secundo ; cauda ei P. monoceri fere simili. Long. 3.5 poll. P. velutino 
affinis, rostro curvato, carina antennali acuta etiam diifert. 

Hub. — Portu " Simoda" Japoniae. 

481. Penaeus velutinus, Dana; U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., 1. 604; pi. xl. 
f. 4. — In mari et ad insulas Sinenses, in sinibus insulae " Ousima," et in por- 
tibus " Ksgosima" " Simoda" et " Hakodadi" Japoniae ; vulgaris in fundis 
arenosis prof. 5-30 org. 

MiCROPROSTHEMA,* uov. geu. Corpus depressum, obesum, superficie varie 
sculptum vel spinulis ornatum. Carapax minus induratus, dorso sulco cervi- 
cali valido notatus. Rostrum mediocre, gracile, elongato-triangulatum, non 

*Etym. juntfio;, parvus ; Trpoa-Qijwx, appendix. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA, 45 

lamiaiforme, dorso spiais armatum. Ociili parvi. Antennularum peduncu- 
lus brevissimus, ad basin processu unciformi extus praeditus, lamella interna 
nulla; flagella duo, longa, cylindrica. Antennae in piano antennularum sitae; 
pedunculo etiam brevissimo, ad basin processu laminato cochleariformi intus 
instructo, appendice minima, cultrata vel sublunata, pedunculo extus adjuncta 
sed introrsum porrecta, margine interno longe ciliata ; flagello mediocris longi- 
tudinis. Mandibulae per-robustae, processu antico obtuso, edentulo ; processu 
interno globato laevi ; palpo ei Slenopi simili. Maxillipedes extern! breves, 
sublaminati, extus spinis armati ; exognatho longo. Pedes exopodo brevi 
instructi ; primi secundique paris gracillimi, manu minuta instructi ; tertii 
paris grandes, manu maxima, lata, cristata ; quarti quintique paris longi, neque 
annulati, dactylo minuto, biunguiculato. Abdomen foeminae latum, appen- 
dicibus ventralibus longis gracilibus, introrsum porrectis, primi paris uni- 
rameis. 

482. MicBOPROSTHEMA VALiDA, uov. sp. Descr. foeminae. Corpus crassum, 
non altius quam latius. Carapax omnino spinulosus, spinis inaequalibus, in 
dorso et regione hepatica majoribus, in lateribus fere longitudinaliter seriatis ; 
margine antico circa basin antennae spinis tribus armato. Rostrum parvum, 
antennarum pedunculi longitudine ; crista dorsali rostro duplo longiore, sep- 
tem-spinosa ; cristislateralibus in carapace rostro divergentibus et3-4-spinosis. 
Oculi parvi, cornels pedunculis angustioribus. Antennulae corpore quarta 
parte breviores ; antennae eo non breviores. Antennarum appendix tertiam 
partem carapacis longitudine adaequans ; pedunculus appendice paullo brevior. 
Maxillipedes externi apicem appendicium ant. attingentes; ischio dilatato 
apice externo unispinoso ; mero extus bispinoso. Pedes tertii grandes, mero 
carpo aequali et quam ischium duplo longiore, et, simili carpo, trigone, acute 
granuloso, marginibus spinuloso ; manu carapace non breviore, duplo longiore 
quam latiore, superne cristata, crista inermi ; digitis valde compressis non 
hiantibus ; pollice intus bidentato, dactylo unidentato, dentibus magnis. Ab- 
domen carapace tertia parte longius, medio (seg. tertio) breviter carinatum; 
segmentis Imo — 3tio transversim costatis, et in latere tuberculo spiniformi 
armatis ; epiraeris segmentorum Imi — 5ti acute prominentibus et carinatis ; 
segmentis sexto ultimoque planatis horizontalibus ; ultimo lato tenui, partim- 
bicarinato, apice rotundato, margine lateral! unispinoso. Obscure fusca; uni- 
color. Long. 0,65; thoracis lat. 0.24 poll. 

Hab. — In sinu insulae " Ousima ;" sublittoralis, in locis lapillosis algosisque. 

Genus Sergestes, M. Edw. Carapax dorso sutura v. sulco cervical! dis- 
tincte notatus et regione branchiali longitudinaliter bicostatus. 

483. Sergestes pacificus, nov. sp. Carapax minus elongatus, rostro bre- 
vissimo conico resimo, et spina vel dente praeorbitali armatus ; spina hepatica 
quam in <S. Frisii magis posterior. Oculi breves, articulo antennularum basal! 
plus tertia parte breviores. Antennularum pedunculi carapace parce brevi- 
ores ; articulo ultimo quam penultimus multo longiore. Pedes eis S. atlantici 
fere similes, eis S. Frisii multo majores ; primi paris quam maxillipedes externi 
el eis secundi paris breviores ; quarti paris eis tertii tertia parte breviores ; 
quint! dimidiam quartorum fere adequantes ; dactylis quasi articulatis longe 
aetosis. Abdominis segmentum penultimum, quartum quintumque junctos 
longitudine fere aequans ; lamella caudalis exterior margine externo dente 
minuto infra medium armata. Long. 1.25 poll. 

Ilab. — Oceano Pacific©, lat. bor. 27^°, long, orient. 138". 

484. Sergestes vioilax, nov. sp. Foeminae corpus gracile. Carapax elon- 
gatus, gracilis, sulcis costisque distinctis ; spina hepatica prope tertiam anteri- 
orem sita minuta, extrorsum porrecta. Rostrum minutum, compressum, sub- 
triangulatum, resimum, dorso convexum. Oculi praelongi, dimidiam fere 
carapacis longitudine, articulum pedunculi antennularum penultimum supe- 
rantes, subfungiformes, corneis globosis, pediculis gracillimis. Antennularum 

I860.] 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

pedunculi articulus basalis minor, ultimo brevior. Antennarum appendix ei 
S. oculati similis, extremitatem versus angustata, oculis longior. Maxillipedes 
exterai grandes, dimidia basali incrassati, reliqua angustati, artlculo ultimo 
praecedenti dimidia fere breviore, obtnso, setarum fasciculis tribus inferne 
instructo. Pedes quarti mediocres. Abdomen dorso inerme ; segment© penul- 
timo non duplo longiore quara latiore, quartum quintumque junctos longitu- 
dine fere adaequante; lamella caudali exteriore extus dente minuto versus 
basin armato. Long. 0.75 poll. S. oculato differt maxillipedibus externis multo 
crassioribus, et pedibus quarti paris longioribus. A S. laciniato oculis longi- 
oribus. 
Hab. — Oceano Atlantico prope insulas " Azores." 

485. Sergestes macrophthalmcs, nov. sp. Carapax spina hepatica et spinis 
gupra-orbitalibus armatus, interdum et spina erecta dorsali ad extremitatem 
posticam. Rostrum brevissimum, resimum, apice antrorsum flexum. Ocnli 
praelongi, fungiformes, carapace tertia parte breviores, apicem pedunculi 
antennularum fere attingentes ; pediculis gracillimis. Antennularum pedun- 
culi art. ultimus quam basalis non brevior. Antennarum appendix recta, 
angusta, regulariter minuiscens, apice truncata, apicem antennularum pedun- 
culi vix attingens. Maxillipedes externi eis S. vigilacis similes. Pedes thora- 
eici secundi tertiique paris longissimi filiformes, apicibus paullo incrassati : 
quarti paris (antrorsum porrecti) art. secundum maxillipedum ext. attingentes. 
Pedes abdominales mediocres. Abdominis segmentum quintum interdum et 
quartum spina dorsali minutissima armatum ; segmentum penultimum latum, 
quartum quintumquejunctos longitudine fere aequans, subtus convexum ; seg- 
mentum ultimum parvum. Lamellae caudalis exterioris margo externus supra 
medium dente minutissimo armatus. Long. 0.7 poll. 

Hab. — Oceano Pacifico, lat. bor. 27^", long, orient. 138-^° ; etiam lat. bor. 35°, 
long. occ. 155°. 

486. Sergestes longicaudatus, nov. sp. Rostrum minutum, spiniforme. 
rectum, borizontale, dorso unidentatum. Oculi longi sed apicem art. basali* 
antennularum pedunculi vix attingentes, clavati, cornels vix discretis. Anten- 
nularum pedunculi articulus basalis art. penultimum et antepenultimum junctos 
longitudine aequans. Antennarum appendix apicem ped. antennularum non 
attingens, latior, intus margine convexa, ei S. serrulati similis. Maxillipedes 
ext. gracillimi. Pedes graciles, tertii paris praelongi, quarti paris non valde 
breviores. Abdomen dorso inerme ; segmento penultimo praelongo, quartum 
quintumque junctos longitudine multo superante, ultimo duplo longiore. La- 
mellae caudalis exterioris margo externus infra medium dente armatus, infra 
dentem concavus. Pedes abdominales praelongi. Long. 0.75 poll. 

Hab. — Oceano Pacifico, lat. bor. 40°, long. occ. 155°. 

487. Sergestes anctlops, Kroyer ; Det. Kongl. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skrifter, 
[5], Nat. og Math. Afd., 4de Bind; p. 262; pi. iii. f. 8 a-e. — In Oceano 
Atlantico prope insulam Madeirae vulgaris. 

SKRGiA,*nov. gen. Pedes quarti qnintique paris sat longi et dactylo pal- 
miformi instructi. Reliqua cum Sergeste fere conveniunt. 

488. Sergia remipes, nov. sp. Foeminae carapax valde elongatus, sat de- 
pressus ; sulco cervicali distincto ; spina hepatica nulla. Rostrum minutum 
spiniforme, acutura, curvatum, dorso dente vel spina armatum. Oculi sub- 
fungiformes, tertiam partem carapacis longitudine aequantes, apicem art. 
penultimi antennularum pedunculi attingentes. Antennarum appendix linearis, 
oculos paullo superans. Maxillipedes externi et pedes sex anteriores subserrati 
vel rugoso-marginati piMs simplicibus fasciculati. Maxillipedes ext. peduncn- 
lum antennularum paullo superantes. Pedes quarti quintique paris graciles 
cylindrici, fere nudi, setis plumosis sparsis solum instructi, dactjlis lamini- 

* Sergia, nom. propr. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 47 

formibus subovatis. Pedes quarti quintis paullo longiores sed carapace vix 
lonciores. Pedes abdominales longi, primi paris carapace longiores, pedunculo 
ramos fere adaequaate. Abdomen dorso compressum, segtnentis quinto sextoque 
acutum vel spinigerum ; segmento sexto quinto longiore et spina minuta ad an- 
gulum infero-posteriorem armato. Lamella caudalis exterior margine externo 
spina aculeiformi infra medium armata. Long. 0.6 poll. 
JJab.—Oceano Pacifico, lat. bor. 27i°, long, orient. 13§p. 



The Mexican Humming Birds. 

BY RAFAEL MONTES DE OCA, 

Of Jalapa, Mexico. 

No. I. 
Campylopterps De Lattkei Gould. 
Mellisuga De Lattrei Gray. 
De Lattre's Sabre Wing, Gould, Monograph, part x. 

This beautiful Humming Bird, or colihri, is generally known in Mexico by 
the name of Chupa-mirto real azul, or Royal blue Myrtle-sucker. It comes 
abundantly to the vicinity of Jalapa, Coatepec and Orizaba, in the months of 
October and November, and is mostly found eating the honey of a plant called 
Masapan. It is one of those birds that do not rise early in the morning to 
hunt their food, for very few are found earlier than nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and from that time till twelve or one o'clock appears to be their breakfast 
hours. During this time they are but very seldom seen to alight, and for a 
very short time only in any one place, for they go constantly from flower to 
flower, sucking the honey, and from one place to another, describing in their 
flight a part of a circle, and sometimes almost touching the ground. In the 
same manner also they are seen to come, so that by placing oneself where there 
are such plants in blossom, it is easy to shoot several specimens in one morn- 
ing without walking very far or moving much about. During the remainder 
of the day, very few are to be seen, and it is very probable that they go into the 
woods, where they find certain kinds of mosquitoes, with which I have often 
found their craws well filled. 

This bird is extremely shy, but is very easily tamed, most probably on account 
of its very gluttonous disposition ; for once caged and provided with a little cup 
containing syrup, without any trouble he finds it readily when he is hungry, 
and I have seen them feasting in this manner, half an hour after having been 
made prisoners. It is diflicult to keep them alive, and I have never been able 
to preserve them for a longer time than two months, which, I think, is more 
on account of the want of exercise than of the coming of the winter season as 
is generally believed here, for I have found, though rarely, in the middle of 
what we call a severe winter, the handsomest specimens that I have ever 
seen. 

The aversion that the males of this species bear to each other as well as to 
all of their kind is very remarkable. It is very seldom that two meet together 
without there ensuing an aerial battle worthy of a most magnificent picture. 
It commences with a sharp, choleric shriek, which makes them swell out their 
throats, and raising all the feathers of their bodies, and spreading open their 
tails, they begin to fight with their wings and bills, and the least powerful soon 
tumbles to the ground or else runs away. I have never seen one of these bat- 
tles last longer than about ten seconds, and in the specimens that I have had 
under my notice in cages, nearly always this fighting has ended in the splitting 
of the tongue of one of the two, which then surely dies on account of not being 
able to eat. 

The place of incubation of this bird is very probably Guatemala, where it i? 

I860.] 



48 TROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

also found abundantly, and to wMcli country it certainly migrates in the latter 
part of November. I have never found nor heard that it goes farther north 
than the first mentioned places above. The nest I have never found. 

This species of humming bird, in the general appearance of its body, is of a deep 
metalhc shining turquoise blue, of the most beautiful shade ; the upper part of 
the head is brown tinged with bronze green, the upper wing and tail coverts 
shining bronze green, the wing feathers are purplish black with the vanes of 
the three principal ones on each side black, very wide and resembling whale- 
bone. The tail is bright bluish black, with the three feathers of each side 
having about three quarters of an inch of a pnre white, and sometimes the 
fourth partakes of a little of the white" also. The upper part of each leg is 
covered with white downy feathers, running apparently into each other in a 
line of the same color below the under tail coverts ; the feet are purplish black ; 
the bill black, resembling whalebone. Total length of this specimen is 5| 
inches, wing 3|^, tail 2^, bill 1^ inches. 

The female is about half an inch smaller than the male, and her appear- 
ance is, in the upper part of the body, upper wing and tail coverts, of a metal- 
lic bronze green ; the upper part of the head is bronze, tinged with yellowish 
bronzed green. The breast is of a light iron gray, with the sides tinged with 
bronze green. The throat feathers have the points tinged with blue of the 
same shade as the male. The wings are purplish black, but the vanes of the 
side quills are not half so strong as those of the male ; the tail is very much 
like that of the male, with the difference of the two middle feathers, which 
are bronzed green. The under tail coverts are tinged with the same color, with 
the edges of light iron graj', like the breast. The feet and bill are of the same 
size and color as those of the male. 

The Reports of the Publication Committee and the Committee on 
Proceedings were read and adopted. 

Pursuant to the By-Laws of the Academy an election of the members 
of the Standing Committees for 1860 was held, with the following re- 
sult : — 

1. Ethnology, J. A. Meigs, S. S. Haldeman, T. G. Morton. 2. 
Comparative Anatomy and General Zoology, Joseph Leidy, J. M. 
Corse, J. H. Slack. 3. Mammalogy, John LeConte, J. H. Slack, 
Wm. Camac. 4. Ornithology, John Cassin, T. B. Wilson, S. W. 
Woodhouse. 5. Herpetology and Ichthyology, Robert Bridges, J. Ches- 
ton Morris, John L. LeConte. 6. Conchology, T. A. Conrad, W. G. 
Binney, W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 7. Entomology and Crustacea, 
R. Bridges, John L. LeConte, E. T. Cresson. 8. Botany, E. Durand, 
A. J. Brazier, J. Carson. 9. Geology, I. Lea, Chas. E. Smith, J. P. 
Lesley. 10. 3Iineralogy, "Wm. S. Vaux, J. C. Trautwine, W. G. E. 
Agnew. 11. Paleeontology , Joseph Leidy, T. A. Conrad, Wm. M. 
Gabb. 12. Physics, B. H. Rand, Wm. M. Ubler, Jas. C. Booth. 
13. Z/rZ*TO?'j/, Wm. S. Vaux, Robert Bridges, Joseph Leidy. 14. Pro- 
ceedings, John L. LeConte, Joseph Leidy, Wm. S. Vaux, W. S. W. 
Ruschenberger, J. C. Fisher. 

A communication was read from Mr. P. B. Duchaillu, giving a state- 
ment of claims made by him against the Academy, and on motion, the 
subject was referred to a committee of five, consisting of Messrs. 
Ruschenberger, Jeanes, Vaux, Powel and Stewardson. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 49 



February 7th. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-nine members present. 

The following were presented for publication : 

" Descriptions of new species of American Fluviatile Gasteropods, 
by J. G. Anthony." 

" Supplement to a Catalogue of the Venomous Serpents in the 
Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, by E. D. Cope." 

" Catalogue of the Calamarian Serpents in the Museum of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, with notes and descriptions, by E. D. 
Cope." 

Mr. Binney called attention to a species of Leda, presented this evening, 
which, Dr. Gould states, is common to Japan and Massachusetts. 

A discussion on geographical distribution then took place, in which Dr. 
Le Conte mentioned that he had prepared a map representing the provinces 
of geographical distribution of Coleoptera in the territories of the United 
States ; he divides the temperate part of the continent into three (or perhaps 
four) districts : 1. Atlantic, extending westwardly to the longitude of the 
mouth of the Platte ; 2. Central, extending from the mouth of the Platte to 
the Sierra Nevada ; 3. Pacific, including the water shed of the maritime 
Pacific coast. These districts are each divided into several provinces, and with 
larger collections the Central, as at present defined, may be found to be in 
reality two districts, limited by the Rocky Mountains ; of these the eastern 
will be called the Central, and the western the Interior district. This map 
accompanies a memoir on the Coleoptera of Kansas, Nebraska and New Mexico, 
published in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 

Mr. Binney remarked, that having prepared for the Smithsonian Institution 
a catalogue of the terrestrial and fluviatile Gasteropods of North America, he 
was able to present the following results : 

Of the boreal regions but little is known. The only data we have are from 
Greenland. Both the fresh water and land species are peculiar to that country, 
excepting the European Helix hortensis, which has been introduced also in 
Canada and New England. 

Of Mexico also but little is known. A few of its land species are found in 
Texas ; they are, however, confined to that region, not extending farther north. 
The genera are more tropical than in the rest of the continent. Fluviatile 
species are very rare in Mexico, judging from the few data we have. The 
species appear dilferent from those of the Atlantic region. 

On the west coast the species of land shells are quite distinct from those of 
the Atlantic region, excepting Bulimus zebra ; the genera, however, are the 
same, though fewer in number. Among the fluviatile species are found eleven 
species of Pulmonates, which also inhabit the Atlantic region. 

In the Atlantic region are two or three species of land shells found in 
Europe, and a few fluviatile Pulmonates. The occurrence of the Asiatic 
species quoted from the United States may well be doubted. 

The following table shows the facts presented by Mr. Binney. It is neces- 
sarily imperfect, owing to the small amount of material, the somewhat con- 
fused synonymy, &c. 

Column 1 contains the species found in the Pacific region. 

Column 2, those of the Atlantic region. 

Column 3, those common to the Pacific and Atlantic region. 

I860.] 4 



50 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



Column 4, those of Mexico, excepting the west coast. 
Column 5, those common to Mexico and the Atlantic region. 
Column 6, those of Greenland. 



Class GASTEROPODA. 

Order PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder ROSTRIFERA. 

Family. Subfamily, Genus. 

AMPULLARIAD^ Ampullaria. . . 

CYCLOPHORID^ Ctciotin^ Cyclotiis 

CYCLoPHORlN^.Cyclophorus. .. 

liiciNiN^ Ctenopoma.. . . 

CTCLOSTOJUN^.Tiidora 

Cistula. 

Chondropema. 
HELICINID^ Helicina 

Schazicheilse. . . 

LITTORINID^ Amnicola 

TRUNCATTELLID^ Truncatella 

MELANIAD^ Melania 

Gyrotoma 

Leptoiis 

lo 

VITIPARrDiE Viviparus 

Bithinia 

VALVATID^ ValTata. ...... 



Order SCUTIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder PSEUDOBRANCHIA. 

PROSERPDfAD^ Ceres 



Order PNEUMOBRANCHIATA. 



Suborder GEOPHILA. 



TESTACELLIDJi.. 

ARIONID.E 

HtLICIDiK 



TERONICELLIDJE., 
ONCHIDIAD-*; 



Suborder LIMNOPHILA. 



AURICULID^i. 



LIMNEAD^. 



.Melampinjb. . .Melampu*.. 
Admculin^. . .Alexia 

Blauneria. . 

Leuconia... 

Carychium. 
Limnaea. .. . 

Pompholyx . 

Physa 

Planorbis. .. 



-Glandina 

.Arion 

. Tebennophorus.. . 

Limax 

Titrina 

Simpulopsis 

SuccinPia 

Helix 

Bulimus 

Spiraxis , 

Orthalicus 

Macroceramns. . , 

Achatlna 

Pupa 

Vertigo 

Cylindrella 

.Teronicella 

.Onchidivun 



Ancylus 4 



4 


1 


1 
6 


18 

4 

292 

10 

54 


60 




6 
1* 
2 
3 
1 

15 
lilt 

'V 

2 
1 
3 
12 
4 
4 
1 



|117 770 



177 I 17 13 



1 
1 
1 
3 

26 

3 

20 

5 

305 

10 

57 

10 

66 

1 

9 



22 
167 

48 

17 
4 
1 
9 

13 
4 

19 
1 
1 



• Imported. 

X Two gpeciea imported. 



t Found also In the Atlantic region, and imported. 
1 One speeiee imported. 



[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 51 



February Wtli. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-nine members present. 

A paper was presented for publication, entitled : 

" Descriptions of new species of Cyrena and Corbicula in the Cab- 
inet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, by Temple 
Prime. 

Mr. Lea remarked that when Mr. Binney, at the last meeting, called the at- 
tention of the members to a reversed Faludina on the table, the discussion tak- 
ing a wide range, he (Mr. Lea) stated that an abnormal reversed character 
sometimes occurred in the genus Unio, and he then mentioned that he had spe- 
cimens of various species where this condition was very remarkable. He also 
then stated that among Helices, in a semi-domesticated position — in gardens, 
hedge-rows, &c., in England and on the continent — it was not a very rare cir- 
cumstance to find heterostrophe individuals ; he had quite a number; but that 
among the immense number of our own species which had passed under his 
eyes, he had found only a single specimen which was heterostrophe, viz. : a 
Helix hirsuia, Say. Mr. Lea went on to say that he had prepared himself to ex- 
hibit, to-night, his specimens alluded to, and to which he now called the atten- 
tion of the members. He Avas glad to see by the December number of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, received by post to-day, that Prof. Agas- 
siz had made a communication to the Society on " reversed bivalve shells," ex- 
hibiting a specimen of the Unio ligamenti7ms, Lamarck, observing that " it was 
quite rare and generally not easily observed." Mr. Lea exhibited twenty-one 
specimens of various species which were all abnormal as regarded their lateral 
teeth, some having a single one in both valves, others being simply reversed as to 
the double and single cardinal and lateral teeth ; others having double lateral 
teeth in both valves, and others again having a treble lateral tooth in the left 
valve, and a double one in the right valve. The first reversed JJyvio he had seen 
was a specimen of complanatus from the mill-dam at Bristol, Penna., about 25 
years since; afterward he had found one in the Schuylkill, and subsequently 
found them occasionally among thousands of specimens sent by friends from 
various parts of the United States. From Dr. Lewis, of Mohawk, he had re- 
ceived some very fine specimens. 

The following table will exhibit the various abnormal forms of Uniones in 
Mr. Lea's collection : 

Single lateral tooth in each valve. 

Unio complanatus, Lea, (Mya complanaia, Solan.) Schuylkill River, Pa. 
" occidens, Lea, Wisconsin. 
" purpuratus, Lam., Claiborne, Ala. 
" ventricosus, Bar., St. Lawrence, Montreal. 

Single lateral tooth in the left, and double in the right valve. 
Unio complanatus, Lea, 2 specimens, Bristol, Pa., and Mohawk, N. Y. 
" alatus. Say, Ohio River. 
" Hopetonensis, Lea, Darien, Geo. 
" nasuius. Say, Arkansas. 
" radiaiut, Lam., Petersburg, Vir. 

Double lateral tooth in both valves. 
Unio complanatus, Lea, 6 specimens, Mohawk, N. Y. 
" " " Genessee, N. Y. 

" " " Schuylkill, Pa. 

" ccrrugatus, Lam., Pondichery, India. 

I860.] 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Treble lateral tooth in the left, and double in the right valve. 
Unio corrugatus. Lam., Bengal. 

Treble lateral tooth in the left, and partly treble in the right valve. 
Unio gibbosus, Barnes, Fox River, Wisconsin. 
" corrugatus. Lam., India. 

Mr. Lea stated that in his first paper published in the Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
in 1827, he paid attention to the diflference of the teeth, and in 1829 he publish- 
ed a description of that remarkable Unio from the Schuylkill, described under 
the name of heterodon, from the very peculiar and aberrant form of the double 
lateral tooth being placed in the right valve, and the single in the left one. 
This was the first form of the kind which had ever come under his notice, A 
few years subsequently he found the first specimen of an abnormal character, 
conforming exactly to the normal condition of the heterodon, and this was in the 
Bristol specimen. Since that period he observed closely the abnormal forms of 
the species, and the result is given in the previous table. But it must be im- 
pressed on the zoologist's mind, that the form of teeth which is normal in one 
species, may be abnormal in another, because, while there is impressed on 
every species a law as regards its form, — and the general one of this species of 
Unio is to have the lateral tooth double in the left, and single in the right 
valve, and the cardinal either the same or double in both, — yet aberrant form.s 
from this are quite numerous, as will be found in the following table of 
species. He wished the attention of the members to the fact that what 
was abnormal in some individuals of a species, would be perfectly normal 
in others ; thus, in complanatus, when the lateral teeth are found double in the 
right, and single in the left, they are reversed, and therefore abnormal ; but in 
the heterodon this condition of the teeth is normal, and so it will be with other 
conditions of other species, even so far removed from the typical Unio as in the 
eximius. Lea, from Siam, which has a treble lateral tooth in the left, and a dou- 
ble one in the right valve as its normal form, for this is imitated by the speci- 
men of corrugatus exhibited, which has the treble tooth in the left valve, and 
double one in the right, which in this case is remarkable, its normal condition 
being that of the typical Unio. 

In the following table will be found most of the species which, while they 
are perfectly normal, are still aberrant from the typical Unio, all of them but 
two having been described by Mr. Lea. 

Cardinal tooth single in both valves. 
Unio Bengalensis, Lea, Bengal. 

Cardinal tooth double iji the right, and single in the left valve. 
Unio Corrianus, Lea, Bengal. 

•' lamellatus. Lea, Bengal. 

'' bilineatus, Lea, Bengal. 

" contradens. Lea, Java? 

" gravidus. Lea, Siam. 

" tumidulus, Lea, Siam. 

" humilis, Lea, Siam. 

" Sagittarius, Lea, Siam. 

" substriatus. Lea, Siam. 

" Dunkerianus, Lea, Brazil. 

" Cambodianus, Lea, Siam. 

" consobrinus. Lea, China. 

" Layardii, Lea, Ceylon. 

" plicatulus, Lea, Borneo. 

" vittatu^, Lea, Australia. 

" Wilsonii, Lea, Australia. 

" Mauritianus, Lea, Indian Ocean. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 53 

Unio hulloides, Lea, Rio Plata, S. Am. 
" atratus, {Niaa, Swaia.) Chili, 
" Araucanus, Philippi, Chili. 
" piceus, Lea, Uruguay, S. Am. 

Cardinal and lateral teeth double in both valves. 
Unio phaselus, Lea, Siam. 
" scobinatus, Lea, Siam. 

Lateral tooth double in the right valve only. 
Unio heterodon, Lea, Penn. 

Lateral tooth double in both valves. 
Umo nucleus, Lea, Siam. 

Lateral tooth treble in the left, and double in the right valve. 
Unio eximius, Siam. 

Cardinal tooth treble in the right valve. 
Uniofunebralis, Lea, Uruguay River, S. Am. 

Cardinal tooth treble in both valves, and lateral tooth treble in the right, and double 

in the left valve. 
Unio trifidus, Lea, Buenos Ayres, S. Am. 

It is not pretended that the last table is entirely complete. The object is ac- 
complished to shew that the teeth of different species vary normally, and that 
individuals of the species vary ahnormaUy. 

As regards the genus Triqueira, Klein, (Jlyria, Lamark.) which has cardinal 
and lateral teeth in both valves, so far as observed the lateral tooth in the 
left valve is double, and in the right single. 

The cardinal tooth in both valves is usually lamellar and multiplied, and 
articulate closely. In some cases it is much longer than in others of the 
same species. In one specimen of T. subviridis, Klein, in Mr. Lea's cabinet, the 
the cardinal tooth is almost the same length of the lateral tooth ; and in two 
specimens both teeth have transverse striag like Frisodon, Schum. (^Castalia, 
Lam.) which of course is an aberrant form. The Triqueira contorta, Lea, is an 
aberrant species, the cardinal teeth in both valves being obtusely conical and 
double in both valves. I have never met with any abnormal form of teeth in 
any of the species of Triqueira, but so few specimens get into the cabinets that 
if they do exist none have yet been detected. 

The genus Frisodon, the teeth of which are so nearly the same as those of 
Unio as to induce M. Deshayes to put it in that genus, are almost identical 
with some of the species, except in character of transverse parallel striae: 
and even this characteristic of the genus is absent in some of Mr. Lea's 
specimens of truncatus, Schum., (ambigua, Lam.) If, however, the lobes of 
the mantle are united behind so as to form two tubes, there would be no pro- 
priety in placing it with the Uniones, as the mantle is never united in that part 
in them. 

Prof. R. E. Rogers made some remarks on the debitumenization of coal, 
and also communicated the following facts having reference to the propaga- 
tion of concussion from rock-blasting to strata at a distance, as exemplified 
in the effect upon the water of wells. 

A well, sixty feet in depth, with the water rising within ten feet of the sur- 
face, had, previous' to the occurrence, been yielding a large supply of water 
to an extensive factory, when, immediately upon the discharge of a heavy 
blast in a^toue quarry about four hundred yards distant, the water began to 
fall, and soon altogether disappeared. 

I860.] 



54 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

Another well, remote from the last mentioned one, had been yielding a good 
supply of water for more than a year. A blast of ordinary violence was dis- 
charged in an excavation for stone, three hundred yards distant from it, where- 
upon the water quickly and entirely disappeared. The proprietor directed a 
boring to be made in the bottom of the well six feet in depth and a blast to 
be set off in it. 

The result was as curious as the one which preceded it. The water at once 
reappeared, and the supply has since been steady and in great abundance. 

Dr. Leidy observed that the remarks of Prof. Rogers, had reminded Mm of 
the so-called Hillsboro coal or Albertite, of Albert Co., New Brunswick. This 
substance Dr. L. regards as a variety of Asphaltum and not as coal. The 
latter consists of the fossil remains of plants. The Albertite is a product re- 
sulting from the distillation of bitumenous coals or shales. Coal always pre- 
sents in microscopic section the remains of vegetable structure ; Albertite is 
perfectly amorphous. Coals are stratified or interstratified with other sub- 
stances ; the Albertite presents many evidences of being an injected material 
into fissures of the surrounding shales. 

The number of the Proceedings for January was laid upon the 
table. 



Fehruary 2\st. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair, 

Thirty -five members present. 

A paper was presented for publication entitled : 

'* The Mexican Humming Birds, No. 2, by Rafael Montes de Oca." 

Mr. Slack remarked that the two teeth of the Mosasaurus missouriensis, pre- 
sented by him this evening, had been procured for him from the marl pits of 
Mr. Coward, about two miles west of Freehold, N. J., through the exertions of 
Mr. Hopper, of Freehold, N. J., a gentleman to whom the Academy is lai'gely 
indebted for cretaceous fossils. This is the eleventh specimen of the Mosa- 
saurus missouriensis identified by Mr. Slack, found within a radius of ten miles 
from Monmouth Court House. 

Dr. Leidy announced that the valuable collection of fossils of Mr. 
Eli Boweu had been purchased by subscription and presented to the 
Academy. 



February 2Sth. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty- four members present. 

The Report of the Biological Department for the present month was 
read. 

On report of a committee of the Biological Department, the paper 
entitled, " Method of painting moist anatomical preparations, by H. 
D. Schmidt, M. D.," was recommended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Department. 

And the following were ordered to be printed in the Proceedings : 

[Feb. 



O I 





-er 



Z Id 



pieoy oojtj 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 55 

Illustrations of some Fossils described in the Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences. 

BY T. A. CONRAD AND AVM. M. GABB. 

PI. 1, fig. 1, a, h, c, Myalina deltoidea Gabb, Proc. Acad. 1859, p. 297. 

PI. 1, fig. 2, Posidonia Moore i Gabb, Proc. Acad. 1859, p. 297. 

PL 1, fig. 3, Myacites pensylvanicus Conrad, Proc. Acad. 1857, 
p. 166. 

The first two, Myalina deltoidea and Posidonia Mo ore i are carbon- 
iferous ; Myacites pensylvanicus is triassic, from Phoenix ville, Penn- 
sylvania. 



Descriptions of New Species of American Fluviatile Gasteropods. 
BY J. G. ANTHONY. 

Melania ANG0STISPIRA, Authonj. — Shell thick, elongate, very slender ; color 
reddish-brown, with a narrow pale line at the suture; whorls 9-10, lower ones 
subconvex, smooth, upper ones flattened and carinate near their bases : sutures 
slight ; aperture narrow-ovate, within pale purple ; columella regularly curved : 
sinus not remarkable. 

JIab. — Tennessee. 

My Cab.; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London; A. N. S. Philada. ; State Collection, 
Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — May be compared with M. exilis, Hald., than which it is more slender, 
more attenuate, and of more solid texture ; its color is also entirely different, 
being more like M. Warderiana, Lea, but wanting the peculiar bulbous form of 
that species. The carinations do not extend to the three lower whorls ; upon 
these they are entirely wanting. It is a peculiarly slender and graceful species. 

M. DECORATA, Anthouy — Shell short, thick, ovate ; whorls about five, but 
truncate so as to show only two or three remaining ; whorls prominently ribbed 
and intersected by revolving striae, forming nodules where they cross each 
other; dark bands also revolve around the whorls, giving them a highly deco- 
rative appearance ; columella often thickened by a callous deposit ; sinus 
small. 

Eab. — Oostanulla River, Georgia. 

My Cab. ; Cab Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S. Philada. ; State Collection, 
Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — I collected some two hundred specimens of this species in Oostanulla 
River, Ga., in 1853, and then supposed they would prove to be merely the 
young of M. coelatura, Con. Closer examination and comparison, however, 
has convinced me that they are not identical. Many of the specimens are 
decidedly mature, and diflfer from " ccelatura " by the greater regularity of their 
folds, which are also interrupted by a revolving raised line near the sutures, 
and by their dark bands and less elongate form ; cannot well be compared with 
any other. 

M. AorsTA, Anthony. — Shell conical, smooth, shining ; color dark brown, 
with a pale line near the sutures ; whorls 7-8, flat ; body whorl rather large, 
subangulated and with somewhat coarse lines of growth ; sutures distinct, but 
not remarkable ; aperture ovate, dark purple within ; outer lip curved, colu- 
mella deeply rounded, a broad sinus at base. 

Ilab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet ; Cab. H. Cuming, London ; Cab. A. N. S. Philada. ; State Col- 
lection, Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C, 

I860.] 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Obs. — A neat, pretty species, of rather plain appearance. Compared with if. 
gracilior, nob., it is broader, shorter, and of darker color ; the broad deep cinc- 
ture on the body-whorl and beautiful red bands in the interior, so conspicuous 
in M. gracilior, are also wanting. From " athleta" it differs by its shorter, more 
acute form, and by the absence of folds. It is less slender than M. viridula. 

M. BicracTA, Anthony. — Shell conical, elevated, spire very acute ; whorls 7, 
upper ones bicarinate, and body whorl encircled by three or four carina, the 
upper two of which are prominent, while the lower two are often striae merely ; 
color dark olive brown, very shining, and relieved by a faint or yellow narrow 
band near the suture; sutures distinct; aperture ovate, and brown within; 
columella deeply indented. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S. Philada. ; State Collection, 
Albany, N. Y. : Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Ohs. — A beautifully distinct and well marked species of that group whii-h JU. 
bella, Conrad, may be considered most fitly to represent. May be distinguished 
from M. bella by its broader and more acute form, more distinct carination and 
absence of the beaded line so characteristic of that species. Lines of growth 
conspicuous and crowded. Differs from 31. bicostnta, nob., by its less robust 
form, darker color, and by the form of its spire, which diminishes more rapidly 
towards the apex. 

M. ABSCiDA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, smooth, olivaceous, thick ; spire obtuse, 
composed of five low whorls nearly flat ; body whorl large, occupying nearly 
the entire length of the shell; aperture not broad but long, subrhombic, more 
than half the length of the shell; columella deeply rounded and indented; 
outer lip much curved and produced ; sinus broad and conspicuous. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A ponderous species, whose chief characteristic is its square form and 
short truncate spire, resembling in that respect M. planospira, nob. It differs 
from that species, however, by its more elongate form, narrow, rhombic aper- 
ture, and by having several revolving striae at base. It is a solid shell of com- 
pact texture, and seems to be rare, as only two specimens have come under my 
notice. 

M. BicoSTATA, Anthony.— Shell conical, light horn color, rather thick ; spire 
elevated, acute ; whorls 11-12, strongly carinate near the apex, and decidedly 
so on each succeeding whorl, not excepting even the body-whorl in most cases, 
though sometimes obsolete there; carinse often in pairs, near to, and parallel 
with each other ; sutures deeply impressed, often with a decided furrow at that 
point, caused by the carinae. Aperture broadly elliptical, or subrhombic ; 
within dirty white or obscurely banded ; columella deeply rounded, with a well- 
marked sinus at base. 

Hab. — Tennessee, near Athens. 

My Cabinet; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London; Cab. A. N. S. Philada.; State 
Collection, Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — Appears to be a very abundant and rather variable species. Several 
hundred individuals have come under my notice. It cannot well be confounded 
with any other species, though of a form by no means uncommon. The sharp 
double carina will at once generally determine it. Occurs abundantly near 
Athens, in small streams. 

M. FUNEBRALis, Anthony. — Shell conic, smooth, solid, of a dark chesnat 
color ; spire elevated and generally abruptly truncate ; whorls from 3 to 5 only 
remaining, slightly eonvex ; aperture ovate, within bluish; columella white, 
tinged occasionally with purple; sinus small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London; A. N. S. Philada.; State Coll., 
Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 57 

Obs. — A very neat, pretty species, with no very decided character to distin- 
guish it from allied species. May be compared with M. brevispira, nob., but is 
far more solid in its texture, of a darker color, and its surface is more polished 
and shining ; much less slender too than brevispira, and that species is never so 
abruptly decollate. It appears to be an abundant species. 

M. GLADCA, Anthony. — Shell conical, folded, of a green color on the lower 
whorls, often modified by a brown tinge on the upper ones ; whorls 10, slightly 
convex, with prominent longitudinal ribs, obsolete on the body-whorl ; sutures 
well defined, but not deeply marked; aperture ovate, livid within and with 
occasionally a faint rosy tinge there ; columella angulated at the middle ; sinus 
well defined. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A stout species, with prominent, curved ribs on all the upper whorls, 
those on the body-whorl being less clearly defined or else absolutely wanting. 
Color a beautiful apple-green, relieved by a broad yellow band near the suture ; 
and this color often passes into a yellowish brown on the upper whorls. Near 
the apex the folds are often traversed by four or five prominent striae, which 
pass over without being interrupted by the longitudinal ribs. May be com- 
pared with M. viridula, nob , as to color, but is less slender, and the ribs at 
once distinguish it. 

M. iNFRAFASCiATA, Authony. — Shell conical, smooth, solid, of a pale brown 
color, form moderately slender and elevated; whorls 8-9, decollate, slightly 
concave; sutures distinct; lines of growth curved and very distinct ; body- 
whorl decidedly concave, with a well-marked ridge revolving near the summit 
of the aperture, so as to make a tolerably sharp angle near the middle of the 
body-whorl; two or three coarse striae revolve parallel with it ; below this is a 
dark brown band, continued around the base of the shell ; aperture rhombic- 
ovate, livid and banded within ; columella strongly incurved, with a callous 
deposit its whole length and well-defined sinus at base. 

Mab. — Tennessee. 

My Cab.; Cab. H. Cuming; A. N. S. Philada. ; State Coll., Albany, N. Y. ; 
Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — Compared with 31. gradata, nob., it is more elongate, more solid, and 
has not the carina and regularly graded whorls so characteristic of that species. 
Less conical than M. canaliculata Say, and less broad. Like M, annulifera, 
Con., in form, but has not the revolving costae of that species. 

M. PADCicosTA, Anthony. — Shell conical, nearly smooth, of a dark greenish 
horn color; spire obtusely elevated; whorls nearly flat, with a few distinct 
longitudinal ribs on the upper ones ; body- whorl entirely smooth ; sutures well 
marked ; aperture ovate, within livid or purple ; columella rounded ; sinus 
small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cab. ; Cab. H. Cuming, London; A, N. S. Philada. ; State Coll., Albany, 
N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — Belongs to a group of which nitens may be considered the type. 
From that species it differs, however, by its more robust form and stronger 
ribs. There is also a marked peculiarity in this species not often observed in 
the genus; the spire being acute at the apex, increases regularly for the first 
four or five turns, and then suddenly expanding, becomes as it were distorted 
in appearance. The ribs are distant from each other and very strongly 
expressed, differing in this respect from M. athleta,\ih\c\x it otherwise resembles. 
It is a beautiful and appears to be an abundant species. 

M. OCCULTA, Anthony. — Shell conic, smooth, rather thin ; color lemon-yellow, 
inclining to brown, with a darker brown band on each whorl, increasing to two 
on the body-whorl ; whorls 7-8, rather convex ; suture deeply impressed ; aper- 
ture ovate, within dusky white, with the outer bands seen faintly through its 

I860.] 



58 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

substance ; columella beautifully rounded ; outer lip produced, a small sinus at 
base. 

Mab. — Wisconsin. 

My Cab. ; Cab. H. Cuming, London ; A. N. S. Philada. ; State Coll., Albany, 
N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — A very beautiful and lively species. Bears some resemblance to M. 
pulchella, nob., but is less elongate, more delicately colored, and of a less solid 
texture ; the bands are often obsolete, and never so distinctly expressed as in 
pulchella ; its spire is also more acute and the whorls more rounded. Com- 
pared with M. brevispira, nob., which in form it resembles, it is more attenuate, 
has a greater number of whorls, and its bands also distinguish it. Its delicate 
yellow color also is not a common character in the genus, and forms a promi- 
nent mark for determination. 

M. OPACA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, thick, smooth, of a dark brown color; spire 
short, composed of about six convex whorls; body-whorl large, subangulated 
in the centre ; sutures indicated by a narrow lighter line, and very distinct ; 
aperture ovate, livid within ; columella indented and tinged with purple ; outer 
lip a little curved ; sinus not remarkable. 

Ilab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A dusky inconspicuous shell of no great beauty. Only two specimens 
have ever come under my notice, but I am persuaded, nevertheless, that they 
are distinct — cannot well be compared with any other species. More smooth 
than M. athleta, nob., and devoid of ribs, which that species has. Its dark, 
dirty, brown color down to about the middle of the body-whorl and pale olive- 
green underneath, together with its purple columella, may sufficiently distin- 
guish it. 

M. poLCHERRiMA, Authony. — Shell conical, carinate, elevated, acute ; whorls 
6-8, flat, upper ones obscurely ribbed longitudinally ; body whorl sharply anga- 
lated, with a dark brown band directly upon the carina, and 2 or 3 below it, 
one of which is very near the carina. Upper whorls with 2 bands each, widely 
separated; sutures distinct, rendered more so by the neighboring carina; aper- 
ture ovate, within 3 or 4 banded; columella rounded and indented, sinus small. 

Mab. — North Carolina. 

My Cabinet, Cabinet H. Cuming, London ; Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ; State 
Collection Albany, New York ; Smitlisonian Collection. 

Obs. — A small but remarkably beautiful species; its bright yellow ground and 
conspicuous dark lines give, by contrast, a lively and pleasant character to the 
shell. Compared with M. nigrocincta, nob., it is a larger species, its colors 
are more decided, and its carina are also a prominent mark of difiference. M. 
clara nob. is a larger and more globose species, its bands are broader and it has 
no carina. It seems to be an abundant species, varying occasionally in some 
of its characters, but always easily recognized. More than 100 specimens are 
before me. 

M. TENEBROcixcTA, Anthouy. — Shell conic-ovate, smooth, rather thick ; spire 
rather obtusely elevated; whorls 6-7, nearly flat, but with an obtuse carina be- 
low the middle of each, and one more decided between that and the suture ; 
suture well marked and with a pale band near it; — lines of growth decided; 
aperture linear-ovate, within dusky and having 2 dark bands there, — sinus very 
decided. 

JIab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet, Cabinet H. Cuming, London ; Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ; State 
Collection, Albany, New York ; Smithsonian Collection. 

()/)s_ — Compared with M. valida nob. it is smaller, less robust, more slender, and 
may also be distinguished from that plain species by its more lively exterior — the 
dark brown band or bands, contrast finely with the general color of the shell, 
and with a light band near the sutures. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 59 

M. VALiDA, Anthony. — Shell ovate-conic, smooth, olivaceous, thick ; spire 
obtusely elevated, decollate; whorls flat, only about 6 remaining; sutures dis- 
tinct ; lines of growth very strong, amounting to varices on the body whorl ; 
aperture ovate, bluish white withia ; columella strongly curved, or indented 
about the middle, white; sinus well developed at base; body whorl obscurely, 
couceutrically striate, the strise forming faint nodules where they intersect the 
varices. 

Hah. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet; Cab. of H. Cuming, London; A. N. S. Phila. ; State Coll. Alb. 
N. Y. ; Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — This species may be compared with M. tenebrocincfa herein described — 
from that species it may be distinguished by its more robust form, uniform dark 
olivaceous color and the absence of the dark bands so conspicuous in that 
species. It has a very solid, compact form, and this with its regular, uniform 
size up to the point of decollation, may serve to distinguish it from all others. 

M. GRAVIDA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, smooth, thick ; spire obtusely elevated ; 
■whorls 7-8, nearly flat ; sutures well defined ; lines of growth fine, but very dis- 
tinct ; body whorl large, subangulated ; aperture oval, livid inside; columella 
deeply indented, covered with a white callus ; outer lip curved forward, and 
with the columella forming a small sinus at base. 

Mab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A stout, heavy shell, in form and color resembling in some degree 
M. solida, Lea, but is more ovate than that species. Color light brown, 
smooth but not very shining — lines of growth very distinct and curved. A few 
indistinct striae occur at the base of the shell — the lower part of the columella 
is often tinged with a golden hue. 

M. GROSSA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, folded, thick ; spire obtusely elevated, com- 
posed of about 8 convex whorls rapidly attenuating to an acute apex ; whorls 
folded, except the last two ; body whorl tumid, smooth ; color of epidermis light 
greenish olive; aperture elliptical, whitish inside ; columella rounded; outer 
lip much curved, with a well marked sinus at base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A shore thick species whose chief characteristics are its bulbous form, 
and short but prominent ribs on the upper whorls. All the whorls but the last 
are remarkably narrow and crowded—lines of growth prominent — 4 or 5 striae 
revolve around the base or the shell. Resembles M. glandula, nob., in form, but its 
different color and texture, with its prominent ribs, will at once distinguish it. 

M. PONDEROSA, Anthony. — Shell conic, broad, smooth, olivaceous, thick ; spire 
considerably but not acutely elevated; whorls 7-8, subconvex ; lines of growth 
curved and strong; sutures distinct; aperture rhombic, rather small, whitish 
within ; columella indented, outer lips much curved forwards forming a broad 
well marked sinus at base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — One of the most ponderous of the genus. In form it resembles M. 
canalicidata, Say, but has not the channel of that species, and differs also in the 
aperture. The body whorl is strongly keeled about the middle and has another 
and less clearly defined carina about midway between the first and the suture 
above. The lines of growth are very strong and occasionally varicose. A 
strong deposit of white callus is found upon the columella, which is much 
thickened near the base. 

M. T.ENIOLATA, Anthony. — Shell conic-ovate, striate, thick ; spire elevated 
but not acute, composed of 6-7, nearly flat whorls ; sutures not distinct ; aper- 
ture sub-rhombic, small, banded within ; columella indented, callous at its lower 
portion, and with a small but distinct sinus at base. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A fine, showy, robust species, of a dark yellow color, enlivened by 

I860.] 



60 rROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

several dark brown bands, generally 2 on each whorl ; body whorl angulated ; 
with one band directly upon the sharp angle, another in close proximity, and 
a third quite distant and near the base of the shell. Band obsolete on the first 
two or three whorls. Surface coarsely striate and obscurely ribbed. 

Melania glans, Anthony, being preocupied, I propose to change the name 

to M. GLANDULA. 

M. ASSiMiLis, Anthony. — Shell small, short, conic, Hot thick; spire acute, 
composed of about 1 flat whorls ; sutures very distinct, of a light horn color ; 
aperture small, ovate, dusky within ; columella indented ; body whorl angu- 
lated ; sinus not broad, but well formed. 

ITab. — Tennessee. My cabinet. 

Obs. — A small delicate species ; compared with M. pallidula, nob., it is more 
slender and elevated, has a greater number of whorls, and is devoid of bands. 
From M. angulata, nob., it differs in being more slender, more carinate, and 
having a more elevated spire. 

M. ctJBicoiDES, Anthony. — Shell ovate, smooth, thick; whorls 6 — 7, fiat, the 
upper ones rapidly enlarging to the body whorl, which is broad, and acutely 
angulated ; sutures distinct, rendered more so by a sharp carination on the 
lower part of each whorl; aperture broadly ovate, within whitish; columella 
deeply indented ; sinus small. 

Hub. — Wabash River, Indiana. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — One of the short, thick species, in form not unlike M. cuspidata, nob., 
but differing by its sharp carinated body whorl and imbricated spire ; the body 
whorl is also strongly striate and obscurely ribbed ; these longitudinal ribs are 
very faint, but sufficiently distinct at the sharp carina near the summit of the 
aperture to modify its outline into a waving subnodulous line. 

M, HTBEiDA Anthony. — Shell conical, elevated, nearly smooth, horn colored; 
whorls 8 — 9, upper ones carinated deeply, lower ones entirely smooth ; color 
reddish brown, or dark horn color ; sutures distinctly impressed ; aperture 
small, ovate, tinged with rose color or violet within ; columella rounded but 
not deeply indented; sinus small. 

ffab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet ; Cab. H. Cuming, A. N. S. Philada. ; State Coll., Albany, N. Y. ; 
Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs, — A neat, pretty species, with no very strong distinctive characters ; 
from intertezta, nobis, which it somewhat resembles; it may be distinguished 
by its less acute form, less numerous whorls, and by its want of reticulated sur- 
face so peculiar to that species. Bears some resemblance, to M. bella, Con., 
but differs in form of outline and aperture, and has no beaded line ; is also 
more elevated than M. bella. 

M. VERSiPELLis, Anthony. — Shell small, ovate, folded, rather thin ; spire not 
elevated, but acute, composed of about 7 flat whorls ; whorls of the spire all 
more or less folded, penult and body whorl smooth : body whorl bulbous, sub- 
angulated, concentrically striate ; color olivaceous, ornamented with dark 
brown bands, of which four are on the body whorl and one only on the spiral 
ones, located upon or near the shoulder of each volution: aperture elliptical, 
about half the length of the shell, banded within. 

£[ab. — Tennessee. My Cabinet ; Cab. H. Cuming. 

Obs. — A small and somewhat variable species as to coloration, though very 
constant in other characters ; it is sometimes very dark both as to bands and 
general color, and often very light with bands scarcely distinguishable and 
many varieties between ; it seems not to be a very common species. 

M. coGNATA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, short, smooth, moderately thick ; spire 
pbtusely elevated, consisting of 5 — 6 convex whorls ; color brownish-yellow 
with three dark brown bands about the middle of the body whorl, and one 
very obscure one at the suture ; suture deeply impressed ; aperture broad- 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 61 

ovate, not large, exhibiting the bands inside ; columella deeply rounded, in- 
dented and callous; sinus none. 

jgra6.— Tennessee. My Cab. ; Cab. H. Cuming ; A. N. S., Philada. 

Obs. — A short, pretty species, with no very marked characters, though easily 
recognised as distinct on examination ; in form and coloring somewhat like 
M. compacta, nobis, but far less solid and heavy than that species ; the spire is 
more elevated and acute and the surface smoother. It most nearly resembles, 
perhaps, M. coronilla, nobis, but is less elevated and has not the peculiar 
crowning ribs of that species, which is sufiBcient at once to distinguish it. It is 
also more robust. 

M. coENEOLA, Anthony. — Shell small, conical, rather thin ; spire short and not 
very acute, composed of five or six subconvex whorls ; whorls all more or less 
folded and with revolving raised striae which give them a subnodulous appear- 
ance ; the body whorl has four or five faint bands which appear also within 
the aperture ; aperture small, ovate, sinus small. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — This is a small and not very remarkable species, nor can it well be 
compared with any other. One is at first view forcibly reminded of Columbella 
avara, Say, which it resembles both in size and general appearance. The 
bands alluded to are often interrupted and never very fully expressed ; body 
whorl subangulatvd below the middle ; does not seem to be a very abundant 
species. Only six individuals are before me. 

M. GRATA, Anthony. — Shell conic, elevated, smooth, thick; whorls 9, flat, 
terminating in an acute apex, the first three or four whorls being carinated ; 
color light greenish-yellow, ornamented by a single dark band on the spiral 
whorls, and four similar bands on the body whorl, giving the shell a truly 
lively and beautiful appearance ; sutures very distinct; aperture ovate, banded 
within ; columella deeply indented and curved at base, where there is a small 
but rather broad sinus. 

Sab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — The colors in this species are finely contrasted, and the general ap- 
pearance is very lively and pleasing: the bands on the body whorl are not 
uniformly distributed, the upper and lower ones being widely separated, while 
the central ones are very close together and less distinct. Altogether it is one 
of our most beautiful species. 

M. GEEMANA, Authouy. — Shell carinate on the body whorl ; form rhombic ; 
substance rather thin ; varying in color from ash grey to dark brown ; whorls 
six, upper ones smooth; suture very distinct; aperture rhombic, within 
brownish, with a white area near the outer edge; columella rounded or angu- 
larly indented, slightly callous ; sinus small. 

Ilab. — Cahawba River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — This is another of the short, rhombic species, which are represented 
most fitly by M. rhonibica, nob., and includes M. angulata, nob., M. cubicoides, 
nob., M. cristata, noh., and many others. From M. rhombica, it diff"ers in being 
shorter and less slender, and by wanting the regular concentric strias so con- 
spicuous on the upper half of that species ; it is also less slender than M. anffu- 
lata, nob., and more solid. From all other species it may readily be distin- 
guished. 

M. GRiSEA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, smooth, thick, of a dull grey color ; 
whorls 7, convex ; sutures very distinct; body whorl obscurely ribbed, and 
having two or three inconspicuous bands revolving around it ; aperture large, 
ovate, banded within ; columella deeply indented, with a white callus, unusu- 
ally thickened at the summit of aperture ; sinus broad but not distinct. 

Hab. — Tennessee River, North Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A single specimen only of this species has come under my notice, but 
I cannot consider it referable to any described species. The bands are very 

I860.] 



62 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

obscure, scarcely perceptible, and those within the aperture are arrested before 
reaching the edge of the lip. The ribs which are inconspicuous on the spire 
become more decided on the body whorl, and sometimes appear as varices 
there ; the spire is very obtusely elevated. 

M. losTOMA, Anthony. — Shell ovate-conic, smooth; spire obtusely elevated ; 
whorls about six, subconvex ; body whorl exhibiting uncommonly strong lines 
of growth, curved and varicose ; color greenish olive, shining ; sutures dis- 
tinct ; body whorl strongly but not sharply angulated on the middle ; aperture 
broad-ovate, within light purple, which becomes very deep on the columella, 
which is regularly rounded : outer lip somewhat produced, and having a well 
developed sinus at base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., Philada. ; Smithsonian 
Collection. 

Obs. — This species approaches nearest in form and color to M. glans, nob., 
now changed to glandula, from which it differs in being less globular, of a 
lighter color generally, and by the angulated body whorl. Compared with M. 
pinguis, Lea, it is less obese, more elongate, and has not the rapidly attenuat- 
ing spire of that species. From all others it is readily distinguished. 

M. iNTERTEXTA, Authouy. — Shell conical, acute, and highly elevated ; whorls 
about ten, each strongly ribbed longitudinally and furnished also with revolv- 
ing striae, which becoming more elevated near the suture, arrest the ribs at that, 
point ; sutures decidedly impressed ; aperture pyriform, not large, whitish 
within ; columella slightly rounded, not indented ; sinus distinct, but small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cab.; Cab. H. Cuming; A. N. S., Philada.; State Coll., Alb., N, Y. ; 
Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — A very abundant species. About two hundred specimens are now be- 
fore me, and present characters remarkably uniform. May be compared with 
M. bella, Conrad, but differs by its more elongate and sharply elevated form ; its 
ribs are more decided, and it has not the bead-like prominences, so common in 
M. bella, and kindred species. From M. arachnoidea, nob., it may be distin- 
guished by its less elongate but more acute form, difference of aperture and 
less number of whorls ; the striae revolve around the whorls and over the folds 
without being arrested by them, giving the surface a woven appearance : hence 
its name. 

M. RiGiDA, Anthony. — Shell conic, elevate, carinate, rather thin ; whorls 8 — 9, 
carinate and banded ; sutures distinctly marked ; aperture small, elliptical, 
whitish within ; columella indented ; sinus small but very distinct. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My Cabinet ; Cab. H. Cuming ; A. N. S., Philada. ; State Coll., Alb,, N. Y. ; 
Smithsonian Collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — This is one of those sharply keeled Melanim of which M. bella, Con., M. 
carino-cosiaia and ]H. obliia, Lea, may be considered good examples. The 
whorls of the spire have each two carinae, with generally a dark band between 
them, though this is sometimes wanting ; the body whorl has four or five of 
these carinse and generally two bands, one of which revolves within the aper- 
ture. To the touch this species has a peculiarly rough feel. 

M. GRACiLLiMA, Authouy. — Shell conic, thin, brownish ; spire very slender, 
elevated, composed of eight convex whorls, the upper ones folded and striate, 
the lower ones smooth, the striae being replaced by indistinct, slender, brown 
lines ; sutures very deeply impressed, a sharp carina on the lower portion of 
each whorl, rendering them quite distinct ; aperture small, ovate, banded in- 
side ; columella indented ; sinus small. 

Mab. — South Carolina. 

My Cabinet. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 63 

Obs. — A peculiarly slender, graceful species, in form somewhat like M. strigosa, 
Lea, but more folded and more slender. The striae on the upper whorls are 
very distinct where they intersect the folds, and give the shell a tuberculous 
appearance ; the folds are arrested by the carina, which is elevated. The brown 
lines on the body whorl are often slightly elevated, but nevertheless, indistinct, 
and are about four in number. A faint line or band of a yellow color revolves 
around the upper portion of the two lower whorls. 

Gyeotoma. 

As some confusion exists regarding the name of this genus, the following 
Botes are given : — 

The genus Melatoma was established by Swainson, and first given to the 
world in 1840, in his "Treatise on Shells and Shell Fishes," published in 
London, founded, as he says, (p. 202,) "upon a remarkable Ohio shell sent 
him many years before by his old friend Prof. Rafinesque." "It has," he 
remarks, " the general form of a Pleurotoma and of a Melafusus, with a well- 
defined sinus or cleft near the top of the outer lip, while the inner, though 
thin, is somewhat thickened above." The other characters named by him are 
such as are generally considered rather specific than generic, and the pleuro- 
toma-like cut in the outer lip as applied to a fluviatile univalve is altogether 
suflBcient to indicate the new genus. The specimen alluded to by Swainson, 
and from which his generic description was drawn, was an imperfect one, and 
the species has not since been identified by American naturalists. This is lesg 
to be wondered at when we consider how very local the genus has always been, 
and how few specimens have found their way into our collections. The waters 
of Alabama have as yet monopolized this interesting genus, and it is probable 
that even there it is confined almost, if not quite, exclusively to the Coosa and 
its tributaries. 

On p. 342 Swainson gives the following generic description, adding a figure : 

" Fusiform, longitudinally ribbed ; a deep sinus at the top of the outer lip ; 
base contracted, channel wide." 

Mr. Swainson's figure is quite unsatisfactory. His genus Melatoma is referred 
doubtfully to Clionella by H. and A. Adams, and has not prevailed for this 
genus in America or Europe. I have therefore decided not to make use of it 
in this case. 

Subsequently this genus has been noticed by various authors, and other 
names have been applied to it. In 1841 or 1842, Dr. J. W. Mighels sent me 
specimens of one species under the name of Apella scissura ; but his generic 
name was never published, and his species, if not identical with any which Mr. 
Lea afterwards described, seems to have been overlooked and forgotten. 

On the 14th of December, 1842, Mr. Lea read a paper before the American 
Philosophical Society, in which he describes Melania excisa and Anculosa incisa. 
In his remarks upon these species he alludes to the pleurotomose cut in the 
superior part of the upper lip, and at the same time suggests the possibility of 
its being necessary, in consequence of that character, to construct a new genus, 
which he proposed to call " Schizostoma." Mr. Lea finding his name " Schizos- 
toma" preoccupied in Palfeontology, changed it to " Schizochilus." (March 5, 
1852, Obs. V. p. 51.) In a paper read May 2d, 1845, Mr. Lea, in a foot-note to 
page 93, first indicates the generic characters of Schizostoma as follows : — 
" Testa vel conica vel fusiformis ; labrum superne fissura ; apertura ovata ; 
columella laevis, incurva ;" and describes six additional species. 

In the above concise definition of the genus it will at once be noted that the 
fissure at the upper part of the outer lip is after all the essential character ; and 
Mr. Lea himself seems to be aware of this, since of the six species then described 
he states the aperture to be elliptical in five cases and rhomboidal in the other, 
although his generic character is "aperture ovate;" indeed in the species 
described by him but a single one has the aperture ovate, and that one is 
described as an Anculosa, 

I860.] 



64 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

It mav be doubted whether Mr. Lea's first name will not eventually prevail, 
since, before he published Schizostoma, Bronn's genus of the same name 
(Lethea Geogn. i. 95, 1835-1837), had been called a synonym of Bifrontia 
(Omalaxis) of Deshayes. (Vide Desh. in Lam. ix. p. 104.) Indeed, H. and A. 
Adams (Gen. Rec. Moll. i. 305) do not appear correct in giving preference to 
Gyrotoma over Schizostoma, Lea, on account of Schizostoma, Bro7in, since (on 
p. 244) the latter name is placed in the synonymy of Omalaxis. 

Another generic name Schizostoma is quoted in Hermannsen's Index. I have- 
not obtained access to the work containing this description, but its date is said 
to be anterior to Mr. Lea's description. 

Mr. Lea's second name, Schizochilus, had previously been used in Coleoptera 
but withdrawn before Mr. Lea's description was published. 

Mr. Shuttleworth, in July, 1845, (Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Ge- 
sellschaft in Bern, p. 88.) gives another description of the genus under the 
name of Gyrotoma, founded on two species from the Coosa River, descriptions 
of which are also given. 

The generic name of Mr. Shuttleworth has been adopted in H. and A. Adams' 
Genera of Recent Mollusca (i. p. 305, Feb., 1854.) 

Dr. Gray also (Guide to Mollusca, i. p. 103, 1857) adopts Shnttleworth's 
name. 

Such being the confused state of the synonymy of the genus, we have decided 
to adopt, at least temporarily, the earliest pame concerning which no doubt 
exists. 

Only about ten species of this genus have as yet been published, eight of 
which are by Mr. Lea in 1842 and 1845, since which time few specimens have 
been collected, and but two new species added. I now propose to add descrip- 
tions of nine new species to the number already known, in one of which, " G. 
salebrosa," we note a character not hitherto observed, except in what was per- 
haps the original type of the genus, viz., a nodulous coronation upon or near 
the suture, which nodules by lateral compression assume the form of folds or 
plaits, thus approximating the longitudinal ribs of Gyrotoma cosfata, Swainson. 
Gyrotoma bullosa, nob., herein described, also exhibits this character, though 
far less decidedly; and as specimens become more common, we may hope to 
re-discover the original type so long unknown. 

Gyrotoma becta, Anthony. — Shell smooth, cylindrical, yellowish, tliick : 
spire stort, originally furnished with about 5 low whorls, of which 3 are nearly 
lost by truncation ; fissure moderately broad, not quite direct and not re- 
markably deep ; sutures lightly impressed ; aperture narrow ovate, occupying 
about 3-5ths of the length of the shell ; witMn dusky and obscurely banded ; 
columella callous, thickened abruptly at the fissure. 

Length of shell 11-16 in. Length of aperture 7-16. Breadth of shell | in. 
Breadth of aperture 3-16. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — Tliis is the most cylindrical species I have ever seen in this genus. 
In its general form and coloring it most nearly resembles G. demissa, nob., but 
is longer, more elevated, smoother, and is ornamented with bands, which on 
that species are entirely wanting ; these bands on the body whorl are three in 
number, of which the middle one is the narrowest and least distinct ; they are 
widely distant from each other ; the cord-like cincture is very prominent in 
this species and the fissure is farther removed from the suture than is usual. 
It is altogether a beautiful and graceful species. 

Gykotoma demissa, Anthony. — Shell short, robust, thick, truncate, of a 
dark horn color ; spire flat by truncation, exhibiting traces of about four 
whorls ; body whorl cylindrical ; fissure broad, waved, and rather deep ; 
aperture elliptical, within whitish ; columella thickened along its whole ex- 
tent, but most so at the fissure. 

Length of shell 10-16 in. Length of aperture 7-16. Breadth of shell 7-16. 
Breadth of aperture 4-16. My Cabinet. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 65 

Ohs. — A fine cylindrical species, whose chief characteristics are its very 
smooth, polished surface, plain russet color, and flat, truncate spire ; the 
lines of growth are unusually strong in this species, and the darker lines in- 
dicating the terminus of previous mouths are very distinct and numerous, 
evidencing frequent and many pauses in its growth ; the columella is much 
bent near its base, and a narrow but distinct sinus is formed at about the mid- 
dle space between the outer lip and columella. A single specimen only is be- 
fore me, but seems so very distinct from all others that I have no hesitation in 
considering it new. 

Gykotoma QtTADKATA, Anthony. — Shell short, smooth, fusiform, rather thick, 
olivaceous; spire short, composed of about 4 very low whorls, the upper two 
being partially obliterated by erosion ; fissure rather broad, waved, but not 
remarkably deep ; sutures distinct ; whorls distinctly but not squarely 
shouldered ; aperture elliptical, occupying more than half the length of the 
shell ; within 3 banded ; columella with a light callous deposit. 

Length of shell 9-16 in. Length of aperture 6-16 in. Breadth of shell 7-16 
in. Breadth of aperture 3-16 in. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet ; Cab. H. Cuming, London. 

Obs. — The most remarkable characteristic at first view of this species is its 
short, square form ; its color is dark, and the bands which are very broad are 
not very distinct; hence its general aspect is not so pleasing to the eye as many 
others ; the fissure is broadly separated from the body of the shell, outer lip 
very sharp and sinuous, forming, with the columella, a smallnot very distinct 
sinus at base. In form it approaches most nearly perhaps to G. salehrosa, nob., 
but is more delicate in texture, thinner, and has no armature as in that 
species. 

Gykotoma bulbosa, Anthony. — Shell striate, ovate, moderately thick, dark 
olive ; spire obtusely elevated, subtruncate, 4 whorls only remaining ; whorls 
of the spire subconvex ; sutures very distinct, rendered more so by the 

Jhouldering of the whorls ; body whorl inflated, subangulated a little below 
he suture, from which angle it shelves towards it, and having 2 or 3 dark, 
broad bands revolving round it ; lines of growth curved and very distinct, al- 
most like crowded ribs ; fissure perfectly strait, very narrow and not deep ; 
aperture rather long, of a dusky color within and ornamented by 3 broad and 
distinct bands there ; columella smooth, except at the lower part, where it is 
slightly thickened. 

Length of shell 9-16 in. Length of aperture 5-16 in. Breadth of shell |in. 
Breadth of aperture 3-16 in. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

06s. — A short ovate species resembling in some respects G. oralis, nob., 
herein described ; it is less elevated than that species, more ventricose, and its 
surface is rougher ; indeed, there seems to be indications of obscure folds on 
the body whorl of this species near the suture, which in very old specimens 
may be more fully expressed, and thus bring it into close aflinity with J7. sale- 
hrosa, nob. These folds, which were noted by Swaiuson as a generic character 
in his original type, and which are wanting in all the species since published, 
and now re-discovered, are exceedingly interesting in that connexion. 

Gykotoma ovalis, Anthony. — Shell smooth, oval, olivaceous, moderately 
thick ; spire obtusely elevated, composed of about 5 — 6 convex whorls, of 
which 2 are generally lost by truncation ; sutures deeply impressed ; aperture 
broadly elliptical, banded within ; fissure direct, exceedingly narrow and 
very deep, extending nearly one half around the shell ; columella slightly 
curved by a callus. 

Length of shell 10-16 in. Length of aperture 7-16 in. Breadth of shell 
7-16 in. Breadth of aperture 4-16 in. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

06s. — A fine symmetrical species remarkable for its regularly oval form and 

I860.] 

5 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

unusaally deep, linear fissure ; the whorls are somewhat shouldered, though 
not so mnch so as in many of the species ; the spiral whorls are furnished 
with two broad bands, one near the top of each and the other widely separate 
and near the succeeding whorl, being often half concealed by it ; there are 3 
bands on the body whorl equidistant from each other ; compared with G. bul- 
bosa, nob., which it most nearly resembles, it is longer, more linear, and has 
not the rapidly attenuating spire of that species nor its roughly striate sur- 
face. 

Gyeotoma A3IPLA, Authony. — Shell smooth, ovate, rather thick, olivaceous; 
spire not elevated, but acute ; whorls 6 — 7, subconvex ; sutures well defined ; 
fissure broad, rather deep and waved ; aperture moderate, elliptical, flesh 
colored and banded within ; columella smooth, or slightly thickened only at 
the fissure ; body whorl striate, and banded ; whorls of the spire not banded, 
but having a thickened cord-like line near the suture. 

Length 11-14 in. Breadth 7-16 in. Length of aperture 7-17 in. Breadth 
of aperture 4-16 in. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A fine symmetrical species of this interesting genus which hitherto 
has not been very productive in species. Compared with Schizostoma funicu- 
Jatum, Lea, which it most nearly resembles, it is smoother, thinner, more 
acute, and has not the double cord-like lines of that species. Most if not all 
the species of Gyrotoma have the fissure gradually filled up behind as it is 
pushed forward in the process of growth, by a cord-like line more or less pro- 
minent, often so much so as to produce quite a shoulder at the suture, and 
this species is so marked, but it has no cord-like line in the middle of the 
body whorl as described in funiculatum. 

Gyrotoma salebkosa, Anthony. — Shell fusiform, robust, thick, nodulous, of 
a dusky olive color ; spire truncated, leaving scarcely more than the body 
whorl, but indicating by traces on the truncation the loss of three or four 
others ; fissure moderately open, waved, not deep ; body whorl, roughly nodu- 
lous at the upper part and ornamented by three dark bands below ; aperture 
ample, ovate, dusky within and bounded with three broad bands ; columella 
deeply rounded, covered with a thick deposit of callus, white at its lower por- 
tion, but tinged with dark brown at the fissures. 

Length of shell | in. Breadth of shell ^. Length of aperture 9^-16. 
Breadth of aperture 5-16. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

06s. — This species presents the unusual characteristic of a nodulous surface, 
which character has not been observed in any species hitherto described by 
any American author. These nodules are very conspicuous and much com- 
pressed laterally, so as to present very much the appearance of coarsely folded 
ribs, thus furnishing a close approximation to the original type from which 
Swainson formed the genus ; on this account it becomes exceedingly interest- 
ing, as indicating great variety in the specific forms of this genus, giving 
assurance that among the many varied forms yet to be discovered we may at 
last find the identical species sent by Rafinesque to Swainson. These com- 
pressed nodules will at once distinguish it from all other species. 

Gyrotoma carixifera, Anthony. — Shell conic, thick, dark brown ; spire 
obtusely elevated, truncate, though not abruptly so, six whorls remain, one 
or two having apparently been lost by truncation ; carinations elevated, sub- 
acute and found on all the whorls, two on each of the spiral ones and three to 
four on the body whorl ; fissure direct, broad, and moderately deep, extending 
about l-5th around the shell ; sutures irregular, much modified by the carinse, 
and often concealed in part by them ; aperture ovate and banded within ; 
columella much rounded, callous at the lower part only ; outer lip irregularly 
waved, its outline modified by the carinae on the body whorl. No sinus. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 67 

Length of shell f in. Breadth of shell J in. Length of aperture 5^-16 in* 
Breadth of aperture ^ in. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

06s. — This species cannot well be confounded with any other yet described. 
In general form and in its armature one is very forcibly reminded of Melania 
annulifera, Con., from which it differs, however, not only generically, but by 
its more ovate base ; the carinse are lighter in color than the general body of 
the shell, and are slightly irregular or sub- nodulous in outline ; it is a stout, 
heavy species, and has a smaller aperture proportionally than is common in 
the genus ; the bands within the aperture are five in number, very dark, and 
the three central ones are disposed to be confluent ; a dark broad band revolves 
around the base of the shell. Compared with Schizoztoma pagoda, Lea, it 
differs in color, in its more elongate form, and by tne character of its carinae, 
which are more uniform, the main variation being that they are more diffused 
on the whorl, whereas, in Mr. Lea's species they are particularly conspicuous 
near the apex. 

Gykotoma robusta, Anthony. — Shell fusiform, robust, thick, of a dark olive 
color ; spire obtuse, consisting of one perfect whorl remaining, with marks of 
two or tliree more, lost by truncation ; body whorl broad, ornamented by three 
obscure, dark, wide bands ; fissure rather broad, curved, not deep, closed 
behind by a cordlike cincture, very prominent, beneath which and close to it 
is a narrow depression or furrow ; aperture narrow, ovate, banded inside ; 
columella well rounded and covered by callus ; lines of growth very distinct 
and much curved, rendering the shell rough by their prominence. 

Length of shell | in. Breadth of shell 9-16. Length of aperture 10-16. 
Breadth of aperture 5-6. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — This is a large, robust species, somewhat resembling Melania ampla, 
nob. in form, and not unlike it in coloring ; it is about the largest species I 
have seen in this genus, and certainly not the least beautiful ; compared with 
G. salebrosa, nob., herein described, it is larger, smoother, more inflated, and 
has not the rib-like prominences so characteristic of that species ; the lower 
part of the columella is somewhat flattened and thickened, and another thick- 
ening takes place at the aperture, leaving a thinner space between the two 
points. 

Anculosa ornata, Anthony. — Shell conic, rather thick, smooth; spire ele- 
vated, composed of about five convex whorls ; suture distinct ; color dark 
yellow, polished, with dark brown bands revolving around the shell ; three 
bands visible on the body whorl and only one upon the volutions of the spire ; 
aperture ovate, livid and banded within ; columella furnished with a callus, 
often tinted with rose color ; sinus very small. 

Hab. — North Carolina. My Cabinet ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., 
Phila.; State Coll., Alb., N. Y.; Smithsonian Collection. 

Obs. — A fine species, so much elevated as readily to be taken for a Melania ; 
the dark bands on a yellow ground give it a lively appearance ; about one 
hundred specimens are before me, and present very little variation ; the dark 
bands within the aperture are very conspicuous, one being near the upper 
angle, two others near each other, but widely separated from the first, and a 
fourth near the base of the shell ; the middle bands are often confluent, and 
all of them are arrested by a broad area before they reach the outer edge. 

Ancclosa ligata, Anthony. — Shell ovate, smooth, of a dark green color, 
rather thick ; spire obtusely elevated, composed of about four whorls ; suture 
very distinct ; upper whorls flattened, body whorl constricted at the middle, 
banded ; aperture ovate, banded within ; columella deeply indented, Gallons ; 
no sinus at base. 

I860.] 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Hah. — Alabama. My Cabinet; Cab. Hugh Cuming; A. N. S., Pbilad.; 
State Coll., Albany, N. Y.; Smithsonian Collection. 

Ohs. — This species, of which I have some twenty or thirty individnals before 
me, seems remarkably constant in character for an Anculosa, and not readily 
mistaken for any other ; its color, which is a dirty dark green, is but poorly 
relieved by the faint bands on the whorl ; nevertheless, it is an interesting 
species, and one which will always attract attention ; its most prominent 
character is the constriction on the body whorl, which gives the appearance of 
a cord having been drawn tightly around it while in a yielding state. 

Ancclosa coEPrLENTA, Authony. — Shell ovate or broad ovate, smooth, 
thick ; spire rather elevated ; composed of 4-6 subconvex whorls ; suture 
decidedly impressed ; aperture very broad, ovate, ample, banded inside ; col- 
umella well rounded, slightly covered with white callus, and with a slight in- 
dication of sinus at base. 

Hah. — North Carolina. My Cabinet ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., 
Philada.; State Coll. Albany, N. Y.; Smithsonian CoUec, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — Cannot well be confounded with any of its congeners ; it is unusually 
elevated for an Anculosa, resembling more a Paludina in that respect ; the 
whorls are regularly but not abruptly shouldered, and are often excavated 
with a narrow channel at the middle ; strise and even indistinct carinse are 
often visible, but are not a constant character ; the bands within the aperture 
are not always well defined and are sometimes wanting altogether ; when 
present they are generally five in number, and are arrested by a narrow white 
space at the outer lip ; body whorl often subangulated. 

Occurs in Dan river. North Carolina, in company with Anculosa canalifera, 
nob., and appears to be very common. Several hundred specimens of various 
ages are now before me. 

Ancplosa canalifera, Anthony. — Shell ovate, costate, of a brown color, thin ; 
spire acutely elevated, composed of 5 — 6 sharply carinate whorls ; suture not 
very distinct ; aperture about half the length of the shell, ovate, banded in- 
side ; columella deeply indented ; sinus none. 

Bab. — North Carolina, in Dan river. 

My Cabinet; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London; A. N. S., Phila.; State CoU., 
Albany, N. Y.; Smithsonian Coll., Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — One of our most curious and beautiful species, which no one can easily 
mistake ; the whole shell is crossed with sharp, elevated costse running around 
the whorls and corresponding deep grooves between them ; about five costae on 
the body whorl ; a less number on the spire volutions ; these ribs appear as 
dark bands in the interior of the aperture, and there is a broad non-elevated 
band at the base of the shell ; differs from Anc. costata, nob., by the size and 
piominence of its ribs and by its elevated spire. 

Anculosa vtridula, Anthony. — Shell ovate, of a uniform dark green color, 
rather thin; spire much elevated, composed of 4 — 5 convex whorls ; sutures 
very distinct ; aperture ovate, large, about half the length of the shell, livid 
inside ; columella well rounded ; has a broad but not well defined sinus. 

Hah. — Tennessee. My Cabinet ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., 
Philada.; Smithsonian Coll., Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — In form and coloring this species resembles Paludina decisa, Say, when 
that is about half grown, and but for its operculum one would hardly deem it 
an Anculosa ; it is a plain, unadorned species, not liable to be confounded with 
any other ; its body whorl is large and subangulated ; lines of growth well 
defined and close ; it has a slight disposition to shouldering at the suture ; it 
is not an abundant species so far as at present known. 

AwcuLOSA PATULA, Anthony. — Shell ovate, of an uniform dark horn color, 
rather thin ; whorls 4 — 5, convex ; sutures very distinct ; aperture semicircu- 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 69 

lar, witliin •whitish ; columella only slightly rounded, somewhat flattened by 
a callous deposit, more or less tinged with dirty red. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cab. ; Cab .Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., Phila- 
delphia ; State collection, Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian collection. 

06s. — Resembles none other of the genua ; its color, which is of a dull dark 
brown, and its semicircular mouth, remarkable for its length and bre idth, are 
prominent marks of distinction ; the body whorl is very much inflated and 
angulated or subangulated ; the interior aperture is often blotclied with ir- 
regular, dirty brown spots ; spire elevated and acute, rapidly diminishing to 
the apex ; the lines of growth are strong, and on some specimens a single 
prominent varix may be noticed. 

Anculosa elegans, Anthony. — Shell subglobose, smooth, thick ; spire de- 
pressed, consisting of 3 — 4 flat whorls ; color fine glossy dark yellow, orna- 
mented with darker bands, of which five are on the body whorl ; aperture 
obliquely ovate and banded within ; columella deeply curved, with a heavy 
callous deposit ; sinus very small. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A highly ornamental species, which cannot be compared with any 
other ; its bands on a yellow ground render it very lively ; it is heavier and 
smoother than A. ampla, nobis, not so broad in the aperture and far more 
beautiful ; neither is it so much shouldered as that species. 

Anculosa zebra, Anthony. — Shell subglobose, smooth, moderately thick ; 
spire obtusely elevated, but slightly decorticated, and composed of four convex 
whorls ; sutures distinctly impressed ; aperture broad, ovate, within bluish, 
with the epidermal colors seen faintly through ; columella rounded, covered 
with callus, which is thickened at the upper part. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — This species presents an appearance not often seen in the genus, by 
its mottled, variegated epidermis ; the general ground color is gamboge yel- 
low, but It is varied by blotches of very dark brown or reddish, often running 
into diagonal lines, which gives the shell a very lively and pleasant look. 
Only one other species is described as being similarly marked, viz., A.Jiam- 
mata, Lea ; that species I have never seen, but the description does not war- 
rant me in considering the two identical. 

In old specimens the spire is often produced and somewhat nodulous, while 
the longitudinal bands become broken into irregular lines, so interrupted as 
to become scarcely more than quadrangular spots ; it is one of our most beau- 
tiful species. About a dozen specimens are before me. 

lo xaRRiTA, Anthony. — Shell conic, elevated, horn colored, spinous ; spines 
rather short and heavy, about seven on each whorl ; whorls nine ; aperture 
pyriform, about one-third the length of the shell, and irregularly banded 
within ; columella rounded, slightly twisted and forming a short, narrow 
canal at base. 

Length of shell 2^ in. Breadth of shell ^ in. Length of aperture | in. 
Breadth of aperture 7-16 inch. 

HaJ}. — Tennessee. 

Obs. — This is the most slender and elongate species of this genus which has 
come under my notice, and although a single specimen only has as yet been 
discovered, its claims to rank as a species will hardly be questioned ; its long, 
slender form, stout, closely set spines, and small aperture will at once dis- 
tinguish it from its congeners ; two faint bands traverse each whorl, one of 
which lies precisely in the plane of the spines ; lines of growth very distinct, 
nearly varicose. 

lo BREVis, Anthony. — Shell conic, ovate, horn colored, spinous ; spines 
short, thick, five on each whorl ; whorls about seven ; aperture elliptical or 
pyriform, one-half the length of the shell ; collumelia rounded and sinuous 
I860.] 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

near the base, forming with the outer lip a broad, well defined canal at the 
base. 

Length of shell 2 in. Breadth of shell 1;^ in. Length of aperture 1 in. 
Breadth of aperture | inch. 

Hah. — Tennessee. My Cab.; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., Phila- 
delphia ; State collection, Abany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian collection, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Ohs. — Another of the short, heavy forms in this genus, so unlike the normal 
type of lo spinosa ; we think no one need confound it with any other species ; 
its short, heavy, flattened spines jutting out like so many miniature spear 
heads and its peculiarly twisted columella will readily characterize it. The 
columella is also covered with a dense callous deposit, increased in thickness 
at its upper part, and often blotched with dark red at that point ; irregular, 
ill defined, but broad bands are seen in the interior, often faintly visible on 
the epidermis. Appears to be a rather common species in some localities, of 
which I possess some hundreds of specimens. 

lo iNEEMis, Anthony. — Shell conical, smooth, thick ; moderately elevated, 
composed of 7 — 8 flattened whorls ; suture very distinct ; upper whorls slight- 
ly coronated by an obscure row of low spines nearly concealed by the pre- 
ceding whorl ; shell otherwise perfectly smooth or only occasionally or ob- 
scurely nodulous on the body whorl ; lines of growth very strong and much 
curved ; aperture pyriform, curved to the left, banded within ; columella 
twisted, callous, thickened above ; sinus long and curved. 

Length of shell 2 1-16 in. Breadth of shell 1 in. Length of aperture 1 inch. 
Breadth of aperture § inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cab. ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London ; A. N. S., Phila- 
delphia ; State collection, Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian collec, Washington, 
D. C. 

Obs. — Remarkable mainly for its plain, unadorned exterior and smooth 
epidermis; its color is also lighter than " spinosa " or " fluviatilis ". No 
spines are visible on the body whorl of this species generally, but I have a few 
specimens which may perhaps belong to it, and which have a few obscure 
spines near the aperture ; these are, however, little more than knobs. Some 
hundreds of this species have come under my notice. 

lo SPiRosTOMA, Anthony. — Shell conical, broadly ovate, horn colored, 
spinous : spines short, thick, seven to eight on each whorl ; whorls about 
nine ; aperture ovate, about half the length of the shell ; columella and 
outer lip much and regularly twisted, and forming a well defined sinus at 
base. 

Length of shell 1| in. Breadth of shell 1^ in. Length of aperture 15-16 in. 
Breadth of aperture ^ inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cab. and Cab. Hugh Cuming, London. 

06s. — This is truly a most remarkable species of this highly interesting 
genus of Mollusks ; its difi"erence from the ordinary type of lo spitiosa is too 
marked to admit of its being confounded with that, or indeed any other 
species ; its stout, ovate form, short, heavy spines, and, above all, the peculiar 
and graceful curvature of its outer lip, are prominent characteristics and readily 
distinguish it. Among several thousand specimens of lo in my possession, 
but three adult individuals of this species have been noticed, although I have 
a dozen or more which seem to be immatiire forms of it ; it may therefore be 
considered as not only one of the most aberrant and beautiful forms of lo, 
but also one of the rarest. 

Paludina lima, Anthony. — Shell ovate, rather thin, dark green ; spire ob- 
tusely elevated and composed of six convex whorls, which are strongly striate 
or subcarinate ; sutures very distinct, and the upper part of each whorl being 
flattened renders it more conspicuous ; aperture broad-ovate, about half the 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 71 

length of the shell, livid within ; c )lamella slightly roanied and callous 
deposit small ; umbilicus none. 

Length 1| inches. Breadth | inch. 

Hab. — South Carolina. My Cab. ; Cab. H. Cuming, London ; A. N. S., 
Fhilada. ; Smithsonian collection, Washington, D. C. 

Obs. — In general form not unlike our Wt-stern P. Integra, Say, from whicli 
it differs, however, by its revolving, raised striae and by its carina, which are 
also well developed ; the lines of growth are very strong, and decussating with 
the stria give the surface a beautifully rough appearance, which suggests its 
specific name. It is really one of our handsomest species, and so unlike all 
others that no American species can readily be mistaken for it. In most speci- 
mens the body whorl is very strongly carinate about the middle, and the outer 
lip is considerably produced as in P. subsolida, nob. 

Paludina decapitata, Anthony. — Shell globular, thin, of a light green color ; 
spire truncate, but never elevated under any circumstances, composed of 
about four very flat whorls ; aperture broad, ovate, one-half the length of the 
shell, within dusky white ; columella regularly but not deeply rounded, with a 
slight deposit of callous, and having a very small linear umbilicus at base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. My Cabinet. 

Obs. — A single specimen only is before me, and therefore I claim it as a new 
species with some hesitation ; it seems to me, however, too unlike any of the 
ordinary forms in this genus to warrant its being included with any of them ; 
it is the most globose of any species hitherto published, if we except the small, 
round forms which were long since removed, and very properly too, to Amni- 
cola ; the spire is entirely wanting, but traces of the sutures show the number 
of whorls ; and its present appearance forbids the idea of its ever having had 
an elevated spire. 

Palddina humerosa, Anthony. — Shell ovate, thick, bright green, imper- 
forate ; spire rather obtusely elevated, composed of about 5 — 6 convex whorls ; 
upper whorls smooth, body whorl and preceding one strongly striate and 
granulate or subgrannlate ; sutures very distinct ; aperture ovate, nearly one- 
half the length of the shell, livid within. 

Length about half an inch. 

Hab. — Alabama. My Cabinet. 

06s. — A single specimen only is before me, but it is sufficiently distinct ; its 
granulated surfiice and the broad shouldering of the whorls are it^ chief char- 
acteristics ; compared with P. genicula, Con., it is more slender, darker in color, 
and its granulated surface is of itself a sufficient distinction. 

Paludina exilis, Anthony. — Shell turrited, smooth, rather thick ; color 
light apple green ; spire elevated, composed of about seven volutions ; suture 
well marked ; aperture small, broad-ovate, livid within ; body whorl distinctly 
angulated, subumbilicate, and with very distinct lines of growth ; columella 
well rounded and curved with a callous deposit, connecting perfectly with the 
outer lip thus forming a continuous rim. 

Length 1| inches. Breadth | inch. 

Hab. — Mississippi. My Cab. ; Cab. H.' Cuming, London; A. N. S., Phila- 
delphia ; State collection, Albany, N. Y. ; Smithsonian collection. 

06s. — One of the most slender of our American species ; Paludina subsolida, 
nob., is more ponderous, more globose, and has a larger aperture ; no other 
species approaches it in general appearance ; the whorls of this species taper 
more rapidly to an acute apex than in most of the species ; compared with P. 
Integra, Say, it is more slender, more solid, and the aperture is much smaller. 

Paludina subsolida, Anthony. — Shell ovate, imperforate, very thick ; color 
light green, verging to brown in old specimens ; spire much elevated, com- 
posed of 6 — 7 inflated whorls ; sutures very distinct ; aperture broad-ovate, 

I860.] 



72 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

about one-third of the length of the shell, within white ; lip curved forward 
and forming a very conspicuous, subacute tip near its base ; columella well 
rounded, a thick callous deposit covering the umbilicus. 

Length 2 inches ; breadth 1^ inches. 

Hah. — Illinois. My Cab. ; Cab. Hugh Cuming, London. 

Obs. — This is the most ponderous species in the genus, far exceeding P. 
ponderosa, Say, in that respect ; compared with that species it is not only 
much more solid and heavy, but its spire is proportionally more elongate, 
whorls more convex, while the body whorl is less ventricose, and the aperture 
is uncommonly small for a Paludina of its size ; the body whorl is disposed to 
be angulated near its middle ; all the whorls are more or less shouldered and 
the lines of growth are very conspicuous ; the body whorl is obscurely striate 
concentrically, and its surface thereby modified so as to present a faintly sculp- 
tured appearance, and the striae being somewhat finely undulated the appear- 
ance under a microscope is very pleasing. 



Supplement to " A Catalogue of the Venomous Serpents in the Museum of the 

Academy," etc. 

BY E. D. COPE. 

Species 19. Teleuraspis Castelnaui Cope. Another specimen, obtained 
in a collection made between Fort Riley and Pike's Peak, Kansas, with Scelo- 
porus undulatus, Ablabes occipitalis, Bascanion flaviventris, 
etc. As the same collection, however, contained a specimen of Liophis 
r e g i n ae , the occurrence of the South American serpent in question was 
doubtless the result of accident or mistake. 

P. 345. After Elaps altirostris insert 

64. E. Hemprichii Jan, Rev. et Mag. de Zoologie, 1858, p. 524. 
One spec. Surinam. Dr. Colhoun. 

Our specimen diflfers from those described by Prof. Jan with respect to the 
number of gastrosteges included in the black rings. In those the central ring 
covers but one plate ; in ours, four, the lateral ones six or seven. The great 
breadth of these rings compared with the light spaces, distinguishes it at once 
from any other species which we have seen. The muzzle is short, and the 
nostrils widely separated. Total length 11 inches. Gastrosteges 181, anal 1, 
urosteges 27. 

P. 346, species 51. A more careful examination of the two specimens here 
assigned, with a mark of doubt, to Elaps Marcgravii, has convinced us 
that neither of them belong to that species, and that they are in fact distinct 
from each other. The smaller we believe to be undescribed. After fi li- 
f o r m i s Gthr. it is the most slender South American Elaps. Upon comparing 
it with a young E. lemniscatus, which has a head of the same size, the 
proportions of the body and tail are nearly similar, but the number of sets of 
rings is rather less. The head is not so broad posteriorly, and the occipital 
plates are a little more elongate. The principal difference, however, lies in the 
distribution of colors on the head. This is entirely black above and below as 
far as three scales behind the occipitals, except a yellow band behind the post- 
ooulars. This covers the sixth upper labial, one temporal above it, anterior 
third of the occipitals, hinder edge of superciliaries, and greater part of the 
vertical. Superior labials seven, third and fourth coming into the orbit. 
Distance from the black of the head to first ring, eleven scales. Eight sets of 
rings, the middle not twice as wide as the external ring, which is as broad as 
the yellow interval. Gastrosteges 197 ; anal 1 ; urosteges 19 pair. Length 11 
in. 9 1. 

We propose calling this species Elaps melanogenys. 

One specimen, presented by Dr. Wilson ; locality unknown. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELrHIA. 73 

E. Gravenhorstii Jan, loc. cit. p. 524, resembles this species, but has 
a black half-collar only, and a longer tail. The preocular is very small, sepa- 
rated from the nasal by the contiguous post-frontal and superior labial. In 
our species the preocular is unusually large, and in contact with the nasal. 

Species 53. The three specimens here referred to frontalis D. Sj- B. belong 
to a species nearly allied to lemniscatus, apparently undescribed. The 
most prominent differences are, the exact equality of the black rings in width, 
the shorter intervals between the triads, and the position of the first ring 
which touches the occipital and last labial shields. In lemniscatus, its 
vars. frontalis and baliocoryphus, in Marcgravii and deco- 
ratus, the first black ring is several scales behind the angle of the mouth, 
the intermediate space being red ; also the central ring of each three is wider 
than the external. Distance between the middle and outer of the three rings 
in our specimens of lemniscatus two and three scales ; inisozonus 
(as we now call this serpent) four. In the former the anterior part of the 
occipitals is crossed by a black band ; in the latter they are entirely white, 
(red ?), except a little black at the posterior ends. 

E. isozonus nob. — Sets of rings twelve. No. 1, gastrosteges 201 ; anal 1, 
entire ; urosteges 28, first 9 entire. No. 2, 218 ; anal 1, divided ; urosteges 26. 
No. 3, 213 gastrosteges; anal 1, divided; urosteges, 29, two entire. We do 
not know the part of South America inhabited by this serpent. 

Species 54. The specimen here described as Elaps baliocoryphus is, 
as we now believe, a variety of the lemniscatus. It resembles the figure 
of the var. frontalis D. Sf B. ("Marcgravii" Pr. Max.) in Abbild. 
Naturgeschichte Brasiliens, differing in having an additional red (white) band 
across the fronts of the occipitals. Whether Marcgravii D. Sj- B. be a 
variety of lemniscatus, as believed by Dr. Giinther, or not, the latter is 
certainly liable to great variation in the distribution of colors on the head. 

In place of E. baliocoryphus, insert 

54. E. filiform is Gunther, Proc. Z. S.'1859, p. 86. 

The head of our specimen is so badly mutilated that the characters could 
not be made out withoxit difficulty. We are, however, much gratified to be 
able to record our probable possession of the interesting species described as 
above. It may be known from other American Elapses by its excessively 
elongate form and the possession of but one postocular. In a few particulars 
it differs from Dr. Glinther's description. The nasal plates are two : two tem- 
porals bound the upper border of the sixth labial shield, the anterior of which 
reaches the postocular. There is no light-colored band across the post-frontals. 
Triads of rings nineteen, disposed as in the description. 

Preocular acute anteriorly, just touching the nasals ; hence the post-frontals 
are bent down, and almost reach the labials. Third, fourth and fifth superior 
labials narrow and high, eye resting on the suture of the last two. Gastros- 
teges 308 ; anal 1, divided ; urosteges 42. Length. 21 in. 9 1. 
One sp. ? Dr. Wilson. 

To assist further in the identification of the species of Elaps having the rings 
arranged by threes, we have prepared the following table. Those marked with 
an asterisk are not in the Museum of the Academy. 

A. Postoculars two. 
Head compressed, lanceolate. 
Labials not reaching the occipitals. altirostris Cope. 

Head depressed. 
Sixth superior labial reaching the occipital. *decobatus Jan. 

Sixth superior labial not reaching the occipital. 

t Posterior part of occipitals included in a black collar or half-collar, 
a. Neck surrounded by a narrow yellow ring. 

I860.] 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Cephalic plates black ; an imperfect postocular 

cross-band. ^elegans Jan. 

Red, bordered with black. Sukinamensis Cut. 

b. Neck covered by the black collar. 

Postfrontals touching the labials. *GrRAVENHORSTn Jan. 

Post-frontals not touching the labials ; 

Geneial shields entirely black. melanogenys Cope. 

Red or yellow ; 

Scales between middle and outer black ring 

red. isozoNus Cope. 

Black with large white spots. dissoleucus Cope, 

f f Occipital shields not traversed by a black collar or half-collar. 

a. Rings absent on the belly, divided and alternating 

above. alteknans D. & B. 

b. Rings entire ; 

The middle one of each three more than twice as 

wide as the outer. *Ddmebilii Jan. 

Not more than twice as wide as the outer. 
But twice as wide as the red spaces between the 

triads. Hemprichii Jan. 

Not twice as wide. 

First black ring just touching occipitals isozonus Cope. 

Some distance behind them ; 

Before the eyes uniform black. *Marcgbavii D. & B. 

A red band. lemniscatps Schu. 

B. Postoculars one. 
Body very slender. filifokmis Gthr. 

Species 57. Platurus fasciatus Daud., add 
One sp. Raiatea. Dr. J. Wilson, U. S. N. 

Species 63. Pelamis bicolor Daud., add 
One sp. Pacific cpast of Panama. Dr. J. Wilson, U. S. N. 

We correct the following typographical errors in the Catalogue : — 
Page 332, line 20, for "those " read these. 

" 333, " 35 : for " Proteroglyphis " read Proteroglyphes. 

" 338, " 12: for "Dr. Coleman Pemberton " read Dr. J. P. Coleman. 

" 338, " 19: for "plants" read flanks. 

" 341, Pelias berus : for " var. niger Bell,'''' read var. prester Linn. 

" 342, line 11 : for "Bbachychranion," read BRACHYCRANioif. 

" 343, " 19: for "H. pallidiceps Gra?/" read H. pallidiceps, 
Gthr. 

" 343, " 33 : for " Sepedon Cuvier " read Sepedon Merrem. 

" 344, Bungarus fasciatus: for "Three sp.'' read Five sp. 

" 345, line 37 : for " E. Bert hold i," read E. Bibroni. 

" 347 " 5: for "Hydrophia," read Hydrophis. 



Catalogue of Colubridse in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Pailadelphia. I. Calamarinae. 

BY E. D. COPE. 

4. COLUBRID^. 

Essential char. — Superior maxillary bone horizontal, articulating with the 
anterior frontal by a lateral process ; its anterior prolongation bearing teeth 
neither perforated nor channelled for the reception of a venom duct. The 
posterior prolongation uniting to the ectopterygoid by a horizontal, oblique 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 75 

articulation. Superior processes of the caudal vertebrae not elongated ; hypa- 
pophyses bifid. 

Char, not universal. — Top of head plated. Belly protected by broad plates. 
Tail cylindrical. Penis simple.* 

The Chersydrus granulatus has a compressed tail somewhat resem- 
bling that of the sea snake's, and adapted to habits similar in many respects. 
Yet even in external form it bears a greater resemblance to that of some of 
the Boas, having a prehensile character. A comparison of the caudal verte- 
brae of this serpent and the Hydrophis pelamidoides shows the follow- 
ing difi'erences : In the latter the neural spines are slender and greatly 
elongated, and the pleurapophysesf slender, elongated, and but little di- 
verging. The "appendages" of the latter, which in all serpents appear in 
the last dorsal and first caudal vertebr;e, and are doubtless the homologues of 
the re-verted processes on the ribs of birds, partake of the same nature. 
The hypapophyses are similar to those of the dorsal vertebrae, being undi- 
vided, with the exception of those upon the first two vertebrae, whose pleura- 
pophyses are destitute of the appendage. These are slightly bifid. 

In the Chersydrus the structure is entirely that of the Colubers. The neural 
spines are short and compressed ; the pleurapophyses short and diverging ; 
and the hypapophyses bifid, and their lateral moieties separated. Thus in 
addition the difi'erence in the armature of the mouth, the structure of the tail 
separates this genus from the sea snakes. Its position appears to us to be 
between the Homalopsinse and Boidae, — connected to the latter by Xenoder- 
mu s Reinwt., as indicated by Dumeril and Bibron. 

CALAAIARIN^. 

Calamakia Boie. Type C. Linnaei • 
Isis, 1827, p. 519. 

65. C. Gervaisii D. cj- B., vii. p. 63. 

Four sp. Philippine Is. Mr. Cuming. 

One (young). " *' 

AspiD0RA Wagler. Type A. brachy orrhos . 
Naturlich. Syst. der Amphib. p. 191. 

66. A. brachyorrhos, Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. 14. Sciftale brachyorrhos 
Boie. Isis, 1827, 517. A. scytale, D. & B., vii. 178 ("Wagler" D. & B. 
et Gthr.). 

One sp. Ceylon. Mr. Cuming. 

67. A. trachyprocta nobis. 

Form stout, not elongate. Tail short, thick, one-eighth of total length. 
Scales in fifteen rows, broad, not imbricate, smooth. The scales in the four or 
five rows each side of the anus, for a distance of from four or five scales in 
front to nine or ten behind the anus, are marked each with a small recurved 
tubercle near the anterior border. Anal shield entire. Superior labials six, last 
largest ; the eye resting on the fourth. Inferior labials five. Posterior pair of 
geneial shields separated by a central complementary plate. Head shields simi- 
lar to those of A. brachyorrhos, except that the occipitals are more 
rounded posteriorly, and the lower postoculars larger. Gastrosteges 135, 1 
entire anal, 21 entire urosteges, and a small central postanal plate. Total 
length 8 in. 2 1. Tail 1 in. 

Coloration. — Upper surface of head and body deep brown, becoming lighter 
on the third and fourth longitudinal rows of scales, and contracted on the tail 
to a narrow median vitta. A blackish brown band passing through the eye, 

*Coronella can a is one exception, fide Schlegel. 

tThese were inadvertently alluded to, Proceedings, 1859, p. 333, as "ha;mal spines." 

I860.] 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

and along the adjacent edges of the scales of the second and third rows, 
indistinct on the sides, but distinct on the tail. Superior labials and throat 
yellowish ; belly grayish, largely varied with black, which forms an irregular 
longitudinal band. 

This is a more robust serpent than the well-known brachyorrhos, and 
has a shorter and thicker tail. While this has 21 urosteges, our specimen of 
the other has 32. The latter has the scales in 17 rows (15 Gimther), and 
they are more elongate and imbricate ; it has not the supplementary geneial 
plate, and above all, the peculiar tuberculation of the ischiadic region. This 
exists elsewhere only — as far as we know — in the Trachischium r u g o s u m 
Gthr., of the Himmelayas, also a Calamarian, and is doubtless an assistance 
to the animals in burrowing in the earth, and among unyielding objects. 

Another difference between this serpent and the brachyorrhos is seen 
in the less elongated form of the head of the former, the rather shorter labials, 
and much shorter geneials. The eye, too, is a trifle longer, and more anterior. 
The coloration is quite different ; we only note here, the absence of the large 
neck spots in trachyprocta. 
One sp. Ceylon. Mr. Cuming. 

Haldea Baird & Girard. Type H. striatula. 
Catal. Rept. Smiths. Inst. Serp. p. 122, 1853. Conocephalus Dumeril. 
Prodrome de la Classification des Reptiles Ophidiens, pp. 43 et 46, 1852, and 
Giinther Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 17. Not of Thunberg, 1812, (Orthoptera.) 

68. H. striatula B. ^ D. Conocephalus striatulus T>. & B., Erp. Gen. 
et Gthr. 1. c. 

Two sp. S. Carolina. Dr. Edwd. Hallowell. 

One sp. N. Carolina. ? 

One sp. Richmond, Va. Smithsonian Inst. 

One sp. N. America. ? 

Tkopidoclonion nobis. Type T. lineatum. 

Microps Hallowell Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. viii. 1856. Not of Megerle, 1823, 
(Coleoptera Oedemeritse.) 

This genus is allied to Ischnognathus D. Sj- B. Streptophorus 
and Elapoidis agree with it in having divided urosteges, cariuate scales 
and two internasals, but differ thus, Streptophorus, two post-, no preocular ; 
Elapoidis, one post-, two preoculars ; Tropidoclonion, two post-, one preocular. 

69. T. lineatum nob. Microps lineatus Hallow. 1. c. 

Two sp. Kansas. Dr. Hammond. 

Streptophoeus D. & B. Type S. S e b se. 
Erp. Gen. vii. 514. 

70. S. Sebse D. Sp B. Elapoides fasciatus Hallow. Journ. Acad. iii. 35, 
pi. 4. 

One sp. Honduras. Dr. Woodhouse. 

Two sp. ? Gard. of Plants. 

71. S. atratus nobis. Coluber atratus Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. ii. 
p. 245, 1845. Streptophorus Drozii D. & B. vii. 518, 1854, Giinther 1. c. 

We are glad to be able to restore the name given by Dr. Hallowell to this 
species many years before that of the Erpetologie Generale. The specimen 
described by him is rather paler than the others — ^justifying the expression, 
" lead colored." The " six " superior labials is an anomaly, other specimens 
having seven. None of the specimens have the dark color on the chin and 
throat mentioned by Dumeril — but this is not probably an important character, 
as Giinther does not allude to it. 
Four tip. Venezuela, within 200 miles of Caraccas. Dr. Ashmead. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 77 

72. S. bifasciatus D. §- B. vii. 520. — In this species the carinse are 
very strong, and present on every row of scales. It is of a slender, elongate 
form as mentioned by its describers, resembling the species of Ablabes in its 
proportions. For this reason we question the propriety of removing this 
genus from the neighborhood of Ischnognathus, where Dumeril places it, and 
it is only the Calamarian form ofS. atratus that induces iis to consent to 
the position assigned by Giinther. Our specimens of species being fresh, we 
will note : that the superior surface is not properly black, but deep slate ; and 
that the collar and inferior labial plates are light yellow. The black upon the 
gastrosteges covers an extent rather wider than each white lateral band. 
Three specimens, Jalapa, Mexico, Sr. Rapfhael M. De Oca. 
One " " Mr. Pease. 

Tantilla Bd. & Grd. Type T. coronata. 

Catalogue Serp., p. 131. 

This genus appears to be quite distinct from Rhabdosoma D. ^' B., be- 
ing characterized by a more slender body, longer tail, divided anal, and a 
loreal plate, either united to the postfrontals or wanting. The latter two 
peculiarities also distinguish it from Rhabdion D. Sf B. Posterior maxil- 
lary teeth equal to the anterior, smooth. Perhaps Rhabdosoma elaps 
Gthr. 1. c. 241, belongs here ; its anal scute is, however, entire. 

73. T. Hallowelli noh. Tantilla gracilis Hallow., Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. viii. p. 246. 

This species is accurately described as cited, and the differences between it 
and T. gracilis pointed out. These, we think, are of specific value, and 
accordingly name it after Dr. Hallowell, as a slight recognition of his many 
valuable contributions to herpetology. 

The form of this species is more like that of Haldea striatulajB. ^ G., 
than Carphophiops a m o e n a. The locality, ' ' Indianola, ' ' assigned by 
Dr. Hallowell, is probably a mistake, being copied from I3aird & Girard's 
Catalogue. We have one specimen brought from Kansas by Dr. Hammond. 

74. T. reticulata nob. — Vertical plate broad, slightly angular in front, 
projecting posteriorly for half its length between the occipitals. Occipitals 
and both pair of frontals rather broad. Rostral broad, visible from above. 
Nostril in the posterior part of prenasal ; postnasal in contact with first and 
second superior labials, preocular, post- and prefrontals. Two postoculars, 
upper one in contact posteriorly with the occipital, the lower touching one 
temporal. A second temporal equal to the first, and a third very small one 
behind it. Superior labials, seven last largest, third and fourth entering the 
orbit both low. Four geneials, anterior in contact with inferior rostral. 
Scales in fifteen rows, last one slightly larger. Gastrosteges 148, postab- 
dominal 1 divided, urosteges 67 pair. Total length 10 in. 3 1. ; tail 3 in. 

Color above chestnut brown, much darker posteriorly, extending upon the 
tips of the gastrosteges. Anteriorly the scales are edged with darker, pre- 
senting a reticulated appearance. Central dorsal row of scales lighter, form- 
ing a pale vitta, disappearing on the tail. Third and fourth rows on each side 
also lighter, forming indistinct bands. A collar of the same pale yellow brown 
crosses the ends of the occipitals. Cephalic plates clouded and edged with 
darker ; a deep brown mark extending from the occipitals to the mouth across 
the yellowish labials. Beneath pale yellow, deepening posteriorly. 
One specimen, Cocuyas de Veraguas, New Grenada, R. W. Mitchell. 

This species seems to be much like the T. c o r o n a t u m B. ^ G., but has 
a much longer tail, and broader head-shields ; the upper post-ocular, not the 
lower, is in contact with the temporal in the latter. See Pacif, R. R. Report, 
X. Reptiles, pi. 38, fig. 96. 

I860.] 



78 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

Rhabdosoma D. & B. Type R. semidoliatum. 
Erpet. Gen. vii. 90. 

75. R. semidoliatum Z). ^-5. 

Two specimens, Mexico, ? 

Six " Jalapa, Mexico, Sr. R. M. DeOca. 

One " (young) " " Mr. Pease. 

This species appears to be very common in central Mexico. The spaces 
between the black spots on the dorsal region, described by authors as white, 
are in life of a beautiful Vermillion color. 

76. R. fuliginosum nobis. Coluber fuliginosus Hallowell, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. ii. p. 243, 1845. J Isoscelis et Rhabdosoma maculatum Giinther, Cat. 
Brit. Mus. 204, 241, 1858. 

Six superior maxiUary teeth on each side in a continuous series, the ante- 
rior longer than the posterior, but not longer than the middle two. Seven in- 
ferior maxillaries on each side regularly increasing in length anteriorly. This 
peculiar dentition induced us to consider this serpent a Lycodont, but sub- 
sequent examination and comparison with Dr. Giinther's description of Ms 
Rhabdosoma maculatum has persuaded us that the two species are 
very similar, possibly identical. The most material diflFerence is, that the 
ma cu latum has seven superior labial plates, the fuliginosum six. Of 
those of the latter, the third is elongated, and with the fourth entering the or- 
bit. Geneials one pair; vertical broader in front than its greatest length. 
Postoculars two, temporals three ; loreal long and narrow. Color reddish 
brown, a darker shade crossing each occipital obliquely and uniting behind 
them into a dorsal band, which is soon broken into spots. These are obsolete 
on the middle and hinder part of the body. No lateral series of spots. Belly 
immaculate. See Hallowell 1. c. 
One specimen. Near Caraccas, Dr. S. A. Ashmead. 

77. R. torquatum D. ^- B. vii. p. 101. " Brachyorrhos torquatus H. 
Boie, Erpet. de Java." 

Superior labials eight, fourth and fifth coming into the orbit. One postocu- 
lar ; one pair of geneials. The color of our specimen is a very deep brown, so 
dark that the transverse series of black spots can only be seen in certain 
lights. The opalescent play of colors is unusually beautiful on this account. 
Beneath dark brown, posteriorly finely punctulated with darker. 
One specimen, Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

78. R. c r a s s i c a u d a t u m D. ^- B. vii. 103. 

Seventeen longitudinal rows of scales ; two postoculars ; seven superior la- 
bials, third and fourth entering the orbit. In these important particulars our 
specimen is similar to those of Dumeril, but the coloration is totally distinct. 
Though much bleached by the alcohol, the animal was, probably, pale brown, 
each scale tipped with darker, with a dorsal vitta of the same extending from 
the occipitals to the end of the tail. Beneath yellow, immaculate. 
One specimen, Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

Cakphophiops Gervais. Type C. amoena. 

Diet. Nat. Hist. Univers. (dir. par M. C. D'Orbigny,) iii. p. 191, 1843. Car- 
phophis Dumeril, Prodrome de la class, des Rept. Ophidiens, pp. 43 et 46, 1852. 
Erp Gen vii. p. 131, 1854. Gunther 1. c. 17, 1858. Not of Gervais 1. c. 191, 
1843. Celuta B. & G., Cat. Serp. 129, 1853. 

This genus is characterized by Gervais as cited, who refers to Dumeril and 
Bibron ; but we cannot find it published by the latter prior to 1852. Carpbo- 
phis Gerv. has the characters of Calamaria Boie, and hence cannot be applied 
to the Coluber a m o e n u s Say. 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 79 

79. C. amoena nobis. Coluber amaenus Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. iv. 
237. Calamaria amoena Schl. Ess. Phys. Serp. 31. Brachyorrhos amoenus 
Holbr. Am. Herp. iii. 115. Carphophiops vermiformis Gervais, Diet. Univ. 
d'Hist. Nat. iii. 191. Carpkophis amoena Dum. & Bibr. vii. 131. Celuta amoe- 



na B. & G. 


1. c. 


129. 










Four specimens, 
Two " 

One " 

<( (( 

Two " 

One " (young) 


Pennsylvania, 
(( 

Beesley's Poin 
Cape May Co., 
Virginia, 
S. Carolina, 


t, N. 
N.J 


J., 

•> 


Drs. Holbrook and Hallowell. 
Mr. Samuel Ashmead. 
Mr. TiflFany. 
Jno. Cassin, Esq. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
Dr. Harlan. 






Virginia Bd. & Grd. 


Tyi 


56 V. 


. V a 1 e r i a e. 



Catal. Kept. p. 127. 

This genus is characterized by the elongated form of the shields of the head, 
and the distinctness of the latter from the body. There are two small nasal 
plates, as in Rhabdosoma. 

80. V. Valeriae Bd. & Grd. 1. c. 

One specimen, ? ? 

HoHALOSOMA Wagl. Type H. 1 u t r i x. 
Nat. Syst. Amph. 190, 1830. 

81. H. 1 u t r i X D. 4- B. vii. p. 110. 

Two specimens, Cape of Good Hope, Garden of Plants. 

Oligodon Boie. Type 0. subquadratum. 
Isis 1827, p. 519. 

82. 0. s u b 1 i n e a t u m Z>. & 5. vii. p. 57. 

One specimen, Ceylon, Mr. Cuming. 

Genera 11. Species 18. Specimens 54. 

The stoutness of the body and tail, and the shortness of the latter, the in- 
distinctness of the head, and the general firmness and rigidity, are characters 
by which the greater number of the species of this sub-family may at once be 
recognized. But as in some genera, certain of these peculiarities vanish, thus 
approximating them to other groups, we have followed M. Dumeril in employ- 
ing the dentition, which is here quite characteristic. Elsewhere, however, "it 
evidently fails to characterize natural groups, as urged by Dr. Giinther in his 
invaluable catalogue of the Colubrine snakes in the British Museum. We 
have, therefore, omitted the genera Rhinostoma, Phimophis* and Homalo- 
cranion, which have the posterior superior maxillaries grooved, and are perhaps 
more nearly allied to Scytale. A single specimen of Scytale coronatum, 
of a variety near that called S. Neuwiedii in the Erpetologie Generale was 
described by us, Proc. of this Acad., 1859, p. 294, as Olisthenes euphaeus. 
Our conviction of its generic distinctness was grounded upon the peculiar form 
of the rostral plate, which while offering strong characters among some ser- 
pents, here varies with the individual. 

* Phimophis G u e r i n i , the only species. It is Rhinosimus G u e r i n i of Dumeril and 
Bibron, but the generic name was applied to certain species of Curculionid«E,by LatreJlle, 
more than fifty years previously. 

1860.1 



80 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 



Descriptions of new species of Cyrena and Corbicula in the Cabinet of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

BY TEMPLE PRIME. 

1. Cyrena pond eros a Prime. C. testa subtrigona, inaequilaterali, trans- 
versim irregulariter striata, epidermide brunnea vestita, valvis crassis, solidis ; 
intus candidissima ; umbonibus parvis, obliquis, erosis ; dentibus cardinalibus 
tribus ; dente lateral! ijostico compresso, antico breviore, acuto. 

Shell somewhat triangular, inequilateral, lines of growth irregular, epidermis 
brown, valves heavy ; interior white ; umbones small oblique, eroded ; three 
cardinal teeth ; posterior lateral tooth compressed, anterior one short and 
prominent. 

Long. 1 4-5 ; lat. 1 3-5 ; diam. 1 2-5 poll. 

Hah. — Philippine Islands. 

This shell is remarkable by its weight in proportion to its size. It may be 
compared to the Cyrena Bengalensis Lamarck, from which it differs, how- 
ever, in being heavier, having less prominent beaks, and by being slightly 
more inflated ; its epidermis is darker and more heavily sulcated. 

2. Cyrena Corbiculaeformis Prime. C. testa trigona, sub-inflata, in- 
aequilaterali, intus violacea, epidermide brunnea vestita, umbonibus tumidis ; 
dentibus cardinalibus tribus, inaequalibus ; lateralibus praeloiigis. 

Shell triangular, somewhat inflated, inequilateral, beaks prominent, pos- 
terior margin angular, three cardinal teeth, the two posterior ones of nearly 
the same size, anterior one less developed ; lateral teeth elongated, not promi- 
nent ; interior of the valves bluish- white ; epidermis glassy, lines dark brown. 

Long. 1 3-10 ; lat. 1 2-10 ; diam. 7-10 poll. 

Hah. — Cochin in Malabar. 

This species is difi'erent from any Cyrena known to me, but bears much, re- 
semblance in its general form to certain species of Corbicula. 

3. Corbicula r 1 u n d a Prime. C. testa parva, orbiculata, subaequilaterali, 
tumidula. subtrigona, solidiuscula, epidermide flavescente vestita ; regulariter 
striata ; umbonibus tumidis ; intus alba ; dentibus cardinalibus inaequalibus ; 
lateralibus elougatis, angustis, subaequalibus, arcuatis, tenuissime striatis. 

Shell small, somewhat inflated, nearly equilateral, interior white, epidermis 
yellow, lines of growth delicate and very regular ; umbones prominent ; car- 
dinal teeth unequal in size ; lateral teeth elongated, carved, finely denticulated. 

Long. 7-10 ; lat. 6-10 ; diam. 6-10 ; poll. 

Hab. — Surinam River, Guyana. 

Compared to the Corbicula Paranensis Adam^, this species differs in being 
more inflated, in having larger beaks and by its more regular lines of growth, 
which give it somewhat the appearance of an Eastern species. 



The Hamming Birds of Mexico. 
BY RAFAEL MONIES DE OCA. 
Of Jalapii, Mexico. 
No. 2. 

Cyanomyia. cyanocephala Gould. 

Ornismyia cyanocephala Lesson. , 

Trochilus quadricolor Vieillot? 

The Black billed Azure-crown, Gould, Monograph, partxi. 

This Humming Bird is commonly known by the name of Chupa-mirto, comun 
depecho bianco, or common white-breasted Myrtle-sucker, It is found very 

[Feb. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 81 

abundantly, and at all seasons of the year, in the vicinity of Jalapa, Coatepec, 
Orizaba, and many other places in Mexico ; but Mr. Gould, in his Monograph of 
Humming Birds, states, that it is also found in Guatemala, and seems disposed 
to assign that country as its proper locality. It is quite possible it nests there 
also, but the fact that it remains in Mexico all the year round, and as I hare often 
found its nest in the months of April and Jlay, I believe it is most properly to 
be considered a bird of the country last mentioned. 

This pretty little bird is very fiimiliar and unsuspicioiis, and allows a person 
to approach it very near in the Avoods, and is a constant visitor to the gardens 
in the towns and cities. Like the fine species mentioned in my first paper, it 
frequents the Mazapan flowers, around which it may be seen at all hours of the 
day. 

The nest of this species is lined on the inside with the tule silky floss, which is 
the case with nearly all the Humming Birds in this part of Mexico. On the 
outside it is covered with moss from the rocks, in such handsome and ingenious 
manner that would be very difficult for man to imitate. There are generally 
two eggs, but on one occasion I found three in one nest. The eggs are white, 
oblong, rather elongated, and large in proportion to the size of the bird. 

The upper part of the head in this species is of a most brilliant metallic azure 
color, the upper parts of the body and wing coverts are brown, shaded with 
bronze green; the tail and its coverts are of the same, but not so bright; the 
wings are as long as the tail, and of an umber purplish color, the throat is 
satin-like white, with the sides of a bluish green, or rather feathers of both 
colors mixed together, very lustrous ; the under part of the body and the feathers 
of the leg are dull white; the under surface of the wings is bronzed brownish 
gray; the under tail coverts are of the same, but less brilliant, and with the 
edges of each feather lighter, the feet, nails and upper mandible are black the 
mandible is about one third black at its point, and flesh color at its base. 

Total length, A\ inches, wing 2A, tail \\, bill |- inches. The female is of the 
same size as the male, and the or.ly diff"erence between the two sexes is that the 
blue of the head and the white of the breast are of not so decided colors in the 
female, although this diS'erence only occurs at certain seasons of the year. 
The cranium of the male can be distinguished also from that of the female, 
being rather larger. 



The Committee to which was referred a communication from Mr. 
P. B. Du Chaillu, asserting that the Academy is his debtor for a 
part of the^osts of a certain exploration in Africa made by him, 
reported in substance that Mr. Du Chaillu has no claim whatever on 
this institution. 

Dr. Carson said : 

Mr. President, — I rise to perform the painful duty of announcing the death 
of our associate, Dr. Edward Hallowell, which took place on the 21st instant 
from consumption ; and I feel that in connection with this announcement, it 
is especially proper from me should come the remarks which will serve to do 
honor to his memory as a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences. He 
was not only an intimate friend, but one of long standing, having almost uni- 
formly been educated together, at first in the Collegiate Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania, then as students of Medicine in the office of the 
late Dr. Hewson, and in the Medical Department of the University. 

In early life Dr. Hallowell was remarkable for his studious habits, and pro- 
ficiency in the branches of his Collegiate Course. He always had a prominent 
jwsition, and graduated with the highest honors of his class. To the Science 
of Medicine, which he subsequently pursued with ardor, and in which for 

I860.] 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

many years he labored zealously as a practitioner, he made important contri- 
butions, in the department of pathology. His paper upon the subject of Cholera 
Infantum is an admirable and original addition to the knowledge of that 
disease, by which medical literature was enriched, and American medical 
authorship advanced in estimation abroad. It is looked upon as authoritative, 
with respect to the true pathology of the affection. 

As a member of the. Academy he labored industriously, and from the time 
of his election was devoted to the interests of the Institution. His depart- 
ment was that of Herpetology, and I may appeal to the collection for proof of 
his usefulness, and to the publications for evidences of his ability to place be- 
fore the public the large amount of new information derived from the materials 
at his command. When a few years ago he was stricken down by disease, his 
loss as a working member of the Academy was severely felt and lamented. 

As an associate Dr. Hallowell was a favorite of his fellow members. His 
manners were always urbane and deferential to the views and feelings of 
others, his temper was uniformly equable and not readily ruffled ; the kindness 
of his heart was a perennial spring, while his sense of justice led him to 
acknowledge the merits and the services of all who, like himself, were en- 
gaged in scientific occupations. 

We have lost in him a worthy and beloved associate, and most sincerely 
deplore his too early death, although to him it is a gain. 

The following resolutions were then offered by Dr. Le Conte and 
adopted : 

Resolved^ That the Academy has learned with sincere regret the death of its 
late member, Dr. Edward Hallowell. 

Resolved, That in Dr. Hallowell the Academy has lost one of its most en- 
thusiastic and laborious students and valued associates ; one who has endeared 
himself to his fellow members, as well by his high personal qualities as by 
his steadfast and successful pursuit of science. 



March QtJi. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Forty members present. 

Dr. Joseph Wilson (Surgeon U. S. Navy) related that he had in his pos- 
session, during some months, on board of the U. S. ship Vandalia, a female 
whelp of a small Ocelot, {Felis pardaUs miniynus,) commonly-called "tiger- 
cat." It was obtained in Realejo, Nicaragua, in the month of i^teember, 1858. 
At that time it was too young to eat anything except milk, but gradually came 
to eat crumbs of bread from her cup, and small scraps of meat. The animal was 
light gray, beautifully marked with dark elliptical rings and spots, light un- 
derneath ; ears quite short, rounded, with a lunated white spot on top ; the 
tail about the length of the body and nearly black. She was of the size of an 
ordinary cat, and weighed five pounds eight ounces when ten months old. 
She was transferred to the Doctor's protection in March 1859, when her age 
was conjectured to be four months. She was named Miss Tiger by accla- 
mation, and became reconciled to her change of abode much more readily 
than I was prepared to expect. The Vandalia was miserably infested by rats, 
and in the course of a few hours she received her first lesson in the valuable 
accomplishment of catching them. A young rat was caught in a trap and pre- 
sented to her attention ; she hesitated but a moment, when she commenced 
struggling to get at it, and when permitted she pounced upon it with great 
fierceness ; she walked about growling with her prize, evidently proud of the 
conquest. She afterwards played with it for about three hours, performing 
- many fantastic tricks in the way of tossing it up and catching it as it came 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 83 

down, turning somer-saults and rolling over with it in her paws. After this 
she seemed quite at home, and required no more lessons in rat-catcliing, 
though she eventually became very expert. It occasionally happened that a 
rat was seen or heard in a store room or corner from which there was no 
secret escape, and in all such cases Miss Tiger was immediately called upon 
and carried to the scene of action. She generally pointed out by her actions 
the locality of the object of pursuit, and stood ready to pounce upon it on the 
very first opportunity. On these occasions she sometimes made tremendously 
long bounds, say ten feet. Escapes in these cases were very rare. She 
eventually came to understand this business so well, that when called she 
would run out and exhibit an eagerness to be picked up and carried, com- 
parable to that of a child who expects to be lifted into a carriage. In attack- 
ing rats she was quite fearless, and so far as known was never hurt by them. 
She mostly seized them by the back of the neck or head, but was not at all 
particular if these parts did not happen to be the first in her reach. She soon 
crushed the skull by forcing her long cuspid teeth through it, generally kill- 
ing her prey so quickly that it was not even heard to squeal. After playing 
with it a moderate time, she would eat it, commencing with the head and pro- 
gressing steadily till she finished with the end of the tail, only stopping a 
moment to lick her chops, when she came to the heart or other titbit. Imag- 
ining that the hair and hide were not very good food for her, I once partially 
skinned one that she might learn to tear off the skin and leave it ; but this 
was labor lost, as she immediately began to eat the skin, hair and all, in pre- 
ference to the other part. Rats were sometimes taken from her and thrown 
overboard, as she occasionally caught more than she could manage to eat ; 
but she soon began to show her disapprobation of this measure by a very 
startling, fierce and threatening growl. The first occasion it waked me up at 
about midnight, and when I went out to inquire what was wrong with Miss 
Tiger, I found her sitting near a big rat and growling in a very imusual and 
startling manner at about six men whom she had driven from their beds by 
her threatening. They were standing around her with various weapons in 
their hands, but there was very little prospect of moving her without some 
severe bites and scratches. As I approached a little nearer than the rest she 
showed a disposition to take her prize in her mouth, and while her teeth were 
thus employed I caught her by the top of her shoulders and she permitted me, 
without the least resistance, to carry her off, rat and all, to a place on deck, 
where her growling could not annoy the sleepers. She was frequently carried 
off in this manner afterwards both by myself and by others. She would sit 
by the hour very quietly near her property, till she was disturbed by some 
movement near her, when she would commence with her threatening growl, 
which was loud enough and fierce enough to make the firmest stand back, 
till they had seen and reflected on the state of affairs. She had another 
gentle, plaintive growl, which she used in calling for her breakfast and in 
showing dissatisfaction on ordinary slight occasions. She had no cry which 
could be compared to the mewing of the cat, but she could purr to perfection 
when in search of a warm bed. Her favorite food was rare beef steak, which 
she even preferred to rats ; but hunger and petting eventually induced her to 
eat bread and butter for her breakfast, whenever she had a night of unsuc- 
cessful hunting. 

The gentleness of this pet was really astonishing. She allowed herself to 
be picked up by any body, without any worse mark of dissatisfaction than a 
little growling. Even when feeding, and under apprehension that her rat was 
about to be taken from her, she would not bite or scratch. She would play 
with a handkerchief much in the same manner as with a rat. She was fond 
of being handled, and when rubbed with the hand she would roll about on 
her back and pretend she was going to bite, seizing the fingers between her 
teeth, growling and biting with such cautious gentleness as not to be in any 

I860.] 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

danger of wounding the skin. But one exception to this occurred ; one of 
the officers attempted to play with her in this manner with kid gloves on, and 
was immediately punished for his foppery by having her long teeth instantly 
forced through both his glove and his finger. She may have perceived some 
ditference between the texture of the gloves and that of the fingers on which 
she was accustomed to try her teeth. She knew very well where to find warm 
sleeping places. She would for this purpose visit the hammocks of the men 
at night, and waken any sleeper she happened to fancy by patting him gently 
on the face with her paw. If encouraged and welcomed by a pat on the back 
or top of the head, she would lie down either against his breast or at his feet ; 
but if refused by one or two very gentle boxes on the ear, she would retire 
with a discontented growl and seek a more hospitable sleeper. How she 
learned to distinguish between the taps on the top of the head as marks of 
approbation, and those on the sides of the opposite signification, is a subject of 
mystery, but there is no doubt of the fact ; perhaps some of the men may 
have taught her the difi'erence by boxing her more energetically. 

She was very fond of licking the men about the face and gently pinching their 
ears in her teeth ; and although she freqiiently engaged in this disagreeable 
amusement, sue never wounded any one in the least while thus occupied. In 
cold weather she was very fond of getting between blankets, and required but 
the very slighest encouragement to crawl into the very middle of a bed and 
roll herself up in this position for her morning nap. 

On one occasion it was noticed that she had a large tumor on the side of 
her face, and a large abscess formed. It was at first supposed that she had 
hurt her face in playing with a catfish ; some one, however, noticed that it 
proceeded from an irregularity in shedding one of the milk teeth. One of 
the officers, of uncommon zeal in such matters, proposed to hold her while 
the obnoxious tooth was extracted. I determined to gratify him in this 
matter, and to the astonishment of all he held Miss Tiger on his lap while I 
extracted the obnoxious tooth with a pair of forceps, and neither of ns was 
scratched during the operation. 

She was fond of dark places, and delighted in running about deck and up the 
rigging early in the mornings and on cloudy days. When the men were 
called aloft to furl "top gallant sails," she would jump to the shrouds and 
have a race with them up the rigging, and with very little effort she was ' ' first 
man in the top. ' ' 

She generally showed so much excitement in the presence of birds, that 
doubtless her instinct would lead her to seize them. She killed three or four 
chickens at different times secretly, and off Cape Horn she seized and killed 
an albatross of at least double her weight. A common green parrot was 
at one time on board and she was exceedingly eager to get at it, but she 
was boxed a little on the ears and her head turned the other way a few times, 
till she appeared to understand that it was not for her. Subsequently, when 
she appeared to be watching it too intently, she was boxed a little and driven, 
till in about a week she seemed to regard it as one of the family. 

In the beginning of December we were passing the "West India Islands, the 
ship, in her course, starting flocks of flying fish, in which Miss Tiger became 
interested, they looked so much like birds. She was observed in the moon- 
light watching them very intently. Her absence was noticed at breakfast. 
A search through the ship made it certain she had been lost overboard 
during the night. 



March Uth. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty members present. 



[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. • 85 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" Description of four new species of Unionidae from Brazil, by Isaac 

Lea." " Description of fifteen new species of Uruguayan Unionidae,by 

Isaac Lea." 

And were referred to a Committee. 

Mr. Lea stated that when he made some remarks, a few weeks since, on the 
Unionidm of the United States, he gave the namber of them iacorrectly by an 
inadvertence. He now desired to restate them numerically : 

Unio, . . 465 species. 

Margaritana, ......... 26 " 

Anodonta, 59 '• 

550 
To these may be added, new species in his cabinet not yet 

described, ........ 30 

» . 

580 
And to these may be added, for North America, known to 
inhabit Mexico, Honduras, Central America and 
one in Canada, Unio, 29 

Anodonta, 8 

— 37 

617 
It will be observed that we have not in North America either of the genera 
Triqiietra, {IIi/ria,La.m.,) Prisodon, {Castalia, La,m.,) Monoco7id(/laea, Mycctopus^ 
Bi/ssandonta, or Plagiodon. They are all emphatically South American types, 
while there does not seem to inhabit the southern half of America a single 
species of Margaritana, {Alasmodonia, Say.) Ferussac has described a species 
(A. incurva) as coming from South America, but there is reasonable doubt of 
it. The Monoco7idyloea and Margaritana seem mutually to replace each other. 
The Uniones and Anodonta^ prevail in both parts of the continent over all the 
other genera, both as to numbers and universality of distribution. The genus 
Mulleria, (^Acosiea, D'Orb.) has only been found in the tributaries of the Mag- 
dalena in New Granada. 

Dr. Leidy called th.e attention of the members to a specimen of the singular 
body,named Hyalonema mirabilis, recently presented by Dr. Ruschenberger. 
It is the second specimen obtained within a short time for the Academy. Both 
are from Japan. The specimen of Hyalonema exhibited, consists of a twisted 
cord of siliceous spiculje over a foot in length, and about half an inch in 
diameter. Twisted around it is a coriaceous membrane with wart-like eminen- 
ces, belonging to a zoophyte, which Dr. L. regards with M. Valenciennes as 
parasitic. The cord of siliceous spicule, Dr. J. E. Gray supposes to be the 
axis of the zoophyte, but Dr. L. with M. Valenciennes, views it as belonging 
to a sponge. This latter view is apparently confirmed by a specimen of a 
sponge, in the cabinet of the Academy, from Santa Cruz, presented by the late 
Dr. Griffith. This sponge is an oblong oval mass, about four inches long, sur- 
mounted at one extremity with a corona of twisted cords of siliceous spiculse 
about two inches in length. These spicule are very similar in structure to 
those of the Hyalonema, mainly differing in size. 

The Publication Committee laid on the table, part 3, vol. 4, of the 
Journal of the Academy. 
I860.] 



86 ^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Marcli 20th. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-two members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

"Descriptions of new species of Cretaceous Fossils froml^ew Jersey, 
by W. M. Gabb." 

" Description of four new species of Melanidse of the United States, 
by Isaac Lea." 

" Description of five new species of Uniones from Alabama, by Isaac 
Lea." 

And were referred to Committees. 

Dr. Leidy announced the presentation by Dr. T. B. "Wilson of his 
entire collection of birds, amounting to 26,000 mounted specimens, 
and 2,000 skins. 

Mr. Cassin said, in relation to the presentation of the collection of 
birds now in the Museum of this Academy, by Dr. T. B. Wilson : 

The collection of birds in the Museum of the Academy has been 
regarded for some years as the collection of this Academy, and is ex- 
tensively known and referred to as such by authors and naturalists. 
The donation this evening, so liberally and characteristically made by 
Dr. Wilson, involves only a change of ownership, or transfer of title, 
with the further important consideration that it secures the collection 
to the Academy, as intended by Dr. Wilson, in perpetuity and without 
contingency. 

Previous to this donation the collection has been the private property 
of Dr. Wilson, and has been accumulated from various sources, since 
1845, with great judgment, and with constant and unremitted exertion 
on his part and also on the part of his brother, Mr. Edward Wilson, 
long resident in Europe. The latter named gentleman has most ably 
and successfully seconded his brother in the greatest enterprises ever 
entered upon in America, having for their object the promotion of the 
Zoological Sciences and of general Natural History. The results mainly 
have been, at this period, the formation of the Library of this Academy 
and of its collections in all departments, but especially in 3Iineralogy, 
Paleontology, Conchology, Crustacea, lethyology and Ornithology. 

The very extensive and comprehensive series now presented, with 
the comparatively small collection previously owned by the Academy, 
comprise one of the most complete Ornithological Museums extant. It 
is, in fact, one of the four great collections of birds in the world, and, 
so far as can be ascertained from published catalogues, is fairly entitled 
to be considered as presenting facilities for study in this favorite 
branch of Natural History equal to those of any other Institution. 

Mainly, the collection of Dr. Wilson was based on that of General 
Massena, Duke of Rivoli, and his son, M. Victor Massena, Prince 
D'Essling, which was regarded as the finest private collection in 
Europe. This was acquired by purchase in 1846, and brought to this 
country. Various other valuable and more or less extensive collections 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 87 

have been added since that period, including Mr. Gould's Australian 
birds, which are the types of his great work, " The Birds of Austra- 
lia," and embracing all the species then known, except five only. 
Another important collection, mainly Parrots, Humming Birds and 
Tanagers, was that of M. Bourcier, a distinguished French Ornitholo- 
gist, and quite equally so was a collection made in the interior coun- 
tries of India by Capt. Boys, of the East India Company's service. 
Very important, too, are collections from the Leyden Museum, through 
the influence of the eminent naturalists now or lately attached to that 
great Institution, particularly the celebrated Temminck, and many 
others obtained in Europe through the faithful and judicious exertions 
of 3Ir. Edward Wilson for the interests of this Academy. 

Numerous other smaller additions have been made, whenever oppor- 
tunity presented, in this country, by Dr. Wilson, and also have been 
derived from European Naturalists by exchange and purchase to the 
extent of several thousand specimens. Messrs. Verreaux, the well-known 
commercial Naturalists and Ornithologists of Paris, have been of ex- 
ceeding service, and but little less so has been Mr. John G. Bell, of 
New York, the principal commercial Naturalist in this country, whose 
high interest in the prosperity of the Academy and scientific know- 
ledge has never failed to be exerted and always has been of great value 
in the extension of the collection. Mr. John Krider, Mr. William S. 
Wood and Mr. James Taylor, of this city, have also furnished to Dr. 
Wilson many valuable specimens, and all of these gentlemen have in- 
variably shown the utmost cheerfulness and liberality in their business 
with the 3Iuseum of the Academy. 

The collection now presented by Dr. Wilson has been derived from 
the following sources, and includes specimens nearly as here enumer- 
ated : 

Kivoli collection, 1st purchase, 
do. do. 2d do. ... 

Mr. Gould's Australian collection, - 

M. Bourcier's collection, . . . - 

Capt. Boys' collection, . - - - 

Mr. Edward Wilson's collections in Europe, 
including collections from the Leyden and Bri- 
tish Museums, ...... 

Dr. Thos. B. Wilson's collections in Europe, 
do. do. do. in the U. S., 

Total now presented to the Academy, 26,000 " 

It may be of interest to add that the collection previously owned by 
the Academy comprises about 3000 specimens, including a very supe- 
rior North American series derived from nearly all ornithologists in 
the United States, who have invariably shown the greatest interest in 
the formation of the large collection of this Academy. The aggregate 
number of specimens exhibited and now belonging to the Academy is 
therefore about twenty-nine thousand birds. 
1860.] 



12,500 spe 


cimens 


2,500 


(. 


2,000 


n 


1,000 


a 


1,000 


a 


4,500 


a 


1,000 


a 


1,500 


iC 



8S PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Mr. Lea read extracts from letters of Dr. Lewis, of Mohawk, New York, on 
the subject of the coloring matter of the nacre of the genus Unio, and exhibited 
some fine specimens to illustrate the subject. The following extracts will fully 
convey Dr. Lewis's ideas on this subject which has much interest with the 
naturalist. 

'■ I hinted something about Uniones being colored with an oxide or salt of 
gold. My reasons for this are derived from observing some singular phenomena 
in colors on submitting shells to the action of chloride of gold, and then bring- 
ing them in contact with tin. Whether a stannate of gold formed and precipi- 
tated on the shells or not, I cannot say, but the colors were very much intensi- 
fied. It is to be remarked that the colors of such shells as Unio complanatus 
and of U. ligamentinus, when colored, are such as result from the presence of gold 
in a state of atomic division and dissemination in a semi-opake body. I think 
nitro-muriatic acid with a minuts trace of gold in it, if applied to shells, will 
produce colors, but I never have satisfactorily demonstrated this. My observa- 
tions are derived from having once used acid in which was a small quantity of 
gold, too small to be reclaimed." 

" I notice that colors are most brilliant in regions where gold may be sus- 
pected. In the Lake regions of the Western States, minerals are abundant, 
and the conditions are not incompatible with the supposition that gold is spar- 
ingly disseminated among them, in quantities too small perhaps to be available, 
hut no doubt it is thei-e." 

" As regards colors in the 7iacre of Uniones, you are correct in saying that 
Uniones are colored where there is 710 gold. Hut there are some species that are 
not colored unless you find them in some particular localities. If that is taken 
into consideration we shall, perhaps, be more ready to accept the gold theory. 
Modern investigations show that gold exists in soils that, until they were rigidly 
tested, were not suspected to contain it. In fact I am disposed to believe that 
gold is more universally disseminated than is generally supposed." 

•' But, the question is one I take no particular interest in, except that it pre- 
sents itself incidentally. I know one fact that you also know. That of two 
streams producing identically the same species, one will give a large propor- 
tion of white nacres, and the other will present colored nacres, and usually we 
also notice another phenomenon — a greater brilliancy of nacre where rich colors 
abound. In this case I have my private opinion that gold produces its peculiar 
tonic effect, for tonic it is under certain circumstances by increasing the secre- 
tions." 

" To have gold in a shell, it is not necessary it should be an oxide. It is only 
necessarj' it should have been received into the circulation of the animal, in 
solution as chloride, or some other possible soluble form that chemistry has not 
brought to light; and when once in the circulation it may be eliminated by be- 
ing deprived of its solving principle and excreted or secreted with the other 
solid matter that enters into the formation of the shell. The stannate of gold, or 
purple of Cassius, may be wholly deprived of the tin associated with it, yet re- 
tain its purple color, and its condition of atomic division, if so you are pleased 
to call it. But I only offer this as suggestive of something for those interested 
to follow further. I am not enough of a chemist to develop any facts out of a 
suspicion of this kind." 

Mr. Lea remarked, after reading the above extracts, that the purple, pink and 
salmon color of many of our American Unionidce had had his attention from the 
period of his first studying this beautiful and interesting family, more than thirty 
years since. Without having experimented himself upon them, he vras aware 
that no chemist had been able to detect the presence of a metal or other 
elementary body. He therefore thought it likely to be caused by the presence 
of some organic body which had not yet been detected; such is supposed by 
chemists to be the case with the colored fluates of lime, colored quartz, &c. 
What Dr. Lewis states as regards the colors being more frequent and more in- 
tense in the waters of Michigan and in the streams leading into the northern 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 89 

great lakes from the southern side, is very true. The Unio rectus is usually 
white ia the Ohio, though sometimes tinted with purple and salmon color, while 
in the more northern waters it is usually of a fine rich purple or salmon. Two 
specimens from the upper Mississippi, brought by Dr. Cooper, were exhibited 
by Mr. Lea, which were of exquisite purple and salmon. The Unio ligamentinus 
has probably never been found pink or purple in the Ohio, while at Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, those with a fine pink and salmon color are very common. 
The Margaritana margaritifera of Columbia river and its tributaries has a fine 
purple nacre in almost all the specimens, rarely white, while those in the rivers 
of Pennsylvania, Connecticut and Massachusetts are almost universally white, 
as those from the northern part of Europe are also. 

Dr. Draper had informed Mr. Lea that he had calcined some of these purple 
shells, but that they had burned white and he had not detected any metallic sub- 
tance in their composition. The subject was certainly one well worth the pursuit, 
as no doubt could remain that the color was derived from some foreign sub- 
stance entering into the composition of some individuals, while others were 
free from it. It was not an uncommon case to find the dorsal portion of 
the nacre to be pink or purple while the other portions were white, and this was 
also sometimes the case with the cavity of the beaks. Mr. Lea did not believe 
the color arose, as some persons supposed, from the structure of the surface of 
the nacre dividing the rays of light by thin laminations. This division of 
color was exhibited in almost every species, and is what naturalists call the 
"pearly hue," oftentimes of great beauty, but quite a different matter from 
the pink, purple and salmon color of the mass of the carbonate of lime com- 
posing the substance of the valves. 



March 27th, 

Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-eight members present. 

The following papers on report of the respective committees were 
ordered to be printed in the Proceedings: 

Descriptions of Four New Species of TTNIONID.S from Brazil and Baenos Ayres . 

BY ISAAC LEA. 

Unio trifidus. — Testa laevi, obliquo-oblonga, ad latere planulata, valde ia- 
asquilaterali, postice acute angulata, antice rotunda ; valvulis crassiusculis, 
antice crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus, ad apices rugose et divaricate un- 
dulatis ; epidermide micante, luteo-viridi, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus 
grandibus, trifidis, sulcatis ; lateralibus longis, crenulatis, in valvulo dextro 
trifidis ; margarita argentea et iridescente. 

Ilab. — Buenos Ayres, South America. M. D'Orbigny. 

Unio patelloides. — Testa Isevi, subrotunda, subcompressa, subaequilaterali, 
antice et postice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, antice crassioribus; natibus 
prominulis, ad apices divaricate undulatis; epidermide tenebroso-castanea, 
striata, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus longis, compressis, obliquis, crenulatis 
corrugatisque ; lateralibus longis, crenulatis curvisque ; margarita argentea 
et iridescente. 

Ilab. — Amazon River, Brazil. Captain George Brown. Rio Plata. H. Cum- 
ing. 

Anodonta Amazonensis. — Testa Isevi, transversa, subinflata, valde insequi- 
laterali, postice subbiangulata, antice rotunda; valvulis subcrassis; natibus 

I860.] 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

subelevatis, tumidis ; epidermide micante, tenebroso-viridi, nigricante, vel era- 
diata vel obsolete radiata ; margarita intus subrosea et valde iridesceate. 
Hab. — Upper Amazon, Brazil. C. M. Wheatley. 

Anodonta Moricandii. — Testa laevi, oblique quadrata, subinflata, ad latere 
planulata, valde inaequilaterali, postice obtuse angulata et biante ; antice 
oblique rotundata et valde hiante ; valvulis tenuibus, diaphinis ; natibus sub-" 
prominentibus ; epidermide luteo-oliva, polita, obsolete radiata, margarita 
caeruleo-alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Bahia, Brazil. S. Moricand, Geneva. 



Descriptions of Fifteen new Species of TTrngnayan TJNIONIDa;. 

BY ISAAC LEA. 

During the winter of 1858-59, R. B.Forbes, Esq., of Boston, -wliose name has 
been identified with so many works of philanthropy and public utility, organ- 
ized an excursion to the La Plata, the Uruguay and Rio Negro rivers, in South 
America ; his object in part being to afford facilities for studying the natural his- 
tory of the countries bordering on these waters. Professor J. Wyman, who ac- 
companied him, has most kindly placed at my disposal all the specimens of the 
Unionidce which he had been enabled to collect in these extensive southern fresh 
waters. In this very interesting collection I was surprised to find so many 
species which had not been before observed. These are now herein described, 
and consist of eleven Uniones and four Anodonta. The whole number brought 
of these fresh water Mulluscs, was twenty-three species. Those heretofore de- 
scribed are Prisodon truncatus, Schum., {Castalia ambiffua, Lam.,) Unio Para- 
nensis, Lea., U. parallelopipedon, h^a,., Anodonta rotunda, Spix, ^4. trapezalis, Lam., 
A. lato-marginata , Lea, A. tenebricosa, Lea, A. Blainvilliana, Lea. In addition 
there were three small species of Cyrena, two of which I have not ascertained, 
the third is the variegata of D'Orbigny. There was also a small species of 
Cycla^. 

Unio Wymanii. — Testa laevi, antice subsulcata, quadrata, compressa, ad latere 
planulata, inaequilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis 
subcrassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus prominulis, ad apices divaricate undu- 
latis ; epidermide tenebroso-oliva, vel eradiata vel obsolete radiata; dentibus 
cardinalibus compressis, erectis, crenulatis, in utroque valvule duplicibus ; later- 
alibus longis, crenulatis subcurvisque ; margarita argentea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio Uruguayensis. — Testa Isvi, antice subsulcata, ellipticu, inflata, subequi- 
laterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis, antice 
crassioribus; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices divaricate undulatis; epid- 
ermide virido-fusca, postice tenebricosu, polita, obsolete radiata; dentibus car- 
dinalibus compressis, crenulatis suberectisque ; lateralibus longis subrectisque ; 
margarita argentea et iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio piger. — Testa laevi, elliptica, inflata, subequilaterali, postice obtuse ar- 
gulata, antice oblique rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice paulisper cras- 
sioribus ; natibus subprominentibus, inflatis, ad apices divaricate undulatis ; 
epidermide nigro-fusca, striata, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus com- 
pressis, crenulatis ; lateralibus sublongis curvisque ; margarita argentea et 
iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio PEB.a:F0RMi8. — Testa laevi, subrotunda, inflata, valde inaequilaterali, 
postice obtuse subangulata, antice oblique rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, an- 
tice paulisper crassioribus ; natibus vis prominentibus, inflatis ; epidermide 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 91 

striata, nigro-virente, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, compressis 
creaulatisque ; lateralibus sublougis subrectisque ; margarita argentea et iri- 
descente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Usio NocTURNis. — Testa laevi, subrotunda, subcompressa, insequilaterali, an- 
tice et postice rotundata ; valvulis crassis, antice crassioribus : natibus promi- 
nulis, subinflatis; epidermide Bigricante, antice rugoso-striata, eradiata; den- 
tibus cardinalibus parviusculis, erectis ; subcompressis, in utroque valvulo 
duplicibus; lateralibus sublongis valde curvisque; margarita vel alba vel 
salmonis colore tincta. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio funebralis. — Testa laevi, subrotundata, compressissima, inaequilaterali, 
antice et postice rotundata ; valvulis crassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus 
prominulis, compressis ; epidermide nigricante, striata, ad apices micante, 
eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, subcompressis, tripartitis ; later- 
alibus sublongis valde curvisque ; margarita vel alba vel salmonis colore tincta. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio gratus. — Testa laevi, subrotunda, subinflata, inaequilaterali, antice et 
postice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, antice paulisper crassioribus; natibus 
subprominentibus, ad apices divaricate undulatis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, 
micante, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, compressis 
striatisque ; lateralibus sublongis subcurvisque : margarita alba et iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio disculus. — Testa laevi, subrotunda, valde compressa, valde inaquilat- 
erali, antice et postice rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice paulisper cras- 
sioribus ; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices paulisper divaricate undulatis; 
epidermide tenebroso-castanea, minute striata obsolete radiataque ; dentibus 
cardinalibus parviusculis, lamellatis crenulatisque; lateralibus sublongis, stri- 
atis curvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio piceus. — Testa Iffivi, elliptica, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
subrotundata, antice oblique rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice paulisper 
crassioribus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide micante, nigra, striata obsolete 
radiata vel eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, compressis, obliquis, 
in valvulo sinistro singulis ; lateralibus sublongis subcurvisque ; margarita 
caerulea alba et iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio lepidus. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
subrotundata, antice rotunda; valvulis subtenuibus, antice paulisper crassiori- 
bus: natibus prominulis, ad apices rugose et divaricate undulatis; epidermide 
polita, fusco-virente, striata, radiata; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, com- 
pressis, obliquis; lateralibus sublongis subcurvisque; margarita caeruleo-alba 
et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Unio JEthiops. — Testa Isvi, oblonga, subinflata, ad latere planulatii, valde 
inaequilaterali, postice biangulata, antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, 
antice crassioribus ; natibus prominulis, planulatis, ad apices divaricate undu- 
latis ; epidermide micante, nigra, striata, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus par- 
viusculis, compressis, obliquis, suberectis crenulatisque ; lateralibus prselongis, 
crenulatis rectisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wyman. 

Anodonta Wymanii. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, inaequilaterali, postice 
subbiangulata, antice regulariter rotundata; valvulis crassis, antice paulisper 

I860.] 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

crassioribus ; natibu3 promiaulis, ad apices aequis ; epidermide cmaomomea, vel 
eradiata vel obsolete radiata ; margarita rosea et valde iridesceate. 
Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wjman. 

Anodovta Rnsicor^DA — Testa alata, l«vi, subrotu nda, inflata, subequilaterali, 
antice et postice rotundata; valvulis subteauibus ; natibus elevatis, tumidis. 
rosaceis ; epidermide tenebroso-rufo-fusca, vel obsolete radiata vel eradiata, 
margarita rufo-salmoais colore tiacta et valde iridesceate. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wymaa. 

Anodonta FoRBESiANA. — Testa laevi, suboblouga,, veatricosa, inaequilaterali, 
valvulis crassiusculis ; natibus elevatis, inflatis ; epidermide luteo-fusca, 
micante, vel eradiata vel obsolete radiata ; margarita albida et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wymaa. 

Anodonta Uruguayknsis. — Testa laevi, obovata, veatricosa, valde inaequilat- 
erali; valvulis subcrassis, aatice paulisper crassioribus; natibus subelevatis. 
tumidis ; epidermide teaebroso-oliva, eradiata; margarita caeruleo-alba et valde 
iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay River, S. America. Prof. J. Wymaa. 



Descriptions of Five New Species of TJNIONES from North Alabama. 

BY ISAAC LEA. 

Unio poaictJS. — Testa laevi, subtrigona, compressa, inaequilaterali, postice 
obtuse angulata, aatice rotunda ; valvulis subcrassis, antice crassioribus ; na- 
tibus promiaulis, ad apices rugoso-uadulatis ; epidermide luteo-fusca, micante, 
virido-radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus crassiusculis, erectis, compressis crenu- 
latisque ; lateralibus subcurtis, crassis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et irides- 
cente. 

Hab. — North Alabama, Prof. Tuomey ; and Florence, Alabama, L. B. Thorn- 
ton, Esq. 

Unio camelopardilis. — Testa laevi, oblonga, subinflatd, inaequilaterali, postice 
obtuse biangulata, aatice regulariter rotundata ; valvulis subtenuibus, antice 
crassioribus ; natibus prominulis, ad apices rugoso-undulatis ; epidermide 
lutea, polita, undique virido-maculata; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, erectis, 
compresso-pyramidatis crenulatisque ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis subrectis- 
que ; margarita luteo-alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — North Alabama, Prof. Tuomey. 

Unio fucatus. — Testa Isevi, elliptica, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
subbiangulata, antice rotundata : valvulis teuuibus, aatice paulisper crassiori- 
bus ; natibus promiaulis, ad apices uudulatis; epidermide olivo-lutea, micante, 
undique virido-maculata ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, compresso-conicis, cre- 
nulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus loagis, lamellatis subcur- 
visque; margarita vel cserulea vel luteo-albd ec valde iridesceate. 

Hab. — North Alabama, Prof. Tuomey. Tuscumbia, L. B. Thornton, Esq. 

Unio discrkpans. — Testa, laevi, elliptica, subinflata, ad latere subplanulata, 
valde inaequilaterali, postice obtuse biangulata, aatice rotundata ; valvulis 
subteauibus, aatice crassioribus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide luteo-oliva, 
micante, radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, compresso-conicis crenulatis- 
que ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis subcurvisque ; margarita vel alba vel pur- 
purea et valde iridescente. 

Uab. — North Alabama, Prof. Tuomey. 

Unio planicostatus. — Testa laevi, elliptica, compressa, ad latere subplanulata, 
valde inaequilaterali, postice obtuse biangulata; aatice rotuudata; valvulis 
tenuibus, diaphanis, antice paulisper crassioribus; natibus prominulis, ad apices 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 93 

undulatis ; epidermide olivacea, undique radiatd ; dentibus cardinalibus par- 
vis, conicis, creaulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus; lateralibus longis lamel- 
latis subcurvisqae ; margarita vel cseruleo-alba vel purpurascente et valde 
iridescente. 
Hab. — Tuscumbia, Alabama, L. B. Thornton, Esq. 

Ujjio scitolus. — Testa, laevi, elliptica, inflata, valde insequilaterali, postice 
obtuse biangulata, antice rotundata; valvulis subtenuibus, anticecrassioribus ; 
natibus prominentibus, ad apices undulatis ; epidermide lutea, undique virido- 
radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, erectis, acuminatis, crenulatis, in 
utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis subrectisque ; mar- 
garita alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Tuscumbia, Alabama, L. B. Thornton, Esq. 



Descriptions of Four New Species of MELANI0.2: of the TJnited States. 
BY ISAAC LEA. 

ScHizocHiLUS Showalteeii. — Tcsta transverse costata, subcylindracea, 
crassa, castanea, minute striata ; spira elevata ; suturis impressis ; anfractibns 
subplanulatis ; fissura submagna, jirofuEda ; aperturu, subparva, elliptica, intus 
vittata ; columella subcrassa ; labro paulisper crenulato. 

Hab. — Coosa river, Uniontown, Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

Ancdlosa Showalterii. — Testa valde costata, suborbiculari, crasssl, tenebroso- 
fusca, nigricante, exilissime striata ; spira brevissima ; suturis valde impressis; 
anfractibus inflatis, septenis transversis costis indutis ; apertura magna, sub- 
rotunda, superne subangulata, interne tenebroso-vittata ; columella crassa, 
planulata, tenebroso-fusca ; labro valde extenso et valde crenulato. 

Hab. — Coosa river, Uniontown, Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

Melania crenatella. — Testa transverse striata, turrito-subulata, subcostata, 
paulisper plicala, subtenui, tenebroso-fusca, nigricante : spiia elevaia, ad apices 
crebre plicate ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus septenis, planulatis, trans- 
versis costis indutis; apertura parva, elliptica, intus vittata; columella 
albida, incurvata ; labro subcontract© et valde crenulato. 

Hab. — Coosa river, Uniontown, Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

Melania Newberryi. — Testa Ifevi, ovato-conica, subtenui, tenebroso-fusca, 
trivittata, inferne suturis lutea ; spira subelevata ; suturis valde impressis ; 
anfractibus senis, inflatis; apertura parviuscula, ovato-rotundata, intus albida 
et vittata; columella albida, incurvata ; labro inflato. 
"Tlab. — Upper des Chutes river, Oregon Territory. J. S. Newberry, M. D. 



Descriptions of New Species of Cretaceous Fossils from New Jersey. 

BY \VM. M. GABB. 

ActjEonina D'Orb. 

A. b i p 1 i c a t a , pi. 2, fig. 13. 

Actceon biplicata, M. & H. 

This fossil I had considered new, but have, since the plate was drawn, seen 
the type of Meek and Hayden's species, to which it bears such a close resem- 
blance, that I shall refer it to their species. The fact of its having been re- 
• ferredto another genus, and the figure not having been published, misled me. 
The existence of two folds on the columella, Avhich can be seen in the New 
Jersey fossil, has not been yet ascertained in the one from Nebraska. 

I860.] 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Solarium Lam. 

S. a b y s s i n u s , pi. 2, fig. 9. Shell conical ; -whorls three, rounded ; mouth 
circular, surface markings unlinown. A cast. 
Locality. — With the above from Burlington Co., N. Jersey. 

VoLUTiLiTHES Swains. 

V. Abbotti, pi. 2, fig. 7. Shell fusiform, whorls three or four, spire 
moderately elevated ; mouth, three-fourths the length of the shell ; four folds 
on the columella ; surface apparently smooth. A cast. 

Locality .—B\iv\mgio'a Co., N. J. 

I take pleasure in dedicating this species to Mr. C. C. Abbott of Trenton, 
N. J., to whom I am indebted for the type of the species, as well as for many 
other species of cretaceous fossils. 

TuRBiNELLA Lam. 

T. subconica, pi. 2, fig. 6. Shell subconical, spire low ; body whorl 
subangular above, two folds on the columella, surface marked by longitudinal 
ribs, about ten on the body whorl, crossed by numerous smaller revolving 
lines. A cast. 

Locality. — Monmouth Co., N. J. 

T. p a r V a , pi. 2, fig. 3. Shell small, subconical, spire very low, whorls two or 
three, mouth wide, and at the upper part angular, three folds on the columella ; 
surface marked by about twelve large longitudinal ridges or undulations, on 
the body whorl crossed by three or four revolving lines. A cast. 

Locality. — With the preceding. 

Cancellaeia Lam. 

C. sept em li rata , pl.2, fig. 10. Shell subglobose, spire low, whorls two, 
mouth wide, surface, from markings on the cast, apparently ornamented by 
about seven prominent revolving lines. A cast. 

Locality and position. — From the highest bed at Mullica Hill, N. J. 

PoRPUROiDEA Lycet. 

P? du b i a , pi. 2, fig. 11. Shell ovate, whorls four or five, spire elevated, sur- 
face marked by longitudinal ribs, about fifteen on the body whorl; a few revolv 
ing striae appear to exist near the lower part of the body whorl, but this specimen 
is so weathered, that this character may be only the result of disintegration of 
the shell. The lower part of the mouth is broken. 

Locality and position. — Mullica Hill, with the preceding. 

Fusus Lam. 

F. trivolvus, pl.2, fig. 5. Shell fusiform, elongate, whorls three, spire mo- 
derately elevated, mouth long and angular, surface markings unknown ; on the 
cast there are three prominent revolving lines, dividing the whorls into a 
corresponding number of flat surfaces, beak elongate ; length of shell 2 in., 
beak 1^ in., width of last whorl 1 in. 

Locality and position. — Yellow Limestone, Timber Creek, N. J. ; collection of 
the Academy. The types of all the other species in this paper are in ray own 
collection. 

Rapa Klein. 

R. py r u 1 o i d e a, pi. 2, fig. 4. Shell pyriform, whorls three, spire low, ^ 
surface marked by longitudinal ribs or undulations, about twelve on the body 
whorl, crossed towards the beak by fine revolving striae. 

Locality and position. — Green marl, Burlington Co., N. J. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 95 

Pleurotoma Lam. 

P. M ull i c a ensi;5, pi. 2, fig. 8. Shell fusiform, robust; spire elevated, 
■whorls four or five, surface marked by numerous longitudinal ribs (crossed by 
revolving lines ?) 

Localiiy and position. — Upper bed, Mullica Hill, N. J. 

Arca Linn. 

A. quindecemradiata, pi. 2, fig. 2. Shell gibbous, inequilateral, beaks 
incurved, umbones small; umbonal ridge subangular, and extends to the mar- 
gin of the shell, surface marked by about fifteen radiating ribs, crossed by very 
distinct lines of growth; no appearance of ribs on the cast, posterior to the 
umbonal ridge. 

Localiti/. — Common in the more northerly portions of the cretaceous deposits 
of New jersey. 

CiBOTA Brown. {Byssoarca Swains.) 

C. m u 1 1 i ra d i a t a, pi. 2, fig. 1. Shell small, gibbous, beaks incurved, um- 
bones small, rounded; anterior ends rounded gently, basal margin slightly 
sinuous, posterior rounded below, and inclined anteriorly above ; surface 
marked by numerous fine radiating ribs ; margin crenulated. 

Locality and position. — Green marl, Mullica Hill, N. J. 

Leda Schum. 

L. a n g u 1 a t a , pi. 2, fig. 12: Shell twice as wide as long, beaks small, curved 
anteriorly, umbonal ridge angular and extending to the posterior basal margin ; 
anterior margin rounded, basal very slightly sinuous, posterior, inclined an- 
teriorly to ^he hinge line. 

Locality and position. — Green marl, Burlington Co., N. J. 



The following communication from Mr, A. E. Jessup, Mr. E. A. 
Jessup and Mrs. Clara J. Moore, children of the late Augustus E. Jes- 
sup, was read. 

Philadelphia, March 6th, I816O. 

Isaac Lea, Esq., President of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Dear Sir, — The undersigned, children of the late Augustus E. Jessup, be- 
lieving that it was his intention to leave a sum of money to the " Academy 
of Natural Sciences," for the purposes stated below, and desiring to carry out 
what we have cause to think were his intentions, propose to pay to the Acad- 
emy the sum of one hundred and twenty dollars per annum, to be applied to 
its Publication Fund, and the further sum of four hundred and eighty dollars 
per annum, to be used for the support of one or more deserving poor young 
man or men, who may desire to devote the whole of his or their time and 
energies to the study of any of the Natural Sciences. 

The above sums we propose to pay as long as we feel our circumstances to 
be such as will warrant our doing so, and we look forward to investing in 
trust, at some not distant time, the principal of the sums named, for the pur- 
pose of creating a perpetual fund for the above named uses. 

Signed, A. E. Jessup. 

E. A. Jessup. 
Clara J. Moore. 

On motion of Mr. Foulkc, the letter was referred to a special com- 
mittee of five. 
18G0.]" 



96 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

April Sd. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair, 

Fifty members present. 

A paper was presented for publication, entitled, " Conspectus Piscium 
in expeditione ad Oceanum Pacificum Septentrionalem, C. Ringgold et 
J. Rodgers ducibus, a Gruilelmo Stimpson, M. D., collectore ; Sicydianae: 
auctore Theo. Gill.'' 

Mr. Lesley read the following extract from a letter received from 
Mr. T. S. Hunt, Chemist of the Canada Geological Survey, dated 
Montreal, March 25th, 1860 :— 

"If we mingle in equivalent proportions the chlorides of calcium and 
magnesium in concentrated solution, and then having precipitated the bases 
by a slight excess of carbonate of soda in the cold, and expose the mixture for a 
few hours in a closed flask to a temperature of 200° — 212'' F., the pasty mass 
is entirely transformed into a beautiful granular powder, made up of spherical, 
translucent, crystalline grains, which are sparingly soluble in cold, dilute, acetic 
acid and are a double carbonate of lime and magnesia. In my previous and 
published trials, at temperatures of 300° — 400'=' F., the product was much less 
beautiful, and was mingled with carbonate ot magnesia. It now remains to 
be seen whether the combination may not be slowly effected at a temperature 
much below 200* F., and experiments upon this point are in progress." 

Mr. Lesley drew the attention of the Academy to the significant direction 
in which these and similar experiments are carrying the chemical geology of 
the day. If they result in nothing more than the destruction of those igneous 
prejudices which still shackle observers, especially in metamorphic mineral re- 
gions, and set us free to study ab initio the phenomena of magnetic iron veins, 
copper lodes and gold quartz, primary limestones, serpentines and dolomites, 
the consequences must be practically important. 

Mr. Foulke remarked the equally important bearing the low temperature 
of these experiments must be seen to have, on the theory of non-fossiliferous, 
primary rocks. If metamorphism has been possible at such low temperatures, 
the argument in favor of the destruction of organic remains from metamorphic 
strata by fiery agencies is of force no longer, and we must conclude that these 
early and apparently non-fossiliferous rocks were really destitute of life. 

Dr. Leidy stated that he had just received a short notice from Prof. 
Leuckart, of Giessen, in which he mentions the results of some experiments 
with Trichina spiralis. Having fed dogs with human flesh containing 
Trichinse, he found that in a week or less, the worms completed their devel- 
opment, but without assuming the form of a Tricocephalus or Strongylus. 
Within the intestine of the dog, the generative apparatus, together with the 
eggs and embryos, were fully developed in the Trichina. The embryos 
rapidly pass away with the excrement of the dog. A pig having been fed with 
a dog's intestine containing fully developed Trichina, was killed and dissected 
on the 3d of March, and exhibited in the muscles millions of Trichinae. From 
these facts it is rendered probable that embryos of Trichina voided by dogs 
find their way into the human stomach through the food or drink, and sub- 
sequently burrow into the tissues of the body. 



NOTT. — The date of the meeting of the Academy on page 51, should be Feb. 14th, instead of 
Feb. 11th. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 97 

Ajyril 10 th. 

Mr. Lea, President, in the Cliair. 

Thirty-eight members present. 

Mr. Lea remarked that he had recently received from Prof. J. Wyman 
specimens in alcohol of two species of Anodonta from the Urugiiav River, 
South America, descriptions of the soft parts of which he had made, and in- 
tended, at a future time, to publish in the Journal at length ; but he wished 
at present to mention that he had found a form of Palpi (mouth lips) different 
from anv of the Wnionidce which had come under his notice from any other 
part of the world. The form of the Palpi heretofore described have always 
been obliquely or transversely elliptical or subtriangular, while these two spe- 
cies, An. Wymanii, Lea, and 4?i. lato-marginata, Lea, are round, and the pair on 
either side only joined above, the edges being entirely free. It is greatly to 
be I'egretted that more or all the South American Unionidce could not have 
been examined, as regards their soft parts, to ascertain if this difference of 
form of the Palpi should be persistently different in all the South American 
Unionidce, or only with this member of the family — the Anodontae. 



April YltJ). 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Fiftj-six members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

'' Monograph of the Genus, Labrisomus, of Swainson, by Theo. Gill." 

" Monograph of the Genus Labras, of Cuvier, by Theo. Gill." 

"Monograph of the Philypni, by Theo. Gill." 

*' Notice of Geological Discoveries, made by Capt. J. H. Simpson, 
Top. Engineers, U. S. Army, in his recent explorations across the Con- 
tinent." 

" Catalogue of Birds collected during a survey of a route for a ship 
canal across the Isthmus of Darien. by order of the Government of the 
United States, made by Lieut. N. Michler, U. S. Top. Engineers, 
with notes and descriptions of new species, by John Cassin." 

And were referred to Committees. 

Mr. Lesley described a boulder of gneiss, eight feet high, on the summit of 
one of the Orange Co. highlands, in the State of New York, which was sup- 
ported by four smaller rocks, so that it was lifted about a foot above the floor 
of nearly horizontal gneiss, forming the top of the mountain. One of these 
supports was a hard blue limestone, from the crust of which Mr. Lesley ob- 
tained numerous fossils, among which was probably the Orthis costalis, (Hall,) 
of the Chazy Limestone. Another block of limestone, also fossiliferous, lay 
not far away, and a few small pieces of a reddish sandstone like that of certain 
bands in the Oneida Conglomerate ; but with these exceptions, there was neither 
drift nor diluvial strise visible, but here and there large blocks of gneiss. 
The whole surface of the exposures, which were numerous and many hundred 
feet square, has been weathered down 2 or 3 inches, as is evident from the 
ridges of refractory quartz veins, which have successfully resisted the atmo- 
sphere. On this weathered surface occur what have been called the footmarks 
of animals ; but these are nothing else than weathered-out nodules of rock 
more ferruginous than the rest. The locality is two miles east of Southfield 
Station, on the New York and Erie Railroad. Mr. Lesley and his brother were 
accompanied and guided to the locality by Mr. T. B. Brooks and Mr. Jenkins, 
two excellent local geologists and mineralogists, living in the village of Munroe. 

I860.] 6 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Dr. Leidy stated that on last Saturday, in company with Dr. Darracli, he had 
visited, to them, a new and rich botanical locality, which was worthy of the atten- 
tion of those members interested in our local flora. This was at Jackson, N. J. 
about 20 miles from Philadelphia, on the Camden and Atlantic Railway. A 
cedar swamp, crossed by the latter, not one hundred yards from the station, 
contains the greatest profusion of Saracenia purpurea, and Helonias bullata, 
which is now in flower. Near by, they also found abundantly the Pyxidan- 
thera and Cassandra both in flower. Osycoccus, Drosera, etc., were also 
noticed. The neighboring extensive forest tract is thickly carpeted with Gaul- 
theria procumbens. 

Prof. W. B. Rogers communicated the resnlt of observations which he had 
made within the last year on the structural and geological relations of the Al- 
bertite or so-called Albert Coal of New Brunswick. 

An examination of the mine afforded, as he thought, convincing proof that 
this remarkable accumulation of asphaltic mateiial could not have formed a 
part of the regular carbonaceous deposits of the region, — that it is not and 
never has been a true bed or stratum, but that it should rather be regarded as a 
mass collected within an irregular fissure of subsequent formation, by the dis- 
tillation or infiltration of asphaltic matter from the surrounding bituminous 
shales. 

The principal features of the deposit pointing to such an origin are — the very 
limited extent of the mass longitudinally traced, — its sudden and great irregular- 
ities of thickness and trend, and the yet more striking fact of its transverse direc- 
tion in many parts of its course as compared with the bedding of the adjacent 
rocks. In the lower level at a depth of about four hundred and sixty feet where 
the combustible material has been removed almost entirely from end to end, the 
slaty rocks are seen in many places abutting against the sides of the mine at 
a steep angle, presenting frequently a jagged surface, such as would result from 
a transverse fracture and gaping of the strata. The Albertite was seen adhering 
to these irregular surfaces, as well in the cavities as on the projections, affording 
even in hand specimens excellent examples of the discordance of the mass as to 
position with the stratification of the contiguous rocks. 

It is worthy of note that the material thus adhering to the walls of the mine 
has none of that intermixture with earthy sediment which so often marks the 
contact of regular coal seams with the enclosing strata, but maintains the same 
remarkable(purity as in the midst of the mass. It is, moreover, quite free from 
the carbonaceous and rocky debris, and other marks of mechanical violence, 
which it must have presented had it originated in the dislocation and displace- 
ment of a coal seam originally conformable with the stratification of the neigh- 
borhood. 

These evidences of the nature and origin of the deposit are confirmed bjthe 
statement that in the progress of the mining, several large fragments of the verti- 
cal wall-rock have been found detached and imbedded in the midst of the Alber- 
tite, and on one occasion a mass of 'unusually great dimensions could be traced 
by correspondence of form to a cavity in the wall at some distance above, from 
which it would seem to have fallen, while the contents of the fissure were still 
but imperfectly solidified. 

The conclusions of Prof. Rogers, as to the origin and nature of this remark- 
able deposit are thus completely in harmony with those which Prof. Leidy has 
maintained on the ground of a microscopic examination of the material. 

Prof.W. B. Rogers gave an account of some experiments in binocular vision, 
which he had devised for the purpose of testing the theory of the successive 
combination of corresponding points as maintained by Sir David Brewster. 

In one class of these experiments two slightly inclined luminous lines wer« 
combined into a perspective resultant, either with or without a stereoscope. On 
looking at this intently for a few seconds, so as to induce the reverse ocular 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 99 

spectrum, and tlieu directing the eyes towards a distant wall, a single spec- 
trum was observed, liaving the attitude and relief of the original binocular 
resultant. When the luminous lines were regarded in succession, each by the 
corresponding eye, the other eye being shaded, so that no direct binocular 
combination could be formed, it was found on looking towards the wall that 
the subjective images united into a single spectral line, having the same relief 
as if the lines had been directly combined in the stereoscope. 

In these experiments, according to the theory of Brewster, the resultant 
spectrum, instead of being a single line in a perspective attitude ought to pre- 
sent the form of two lines inclined or crossing, situated in the plane of the 
wall without projection or relief. The conditions of the experiments are such 
as exclude all opportunity of a shifting of the image on the retina, and this is 
essential to the successive combinations of pairs of points required by the theory 
in the production of perspective effect. 

A similar result was still more clearly shown by vibrating a screen between 
the eyes and the twin pictures of a stereoscope, so as alternately to expose 
and cover each, completely excluding the simultaneous vision of the two. 
The stereoscopic i-elief was as apparent in these conditions as when the vibra- 
ting screen was withdrawn. 

The perception of the resultant in its proper relief does not therefore require 
that each pair of coi-responding points should be combined by directing the 
optic axes to them pair by pair in succession, as maintained by Brewster. 
Nor is it necessary for the singleness of the resultant perception that the 
images of corresponding points of the objects should fall on what are called 
corresponding points of the retinae. The condition of single vision in such 
cases seems to be simply this, that the pictures in the two eyes shall be such 
and so placed as to be identical with the pictures which the real object would 
form, if placed at a given distance and in a given attitude before the eyes. 

Dr. Ruschenberger asked how it is, under the explanation given by Prof. 
Rogers, that a man with only one eye is capable of perceiving solidity, and of 
appreciating the properties of photographs viewed stereoscopically. 

Mr. Powel asked at what rate per second the vibrating or revolving screen 
presented its openings ; for if it happened eight or ten times in a second, 
might it not fail to practically intercept vision ? Objects thus seen would ap- 
pear permanently. Thus, although not appearing to each eye at the identical 
instant of time, the object would be persistent in both, for an impression upon 
the eye cannot be discharged oftener than about eight times in a second, some 
impressions remain much longer. An object illuminated by a flash of light- 
ning for a very instant, may thus appear solid to both eyes, the intense re- 
flection impressed upon the retina endures long enough for the sensorimn to 
scan it in detail. A man takes quick aim with a rifle, it may be almost in- 
stantaneously, yet by distinct operations and different foci of vision he must 
see the distant mark — the tip sight, and again the heel sight, no two of which 
can be in focus at once. We have here successive points in a line, rapidly 
scanned in determining position. The breadth of field of distinct vision is 
exceedingly narrow for the same instant of time, and so is the penetration of 
focus very short. A separate direction and a new adjustment of the eye must 
be given for parts of even a very small object. 

. Mr. P. remarked, while upon the subject, that he believed the stereoscopic 
effect often noticed in viewing large photographic pictures with only one eye, 
was caused by the aperture of the lens used in taking the picture ; for the 
aperture is often so great that objects have an appreciable parallax from the 
opposite margins of the aperture, and the picture thus contains more than 
could be seen from one point. When both eyes, however, view such a picture 
they decide that it is flat and in one plane, and their evidence deniee the 
stereoscopic effect which one eye cannot so well dispute. 

I860.] 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



Ajml 24.th. 
Mr. Lea, President, in tbe Chair. 

Fortj-four members present. 

The Committee to whom was referred tlie communication addressed 
to Isaac Lea, Esq., President of the Academy of Natural Sciences, by 
A. D. Jessup, E. A. Jessup and Clara J. Moore, under date of March 
6th, 1860, 

Reported, That the unsolicited efforts of the children of the late 
Augustus E. Jessup to ascertain any expressed intentions on his part 
to pecuniarily benefit the cause of science through this Academy, and 
the filial regard and liberal feeling evinced by them in fulfilling his 
supposed views, satisfy your Committee that the respect and esteem 
entertained by the Academy for the father, is also merited by the 
children of our lamented fellow member, Augustus E. Jessup, Esq. 

Your Committee recommend that the President and Curators of 
this Academy shall, ex-officio, be a perpetual Committee under the di- 
rection of the Academy to carry out the intentions of the late Augus- 
tus E. Jessup, Esq., as expressed in the above mentioned letter of his 
children, A. D. Jessup, E. A. Jessup and Clara D. Moore, and that 
said Committee shall make a quarterly report of their proceedings, your 
Committee also recommend that a copy of the Publications of this 
Academy shall be furnished to each of the above named children of the 
late Augustus E. Jessup during life, commencing with the volumes 
now in progress. "Wm. S. Vaux, Chairman of Committee. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 

The Committee of the Biological Department to whom was referred 
the communication "On the Physical and Chemical Characteristica of 
Corroval and Vao, two recently discovered varieties of Woorara, and on 
a new alkaloid containing their active principle, by William A. Ham- 
mond, M. D., Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army, and S. "Weir Mitchell, 
M. D., Lecturer on Physiology, in the Philadelphia Medical Associa- 
tion," reported in favor of its publication in the Proceedings. 

The following papers were, on the report of the Committees to whom 
they had been referred, ordered to be published in the Proceedings : 

Conspectus Piscium in Expeditione ad Oceanum Pacificum Septentrionalem, C. Ein- 
gold et J. Eodgers ducibns, a Golielmo Stimpson collectoram. SICYDI- 
AN.E: 

ArCTORE THEO. GILL. 

SiCYDIANiK Gill. 

Corpus eloiigatum, antice subcylindricum, squamosum vel nudum ; aper- 
turse branchiales paulo fissae, verticales ; caput elongatum, rostro prominens ; 
maxilla inferior triangularis, crassa ; labium inferius plerumque dentibus gra- 
cilibus, confertissimis prjeditum. 

Pinnse dorsales duse ; pinnse pectorales basi latae fere verticales ; pinnse ven- 
trales in modo disci conjunctse, ad basin pectori adhserentes. 

Hsec subfamilia bene distinguitur ab subfamiliis " Gobinse " Gill et "Triden- 



[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 101 

tigerinse" Gill pectori pinnarum ventralium adhseratione, et forma capitis et 
osteologia. 

Genus I. Sicydium Val. 
Corpus plerumque squamis ctenoideis obtectum ; maxillae superioris dentes 
gracillimi, confertissimi, uniseriati ; maxillae inferioris distantes, magni, praecl- 
pne prope sympliisin ; dentes labiales gracillimi. 

Subgenus I. Sicydium. 
Maxilla inferior superne ad sympbisin et prope commissuras lateribus ap- 
pendicibus carnosis praedita. 

Typus S. (Sicydium) Plumieri Val. Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xii. 

Subgenus II. Sicyoptekus Gill. 
Maxilla inferior appendicibus carnosis carens. 
Typus -S". (Sicyopterus) Stimpsoni Gill nov. sp. 

Genus II. Sicyogaster Gill. 
Corpus alepidotum. Dentes in utraque maxilla uniseriati ; ei ad maxillae 
superioris partem anteriorem crassi, tricuspidati, laterales simplices ; maxillae 
inferioris dentes anteriores remoti, simplices. 
Typus Sicyogaster concolor GUI, nov. sp. 



Genus Sicydium Val. 

Sicydium Val. Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xii, p. 18. 

Corpus antice subcylindricum, versus pinnam caudalem regulariter atten- 
uatum ; squamae imbricatfe, plerumque marginibus subrotundae, nee augulatae, 
valde pectinatae, striis concentricis et radiantibus obsoletis ; squamae dorsales 
et laterales anteriores parvae, cycloideae. 

Caput oblougum, subquadratum, latitudine altitudinem aequante vel super- 
ante ; rostrum subverticale, obtuse rotundatum. Oculi cerciter in capitis parte 
mediana siti. 

Os mediocre, fere horizontale, usque ad oculos extendens. Maxilla inferior 
triangularis, superiore brevior minorque, intus superiorem claudens ; labia 
crassa, praecipue labium superius. 

Dentes maxillae superioris gracillimi, confertissimi, in serie unica dispositi ; 
maxillae inferioris in serie una, remoti, mediocres, ad utrumque latus symphi- 
sis majores. 

Pinnae dorsales omnino disjunctae ; pinna caudalis rotundata vel subrotun- 
data, sub oculis desinens : maxilla inferior superiore brevior, minorque, intus 
superiorem claudens : labia crassa, maxUlas dentesque tegentia. 

Subgenus Sicyopterus Gill. 

1. Sicydium Stimpsoni Gill. 

Caput latitudine antrorsum retrorsumque subaequale, vix quam altitudo 
majore ; rostro subverticali, obtuse rotundato ; capitis longitudine corporis 
longitudinis extremi partem quiutam aequante, latitudine capitis longitudinis 
2-3 aequante, altitudiue fere latitudinem aequante. Labium superius utrinque 
emarginatum fere sub nare, sub rostro fissum ; intus papillarum serie circa 
marginem superiorem extendente et papilla unica supra sinum labri anteri- 
orem praeditum. Pori capitis in linea transversa arcuata pone oculos, et in 
linea brevi obliqua in operculi parte inferioriqne, suboperculo, &c. 

Pinna dorsalis prima radio secundo ejus filiforme, ultimo remotiori. 

D. vi, 11 ; A 11 ; C 8, 13, 7 ; P 18 ; V i, 5-f 5 i. 

Color subpurpureus, fasciis obscurioribus septem variegatus ; pinnae dorsa- 
lis analisque basi albo punctulatse ; pinna caudalis albo punctulata. 

Habitat in aqure dulcis rivulis, lapidibus adherens, Hilo Hawaii. 

Forsitan Sicydio laticepiti Val. proximum. 

I860.] 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Genus Sicyogaster Gill. 

Corpus alepidotum, antice subcylindricum, inde versus caudam lente at- 
tenuatum. 

Caput oblongum depressum, altiore latius, antice rotundatum. Oculi in 
parte subanteriori positi. Os mediocre, horizontaliter fissum. 

Dentes in maxilla utraque serie regulare unica dispositi ; dentes circa 
maxillae superioris partem anteriorem approximatse, apicibus lateraliter dila- 
tatis, tricnspidatis, cuspa mediana majore, subrotundata ; dentes laterales 
pauciores, remotiores, simplices, subcylindi-ioi et paulo recurvati. Dentes 
maxillae inferioris partis anterioris subcylindrici recurvatique, remoti. Dentes 
labiales tenuissimi adsunt. 

Pinnae dorsales duae, prima radiis valde flexibilibus ; pinna caudalis mar- 
gine rotundata ; pinnae ventrales postice bene conjunctae, antice funiculo mus- 
cular! spinas connectente et membranae marginem formante praeditae. 

Hoc genus a Sicydio Val., valde diifert corpore omnino alepidoto, dentibus 
trilobatis crassis in maxillae superioris parte anteriore et dentibus maxillae in- 
.ferioris subaequalibus. 

Eo referenda est unica species. 

Sicyogaster c o n c o 1 o r Gill. 

Caput longitudiuis totius partem quintam formans, altitudine sui longitu- 
dinis dimidiam superante. Maxilla superior circiter dentibus tricuspidatis 
sexdecim et latere utroque circiter dentibus simplicibus quatuor vel quinque 
armata ; maxilla inferior circiter dentibus simplicibus remotis decim praedita. 

D vi, 11 ; A 10 ; C-1-15+ ; P 15 V i, 5 -f 5 i. 

Color subpiirpureus ; pinnae analis et ventrales submargaritaceae, analis pur- 
pureo marginata. 

Habitat cum Sicydio Stimpsoni in aquae dulcis rivulis saxis adhaerens. 

In specimine unico in coUectione, labium inferior dentes graciles pancos 
liabet. 



Monograph of the Genus LABROSOMTIS Sw. 
BY THEO. GILL. 

In the genus Clinus as proposed by Cuvier, and even as revised by Valen- 
ciennes, there are dissimilar types which yet remain to be named and elevated 
to the rank of genera. Among the species of this group, described by the latter 
naturalist in the eleventh volume of the " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons," 
there are several species which are distinguished by the presence of superciliary 
tentacles, and of a transverse pectiniform series of filaments on the nape. 
Those fishes provided with such appendages, have at the same time a much 
less inequality between the spinous and soft portions of the dorsal than the 
typical Clini, and the teeth in the outer row are much stronger. They would 
therefore be correctly referred to a genus which is quite distinct from Clinus. 
For this genus, the name Lahrosomus, first proposed by Swainson, must be 
adopted, but the characters given by that author to it are not the proper 
generic ones, and the greater number of the species referred to it are not con- 
generic with its type. .» 

The name of Lahrosomus (or Labrisomus) was first published in 1839, in the 
second volume of the "Natural History of Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles." 
At the seventy-fifth page of that volume, Swainson has divided the Cuvieran 
genus Clinus into five genera : Clinus, of which the Clinus acuminatus 
Cuv., is taken as the type; Labrisomus with Clinus pectinifer Val., as 
type ; Tripterygion Risso, Clinitrachus Reese, which is typified by Blennius 

[April, 



I 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 103 

variabilis of Rafinesque, and Blennophis,* of which tlie Cliuus a n g u i 1- 
laris Val., is the only true species. Of these genera, Clinus Sw., and Cli- 
nitrachusSw., are distinguished by filse or illusive cliaracters, and cannot be 
regarded as distinct. The others are valid, but their characters require re- 
vision. 

The only claim tb distinction of the genus Lnhrosomus given by Swainson, 
are founded on the strong, conic and pointed row of front teeth, behind which 
are villiform ones ; a thicker body than in Clinus, and the '"dorsal fin dis- 
tinctly emarginate towards the caudal." The geuns resting on these charac- 
ters alone is composed of very incongruous elements. To it are referred, at 
page 277 of tlie second volume, the following species, all of which are de- 
scribed as species of Clinus by Valenciennes : Labrosomus go b i o, L. p e ct i- 
nifer, L. capillatus, L. Delalandii, L. linearis, L. varioiosus, 
L. Peruvianus, L. microcirrhis, L. ?geniguttatus, L. elegans, 
L. ? littoreus and L. latipi n n is. 

Of these species, not more than three can, with propriety, be regarded as 
congeners, if the Labrosomus pectinifer is taken as the type. These are 
Labrosomus pectinifer, L. capillatus and perhaps L. Delalandii. 
The latter is more probably the representative of a distinct genus. 

That genus is distinguished from Labrosomus by the smaller mouth, the pre- 
sence of only two rays to the ventral fins, and perhaps by the undulating 
margin of the spinous portion of the dorsal fin. It may be named Malacocte- 
nus, in illusion to tlie pectiniform row of filaments. This genus is the nearest 
ally of Labrosomus. AH the others are very distinct. 

Labrisomus gobio Sir., is the type of quite a distinct genus, whose charac- 
ters consist of a broad, dejiressed head, with a very short muzzle, large ap- 
proximated eyes, superciliary and nasal tentacles, two ventral rays and a com- 
paratively short spinous dorsal. The genus may be called Gobioclinus. The 
only species Gobioclinus gobio is found in the West Indies, and has biit 
eighteen dorsal spines. 

Labrisomus linearis Sw. , is synonymous with Clinus brachycepha- 
lus Val. This also is the type of a distinct genus distinguished by its abbre- 
viated and blenniform head, the profile being very convex ; by the villiform 
teeth, the absence of superciliary tentacles, the spinous poi'tion of the dorsal 
long, and the presence of only two rays to the ventral fins. Tlie name of 
Blennioclinus is conferred on it ; for the species, the specific name of Valenci- 
ennes must be retained. 

Labrisomus varioiosus is distinguished by a large thick head, with 
lateral eyes, short superciliary tentacles and a small nuchal one. The mouth 
is large ; the teeth of the jaws in an outer row strong and conical, behind 
which are villiform ones ; those of the vomer and palate villiform and in three 
patches, one on the vomer and one on each palatine bone. The spinous por- 
tion of the dorsal is long, and the ventrals have each three rays . The species 
thus characterized is the type of a new genus which may be named Anchenion- 
ckus. 

Labrisomus microcirrhis, L. elegans and L. Peruvianus are 
nearly related to Anchenionchus, and are from the same zoological province. 

Labrosomus ? geniguttatusis distinguished from Anchenioichus by the 
more approximated eyes, and by the disposition of the vomero-palatiue teeth, 
as well as the small size of the anterior row of maxillary teeth. The dorsal 
is moderately long, and each of the ventrals have three rays. The mouth is 
comparatively small, and there are superciliary, nasal and nuchal tentacles. 
For this species, the generic name of Calliclinus is proposed. 

* Valenciennes has since given the name of Blennophis to a very distinct genus from 
that to which Swainson appplied the names. As Swainson's genus is a natural one, 
another name must be substituted for that of Valenciennes— Ophioblennius is therefore 
proposed. 

1860.1 



104 PaOCEEDIXGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Labrisomus ? littoreus may possibly belong to the genus Acanihoclimis of 
Jenyns, but it is only known from a drawing and description. 

Labrisomus latipinnis is related to Blennioclinus, but is distinguished 
from the species of that genus by the presence of superciliary tentacles. The 
generic name of Ophthalmolophus may be retained for it. 

If the above views of the limits of the Labrosomus are correct, only two of 
the species assigned by Swainson to the genus truly belong to it. Of the re- 
maining species, nearly each one belongs to a genus distinct from the others. 
The affinities and characters of the genera above indicated will be more fully 
exposed at another time. 

About three years after the publication of the work of Swainson, the same 
species that served as the type of the genus of that naturalist, was described 
by Dr. Dekay, in the ichthyological part of his " Zoology of New York, or the 
New York Fauna," as the representative of a new genus of Percoids, under 
the name of Lepisoma. That the genus Lepisoma is identical with the Labri- 
somus of Swainson, no one can entertain a doubt after a perusal of the generic 
and specific description of Dekay. 

Dr. Dekay has given the characters of his genus Lepisoma, as follows : 

" Body and fins scaly. Fleshy filaments along the basal line of the head and 
on the orbits. A single dorsal fin. Branchial rays six. Teeth in the jaws 
vomer and palatines. Ventrals before the pectorals." 

Dekay in his remarks, states "that it is with much hesitation that he places 
this genus at the end of the jugular section of this family (Percidse). In its 
general aspect, it might readily be referred to the families Sciaenidae or Labri- 
dae ; but the presence of vomerine and palatine teeth excludes it from them." 

The amiable naturalist was much mistaken in regard to the affinities of the 
genus, as must be perceptible from his descriptions. Even in his brief generic 
diagnosis, the ichthyologist is surprised by the peculiarity described by the 
second sentence ; ^ ^ fleshy Jilaments along the base of the head and on the orbits.^^ 
This character is so peculiar, so much at variance with the compact character, 
if I may so express myself, of the head in the family of Percoids, that it might 
well cause the naturalist to doubt if a fish with such appendages can really be- 
long to the family of Percoids. On a careful examination of the specific de- 
scription, the characters are found to disagreee more and more with the natural 
ones of tlie family to which Dekay has referred it. 

The scales are described as being " moderate, rounded, finely striate on their 
free surfaces, with a smooth membranous margin." The head is "corrugated 
and destitute of scales. Along the basal line of the head, on each side, are nine 
or ten fleshi/ processes, ending in bifid or trifid filaments," &c. "Another fleshy 
process arises from beneath the upper margin of the orbit, which subdivides into 
six or eight smaller processes," &c. The anterior nostril has a "fleshy valve, 
through which is pierced the nasal aperture ; its posterior border elongated and 
terminating in six or eight filaments.'''' The opercle and preopercle are rounded 
and smooth on their margins." 

All of the attributes of the species underlined in the foregoing abstract are more 
or less at variance with the characters of Percoid fishes, even as the family 
was accepted by Dr. Dekay ; the doubt of the reader is still more increased 
when he finds it stated that the " branchial membrane (is) large, extending loosely 
around the throat, with six rays, and that the ventrals arise near the inferior fold 
of the branchial membrane, and are composed of two long articulated rays and a 
short rudimentary one on each sice.'" 

This condition of the branchial membrane, this number of ventral rays are 
so different from the characters of the true Percoids, that one can have no 
hesitation in denying a fish with such attributes a place in the family. As in 
all those as well as in minor details, it agrees with Labrosomus, it is unhesita- 
tingly referred to that genus. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 105 

The genus Lepisoma lias been adopted by the following authors, but it is 
necessary to add, entirely on the authority of Dr. Dekay. 

Troschel has translated into German the characters of the genus for the 
" Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte " of 1844, page 233. He has questioned the pre- 
sence of three ventral rays. 

Dr. Storer, in his "Synopsis of the Fishes of North America," has adopted 
it without qualification. 

Sir John Richardson, in the article " Ichthyology " of the last edition of the 
" Encyclopedia Britannica, " at page 277 of the twelfth volume, has taken the 
characters of the genus from the ' ' Archiv, ' ' and on account of the presence of 
six branchiostegal rays, places it, together with Boleosoma and Pileoma, at the 
end of his family of Theraponidce, but adds that he "cannot, without more 
data, fix their proper place in the system." 

No notice has been taken of the genus Lahrosomus, except in a reference of 
Lepisoma cirrhosum Dekay to it, in a recent number of the Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences. That this is entitled to distinction appears 
to be evident, and its characters are now given. 

LabrosomusSw., emend. 
Synonymy. 

Labrisomus Sw., Nat. Hist., Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, vol. ii. pp. 75j 
182, 277, 1839. 

Lepisoma Dekay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 11, 1842. 

Blennius sp. auct. 

Clinus sp. auct. 

Body oblong, highest at the pectoral fins, thence attenuated towards the 
caudal. Scales moderate, covering the body and encroaching upon the verti- 
cal fins. Head compressed, naked, declining from the nape with a slight 
curve. Eyes large, separated by a narrow interval. Superciliary tentacles 
multifid, and one or two transverse rows of filaments across the nape. Nostrils 
approximated ; the anterior ones with a tufted barbel on the posterior border. 
Teeth in the anterior row stout, recurved, conic and pointed, behind which is 
a band of villiform teeth. Vomerine and palatine teeth stout and conic, gene- 
rally in a single row. Dorsal fin commencing near the nape ; the spinous por- 
tion long, and with from sixteen to eighteen rays, slowly decreasing in height 
to the soft portion ; the latter oblong, with its rays subequal and higher than 
the spinous portions. Caudal fin moderate, truncate or rounded, and discon- 
nected from the dorsal and anal fins. Ventral fins jugular, closely approxi- 
mated, each composed of three rays. 

1. Labrosomus pec tinifer /S'lt'. 
Synonymy. 

Clinus pectinifer Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xi. p. 374, 1836. 

Labrisomus pectinifer Sw., Nat. Hist., Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, vol. 
ii, p. 277, 1839. 

Lepisoma cirrhosum Dekay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 41, pi. 30, fig, 
94, 1842. 

Lepisoma cirrhosum Storer, Synopsis of Fishes of North America, p. 49, ib. 
in Memoirs American Academy, 1856. 

Clinus pectinifer Mlill. and Troschel con Schomburgh Annals and Magazine 
Nat. Hist., 2d ser. vol. ii, p. 16 ; ib. in Schomburgh's Barbados. 

Clinus pectinifer Castlenau, Animaux nouveaux on rares recueilles &c., dans 
I'Amerique du sud. Poissons, p. 26, 1855. 

Labrosomus pectinifer Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 21. 

There can scarcely remain a doubt of the identity of the Lepisoma ci r rh o- 
s u m of Dr. Dekay with the Labrosomus pectinifer. The only difi'erence 
between the description of Dekay and that of Valenciennes, is respecting the 
I860.] 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

orbital and nuchal filaments. The orbital filaments are stated by Dr. Dekay to 
"subdivide into six or eight smaller processes, each of which terminate in 
several slender filaments, not thicker than the finest thread ;" Valenciennes 
describes them as divided to their base in ten or twelve slender filaments. 
Dr. Dekay informs us that the nuchal filaments are nine or ten on each side, 
each bifid or trifid ; Valenciennes describes them as being arranged in two 
pectiniform rows, each row consisting of thirty or more. 

Another variation of Lepisoma cirrhosum from Labrosomus pectinifer 
is concerning the vomero-palatine dentition ; Dekay mentions that "in the 
upper jaw, in front, is a series of equal, conical, slightly recurved teeth, some- 
what longer than those below, smaller on the sides ; behind the outer row, in 
front, is a patch of minute crowded teeth. Similar teeth in bands on the 
vomer and palates. On the anterior part of the vomer is a very large solitary 
tooth." This description of the vomerine and palatine teeth is ambiguous, 
and may be variously interpreted. If by it is meant that the vomero-palatine 
teeth are in several rows, or in a villiform band, it widely disagrees with the 
Labrosomus pectinifer. In the latter species there is but one row of stout 
conic teeth, like those of the outer row of the upper jaw, with " a very large 
solitary tooth on the anterior part of the vomer." A figure is given of the 
dentition of the Lepisoma cirrhosum, but very little reliance can be 
placed on it. The vomerine and palatine teeth are certainly represented as 
l^luriserial, but there is no "very large solitary tooth " represented on the 
vomer. A doubt may therefore arise respecting the propriety of referring 
Lepisoma cirrhosum to Labrosomus pectinifer. Considering, however, 
that the description of the former, in ail respects except those above men- 
tioned, agrees with the latter ; that the number of rays is almost exactly 
similar ; that in each, a larger tooth is at the front of the vomer, and that the 
description and figure of the dentition of Lepisoma cirrhosum do not agree 
with each other ; it appears almost certain that the two belong to the same 
species, and that error has entered into the description and illustration of the 
species as well as in the allocation of the genus. 

The Labrosomus pectinifer is widely distributed through the Caribbean 
Sea, and is found at the Islands of Barbados, Trinidad, St. Thomas, Jamaica, 
Cuba, as well as at the Bahama Islands and on the coast of Florida. 

The specimens from which Valenciennes described the species were obtained 
at Brazil and at Bahia. A specimen from Brazil does not specifically differ 
from West Indian ones. 

Valenciennes even observes that it is one of the small number of species 
that cross the Atlantic ocean. A specimen is stated by him to have been ob- 
tained by Adanson among the rocks of the Island of Gorea, in January, 1750. 

2. Labrosomus fasciatus Gill. 

Clinus fasciatus Castelnun, Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueilles, &e., 
dans I'Amerique du sud. Poissons, p. 26, pi. xii. fig. 2, 1855. 

This species is very closely related to the Labrosomus pectinifer Siv., 
and it was at first believed that it was probably only a variety. My friend, J. 
C. Brevoort, Esq., has since sent me an outline of the figure of Castelnau and 
a copy of his description, and I am now disposed to regard it as a true species. 

The Labrosomus pectinifer is sometimes found with four dark brown 
vertical bars, between which are smaller and more obscure ones, interrupted 
at the middle. Such appears to have been the variety mentioned by Drs. 
Miiller and Troschel in their list of the Fishes collected by Sir Robert Schom- 
burgh at the island of Barbados, and published in the "Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History ' ' and the History of Barbados. This variety, in every 
other respect, resembles typical individuals of the species, and has, like them, 
the rays of the caudal and pectoral fins covered with five or six rows of spots. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 107 

In the normal variety of tlie Labrosomus pectinifer, the bands, although 
present, are faint and confused. 

The Labrosomus fasciatus, from the figure and description of Castlenau, 
appears to differ from the L. pectinifer or its variety, by the absence of 
the intermediate, interrupted and fainter bands, and of the rows of spots on 
the caudal, by the red color of the abdomen and opercula, and of the ventral, 
pectoral and caudal fins, as well as of the broad marginal band of the soft por- 
tion of the dorsal fin. The following is the description given by Castlenau : 

" Ressemble pour la forme an pectinifer, et a une tache semblable a I'oper- 
cule. Le corps est d'un brun clair avec quatre, larges bandes transversales 
d'un brun tres obscur ; I'opercule, la gorge, la partie inferieure de la tete et 
la moitie anterieure des dessons du corps sont d'un beau rouge vix ; les 
nageoires anale et ventrale sont de cette meme couleur. 

"De Rio Janeiro." 

3. Labrosomus capillatus Sw. 
Synonymy. 
Clinvs capillatus Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xl. p. 377. 
Labrisomus capillatus Sw., Nat. Hist. Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, vol. 
ii. p. 277. 

Clinus capillatus Miill and Trosch., con Schomburgh, Annals and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist. 2d sei'. vol. ii. p. 16 ; ib. in Schomburgh's Barbados. 

The Labrosomus capillatus is recorded as an inhabitant of the same 
coasts as the L. p e c t i n i f e r. It is very nearly allied to the latter, but 
difiers from it by the immaculate pectoral fins, and the spot on the operculum 
is bordered with white. 

4. Labrosomus Xanti Gill. 

This species in form and proportions is very nearly allied to Labrosomus 
pe ct inifer. 

It attains a length of about six inches. Of the length, the head, from the 
front row of teeth to the margin of the operculum forms a fourth part, and 
the caudal fin about a seventh. The greatest height is rather less than the 
head's length. The dorsal outline from the nape to the posterior third of the 
dorsal fin is nearly straight and scarcely convex, and thence gradually declines 
in a slight curve to the end of the fin, when the height of the caudal peduncle 
is scarcely more than a fourth of the length of the head. 

The profile from the eyes to the snout slopes more gradually than in Labro- 
somus pectinifer, and the suborbital is less broad. 

The dorsal commences behind the vertical of the preopercle, and the spines 
regularly increase in height towards the middle of the spinous portion, and 
thence slightly decrease towards the soft portion, which is almost twice as high 
as the last spine. 

The pectoral fins are produced at its middle rays, and their length is equal 
to nearly a fifth of that of the body. The articulated rays of all the fins are 
simple and unbranched as in its congener. 

D xviii.-4-13 ; A iii. 18 ; C 7-f 7 ; P 14 ; V 3. 

The color of the body is brown, crossed by about ten darker bands. The 
head is dotted with blackish, and from the posterior and inferior borders of 
the eye, two bands proceed obliquely to the margin of the preopercle. The 
opercle is darker than the preopercle, but there is no black spot. The dorsal 
has the basal portion of the membrane between the first and third spines 
blackish ; the rest of the n embrane is tinged witli purple, but immaculate. 
The basal half of the fin is covered with scales as in Labrosomus pectinifer. 
The anal fin is crossed by six obHque purplish bands. The caudal, pectorals 
and ventrals are immaculate. 
I860.] 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

This species is rerv cearlr allied to the West Indian Labrosomus p e c t i n i- 
fer and L. oapillat n s 5ir., but diflers from them in color and some minor 
details of form. The median tooth of the front of the vomer, which is so 
large in the Labrosomus pectiuifer, is of the same size as the othei-s in 
the Labrosomus x a n t i. 

Old and youu^r specimens were obtained by Mr. J. Xantus under rocks on 
Cerro Blanco. They are numbered 2334, 2335 and 247S in the collection of 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

I have dedicated this species to Mr. Xantus as a slight testimony to his 
worth and abilities : while engaged in his duties on the coast survey, and with 
many obstacles to contend against, on account of the present condition of af- 
fairs in Mexico, he has obtained a collection of terrestrial and marine animals, 
which is rich in new forms, and all the species of which are in the highest 
state of preservation. 

5. Labrosomus Herminieri Gill. 
Su^onymy. 

Blenniiis Serminieri Leseur, Journ. Acad. Kat. Sci. Pa., vol. iv. p. 361> 
1825. 

Clintts Herminieri Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xi. p. 

This species appears to be nearly related to the other species of the gemis, but 
is distinguished by the presenceof only sixteen spines in the dorsal fin. and by 
a different pattern of coloration. The dorsal fin anteriorly has an elongate 
black spot. "The cheeks and head are rufouis brown, vermicular with little 
blackish lines, which form an irregular kind of close net work."' 

The radial formula is as follows : 

D lii. 11; A 20: P 16 : V3; C 14. 

Specimens were taken at the "West Indian Island of St. Bartholomews, in 
cavities of madreporic rocks, in the month of June, ISIG, by C. A. Lesueur. 
It has not since been re-discovered. 



Monograph of the Genus LABRAX, of CuTier. 
BY THEO. GILL. 

There is found, in the Mediterranean sea, a fish which has, from the earliest 
times. attn\cted the attention of the inhabit^ints of the neighboring coasts from 
the abundance in which it is found and the size to which it attaius. By the 
Ancients, as at the present day, it was much esteemed as an article of food, and 
was called by the Greeks Axjfa^ and by the Romans, Lupus. Of this fish, 
Cuvier has said that its appearance and almost all the details of its form recall 
to mind the pfrch. and that a just idea would be given of it by describing it as 
a " Airyj-. flonijoted ond silvfry perch." 

From the Perches, however, it difters in several characters, which induced 
Cuvier to separate it generically, and for the name of the genus, he adopted the 
Greek designation of the species. The characters by which Cuvier distinguished 
it from the Perches wore the presence of teeth on the tongue and of two spines to 
the operculum. It diflers also from the true Perches in the armature of some 
of its bones, and by the shorter spinous dorsal tin, whose rays, in the European 
and allied American species, do not exceed the number of nine. 

Though Cuvier was the first to properly distinguish the genus, its type had 
been long previously placed by Klein as the first of two species which he placed 
in a group, for which he used the same name o( La!>rai. 

In the second and third volumes of the great •• Ilistoire Xatnrelle des 
Poissons," Cuvier and Valenciennes have referred to the genus Labrax seven 
species, six of which are described in the former volume. 

Of these, the Labrax lupus is the tvpe of the genus, and is distinguished bv 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 109 

ihe spur-like spines of the inferior margin of the preoperculum ; the presence 
of a perfect marginal band of teeth and of an oval basal patch on the tongue; 
three spines to the anal fin, and other characters which will bo noticed iu the 
diagnosis of the genus. To this should the name of Labrax be restricted. 

The second species (le Bar alonge, or Perca clongata of Geoffrey) is distin- 
guished by finer and more numerous teeth on the inferior border of the preoper- 
culum, and the presence of only two anal spines. This is doubtless the type of 
a distinct genus to which the name of Dicentrarchxis may be given. 

The third species is the Labrax 1 i n e a t u s of Cuvier. the common rock fish 
and striped bass of the United States. This is now taken as the type of a new 
genus, for which Mitchell's name of Rocci'S is preserved. The characters are 
given below. To this genus should be also referred the I.abrax multiline- 
atus described by Cuvier and Valenciennes in the third volume of their 
"Histoire." 

Tlie fourth species, Labrax Waigiensis, has been identified by Bleeker 
with the I'sammoperca datnioides of Richardson; if this is correct, — and 
notwithstanding the discrepancies between the descriptions of the " Histoire 
Naturelle" and Richardson, such appears to be the case — it belongs to a very 
distinct genus from Labrax 1 u pu s . The teeth of the jaws, vomer and palatines 
are described by Richardson as crowded, rounded ixni^ granular, vf\x\\Q by Cuvier 
the teeth on both jaws, the chevron of the vomer and the palatines are said to be 
villiform (" dents en velours "); it is also stated by Cuvier that there is a small 
oval disc at the base of the tongue. By Richardson, the tongue is said to be 
smooth. In the latter statement, however, he disiigrees not only with Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, but with Bleeker, who also asserts* that there is an oblong 
patch at the base of the tongue; ''lingua basi thurma denticulorum scabra." 
Both authors agree as to the presence of a single spine to the operculum 
(although one of the generic characters assigned to J^ahrax by Cuvier is the 
presence of two spines on that bone), and of a strong horizontal spine at the 
angle of the preoperculum, above which the margin is pectinated. 

The next species in order, — Labrax Jap on ions oi Cuv. and Fa/., — is the 
type of Ihe genus Latkolabrax of Bleeker, which is widely separated from 
Labrax by the absence of any teeth on the tongue. In the plectroid armature 
of the operculum it, however, resembles that genus. 

The last species — Labrax m u c r o n a t u s — is now taken as the type of a new 
genus, for which the name of Morone is accepted. Its generic characters and 
affinities will be given at length in a subsequent portion of this memoir. 

Of the seven species referred by Cuvier and Valenciennes to the genus Labrax, 
six are thus seen to belong to different genera. Nor do any of these genera 
appear to be unnecessary, but on the contrary, all of them are well distinguished 
from each other by characters that ichthyologists must admit are of importance ; 
two of the species, indeed, that were referred to the genus by the French nat- 
uralists, do not agree with their characters of that genus. It is not in dispar- 
agement of those celebrated and able men that these remarks have been made. 
The progress of scientific discovery and the examination of better materials 
have enabled their successors to discover the errors of the founders of modern 
ichthyology. None could have performed the work at that day better than they. 
Having long since, from an examination of the descriptions of various 
authors, been aware of the confusion and uncertainty in which our American 
species of the Cuvieran Labraz were enveloped, I have thought that it might be 
a useful task' to attempt the elucidation of the genus. More than three years 
ago, I had noticed that the Labrax rufus of Z)fAro?/ belonged to a dift'erent 
natural genus from Labrax, but not having then had an opportunity of exam- 
ining the European species, I believed that the Labrax 1 i n e a t u s was a true 
Labrax. The name which I had then applied to the Labrax rufus having 
never been published, I have now renounced it for that of Mitchell, not b liuse 

*Natuurkundig Tydschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie, vol. ii. p. 479. 

18G0.] 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

he was the author of the genus, but because the name had been applied; 
though from a false idea, to one of its species. 

The number of American species admitted by Drs. Dekay and Storer in the 
genus Lahrax amounts to seven, and another specific name has been since added 
by Filippi, an Italian naturalist. It will be attempted to demonstrate, in the 
following monograph, that all of these nominal species are referrable to three 
true ones. Three of the synonyms applj' to one species and four to another. 

Besides the species that have been attributed to the genus by Richardson, 
Dekay and Filippi, several others have been described under that name by 
modern naturalists. Dr. Charles Girard has noticed two of these in the "Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," under the name 
of Labrax nebulosus and L. clathratus. He afterwards constructed 
for tliem a new genus which he called Faralahrax, and placed it in the vicinity 
of Serranus. They appear truly to belong there, or perhaps to the group com- 
posed oi Elastoma Sw., or Macrops Dumeril, and Elelis Cuv. 

Mr. Hill, of Jamaica, in a useful catalogue of the Fishes of that island, has 
also noticed a iish which he referred to Labrax, under the name ofL. pluvia- 
1 i s , or the rainy weather chub. It is said by that gentleman to be confounded 
by the fishermen with the Labrax mucronatus, but differs from it by the 
presence of vertical bars, like those of the common perch of Europe and America. 
Is not this related to the Perca Plumieri of Cuvier and Valenciennes? The 
presence of the vertical bars would militate against its natural association with 
M o r o n e , and it may perhaps be the type of a distinct genus or belong to the 
genus Percichthys of Girard 

For the facilties of investigating iatT the history of this group I am indebted 
to the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 

I. Labrax (Klein) Cuv. emend. 
Synonymy. 

Lahrax Klein, Miss. V. p. 25, 1749. 

Perca sp. Linn. auct. 

Sciana sp. Bloch. 

Centropome sp. Lac. 

Perseque sp. Lac. 

Labrax sp. Cuv. Regne Animal, ed. prima, vol. ii. 1817. 

Dentes maxillares, palatini et vomerini velutioi; dentes linguales velutini in 
raargine totio et fascia longitudinali mediana dispositi. Squamae occipitaleset 
interorbitales, et in genis pleurusque cycloidese vel vix pectinatae. Preoper- 
culum postice serratum vel pectinatum, ad angulum plerumque subtusque 
spinis recurvatis antrorsum spectantibus. Operculum biaculeatura. Pinnsp 
dorsales ad basin baud membrana elevata conjunctse; pinna dorsalis prima 
numero radiorum baud decern superante. Pinna analis spinis tribus inmagni- 
tudine regulariter increscentibus. 

The genus Labrax, as above restricted, is chiefly distinguished by the contin- 
uous band of villiform teeth around the margin of the tongue, and the oval 
disc at its base. It is most intimately allied to the genus Hoccus, from which it 
is separated by the character of the lingual dentition and the plectroid inferior 
margin of the preoperculum ; the latter character is seen in the less nearly 
allied genus, Lnteolahrax of Bleeker. 

But a single species of this genus is yet known. 

Labrax diacanthus Gill. 
Synonymy (^partim.) 
Perca labrax Linn. Systema Naturae. 
Scicena diacantha Bloch. 
The full synonymy of this species can be ascertained by reference to the 

[April. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. Ill 

"Fauna Italica" of the Prince of Canino; as it has been given by Cuvier as 
well as Canino, it is not necessary to more than refer to it here. 

As many names had been given to the species before it was designated 
Labrax lupus by Cuvier, that name cannot be retained if we are to be guided 
by the rules of priority. A specific name given to it by Bloch is therefore 
adopted. 

In the edition of the " Systema Naturae " by Gmelin, the European Labrax 
appears under the name of Perca punctata. Cuvier and Valenciennes have 
shown that this name is onlj- a misapplication of one by Linnasus, who had 
given it to a Scitenoid from North America, which he placed immediately before 
the Perca labrax in his System. Gmelin, in his edition of the same work, 
has by mistake omitted both the description of the Linneeau Perca punctata 
and the name of Perca labrax, so that the name of the former is there ap- 
plied to the description of the latter. Bloch has also applied the name of 
Perca punctata to the young of Labrax diacanthus, but without allu- 
sion to the names of Linnieus or Gmelin. As the name thus applied would 
have at that time conflicted with the one of Linn^us, it should not be retained. 
The name of Sciajna diacantha coming next in order, its specific part must 
be adopted. Although the name of Lupus was bestowed on this species by the 
ancient Romans, that does not appear to constitute a valid reason for accepting 
it as a scientific name. 

II. DlCENTRARCHUS Gill. 

Synonymy. 

Perca sp. Geoffrey. 
Labrax sp. Cuv. et Val. 

Genus Labrici Cuv. simile, sed preoperculo margine inferiore deutibus uon 
validis, et pinna analis solum spinis duabus. 

Dicentrarchus elongatus Gill. 
Synonymy. 
Le Bar along^ Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. il. p. 79. 
This species I have never seen, but it evidently belongs to a distinct genus, 
and I have been, in a measure, compelled to give it a name in order to present a 
perfect view of the classification of the Labraces. 

The species is an inhabitant of the Mediterranean sea. 

The synonymy of the species is given in the second volume of the " Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons," to which reference is made. 

III. Roccus (Mitch.) Gill. 

Synonymy. 

Sciaina sp. Bloch. 

Perca sp. Bloch, Schneid., Mitchell, 1818. 

Centropome sp. Lac. 

Roccus sp. Mitchell, Report in part on the Fishes of New York, p. 25, 1814. 

I/cpibema Raf. Ichthyologia Ohiensis, p. 23, 1820. 

Labrax sp. Cuv., et Vol. 

Corpus gracile vel oblongo-ovatum, dorso antice curvato. Dentes max- 
illares, palatini etvomerini velutini ; dentes linguales velutini, in fasciis later- 
alibus et ad basin in seriebus duabus longitudinalibus separatis vel coalescent- 
ibus dispositi. Squamse a nucha ad nares et in genis plerusque cycloidea. 
Preoperculum postice subtusque pectinatura, operculum biaculeatum. Pinna- 
dorsales ad basin non membrana elevata conjunctns. Pinna dorsalis prim.i 
numero radiorum non decern superante. Pinna analis spinis tribus in magni- 
tudine regulariter increscentibus. Linea lateralis rectilinearis, 

I860.] 



112 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

The genus Rocciis is very closely allied to both Labrax, as here revised, and 
Moroiie. From Labrax it differs chiefly ia the character of the armature of the 
preoperculum, and by the absence of the teeth at the anterior extremity of the 
tongue; the whole margin of the tongue in the latter genus being provided 
with a band of villiform teeth, and the spur-formed teeth of the inferior margin 
of the preoperculum calling to mind the genus PUctropoma of Cuvier among the 
Serrani. The difference between the last named genus — or at least of many of 
its species — and Serranus is indeed not of as great value as that between Labrax 
and Roccus. The only constant character between Serranus and Plectropoma, as 
those genera were established by Cuvier, is the spur-like dentition of the 
inferior border of the preoperculum, while Labrax and Roccus are distinguished 
not only by an equally great and constant difference of the preopercular border, 
but also by the difference of the lingual dentition. As the former character is 
of as great value in the Labraces as in the Serrani, consistency will require that 
if Plectropoma and Serranus are considered as distinct genera, Roccus &ndi Labrax 
should also be so regarded. 

The difference between Roccus and Morone is of even more importance than 
that of Roccus and Labrax. The distinguishing characters will be referred to 
under the diagnosis of Morone. 

The name which has been adopted for this genus is one given by Dr. Mitchell, 
in the year 1814, to a medley comprising the Roccus lineatus, which he 
called Roccus s tr i at u s , and the Otolithus re gal is, which was designated 
as Roccus comes. The name was solely the result of ignorance on the part 
of the author, of the application of the ordinary terms used by naturalists at 
that day. The name itself is a barbarous latinization of the popular name, 
rock fish, by which its chief species is known in many parts of the United 
States. Notwithstanding these facts, it has been nevertheless deemed more 
advisable to accept the name than to apply a new one. It is scarcely worse 
than Rallus, Kangurus, Catus, Gunnellus, and many other names of similar 
derivation. 

Rafinesque, in the " Ichthyologia Ohiensis," also proposed for his Perca 
chrysops, in case it should be found to be generically distinct from Perca, 
the name of Lepibema. He believed it to be distinguished " by the scaly bases 
of the caudal, anal and second dorsal fins, the last with some spiny rays, and 
all the three parts of the gill cover more or less serrulate, besides the small 
teeth." Rafinesque suggested that to this genus the Perca Mitchelli of 
Jlitcbell might " perhaps be found to belong." 

The genus Roccus may be divided into two sections. 

§1. Corpus elongatum ; dentes ad linguae basin in seriebus longitudinalibus 
duabus ordinati. 

Roccus lineatus Gill. 
Synonymy. 
Scicena lineata Bloch, Ichthyologie, pars. ix. p. 53, pi. 305. 

Perca SchoepfiF., Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund, vol. viii. p. 160. 

Perca saxatilis Bloch, Systema Ichthyologite, Schneid. ed. p. 89. 

Perca septentrionalis Bloch, Systema Ichthyologiae, Schneid. ed. p. 90, pi. 70. 

Centropome raye Lac, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. iv. p, 225. 

Roccus striatus Mitchell, Report in part on the fishes of New Vork, p. 25, 1814. 

Perca Mitchelli MitchelL Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc, N. Y., vol. i. p. 413, pi. 3 

fig. 4. 
Rock-Fish Mease, Trans. Lit and Phil. Soc, N. Y., vol. i. p. 502. 

^^aSheUi \ ^^f- Ichthiologia Ohiensis, p. 23, (passim). 
Labrax lineatus Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. ii. p. 79. 
Perca labrax! Smith, Nat. Hist. Fishes of Mass., p. 277. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 113 

Labrax lineatus Rich., Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol iii. p. 10. 
" " Storer, Report on the Fishes of Mass., p. 7. 

" " Ayres, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 757. 

" " Dekay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 7, pl..l. fig. 3. 

" " Liosley, Catalogue of Fishes of Connecticut. 

" " Storer, Synopsis Fishes of N. America, p. 21, ib. in Memoirs 

Am. Acad. 
" " Storer. Hist. Fishes of Mass., ib. in Memoirs Am. Acad., vol. 

v. p. 55, pi. 1, fig. 4.,1853. 
" " Baird, Report on Fishes of New Jersey coast, p. ib. in Ninth 

Annual Report of Smith. Inst., p. 321. 
" " ' Holbrook, Ichthyology of South Carolina, p. 17, pi. iv. fig. 2, 

" " Gill, Annual Report Smith. Inst., 1857, p. 255. 

This species is so well known and has been so frequently described and 
figured that no description is here needed. The best that has appeared is that 
of Holbrook in the Ichthyology of South Carolina; in that, the only correct 
account of the lingual dentition published by any American author, is given. 
The best illustration of the species is given bj' Sonrel in Dr. Storer's " History 
of the Fishes of Massachutsetts," and is superior to that of Dr. Holbrook. 

Cuvier and Valenciennes have described the tongue as having asperities only 
en its sides, while other naturalists have stated that the teeth on the tongue are 
most obvious on its sides," or more correctly that the "tongue is rough at its 
base and upon its sides and smooth in the centre." Dr. Holbrook has well said 
that " there are two bands of minute teeth, at the root of the tongue, separated 
slightly from each other in the mesial line ; the sides of the tongue are also 
armed with small teeth." 

Prof. Filippi, a learned naturalist of Turin, has also correctly described the 
lingual dentition of Roccus lineatus in comparison with a species of the 
genus which he regarded as new, but which has, in this monograph, been con- 
sidered as identical with the Roccus chrysops. 

I II. Corpus oblongo-ovatum, compressum ; dentes ad linguae basin in turma 
ovali aggregati. 

Roccus chrysops Gill. 
Syno7iyviy. 



Perca chrysops » ^^^ Ichthyologia Ohiensis, p. 28. 



Labrax multilineatus Cuv. and Val., His, Nat. des Poissons, vol. iii. p. 588. 

Perca multilineata h^s. fide Cuv. and Val. 

Labrax notatus Smith, in Rich. Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. iii. p. 8, 1836. 

Labrax multilineatus Kirtland, Boston Journal Nat. Hist., vol. v. p. 21, pi. 7, 
fig. 1. 
" " Dekay, Nat. Hist, of New York Fishes, p. 14. 

Labrax albidus Dekay, Nat. Hist, of New York Fishes, p. 13, pi. 51, fig. 165. 

Labrax notatus Dekay, loc. cit., p. 14. 

Labrax multilineatus Storer, Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, p. 22, 
ib. in Memoirs of American Acad. 

Labrax notatus Storer, loc. cit., p. 22. 

Labrax albidus Storer, loc. cit., p. 23. 

Ijabraxosculatii Filippi, Revue et Magazin de Zoologie, 2d series, vol. v. p. 164. 

Labrax chrysops Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1860, p. 20. 
Non Labrax chrysops Girard. 

The Roccus chrysops of this monograph is undoubtedly identical with 
the Perca or Lepibema chrysops of Rafinesquc, and the Labrax multi- 
lineatus of the " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons" and of Kirtland. The 
descriptions that have been j-et given of the species under tiiose names are 
meagre and unsatisfactory, but the notice of the color given bv the above 

I860.] 

7 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

named authors and the possession of specimens from the same hvdrographioal 
basins as those from whence the fishes described by them were taken, leave no 
doubt as to the identity of the species. 

Rafinesque's description of his Perca c h r y s o p s is, like almost all his des- 
criptions, inapplicable to any knowa fish, but it agrees with the Morone 
chrysops better than any other species. Rafinesque erroneously attributes 
to his specie? six branchiostegal rays, a single opercular spine, eight spines to 
the first dorsal fin. and places it under the genus Perca, all the species of which , 
he informs us, have naked heads. He proposed for it a new genus to which he 
gave the name Lepibema, in allusion to the scaly bases of the unpaired fins. 

Lesueur subsequently sent to the Parisian Museum two specimens of a species 
which he called Perca raultilineata, which Cuvier and Valenciennes 
placed in their genus Labrax, but adopted for it the specific name of Lesueur. 
Their description is mostly comparative, it being said to differ from the Labras 
liueatus by its higher body, shorter head, more feeble teeth, the stronger 
asperities of the tongue, and especially the larger scales of the maxillaries, 
which resemble those of Labrax mucronatus, while in Labrax lineatUB 
they were said to be scarcely perceptible. 

The description of the lingual dentition is verj- unsatisfactory, and no cor- 
rection is made of the statement made in the second volume that the Labrax 
lineatus has onl}' lateral teeth. It is not in the development of the asperi- 
ties of the tongue that the lingual dentition of the species differs, but that while 
there are two narrow rows separated by a mesial line in Roccus lineatus, 
the rows are broader at the middle, in proportion, and coalescent in Roccus 
chrysops. 

There were said to be in one specimen sixteen, and in another, nineteen 
longitudinal dark lines. So large a number is rarely seen ; the most constant 
arrangement is five above, including the one through which the lateral line 
runs, while sometimes there are several below the lateral line, and at other 
times they are obsolete. These lines are sometimes straight, but often in- 
terrupted. 

In the " Fauna Boreali-Americana " of Richardson, a Labrax is described in 
the volume on Ichthyology, under the name of Labrax not at us (Sinitk), the 
Bar-fish or Canadian Basse." This species is said to '■ differ from Mitchell's 
Basse (L. lineatus Cuv.) in being much more robust, and in being marked 
with rows of spots, five above and five below the lateral line, so regularly in- 
terrupted and transposed as to appear like ancient church music." It has been 
suggested by Dr. Dekay that it is the same as the Perca Mitch elli, var. 
interrupt us of Mitchell, but the comparison will apply very well to Roccus 
chrysops, and it is doubtless identical with that species. In the remarks 
upon the species, it is said — by Dr. Richardson apparently — that -'in the more 
robust form, and in the strong scales of the head, the Canadian Bar-fish resem- 
bles the L. mucronatus of the United States and the West Indies, and the 
L. multilineatus of the Wabash. The latter has sixteen narrow, black, 
longitudinal lines on the flanks." It has been attempted to show that the 
number of lines is not a specific character, and if this is the case, the Labrax 
n t a t u s and L. multilineatus are probably identical with each other 
and with Roccus chrysops. The Librax not at us, it is true, is stated 
by Smith to have but one anal spine and six articulated ventral rays, but this 
statement is undoubtedly due to a lapsus calami or an error of observation. So 
great a variation, in the number of anal spines, from a nearly allied species, 
would be in direct opposition to all we know of the peculiarities of the fishes 
of this tribe, while it is one of the characters of the family to have only five 
branched rays in the ventral fins. Smith states that he counted fifty-eight 
scales along the lateral line, a statement which confirms the identity of this 
epecies with Roccus chrysops. 

In the abstracts of Smith's description of Labrax n o t a t u s , given by Dekay 

[April; 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 115 

and Storer, the species is said to have the "length, one to two feet." If this 
was so, it might militate against the idea of its identity with Roccus c h ry - 
sops, but an examination of the description of Smith and Richardson reveals 
no mention whatever of the size of the species. 

In the number of Gueria's ''Revue et Magazin de Zoologie," for April, 1853, 
(vol. V. p. 164,) Professor Filippi, of Turin, has described a, Eoccus to which he 
has given the name of Labrax s c u 1 a t i i , a traveller in America, M. Oscu- 
lati, having obtained it from Lake Ontario. Filippi has distinguished this 
species from Labrax line at us very well, alludiog to the two longitudinal 
lines of basal teeth in that species, and attributing to his own a single oval 
patch. His other characters are the greater heighth of the body in L. s c u - 
la til, which equals a third of the length, while ia L. line at us it is a 

'J 
quarter; and the number of scales, which are formulated as 56 — for L. 

9 15 

Osculatii, and 64 — for L. lineatus. The true teeth are also said to 

11 
be more numerous. The distinctive characters of the species are very well 
stated by Filippi, but his expression of surprise that a fish so common in the 
United States should not have been noticed by any American naturalist, not 
even by Dr. Dekay, is uncalled for. Unhappily, the species had been too often 
noticed, and in Dekay's Ichthyology of New York it appears under no less than 
three different names. Filippi has mentioned its habitat as the sea and rivers 
of the United States (Mare et fluviis confederationis Americanje). I know not 
on what authority it is said to inhabit the sea; it is probably assumed to be 
found there because the Roccus lineatus is. So far as we now know, it is 
confined to the great fresh water lakes and the Western rivers. 

Specimens of the Roccus chrysops are in the Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution, from southern Illinois, obtained by Mr, Robert Kennicott, and from 
the Root river at Racine, Wisconsin, Toronto, &;c., obtained by Professor Baird. 

The specimens from the hydrographical basins of the Ohio river and of the 
Great Lakes cannot be specifically distinguished from each other. Nor can I 
perceive the difference signalized by Dr. Kirtland in the caudal fins of Ohio and 
Lake Erie specimens. 

In extreme youth, tliis species appears to be crossed by obscure vertical 
bands; at a later epoch these bands are lost, and afterwards the longitudinal 
lines are assumed. 

The best descriptions of this species have been published by Prof. Filippi 
under the name of Labrax Osculatii, and by the late Dr. Dekay under that 
of Labrax albidus. The best figure is that given by Dr. Kirtland in the 
Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History, but the dorsals are errone- 
ously represented as being connected by a low membrane. In the text they are 
correctly described as being " distinct." 

IV. MoRONE. (Mitch.) Gill. 

Synonr/mf/. 

Perca sp., Bloch, Gmel. Lac. 

Morone sp., Mitchell. 

Bodianus sp,, Mitchell. 

Labrax sp,, Raf, 

Corpus oblongo-ovatum, gibbosuna ad pinnje dorsalis initiiim. Denies max- 
illares, palatini et vomerini velutini ; dentes lingnales in margine totio dispo- 
siti, ad basin carentes, Squamse in capite totio bene pectinatae, Preoperculum 
postice subtusque pectinatum. Operculum biaculeatum. Pinnae dorsales ad 
hasin membrana paulo elevata conjunctae; pinna dorsalis spinosa radiis 
numero non decern superantibus. Pinna analis spinis tribus, quarum secun- 
da ssepe major est. Linea lateralis antice conrexa vix dorso concurrens. 
I860.] 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

The chief distinctive characters of the genus are the presence of strongly 
pectinated scales on the cheeks and opercular bones, and the band of vUliform 
teeth on the sides and of more scattered ones at the tip. 

In the armature of the preoperculum and operculum, it resembles the genu3 
Boccus. In the connection of the dorsal fins at the base, the less allied Pacific 
genera Lateolabrax of Bleeker, and Psammoperca of Richardson. The slightly 
gibbous back in front of the dorsal fin, and the greater developement of the 
second anal spine are secondary features, which support the natural characters 
of Morone as distinguished from the genus Roccus. 

For the name of the genus, one used by Mitchell for a group founded in 
error, has been adopted. The name of Mitchell resulted from a misunder- 
standing of that author regarding the value of the terms made use of by Lin- 
naeus. The genus Perca was placed by the Swedish naturalist in his section 
oi Thoracici ; Mitchell, believing that the Morone americana, Perca fla- 
V e s c e n s and Pomotis maculatus were rather abdominal fishes, considered 
them to be generically distinct from Perca, and consequently gave to them the 
generic name of Morone. It is scarcely necessary to state that all the species 
enumerated have the normal position of the ventrals of Perca, and that there- 
fore Morone of Mitchell was a mere synonyme of Perca of Linnseus. I have 
nevertheless preferred to take that name rather than to give a new one. 

Morone americana. Gill, 
ct Synonymy. 

Perca SchoepfiF, Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund, vol. viii. p. 159. 

Perca americana Gmel., Systema Naturse, vol. i., pars iii., p. 1308. 

Perca Schoepff, Naturforscher, vol. xx., p. 17. 

Perca americana Bloch, Systemse Ichthyologise, Schneid. ed. 

Perca americana Lac, Hist, i^'at. des Poissons, vol. iv. p. 412. 

Morone rufa Mitchell, Report in part on the Fishes of New York, p. 18. 

Bodianus rvfus Mitchell, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of New York, vol. i. p. 
420, Jan. 1814. 

Centropomus alhus Raf. Precis des decouvertes Somilogiques, .June, 1814. 
p. 19. 

Perca mucronata Raf., American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, vol. 
ii. p. 205. 

Labrax mucronatus Cuv. and Val. Le petit Bar d'Ameriqtie, Hist. Nat. des 
Poissons, vol. ii., p. 81, pi. 121. 

Bodianus rvfus Smith, Nat. Hist. Fishes of Mass, p. 274. 

Labrax mucronatus Storer, Report on Ichthyology of Mass., p. 8. 

Perca macronatus (misprint) Sw. Nat. Hist, of Fishes, Amphibians and 
Reptiles, vol. ii., p. 198. 1839. 

Labrax rvfus Dekay, Nat. Hist, of New York Fishes, p. 9, pi. 3, fig. 7. 

Labrax mucronatus Ayres, Boston Journal Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 257. 

Labrax mucronatus Linsley, Catalogue of Fishes of Connecticut. 

Labrax rufus Storer, Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, p. 22 ; ib. in 
Memoirs of American Acad., new series, vol. ii., p. 274. 1846. 

Labrax rufus Storer, Hist, of the Fishes of Mass., p. 1, ib. in Memoirs of 
American Acad., n. s., vol. v., p. 57. 

Labrax mucronatus Baird, Report on Fishes of New Jersey Coast, p. 8 ; ib. in 
Ninth Annual Report of Smith. Inst. p. 322. 1855. 

Labrax americanus Holbrook, Ichthyology of South Carolina, p. 21, pi. 3, 
fig. 2. 1855. 

Labrax rufus Gill, Annual Report of Smith. Inst., p. 256. 1857. 

Labrax mucronatus Hill, Catalogue of Fish of Jamaica, p. 1. 
/?. 

Labrax nigricans Dekay, Nat. Hist, of New York Fishes, p. 12, pi. 50, fig. 
160. 1842. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 117 

Lahrax nigricans Storer, Synopsis of the Fishes of North America ; ib. in Me- 
moirs of American Acad., vol. ii. p. 23. 1846. 

>• 

Morone pallida Mitchell, Report in part on the Fishes of New York, p. 18. 

Bodiamis pallidas Mitchell, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of New York, vol. i. 
p. 420. 

Bodiamis pallidus Smith, Nat. Hist, of Fishes of Mass. p. 294. 

Labrax pallidas Dekay, Nat. Hist, of New York, Fishes, p. 11, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
1842. 

Lahrax pallidus Storer, Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, p. 22 ; ib. 
in Memoirs of American Acad., vol. ii., p. 22. 

Lahrax pallidus Perley, Report upon the Fishes of the Bay of Fundy, p. 121. 
1851. 

Lahrax pallidus Perley, Descriptive Catalogue (in part,) of Fishes of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, p 4 ; ib. in Reports on Sea and River Fisheries 
of New Brunswick, p. 182. 1852. 

In the above synonymy, it will be observed that several species which have 
been created as distinct, and so retained by succeeding naturalists, have been 
merged into one. Although there can scarcely be a doubt of the identity of 
these nominal species, the synonymy, at the same time, has been divided into 
three portions, each applying to one of the nominal species as previously 
accepted. 

The reference of all the variations of the Labrax americanus tyi^e to 
one species has been only done after a careful study of Dekay's descriptions, 
and after examination of numerous specimens of the genus. The descriptions 
of Dekay certainly do not afford any means for distinguishing his species, in 
the case of Labrax r u f u s and Labrax nigricans, except a very slight 
difference in the shade of color. The description of the color of the latter 
species is given by Dekay, as follows : 

" The general hue is deep brownish-black, more intense on the head and 
upper part of the body. In the older specimens, there is a strong brassy hue 
throughout ; occasionally dark longitudinal parallel streaks on the upper i>art 
of the body, pupils black, irides yellow, base of the fins light greenish- yellow, 
edge of the membrane of the spinous dorsal, black ; upper portion of the 
membrane of the posterior dorsal fin transparent, and separated from the 
yellow portion at the base by a tolerably well defined dark band ; membrane 
of the anal fin dark toward the tips of the rays." 

Let any naturalist take an ordinary specimen of the common white perch, 
and decide whether the difference of color between that specimen and the 
Labrax nigricans is sufficient to authorize a separation on that ground ; 
in all other respects, the description of Dr. Dekay will exactly apply to his 
Labrax ru f us . 

The distribution of the darker shades of color on the body and fins, is the 
same in both species ; the proportions are the same, and the difference in the 
number of rays is not greater than is noticed in the same species. Is it not 
probable that Dr. Dekay was induced to separate the Labrax nigricans 
from his other species on account of a supposed difference of station ? The 
Labrax rufu s is described as being " obtained in brackish streams," while 
the Labrax nigricans is said to be found in " deep fresh-water ponds in 
Queen and Suffolk Counties." But the true Labrax rufus (Morone ameri- 
cana) is found also in streams of fresh water, and in ponds that are now en- 
tirely disconnected from the salt water, although not far from the sea. As 
there is therefore no difference in the habitation of the supposed two species, 
and as no specific distinctions appear to exist from the descriptions of Dr. 
Dekay, no alternative is left but to consider them identical. 

Mr. William H. Herbert, a popular writer on our fi-hes, entertained ''great 
doubts " whether the Labrax nigricans was more " than a casual variety of 
I860.] 



118 ' PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

the Black Bass of the Saint Lawrence, " the "Grystes nigricans of Agassiz. " 
Such doubts deserve no consideration, as there are none of its being at least 
the congener of Morone americ ana. 

As to the Labrax pallidus, there is a greater discrepancy in the descrip- 
tion of it as compared with that of the Labrax r u f u s . It is said that in the 
former, the opercle has " a single flat spine, and a pointed membrane extend- 
ing beyond it," while the generic characters given by Cuvier to the genus are 
retained, one of which is founded upon the presence of "two points on the 
opercle." The statement that Labrax pallidus has but one spine is pro- 
bably due to a misapprehension of Dekay. In the Morone americana 
there is one acute point terminating the opercle, above which is an emargina- 
tion separating it from a more obtuse or rounded process, which in one case 
has been regarded as a spine, and in the other has not. It is impossible to 
believe that two fishes of this genus so nearly resembling each other, should 
so differ in the developement of the opercular spines. 

Another distinctive character is said to exist in the first ray of the posterior 
dorsal, which is " nearly as long as the second." Was not this relative differ- 
ence in the proportions of the rays the result of injury to the tips of the suc- 
ceeding soft ones ? As a third character, it is mentioned that the body is 
" much compressed." From the figures of Labrax rufu s and Labrax pal- 
lidus, it would appear that any difference in height was rather in favor of 
the former than of the latter. No mention is made in the description, of the 
color of the fins of Labrax pallidus, but from the figure it would appear 
that the pattern is nearly the same in that species as in Labrax ruf u s , but 
the shade is lighter towards the borders of the dorsal and anal. This differ- 
ence is too trivial to be accepted as specific, and if the above conjectures as to 
the nature of Dr. Dekay's statements are correct, the Labrax pallidus 
must be regarded as a mere sjnonyme of Morone americana. 

Morone interrupta Gill. 
Synonymy . 

Lahrax chrysops Girard. General Report upon the Zoology of the several 
Pacific Railroad routes. Ichthyology, p. 29. 
non Roccus chrysops Gill. 

The form of this species scarcely differs from the Morone americana, 
the chief difference existing in the more gradual declination of the dorsal out- 
line to the end of the second dorsal fin, and the greater inequality of the an- 
terior and posterior portions of the caudal peduncle. The greatest height of 
the body equals three-tenths of the length from the snout to the concave mar- 
gin of the caudal fin ; of that length, the head firms almost three-tenths, 
being not much less than the height of the body, and the caudal fin, at its mid- 
dle rays, equals half of the height of the body. The caudal fin, when expanded, 
is emarginated and its angles rounded ; the shortest rays equal three-fifths of 
the length of the longest. 

The dorsal fin commences at a vertical intermediate between the bases of 
the pectoral and ventral fins, and is of a triangular form, the fourth ray being 
the largest, and equalling the length of the pectoral fin ; the spines have the 
same form and arrangement as those of Morone americana. The second 
dorsal is connected by a membrane as in Morone americana; its spinous 
or first ray is little more than half the length of the first articulated one, which 
itself is nearly as long as the fourth dorsal spine ; the fin thence decreases in 
height towards its last ray, which is shorter than its spinous one. 

The anal fin commences under the fourth or fifth articulated ray of the 
second dorsal, and about four of its rays are posterior to the termination of 
that fin ; the first spine is short and robust ; the second at least twice as long 
as the first, compressed, and very strong ; the third is as long or longer than the 
secondj but much more slender. The first articulated ray of the anal is 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELrHIA. 119 

longer than the spines, and about twice as long as the last ; the outline of the 
fin is slightly emarginated. 

The first ray of the pectoral fin is, as usual, articulated but simple ; the 
third is longest and branched, and equals the base of the second dorsal. 

The ventrals are about as long as the pectorals ; the length of the spine is 
equal to two-thirds of that of the first or second branched rays. 

The radial formula is as follows : 

D ix— I, 12 ; A iii, 10 ; C 4, I, 8, 7, I, 2 ; P 3, 14 ; V i, 5. 

The scales are of about the same size as in the Morone americana, the 
lateral line running through about fifty, besides the smaller ones at the base 
of the caudal fin ; at the region of its greatest height, there are about nineteen 
rows, of which about seven are above the lateral line and eleven beneath. The 
relative proportions on the different parts of the body are almost nearly the 
same as in that species, the chief diflerence existing on the front of the back, 
where the exposed portions of the disc are higher and narrower than in M. 
americana. On the cheeks from the orbit to the angles, there are about 
seven oblique rows. 

The specimens preserved in spirits have a bright brazen color, tinged on the 
back with olivaceous. Along the sides are seven very distinct longitudinal 
black bands, through the foiarth of which the lateral line runs for its entire 
length. The continuity of the bands below the lateral line is interrupted at 
the posterior half of their length, and they there alternate with their anterior 
parts. 

The dorsal fins are tinged with purple, and the margin of the spinous one is 
dark. The anal is of a darker purple towards its anterior angle. The caudal, 
especially posteriorly and at its middle, is purple. The rays of the pectoral 
and ventral fins are yellowish, while the membrane of the former is hyaline, 
and of the latter sometimes miniitely dotted. 

This species, as will be observed by reference to the synonymy, has been 
described by Dr. Charles Girard, under the name of Labrax chrysops Grd. 
(Perca or Lepibema chrysops Raf.), to which is also referred as a syno- 
nyme, the Labrax multilineatus of Cuvier and Valenciennes, Kirtland, 
Dekay and Storer. From tliat species, it is very distinct, and even belongs to 
a different genus. Cuvier described the ground color as a greenish-gray 
on the back and silvery on the belly. This is not the color of Morone inter- 
rupta, and that species must be therefore distinct from Labrax multi- 
lineatus, nor can it be the Perca chrysops of Rafinesque, which is 
said to be " silvery with five longitudinal brownish stripes on each side," and 
have the "head brown above." This description, though erroneous in most 
respects, is as accurate as Rafinesque's generally are, and agrees sufficiently 
well with Kirtland's Labrax multilineatus, which is doubtless identical 
with the Cuvieran species. Even such an observer as Rafinesque would have 
noticed the deep brazen hue of Morone interrupta, and would not have 
overlooked two of the seven very distinct black bands that run along the sides. 

Dr. Girard has stated that there are but six branchiostegal rays in his species, 
but I am able to say, from an examination of the specimens used by Dr. Girard 
himself, for description, that it agrees with all allied species, in having the 
normal number of seven, and which are developed as in Morone americana. 

There are preserved in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, three 
specimens of the Morone interrupta, one of which was obtained by 
Lieutenant Couch, at New Orleans, and two larger ones were found at St. Louis, 
Missouri, by Dr. George Engelman. The small specimen from New Orleans 
differs from the two Missouri specimens by the larger second spine of the anal 
fin, but in every other respect they are similar. 



I860.] 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Monograph of the Philypni. 
BY THEO. GILL. 

I. In the year 1837, M. Valenciennes has for the first time separated from 
the genus Eleotris of Gronovius, a fish which had been previously referred by 
Schneider, Lacepede and by Cuvier, to genera to which it did not naturally 
belong. 

This species was first named Platycephalus dormitator, in Schneider's 
posthumous edition of the " Systema Ichthyologiae " of Bloch, from the figure 
and manuscript description of the Father Plumier. 

Shortly after, M. Lacepede, upon the same documents, established his 
Gobiomore d o r m e u r . The genus to which it was referred was distinguished 
by M. Lacepede from the genus Gobiiis, by the separation of the ventral fins. 
The group was thus established on the same characters as those by which 
Cuvier afterwards separated the species under the Gronovian name of Eleotris, 
but the homogeneousness of the group was destroyed by the introduction of 
species which had no affinity to the Eleotroids. 

Subsequently, Cuvier, in his " Regne Animal," revised the characters of 
the genus Eleotris, and introduced among true species of the genus, the Eleo- 
tris dormitatrix, which is the same as the above mentioned species of 
Bloch and of Lacepede. 

No additional information was communicated respecting this species until 
the year 1837. At that time, M. de Valenciennes, in his monograph of the 
Gobioids contained in the twelfth volume of the " Histoire Naturelle des Pois- 
sons," revised the characters of the genus Eleotris, and in addition to those 
by which Cuvier distinguished it, referred to the presence of teeth only on the 
jaws. From the genus, as thus constituted, he has separated the Platycepha- 
lus dormitator of Schneider, or the Eleotris dormitatrix of Cuvier, 
on account of the presence of teeth on the front of the vomer. Valenciennes 
has taken the species as the type of a new genus, which he has called Philyp- 
nus, and the presence of vomerine teeth is the only character by which he 
distinguishes it from his Eleotris; he has called the species Philypnus dor- 
mitator, and has given an extended description of it. He had examined 
specimens from the islands of Martinique and Porto Rico, and has signalized its 
presence in Saint Domingo. The species thus described is the only one which 
he has referred to the genus. 

But in the same volume as that in which he has introduced the genus Phi- 
lijpnus, Valenciennes has placed in the genus Gobius, a Chinese fish which 
Lacepede has described under the name of Bostryche c h i n o i s . This fish, 
,as will afterwards be shown, is nearly allied to the species of the genus Phi- 
ypnus. 

XL The Bostryche c h i n o i s or Bostrychus sinensis, was first intro- 
duced into Systematic Nomenclature by Lacepede, who founded the species 
only on a Chinese drawing. The genus Bostrychus was formed for its recep- 
tion, and was characterized by its " elongated and serpentiform body, two 
dorsal fins, the second of which is separated from the caudal fin, two barbels 
at the upper jaw, and the eyes quite large and without a lid." As a second 
species of the genus so defined, Lacepede has placed a species which was 
ascertained by Valenciennes to be a species of Ophicephalus, a genus belonging 
to an entirely different family from the Bostrychus sinensis, and which 
possesses a single long continuous dorsal. Notwithstanding this rather im- 
portant variation from Bostrychus sinensis, Lacepede chiefly distinguishes 
his second species by a difference of color, the former being described as brown, 
and the latter as spotted with green ; from the latter character the name of 
B. maculatus was conferred on it. The B. maculatus, like the B. 
sinensis, was only known from a Chinese drawing. As Valenciennes has 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 121 

already remarked, it should properly have been referred by Lacepede to his 
genus Bostrychoides, which was distinguished from his Bostrychus by the pre- 
sence of ouly one dorsal fin. 

In 180(5, M. Dumeril published his "Zoologie Analytique, ou Methode 
Naturelle de Classification des Animaux." In the ichthyological portion of 
the volume, the genera of Lacepede are adopted, but the name of Bostrychnsis 
abolished on account of its previous application by Geoffrey to a genus of 
coleopterous insects, and that of Bostrichtes or Bostrichthys is substituted in its 
stead. The characters given to the genus are the same as those of Lacepede. 

In 1815, Rafinesque published his " Analyse de la Nature, ou Tableau de 
I'Univeri." In this volume there is first introduced into the seventh family 
of the system (^Petalomia,) and into the first sub-family (Cepolidia) the Bos- 
trychus of Lacepede under the name of Bostrictis, and the Bostrychoides under 
the name of Pte.rops, and these are interposed between Cepola and Trachypte- 
rus on the one hand, and on the other Tasica Raf., and Lepodopns, while Gym- 
netrus and a number of genera founded on more or less perfect specimens of 
Trachypteriis are placed in a second family called Gymnetria. Again the Bos- 
trychi and Bostrtjchoides are introduced under the new name of Ictiopogon for 
Bostrychw, and Pterops for Bostrychoides into a t\tenty-third family called Pan- 
topteria, and into athird sub-family (Anguillinia). The family and sub- families- 
contain a singular and most unnatural reunion of the most widely distinct 
types ; apodal Scombroids and Xiphioids are mingled with apodal Blennoids 
and Comephorus and Mastacemhelus Gron, Ammodytes L., Ophidium L., and An- 
guilla are thrown together in the same family. Rafinesque doubtless derived 
the idea of placing the last named genera in the family of " Pantopteria " or 
apodal fishes from a remark of Lacepede, who saw no ventrals represented 
in the figures of his Bostrychi, and therefore suggested that none might exist. 

Thus, on the authority of the figure of a Chinese painter, unacquainted with 
Ichthyology, three distinct generic names, besides orthographical modifications 
of two of them, had been formed for a fish which no naturalist had ever seen. 
Without criticism and without judgment, it had been referred to the systems 
of the various authors, and one of them had placed it in two distinct orders in 
the same work. After the last of these works, the problematical genus was 
allowed to rest, and no naturalist has since paid attention to it. 

The first critical ichthyologist who examined the grounds on which the 
species was founded, was M. Valenciennes. That excellent naturalist, like 
his predecessors, only knew the species by the Chinese painting. Judging 
from this alone, he recognized its affinity to the Gobioids, and expressed the 
belief, from its form, that it was certainly a Gobius, and therefore called it 
Gobius sinensis, but was careful to observe that he could neither see the 
ventral fins, nor count the rays of the others. 

The first ichthyologist by whom the species was seen and described from 
nature was Sir John Richardson. That gentlemen, in the Ichthyology of the 
Voyage of H. M. S. the Sulphur, gave a description of it, referring it, as a new 
species, to the genus Philypnus, under the name of P. ocellicauda. He after- 
wards, in the same work, published his belief of its identity with the Bostry- 
chus sinensis of Lacepede, and adopting the specific name of that author, 
called it Philypniis sinensis. In the same part, he has given a very good 
figure of the species. 

Subsequentl)' , Dr. Bleeker, in his monograph of the Gobioids and Blennoids 
of the Sundamulluccan Archipelago, described a fish, which he called Philyp- 
nus ophicephalus, at the same time doubtfully placing as a synonyme, 
the Philypnuj ocellicauda of Richardson. He afterwards appeared to have 
become satisfied of the identity of the two species, and adopting the older name 
of Richardson, quoted his own as a synonyme. 

Although this species is nearly allied to the true Philypni, it differs too much 
from those species to be a natural member of the same genus. It has therefore 

I860.] 



122 rROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

been now placed in a separate one, for which the name of Bostrichthys is 
retained. The two genera, Philypnus and Bostrichthys, form a distinct group, 
characterized chiefly by the presence of vomerine teeth. To this group, the 
name of Philypni may be given : ultimately it may be found to be a separate 
sub-family. 

Philypni Gill. 

The form of the body is similar to that of the typical Eleotroids, anteriorly 
subcylindrical, becoming compressed, and slightly decreasing in height towards 
the caudal fin. 

The head is elongated and depressed above, the mouth ample, the teeth 
villiform on both the jaws and the front of the vomer. 

The branchial apertures are more or less extended forwards, but separated 
from each other by an isthmus. 

There are six branchiostegal rays, the four exterior of which are well devel- 
oped, curved and compressed, the two internal are small and slender. 

The dorsal fins are separated by a considerable interval ; the ventrals ap- 
proximated, but entirely disconnected. 

The above characters apply to the only two known genera. Subsequent 
discoveries may necessitate their revision. Tlie group as thus constituted, 
differs from the Eleotroids by the presence of vomerine teeth, and the distance 
of the dorsal fins from each other. If these characters are persistent, it would 
seem proper to retain the group as a distinct sub-family. 

The only known genera are Philypnus Val., and Bostrichthys. Philypnus is 
an American form, and Bostrichthys an Asiatic form. The characters of these 
wUl be now given : 

Philtpxus Val. 
Synonymy. 
Philypnus Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xii. p. 255, 1837. 
Platycephalus sp. Bl. Schneid., Systema Icthyologiie, 1801. 
Gobiomorus sp. Lac, Hist. Nat. des Poissons. 
Eleotris sp. Cuv., Regne Animal, ed. ii. 

Head elongated, subconical in profile, depressed above ; mouth large, lower 
jaw projecting beyond the upper ; nostrils with raised margins, between the 
eyes and upper jaw ; the distance between each nearly equal to that of the 
anterior nostrils from the upper jaw, and of the posterior from the eyes. 
Branchial apertures extending anteriorly nearly to the angles of the mouth 
and separated from each other by a very narrow isthmus. Scales ctenoid, 
moderate, extending on the forehead, opercula and cheeks ; pectinations of 
those on the forehead and cheeks freqiiently obsolete. 

All of the scales on the body of the species of Philypnus are more or less 
angulated posteriorly, and have the nucleus near the angle ; from this angle 
radiating grooves and ridges diverge towards the anterior margin of the scales, 
and are crossed by concentric striae, which terminate at the posterior borders in 
pectinations that are often obsolete ; in other scales, especially on the fore- 
head, the concentric strise surround a subcentral nucleus, and give to the 
scales a pseudocycloid appearance. In young individuals the scales are much 
more distinctly pectinated than in the adnlt. 

Philypnus dormitator Val. 
Synonymy. 
Cephalus sen asellus palustris, vulgo le dormeur, Plummer, MSS. fide Val. 
Platycephalus dormitator Bloch, Systemse Ichthyologiae, ed. Schneid. 
Gobiomore dormeur Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. ii. p. 599. 
Gobiomore dormeur Descourtilz, Voyages d'un Naturaliste. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 123 

Eleotris dormitatrix Cuv., Regne Animal, vol. ii. 

Eleotris dormitatrix Gueriu, Iconographie du Regne Animal. 

Philypnus dormitator Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. xii. p. 25.5. 

Philypnus dormitator Storer, Synopsis Fishes of North. America, ib. in Me- 
moirs of American Acad., vol. ii. 

Philypnus dormitator Girard, United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 
Icthyology, p. 29, pi. xii. fig. 13. 

This species has been very fully described by Valenciennes. He had ex- 
amined specimens from Porto Rico, St. Domingo and Martinique. It has also 
been found at Mexico. 

Dr. Girard has given a figure of a very small species of this genus under the 
name of Philypnus dormitator. It is very probable the young of that 
species, but as the only specimen in the Museum is one of fifteen inches in 
length, obtained by the author at the junction of the Arouca and Caroni rivers, 
in the island of Trinidad, there is no means of comparison. The specimen 
described by Dr. Girard has very large eyes, and other characters of an ex- 
tremely young fish. It was obtained at the mouth of the Rio Grande by Mr. 
John H. Clarke, the Naturalist of the " United States and Mexican Boundary 
Survey," and is preserved in the Smithsonian Museum. 

Philypnus lateralis Gill. 

In general outline of form, this species has considerable resemblance to the 
Philypnus dormitator. The dorsal outline ascends in almost a straight 
line from the snout to the front of the dorsal fin, the chief variation existing 
between the eyes, where there is a slight depression. The back under the 
first dorsal is straight ; at the second, it declines very little and in almost a 
straight line to the base of the caudal fin. The abdominal outhne from the 
ventrals to the caudal fin converges in nearly the same proportion as the dor- 
sal. The greatest height of the body, at the first dorsal ray, is equal to about 
one-fifth of the total length, inclusive of the head and caudal fin ; the least 
height at the base of the caudal is half of the greatest. 

The head, in profile, is conical or elongated triangular ; it forms three-tenths 
of the total length. Its dorsal and inferior surfaces regularly converge towards 
the tip of the lower jaw, and the declension of the former is about twice as 
great as the ascension of the latter. The dorsal surface over the operculum 
is rounded, and the degree of convexity becomes less towards the eyes, be- 
tween which it is flat. The breadth at the operculum equals about half the 
length of the head, and under the eyes it is between one-fourth and one-fifth 
less. The interocular space is somewhat less than half of the breadth at the 
opercula. The outlines of the jaws are semi-elliptical. 

The eyes are longitudinally oval, and are at the thii-d sixth of the head's 
length. 

The preoperculum in its declination recedes considerably backwards, and 
is thence broadly curved forwards. The distance from the orbit to the pre- 
opercular angle, equals the distance from the posterior border of the orbit to 
its horizon behind the intermasillaries. The operculum declines obliquely 
downwards from its membranous point, and its greatest le-ngth, in an oblique 
. direction, slightly surpasses the interval between the orbit and the angle of 
the preoperculum. The oculo-humeral groove is shallow and scarcely ascend- 
ing. 

The mouth is oblique and large, the maxillaries extending backwards to 
the vertical of the eyes. 

The teeth on the jaws do not much differ from those of the Philypnus dor- 
mitator. The vomerine patch is narrowed towards its ends, and its teeth 
are much smaller than those of the jaws, especially anteriorly. 

The scales on the sides of the body are of an oblong form and hexagonal 
outline, with the nucleus at the posterior angle and with about eight radiating 
I860.] 



124 PROCEEDINGS OE THE ACADEMY OP 

ridges, some of which are bifurcate ; the ridges are separated into two portions 
by the median line. The free margin is delicately pectinated. The scales are 
of moderate size, there being about fifty -four in a row behind the pectoral fins. 
Before the dorsal fin, and especially on the forehead, the nucleus is subcentral, 
and with numerous radiating grooves sometimes advancing even to the lateral 
margins. On the operculum they are often higher than wide, with the nu- 
cleus subterminal to subcentral, with the posterior margin angulated and pec- 
tiniform ; on the preoperculum they are smaller and almost square, with more 
or less subcentral nuclei, and with the pectinations generally obsolete. 

The first dorsal fin commences some distance behind the vertical of the bases 
of the pectorals, and has the arrangement of the rays normal in the G o b i uiE 
and Eleotrinae. The rays in length have the following relation to each 
other ; 2, 3, 1, 4. The second dorsal is oblong and commences behind the ver- 
tical of the anus. 

The caudal fin is posterioi-ly rounded, and its longest rays form a fifth of the 
length of the fish. 

The pectorals are rounded and equal in length to the interval between the 
orbit and the margin of the operculum. The ventrals are also rounded, and 
the third and fourth branched rays are the longest. 

The radial formula is as follows : — 
1 1 

D vi— I, 8 — ; A I, 1, 8 — ; C 5, 6, 5, 5 ; P 2, 13 ; V I, 5. 
1 1 

The color is dark purplish brown, lighter on the abdomen. Along the sides 
a black band runs from behind the upper part of the pectoral to the base of 
the caudal fin, dividing about nine vertical light bands, which project a little 
above and below the band. At the base of the caudal, the lateral band some- 
what enlarges, and is sometimes partly surrounded by a light margin. The 
vertical and ventral fins are sometimes immaculate, but generally spotted 
with white and black. The pectorals have a black spot at the upper axilla, 
and a blackish basal band, bordered on each side, by whitish. The head is 
of the color of the back, with vertical dark bar from the eye to the angle of 
the jaw, another from the inferior corner of the eye to the extremity of the 
operculum, and another horizontal one from the orbit to the upper jaw. 

This species was obtained in considerable numbers by Mr. John Xantus, of 
the United States Coast Survey, at Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. It adds 
another proof of the similarity of the Fauna of the Gulf of California to that of 
the West Indies. 

The specimens collected by Mr. Xantus are in the Museum of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and are numbered in the catalogue of the lohthyological 
collection from number 2435 to 2442. 

This species differs from its West Indian congener chiefly in its proportions, 
the smaller vomerine band of teeth and in color. 

BosTBiCHTHYS (Dum.) Gill. 
Sijnonymy . 
Bostnjchus \ ^^c^Pede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. iii. p. 141. 
BlltrTchtkys I ^^™-' Zoo^ogie Analytique, &c., p. 120, 1806. 

Ictfopogon \ ^^^'' ^^^^^^6 de la Nature, &c., 1815. 
Philypnus sp. Rich. 

Head elongated subcorneal in profile, oblong and depressed above. Nostrils 
distant : the anterior elongated-tubular, and immediately behind the maxil- 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 125 

laries ; the posterior subtubular and immediately in front of the antero- 
superior border of the eye. Branchial apertures extending forwards consider- 
ably beyond the posterior margins of the preopercles, and separated from each 
other by a wide isthmus. Scales cycloid, small, especially anteriorly, and 
extending on the opercula, cheeks and forehead. 

The name of Bostrychus, which was applied to this genus by Lacepede, had 
been previously used by G-eoflFrey, who, in the year 1764, applied the name, 
incorrectly spelled Bostrichus, to a genus of coleopterous insects. The name 
applied to that group has been universally adopted by Entomologists, and the 
name of Bostrychus, as applied to the piscine genus, must be replaced by 
another. The name of Bostrichthys was proposed as a substitute by Mr. Du- 
meril, and this is accepted. 

It would be questionable to some whether a genus "founded on the evidence 
that Bostrychus was by Lacepede, and founded, at the same time, on errone- 
ous ideas, should be adopted. Bleeker has adopted Richardson's first specific 
name, and on the same principle, the generic name of Lacepede would also 
have been probably ignored by him. The same objections that exist against 
Lacepede 's name would, of course, militate against the adoption of those of 
Dumeril and Rafinesque, which were only intended by their authors to super- 
sede his. Believing, however, that the laws of priority are imperative, and 
require the adoption of the first given name, when the object to which it was 
given can be identified, and unless entirely founded on false characters, the 
name of Bostrichthys is now accepted. Against the name, however, there exist 
the objections of an erroneous formation, and of a reference to a false charac- 
ter. The name, in accordance with the composition, should be written Bos- 
trychichthys, but the erroneous name is more euphonius than the cori-ect one. 
The name itself would imply the presence of cirrhi or barbels, but none exist ; 
the objects that were taken for such by Lacepede are the prolonged nasal 
tubes. These objections do not appear to be of sufficient weight to authorize 
a change of name. 

The zoological characters by which Bostrichthys is distinguished from Philyp- 
nus are found chiefly in the difference of tlie extent of the branchial apertures, 
the cycloid structure of the scales, the distant nasal apertures, and the tubu- 
lar form of the anterior ones. The smaller size of the scales, especially on the 
anterior portion of the back, where they are imbedded in the skin, perhaps 
offers another distinguishing character of Bostrichthys. 

Bostrichthys sinensis Gill. 
Synonymy, 

Bostryche chinois ) Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, vol. iii. p. 141. 
Bostrychus sinensis ) 7 x- 

Le Gobie chinois)^^^, jjj^^^ ^^.i.d.^^ Poissons, voL xii. p. 94. 

Gobi us sinensis ) ' 

Philypnus ocelUcauda Rich., Voyage of the Sulphur, Zoology, p. 59. 

Phily/mus sinensis Rich., loc. cit., p. 149, pi. 56, fig. 15, 16. 

Philypnus sinensis Rich., Fifteenth Annual Report of the British Association 
A. S., p. 210. 

Philypnus ophicephalus Blkr., Verhandelingen v. Batav. Genootschap, vol. 
xxii., Blennoiden en Gobio'iden, p. 20. 

Philypnus ocelUcauda Blkr., Verhandelingen v. Batav. Genootschap, vol. 
xxvi., Index sp. Piscium, p. 10. 

There can scarcely be a doubt that this is the Bostrychus s i n e n s i s of Lace- 
pede, as there is no other fish of the Chinese waters known which has any 
thing like "two barbels at the upper jaw," and an ocellus near the dorsal 
region of the peduncle. The first specific name, P. ocelUcauda, which has 

I860.] 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

beeu proposed by Ricliardsou, and a,dopted by Bleeker, must therefore be re- 
linquished for the prior one of Lacepede. 

As this species has been fully described by Richardson and Bleeker, and 
also figured by the former, no further description is necessary, this being the 
only known species of the genus. 

Specimens have been obtained by Dr. William Stimpson, the Naturalist of 
the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore Rodgers, at the 
market of Hong Kong, China. 



Notice of Geological Discoveries, made by Capt. J. H. Simpson, Topographical 
Engineers, TJ. S. Army, in his recent Explorations across the Continent. 

Washington City, April ^th, 1860. 
Anticipatory of discoveries of a geological character which might be made 
and published of date subsequent to those of my Explorations, in 1858 and '59, 
across the Continent, with the sanction of the Hon. John B. Floyd, Secretary of 
War, under whose authority the Explorations were made, I present in advance 
of my final and detailed official report, the following communication from 
Messrs. F. B. Meek and H. Eogelmann, in reference to the fossil remains which 
they found, and the geological epochs to which they point. As a large portion 
relates to a region of country, The Great Basin, — so called by Fremont — lying 
between the Wahsatch range of mountains on its east, and the Sierra Nevada on 
its west, which never before was traversed by a white man, not even by a 
trapper, so far as is known, the publication of this paper cannot be unacceptable 
to the scientific world, and I therefore take pleasure in submitting it to be read 
before the Academy. 

J. H. Simpson', 
Capt. Top. Engineers, U. S. Army. 

Smithsonian Institution, | 
Washington, D. C, April 2d, 1860. )" 
Capt. .T. H. Simpson, Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army : 

Dear Sir, — In accordance with your instructions we give below a brief state- 
ment of some of the conclusions arrived at from a hasty examination of the 
fossils collected during your late explorations in Utah. Although the time 
yet devoted to the study of these specimens is not sufficient to enable us to 
enter into details, enough has been determined to warrant the conclusion that 
they are of considerable interest, and establish the existence there of geological 
formations not hitherto known at such remote western localities. 

Asa more extended sketch of the general geology of the country, including a 
full account of the igneous and metamorphic rocks, together with figures and 
descriptions of the new organic remains, are to appear in your final report, it is 
unnecessary for us to do more here than to give merely some of the leading 
facts dptermined from the fossils collected from the various formations exposed 
along the line of survey. In doing this it will be most convenient to speak of 
the formations in the order of their succession in point of time, beginning with 
the most ancient, instead of referring to them in the order in which they were 
observed in traversing the country. 

Devonian Rocks. 

The oldest deposits from which fossils in a condition to be determined were 
collected^ occur in the vicinity of the Humboldt Mountains, at the follow- 
ing points, viz.: Long. ll-i°45^ west, Lat. 39° 45^ north,— Long. 115° 58'' west. 
Lat. 39^ 33' north, and Long. 115° 36' west, Lat. 39° 30' north. At the first 
of these localities fragments of Trilohitcs belonging as near as can be deter- 
mined to the genera Calymene, Ilomalonotus and Proetus, were collected from a 
hard, bluish limestone. The specimens are too imperfect to warrant a posi- 

[April 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 127 

tive opinion wbether they are Upper Silurian or Devonian forms, though 
they evidently belong to one or ihe other of these epochs, and closely resem- 
ble Hamilton Group forms. 

At the other localities mentioned above, a group of fossils of decided Devo- 
nian type were found. They consist of Atrypa reticularis, A. aspera, or a 
closely allied species, a small Froductus, and three new species of Spirifer. The 
first of these species has so great a vertical range, that taken alone, it would 
only indicate that the rock from which it was obtained holds a position some- 
where between the Upper Silurian and the middle or higher portions of the 
Devonian. A. aspera is a common Devonian fossil, but is also said to occur in 
the upper Silurian of the old world while the genus Froductus is now generally 
regarded as not dating farther back than the Devonian.* These facts taken in 
connection with the close analogy of the small Froductus mentioned above, and 
the associated S^!>(/ers, to forms characterizing the Hamilton Group of the New 
York Devonian series, leave little room to doubt that the rock in which these 
fossils were found is of Devonian age, and that it most probably belongs to about 
the horizon of the Hamilton Group. 

The discovery of these fossils at this distant locality cannot fail to be 
regarded as an interesting addition to our knowledge of the geology of the 
great West, especially when it is borne in mind that they were obtained near 
twelve hundred miles farther westward than such forms, so far as is known to 
us, have hitherto been found in. situ, within the limits of the territory of the 
United States. f 

Cakboniferous Rocks. 

Following up the sequence of the formations, we pass eastward to the vicin- 
ity of Camp Floyd, which is in Long. 112° 8' west, Lat. 40° 13' north. Here 
on the west side of Lake Utah, extensive deposits of a dark, very hard, silicious 
limestone of Carboniferous age occur. The fossils collected from these beds 
here, and for a long distance west of this, are in so bad a state of preservation 
that the specific characters ofraostof them are much obscured. It is believed, 
however, that we have from this rock Orthis Micheii»i, and 0. umbraculum, 
though they may be only allied representative species. There are also along 
with these a species of Art/iyris or 'ferebratula, one or two of Spirifer, and the 
spiral axis of an Archimedes,^ with fragments of other Polyzoa and Corals. 
As the genus, or subgenus Archimedes, has not yet, so far as we know, been found 
as high in the Carboniferous system as the Coal Measures, and there are ap- 
parently no decided Coal Measure forms in the collections from this rock, we 
are inclined to regard it as belonging to the Lower Carboniferous series. 

Carboniferous formations also extend westward from Camp Floyd to the 

* Some two or three species were formerly supposed to occur in the Upper Silurian 
rocks of the Old World, but the correctness of this conclusion is questioned by must of 
the besi English and Continental auihorities. 

tA few fossils belonging to the genera Spirifer, Conocardium, &c., collected on a 
former expedition by one of the writers (H. K.) near Medicine Bow Butte, Long. 106'' 30' 
west, Lat. 4P 38' north, were regarded by Dr. Shumard as probably of Devonian age, 
though none of the species were positively identified with Devoni.in forms, and thej- 
were obtained from an erratic mass, the e.xact original position of ahich is unknown. 

It is also stated in Capt. Stansbury's report that at a locality three or four days' march 
eyond Fort Lar.imie, an outcrop from which some imperfect specimens of gasteropoda 
and a shell resembling a Monolis were obtained, is probably of Devonian age. The expo- 
sure here alluded to, however, is now known to be composed of Jurassic and proba- 
bly Triassic rocks. The genus Monotis is unknown below the upper Coal Measures, in 
this country, and the Permian in the Old World, though it ranges above on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 

tWe believe this lo be the first specimen of this curious fossil yet found in the region of 
the Rocky Mountaine. 

I860.] 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Devonian localities alluded to above, interrupted at places by outbursts of ig- 
neous rocks. It is likewise probable there may be in this interval both Devo- 
nian and Silurian strata, but the collections yet obtained are not sufficient to 
enable us to speak with confidence on this point. 

Between Long. 115° and 115° 30', Lat. 40" 10' and Lat. 39° 20', thereis a se- 
ries of hills or mountains, trending nearly north and south, to unknown distances 
beyond the field of these explorations, which seem to be mainly made up of 
lio-ht yellowish eray, more or less argillaceous, and arenaceous subcrystalline 
limestones, and slates. This formation belongs to the Carboniferous system, 
but is more recent than the dark colored limestone at Camp Floyd. The 
fossils collected from it are for the most part new, and consist of three species 
of Froduetus, one of which resembles F. Rogersi, Norwood and Pratten, two 
new species of Spirifer, and another apparently identical with S. cameratus, but 
more robust, and having stronger costae than is common in that species. Along 
with these there are also specimens of Athyris subiilita, and a new species of 
Ghonetes, closely allied to C. Verneuiliana, Norwood and Pratten, from the Western 
Coal Measures." From the affinities of this group of fossils, we have little hesita- 
tion in referring this rock to the Upper Carboniferous series, though in its 
lithological characters it is entirely unlike strata of that age in the Middle and 
Western States. 

There were also seen at a few places near here, some outcrops of dark grayish 
colored limestones, containing Froduetus, Spirifer, &c. These were not ob- 
served in contact with the light colored beds mentioned above, but under 
circumstances indicating that they hold a lower position, from which it is 
inferred they are probably of lower carboniferous age. 

The occurrence here, as far west as Long. 115°, of extensive Carboniferous 
formations, is another interesting fact in the geology of this distant region not 
known previous to these explorations, — no rocks of this age being represented 
on any of the most recent and carefully compiled geological maps, from near 
Camp Floyd and the Salt Lake to the Pacific Ocean. 

Deposits, probably of the age of the Coal Measures and of great thickness, 
were also observed in the Wahsalch Mountains east of Lake Utah, along Tim- 
panogos Caiion. The strata here, however, consist mainly of dark colored and 
bluish impure limestones, slates, and argillaceous shales, the latter containing 
at a few places fragments of carbonaceous matter, — the whole being upheaved 
and greatly distorted, apparently by violent forces acting from beneath. The 
fossils collected from these beds all differ specifically from those found in the 
lio-ht colored limestone at the localities near Long. 115° west, and we have no 
m'eans of determining which of these is the older rock. The specimens from 
the dark colored beds in the Canon, consist of one new or undetermined Spirifer, 
two of Froduetus, and two of Athyris, together with fragments of a small 
Lepidodendron. 

The indications of Coal of true Carboniferous date, seem to be more favorable 
here than at any other point examined along the route explored, though no beds 
of it were seen. Good coal has, however, been found in the same mountain 
range 140 miles south of this, but as yet little is positively known in regard to 
its age. 

Several miles above this on Timpanogos River, and at a higher geological 
horizon, outcrops of light colored, and yellowish sandstones and silicious lime- 
stones with red shales, were seen. At one place in this formation a few speci- 
mens of very hard, light gray, highly silicious rock were obtained, containing 
great numbers of small bivalves, in a broken condition. As near as could be 
determined these are very much like BakevelUas, while another of these speci- 
mens contains a fragment resembling closely a Fhyllipora. Both these fossils 
are quite similar to Permian forms, but it would be unsafe without other evi- 
dence to refer the rock to that epoch. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 129 

Triassic Rocks. 

At several localities east of Lake Utah, near the tributaries of Uintah River, 
extensive deposits of fine red, more or less arenaceous material were seen oc- 
cupying considerable areas, and from the accounts of various explorers, this 
formation is greatly developed along the Wahsatch Mountains south of Lake 
Utah. At these latter localities we have accounts of numerous beds of gypsum, 
and deposits of rock salt. These beds where seen near Uintah River are not 
known to contain gypsum or salt, but from the occurrence of gypsum in similar 
formations a little farther south, and their proximity and relations to Jurassic 
strata to be mentioned hereafter, there is little room for doubting that they 
are the same red gypsum-bearing deposit seen by Dr. Hayden beneath Jurassic 
rocks at the Black Hills. (See paper by Meek & Hayden, Proceed. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phil'a, March, 1858, p. 44.) 

From the statement of Mr. Marcon, Dr. George Shumard, Mr. Blake, and 
more recently of Dr. J. S. Newberry, it is evident this formation is developed on 
a grand scale in New Mexico. The only organic remains yet found in it, so far 
as we know, were some plants (Zamites, Pterophyllum, tj'c.) and Saurian bones, 
discovered by Dr. Newberry during his important investigations in the South- 
West, as geologist of the exploring expeditions under the command of Lieut. 
Ives, in 1858, and Capt. M'Comb, Top. Engrs., U. S. Army, in 1859. These 
fossils led Dr. N. to refer this series to the New Red or Triassic epoch,* which 
view was also maintained by Mr. Marcon, though the latter gentleman seems 
not to have had a very clear idea of its limits, since he included other rocks 
in the Trias as defined by him. 

This formation is well exposed on the North Platte at Red Butte, above Fort 
Laramie, where it also contains several beds of gypsum, and again on La- 
Bonte Creek, nearer Fort Laramie. It likewise occurs on Smoky Hill River, 
and at other localities in Kansas, where it has been referred (along with some 
lower Cretaceous rocks, and possibly some Jurassic strata) to the Trias, by Mr. 
F. Hawn. All the facts that have been accumulating for some lime past, seem 
to render it more than probable that this series really represents the Trias of 
the Old World. 

Jurassic Rocks. 

At the localities already mentioned where the red beds were seen near 
Duchesne River, a tributary of Uintah River, heavy deposits were also observed 
of grayish and whitish calcareous rock, and light, red and whitish sandstones 
and shales. Some portions of the same formation were also met with further 
to the north-west on the east branch of Weber River. At both of these places 
in the calcareous beds, fragments of Pecten, Ostrea and portions of the columns of 
Fentacrinus, undistinguishable from those of the Jurassic species P. asteriscus. 
Meek and Hayden, were found. From the presence of these fossils, taken together 
with all the other circumstances, we have scarcely room to doubt that these 
deposits are of Jurassic age. 

Well marked Jurassic strata occur at Red Buttes, on the North Platte, — at 
the same locality already referred to in speaking of the red gypsum bearing 
rocks. They were not seen in direct contact with the gypsum formations, but 
under circumstances showing that they must hold a higher stratigraphical 
position. Here they consist of sandstones, shales and slates, more or less lam- 
inated calcareous sandstones, and gritty limestones of various colors, altogether 
of considerable thickness. Some of the lower of these beds are quite fossilifer- 
ous. The specimens collected consist of Penlacrinus asteriscus, Meek and Hayden. 
a Gryphcea probably identical with G. calceola, Quenstredt, a plicated oyster, 

*See Am. Journ., voL 28, 2d sen, p. 299; 
I860.] 8 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

closely allied to 0. Marshii^'-'' a Pecten scarcely distinguishable from P. lens of 
Sowerby, a small Dentalium, and Belemniles densus, Meelj and Hayden. From 
the identity of some of these species with forms collected by Dr. Hayden at the 
Black Hills, from beds overlying the red gypsum bearing strata of that region, 
and associated with other well marked Jurassic types, as well as from the 
affinities of the new species discovered at the locality under consideration on 
the North Platte, we have no hesitation in referring these deposits to the 
Jurassic sj'stem, in accordance with the views of Dr. Hayden and one of the 
writers (F. B. M.) expressed in regard to the beds alluded to at the Black Hills. 
(See Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad'a, March, 1858.) 

Cretaceous Rocks. 

Returning south-westward again to Weber river, in order to follow up the 
succession of the formations, we find that at a point nearly due east of Salt 
Lake City, on that stream, and but a short distance north of the locality, where 
it has already been mentioned that Jurassic beds with Pentacrinus occur, out- 
crops of a Whitish Sandstone were seen, containing in an imperfect condition 
an Oyster, agreeing in all respects, as far as could be determined, with 0. 
glabra of Meek and Hayden. This rock, with the same oyster, was also seen 
some eight or nine miles farther down Weber River; also, on White Clay Creek, 
a tributary of Weber River, and some fifty miles farther east on Sulphur Creek, 
a tributary of Bear River. At the latter locality a small Anomia was also 
found with the same Oyster ; and in a more yellowish portion of the same for- 
mation several specimens of Inoceramus, closely allied to the Western species 
usually referred to /. problematicus. Judging from the Oyster occurring in 
this rock, and from its lithological characters, it would seem to be of 
the same age as some older Cretaceous strata, at the mouth of Judith River, on 
the Upper Missouri, which have been referred by Dr. Hayden and one of the 
writers^ provisionally to No. 1, of the Nebraska section. 

At several of the localities rather extensive beds of excellent brown coal, 
with some shale, were seen in immediate contact with this Oyster Sandstone, 
and apparently dipping at the same angle, so as to give the impression, when 
examined, that it belongs to the same epoch. 

Well marked Cretaceous rocks were seen at a point on the Platte below 
the Red Buttes, near the Platte Bridge. The beds consist of gray shales and 
slates. The fossils found here are a large new species of Inoceramus, a 
fragment of a much compressed Baculiie and Ostrea congesta of Conrad. From 
the presence of the latter fossil, it is more than pr-jbable these beds are on a 
parallel with No. 2 or 3 of the Nebraska Cretaceous series. 

Tertiary Rocks. 

Tertiary formations occur over a large area in the region of Fort Bridger. 
They seem to belong to two distinct epochs, the older of which was seen on 
Bear River, near the mouth of Sulphur Creek, about 30 miles west of Fort 
Bridger, and but a short distance from the locality, already mentioned, where 
the Oyster and Inoceramus occur in a yellow sandstone. The outcrop seen 
here consists of light colored and gray argillaceous shale, with coarse dark and 
light colored limestones, all of which dip at a high angle. The fossils collected 
from these beds consist of one new species of tlnio, three of Corhula (^Potamo- 
mya'), three species of Melanin, three or four of Paludina, and one of Melampus. 

This is an exceedingly interesting deposit, which is undoubtedly of brackish- 
water origin, the fossils belonging to just such a group of genera as we would 
expect to find in an estuary deposit, without any strictly marine forms. One 

*The oyster here alluded to, is distinct from the species referred by Mr. Maroon to 
(9. Marskii. The O. Marshii of Maroon holds a much higher stratigraphio position than 
. the above mentioned species. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 131 

of the species of Mclania appears to be identical with Ccrithium fenerum of Hall, 
(Fremont's Report, pi. 3, fig. 6,) and a small Paludina agrees very closely with 
Natica? accidenfaiis, while a third is eqiiall3'^as near Turbo paludinceformis, of the 
same report. All the other species are new excepting one Paludina, which is 
identical with P. Conradl of Meek and Hayden, from the estuary beds at the 
mouth of Judith River, on the Upper Missouri. All the facts point to the con- 
clusion that this formation holds a low position in the Tertiary System, or, in 
other words, is probably of Eocene age. 

The succeeding more recent Tertiary beds of this region, are extensively 
developed along the route traversed, from near the last mentioned locality to 
Fort Bridger, and thence towards the South Pass. They differ materially in 
their lithological character from the older deposits just described, and are 
characterized by an entirely different group of fossils. The upper part of this 
series consists of greenish sandstones and arenaceous shales, interstratified with 
sandy and calcareous slates altogether estimated at from two to three hundred 
feet in thickness, and apparently destitute of fossils. Then comes, (descending,) 
light colored argillaceous and pure limestones, with at places great numbers of 
fossils, all of which are strictly fresh water forms, belonging to a few species. 
Those collected consist of two new species of lUelania, two of Limnea, one of 
Unio and two or three of Planor bis. There is also at the junction of the lower 
light colored more calcareous deposits with those above, at many places, a 
band of dark shaly, more or less carbonaceous material, containing many im- 
pressions of fern and other leaves. 

As all the fossils found in the foregoing series are distinct from those yet 
discovered in known horizons, inthe other Tertiary basins of the North- West, 
we have no means of drawing parallels, though they are probably miocene. 
Whether the extensive lignite beds on Bitter Muddy Creeks, east and north of 
Fort Bridger, belong to this series or to the horizon of the older Sulphur Creek 
coal is unknown, these localities being too remote from the route to be examined. 

The more modern group described above was never seen in an upheaved or 
inclined condition, like the estuary beds on Bear River, though it is manifest 
that the general contour of the country has been considerably modified since its 
deposition, as this formation was often seen occupying some of the most 
elevated positions. 

Beneath this series heavy deposits were observed at several places, consisting 
of light and whitish fine grained sandstone in thick layers, interstratified with 
bright red, areno-argillaceous shales. Although these beds appeared to be 
conformable with the superimposed Tertiary, as no organic remains were found 
in them, their age must be regarded as doubtful. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that these collections furnish no 
evidence of the existence of strictly marine Tertiary deposits in the Green River 
Basin, but like all those yet obtained in Nebraska, point to the conclusion that 
the Tertiary strata of this central portion of the Continent were deposited in 
brackish and fresh waters. The oldest of these formations, so far as known, 
contain a group of moUusca indicating brackish waters, while all the subsequent 
formations are of strictly fresh water origin. 

Another fact worthy of note is, that all the secondary and Tertiary fossils 
collected during the survey came from localities east of the Wahsatch range of 
mountains, while all the specimens collected west of that range of mountains, 
in the Great Basin, came from Palaeozoic rocks. 

In the ranges of mountains west of the 116th degree of longitude, to the 
Sierra Nevada, near lat. SO'', igneous rocks predominate, and only few traces of 
stratified rock were found in that district, in none of which any organic remains 
were observed. 

F. B. Meek and H. Ekgelmann. 

1890.] 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



Catalogue of Birds collected during a survey of a route for a ship Canal across, 
the Isthmus of Darien, by order of the Government of the United States, 
made by Lieut. N. Michler, of the TJ.S. Topographical Engineers, with notes 
and descriptions of new species. 

BY JOHN CASSIN. 

The route surveyed by Lieut. Michler, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
practicability of establishing communication by ■vpater, between the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans, was mainly by way of the river Atrato and its tributaries, 
the Truando and the Nercua. In the performance of this duty, the Atrato was 
ascended for a distance of about ninety miles, to the mouth of the Truando, 
and then a southwesterly route pursued along the latter towards the Pacific Ocean. 
The Nercua is a tributary of the Truando at a distance of tbirty-six miles from 
the union of the latter with the Atrato. 

The most interesting localities mentioned in the present catalogue are on 
those two rivers, especially after the Truando reaches the Cordilleras, in which 
in a great measure it and the Nercua have their course. These localities have 
been but very partially explored by naturalists. Another locality frequently 
mentioned is Turbo, which is a small village on the Atlantic, directly on the 
eastern side of the Gulf of Uraba or Darien, and nearly opposite to the mouths 
or delta of the Atrato. 

This collection was made by Mr. "William S. Wood, Jr. and Mr. Charles J. 
Wood of Philadelphia, who accompanied the Expedition, and were of course 
under the immediate direction of the chief officer of the Expedition, Lieut. N. 
Michler. of the U. S. Topographical Engineers. This accomplished officer and 
gentleman encouraged in the fullest degree investigations in Natural History 
throughout the route, whenever consistent with other duties, and as opportu- 
nity presented. To his enlightened views and evident appreciation of the in- 
teresting character of the zoology of the country traversed by the Expedition, 
science in America is indebted for the present valuable collection, including 
several birds never before known, and other valuable additions to the zoology 
of this continent. 

1. Htpotbiorchis FEMORALis,(Temminck). 

Falco femoralis, Temm., PI. Col. i. liv. 21. 
Temm, PL Col. 121, 343, U. S. Pacific R. R. Reports, x. pi. 1. 
From Carthagena. 

2. MoRPHNCs GriANBNSis, (Daudiu)? 

Falco guianensis, Daud. Tr. d'Orn. ii. p. 78 ? 
Lesson. Traite d"Orn. ii, pi. 11 ? 

From the river Truando. One specimen only, not adult, and in bad con- 
dition, appears to be this or a nearly allied species. 

"Observed once only, in the Rio Truando, at the first camp, after leaving the 
Atrato. I noticed this eagle at first perched in a high tree, but after I had 
fired at a small bird, he immediately flew very rapidly and fiercely directly 
towards the spot where I was standing, as though he intended to pounce upon 
me. He approached within a few feet, when I shot him with small bird shot." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood.) 

3. AsTURiNA MAGNiROSTKis, (GmcHn). 

Falco magnirostris, Gm. &vst. Nat., i. p. 282, (1788.) 
Temm. PI. Col, 86, Buff. PI.'EuI, 464. 
From Turbo. 

4. BuTEOGALLUS NiGRicoLLis, (Latham) 

Falco nigricollis, Lath., Ind. Orn. i. p. 35, (1790). 

[March 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 133 

Aquila milvoides, Spix ? 

Spix, Av. Bras. i. pi. 1, d ? Le Vaill, Ois. d'Afr. i. pi. 20. 
From the river Truaado. " Only observed in trees on the Rio Truando, about 
40 or 50 miles from the Cordilleras." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

5. Urubitinga mexicana, Du Bus. 

Morphnus mexicanus, Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Brussels, 1847, p. 102, 
From the delta of the Atrato. Specimens of this little known species are 
quite identical with others from Mexico in the museum of this Academy. It is 
accurately described by the Viscount Du Bus as above cited. 

6. Ibycter AQUiLiNus, (Gmeliu). 

Falco aquilinus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 280, (1788). 
Buff. PL Enl, 417, Vieill. Gal. i. pi. 6. 
From Turbo, on the Atlantic, and the river Truando, near the Cordilleras. 
" Abundant in the vicinity of the village of Turbo, but less numerous in the 
interior. Always seen in trees, and utters a very disagreeable note bearing 
some resemblance to the gobble of the male Turkey." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

7. Nyctidromus guianensis, (Gmelin). 

Caprimulgus guianensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 1030, (1788). 
Caprimulgus albicollis. Lath, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 585, (1790). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 733. 
From Turbo. 
Smaller than iV. americanus, but much resembling that species. 

8. Progne chalybea, (Gmelin)? 

Hirundo chalybea, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 1026, (1788)? 
Young birds from Carthagena, very diflScult to recognize, but much resem- 
bling the species I understand to be as here given. 

9. COTYLE FLAVIGASTRA, (Vieillot). 

Hirundo flavigastra, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xiv. p. 534, (1817). 
Hirundo jugularis, De Wied. 
Temm. PL CoL 161, fig. 2. 
From Carthagena and the river Truando. 

10. Ceryle torquata, (Linnaeus). 

Alcedo torquata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 180, (1766). 
Buff. PL EnL 284. 
From the rivers Atrato and Truando. 

Numerous specimens in the collection of the Expedition, which are exclusive- 
ly adults, in fine plumage. 

" Very abundant in the immense swamps on the Atrato and Truando, alight- 
ing on the low trees, and uttering a loud shrill note. Catches small fishes 
apparently very easily, on account of their abundance, and returns to the tree." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood). 

11. Ceryle amazona, (Latham). 

Alcedo amazona, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 257, (1790). 
Alcedo vestita, Dumont. 
Du Bois, Orn. Gal. pi. 85. 
From the river Nercua. 

12. Ceryle inda, (Linnaeus). 

Alcedo inda, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 179, (1766). 

Alcedo viridirufa, Bodd. Tab. PL Enl. p. 36, (1783). 

Alcedo bicolor, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 451, (1788). 
Edwards, Glean, vii. pL 355. Buff. PL EnL 592. 
From Turbo. 
Common enough in South American collections, but never quite correctly 

I860.] 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

named in catalogues, nor hardly elsewhere. Naturalists evidently overlook 
the solemn fact that LinnaEUS gives the habitat of his species as above cited, 
" in India occidentali'\ The name inda seems to have been understood to mean 
a far distant country, beyond the Ganges, and evidently misled even Boddasri 
and Gmelin, but is strictly applicable to this bird. It can readily be recog- 
nized from the descriptions and Edwards' figure above cited. 

" One specimen seen in a salt water marsh, near the village of Turbo, very 
quiet and easily approached." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

13. Certle superciliosa, (LinnsBus). 

Alcedo superciliosa, Linn. Svst. Nat. i. p. 179, (1766). 
Edwards, Glean, v. pi. 245, Buff. PI. Enl. 756, fig. 2, 3. 
From Turbo. 

" In a salt water marsh, almost in the village of Turbo, one specimen only 
seen perched in a bush, which was obtained without difficulty, being very 
unsuspicious." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

14. Jacamerops grandis, (Gmelin). 

Alcedo grandis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 458, (1766.) 
Le Vaill. Jacamars, pi. 54. 
From the river Truando. 

" First camp after leaving the Atrato, and the only time that this bird wag 
noticed. Sits in a tree and darts after insects like a fly-catcher." (Mr. G. J. 
Wood). 

15. Galbcla RCFicATJDA, Cuvicr. 

Galbula ruficauda, Cuv. Reg. An. i. p. 420, (1817). 
Le Vaill. Jac. pi. 50, Yieill. Gal. i. pi. 29. 
From the river Nercua. 

One specimen only, in bad condition, which appears to be this species, 
but is darker chestnut brown on the abdomen, than other specimens now before 
me. 

16. Bucoo R0FIC0LL13, Lichtenstein. 

" Bucco ruficollis, Licht." Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 658. 
Tamatia bicincta, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 80? 
Tamatia gularis, D'Orb. et Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1838, p. 166 ? 
From the river Truando. 

" Seen once onlv, at the first camp on the Truando, after leaving the Atrato." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood).' 

For all that I can see this is the young of B. bicincta, Gould, as above, with 
which B. gularis, D'Orb, appears to be synonymous. 

17. Malaooptila panamensis, Lafresnaye. 

Malacoptila panamensis, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 79. 
From the river Truando. 

" Very quiet and inactive, startiog out occasionally from its perch to capture 
an insect, and then returning." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

IS. MONASA PALLESCENS, nobis. 

Rather larger than any other known species : wing rather long, fifth quill 
longest ; tail moderate, with the feathers wide. Front and lores white, entire 
head, quills, upper and under tail coverts black, with a greenish lustre, (no 
white on the chin nor throat), upper and under wing coverts, back, rump and 
under parts of body cinereous ; very light on upper wing coverts, and darker 
on the back; bill red, sexes alike. 

Total length about 11 in-;hes, wing 5^, tail 5 inches. 

ITab. Cordilleras mountains on the river Truando, New Grenada. In Nation- 
al Museum and Mus. Acad. Philadelphia. Discovered bv Mr. Chas. J. Wood 
and Mr. Wm. S. Wood, Jr. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 135 

This is a remarkable and apparently new species of Monasa, strictly of the 
same group, and related to 31. Morphofus (=^alhifron^ &nd personate) and M. pe- 
ruana. Like those species, the present bird has a conspicuous white frontal 
band, which reaches very nearly from one eye to the other, but it differs from 
those species in being without any white whatever on the throat. It is, how- 
ever, easily distinguished from all known species, by the cinereous color of the 
body above and below and wing coverts ; which color is very light, and in some 
specimens nearly white on the whole of the upper wing coverts, and but slightly 
darker on the under wing coverts. Several specimens labelled as both sexes 
are in the collection from the river Truando. 

Stated by Messrs. W. S. and C. J. Wood, to have been seen once only in the 
Cordilleras on the river Truando, in January, 1858. A party of eight or ten 
specimens was observed sitting very quietly in a tree at some distance from the 
ground, and being quite regardless of the gun or the presence of man, several 
were obtained. Specimens labelled as females are slightly larger than those 
stated to be males.* 

19. Trogon Masskna, Gould. 

Trogon Massena, Gould, Monog. Trogonidfe, (1838). 
Gould, Mon. Trog.pl. 16. 
From the Truando, and also from the delta of the Atrato. 
All the specimens in the collection are of young birds in but indifferent con- 
dition, amongst which one specimen may be the young of T. macrourus. 

*The following species oi Monasa are in the Museum of this Academy : 

1. Monasa atra, (Boddaert). 

Cuculus ater, Bodd Tab. PI. Enl. p. 30, (1783). 
Cuculus tranquillus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 417, '1788). 
Bucco cinereus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 409, (1788). 
Corvus australis. Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 377, (1788). 
Bucco calcaratus, Lath. Ind. Cm. i. p. 206, (J790). 
Corvus affinis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii. p. 381, (1809). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 512, Le VaiU. Barbets, pi. 44, 45. 

2. Monasa morphoeus, (Wagler). 

Bucco morphoeus, Wagler, Hahn's Voegel, Asien. Africa, &c. pt. xiv. (1822). 
"Bucco leucops, 111." Licht. Verz. p. 8, (1823). 
Bucco albifrons, Spix, Av. Bras. i. p 53, (1824). 
Monasa personata, Vieill. Gal. i. p. 23, (1825) 
Hahn, Voegel, pt. xiv. pi. 2. Spix. Av. Bras. i. pi. 41, fig. 1, Vieill. Gal. i. pi. 36 
Swams. B. of Braz. pi. 12. 

3. Monasa nigrifrons, (Spix ). 

Bucco nigrifrons, Spix, Av. Bras. i. p. 53, (1824). 
Lypornix unicolor, Wagler, Syst. Av. (1827, not paged). 
Spix. A v. Bras. i. pi. 41, fig. 2. 

4. Monasa axillaris, (Lafresnaye). 

Monasa axillaris, Lafres. Rev. et Mag. Zool. April, IB.'iO, p. 216. 
Monasa flavirostris, Strickland, Jard. Contr. April, 1850. 
Jard Contr. 1850, pi. (not numbered). 
It would require nice discrimination to determine with certainty the priority of either 
of the above names. My impression is that M. Lafresnaye's name is entitled rather to 
preference, because it bears an unmistakeable date, which the other does not, but requires 
to be determined by examination or approximation. 

5. Monasa peruana, Verreaux. 

" Monasa peruana, Bp. et Verr." label on spec, from M. Verreaux. 

Monasa peruana, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 194. 
This is very closely allied lo the now well known M. morphoeus, and scarcely dis- 
tinguishable without specimens of both. A specimen bearing M. N'erreaux's label is in 
the Acad. Coll., and is therefore entirely reliable as this species. 

6. Monasa pallescens, Cassin. 

I860.] 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

20. Teogon melanoptebus, Swainson. 

Trogon melanopterus, Sw. Cab. Cy. p. 332, (1838). 
Gould, Mon. pi. 10, 11. 
From the river Truando. 
One specimen only in adult plumage. 

21. Trogon atricollis, Vieillot. 

Trogon atricollis, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. viii. p. 318, (1817). 
Gould, Mon. pi. 8. 
Pall3 of the Truando. 

" In the Cordilleras on the Rio Truando. Seen once only, very unsuspicious; 
and easily shot." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

22. MoMOTUS Martii, (Spix). 

Prionites Martii. Spix, Av. Bras. i. p. 64, (1824). 
Momotus semirufus, Sclater, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1853, p. 489? 
Spix, Av. Bras. i. pi. 60. 
From the river Nercua. 
One specimen in adult plumage, labelled as a male bird. 

23. Cbypticus platyrhynchcs, (Leadbeater). 

Momotu3 platyrhynchus, Leadb. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xvi. p. 92, (1829). 
Crypticus Martii, Bonap. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 119. 
Jard. and Selby, 111. Orn. iii. pi. 106. 
From the Cordilleras on the river Nercua. 

In adult plumage, and in colors singularly resembling the preceding, but 
with the bill differently formed, and affording strong generic distinctions. 
This is probably the first time that these two birds, which have much per- 
plexed naturalists, have ever occurred in the same collection. Both are 
labelled as from the same locality, and I am informed by Mr. C. J. Wood, that 
they inhabit the forests on the river Nercua, on the western side of the Cor- 
dilleras. 

24. Ramphastos Tocardcs, Vieillot. 

Ramphastos Tocard. Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 280. 
Ramphastos Swainsonii, Gould. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1833, p. 69. 
Gould, Mon. Ramph. pi. 4. 
From the River Nercua. 

25. Ramphastos carin.atos, Swainson. 

Ramphastos carinatus, Sw. Zool. 111. i. p. (pi. 45, not paged.) 
Gould. Monog. pi. 2. 
River Nercua. One specimen only, in mature plumage, from the western 
side of the Cordilleras on the River Nercua. 

26. Pteroglossus ertthropygics, Gould. 

Pteroglossus erythropygius, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1843, p. 15. 
Gould, Monog. pi, 21, Zool. Voy, Sulphur, pi. 28. 
From the River Truando. Specimens labelled as both sexes are in the col- 
lection. The females are smaller, and in both sexes there is some variation in 
the color of the bill as noticed by Mr. Goald, the white being in these specimens 
more extended in the females. 

27. Selenidera spectabilis, Cassin. 

Selenidera spectabilis, Cass. Proc. Acad. Philada, 1857, p, 214. 
Jour. Acad. Philada. iv. pi. 1. 
From the falls of the River Truando. 

Both sexes of this species, in excellent plumage and preservation are in the 
collection from the Cordilleras on the River Truando. They are, however, pre- 
cisely similar to Mr. Mitchell s specimens described by me as above cited, 
though the occurrence of this little-known species again, and at another locali- 
ty, is a point of interest. 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 137 

28. Ara militaris, (Linnasus). 

Psittacus militaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 139, (1766). 
Le Vaill. Parrots, pi. 6, Edward's Glean, vii. pi. 313. 
From the River lYercua la the Cordilleras mouatains. 

29. Aka ararauna, (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus ararauna, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 139, (1766). 
Le Vaill. Parr. pi. 3, Lear, Parr. pi. 8. 
From the mouth of the Atrato, Gulph of Uraba. 

30. Ara severa, (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus severus, Linn. Svst. Nat. i. p. 140, (1766). 
Le Vaill. Parr. pi. 8, 9, 16, Edward's Glean, v. pi. 229. 
Mouth of the River Nercua. 

31. CoNURUS PERTiNAX, (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus pertioax, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 142, (1766). 
Le Vaill. Parr. pi. 34, Edw. Glean, v. pL 234. 
Carthagena. 

32. CoNDRDS Tovi, (Gmeliu). 

Psittacus tovi, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 351, (1788). 
Bourj. St. Hil. Parr. pL 48. 
From the River Atrato. 

33. PsiTTACDi-A CYANOPTERA, (Boddaert). 

Psittacus cyanopterus, Bodd. Tab. PI. EnL p. 27, (1783). 
Psittaculus gregarius, Spis. Av. Bras. i. p. 39, (1824). 
Bourj. St. Hil. Parr. pL Spix. Av. Bras. i. pi. 34. 
Carthagena. 

34. Dryocopos Malherbei, (G. R. Gray). 

Campephilus Malherbii, G. R. Gray, Gen. Birds, ii. p. 436, pL 108, (1845). 
Malherbe, Monog. Picidae, pi. 6. 
From Turbo. " Occasionally seen in the forest at Turbo, very shy and difS- 
cult to approach." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

35. Dryocopos albirostris, (Vieillot). 

Picus albirostris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxvi. p. 69, (1818). 
Megapicus albirostris, (VieilL) Malherbe. 
Malherbe, Monog. Picidae, pi. 4. 

36. Gelbds mentalis, nobis. 

About the size of C. rufus, occipital feathers somewhat lengthened, third quill 
longest, bill rather short. Male, with a large space on the chin and throat, 
bright scarlet. This space begins nearly on a line with the commissure of the 
bill on each side, covering the chin and throat, and is not divided in the mid- 
dle, but is integral. 

Head and upper parts of body dark cinnamon, many feathers having semi- 
circular and crescent shaped spots of black, rump and upper tail coverts lighter. 
Quills brownish black, barred with dark cinnamon, tail brownish black, all the 
feathers of which are barred with dull yellowish cinnamon color. Underparts 
of body yellowish cinnamon, lighter than the back and with the black spots 
much more numerous, every feather havi g nearly complete semicircular and 
crescent shaped bands of black. Under wing coverts uniform dark cinnamon, 
not spotted, axillaries dark cinnamon with a few imperfect bands of deep black. 
Bill bluish horn color, under mandible lighter. Female, much like the male, 
but having no red patch on the throat and the black spots on the under parts 
not so numerous. 

Total length about 8 inches, wing 43, tail If inches. 

Hab. — Turbo and Atrato River, New Grenada. Discovered by Messrs. Wm. 
S. and Chas. J. Wood, Spec, in Nat. Mus. Washington. 

I860.] 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Of this Woodpecker, I have found no description nor figure which seemed to 
approach it, except Picus undatus of authors figured by Edwards, pi. 332. It is 
nearly the size and of the same general colors as that species, but instead of 
two patches of red on the cheeks as described and figured in P. undatus, the 
present bird has a single large patch completely enclosing a space on the 
throat around the base of the lower mandible, similar to that in the common 
Picus varius of the United States. This character I cannot trace in any other 
species of this genus. 

This bird belongs to the same subgeneric group as Celeus ru/us, which seems 
to have no name, though readily defined. 

37. Cbotophaga major, Brisson. 

Crotophaga major, Brisson, iv. p. 180, (1760). 
Bufi". PI. Enl. 102. 
From the River Atrato. 

38. Cyanocorax pileatus, (Temminck). 

Corvus pileatus, Temm. PI. Col. (liv. 10.) 
Temm. PI. Col. 58. 
From the rivers Truando and Nercua. " In flocks on the high trees on the 
Truando before reaching the mountains. Very shy and noisy, calling out 
loudly whenever an attempt was made to approach them. (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

39. QuiscALUs macrourus, Swainson. 

Quiscalus macrourus, Sw. Cab. Cy. p. 299, (1838). 
Rept. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Survey, Birds, pi. 20. 
From Turbo and Carthagena. "In parties often or a dozen feeding on ber- 
ries along the sea shore. Abundant, especially at Carthagena, and noisy, but 
not easily shot." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

40. OcYALus Wagleri, (G. R. Gray). 

Cacicus Wagleri, G. R. Gray, Gen. Birds, ii. p. 342, (1845). 
Gray's Genera, ii. pi. 85. 
From the rivers Truando and Nercua. Specimens of both sexes in mature 
plumage, the females being much the smaller. 

41. OsTiNOPs CRiSTATUs, (Gmelin). 

Oriolus cristatus, Gm. Svst. Nat. i. p, 387, (1788). 
Sw. B. of Bras. pi. 32, Buff. PI. Enl. 328. 
From Turbo and the Atrato River. 

" In company with smaller species along the Atrato, and seemed to be feed- 
ing on the fruit of a tree which grew plentifully on the edge of the water. 
Unsuspicious and easily approached." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

42. OsTiNOPS GUATiiioziNus, Bouaparte. 

Ostinops guatimozinus, Bonap. Compte Rend., 1853, p. 833. 

Large, resembling 0. Jlontezumae and 0. bifasciatus, but larger than either, 
darker colored, and with the crest feathers much longer and more slender. 
Male. — Head, under parts of body and tibiae brownish black, under tail 
coverts chestnut brown, same as the back. Entire upper parts of body, wing 
coverts and outer webs of quills purplish chestnut brown. Tail graduated, 
two middle feathers brownish black, all others yellow. Naked space below 
the eye completely divided by a line of short imbricated feathers nearly on a 
line with the lower edge of the lower mandible. Crest long and composed of 
very narrow feathers. Bill wide at base in front, high and compressed, 
pointed, basal two-thirds black, terminal one-third light colored (red?). Total 
length about 2H inches, wing 10^, tail 8 J inches. Crest feathers 3 inches, bill 
from gape 3^ inches. 

Ifab. — River Truando, New Granada. 

One specimen, labelled as a male, in the collection of the Expedition is dis- 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 139 

tinct from any species in Acad. Coll. or that we find described, except as above. 
It is nearly allied to 0. Montezumae of Mexico and Central America, and 0. 
bifasciatus of Northern Brazil, both of -syhich are in the Acad. Coll. and are 
distinct from each other. 

The present bird differs from both of the above species in beinpr larger, 
darker colored and having a lengthened almost filiform crest. The bill also is 
disproportionately longer and wider at base, with a rounded termination in 
front. It is not without scruples that I apply the name above to this bird ; the 
description by the Prince Bonaparte, as cited, not being sufficient for the recog- 
nition of any species nearly related to another.* 

"At Camp Abert, on the Truando, before reaching the Cordilleras, one 
specimen only seen, which was shot; it was very shy and seemed to be a stranger." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood.) 

43. Cassicds icteronotus, Vieillot. 

Cassicus icteronotus, Vieill. 
Sw. B. of Braz., pi. 3. 
From Turbo and the delta of the Atrato River. "Very abundant at Turbo, 
builds many nests on the same tree, which are long and hanging, and entered 
from the top. Always seen in large parties and very noisy, especially in the 
morning, although their notes are rather agreeable." (Mr. C. J. Woodj. 

44. Cassiccs chrysoxotus, Lafresnaye? 

Cassicus chrysonotus, Lafres. 
D'Orb. Voy. Am. Mer. Ois. pi. 52 ? 
From Turbo. A single specimen in young plumage appears to be this species. 

45. Cassicus uropygialis, Lafresnaye ? 

Cassicus uropygialis, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 290? 
Falls of the River Truando. 
Specimens not mature nor in good condition appear to be this species. 

*The three nearly allied species are as follows : 

1. OSTINOPS BIFASCIATUS, (Spix). 

Cassicus bifasciatus, Spix, Av. Bras., i. p. 6.5 (1824). 
Spix, Av. Bras., i. pi. 6i. 
Naked space on the cheek, integral (not divided as in the two succeeding species). 
Crest feathers rather long, not so narrow nor so long as in O. guatimozinus, but longer 
than in 0. Montezumae. Head and breast brownish black, entire upper parts of body, 
abdomen, under tail coverts and UbicB light chestnut brown, tail yellow, central two 
feathers dark brown. Total length, male 18 to 20 inches. Naked space on cheek pre- 
cisely as figured bv Spix as above cited, which figure is sufficiently accurate. Two 
specimens from Para, in Acad. CoU. 

2. OsTiNOPS Montezumae, (Lesson). 

Cacicus Montezumae, Less. Cent. Zool p. 33, (1830). 
Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 7, Gervais, Atlas de Zool. pi. 33. 
Naked space on the cheek partially divided by a line of short imbricated features 
above the lower edge of the lower mandible. Crest feathers short and inconspicuous, 
shorter than in either of the other species here described. Plumage much as in preced- 
ing, but with the tibics brownish black. Total length, male, about 20 inches. Naked space 
on cheek accurately represented in both plates above cited, which are otherwise very 
accurate. Nine specimens in Acad. CoU. including Lesson's original which is labelled as 
from Mexico, others are from Nicaragua. 

3. OsTiNOPS GUATIMOZINUS, Bonaparte. 

Osiinops guatimozinus, Bonap. Compt. Rend. 1853, p. 833. 
Naked space on cheek completely divided by a line of short, imbricated feathers nearly 
on a line with the lower edge of lower mandible. Crest feathers long and pendant, 
longer than in either of the preceding. Plumage generally resembling that of both the 
preceding, but darker, entire under parts brownish black, tibicB black. Total length 21 to 
22 inches. One specimen in National Museum, Washington, 

I860.] 



140 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

46. Icterus mesomelas (Wagler). 

Psarocolius mesomelas, Wagl. 
Lesson, Cent. Zool. pi. 22. 
From the River Atrato. 

47. Icterus Giracdii, Cassia. 

Icterus Giraudii, Cass. Proc. Acad. Philad'a, iii. p. 3.32 (1847). 
Journ. Acad. Philad'a, i. pi. 17. 
From the Rivers Truando and Nercua and the " Shores of the Pacific." 
Several specimens differing somewhat in size are from the Cordilleras and 
the western coast, until quite reaching the Pacific Ocean. One specimen 
obtained by Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr., is labelled "Shores of the Pacific." 

" In bushes and low trees on the Truando, and has very pleasant notes of the 
same general character as those of the Baltimore Oriole. Solitary and rather 
wild." (Mr. C. J. Wood;. 

48. Xanthornus affinis, Lawrence. 

Xanthornus afiSnis, Lawr. Am. Lye. New York, 1851, p. 113. 
From the Atrato. A single specimen in adult male plumage. 

49. EuspizA AMERICANA (Gmelin). 

Emberiza americana, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 872 (1788). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. i. pi. 3. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 384, Oct. ed. iii. pi. 156. 
From Turbo. " In flocks early in April, about grassy places at Turbo, and 
seen for one day only." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

50. PiTYLUs GROSSUS (Linnaeus). 

Loxia grossa, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 307 (1766). 
Buff. Pl.Enl. 154, 
From the Falls of the River Truando. "In the mountains and seen once 
only. Has a loud, musical note similar to that of the Cardinal bird of the 
United States." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

51. Saltator mutos, Sclater? 

Saltator mutus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1856, p. 72 ? 

Tanagra superciliaris, Spix, Av. Bras. ii. p. 44, pi. 47 ? 
From Carthagena. "On the 'Popa' mountain at Carthagena." 
Specimens in young plumage not for us easily identified. 

52. Abremon Schlegeli, Bonaparte. 

Arremon Schlegeli, Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 488 (1850). 

From Carthagena. Very fine specimens of this beautiful little bird, in adult 
plumage. 

" In the high grass on the sea shore at Carthagena on the seed of which it 
appeared to feed. Notes and habits generally resembled those of the Sparrows 
of the United States, not abundant and difficult to obtain," (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

53. Ptranga aestiva (Gmelin). 

Tanagra aestiva, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 889 (1788). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. i. pi. 6, Aud. B. of Am. pi. 44, Oct. ed. iii. pi. 208, 
From Turbo, "In the forrest at Turbo, early in April, seen onee only.'' 

54. Orthogonys olivacetjs, nobis. 

Form short and robust, bill rather wide at base, upper mandible with a dis- 
tinct tooth-like lobe about the middle of its cutting edge, wing moderate, 
fourth quill slightly longest, tail moderate or rather short. Male. — Front and 
line extending over and around the eye bright yellow. Throat, middle of 
abdomen, edge of wing at shoulders and under wing coverts greenish yellow. 
Upper parts of head and body dark olive green, under parts olive green tinged 
with yellowish, the latter color more apparent in the middle, under tail coverts 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 141 

greenish yellow. Quills brownish black, with their outer webs dark olive, 
uniform with the back, tail dark olive, inner webs of outer feathers greenish 
brown. The yellow on the throat somewhat striped or spotted with dark olive. 
Bill bluish horn color, legs lighter. Sexes similar. 

Total length about 6f inches, wing 3i, tail 2^ inches. 

Hab. — Cordilleras Mountains, on the Kiver Truando,New Granada. Discov- 
ered by Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr., and Mr. C. J. Wood, attached to U, S. Expedition 
for surveying the River Atrato, in command of Lieut. N. Michler, U, S. Topog. 
Engineers. Spec, in Nat. Mus., Washington. 

This is a curious bird and has not a little puzzled the present writer. My 
impression is that it is an undescribed genus related to Icteria and more so to 
Orthogonys and not unlike some species oi Pyranga. At present I rate it as an 
Orthogonys to which it quite as much belongs as Fyranga cyanictera of authors 
at least, of which there are several specimens in the Academy collection, 

Mr. C. J. Wood states that this bird inhabits low trees and bushes in the 
Cordilleras, on the Rio Truando, and could be constantly heard at some local- 
ities, though not so easily seen. Its notes are loud and much varied, bearing a 
general resemblance to those of the Chat of North America {Icteria viridis). It 
appeared to be very active and lively, constantly flying about the bushes and 
changing its position. 

55. Tanagra cana, Swainson. 

Tanagra cana, Sw. B. of Braz. p, 2, (1841). 
Sw, B. of Braz, pi. 37, 
From Turbo. 

"Abundant in the orange and lime trees at Turbo, and in gardens and 
other cultivated localities at Carthagena. Note only a single chirp and very 
unsuspicious and easily shot," (Mr. C, J. Wood). 

56. Ramphocelcs icteronotus, Bonaparte. 

Ramphocelus icteronotus, Bonap, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p, 121. 
Du Bus, Esq. Orn. pi. 15. 
From Turbo and the rivers Atrato and Truando. 

" Always observed frequenting one kind of tree, that grows along streams 
of water, on the fruit of which it feeds. Abundant on the Rio Truando in the 
month of March," (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

57. Ramphocelus dimidiatos, Lafresnaye. 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus, Lafres. Mag. Zool. 1837, p. (not paged). 
Guerin's Mag. Zool. 1837, pi. 81. 
From Turbo. 

* ' Abundant in April in the bushes and low trees in the drier parts of the 
forest. Solitary but constantly seen, and heard only to utter a single chirp. 
(Mr. C. J. Wood). 

58. Edcometis ceistata, (Du Bus). 

Pipilopsis cristata, Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Brussels, 1855, p. 154. 

From the river Truando. 

' ' At the first camp on the Truando after leaving the Atrato. In the bushes 
and low trees, very shy, and seen once only in a party of three together. 
Sings very pleasantly, and very loud for the size of the bird." (Mr. C. J. 
Wood). 

59. Tachyphonus luctuosu?, D'Orb, et Lafres. 

Tachyphonus luctuosus, D'Orb. et Lafres. Mag. Zool. 1837, p. 29. 
D'Orb, Voy, Am, Mer. Ois. PI. 20, 
From the Truando, 

" Obtained during our encampment in the mountains, on the Rio Truando. 
In the high trees, and rarely seen, and very shy and active. Male black, 
female brown." (Mr. C. J.Wood). 

I860.] 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

60. Tachyphonus De Lattrei, Lafresnaye. 

Tachyphonus De Lattrei, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 72. 

Falls of the Truando. 

" Seen once only, in the bushes on the bank of the Rio Truando, in the 
month of March. About twenty specimens which seemed to be in company, 
were noticed and several obtained, though they were very shy and not easily 
approached. All chattered together like a flock of blackbirds, and appeared 
to be feeding on a berry that was abundant." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

61. Tachyphonus XANTHOPYsros, Sclater. 

Tachyphonus xanthopygius, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1354, p. 158. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1854, pi. 69, 1855, pi. 90. 

From the Truando. 

The male only, of this handsome and remarkable species, precisely as figured 
by Mr. Sclater. 

" The wildest bird I met with in the whole journey. A portion of the sur- 
veying party remained fifteen days at a camp in the Cordilleras, on the Rio 
Truando, where only this bird was obtained, and was so very shy and watch- 
ful, that it was with difliculty obtained. Three specimens were together and 
were observed to always resort to one tree to roost, and constantly frequenting 
the highest trees. Very active and perpetually on the move from one tree to 
another, notes loud and musical, somewhat like those of the Baltimore Oriole 
of the United States." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

62. Tachyphonus? 
Falls of the Truando. 

One specimen labelled as a female, but which is of no species with which 
I am acquainted, nor find described. Not having the male I do not venture a 
description. 

63. Calliste FRANCESCO, (Lafresuaye). 

Aglaia Fanny, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 72. 
Des Murs. Icon. Orn. pi. 56. 
From Turbo. 

" In a tree that grows along streams of water, on the fruit of which it feeds. 
Rather shy and not easily approached, very quick and active." (Mr. C. J. 
Wood). 

64. Calliste inoenata, Gould. 

Calliste inornata, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 158. 
Sclater, Monog. Calliste, pi. 45. 
From Turbo. 

Probably the female or young, of the preceding, (C.francesccE), and given 
by us as distinct, with some reluctance. The specimens in the collection are 
very nearly as described and figured as cited above. 

" In the same tree, and appeared to be in company with the preceding, and 
thought by my brother and myself to be the female of that bird. " (Mr. C. J. 
Wood). 

65. Calliste Lavini^, Cassin. 

Calliste Lavinia, Cass. Proc. Acad. Philadelphia, 1858, p. 178. 

From the river Truando. 

We have much gratification in finding in the present collection, the second 
specimen that we have ever seen of this interesting little species, though not 
in mature plumage. It bears, however, the characteristic edging of rufous ou 
the outer webs of the quills, and is easily recognised. 

" Shot at camp Toucey, in the mountains on the Rio Truando. In high 
trees, very active and lively, and not easily obtained, though not often seen, 
March, 1858." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 143 

66. EoPHOxiA FOLViCRissA, Sclater. 

Euphonia fulvicrissa, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Pliilada. 1856, p. 276. 

Falls of the Tr'uando. 

' ' At our encampment in the mountains on the Rio Truando, in the high 
trees, and difficult to shoot. Not often seen, and quite shj and watchful." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood). 

67. Nemosia aurigollis, Sclater. 

Nemosia auricoUis, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1856, p. iii. 

From the river Truando. 

" At the first camp on the Truando, before reaching the mountains. In the 
bushes growing abundantly in the extensive marshes and swamps on that 
river. Appeared to have habits much like those of the Wrens, and constantly 
repeated its notes, so as easily to be followed. (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

68. LiPAUGUS UNiRUFUs, Sclater. 

Lipaugns unirufus, Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 385. 
Querula fuscocinerea, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 291? 

From Turbo and the river Truando. 

Entire plumage light rufous, darker on the back, and lighter on the under 
parts of the body and under wing coverts ; quills and tail rufous cinnamon, 
shafts and inner webs of quills darker. Total length, about 9 inches, wing 5, 
tail 4^ inches. Sexes alike. 

Several specimens labelled as both sexes, are from Turbo and the river 
Truando, and all have the appearance of being in young or some peculiar 
seasonal plumage. These specimens are all of an uniform dull rufous, very 
nearly the color of the immature plumage in some species of black Tuchyphonus 
which induces me to suppose that the adult of this bird is quite different in 
color from the present specimens. Although undoubtedly of the genus 
Lipaugus, this bird corresponds but indifferently with the last description 
above cited, though it may be that species in the plumage of another season 
than that described. 

"In the dry parts of the forest at Turbo, and in the Cordilleras on the Rio 
Truando, in the lower trees. Frequently seen, but always solitary and silent. 
Sits very quietly in a tree and flies after insects, especially the large coleop- 
terous species, abundant on the route everywhere." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

69. Querula cruenta, (Boddsert). 

Muscicapa cruenta, Bodd. Tab. PI. Enl. p. 23, (1783). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 381, Vieill. Gal. pi. 115. 
From Turbo. "Very abundant and in large parties in the thick and dry 
parts of the forest at Turbo. Constantly chattering and noisy, frequently 
seen on the ground, and seemed to prefer low bushes. Female entirely black." 
(Mr. C. J. Wood). 

70. Saurophagus Lictor, (Lichtenstein). 

Lanius Lictor, Licht. Verz. p. 49, (1823), 
Gray, Genera of B. i. pi. 62. 
From the Rivers Atrato and Truando. 

71. Tyranncs dominicensis, Brisson. 

Tyrannus dominicensis, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 394, (1760). 
Aud. B. of Am. pi. 46, Oct. ed. i. pi. 55. 
From Carthagena. 

72. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieillot. 

Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxxv. p. 48, (1819). 
Spix, Av. Bras. ii. pi. 19. 
From Turbo, Carthagena and the River Truando. 

73. Myiaechus febox, (Gmelin). 
I860.] 



144 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

Mupcicapa ferox, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 934, (1788_). 
Buflf. PL Enl. 571, fig. 1. 
Falls of tte Truando. 

74. Elaenia cayennensis, (Linnfeus). 

Muscicapa cayennensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 327, (1766). 
Buff. PL Enl. 5G9, fig. 2. 
From Turbo. 

75. Sayok>'I3 akdosiacus, (Lafresnaye). 

Tyrannula ardosiaca, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 80. 
Falls of the Truando. "A pair observed about rocks at the foot of the 
mountains, on the Truando. Had some very pleasing notes and almost a 
continued song, very shy." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

76. Myiobius sulphpeeipygius, (Sclater). 

Tyrannula sulphureipygia, Sclater, Proc. Zool. See. London, 1856, p. 296. 
From the River Truando. 

77. Tykanncla albiceps, (D'Orb. et Lafres). 

Muscipeta albiceps, D'Orb. et Lafres. Mag. Zool. 1837, p. 47. 
From Carthagena. 

78. Tyranncla albiceps? 

Apparently an accidental variety of the preceding, having the back light 
yellow or canary color. One specimen from Carthagena. 

79. CYCiiORHYNCHcrs BRBViKOSTRis, Cabauis. 

Cyclorhynchus brevirostris, Cab. Wiegm. Arch. 1847, p. 249. 
From the River Truando. 

80. Platyrhynchus cancroma, (Lichtenstein), 

Todus cancroma, Licht. Verz. p. 51, (1823). 
Temm. PI. Col. 12, fig. 2, Sw. Zool. 111. ii. pi. 115. 
From the Truando. 

" At Camp Toucey, on the Truando, soon after leaving the Atrato. In the 
high trees and difficult to obtain." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

81. ToDiROSTRUJi ciNEREUM, (Linuseus). 

Todus cinereus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 178 (1766). 
Buff. PL Enl. 585, fig. 3. 
From Carthagena. 

"Occasionally seen on the ' Popa ' Mountain, near Carthagena, in the 
bushes and low trees, flying out after insects, which it caught on the wing 
with much dexterity, and which were very abundant, mostly small Diptera." 
(C. J. Wood). 

82. ToDiROSTRUM NiGRiCEPS, Sclatcr. 

Todirostrum nigriceps, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 6Q. 
Proc. Zool, Soc. London, 1855, pi. 84. 
From Turbo. 

' ' In the drier parts of the forest at Turbo, occasionally seen, but not com- 
mon. Caught insects of the same description as the preceding, and resembled 
it in general habits." (Mr, C, J. Wood). 

83. Todirostrum exile, Sclater. 

Todirostrum exile, Sclater, Proc, Zool. Sec. London, 1857, p. 83. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, pL 125. 
From Carthagena. 

"In the bushes and low trees, constantly flying after insects, and uttering 
a single chirp, by which it could easily be traced and shot. Frequently seen 
in the month of April." (Mr. C. J. Wood). 

(To be continued.) 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



145 



^fay \st. 
Dr. Leidy in the Chair. 

Twenty four members present. 

Dr. Darraeh read the following catalogue of Plants collected in flower 
in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, from February to the 1st of May, 
jiinounting to sixty- eight species : 

Plants appearing in Flower, in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, from 
February to May. 

b'vbruary. Symplocarpus foetidus, X. J. 32. Cerastium vulgatum. 

March. Draba verna. 

April. 

I. Randncolace.*. 
1. Anemone nemorosa. 
■J. Hepatica triloba. 
?>. Thalictrum anemonoide.=. 
4. " dioicum. 

Tt. Ranunculus abortivus. 
(5. '■ fasicularis. 

7. Caltha palustris. 
•^. Aquilegia Canadensis. 

II. Anonace^. 
!'. Asimina triloba. 

III. Papaverace.'K. 

10. Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

IV. FUMARIACE^. 

11. Dicentra cucuUaria. 
1 L Corydalis aurea. 

V. Crucifer.*:. 
1.';. Dentaria laciiiiata. 
14. Cardamine rhomboidea. 
Ij. " pratensis. 

16. " hirsuta. 

17. " V. virginica. 

18. Arabis ludoviciana. 

19. " hirsuta. 

20. Barbarea vulgaris. 
'1\. Sisymbrium thalianum. 
'11. Draba Caroliniana. 
'2.:\. Capsella bursa-pastoris. 





VI. ViOLACE*. 


■J.\. 


Viola cucnllata. 


25. 


" villosa. 


26. 


" pedara. 


27. 


" sagittata, v. 


28. 


" Muhlenbergii. 


20. 


" blanda. 




VII. Carvophyllace^k. 


30. 


Stellaria media. 


31. 


" pubera. 



33. *' viscosum. 

VIII. PORTOLACACE.K. 

34. Claytonia Virginica. 
IX. Limnanthacea;. 

35. Floerkea proserpinacoides. 
X. Sapindace^. 

SUBORDER III. ACEKINEffi. 

36. Acer dasycarpuni. 

37. " rubruni. 

XI. Rosace^e. 

38. Potentilla Canadensis. 

39. Fragaria Virginiana. 

40. Amelanchier Canadensis. 

XII. Saxifkagace;e. 

41. Saxifraga Virginiensis. 

42. Mitella diphjlla. 

43. Chrysosplenium Americanum. 

XIII. Umbellifer^. 

44. Chaeropbyllum procumbent. 
XIV. Araliace/*:. 

45. Aralia trifolia. 

XV. RuBIACEiE. 

46. Oldenlandea coerulea. 

XVI. COMPOSIT.«. 

47. Erigeron bellidifolium, in plaeee 
exposed to the sun. 

48. Antennaria plantaginifolia. 
50. Taraxacum dens-leonis. 

XVII. Ericacea. 
ol. Epigaea repens. 

52. Cassandra calyculata. 

XVIII. SCROPHULARIACEvE. 

53. Veronica serpyllifolia. 

54. Pedicularis Canadensis. 

XIX. Labiat/K. 

55. Lamium amplexicaule. 

56. " purpureum. 



1800.] 



146 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



XX. BORRAGINACE/E. 

57. Lithospermum arvense. 

XXI. POLEMONIACE^E. 

58. Phlox subulata. 

59. Pyxidanthera barbulata. 

XXII. GENTIAXACEiE. 

60. Obolaria Virginica. 

XXIII. Aristolochiace.'e. 
CI. Asarum Canadense. 

XXIV. Laurace^e. 

62. Sassafras officinale. 

63. Beazoin odoriferum. 



XXV. Myricace*. 

64. Comptonia asplenifolia. 

XXVI. Arace^. 

65. Arisaema triphyllum. 

66. Orontium aquaticum. 

XXVII. LlLUACE^E. 

67. Erythroneum Americanum 

XXVIII. MELANTHACEiB. 

68. Hellooias bullata. 
In all — 68 species. 

In addition, 
Viola rotundafolia. 
Acer saccharinum. 
Diospyros Virginiana. 



May SfJi. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Forty-four members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" Contributions to American Lepidopterology, No. 4," by Bracken- 
ridge Clemens, M. D. 

'' Notes on American Land Shells, No. 6," and " Descriptions of new 
species of Pulmonata," by Wm. G. Binney ; and 

^'A list of the fresh-water Shells of Wisconsin," by J. A. Laphani. 

And were referred to Committees. 

]Mr. Aubrey H. Smith read the following extracts from a letter from 
Mr. Alex. H. Smith, of Solano Co., California, dated March 25th, 1860, 
on the habits of the Beaver. 

" This winter I have had an opportunity of observing somewhat Ihe habits ot 
the Beaver. You know that this cunning little animal is famed for his industry 
and bold engineering. About the middle of our land there is a large slough 
seventy feet wide and very deep, running back into the country. In the pro- 
gress of our work, it became necessary to stop it off and lay a large sluice to 
drain it, which was done in a complete manner. 

At the head of the slough, two miles away, the beavers had their settlement. 
When the water fell away from their houses and would not return, as usual, 
the}' seemed to have sent a delegation down to see what was the matter. For 
several successive mornings we found a dam built across the race leading to 
ihe sluice, quite skilfully made with sticks and tu!^s, and cemented with mud. 
One of the men agreed to watch for them with the hope of securing their skins, 
which are of some value. The night was bright moonlight. Four beaver»! 
came down examining either bank carefully. One of the party always remained 
in the water and seemed to be the commander, and would turn from the one to 
the other to see that each did his duty. At length they reached the dam, still 
observing the same caution. The three examiners came out and went all over 
it and into the sluice, chattering the while to their companion in the water. 
iFinally they seemed satisfied that it was past their skill and went oflF. Since 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 147 

then we have had no further trouble with them. When the man was asked 
why he did not shoot, he said, ' he did'nt want to shoot the pretty little cree- 
ters, he wanted to see what they were going to do.' I could not help being 
pleased with his humanity and love of science." 

Mr. Lea mentioned that he had recently received a letter from Dr. Showalter 
of Uniontown, Alabama, in which he mentions that specimens of Physa (^gyrina) 
Say, which he sent on, were obtained in an open neglected cistern, and in a 
trough of water supplied by an Artesian well ten miles from the town. Dr. S. 
expressed his surprise that these Physa should find their homes so soon at these 
Artesian wells. There are no streams or pools near to these wells, but in a few 
years after they are bored and water supplied, these shells may with certainty 
be found. Mr. Lea went on to mention that he had nearly 30 years ago found 
an undescribed species of Lymncea, accompained by Physa heterostropha Say, in 
a small artificial pond on the high grounds near to the Falls of Schuylkill, 
about four miles north of Market Street, now within the limits of this City. He 
published an account of it in April 1834, in the Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. under 
the name of acuta. The pond was small and dug out for 1^ to 2 feet deep, 
simply for the supply of rain water for cattle. Afterwards it dried up and the 
shells were no longer to be obtained there. He never found this Lymncea in, 
any other habitat ; but many years subsequently, Dr. Ingalls, of Greenwich, 
N. Y., near to Lake Champlain, sent him several specimens of what he regard- 
ed as a new Lymncea^ but which was at once recognised as the acuta, heretofore 
found only in the one habitat near the Falls of Schuylkill. In the minds of 
some zoologists a difficulty exists as to existence of species in such constricted, 
isolated points as mentioned above, but that difficulty in Mr. Lea's mind was 
done away with under the belief that very young molluscs may be transported 
on the feet of birds from distant points, or on those of cattle going to drink from 
one place to another. The idea of spontaneous generation could not of course 
be for one moment admitted. 

.Mr. Lea also read an extract of a letter from Dr. Lewis, of Mohawk, 
N. Y., giving an account of some meteorological phenomena, and exhibited 
a diagram of thermal curves traced by the self-registering thermometer of Dr. 
Lewis. 

Prof. R. E. Rogers stated that he had recently received a letter from Western 
Pennsylvania, communicating the intelligence that some of the Petroleum wells 
had already begun to show a diminished yield of Oil, a fact in confirmation of 
an apprehension which he had expressed at a former meeting of the Academy, 
that when the Artesian borings became more numerous in the favorite localities, 
there was a probability of such a result. 

He regarded the circumstance of even a small reduction in the supply of the 
oil, from any of the wells, at this early stage of the enterprise in that region, 
as very significant, and suggestive of the fear that, remunerative as these 
wells may at present prove to be, it may not be prudent to base permanent 
calculations upon them. 

In connection with the subject, Prof. Rogers described the approved process 
by which the illuminating and lubricating Coal Oils are manufactured, an' I 
detailed the characteristics which seemed to be requisite to render any oil- 
making material profitably available for the purpose. 



I860.] 



148 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

May 15th. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Fifty-three members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

'• Description of a new species of Marginella," by John H. Redfield. 

'• Descriptions of new organic remains from the Tertiary, Cretaceous 
and Jurassic rocks of Nebraska," by F. B. Meek and F. V. Hayden. 

And were referred to Committees. 

Dr. Fisher read the following extract of a letter from Mr. J. H. 
Eedfield : 

'• Mr. J. R. Willis announces that he has discovered, in deep water off the 
coast of Nora Scotia, small specimens of the Waldheimia cranium, hitherto known 
only from Norther ; Europe. He has also found Littorina litorea abundant upon 
the rocky shore i near H-ilifax, the specimens being perfectly undistinguishable 
from English examples." 

Prof. R. E. Rogers exhibited a modification of Mr. Gore's apparatus of the 
metallic ball revolving in a circle under the influence of a galvanic current. 

The apparatus consists of two bands of sheet brass, secured parallel and 
within an inch and a half of each other, upon the edge of a board, so as to 
form a miniature railway, on which the ball may rest. 

To give automatic action to the ball, causing it to transverse the rails alter- 
nately to and fro, the ends of the bands are bent slightly upwards. By this 
arrangement, the ball, on approaching the end of its course in one direction, is 
carried by its momentum a little up the inclination, but gravity soon prevail- 
ing, its motion is reversed, and continues in its new direction until the same 
result takes place at the other end. 

The death of Bernard Henry, M. D., who died at sea on the 15th 
April, was announced. 

On motion of Mr. Vaux, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be presented to H. G. De- 
silver, for the valuable addition to its collection of the fine specimen of 
the Moose presented this evening. 



May llnd. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Forty-four members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication. 

" Catalogue of Birds collected during a survey of a route for a ship 
canal across the Isthmus of Darien, by order of the Grovernment of the 
United States, made by Lieut. N. Michler, U. S. Top. Eng., with 
notes and descriptions of new species," Xo. 2, by John Cassin. 

" Descriptions of some new species of Cretaceous Fossils from South 
America, in the collection of the Academy, by Wm. M. Gabb. 

" Descriptions of 14 new species of Schizostoma, Anculosa, and 
Lithasia," by Isaac Lea. 

And were referred to Committees. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 149 

Mr. Aubrey H. Smith remarked, that a few days since, whilst he and 
another member of the Academy were crossing a sandy bank, partially covered 
with low bushy pine trees and other undergrowth, near Moorestown, N. J., 
they came across a black snake of about four feet in length, lying near the 
edge of the cover formed by the bushes. At the first alarm, the animal, in- 
stead of escaping along the ground, into the shelter so close at hand, immedi- 
ately, with a rapid gliding motion, ascended among the branches of the pines, 
and reaching their somewhat flattened tops, pressed along from one of them 
to the other at the height of some six or seven feet from the ground, and 
finally rested at length among the horizontal upper branches. The ascent was 
made by him in a direction almost perpendicular, solely by projecting the body 
upward from the ground to the lower branches of the trees, and from them as 
from a new point of support, to those next higher, not deriving any aid 
from the upright trunk of the tree, which he did not seem even to toucli. 
When again disturbed by our approach, he did not descend, but retreated with 
the same gliding motion along tlie top of the pines. It was not till actually 
seized by the hand, that, on his release, he betook himself to flight along the 
ground. 

Mr. Lea called the attentioa of the members to two very remarkable speci- 
msQs o( Eshiaui, perforating rocks, which he had receatly received from Mr. 
CallUaud, of Naates, the Egyptian traveller. Ha also exhibited a specimen of 
Sanistone from Payta in Peru, which contained Pelricola, Lithophagui, &c. He 
reminded the members that he had presented to the Academy a very remarka- 
ble specimen, which he had received about two j'ears since from Mr. Gailliaud, 
being a mass of gneiss which had been perforated by Pholades. When Mr, 
Gailliaud, who had advocated, contrary to the opinion of most naturalists, the 
theory that some of the Molluscs bored the rocks by friction and not by de- 
composition, found that gneiss and granite and other silicious rocks were pene- 
trated by them, he entirely settled that question, for there are no acids known 
which will decompose siles. Mr. Lea remarked that the two specimens now 
on the table were stiil more remarkable. The smaller one consisted of two 
specimens of Echinus lividus, Lam., which had buried themselves in the solid 
^rattj<e, one of them having made a circular hole U inch deep, and 2 inches 
wide. This specimen came from the granite coast of the Loire-Inferieure. 
The second specimen consisted of quite a congress of individuals of the same 
species, imbedded in a solid mass of hard Silurian Sandstone, from the Bay of 
Douaraenez, in the Department of Finistere. In this beiutifal speciraeu there 
are five individuals nestled in their circular holes, worked out in this hard stone 
by the attrition of their teeth, and there are three holes vacated. The specimen 
is 5 inches by 6^, and there being eight holes in all, their circumferences nearly 
impinge oa each other. Mr. Gailliaud is entirely satisfied that the boring is 
purely mechanical, that the five teeth are the instruments of exploitation, and 
that it is by the percussion of their points on the rocks that these holes are 
eflFected. The teeth are in form like the rodents, and constantly increase as 
worn at the outer extremity. He made a hole five millimetres deep and forty 
in circumference with a bundle of the teeth in an hour. One of the colonies 
which he examined was in a bay, and contained about two thousand holes, each 
one filled, and at low water they were but a short distance below the surface. 
Some of the specimens were not larger than a pea, and probably only five days 
old. The holes were not all made by the present occupants, most of them pro- 
bably being very old and having successive inhabitants. Mr. Gailliaud men- 
tioned in his letter to Mr. Lea that he shortly expected to receive from Guada- 
loupe an oval Echinus which had made its oval hole in the mass oi Madreporite. 

Dr. I. I. Hayes stated to the Academy, that his success in New 
York and Boston, in raising funds for his proposed x\rctic Expeditio^i, 
I860.] 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

had been so great, that if he could succeed in raising $6000 in this 
city he would be able to sail this year. 



May 29th. 
Mr. Lea, President in the Chair. 

Thirty-eight members present. 

The report of the Biological Department was presented. 

The following resolution, presented by Dr. Leidy on behalf of the 
Curators, was adopted, 

Resolved, That the Publication Committee and the Committee on 
Proceedings, be authorized to exchange as much of the Journal and 
Proceedings of the Academy as can be spared, for the suite of Palseozoic 
fossils, which have been offered by Mr. J. N. H. Barris. 

The following papers were, on the report of the Committees to whom 
tliey had been referred, ordered to be published in the Proceedings. 



Notes on American Land Shells. Ho. 6. 
BY W. G. BINNEY. 

The Catalogue of the Terrestrial Mollusks of North America, commenced in 
the Proceedings of the Academy for November, 1858, and continued in the 
number for July, 1859, is here completed. The list is believed to contain all 
the species described as inhabiting Mexico. I have followed the systematic 
arrangement of Drs. Gray and PfeifiFer in grouping the genera, and the de- 
cisions of the latter in regard to the synonymy. 

Many Central American species will undoubtedly be added to the list when 
their geographical range is better known. The species of the Pacific coast, 
included in the first section of the Catalogue, are omitted here, viz.: Nos. 3, 
7, 8, 11, 23, 25, 35, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47. 

For additional species, changes of nomenclature, &c., &c., of the section of 
the United States, see Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. vii., and the 
Remarks on North American Helicidse by Mr. T. Bland, in Annals of New 
York Lyceum of Natural History, vol. vi. 



252. G. c o r n e 1 a W. G. Binn. vid. 
202. 

2o2a. G. delicatula {Achatina) 
ShuttL, Pf. (olim.) 
Oleacina delicatula Gr. et Pf., Pf. 

253. G. Ghiesbreghti {Achatina) 
Pf. (oUm.) 

Oleacina Ghiesbreghti Pf. 
253a. G. Indus lata F^'. 

254. G. Isabellina (Achatina) Pf. 
{olim), Rve. 

Oleacina Isabellina Gr, et Pf., Pf. 

255. G. Liebmanni {Achatina) Pf. 
(olim), Chemn. 

Achatina striata Rve. (19.) 
Achatina Cordovana Pf. (olim.) I Oleacina Liebmanni Gr. et Pf., Pf. 

[May, 



Familia TESTACELLIDiE. 
Glandina. 

248. G. Candida (Achatina) ShuttL, 

Pf. (olim.) 
Oleacina Candida Gr, et Pf., Pf. 

249. G. Carminensis Mor. , Ads. 

Gen. 
Achatina Carminensis Desh, in 
Fer., Pf. (olim.) 
" rosea var. Rve. (46 b.) 

Oleacina Carminensis Gr. et Pf., 
Pf. 

250. G. conularis ( Oleacina) Pf. 
Achatina conidaris Pf. (olim.) 

251. G. Cordovana (Oleacina) Pf. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



151 



256. Gr. margaritacea (Achatina) 

Pf. (olim.) 
Oleacma margaritacea Pf. 
256a. G. monilifera (Achatina) 

Pf. (olim), Rve. 
Oleacina monilifera Gr. et Pf., Pf. 

257. G. nana {Achatina) ShuttL, Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina nana Gr. et Pf., Pf. 
257a. G. Orizabae (Achatina) Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina OrizabceFf. 

258. G. pulcliella ( Oleacina) Pf. 

259. G. s 1 i d u 1 a (Achatina) Pf. 

(olim), Chemn., Rve., Desk, in 

Per. 
Polyphemus solidtdus Pf. (olim.) 
Glandina solidula'Pf., (oMm), Phil. 
" /oZ/icw/us Gld. (teste Pf.) 
Oleacina solidula Gr. et Pf., Pf. 
V a r . Glandina paragramma Mor. 

260. G. Sowerbyana (Achatina) 

Pf. (olim), Rve. 
Oleacina Sowerbyana Gr. et Pf., 
Pf. 

261. G. speciosa (Achatina) Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina speciosa Pf. 

262. G. stigmatica (Achatina) 

ShuttL, Pf. (olim.) 
Oleacina stigmatica Gr. et Pf. , Pf. 

263. G. Vanuxeniensis Lea, vid. 

206. 

Familia HELIClDiE. 

VlTEINA. 

264. v. Mexicana Beck. 

SiMPULOPSIS. 

265. S. Chiapensis Pf. 

266. S. Cordovanaiy. 

267. S. Salleanaiy. 

Spccinea. 

268. S. b re vis Dunk., Pf, Chemn. 

269. S. undulata Say,Pf., Chemn. 

Helix. 

270. H Ariadnse Pf, vid. 79. 

271. H. Berlandieriana Mor.vid. 

84a. 

272. H. bicinctaiy, Chemn., Phil. 

273. H. b i c r u r i s i^r. 
I860.] 



274. H. b i 1 i n e a t a P/., Chemn., Rve. 
H. zonites Rve. 615. 

275. H. caduca Pf., Rve., Chemn., 

=290? 

276. H. C h i a p e n s i s i^^: 

277. H. coactillata Fer. 

278. H. contortuplicata Beck. 

279. H. C o r d o V a n a Pf. 

280. H. Couloni ShuttL, Pf 

281. H. flavescens Wiegfn., Pf. , 

Chemn. 

282. H. fulvoidea Mor., Pf. 

283. H. Ghiesbreghti iVys^, ^:, 

Rve., Chemn., Desh. in Fer. 

284. H. g r i s e 1 a P/: vid. 113, 

285. H. Guillarmodi ShuttL, Pf, 

Chemn., Rve. 

286. H. helictomphala Pf. 

287. H. H i nd s i iy. vid. 117. 

288. H. Humboldtiana VaL,Pf. 

Chemn., Rve., Desh. in Fer.. 

Phil. 
H. Buffoniana Pf., Phil., Chemn., 

Fer., Rve., Binn. 
H. badiocincta Wiegm. 

289. H. i m p 1 i c a t a Beck. 

290. H. 1 u c u b r a t a Say, Pf, ner. 

Binn. vid. 275. 

291. H. Me xicana Koch., Chemn.. 

Pf 

292. H. Oajacensis Koch.. Chemn., 

Pf 

293. H. plagioglossa Pf 

294. H. Salle ana iy.,i?i-e., Chemn. 

295. H. stolephora VaL, Pf, 

Chemn., Desh., Rve. 
Helicella bupthalmus Fer. 
Helix Lamarkiana (J. Pf. 
]Vanina stolephora Pf., Gr. et Pf. 

" bicolor Pf. (olim.) 

296. H. tenuicostata Dunk., 

Chemn., Rve., Pf'.. 

297. H. Texasiana Mor. vid. 170. 

298. H. t rypanomp ala Pf 

299. H. Veracruzensis Pf, 

300. H. zonites Pf, Rve., (excl. 

615.) 
Nanina zonites Gr. 

BUUMUS. 

301. B. alternatus Say, vid. 182. 



152 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



302. B. attenuatus Pf., Chemn. 

303. B. aurifluus Pf. 

304. B. Cordovanus Pf. 

305. B. coriaceus Pf. 

306. B. costatostriatus Pf. 

307. B. Drouet i Pf. 

308. B. Dunkeri Pf, Rve. 

309. B. emeus Say, Pf 

310. B. fenestra! us Pf, Rve., 

Phil. 

311. B. gnomon Beck. 

312. B. Gruneri JFf., Rve., Chemn. 

313. B. Hegewischi ^., /?re. 

314. B. Humboldti Pf, Rve. 

B. Mexicanus Val., nee Lam. 
var. /?. 
var. y. Bulimus primularis Rve., 

Pf (olim.) 
var. cT. 
var. i. 

315. B. livescens Pf., Rve., Phil. 

316. B. M a r i fe Albers, =183. 

317. B. Martensi Pf. 

318. B. Mexicanus Pf., Rve., 

Deless., Desk, in Lam. 
Cochlogena vittata Fer. 
Orthalicus? Mexicanus Carp. 

318a, B. patriarcha W. G. Binn. 

319. B. p u n c t a t i s s i m u s Less., 

Rve., Pf., Chemn. 
Clausilia punctatissima Less. 
" exesa Pot. et Mich. 
Auricula fuscagula Lea. 
Pupa septemplicata Muhlf. 
Bulimus fuscagula Orb. 
" septemplicatus Pf. 

(olim.) 
" dentatus King? 
Cochlodrina exesa Fer. 

320. B. rudis Anton, Rve., Pf. 

321. B. SchiedeanusP/. vid.\%^. 

322. B. serperastrus Say. , Pf., 

Chemn. 
var. li. Bulimus Liebmanni Pf. 
" Ziehmanni Rve. 
" serperastrus var. 
Chemn. 
var. y. Bidimus nitelinus Rve. 

323. B. sulcosus Pf., Phil., Rve., 
B. hyematus Rve. 



324. B. sulphureus Pf. 

325. B. truncatus Pf., Rve., Phil. 

326. B. varicosus Pf., Chemn. 

Spiraxis. 

327. S. a c u s ShuttL, Pf. 

328. S. auriculacea Pf. 

329. S. b iconic a P/. 

330. S. catenata Pf. 

331. S, coniformis ShuttL, Pf. 

332. S. dubia Pf. 

333. S. e u p t y c t a i^; 

334. S, i r r i g u a ShuttL, Pf. 

335. S. lurida ShuttL, Pf. 

336. S. mitraeformis ShuttL, Pf. 

337. S. Nicole ti ShuttL, Pf. 
Achatina Nicoleti Chemn. 

338. S. nigricans Pf., Shuttl. 
Achatina nigricans Pf. olim, Rve.. 

Desh. in Fer. 
Glandina nigricans Pf. olim. 

339. S. o b 1 o n g a iy. 

340. S. parvula Pf. 

341. S. Shuttleworthi Pf. 

342. S. streptostyla Pf. 
Achatina streptostyla Pf. olim, 

Chemn. 

343. S. turgid ul a Pf. 

Orthaliccs. 
343a. 0. Boucardi Pf 

344. 0. livens Pf, Bk., Shuttl. 

345. 0. long us Pf. 
Bulimus zebra p. Pf. (olim.) 

346. 0. undatus Brug. vid. 19G. 

Achatina. 

347. A. a m b i g u a Pf. 

348. A. Chiapensis Pf. 

349. A. Rangiana Pf'., Rve. 

350. A. trochlea Pf, Chemn. 

351. A. trypanodes Pf. 

Cylindrella. 

352. C. apiostoma Pf. 
352o. C. arctispira Pf. 

353. C. attenuata Pf., Chemn. 

354. C. Boucardi Pf. 

355. C. clava Pf, Chemn. 
355a. C. ere t ace a Pf. 

fMay. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



153 



356. C. decollata Nyst. (Pttpa), 

P/',, C'hemn. 

357. C. denticulata Pf., Chemn. 
.358. C. filicosta ShuttL, Pf., 

Chemn. 

359. C. Ghiesbreghti P/.,C%emn. 

360. C. goniostoma Pf., Chemn. 
360a. C. g r a n d i s Pf. 

361. C. Liebmanni Pf., Chemn., 

Phil. 
361a. C. Mexicana Cuin. 

362. C. Pfeifferi Menke, Chemn., 

Phil. 

363. C. P i 1 o c e r e i Pf, Chemn., Phil. 

364. C. polygyra Pf., Chemn. 

365. C. teres Menke, Pf, Chemn., 

Phil. 
365a. C. s p 1 e n d i d a /^: 

366. C. t u r r i s Pf., Chemn. 

Familia AURICULIDiE. 

Melampus. 

367. M. coffea Linn. vid. 229. 

Familia TRUNCATELLIDJi:. 
Teuncatella. 

368. T. Caribaeensis Sowh. vid. 

238. 

Familia CYCLOPHORIDiE. 

Cyclotus. 

369. C. Dysoni Pf. 
Cyclostoma Dysoni Pf. (olim), 

Chemn. 
Cyclophorus Dysoni Pf. (olim), 
Gr. et. Pf. 

Cyclophorus. 

370. C. Boucardi Salle, Pf. 

371. C. Mexicanus {Cyclostoma) 

Menke, Vgt., Phil., Sby., Chemn. 
Cyclotus Mexicanus Gr. et Pf., Pf. 
(olim.) 

TUDORA. 

372. T. p 1 a n o s p i r a Pf. 
Cyclostoma planospira Pf. (olim.) 

CiSTULA. 

373. C. trochlearis Pf, Gr. et 

Pf. 
Cyclostoma trochleare Pf. (olim), 
Chemn. 

I860.] 



Cyclostoma trochlea Pf. (olim), 
nee Bens. 

Chondropoma. 

374. C. Cordovanum Pf. 
Cyclostoma Cordovanum Pf. (olim.) 

375. C. truncatum {Cyclostoma) 

Wiegm., Rossm. 
Chondropoma truncatum Pf., Gr. 
etPf. 

Familia HELICINID^. 
Helicina. 
376 H. brevilabris Pf. 

377. H. Chiapensis Pf. 

378. H. chrysocheila Binn. vid. 

242. 

379. H. chrysocheila ^Au^Z-.P/. 

(nomen tr.) 

380. H. cine t el la ShuttL, Pf. 

381. H. concentrica Pf., Gr. et 

Pf, Chemn. 

382. H. Cordillerse SalU, Pf. 

383. H. delicatula ShuttL, Pf. 

384. H. elata ShuttL, Pf. 

385. H. f 1 a V i d a Menke, So^cb., 

Chemn., Pf., Gr. et Pf. 
H. Ambieliana Boissy, Pot. et 

Mich. 
H. trossula Mor. 

386. H. Ghiesbreghti Pf. 
386a. H. H e 1 i s ae SalU. 

387. H. Lindeni Pf., Chemn., Gr. 

etPf. 

388. H. lirata Pf., Gr. et Pf.. 

Chemn. 

389. H. merdigera Salli, Pf. 

390. H. n 1 a t a SalU, Pf. 

391. H. Oweniana Pf., Chemn., 

Gr. et Pf. 

392. H. Sandozi ShuttL, Pf. 

393. H. s i n u s a Pf., Cliemn., Gr. et 

Pf- 

394. H. tenuis Pf., Chemn., Gr. et 

Pf- 

395. H. t r o p i c a iy. vid. 247. 

396. H. turbinata Wiegm., Pf., 

Mke., Chemn., Gr. et Pf. 
H. zephyrina var. Sowb. 

397. H. zephyrina Duel., Sowb., 

Chemn., Orb.,^ Gr. et Pf. 
IT. Ambeliana Sowb. 
Oligyra zephyrina Mrs. Gray. 



154 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



SCHAZICHEILA. 

398. S. alata {Helicina) Mke., Gr. 

et Ff. 

Schazicheila alata Shuttl., Pf., 
Ad. Gen. 

399. S. Nicoleti Shuttl., Pf. 

400. S. pannucea Mor. 
Helicina alata var.? Gr. et Pf. 



Familia PROSERPINIDiE. 

Ceees. 

401. C. eolina (Carocolla) Duclos. 
Helicodonta eolina Fer. 
Odontostomus eolimtm Pf. (olim.) 
Proserpina eolina Pf. (olim.) 
Ceres eolina Pf., Gr. et Pf. 

402. C. Salleana Cum., Pf., Gr. et 

Pf. 



Descriptions of New Species of Pulmonata in the Collection of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

BY W. G. BINNEY. 

Pedipes lirata. T. imperforata, globoso-conica, solida, liris regularibus 
spiraliter cincta, nitens, straminea ; spira brevis, depressa, apice obtusa ; anfr. 
3, superi brevi, ultimus 5-6 longitudinis subsequans : apertura semicircularis ; 
paries aperturalis callonitente induta, et plica elevata, crassa, unca et intrante 
armata ; labium columellarecallosnm, dentibus 2 approximatis, crassis, acutis, 
munitum ; perist. acutum, intus callo nitente in medio dentem formante 
munitum. Diam. maj. 2^, long. 3^ ; aperturse long. 2J, mill. 

Ad promont. St. Lucas poeninsulae Californise collegit J. Xantus (cum Buli- 
mo proteo Bred., B. pallidiori Sowb. et B. excelso Gould.) 

0^■CHIDIUM Carpestebi. Among the moUusca from the Straits of De Fuca, 
Mr. Carpenter has detected five specimens of a shelless mollusk, which evi- 
dently belong to the genus Onchidium. Being preserved in alcohol it is diffi- 
cult to obtain any more satisfactory specific characters than ihe following : 
The body is oblong, with its extremities circularly rounded ; the upper sur- 
face is regularly arched ; below, quite near the edge, the border of the mantle 
is readily distinguished, most of the under surface is occupied by the broad, 
distinct, locomotive disk ; the body is uniformly smoke-colored ; in size the 
individuals vary considerably, the length of the largest being 5, the extreme 
breadth 3 millimetres. 



A List of the SHELLS of the State of Wisconsin. 
BY J. A. LAPHAM. 

ViTEixA LiMPiDA, Gould, N. W. Territory, Say. 

SucciXEA AVARA, Say, Milwaukee ! 

OBLiQUA, Say, do. ! 

ovALis, Gould, do. ! 

Helix albolabkis. Say, do. ! 

ALTEENATA, Say, do. ! 

arboeea, Say, do. ! 

CHERSiNA, Say, do. ! 

CLADSA, Say, do. ! 

coNCAVA, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 

ELEVATA, Say, R. Kennicott. 

FRATERNA, Say, Milwaukee ! 

HiEStJTA, Say, do. ! 

LABYEixTHicA, Say, do. ! 

LiGERA, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 

LUfEATA, Say, Milwaukee I 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 155 

MONODON, Rack, Milwaukee ! 

MULTiLiNEATA, Say, do. ! 

(PERSPECTiVA, Say, ? ) 

PROFUNDA, Say, Milwaukee ! 

STEiATELLA, Authony, do. ! 
Bdlimus harpa. Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 

MARGiNATUs, Say, Milwaukee ! 
Achatina lubkica, Mill. do. ! 

Pupa armifera, Say, (?) 

coRTicARiA, Say, (?) Milwaukee ! 
Vertigo ovata, Say, (?) do. ! 

Carychium exiguum, Say, (?) do. ! 
Helicina occulta, Say, Sheboygan ! ! 



I860.] 



Amnicola limosa, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 

LUSTRicA, Say, Milwaukee ! 
Melania depygis. Say, (?) do. ! 

ELONGATA, Say ? (or ELEVATA ?) Milwaukee ! 
OCCULTA, Anth., Wisconsin, Anthony. 
Leptoxis isogona, Say, Rock River ! 
ViviPAEUS DECisus, Say, Milwaukee ! 

suBGLOBOSus, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 
Valvata sincera. Say, Milwaukee ! 
TRiCARiNATA, Say, do. ! 
LrnvMA CAPERATA, Say, (?) do. ! 

cATAscopicM, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 
COLUMELLA, Say, (?) Milwaukee! 
EMARGiNATA, Say, Madisou, Wisconsin ! 
FRAGiLis, Say, Milwaukee ! 
GRACILIS, Say, do. ! 
juGULARis, Say, do. ! 

MEGASOMA, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 
UMBEOSA, Say, do. do. 

Physa ELONGATA, Say, Milwaukee ! 
HETEROSTROPHA, Say, do. ! 
Planorbis aemigerus, Say, do. ! 
BicARiNATUS, Say, do. ! 
CAMPANULATus, Say, Milwaukee. 
corpulentus, Say, N. W. Territory, Say. 
deflectus, Say, Milwaukee 
EXACUTus, Say, do. 

parvus, Say, do. 

TRivoLvis, Say, do. 

Ancylus diaphanus, Hald. (?) do. 
RivuLARis, Say, do. 

Unio alatcs. Say, do. 

GRACILIS, Bar. do. 

PRESsus, Lea, do. 

plicatus, Lesueur, Rock and Wisconsin Rivers ! 
hchoolcraftensis, Lea, Fox River, Lea, 
cornutus, Bar., Fox River, Barnes. 
postulosus, Lea, Rock and Wisconsin Rivers ! 
VERRUCOSUS, Bar., Rock River ! 
METANEVEus, Raf., Wiscousiu River ' 
TUBERCULATUS, Bar., do. 

ELEGANS, Lea, do. 

DONACiFORMis, Lea, (?) 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Unio zig-zag. Lea, Wisconsin River ! 
TRIGONES, Lea, Milwaukee 1 
OBLiQucs, Lam., Wisconsin River ! 
jiYTiLOiDES, Raf., Rock River ! 

VENTEicoscrs, Bar., Wisconsin River, Barnes. 
ELLIPSIS, Lea, Wisconsin River ! 
CAKiosns, Say, Silver Lake ! 
LiGAMENTisus, Lam., Milwaukee! 
LUTEOLUs, Lam., do. ! 

HADiATus, Lam., do. ! 

PARVUS, Bar., Fox River, Barnes. 
RECTPS, Lam., Wisconsin and Rock Rivers ! 
IRIS, Lea, (?) 

TExnissiMus, Lea, Milwaukee ! 
PHASEOLus, Hild., Wisconsin River, Barnes. 
GiBBoscs, Bar., Milwaukee ! 
Margaritana complanata, Lea, Milwaukee 
MARGiNATA, Lea, do. 

rugosa. Lea, do. 

CALCEOLA, Lea, do. 

Anodoxta edextula. Lea, do. 

FERussAciANA, Lea, do. 

iMBECiLis, Say, do. 

FLuviATiLis, Lea, (?) do. 

PLANA, Lea, (?) do. 

KoTE. — The localities observed by me are marked with an exclamation point (!) after the manner 
of botanists. 



Coutributions to American Lepidopterology.— No. 4. 
BY BRACKENRIDGE CLEMENS, M. D. 

Saturnla Schrank. 

S. g alb in a. — Antennae luteous. Body and head rather dark brown. 
Fore wings yellowish-brown, with a rather faint whitish, angulated band at 
the base. On the discal nervure is a round, black ocellus having a central 
subvitreous streak, containing a yellow circle, and toward the base of the 
wing a slender blue crescent. A whitish band crosses the middle of the ner- 
vules, with a faint wavy one between it and the hind margin. In the apical 
interspace is a black spot, with a crimson streak to the tip of the wing. The 
marginal portion of the wing is whitish, and is tinged on the terminal edge 
with pale yellowish brown. Hind wings similar in color and ornamentation 
to the fore wings, the ocelli being somewhat smaller. On the under surface, 
which is similar iu hue to the upper, the faint wavy bands of the fore and 
hind wings are very distinct. 

Texas. From the Smithsonian Institution. Capt. Pope's collection. 

PiMELA. 

La the fore wings, the costal and subcostal nervures are placed near each 
other and the exterior margin. The subcostal sends a single marginal branct 
from near the posterior- superior angle of the disk, delivered to the margin 
near the tip, and just behind this angle divides into two branches ; the upper 
one or the apical is simple, and the lower one is subdivided into three ner- 
vules, the post apical arising near the upper third and the infra post-apical and 
subcosto-inferior near the middle. The discal nervure arises midway between 
the origin of the subcosto-marginal branch and that of the apical ; it is acutely 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 157 

augulated about the middle and sends a false nervule through the disk to the 
base of the wing, and above this arises the discal nervule. 

The median nervure is four-branched. In place of the fold is a slender, 
.simple nervure. The submedian sends two branches to the inner margin, one 
from the upper third and one from the lower third of the nervure. (This may 
be a malformation. However I can scarcely believe it is one.) 

Hind wings without costal nervure. The subcostal forms an imperfect cell 
at its base, and near the hind end of the disk sends off an apical branch, which 
gives rise to an oblique but not angulated discal nervure ; from this arises a 
false nervule running to the base, and nearly opposite to it a discal nervule to 
the hind margin. 

Median nervure four-branched. Submedian and internal, simple. 

Body stout and very pilose, woolly. Head rather small : eyes rather large 
and salient. Antennae, basal joint somewhat tufted, rather longer than the 
thorax, rather deeply pectinated with the branches decreasing in length to the 
tip, and both sets directed forward. Labial palpi extremely short, almost ru- 
dimentary. Tongue none. Abdomen equal in length to the hind wings. 
Tibiae moderately ciliated exteriorly ; hind tibiae with two very short apical 
.spurs. 

This genus may, perhaps, be the same as Mr. Walker's L a g o a . 

P. lanuginosa. — Female? The wings are badly worn and denuded. 
Antennae pale brownish-yellow. Face dark brownish : head and body dull 
yellow. The anterior tibiae and all the tarsi are dark brownish. The un- 
denuded portion of the fore wings at the base, is woolly and pale brownish 
yellow. 

Male ? Antennae yellowish white. Face and the fore legs blackish-brown, 
the hairs white and all the tarsi blackish-brown toward the ends. Thorax 
white, very slightly tinted with yellowish. Abdomen rather deep, dull yel- 
low. Wings white, slightly tinted with yellowish ; fore wings woolly toward 
the base, with a dark brownish discoloration along the upper part of the disk 
and the costa adjoining it. 

The female ? of this species was ticketed by the collector Bombyx 1 a n u - 
g i n s u s , but I have not been able to find any description under this name, 
nor any that designates the insect itself. 

From the Smithsonian Institution. Capt. Pope's coll. Texas. 

LiMAcoDES Latreille. 

L. la tic la via. — Body and fore wings rather dark ochreous-yellow. 
Fore wings with an oblique silvery band, inclined toward the base of the wing, 
from the costa to the middle ol inner margin, and toothed toward the base on 
the submedian nervure or fold. A rather faint dark reddish brown line, ex- 
tends from the costal origin of the silvery band to the hind margin beneath 
the middle. Hind wings pale ochreous-yellow. Abdomen rather reddisb- 
ochreons. 

Larva. — Outline elliptical somewhat pointed behind ; body flattened, with 
the sides curving from a central ridge, flattened above. The ridge has a ver- 
tical elevation at its sides above the body, growing less and less before and be- 
hind, and terminates in front in a rounded margin and behind in an obtuse, 
short spine. The body is smooth, with no distinct spined papulaj, but the 
•^dges of the ridge and the outline of the body are thrown into folds, subcre- 
nated. The body is thickest in the middle where it curves anteriorly nnd 
posteriorly. 

The general color of the body is pale green and dotted with namerouii yel- 
low points. The central ridge is bordered in front with yellow. 

The larva feeds on the underside of the leaf of maple in September, and the 
imago from it appears in the spring. There is doubtless a spring brood of 
larvae. 

I860.] 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Var. laticlavia? Imago, brownish-liiteous, sometimes inclining to yel- 
lowish. Fore wings with an oblique silvery band from the costa to the mid- 
dle of the inner margin, toothed on the submedian fold and shaded behind with 
blackish-brown, with a blackish-brown line from the costal origin of the silvery 
band to the hind margin beneath the middle. Hind wings dark brown, yellow- 
ish at the base. 

Three sp. from Robert Kennicott, Illinois. 

Adoneta. 

The characteristics in wing structure are ; that the subcostal nervure is re- 
mote from the anterior margin, and gives off two marginal branches from the 
disk one near the middle and one near the end, and then subdivides beyond 
the disk into an apical and post apical branch. The disco-central nervule 
arises above the middle of the discal nervure at an angle, whence the nervure 
curves to the first branch of the median. In the hind wings the costal and 
subcostal intersect at their bases. The latter is bifid beyond the disk ; the 
disco-central is continued to the base of the wing, attenuated within the disk, 
and the discal nervure is straight on the costal side of it, and very oblique on 
the median side ; with their points of junction separated. Median thret- 
branched. 

Body rather slender, not pilose. Head small ; eyes quite small. Autennnr 
rather more than one laalf as long a^ the body. Labial palpi somewhat ex- 
ceeding the front, rather slender, nearly cylindrical, squamose above and slight- 
ly hirsute beneath ; third joint very small, the development being chiefly in 
the second joint. Tongue none. Abdomen much shorter than the hind 
wings. Fore legs rather slender, tibia? moderately ciliated ; middle and hind 
tibife thickly and shortly ciliated, with two rather short apical spurs. Wings 
very much deflexed in repose, almost enveloping the body. Male. — The 
basal half of the antennae shortly pectinated. Female. — Antenut-e simple. 

A. voluta. — Reddish-brown, somewhat paler in the 9 than the (J. 
Fore wings with a dingy yellow streak along the base of the inner margin, 
extended toward the disk above the middle of the wing and on this portion 
are two or three blackish dots. On the hind portion of the disk is a short 
black streak. In the (^ there is another short black streak along the median 
nervure and its last branch, with a curved row of three, black, submarginal 
spots. The lower streak and the spots are as distinct in the 9 as in the (^. 
In both sexes there is a subapical dingy yellow patch, lightly bordered behind 
with whitish. Hind margin spotted with black. Hind wing pale reddish 

brown. 

Larva. Body semi-cylindrical, tapering posteriorly and rounded obtusely 

in front. Nearly smooth, but with a subvascular row of small fleshy, minute- 
ly spined papulse on each side of the vascular line, three of which placed an- 
teriorly are separated and distinct, and three approximated on the last rings ; 
the intermediate ones are minute. The outline of the body above the ven- 
tral surface, is furnished with a row of minute spined papulae. 

Bright green, with a broad dorsal yellow band containing a reddish purple, 
one which is constricted opposite the second and third pairs of anterior papu- 
lae and dilated into an elliptical patch in the middle of the body. This is 
almost separated from a smaller elliptical patch which is constricted opposit»- 
the third pair of posterior papulse and ends in a small round patch. The an- 
terior and posterior papulse are crimson and the intermediate ones green. Thf 
superventral row of spined papulae are green. 

In September, on the leaf of Apricot. Imago in March. 

Empretia. 

In the anterior wings the subcostal nervure is moderately remote from tli^ 
external margin sends oflF two marginal branches from the disk, and beyond 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 159 

it snbdivides, first near the disk, into a subcosto-inferior branch, and then into 
an apical and post apical branch. The discal nervure is very irregular, and 
sends from its costal portion a disco-central nervule, whilst the middle of the 
disk contains a bifid false nervule. The internal nervure is bifid at its base. 
In the hind wings the costal and subcostal nervures intersect at their bases. 
The subcostal is bifid near the disk. The costal portion of the discal nervure 
is angulated, and forms likewise an acute angle in the middle of the disk, 
whence a false nervule proceeds to the base of the wing, and obliquely joins 
the median system, giving rise on the median side to a disco-central nervule. 

Body stout or very stout, thorax covered thickly with flat hairs. Head 
quite small ; eyes small and oval. Labial palpi somewhat exceeding the head, 
slightly curved, more robust in the (^ than in the ^ ! third joint small and 
conical, about four times less long than the second and slightly hirsute be- 
neath. Tongue none. Antennse rather more than one half the length of the 
body. Abdomen shorter than the hind wings. Fore legs long and rather 
slender ; fore tibije and tarsi moderately ciliated ; middle and hind tibia? 
thickly ciliated, with two moderate apical spurs on hind tibiae. Male. — An- 
tennas, basal half pectinated. Female. — Simple. 

E. stimulea . — Body and fore wings uniform dark ferruginous, with two 
small subapical white spots, and in the (j^ two more near the base of the wing 
beneath the median nervure. Hind wings pale reddish-brown. 

Larva. — Body semicylindrical, truncated obliquely before and behind, with 
a pair of anterior, long, fleshy, subvascular slenderly spined horns and a pair 
smaller beneath them, above the head ; a posterior similar pair and a smaller 
anal pair beneath them. The superventral of papulae are rather large and 
densely spined. After the last moulting the longer horns become moderate 
in length. 

The portion of the body between the anterior and posterior horns is a fine, 
bright green color, bordered anteriorly and superventrally by white, with a 
central, dorsal, oval reddish brown patch bordered with white, which color is 
again edged by a black line. The horns, papulae and anterior portion of the 
body are reddish brown, with a small yellow spot between the anterior horns. 
while the posterior pair are placed in a yellow patch. 

The spines with which the horns are supplied, produce an exceeding pain- 
ful sensation when they come in contact with the back of the hand, or any 
portion of the body on which the skin is thin. 

On a great variety of plants ; fruit trees, the rose, Indian corn, (Zea mays) 
and a number of other plants. 

E. paenulata . — Body dark reddish brown. Fore wings dark rediish- 
brown along all the borders, with a large, central j>«a-green patch, extending 
from the base of the wing to the subterminal portion, bordered narrowly on 
the inner side and behind with white, and deeply indented opposite the mid- 
dle of the inner margin, where there is a bright brown patch in the reddish 
brown border. Hind wings yellowish brown. 

I do not know the larval state of this species, and have only two specimens, 
both apparently females. I can perceive no differences in the structural char- 
acters of the imago of this and the previous species, and am quite sure that 
they belong to the same generic group. The discovery of the larval form will. 
however, determine the question. 

From Mr. Robert Kennicott, Illinois. 

NOCHELIA. 

In the anterior wings, the subcostal nervure is remote from the external 
margin, and the costal arises from its base ; it gives off a marginal branch 
near the posterior end of the disk, and another exterior to the disk. The sub- 
costo inferior branch arises nearly midway between this latter and the post- 
1860.] 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

apical, which is given off near the tip of the wing. The discal nervnre is 
doubly angulated, and gives rise to the disco-central nervule at the angle on 
the costal side ; and from the central, a false nervule to the base of the wing. 
Median four-branched. Internal bifid at the base. 

In the hind wings, the costal and subcostal have a common trunk. The 
subcostal bifid beyond the disk. The subcostal and median portions of the 
discal nervure are much separated at their points of junction with the disco- 
central, which is continued as a false nervule to the base of the wing. 

Male. — Body stout and very short ; thorax covered with flat hairs. Head 
and eyes moderate, the latter oval. Labial palpi slightly exceeding the front, 
rather stout, porrect, third joint very minute. No tongue. Antennje much 
more than one half as long as the body, with the basal third pectinated. Ab- 
domen shorter than the hind wings. The middle and hind tibiae rather thick- 
ly ciliated ; apical spurs of hind tibise, if present, inconspicuous. 

N. tardigrada . — Male. — Body and fore wings rather dark reddish brown, 
with a small, nearly triangular pea-green patch narrowly bordered with dark 
brown at the base of the wing beneath the median nervure, slightly excavated 
behind where it adjoins a bright brown patch. Towards the hind end of the 
disk, in its middle, is a minute, oval dark brown streak ; two small pea -green 
subapical spots, the one nearest the costa minute. 

Larva. — Tlie body is elliptical, much flattened above. There is on each 
side a row of subvascular, minutely spined papulae, of which the three anterior 
and two posterior are more conspicuous than the rest. The superventral row 
of papulae are moderate, equal, and form the outline of the body. 

General color very pale green, with dorsal patches of the general hue beau- 
tifully margined by crimson lines, and crimson, vascular patches, of which 
those between ihn fourth andjifth, seventh and ejjrAfA pairs of subvascular papu- 
lae are most conspicuous, although small. All the papulae pale green. 

On the apricot in September. Imago in April. 

I have descriptions of other larvae similar in physical characteristics to the 
above, but have not succeeded in carrying them through their transforma- 
tions. 

The genera Pimela, Limacodes, Adoneta, Empretia and Nochelia belong to 
that most anomalous family Limacodidae. Perhaps some of the groups de- 
scribed as new have been heretofore established, but I found the effort to 
identify them from meagre and unsatisfactory diagnoses of the imago an 
almost futile task. 

Attacus Hiibner. 

The following species have never been described I believe, except by De 
Beauvois, and as his work is now rather rare and an expensive one, and not 
accessible to the great body of American entomologists, I insert here de- 
scriptions of the following insects : 

A. splendida, Bombix splendida, De Beauvois, Ins. en Afrique et 
en Amer. p. 133, pi. 22, f. 1, 2. 

Dull reddish-brown. Thorax banded with white before and behind. Ab- 
domen with a white stigmatal band edged above and beneath with black and 
containing reddish brown spots. Fore wings with a basal white streak ex- 
tending from the costa to the base of medio-posterior nervule and thence to 
the inner margin at the base of the wing, bordered toward the base with 
orange-yellowish and externally by black. The breadth of the disk is occu- 
pied by a large trigonate vitreous patch, extended behind so as to interrupt a 
white wavy, narrow band crossing the middle of the nervules and which is 
bordered internally with black and externally with orange-yellowish. The 
trigonate patch is edged within by white and externally by black behind and 
before. Beyond the transnervular band, the wing is brown dusted with 
blackish and powdered with whitish roseate in the medio-posterior and sub- 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 161 

median interspaces behind the band. At the tip is a large whitish roseate 
patch, three contiguous black spots at the end of post apical interspace, with 
a wavy black, submarginal line. Hind margin luteo-testaceous. Hind wings, 
trigonate vitreous patch somewhat larger than in fore wings, with a trans- 
nervular band similar to fore wings, continued around the costa to the base 
of the wing and the medio-posterior interspace and those adjoining it, 
powdered with whitish roseate behind the band. Hind margin luteo-testa- 
ceous with a row of black spots and a dark brown line. 
From Smithsonian Institution. Capt. Pope's coll. Texas. 

Hypercompa Stephens. 

H. interrupto-marginata. — Bombix interrupto-marginata, Dt 
Beauvois Ins. Afriq. et Amer. p. 265, pi. 24, f. 5, 6. Head and labial palpi 
pale orange yellow, the latter with black tips. Thorax pale yellow, with 
a broad black stripe on the disk. Abdomen orange yellow, with a dorsal 
black stripe. Fore wings pale yellow, with a black streak along the costa 
not reaching the tip of the wing, a broad streak of the same hue along 
the inner margin, sending from the inner angle toward the hind end of the 
disk, a hooked demi-band ; hind margin black in the middle. Hind wings 
pale orange-yellow, with a black spot near the inner angle and a larger 
one in the middle of the medio-posterior interspace and nervule. Legs 
pale orange-yellow. 

Virginia and Wisconsin. 

TINEIXA. 
Anoethosia. 

Anterior wings rather narrow, and somewhat lanceolate. The subcostal 
nervure is nearly straight and gives off from the disk, which is unclosed, 
three marginal nervules and becomes bifid before the tip. The discal ner- 
vule is independent. The median is four-branched, its last nervule is bifid 
and arises opposite the middle of the origins of the 2d and 3d subcosto 
marginals. The submedian is bifid at its base. 

Hind wings somewhat emarginate behind the tip on the external mar- 
gin, and rather deeply emarginate beneath the tip. Disk unclosed. Sub- 
costal nervure bifid from the end of the disk. This discal nervule is trans- 
ferred to the median side, and the median nervure is three-branched. 

Head and face smooth; vertex elongated, with long loose scales over- 
lapping in the middle. Forehead rounded. Ocelli very small. Eyes small, 
round and salient. Antennae about one third less long than the anterior 
wings, basal joint long and slender, the stalk slightly denticulated beneath. 
Maxillary palpi extremely small. Labial palpi, smooth, long and porrected 
their development being almost entirely in the second joint, lohich is sup- 
plied above with long hairs capable of being erected, although usually decumb- 
ent, and with the third joint short, very slender, smooth and pointed, arising 
nearly erectly at the apical third of the second, and is likewise capable of being 
erected or depressed. Tongue scaled at the base and about as long as the 
labial palpi. 

A. p unc ti penne 11 a. — Labial palpi and head rather dark ochreous 
the former dark brownish externally. Antennae ochreous, annulated with 
dark brown. Fore wings rather dark ochreous, sometimes dusted with dark 
brownish, with three pairs of blackish brown dots along the fold, the first 
near the base of the wing, the second rather above the middle and the third 
near its end. One dot of each of the latter pairs, is in the fold, the other 
above it obliquely. The costa at the base, and beyond the middle is touched 
with blackish, with the hinder portion of the wing dotted and dusted with 
dark brown, especially along the hinder margin. Cilia ochreous. Hind 
wings shining, blackish gray, cilia the same. Abdomen blackish. 
I860.] 10 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Gelechia Zeller. 

G. cerealella. — Anacampsis (Butalis) cerealella Harris, Treat, on Ins. 
2d ed. p. 392 — Head and face dull ochreous. Labial palpi pale ochreous, 
with fuscous ring at the tip and a slight fuscous spot on the middle of the 
second joint. Fore wings pale, shining ochreous, with a fuscous streak in the 
fold toward the base and a few fuscous scales toward the tip of the wing on 
the margin ; cilia grayish ochreous. Hind wings grayish ochreous, cilia the 
same. 

This insect has doubtless been introduced into this country from Europe. 
My own specimens were obtained from the W. D. Porter wheat, distributed by 
the Patent Office at Washington City. The seed of this wheat was originally 
procured from Mount Olympus in Asia, and from two heads of this as a be- 
ginning was grown in the District of Columbia the grain distributed in the 
years 1854 and 1855. The insect is probably common in the District. 

(t. agrim n iel 1 a . — Labial palpi yellowish. Eyes crimson. Antennae 
yellowish annulated, with black. Head, thorax and fore wings blackish some- 
what suifused with a greenish hue, the latter black beyond the middle, with 
a pale yellow band, somewhat hooked on the costa, at the apical third of the 
wing. Hind wings blackish-brown, cilia the same. 

The larva may be found about the middle of June, nearly full fed, in the 
leaves of Agrimony, (Agrimonia Eiipatoria) which it rolls and binds together 
with silken threads. The body of the full grown larva is colored obscure 
green, dotted with black dots. Head and shield pale brown. The young 
larva is flesh-colored and dotted with dark colored dots. The pupa is con- 
tained in a slight cocoon, sometimes woven between the leaves of its food 
plant, but usually it is abandoned to construct it. The pupa-case is not 
thrust from the cocoon at the maturity of the insect. 

The June brood of larva become imagos during the latter part of June or 
the beginning of July. 

Fore icings scarcehj pointed. Secondary cell faintly indicated. Subcosto- 
apical vein forked. The last branch of median bifid. Hind wings emarginatc. 
before the tip and slightly beneath it ; with an intercostal cell at the base. 

G.? flavocostella . — Labial palpi wanting. Head dull reddish yellow. 
Antennae blackish-brown, yellowish toward the base. Thorax, disk black, 
front and sides dull yellow. Fore wings black, with a broad, pale yellow 
costal streak, extending from the base nearly to the tip of the wing, undula- 
ting from the base to the middle of the wing and dilated into an angle at the 
apical third, with a faint, yellowish streak produced from the apex of the 
angle toward the inner angle of the wing. Hind wings dark brown, cilia the 
same. 

This insect does not, probably, belong to the genus under which it is placed. 
As the labial palpi are wanting, I include it here from its general structure 
and appearance, not knowing otherwise where to place it. 

One specimen from A. I. Packard Jr., of Brunswick, Maine. 

The second joint of labial palpi moderately thickened. Hind wings deeply 
emarginate beneath the tip, which is produced. 

G.? roseosuffu sella . — Labial palpi, second joint whitish spotted with 
dark fuscous ; the third dark fuscous annulated with two white rings. Head 
and thorax ochreous, tegulse with a dark-brown spot in front. Antennae 
dark fuscous, annulated with whitish. Fore wings dark brown, ochreous 
along the inner margin, where it is suifused with roseate. At the base of the 
wing is a white spot containing a dark brown dot, and near the base an ob- 
lique white band. About the middle of the wing is a large white spot or in- 
distinct broad band, irrorated with dark brownish and tinted with roseate on 
the inner margin. Near the tip is a costal white spot and a roseate spot 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 163 

opposite on the inner margin, and a whitish spot at the tip. Cilia brownish 
gray. Hind wings dark fuscous-gray, cilia fuscous. Feet annulated with 
white. 

Fore wings scarcelif pointed. Hind wings slightly emarginate beneath the tip, 
with an intercostal cell at the base. 

G. Rhoifructella . — Head, face and thorax grayish-fuscous. Labial 
palpi rather dark ochreous. Antenna ochreous, annulated with black. Fore 
wings grayish-fuscous dusted with dark brown, and with four dark fuscous 
dots, one near the base of the fold, two near the middle of the wing, (one on 
the fold and one above it, ) and one on the end of the disk. Near the end of 
the wing is an indistinct grayish band. Hind wings fuscous, cilia the same. 

The larvae may be found in April or early in May, in the fruit spikes of sumach 
(Rhus Typhina), where they feed on the crimson hairs and exterior envelope 
of the drupes, without however eating the drupes themselves. The larvje are 
concealed in galleries formed in the fruit spikes, and their presence is indicated 
by strings of "frass" clinging to the exterior. The cocoon is a slight silken 
web woven amongst the "frass" near the surface. The larva is immaculate, 
and varies in color, from dark reddish-brown to a pale brown, dotted with 
rows of darker colored dots, each giving rise to a hair ; the head is brown and 
the shield blackish. The imago appears about the middle of June. 

Size small. Fore wings rather lanceolate and pointed. Hind wings deeply 
e,marginate beneath the tip, which is produced. Hie second joint of labial palpi 
somewhat thickened. 

G.? rubidella . — Head and face ochreous. Labial palpi yellowish white, 
with two deep fuscous spots on the middle joint, and two blackish brown rings 
on the terminal one, a narrow one near its base and a broad one near the tip, 
while the tip is blackish. Antennas deep fuscous annulated with white. 
Thorax fuscous, deep fuscous in front. Fore wings roseate, dusted with deep 
fuscous, with a brownish ochreous streak along the inner margin from the 
base to nearly the middle of the wing, and interrupted about its middle by a 
roseate hue. At the basal third of the wing is an oblique deep fuscous band, ex- 
tending from the costa to the fold, and beyond the middle of the costa is a 
spot of the same hue, joined toward the inner margin by a brownish- 
ochreous spot. The apical portion of the wing much dusted with deep fus- 
cous ; cilia ochreous, with a fuscous hinder marginal line. Hind wings black- 
ish gray ; cilia somewhat paler. Feet rather pale ochreous, spotted with deep 
fuscous. 

G. flexurella . — Head and face grayish fuscous. Labial palpi, second 
joint dark fuscous, terminal joint white with a blackish ring at the base and 
one near the tip. Antennse whitish annulated with dark fuscous. Fore 
wings grayish fuscous, with a pale grayish band near the apex margined in- 
ternally on the costa by a blackish brown spot, with another of the same hue 
about the middle of costa and another on the costa near tlie base. Near the 
base of the fold is a rather faint dark brownish spot, and the wing is sprinkled 
with dark brown atoms. Hind wings dark fuscous, cilia ochreous gray. 

Variety ? Fore wings smoky fuscous, with a pale grayish band near the 
tip, broadest and most distinct on the eosta, margined broadly internally across 
the wing, with dark brown, with a pale grayish spot between it and a dark 
brown spot on the middle of costa. In the middle of the wing are two dark 
brown spots, one on the basal part of the fold and a small one on the costa 
above it of the same hue. Hind wings dark fuscous. 

G. mimella. — Head and face tawny brown. Labial palpi, second joint 
dark fuscous, with a whitish ring at its end ; third joint gray with a ring in 
its middle. Antennae pale fuscous annulated with white. Fore wings tawny 
brown, with an ochreous band near the tip, margined internally slightly with 
I860.] 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

dark brown. Along the costa are a few dark brown spots and a few in the 
apical portion behind the ochreous band. Hind wings dark brown. 

Size small. Fore wings acutely pointed or lanceolate. Hind wings deeply 
emarginate beneath the tip, which is produced. Labial palpi rather short ; middle 
joint somewhat thickened uith scales, terminal rather short. 

G.? deter sell a. — Head and face grayish fuscous. Labial palpi pale 
yellowish-white, with two fuscous patches on the middle joint, a very narrow 
fuscous ring at the base of terminal joint, a broad one near the tip, with the 
extreme apex whitish. Antennae grayish fuscous, annulated with dark fus- 
cous. Fore wings grayish, very profusely dusted with dark fuscous, with a 
dark fuscous spot on the disk ; cilia ochreous gray. Hind wings pale ochreous- 
gray ; cilia pale ochreous. Feet annulated with whitish. 

I have found this genus a very difficult one. It is of great extent and in- 
cludes individuals of a variety of aspects and more or less marked modifica- 
tions in the labial palpi. The oral parts in the doubtful species correspond 
so nearly to those of the genus, that I have concluded after much hesitation 
not to place them in separate groups, notwithstanding the produced apex of 
the hind wings in some of them, 

SXBOBISIA. 

Fore wings obtuse and rounded behind. The subcostal divides into four 
branches, with the apical branch simple or forked. The discoidal nervure 
gives origin to a disco-central branch. The median is four-branched; sub- 
median forked at the base. Hind wings trapezoidal, not broader than fore 
wings, with the hinder margin slightly emarginate beneath the tip. Subcos- 
tal bifid from the discoidal, which gives rise to a disco-central vein. Median 
three-branched, the two upper branches aiising at a common base. 

Head smooth with appressed scales. Forehead and face rounded. Ocelli 
large. Eyes oval and obliquely placed. Labial palpi recurved, moderately 
long ; second joint flattened, smooth with appressed scales ; third slender, 
smooth and pointed. Maxillary palpi short and distinct. Antenna slender, 
simple ; basal joint subclavate. Tongue scaled, nearly or quite as long as the 
thorax beneath. 

The structure of the insects here included, closely approach that of the 
genus Gelechia, in which I placed them in the first arrangement. I cannot 
believe, however, that they are members of this group, and have hence re- 
moved them. The perfect insects are most commonly found in shaded places, 
on the surface of leaves. They are active and restless in their motions, and 
turn in circles on their resting places, especially after short flights ; withal 
they are disposed to be quarrelsome and drive away from the leaves on which 
they may happen to be enjoying themselves, other " little people" of the 
shaded wood. 

Fore wings obtusely rounded behind. Subcosto apical branch simple. 31edio 
posterior vein bifid. 

S. iridipennella . — Head and thorax brown, with a greenish hue ; 
face whitish beneath. Labial palpi dull silvery. Antennae dark brown. Fore 
wings dark brown, with a greenish-golden hue. Along the costa are three 
metallic blue or violet-blue oblique streaks scarcely reaching the middle of 
the wing, the first is longest and is placed about the middle of the costa, the 
third near the tip, and with three spots of the same hue beneath the second 
streak, one in the fold and two in the middle of the wing. In the apical por- 
tion near the hind margin are three or four parallel similarly hued streaks 
and at the base of the fold is a violet-blue spot. Hind wings brown, along 
the base of costa pale yellow, 

[May, 



1 

I 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 165 

Vore wings obtuse, hind margin slightly oblique. Apical branch bifid. 
S. emblemella . — Head and thorax dark brownish, with a golden hue ; 
fac« whitish beneath. Labial palpi silvery gray ; third joint fuscous in front. 
Antennae dark fuscous. Fore wings dark brown, somewhat golden. The 
costa at the base and a basal band are dull silvery and rather behind the 
middle of costa is an oblique silvery costal streak and about the middle 
is a curved costal streak of the same hue. This unites with an oblique 
silvery streak, from the middle of inner margin, and which becomes diffuse in 
the middle of the wing. Near the tip at the beginning of the costal cilia, is a 
small costal silvery spot and a row of spots or short parallel bluish silvery 
streaks along the hinder margin. Cilia at the tip ochreous, containing a dark 
fuscous line ; on inner margin dark fuscous. Hind wings dark brown, yel- 
lowish along the costa ; cilia dark brown. 

Endrosis ? Hiibner. 

Hind wings to'th a medio-discal branch, in addit'on to the discocentral ; terminal 
branch of median bifid. Transparent patch at base, quite distinct. 

E.? Kennico tt e 1 1 a . — Head and thorax white, with a small dark fus- 
cous patch on the front of tegulae. Labial palpi white, terminal joint with a 
dark fuscous ring at the base and one near the tip, with the extreme apex 
white. Antennae dark fuscous. Fore wings whitish, much dusted with dark 
fuscous. At the base is a white spot and the adjoining portion of the costa 
dark fuscous ; behind the middle and near the tip is a whitish spot and oppo- 
site the latter on the inner margin is a whitish spot nearly joining it, both 
dusted with fuscous. Apical portion, dark fuscous, with a few whitish spots 
on the margins ; cilia ochreous. Hind wings gray ; cilia pale ochreous. Feet 
with tarsi annulated. 

From Mr. Robert Kennicott of North Westfield, 111. Two specimens. 

Ev AGORA. 

Fore wings rather narrow and obliquely pointed at the tip ; inner margin 
slightly retuse beyond the middle. Discoidal cell closed by a faint, simple, 
oblique nervure, given off from the subcostal near the third marginal branch ; 
without disco-central nervule. The subcostal runs almost straight from the 
base to the tip of the wing, giving off from the cell three marginal branches, 
one near the middle of the wing and two near the end of the disk ; beyond the 
disk it sends another branch to the costa, and before the tip becomes bifid send- 
ing one branch above and another below the tip. The median subdivides into 
four branches, which are aggregated at their origins, and, except the medio-pos- 
terior, are long. The submedian is furcate at its base. Hind wings deeply 
emarginate beneath the tip, which is abruptly produced, although short. 
The discoidal cell is closed by a slight curved nervure, and is without a disco- 
central nervule. The subcostal is bifid from the discal nervure, and the median 
gives rise to a medio-discal nervule which curves much upward ; the last 
branch of the median much removed from the two terminal branches which 
are approximated. 

Size small, forehead rounded ; face rather narrow. Ocelli none. Eyes round, 
moderately prominent. Antennae rather thick, simple, and about one half as long 
as the fore wings ; basal joint rather slender but short. Labial palpi cylindrical, 
rather short, middle joint slightly thickened toward its extremity, at least one 
half longer than the terminal joint, which is somewhat roughened but slender 
and pointed. Maxillary palpi not perceptible. Tongue scaled at the base, short, 
not as long as the labial palpi. 

This genus shows some resemblance in structure to Parasia, but I think It 
is very distinct. 

E. apicitripunctella. — Head, face and thorax oclireous. Labial palpi 
I860.] 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

ochreous internally, externally dark fuscous ; terminal joint with a fuscous 
ring at the base and tip, extreme tip ochreous. Antennae dark fuscous, in- 
distinctly annulated with ochreous. Fore wings brownish ochreous, with three 
oblique dark streaks from the costa to the middle of the wing, bordered behind 
with very pale ochreoiis,tYie first near the base, the second about the middle of costa, 
the third near the tip with its pale ochreous margin extended across the wing. 
Beneath the third streak are two dark fuscous spots, sometimes margined with 
pale ochreous. At the tip are three dark fuscous dots, one nearly on the ex- 
treme apex and two others behind it. Cilia of the tip somewhat dusted with 
fuscous, the inner margin ochreous. Hind wings rather dark ochreous, cilia 
the same. 

Teichotaphe. 

Fore wings scarcely pointed, hind margin oblique, costa behind the tip deflex- 
ed. The discoidal cell is closed and rounded behind. The subcostal nervure sends 
four veins to the costa behind the tip, the last of which is furcate, and one to 
hind margin beneath the tip from the cell. The median sends four branches 
to the hind margin, the last of which is furcate. Hind wings emarginate in 
the middle of costa, and somewhat emarginate beneath the tip, with an 
intercostal cell at the base ; subcostal bifid from the discal nervure which sends 
a central branch to the hind margin. The median is three-branched. 

Head smooth, with appressed scales. Without ocelli. Eyes round and 
moderately prominent. Labial palpi recurved ; middle joint slightly curved, 
rather broad, compressed laterally, squamose on the sides and hairy toward 
the end ; terminal joint slender, smooth, pointed and not so long as the middle 
joint. Maxillary palpi short and distinct. Antennae rather more than one half 
as long as the fore wings, somewhat denticulated and microscopically pubes- 
cent beneath in the male? Tongue scaled at the base, nearly as long as the 
thorax beneath. 

Middle joint of labial palpi much flattened ; hairy above and below, with diverging 

hairs. 
T. setosella. — Head, face and thorax rather dark ochreous. Labial 
palpi, middle joint blackish-brown externally, with the spreading hairs above 
and beneath at the end, ochreous ; terminal joint ochreous tipped with fus- 
cus,antennse fuscous, ochreous toward the base. Fore wings dark brown, slightly 
dusted with pale ochreous. At the base of the costa is a pale ochreous irregu- 
larly triangular patch, slightly dusted with fuscous, angulated on the upper 
portion of the fold ; the angle is margined beneath with blackish brown, with 
a small patch of the same hue between the angle and base of the wing, and a 
large one behind it extending from the subcostal nervure to the fold. Across 
the base of the nervules runs a pale ochreous line, on each side of which the 
wing is nearly uniform dark brown. Hind wings yellowish brown. 

Middle joint of labial palpi without spreading hairs. 
T. juncidella . — Head, face and thorax dark brown. Labial palpi ochre- 
ous orange. Antennae dark brown. Fore wings dark brown almost black- 
ish brown, with an ochreous orange spot on the disk, one on the sub- 
costal nervure nearer the base, one beneath it in the fold, and one on the end 
of the disk, all of the same hue. On the costa near the tip is a small ochreous 
orange spot, and the cilia which are somewhat paler than the general hue are 
varied with shining ochreous. Hind wings dull yellowish brown. 

Callima, 

Fore wings rather ovate, obtusely pointed. The subcostal nervure sends 
four nervules to the costa, the last one furcate behind the tip, with both 
branches above it. From the discal proceeds a disco-central nervule, and the 
median subdivides into four branches. Submedian furcate at the base. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 167 

The hind wings are much narrower and shorter than the fore wings, emargin- 
ate in the middle of the costa, hind margin obtusely pointed and very oblique. 
The costal ends in the middle of the wing. The subcostal is attenuated to- 
wards the base, thediscal gives rise to two nervules and the median is three- 
branched, the superior and central nervules arising in a short common stalk. 

Head smooth, with hair-like scales. Face quite narrow. Ocelli none. Eyes 
round and quite prominent. Labial palpi long and recurved ; the middle joint 
rather slender, smooth with appressed scales, slightly flattened, longer than 
the third joint, which is slender, smooth and pointed. Maxillary palpi none. 
Antennae inserted on the front, basal joint smooth and subclavate, slightly 
denticulated beneath and microscopically pubescent (in the (^ alone?). 
Tongue scaled at the base and somewhat longer than the anterior coxae. 

This insect, I think, must approach very nearly (Ecophora of Zeller if it is 
not, indeed, a member of that genus. 

C. a rgent icinct e 11 a. — Head, face and thorax deep reddish orange. 
Labial palpi, middle joint dark brown, terminal white witli a broad dark brown 
ring on its middle. Antennse silvery white annulated with blackish. Fore 
wings yellowish orange. Along the basal margin of the wing from the fold to 
the basal angle, is a silvery line black margined on both sides, and one 
from the basal tliird of the inner margin, somewhat curved and not extended 
to the costa, likewise silvery and black margined on both sides ; the basal 
portion of the wing included between these lines is deep reddish orange. Near 
the apical third of the wing is a silvery costal streak, curved and tapering 
outwardly, slightly dark margined on the costa behind. Opposite this on the 
inner margin, is a semicircular silvery line, black margined on both sides at its 
beginning, which terminates in a dark brown spot, white margined exteriorly, 
at the commencement of the cilia, before which the line becomes grayish sil- 
very. The portion of the wing included within this line, is deep reddish 
orange, as well as the apical portion, in which along the hind margin is a row 
of silvery spots each slightly dark margined. Hind wings fuscous. Feet 
annulated with white. 

NoJIIA. 

Fore wings rather narrowly ovate-lanceolate, discoidal cell very narrow, long 
and unclosed, with two independent discal nervules to the hinder margin beneath 
the tip. The costal nervure is short. The subcostal nearly straight, sending 
three nervules to the costa from the cell, the first from the middle of the wing, 
and its last branch bifid, with both branches above the apex. The median is 
two-branched, the one nearest the base bifid near its end. The submedian is 
furcate at its base. 

Hind wings narrower than the fore wings, costa nearly straight, but slightly 
curved ; apex decidedly produced, with the hind margin deeply and circularly 
excavated beneath it and the anal angle rounded. The discoidal cell is broad 
a;nd unclosed, with a short independent discal nervule beneath the middle of 
the wing. Subcostal nervure simple. Median three-branched, the first de- 
livered to the inner margin rather behind the middle, the last to the rounded 
anal angle. 

Head smooth, with appressed scales. Forehead and face broad and round- 
ed. Ocelli none. Eyes oval, not prominent, flattened. Labial palpi short, 
somewhat reflexed, smooth, rather slender and pointed ; terminal joint ex- 
tremely short, much slenderer than the middle. Maxillary palpi not percepti- 
ble. Antennae about one half as long as the fore wings, rather thick, but taper- 
ing, roughened ; basal joint rather slender and short. Tongue slender, scaled 
at the base, longer than the anterior coxcP. 

N. li n gul acella . — Head, face, and thorax, dark fuscous. Tegulse 
srolden. Labial palpi pale yellowish, terminal joint fuscous. Antennae dark 
I860.] 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

fascous. Fore wings golden yellow. At the base of the costa is a dark golden 
brown patch, not extended beyond the fold, and margined behind and beneath 
with iridescent silvery. On the inner margin near the base and extended to 
the middle of the margin is a rather long patch of the same hue, with an iri- 
descent silvery internal patch and touched exteriorly with the same hue. A 
large trapezoidal golden brown patch on the middle of the costa is margined 
internally by a rather broad iridescent silvery streak, which is slightly dark 
margined internally, having also an external silvery streak produced in the 
middle of the wing toward the apex and beneath it, at its anterior angle, a 
brownish silvery blotch, pointing to the inner margin at the beginning of the 
cilia. In the apical portion of the wing is a silvery streak, dark margined on 
both sides behind, pointing into the costal cilia above the apex. The costa 
from the trapezoidal patch to the tip, is touched with dark brown ; cilia dark 
brown ; beneath the apex varied with silvery on the base of the cilia. Hind 
wings dark brownish. 

Trypaxisma. 

Fore wings ovate-lanecolate. The discoidal cell is i-ather narrow and elong- 
ately oval. The subcostal nervure sends three nervules to the costa, the last 
from the end of the cell, together with the apical branch which curves at its 
origin to send off a very sliort and faint di-cal nervure, and at its middle 
gives rise to a costal branch, becomes furcate behind the tip and delivers a 
branch above and one below the tip. The median is three-branched, the mid- 
dle branch being bifid. Submedian furcate at the base. Hind wings narrower 
than the fore wings, with an intercostal cell at the base ; apex produced, deep- 
ly emarginate on hind margin and anal angle rounded. The costa is slightly 
emargiuate in the middle. The discoidal cell broad, and closed by a very faint 
nervure from the middle of the subcostal, which is furcate near the tip. The 
discal nervule arises near the median, which is three-branched, with branches 
rather approximated. 

Size small. Head smooth, with appressed scales. Forehead and face rounded 
and rather broad. Ocelli none. Eyes oval, modeiately prominent. Labial 
palpi moderate, arched ; middle joint slightly thickened with scales beneath, 
terminal as long as the second, smooth, pointed and tapering from the middle. 
Maxillary palpi not perceptible. Antennae slender and simple ; about one half 
as long as the fore wings ; basal joint subclavate. Tongue scarcely so long as 
the labial palpi. 

T. prudens. — Head pale yellowish white dusted with fuscous. Face 
yellowish white. Labial palpi pale yellowish white, with two dark brown 
spots on the second joint and two rings on the terminal of the same hue, one 
at the base and one near the apex Thorax yellowish, dusted with fuscous. 
Antennae fuscous slightly annulated with yellowish. Fore wings fuscous, 
tinted with yellowish, with a small ochreous yellow patch on base of costa, 
one of the same hue on the middle of inner margin, extended to the middle of 
the wing and a band of the same hue near the tip, iiiuch angulated or nearly 
interrupted in the middle of the wing Hind wings fuscous. 

The generic characters of this insect approach those of Evagora. The larva 
lives within a silken web woven on the under surface of the leaves of chestnut 
oak. It feeds on the cuticles and parenchyma of both sides of the leaf, gaining 
the upper side by round holes eaten through its substance, and just large 
enough to admit the body ; of these there were three at various points of 
the eaten surface. If alarmed the larva immediately retreats through the 
opening last made to the web on the under surface. The pupa is robust, 
almost ovoid and is contained in a slight cocoon woven on the leaf on which the 
larvae feed. I have no description of the larva. It was taken July 22d, became 
a pupa on the 27th, and an imago on August 8th. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 169 

BoTALis Treitschke. 

B. fuscicome 11a. —Head, face, labial palpi and thorax, yellowish fus- 
cous, antennfe purplish fuscous. Fore wings purplish fuscous, tinted some- 
what with yelluwish ; cilia purplish fuscous. Hind wings dark fuscous. 

Taken on wing in June. The egg is ellipsoidal ; dirty white; investing 
membrane thin and covered with punctures, variolate. 
Fort icings with three subcosto marginal-branches, the apical simple; apex pointed. 

B. flavifrontella. — Head and face pale brownish ochreous. Labia' 
palpi dark fuscous. Thorax and antennse purplish fuscous. Fore wings pur- 
plish fuscous, with a yellow basal streak from the base to the middle of the 
wing, sometimes almost wanting, and the tip of the wing of the same hue. 
Hind wings dark fuscous. 

Fore icings loith three nerviiles beneath the apical. 

B. matutell a. — Head, face, thorax, and autenna? dark brownish with a 
purple hue. Fore wings reddish fuscous, with a brassy lustre ; a pale green- 
ish white spot rather obliquely placed near the middle of the wing and one 
of the same hue on the inner margin, near the apex. Hind wings dark fuscous, 
cilia the same. 

Anaksia ? Zeller. 

Fore wings ovate-lanceolate ; with an opaque space on the costa, towards the 
end of the costal nervure and the iirst subcosto-marginal branch. Discoidal 
cell rather narrow, closed by a short nervure. The subcostal sends four 
branches to the costa, the iirst from a point rather behind the middle of the 
wing, much separated from the second, and the last furcate on the costa be- 
fore the tip, and a simple branch beneath the latter to inner margin just be- 
neath the tip of the wing. The median subdivides into four bi-auches, rather 
approximated at their origins, the medio-posterior branch being nearly opposite 
to the second marginal. Subcostal furcate at the base. Hind wings trapezoidal, 
costa refuse, slightly emarginate beneath the tip, hind margin obliquely 
rounded ; broader than the fore wings. Subcostal nervure rather attenuated 
toward the base, with a faintly formed intercostal cell, furcate. Discoidal cell 
broad, closed, with a nervule given off to the hind margin. Median three- 
branched, medio-posterior branch distant from the others. 

Head smooth, covered thickly with decumbent scales. Forehead broad, al- 
most spherical ; face rather narrow beneath. Ocelli none. Eyes rounded, 
moderately jjrominent. Labial palpi, second joint thick, with a very abundant 
tuft of hairs beneath prolonged in front ; third joint smooth, slender and pointed, 
as long as the second. Maxillary palpi, short and distinct. Antennae simple, 
scarcely more than one half so long as the fore wings, slightly denticulated, 
basal joint smooth. Tongue scaled at the base, about as long as the labial 
palpi. 

I have three specimens of the insect belonging to this genus, but none of 
them show the peculiar structure of the palpi of the European male. Whe- 
ther mine are all females or whether the individuals are generically distinct from 
the European, as the details of some parts of their structure seems to indicate, 
must be left for future determination. 

A. ?pruniella . — Head and face pale gray ; thorax dark gray. Labial pal- 
pi dark fuscous externally and pale gray at the end ; terminal joint gray, 
dusted with dark fuscous. Antennae grayish, annulated with dark brown. 
Fore wings gray, dusted with blackish brown, with a few blackish brown spots 
along the costa, the largest in the middle, and short blackish brown streaks 
on the median nervure, subcostal, in the fold and one or two at the tip of the 
wing ; cilia fuscous gray. Hind wings fuscous gray ; cilia gray, tinted with 
yellowish. 

I860.] 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

The larva was taken June 16th, full grown and alK)ut to transform on the 
limbs of the plum. Its head is black, body uniform reddish-brown with indis- 
tinct papul?e, each giving rise to a hair, and with pale brown patches on the 
sides of the 3d and 4th segments ; shield and terminal prologs, black. One 
specimen had secreted itself under a turned up portion of the old bark of the 
trunk. The cocoon is exceedingly slight, and the tail of the pupa is attached 
to a little button of silk. The pupa is ovate, abdomen short and conical, 
smooth ; color, dark reddish-brown. I do not know on what part of the tree 
the larva feeds. 

Stilbosis. 

Fore wings narrow and pointed. Discoidal cell open, elongated and very 
narrow. Subcostal nervure, with three nervules to the costa from the cell, and 
an apical branch which sends a nervule to the casta from its middle, andishijidat 
the tip of the wing ; the apical branch is nearly absolete from the third to the 
fourth marginal branch. Beneath the apical is adiscal nervule, which is obso- 
lete posteriorly from its middle. The median is three-branched ; the submedi- 
an, simple. Hind wings setaceous ; the discoidal cell is open and moderately 
broad toward the base of tiie wing. The subcostal is obsolete toward the base 
and bifid at the tip of the wing ; a disced nervule beneath it is obsolete posleriorly 
from its middle. The median subdivides into three separate branches. 

Head and face perfectly smoo'h. Ocelli none. Eyes small, oval and visible 
in front. Labial palpi moderate, somewhat curved, slender, smooth and 
pointed ; terminal joint as long and as thick as the middle, and very acute at 
its apex. Antennae rather thick, simple, somewhat roughened, rather short ; 
basal joint smooth and subclavate. Tongue short. 

This genus is nearly related to Cosmopteryx of Hiibner, but the labial pal- 
pi are much less developed, and the tongue much shorter. 

S. tesquell a. — Head and face grayish-silvery, having a greenish splen - 
dent lustre. Labial palpi ochreous. Antennae dark fuscous. Fore wings fus- 
cous-golden, tinted along the base of costa with reddish-violet; with three 
patches of raised scales, one in the fold near the base, one behind the middle of 
the wing, and one near the tip on the inner margin, the latter two are large and 
extended nearly to the costa. In certain lights these raised patches are golden 
internally, while the spaces of the wing between them become dark fuscous and 
with the light striking the wing from the tip the patches are dark ochreous 
and the last is extended obliquely into the costa as a streak of the same hue. 

The tip of the wing is reddish- violet, in certain lights dark fuscous. The cilia 
are very long and are extended along the hind margin beyond the middle of 
the wing ; fuscous tinged with reddish. Hind wings dark fuscous, cilia the 
same. 

Laverna Curtis. 

Fore wings pointed, oblique along the hinder margin, with five veins be- 
neath the furcate apical vein. Discoidal cell narrow. Submedian/Hrca'e at 
each end; basal fork long, the apical fork shorter. Hind wings rather refuse 
on the costa before the tip ; hind margin rounded or cimetar-shaped from base 
to apex. The subcostal is obsolete toward the base, simple, and runs into the 
costa before the tip. Discoidal cell closed, with a discal vein furcate at the 
tip. Median three-branched, the last two arising on a common base. 

Head smooth ; backhead or vertex elongated. Forehead obtuse, advanced ; 
face retreating. Eyes oval, visible in front. Labial palpi moderately long, 
curved, smooth but rather loosely scaled ; second joint flattened toward its end, 
subclavate ; the third short, smooth and pointed. Antennae rather more than 
one half as long as the fore wings, simple, setaceous, basal joint subclavate. 
Tongue sparingly scaled, extremely short, not one-half as long as the labial 

palpi. ^-- 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 171 

L. luciferella. — Head and face silvery, tinged •with yellowish. Back- 
head dark fuscous. Labial palpi silvery ; middle joint dark fuscous from the 
base to the middle, the terminal joint with a minute fuscous dot at its base. 
Antennffi dark fuscous. Fore wings dark reddish fuscous, with a large, rather 
faint bluish silvery patch at the base, one on the middle of the costa, and a 
carved band near the tip of the wing, of the same hue. On the fold beneath the 
costal patch, is a patch of raised scales, and another on the inner margin join- 
ing the band behind. Exterior to the band the wing is touched with ochreous, 
containing in the middle a short dark fuscous streak, sometimes a pale yel- 
lowish white streak margined with dark fuscous, and on the costa just behind 
it, is a short pale yellowish-white streak, margined exteriorly with dark fus- 
cous. Apical portion of the wing is dark fuscous ; cilia of inner margin fus- 
cous. Hind wings fuscous, cilia the same. 

Fore wings slenderly and shortly caudate at the tip. Apical vein with 
a long fork, with an independent discal nervure beneath it. Median four- 
branched. Submedian with a long basal fork, no apical fork, but with the 
end of the fold thickened. Labial palpi recurved, thickened at the end of 
second joint with loose scales ; the third rather long, smooth and pointed. 
Tongue nearly as long as the anterior coxse. 

L. Eloisell a. — Head, face and thorax silvery white, the latter spotted 
with blackish. Labial palpi white, with a dark brown spot on the middle of 
second joint, and two dark brown rings on the third, one at the base and 
one at the tip. Antennfe tawny yellow, white at base. Fore wings silvery 
white, with a small tuft of tawny scales at the basal third of the fold, and a 
larger patch of the same hue on the inner margin at the end of and above the 
fold. Between the tufts, is an oblique dark brownish costal streak, nearly 
joined at an angle by another of the same hue in the middle of the wing and 
exterior to the first tuft ; the fold is tinted with golden yellow. Exterior to 
the second tuft is a blackish-brown streak, which becomes diifuse behind and 
above, while the apical portion of the costa to the slender apex of the wing is 
golden yellow. At the base, beneath the fold, is a blackish-brown spot, and 
another of the same hue beneath the fold equidistant from the first and the 
first tuft of scales, and on the costa midway between these latter is a rather 
faint dark brownish spot. Cilia yellowish gray. Hind wings tawny-grayish, 
cilia ochreous. 

Chrysocorys Curtis. 

C. Ery th riella. — Head, face and thorax fuscous, with a greenish-brassy 
hue. Labial palpi ochreous, terminal joint fuscous. Antennae bronzy-yellow- 
ish fuscous. Fore wings reddish-fuscous, with a greenish-brassy hue ; cilia 
fuscous. Hind wings reddish fuscous, cilia the same. 

Specimens of this insect reared by myself were much smaller than those 
taken on the wing, had less of the brassy hue and were nearly uniform grayish 
fuscous, but I have no doubt it is the same insect. 

The larva feeds on the fruit racemes of Sumach. It tapers anteriorly and 
posteriorly, incisures deep, segments elevated in the middle, with a single 
row of transversely arranged epidermic points on each ring, each one giving rise 
to one or two rather stiff hairs ; abdominal legs very slender and short, termi- 
nal placed posteriorly. Head with a few hairs, ellipsoidal, pointed rather 
small, and pale brown. The body is uniform dark green. '• Frass " scarlet. 

The cocoon was woven on the outside of the raceme. It was ovoid, and ap- 
peared to consist of coarse silk and but a single thread, being woven so as to 
leave large meshes, enabling one to see the pupa through it distinctly. At 
maturity the pupa case is thrust forth. The pupa is pale green, with the 
head-case distinctly separated from the case of the thorax. The length of the 
larva is about two lines, of the pupa about one and a half. 

The larva may be taken in July ; the imago appears early in August and 

I860.] 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

may be taken on wing at this time in the neighborhood of the food plant of 
the larva. 

Elachista Treitschke. 
I would beg here to call the student's attention to the fact, that the genus 
described in Paper No. 3, January, 1S60, under the name Cosmiotes, is the same 
as the present one. I much regret the existence of this error ; it is not, how- 
ever, necessary to state how I came to be misled. 

Median ve'u of hind nings two-branched. Apical vein of fore icings with a 
branch from its middle to the casta, bijid at the tip; median vein two-branched. 

E. prjematurella . — Head, face and labial palpi grayish fuscous. An- 
tennas rather dark fuscous. Fore wings fuscous with a purplish hue. Rather 
behind the middle of the wing is a white band, silvery-hued, and near the 
tip a costal and opposite dorsal spot of the same hue. Extreme apex of the 
wing white, with a row of dark brown atoms in the cilia, which are fuscous. 
Hind wings bluish-gray, cilia fuscous with a reddish hue. 

The imago may be taken on wing early in April. 

Brexthia. 

Fore wings almost cuneiform, rounded behind. The subcostal nervure sends 
a vein to the costa from the middle of the cell, and subdivides into two branches 
at the point of junction with the discoidal nervure ; arising from this are Jive 
veins to the hinder margin, and the median nervure subdivides into two 
branches at its tip. The subcostal is furcate at its base. The hind wings are 
broad, irregularly oval. The subcostal is simple. The discoidal does not 
join it, gives rise to three veins to the hind margin, and is deflected towards 
the base. The median is two-branched, the upper one being bifid about its 
middle. 

Head smooth. Forehead and face rounded. Ocelli large. Eyes oval, and 
rather prominent. Labial palpi moderately long, rather slender, pointed and 
somewhat squamose ; the terminal joint shorter than the second. Antennae 
slender, simple in the O , rather densely ciliated in the (^. Tongue slightly 
scaled and very short. 

The insect belonging to this genus, which is nearly allied to Glyphipteryx 
of Hiibner, has the curious habit of strutting about broad leaves in shaded 
places, with its fore wings somewhat spread and the hind wings turned 
forward at right angles to the costa of the fore wings, so as to display the 
surface of the under pair. It is easily recognized by this characteristic alone. 

B. pavonacella . — Head and thorax fuscous; face whitish beneath. Labial 
palpi white, with three fuscous rings, one at the end of the second joint, one at 
the base of the terminal and one near its tip. Antennae fuscous, anuulated with 
white. Fore wings fuscous, mottled with whitish, especially on the middle of 
the wing, with a fuscous spot on the middle of the disk, ringed with whitish. 
Near the hinder margin is a black band, not extended to the costa nor the 
inner margin, with two sharp indentations of the general hue internally, and 
containing on its middle a streak of brilliant scarlet-blue metallic scales. 
Along the costa are one or two faint spots of the same hue. Hind wings 
fuscous, whitish at the base and along the costa, with a short white line 
near the hind margin, above the inner angle of the wing, and a rather faint 
scarlet-blue metallic hued band on the hind margin, from near the tip to 
beyond the middle. The under surface of both wings show a metallic hued 
subterminal band. 

Imago on wing in July and August. 

PiGBITIA. 

Fore wings narrow, elongated, pointed and very slightly retuse on the costa 
before the tip. The subcostal sends to the costa, beyond the apical third of 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 173 

the wing, a long, thick vein which arises behind the middle, and subdivides 
into three branches at its tip, the apical being forked, with one of its branches 
delivered to the tip, and the other to the costa before it. The discoidal cell 
is much elongated and narrow, and sends to the hinder margin a disco-central 
branch. The median ia three-branched at its tip, all of which are short, and 
the two upper veins arise on a common stalk. Submedian is forked at the 
base, with the lower branch nearly obsolete. Hind wings narrowly lanceolate, 
broad at base, with interior basal angle rounded. The subcostal vein is simple, 
and extended to the tip. Discoidal cell closed by a very faint nervure, giving rise 
to a simple nervule. Median nervure is three-branched, the last two branches 
from a common base. 

Head smooth, with decumbent scales, slightly retracted. Forehead broad 
and rounded ; face, with the scales spreading out at the base of the tongue, so 
as to make it nearly equally broad. Eyes oval, vertically placed. Ocelli 
small. Labial palpi very short, smooth ; first and second joints rather thick ; 
terminal joint pointed, slender, aud as long as the second. No maxillary 
palpi. Antennae setaceous, simple in the V, microscopically pubescent in 
the (^, rather more than one-half as long as the fore wings ; basal joint 
flattened and expanded into a small eye-cap, with cilia in front. Tongue 
scaled, rather longer than the thorax beneath. 

I have but one male, which is without labial palpi. With the aid of good 
lenses, I cannot make out whether they have been broken off, or whether 
they are naturally obsolete. Otherwise, the head is in most perfect condition. 

The genera Zelleria and Ocnerostoma are congeneric with this in the 
neuration of the wings, especially the hinder pair in the latter genus. 

P. lati capi te 11a. — Head, face and thorax shining tawny fuscous. Labial 
palpi dark fuscous. Antennae fuscous, basal joint tawny fuscous. Fore wings 
dark fascons, with a rufous tinge, sprinkled with white, especially toward the 
tip, with an indistinct whitish baud behind the middle of the wing ; cilia pale 
rufo-fuscous. Hind wings greyish-fuscous ; cilia the same. 

Parasia ? Duponchel. 

Fore wings lanceolate. The subcostal nervure sends three veins to the 
costa, the first from the middle of the cell, and an apical branch which 
delivers from its middle a branch to the costa, and is forked before the tip, with 
one of the branches above and the other beneath it. The discoidal cell ia 
closed, but gives rise to no nervule. The median fan-branched, more 
separated than in Evagora, and all the branches long. Submedian is forked 
at the base. Hind wings with the apex produced. The submedian is forked 
beyond the discal nervure, which gives rise to a disco-central branch. The 
median is three-branched. 

Head smooth, with loose, decumbent scales. Forehead advanced ; globose, 
face retreating. Ocelli small. Eyes oval, vertically placed, but little visible 
from the front. Labial palpi rather short, recurved, smooth, with appressed 
scales ; second joint thick, subclavate ; third joint short, very acuminate. 
Maxillary palpi sbort, distinct. Antennse simple, setaceous, one-third less 
long than the fore wings. Tongue clothed with scales, scarcely as long as the 
anterior coxse. 

This insect and Evagora apicitripunctella certainly approach each 
other closely in structure ; nevertheless, they are very diflFerent in appearance. 
The hind wings ditfer from those of Parasia in the produced apex being 
straight, and slightly in neuration. 

P. ? subsimella . — Head, face and thorax ochreous-fuscous. Labial palpi, 
second joint dark brownish, ringed with whitish at its tip ; third joint white, 
terminal half black. Antennae dark fuscous, basal joint striped with yellowish 
in front. Fore wings dark ochreous-fuscous ; along the costa from its middle, 

I860.] 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

and toward the tip, brown ; and in the latter part much sprinkled with whitish. 
On the middle of the costa is a short, yellowish white streak, and in the 
apical third of the wing is an oblique line of the same hue, meeting in the 
middle of the wing another of the same hue from the inner margin. At and 
beneath the tip is a blackish brown spot, and in the cilia a dark fuscous line. 
Hind wings dark ochreous, cilia the same. 

Depkessakia Haworth. 

D. Lecontella. — Head and face ochreous. Labial palpi ochreous; 
second joint varied externally with fuscous ; third joint with a slight fuscous 
ring at the base, and one near the tip. Antennae fuscous. Thorax ochreous, 
with two blackish brown dots before. Fore wings dark ochreous, with dis- 
persed blackish brown dots throughout the wing, two of which, aboi^t the 
middle of the median nervurt*, are more conspicuous than the others ; 
cilia rather pale ochreous. Hind wings pale grayish-ochreous, cilia the same. 

This is the only true Depressaria I have found thus far ; but we have other 
nearly allied species, which differ from it in the structure of the labial palpi. 
In this respect they resemble somewhat Gelechia rufescens of Europe, but 
differ from the genus to which it belongs in several particulars. I think 
they must form a group intermediate between Depressaria and Gelechia. 

I have now nearly worked up my collection of Tineina, and would beg those 
who feel interested in the continuation of these studies, to aid me in extending 
my knowledge of species, by contributing collections from their various neigh- 
borhoods. 



Description of a new species of Marginalia. 
BY JOHN H. REDFIELD. 
Marginella roscida Redf. 

T. rhombico-ovata, polita, cinereo-lutescente, albido giittulata, versus 
apicem albido-lineatu ; labis albo, crasso, reflexo, extus fulvo trimaculato, 
intvis subdenticulato ; spira modica ; anfractus quatuor exhibente ; anfractu 
ultimo angulato, juxta aperturam calloso ; columella quadriplicata. 

Shell rhombic-ovate, polished, light grayish brown, minutely flecked with 
white ; towards and upon the spire the white spots tend to be confluent in 
longitudinal lines. Lip white, well thickened, obtusely reflected, extending a 
little upon the penultimate whorl, slightly denticulate within, and bearing 
three brown spots, one at its junction with the spire, a second about midway, 
and the third near the base. Spire moderate, apex slightly colored, with 
about four whorls visible ; the last whorl is distinctly shouldered, a little be- 
neath the suture and near the aperture shows a vitreous deposit. Columella 
with four plaits ; upper ones somewhat oblique, lower ones more so. Aper- 
ture yellowish brown within. Length 0-57 in. (14 millim.) ; breadth 0*32 in. 
(8 millim.) 

Habitat. Coast of South Carolina. 

Remarks. The general form of this shell is nearly that of M. apiclna Menke, 
and the spots upon the outer lip give it a further likeness to some varieties of 
that species, but the spire is more developed, and the last whorl more dis- 
tinctly angular than is usual in M. apicina, while the latter never displays 
the minute white flecking of the species under consideration. This last feature 
is common also to M. guttata^ M. nivosa and M. pruinosa, but all these are 
quite different in form and in development of spire. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 175 

Descriptions of new Organic Remains from the Tertiary, Cretaceous and 
Jurassic Bocks of Nebraska. 

BY F. B. MEEK AND P. V. HAYDEN. 

The following new species of fossil moUusca, belong mainly to the collections 
brought from Nebraska by the expeditions under the command of Lieut. G. K. 
Warren, of the U. S. Top. Engrs. in 185S-7 and 8. More extended descriptions 
of these and the other species already described by us from that regioa, together 
with remarks, comparisons, and fall illustrations, will appear in Lieut. War- 
ren's final report. 

TERTIARY SPECIES. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Helix Evansi, A. & H. — Shell small, suborbicular, spire depressed ; volu- 
tions four and a half to five, obliquely compressed, or a little convex above, 
rounded on the outer side, and very convex below, the most prominent part being 
near the umbilicus, concave within, and each embracing on the upper side about 
half, and below nearly the whole breadth of every succeeding inner turn ; sur- 
face unknown ; umbilicus rather small, or about equalling the breadth of the 
widest part of the outer volution ; aperture nearly obovate, its longer diameter 
being directed outward and upward. Height, 0-10 inch ; breadth, 0-17 inch. 

Named in honor of Dr. John Evans, Geologist, of Oregon. 

Locality and position. Estuary beds at the mouth of Judith River. 

Plasorbis vetulus, M. & H. — Shell discoidal, much compressed, spire slight- 
ly concave, umbilicus shallow, very little broader than the concavity on the 
upper side, and rather more than one-third wider than the outer whorl, show- 
ing about half of each inner turn ; volutions three and a half to four, compress- 
ed convex above and below, the upper side being a little more convex than the 
other, and sloping slightly outward from near the inner margin, rather distinct- 
ly angular around the outer side, a little below the middle, and deeply concave 
within for the reception of each succeeding inner whorl; sutures well defined, 
though not very deep ; aperture sub-cordate, approaching an irregular hastate 
outline, very slightly oblique, having its longer axis in the direction of the 
greatest breadth of the shell ; surface apparently nearly smooth, or only show- 
ing obscure marks of growth. Greatest breadth 23 inch ; height 005 inch. 

Locality and position. Upper part of the Tertiary forming the Bad Lands of 
White River. 

Planorbis Leidyi, M. & H. — Shell small, subdiscoidal ; spire flat, or a little 
concave ; volutions scarcely three, increasing rather rapidly in size, not embrac- 
ing on the upper side, inner ones almost entirely hidden by the last turn below, 
all convex above, rather narrowly rounded on the upper outer side, ventricose 
and rounded below ; suture will defined ; umbilicus small, or less than half the 
breadth of the outer whorl, deep and scarcely permitting the inner volutions to 
be counted ; surface marked by fine delicate lines of growth ; aperture sub- 
circular, or obliquely a little oval, flnttened or somewhat concave on the inner 
side. Greatest breadth, 0-22 inch ; height, 0-09 inch. 

Named in honor of Prof. Jos. Leidy of Philadelphia. 

Locality and position., same as last. 

CONCHIFERA. 

Sphjericm planum, M. & H. — Shell rather small, broad oval or subcircular. 
much compressed ; extremities more or less regularly rounded, the posterior mar- 
gin being sometimes faintly subtruncate ; base semi-oval in outline ; cardinal 
margin rounding gradually from near the middle ; beaks very small, compressed, 
and scarcely extending beyond the hinge margin, nearly central ; surface marked 

I860.] 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

by fine irregular, obscure, concentric striae. Length, 0-38 inch ; height, 0-32 
inch ; convexity 0.08 inch. 
Locality and position. Near the mouth of Grand River on the Upper Missouri. 

Sph.«;ricm recticardinalk, M. & H. — Shell of medium size, transversely 
subelliptical, rather compressed, very thin; anterior side rounded ; base form- 
ing a regular seraielliptic curve; posterior extremity obliquely subtruncate above, 
and rather narrowly rounded below ; cardinal margin long and straight ; bealis 
very small, compressed, and projecting but slightly above the hinge, located 
nearly half way between the middle and the anterior end ; surface marked by 
moderately distinct, irregular lines of growth. Length, 0-55 inch ; height, 0'3(3 
inch ; breadth, 0-24 inch. 

Locality andpositio7i, same as last. 

Cyrena (Corbicula ?) cYTHERiFOBMis, M. & H.-Shell broad trigonal ovate, vary- 
ing to subcircular, rather thick and strong; extremities more or less rounded; 
base semiovate, usually more prominent before than behind the middle ; dorsal 
outline sloping from tbe beaks, the anterior slope being more abrupt than the 
other, and slightly concave, while the posterior is convex ; beaks rather ele- 
vated, moderately gibbous, located in advance of the middle ; surface marked 
by fine lines of growth, which sometimes show a very slight tendency to gather 
into small irregular concentric wrinkles. Length, inches ; height, inch,; 
thickness, inch. 

Locality and position. Estuary beds, near mouth of Judith River. 

CRETACEOUS SPECIES. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Genus Phylloteuthis, M. & H. 

Phylloteuthis subovatus, M. &. H. — The specimens on which we propose to 
found this genus and species consist of the expanded portion of the pen or 
eladius. This organ seems to have been corneous, and is thin, very wide or 
subovate in form, a little concave on the under side, and convex above. From 
behind the middle it narrows towards the front, the outline of the lateral mar- 
gins being convex, while the posterior end is more or less obtusely angular. 
The shaft is broken away in our specimens, but that portion of it extending 
backward and lorming the midrib of the expanded part, is narrow, prominent, 
and rather sharply carinate above, while on the under side it is merely repre- 
sented by a narrow groove. The lateral expansions are crossed a little ob- 
liquely backward and outward, at an angle of about 65° from the midrib, by 
numerous slender, ridged parallel stria;, which are very nearly straight, or very 
slightly curved backward near the outer margins. Length of expanded part, 
exclusive of the shaft, 1-55 inch ; breadth of do., 0-82 inch. 

Apparently near the Liassic genera Beloteutkis aud Teudopsis, or at any rate 
to species that have been, witti doubtful propriety, ranged in these groups. 

Locality and position. Moreau River, in formation No. 5. 

Helicoceras angulatdm — Of this shell we have seen but a single nonseptate 
frat^ment, 2-78 inches in length, with a diameter of 1-50 inches at the larger end, 
and 1-37 inches at the smaller. It is rounded, or subcylindrical, and makes a 
broad (sinistral?) spiral curve, in such a manner that if continued around, the 
volutions would be disconneeted, and encircle an umbilical cavity apparently 
more than three times their own breadth. The surface is ornamented by dis- 
tinct angular costae, which pass around the whorls obliquely and support two 
rows of nodes on the lower outer side, where they sometimes bifurcate. Septa 

Locality and position. Head of south branch of Shyenne River, in the upper 
part of formation No. 4, of the Nebraska series. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 177 

Ammonites placenta, var. intercalaris. — It is possible this shell maybe spe- 
cifically distinct from .4. ^tecenia of Dekay, but it agrees with that species so 
nearly that we are in doubt about the propriety of considering it entitled to 
rank as a species. It differs externally from the typical forms of Dekay's 
species, in being rather less compressed, and in having a slightly larger umbili- 
cus, while instead of a single series of scarcely perceptible transversely elon- 
gated prominences on each side, it has a row of small, but distinct nodes a 
little less than one-third of the way across from the dorsum, and another more 
prominent series near the umbilicus. It also differs in having a row of small, 
pinched, alternating nodes on each of the two dorsal angles. 

With these external differences, however, the septa of the shell under con- 
sideration, are so very similar in all their details to those of A. placenta, that 
we are at present inclined to regard it as a variety of that species. 

It is also worthy of note, that the form before us is closely related to A. syr- 
talis of Morton, being in fact almost exactly intermediate between that shell and 
A. placenta, as well in form and external ornaments, as in the characters of its 
septa. Its exact relations to these species can perhaps only be settled by a 
careful comparison of a more extensive series of specimens than has yet been 
obtained ; in the mean time it may be made known as a subspecies, under the 
name A. placenta, var. intercalaris, and should it prove distinct, it may take the 
latter as a specific name. It seems to attain a large size. Our specimen, which 
consists of inner septate whorls, is 5-70 inches in its greatest diameter, with, 
a thickness or convexity of 1-62 inches. 

Localittf and position. Sheyenne River, in the upper part of Formation No. 4 
of the Nebraska Cretaceous scries. 

Ammonites Vermilionensis, M. & H. — Shell compressed discoidal ; umbilicus 
large, very shallow, and showing about four-fifths of each inner whorl ; volu- 
tions five or more, rather sharply carinated around the middle of the dorsum, 
and ornamented on each side by nearly straight, simple, moderately strong, 
obtuse costae, which show a tendency to develope nodes at each extremity. 
Greatest diameter 1-05 inches ; convexity about 0-29 inch. 

Locality and position. Mouth Vermilion River, in Formation No. 2, of the 
Nebraska section. 

Scaphites Warreni, M. & H. — Shell small, transversely subovate, moderately 
compressed, rounded on the dorsum ; umbilicus rather small; volutions sub- 
cylindrical, height and breadth nearly equal, increasing gradually in size ; non- 
septate portion of last turn slightly compressed laterally, and deflected from 
the regular curve of the others, so as to become nearly or quite disconnected 
at the aperture. Surface of the inner whorls ornamented by numerous small 
costae, which increase chiefly by implantation, and all cross the dorsum very 
regularly without arching; on the sides of the non-septate outer chamber, 
about every fourth or fifth one of the costis is much more prominent and 
sharper than the others, and extends quite across to the umbilical side, while 
those between die out, or coalesce with the others at various distances. 

Length 1-45 inches ; height about 1-22 inches ; breadth 0-57 inch. 

Locality and position. Near the Black Hills, in formation No. 2 of the Ne- 
braska Section. 

Scaphites nodosos, var. plenus. — We suspect the noble specimen we here 
propose to notice provisionally, as a variety of Dr. Owen's Scaphites nodosus, may 
prove to belong to a distinct species, but as we are not yet fully satisfied on 
this point, it is perhaps better to regard it, for the present, as a marked variety 
of Dr. Owen's species ; and should further comparison demonstrate that it is 
entitled to rank as a species, it can take as a specific name that by which we 
have designated it as a variety. It differs externally from Dr. Owen's figureof 
/S. nodosus, in being greatly more ventricose, and shorter in proportion to its 
height, while its inner rows of nodes are much smaller and nearer the umbili- 

I860.] 11 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

cus. There are also some differences in the details of the septa, which cannor, 
however, be readily explained without figures. It is likewise nauch larger than 
the specimen represented by Dr. Owen, or any individuals of that form we have 
seen, its length being 4-57 inches ; height 3-87 inches, and its breadth 2-5.3 
inches. 

Locality and position. On Yellow Stone River, 150 miles above the mouth, in 
the upper part of formation No. 4 of the Nebraska Cretaceous Series. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Apoehhais parva, M. & H. — Shell small, conical, subfusiform : spire moder- 
ately elevated, and acute at the apex ; volutions six or seven, separated by a 
small but rather distinct suture, and having around the middle a single series 
of very oblique, flexuous folds, or node-like costae, which do not extend to the 
suture either above or below : last whorl having just below the row of nodes, 
a small but well defined revolving angle ; surface marked by very obscure 
lines of growth, and fine, closely set, revolving strise. Length about 0-28 inch : 
breadth of body whorl, 0-15 inch ; apical angle a little convex, divergence 33". 

Locality and poeiiio7i, same as last. 

Aporrhais sublevis, M. & H. — Shell conical, or subfusiform ; spire elevated ; 
volutions seven or more, convex, and separated by a rather distinct, though 
not deep suture ; last one convex above, and abruptly contracted below, having 
£ (single ?) small, revolving angle, which passes around to the suture, but is 
•n*t seen on the succeeding turn above. Surface polished, and marked by 
moderately distinct, arcuate lines of growth, which are crossed by rather ob- 
scure revolving lines, nearly equalling the spaces between, on the spire, but 
more .dietant. with sometimes a few indistinct, irregular, very fine, parallel 
stride be!t\'sreen on the body whorl ; aperture and lip unknown. Length about 
0'54 incih:; breadth of body whorl, 0-26 inch; apical angle slightly convex, 
divergence 31°. 

Locality ojBd position. Yellow Stone River, Upper part of No. 4, Nebraska 
section. 

Dentalidm PAfCPEECCLCM, ^I. & H.— Shell small, arcuate, slender and taper- 
ing gradualh'; section circular; substance comparatively thick; surface 
6mooth,out showing under a magnifier extremtly fine, obscure lines of growth, 
which pass around somewhat obliquely. Length (of an incomplete specimen, 
measuring frooi the apex,) 0-36 inch; diameter of same at apex 0-03 inch, do. 
at larger extremity O-O-o inch. 

Locality and position. Moreau River, formation No. 5 of the Nebraska section. 

Cylichna bcitcla, M. & H. — Shell small, rather thick, narrow, subelliptical, 
or subcylindrical : spire entirely hidden ; summit truncate, and occupied by a 
comparatively large umbilicoid depression ; aperture very narrow, moderately 
arched, and equalling the greatest length of the shell; umbilical region 
slightly impressed ; inner lip reflexed upon the columella, which seems to be 
slightly twisted, so as to form a small indistinct fold at its base ; surface 
marked by fine, obscure lines of growth, which are crossed by impressed, re- 
volving striae, separated by spaces about twice or three times their own 
breadth, near the middle of the outer whorl, but becoming much more closely 
crowded towards the extremities. Length 0-24 inch; breadth 014 inch; 
widest part of aperture 0-07 inch, breadth of same near upper extremity, only 
02 inch. 

Locality and position. Jloreau River, No. 5 of the Nebraska section. 

CONOHIFERA. 

Teredo selliformis, M. & H. — Shell small, subglobose ; posterior side nar- 
rowly rounded above, gaping, and having a broad, more or less angular notch 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 179 

below ; antero-ventral side provided with a large hiatus, formed by a similar, 
but deeper rectangular notch, which extends from the base nearly half way up 
to the beaks, and back almost to the middle of the valves ; base, between the 
anterior and posterior notches, extended downward in the form of a narrow 
prolongation, which curves under, and is the only part of the ventral borders 
of the two valves that come in contact ; beaks elevated, gibbous, incurved, 
and located between the middle and the anterior margin ; surface ornamented 
by small concentric lines, which are curved, and deflected parallel to the great 
irregularities of the free borders, and crossed by two distinct radiating grooves, 
one of which passes from the back part of the beaks obliquely downward and 
backward to the corner of the posterior notch, and the other nearly directly 
downward to the extremity of the ventral prolongation. Length, of a medium 
sized specimen, 0-16 inch ; height 0-14 inch ; gibbosity 0-13 inch. 

Locality and position. Fort Clark, on the Missouri, in formation No. 5. 

Maotra Siouxknsis, M. & H. — Internal cast oval-subtrigonal, moderately 
gibbous ; anterior border narrowly rounded ; posterior margin subangular at 
the extremity; base forming a nearly semiovate curve, the most prominent 
part of which is in front of the middle ; dorsal outline declining with a slightly 
convex outline behind the beaks, and distinctly concave in front of them ; beaks 
prominent, rather gibbous, very nearly central ; pallial impression provided 
with an oval sinus, which appears to be a little narrower behind than in the 
middle, rounded at the anterior extremity, and extending nearly in a horizontal 
direction, about three-fourths of the way towards the middle of the valves. 
Length 1*55 inches ; height, 1-22 inches ; convexity 0-76 inch. 

Locality and position. Near mouth of Big Sioux River, in formation No. 1, 
of the Nebraska Cretaceous series. 

Mactra gracilis, M. & H. — Shell small, rather thin, ovate-subtrigonal, 
moderately gibbous, anterior end rounded, a little broader than the other ; 
base forming a broad semiovate curve, being usually more prominent towards 
the front than behind ; posterior margin rather narrowly rounded, or sub- 
truncate ; beaks moderately prominent, and located slightly in advance of the 
middle; escutcheon comparatively large, lance-ovate in form; surface marked 
by distinct, regular lines of growth : hinge unknown. Length 0-49 inch ; 
height 0-38 inch; convexity about 0-24 inch. 

Locality and position. On Yellowstone River, 150 miles above the mouth, in 
beds containing a mingling of the fossils of No. 4 and 5. 

Tkllina? FORMOSA, M. & H. — Shell subelliptical, very thin, moderately con- 
vex ; anterior extremity a little wider than the other, but very narrowly round- 
ed ; posterior side subangular at the extremity ; base forming a semi-elliptical 
curve; dorsum sloping gradually, with a slightly convex outline in front and 
rear; beaks small, and located almost exactly in the middle; surface marked 
by rather obscure, irregular lines of growth, and extremely fine radiating stria;, 
only visible by the aid of a magnifier ; hinge unknown. Length 0'67 inch ; 
height 0'40 inch; convexity (of a right valve) about 0-13 inch. 

Locality and position. TWenty miles below mouth of Cannon Ball River, 
formation No. 5. 

Cyprina humilis. M. & H. — Shell ovate, gibbous, thick, very oblique ; ante- 
rior margin scarcely extending beyond the beaks, abruptly rounded below ; 
base semiovate in outline, most prominent towards the front, sometimes a little 
contracted behind ; posterior extremity rounding obliquely, with a broad curve 
from the dorsum to the postero-basal extremity, which is narrowly rounded ; 
beaks very oblique, almost overhanging the anterior border, declining and 
turned a little inwards at the extremities ; umbonal slopes prominent from near 
the beaks obliquely backward to the lower part of the anal margin ; surface 
marked by distinct, subimbricating lines of growth. Length 1*70 inches ; 
height 1-34 inches; breadth 1-30 inches. 

I860.] 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Locality and position. North branch of Cheyenne River, near Black Hilla, 
formation No. 5. 

AvicuLA 8DBGIBB0SA, M. & H. — Shell (left valve) obliquely rhombic-oval, 
or ovate, moderately gibbous ; anterior margin contracted, or a little concave 
in outline just below the wing, from which point it descends obliquely back- 
ward, with a broad, gently convex sweep, into the base ; posterior border rathw 
broadly rounded below, distinctly sinuous under the wing above ; hinge line 
straight, a little less than the height of the shell. Anterior wing forming an 
equilateral triangle, compressed, and rather distinct from the umbo; posterior 
wing having the form of a very inequilateral triangle, the posterior side of 
which is much the shortest, compressed, moderately distinct from the more 
gibbous part of the valve, forming an angle of about 50° at the extremity ; beak 
small, slightly elevated above the hinge, gibbous, located a little less than one- 
third the length of the hinge, behind the anterior extremity ; posterior muscu- 
lar scar large, oval or ovate, and located a little above the middle. Height 
1-40 inches ; length, measuring from the postero-basal extremity obliquely 
forward and upward to the point of the beak, 1''72 inches ; length of hinge 
1-32 inches. 

This species resembles A. linguiformiSjEYaa? & Shumard, but is much broad- 
er and less oblique, while its postero-basal margin is more broadly rounded. 
Our specimen is a cast, and does not show the surface-markings, excepting on 
the anterior wing, where the marks of growth are rather distinct and subim- 
bricating. 

Locality and position. Long Lake, above Fort Pierre, formation No. 5. 

Inoceramos cdneatus, M. & H. — Shell oblong-ovate, moderately gibbous in 
the umbonal and anterior regions, very nearly or quite equivalve, rather thin ; 
buccal side descending from the beaks ai first, almost at right angles to the 
hinge, after which it gradually curves obliquely backward and downward, so 
as to pass by a graceful sweep into the base ; posterior side long, compressed, 
broader than the other extremity, and regularly rounded ; ventral border form- 
ing a semiovate curve, the most prominent part of which is behind the middle ; 
hinge very long, and nearly straight. Beaks very nearly terminal, or located 
almost directly over the anterior border, oblique, rising little above the hinge, 
equal, and but slightly incurved. Surface marked by rather distinct, more or 
less regular undulations. Length 3-90 inches; height 2-75 inches ; convexity 
2 inches. 

Locality and position. Yellow Stone River, 150 miles above the mouth, in 
beds containing a blending of the fossils of formations Nos. 4 and 5. 

Inoceramds Vanuxemi, M. & H. — Shell large, subcircular or broad oval, 
equivalve, and much compressed ; anterior margin rounded ; base forming a 
nearly semicircular curve, being a little more prominent behind than in front ; 
posterior side longer and wider than the other, broadly rounded or subtruncate ; 
hinge (of moderate length ?) straight, and forming an angle of about 70" with 
the axis of the umbones. Beaks small, compressed, scarcely rising above the 
hinge, not distinctly incurved, located a little in advance of the middle. Sur- 
face ornamented by regular, distinct, angular, but not very prominent concen- 
tric undulations, which are separated by rather shallow depressions. Length 
of the largest specimen we have seen, 10 inches ; height of do. 9 inches. 

Locality and position. White River above the Bad Lands, in upper part of 
formation No. 4. 

Inoceramus Balchii, M. & H. — Shell large, subquadrate, or broad oblong- 
oval, much compressed; anterior side truncate obliquely forward above, at an 
angle of about 115° with the hinge, rounding into the base below; ventral 
margin forming a broad curve, the most prominent part of which is a little 
behind the middle ; posterior side longer and wider than the other, broadly 
rounded, (sometimes subtruncate above ?) ; hinge line rather long, forming an 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 181 

angle of about 60° with the umbonal axis. Beaks narrow, rising somewhat 
above the hinge, scarcely incurved, located about halfway between the middle 
and the most prominent part of the anterior border. Surface ornamented by 
very slightly elevated, broadly rounded, rather irregular undulations, which 
become entirely obsolete on large specimens below the middle, and on the pos- 
terior as well as the lower anterior regions. Attains a diameter of 3J to 4 
inches. 

Named after Lieut. G. T. Balch, of U. S. Ordinance — who discovered the 
only specimens of the species we have seen. 

Locality and position. White River above the Mauvaises Terres. 

IsocKRAMDs suBCOMPBESsus, M. & H. — Shell rhombic-oval, compressed, very 
thin ; anterior side rounded below the beaks ; base forming a long semiovate 
curve, the most prominent part of which is behind the middle ; posterior side 
long, very narrowly rounded and prominent below the middle, subtruncate ob- 
liquely forward above ; hinge of moderate length, forming an angle of about 40° 
with the umbonal axis. Beaks small, scarcely rising above the hinge, located 
nearly over the anterior extremity. Surface ornamented by somewhat regular 
concentric undulations. Length 2-55 inches ; height TTO inches. 

Locality and position. Mouth of Judith River, formation No. 1 ? of Nebraska 
section. 

LvocERAMDS AViccLoiDS, M. & H. — Shell compressed, often broad ovate or 
subcircular when young, but becoming obliquely oval or subrhomboidal in 
outline as it advanced in age; substance thin and fragile. Anterior and basal 
margins forming a broad gentle curve; posterior extremity narrowly rounded 
below, ascending obliquely forward, with a slightly convex outline above, and 
meeting the hinge at an angle of about 120°. Hinge margin long, straight and 
compressed, so as to form an alate expansion behind. Beaks nearly terminal, 
scarcely rising above the hinge, not gibbous or distinctly incurved. Surface 
ornamented by more or less regular concentric undulations and obscure lines 
of growth. Length from the beaks obliquely backward and downward to the 
postero-basal edge, about 3 inches ; height from base to hinge, 2-30 inches. 

Locality and position. Little Blue River, formation No. 3. 

Anomia obliqua, M. & H. — Shell thin, broad oval, subcircular, or somewhat 
irregular, and more or less oblique; upper valve rather convex, beak nearl}' or 
quite marginal, and placed nearer the anterior side, moderately gibbous ; sur- 
face marked concentrically by fine obscure lines, and small wrinkles of growth. 
Length about 1-32 inches ; breadth 1-16 inches. 

Locality and position. Near mouth of Niobrara River, in formation No. 3 of 
the Nebraska section. 

Anomia scbtrigonalis, M. & H. — Shell subtrigonal, approaching subcircular, 
extremely thin and fragile ; upper valve moderately convex ; anterior side sub- 
truncate, with a slightly convex outline, rounding abruptly at its junction with 
the ventral margin ; posterior side obliquely truncate from the beak, and very 
narrowlj' rounded at its connection with the ventral border, provided with a 
broad, oblique, rounded fold ; pallial margin nearly straight, or but slightly 
convex; umbo marginal and rather prominent. Lower valve nearly flat, or 
compressed, and more irregular than the other. Surface marked by small, 
irregular, concentric wrinkles, and very obscure lines of growth. Length 1'57 
inch; breadth 1-14 inch. 

Locality and position. Bijou Hill, on the Missouri, formation No. 4. 

OsTREA iNORNATA, M. & H. — Shell Small, narrow subovate, rather thin, 
attached by the whole under surface of the lower valve ; beaks pointed and 
curved usually to the left side; under valve conforming to the contour of the 
surface to which it adhered, moderately concave, area small and narrow ; upper 
valve rather convex, having its beak less pointed than that of the other valve ; 

I860.] 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

surface smooth, or only marked by very obscure lines of growth, with sometimes 
a few very small, irregular, nearly obsolete radiating wrinkles near the lower 
border. Length about 1-40 inches; breadth 0-87 inch. 

Locality and position. Great Bend of the Missouri, below Fort Pierre — lower 
part of No. 4, Nebraska section. 

JURASSIC SPECIES. 
COXCHIFERA. 

Pholadomy.a. hcmilis, M. & H. — Shell transversely oblong-oval, ventricose ; 
posterior end rounded, and more or less gaping; base nearly straight along the 
middle : anterior end very short, narrowly rounded below the beaks; dorsum 
nearly parallel with the base, slightly concave in outline ; escutcheon lanceo- 
late, and bounded by an obscure angle on each side ; beaks depressed, gib- 
bons, incurved, and located in advance of the middle; surface ornamented by 
small, regular, concentric wrinkles, crossed by a few raised lines, or obscure, 
distant, radiating costae, extending from the back part of the beaks, to the pos- 
terior, and postero-basal margins. Length about 106 inch ; height 0-52 inch; 
breadth 0-52 inch. 

Locality and position. Lower Jurassic series, at the south-west base of the 
Black Hills. 

Myacites Nebrascensis, M. k H. — Shell elongate, subelliptical, rather convex ; 
extremities narrowly rounded, the posterior end being sometimes apparently 
obliquely subtruncate. and more or less gaping above ; base nearly straight, or 
very slightly sinuous along the middle, rounding up gradually towards the 
ends; dorsum behind the beaks concave in outline; posterior umbonal slopes 
D-ibbous, or prominently rounded ; antero- ventral region a little compressed, 
or contracted from near the middle of the base obliquely forward and upward ; 
beaks moderately elevated, gibbous, incurved, and located near the anterior 
end : surface ornamented by concentric striae, and small, very obscure, irregu- 
lar parallel wrinkles. Length about 1-43 inch ; height 069 inch ; breadth 0-59 
inch. 

Locality and position. South-west base Black Hills. Jurassic. 

Thbacia? suBLEvis, M. & H. — Shell narrow oblong-oval, rather compressed ; 
anterior end narrowly rounded : base nearly straight along the middle, round- 
incr up toward the ends ; posterior side longer than the other, rounded or 
slightly truncate, and apparently gaping a little at the extremity; dorsal her- 
der concave in outline, and nearly horizontal behind the beaks, declining more 
abruptly in front; beaks moderately elevated, the right one being usually a 
little higher than the other, located in advance of the middle ; posterior um- 
bonal slopes prominently rounded ; surface concentrically striate : hinge and 
interior unknown. Length 1-17 inch; height 060 inch ; breadth about 0-32 
inch. 

Locality and position. Near the middle of the Jurassic deposits at the south- 
west base of the Black Hills. 

Thbacia? arccata, M. <fe H. — Shell small, transversely snbovate, more or 
less arcuate, moderately convex ; extremities rather narrowly rounded, and a 
little o^aping ; cardinal margin sloping from the beaks, anterior slope more 
abrupt than the other ; beaks rather elevated and unequal, that of the right 
valve being higher than the other, located in advance of the middle ; posterior 
and anterior umbonal slopes prominent; sides of the valves flattened or slightly 
concave in the central region near the base ; surface of cast retaining small 
concentric marks of growth ; hinge and interior unknown. Length, 62 inch ; 
bei»ht. 0-37 inch ; thickness or convexity, 0-23 inch. 

Locality and position. Same as last. 

Cabdicm Shcmabdi, M. & H. — Shell small, subcircular, rather gibbous ; an- 

tMay, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 183 

terior side rounded ; base more broadly rounded ; posterior side obliquely sub- 
truncate above and passing with an abrupt curve into the base below ; hinge 
margin rather short, and sloping slightly from the beaks, which are moderately 
elevated, gibbous and nearly central ; posterior umbonal slopes angular; sur- 
face of cast retaining only traces of small radiating costae or lines on the pro- 
minent posterior umbonal slopes, and flattened postero-dorsal region; hinge 
and interior unknown. Length 0-44 inch; height 0-37 inch; thickness 0-32 
inch. 

Named in honor of Dr. George G. Shumard, of the Texas Geological Survey. 

Localitrj and position. Jurassic, beds south-west base of Black Hills. 

Tancredia? .«;quilateralis, M. & 11. — Shell very nearly equilateral, mode- 
rately convex ; anterior end rather narrowly rounded ; base forming a broad, 
regular, seraielliptic curve; posterior end slightly truncate on the upper oblique 
slope, narrowly rounded below, apparently not gaping ; beaks depressed, loca- 
ted a little in advance of the middle; surface of cast retaining traces of con- 
centric strii« ; hinge and interior unknown. Length 1 inch ; height 0-64 inch ; 
breadth about 0-lG inch. 

Locality and position. South-west base Black Hills — Jurassic. 

Tancredia Warkenana, M. & H. — Shell small, trigonal ovate, moderately 
convex, anterior half a little narrower and more compressed than the other, 
narrowly rounded at the extremity ; base forming a broad gentle curve ; pos- 
terior side subtruncate, angular, or abruptly rounded below; dorsum sloping 
from the beaks, the anterior slope being slightly concave in outline, and the 
other nearly straight, or a little convex; beaks elevated, but not extending 
much above the cardinal edge ; posterior umbonal slopes prominent, or sub- 
angular ; surface and hinge unknown. 

Named in honor of Lieut. G. K. Warren, U. S. Top. Engineers. 

Length OoO inch ; height 0-33 inch ; breadth about 014 inch. 

Locality and position. Same as last. 

Astarte fragilis, M. & H. — Shell small, rather broad oval, thin, moderately 
compressed; anterior end rounded; base nearly straight along the middle, 
rounding up regularly in front, and more abruptly behind : posterior extremity 
obscurely subtruncate; dorsum straight and slightly declining behind the 
beaks, which are small, obtuse, rather depressed, and located a little in advance 
of the middle; posterior umbonal slopes prominent; surface ornamented by 
distinct, irregular concentric wrinkles and fine parallel striffi ; hinge and interior 
unknown ; pallial margin crenulate within. Length 0-43 inch ; height 0-3'i 
inch ; breadth or convexity 0-18 inch. 

Locality and position. South-west base of the Black Hills — Jurassic. 

Astarte inornata, M. & H. — Shell subelliptical, compressed; extremities 
rounded, the posterior margin forming a broader curve than the other; base 
semielliptical in outline; dorsum declining from the beaks, the anterior slope 
being a little concave, and the other nearly straight or slightly convex ; beaks 
moderately elevated, compressed, angular in front, located just in advance of 
the middle ; lunule rather deep, lance-oval, bounded on eacii side by a more 
or less distinct angle ; surface marked by concentric striae, with a tendency to 
develop small, very obscure concentric wrinkles. Length 1-15 inches ; height 
0-79 inch : breadth or convexity 0-44 inch. 

Locality and positioii. Same as last. 

Trigonia Coxradi, .M. & H. — Shell rather amall, subtrigonal, moderately 
convex; anterior side truncate; base rounded ; posterior side sloping obliquely 
from che beaks above, and apparently vertically truncate at the extremity; beaks 
elevated, narrow, incurved, ami located in ailvance of the middle ; posterior 
umboinl slopes distinctly angular; surface ornamented by rather small, 
obscure concentric costae, which on the posterior side of the valves, descend 

I860.] 



184 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

at first perpendicularly, after which they are deflected forward parallel to the 
basal and anterior borders. Length and height, each about 0-97 inch ; con- 
vexity 0-58 inch. 

Locality and position. South-west base Black Hills, Jurassic. 

Named in honor of Mr. T. A. Conrad, the well known palaeontologist, of 
Philadelphia. 

Pectev extenoatds, M. & H. — Shell broad ovate, or sub-circular, thin, 
compressed; basal mtrgin rounded; beaks small; hinge line rather short; 
ears unknown ; surface apparently having only concentric stride of growth. 
Height 0-98 inch, length 0-90 inch; convexity 0-28 inch. 

Locality and position. South-west base of Black Hills, in a sandstone of lower 
Jurassic age. 

PALAEOZOIC. 

Myalina avicdloides, M. & H. — Shell subtrigonal, higher than long, very 
convex, or sometimes subangular down the umbonal slopes ; anterior margin 
distinctly sinuous above the middle, thence descending with a slightly convex 
curve, nearly at right angles with the hinge, to the basal extremity, which is 
narrowly rounded ; posterior side compressed, its margin curving a little 
forward above, or intersecting the hinge at right angles, slightly convex, and 
nearly perpendicular along the middle, below which it curves obliquely forward 
to the abruptly rounded basal extremity; hinge straight, nearly equalling the 
length of the shell ; beaks very convex, subangular; and curving rather abruptly 
forward, so as to become nearly, or quite terminal ; surface having moderately 
distinct marks of growth. Length, 1-48 inch ; height, 1-66 inch ; convexity, 
(of left valve), 0-32 inch. 

This will be r^eadily distinguished from all the other species of the genus 
known to us, by its more accurate front, and the extension of its anterior margin 
under the beaks, above its most sinuous part. 

Locality and position. From the upper beds, containing Permian types of 
fossils, on Cottonwood creek, Kanzas Territory. 

Note. In going carefully over these extensive collections, we have in addition 
to finding the new species here described, succeeded in working from the matrix, 
better specimens of many of those already published by us, than had been pre- 
viously obtained. The additional information derived from these, and a more 
careful review of the subject has enabled us to make several corrections 
in the synonyma, as well as in the generic references, a list of which is given 
below. 

It will also be observed, that we have made quite a number of other changes, 
in order to range the species under the oldest generic names proposed after the 
introduction by Linnaeus, of the binomial system. We must confess, however, 
that we have some doubts whether science is to be much benefitted by a strict 
observance of the law of priority, in such cases as those where it becomes 
necessary to change long established names. We nevertheless make some 
such changes in conformity with usages rapidly gaining ground, and probably 
destined soon to become universal amongst conchologists and laborers in other 
departments of Natural History. 

The transfer of several species formerly published under the names ILimites, 
Ancyloceras? and Turrilites, to the genus Jlelicoceras, has been made in accord- 
ance with the views of Mr. Daniel Sharpe, (Fossil Mol. Chalk, England, part 
3d, Cephalopoda, p. 59, Paleont. Soc.) who refers ail the so called Turrilites 
having rounded whorls, with the siphuncle placed on the dorsal or outer side, to 
the genus Ilelicoceras, whether the whorls are in contact or not. The genus 
Turrilites, he restricts to those forms having more or less angular contiguous 
whorls, with the siphuncle located near the suture. The fact of the whorls of 
those forms with rounded volutions being in contact or not, can scarcely be 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



185 



regarded in all cases, of even specific importance, since it is now well known 
that in some instances the same species presents both these peculiarities, and 
sometimes the whorls of one part of the spire are in contact, and in others dis- 
connected, even in the same individual. 

Our specimens confirm Mr. Sharp's views, for although they are but mere 
fragments, it is evident they are parts of spiral shells, presenting intermediate 
gradations between forms with whorls barely in contact, and others in which 
they are clearly disconnected. 

Mr. D'Orbigny describes the septa of the genus Helicoceras as being un- 
symmetrical, like those of Tiirrililes, this, however, is not always the case in 
species, the whorls of which make a very broad curve around a large umbilical 
cavity, for in some of our specimens of this kind, the corresponding lobes on 
opposite sides of the siphuncle, present scarcely the slightest inequality, and 
in other instances seem to be as nearly symmetrical as in Ilamites, or any of 
the allied genera. 



I^ames formerly Tised. 

IlAsirTES MoRTONi, Hall & Meek. } 

Hdicoceras tf.nuicostatum. Meek & Hayflen. j 

TcRRiuTEs (Helicoceras) cochleatus, M. k H. 

An'CTLOCeras ? Nebr.wcexsis, Meek & Hayden. J 
Turrilitts Nebrascensis, Meek & Hayden. ] 

AXCTLOCERAS ? Chetennensis, .Meek & Hayden. ) 
Tiirrilites C/ieyennenHs, >ieek & Hayden. J 

Tup.RiLiTKS UMiiiLicATUs, Meek & Hayden. 

Ammon'ites percarinatcs, Hall 6i Meek, 

presents extremely different characters, at 
various stages of its growth : probably not 
distinct from A. Woolgari, of Mantell. 

Ammonites cordiformis. Meek & Hayden, 

probably identical with A. Cordatus, Sowerby. 

Plaxorbis fragilis,* M. & H. f non Dunker.) 

Planorbis suBU.MBiLicATis, Meek & Hayden. 

Planorbis amplexus. Meek & Hayden. 

Paludina Co.vradi, Meek & Hayden. 

PALtJDiNA MULTiuxEATA, Meek & Hayden. 

Paludi.va Leai, IVIeek *c Hayden. 

P.'iLtiDixA retusa. Meek & Mayden. 
P.iLUBiyA trochiformi.s, Meek & Hayden. 
TuRRiTELLA MoREAtjEXt-is, Meek d Hayden. 
ScALARiA CERiTDiFoRMis, Meek 5( Hayden. 
Turbo Xebrascexjis. Meek & Hayden. 
KOSTELLARIA BIAXGCLATA. Meek <t Hayden. 
Fuses coxTORTCs. Meek & Hayden. 
BocciNUM ? vinculum. Hall & Meek. 
ACTEOX ATTENHATUS, Meek ^ Hayden. 
AcTEox coNcixNus, Hall & .Meek, \ 

AveUana sitbgMiosa, Meek & H.iyden. J 
AcTEON scBELLiPTicus. Meek & Havden. 
Natica paludinjeformis,* Hall &' Meek. 

(non N paludiniformis, D'Orbigny.) 
Bulla sobctundrica,* Meek 4 Ilayden. 
CORB0LA VENTRICOSA, Meek k Hayden. 
CoRBtn.A MoREAUENsis, Meek & Hayden. 
Cttherea TENUIS. Hall & Meek. 
CrxHEREA pellucida. Meek !k Hayden. 
rTTHEREA Deweti, Meek ,"^ Hayden. 
Cttherea Owexaxa, Meek 8c Hayden. 
Cttherea orbiculata. Meek & Hayden. 
Ctclas FORMOSA. Meek & Hayden. 
Ctclas fragilis, Meek & Hayden. 
Ctclas subelliptica. Meek & Hayden. 
IfETTANaiA Americana, Meek & Hayden. 
NUCULA KvAXSi, Meek & H.iyden. 
NuCt'lA 8CITUL.1. Meek & Hayden. 
CucuLL^A SnuM.ARDi, .Meek & Hayden. 
Pectuncdlus Siouxensis, Hall & Meek. 
Pectosculus scbimbricatus. Meek & Hayden. 



Names here adopted. 
Helicoceras Mortoni. 
Helicoceras cochle.^tum. 
Helicocer.^s Nebrascexsk. 
Helicoceras Cheyennense. 

Helicoceras umbilicatum. 



Pl.vnobris planocoxvexcs. 
Valvata subumuilicata. 
Heux (Polygyra) .amplexcs. 

VlVIPAKA CONRADI. 
ViriP.'^RA MULTILINEATA. 
A'lVIPARA LeAI. 
ViVIPARA BETCSA. 
VlTIPARA TROCHIFORMIS. 

Cerithiopsis Moreauexsis.' 
Tdbbonilla (Chemnitizia) cerithifof.mis. 
M.arq.arita Nebrascexsis. 
Aporrhais eianoulatus. 
Pleurotoma coxtorta. 
fusus vixculcm.. 
Solidulus attenuatus. 

avellana concinna. 

SOLIDtTLUS (AcTEONINA ?) SUBELL1PTICC8. 
AMAUROPSIS PALUDINIFORMIS. 

Bulla speciosa. 

NE.ERA TENTRICOSA. 

Ne«ra Moreauensis. 
Meretrix tenuis. 
Meretrix pellucida. 
Meretrix Deweti. 
Meretrix Owenana. 
Meretrix orbiculata. 

SPH.ERICM FORMOSCM. 

Sph^ricm fragile. 

SPH.«RinM SUBELLIPTICUM. 

Tancrk.-ia Americana. 

Leda Kva.ssi. 

Leda scitula. 

Cucn.L«A FIBROSA, Sowerby. 

AXIN.EA Siouxensis. 

AXIX.KA SUBIMBRICATA. 



I860.] 



*The names followed by an asterisk, were pre-occnpied. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

Descriptions of Fourteen new species of Schizostomse, Anculosae and Lithasise. 

BY ISAAC LEA. 

It will be observed that I have in this paper adopted my first name (Schizos- 
toma) for the division of those Melaiiidce which have a cut or fissure in the 
upper portion of the last whorl. This name I proposed in December, 1842. 
Subsequently finding that it was used by Bronn in 1835 I abandoned it, and 
proposed the name of Schizochilus as a substitute, (Obs. on the Genus Unio, 
V. 5, p. 51, 1852.) I am now satisfied that Bronn's name was applied to the same 
genus — Euomphalus — which Sowerby established in 1814, (Min. Conch, tab. 45.) 
This evidentlj'^ liberates my original name, and Herrmannsen, in the Appendix 
to his'-Generum Malacozorum," very properly restores it. It was supposed 
that this was the Melatoma of Swainson, and Mr. Anthony adopted this name. 
But it is evident that Mr. Swainson's Melatoma is not my Schizosioma. By refe- 
rence to his figure (Malacology, p. 342, f. 104) it will be observed at once that 
there has never been observed in the United States any of the group of which 
that figure is the type, while it is known that they exist in the islands of the 
Indian Ocean. Mr. Swainson says (p. 202) that his Melatoma was " founded 
upon a remarkable Ohio shell " sent by Rafinesque. Now, as no member of the 
family Melanidce with a cut in the lip has ever been found in the Ohio, where 
such hosts of active collectors have since pursued their investigations, it is 
perhaps beyond the bounds of possibility that the specimen sent by Rafinesque, 
so eminently careless and reckless as he always was, should ever have been 
found there. Indeed, if the specimen figured was sent by Mr. Rafinesque to 
Mr. Swainson, then the question would arise whether it had not been obtained 
by Mr. R. from some dealer or collector, who may have obtained it from Asia. 
I have no doubt of the Melatoma costata, which Mr. Swainson has figured, 
being exotic, and belonging to a group probably from the Philippine Islands. 
Mr. Anthony says, page 64, Proc. A. N. S. 1860, that " it may be doubted 
whether Mr. Lea's first name will not eventually prevail, since, before he pub- 
lished Schizosioma, Bronn's genus of the same name had been called a synonym 
of Bifrontia, Desh." And that " H. and A. .\dams (Gen. Rec. Moll. 1, 105) do 
not appear correct in giving preference to Gyroloma over Schizostoma, Lea," &c. 
Notwithstanding this, Mr. Anthony in this paper, where he describes nine sup- 
posed new species of this genus, adopts the generic name of Gyrotoma. It may 
be added here that Dr. Gray, in his Genera of Recent Motlusca, give5 3felatoma to 
Mr. Anthony, not to Swainson, while he does not notice the name of Schizos- 
toma. Mr. A. does not pretend to claim it, of course, but adopts Gyrotoma, 
Mr. Shuttleworth's name, proposed in 1845, which being three years later 
cannot have precedence. 

The genus Schizostoma seems to be capable of being divided into two natural 
groups in the form of the fissura, the cut in the lip. In one group this fissura 
is deep and direct, that is parallel with the suture or upper edge of the 
whorl ; in the other it is not deep and is oblique to the suture. 

In Mr. Anthony's paper (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Feb., 1860) I recognize several 
of my old species. His Gyrotoma demissa I believe to be my Schizostoma con- 
stricta. His G. quadrata to be my S, incisa. 

Schizostoma castanba. — Testa carinata, conica, subcrassa, tenebroso-fusca, 
imperforata ; spira elevala ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus senis, planu- 
latis, unicarinatis, quadrivittatis ; fissura rectd, angusta profundaque ; apertura 
parviuscula, elliptica, intus vittata, ad basira subrotundata ; columella alba, in- 
crassata ; labro acuto, vix sinuato. 

Hab.—Goo^a. River, Alab. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

Schizostoma glans. — Testa Isvi, ovato-conica, inflatii, subcrassa, luteo-cor- 
nea, striata, imperforata ; spira obtuse elevata ; suturis regulariter impressis ; 
anfractibus senis, obsolete vittatis, ultimo subgrandi ; fissura recta, angusta 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 187 

profundaque ; apertura parviuscula, elliptica, intus albida, ad basim obtuse 
angulata ; columella albida, superne incrassata; labro-acuto, subsinuato. 
Hab.—CoossL River, Alab. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

ScHizosTOMA GLOBOSA. — Testa transverse striata, globosa, subtenui, luteola, 
iraperforata ; spira curta, obtuse conoidea ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus qua- 
ternis, trivittatis, ultimo grandi ; fissura recta, angusta brevique ; apertura 
subgrandi, elliptica, intus vittata, ad basim angulata ; columella alba, incur- 
vata ; labro acuto, expanso. 

ITab. — Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

ScHizosTOMA viRENS. — Testi'i subnodulosil, curta, inflata, subcrassa, tenebroso- 
viridi, exilissime striata, imperforata ; spira obtusa ; suturis impressis ; anfrac- 
tibus subplanulatis et trivittatis ; fissura obliqua brevique ; apertura elongata, 
subpyriformi, intus tenebroso- vittata ; columella superne purpurata et incras- 
sata ; labro acuto, sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alab. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

SCHIZOSTOMA GLAJJDULA. — Tcstil laBvi, curta, inflata, subcrassa, luteo-cornea, 
exilissime striata, imperforata ; spira obtusa; suturis valde impressis; anfrac- 
tibus senis, vittatis, ultimo magno et tumido ; fissura obliqua brevique ; aper- 
tura subgrandi, elliptica, intus albidd ; columella albida, superne incrassata ; 
labro acuto, subsinuato. 

Hab.— Coosa, River, Alab. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

SCHIZOSTOMA Wetompkaensis. — Testa striata, ovato-cylindracea, crassa, pal- 
lido-fusca, perforata ; spira obtusa, conoidea ; suturis valde impressis ; anfrac- 
tibus senis, vittatis, planulatis, ultimo grandi ; fissura obliqua brevique ; aper- 
tura grandi, ovata, intus vittata, ad basim obtuse angulata ; columella alba, 
superne incrassata; labro acuto, sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa River, at Wetumpka, Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

ScHizosTOMA Alabamensis. — Testa striata, elliptica, robusta, luteo-olivacea, 
imperforata, spira obtuso-conoldea ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus senis, 
vittatis, subinflatis, ultimo pergrandi ; fissura obliqua subbrevique ; apertura 
subgrandi, ovata, intus vittata, ad basim rotundata ; columella alba, inferne et 
superne paulisper incrassata; labro acuto, sinuato. 

^a6.— Alabama. B. W. Budd, M. D., and E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

SCHIZOSTOMA Hartmanii. — Tcsta laevi, subcylindracea, crassa, luteo-cornea, 
imperforata; spira elevata ; suturis valde impressis; anfractibus planulatis, 
ultimo subgrandi; fissura recta subbrevique; apertura parviuscula, ovata, 
intus alba, ad basim obtuse angulata ; columella alba, incurva, inferne paulis- 
per incrassata ; labro acuto, sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alab. W. D. Hartman, M. D. 

SCHIZOSTOMA PUMiLA. — Testa striata, turbonata, subtenui, pallido-cornea» 
imperforata ; spira valde obtusa ; suturis vald^ impressis ; anfractibus senis, 
ventricosis, ultimo permagno ; fissura recta subbrevique; apertura parviuscula, 
ovata, intus alba, ad basim angulata et subcanaliculata ; columella alba, con- 
torta, inferne incrassata ; labro acuto, sinuato. 

ZTafi.— Alabama. B. W. Budd, M. D. 

Ancolosa FORMOSA. — Tcsta laevi, globosa, subtenui, diaphana, vel luteola 
vel crocata, valde vittata et maculatfl. ; spira depressa vix conspicufl, ; suturis 
impressis ; anfractibus ternis, ultimo magno et valde ventricoso ; apertura 
grandi, subrotunda, intus pallido-crocata et tenebroso-vittata ; columella in- 
ferne et superne incrassata et pallido-purpurata ; labro acuto et valde expanso. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Shelby Co., Alabama. E. R. Showalter, M. D. 

Anculosa contorta. — Testa laevi, globoso-ovoidea, crassa, luteo-corneJL ; 
spira elevata ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus inflatis, obsolete transverse 

1860.J 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

striatis ; apertura parva, subrotuada, coatracta, intus luteo-alba ; columella in- 
crassata; labro acuto, expanse. 

Hab. — Coosa River, at Watumpka, Alab. E. R. Sbowalter, M. D. 

Ancdlosa tittata. — Testa Isvi, subglobosa, crassa, luteola, valde vittat^ ; 
spir4 obtusa ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus quarternis, inflatis, ultimo magno 
et ventricoso ; apertura rotunda, in faucibus valde constricta, intus vittata ; 
columella valde incrassata, planulata, purpurata; labro acuto, expanso. 

Hab. — Coosa River, at Watumpka, Alabama. E. R. Sbowalter, M. D. 

LiTHASiA Showalterii. — Testa laevi, ovato-cylindracea, subcrassa, luteo-cor- 
nea, vittata : spira obtuse conoidea ; suturis valde impressis, anfractibus senis, 
ultimo magno et planulato : apertura grandi, subovata, elongata, intus albida, 
tenebroso-vittata, ad basim obtuse angulata ; columella inferne et superne in- 
crassata, incurva; labro acuto et subconstricto. 

Hab. — Coosa River, at Watumpka, Alabama. E. R. Sbowalter, M. D. 

LiTHASiA NUCLEA. — Testa lasvi, elliptica, luteo-oliva, crassa, solida, trivittata ; 
spira obtuse conoidea ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus quinis, ultimo magno et 
paulisper inflato ; apertura parviuscula, ovato-rotunda, intus albida, trivittata, 
ad basim recurvata ; columella inferne et superne incrassata, incurva ; labro 
acuto. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama. E. R. Sbowalter, M. D. 



Catalogue of Birds collected dtiring a survey of a route for a ship Canal across 
the Isthmus of Darien, by order of the Government of the United States, 
made by Lieut. N. niichler, of the TI. S. Topographical Engineers, with notes 
and descriptions of new species. 

BY JOHN CASSIN. 

(Continued from page 144.) 

84. Thamnophilus atricapillds, (Gmelin). 

Lanius atricapillus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 303, (1788). 
Lanius pileatus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 76, (1790). 
Vieill. Ois. D'Am. Sept. pi. 48, 49. Bufif. PI. Enl. 479, fig. 2. 
From Carthagena. 

" On the Popa mountain at Carthagena, constantly flying across the pathway, 
and was evidently catching small Lepidoptera and Diptera. Has a prolonged 
note somewhat like one note of the Cat bird of the United States. Very shy, 
and not easily obtained, though abundant." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

85. Thamnophilus naevius, (Gmelin). 

Lanius naevius, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 308, (1788). 
Leach, Zool. Misc. i. pi. 17. Sw. B. of Braz. pi. 59. 
From the River Truando. 

" Frequently seen, and generally on the ground, in patches of a plant called 
"Spanish Bayonet," by the people of the country, on which it seemed 
to be catching insects. At Camp Toucey, in January, 1858." (Mr. W. S. 
Wood, Jr.) 

86. Thamnophilus transandeus, Sclater. 

Thamnophilus transandeus, Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1855. p. 18. 
From Turbo. 

Appears to be this species, having the under tail coverts tipped w^th white, 
and is rather larger than specimens of T. melanurus, in the Acad. Coll. Very 
nearly allied, though, to that species. 

" In very thick bushes on the banks of a creek near Turbo, seen only once, 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 189 

and very shy. Hag a harsh loud note, and appeared to be pursuing large 
insects, occasionally alighting on the ground." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

87. Thamnophilcs. 
From Turbo. 

Two specimens labelled as females, nearly allied to T. caesius, (Cuv). and 
T. cetkiops, Sclater. 

88. Thamnophilus, 

From the River Truando. 

Several specimens, all in young plumage, probably of a species allied to 
T. atricapillus. 

'• All of the preceding five species live in the bushes, and are often to be 
seen on the ground, and appear to subsist by capturing insects in various 
stages, which are exceedingly abundant. All of them are more or less noisy, 
having harsh, though not always disagreeable notes, which can constantly be 
heard where they frequent. When alarmed, they take long flights very pre- 
cipitately, and are not easily collected." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

89. Pachyrhamphus kufescens, (Spix) ? 

From Turbo. A single specimen in young plumage. 

" On the Cremantina, a high tree with very abundant foliage. Has much 
the habits of a Fly-catcher, darting out in pursuit of insects, and returning to 
its perch, and moving his tail in the same manner." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

Genus Pittasoma, nobis. 

Gener.al aspect of Conopophaga, Vieillot, but larger, and bearing about the 
same relation to that genus as Grallaria, Vieillot, does to Grallaricula, Sclater. 
Also resembling Piiia, Vieillot, but differing from all the genera here men- 
tioned, except Cojiopophaga, in having the bill wide and depressed, not com- 
pressed. 

Form robust, wings short, concave, rounded, fifth, sixth and seventh quills 
longest ; tail very short ; bill strong, wide at base and narrowing gradually, 
depressed, upper mandible notched near the tip, and with the culmen distinct, 
a few rudimentary bristles at base ; nostrils oval, inserted in a large membrane ; 
legs long, very strong, tarsus with about five large scales in front, which 
become nearly integral on the outside, and quite so behind ; toes moderate ; 
claws curved, sharp. 

90. Pittasoma Michleri, nobis. 

(^ Head above black, the shafts of the feathers lustrous, large space on the 
cheek, extending completely around the neck behind, bright chestnut, throat 
black, many of the feathers tipped with white, and with chestnut, lores white ; 
back reddish olive, many feathers edged with black on each side ; rump, upper 
tail coverts and wing coverts greenish rufous, the last (wing coverts) with 
small terminal spots of white, which spots are edged and nearly enclosed with 
black; under parts white, every feather having two or three rather wide, 
transverse, waved or crescent-shaped bands of deep black; abdomen and 
under tail coverts, tinged with ferruginous, but transversely striped with black, 
same as other under parts of body; under wing coverts, dull greenish brown, 
striped and spotted with white and black; quills greenish rufous, some of the 
shorter quills having sub-terminal spots of light rufous, edged with black ; 
tail greenish rufous ; upper mandible dark bluish horn color, lighter towards 
the tip ; under mandible yellow, legs light horn color. 

Total length from tip of bill to end of tail, about 7 inches, wing 3f, tail 1|, 
bill from gape If, tarsus 1^ inches. 

Ilab. River Truando, iNew Grenada. Discovered by Mr. William S. Wood, 
Jr. and Mr. Charles J. Wood. (Panama, Mr. J. McLeannan). Spec, in Nat. 
Mus. Washington. 

This is the most remarkable bird in the collection of the expedition, and is 
one of the most handsome of the Ant Thrushes, if indeed to that group it and the 

I860.] 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

genus Conopophaga belong. Though with the general form and appearance of 
Pitta and Grallaria, this bird diflFers from them in having a, very strong depressed 
and rather wide bill, not compressed as in those genera. In this respect, and 
other structural characters, it approximates to Conopophaga, and also in having 
more variegated and agreeable colors than in Grallaria. This bird is in fact, 
the most handsome bird of its group yet discovered in America. The only 
specimen in the collection of the expedition is labelled as a male. 

Another and very fine specimen of this bird, kindly loaned to me by Mr. 
Lawrence, of New York, belongs to the collection of J. McLeannan, Esq., of 
that city, and was obtained by him on the Isthmus of Panama. 

" On the river Truando. January 22d, 1858, above its junction with the Atrato, 
but before reaching the Cordilleras. In the woody places running on the ground 
very swiftly, and scratching among the leaves, not common." (Mr. C. J. 
Wood). 

This handsome bird I have named in honor of the commanding ofiScer of the 
expedition, Lieut. N. Michler, of the U. S. Topographical Engineers, under 
whose direction, and with whose judicious advice and assistance, the present 
interesting collection was made, as stated in the preliminary note to this paper. 

91. FoRMicivoRA GRiSEA, (Boddaert). 

Turdus griseus, Bodd. Tab. PI. Enl. p. 39, (1783). 
Formicivora nigricoUis, Swains. Zool. Jour. ii. p. 147. 
Spix. Av. Bras. ii. pi. 41. BuflF. PI. Enl. 643. 
From Carthagena. 

" On the ' Popa' mountain, at Carthagena. Very abundant in the bushes, 
but very quick in motion, and shy, flying off on slight noise or alarm. Novem- 
ber, 1857." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

92. Formicivora quxxensis, (Cornalia). 

" Thamnophilus quixensis, et rufiventris. Corn. Sclater." 
'• Myiothera perlata." Label in Mus. Acad. Philadelphia. 

From the river Truando. 

Both sexes, much as given in the descriptions above cited and labelled by 
the collectors as male and female of the same species. 

" Abundant at the camp in the Cordilleras, on the Rio Truando. In the 
high trees, actively capturing insects, and never observed descending to the 
bushes. The two plumages labelled as male and female, were constantly seen 
together, and were thought by my brother and myself to be the same bird." 
(Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

93. HvPOCNEMis N^vioiDES, (Lafrcsnaje). 

Conopophaga nsevioides, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1847, p. 69, 

From the falls of the Truando. 

" At camp Floyd, on the south side of the river Truando, before reaching 
the first range of the Cordilleras. Running on the ground amongst bushes, 
and always in damp or marshy places, much resembling in its actions the 
Water Thrush of the United States, (Seiurus noveboracensis). Frequently seen 
in J.anuary and February, 1858." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr). 

94. Myrmotherula pygm^ea, (Gmelin). 

Muscicapa pygmsea, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 983, (1788). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 831. 
From the river Truando. 

"Abundant on the 'Cremantina' trees, especially at Camp Toucey, in Janu- 
ary, 1853. Frequently seen also in the Plaintains or Bananas, constantly 
searching for insects amongst the fruit and leaves." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

95. Myrmotherula scrinamensis, (Gmelin). 

Sitta surinamensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 442, (1788). 
Lath. Gen. Hist. iv. pi. 62. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, pi. 141. 
From Turbo. 
" Frequently seen in the trees at Turbo, and the male was at first supposed 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 191 

by my brother and myself, to be the black and white creeper of the United 
States, {Mniotilta varia). It has habits exactly like those of that bird, running 
along the upper or lower sides of the branches frequently with its head down- 
wards. In April. 1858." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

96. Myrmotherula melaena, (Sclater). 

Formicivora melaena, Sclat. Proc. Zool. See. London, 1857, p. 130. 

From the river Truando. 

" At Camp Toucey on the Truando, before reaching the Cordilleras. In the 
bushes, and very active in pursuit of insects. Has a short, rather loud note, 
often repeated, rendering pursuit very easy ; solitary, but frequently seen." 
(Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

97. Myrmotherula ornata, (Sclater) ? 

Formicivora ornata, Sclat. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1853, p. 480? 

From the river Truando. 

Several specimens, apparently immature, and not easily to be referred to 
either M. gularis or its allies, but unmistakeably of that ilk. 

" At Camp Toucey, on the Truando, and previously at Turbo. Seen in the 
high trees and also occasionally in the bushes, very active, and constantly in 
motion." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

98. Myrmeciza exsul, Sclater. 

Myrmeciza exsul, Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 540. 
From Turbo. 

One specimen only, labelled as a male and very nearly as described by Mr. 
Sclater as above cited. 

99. Myrmeciza exsul, Sclater ? 

Very similar to the preceding, and probably the same species, but with the 
entire under parts reddish chestnut brown, nearly uniform with the upper parts, 
throat only ashy black. 

From Turbo. 

" These two birds were considered to be the same species by my brother and 
myself, notwithstanding the difference in the color of the under parts. We 
met with this species in the thick and dry parts of the forest at Turbo, rather 
plenty, but not easily shot on account of their running on the ground very 
swiftly, and concealing themselves amongst the leaves. It utters loud, rather 
musical notes, somewhat similar to those of the Golden-crowned Thrush, 
(Seiurus) of the United States." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

100. PiPRA AURiCAPiLLA, (Brisson). 

Manacus auricapillus, Briss. Orn. iv. p. 448, (1760). 
Desm. Manak. pi. 60. Hahn & Kiister, Orn. Atlas, pi. 92. 
From Turbo. 

101. Ptilochloris rufo-olivaceus, Lafresnaye. 

Ptilochloris rufo-olivaceus, Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1838, p. 238. 
From the Truando. 
" At camp Toucey. On the ground, seen once only." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

102. Seiukus noveboracensis, (Gmelin). 

Motacilla noveboracensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 958, (1788). 
And. B. of Am. pi. 433. Oct. ed. iii. pi. 149. 
From Carthagena. 

"Seen once only, in a small stream of water on the ' Popa' mountain, in 
November, 1857." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

103. Dendroica .«sTrvA, (Gmelin). 

Motacilla aestiva, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 996, (1788). 

Sylvia citrinella, Wilson, Am. Orn. ii. p. Ill, (1810). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. ii. pi. 15. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 95. Oct. ed. ii. pi. 88. 
From Turbo. 
" Seen for a few days at Turbo, early in April, 1858." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

I860.] 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

104. Dendroica Vieilloti, nobis. 

Sylvia ruficapila, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xi. p. 228, (but not of same vol. p. 
179, and not St/lvia ruficapilla, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. p. 540, which is 
Motacilla petechia, Linnaeus, a distinct species). 
" Chloris erilhrachorides, Feuille," Baird, Rept. Pac. R. R. Surv. ix. p. 
283, iience Dendroica erithachorides . Baird. same vol. p. 283, (but not 
Chloris erithrachorides, Feuille, Jour. Obs. Phys. iii. p. 413, (1725), 
which is Motacilla petechia, Linnaeus). 
Entire bead and neck in front light reddish chestnut. Plumage of all other 
parts much resembling that of D. (estiva, of the United States, but darker on 
the back, wings and tail, size rather larger, and with the bill slightly longer 
and more gradually pointed. Total length, 4J to 4| inches. 

Hab. — South America, Central America. (Panama, Mr. J. G. Bell). 
From Carthagena. 

I have been quite unsuccessful in attempting to find a name really applicable 
to this well marked and not uncommon species. It is usually, I believe, regard- 
ed as Sylvia ruficapilla of authors, and is unmistakeably described by Vieillot, 
as above cited, but erroneously so far as relates to the name, which is applied 
by all other authors to Motacilla petechia. Linnaeus, a species not uncommon 
from the West Indies, and accurately figured by Vieillot, Ois d'Am. Sept. pi. 
91. Under these circumstances I propose the name above given.* 



*There are at least five species of Dendroica, resembling each other, and all having 
the general appearance of I), asliva of the United Slates. The first four of these have 
been much confused and mistaken for each other : 

1. De.n-droica .estiva, (Gmelin.) 

Moucilla Estiva, Gm. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 996, (1788). 

Hab. United States, iVIexico, Central America, New Grenada, West Indies ? 
2 Dendroica albicollis, (Gmelin). 

Motacilla albicollis, Gm. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 983, (1788). 

Hab. Cuba, (Gundlach), St. Domingo, (Brisson). 

This is the bird usually regarded as D. asliva, by the Cuban ornithologists, but is a dis- 
tinct species as 1 suspected long before examining authentic specimens. The habits of 
this bird, as given by those very accurate naturalists, are different from those of ihe com- 
mon bird of the United States. Brisson (Orn. iii. p. 494) carefully describes the present 
species, though his specimens do not appear to have been mature. The young bird onjy 
has the throat and neck in front nearly pure white. 

2. Dendroica petechia, (Linnaeus). 

Motacdla petechia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 334, (1776). 
Motacilla ruficapilla, Gm. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 971, (1768). 

Hab. West Indies, Central America ? Jamaica ? Martinique (Brisson). 

I have frequently seen specimens precisely in the plumage as figured by Vieillot, as 
above cited, and by Edwards, Birds v. pi. 256, fig. 2, but I am not confident of the exact 
locality. This is very probably the Sylvicola asliva, of Gosse, B. of Jamaica, p. 157, 
and probably of Messrs. Newton, B. of St. Croix, in Sclater's Ibis, 1859, p. 153. This 
bird is also very carefully described by Brisson, (Orn. iii. p. 490), in mature plumage, with 
the top of head, clear, well defined rufous. 
4 Dendroica ViEiLLOTi, Cassin, u< st/^ro. 

Sylvia ruficapilla, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xi. p. 228. 

Hab. South America and Central America, New Grenada, (W. S. Wood, Jr.) Panama, 
(J. G. Bell). 
5. Dendroica aureola, (Gould). 

Sylvicola aureola, Gould, Voy. Beagle, Birds, p. 86,(1841). 

Hab. Galapagos Islands, (Gould). 

Very similar to D.pe^ecAia, as above. This species, or at least specimens from the 
Galapagos Islands, I have not seen. Of all the others several specimens of each are now 
before me, and 1 have not the smallest doubt of their specific distinctness, which I hope 
to fully demonstrate Ln a subsequent paper. Having called the attention of my friend 
Mr. Lawrence, of New York, 'o the distinctness of the Cuban species, his views will 
probably appear in his notes on Birds of Cuba, about to be published in the Annals of the 
Lyceum, New York. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 193 

"Frequently seen on the 'Popa' mountain atCarthagena, in November, 1857. 
Very active and constantly moving in the lower trees and bushes." (.VIr. W 
S. Wood, Jr.) 

105. Dendroica castanea, (Wilson). 

Sylvia castanea, Wilson, Am. Orn. ii. p. 97, (1810). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. ii. pi. 14. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 69, Oct. ed. ii. pi. 80. 
From Turbo and the River Truando. 

■'On the Truando, in January, and at Turbo early in April, 1858. In small 
flocks of ten or twelve, in the high trees, very much as in autumn in the 
United States." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

106. Thryothorus nigricapillus, Sclater. 

Thryothorus nigricapillus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 84. 

From the River Truando. 

Two specimens appear to be this species, or at least very closely allied. 
They differ only in having the throat transversely banded with black lines, 
same as on other parts. 

•' In low bushes and on the ground, on the banks of the Rio Truando, in 
the Cordilleras. Frequently seen, and runs on the ground, more than usual in 
the larger Wrens of the United States, but has similar areneral habits." (Mr. 
W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

107. Thryothorus. 

A large plain colored species, for which I have found no name, but am not 
sufficiently acquainted with the group of Troglodytince to feel warranted in 
proposing a species. Several specimens from Turbo and Carthagena. 

108. ScLERUEUs BR0NNEUS, Sclater. 

Sclerurus brunneus, Sclat. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 17. 

From the river Ingador. 

One specimen only in the collection of the Expedition appears to be this 
species. "On the banks of a small stream called the Ingador, near the coast 
of the Pacific Ocean. In the Palm trees, clinging to the leaves and searchinsj 
for insects, March, 1858." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

109. Synallaxis Candei, D'Orb. et Lafres. 

Synallaxis Candei, D'Orb. et Lafres. Rev. Zool. 1838, p. 16-5. 
From Carthagena. 

1.10. Xenops ruficauda, (Vieillot). 

Synallaxis ruficauda, Vieil. Nouv. Diet, xxxii. p. 310, (1818). 
Temm. PI. Col. 150. 
From Turbo. 

lU. Dendrornis triangularis, (Lafresnaye). 

Dendrocalaptes triangularis, Lafr. Mag. Zool. 1843. 
Guerin, Mag. Zool. 1843, pi. 32. 

From the river Truando. 

■' These kinds of birds were very abundant on the trees in the Cordilleras, 
and a few were seen at camp Toucey, on the Rio Truando, within 20 or 30 
miles of the mountains. They run on the trunks and branches very rapidly, 
and appear to be very greedy and rapacious. Not shy, and easily approached, 
but not easily shot, on account of their quick movements. When they have 
ascended a tree, they fly down to the base of another, like the Brown Creeper 
of the United States, (^Certhia)." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

112. Dendrornis guttatus, (Lichtenstein). 

Dendrocolaptes guttatus, Licht.Verz. p. 16, (1823). 
Le Vaill. Prom. pi. 30. 
From the river Truando. 

I860.] 12 



19^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

113. Dendroenis. 

One specimen from the river Truando, witli large elongated spots for which I 
have not succeeded in finding a name. 

114. MaLA-COPTILA ? 
From the river Truando. 

A single specimen in immature plumage, referable to no species with which 
I am acquainted. 

115. Cbethiola luteola, Cabanis. 

Certhiola luteola, Cab. 
From Turbo and Carthagena. 

116. .JtJLiAMYiA JPLI.E, (Bourcicr). 

Juliamyia typica, Bonap. Rev. Zool. 1854, p. 255. 
Ornismyia Juliae, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Lyons, 1842, p. 345. 
Gould, Monog. pt. xviii. pi. (not numbered). 
From Turbo. 

■' Seen occasionally in April, 1858, but not very common. Flies very swiftly, 
and is shy, darting away on the least alarm." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

117. Chetsolampis MOSCHIT0S, (Linnagus.) 

Trochilus moschitus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 192, (1766). 
Gould, Monog. pt. xii. pi. 
From Carthagena. 

•' About an old fort in the ' Popa' mountain, which was completely overgrown 
with vines and flowering plants, this humming bird and others were exceeding- 
ly abundant. Constantly flying and fighting with each other, and nowhere 
seen so abundant as here, in the month of November, 1857." (Mr. W. S. 
Wood, Jr.) 

118. Lampornis MANGO, (Linnaeus). 

Trochilus mango, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 191, (1766). 
Gould, Monog. pt. xii. pi. 
From Carthagena. 
Appears to be the true mango of authors. 

119. EucEPHALA cseulea, (Vieillot). 

Trochilus caeruleus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. vii. p. 361. (1817). 
Gould, Monog. pt. xiv. pi. 
From Carthagena. 

120. Ionolaima. 
From Turbo. 

One specimen only, in bad condition and immature plumage, appears to be 
of this genus. 

121. Phaethornis tarhqui, (Bourcier). 

Trochilus yaruqui, Bourc. Compt. Rend, xxxii. p. 187. 
Gould, Monog. pt. iv. pi. 
From the River Truando. 

" Plain plumaged humming birds were frequently seen in the Cordilleras, but 
never very abundant. We rarely saw the brighter colored in the mountains. 
Generally about the vines and shrubbery." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

122. Phaethornis. 
From Turbo. 

A single specimen, in immature plumage, of a small species. 

123. Chloraenas rufina, (Temminck). 

Columba rufina, Temm. Pig. et Gall. i. p. 467, (1813). 
Knip, Pigeons i. pi. 24. 
From Turbo and the Delta of the River Atrato. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 195 

" Seen once only at Turbo in a small floek, sitting in a high tree, and once 
only at the mouth of the Atrato ; seemed to be a stranger. Early in January, 
1858." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

124. Leptoptila Vbrreadxii, (Bonaparte). 

Leptoptila Verreauxi, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii. p. 73, (1854). 
From Turbo and the River Truando. 

" In a secluded part of the forest at Turbo, in the trees, and afterwards on 
the Truando." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

125. Chamaepelia granatina, Bonaparte. 

Chamaepelia granatina, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 77, (1854). 

From Carthagena. 

'• Abundant and in large flocks among the bushes on the shores of the sea at 
Carthagena, in November, 1857. Seemed to be searching for food in the sand 
and short grass, and not very easily approached, flying away very rapidly, and 
frequently alighting on trees." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

126. TiXAMCs MAJOR, (Gmeliu). 

Tetrao major, Gm., Syst. Nat. i. p. 767, (1788). 
Pezus serratus, Spix, Av. Bras, ii, p. 61, (1825). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 476. Spix. Av. Bras. ii. pi. 76. 
From the River Truando. 

One specimen only, labelled as a female, which appears to be identical with 
specimens from Brazil. 

''Frequently heard on the Truando, near the first range of the Cordilleras. 
It has a very loud, continued note, not inappropriately compared by the mem- 
bers of our party to the whistle of a locomotive engine. Not easily seen, beinp 
exceedingly shy and running very rapidly." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

127. Squatarola helvetica, (Linnaeus). 

Tringa helvetica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 250, (1766). 
Charadrius apricarius, Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. p. 41, (1813). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. 57. And. B. of Am. pi. 334. Oct. Ed. v. pi. 315. 
From Carthagena. 

128. Symphemia semipalmata, (Gmelin). 

Scolopax semipalmatus. Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 659, (1788). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. 56. And. B. of Am. pi. 274. Oct. Ed. v. pL 347. 
From Carthagena. 

129. Gambetta melanoleuca, (Gmelin). 

Scolopax melanoleucus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 659, (1788). 
Scolopax vociferus, Wilson. 
Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. 58. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 308. Oct. ed. v. pi. 34b. 
From Carthagena. 

130. Gambetta flavipes, (Gmelin). 

Scolopax flavipes, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 659, (1788). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. 58. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 228. Oct. ed. v. pi. 344. 
From Carthagena. 

131. Calidris arenaria, (Linnaeus). 

Tringa arenaria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 251, (1766). 
Calidris americana, Brehm. 
Wilson Am. Orn. vii. pi. 59, 63. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 230. Oct. ed. v. pi. 338. 
From Carthagena. 

132. Ereunetes pdsilla, (Linnasus). 

Tringa pusilla, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 252, (1766). 
Tringa semipalmata, Wilson. 
Ereunetes petrifactus, Illiger. 
I860.] 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Wilson Am. Orn. vii. pi. 63. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 408. Oct. ed. v. pi. 336. 
From Carthagena. 
This is, I have no doubt, the true Tringa pusilla of Linnaeus. 

133. Tringa VVilsonii, Nuttall. 

Tringa VVilsonii, Nutt. Man. ii. p. 121, (1834). 
Tringa pusilla, Wilson. 
Wilson, Am. Orn. v. pi. 37. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 320. Oct. ed. v. pi. 337. 
From Carthagena. 

■• The preceding seven species, and in fact nearly all the small wading birds 
that we had been accustomed to seeing on the coast of New Jersey, were very 
abundant on the sea coast at Carthagena, in November, 1857. The most abun- 
dant were perhaps the two small Sandpipers (^E. pusilla and T. Wilsonii), and 
the yellow Shanks CC./^ay^pes). Though easily shot, they were not so easily 
obtained, on account of the marshy or boggy character of many localities which 
they particularly frequented. All of these species were in flocks, as seen on 
the coast of the United States in Autumn." (Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

134. Parra hypomelaena, G.R.Gray. 

Parra hypomelaena, Gray, Gen. iii. p. .589, (1846). 
Gray. Gen. iii. pi. 159. 
Atrato River. 

" In open places which are very marshy on the River Atrato, late in Decem- 
ber, 1857. Two or three together, generally on the ground, frequently stretch- 
ing out their wines, and often wading in the water. Quite shy and watchful." 
(Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.^ 

135. Aramides cavennensis, (Gmelin). 

Fulica caj'ennensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 700, (1788). 
BufiF. PI. Enl. 352. 
From Turbo. 
'•In a salt water marsh at Turbo ; seen once only." (Mr. Wm. S. Wood, Jr.) 

136. Ardea Herodias, Linna3us. 

Ardea Herodias, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 237, (1766). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. viii. pi. 65. Aud. B. of Am. pL 211. Oct. ed. vL pi. 369. 
From the delta of the Atrato. 

" Frequently seen about the mouth of the Atrato, in December." (Mr. W. 
S. Wood, Jr.) 

137. BcTORiDEs GRisEA, (Boddffirt). 

Cancroma grisea, Bodd. Tab. PI. Enl. p. 54, (1783). 
Ardea scapularis, lUiger. 
Buff. PI. Enl. 908. 
From Carthagena. 

138. Garzetta candidissima, (Gmelin). 

Ardea candidissima, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 633, (1788). 
Wilson, Am. Orn. vii. pi. 62. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 242. Oct. ed. vi. pi. 374. 
From Carthagena and the River Atrato. 

" Abundant on the Rio Atrato, in February, 1858. Generally seen sitting 
on the low trees on the edge of the river." (Mr. W. S Wood, Jr.) 

139. TiGRisoMA brasiliense, (Linnaeus). 

Ardea brasiliensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 239, (1766). 
Buff. PI. Enl. 860. 
From the delta of the Atrato. 

140. TiGRisoMA tigrincm, (Gmelin)? 

Ardea tigrina, Gm. Syst. Nat. ii, p. 638, (1788). 
From the delta of the Atrato. 

■ [May. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 197 

141. Harpiprios cayennensis, (Graelin). 

Tantalus cayennensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 652, (1788). 
Buffon. PI. Enl. 820. 
From the River Nercua. 

■'In the mountains, before reaching the main ridge on the Rio Nercua." 
(Mr. W. S. Wood, Jr.) 

142. Dendrocygna AUTUMNALis, (Linnagus. ) 

Anas autumnalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 205, (1*766). 
Baird, B. of N. Am. pi. 63. Rept. Mex. Bound. Surv. Birds, pi. 25. 
From the River Truando. 

143. Carbo brasilianus, (Gmelin)? 

Procellaria brasiliana, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 564? 
Gillis, Astr. Exp. Birds, pi. 28 ? 
From the River Truando. 

•• On the Truando and Atrato. frequently seen in the water and also on trees. 
When perched, drop very suddenly into the water on being alarmed, an/i dis- 
:ippear by diving." (Mr. W. S, Wood, Jr.) 

144. Plotus anhinga, Linnaeus. 

Plotus anhinga, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 580, (1T66). 
Plotus melanogaster, Wilson. 
Wilson, Am. Orn. ix. pi. 74. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 316, Oct. ed. vi. pi. 420. 
From the Rivers Atrato and Truando. 

Several specimens in immature plumage, but all apparently of this species. 
■' Abundant in the months of January, February and March, on all the rivers 
from the Gulf of Darien, on the Atlantic, to the coast of the Pacific." (Mr. W. 
S. Wood, Jr.) 



Bescriptions of some new species of Cretaceous Fossils from South America, 
in the Collection of the Academy. 

BY W. M. GABB. 

Eulima seminosa, pi. 3, fig. 6. Shell fusiform, spire elevated, whorl? 
five, mouth snaiall, shell thick and marked by irregular lines of growth. 

From a greyish brown limestone from Chili, in connection with Trit'onia 
Hanetiana Z)' Orb . , and many of the other species described by that author 
in the "Voyage de I'Astrolabe et Zelee." 

Scalaria (Clathrus) C h i 1 i e n s e , pi, 3, fig. 4. Shell fscalariform, spire 
very elevated, whorls six or seven, rounded and marked by about fourteen 
prominent, longitudinal, rounded ribs. Mouth small, subcircular ; a reflec- 
tion of the inner lip covers the base of the body whorl so as to hide the lower 
part of some of the ribs. 

Pugnellus t u m i d u s, pi. 3, fig. 13 and 14. Shell heavy, scalariform, spire ele- 
vated, five whorls, which are angular at the upper part, and marked by a series 
of small nodes on the angle ; body whorl large, mouth expanded, superior 
sinus very deep, outer lip very much tliickened, especially the extreme outer 
portion or callosity, which is nearly as thick as long. The thickening of the 
superior and lateral edges of the outer lip, produces a deep fosset on the poste- 
rior portion of the body whorl, immediately behind the expansion of the lip • 
the inner lip is reflected over a portion of the spire ; canal long and curved 
anteriorly. 

This species is the one to which Mr. Conrad, in his note on the genus refers 
I860.] 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

as occurring in South. America. There is another species, (P.) Strombus 
semicostatus Z)' Orb., that occurs in the same deposit. 

Pleurotoma D'Orbignyana, pi. 3, fig. 7. Shell scalariform, spire ele- 
vated, whorls five, body whorl angular above ; shell marked by a series of 
small nodes on the shoulder of the whorls and by fine lines of growth. 

P. arata, pi. 3, fig. 9. Shell scalariform, spire elevated, whorls three or 
four, subangular above and marked by a shallow, revolving groove imme- 
diately below the angle ; surface marked by numerous revolving stri«, crossed 
by faint lines. 

Patella Auca, pi. 3, fig. 11. Shell small, thin, circular; apex small, 
acuminate and very excentrio ; surface marked by irregular concentric undu- 
lations. 

Cultellus Australis, pi. 3, fig. 8. Shell elongate, narrow, beaks very 
small, incurved, near the anterior end ; posterior end gaping, and a little nar- 
rowed ;, anterior end rounded ; surface marked by concentric striae. 

Mactra C h i 1 i e n s i s , pi. 3, fig. 5. Shell thin, equilateral, slightly convex; 
beaks small, incurved ; umbones large, prominent ; hinge teeth small ; ante- 
rior end slightly subangular, posterior rounded ; surface marked by distinct 
concentric lines. 

M. Araucana, DWrb. sp. var. pi. 3, fig. 12. This specimen difi'ers a lit- 
tle from the one figured by D'Orbigny, in the Voyage de 1' Astrolabe et Zfelee, 
in being less angular anteriorly, and in having the umbonal ridge less strongly 
developed. 

Thracia corbulopsis, pi. 3, fig. 1. Shell nearly equilateral, beaks 
small, slightly curved anteriorly, umbones prominent and rounded, umbonal 
ridge angular, and extends to the margin of the shell ; anterior end rounded, 
posterior acutely angular ; surface marked by numerous fine concentric lines. 

Venus D'Orbignyanus, pi. 3, fig. 2. Shell inequilateral, somewhat 
convex, beaks small and inclined anteriorly, umbones large and rounded ; 
cardinal margin curved; anterior end rounded, posterior subangular ; surface 
marked by strong concentric lines. This species resembles, in its outline, the 
common V. mercenaria, (M. violacea) of our coast. It differs from 
V. Auca d'Orb. in having the cardinal margin more strongly curved, in be- 
ing more angular posteriorly, and in not being so regularly marked on the 
surface. 

Pinna m i n u t a, pi. 3, fig. 10. Shell small, robust, narrow ; umbonal ridge 
subangular and nearly parallel with the cardinal line ; cardinal and basal mar- 
gins straight ; posterior end sub-biangular ; surface marked by strong lines of 
growth. 

Modiola c r e t a c e a , pi. 3, fig. 3. Shell small ; beaks small, anterior ; 
umbonal ridge rounded, continued to the posterior basal margin, gradually 
losing itself in the general curve of the shell, cardinal line arcuate, basal edge 
sinuous ; surface concentrically striate. 

Anomia parva, pi. 3, fig. 15. Shell thin, orbicular, very slightly convex, 
pearly ; beak small but acute ; surface marked by concentric undulations, 
crossed by delicate radiating lines. 



[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



199 



June 5th. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Thirty-seven members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" The Cutting Ant of Texas," by S. B. Buckley. 

" Synonymy of the Cyelades, a family of Acephalous MoUusca, part 
1st," by Temple Prime. 

" Catalogue of the Colubridsein the museum of the Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new spe- 
cies," by E. D. Cope. 

" Notes on Shells," by T. A. Conrad. 

" Contributions to the Carboniferous Flora of the United States," 
by Horatio C. Wood, Jr. 

And were referred to Committees. 

Dr. Darrach presented the following Catalogue of Plants appearing in 
flower, in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, during the month of May. 



1. Ranunculace^. 

Ranunculus aquatilis. 
" sceleratns. 

" recurvatus. 

" bulbosus. 

2. Magnoliacea^. 
Magnolia glauca. 
Liriodendron tulipifera. 

3. BERBEEIDACEiE. 

Podophyllum peltatum. 

4. NTMPH.SACEA. 

Nymphaea odorata. 
Nuphar advena. 

5. Sakeaceniace*. 

Sarracenia purpurea. 

6. Papaveeace^. 
Chelldoneum majus. 

7. Fpmaeiace^. 
Fumaria officinalis. 

8. CEUCrFER^. 

Arabis lyrata. 

" laevigata. 
Sisymbrium officinalis. 
Sinapis Nigra. 

9. ViOLACEA. 

Solea concolor. 
Viola lanceolata. 

" primulaefolia. 

" striata. 

" pubescens. 



10. C1STACE.K. 
Helianthemum corymbosum. 
Hudsonia tomentosa. 

11. CARYOPHYLLACEiB. 

Silene Pennsylvanica. 

' ' antirrhina. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia. 
Stellaria longifolia. 
" uliginosa. 
Cerastium arvense. 
*Spergula saginoides. 
Scleranthus annuus. 
Sagina procumbens. 

12. OXAHDACE.S. 

Oxalis violacea. 
*' stricta. 

13. GEEAinAGE.S. 

Geranium maculatum. 
" Carolinianum. 
" Robertianum. 

14. SOACAKDIACEiE. 

Rhus toxicodendron. 

15. Sapdjdace*. 
Staphylea trifolia. 

16. LEGrruiNos.a. 
Lupinus perennis. 
Trifolium arvense. 

' ' pratense. 

" repens. 

*' procumbens. 
Vicia hirsuta. 
Circis Canadensis. 



I860.] 



' Barton. 



300 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 



17. Rosacea. 

Pruuus serotina. 
Crataegus coccinea. 
Pyrus arbntifolia. 
Rubus villosus. 
•' Canadensis.^ 

18. Onagrace^. 
CEnothera sinuata. 

19. Saxifrageace^. 
Saxifraga Pennsylvanica. 
Heuctera Americana. 

20. USIBELLIFER^. 

Heracleum lanatum. 
Thaspium barbinode. 

" trifolium. 

" V. atropurpureum. 
Osmorrhiza longistylis. 

" brevistjlis. 

21. Arauace^. 
Aralia nudicaculis. 

22. CORSACKS. 

Comus Florida. 

23. Capeifoliacevb. 

Triosteum angustifoleum. 
Viburnum lentago. 
" acerifolium. 

24. Valeriaitaces. 
Fedia radiata. 

' ' olitoria. 

25. Composite. 

Lucantbemum vulgare. 
Senicio aureus. 
Krigia Virginica. 
Cyntbia Virginica. 
Hieracium venosum. 

26. ERICACRffi. 

Graylusaacia resinosa. 
Vaccinium stamineum. 

' ' Pennsylvanicum. 

" vaccillans. 

' ' corymbosum. 

" v. glabmm. 

Leucotbe racemosa. 
Andromeda Mariana. 
Kalmia latifolia. 

' ' angnstifolia. 
Azalea nudiflora. 
Leioptyllum buxifolium. 
Pyrola cblorantha. 



27. PLAJfTAGINACE^. 

Plantago lanceolata. 
* ' Virginica. 

28. Lentibulace^. 
Utricularia subulata. 

29. Orobanchace^. 
Apbyllon uniflora. 
Conopholis Americana. 

30. Sceophttlariace^. 

Linaria Canadensis. 
Veronica Americana. 

" officinalis. 

" perigrina. 

" arvensis. 
Castillsea coccinea. 

31. Labiate. 
Salvia lyrata. 

32. BORRAGHTACE^. 

Symphytum officinalis. 
Jlertensia Virginica. 
Myosotis palustris. 
" arvensis. 

33. HydkophtlIiAce^. 
Hydropbyllum Virginicum. 

34. POLEMONIACEiB. 

Polemonium reptans. 

35. POLYGONACE^. 

Rumex crispus. 
" acetoseUa. 

36. SANTALACEiE. 

Comandra umbellata. 

37. EUPHOKBIACB^. 

Euphorbia ipecacuanhse. 

38. MTRICACRffi. 

Myrica cerifera. 

39. Arace/e. 
Arissema dracontium. 

40. Oechidacb*. 

Arethusa bulbosa. 
Cypripedium acaule. 

41. AmaryU/ISACBA. 

Hypoxis erecta. 

42. Iridace^. 

Iris versicolor. 



[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



201 



43. SMILACEiB. 

Smilax rotundifolia. 

" herbacea. 
Trillium cemuum. 
Mediola Virginica. 

44. LiLLIACEffl. 

Asparagus officinalis. 
Polygonatum biflorum. 
Smilacena racemosa. 

" trifolia. 

" bifolia. 
Ornithogalnm umbellatum. 
Allium Canadense. 



45. Melanthace^. 

Uvularia perfoliata. 
" sessilifolia. 
Veratrum viride. 

46. COMMELYNACEa. 

Tradescantia Virginica. 

47. ERIOCACLONACEiE. 

Eriocaulon gnaphalodes. 
Orders 47. 
Species 130. 



June 9th. 



SPECIAL MEETING. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Vice President announced the object of the meeting to be to 
express the sense of the Academy at its loss in the death of Mr. 
GrEORGE W. CARPENTER, its late Treasurer, which occurred on the 7th 
inst. On motion of Mr. Cassin, a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Cassin, Vaux, Rand, Bridges and Jeanes, was appointed, who, after 
a recess, presented the following resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted : 

lie&ohed, That the Academy has learned with the deepest regret of 
the decease of our late esteemed fellow member, George W. Carpen- 
ter, who has been associated with this Institution for a period of thirty 
five years, and who, on account of his able and active exertions as a 
member, and faithful discharge of the responsible duties of Treasurer, 
during the long official term of thirty-three years, has been strictly 
identified with, and efficiently co-operative in its progress. 

Resolved, That the members of this Academy do cordially sympa- 
thize with the bereaved family of Mr. Carpenter, and do hereby tender 
to them their sincere condolence. 

Resolved, That the Recording Secretary be instructed to send to 
the family of our deceased member a copy of these resolutions, and 
that they be published in the daily journals of this city. 



June V2,th. 
Mr. Wm. S. Vaux in the Chair. 

Forty members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" Contributions to American Lepidopterology, No. 5," by Bracken- 
ridge Clemens, M. D. 

'' Heraiptera of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under 
Commanders Rodgers and Ringgold," by P. R. Uhler. 

And were referred to Committees. 
I860.] 13 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Prof. Robert E. Rogers made some remarks oa the fallacies that arose from 
the ordinary use of language, when applied to the description of phenomena in 
a scientific manner. He adverted to the subject of combustion to illustrate his 
views, and showed that our ordinary explanation of what is called by thi? 
name, where one of the substances is styled a combustible, and the other a sup- 
porter of combustion^ a?, for example, in the burning of an ordinary gas light, 
was fallacious, because we only looiced at it from one point of view. The gas 
to be burned was comparatively small in quantity, and the oxygen surround- 
ing it was in large amount ; hence the gas alone appeared to burn — the oxy- 
gen of the air to support it. When, however, we surround the oxygen with a 
large quantity of gas, or, so to speak, with an atmosphere of gas, thus reversing 
entirely the conditions, then the oxygen burns, and the gas becomes a support- 
er of combustion. We have then no right to call the gas a combustible any 
;nore than the oxygen ; or the oxygen a supporter of combustion, any more 
than the gas. The action between the two bodies is mutual, and the various 
phenomena witnessed are the result of that mutual action. The Professor 
then exhibited a beautiful experiment, in which, after first burning the com- 
mon illuminating gas in the ordinary way, he reversed the conditions, and 
burned a jet o? common air in an atmosphere of gas. 



June 19;/i. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-one members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

'* On the identity of Ammonites Texanus, Rocmer, and A. vesper- 
linus Morton,'' by Wm. M. Gabb. 

" Descriptions of three new species of Gorgonidse in the Collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," by George W. 
Horn. 

And were referred to Committees. 



June 26?7i. 
Mr. Lea, President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-one members present. 

The following papers were, on the report of the Committees to which 
tJiey had been referred, ordered to be published in the Proceedings : 

On the Identity of Ammonites Texanas, Boemer, and A. vespertinns, Korton. 
BY W. M. GABB. 

In 1834, Dr. Morton described an ammonite from Arkansas, in his synopsis, 
under the name of A. vespertinus. The type, consisting of two fragments 
of an individual, apparently about fifteen inches in diameter, is in the collec- 
tion of the Academy. 

As long ago as September of last year, I was struck with the resemblance 
of these specimens to the species described by Roemer, in " Kreidebildungen 
von Texas," 1852, under the name of A. Texanus. The originals of 
Dr. Morton's species were so weathered that I was unable to make out the 
septum. 

More recently, however, through the kindness of Dr. Moore, I have been 
enabled to procure an undoubted specimen of A. Texanus, consisting of 
nearly the whole outer whorl of an individual, about a foot in diameter. On 
comparing this with Morton's specimens, I became convinced of their identity. 
The names will therefore have to be A. vespertinus, Morton ; A . 
Texanusy Roemer, being a synonyme. 

[June, 



KATITRAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 203 

Contributions to American Lepidopterology.— No. 5. 
BY BRACKENRIDGE CLEMENS, M. J>, 

VYRAUT)J£.—CRAMB1TES. 

Ckambus Fabricius. 

C agitateiius . — Head and thorax pale luteous ; labial palpi soinewliat 
^iuscous, white beneath. Fore wings ochreous, tinted with orange, beneath 
the fold and toward the tip, with a broad silvery white median streak divided 
longitudinally by a chrome yellow line. The costa is dark fuscous from the 
base, and beyond the middle are two oblique fusco-luteous lines, the first of 
which is joined at an angle by another in the middle of the wing. On the 
middle of the apical third is a silvery white patch, another in the costa above 
it, a small one in the middle of hind margin, and one at the tip, margined 
internally by a small fuscous patch. Along the nervules, above and beneath 
the middle of the wing, are fuscous lines containing dull silvery scales, with 
a subterminal angulated silvery line, and a few marginal dots beneath the 
middle of the wing. Cilia silvery-hued. Hind wings whitish. 

C. laqueatellus . — Head luteous. Thorax and labial palpi fuscous, the 
latter whitish beneath. Fore wings with two silvery white streaks, separated 
by a fuscous streak ; the upper silveiy streak is margined on the costa witli 
fuscous, and the lower one, which extends beyond the apical third, is edged 
on the fold by the same hue. Beneath the fold, the wing is pale yellowish 
with a fuscous streak along submedian nervure. The apical portion of the 
wing is tinted with ochreous-yellow, in which the nervules are streaked with 
silvery ; on the costa, near the tip, is an oblique silvery streak, dark mar- 
gined on both sides. The subterminal silvery line is much angulated, and 
beneath the middle of the wing, is a large marginal whitish patch, containing 
black lines on the nervules. The tip of the wing is silvery, with an ochreous- 
yellow patch. Cilix silvery-hued. Hind wings pale fuscous, cilia white. 

C. involutellus . — Labial palpi dark fuscous, whitish at the base be- 
neath. Head and thorax dark yellowish with a brassy hue. Fore wings 
fosco-ochreous, with a brassy lustre, with a median silvery white streak 
pointed behind and extended nearly to the hind margin. The subterminal 
line is silvery, with a short white streak on each side of it on the costa. At 
the tip is a small white spot, and on the hinder margin beneath the middle is 
a whitish patch, containing marginal black dots. Cilia silvery-hued. Hind 
wings pale bluish white. 

In some specimens the general hue of the fore wings is paler than the 
above. 

C. camurellus. Labial palpi fuscous, whitish above- Head whitish. 
Fore wings ratherj pale, dull reddish fuscous or pale ochreous, dusted with 
fuscous, with an irregular patch of fuscous scales on the middle of the wing, 
where it is crossed by an angulated, rather ferruginous line, and one of the 
same hue near the hinder margin, edged externally by dull silvery. The 
nervules are faintly marked by silvery lines, and on the hind margin is a 
row of black dots. Cilia dark but silvery-hued. Hind wings grayish. 

C. luteolellus. — Labial palpi pale yellowish, dusted externally with 
fuscous. Head, thorax and fore wings yellowish white, sometimes dusted 
with fuscous, with a patch of fuscous scales on the end of the disc, and an 
irregular line of the same hue near hinder margin. The hind margin marked 
by a slender dark brown line ; cilia yellowish white. Hind wings fuscous, 
cilia whitish. 

I860.] 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

C. caliginosellus . — Head, thorax and labial palpi dark fuscons. Fore 
wings dark fuscous, with two angiilated umber brown lines, one about the 
middle of the wing, and rather indistinct, and one near the hind margin ; on 
the hinder margin is a blackish brown line ; cilia fnscoua. Hind wings rather 
dark fuscous ; cilia whitish. 

C. mutabilis. — Grayish fuscous, varied beneath tlie fold with lateous. 
Labial palpi dark fuscous. Fore wings with a grayish median stripe, not ex- 
tending beyond the disk, more or less tinted with luteous beneath the fold, 
and with fuscous along the base of the costa. On the end of the median ner- 
vure is a dark brown dot, and sometimes streaked with dark fuscons beneath 
the nervure. The subterminal line is faint and bluish, usually containing a 
row of faint brownish dots. Hind wings yellowish, gray or pale fuscous. 

This species appears to be highly variable, the general hue being sometimes 
pale ochreous, and in specimens somewhat worn, scarcely to be identified. 

C. Tulgi vagellus. — Labial palpi luteous, dark fuscons externally. 
Head and thorax luteous ; tegulae with a fuscous stripe. Fore wings luteous, 
with numerous fuscous streaks in atoms, along the veins and two in tlie disk. 
Hind margin with a row of terminal black dots ; cilia golden hued. Hind 
wings yellowish ; cilia whitish. 

C. albellus. — Pure white, with a row of black dots on the hind margin 
of the fore wings, with an oblique pale yellow acutely angulated line from 
near the middle of costa, and an angulated silvery subterminal line margined 
on both sides with pale yellowish. Above the marginal dots at the base of 
the cilia is a short blackish marginal line. Hind wings pale brownish -gray or 
whitish. 

C. elegans. — Whitish. Fore wings at the base of costa rather broadly 
streaked with brown, having a brassy lustre, with a patch of brown scales on 
the inner margin near the base, and a short, curved streak of the same hue 
about its middle, which forms with its opposite when the wings are closed a 
semi-circular dorsal line, beliind which the wing is dusted with brown. On 
the apical third of the wing is a broad, brown band, broadest on the costa, 
■\vhere it encloses a small white spot, and with a straight brown subterminal 
line exterior to it, on a silvery white ground. The hinder margin is dotted 
with black points ; cilia silvery. Hind wings pale brownish white. 

Variety. Costa slightly touched at the base with dark fuscous. No distinct 
!)road band on the apical third, but the costa from nearly the middle, dark 
fuscons, containing two small, white costal spots. The subterminal line 
whitish, margined on each side with fuscons. The spot on middle of inner 
margin ratlier diffuse, not linear, and the wing behind it but little dusted. 
Hind wings whitish. 

C. Girardellus. — Labial palpi pale fuscous externally, above and be- 
neath silvery white. Fore wings silvery white, with an orange yellow stripe 
beneath the median nervure, somewhat turned upwards at it8 tip toward the 
apex of the wing, and extended on the sides of the thorax to tlie head ; it is 
slightly margined toward the costa of the wing with dark reddish fuscous. 
The hind margin is dotted with blackish dots, and at the base of the eilia is a 
dark brown marginal line ; cilia silvery. Head wings white. 

Mass. From Dr. Chas. Girard. 

C. auratellus. — Labial palpi and antennre orange yelljTW, the former 
silvery white above. Fore wings silvery white, with an orange yellow band, 
from the apical third of the costa to the middle of inner margin, where it is 
broadest, and somewhat produced along the costa toward the tip, and the 
inner margin to the anal angle. Cilia orange yellow, with a dark reddish 
fuscous, somewhat crenated basal line. Head wings white. 

Mass. From Mr. 9. H. Scudder, Jr. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 205 

Chilo Zincken. 
C. lo ngirost r allu s. — Labial palpi, head and thorax oclireous white. 
Fore wings pale yellowish-white, with a fuscous line from the tip to the inner 
margin. Hind wings pale ochreous white. Abdomen tufted at the tip. 

C. melinellus . — Ochreous yellow. Fore wings with a pale fuscous 
streak along the middle of the fold, extended nearly to the tip, and a faint 
oblique line of the same hue, from the tip, not extended to the hind margin. 
Hind wings pale yellowish-white. Abdomen tufted. 

C. aquilellus. — Dark fuscous. Fore wings with an ochreous streak 
along the submedian nervure and its nervales, and those beneath likewise 
touched with the same hue. Hind wings yellowish fuscous. 

FHYCITES. 
Nefhopteeyx Hiibner. 

N. undulatella . — Labial palpi, head and thorax grayish fuscous. Fore 
wings grayish fuscous, with an angulated white line crossing the disk, some- 
times obsolete above the fold, margined with dark brownish, and a subtermi- 
nal line of the same hue dark margined on both sides. At the end of the 
disk is a short blackish transverse line, slightly margined exteriorly with 
whitish. Hinder margin tipped with blackish ; cilia grayish fuscous. Hind 
wings grayish testaceous ; cilia paler. 

Penna., Canada and Mass. From Dr. Chas. Girard, Washington, D. C. 

Early in October, I found pupae of this insect at Niagara Falls, on the Ca- 
nada side, under shelter of loosened portions of the bark of the American 
Elm. They were enclosed in a cocoon of silk, mixed with particles of bark. 
On the same tree I took a number of larvae which were descending the trunk 
to undergo pupation. I did not, however, obtain images from any of the 
specimens. The body was nearly uniform in diameter, with the ordinary- 
number of feet. Head as broad as the body and dark green. Body dark 
green, between the segments yellowish and dotted with yellow ; first rings 
with two black dots on the sides. 

N.? u Imi-arr o so rella . — Female. Grayish-fuscous. Fore wings with 
a slender, dark fuscous angulated line, edged on the costa internally by a pale 
grayish spot, and on the inner margin externally by another of the same hue. 
The subterminal line pale gray, dark margined internally. Hind wings pale 
brownish, darker on the margin. 

The larva is found on the American elm in August. The head is pale 
brown, dotted with dark brown. The body dark green, with a dorsal, double 
line of pale green patches, and a slight subdorsal and stigmatal line of the 
same hue. On the 1st, 2d, 4th, 5th and 10th rings, are brown subdorsal 
points. It weaves a web on the surface of the leaves, feeding beneath it. 
The pupa is contained in a web between united leaves, in the vivarium. It 
becomes a pupa about the middle of August, and an imago about twelve or 
fourteen days after transformation. 

Pempelia? Hiibner. 

Male. Labial palpi moderately long, scarcely exceeding the vertex ; Jirst and 
second joints thick, third extremely short and slender. Maxillary palpi with a 
short pencil of hairs. Tongue nearly as long as the thorax beneath : scaled at 
base. 

P.? virgatella . — Brownish luteous. Fore wings varied with pale gray- 
ish toward the base and tip, with dull pale reddish at the base and middle of 
inner margin ; on the middle of the costa is a blackish blotch, containing a 
short line of the same hue, and opposite, an angulated whitish line, with few 
black spots exterior to the costal line ; a blotch of the same hue towards the 

1860.J 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

base of submediau nervure, and a pale grayish subtenninal line margined inter- 
nally by a blackish line, and externally by black streaks on the nervules. 
The internal black margin is edged on the costa and middle of the wing with 
pale grayish. Hinder margin spotted with black ; cilia grayish fuscous. Hind 
wings pale brownish. 

P.? sub cae si ella. — Male. Pale bluish gray, dusted with fuscous. Fore 
wings with a reddish luteous band at the base, broadest on the inner margin, 
and a rather broad, dark fuscous band on the basal third. The subterminal 
line is pale grayish, edged behind by dark fuscous. Hind wings pale brownish. 

Ephestia ? 

E. ostrinella . — Reddish-purple varied with blackish. Fore wings with 
the basal third and the apical portion reddish purple, with a broad blackish 
band in the middle edged internally by a straight whitish line, and an exte- 
rior costal patch of the same hue containing two blackish dots on a short 
streak. The subterminal line is pale grayish. Hind wings pale brownish 
gray. 

The larvae lives in the fruit heads of Sumack, passing the winter in the 
larval state. It is dark reddish-brown, head brown ; cervical and terminal 
shields blackish brown. The body is supplied with a few isolated hairs, and 
one or two rows of obscure dark brown subdorsal dots. 

The larvfe make galleries through the fruit heads, and desert them in the 
spring, to form their cocoons, which are slight silken webs, and appear as 
images about the middle of April. 

E. Zeae. — Tinea Zeae, Fitch, Rept. 2d, 321. Fore wings with the basal 
third pale ochreous-yellow or yellowish-white, and the remainder fuscous, 
with a reddish-luteous spot on the end of the disk, or dark grayish-fuscous 
varied with reddish luteous. 

The larvse is a frequent inhabitant of houses, and feeds on a variety of dry 
c^oods, rye, corn, clover seed, on garlic heads, preserves, especially those con- 
tained in jars. The seeds are bound together with a silken web in which 
galleries are left. It would be well if Dr. Fitch changed the specific name of 
this insect as corn is by no means its favorite or usual food. 

The labial palpi of the imago are more decidedly porrected than in the 
foregoing species, but I do not think the difference between them is generic. 
I have no males of Z e a e in my collection and do not know whether they have 
the tuft beneath the fore wing. 

Lanthaphk. 

Male. The discoidal cell of the fore wings is narrow and appears to be un- 
closed. The costal and subcostal nervures run very close to each other, if 
not united, in the basal third of the wing ; the former, from union with the 
first subcosto-marginal branch much thickened, or indistinctly furcate. The 
subcostal subdivides into two branches near the basal third of the wing, the 
upper one subdividing again in the middle of the wing, sending a branch with 
a long fork to the costa near the tip and a simple branch to the apex. The 
lower branch is thickened towards its origin, simple, and is the post-apical 
nervule. The median is thickened towards its end, and is four-branched. 
Hind wings neuration pyraliform. 

Head with ocelli. Eyes large and salient. Labial palpi ascending, applied 
closely to the front and with the tips much elevated above the vertex ; first 
and second joints very short, first almost rudimental ; the third very long, 
folded longitudinally like a sheath. Maxillary palpi rather short, with a pencil 
of very long, silky hairs, capable of being expanded, and carried concealed in 
the sheath formed by the third joint of labial palpi. Antennae ciliated beneath ; 
l>a3al joint thick, with a short horn-like appendage behind having a tuft of 
hairs. Fore wings with a small discal vitreous spot, and the under surface from 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 207 

the base of the costa to the middle, thickly covered with long scales placed trans- 
versely. 

Female. Fore wings without discal vitreous spot. Discoidal cell closed by 
an arcuate nervure ; witli costal and subcostal nervures distinct, the latter 
with a single marginal branch from the cell, and at the apical third of the 
wing subdividing into an apical and marginal branch, which is furcate ; the 
subcosto post-apical from the superior angle of the cell. Submediau four 
branched. 

With ocelli. Labial palpi ascending, with tips but little elevated above the 
vertex; nearly cylindrical ; second joint somewlxat thickened and long, ex- 
tending above the eyes ; the thiri short, slender and pointed. Maxillary 
short, without pencil of hairs. Antennae simple and setaceous : basal joint 
thick, without appendage behind. 

The tongue in both sexes is scaled at the base, and moderately long ; and 
the fore wings with distinct strigse and tufts of scales. 

This genus appears to be congeneric with Acrobasis of Zeller. 

L. pi a tan ell a. — Labial palpi pale brownish-red, touched in front with 
pale gray. Head and thorax brownish-red, the latter varied with grayish and 
dark fuscous. Fore wings grayish fuscous, with the costa touched with 
brownish red, and a patch of the same hue in the female, near the base of the 
inner margin containing a tuft of raised scales ; in the male, blackish brown, 
touched with brownish red. The base of the wing is whitish. In the middle 
of the wing is a broad white band, obsolete toward the costa, with two straight 
blackish-brown lines internally, and in the male shaded internally with the 
same hue. The subterminal line is irregular and whitish, dark margined 
internally. The hinder margin of the wing is touched with blackish-brown. 
Hind wings pale brown, somewhat darker toward the hinder margin. 

The larvae is tortriciform in appearance. Head pale brown, mottled with 
whitish. Body with isolated hairs, pale green, with a dark brown dorsal line 
and a fainter stigmatal line of the same hue, or pale reddish, with a brown 
dorsal line on each side of the vascular. 

It makes a web on the under surface of the leaf of Sycamore, (Platanus o c- 
ciden talis), drawing it together and living within a silken tube. 

The cocoon is woven on the surface of the ground, in form of a flattened oval, 
consisting of brown silk covered exteriorly with grains of earth. The larvre 
remain in it unchanged during the winter. It may be taken in July, and 
enters the pupa state during the latter part of August, to appear as an imago 
in May or June. 

L. asperateUa. — Labial palpi blackish brown, varied with whitish. 
Thorax pale grayish, varied with gi-ayish or dark gray. Fore wings dark 
brownish-gray, with a blackish brown tuft of scales in the basal part of the 
fold, and a smaller one of the same hue on the disk above it, a whitish me- 
dian band, sometimes almost obsolete, containing on the disk a small black- 
ish-brown tuft in the female, with an internal crenated blackish line, and 
shaded toward the base with blackish ; on its external margin is a line of 
raised scales. The subterminal line is pale grayish, angulated and margined 
internally by a blackish line, and externally by a fainter one produced into 
points on the nervules. The hinder marginal line is black. Sometimes in 
the female the base of the wing is whitish, slightly touched with luteous. 

Penna. and Mass. From Dr. Chas. Girard. 

TINEINA. 

LiTHOcoLLETis. (See Paper No. 2.) 

L. Fitchella. — Argyromlges quercifoUella, Fitch, Report v.. Section 
327. Head, face and thorax silvery white. Labial palpi tipped with pale 
ochreous. Antennae pale saffron ; basal joint silvery white. Fore wings pale 

I860.] 



208 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

reddish-saffron, with a slight brassy hue. Along the costa are five silvery tvhite 
costal streaks, all black margined internally except the first, which is very 
oblique and continued along the costa to the base of the wing. All the costal 
streaks are short, except the first. On the inner margin are two conspicuous 
silvery dorsal streaks, dark margined internally, the first, very large, and placed 
near the middle of the inner margin, the second opposite the third costal 
streak. At the tip is a small, round black spot, placed above the middle of 
the wing ; cilia silvery gray, tinted with saffron. Hind wings grayish-fuscous, 
cilia paler. 

The specific name used by Dr. Fitch being already in use to designate a 
European species of this genus, it was necessary to change it. I feel pleasure, 
therefore, in dedicating it to the industrious observer who first described it, 
and who is adding so much to our knowledge of entomological Natural His- 
tory. 

L. tubiferella. — Head silvery white. Antennae fuscous, slightly annu- 
lated with white ; basal joint pale saffron. Fore wings pale saffron, with two 
silvery white, moderately broad bands, black margined externally, one near 
the base and the other on the middle of the wing, and both somewhat oblique ; 
cilia of the general hue. Hind wings dark grayish, cilia the same. 

Tlie larva belongs to the second larval group of this genus, but the body 
much more contracted than that of any other larva I have seen. Its form is 
almost that of a flattened ovoid, the rings separated by deep incisions, and each 
forming in the sides a projecting mammilla. 

The larva mines the upper surface of the leaves of oaks in September, and 
doubtless also in the summer months. The mine is a linear tract, sometimes 
curved or wavy, gradually increasing in breadth from the beginning to the 
end, or as the larva increases in length, with the "frass" deposited on each 
side of the tract and marking its outlines by two black lines. The position 
of the larva within the mine is likewise a peculiar one, as it is always placed 
transversely to its course, and hence the deposition of the "frass" on the 
sides, and the gradual increase in breadth as the larva grows in length. Its 
head is blackish brown ; the body pale greenish, with pale brown dorsal ma- 
culae, darker on their edges. It undergoes transformation in the end of the 
mine, preparing a circular cell or slightly silk-lined cavity, and leaves the 
last larval cast outside of it. The fall brood of larva become imagos about 
the middle of May. 

L. cratfegella . — This insect is found on the apple and wild cherry, (P. 
serotina), without undergoing any variation, which I can detect. I thought 
beyond doubt, that that in the leaf of wild cherry, must be a distinct species, 
for the larva has a habit unusual to larvse of this group, and which I have not 
noticed in those on the thorn and apple, although, doubtless, they correspond. 
The habit I refer to in wild cherry miners, consists in deserting an old mine to 
form a new one, reminding one strongly of the early habits of the Ornix larvae. 
The larva enters along the midrib to form a new mine, which I have found in 
various stages of advancement, besides the old and tenantless mine in another 
portion of the leaf. 

TiscHERiA. (See Paper No. 2.) 

T. malifoliella . — Head and antennae shining dark brown ; face ochre- 
ous. Fore wings uniform, shining dark brown with a purplish tinge, slightly 
dusted with pale ochreous ; cilia of the general hue. Hind wings dark gray ; 
cilia with a rufous tinge. 

The larva mines the upper surface of the apple leaf. The mine is flat, at 
least until the larva enters the pupa state, and begins as a slender ivhite line, 
dilating as it increases, and is ultimately formed into an irregular brownish 
colored patch, which is sometimes extended over the beginning. This is then 
shown on the separated epidermis as a white line or streak. The head of the 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 209 

larva is brown ; the body uniform pale green ; first segment brownish, with a 
short, vascular greenish streak. When the pupation begins the leaf is thrown 
into a fold, which is carpeted with silk, and the pupa lies within it. This 
state begins about the latter part of September, and the imago appears early 
in May. 

Antispila. (See Paper No. 3.) 

A. Isabella. — KenA golden. Antennae purplish brown. Fore wings pwr- 
plisk brown, loithout violet and greenish reflections, with a pale golden band near 
the base, inclined toward the base, not constricted on the fold, but broadest 
on the inner margin. Near the tip of the wing is a small pale golden costal 
spot, and one of the same hue nearly opposite on the inner margin. The 
hind wings have a greenish reflection ; in Nysssefoliella, they are rather deep 
purple. 

The larva mines the leaf of Isabella grape in September. Its head is brown ; 
the body yellowish white, with a few black dorsal spots on a dark green ground, 
on the middle segments and beneath a spot on the fourth and fifth segments : 
first segment dark green. It cuts out a very large, nearly round disk, during 
the latter part of September, and appears as an imago in the latter part of 
May. 

A. viticordifoliella . — The larva mines the leaves of wild grapes. Its 
head is brown ; the body yellowish green, without dorsal or ventral spots ; 
the first ring brown. It may be taken in August, and in the beginning of 
September it cuts out a small oval disk and enters the pupa state. I have not 
succeeded in breeding the imago, but have no doubt it is specifically distinct 
from any heretofore described. 

ASPIDISCA. 
(See Proceedings, Jan'y., 1880, p. 11.) 
The diagnosis of this genus was made from two specimens of A. s p 1 e n d o r i f e - 
r e 1 1 a. In insects so extremely small and fragile, even when relaxed by mois- 
ture, it is no simple task to make a correct diagnosis from a single examina- 
tion. The reader will therefore please correct in the January number of the 
Proceedings as follows : Labial palpi extremely short and slender, much separated. 
Tongue naked and scarcely as long as the anterior coxce. 

A. lucifluella. — Head silvery. Antennae rather dark fuscous. Fore 
wings silvery from the base to the middle, and thence to the tip dark fuscous 
varied with golden. Near the tip are three short, costal silvery strealcs adjacent 
to each other ; the first is longer than the others, with converging dark mar- 
gins, and a golden patch on its internal side ; the second with straight dark 
margins, and a golden patch beneath and adjoining it ; the third is unmar- 
gined except by the external margin of the second streak which separates 
them. Opposite the first costal streak is a dorsal, tapering streak of the same 
hue, and placed in the dark fuscous portion of the wing. From the second 
golden spot to the middle of the hinder margin is an oblique silvery streak, 
sometimes separated into two spots. At the extreme apex is a deep black 
triangular spot ; the cilia grayish, tinged with pale brownish. 

The larva may be found in September and October mining the leaves of 
hickories. The head, first and second segments are brownish, with a reddish 
tinge ; body brownish-green, with a dark green vascular line and three black- 
ish dorsal spots on the middle segments. Early in October the larva cuts out 
an oval disk and enters the pupa state, to appear as an imago early in June. 
The perfect insect is larger than splendoriferella. 

Parectopa. 

The fore wings are lanceolate. The disk is acutely closed behind, at the 
apical third of the wing and narrow. No costal nervure. The subcostal sends 

1860.1 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

oflF quite near the base of the wing a long marginal branch, and near its end. 
two other branches to the costa. From the acute apex of the disk arises the 
aj^ical branch, which, near its origin sends a branch to the costa, and about 
its middle becomes bifid, sending one branch to the costa near the tip, and 
the other to the inner margin beneath it. The median is three-branched, the 
posterior vein arising somewhat interiorly to the costal origin of the second 
marginal, and is most distinct on the inner margin, being faintly indicated from 
its middle to its origin. 

Hind wings very narrow, almost setiform. The disk unclosed. The costal 
nervure is well indicated and long, reaching almost to the tip of the wing. 
The subcostal is furcate beyond the middle of the wing and is attenuated to- 
ward the base almost from its bifurcation ; it runs close to the costal trunk. 
The median nervure is furcate within the middle of the wing, on the inner 
margin. 

Head with long, loose scales above, forming a slight tuft between the an- 
tennae. Forehead rounded. Face narrow and short, somewhat retreating and 
smooth. No ocelli. Eyes small, round, salient and naked. Labial palpi 
moderately long, slender, smooth, pointed and drooping, (in the living insect 
most probably ascending) ; second joint slightly thickened at its end. Max- 
illary palpi not perceptible. Antennae inserted on the front ; filiform and sim- 
ple ; basal joint scarcely thicker than the stalk and short ; nearly as long as 
the fore wings. Tongue naked, slender, nearly as long as the thorax beneath. 

P. 1 esped ezsefol iell a. — Head and face white. Labial palpi, second 
joint dark fuscous, the third white. Antennae dark grayish fuscous. Thorax 
blackish brown. Fore wings blackish brown, with three silvery white spots 
along the inner margin, one almost at the base of the wing, one at the apical 
third, and the other intermediate between them. On the costa are two silvery 
white spots, the first a little exterior to the second dorsal; the second costal 
opposite the third dorsal. Along the hinder margin is a black hinder margi- 
nal line, or two decided converging black streaks, one from the costa and the 
other from the inner margin, meeting at the tip where there is a small silvery 
white spot. The cilia along the hinder margin are silvery white tipped tcith 
blackish, and along the inner margin dark gray. Hind wings dark fuscous, 
cilia the same. 

The larva mines the leaves of bush-clover, (Lespedeza violacea) early in 
September. It makes a whitish blotch mine, with a number of narrow, lat- 
eral mines, or rather wide galleries running out from it, on the upper surface 
of the leaf. The blotch is chiefly in the middle of the leaf, the larva mining 
along the midrib in the first instance, and when disturbed it conceals itself 
by retreating to the midrib, and applies itself along the course of it. Hence 
tenanted mines may easily be mistaken for deserted ones. The mine never 
contains " frass," and the larva seems to leave one capriciously, whilst it is 
yet small in extent, to form a new one ; this it does by penetrating the under 
cuticle of the leaf. In the course of larval life, many new mines are formed 
and the insect is a troublesome one to breed. The larva is cylindrical, slightly 
tapering from the first segment, and the body bright, concolorous green. It 
deserts its food-plant about the middle of September to form its cocoonet ; 
this is woven upon some substance on the ground, in the vivarium, in a pucker 
on a leaf, or under a turned-down portion of the edge, and is white. It appears 
as an imago early in May. 

I have no good description of this larva in my notes, but have of another 
having precisely similar habits, and in appearance very like it. It mines a 
species of Desmodium plants, nearly related to Lespedeza, and is probably the 
same insect, or at least of the same genus as the above. The body of this 
larva tapers posteriorly ; it is submoniliform and slightly flattened, with the 
segments roundly mammillated on the sides. The feet are three, the abdomi- 
nal three and the terminal one pair. The head is pale brown ; the body 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 211 

briglit green, tinged with yellowish. The larvae desert their mines to form, 
new ones, hence they are never extensive, sometimes blotches, and again ir- 
regular galleries along the midrib, with lateral branches. The "frass" is 
voided at the entrance opening beneath. I was not successful in breeding the 
larvae on Desmodium. 

Bpcculatkix Zeller. 
(See Paper No. 3, Proceedings, Jan., 1860. The authority there given ia a mistake.) 

B. pomif olie 1 la. — Head and face very pale ochreous, with the tuft 
tipped with brownish. Antennae pale ochreous, dotted above with dark fus- 
cous. Fore wings whitish, tinged with pale yellowish, freely dusted with 
brown. On the middle of inner margin is a large dark brown, oval patch, 
forming, with its opposite when the wings are closed, a conspicuous, nearly 
round dorsal patch ; a streak of the same hue. from the costa opposite it, run- 
ning to the inner angle of the wing and tapering from the costa where it is 
broadest. At the tip is a round, dark brown apical spot, and in the cilia a 
dark brown hinder marginal line. Hind wings pale brownish ochreous, cilia 
the same. 

The larva feeds externally on the leaf of apple, at least at the time it was 
taken, in the latter part of September. It is cylindrical and submoniliform ; 
tapers anteriorly and posteriorly ; with punctiform points and isolated hairs, 
first segment with rather abundant dorsal hairs ; thoracic feet three, abdomi- 
nal four and very short, terminal one pair. Head small, ellipsoidal, brown ; 
body dark yellowish green, tinged with reddish anteriorly ; hairs blackish and 
short. 

Early in October the larva enters the pupa state, weaving an elongated, 
dirty white, ribbed cocoon, and appears as in imago during the latter part of 
the following April or early in May. 

B. agnella . — Head and face sordid white, the latter touched with fuscous. 
Antennae dark fuscous. Fore wings whitish, washed with pale luteous-brown, 
which prevails especially towards the tip and along the fold. About the 
middle of inner margin, on the fold, is a small dark fuscous mark, consisting 
of a few scales. The costa is dark fuscous from the base, and about the middle 
of the wing gives oflf a short oblique streak of the same hue, and another 
near the apical third, which is fuscous near the costa and pale luteous-brown 
beyond it, and margined exteriorly with white, especially on the costa. Tlie 
long scales in the cilia are tipped with dark brown. Hind wings brownish, 
cilia brownish with a rufous tinge. 

Taken on wing about the middle of May. 

Machimia. 

Fore wings with the hind margin obliquely pointed. The subcostal nervure 
gives off a marginal branch near the basal third, and at the end of the disk 
subdivides into four nerviiles, of which the apical is furcate near the tip. 
The median is four-branched, the medio-posterior remote from the penulti- 
mate. The submedian is furcate at the base. In the disk is a long, faintly 
indicated secondary cell. The neuration of the hind wings like that of De- 
pressaria. The discal nervure is oblique. The interior basal angle rounded, 
and the margin slightly excised behind it. 

Head and forehead between the antennae, shaggy. Face rather smooth, 
depressed and retreating. No ocelli. Eyes small, oval and salient. Labial 
palpi rather long, remote from the face, slender, curved and ascending ; second 
joint roughened loith scales; the third smooth, aciculate, and about one-third 
less long than the second. Maxillary palpi very short. Antennae about one- 
half as long as the fore wing, simple and filiform ; basal joint short. Tongue 
scaled, about as long as the anterior coxae. 

1800.] 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

M. tentoriferella . — Labial palpi pale yellowish ; basal half of the 
second joint blackish or dark fuscous. Fore wings reddish ochreons, with 
dispersed dark fuscous atoms. The extreme base of the costa is blackish, 
from a small black spot on its edge ; with three blackish brown spots arranged 
in a triangle in the middle of the wing, one about the middle of the disk, 
another on its end, and one in the fold beneath them ; cilia rather long and 
russet colored. Hind wings rufo-fuscoas, along the discal portion of costa, 
pale ochreons. 

The larva tapers posteriorly from the head ; terminal legs short, placed 
posteriorly, projecting beyond the shield; abdominal legs short ; with papili- 
form points in squares, each bearing a hair ; body cylindric and sub-monili- 
form. The head is large, carried horizontally ; somewhat flattened above, but 
rounded ; cervical shield doubtfully indicated, its color dark green. Body 
dark green, at first uniform, but after the last moult, a double yellowish- 
green dorsal line is added. 

It may be found during the latter part of July, on the leaves of wild cherry, 
oaks and hickories. On the underside of the leaf it throws a closely woven 
sheet or web from the midrib to the side of the leaf, and draws it into a shallow 
fold. This sheet or tent is not much longer than the larva itself, open at both 
ends, transparent, shining and vitreous. Beneath this it rests during the 
day, and in the night leaves it to feed on the edges of the leaf, retreating to 
its cover if alarmed. To this it clings most tenaciously if disturbed, thrust- 
ing its head from beneath it, shaking it from side to side, or if disturbed in 
front, retreats, without leaving it, and defends itself stoutly with its mandi- 
bles. Its length is about half an inch. When it leaves a leaf to form 
a new tent on another, it always devours the silk of the one it deserts. 

During the latter part of Au,?ust or first of September it enters the pupa 
state and forms its cocoon, by turning down a portion of a leaf, carpeting it 
with silk and binding its edges closely. The opening left at the ends, corres- 
ponding to the tail of the pupa, is closed densely, and the other with loose 
silken threads. The pupa case is very dark reddish brown, and it remains in 
situ when the imago escapes. The antennae-cases as long as the wing-cases ; 
abdomen rather short and blunt ; cylindrico-conical. The imago appears 
during the latter part of September. 

PSILOCORSIS. 

The neuration of the wings differs in scarcely any respect from the foregoing 
genus, except that the medio-posterior vein is not remote from the penultimate. 
The posterior veins of the median are very much curved. The structure of 
the fore wings in both these groups is much like that in the Tortrices. 

Head smooth. Face rounded. Ocelli none. Eyes large, round and salient. 

Labial palpi long, remote from the face, recurved, rather slender ; second 
joint rather flattened, smooth, with appressed scales ; third smooth, slender and 
pointed, nearly as long as the second joint. Maxillary palpi short, distinct. 
Antennae about one half as long as the fore wings, simple and filiform ; basal 
joint rather long and subclavate. Tongue one-half as long as thorax beneath, 
scaled. 

P. quercicella . — Head and thorax dark yellowish-brown. Labial palpi, 
second joint ochreous, with a black line on the edge beneath ; third black, 
with two yellowish white stripes in front. Antennae ochreous, with a black 
line above, terminating in black spots ; basal joint with two black stripes in 
front. Fore wings yellowish brown, varied with bla,ckish irregular striae, 
chiefly from the costa, with a black dot on the end of the disk. The posterior 
margin is tipped with blackish ; the cilia are yellowish brown, containing two 
dark fuscous hinder marginal lines. Posterior wings pale ochreous, cilia the 
same. 

The larva tapers from, the thu-d segment anteriorly and posteriorly ; flattened 

[June 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 213 

above and beneath, submoniliform ; no dorsal papilliform points, but two 
rows on the sides ; abdominal and terminal feet very short, the latter placed 
posteriorly. Head small, cordate, horizontal. The body is yellowish or pale 
greenish, the head, 1st, 2d, and 3d segments black. 

It binds the leaves of oaks together, in August and September, and picks 
out the parenchyma between the network of veins. In the latter part of Sep- 
tember it weaves a slight cocoon between two leaves, (in nature it is probably 
made elsewhere than between the leaves of its food plant), and becomes a ra- 
ther short, tliick pupa, with the antennae cases moniliform and longer than 
the wing-cases, beyond the end of which they project as an obtuse spine. It 
appeai-s as an imago in March or April. 

Labial palpi very long and recurved, the tips extending hack as far as prothorax, 
but remote from the face and head. 

P. reflexel 1 a.— Head brownish, tinged with ferruginous. Labial palpi 
dark ochreous, with a black line on the edge of second joint beneath, and 
three black lines on the third, one in front and one on each side. Antennae 
dark ochreous, annulated with dark fuscous ; basal joint with two black stripes 
in front. Fore wings dull ochreous, profusely dusted with reddish fuscous ; 
cilia short and dark colored. Hind wings fuscous. 

This species very closely resembles, physically, M. tentoriferella. The 
labial palpi are longer, however, more recurved, and the second joint perfectly 
smooth, whilst in tentoriferella it is roughened with scales. 

Both these genera likewise closely approach the European genus Phibolocera, 
and it is not impossible that one of them may be really identical with it, not- 
withstanding the longer antennte and shorter third joint of the labial palpi in 
the European species. 

Menesta. 

Fore wings obtusely pointed above the middle, elongate-ovate. Disk closed 
by a very faint nervure. The subcostal subdivides into five nervules, the first 
of which is from the middle of the disk, the foxirth being the apical, and the 
fifth the post apical from the middle of the disk behind. The median is three- 
branched, the medio-posterior being opposite the third subcostal vein. The 
fold is thickened at its end and runs into the baaal third of the median. The 
submedian curved, and sliortly furcate at the base. 

Hind wings somewhat trapezoidal, slightly emarginate on the hind margin 
beneath the tip. The discoidal cell unclosed. The costal nervure is long 
and extended nearly to the tip. The subcostal somewhat attenuated at its 
base, distinct from the costal, and furcate at the apical third of the wing. The 
median three-branched, the superior and central veins on a common stalk. 

Size small. Head and face smooth, minutely scaled. Forehead and face 
rounded and very broad. Ocelli none. Eyes vertically placed, minute, oval, 
salient. Labial palpi smooth, slender, curved and ascending equal to the 
vertex ; second joint slightly thickened towards its end ; third very slender, 
pointed, and not more than one-half as long as the second. Maxillary palpi 
very short, distinct. Antennse m^^ch separated at their base, about one-half 
as long as tlie fore wings, filiform and ciliated beneath microscopically, ivith 
o^ip, hair to each article ; basal joint very short, scarcely thicker than the 
stalk. Tongue scaled at the base, slender, and about as long as the anterior 
coxae. 

M. tortriciformella . — Labial palpi fuscous, towards the base whitish. 
Head, antennse, and face dark luteo-fuscous, the latter whitish beneath. Fore 
wings dark brownish with a purplish hue, with a small lunate white spot on 
the end of the disk. Hind wings dark fuscous, cilia the same. Feet pale 
yellowish, the ends of middle and posterior tibiae touched with fuscous ; the 
middle tarsi fuscous externally, and the hind tarsi banded with fuscous at 
the base. 

I860.] 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Nepticcla Zeller. 

N. rubifoliella. — Head dark luteous. Palpi somewhat paler Inteo'us. 

Antennae lateous, basal joint silvery white. Fore wings blackish-brown, 
with a rather narrow, curved silvery band about the middle of the wing. The 
band is concave toward the base of the wing, and shows a tendency to be 
interrupted in the middle. Cilia whitish. Hind wings grayish, cilia the 
same. 

I have very carefully compared this insect with the description and delinea- 
tion of N. angulifasc iella. of Stainton, in the first volume of the Nat. 
Hist, of the Tineina, and though unwilling to believe the fact, I cannot resist 
the conclusion, that it is the same species. I have not named the species in 
accordance with this conviction, because as yet I have secured but a single 
specimen. 

The larva mines the leaf of blackberry in September. It makes a blotch 
mine on the upper surface of the leaf, beginning as a slender gallery, extend- 
ing quite a distance, usually along a vein of the leaf, before being enlarged 
into a blotch. The body of the larva tapers posteriorly, the terminal rings 
being attenuated ; color pale green, with a bright dark green vascular line : 
head greenish-brown and small. The larva was not taken from the mine for 
description. It leaves the mine very early in October to spin an oval, very 
dark reddish brown cocoon, and appears as an imago during the latter part 
of May or early in June. There is, therefore, in all probability, a summer 
brood, which may be found in July and August, if the conjecture is correct. 

I have no doubt that subsequent observation will prove this insect to be the 
same as angulifasciella, and I am no little astonished to find so mi- 
nute a creature common to the continents of Europe and America. During 
the coming season I will endeavor to record minutely the history of the pre- 
paratory states of the American species. 

PHALENITES. 

DoKYODEs Guenee. 

I would notice this genus here merely to express my ideas respecting its 
classification. M. Guenee says of it, that the insects belonging to it have so 
doubtful an aspect that he is uncertain not only in what family, but in what 
division to place it. He notices its superficial resemblance to Crambus, or 
Chilo, and to the genera Senta and Meliana of his division Noctuelites, but 
says that from the form of antennae and labial palpi, the absence of ocelli, 
(herein, however, M. Guenee is in error, for they are not absent), and from 
some other characters, not designated, it cannot be mistaken for one of the 
Noctuelites. While acknowledging the very notable diflferences between this 
genus and those with which it is associated, he does not inform us what ruling 
considerations induced him to prefer for it a place in his division Phalenites, 
(Geometrina) and the family Ligidae. 

In my own view, this genus has few or no structural characteristics of the 
Geometrina, and its neuration just as undoubtedly places it in Guenee's group 
Noctuelites, (Noctuina); this, too, is a position justified by its general struc- 
ture. If the subpectinated antennae of the (J , and the comparatively slender 
body, are considerations sufficient to overrule the position of the wings in re- 
pose, the partial folding of the hinder pair, the structure of the legs, the pre- 
sence of ocelli, and the purely noctuiform neuration, then indeed does the 
lesser amount of evidence overbalance the greater. Had M. Guenee not over- 
looked the presence of ocelli, his decision might have been difierent, for these 
organs are always absent in the Phalenites, aod the possession of geometriform 
antennffi is not enough to neutralize their presence or to determine the place 
of the genus. 

In the hope that some of the entomological students of New England, where 
one of the species of this genus certainly is found, may be able to make out 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 215 

its larval history, I will describe the species in ray collection, and extract M. 
Guenee's description of the other. The first species may be easily recognised 
by means of Guenee's very good figure, and as a generic diagnosis would not 
facilitate recognition, particularly without the means of reducing it from a 
general to a special group, I will omit any generic description. 

D. acutaria. — Herr. Sch. Sup., p. 74, f. 447. Guenee Uranides and 
ThaUnites, Suites a Biiffon, x. 233, pi. 17, f. 6. 

The appearance of the imago is somewhat crambiform. The fore wings pale 
ochreous, tinted with dark luteous (with clear grayish violet, G"/;.) along sub- 
costal nervure and its marginal branches, and with a rather broad blackish 
streak beneath the median nervure, extended from the base and curving be- 
hind upwards toward the tip, bordered on the costal side by a silvery line, 
and one of the same hue behind, along the curved portion. In the disk are 
two blackish dots, one on the discal nervure and the other about the middle 
of the disk. Hind wings ochreous white. Guenee's sp. from Ga.; mine from 
Mass. Col. of Dr. Chas. Girard. 

D. s pad aria. — Gn. x. p. 234. "Very near the preceding, but larger, 
with the wings more oblong. The superior wings are more acute, and the 
terminal border perfectly straight. Their color is darker, grayer, with the 
designs finer and less distinct. The inferior are more developed and more 
oblong ; they have the internal angle and part of the side tinted with blackish 
gray. The abdomen is perceptibly longer, and the antennse also proportiona- 
bly longer and slenderer. ' ' 

In his generic diagnosis, M. Guenee says of the abdomen, "d^passaiit beau- 
coup les ailes inferieures, ' ' whereas in my specimens of acutaria, the abdomen 
exactly equals the length of the hind wings, when the wings are folded. He 
refers, doubtless, to the expanded wings. 

PYRALIDiE. 
Desmia Westwood. 

This is one of the few genera in M. Guenee's family Asopidse, of his division 
Pyralites, the viales in which are characterized by nodosities or curvatures of 
the antennae. As Guenee, at the time of writing his volume on Delto'ides and 
Pyralites, had not seen the males of this genus, and his description, in the 
general remarks on the genus, does not accurately rejiresent their structure, 
I will describe these organs in the male, of which I have several specimens. 
In noticing the singular conformation of the male antennae, he says : " sont 
d'abord renflees en massue, puis etranglees et munies d'un gros article ovoide, 
puis enfin greles et cilices jusqu' an sommet." 

About the middle of the antennal stalk, is placed a transverse, nearly ver- 
tical plate, which on the external side has a triangular elevation, and adjoin- 
ing this, toward the base, is a narrow tuft of obliquely placed scales, running 
along the upper surface of the stalk. Toward the apex of the organ, immedi- 
ately following this protuberance, one-half of the stalk is excised from above 
and slightly tufted internally. There is no thickening of the stalk except at 
the protuberance, and beneath it is microscopically pubescent from the base 
to the tip. 

D. maculalis. — West. Mag. Zool., 1831, pi. 2, Guenee, vol. viii. IS!). 
Blackish brown. Labial palpi blackish brown, while beneath. Fore wings 
with an irregularly oval white spot placed partly on the middle of the disk, 
the median nervure and the fold ; another of the same hue and nearly round, 
on the base of the nervules behind the disk. Hind wings with a single, discal 
white spot. Abdomen with a white band at the base, a dorsal spot on the 
middle, and a short white dorsal streak at the tip. 

Mass. and 111. Col. of Messrs. Scudder and Kennicott. 

I860.] 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

EUSTALES. 

Fore wings with two subcosto-marginal nervules, given oflf very near the 
posterior-superior angle of the disk, the stalk of the second almost in contact 
with that of the apical branch near their origins. The apical and post-apical 
arise together at the angle of the disk, the former being furcate near the tip, 
sending a nervulet to near the costa. The disco-central is given oflf from the 
middle of the discal. Median four-branched, the medio-superior on an ex- 
tremely short, vertical peduncle ; the posterior arising at a point somewhat 
behind the costal origin of the first marginal branch. 

In the hind wings the costal nervure is furcate at the tip of the wing ; the 
oblique intercostal branch is long and exterior to the cell, and the subcostal 
simple and attenuated at the base. The median four-branched, the superior 
which continues the curved discal nervure, almost in actual contact with the 
following branch. The hind wings are broader than the fore wings, and about 
one-fourth less long. 

Head with ocelli, rather remote from the eyes ; face rounded, smooth, and 
rather narrow. Eyes large, round and prominent. Labial palpi rather thick, 
curved and ascending to about the middle of the face ; second joint thickened 
beneath with scales ; the third rather smooth, elongate ovoid, and about one- 
half as long as the second. Maxillary palpi rather long, curved and ascend- 
ing, their tips nearly equal to those of the labial palpi, roughened with scales, 
distinctly three-jointed. Antennae about as long as the body, with triangular 
patches of shining scales along the stalk above ; inserted above the middle of 
the eyes, with bases contiguous and microscopically pubescent beneath. 
Tongue scaled at base and when unrolled, does not extend beyond the tips 
of the labial palpi. No abdominal apron (tablier) perceptible. The posterior 
coxae rather short ; the length of the tibiae and tarsus, of the hind pair of legs, 
equal to that of the entire body. 

E. Tedyuscongalis . — Fore wings ochreous yellow, paler along the 
costa, dusted somewhat with reddish fuscous, with a moderately broad white 
band from the costa near the tip, curving toward the base of the wing in the 
submedian interspace, where it becomes rather broader, to the middle of the 
inner margin. Behind this, near and parallel to the hind border, is a narrow 
white band, not extended to the costa nor inner margin, and bordered exte- 
riorly with a blackish-brown line. The exterior border of the wing is paler 
yellow than the general hue. Hind wings white, with an oblique fuscous 
band above the middle, tapering to the external margin ; a broad one of the 
same hue near the hinder margin, having a pale ochreous-yellow spot at each 
end, and margined behind with a white streak having an external delicate black 
line. The terminal margin pale ochreous-yellow, with four black points hav- 
ing ochreous-yellow pupils, arranged along the margin from the middle of 
the wing toward the exterior angle. 

Lake Teedyuscoug, Pike county, Penna., in the latter part of June or early 
ia July. 

The ornamentation of this insect resembles in a remarkable degree that of 
Oligostigma j uncealis Gu. ; it cannot, however, be a member of the same 
genus. 

Hydrocampa? Latreille. 

Guenee, vol. viii. 273. 

Fore wings with one subcosto-marginal from near the superior angle of the 
disk ; the apical branch, at its basal third, gives oflf a branch to the costa, and 
somewhat behind its apical third becomes furcate ; the post-apical arises at 
the angle, and the discal nervule on the costal side of the cell. Median four- 
branched ; the superior on a very noticeable peduncle ; the posterior remote 
from the penultimate, which together with the other branches are aggregated 
at their bases. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 217 

In the hind wings the costal nervure has a rather long fork. The intercos- 
tal branch exterior to the cell and extremely short, and from this point poste- 
riorly the stalks of the two nervures are almost in contact. The median ner- 
vure four-branched, the superior on a moderate peduncle. 

The structural differences between this and the foregoing genus are : the 
labial palpi slenderer ; third joint very short, about one-third as long as the 
second, which is squamous beneath. Maxillary palpi slender, smooth, por- 
rected ; with tips equal to the end of the second joint. Tongue scaled at the 
base, at least one-half as long as the body. The length of the middle tibiae and 
tarsus equal to that of the body ; the hind tibiae and tarsus exceeding the 
length of the body. 

H. ? formosalis . — Fore wings pale yellow, with three white patches on 
the disk, the two nearest the base small and slightly margined with fuscous, 
the one on the end of the disk margined internally by an oblique fuscous line ; 
a white patch on the nervules behind the disk, margined externally by a fus- 
cous line convex toward the base of the wing and hooked at each end, with a 
white patch at the tip and one beneath it at the inner angle, both margined 
externally by a submarginal curved fuscous line. In the middle of the sub- 
median interspace is a nearly oval white patch encircled with fuscous. Hind 
wings white, pale yellowish beyond the middle, with a fuscous line near tlie 
base from the inner margin, not extended to the costa ; a wavy double line of 
the same hue rather external to the middle, and a white spot near the tip and 
one about the middle of the hinder margin, both margined externally with a 
fuscous line. On the disk is a pale yellowish spot. 

Lake Teedyuscong. Imago, July. 

Cataclysta Herrich-Schaffer. 

Fore wings with the first subcosto-marginal vein and medio-posterior oppo- 
site at their origins. The apical vein runs into the costa before the tip, and 
gives rise to a marginal branch at its basal and apical third. The post-api- 
cal runs into the produced tip of the wing and gives origin to the discal ner- 
vure. Hind wings, the costal is shortly forked near the tip. Tlie subcostal 
arises from the costal within the disk and is not pi-oduccd toward the base. 
The median is three-branched. Head without ocelli. Antennse of the (^ densely 
pubescent. Tongue as long as the thorax beneath. 

The structure of the posterior wings in the species described below forms 
very nearly a parallel case toC. dilucidalis described by M. Guenee. The 
costal nervure of dilucidalis is not, however, represented bifid, and the 
branch which corresponds to the costal nervure does not arise within the cell 
and give origin to the discal, but exterior to the disk and the discal nervure 
arises behind it from the costal. They both concur in the absence of the dis- 
cal, or independent nervule, and in the median being three-branched. May 
not d i 1 u c i d a 1 i s be an American species ? I cannot determine the question, 
as M. Guence's description is imperfect, from the fact that it was drawn from 
badly preserved specimens. 

C. fulicalis . — Fore wings white, fuscous at the costal portion of the base, 
with a broad band near the base and a narrow wavy fuscous line crossing the 
middle of the disk, sending from the median nervure a curved line to the in- 
ner margin, convex exteriorly. The space between these lines is frequently 
dusted with fuscous. From an elongated fuscous patch limited below by the 
subcostal nervure, on the middle of the costa, departs an oblique ochreous 
band, inclined to the inner angle and margined along the discal nervure on 
both sides, with fuscous ; and from the posterior end of the costal patch, a 
curved line joins the external dark margin of the band enclosing an oval spot 
of the general hue. A subterminal band tapers to the inner angle, leaving on 
each side of it two converging tapering bands of the general hue. Hinder 
margin ochreous, margined internally with fuscous. Hind wings white, with 

I860.] 14 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

a broad fuscous band near the base, corresponding to that on the anterior, and 
touched with ochreous in its middle ; with a median yellowish brown curved 
line, not reaching the costa, and exterior to this, the apical half of the wing 
is dusted slightly with dark brownish. Along the terminal margin, is a row 
of five lilack luuules, connected by intermediate metallic violet-blue spot.<, and on 
the extreme margin behind these latter spots, aroiv of orange yellow clots ; while 
the band is tinted interiorly with the same hue, limited by an interrupted 
slender dark brown line near the band. 

Pennsylvania, Easton. 

In ornamentation the following species is very like the foregoing. It differs 
from it structurally in the following respects : Fore wings with the first sub- 
eosto-margiual and medio-posterior opposite at their origins ; the second mar- 
ginal arises at the angle of the disk ; the apical vein forked at about its middle, 
the lower branch entering the costa before the tip. In the hind wings the 
costal has a long fork ; the intercostal joins the subcostal at the point of 
departure of the discal and seems to be a continuation of it, and the subcostal 
is continued to the base of the wing. Head with ocelli. Tongue as long as 
the thorax beneath. The first joint of labial palpi thickened with scales. 

C. ? helopalis . — Fore wings white, dusted with pale fuscous toward the 
base, and on the fold behind ; with a narrow fuscous band crossing the base of 
the disk. Near the end of the disk is a yellowish brown line, crossing the 
wing, deeply and acutely angulated on the fold ; and near the tip are two nar- 
row oblique streaks of the same hue converging to the inner margin above the 
angle, the first of which is recurved toward the disk, encircling an obliquely 
placed oval spot of the general hue on the nervules behind the disk. Along 
the hinder margin, near the inner angle, are a few indistinct, iridescent spots ; 
the margin and cilia yellowish brown. Hind wings white, with a short nar- 
row fuscous band near the base, corresponding to that on the fore wings ; a 
median line of the same hue, not attaining the exterior margin and the apical 
portion of the wing exterior to it sprinkled thickly with fuscous. Hinder 
margin with a row of black spots, having violet-blue metallic pupils and tint- 
ed with pale orange between the spots. 

Lake Teedyuscong. 

SiROSIA. 

In the fore wings two distinct subcosto-marginal nervules leave the disk, 
the first and the medio-posterior opposite : the second marginal arising at a 
point nearly intermediate between the two hinder branches of the median : 
the apical vein is forked a little beyond its middle ; the post apical and disco- 
central arise near each other on the costal side of the wing. The median i? 
four-branched. In the hind wings the intercostal is short, remote from and 
exterior to the upper angle of the disk. There is nothing characteristic in the 
shape of the wings ; the posterior are broader than the anterior. 

Head with ocelli. Antennse pubescent beneath. Labial palpi, when un- 
denv.ded, moderately thick and squamose beneath, ascending to the middle of 
the front ; third joint short and rather smooth ; denuded., tapering to the tip 
from the base, slender and cylindrical ; the basal joint long, equal to the front : 
the second and third short and equal in length. Maxillary palpi two-jointed, 
with tips nearly equal to those of the labial, ascending and somewhat 
tufted at the end. Tongue scaled at base, exceeding the labial palpi 6^ out 
half its length. No abdominal apron peceptible ; the length of the posterior 
tarsus and the tibia equal to that of the body. 

S. maculalis. — Fore wings white, dusted with fuscous along the base 
of submedian nervure ; with a fuscous spot at the base of the fold and one of 
the same hue in the middle of submedian interspace, and a broad, irregular 
band adjoining the disk behind, extended from the costa to the inner angle, 
with the exterior half nearly square, and the interior somewhat paler, curved 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 219 

and tapering. The apex of the wing is touched with fuscous, and the ends of 
the nervules slightly dotted with the same hue. Hind wings concolorous, 
pure white. 

Lake Teedyuscong. July. 

Before concluding this paper, I desire to record my views respecting the 
unnecessary amount of labor, loss of time and uninviting study, which the 
details of M. Guenee's mode of systemization imposes on the American stu- 
dent. MM. Boisduval and Guenee, in the important and comprehensive works 
which engage their labors at the present time, are not writing treatises on 
local faunje, but on that of the entire world, in so far at least as lepidopterous 
insects are known ; and students everywhere have a right to expect that 
the difficulties of classification will be diminished, rather than complicated. 
by their treatment of the various groups which may be included in their 
works. The author who would be cosmopolitan in his representation of this 
subject, at the present day, cannot neglect, in justice to those who may fol- 
low his footsteps through nature, to endeavor to lighten their burden of study 
and to economize their time, by leading them with all the lights of his know- 
ledge, through the complicated mazes of doubt, engendered by the numerous 
and perplexing affinities existing in beings of the animated world. The chief 
object of classification is simply to communicate our own systematic concep- 
tions to others, and to mark the graduations in the arrangement in such a 
manner, as will enable them easily and quickly to recognize its groups. How 
has M. Guenee facilitated the recognition of genera, whilst he has greatly in- 
creased the number of them, or lightened in any respect the systematic labor 
of the foreign student ? Is it enough that he should content himself with 
carefully written diagnoses, and compel the student to examine critically 
and minutely every one in any of his family groups, before being able to 
decide whether the insect he may wish to classify belongs to any of them, or 
is not edited ? A system which both reason and convenience approves, is 
that which enables the student easily to find what he seeks, and not that 
which compels him to master the genera peculiar to every other portion oi 
the globe, in order to assure himself whether a group has been established 
into which his specimens can be admitted. 

The omission of synopses of genera, when the number of them in his family 
groups calls for such tables, as it does so frequently, is a most serious, not to 
say unpardonable, defect in the six volumes published by M. Guenee. There 
is no student of American lepidopterology, compelled to study his works, who 
will not regret that he has so extensively described our fauna ; and the fact 
that so much time and patience and labor are necessary to determine whether 
a generic description is given by the author, of one of our moths, of which 
everything is unknown, perhaps, except the division to which it belongs in his 
system, is an actual and real impediment to the development of the study in 
our country. In the examination and comparison of lepidopterous insects, 
M. Guenee recognizes beyond doubt, each genus under a family by some dis- 
tinctive structural trait, and why cannot all these be presented to the student 
in synopses, as well as they are apparent to his own perceptive faculties ? 
Without these conveniences of comparative study, the student is compelled 
to do the work of the author anew, and, at an immense disadvantage and loss 
of time, to search for what is distinctive, in by no means sharply, though dif- 
fusely characterized groups, which include very frequently ornamentation 
as one of their chief characteristics. In the cabinet of specimens, all this is 
almost apparent at a glance, and it is the result of this educated sense that 
seizes quickly what is distinctive in a variety of forms, that the student has a 
right to look for in synopses. 

M. Guenee expressly declares in one of his early works in the "Suites a 
BuflFon, ' ' that in giving the meagre synopses of tribes and families, contained in 
the series, he is merely following the custom of M. Boisduval, and that he 

I860.] 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

does not consider tliem of any value in a natural system. It seems strange 
that any one, especially M. Guence, could entertain such an opinion, when a 
slight amount of study is sufficient to convince any naturalist, that there is 
no severer test to be applied to a system than the construction of synopses 
containing exclusive categories founded on structure. Groups agreeing most 
closely are brought into direct contrast, and if the most trivial and unimpor- 
tant structural peculiarities, except in the case of genera, are called into 
requisition to distinguish them, whatever may be their comprehensiveness, is 
not the fact very strongly suggestive of want of naturalness, nay, of purely 
artificial, arbitrary distinctions, produced by the desire to create differences 
where there are none actually in nature ? But even admitting they are 
formed on a purely artificial basis, and that all synopses are essentially artifi- 
cial, need the fact in the character of a simple index to systematic concep- 
tions, in any manner affect the most natural arrangement of the group in the 
text ? And could there be any better system than that which unites the 
convenience of the one to the truthfulness of the other ? 

One of the chief objects in systematic and descriptive works certainly ought 
to be, a ready and certain recognition of groups and individuals ; and to facili- 
tate this, no care or labor bestowed on synopses intended to promote this 
object and prevent loss of time to the inquirer, can be regarded as superfluous 
or as a tax on authorship. The world is thi;s the gainer in economy of time, 
and science is more rapidly advanced. And surely, when one reflects how few 
there are who devote themselves to scientific study, the additional labor thus 
expended by the author carries into the future the most fruitful results. It 
is the neglect of the synoptical system that has converted, even at the present 
day, the great majority of entomologists everywhere into a class of mere col- 
lectors and picture-recognizers, and which calls for a profuseness of illustra- 
tion to be met with in no other department of J^atural History. And on the 
other hand, its tendency is to institute, if indeed it has not already done so, 
an Egyptian priesthood over nature, in that body of European " authorities" 
skilled in the interpretation of its hieroglyphics, and who furnish students 
with a complicated, skeleton method, all of whose details they must painfully 
acciuire, before they can in the humblest degree, aspire to question systematic 
nature for themselves. How laborious, time consuming and discouraging 
this is to the American student, who has "no authority" to consult, save the 
ambiguous phrases of diagnoses, no classified collections to study, and by 
the comparison of forms to educate his perceptive powers in generic and family 
differences, cannot be appreciated by those who have all these aids, and who 
are the heirs to almost hereditary entomological lore and collections, handed 
down from one generation to another. 

The times, however, demand of MM. Guence and Boisduval a system of con- 
venient study. The former, it is true, attempts to meet this demand by 
separating the portion of the order of which he treats, first, into divisions, and 
these into tribes, and these again into families ; but scattered as they are 
through the body of the work, or through several volumes, this complication 
of arrangement is far from fulfilling the needs of the student. It is not 
vatitral, and is therefore perplexing, and has caused the author to mistake 
well marked groups within families, for families themselves, or even higher 
divisions. When the individual structure of two beings placed in different, 
sometimes widely separated families, approach so intimately that they can be 
distinguished only by resort to trivial characters, what more conclusive proof 
of artificiality, and mere brain and paper-created distinctions, can the natu- 
ralist desire ? 

The elaborate description of groups is a highly commendable trait in a sys- 
tematic work. They should be, however, merely a confirmation of the results 
attainable by the study of synopses of characters, all the categories of which 
are rigidly exclusive and markedly characteristic of the groups they desig- 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 221 

nate. By this means, the question of groups having been reduced to a few 
whioh are most closely coincident, doubts which cannot be dispelled by the 
best synopses, are either confirmed or dissipated at once. This subject I 
think eminently worthy M. Guenee's consideration, and that of all systema- 
tists who may succeed him. I would beg him to think upon it in connection 
with his subsequent works, and at least tell students why he values less a 
solid and self-satisfying reputation, built on essential and successful impetus 
given to his favorite branch of study in all parts of tlie civilized world, than that 
ephemeral position of being the temporary authority for the little entomologi- 
cal world ; and if in addition to synopses of all his groups, under the next 
most general in value, he would add to his works delineations of the dis- 
tinctive parts of structure in everi/ geincs, instead of colored representations of 
a few moths, his works would possess an enduring and permanent value, so 
long as entomology as a study engages the attention of the student of nature. 



Hemiptera of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Com'rs Eodgers 

and Ringgold. 

BY P, R. UHLER. 

The Hemipterous insects, brought home by the Expedition, furnish several 
new and remarkable species, and much praise is due the indefatigable botanist 
of this Expedition, Mr. Charles Wright, for displaying such zeal in bringing 
together so many interesting objects. The insect fauna of many of the countries 
touched at, particularly that of Japan, being almost entirely unknown, renders 
every addition of species from those localities exceedingly desirable, and it 
would be matter of deep interest to have an opportunity of examining full 
series of them. 

Considering the importance of the species procured, it is much to be regretted 
that extensive facilities were not afforded for bringing together a general col- 
lection ; but, under the existence of contingent circumstances, this was not 
possible. 

The absence of any extensive collection of exotic Hemiptera in this country 
renders it impossible to decide with precision upon a few of the species here 
included; but should they hereafter be found to have been previously charac- 
terized, the proper acknowledgments will be made. As there seems to be no 
settled opinion in the minds of Entomologists respecting certain groups, par- 
ticularly with such families as Halydce, Pentatomidce, Rhaphig a strides, &c., and 
still further on, with Mictidce, Nematopidce, AcanthocoridcB, &c., and having met 
with a genus (Pacht/cephalus) which violates the characters of the families 
given, I thought it better to place the included species in two large groups 
{Pentatomoidea, Coreoidea) , corresponding with the genera Pe/Jte^oma and Coreiis, 
of Fabricius. 

SCUTELLERID^. 
Callidea, Burm. 
C. Stollii, Wolff, Icones Cimicum, 48, tab. 5, fig 45. Hong Kong. 

Eucorysses, Amyot et Serv. 
E. superbus 9- — Deep orange ; head bluish-black, lateral lobes and the 
middle one at tip sanguineous, transversely wrinkled, rostrum and antenno 
black, pubescent, eyes and ocelli brownish ; thorax deep orange, obsoletely 
punctured, a lunulate, black depression just behind the head densely, coarsely 
punctured, exterior and anterior edges black, spot upon the disk, one upon 
each humeru?, and a connecting band upon the basal margin also black ; be- 
hind each anterior angle is an oblong, rounded, shallow impression, blackish ; 
corium black, punctured; wings dark-fullginous ; scutellum finely punctured, 
with a band at base, an irregular one dilated and projecting medially forward, 

I860.] 



222 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

upoa the middle, one interrupted each side, with an anterior acute point be- 
hind the middle and a transverse, roundish spot before the apex black ; venter 
violaceous, the middle with a large sanguineous spot, common to the antepe- 
nultimate a-.d preceding segiients ; caudal segment, except the anus, red, seg- 
ments 1 to 4 with a transverse, lateral carmine spot, the two posterior of which 
are obsoletely connected with the discal spot, penultimate one at sides broadly 
carmine through their marginal length, with an impression each side against 
the stigmata; pectus punctured, violaceous and black, a rounded spot upon 
the sides of the anterior and posterior segments ; legs black, yellowish pubes- 
cent. 

Length 10 — 11 lines. Humeral breadth 5 — 5J. Simoda, Japan. 

One specimen differs in having the anterior band of the scutellum interrupted 
each side of the middle, so as to form three spots. 

Peltophora, Burm. 
P. p i c t a , Leach, Zool. Misc. Hong Kong. 

Gkaphosoma, Lap. 
G. r u b r 0-1 i n e a t u m , Hope, Cat. Hemipt , p. 12. Hakodadi and Taka- 
nosima, Japan. 

PENTATOMOIDEA. 
Brachypelta, Amyot et Serv. 

B. elevata . — Black, shining, broad, ovate ; head roughly punctured, finely 
emarginate, rounded, margins reflexed, lateral lobes meeting in front of the mid- 
dle one ; thorax short, transverse, finely but roughly punctured, sides stibparallel, 
margins trenchant, ciliate, anterior angles rather abruptly rounded, behind the 
head a deep lunulate depression, bounded posteriorly by a very much elevated 
prominence, which is rather smoother than the surrounding surface, posterior 
margin truncate ; scutellum finely, rather sparsely punctured, depressed behind 
the middle to the tip, against the basal corners more elevated and polished ; 
hemelytra finely, closely punctured, corium sinuated, ciliated at the basal mar- 
gins, membranes testaceo-hyaline ; abdomen slightly dilated, convex beneath, 
margins trenchant, projecting a little beyond the breadth of the corium poste- 
riorly : venter polished ; legs black, polished, femorae ciliate, each with a line 
of impressed punctures upon the anterior surface, tibias very spinous, exterior, 
spiniform teeth of the anterior ones, subequal. 

Length 10 — 12 millim. Abdominal breadth 5 — 7. Cape of Good Hope. 

This species is very closely related to and possesses many of the characters of 
B. t r i s t i s , Fab. ; it may be distinguished at a single glance, however, from that 
common species, by the proportionately shorter and less, laterally, oblique 
thorax, and by the abdomen being much broader than the thorax. , 

AcATALECTUS, Dallas. 

A. magnus O . — Black, shining, punctured ; head rounded, emarginate, with 
the anterior margin narrowly recurved, lateral lobes meeting by a point of their 
surface, in front of the middle one, coarsely and deeply rugose-punctate, eyes 
testaceous, ocelli reddish, antennae piceous pubescent, terminal joints paler, 
rostrum pitchy black, second joint thickened ; thorax subquadrate, anterior 
angles a little oblique and rounded, behind the head a slightly elevated, irregu- 
larly crescent-formed surface, smooth and impunctate, remaining surface very 
deeply, coarsely and confluently punctured, a series of very fine punctures 
against the lateral margins, basal margin subtruncate, smooth, with a very few 
coarse punctures ; scutellum polished, rugosely punctured, impunctured at the 
apex ; corium subopake, very finely and closely punctured, membrane fuligin- 
ous, subopake, freckled with spots of yellow, beneath scabrescently punctured, 
venter densely so, its disk polished, impunctured, margins trenchant; legs 
deep black, polished, anterior and middle femorae ciliated beneath with a row 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 223 

of long slender spines, those upon the posteriors verj short, tibios densely 
spinous. 

Length 9 lines. Abdominal breadth 5. Hong Kong. 

This species must be closely allied to A. rugosus, Dallas ; but in that spe- 
cies the middle lobe is represented to form the anterior margin of the head, and 
nothing is said of spots upon the membrane. 

Erthesina, Spin. 

E. fullo, Thunb. Nov. Ins. Sp. 42, tab. 2, fig. 57, (1783.) E. mucorem 
Fab. Ent Syst. iv. 117, 147, (1794.) 

Agonoscelis, Spin. 

A. nubilus, Fab. Ent. Sjst. iv. 112, 124. Loo-Choo Islands. 
PoECiLOMETis, Dallas. 

P. mistus 9- — Brownish-cinereous; head rounded in front, middle lobe 
slightly longer than the lateral ones, surface densely punctured wi.h black, anten- 
nae yellow, punctured with black, penultimate joint black in the middle, almost 
to each end, eyes brownish-glaucous, with a posterior, narrow yellow lobe, promi- 
nent, subtruncate posteriorly, rostrum reaching to the abdomen, a longitudinal 
line, tips of the articulations and apical segment black ; thorax densely punc- 
tured, a fewimpunctured yellow spots scattered over the surface, four of which 
are placed in a transverse row behind the head, anterior angles armed with a 
very minute denticle, lateral margins smooth, slightly sinuated, humeral angles 
prominent, triangularly rounded; scutellum confluently punctured, an im- 
punctured yellow spot against each basal corner; sinuated before the tip, tip 
rounded; hemelytra flecked with brown, densely punctured, slightly tinged 
with reddish upon the apex of the corium, membrane yellowish-hyaline, the 
nervures having interrupted brown lines npon them ; beneath less closely punc. 
tured, upon the pectus several spots of dense green punctures, under surface^ 
of the head also punctured in green spots; disk of the venter, with a broad, 
smooth, impunctured line, surface tinged with reddish, stigmata, and obsolete 
spots upon the incisural middles of the segments black ; legs reddish-yellow, 
sparsely pubescent, punctured with black, unguiculi with black tips. 

Length to tip of wings 1h lines. Simoda, Japan, and Hong Kong, China. 

Pentatoma, Lat. 

1. P. fimb riata, H. Schf. Wanz. Ins. v. 63, tab. 164, fig. 505. Loo- 
Choo Islands. 

2. P. cru c lata, Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 119, 153. Hong Kong, China. 

3. P. d i s s i m i 1 i 3 , Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 109, 112. Hong Kong, China. 

4. P. humeri gera. — Olivaceous-brown, shining, tinged with aeneous; 
head emarginate, with the central lobe slightly projecting from the emargi- 
nation, surface closely punctured, eyes prominent, scarcely as wide as the 
anterior breadth of the thorax, and closely applied against it, ocelli bronzed, 
antennae fulvous, second and third joints equal, rostrum reaching the posterior 
coxae, testaceous, having a black line above ; thorax brassy punctured, humeral 
projections blackish, salient, subconic, slightly flattened, curved; anterior mar- 
gin deeply rounded out, behind the head a shallow, transverse, interrupted im- 
pression, lateral margins deeply arcuated, with an elongated-oval, impunctured, 
yellow mark, beginning at the anterior subacute angle ; scutellum closely punc- 
tured with black, slightly sinuated before the tip, which is bluntly rounded ; 
hemelytra closely punctured, nervures well defined, membrane brownish-ful- 
vous ; wings testaceous; tergum black, impunctate, with the lateral margins 
olivaceous, punctured ; beneath polished, olivaceo-testaceous, finely punctured, 
more deeply and closely so upon the pectus and beneath the humeral projec- 
tions, a common black spot upon the fourth and fifth segments, and a minute 
black point against the lateral margin upon the incisures of the segments, stig- 
mata black; legs yellowish-testaceous, pointed with black. 

I860.] 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Length 3j lines. Humeral breadth 3. Takanosima, Japan. 
This species bears some resemblance in form to P. scabricorae,H. Schf. ; 
but differs in the form of the humeral angles. 

Strachia, Hahn. 

S. ornata, Linn. Fauna Suecica, 251, 937. Loo-Choo Islands. 

A remarkably small variety of this species was obtained at Petropaulovsk, 
Karatschatka ; it differs from the type in marking, chiefly, in wanting the me- 
dial lateral black spot ; the specimens are males, being six millims. in length. 

Eysarcoris, Spin. 

E. perlatus, Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 125, 177. Simoda and Loo-Choo. 
One specimen has the spots of the base of the scutellum very minute, and in 
another they are entirely wanting. 

Nezara, Amyot et Serv., 
N. torquata. Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 108, 107. Loo-Choo. 

Rhaphigaster, Lap. 
R. disjectu s. — Grayish-aeneous, shining ; head bluntly rounded, middle 
lobe about as long as the lateral ones ; surface confluently punctured, tinged 
with purplish green anteriorly, eyes brownish, ocelli reddish, antennae piceous 
pubescent, base of the apical joint yellow, rostrum yellowish, a line above and 
tip piceous ; thorax brassy-greenish, tinged with purplish, confluently punc- 
tured, lateral margins regularly oblique, smooth, yellow, humeral angles 
slightly rounded, a little prominent, margin against the head yellowish ; scu- 
tellum same color as the thorax, confluently punctured, a little sinuated before 
the tip, tip and a geminate spot each side at base yellow ; corium grayish-yel- 
low, punctured with black, punctures very dense upon the clavus and lateral 
margins; membrane and wings yellowish-testaceous ; tergum black with a vio- 
let reflection, segments each with a yellow spot upon the lateral margin ; be- 
neath grayish-yellow, coarsely pointed with black, points absent from the disk, 
which is smooth, yellow, points becoming confluent in spots posteriorly and 
upon the external edges of the segmental incisures ; sternum black, finely cari- 
nate in the middle ; ventral spine reaching to the raedio-cosae, yellow ; legs 
yellowish, pointed with black, a blaclc band upon the knees, and another at the 
tips of the tibife, tarsi blackish, middle joint paler. 

Length 5 lines. Humeral breadth 2_ lines. Hong-Kong. 

Acanthosoma, Curtis. 
A. haeraatogaster, Burm. Handb. ii. 360, 4. Hong-Kong. 

Tesseratoma, Lep. et Serv. 

T. chinensis, Thunb. Nov. Ins. Spec. 45, tab. 2, f. 59. Hong-Kong. 
DrcHELOPS, H. Schf. 

D. a fii n i s . — Elongated-oval, testaceous-yellow, punctured with black, 
head elongated-triangular, deeply cleft in the middle, points applied, hardly 
divaricating at the tip, middle lobe about half the length of the external ones, 
punctured, antennse reddish, incisures and apical half of the tip joint black, 
rostrum yellowish, with the extreme tip black ; thorax transverse, gradually 
elevated to the middle, upon which a slightly elevated, arcuated transverse 
carina, continued to the subacute humeral angles, exists, surface finely wrinkled 
and punctured, lateral margins lightl}* arcuated, minutely denticulated ; scutel- 
lum transversely wrinkled, punctured, and having five longitudinal rows of 
obsolete granulations; before the tip sinuated, much narrowed ; hemelytra very 
finely punctured witli black, membrane testaceous ; wings milk-white ; venter 
finely punctured with black, extreme lateral margin a line just outside of the 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 225 

Stigmata each side, one eacli side between the stigmata and the disk, and one 
upon the disk, almost impunctured ; legs yellow, finely pubescent, and pointed 
with black. 
Length 7 lines. Humeral breadth 3^ lines. Simoda, Japan. 

COREOIDEA. 
DiscoQASTEK, Amyot et Serv. 
D. fuliginosns. — Dark brown, without lustre; head square, rugous, 
pubescent; antenniferous tubercles robust, blunt; rostrum thick, reaching be- 
tween the anterior coxa;, tapering towards the extremity ; antennae densely 
pubescent, basal joint thickest, constricted at its origin, slightly curved, second 
a little longer than the third, fourth almost equal to the first, all the joints 
cylindrical, with the tip of the apical one acute; eyes globular, salient, stem- 
mata about as far from each other as from the eyes ; thorax subcrescentiform, 
triangular in front to the base of the head, humeral angles produced into flat, 
plate-like appendages, angular at the tips, posterior margin obtusely rounded, 
surface densely covered with short pubescence, coarsely transversely wrinkled, 
before the posterior margin a transverse, slightly elevated line, which does not 
reach either margin, edges of the crescent irregularly serrate, antero-lateral 
margins deaticulate ; scutellum smooth at base, coarsely wrinkled behind the 
base to the tip ; hemelytra a little paler than the other surface, finely clothed 
with yellowish pubescence, nervures well defined, membrane subopake ; tergum 
smooth iu the middle, pubescent at the sides ; beneath sparsely clothed with 
golden pubescence, stigmata of the postpectus, bright yellow ; legs covered 
with yellowish pubescence, tip of each femur beneath armed with a stout 
tooth, between which and the tip are a few smaller ones, posterior femora 
thickest, slightly curved, all the femoras subcylindrical. 

Length 23 millim. Humeral breadth 9 millim. 9 

This insect, owing to the length of the last joint of the antennas and the 
absence of the sternal groove, does not completely agree with the genus as 
characterized by Arayot; but its general affinities seem to cause it to recur to 
this genus, where we have accordingly placed it. 

Camptop0S, Amyot et Serv. 

C. annulatus. — Fuscous, minutely pubescent; head finely shagrined, 
blackish against the eyes and behind the stemraata, stemmata and eyes red- 
dish-brown, antennae yellowish, apical two-thirds of the last joint and tips of 
the others blackish ; rostrum with the sides beyond the middle to the tip ful- 
vous; thorax subcampanuliform, posterior angles armed with an acute spine, a 
minute denticle behind the spine, posterior margin irregularly crenated ; sur- 
face pubescent, sprinkled with small, black, elevated points ; tip of the scutel- 
lum yellowish ; hemelytra pubescent, nervures very distinct, surface punctured, 
membrane immaculate, shining; tergum blackish, with a large, rounded, white 
spot behind the middle, against each incisure a white spot, exteriorly; venter 
yellowish, sprinkled with irregular dusky marks, a large black discal spot and 
an interrupted black line upon the middle of the three posterior segments ; 
legs pubescent, spotted and marbled with fuscous and yellow, posterior femorae 
particularly dark, armed with five teeth, between the two posterior teeth a few 
smaller ones, posterior tibias slender, curved, yellowish upon the middle, 
slender, acute spine at tip. 

Length 1 lines. 9 • Simoda, Japan. 

Pachtcepualus, Uhler. 

Body robust, elongate-oval ; head filled up between the antenniferous tuber- 
cles, base of rostrum projecting bluntly; antennae cylindrical, basal joint thick- 
ened, slightly curved, about equal in length to the third, second longest,, 
apical one shortest, fusiform; eyes globular, situated upon a robust promi- 

1860.] 



226 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

nence; stemmata placed on the line of the eyes, a little nearer them than each 
other ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae, first joint thickest, about equal in 
length to the second, third and fourth subequal, slender; thorax trapezoid; 
hemelytra about one-third shorter than the abdomen, a little shorter in the 
female, membrane with the nervures very irregularly ramose; abdomen thick, 
margins not recurved, superior caudal segment longest in the male ; legs un- 
armed ; posterior thighs not thickened, slightly curved. 

P. opacus. — Dark brown, without lustre, punctured, pubescent; head 
with the space between the antenniferous tubercle filled up, antennse pubes- 
cent, brown, with the apical two-thirds of the tip joint yellow, upper surface 
of the head covered with yellowish pubescence ; thorax roughly punctured, a 
tranverse, slightly elevated lobe near each anterior angle, posterior margin 
with a fine, transverse, impressed line, anterior angles acute, posterior ones 
rounded, lateral margins sinuated, edge slightly recurved, posterior margin 
truncate; scutellum and corium of the hemelytra punctured and uniform with 
the thorax ; membrane pale brown, nervules very irregular, tip reaching the 
end of the fifth segment; tergum and beneath uniformly roughly punctured, 
pubescent, incisures of the tergum yellowish at the lateral margins ; legs dark 
brown, pubescent, tarsi honey-yellow. 

Length 10 millim. Humeral breadth 2^- millim. (^ $. Takanosima, 
Japan. 

This genus presents an entire anomaly amongst the Coreoid Hemiptera with 
simple legs ; it seems to have most affinity with the Gonoceridae, but it differs 
from them in the length of the hemelytra and the irregularity of its nervules ; 
its position in the series, as the system now stands, is very difficult lo define. 

GoNOCERUs, H. Schf. 

1. G. bipunctatus, H. Schf. Wanz. Ins., vi., 9, tab. 183, fig. 566. 
Takanosima and Loo-Choo. 

2. G. p un c t i p en n is . — Body ovate, tawny-yellow; head punctured 
with black, space almost filled up between the antenniferous tubercles ; tuber- 
cles but slightly prominent, middle" of the head sulcate ; antennae reddish, 
pubescent, tips of the first three joints blackish, middle of the apical joint 
dusky, second joint longest, third a little shorter than the basal one, apical 
joint about half the length of the second, subfusiform, thickest; two basal 
joints of the rostrum about equal, apical ones subequal, apex minutely black ; 
a slender black line behind the eyes to the base of the head, eyes brownish, 
globular, stemmata reddish ; thorax trapezoid, gradually narrowed anteriorly 
to the breadth of the head, sides a little arcuated, margins recurved, paler 
than the surface, humeral angles bluntly triaagular, hardly acute ; surface 
closely punctured with black, behind the head slightly depressed, before the 
posterior margin a fine, transverse, elevated line interrupted at each end ; scu- 
tellum and hemelytra minutely and densely punctured, the latter with pale, 
smooth, elevated costal margins, and upon the disk a small round black dot, 
membrane pale, semitransparent, nervures longitudinal, numerous, wings 
same color as membrane, nervures black; abdominal margins lightly re- 
curved, tergum with two small black spots before the tip. and a number of 
irregular blackish marks near the sides ; venter and beneath pale-yellowish, 
covered with minute, scattered punctures, a double irregular row of black 
points each side of the venter, within the stigmatal orifices, a few others against 
the sutures of the discoidal segments, and a single one upon the side of the 
medio and postpectus ; legs minutely pointed with black, finely pubescent. 

Length 14 millim. Abdominal breadth $ 7 millim. Simoda, Japan. 

The female has the antepenultimate segment posteriorly deeply emarginate ; 
at the base of this segment is also an elevated biemarginate process, at which 
the vulvar opening commences. 

fJune 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 227 

HOMCEOOERIDiE. 

Anacanthus, Uhler. 
Body elongated, sides parallel ; head square, lightly emarginated between 
the antennae, and furnished with a feeble carina ; behind the emargination, 
longitudinally impressed ; eyes globular; stemmata situated on the posterior 
line of the eyes, a little nearer them than each, other, a slight transverse im- 
pression before each ; rostrum reaching half way between the anterior pairs of 
legs, first and second joints nearly equal in length, second thickened, next and 
the apical one cylindrical, subequal; antennse cylindrical, slender, as long as 
the body, basal joint a little more robust than the others, slightly arcuated, 
second longest, third and apical ones subequal, the latter cylindrical, acute ; 
thorax trapezoid, humeral angles not armed ; membrane with the nervures 
numerous, chiefly longitudinal, tip not extending beyond the abdomen ; legs 
simple, posterior femorae not thickened, two pairs of hind-femorse arcuated ; 
abdomen not dilated, sides parallel." 

A. concoloratus . — Cinnamon-yellow, legs and antennae deeper, beneath 
paler, above uniformly, finely punctured, last joint of the antennae dusky, with 
a minute black tip ; eyes brownish ; stemmata reddish ; humeral angles simply 
angulated, an irregular, transverse elevated line before the hind-margin ; mem- 
brane pale-yellowish, with a brassy tint, a thick nervule running nearly half the 
length of its posterior margin black ; wings whitish, slightly tinged with 
brassy lustre ; origin and basal half of the costal nervure red, remaining part 
yellow, some of the discal nervures margined with red, the rest brownish or 
yellow; beneath pale, polished, pectus finely punctured, unguiculi blackish. 

Length 16 millim. Humeral breadth 4J millim. (J*. Hong-Kong, China. 

LYG^ID^. 
Lyg^ds, Fab. 

1. L. equestris, Linn. Fauna Suecica, 946. Hakodadi, Japan. 

2. L. m u n d u s , Dallas, Brit. Mus. Cat. Hemip. 542, 32. Cape Good Hope. 

3. L. o mat us. — Head sanguineous-red, base, under side and slender 
longitudinal line black, rostrum also black, in the midst of the basal black 
spot is a minute whitish dot; eyes brownish, stemmata yellowish; antennae 

; thorax red, margins not elevated, a black, each side interrupted, line 

behind the head, two triangular spots behind near the posterior angles, and 
two round dots of a deeper black, almost connecting the anterior band with 
the posterior spots ; scutellum black, with a red tip and posterior margin ; 
corium red, whitish against the membrane, a black oval spot running from 
near the internal angle to the humeral one, where it is reduced almost to 
a point, another subtriangular one behind the former against the external 
margin ; membrane black, exterior margin and point at the basal angle white ; 
disk of the venter blackish, margins red, stigmata black ; each pectoral seg- 
ment with a large black spot, pulverulent with whitish ; a series of four round 
blacker points each side of the pectus ; legs piceous, powdered with whitish. 

Length 9;^ millim. $ . Hong-Kong, China. 

PACHYMERID^. ' 
Pachymerus, H. Schf. 
P. alb -m a rginatus . — Elongated, black; head black, pubescent, im- 
punctured ; rostrum piceous, paler in the middle ; thorax trapezoidal, lateral 
margins broadly elevated, pale testaceous ; basal breadth less than the length, 
surface densely punctured upon the basal half, behind the head and against 
the lateral margins, middle transverse, impressed line distinct, a slightly ele- 
vated, longitudinal line reaching from it to the base, humeral angles obtusely 
rounded; scutellum black, sparsely punctured, tip and a slightly elevated line 
_ against it testaceous ; hemelytra coarsely punctured, testaceous, a large black 
1860.] 



228 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

spot, covering the clavus, reaching to the subcostal nervure and extending two- 
thirds of its length, when it becomes blacker, and ramifies broadly against the 
lateral margin, a much narrower branch also continues against the posterior mar- 
gin; membrane fuliginous, some of the nervures tinged with testaceous, towards 
the base; wings pale fuliginous, nervures darker ; tergura with two pale spots 
upon the lateral margin ; femorae black, their basal third and trochanters tes- 
taceous, tibiae light-piceous, black at tip, tarsi dusky at tip. 

Length 11 millim. 9- Takanosima, Japan. 

Nothing is said of the antenns, as they are unfortunately broken off from 
the only specimen obtained. 

A specimen, which I take to be a variety of this species, was captured at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

It differs from the type in having the posterior thoracic lobe marmorated 
with testaceous, the hemelytral spot is not so black, spreading more irregularly 
over the surface, the testaceous color is faintly spread over the margins of the 
tergum, the femorae are testaceous for two-thirds of their basal length, the 
tibia and tarsi are almost entirely testaceous, and the rostrum is tinged with 
piceous, more or less deep, throughout its entire length. Its length is lOJ mil- 
lim. Q. ' 

It corresponds with what is considered as a not full colored state of many 
insects of this and other families of Hemiptera, wherein the insect has not 
lived long enough to attain its complete depth of coloring, or where certain 
physical contingencies have retarded its attainment to full perfection of color. 

Aphanus, Dallas. 

A. boniniensis . — Pitchy-black, finely pubescent ; head black, antennae 
testaceous, tips of joints black, rostrum testaceous, piceous in front and at the 
tip, eyes dark brown, stemmata yellowish ; thorax subcampanuliform, pubes- 
cent, anterior lobe rounded at sides, dark brownish, posterior lobe reddish, 
with a testaceous line upon the humerus bounded by a black line ; corium 
yellowish-testaceous, margins paler, a spot at the apex, another a little in ad- 
vance of it, punctulation and a few minute spots black; membrane fuliginous, 
nervules white ; wings white ; beneath black, margins of the abdomen and 
antepectus pale piceous ; legs testaceous, a band upon the anterior femora, 
one upon the middle and posterior femora, and tips of tibis blackish. 

Length 5 millim. $ . Bonin Islands. 

Orthoea, Dallas. 

Elongated, black, opake ; head clothed with long hairs, first joint of the 

antennae with a pale base, remaining joints ; rostrum reaching to the 

posterior coxec, slender, curved, its color piceous, paler towards the lip, with a 
black longitudinal line ; eyes brownish, darker upon the middle, stemmata 
amber-yellow; thorax clothed with long hairs, deep black, opaque, posterior 
lobe strongly punctured, a pale piceous spot upon the broad, transverse im- 
pression, including a slightly elevated, short, longitudinal line ; anterior lobe 
strongly convex ; scutellum black, coarsely but sparsely punctured ; hemelytra 
testaceous, clavus, excepting the exterior nervure, vestiges upon the corium, 
large transverse spot, extending from the apex of the scutellum to the lateral 
margin and posterior margin, gradually dilating to the tip, black ; membrane 
fuliginous, a number of small spots near the tip, nervules measurably, and 
small round spot near the apex of the corium, testaceous ; disk of the tergum 
rufescent, lateral margin and two posterior segments blackish, fourth segment 
with a large, marginal, yellow spot each side ; beneath dull black, antepectus 
punctured, postpectus yellow at its superior angles, minutely corrugated, 
mediopectus punctured and wrinkled ; venter without lustre, a large yellowish 
spot upon the margin of the fourth segment, and a smaller one upon the fifth ; 
trochanters and coxje testaceous, anterior femora black, testaceous at base, 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 229 

armed with a number of minute teeth, tibiae all pale piceous, middle femora 
piceous, paler toward the base. 
Length 12 millim. $ . Hong-Kong, China. 

Peliosoma, Uhler. 

Body elongated ; head long, triangular, each side, between the antenna, with 
a small, curved lamellae, concave on the exterior side, interrupted at the origin 
of the rostrum, and not extending back much bejond the antennae ; rostrum 
reaching but little behind the anterior coxae, basal and second joints subequal 
in length, third and fourth also subequal ; antennas (J' as long as the body, ^ 
not quite two-thirds of that length, basal joint longest, clavate at tip, second 
somewhat longer than the third, fourth shortest, subfusiform ; thorax elongated 
subtrapezoidal, base elevated, lateral margins obtusely and feebly carinated ; 
hemelytra as long as the abdomen, membrane with five longitudinal nervules; 
legs normal, anterior tibiae curved. 

P. antennata . — Tawney, lustrous, punctured with black ; head and thorax 
densely punctured, the latter with a longitudinal, raised, polished, yellow line, 
but little punctured, lateral obsolete, carina yellow, posterior angles tubercu- 
lar; anterior lobe convex, a broad transverse depression behind it; antennfe 
honey-yellow, paler upon the third joint, apices of the first and second joints 
dusky, last joint entirely so ; eyes and ocelli brown ; rostrum fulvous, dusky 
behind the middle to the tip ; scutellum with a yellow line at tip and a yellow, 
short, tubercle-like line each side of base ; corium dusky near the internal 
angle, apex with a small blackish dot, membrane honey-yellow, with white 
nervules ; field of the tergum black, sides yellow, with black dots at the incisu- 
ral margins; beneath varied with piceous and testaceous, pectus more uniformly 
pitchy, densely punctured, margins of the venter taAvney yellow ; legs honey- 
yellow, pointed with black ; tips of tibiae and tarsal joints blackish. 

Length 8 millim. Simoda, Japan. 

Opthalmiccs, Schill. 

0. V a r i u s . — Black ; head and legs orange-yellow ; antenna piceous, basa^ 
joint and apex of the third, yellowish ; eyes light-brown, rostrum honey-yellowJ 
thorax square, broader than long, surface polished, black, coarsely punctured; 
posterior angles with a subquadrate, small, yellow spot ; scutellum black 
punctured ; corium and membrane honey-yellow, the former punctured with 
black, most thickly so upon the exterior and interior margins ; tergum and 
beneath polished black ; pectus punctured. 

Length 5 millim (^. Simoda, Japan. 

It belongs to Fieber's second subdivision (a**) and seems to approach 
his 0. s i c u 1 u s , more nearly than any other species. 

PYRRHOCORID^. 

PyrrhocoriS; Fallen. 

P. Forsteri, Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 164. H. Schf. W. L viii. tab. 283, f, 
3T2. Cape Good Hope. 

Dysdercus, Serv. 

D. carnifex. Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 160. H. Schf. W. L ii. tab. 66, f. 199. 
(Jape Good Hope. 

D. Schlanbuschii, Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 155. Donovan, Ins. China, 
tab. 20, f. 2. Hong Kong. 

LeptocobiS; Hahn. 

L. haemfttideus, Hahn., "W. I. tab. i, fig. 3, vol. i. Hong Kong, China, 

I860.] 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

LARGID^. 
Largds, Hahn. 
L. c i n c t u s , H. Schf. W. I. vii. tab. 218, f. 683. California. 

ECTRYCHODIDiE. 

Physorhynchus, Serv. 
P. crux, Thunb. Dissert. Acad. 156. Hahn. W.I. i. tab.5, f. 20. Cape 
Good Hope. 

HARPACTORID^. 
Arilus, Burm. 
A. bifidus, Fab. Ent. Syst. 4, 204. Donovan, Ins. China, pi. 21, f. 5. 
Hong Kong. 

Harfactob, Lap. 

H. nodipes. — Black, polished ; head black, pubescent, bilobed, grooved 
between the ocelli ; ocelli whitish ; eyes large, black ; antennaj black, apical 
joints piceous, pubescent, basal joint with two whitish rings upon the middle ; 
rostrum robust, black ; thorax pubescent, longitudinal impressed line, inter- 
rupted upon the middle of the posterior lobe, prothorax each side of the head 
produced into a subacute tubercle ; scutellum without spinous processes ; 
corium pitchy-black, membrane fuliginous, nervures darker ; tergum blackish, 
lateral margins much dilated, crenulated, the incisures and a large postero- 
lateral spot upon the two last segments, whitish ; beneath, black polished, 
venter sprinkled with numerous round, yellow points, the two posterior seg- 
ments tinged with pale piceous ; the spots of the upper marginal surface obvious 
beneath; legs black, three knot-like pilose prominences upon, and near the 
tips of the femora, two yellow bands upon the femora, and one upon the 
tibiae : nodulse much less obvious in the (^ than in the 9 i yellow femoral 
bands, also more numerous in the male. 

Length 12 millim. Simoda, Japan. 

STExXOPODIDtE. 

Canthesancus. 
C. trimaculatus, Amyot et Serv. Hemipt. 389, pi. 7, fig. 20. Hong 
Kong. 

GERRID^. 
Halobates, Esch. 
H. sericeus, Esch. Entomograp., 164, 79, tab. 2, f. 4. Atlantic Ocean 
near the Equator. 

Ptilomera, Amyot et Serv. 

P. tigrina. — (^ Fulvous, polished, beneath silvery sericeous; rostrum 
with the apical joint and tip of the preceding one black, nasus and spot at 
the origin of the antenna black, head impressed at the origin of the rostrum, 
eyes brownish-black ; prothorax subquadrate, largely impressed posteriorly, 
sides of the thorax with a silvery undulating line bounded each side by a 
black line, and extending from the base of the prothorax to the origin of the 
posterior legs, sutures black, behind the head three minute spots, behind the 
prothorax, included in a rounded impression, two larger ones and upon the 
posterior transverse suture, silvery sericeous ; metathorax impressed each side 
against the anterior transverse suture, and having a slender impressed middle 
line ; abdomen much narrower than the thorax, about equal to it in length, 
sutures black, particularly at the sides of the segments, sides of the segment.^ 
slightly sericeous, anal and caudal appendages filiform, acute ; two lamellar 

fJune, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 231 

anal processes, emarginate above, each projecting into a subtruncate point 
inferiorly ; legs long, slender, fulvous, posterior pair longest, anterior pair 
with two slender black lines superiorly; a black spot each side upon the 
pectus, before the anterior and middle legs ; anterior tibia and tarsi pubescent, 

middle tibia armed with long cilia, posterior tibia . 

Length to tip of abdomen 15 millim., prothorax 2, mesothorax 4 millim. 
Hong Kong, China. 

Gerris, Fab. 

G. rufo-scutellatus, Latr. H. Schf. W. I. ix. 69. tab. ccc. fig. 924. 
Simoda. 

PEDIRAPTI. 

DiPLONYCHUS, Lap. 
D. rusticuSj Fab. ; Donovan, Ins. China, p. 46, pi. 19, fig. 1. Loo Choo. 

Nepa, Fab. 
N. rubra, Linn. ; Donovan, Ins. China, p. 47, pi. 19, fig. 2. Hong Kong. 

NOTOxVECTID.E. 
BoTHRONOTUs, Ficb. 

B. biimpressus. — Robust, shining, dusky-yellowish testaceous; head 
narrower than the thorax, with a punctured impression each side upon the 
front, from both of which a punctured, impressed line extends to a shallower 
impression, each side, near the base, apical joint of the rostrum piceous : 
thorax transversely wrinkled, transparent, a transverse brownish band upon 
the anterior submargin ; each side, behind the fossa, depressed ; scutellnm 
black ; corium with a pitchy stripe upon the interior suture, a spot at base and 
against the apex, exterior submargin and membrane dusky; basal areole and 
veins of the latter piceous; embolium and connected edge yellow; wings fuli- 
ginous, veins darker; tergum piceous, posterior margins of the segment? 
paler, lateral margins and caudal extremity yellowish, the last clothed with 
long golden hairs ; venter pale piceous, middle carina and margins yellowish ; 
legs testaceous, clothed with golden hairs. 

Length 11 millim, breadth of thorax 5 millim. Hong Kong. 

Var. a. Pale, luleo testaceous, ventral disk and basal areole of the mem- 
brane dusky. 



Notes on Shells. 
BY T. A. CONRAD. 

In "Tertiary Fossil Shells of the United States," I characterized a genus of 
Carditidce, published in 1838, under the name of Carditamera, which ha.« 
generally been referred to the genus Mytilicardia of Blainville. The two 
genera differ so much in external form, that they can easily be recognized 
without reference to the hinge. The former has the general form of an elonga- 
ted Arca, Lam., whilst the latter has an outline somewhat like that of Modiola. 
The genus Caeditamera, Dr. Gray has since named Lazaria, the reason for the 
change of name being unknown to me. 

In this country the genus Carditamera, originated in the Miocene period, 
which contains three known species, and there is one living, which inhabits the 
coast of Florida. One is said to inhabit Madagascar, and all the others are 
American. It does not appear that any species of Mytilicardia, is American, 
either recent or fossil. The type of Carditamera is Cardita pectunculus, Brng. 

I860.] 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Synopsis of the Genus Rangia. 

RANGIA, Desmoulins, (1832, Hermannsen). 

Clathrodon, Gray, MSS. Conrad, 1831. 

Gnathodon, Gray, 1837. 

1. Rangia cyrenoides, Desmoulins. (1831, ^rona.) 

G. cuneatus, Gray. 

2. R. flexuosa, Conrad, (Gnathodon,) 1840. 

G. rostratu?n, Petit de la Saussaye, 1853. 

3. R. parvum, ib. (Gnathodon.) 

4. R. men die a, Gould, (Gnathodon,) 1851. 

G. trigonum, Petit de la Sauss., 1853. 
Fossil Species. 

1. Rangia clathro donta, Conrad, (Mactra.) 

Gnathodon, Grayi, ib. 

2. R. Lecontei, Conrad, (Gnathodon.) 

3. R. m i n r , Conrad, (ib.) 

PLEIODON, Conrad. 

The discovery of a new species of this African genus in Lake Tanganyika 
suwcrests the probability that Pleiodon will prove the predominant form of 
Unlonidee in tropical Africa, and we may anticipate the discovery of many 
species by future explorers. It occupies in geographical distribution as impor- 
tant a position as (Jastalia and Triquetra do in tropical South America. I 
presume from the peculiar and distinct character of the hinge of Pleiodon, 
that the animal will be found somewhat different in organization from those of 
other genera of Unionida;. It will be interesting to learn whether this form is 
accompanied or not by species of the nearest allied genus Mctela, at present 
known only to exist in the Nile. 

PARAMYA, Conrad. 

I propose the above name as a substitute for Mtalina, Conrad, figured and 
described in " Foss. of Medial Tert. of the U. S." p. 65, pi. 36, fig. 4. A very 
different genus was designated Myalina, by De Koninck, and has priority. 
Geographical distribution of the Genus Lemopsis Sassi. 

Recent species. Red Sea, 1. Capeof Good Hope. 1, 120 fathoms. Singapore, 

1. Norway, 1. 

Fossil species. Eocene of Claiborne, Alab. 7. Texas, 1. English crag. 2. 

D'Orbiguy in his Prodromus, names 7 Jurassic species, 3 Cretaceous sp., 17 
Miocene and 1 Subappenine sp. of European formations. In North America I 
believe no species has been found older than those of the Eocene, and no 
recent one. 

ADEORBIS, Wood. 

This genus occurring recent in England, California and the West Indies, and 
fossil in the English Miocene, is represented in the Miocene of the United 
States by 1 species. 

A. 1 y r a , {Delphinula lyra, Con.,) see Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. vol. 3, 
p. 20. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 233 



Descriptions of three new species of Gorgonidae, in the collection of the 

Academy. 

BY GEO. H. HORN. 

LOPHOGORGIA. 

L. cl av a t a. — Polypary bipinnate. Trunk and branches very much flat- 
tened. Branchlets thick, and but slightly compressed, clavate at their ex- 
tremities. Calices numerous and projecting. Coenenchyme thick. Color 
reddish-pink. 

This species differs from the L. fl a m m e a , in its more numerous and pro- 
jecting calices. The bi-anchlets of the latter are much flattened and acumi- 
nate, and have an intense red color. 

Locality unknown. 

L. aurantiaca . — Polypary very much subdivided. Trunk but slightly 
flattened. Branchlets numerous and rounded, arising in pairs from opposite 
sides of the branches. Calices numerous and slightly elevated. Coenenchyme 
thin. Color orange, striped with red. 

This species is much more subdivided than either of the others, and has its 
trunk and branches much less flattened. The color of the trunk, deprived of 
the cortex, is red. 

Locality unknown. 

Rhipidigorgia. 

R. Engelmanni. — Flabellate, coarsely reticulate. Branches much flat- 
tened, from one to two and a half lines wide. Interspaces rounded, occasion- 
ally elongated to the extent of one inch. Color ochreous externally, purple 
or reddish within. 

The fronds of this species are higher than wide, (height 9 inches, width 6 
inches,) bearing no free branchlets. Calices large and crowded, quadrangular 
in outline, with no elevation of their edges. Coenenchyme thick, easily 
crushed. 

Locality. Mazatlan. Dr. Engelmann. 



The Catting Ant of Texas. 
BYS. B. BUCKLEY. 

Myrmica (Atta) Texana — " Cutting Ant." 
Description. 

Neuter. Color reddish-brown; head disproportionately large, mandibles large, 
triangular falcate, serrate, bent downwards in adult, two small, short spines at 
the back of each lobe of the head ; sinus between lobes large ; antennas two 
two-jointed, last joint clavate; thorax small, compressed, upper surface armed 
with six spines, front pair inclining forwards, middle pair erect, Smallest, and 
near front pair, back pair inclining backwards ; connecticum nodose, two- 
jointed ; abdomen about half as large as head, oblong, ovate, obtuse; legs two- 
clawed, a claw or spine near the base of the tibia of the two front legs. Adult 
4^ lines long. 

Female. Color reddish-brown ; head disproportionately small ; sinus small be- 
tween its lobes, rudiments of spines at back of each lobe ; antennae and mandibles 
as in neuter; thorax large, upper front protruding over tbe head, compressed, 
upper surface covered with thick downy hairs ; abdomen larger than thorax, 

I860.] 15 



234 TROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

ovate, obtuse. Length without wings, 8^ lines. Largest wings 1 inch 1 line 
in length. Entire length, 1 inch 4 lines. 

Male. Resembles female, but is a little smaller, with its head and abdomen 
more acute. 

These auts have homes in the ground. A few of their underground dwellings 
have lately been brought to view, by digging, in order to kill the ants, because 
they destroy what belongs to the farmer and horticulturist. The extent of 
these ant galleries and cells, is so great as almost to exceed belief; but several 
of the excavations made to slay ants are within the incorporated limits of the 
city of Austin, and have been seen by hundreds of its citizens. The under- 
ground rooms of these cutting ants are rounded or oblong cavities, all con- 
nected by cylindrical passages, of a diameter varying from one to three or even 
more inches. Some cells are six inches wide, by nearly as many in height, and 
others twelve inches high, with a shorter diameter of some six to eighteen inches 
and the longer diameter three feet, and sometimes even more. These chambers 
are often one above the other, and again side by side ; but on the whole, they 
do not seem to be placed with any apparent order, being scattered under- 
ground at various dist.mces apart, from two inches to as many feet. In a 
clay soil they appear to be coated or varnished with a very thin, dirty brown, 
waxlike secretion. In sandy ground, to keep the walls firm, they are plastered 
with a black limestone earth, abounding in portions of the prairies and river 
bottoms. This often has to be carried a distance of many rods; and then the 
amount of their labor and its results are truly wonderful, showing their know- 
ledge to be equal to that of any race of ants known. Their lowest chambers 
are generally ten and twelve feet deep, while the upper cells are rarely nearer 
the surface than eighteen inches, I extended a tape line down to the bottom of 
one, and found it seventeen feet deep; at one of their largest dens, a room was 
found sixteen feet beneath the surface, and several others were at near the 
same depth. At that place, the ground is dug out from twelve to sixteen feet 
deep, extending over an area having an average diameter of twenty-five feet, 
all of which was filled with ant cells. Several large avenues (4 — 5 in. diam.) 
entered the bottom of this large den. On striking an avenue, some ants were 
seen to enter it followed by others, loaded with barley, all coming from that 
underground passage. Where they got the barley was the question, which 
was finally solved by going to a stable more than three hundred feet distant; 
trom which ants were seen to descend, each with his barley grain, and enter a 
hole in the ground near the base of the stable, which was the only place in the 
vicinity where there was any barley. Another avenue on the other side, is 
said to come out at the bank of a stream, between two and three hundred feet 
distant, where are some elm trees, from which the ants obtained bits of leaves, 
.snd carried them through said avenue into the base of the den. That they 
have extensive underground passages, there is not the least doubt. A gentle- 
man recently told me of an instance where they dug under or tunneled a 
stream to get into a garden. There was a large ant den across the stream, and 
for a long time the garden was safe from their depredations, but finally the 
cuttino' ants were seen there, carrying bits of leaves into a small hole in the 
iTOund. There was no ant den in the vicinity, except the one across the creek, 
and as there were no dirt heaps on the surface of the ground in the garden, as 
there always are above an ant den, the inference was, that those cutting ants 
seen in the garden belonged to the tribe across the river ; if so, it is probable 
that some of their wise ones, when on the trees in the vicinity of their abode, 
beheld the fine things in the garden, to obtain which they advised tunneling 
the stream. 

The question will naturally arise, how is it possible for them to direct their 
course in digging those long underground passages so as to reach the surface 
at the wished for spot? Let those who ask, also answer; I only know that 
such long avenues exist, having thrust a long stick into one at the bottom of 
one of their dens, and I have also seen the outer openings of many of them on 

[Jane, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 235 

the banks of rivers and streams, whose water gives the ants drink, and where 
food can easily be had from the trees and bushes usually found growing on the 
banks of streams in all prairie lands. 

At the large ant den in Austin, before spoken of, millions of working ants, 
and bushels of eggs and larvpe, with great numbers of males and females, were 
destroyed. As soon as a large apartment containing the eggs, larvse and 
winged ants was found, a fire was kindled forthwith among them, for which pur- 
pose, light, combustible stuff was kept near. The eggs were of different sizes, 
belonging to opposite sexes, also showing, probably, that they grow, and were 
in a greater or less advanced stage of development. The workers at first are 
very small, scarcely a line in length. The eggs mixed with minute young ants, 
were in a soft, grey spongy substance, apparently leaves, finely triturated and 
mixed with an animal secretion. 

It is said they sometimes abandon their caves, when from long residence the 
chambers become filthy, or perhaps they are injured by heavy rains, or it may 
be that the ants desire a better situation for provender. Whatever may be the 
cause, they have been known to emigrate en masse, and after making new ex- 
cavations, and dwelling in them a few years, to return again to their old first 
residence. It is probable that they have a division of labor, some nurse the 
young, and others provide food. In one instance I saw one cut off a segment 
of an elm leaf, and another seized it as soon as cut, and carried if away, but 
generally I have noticed that he who cuts also carries. When cutting, one 
mandible is inserted, and carried slowly along; the head swaying to and fro, 
and the other mandible moving its sharp point, apparently breaking the surface 
to lessen the thickness to be cut by the other. The ant often stands on the 
part of the leaf which he is cutting off, but he is careful to remove to a firm 
place before it is finally severed, which done, he seizes one edge of it with his 
mandibles, and with a rapid movement throws it on his head and thorax, so 
that its lower edge rests between the lobes of the head and the spines of the 
thorax, and the upper edge is aloft. Away he goes, and joins the busy throng 
in the main path, which looks as if the ants had a gala day, and were march- 
ing with banners flying. Lately, on the banks of the Colorado river, near 
Austin, I saw multitudes of ants in their path, going up hill with fragments of 
leaves, and hack berries, (celtis,) some entire, and others with a small portion 
cut off, to render them lighter and suitable to be carried by the smaller ants. 
The place at which they entered the ground was about six feet from the top of 
the bank. This pathway was steep, and even perpendicular, for a distance of 
five or six inches, at a place about one foot below their doorway. The labor 
was severe to carry the berries up this path, but the struggle was great to 
get them to the top of the perpendicular spot. In performing this feat the 
berry carriers met with many falls, often rolling one and two feet down the hill 
but always sticking fast to their burdens, and trying again until they finally 
triumphed. One fell when near the top, and as he came up again, and was 
about to succeed, I touched his load with the point of a knife, and down it 
and ant went. His third attempt was put to the same test, but even then, he 
did not get angry, or show the least impatience, but cheerfully took his berry, 
and went up and in at the door of the long avenue. 

A lady lately showed me a safe where she kept sugar and sweetmeats, which 
drew swarms of small ants. The legs of the safe were then placed in vessels of 
water, and the ants did not succeed in reaching the sweets during several days, 
but finally many of them were found in the sugar. After some little study to 
discover how they got there, they were seen to drop on the safe from the roof 
at the distance of about two feet above. These, however, were not the cutting 
ants, and I only mention their feats because they are similar to those related 
of ants by an East India officer. A gentleman told me that he suspended 
sugar by a string from a rafter in his house, to keep it from ants, but they went 
up and came down the string. They also were not the cutting ants, which 
rarely, if ever, enter houses. 

I860.] 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF TEE ACADEMY OP 

The cutting ants often assist each other. I saw one which fell with a hack 
berry, at the vertical place before named. The berry got loose from him, and 
instead of shouldering it again, he tried to drag it along, but was unable to 
pull it up the perpendicular. Many passed him and gave the cold shoulder ; 
finally a iiind ant came and pushed. By shoving and pulling the two succeeded 
in getting the berry to the top, when the assister immediately left, and started 
down the hill. They live on both animal and vegetable |food. I have seen 
them carrying both worms and bugs. Whole beetles and numerous elytra 
have been found in their cells, but nothing indicating that they lay up large 
stores of food; like some of the East India ants, which have been seen to fetch 
their stores of corn to the surface to dry after heavy rains. The common 
tumble bug, {Canthon lavis.) in rolling his ball, sometimes heedlessly backs up 
over a nest of the cutting ants, and falls a victifti, being overcome by numbers. 
Once I saw a very large one roll his ball into their midst, when he was fiercely 
attacked by the multitude. At first he stuck his nose in the sand, or rather 
between his forelegs, but the bites behind were so severe that he roused and 
flew in circles, finally alighting near me, which was no sooner done than an 
ant who had accompanied the flight, jumped to the ground, for a moment 
looked bewildered, then ran for home, it may be, to tell of his wonderful ride on 
the big bug. 

The damage which these ants do, is great, by destroying trees and vegeta- 
bles. I know of one family who are about to leave a beautiful situation near a 
fine spring, because the cutting ants have nearly killed their fruit trees and 
ornamental shrubbery, especially roses, for which they have a peculiar fond- 
ness. They have been known to strip a fruit tree of its leaves in a single 
night. In some sections these ants prevent the cultivation of fruit. Thou- 
sands of dollars have been uselessly spent in attempts to kill them by blowing 
noxious gasses into their dens, or by placing poisons at the doorways of their 
dwellings. A knowledge of the habits and abodes of these insects show the 
futility of such attempts ; the fact is, but few of these can be reached by gas, 
let the bellows blow ever so hard, nor can many be killed by poison, even if 
the most deadly be placed within their doorways, for as soon as they discover 
harm, they form a new entrance. The only eflFectual method of destroying 
them is to dig, and kill the females and young, when the neuters will soon 
perish. This is so expensive that it will only be resorted to near a garden or 
dwelling, and as the cutting ants are scattered through western and central 
Texas, they probably never will be exterminated by man. 



Contributions to the Carboniferous Flora of the TTnited States. 

BY HORATIO C. WOOD, JR. 

Calamites Suckow. 

C. bicostatus nobis. — Stem slender, bicostate, with distant articula- 
tions ; ribs undulate, double, a very narrow, alternating with a broader one ; 
tubercles obsolete. The distant articulations and the double, undulate ribs 
characterize this as a very distinct species. 

Annularia Sternb. 
A. dubi a nobis. 

Syn. Bechera dubia Stern. Vers. vol. i. p. 30, t. 51 fig. 3, 1821. Annularia 
minuia Brong. Prod. p. 155. 

A. stell ata nobis. 

Syn. Casuarinites stellatus Schloth. Flora der Vorwelt, t. i. fig. 4, 1804, ejus- 
dem, Nacht. Petref. 1822. Bornia stellata Sternb. Vers. i. p. 28. Annularia 
longifolia Brongt. Prod. 1828. Asterophyllites equiseii/ormis Lind. et Hutton, 
Fobs. Flora, vol. ii. t. 124. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 287 

ASTEROPHYLLITES. 

A. reflexa nobis. 

Sjn. Annularia retlexa Steriib. Vers. i. j'- 31, t. 19, fig. 5. AsterojyhyJUtes 
Brardii, Brongt. Prod. 

If this is a distinct species (wbicli is doubtful) it must retain tlie specific 
name of the first author. 

SiciLLARiA Brongt. 

Stem not articulate, corticate, costate, smooth or striate; ribs of various 
widths, having furrows interposed between them ; cicatrices discoid, disposed 
spirally upon the r/fis, their longitudinal diameter exceeding the transverse ; 
vascular scars varying in number, mostly linear. 

The great fossil botanist, Brongniart, united the three genera of Sternberg, 
(Rhytidolepis, Favularia and Syringodendron,) with the title of Sigillaria. 
More modern authors have, however, rescparated them, retaining Brongniart's 
name for the first division of Sternb. 

Among recent writers, Messrs. Lindley and Button, have acknowledged the 
genus Favularia, but Unger, Lesquereux and others do not. We have not 
seen sufficient specimens of this genus to justify us in offering an opinion. 

Rhytidolepis, has, we believe, the right of priority over Sigillaria, but as the 
latter is now universally employed, it would cause too much confusion to re- 
vert to the original title. 

M. Brongniart says, (see top of page 393, Veg. Fosa.) " this genus is charac- 
terized by the longitudinal diameter of scars at least equalling the transverse, 
and that ordinarily it is much greater." A very few of the species which we 
would recognise as true Sigillaria, depart slightly from this rule, but it is im- 
possible to characterize a genus in fossil botany, some of whose forms will not 
approach those of another division, for the simple reason, that any classifica- 
tion, however ingenious, must necessarily be purely artificial. 

According to the oldest classification, all fossil plants were referred to the 
two genera, Filicites and Phytolithus. The present system has arisen by 
splitting off, as it were, section after section from these. 

The classification of vegetable reliquse may thus continue to advance, and it 
is with the hope it may prove a step in the right direction, that we propose 
a partial revision of the genus Sigillaria. 

S. perplex a, n. sp. — Stem costate, costa varying in their width; bark 
thin ; cicatrices quadrangular, conjoined by their raised confluent borders ; 
vascular scars obsolete. 

We place this very remarkable fossil in this group until better specimens 
can be obtained for further study. Though the vascular scars are not pre- 
served, yet we cannot say they have never existed. When the bark is stript 
from the stem, a raised border is seen to underlie the margin of external scar. 
Locality and position unknown. Cabinet of the Academy. 

S. solan us, n. sp. — Stem costate ; ribs strongly convex, striate, and with 
a striate groove in the middle ; cicatrices placed in this groove, small, distant 
subdi.-^coidal, often elongated with iheir base rounded and apex somewhat 
truncate ; vascular scars three, those on the sides linear, arcuate. 

In our specimen the distance between the scars is about five times their 
length. The depression or channel is slightly widened at their position, and 
between them a band, equalling them in width, is finely chased by very numer- 
ous minute striae. Locality, Shaever's Drift, East Norwegia. Position unknown. 
Collection of the Academy. 

AsoLANCS nobis. 

Stem not costate, striate ; striae straight or curved, regularly or irregularly 
disposed ; cicatrices discoid, single, their transverse exceeding the longitudinal 
diameter ; vascular scars varying in number, mostly linear. 

1860.J 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

We think the absence of ribs is sufficient to found a generic distinction on. 
but this genus is also separated from Sigillaria, by the excess of the transverse 
over the longitudinal diameter of the leaf-scar. 

A. camptotaenia, n. sp. — Stem striate ; striae disposed in two series; 
in the one, contiguous, numerous, descending towards the right; in the other, 
few, and ascending towards the right; cicatrices sub-triangular rounded at apex, 
acuminate at the base ; vascular scars almost obsolete. Locality and position 
unknown. Cabinet of the Academy. 

A. r n i t h i c n o i d e s, n. sp. — Stem longitudinally striate, vascular cica- 
trices three, linear, the middle much the longest. 

This is uadoubtedly decorticated and the markings are often obscured by 
adherent flakes of coal ; but the peculiar disposition of the scars render this 
species y&vj distinct. The middle impression projecting in front and behind 
gives the scars an appearance resembling that of bird tracks, which is often height- 
ened by short curved striae projecting from the side marks. Near the top and 
bottom of the specimen are two large oval scars, which, perhaps, mark the 
former position of branches; if so, this further separates this genus from Sigil- 
laria, which Brongt. says do not branch. Locality, Jlilnes Mine, St. Clair. 
Position unkuowu. Collection of the Academy. 

Syrixgodendron Sternb. 

Stem tree-like furrowed, costate ; cicatrices either single or double ; vascu- 
lar scars for the most part wanting, but sometimes represented by a single 
dot. 

This is a very poorly defined genus, and we think that at some future date it 
will be broken up into several. We have seen no vascular scar in any speci- 
men, and think that species possessing such will be found to have other char- 
acters in common sufficient to warrant their erection into a distinct genus. 

For the present we follow Sternberg in dividing into two sub-genera — a. 
those with a single scar ; b, those with a double scar. 

S. m a g n i f i c a, n. sp. — Stem not costate ; striate Qwhen decorticated), bark 
VQij seldom preserved ; cicatrices double, oval, arranged in spiral, undulating 
rows ten to fifteen lines apart. 

The distance between the pairs of scars is very variable, but never, in our 
specimens, exceeding twice their length. The two scars are often fused into 
one, with a broad disk of coal adherent. This species is seldom found with 
the bark remaining, we have seen but a single very poor specimen of it in that 
state. Owing to the absence of ribs, we think that it should not be classed in 
this genus. But desiring to avoid creating genera unneccessarily, we place it 
provisionally here. If other similar species should be found, constituting a 
distinct group, we would propose the name of Diplotaxis. 

SoLENOULA nobis. 

Stem ribbed, costse narrow, convex; furrows equalling in width the ribs; 
cicatrices round, situated in the/«rTOws between the ribs; vascular scars un- 
known. 

We have created this genus to receive a very curious fossil from Schuylkill 
Co., Pa. Although the specimen is large and very handsome, yet the cortex 
is not sufficiently preserved, for us to uote the form or even existence of vascu- 
lar scars. 

S. p s i 1 o ph 1 oe u s, n. sp. — Stem costata, costa convex, furrows and ribs 
striate, bark thin, cicatices convex, situate in middle of the furrows. Locality, 
-Milnes Mine, St. Clair. Position, body of Mammoth Vein. Collection of the 
Academy. 

Lepidodendron Sternb. 
L. dubium n. sp. — Cicatrices lanceolate, approximate, strongly convex, 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 239 

with apex and base acuminate ; margin sunken, flexuous, very narrow ; vascu- 
lar scars lanceolate. 

In our specimen tlie vascular scars are almost obsolete and have a slight 
bulbous enlargement in the centre. Where the bark remains, the crest of the 
scar alone reaches the surface. We place this plant, with some hesitation, among 
the Lepidodendra. It is, however, allied to L. rimosum and L. undula- 
tum, and with them ought perhaps t J be erected into a separate genus. If 
this should b? found advisable, we would propose the name Acrostigma. Lo- 
cality and position unknown. Collection of the Academy. 

L. in gens n. sp. — Cicatrices sub-rhomboidal, with apex and base acumi- 
nate, and base curved ; margin distinct, furrowed, regularly flexuous ; vascu- 
lar scar sub-triangular, rounded at its apex, with the angles acute; tubercles 
distinct obovate ; middle line almost obsolete, its situation marked by a shal- 
low groove. 

This large species, somewhat resembles L. giganteum Lesq. from which, 
however, the outline and disposition of leaf-scars separate it. 

L. m e k i s t o n, n. sp. — Cicatrices, elongate with both apex and base acumi- 
nate and the base curved; margin raised, regularly flexuous; vascular scars 
sub-rhomboidal, with acute angles and marked with two or three dots ; ap- 
pendices distinct, very long, tubercles obovate ; medial line deeply furrowed, 
transversely rugose. 

The internal markings, of cicatriculi as well as the tubercles, are very often 
badly preserved. Tlie general form of main scar resembles L. Lindleyanum 
Ung., whilst the raised border and form of vascular scars ally the plant to 
L. aculeatum Sternb. The more elongated cicatrix and the acute angles 
of the cicatriculi, separate it from the latter species. It also differs in the 
situation of tubercles and length of appendices. Locality and position un- 
known. Cabinet of tbe Academy. 

L. w e n i, n. sp. — Cicatrices rhomboidal with somewhat curved base and 
apex ; margin distinct, flexuous ; vascular scars rhomboidal, placed near the 
apex of the cicatrix ; appendices parallel to the margin ; medial line well 
marked, flexuous. 

Syn. L. aculeatum Sternb. ii. sp. — Owen Geological Survey of Wisconsin, 
Iowa, &c., vol. ii. pi. vi. figs. 1, 3. That the impressions there figured are not 
L. aculeatum Sternb. we think is shown by the following considerations : 
1st. The shape and relative position of the leaf-scars in the two are quite dif- 
ferent. 2d. The vascular scars differ in outline and in Sternb. 's species they 
are marked with three dots which are wanting in Owen's. 3d. Tubercles are 
present in L. a c u 1 e a tu ra Sternb. but not in Owen's figures. Finally the 
margins of the cicatrices differ. 

The outline of our specimens differ somewhat from those figured in tbe Re- 
port, but we think that the species are identical. Locality, unknown. Posi- 
tion, Sandstone below the coal? Cabinet of the Academy. 

L. d i k r ch e i 1 u s, n. sp. — Cicatrices sub-elliptical with apex and base 
acuminate and the base curved ; margin raised, broad, regularly flexuous, vas- 
cular scars sub-rhomboidal, with apex and base rounded and angles at the 
sides very acute, marked with three dots ; medial line almost obsolete, slightly 
rugose. 

The margin of this species so bifurcates, that on the right side it receives an 
offset from the same side of the neighboring scar; thus making it nearly twice 
as wide on the right hand side below, and on the left, above. Locality, Broad 
Top Coal Region. Position, Roof of Cook's (upper) Seam. Private collec- 
tion. 

L venustum, n. sp. — Cicatrices rhomboidal, with their base truncate ; 
margin narrow, flexuous ; vascular scar rhomboidal, placed above the middle 

I860.] 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

of leaf-scar ; tubercles obovate ; appendices well marked, flexuous ; middle 
line distinct, transversely rugose. 

The left tubercle is obsolete, and when present is placed lower than the 
right ; the middle line is sometimes flexuous. Locality and position unknown. 
Cabinet of the Academy. 

L. drepanaspis, n. sp. — Cicatrices rhomboidal with rounded angles ; 
margin flexuous ; vascular scar triangular, raised, placed in apex of leaf-scar, 
bounded below by a crescentic slope, on which are the tubercles ; appendices 
parallel to the margin ; medial line transversely rugose. 

This species somewhat resembles L. clypeatum Lesq., but is very differ- 
ent when more closely examined. Locality and position unknown. Cabinet 
of the Academy. 

L. Lesquereuxi, n. sp. — Cicatrices sub-rhomboidal, elongated, with the 
apex and base acuminate, vascular scars curved, sub-rhomboidal, their 
apex rounded and other angles acute, marked with two or three (sometimes 
obsolete, sometimes confluent) dots ; appendices distinct ; medial line very 
strongly marked, transversely rugose. 

It is with great pleasure that we dedicate this handsome species to Prof. 
Lesquereux, to whom every American Geologist is indebted for time and toil 
spent in elucidating the ancient Flora of this continent. This plant, besides 
the above characters, has also a crescentic scar, situated in the apex of leaf- 
scar and marked with two, often obsolete, dots. Locality unknown. Posi- 
tion, Sandstone below the Coal? Cabinet of the Academy. 

L. B r d ae, n. ?p. — Cicatrices rhomboidal, elongate, with apex and base 
acuminate and curved; margin distinct; vascular scars placed near the apex 
of cicatrix, trapezoidal, marked with two (often obsolete) dots ; appendices well 
marked; tubercles obsolete ; medial line distinct, transversely rugose. 

This species is allied to L. elegans Brong., but is separated from it by 
the scars being more elongated and the consecutive ones communicating, as 
well as by the difference in the proportion of the length to the breadth of the 
cicatriculi and the much greater rugosity of medial line. Two magnificent 
specimens were presented to the Academy by Mr. Borda, the largest measuring 
3 feet 7 inches by 13 inches. Locality and position. Top slates of Back Vein, 
south side of Mine Hill, in the Black Heath Colliery. 

Lepidophlogos Sternb. 

M. linger (Gen. et Spec. Plan. Fossil) marks this as a doubtful genus, 
but we think it is quite a distinct one. 

L, icthyolepis, n. sp. — Stem large ; cortex thin ; cicatrices approximate, 
raised, triangular, furnished with an appendix on each side and one in the 
middle; vascular scars not preserved. Locality, Roof of Perseverance Tunnel, 
Dauphin Co., Pa. Cabinet of the Academy. 

Mr. Lesquereux, in his "Catalogue of American Coal Plants," gives L. c r a s - 
s i c a u 1 e , as a species of Brongt.; we are unable to find it in the works of that 
author, neither is it in Unger (op. cit.) As Prof. Lesquereux does not describe 
it we are at a loss as to its nature. 

Lepidostroecs Brong. 

L. stachyoides, n. sp. — Catkin small, about two and a half lines in 
breadth and an inch in length ; sporanges rhomboidal with flexuous margins, 
arranged in a single row on each side of the slender axis. 

In the specimen a leaf of Lepidodendron has such relations to the fruit as to 
appear at first sight to have been connected with it, but closer examination 
shows this not to have been the case. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 241 



Catalogue of the Colubridse in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Fart 2. 

BY E. D. COPE. 

CORONELLIK^. 

ToLUCA Kennicott. Tjpe T. 1 i n e a t a . 

U. S. and Mex. Boundary Survey, ii. pt. 2, Reptiles, p. 23, 1859. 

Toluca diifers from Amblymetopon Gthr. in possessing two pairs of frontal 
plates instead of one, and the nasal and first upper labial are not confluent. 
Gyalopion nobis has two pairs of frontals, but the rostral is recurved and 
acute, and the first labial is confluent with the nasal. The contact of the post- 
frontals, the want of anterior prolongation of the vertical, the concavity of the 
rostral, and presence of anterior frontals, distinguish the latter from Amblyme- 
topon. In these genera the teeth are smooth, of equal lengths and a little 
stouter posteriorly. In Arrhyton* Olhr. (Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 244) the posterior 
upper maxillary is longer, and separated from the anterior by an interspace, 
(diacranterian.) These genera possess a strong resemblance to the Calama- 
rian type of form — where some of them have been placed by authors — but we 
believe them to be more nearly allied to the Stenorhina, Rhinostoma and Cemo- 
phora, which are not to be separated from the Coronelliform genera Simotes, 
Lampropeltis, etc. Indeed, comparison with such typical Calamarian forms as 
Calamaria, Aspidura, Rhabdosoma, Carphophiops, etc., shows a less complete 
want of distinction of head and body, a less degree of rigidity of the latter, 
and a greater resemblance to the higher types in the forms of the superciliary 
and labial plates. We do not think their small size at all conclusive as to their 
pertinence to the Calamarinffi, though an opposite opinion might be held by 
such herpetologists as would place the Old World " Ablabes," the Diadophis 
and Tajniophis of the New in that group. 

Allied to Toluca and Cemophora nobis, is a genus inhabiting the south- 
western regions of the United States, called Lamprosoma by Dr. Hallowell, 
(Proceed. Acad. N. S. viii. p. 311.) As this name was previously employed by 
Kirby for a genus of Coleoptera, we propose replacing it here by Chionactis, 
given in allusion to the refulgent whiteness of the scales. The typical and 
only well-ascertained species is Rhinostoma occipitale Hallow., (Proc. 
Acad. vii. 1854, p. 95.) This serpent has been erroneously stated by Dr. Giin- 
ther, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 387, to be a native of West Africa. The muzzle is more 
depressed than in Toluca, and there is a loreal plate. The equal teeth, single 
nasal and more depressed head and snout, separate it from Cemophora. 

83. T, 1 i n e a t a, Kenn. 1. c. U. S. Pac. R. R. Rept. ix. Reptiles, fig. 35, pi. 8. 
One sp. Toluca Valley, Mexico. Smithsonian Inst. 

Pariaspis nobis. Type P. plumbeatra. 

Body cylindrical ; tail one- eighth of total length. Head scarcely distinct, 
broad and swollen at the temples, in front very short and depressed. Superior 
maxillary bone short, its teeth gradually increasing in length posteriorly, none 
grooved. Pupil round. Top of head covered with the ordinary nine plates, 
the frontals relatively small, occipitals large. Two nasals, the nostril in the 

* Arryton t sb n i a t u m Gthr 1. c. 

The adult of this species measures 16 in. 10 1. in length; the tail 3 in. 7 lines. The 
color of the lower surface is brownish yellow, and extends upon the third row of scales. 
Above dark brown, with three indistinct longitudinal lines, as in Gunther's description. 
These notes are taken from a specimen belonging to the Museum at Cambridge, Mass. 

I860.] 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

anterior, which is very small. No loral. Preocular one, post-oculars two. 
Sixth upper labial touching the occipital, which latter is separated from the 
posterior labials by a single plate. Anal and urosteges entire. Scales smooth. 

84. P. plumbeatra nobis. — Seven superior labials, eye over third and 
fourth; the first as large as the postnasal, the last three very large. Preocular 
small. Rostral small, rather prominent. Vertical presenting an obtuse angle 
in front, its lateral borders parallel and equal in length to the latero-posterior. 
Occipitals elongate acute, their divaricating tips separated by a small plate. 
Exteriorly they are bordered by one temporal and the sixth upper labial. In- 
ferior labials seven. Geneials two pair, the anterior broader in front, and one- 
third longer than the posterior. Scales in fifteen longitudinal rows, very 
smooth. Gastrosteges 140, an anal, urosteges 44. Total length IG in. 8 lines : 
tail 2 in. 9 1. 

Color above a uniform blackish lead color, paler on the head. Chin and 
belly yellowish, the inferior labials and gastrosteges tipped with the color of 
the back, the latter posteriorly spotted with the same. Under surface of tail 
grey. 

One specimen of this interesting serpent is in the Museum of the Academy, 
presented by Mr. E. T. Cresson, a gentleman to whom we are also in- 
debted for fine specimens of Boodon virgatum, Dryiopbis Kirtlandii, 
Boiga pulverulent a, etc. The Pariaspis is a native of Liberia, in the same 
zoological district with the Holuropholis, Dipsadoboa, Brachycranion, etc.. 
which it represents in this group. 

Stenorhina Dum. & Bibr. Type S. ventralis. 
Erpetologie Generale, vii. p. 865, 1853. 

85. S. Kennicottiana nobis. — Form stout, thick, the head not distinct. 
Muzzle acute. Number of rows of scales and head shields as in S. ventralis. 
except that there are eight inferior labials instead of seven, the fourth being 
the largest instead of the third. The anterior geneial plates are more elongate, 
the length being twice the breadth, and the posterior are more produced, and 
are separated by a narrow intercalary shield. The postnasal is very large, and 
is joined to the preocular by a suture half the length of the latter. Tail one- 
fifth of the total length. Gastrosteges 155 ; one divided anal ; urosteges 39 pair. 
Total length 22 in. 3 1. ; tail 4 in. 5 1. 

Coloration. Above brown, the body crossed by thirty-six deep brown or 
black bands. These are irregular and very narrow, not wholly involving any 
scale which they cross. On the flanks they are interrupted and irregular. 
Chin, belly and under surface of the tail yellow, with au irregular medial line 
formed by adjacent spots near their extremities. Superior labials yellow, the 
sixth and seventh bordered above with black. Top of the head uniform brown. 
One sp. Isthmus of Panama. Drs. Gallaer and LeConte. 

This species is dedicated to Mr. Robert Kennicott of Washington, a gentle- 
man possessing a knowledge of North American Serpents not excelled by any 
other naturalist. 

86. S. ? 

We have before us two specimens of the young of what is probably an under- 
scribed species of Stenorhina. Their immature age is indicated by the division 
of several of the gastrosteges upon the umbilical region. In both specimens 
the tail is only one-eighth of the total length, in the ventralis a little more 
than one-fifth. The scales in the latter are relatively larger, and the vertical 
plate a little broader. In a specimen of the former, from Veragua, the gastros- 
teges number 165, urosteges 35 ; in the second, collected by Dr. Sartorius in 
the hills west of Vera Cruz, and in the possession of the Smithsonian Institute, 
they are 155x32. In the ventralis the Erp. Gen. gives 149x44. The 

[June. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 243 

color of our specimens is liglit brown, crossed by numerous bands or elongated 
spots of deep brown bordered with paler. Sides and belly spotted with the 
same. 

The specimen of S. ventralis sent to the Smithsonian Institution by Dr. 
Sartorius corresponds with the description in the Erpetologie Generale in 
nearly every respect. The color is, however, a very deep slate above, so that 
the transverse spots are scarcely visible. The gastrosteges are much clouded 
with slate, and the longitudinal markings are also indistinct. Chin and lower 
labial plates tinged with bright yellow. There is no specimen of this species 
in the Academy Museum. 

87. S. quinquelineata nobis. 3Iicrophis quinquelineatus, Hallow. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. 1854, p. 97. 

Two specimens. Honduras. Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. 

This is the species figured in the Erp. Generale, plate 70, as Stenorhina F r e- 
m i n V i 1 1 e i. In that figure the loreal plate is distinctly and correctly repre- 
sented, though the description of that species and diagnosis of the genus would 
lead one to infer its absence. Is it not possible that the specimen figured by 
the learned herpetologists may belong to a different species from that which 
they regard as typical of the Freminvillei? 

Rhinostoma* Fitz. Type R. n a s u u m . 

Neue Classification, 1826, p. 56. Dum. & Bibr. vii. p. 992. 

88. R. n a s u u m Wagl. 

One sp. Surinam. Dr. Bering 

89. R. Guntheri nobis. Head depressed, rather wider than the neck. 
Posterior angle of the rostral plate a right-angle. Anterior frontals forming 
a short suture with each other; posterior frontals forming no suture, their tips 
only in contact, so that their posterior borders are diagonally continuous with 
the posterior borders of the anterior frontals. Vertical plate presenting a 
right angle anteriorly; its superciliary border shortest of all. Occipitals 
shorter than vertical, each bounded by one large and five small temporals. 

*Gyalopion nobis. Form stout; tail one-eighth of total length Head slightly 
distinct, large, depressed. Rostral plate acute ; its anterior border elevated ; its upper 
surface concave. It is produced backwards, separating the prefontals, not reaching the 
vertical. Frontals, two pair. Nasal confounded with the first labial, a groove from 
the nostril to the suture of the second labial. No loreal, its place supplied by the post 
frontal. One pre- two postoculars. Scales smooth ; anal and Bubcaudal scutellae divided. 
Teeth small, of equal lengths. Pupil round. 

P. a n u m nobis. Prefrontals triangular, not larger than preoculars. Postoculars of 
equal size. Anterior border of vertical not angulated. Occipitals as broad as long, 
truncate posteriorly. Superior labials seven, eye over third and fourth. Inferior labials 
seven, fourtli largest. Geneials one pair, very short. Scales in seventeen longitudinal 
rows, nearly square. Gastroteges 130; one anal; urosteges 28. Total length 7 in. 
61in. ; tail 11 hn. 

Coloration. Above brownish grey, crossed by thirty-one irregular transverse brown 
bands. These are from one to three scales wide on the back, and extend to the gas- 
troteges. Anteriorly ihey exhibit a tendency to divide into a dorsal and two lateral 
series of spots. Eight transverse spots on the tail. First spot on the neck large, 
produced medially to the occipitals. A brown band extends from one angle of the 
mouth to the other across the occipitals, involving the tip of the vertical. Another 
brown band commences upon the upper borders of the lower labial shields, passes 
through the eye, and crosses the anterior parts of superciliaries and vertical, and 
posterior parts of postfrontals and rostral. Dirty yellowish beneath, and upon the first 
row of scales. One specimen (No. 4675.) in the National Museum, Washington, dis- 
covered near Ft. Buchanan, Arizona, by Dr. Irwin. It is an extraordinary serpent, re- 
sembling, at first sight, a diminutive Ileterodon. 

I860.] 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Loreal acute posteriorly ; preoculars two, the inferior very small. Postoculars 
three, nearly equal in size. Upper labials eight, fourth and fifth entering the 
orbit ; last as small as the second. Inferior labials eight ; one pair of geneials. 
Scales in nineteen rows. Gastroteges 182. One entire anal, 6*1 urosteges. 
Total length 21 inches, 2 lines. Tail 5 inches. , 

The upper surface of the head and body are of a dark brown. The upper 
labials, chin, belly, two inferior rows of scales and the tips of many of the 
others, dirty white. 

One specimen brought from the interior of Venezuela by Capt. Jas. Wilsoa. 
It is called by the natives " Coralilla." 

We have named this species in honor of Dr. Albert Giinther, the celebrated 
Herpetologist of London, who has done so much toward effecting a natural 
arrangement of the Colubridae. 

Cemophora nobis. Type C. coccinea. 

Form rather slender; tail one-seventh of total length. Head scarcely dis- 
tinct, very convex, elongate, acute. Plates of the head broad, normal as to 
number. Rostril very prominent, obtusely trihedral, produced slightly be- 
tween the prefontals. Nasals two — sometimes united, — a loreal, one pre- two 
postoculars. Scales smooth ; anal scutella entire, urosteges divided. Pupil 
round. One or two posterior maxillary teelh longer than the others, smooth, 
and not separated by an interspace, (syncranterian). 

The form of the rostral plate is the most prominent peculiarity which 
separates this species from Simotes J). ^- B. 

90. C. coccinea nobis. Coluber coccineus Blumenb. in Licht. & Voigt. 
Magaz. V. 1788, pi. 5. Heterodon coccineus Schl. Essai, ii. p. 102. Rhinostoma 
coccinea Holbr. N. Am. Herp. 1842, p. 125, pi. 30. Baird et Girard, Catal. p. 118. 
Simotes coccineus Dam. et Bibr. vii. p. 637. Giinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 26. 
Two sp. South Carolina. Dr. Holbrook. 

One sp. Georgia. Dr. Jones. 

One sp. South Carolina. Dr. Blanding. 

One sp. " Philada. Mus. in Ex. 

One sp. ? Dr. Wilson. 

Rhinocheilcs Bd. et Grd. Type R. Lecontei. 

Catal. Serp. Smiths. Inst. 1852, p. 120. 

In dentition this genus is isodont. The entire urosteges distinguish it from 
Rhinechis. The general form is rather that of Cemophora. 

91. R. Lecontei Bd. et Grd. 1. c. 

One sp. Ft. Chadbourne, Texas. Smithsonian Institution. 

Simotes Dum. & Bibr. Type S. R u s s e 1 1 i i . 
Erpetologie Generale, vii. p. 624, 1853. 

A. Form stout, calamarian ; anal shield entire. 

92. S. phsenochalinus nobis. This is a small serpent, and resembles 
an Oligodon in form. The arrangement and number of cephalic plates are the 
same as in the Russellii, except that the rostral plate is higher, and not 
produced so far back upon the muzzle, and that the vertical is not so broad, 
and with lateral borders less convergent posteriorly. Superior labials seven, 
the third and fourth entering the orbit; inferior labials eight. Scales in 
seventeen rows small, rounded. Gastroteges 172, an anal, urosteges 41 pairs. 
Total length 7 inches 9 lines. Tail 1 inch. 

The ground color is a light brown, and is crossed above by short black 
transverse bands, about fifteen in number, from the head to the end of the tail. 
These bands are wider on the back, and taper on the flanks. A transverse 
black band crosses the head from eye to eye on each side of the posterior 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 245 

suture of the postfrontals, and is continued beneath the eye on the suture of 
the fourth and fifth labials. A longitudinal black band proceeds from the 
transverse, passes through the middle of the vertical and along the suture of 
the occipitals, then widens and bifurcates on the neck. A crescentic black 
mark begins near the exterior border of the occipital plate, and extends a 
little beyond the commissure of the mouth, crossing the seventh upper labial. 
One sp. Manilla. Dr. Barnwell. 

One sp. Philippine Islands. Mr. Cuming, in ex. 

The second of these specimens has, alternating with the cross bands, a 
transverse series of four separate spots; two dorsal, rounded, and one on each 
side, narrosv. 

93. S. aphanospilus nobis. — In this species the head and investing plates 
are shorter and broader than those of the last species ; the sides of the vertical 
shields are more convergent posteriorly. As in other Simotes there are one 
pre- and two postoculars. Loreal a little longer than high ; upper labials seven, 
third and fourth entering the orbit ; inferior labials eight, the posterior one 
very small. Scales large, obtuse, imbricate, in seventeen rows. Geneials two 
pair, the posterior half the length of the anterior. Gastrosteges 173, anal one, 
uresteges 37 pairs. Length of body and tail 23 in. 5 1. ; tail alone 3 in. 4 1. 

The color of the upper surface of this serpent is a dull olive brown. From 
the neck to the base of the tail we count thirteen nearly equidistant scutcheon- 
shaped figures, brown bordered with black. These extend a short distance on 
the flanks, and are sometimes confluent with another series of smaller, similar 
figures on each side. In the middle of the interval between each dorsal figure 
is a small black spot. On the head the arrangement of markings is similar to 
that of the last species. They are, however, only indicated by narrow black 
borders enclosing the ground color. Lips and beneath dirty yellowish. 
One specimen. Philippines. Mr. Cuming, in ex. 

The two species preceding are nearly allied to the S. purpurascens 
Gtkr., but comparison with the figures of Schlegel and Dum. et Bibr. at once 
reveals the differences in the markings of the head. The number of labials is 
also different. 

B. Form slender ; anal divided. 

94. S. R u s s e 1 1 i Bum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii. p. 628. Russell, Ind. Serp. i. 
pi. 35. 

One spec. ? ? 

CoRONELLA Laureuti. Type C. Austriaca. 

Specimen Synopsis Reptilium 1768, p. 84. Zacholus Wagler, Natur. Syst. 
1830, p. 190. 

95. C. Au s t ri a c a Laurenti. Zacholus Austriacus Wagler. Coronella Icevis 
Schlegel, Essai 1837, ii. 65. 

Fourteen spec. Italy. Dr. Wilson (Bp. Coll.) 

Five " Sicily. " " 

Two " Europe Gard. Plants (in ex.) 

96. C. G i r n d i c a Bum. Sf Bibr. Coluber Girondicus Daudin, 1S04. Col. 
iJjccwZt Metaxa, Monograf. p. 40, 1823. Bp. Fauna Italica. 

Ten spec. Italy. Dr. Wilson (Bp. Coll.) 

Macroprotodon Guichenot. Type M. c u c u 1 1 a t u s. 
Expedition d'Algerie, Rept. p. 22, No. 2. 

97. M. c u c u 1 1 a t u s nobis. Coluber cucullatus Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire, 1827. 
Macroprotodon maurilanieus Guichen. loc. cit. 1846. Lycognathus cucullatus Dum. 
& Bibr. 1853. Coronella cucullata Gthr. 1858. ? Zacholus bitorquatus Bonap. 

I860.] 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

The long anterior and isolated grooved posterior maxillary teeth appear to 
us to separate this species from Coronella. 

One spec. Algiers. Gard. Plants, (in ex.) 

Two '• " Dr. Wilson, (Bp. Coll.) 

PsASiMOPHTLAX Fltz. Type p. rhombeatus. 
Systema Reptilium 1843, p. 26. Trimerorhinus Smith, Zool. S. Africa, p.? 1849_ 

93. P. rhombeatus Fitz. Coluber rhombeatus Linn. Coronella rhomheata 
Boie, Schlegel. Coelopeltis rhombeata Wagl. Trimerorhinus rhombeatus Smith. 
Dipsas rhombeata D. &. B. 
One spec. Cape of Good Hope. Gard. Plants, (in ex.) 

Tarbophis Fleischmann, Type T. v i v ax. 

Dalraat. Nov. Serp. Genera p. 18, 1831. Trigonophis Eichwald, 1831. Ailu- 
rophis "Fitz.'' Bp. 1832. 

99. T. vivax Dum. & Bibr. Coluber vivax Fitz., 1826. Tarbophis fallax 
Fleisch. 1831. Trigonophis Iberus Eich. 1831. Dipsas fallax Schleg. Essai ii. 
295. Tachymenis vivax Gthr. 1858. Ailurophis vivax Bp. Fauno Italica. 

One spec. Italy. Dr. Wilson. 

Hypsiglesa nobis. Type H. ochrorhynchus. 

Dentition diacranterian ; i. e. a long, smooth, posterior superior maxillary 
tooth, separated from the anterior by an edentulous space. Pupil elliptic, 
erect, body cylindrical. Head distinct, broad posteriorly, shortly conic ante- 
riorly, much depressed. Cephalic shields normal. Two nasals, nostril be- 
tween ; one loreal ; two pre-and two postoculars. Scales smooth. Gastros- 
teges not angulated. Anal and subcaudal scutellae divided. Tail less than 
one fourth the total length. 

This curious genus has points of resemblance to Sibon Fitz., Hemidipsas 
Gthr., Tachymenis Wiegm.; while the general appearance is not unlike that of 
Coronella Laur. A perusal of the above diagnosis, cannot fail to convince the 
herpetologist that it possesses characters strongly distinguishing it from all, 
uniting as it does, in its general aspect, peculiarities of certain tropical and 
northern forms. 

100. H. ochrorhynchus nobis. — Muzzle shortly conic ; rostral plate 
prominent, encroaching a little on the pre-frontals. Nasal plates indistinctly 
separated, equal, their upper and lower borders parallel. Loreal longer than 
high. Lower preocular small, bounded anteriorly by the third upper labial. 
Eight upper labials, fourth and fifth entering the orbit; sixth and seventh very 
large. Vertical plate twice as long as broad ; lateral borders slightly con- 
vergent. Superciliaries narrow ; occipitals as long or longer than vertical, 
rounded posteriorly. Inferior labials eleven, sixth largest. Geneials two pair, 
the posterior acute. Scales in twenty-one rows. Gastrosteges 168, urosteges 
48 pair. Total length, 12 in. 4 lines, tail 2 in. 3 lines. 

Coloration. The upper surface light grey, with a series of large brown spots, 
separated by intervals of one scale wide. These spots are about forty-eight in 
number, upon the body; they extend transversely from the seventh to the 
fifteenth rows of scales, and are three or four scales in length. On the poste- 
rior part of the body they sometimes divide longitudinally, their moieties 
alternating or becoming confluent into a zig-zag band. 

Alternating with these on each side, is a series of small spots formed by the 
brown borders of scales of the fifth and sixth rows. Another series of small 
spots opposite to the dorsal row, is formed by the shading of the adjacent bor- 
ders of the fourth and fifth rows with the same color. Many of the scales of 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 247 

the second row are also tipped with brown. There is a large brown spot on 
each side of the neck, sometimes confluent with an elongate central one, which 
extends to the occipital plates. A brown stripe passes from the eje to the neck 
spot, entirely covering the last upper labial. Top of the head brownish grey, 
indistinctly spotted with pale brown. Labial plate paler ; frontals and rostral 
ochreous. Beneath yellowish-white, immaculate. 

One specimen in the Academy, and numerous others in the National 
Museum, Washington, received from Mr. John Xantus, from Cape St. Lucas, 
California. 

101. H. chlorophaea nobis. — Number of labials and rows of scales 
the same as in the last species. The scales of the body are, however, more 
elongate, and partly on this account are arranged in rows more oblique in an 
antero-posterior direction. The vertical plate is a little broader, and the head 
is narrower in proportion to its length. The body is rather more slender. 

The color is a greenish ash, much darker than in the preceding species. The 
dorsal spots, instead of being brown, are black, and separated by intervals of 
two scales in width. They are much smaller, occupying only the space from 
the ninth to the thirteenth longitudinal rows, and are one scale and a half 
long. They frequently divide and alternate, and their number on the body 
amounts to from fifty-eight to sixty-six. Two rows of smaller alternating spots 
appear on the sides, one upon the sixth and seventh rows of scales, the other 
on the fourth. The distribution of colors on the head and neck is much as in 
the last species, except that the neck spots are a little longer. The brown is, 
however, replaced by black, and the ochreous by olivaceous. The crown and 
muzzle are thickly punctulated with black. Beneath pale olivaceous. Gas- 
trosteges 167, urosteges 55. Total length, 15 in. 6 1., of tail 2 in. 3 1. 

Two specimens from the National Museum, there received with others 
from Fort Buchanan, Arizona, where they were collected by Mr. Irwin. 

Tachymenis Wiegmann. Type T. Peruviana. 
Nova Acta, Acad. Caes. Leopold. Carol, xvii. 1834, p. 251. 

102. T. C h i 1 e n s i 3 Girard^ U. S. Naval and Astronomical Exp. 1855, ii. 
p. 213, Giinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. 1858, p. 34, Coronella Chilensis Schlegel. 
Guichenot, Hist. Chili, ii. p. 79. Dipsas Chilensis Dum. & Bibr. vii. p. 1159. 

Var. near the third of Dum. & Bibr. 

Belly as in the ordinary variety, but the upper surface of the body of a light 
rufous brown, more deeply shaded on the fourth and ninth rows of scales. 
One specimen. Quinquina Id. Dr. Ruschenberger. 

Variety fourth, nobis. 

Coloration of the upper surface as usual, but upon each gastrostege there 
is a single central, oblong, spot. These form a medial, unbroken, black band, 
from near the chin to the anus. 
One specimen. Talcahuano, Chili. Dr. Ruschenberger 

103. T. hypoconia nobis. — The head of our single specimen is muti- 
lated, hence a detailed description of the plating cannot be given. The shields 
:!eem, however, to diflFer but little from those of the preceding species ; the pre- 
frontals are relatively smaller, and the superciliaries larger. There are eight 
superior labial shields, the eye resting on the fourth and fifth ; the sixth and 
seventh are disproportionately large. Nine inferior labials. Scales large, in 
nineteen rows, the exposed part of those of the first row higher than long. 
Body stout ; gastrosteges 140, one divided anal ; urosteges 52, relatively more 
numerous than in T. C h i 1 e n s i s . 

Coloration. — The upper surface of the head, body and tail, is of a •wood 
brown, many of the scales black at their bases. The first, second, third and 
I860.] 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

fourth rows of scales are densely punctulated with black, thus forming an in- 
distinct band upon each side. The punctulations are more numerous upon the 
fourth row, hence the band is better defined upon its dorsal margin. A pair 
of dark bands commence upon the occipital plates, and extend a short dis- 
tance upon the back, enclosing a light vitta. The dark bands send off upon 
each side two branches, one to the middle of the superciliary plate, and one 
to the superior suture of the upper postocular. From the inferior su- 
ture of the same plate, a deep brown vitta extends to the angle of the 
of the mouth ; this continued in front of the orbit as far as the nostril. The 
superior labial shields are paler than the crown, are punctulated, and have 
upon their postero-superior angle a triangular brown mark. Belly yellowish- 
grey, densely punctulated with black, (whence the name.) On each side, the 
gastrosteges are crossed near their extremities by a narrow black band, which 
is continuous from the throat to the end of the tail. Anteriorly the punctu- 
lations arrange themselves in two series of indistinct V-shaped marks within the 
bands but they are quite ill defined, and in some specimens will probably be 
absent. 
Oae specimen. Buenos Ayres. Dr. A. Kennedy. 

CoNioPHANES Hallowell, MSS. Type C. fissidens.* 

This genus consists of coronelliform serpents with grooved teeth, of rather a 
slender habit, having a distinct, depressed head, conic muzzle, one preocular 
and a divided anal plate. Perhaps the Coronella bipunctata of Giinther 
belongs to it. 

It differs from Dromicus in the grooved maxillary tooth, and the less lanceo- 
late head. Philodryas has a much more elongate body and tail. A peculiarity 
in the coloration of the species consists in the numerous punctulations of the 
upper and under surface, whence probably the name (jc^vm pulverulentus.) 

104. C. punctigularis nobis. — Scales thin, lanceolate, in twenty-one 
longitudinal rows. Head broad posteriorly, muzzle rather shortly conic. Pre- 
frontals equal iu size to the fourth superior labial ; post-nasal larger than pre- 
nasal ; loreal as high as long ; preocular not reaching the vertical. Vertical 
elongate, its sides parallel ; occipitals moderate, each bounded by two large, 
and two small temporals. Postoculars two ; superior labials eight ; eye over 
the fourth and fifth. Symphyseal unusually broad; inferior labials nine. 
Gastrosteges 121, one divided anal, urosteges 44, (tail mutilated.) Total 
length 14 in. 6 1. Tail 3 in. 4 1. (was probably nearly two inches longer. 

Coloration. — Above, dark chestnut-brown, shaded with grey on the top of the 
head. On each side of the neck, three scales behind the terminal superior 
labial, a whitish line commences. These widen, assume a pale ferruginous 
hue, and extend to the tip of the tail. They cover the sixth, seventh and 
half of the fifth and eighth rows of scales on each side, and enclose a brown 
dorsal band five scales wide. Upon the neck the brown of the sides is very 
deep, and extends forward as a band to the orbit. It is bordered beneath 
with white. Lips and throat yellowish-white, densely punctulated with 
brown. Gastrosteges also yellowish-white, punctulated irregularly at their 
tips. 
One specimen. Honduras. Mr. J, S. Hawkins & Dr. J. L. Le Conte. 

C. fissidens Hallow, differs from th.e present species in several points. 
The body is more elongate, there being 140 gastrosteges instead of 121. The 
head is more depressed, and the muzzle more prominent, since the prefrontal 
plates are in tlie plane of the occipitals. This form, together with the dark 

* Coronella fissidens Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 36. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 249 

color, and the narrow light band on the upper borders of the labials, is suggest- 
ive of certain genera of venomous snakes, as H\T)nale. The lateral borders 
of the vertical plate in fissidens are not so long nor so nearly parallel as 
in punctigularis. The whole head is relatively narrower. The colors 
of the former are deeper, the longitudinal bands being very indistinct. The 
throat is not so thickly punctulated.* 

Tjeniophis Girard. Type T. tantillus. 
U. S. Astronomical Expedition, ii. p. 215. 1855. 

105. T. vermiculaticeps rwbis. Size small; form slender; tail one- 
third the total length. Head distinct, elongate ovoid ; the muzzle short and 
the eye large and far forward. The last superior maxillary tooth is longer 
than those preceding it, and smooth. As in the other species of the genus, 
there are two postoculars, one preocular, and a divided postabdominal scu- 
tella. Scales in seventeen longitudinal rows. Frontal plates small, super- 
ciliaries and vertical elongate, the latter with its anterior border nearly straight, 
the lateral slightly convergent. Nostril principally in the prenasal ; postnasal 
higher. Loreal as high as long ; preocular narrow and high, not reaching the 
vertical. Superior postocular twice as long as the inferior. Superior labials 
eight, fourth and fifth enteringthe orbit. Inferior labials ten. Geneials two 
pair, the posterior one-third longer than the anterior, divaricating. Gastros- 
teges 117, one anal, urosteges 79. Total length of the largest specimen 13 in. 
8 lin. Tail 4 in. 7 lin. 

Coloration. The ground color of the upper surface of the body is a rich yel- 
lowish brown — where the epidermis is lost, of a brownish straw color. A pair 
of deep brown bands begin, one at the externo-posterior angle of each super- 
ciliary shield, and converge upon the neck. There each narrows to a width 
of one scale, and enclosing a vitta of the ground color one scale in width, ex- 
tends to the origin of the tail. Here they unite, and extend to the extremity 
of that member as a median band. A second pair of brown bands commences 
one at each nostril. It passes through the eye to beyond the angle of the 
mouth, where its inferior border becomes ill defined, and continues so through- 
out its whole length. The upper border is clearly defined to the end of the 
tail. The medial light dorsal vitta bifurcates on the neck, and extends as far 
as the superciliary plates. The intermediate space is irregularly vermiculated 
with delicate marks of the same color. Upper and lower labials whitish, nar- 

*The following is the description of a third species of this genus, a single specimen of 
which is in possession of ihe National Museum, Washington. It was discovered by Sr. 
R. M. De Oca in the vicinity of Jalapa, Mexico. 

C. proterops nobia. — Size rather small. Scales in nineteen longitudinal rows, thin, 
elongate, obtuse. Head scarcely distinct, short profile of muzzle not elevated. Anterior 
plates of the head small ; loreal a little longer than high. One pre- two postoculars. 
Superior labials seven, third and fourth entering the orbit. Vertical plate elongate, late- 
ral borders convergent, posterior angle acute. Occipitals long. Inferior labials nine ; 
geneials two pairs, nearly equal. Gastrosteges 130, anal one, divided, urosteges ? (tail 
badly mutilated.) Head and body 9 in. 7 lin. in length. The stump of the tail appears 
tetragonal in section. 

Coloration. Above light brown, every scale densely punctulated with darker, especially 
near the margins. From the first to the fourth row of scales this is deeper, giving the 
sides a darker shade. The vertebral row of scales, from the occipitals to the end of the 
tail is also darker. Top of the head densely and obscurely vermiculated and punctulated. 
The dark shade on the fourth row of scales becomes a band anteriorly, and is bordered 
above and below with white on the neck. The lower white border is continued to the 
eye, and is bordered above on the labials with black. The upper white border is discon- 
tinued on the neck, but reappears as a spot, three scales back of the occipitals. Inferior 
half of rostral, upper and lower labials, chin, throat and belly, light brownish yellow, 
densely punctulated with brown. Each labial wiih a darker spot in the centre. Fewer 
punctulations on the urosteges. 

I860.] 16 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

rowly edged with brown. Chin and belly yellowish white, each gastrostege 
with a deep brown dot at each end near the posterior border. 

This very elegant species was discovered in Veragua, New Grenada, by Mr. 
R. W. Mitchell, who presented two specimens to the Academy. We also 
possess a third specimen, native country unknown. It is nearly allied to 
T. tantillus Girard, 1. c, but in that the vertical plate is narrower, the 
sides subconcave, and in contact anteriorly with the preocular. The colora- 
tion is also quite different. 

DiADOPHis Baird & Girard. Type D. punctatus. 
Catalogue North Amer. Rept. in Smiths. Inst. 1852, p. 112. Spiletes (i. e. 
Spilotes) ' ' Wagler. ' ' Swainson, not Wagler. 

106. D. decoratus nobis. Coronella decorata Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. 
p. 35. 

One of our specimens has two preocular plates, another three. In neither 
do we find the upper maxillary teeth materially longer behind. Nevertheless, 
our placing this serpent in Diadophis is altogether provisional ; in the unusual 
It^ngth of tail, as well as in distribution of colors, it differs from this genus. 
We will not give a detailed description at present, as the color of our speci- 
mens has been altered by the loss of the epidermis. The four bright yellow 
spots on the occiput and nape render this a very distinct as well as beautiful 
species. 

One spec. Veragua, N. Grenada. Mr. R. W. Mitchell. 

One •• ? ? ? 

107. D. occipitalis nobis. Ablabes occipitalis Giinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. 
p. 29. 

We have strong doubts of the validity of this species. Seven upper labial 
shields are occasionally found in the punctatus, and the nuchal interrup- 
tion of the yellow collar occurs in the pulchellus B. Sj- G. We have, how- 
ever, never seen a Diadophis with eight upper labials and an interrupted collar. 

We have two specimens corresponding with the occipitalis Gthr., one 
the locality unknown, the other believed to have been obtained in central 
Kansas. Presented by Mr. Henry Yarrow. 

108. D. punctatus Bd. ^ Gird. Coluber punctatus Linn., Holbrook, etc. 
Homalosoma punctatitm Wagl. Spiletes pxinctatus Swains. Calamaria punctata 
Schleg. Ablabes punctatus Dnm., Bibr., Giinther, Hallowell. 



Three 


spec 






S. Carolina. 


Dr. Holbrook. 


One 


<( 






Morris Co., N. Jersey, 


Dr. J. C. Fisher. 


One 


(( 






Bucks Co., Penn. 


? 


Two 


(( 






? 


Dr. Bache. 


One* 


t( 






New Jersey. 


Mr. Tiffany. 


Four 


(( 






? 


Dr. Hallowell & Smiths. Inst 


Onet 


It 


(young) 


Allegheny Co., Pa. 


Mr. D. C. Trout. 


Two 


(( 






? 


Dr. T. B. Wilson. 


Five 


(1 


(y 


oung) 


9 


9 



Var . p a 1 1 i d u s nobis. In the number of rows of scales and labial plates and 
collar, similar to punctatus ; but the color is a light olive brown, shaded 
with bluish towards the gastrosteges, which it borders. There is no central 
series of spots on the belly. 
One spec. California. Dr. Heermann. 

Var. stictogenys nobis. This may possibly be specifically distinct from 
the punctatus, but it is more probable that in a large suite of specimens 



* This specimen has but seven upper labials, eye resting on third and fourth, 
t The vertical shield is as broad as long in this specimen. 



[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 251 

the distinctions would not be borne out. The number of rows of scales is fif- 
teen ; the superior labials are seven, eye resting on third and fourth, as is 
sometimes the case in punctatus. Color above light brownish olive, a 
broad yellow collar, bordered with black as in punctatus. Each gastros- 
tege has a brown dot at its extremity, and the central part of the margin the 
same color, forming a series of transversely elongated spots. Fifth and sixth 
upper labials each with a brown dot. Symphyseal and lower labials with a 
brown dot in the centre of each, two on each anterior geneial, one at the pos- 
terior end of postgeneials and of all the tliroat scales. 
One specimen, locality and donor unknown. 

109. D. dysope s nobis. Scales in 15 rows ; superior labials eight, eye 
resting on the fourth and fifth ; inferior labials eight. Color above olivaceous 
slate blue, beneath light yellowish brown, with three longitudinal rows of 
spots. A very narrow yellow collar involving a part only of each scale that 
it crosses, and bordered with blackish. Upper borders of superior labials 
(not temporals) black. It is in the form of the head that it it differs from the 
punctatus most strikingly. The muzzle is very short, rounded and de- 
pressed ; hence the rostral, frontrals and anterior labials are very small. The 
loreal is a little smaller than the upper postocular. The vertical is small, the 
lateral borders convergent. Superciliaries short and broad, occipitals long, 
bordered by five temporal plates on each side. Breadth of the head at the 
angle of the mouth but little less than the length anterior to the same point. 

One specimen, locality and donor unknown. 

Size equal to that of an adult punctatus. Though small, this serpent has 
a malignant expression, hence the name. 

CoNTiA Bd. & Grd. Type C. m i t i s . 

Catalogue Rept. Smiths. Inst. Serpents, p. 110, 1862. 

This genus is allied to Tseniophis Girard, but is of a stouter and more de- 
pressed form, and has but one nasal plate. The teeth are minute and equal. 

110. C. m i ti s Bd. Sf Grd. 1. c. 

One specimen, Petaluma, Cal. Smiths. Institution. 

111. C. episcopa nobix. Lamprosoma episcopum Kennicott, U. S. and 
Mex. Bound. Survey, ii. pt. ii. p. 22, 1859, pl.xxi. fig. 1 . 

It is now the opinion of Mr. Kennicott that this small serpent does not be- 
long to the Lamprosoma of Hallowell. We concur with him in this, and be- 
lieve that it cannot be generically distinguished from the species just preced- 
ing. It resembles certain Calamarian genera, but were its size quadrupled the 
similarity would probably disappear. 

One sp. Rio Seco, Texas, Smiths. Inst. 

LroPHis Wagler. Type L. r e g i n a e . 

Natur. Sj'st. Amphib. p. 187, 1830. Dum. etBibr. vii. 697, 1854. Giinther, 
Cat. Colubr. Brit. Mus. 42, 1858. Dromicus (Bibron) Dum. Bibr. vii. 646 et 
Gthr. 1. c. 126, pars. Lygophis (Fitz.) Tschudi pars. 

We have included in this genus the Dromicus melanonotus and D. 
1 i n e a t u s of modern authors. It appears to us impossible to establish any 
generic distinction between these species and the L. reginae, while their 
comparatively short tails will separate them from the slender Dromicus f u g i - 
t i v u s and congeners. It is here that the coronelline form seems to pass 
into the true colubrine. 

112. L. CO bell a Wufjl. Dum. et Bibr. Gthr. locis citatatis. 
Seven specimens Surinam. Mr. C. Hering. 

Three " " Dr. Hering. 

One " " Dr. Colhoun. 

I860.] 



One specimen 


? 


One 


Para. 


Two " (young) 


Surinam. 


Two ' ' (young) 


(1 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Dr. Wilson. 
Col. Abert. 
Mr. Wood. 
Dr. Colhoun. 
Three of the young specimens have a pair of white dots on the occipital 
plates, as in the Tropidonotes. The transverse, band-like disposition of the 
small white C-like marks, apparent in specimens of this age, remains during 
adult age in some, thus affording a transition to the 

Var. A. Gtlir. With distinct transverse light bands. 
One sp. Para. Col. Abert. 

113. L. breviceps vohis. Head short, not very distinct from the body 
Plates of the head similar to those of L. cobella except that the occipital 
plates are shorter ; the vertical is broader, its lateral borders measuring less 
than the anterior ; the rostral is broader ; and there are but seven superior 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit. The sixth superior labial 
widens upwards, and supports nearly the whole length of the temporal. In 
L. cobella the upper margin of this plate is shorter than the lower. Two 
postoculars, both in contact with the first temporal. Second temporal large, 
one or two other small ones. One preocular ; loral small. Eight inferior 
labials, fifth largest, anterior part in contact with posterior geneials (sixth and 
seventh in cobella). Scales in seventeen rows. Gastrosteges 154, a 
bifid anal, urosteges 54 pair. Total length 17 in. 5 lines. Tail 3 in. 2 lin. 

Color above, a deep brown without a trace of the small white marks of the 
cobella, becoming darker posteriorly, and reaching to the gastrosteges. 
It is crossed by very indistinct darker bauds, formed by a single dark scale in 
every other longitudinal row. These bands are two or three scales apart, and 
unite on the flanks, into the black transverse bands of the beUy, which are 
in-egular and broad, almost excluding the yellow ground in some places. 
One spec. Surinam. Dr. Hering. 

Obs. — Comparison with our specimens of L. cobella has induced us to 
consider this distinct on account of: First, the comparative smallness of the 
head ; second, the shortness of the head shields ; third, the less number of 
labials ; fourth, the form of the sixth superior labial ; lastly, the color ; which, 
however, is of but little importance considered alone. It recalls the genus 
Helicops. 

114. L. Merremii Dum. and B'lhr. L. miliaris, poecilogyrus et doliatus 
Wagler. Coluber Merremii, poecilogyrus et doliatus Neuwied, Beitr. und Abbild. 
Bras. Lief. 8. 

Var. A. Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. 44. 
Three spec. S. America. ? 

Var. poecilogyrus Neuw. 1. c. 
One sp. S. America. Capt. J. Jameson. 

Our specimen is evidently an adult. 

Var. s ublineatus nobis. Olive brown, irregularly varied with black, 
which forms posteriorly an irregular band on each side, as in L. r e g i n a e , 
with a bright one above it. 
One spec, (half grown) Bueno's Ayres. Mr. Kennedy. 

Young, Col. doliatus Neuw. 1. c. 
One spec. " " 

One spec. Brazil. Garden of Plants. 

115. L. reginae Wagl. h c. Coluber reginceliinn. Col. graphicus Sh&w. 
Natrix regincB Merr. Coronella regince Schl. Essai, ii. p. 61. Lygophis regi- 
voR Tschudi, Reise in Peru. 

Two sp. Surinam. Dr. Hering. 

One sp. Para. Col. Abert. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 253 

Var. without temporal spot. 
One sp. Para. Col. Abert. 

Var. witliout temporal spot or tail streak. 
One sp. Buenos Ayres. Mr. Kennedy. 

Young, muzzle short, neck with transverse blotches. 
One sp. Surinam. Dr. Colhoun. 

One sp. Panama. Dr. Ruschenberger. 

116. L. conirostris Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 46. 
The longitudinal dorsal bands are indistinct anteriorly. 

One sp. ? Dr. Wilson. 

One sp. Buenos Ayres. Mr. Kennedy. 

117. L. melanonotus nobis. Coluber melanotus Shaw, Zool. p. 534, 1802. 
Coronella melanotus Boie, Isis, 1827, 532, and C bilineata ditto, p. 525. ? Col. 
vaninus Bonnat. Col. vittatus Hall. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. ii. 242, 1845. Lio- 
phis vittatus Cope, 1. c. 1859, p. 297. 

Ten sp. Near Caraccas. Dr. S. Ashmead. 

One sp. West Indies. Mr. Engstrom. 

118. L. lineatus nobis. Coluber lineatus Linn. Coronella lineata Boie. 
Lygophis lineatus Fitz. Herpetodryas lineatus Schl. Ess. ii. 191. Dromicus 
lineatus D. & B. vii. p. 655. Gthr. Cat. Brit. Mus. 134. 

Two sp. Surinam. Dr. Hering. 

Two sp. " Dr. Calhoun. 

Pliocebcus nobis. Type P. elapoides. 

Body cylindrical ; head scarcely distinct ; tail two-fifths of the total length. 
Cephalic plates normal : two pre-, two postoculars, one loreal, two nasals. 
Anal scute bifid. Scales smooth. Dentition as in Lampropeltis ; i. e. the 
posterior superior maxillaries not isolated, longer, much recurved and smooth. 

The great length of the tail separates this genus from Lampropeltis and 
Erythrolamprus : it unites the dentition of the former with the preanal scute 
of the latter. Coronella and Phimothyra no6«s have comparatively short tails. In 
Coniophanes the head is more distinct, the body more slender and not so 
firmly cylindrical. 

119. P. elapoides nobis. 

Rostral plated just visible from above : prefontals one third the size of the 
postfrontals. Length and breadth of the vertical plate equal to the suture of 
the occipitals. The latter are oval, and rounded behind. Five marginal 
temporals on each side. Upper preocular large, not reaching the vertical ; 
inferior one very small, partially between the third and fourth superior labials. 
Height and length of loreal equal. Eight superior labials, fourth and fifth enter- 
ing the orbit. Inferior labials eight, the last three times as long as the seventh, 
sixth largest ; these three plates border within a large shield which diverges 
from the outer posterior extremity of the posterior geneial. Two equal pairs 
of elongated geneials. Scales in seventeen longitudinal rows. Gastrosteges 
131 ; urosteges 89 pair. Total length of adult, 19 in. 9 1., tail 7 in. 6 1. 

Coloration. — The ground color is brilliant red, which encircles the body 
above and below in bands of from four to six scales in width. These are 
separated by triads of black rings including yellow intervals, — ten or eleven 
on the body, one at the anus, and six or seven on the tail. The outer ring 
of each triad is one and a half scales wide, and is not continued on the belly ; 
the yellow interval is of the same width, and the central black ring is three 
and a half or four scales wide. The first triad is upon the head and neck ; 
the central black ring is seven or eight scales wide and does not extend upon 
the neck, but involves the ends of the occipitals and the last upper labial. The 
anterior yellow ring crosses the occipitals, and involves one and a half tempo- 
1860.] 



254 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

rals, the sixth, seventh and half the eight upper labials. All the head anterior 
to this is lustrous black, except a narrow oral border of yellow. Chin 
immaculate. Many of the scales of the body are tipped with brown, many 
with black. 

This beautiful species resembles in the distribution of its colors certain 
Elapses — particularly decoratus and Dumerilii. It is a beautiful 
example of analogy of coloring. We have four specimens, one adult, one half 
grown, and two young, which were obtained through the liberality of John 
Cassin, Esq., from Sr. K. M. De Oca who collected them near Jalapa, Mexico. 

Lampkopeltis Fitzinger. Type L. S a y i . 

Systema Reptilium, 1843, p. 25, et Sphenophis es-d. loc. OpJiiboIusBsLird and 
Oirard, Catal. Serp. Smiths. Inst. 1852, p. 82. Coluber, Pseudoerijx, Coronella et 
Ablabes sp. auctorum. 

This group was first defined, and its species enumerated by Profs. Baird and 
Girard, in their "Catalogue." In structural peculiarities it fulfils all the 
requisites of a strictly natural group. It represents in America the Coronella 
of the Old World, from which it differs in possessing an undivided postab- 
dominal scutella, and a peculiar form of posterior upper maxillary teeth. 
These are closely set, stout, much compressed and trenchant, with their 
anterior borders rather abruptly curved backwards. It also approaches 
Erythrolamprus, which may be distinguished by the grooved superior maxilla- 
ries, and divided postabdominal scutella. In geographical range it extends from 
Maine (L. triangula)to Panama (L. micropholis.) 

In the Neue Classification der Reptilien of Fitzinger, (1826) p. 55, we find 
that the seventh genus of the nineteenth family of that author, Colubroidea, 
is Pseudoeryx Fitz. There are seven species enumerated, and the Coluber 
doliatus of Linne is the first. Where there is no possibility of ascertaining 
what species an author assigns as the type of his genus, it is the practice of 
naturalists to regard as such that which stands first in his enumeration. 
Adopting; that rule in the present instance, we should have to employ Pseu- 
doeryx in place of Lampropeltis of later date — a substitution by no means to 
be desired. Fortunately, however, we believe that Fitzinger did indicate with 
sufiicient clearness what type of form he intended to characterize. On page 
29 of the same work he thus characterizes Pseudoeryx : " Abdomen scutatum. 
Cauda non compressa. OcuU verticale>. Rostrum rotundatum." Thisdignosis 
at once shows that he considered the third* species on the list — P. Daudinii 
(Dimades p 1 i c a t i 1 i s Gratj, ) — as the true representative of the genus ; and for 
it, the name Pseudoeryx is not inappropriate. This supposition is confirmed 
by the fact that in his Systema Reptilium, published in 1843, he5,retain3 the 
genus, and distinctly assigns P. plicatilis as the type. 

120. L. Sayi nobis. Herpetodryas getulus Schlegel, Essai, ii. p. 198, 1837, 
(not Col. getulus Linn). Lampropeltis getulus Fitz. 1. c. Coluber Sayi 
Dekay, New York Fauna, Reptiles, 41, 1842. 

Coronella Sayi Holbr. N. Amer. Herp. iii. p. 99, 1842. Dum. Bibr. vii. p. 
G19, 1853. Giinther Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 41, 1858. Ophibolus Sayi Bd. & Grd. 
Catal. p. 71, 1852. 
Two spec. 



One 


" Louisiana, 


Dr. Hallowell. 


One 


" ? 


Dr. Bache. 


One 


" (half grown) Missouri, 


Gard. of Plants in ex. (as 
Herpetodryas getulus). 


Two 


"(young) ? 


Dr. Hammond. 



* The diagnosis is equally applicable to the second species P. pyrrhogrammus, 
if that be the Col. ery thro gram musofDaudin. The fifth species is P. schistosus, 
a la homalopsides. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 255 

121. L. splendida nobis. Ophibolus splendidus Bd. & Girard. Catal. p. 83, 
1852. Mex. Boundary Survey, Vol. ii. pt. ii. pi. 14. 

One sp. Ft. Buchanan, Arizona, Smithsonian Institution. 

122. L. g etui a nobis. Coluber (jetulus Linn., Harlan, Peale, Giinther, 1. c. 
p. 249. Pseudoelaps (jetulus Fitz., Neue Class. 1826, p. 56 (not the type.) 
Coronella qetula Holbr. Herp. iii. 75. 1842, Dum. Bibr. vii. p. 616. Ophibohu 
getulw, Bd. & Grd. 1. c. 72. 

One sp. S. Carolina, Dr. Holbrook. 

Three " New Jersey, Messrs. Benj. Badger and Peter Doyle. 

Two " (young) f ? 

The posterior supermaxillary teeth are but little longer than the anterior, 
but are much stouter, and strongly compressed, as in other species of the 
genus. The young may be distinguished from the young of P. S ay i by the 
less number of the transverse bands. In g e t u 1 a they number from 30 to 
45, in S ay 1 from 70 to 80, they are also more irregular in the latter. 

123. L. Boy Hi nobis. Ophibolus Boi/lii Bd. & Girard, Catal. p. 69, 1852. 
Corondla balteata Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1853, p. 236, U. S. Pac. R. R. 
Exped. Williamson's Expl. p. 14, pi. 5. 

A fine species, representing the g e t u 1 a in California. 

Tliree sp. California, Dr. Heermann. 

One '• Cape St. Lucas, Cal. Smithsonian Institution. 

In this specimen the vertical plate is more elongate than usual, and almost 
trigonal in, outline. Many of the scales in the light transverse bands are 
black at their bases. 

124. L. calligaster nobis. Coluber caUiga^ter " Say," Harlan, Med. and 
Phys. Res. 122, 1835. Ablabes trianyulum var. calliga.>ter Hallowell, Proc 
Acad. Nat. Sci. 1856, p. 244. Oplvbolus Evansii Kenn. Proc. Acad. 1859, p. 99^ 

This species is attributed to Say by Harlan and others, but after a most 
careful examination of Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, we have 
failed to discover any allusion to it by that author. 

In the second volume of that work, p. 330, it is stated that such of the speci- 
mens collected by the expedition as arrived in Philadelphia, were deposited 
in the Philadelphia museum. It was from specimens of the present species in 
that collection that Harlan drew up his description ; and the same are alluded 
to by Dr. Holbrook, N. Amer. Herp. iii. p. 72, where he asserts their identity 
with the Coluber eximi us . One of these, a stuffed skin, presented to the 
Academy by Dr. Holbrook, and labelled by Dr. Hallowell "original specimen," 
is now before us. "We can assert its identity with the Ophibolus Evansii of 
Kennicott both from his description and from comparison with specimens 
collected by Dr. Hammond in Kansas, and described by Hallowell 1. c. They 
all have twenty-five rows of smooth scales. 

As to the Scotophis calligaster of Kennicott, l.,c., which belongs to a 
genus different from the present, we believe it is a serpent distinct from the 
Coluber calligaster of Harlan, although in the description of the former 
author we read "there can be no hesitation in referring this species to the 
Coluber calligaster of Say. ' ' In order to avoid the confusion which must 
result from the possession of the same specific name by two serpents closely 
resembling each other, and inhabiting the same section of country, we propose 
for the species of Mr. Kennicott the appellation rhinome gas. 

Three sp. Kansas, Dr. Hammond. 

One " Missouri, Dr. Holbrok. 

125. L. rhombomaculata nobis. Coronella rhombomacul ata Holbrook, 
N. Amer. Herp. iii. p. 103. 1842. Ophibolus rhombomaculatus Bd. & Grd. 1. c. 
p. 73, 1852. 

One sp. Georgia, Dr. Holbrook. 

i860.] 



256 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



126. L. triangul a nobis. Le Triangle, Lacep. Hist. Serp. ii. 331, 1789, 
Coluber triaiujulum Bole, Isis, 1827, p. 537. Col. eximius Dekay, New York 
Fauna, pi. 12, fig. 25, 1842. Harlan, Storer, Holbrook, Griinther. Pseudoelaps Y. 
Berthold. 1843. Ophibolus eximius Baird et Girard, Catalogue, p. 87, 1852. 
Ablabes triaiu/ulum Dum. Bibr. Erp, Gen. vii. 315, 1853. Do. vars. clericus et 
ex.'mius Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1856, 245-6. 

The dentition of this species is not different from that characteristic of the 
genus. The posterior upper maxillary teeth are longer and stronger than the 
anterior, though not so much so as in L. Sayi. They are thickly set, so 
compressed as to give them a great antero-posterior diameter, and have a 
rather abrupt posterior curvature. This species cannot be arranged in the 
same genus as Lycodonomorphus rufulus Fitz. (type of Ablabes Dum. & 
Bibr. ) which, according to Schlegel and Smith, has the anterior maxillary teeth 
a little longer than the posterior. The tail is one fourth or fifth of the total 
length, while in all the species of Lampropeltis before us, that member is very 
short, being never more than one seventh or one eighth of the total length. The 
arrangement of this species with the Coluber guttatus is simply the result 
of a mistaking of analogy for affinity. 

We have seen no second specimen which corresponds with the type of Profs. 
Baird and Girard's Opliibolus clericus in the form of the head and position 
and size of the eye. The specimen alluded to by Dr. Hallowell, 1. c, from New 
Jersey, approximates remotely in these respects, though resembling it much 
in the number and size of the dorsal spots. We incline to think that no cha- 
racters of specific value can be deduced from these ; there are specimens inter- 
mediate, as respects their size and number, between the highest in eximius 
to the lowest in clericus, as defined in Baird and Girard's catalogue. And 
there are indifferently one or two rows of spots on the sides. What the true 
clericus is, more specimens alone can show. 

A. Spots as in "eximius." 



One spec. 


? 


Dr. Bache. 


• ( 11 


Berks Co., Penna. 


? 


Two " 


? 


? 


One " 


"S.Carolina." 
B. Spots as in "clericus." 


"Mr. Jas. Reade 


One spec. 


Near Trenton, N. J. 


Mr. C. C. Abbott. 


One " 


Near Haddonfield, N. J. 


Dr. G. Watson. 


One " 


New Jersey. 


Mr. S. Ashmead. 


Three spec. 


Near Philadelphia. 


Dr. E. Hallowell. 


One " 


S. Carolina. 


? 


Three " 


9 


Dr. Wilson. 


One " 


9 


Dr. Blanding. 


Two " 


? 


9 



127. L. doliata nobit-. Coluber do! iaius Linn. Coronella doliata Holbr., 
N. Am. Herp. iii. 105, 1842, pi. 24. Do. var. B, Giinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 
42. Ophibolus gentilis Bd. et Girard, Catal. p. 77. Marcy, Expl. Red Riv. p. 
229 pi. 8. 

In the true Coronella doliata of the Eastern States the black rings form- 
ing each pair, separate on the flanks, and become more or less confluent with 
the adjacent ring of the next pair. The belly is also irregularly varied with 
black. These peculiarities are well represented in Holbrook's figure. The 
only constant difi'erence observable between eastern specimens and those from 
Kansas, which agree closely* with the descriptions and figure of Oph. g e n- 

* Dr. HalJowc'll (Proc. Acad. 1856, p. 248) speaks of the difference between these speci- 
mens and Baird & Girard's descriptions as considerable; to us ihey appear very slight. 

[June, 



il 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 257 

tills Bd. Sf Grd., is, that in the former the whole of the occipital shields are 
includerl in the black of the crown, in the latter the tips of those shields are 
crossed by the first yeUow band. We do not feel satisfied that this is of spe- 
cific value. 
One sp. Delaware. J. Green. 

" " " Mr. Drexler. 

; " " Washington, D. C. Dr. Burtt, U. S. N. 

(( U f If 

Four sp. Kansas. Dr. Hammond. 

One " Creek Boundary. Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. 

128. L. coccinea nobis. CoroneUa coccinea Schleg., Ess. ii. p. 57, 1837. 
Sphenophis coccinea Fitz. Syst. Rept. 1843, p. 25. Ophibolus doJiatus Bd. et 
Grd. 1. c. p. 76, 1852. Calamaria elapsoidea Holbr. N. Am. Herp. iii. p. 119, 
1842, et Osceola elapsoidea Bd. & Grd. col. p. 133, (founded upon specimens 
in which the loreal plate is abnormally absent.) 

This species is closely allied to the preceding, but may be distinguished by 
the following peculiarities : The scales are in seventeen and nineteen rows 
instead of twenty-one. The pairs of rings are fewer in number, (thirteen to 
seventeen on the body,) and do not become confluent on the flanks. The 
belly is not varied with black. From the anterior part of the occipital plates 
to the muzzle the color is red, not white or yellow, and without black punc- 
tulations. The muzzle is depressed, and the superciliary plates are very small, 
giving the eyes a greater vertical field than in the d i o 1 a t a. The tips of the 
occipitals are crossed by the first yellow ring. 

Many of these peculiarities are alluded to in the very accurate description 
of Herr Schlegel, and to us it is perfectly plain that he had the present species 
before him when writing it. The species is probably southern in its distribu- 
tion. 

One sp. Mobile. Dr. Nott. 

" " Georgia. Maj.LeConte. 

129. L. annulata Kennicott, MSS. This, perhaps the most beautiful 
species of the genus, resembles d o 1 i a t a, but the scales are very broad, and 
the gastrosteges opposite to the red interval of the back are totally black. The 
confluence of the black rings bordering the red does not take place on the 
scales of the sides. For a more detailed description we refer to Kennicott's 
forthcoming article. 

One sp. Texas. Capt. J. P. McCown. 

130. L. micropholis riobis. Scales in twenty-one longitudinal rows, 
small, short and obtuse. Temporal region swollen, giving the depressed head 
an appearance of distinctness. Plates of the head much as in doliata ; the 
superciliaries and vertical are however larger, and the longitudinal line of 
suture of the occipitals is only three -fourths the length of the latter plate. 
The outer borders of the occipitals present two posterior divaricating angles, 
and one on each side at the end of the first temporal. Upper labials seven, 
third and fourth entering the orbit. Inferior labials nine, the seventh twice 
as large as the last two together. Other particulars as in d o 1 i a t a, Gastros- 
teges 219 ; one entire anal ; urosteges 43 pair. Total length 16 in. 11 1. ; tail 
2 in. 

The color is a delicate red with a black tip upon each scale. The body is 
completely encircled by ten pairs of jet black rings, which are anteriorly ten 
scales apart, posteriorly seven. The space included in each pair is three or 
four scales wide, and is red — not yellow — each scale having a black tip. The 
tail is ornamented with two pair of black rings and a black tip. Eighteen 
scales anterior to the first pair of rings, a black collar four scales wide encircles 
the neck, scarcely touching the tips of the occipitals. The superciliary 

I860.] 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

vertical, except its anterior border, and the occipitals within a line drawn 
diagonally from the posterior termination of their suture to the lower post- 
ocular, are black. A spot below the eye, one on the chin, and the posterior 
borders of most of the other plates of the head are black. 
One sp. Panama. Dr. John L. Le Conte. 

131. L. polyzona nobis. Size larger than the three preceding species, 
body firmly cylindrical ; scales large, lanceolate, in twenty-one or twenty-three 
rows. Head scarcely distinct. Greatest length of vertical plate a little greater 
than breadth, which latter is a little greater than length of occipital suture. 
Rostral large, full, postfrontals large, occipitals more elongate than in m i c r o- 
pholis. One pre- two postoculars, lo'real longer than high; upper labials 
seven, eye over the third and fourth, first in contact with loreal.* Inferior 
labials nine. 

Gastrosteges (1) 214, (2) 215; an anal; urosteges (1) 49, (2)41. Total 
length (1) 3 ft. 5 in., (2) 3 ft. 3 in. 6 1. ; tail (1) 6 in. (2) 5 in. 9 1. 

The ground color above and below is bright red ; the scales are largely 
tipped with black. In specimen No. 1 there are twenty-seven pairs of black 
rings on the body and tail. In a few instances the double rings become con- 
fluent, forming an elongate annular spot. The gastrosteges are irregularly 
spotted with black, and are almost entirely of that color where the rings cross 
the belly. Specimen No. 2, which we take to be more typical, is ornamented 
with twenty-eight pairs of rings only three or four scales apart, and perfect on 
the belly. In both the pairs include a space but one and a half scales wide, of 
a pale reddish above, more yellow below. A black collar involves the tips of 
the occipitals and the last superior labial. In front of this a yellow band 
crosses the occipitals. The rest of the head is black, a few scales with pale 
borders, which hue predominates on the chin.f 
(2) one sp. Quatupe, near Jalapa, Mex. Mr. Pease. 

(1) " Jalapa. Jno. Cassin, (De Oca coll.) 

"Var. A. Scales in the rings of the ground color without black tips. Nine- 
teen pairs of rings on the body. 
One sp. Mexico. Mr. Keating. 

The var. C of CoroneUa doliata, in Brit. Mus. Catalogue, p. 42, may belong 
to this species. 

Erythrolampkus Boie. Type E. venustissimus, 
Isis von Oken 1826, p. 981. 

* This may not be a constant character; in do] i ata it occurs occasionally, but not at 
all in our specimens olc o c c i n e a: 

t In another specimen of this species, taken in the hills west ofVera Cruz by Dr. Sar- 
torius, and sent to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, there are 13 rows of scales, 
and tv/enty pairs of black rings not separated the width of one scale. 

Another specimen in the Museum Smiths. Inst, resembles our var. A — having the scales 
in twenty- one rows without black tips, and twenty-one pairs of black rings on the body. 
It differs from it in having no yellow marking whatever upon it, and in the black rings 
being but one scale and a half wide instead of three, and in the smaller size. The first 
black ring does not touch the occipital plates, in this resembling the c o c c i n e a, which 
differs in having nineteen rows of scales, and yellow rings. The head and plates are 
broad and short, the scales as in doliata, and more lanceolate than inannulata 
Kenn. Though loth to add another to the already difficult series of red Lampropeltes, 
the more we have thought of it the more are we impressed with the belief that this is 
deserving of recognition as a species. Unite it with any species with which we are ac- 
quainted, and the characters which distinguish all the species in the series from trian- 
gula to micropholis are invalidated. We propose that it be called L. a m a u r a. 
Locality unknown. 

For the opportunity of examining and describing these and other specimens noticed in 
this paper, in the National Museum of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, we are 
indebted to the liberality of its distinguished officers Profs. Henry and Baird. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 259 

132. E. intricat us Dum. and Bibr. vii. p. 855. 

Var. scales of the white (red or yellow) spaces without black tips. 
One sp. S. America, Dr. Neill. 

133. E. venustissimus Boie, 1. c. CoroneUa venuntissima Schl. Essai ii. 
p. 53. Erythr. venKstissimus Dum. Bibr. vii. 851. Giinther Cat. Brit. Mus. 47. 

Var. B. Dum. Bibr. 

Two sp. S. America, Mr. Cuming in ex. 

Var. ? Head black from a single collar forward, except anterior halves of 
upper labials, which are red. The vertical plate appears to be broader 
anteriorly than ordinarily, but the specimen is not in sufficiently good state of 
preservation to offer distinct characters. 

One sp. S. America, Dr. Strain. 

134. E. Aesculapii Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amphib. 187. Dum. etBibr. vii. 
p. 845. C'lrondla veiiusta Schleg. Essai, i. p, 135. 

Var. D. Dum. Bibr. 1. c. p. 849. 

One sp. Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

In this specimen twenty-two pairs of reddish brown rings encircle the body 
from head to tail. These bands are three and a half scales wide and are sepa- 
rated by equal light spaces of one scale in width. It is only on the belly that 
the former appear in pairs. Head as in the true Aesculapii. A species ? 

Var. E. nobis. 

The distribution of colors on the head as usual. Twelve pairs of black rings, 
those of each pair becoming confluent on the middle of the back. The broad 
interspaces are shaded with brown, which is deeper on the tip of each scale. 

This variety (a species ?) resembles the C of Dumeril & Bibron, where the 
rings composing the pairs are separated by a very narrow interval, and the 
spaces between the pairs are very dark. 

One spec. Surinam, Dr. Colhoun. 

135. E. albost olatu s ?!o6(s. 

Number of the plates of the head the same as in the venustissimus . 
In form, the fifth and sixth upper labials are narrower and higher ; and the 
formulas, vertical, and superciliaries, are broader. The eye is larger, the 
temporal region more swollen, and the whole head deeper and more obtuse. 
Rows of scales fifteen. Gastrosteges, 167 ; one divided anal ; urosteges, 48. 

The ground color of the upper and under surface of this serpent is white, 
as a note made by Mr. Samuel Ashmead, its discoverer, at the time of its 
capture, informs us. This is crossed on the body, by ten or thirteen black 
.single rings four or five scales wide, and from seven to twelve scales apart. 
Another ring crosses at the anus, and there are two double rings on the tail. 
The scales in the white intervals are broadly tipped with black. The distri- 
bution of color on the head, much as in E. venustissimus. There is 
a broad black collar which crosses the tips of the occipitals and does not 
encircle the throat. The fifth and sixth upper labials, the first temporal, the 
tips of the plates adjoining them posteriorly, and a spot on the occipitals, are 
white. The rostral, first two labials, nasals and loreal are bordered with the 
same, the rest of the head is black. Chin immaculate. 

One specimen. Jijuca, near Rio Janeiro, Mr. S. A. Ashmead. 

One " ? ? 

ScoLECOPHis Fitz. Type S. atrocinctus. 

Systema Reptilium, 1842, p. 25. Eomalocranion Dum. & Bibr. viii. 855, 
Gtinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. 18. 

136. S. zonat us no6j.-;. Flaps 20«a^MS Hallowell, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
New Series, vol iii. p. 35. 

This species is very similar to the S. a t r oc i n c tus of Chili. It differs 

I860.] 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

in having the seventh superior labial larger than the sixth, and in having 
four large temporals on each side, of equal size, one smaller above the last 
labial, and two still smaller at the end of each occipital. The breadth of the 
head at the temples is equal to the length from the muzzle to the extremity 
of the occipital suture. There are forty-five black rings on the body and tail, 
which leave white interspaces, wider upon the back than the flanks. Only 
the white scales on the latter region are tipped with black. The anal scute 
is divided. 
One specimen. Honduras, Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. 

PsEUDOBOA Schneider. Type P. coronata. 

Hist. Amphib. Fasc. ii. p. 286, 1801. ScytaJe Boie, Isis, 1826, 981, (not of 
Merrem.) Wagler, Natur. Syst. 187. Dum. & Bibr. vii. p. 996. Giinther, 
Cat. Brit. Mus. 187. Olisthenes, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1859, p. 296. 

Schneider's name for this genus possesses the right of priority over that of 
Merrem. Tlie almost universal acceptation of the latter by herpetologists, is 
also the more to be regretted as the type is not known. The relative num- 
ber of the gastro- and urosteges in the Scytale anguiformis of Merrem 
renders its identity with Erythrolamprus venustissimus very improb- 
able. 

137. P. coronata Schneider. Scytale coronaium Boie, Wagler, Dum, & 
Bibr. Griinther, etc. Lycodon cloelia, var. Schl. 

One specimen. Caraccas, Mr. W. G. Bolton. 

One " Panama, Drs. Gallaer and LeConte. 

138. P. Ne u w i edi ?ioZ>«s. Dum. & Bibr., vii. p, 1001, Olisthenes enphaeus 
Cope, 1. c. 

One specimen. S. America, Ed. D. Cope. 

OxTEOPCs Wagler. Type 0. petolarius. 
Natur. Syst. Amphib., 1830, p, 185. Hi/droscopus et Deiropeda Fitz, Syst. 
Kept. 1843, p, 26, Brachyruton Dum. k Bibr. vii. p. 1004, 1854. 

139. 0. plumbeus Gthr. Coluber plumbeus Wied. Abbild. xii. pi. 6. 
Duberria (1824) et Hydroscopus (1843) plumbeus Fitz. Brachyruton plumbeum, 
D. et B. 

One specimen. Cayenne, Gard. plants in ex. 

One " Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

One " ? Dr. Wilson. 

One " Trinidad, Dr. Watson. 

140. 0. melanocrotaphus nobis This serpent resembles the 0. 
cloelia, but may be distinguished from it, first, by the form of the head 
and the distribution of colors on it (second), and third, by the relative 
length of the tail. 

The profile of the muzzle is very rounding and obtuse, and its sides nearly 
plane ; the head is deep. Eight upper labial plates, third, fourth and fifth, 
entering the orbit. Loreal large, as high as long. Anterior border of the 
vertical plate not greater than the length of the lateral borders. The latter 
are slightly concave, and scarcely or not at all convergent. Three temporals 
on the exterior border, the first twice as large as the second, and bounding 
the sixth and seventh upper labials. Preocular large ; one narrow postocular, 
which will probably be found to be divided in other specimens. Inferior 
labials eight. Geneials two pair, broad. Scales in nineteen longitudinal 
rows. Gastrosteges 161, one entire anal, urosteges 45. Total length 25 in. 
9 lines. Tail 4 in. 1 1., less than one sixth of total length ; incloeliaitis 
a little more than one fifth. 

Coloration. The whole upper surface of the body and tail is of a pale yel- 
lowish or brownish gray, many scales with one or two borders pure white. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 261 

The plates of the head and chin are of a deeper tint, possibly red in life. 
Parts of the post-ocular and sixth and seventh superior labials, the whole of 
the eighth labial and the temporals, are covered by a black spot on each side, 
which unites upon the nape of the neck with that of the opposite side. One 
specimen, locality and donor unknown. 

141. 0, cloelia Gthr. Coluber cloelia Daudin. Clelia Daudinii Fitz. 
1826, Cloelia occipitalis Wagl. 1830. Deiropeda cloelia Fitz, 1843. Bra- 
chyruton cloelia Dum. & Bibr. 1853. 

One sp. Surinam. Dr. Hering. 

One " Cocuyas de Veraguas N. Grenada. Mr, R. W, Mitchell. 

One " Isth, of Panama. Drs. Gallaer and LeConte. 

One " Caraccas. Dr. Morris. 

142. 0. immaculatus Dum. 4~ Bibr. vii. 1029. 

Two sp. S. America. Capt. Jameson. 

143. 0. petolarius Warjler. Dum. & Bibr. vii. 1033. 

One sp. Surinam. Dr. Hering. 

One " (young) ? ? 

Var. The black bands occasionally dividing, alternating and becoming con- 
fluent on the back. The loreal plate entering the orbit. 

One half grown spec. Is. of Panama. Drs. Gallaer and LeConte. 

144. 0, trigeminus Duvi. §• Bibr. -vii. 1013, Lycodon formosus Schl. 
One sp. Bahia. Gard. Plants in ex. 
One " S. America. Dr. Wilson, (Bp, C^U. pres. by Dr. DeKay.) 

LYCODONTIN^. 
BooDON Dum. & Bibr. Type B. unicolor. 
Erpetologie Generale, vii. p. 357, 1854. 

145. B. virgatus nobis. Coelopeltis virgata Hallowell, Proc. Acad, Nat. 
Sci. vii. p, 98, 1854. Boodon nigrum Fischer, Abhandl. aus dem Gebiete der 
Naturwissensch. Hamburg, iii. 91, 1856. '? Boodon capense A. Duvaeril, Rev, 
et Mag. de Zoologie 1856, 464. Boodon quadrivirgatum Hallow. Proc. Phila. 
Acad. 1857, p. 56. 

Foursp. Gaboon. Dr. Ford. 

One " Liberia. Mr. E. T. Cresson. 

Our specimens correspond exactly with the description of Dr. J. G. Fischer, 
so that we have no doubt as to their belonging to the same species. Prof. 
Dumeril loc. sup. cit. identifies the Coelopeltis v i r g a t a of HalloweU with 
the Booden cape ns is D. &. B., and there is a possibility that the specimen 
received by him from the Acad. Mus. belongs to the latter species. Our speci- 
mens, however, presented by Dr. Ford, and subsequently described by Dr. Hal- 
lowell as B. quadrivirgatum, and stated by him to be identical with his 
C. virgata, cannot be identified with the B. capense. The former has 
twenty one and twenty -three longitudinal rows of scales, the later twenty-nine 
or thirty-one. 

146. B. quadrivittatus HalloweU, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1857, p. 54. 
One sp. Isles de Los (off Sierra Leon.) Dr. Burtt, U. S. N. 

A fine species, resembling probably the Capense, but with twenty seven 
rows of scales and a different disposition of the bands on the muzzle. 

Lycophidion Fitz. Type L. Horstokii. 
Syat. der. Rept. p. 27. 

147. L. laterale Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1857, p. 58. 

A Lycophidion with the coloration of a Boodon. The pupil is round ; the 
anterior nasal plate almost reaches the edge of the lip, and wants but little 
of meeting its feUow over the rostral. 

One sp. Gaboon. Dr. H. A. Ford. 

I860.] 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

HoRMONOTUs Hallowell. Type H. a u d a x . 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhHa. 1857, p. 56. 

A genus agreeing with. Lamprophis Fitz., in having a larger series of verte- 
bral scales, but differing in the elongated compressed body, and angular gas- 
trosteges. 

148. H. audax Hallow. 1. c. 

One sp. Gaboon. Dr. H. A. Ford. 

The form of the body, and color of this species, bear some analogy to those 
of the Boiga pulverulenta, just as the Boodons and Lycophidions 
resemble the Brachycranion and Atractaspis. The subject of the pre- 
valence of peculiar shades and arrangement of colors, throughout certain geo- 
graphical districts, is one of much interest to the zoologist. The smoky and 
fuscous colors of the serpents just alluded to are repeated among birds in the 
Nectarinia fuliginosa, the genera Andropadus, Drymoeca, Artemyias, etc. 
The Euprotodon (Lycodon) of the East Indies in the distribution and often in 
the shade of its colors, resembles very much the venomous Bungarus and 
Elaps (Calliophis) of the same countries. 

The Elaps of South America is represented in the same region by the black 
and red-ringed Oxyrhopes, the Erythrolamprus, Pliocercus, Lampropeltis etc. 

? Lycodon Boie. Type L. aulicus. 

Isis, 1827, p. 551, num p. 521 ? Schlegel (pars) Ess. ii. p. 106. Fitzinger, 
Neue Class, p. 29. Dunn et Bibr. vii. p. 367. Gunther 1. c. p. 201. 

We have strong doubts of the propriety of retaining the name Lycodon for 
this genus, inasmuch as Boie first proposed it for the Colubar audax Linn. 
a species of widely different affinities. Fitzinger in the " Neue Classification" 
removed this species to the genus Dipsas, rightly estimating the differences 
between it and those for which he retained the name Lycodon. He afterwards 
("Systema Reptilium," p. 29,) made the same species the tj-pe of his genu? 
Siphlophis. Dumeril 1. c. p. 354, follows Fitzinger in the application of the 
name Lycodon, and quotes Bole's original diagnosis as more particularly ap- 
propriate to the C. aulicus and congeners. As however Boie says " dentes 
colubrini" of the Psammophis and Dipsas, it must be equally appropriate to the 
C. audax. This latter species is the type of Lycognathus Dum., fam. Anisodon- 
tiens, Opisthoglyphes. 

In deference to authority we propose no change ; but if herpetologists should 
ever see fit to apply the name Lycodon to the Lycognathus scolopax 
(=audaa:) of Dumeril, the present genus might be appropriately called 
Euprotodon, and the subfamily Euprotodontinae. 

149. L. aulicus Boie 1. c. Dum. & Bibr. vii, p. 369. L. hebe Schleg. 
Var. A., Dum. & Bibr. 

One sp. ? Mr. R. Oakford. 

Var. B., Dum. & Bibr. 

One sp. India. Dr. Burroughs. 

One " " Gard. of Plants in ex. 

Var. F., Dum. & Bibr. 

One sp. Java. Dr. Ruschenberger. 

Seven sp. Philippine Is. Mr. Cuming in ex. 

EoMESoDOS nobis. Type E. semicarinatus. 

Palatine teeth of equal length. Mandibular teeth in a continuous series, 
much longer and stronger anteriorly. Superior maxillary teeth in two slightly 
separated series, those of the anterior long, but increasing regularly in length 
posteriorly ; the posterior small in front, but terminating in one or two very 
long, trenchant, smooth teeth. 

Form elongate, stout ; tail short ; gastrosteges bent on the flanks. Head 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 268 

distinct, the shields broad ; muzzle prominent. Two nasals, two postoculars, 
one preocular, the loreal sometimes reaching the orbit beneath it. Scales 
either smooth or partially carinate. Pupil elliptical. 

The serpents for which we propose this name are colubrine in form, but 
possess a peculiar dentition, most resembling that of Dinodon and Odontomus 
Duvi. Sj- Bibr. From both these forms they differ in having the anterior pala- 
tines no longer than the posterior (i. e. pterygoids), and the posterior su- 
perior maxillaries abruptly longer than the three or four whicli precede them. 
150, E. semicarinatus nobis. Head depressed, conic, the width at 
the eighth labial plate less than half the length. Muzzle rounded conic, pro- 
minent, acute in profile. Pupil ? Body cylindrical, tail one-fourth of total 
length. Scales short, obtuse, in seventeen longitudinal rows ; anteriorly 
smooth, near the middle of the body three or four rows, and finally seven or 
eight, having distinct keels on the anterior half of each scale. Those of the 
tail smooth. No larger vertebral series. Rostral plate exhibiting a large 
crescentic inferior surface ; superior surface large, presenting an obtuse angle 
between the prefrontals. Postfrontals three times the size of the prefrontals. 
Vertical broad, short, pentagonal, the anterior border greater than the lateral, 
and equal to the greatest length of the plate. Superciliaries not acute in front. 
Occipitals elongate, not bifurcate, bordered by two large temporals on each 
side. The anterior of these is narrow, and separated from the sixth and 
seventh labials by a broader and shorter plate, both in contact with the post- 
oculars. The posterior is broad, and bordered by two others on its postero- 
inferior border. 

Superior labials eight, third, fourth and fifth entering the orbit. Two post- 
one preocular. Loreal low, elongate, acute behind, not reaching the orbit. 
Nasal plates two, nostril large. Inferior labials ten, geneials two pair. 

Coloration. Above yellowish brown, crossed by forty-two large black spots. 
The scales which fall in the border of each spot are absolutely black, but those 
enclosed have a large central spot of the ground-color. The latter appears 
above as light transverse bands one scale wide. There are seventeen spots on 
the tail, darker than those of the body. Head above brownish black, con- 
tinuous with the first dorsal spot. From the posterior extremity of each occi- 
pital plate a yellowish band proceeds outwards and backwards, uniting with 
an area of the same color which extends from the throat upon the sides of the 
neck. In the centre of this area is a brownish black spot. Spottings of yel- 
lowish on the temporal plates form an irregular postocular band, and another 
equally indefinite and irregular extends from the eye round the muzzle. Su- 
perior labials (except tlieir edges) chin, throat, belly and under surface of tail 
brownish yellow. The ends of the gastrosteges on the flanks, partly in- 
cluded in a series of spots which alternate with the larger ones of the back. 
Urosteges spotted with blackish. Gastrosteges 221 ; one entire post-abdomi- 
nal ; urosteges 92 pair. Total length, 37 inches ; the tail 9 in. 3 lines. One 
specimen, captured by Mr. Heine of the U. S, Japan expedition at Loo Choo, 
presented by the Smithsonian Inst. 

151. E. s tr i a t u s nobis. Coronella striata Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci 
1856, p. 152. 

This serpent resembles the preceding in many points — remarkably in the 
dentition — yet presents differences which may at some time be regarded as 
generic. The entrance of the loral plate into the orbit, the smooth scales with 
the vertebral series slightly larger, and the elliptic pupil, approximate it to the 
Dinodon c a n c e 1 1 at u ni Dum. & Bibr. In the palatine and superior maxil- 
lary teeth the differences are of a kind which would be considered generic by 
the authors of the Erpetologie Generale. In specific characters there is much 
resemblance, but our serpent has fewer urosteges, there being 70 to 193 gas- 
trosteges ; in the Dinodon 168 to 194. The spots above are reddish brown, not 
black ; and the belly is not punctulated posteriorly. 

We at one time thought that our specimen belonged to the Lycodon rn f o- 
1860.] 



264 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

?, o n a t u 3 Cantor^ Ann. et Magaz. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 483, and that long im- 
mersion in spirits had destroyed the lighter colors. We now believe the ani- 
mals to be distinct, but nearly allied. 
Two specimens and head. Ningpo. Dr. McCartee. 

DIPSADIN^. 
BoiGA Fitzinger. Type B. irregularis. 

Neue Class, der Reptilien, pp. 29, 60, 1826. Triglyphodon Dumeril, Pro- 
drome de la Class. Ophid. p. Ill, 1852. Erp. Gen. vii. p. 1069, 1854. Dipsas 
Schleg. Essai, ii. p. 257, 1837. Fischer, Abhdl. aus Gebiete Wissensch. Hamb. 
iii. p. 81, 1856. Giinlher, Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 169, 1858, (not of Laurenti, 1768.) 
Gonyodipsas, Cephalophis et Macrocephalus Fitz. Syst. Rept. 27, 1843. Toxico- 
dryas Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1857, p. 60. 

This is the genus Dipsas as understood by GUnther 1. c. We have, however, 
not followed this author in the application of a name, since that employed by 
him was given to another and allied form, long previously. Some time subse- 
quent to the first use of Dipsas, the present genus received the barbarous ap- 
pellation of Boiga (!). This we would gladly resign in favor of Triglyphodon 
Dum^ril^ but dates are inexorable. Vae serioribus. 

152. B. dendrophila nobis. Dum. Bibr. 1. c. p. 1086. Dipsas dendro- 
phila Reinw. et auctorum. 

One sp. Java. Garden of Plants. 

153. B. Blandingii nobis. Dipsas Blandingii Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. ii. p. 170, 1844. Triglyphodon fuscum Dum. Bibr. vii. p. 1101, 1854, 
(not B. f u s c a . =^DendropMsfusca Gray, Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 54). Dipsas valida 
Fischer, loc. cit. 1856. Gthr. loc. cit. p. 172, 1858. Toxicodryas Blandingii 
Hallow, loc. cit. p. 60, 1857. Our specimens of this fine and interesting dipsa- 
dien agree very nearly with the description and figures of Fischer. The two 
preoculars and divided anal shield are striking characters,* and it exhibits a 
relationship to Ophiodon Dum. and Bibr. in its elongate anterior maxillaries, 
On these peculiarities, but especially from the fact that our specimens have but 
a single grooved tooth on each side. Dr. Hallowell proposed his genus Toxico- 
dryas. The latter character is, however, inconstant, for Fischer states that his 
specimen had two such teeth on each side, and Dumeril, that his had three. 
The elongation of the anterior maxillary and palatine teeth does not appear 
to us sufficiently distinctive to afford generic characters, nor are the other 
peculiarities of su-fBcient importance. 

154. B. pulvernlenta nobis. Dipsas pulverulenta Fischer, Abhandl. der 
Naturwissensch. in Hamburg, ii. p. 81. Taf. iii. f. 1. Gtinther, Cab. Brit. Mus. 
p. 173. 

One sp. Liberia. Mr. E. T. Cresson. 

A beautiful specimen, having the lateral spots obsolete anteriorly. There is 
in this species, also, but one groved superior maxillary. 

155. B. multimaculata nobis. Dipsas multimaculata Reinw. et Auct- 
orum. Erp. Gen. vii. p. 1139. 

One sp. Java. ? 

HiMANTODEs Dum. «fe Bib. Type H. cenchoa. 

Erp. Gen. vii. p. 1064. Dipsas Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 521. Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. 
27, 1843. 

This genus unites the short, flat head of the true Dipsas, (Leptognathus D. 
& B. Gthr.) with the dentition of the preceding genus. The tail is very long and 
slender. 

156. H. c e n c h a Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 1065. Coluber cenchoa Linn. Dipsas 
* Also possessed by Boiga g 1 o b i c e p s =Dipsa$ globiceps Fisch. 1. c. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 265 

cenchoa Wied. Boie, "Wagler, Giinther 1. c. p. 174. Dipsas Weit/elii Scbleg. ii. 

p. 278. Fitz. Syst. Rept., p. 27. 

One sp. Near Isalco, San Salvador. Capt. J. M. Doav. 

Our specimen bas the preoculars united, wliich peculiarity appears to be 
not uncommon. The dorsal spots connected by a narrow, often irregular 
brown vitta. 

Tripasurgus Fitz. Type T. leucocephalus. 

Systema Reptilium. 1843, p. 27. 

157. T. leucocephalus Fitz. Cohiher leucocephalus Mikan. Col. com- 
pressus Oppel. Dipsadomorphus compressus Fitz. Dipsas leucocephalus Schleg. 
Lycognathus leucocephalus Dum. & Bibr. Eudipsas leucocephalus Gthr. 
One sp. V ? 

Dipsas Laurenti. Type D. In d i c a. 

Specimen Synopsis Reptilium, p. 89, 1768. Dipsadomorus, Petalognathus et 
Leptognathus Dnm. & Bibr. vii. pp. 463, 477, 1854. Leptogjiathus Giinther, Cat. 
Brit. Mus., p. 177, 1858. Pholidolwmus Sihijnomorphus et Sibynon Fitz. Syst. 
Rept., 27, 1843. 

The genus Dipsas has been variously understood and defined by herpetolo- 
gical authors. As four distinct groups have been designated by this name, in 
order to avoid further confusion we have employed it for that to which it was 
first applied. In the Synopsis Reptilium of Laurenti, which bears date 1768, 
the name was first proposed, with an appropriate " character," and D. I n d i c a 
Laur. was indicated as the typical and only species. In 1852 Dumeril made 
the same species the type of his genus Dipsadomorus, and in 1858 Giinther 
placed it in Leptognathus Dum. We next find the genus Dipsas characterized 
at length by Boie in his invaluable contribution to herpetology, in the Isis von 
Oken for 1827, and D. cenchoa assigned as the type. This species is the 
Himantodes of Dumeril, 1852. In the Regne Animal, 1829, we find the genus 
as proposed by Laurenti retained, and of all modern authors Cuvier is the 
only one who does so. In 1830 the Naturlich System der Amphibien of Wagler 
appeared. Here Dipsas dendrophila Rein, is considered typical of the 
genus ; and in this he is followed by the great ophidiologist Schlegel, in the 
•' Essai," in 1837. The group of which this species is a typical example was 
named Triglyphodon by Dumeril in 1852, but is the Boiga of Fitzinger, 1826. 

Fitzinger, in the Systema Reptilium, 1843, cites Dipsas cenchoa. 
("Weigelii") as the type of the genus, following Boie. Phillippo de Phillippi, 
in the Catalogue of Serpents in the Museum of the University of Pavia, 1849, 
follows Wagler and Schlegel. 

la the Prodrome de la Classification des Reptiles Ophidiens, vol. xxiii. of the 
memoirs of the French Academy, 1852, and afterward in the Erp. Generale, 
Dumeril considers Dipsas trigonat a the type of the genus. In 1843. 
Fitzinger proposed Dipsadomorphus for the same species. Finally, in 1858, in 
the Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the British Museum, Dr. Giinther places 
D. multimaculata first among the species, and so characterizes the genus 
as to be nearly coextensive with Triglyphodon, Dumeril, including also 
Himantodes of the latter. 

Believing the genera of Dipsadinse as defined by Giinther, to be, on the 
whole, more natural than those of other authors, we have adopted them here, 
simply employing the name Dipsas for that called by him Leptognathus, and 
Boiga for his Dipsas. 

158. D. nebulata Boie, 1. c. Coluber nebulaius Linn. 1754, Col. variegatm 
Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ii. p. 244, 1845. Dipsas nebulata Schleg. 
Essai, ii. p. 275. Sibynon nebulata Fitz. 1. c. Petalognathus nebulatus Dum. & 
Bibr., 1. c. Leptognathus nebulatus Giinther, I.e. 

One specimen, Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

One " " Dr. Colhoun. 

Two " Near Caraccas, Mr. Asbmead. 

I860.] 17 



266 PROCEEDINGS Or THE ACADEMY OF 

159. D. pavonina Cuvier, MSS., Schlegel, Essai, ii. p. 280. Leptognathus 
pavoninus Dum. & Bibr. vii. p, 474, Guather, I.e. 179. 

One specimen, S. America. ? 

160. D. b re vi s nobis. Leptognathus brevis Dum. & Bibr. vii. p. 476. 

One specimen. Cocuyas de Veraguas, New Grenada, R. W. Mitciiell, 

Oar specimen of this rare species has but one preocular plate ; its form too, 
is no less slender than that of our D. pavonina, which, however, may 
not be fully grown. Otherwise it coincides with the description cited. The 
dark brown of the upper surface of the head is marked with small, irregular 
spots of white. 

SiBON Fitzinger. Type S. a nn ulat a . 

Neue Classification der Reptilien, 1826, p. 60. Leptodeira Fitz., Systema 
Reptilium, 27, 1843. Giinther, Cat. Brit. Mus. p. 165. 

161. S. annulata Fitz. 1. c. Coluber annulatus Linn. Dipsas annulata 
Schleg. Essai, ii. p. 294, Dum. & Bibr., vii. 1141. Leptodeira annulata Fitz. 
et Gthr. 1. c. 

Scales in nineteen or twenty-one rows. 

a. With an undulating dorsal band. Var. A. Dum. & Bibr. 

Six specimens. Surinam, Dr. Hering. 

b. With isolated, sometimes geminate spots. Var. B. Dum. & Bibr. 
Five specimens. Caraccas, Mr. Ashmead. 
One " " W. G. Bolton. 
One " Isth. Panama. Dr. LeConte. 

Four " S. America, Mr. H. Cuming, in ex. 

Scales in twenty-three rows. 
Two specimens. Honduras, J. S. Hawkins & Dr. LeConte. 

One " Near Volcano Isalco, San Salvador, Capt. John M. Dow. 

One " Xalapa, John Cassin, Esq. (De Oca coll.) 

Two •' ? ? 

There is much difference in the appearance of the specimens of this species 
which come from the extreme points of distribution represented in our collec- 
tion, viz. Surinam and Xalapa. As has been observed by authors, those from 
the more southern localities, have more slender bodies and tails, and hence, 
fewer longitudinal rows of scales, and the head is more distinct. The whole 
" physiognomy" is more that of the arborial Dipsadiens. This is more striking 
in a specimen where the vertebral rows of scales in places is slightly, but dis- 
tinctly larger than the others. From the Stomach of a Surinam specimen we 
took an adult Hyla ; from one from Caraccas, a Thecadachylua rapicaudus. 

Specimens from Mexico exhibit a stouter, heavier form of body, a greater 
number of longitudinal rows of scales, and a shorter tail. They seldom, if ever, 
have the dorsal spots confluent into a band, strictly speaking, as in the var. A. 
Dum. & Bibr. Their aspect is that of a terrestrial species. 

That these forms are really distinct .«pecies, is possible, but it could only be 
demonstrated with large series of specimens from carefully ascertained locali- 
ties, if at all. Some of the specimens from Caraccas and Panama, are very 
intermediate as respects the peculiarities mentioned. 

Dipsas septentrionalis Kennicott, (Mexican Boundary Survey, ii. 
Reptiles, p. 16, pi. viii. fig. 1,) belongs to this genus. The grooving of the 
posterior upper maxillaries is not represented in the fig. 2, pi. 22, 1. c. It 
seems to resemble northern forms of S. annulata; but has the nasals and 
prefrontals differently proportioned, etc. It has three preoculars but we not 
unfrequently find one or more supplemeatary preoculars in the annulata. 



[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF THILADELPHIA. 267 

Synonymy of the Cyclades, a family of Acephalous Mollusca. Part 1. 
BY TEMPLE PRIME. 

Family CYCLAS, Far. 

Genera, 

Galatea, Brag. 

Pectunculus, Lister. Venus, Chemn. Donax, Perry. Tellina, Dillwyn. 

Cliama, Favanne. Egeria, De Roissy. Megadesma, Bowditch. PotamopJiila. 

Sowerby. Galateola, Fleming. Trigona, Schum. 

Glauconome, Gray. 
Solen, Linn. Glauconomya, Bronn. 

Cypeina, Lamk. 
Pectunculus, Lister. Cardia, Olafsen. Venus, Linn. Arctica, Solium. 

Velokita, Gray. 1834. 
Cyrena, Valenc. 1838. 

CoEBicPLA, Megerle. 1811. 
Tellina, Miiller, 1774. Venus, Chemn. 1782. Cyclas, Brug. 1792. Cyrena, 
Lamk., 1818. Venulites, Schl., 1820. 

Cyeena, Lamk. 1818. 
Venus, Chemn., 1769. Cyclas, Brag., 1792. Cyanocyclas, Fer., 1818. Poly- 
mesoda, Rafin., 1820. Mactra, Brongt., 1823. Geloina, Gray, 1844. 

Batissa, Gray. 1854. 
Cyprina, Cyclas, Brug., 1792. Cyrena, Lamk. 1818. 

Sph^eium, Scopoli. 
Pectunculus, Lister, 1685. Musculus, Gualt. 1742. Tellina, Linn., 1758- 
Sphcerium,ScoTp., nil. Cardium, Da, Costa, 1718. Cyclas, Brng., 1192. Nitx, 
Humphr. 1797. Musculium, Link. 1807. Cornea, Pisum, Megerle. 1811. 
Corneocyclas, Fer., 1818. Amesoda, Rafin., 1820. Pisidium, Verany, 1846. 
Cycladites, Krug, 1848. 

Pisidium, Pf. 1821. 
Pectunculus, List., 1685. Musculus, Gualt., 1742. Tellina, Miiller, 1774. 
Sphcerium, Scop. 1777. Cavdium, Poli. 1791. Cyclas, Lamk. 1818. Peru, 
Euglesia, Cordula, Leach, 1S20. Physemoda, Raf., 1820. Gallileja, Da, Costa., 
1839. Pisum, Gray, (non Megerle), 1847. Muscidium, Gray, (non Link), 
1851. 

Species.* 
Veloeita, Gray. 
1. V. Cyprinoides, Gray. Grif. Cuvier, pL 31, f. v. 1834. 

Cyrena Cyprinoides, Gray. Ann. Phy. n. ser. ix. 136. 1825. 
C. recurvata, Valenc. Mag. Zool. pi. 119, f. 2. 1838. 
C. Gaudichaudii, Valenc. Loc. sub. cit. pi. 119, f. 2. 1838. 
Hab. Philippines. 

CoKBicuLA, Megerle. 
1. C. acut angular is , Desh. 

Cyrena acutangularis, Desh. Inv. Par. 517, pi. 38, f. 17, 18. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

* The synonymy of the species of Galatea, Glauconome and Cyprina, will be givtn at 
some future period; that of the species of Batissa and Pisidium will be found in the 
Annals of the Lyceum of N. H., of New York, vol. vii. 

I860.] 



268 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

2. C. Africana, Adams. Ad. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena Africana, Kr. Moll. S. Afr. 8, pi. i. f. 9. 1848. 
C. Gauritziana, Kr. In litt. 1848. 
Hab. Africa. 

3. C. Agrensis, Prime. 

Cyrena Agrensis, Kurr. in litt. 

Hab. India. 

« 

4. C. Alp in a, Prime. 

Cyrena Alpina, Bgt. Spt. fr. 49. 1854. 
Cyclas Alpina, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1851. 
Hab. France, (fossil ) 

5. C. ambigua, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 345. 1854. 
Hab. Euplirates. 

6. C. amy gdal ina, Desb. 

Cyrena amygdalina, Desb. Inv. Par. 500, pi. 37, f. 22, 23. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

7. C. angnsta, Desh. 

Cyrena angusta, Desb. Inv. Par. 508, pi. 37, f. 9-12. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

S. C. antiqna, Prime. 

Cyrena antiqua, Fer. Moll. terr. et fluv. f. 5. 
Cyclas antiqua, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1854. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

9. C. Arnoudii, Prime. 

Cyrena Arnoudii, Pot et Mich. Gal. Moll. 2, 192, pi. 61, f. 1 5, 16. 1838-44. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

10. C. Arveniensis, Desh. 

Cyrena Arveniensis, Desh. Trait. Elem. Conch. 2, 698. 1843-50. 
C. p(suTO, Desh. Boaillet, Cat. 157. 1836. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

11. C. Anstralis, Desh. 

Cyclas Anstralis, Lam. Lam. V. 560. 1818. 
Cyrena Anstralis, Desh. Encycl. Meth. 2, 50. 1830. 
Hab. Asia. 

12. C. Bengalensis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. 
Hab. Bengal. 

13. C. Bens on i, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 345. 1854. 
Hab. Bengal. 

14. C. Bouilletii, Desh. 

Cyrena Bouilletii, Desh. Trait. Elem. Conch. 2, 698. 1843-50. 
C. depressa, Desh. Bouillet, Cat. 156. 1836. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

15. C. Bra si liana, Adams. Ad. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 
Hab. Brazil. 

16. C. breviuscula, Desh. 

Cyrena breviuscula, Desh. Inr. Par. 503, pi. 36, f. 9-11. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

17. C. Br i t ann ic a , Desh. 

Cycles deperdita. Lam. Park. Org. Rem. 3, 189, pi. 13, f. 8. 1811. 
Cyrena subdeperdita, Morris. Cat. Brit, fossils 86. 1843. 
Cyclas subdeperdita, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 305. 1850. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 269 

Cyrena Britannica, Desh. Inv. Par. 501. 1857. 
Hab. Engl. (fossU.) 

18. C. brunea, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. Scamander River. 

19. C. Cash miri en sis , Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. 
Hab. Cashmyr. 

20. C. C h i 1 e n s i s , Prime. 

Cyclas Chilensis, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 568, pi. 83, f. 11-13. 1846. 
Musculium Chilense, d'Orb. Ads. Rec. Gen. 2, 451. 185S. 
Pisurn Chilense, d'Orb. Loc. sub. cit. 2, 460. 1858. 
Hab. Chili. 

21. C. c mpres sa, Mousson. Ads. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 
Hab? 

— C. consobrina, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2,447. [1858. Is Corbicula 
cor Adams. 

22. C. convexa, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 342. 1854. 
Hab. Central America. 

23. C. cor, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena cor. Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Delessert pi. vii. f. 7. 1841. 
C. consobrina, Caillaud. Voy. Meroe iv. 263, t. 2, pi. 61, f. 10-11. 

1826. 
Ci/clas consobrina, Caillaud, Caltow and Reeve, 29. 1845. 
Corbicula consobrina, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 
Hab. Asia. 

24. C. crass a, Desh. 

Cyrena crassa, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 119, pi. 18, f. 14, 15. 1824. 
C. spissa, Desh. Loc. sup. cit. p. 9, pi. IS, f. 14, 15. 1824. 
Cycles crassa, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 422. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

25. C. crassula, Prime. 

Cyrena crassula, Mousson. Mous. Cat. Bellardi. p. 54. f. 12. 1854. 
Hab. Tigris River. 

26. C. Cumingii, Desh. 
Hab. Philippines. 

27. C. cuneata, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena cuneata, Jonas. Zeit. Malak. 186. 1844. Phil. Abb. 2, 77. pi. i. 

f. 6. 1846. 
C. globulus, Jonas. In litt. 
Hab. Orinoco. 

28. C. cuneiformis, Prime. 

Cyrena cuneiformis, Ferussac. Moll. Terr. Fluv. 

Cyclas cuneiformis, Sowb. M. Conch. 2, 140, pi. 162, f. 2, 3. 1818. 
Cyrena donacialis, Desh. Diet, class h. n. v. 290. 1824. 
C. donaciformis, Anton. Verz. 1839. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

29. C. cycl adifo rmis, Desh. 

Erycina leevis. Lam. Ann. Mus. v. 413. 1805. 

Ci/rena cycladiformis, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 121, pi. 19, f. 7-9. 1824. 
Cycles cycladiformis, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

30. C. deb ills. Prime. 

Cyrena debilis, Gould. Bost. Proc. 3, 293. 1850. 
Hab. N. Guinea. 

I860.] 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

31. C. deperdita, Desli. 

Cyclas deperdita, Lam. Ann. Mus. vii. 421. 1806. 
Cyrena deperdita, Desh. Cog. Foss. Par. 1, 118, pi. 19, f. 14, 15. 1824. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

32. C. Deshayesii, Prime. 

Cyrena Deshayesii, Hl'bert. Ball. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2d. n. v. 401. f. a. b. 
1848. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

33. C. D u ch a s t e 1 i , Nyst. Bull. Brux. xv. 114, f. 1-4. 1838. 

Cyrena trigonula. Wood. Ann. Mag. n. h. vii. 275, f. 45. 1841. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

34. C. Fe rr us s aci. Prime. 

Cyrena Ferritssaci, Math. Cat. Meth. 149, pi. xiv. f. 14, 15. 1842. 
Cyclas Ferrusmci, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

35. C. fluminalis, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

TeUina fluminalis, Miiller. Verm. 2, 205. 1774. 

T. fluviatiUs, Miiller. Loc. sup. cit. 2, 206. 1774. 

Venus fluminalis, Chemn. vi. pi. 30, f. 320. 1782. 

V. fluviatiUs, Chemn. Loc. sup. cit. pi. 30, f. 321. 1782. 

Cyclas Euphratica, Lam. Ann. Mus. vii. 420. 1806. Encycl. pi. 301, 

f. 2, pi. 302, f. 1, 2. 
C. fluviatiUs, Bosc. 3, 38. 1802. 
C. Icevigata, Schum. 170, pi. xii, f. 1. 1817. 
Cyrena fuscata. Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. 
C. Euphratica, Bronn. Syst. Urwelt. pi. iv. f. 10. 
C. orientalis, [Lam. Phil. Abb. 2, 75, pi. 1, f. 2. 1846. Mousson, 

Moll. Java 86, pi. xv. f. 2. 1849. 
Corbicula fuscata. Cantor. Proc. Zool. x. 124. 1852. 
Cyrena fluminalis, Bgt. Cat. Saulcy 79. 1853. 
Corbicula fluviatiUs, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 
Hab. Asia. 

36. C. flu mine a, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Tellina fluminea, Gml. 3243. 1788. Miiller, Verm. 2, 205. 1774. 
Venus fluminea, Chemn. vi. 321, pi. 30, f. 322-23. 1782. 
Cyclas Chinensis, Lam. Ann. Mus. vii. 421. 1806. 
C. fluminea, Bosc. 3, 38. 1802. 

Cyrena fluminea, Lam. Lam. v. 553. 1818. Phil. Abb. 2, 76, pi, 1. 
f. 3. 1846. 
Hab. China. 

— C. fluviatilis, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858, is Corbicula flu- 
minalis, Adams. 

37. C. Forbesii, Desh. 

Cijrena Forbesii, Desh. Inv. Par. 510, pi. 37, f. 24^27. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. fuscata, Cantor. Proc. Zool. x. 124. 1852. Is Corbicula flumin- 
alis, Adams. 

38. C. gracilis. Prime. 

Cyrena fluminf a, Mousson. Moll. Java, 87, pi. xv. f. 3. 1849. 

Corbicula Moussonii, Desh. Litt. Adams, Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1853. 
Hab. Java. 

— C. grand is, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854, is Corbicula W o o d - 
iana, Adams. 

39. C. Grave si i, Desh. 

Cyrena Gravesii, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 2, 810. 1824. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 271 

C. Gravii, Desli. Loc. sup. cit. 1, 120, pi. 19, f. 3-4. 1824. 

Cijclas Gravesii, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 
— C. ha mm alls, Ferussac. Mag. Zool. v. 59-60. 1835. 

Cyclas hammalis, Fer. Rafin. Bory St. Vt. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phy. v. 319. 
1820. (Not described.) 

40. C. inaequilateralis, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. Africa. 

41. C. incrassata, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 342, 1854. 
Hab. ? 

42. C. L a r g i 11 i e r t i , Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena Largillierti. Phil. Zeit. Malac. 163. 1844. Abb. 2, 75, pi. 1, 
f. 1. 1846. 
Hab. China. 

43. C. limosa, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Tellina limosa, Maton. Trans. Linn. Soc. London x. 325, pi. 24, f. 8-10. 

1809. 
Cyrena limosa, Gray. Ann. Ph. n. ser. ix. 137. 1825. 
Hab. South America. 

44. C. Malacensis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 343. 1854. 
Hab. Malacca. 

45. C. Manillensis, Prime. 

Cyrena Manillensis. Phil. Zeit. Malac. 163. 1844. 
C. fluviatilis. Phil, {non Venus Jluminea, Chemn.) Phil. Abb. 2, 77, 
pi. 1, f. 5. 1846. 
Hab. Manilla. 

46. C. maxima, Prime. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab? 

47. C. media, Prime. 

Cyrena viedia, Fitton. Ann. Ph. and n. ser. vii. 376. 1824. 
Cyclas media, Sowb. M. Conch, vi. 51, pi. 527, f. 2. 1829. 
Hab. Engl, (fossil.) 

48. C. minor, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab? 

49. C. mixta, Desh. 

Cyrena mixta, Desh. lav. Par. 1058. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. Moussonii, Desh. Adams, Rec Gen. 2, 447. 1858. Is Corbicula 
gracilis, Prime. 

50. C. Nepeansis, Prtme. 

Cyclas Nepeansis, Less. Voy. Coq. ii, 428, pi. xiii. f. 14. 1820. 
Hab. N. South Wales. 

51. C. nitens, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena nitens. Phil. Zeit. Malac. 163. 1844. Abb. 2, 76, pi. 1, f. 4. 
1846. 
Hab. China. 

52. C. n 1 a t a , Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. Phillipines. 

53. C. obovata, Prime. 

Cyclas obovata, Sowb. Min. Conch. 2, 140, pi. 162, f. 4-6, 1818. 
Cyrena obovata, Desh. Encycl. Mcth. 2, 52. 1830, 
Hab. Engl, (fossil.) 

I860.] 



-(2 PROCEEDINGS Or THE ACADEMY OF 

'A. C. b s c u r a , Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 342. 1854. 
Hab? 

:)5. C. obsoleta, Desli. Proc. Zool. xxii. 345. 1854. 
Hab. Uruguay. 

56. C. occidens, Bens, Adams, Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 
Hab. India. 

57. C. orbicularis, Prime. 

Cyrena orbicularis, Desh. Mellev. Mem. Terr. Tert. Par. 35, pi. 2, f. 

3, 4. 1843. 
Cydas suborbicularis, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. 
Cyrena suborbicularis, Desh. Inv. Par. 497. pi. 38, f. 11, 12. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

58. C. or lent alls, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena orientalis, Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Delessert, pi. vii. f. 8. 
1841. 
Hab. Asia. 

59. C. ovalina, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 343. 1854. 
Hab. Port. Essington, Australia. 

(JO. C. oval is, Prime. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab? 

61. C. Pano rmi t ana, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyrena Panonnitana, Bivon. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

62. C. Par an a c en sis, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena Paranacensis, d'Oi-b. Guer. Mag. v. 44. 1835. 
Cyclas Paranacensis, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 567, pi. 83, f. 23-25. 1846. 
Hab. S. America. 

63. C. parva. Prime. 

Cyrena ovalina, Desh. Inv. Par. 505, pi. 36, f. 16-18. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

64. C. parvula. Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. India. 

65. C. pisum, Desh. 

Cyrena pisum, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 117, pi. 19, f. 10-13. 1824. 
Cyclaspisum, d'Orb. (non Math.) Prod. 2, 322. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

66. C. prolongata, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. E. Australia. 

67. C. pulchella, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena pulchella, Mouss. Moll. Java, 88, pi. 15, f. 4. 1849. 
Hab. Java. 

68. C. pullata, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena pullata, Fhil. Phil. Abb. 3, 110. 1849. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

69. C. pusilla, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena pusilla, Parr. Phil. Abb. 3, 78, pi. 1, f. 7. 1846. 
Hab. River Nile. 

70. C. radiata, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 447. 1858. 

Cyraia radiata, Parr. Phil. Abb. 2, 78, pi, 1. f. 8. 1846. 
Hab. River Nile. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 278 

71. C. recur vat a, Eydous. Adams, Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 
Hab? 

72. C. regularis, Pr. MSS. 1859. Collect. Cuming. 
Hab. Deacan River, Australia. 

73. C. rbomboidea, Pr. MSS. 1859. Collect. Auctoris. 
Hab. Malacca. 

74. C. rival is, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Ci/rena rivalls, v. d. Buscb. Pbil. Abb. 3, 110, pi. 3, f. 5. 1849. 
Corbicula striatella, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. 
Hab. Java. 

75. C. rotunda. Prime. Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1860. 
Hab. Surinam. 

76. C. R u y a n'a , Prime. 

Cyclas Rouyana, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. ^ 1850. 
Cyrena Rouyana, Bgt. Spb. p. 51. 1854. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

77. C. semistriata, Dash* 

Venulites subaratus, Scblotb. Petr. 200. 1820. 
Cyrena semistriata, Desb. Encycl. 2, 52. 1830. 

a trigona, Besh. ) Goldf. Petr. Germ. 2. 1834-40. 
\J c iiTiBitorTTiis F ©r* I 

d subovata, Bronn. Letb. Geog. 2, 958, pi. 38, f. 2. 1835-8. 
Cyclas semistriata, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. 
Cyrena convexa, Heb. et Renev. Foss. Num. Sup. 59. 1854. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.^ 

78. C. semisulcata, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 343. 1854. 
Hab. Victoria River, Australia. 

— C. s i m i 1 i s, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858, is Corbicula W o o d i a n a , 
Adams. 

79. C. soli du la, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. ? 

80. C. squall da; Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 342. 1854. 
Hab. ? 

— C. striatella, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. Is Corbicula r i v a- 
lis , Adams. 

81. C. subradiata, Prime. 

Cyrena subrad'iata, Kurr. 
Hab. India. 

82. C. sulcatina, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 348. 1854. 
Hab.? 

83. C. tellinella, Prime. 

Cijrena tellinella, Ferussac. Hist. Moll. f. 1. 
Cyclas tellindla, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

84. C. tellinoidea, Prime. 

Cyrena tellinoidea, Bouillet. Cat. Foss. 156. 1836. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

85. C. tenuistriata. Prime. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. ? 

86. C. triangula. Prime. 

Cyrena trigona, Desb. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 118, pi. 19, f. 16, 17. 1824. 

I860.] 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Cyclas trigona, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

87. C. triangularis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 345. 1854. 
Hab. ? 

88. C. trigona, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. 
Hab. Pondicherry, India. 

89. C. trig one 11a, Prime. 

Cyrena trir/onella, Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. 
Hab. East Indies. 

90. C. truncata, Prime. 

Cyrena truncata, Lam. Lam. v. 553. 1818. 
Hab. N. iimerica, (fossil.j 

91. C. turn id a, Desh. Proc. ZooL xxii. 343. 1854. 
Hab. Borneo. 

92. C. Vapincana, Prime. 

Cyclas Vapincana, d'Orb. Prod 2, 381. 1850. 
Cyrena Vapincana, Bgt. Sph. fr. 51. 1854. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

93. C. variegata, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena variegata, d'Orb. Guer. Mag. v. 44. 1835. 
Cyclas variegata, d'Orb. Yoy. Amer. 567, pi. 82, f. 14-16. 1846. 
Cyclas limosa, d'Orb. Loc. sup. cit. pi. 82, f. 14-16. 1846. 
Hab. S. America. 

94. C. V e n er ifo rmi s, Desh. 

Cyrena veneriformis, Desh. Inv. Par. 499, pi. 38, f. 1, 2. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

95. C. ven trice sa, Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab. Mazatlan. 

96. C. violacea. Prime. In litt. 1860. 
Hab.? 

97. C. Woo di an a, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 

Cyrena Woodiana, Lea. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. 110, pi. 18, f. 55. 

1832. 
Cyrena similis. Gray. Grif. Cuv. pi. 20, f. 2. 1834. 
Corbicula grandis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 344. 1854. 
Corhicula similis, Adams. Rec. Gen. 2, 448. 1858. 
Hab. China. 

Cyrena, Lamarck. 

1. C. abbreviata, Desh. Invt. Par. 491, pi. 38, f. 13, 14. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. acutangularis, Desh. Loc. sub. cit. 517, pi. 38, f. 17, 18. 1857. 
Is Corbicula acutangularis, Desh. 

2. C. sequalis, Glf. Petr. germ. 2, 224, pi. 146, f. 5, 1834—40. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

3. C. sequilater a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 20. 1854. 
Hab. Guiana. 

4. C. af fin is, Desh Loc. sub. cit. xxii. 16. 1854. 

— c' A f r i c an a , Kr. Moll. S. Afr. 8, pi. 1, f. 9. 1848. Is Corbicula 
A f r i c a n a, Adams. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 275 

— C. A 1 p i n a, Bgt. Sph. fr. 49. 1854. Is Corbicula A 1 p i n a, Prime. 
— C. agrensis, Kurr. In litt. Is Corbicula agrensis, Prime. 

5. C. alta, Dkr. Wald. 153. 1854. 
Hab. Germany, (fossU.) 

— C. altilis, Gld. Bost. II. vi. 400, pi. xvi. f. 5. 1852. Is Cyrena 
Mexican a, Sowb. 

6. C. am big u a, Br. Geol. II. x. 275. 1854. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. amygdalina, Desh. Inv. Par. 500, pi. 37, f. 22, 23. 1857. Is 
Corbicula amygdalina, Desh.. 

7. C. Anglic ana. Prime. 

Cyrena obiusa, Forbes, (preoc.) Rec. Sci. 2, pi. 3, f. 4. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

3. C. angulata, Rcemer. Oolitt. i. 117, pi. 9, f. 12. 1835. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 
— C. angulata, Desh. Proc, Zool. xxii. 22. 1854. Is Cyrena tumida, 

Prime. 
— C. a n g u s t a, Desh. Inv. Par. 508, pi. 37, f. 9-12. 1857. Is Corbicula 

a n g u s t a, Desh. 

9. C. angustidens, Desh. Mellev. Terr. Tert. Par. 35, pi. 2, f. 1, 2. 1843. 

Cijclas angustidens, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

10. C. anomala, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 21. 1854. 

Cijrena Pei-uviana, Desh. In litt. 
Hab. Peru. 
— C. antiqua, Fer. MoU. Terr. FIut. f. 5. Is Corbicula ant i qua, Prime. 

11. C. apicina, Dkr. Wald. 149. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

12. C. a rat a, Forbes. Geol. II. vii. pi. 5, f. 6. 1851. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

13. C. arc tat a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 20. 1854. 
Hab. Maracaibo. 

14. C. ar en aria, Forbes. Rec. Sci. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

— C. Arnoudii, Pot. & Mich. Gal. Moll. 2, 192, pi. 61, f. 15, 16. 1838- 
'44. Is Corbicula A r n o n d i i. Prime. 

— C. arveniensis, Desh. Trait. Conch. 2, 698. 1843-'50. Is Cor- 
bicula Arveniensis, Desh. 

15. C. as tart e, Dkr. Wald. 153. 1831. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. A u s t r a 1 i s, Desh. Encycl. 2, 50. 1830. Is Corbicula A u s t r a- 
lis, Desh. 

16. C. Ben g al en sis. Lam. Lam. v. 554. 1818. 

Venus Bengalensis, Lister, pi. 345, f. 182. 
Cyclas Bengalensis, Fer, 
Hab. Asia. 

17. C. B 1 i V i a n a, Phil. Zeit. Malac. 70. 1851. 
Hab. Bolivia. 

— C. Bouilleti, Desh. Trait. Conch. 2, 698. 1843-50. Is Corbicula 

Bouilleti, Desh. 
— C. breviuscula, Desh. Inv. Par. 503, pi. 36, f. 9-11. 1857. Is 
Corbicula breviuscula, Desh. 
I860.] 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

18. C. Bronnii. Dkr. Wiild. 160. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. Brit annic a, Desh. Inv. Par. 501. 1857. Is Corbicula Brit a n- 
nica, Desh. 

19. C. brunea, Pr. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab.? 

20. C. B u s c h i i, Phil. Abb. 3, 78, pi. 2, f. 2. 1849. 
Hab. ? 

21. C. C a 1 e d o n i c a, Gas. II. Conch, vi. 277. 1857. 
Hab. N. Caledonia. 

22. C. Californiensis, Prime. 

Cijrena subquadrata, Desh. (preoc.) Proc. Zool. xxii. 21, 1854. 
Hab. California. 

23. C. car dio ides, Desh. Inv. Par. 498, pi. 36, f. 1-3. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

24. C. Car olini ensi s. Lam. Lam. v. 1818. 

Cijclas Caroliniensis, Bosc. Per. Cat. Meth. 84. 1807. 
C. CaroUniana, Bosc. 3, 37, pi. xviii. f. 4. 
Hab. N. America. 

25. C. c and at a, Roemer. Oolit. 1, 117, pi. 8, f. 13. 1835. 

Cyrenaexcavata, Eoemer. Loc. sub. cit. 1, 117, pi. 9, f. 6. 1835. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. Charpeuterianus, Bgt. (err.) II. Conch, iv. 173. 1853. Is 
Ancylus Charpenterianus, Bgt. 

26. C. Charpentieri, Desh. P. & M. Gal. Moll. 2, 191, pi. 61, f. 18, 19. 
1838-44. 

Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

— C. Childrenae, Gray. Ann. Phy. n. ser. ix. 137. 1825. Is Ba- 
tissa Children ae. Gray. 

27. C. compressa, Desh. Lam. (ed. Desh.) vi. 279. 1835. 

Cijrfna depressa, Desh. (non Lam.) Diet, class h. n. v. 290. 1824. 
Cuclas subdepres.-^a, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

28. C. compta, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 18. 1854. 
Hab.? 

— C. com^^ta, Desh. Inv. Par. 491, pk 35, f. 1-3, pi. 36, f. 19, 20. 
1857. Is Cyrena G a 1 1 i c a n a. Prime. 

29. C. conjunct a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 15. 1854. 
Hab? 

— C. consobrina, Cail. Voy. Mer. iv. 263, t. 2, pi. 61, f. 10, 11. 1826. 

Is Corbicula cor, Adams. 
— C. convex a, H. & Renev. Foss. num. sup. 59. 1854. Is Corbicula 

semistriata, Desh. 
— C. cor. Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Is Corbicula cor, Adams. 

30. C. corbiculseformis, Prime. Ac. N. S. PhU. Proc. 1860. 
Hab. Malabar. 

31. C. CO r d ata, Morris. Geol. II. x. 158, pi. 2, f. 8, 9. 1854. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

32. C. cordiformis, Desh. Diet, class, h. n. 290. 1824. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. cordiformis, Recluz, (preoc.) II. Conch. 251, pi. 7, f. 9. 1853. 
is Cyrena Recluzii, Prime. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 277 

— C. crass a, Desh. Coq. foss. Par. i. 119, pi. 18, f. 14, 15. 1824. Is 

Corbicula c r a s s a, Desh. 
— C. crassula, Mouss. Malak. Blilt. 57. 1855. Is Corbicula c r a s- 

s u 1 a. Prime. 

33. C. Credueri, Dkr. Weald. 152. 1846. 
Hab. Grermany, (fossil.) 

34. C. crenulata, Desh. Inv. Par. 518, pi. 34, f. 10-12. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

35. C. C 11 b e n s 1 s, Prime. 

Cijclas maritlma, d'Orb. D'Orb. Cuba 2, 280, pi. xxi. f. 47-50. 1853. 
Hab. Cuba. 

36. C. Cumingii, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 22. 1854. 
Hab. Central America. 

— C. c u n e a t a, Jonas. Zeit. Malak. 186. 1844. Is Corbicula c u n e a t a, 
Adams. 
C. cuneiformis. Per. Moll. terr. fluv. Is Corbicula cuneifor- 
m i s. Prime. 

37. C. Cunningliamii, Forbes. Geol. II. vii. 112, pi. v. f. 9. 1851. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

— C. cycladiformis, Desh. Coq. foss. Par. 1, 121, pi. 19, f. 7-9. 1824. 

Is Corbicula cycladiformis, Desh. 
— C. cyclo stoma, Bgt. (err.) II. Conch, iv. 193. 1853. Is Ancylus 

cyclostoma, Bgt. 
— C. Cyprinoides, Gray. Ann. Phy. n. ser. ix. 136. 1825. Is Velo- 

rita C yprinoides, Gray. 

3S. C. C y p r i n o i d e s, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol. 3, 513, pi. 82, f. 1-3. 1834. 
Hab- N. Guinea. 

— C. d e b i 1 i s, Gld. Bost. Proc. 3, 293. 1850. Is Corbicula d e b 11 i s, 
Prime. 

39. C. d e c i p i e n s, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 17. 1854. 
Hab. ? 

40. C. d e n s a t a, Conrad. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. i. 324. 1845. 

Cyclas densata, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 109. 1852. 

Hab. North America, (fossil.) 

— C. deperdita, Desh. Coq. foss. Par. 1, 118, pi. 19, f. 14, 15. 1824. 
Is Corbicula deperdita, Desh. 

— C. deperdita, Morris, Cat. Brit. foss. 86. 1843. Is Corbicula B r i- 
t a n n i c a, Desh. 

— C. depress a, Lam. Lam. v. 553. 1818. Encycl. pi. 302, f. 3. Is As- 
tarte borealis, Gray. 

— C. depress a, Desh. Diet, class, h. u. v. 290. 1824. Is Cyrena c o m- 
p r e s s a, Desh. 

~C. Deshayesii, Hebert. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2d ser. v. 401, f. a', b'. 
1848. Is Corbicula Deshayesii, Prime. 

— C. D e shay es i an us, Bgt. (err.) II. Conch, iv. 183. 1853. Is An- 
cylus Deshayesianus, Bgt. 

41. C. difficilis, Desh. Inv. basin. Par. 513, pi. 37, f. 3-5. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

42. C. d i s p a r, Koch & Dkr. Oolit. 60, pi. vii. f. 6, a. b. 1837. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

43. C. d i s t i n c t a, Desh. Inv. Par. 492, pi. 35, f. 7-9. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

I860.] 



278 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

44. C. d i V a r i c a t a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 17, 1854. 
Hab. N. Guinea. 

— C. douacialis, Desh. Diet, class h. n. v. 290. 1824. Is Corbicula 

cuneiformis, Prime. 
— C. d ou a cif r mis, Anton. Verz. 1839. Is Corbicula ctineiformis, 

Prime. 

45. C. d u a c i n a, Dkr. Wald. 162. 1854. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

46. C. d r s a t a, Dkr. Wald. 155. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

46a C. Dulchurchiensis ? 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

47. C. D u m a s i i, de Serres. Bull. Sci. 328. 1827. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

48. C. D u t 6 m p 1 i i, Desh. Inv. Par. 493, pi. 34, f. 43, 44. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

49. C. d u r a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 20. 1854. 
Hab.? 

50. G. e 1 e g a n s, Dkr. Wald. 166. 1834. 
Hab, Germany, (fossil.) 

51. C. e 1 1 i p t i c a, Dkr. Wald. 148. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— G. elongata, Roem. Oolit. i. 117, t. ix. f. 11. 1826. Is Cyrena M a n- 
t e 1 1 i, Dkr. 

52. C. e 1 n g a t a, Dkr. Weald. 155. 1846. 

Cyclas elongata, Sowb. Trans. Geol. Soc.2dser. i7. 346, pi. 21, f. 9. 1836. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

53. C. e r e b e a, Pr. 

Mactra erebea, Brongt. Mem. Vicent. 81, pi. v. f. 8. 1823. 
Cyclas erebea, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

54. C. Essingtonensis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 19. 
Hab. Port Essington. 

— C. Euphratica, Bronn. Syst. Urwelt. pi. 4, f. 10. Is Corbicula f I u- 

m i n a 1 i s, Adams. 
— C. excavata, Rcem. i. 117, pi. ix. f. 6. 1835. Is Cyrena c a u d a t a. 

Picemer. 

55. C. eximia, Dkr. Zeit. Malak. 51. 1852. Pf. Nov. Conch. 8 livr. 88. 

pi. xxiv. 1857. 
Cyrena irnpressa, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 18. 1854. 
Batissa irnpressa, Adams. Rec. gen. 2, 448. 1858. 
Hab. Java. 

56. C. expansa, Monss. Moll. Java, 89, pi. 14. 1849. 
Hab. Java. 

57. C. fab ace a, Roem. Oolit. 2, 40, pi. 19, f. 16. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

58. C. f a b u 1 i n a, Desh. Inv. Par. 506, pi. 37, f. 13-15. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

59. C. fall ax, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 15. 1854. 
Hab. Australia. 

[June. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 279 

60. C. C. fascia t a, Roem. Oolit. 1, 116, pi. ix. f. 10. 1835. 

Cijclasfasciata, Gldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 10. 1834-40. 
Kab. Germany, (fossil.) 

61. C. Faujigasii, Desh. Encycl. 2, 51. 1830. 

Venus de mayeuce, Faujas. Ann. Mus. 8, 379, pi. 58, f. 9, 10. 1806. 

Cirena Icevigata, Gldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 224, pi. 149, f. 1. 1834-iO. 

Cyrena poUta, Gldf. Loc. sub. cit. 2, 224, pi. 149, f. 2. 1834-40. 

Cyclas Faujasii, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 109. 1852. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

— C. Ferrussaci, Math. Math. Cat. Metb 149, pi. xiv. f. 14, 15. 1852. 
Is Corbicula Ferrussaci, Prime. 

62. C. f lav a, Prime. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. ? 

63. C. F 1 r i d a n a, Conrad. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. 3, 23, pi. i. f. 1. 1846. 
Hab. Florida. 

— C. fluminalis, Bgt. Cat. Sauley 79. 1853. Is Corbicula flumi- 

n a 1 i s, Adams. 
— C. flu mi n e a. Lam. Lam. v. 553. 1818. Is Corbicula fl u m i n e a, 

Adams. 
— C. fluviatilis, Phil. Abb. 3,77, pL i. f. 5. 1846. Is Corbicula 

Manillensis, Prime. 

64. C. F o n t a i n e i i, Phil. Zeit. Malak. 8, 70. 1851. 

Cyclas Fontaineii, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 569, pi. 83, f. 14, 15. 1844. 
Hab. S. America. 

— C. Forbesii, Desh. Inv. Par. 510, pi. 37, f. 24-27. 1857. Is Cor- 
bicula Forbesii, Deshayes. 

65. C. f rt i s. Prime. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. Equador. 

66. C. f s s u 1 a t a, Cornuel. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ft. iv. 286, pi. 15, f. 1, a-d, 

1840. 
Cyclas fossulata, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 60. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

67. C. frag ills, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. ? 

— C. f u s c a t a , Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Is Corbicula fl u m i n a 1 i s, 
Adams. 

68. C. G a 1 a t h e a, Rhdt. Morch's Kierulf 32, pi 2. 1850. 

Cyrena Zeylanica var. major, Mous. .Java 89, pi. 13. 1849. 
Hab. Nicobar Islands. 

69. C. G a 1 1 i c a n a, Pr. 

Cyrena compta, Desh. (preoc.) Invt. Par. 491, pi. 35, f. 1-3, pi. 36, 

f. 19, 20. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 
— C. Gaudichaudi, VaL (err.) Mag. Zool. pi. 119, f. 2. 1838. Is Velo- 

rita Cyprinoides, Gray. 
— C. Gauritziana, Kr. In litt. 1848. Is Corbicula A f r i c a n a, Adams, 

70. C. G e m m e 1 1 a r i, Phil. Sicil. 1, 39, pi. iv. f. 3. 1836. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

71. C. G e s 1 i n i, Desh. Encycl. 2, 52. 1830. 

Cyclas Geslini, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 109. 1852. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

72. C. g i b b o s a, DuKr. Wald. 157. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

I860.] 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

73. C. gl b s a, Math. Cat. Meth. 148, pi. xiv. f. 12, 13. 1842. 

Cijclas globo'a, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. globulus, Jonas. MSS. Is Corbicula c u n e a t a, Adams. 
— C. Gravesii, Desb. Coq. foss. Par. 2, 810. 1824. Is Corbicula 

Gravesii, Desb. 
— C. Gravi, Desb. Coq. foss. Par. 1, 120, pi. 19, f. 3, 4. Is Corbicula 
Gravesii, Desb. 

74. C. H e b e r t i i, Desb. Invt. Par. 516, pi. 36, f. 4-6. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

75. C. h e t e r o d o n t a, Desb. Invt. Par. 518, pi. 34, f. 13-15. 1857- 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

76. C. H e y s i i, Dkr. Wiild. 147. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. impress a, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 18. 1854. Is Cyrena e x c i n i a, 
Dkr. 

77. C. inc ert a, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 19. 1854. 
Hab. ? 

77a C. inc mp t a, Desb. Invt. Par. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

78. C. inf lata, Phil. Zeit. Malak, 71. 1851. 
Hab. S. America. 

— C. i n f 1 a t a, Desb. (preoc) Proc. Zool. xxii. 23. 1854. Is Cyrena P a n a- 
m e n s i s, Pr. 

79. C. inquinata, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 15. 1854. 
Hab. China. 

80. C. ins ignis, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 20. 1854. 
Hab. California. 

81. C. intermedia, Desb. Mellev. Terr. Tert. Par. 35, pi. 2, f. 5. 6. 1843. 

Ci/clas intermedia, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. intermedia, Meek & Hayden. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. 8, 116. 1856. 
Is Cyrena Nebrascensis, M. &H. 

82. C. is o c a r d i a, Dkr. "Willd. 151. 1854. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

83. C. i s o c a r d i i d e s, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 22. 1854. 
Hab. S. America. 

84. C. J am e s n i i, Forbes. Geol. 11. vii. HI, pi. v. f. 7, 8. 1851. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

— C. Jayensis, Lea. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. 108, pi. 17, f. 52. 1832. 
Is Batissa Jayensis, Adams. 

85. C. Juk e s i i, Desb. Proc. Zool. xxii. 19. 1854. 
Hab. Australia. 

— C. Ker an dr en ii, Lesson. Voy. Coq. 2, 429, pi. xi. f. 3. 1829. Is Ba- 
tissa Keraudrenii. 

86. C. Koch ii, Dkr. Wald. 159. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. 1 seviga ta, Gldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 224, pi. 149, f. 1, a. b. 1834-40. Is 
Cyrena F a u j a s i i, Desb. 

87. C. 1 se V i s, Pr. 
Hab. Borneo. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 281 

88. C. L a m b e r t i, Desh. Invt. Par. 495, pi. 38, f. 9, 10. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. Lar gill ierti, Phil. Zeit. Malak. 163. 1844. Is Corbicula L a r- 
gillierti, Pr. 

89. C, lato-ovata, Eoemer. Oolit. i. 116, pi. 9, f. 4. 1835. 

Venuliles simillimus, Schl. Petr. 200, 1820. 
Venuliles douacilialis, Schl.. In Collect. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

90. C. 1 a u t a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 15, 1854. 
Hab.? 

91. C. lentiformis, Roemer. Oolit. 2, 41, pi. 19, f. 9. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. limosa, Gray. Ann. Phy. n. ser. ix. 137. 1835. Is Corbicula 1 i- 
m s a, Pr. 

92. C. 1 u n u 1 a t a, Desh. Invt. Par. 495, pi. 34, f. 16-19. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

93. C. Mac Cull ochii, Forbes. Geol. II. vii. 112, pi. v. f. 10, a, b. 1851. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

94. C. m a c t r 32 f o r m i s, Pr. 

Cyrena mactroides, Desh. (preoc.) Proc. Zool. xxii. 17. 1854. 
Hab.? 

95. C. mac troides, Roemer. Oolit. i. 116, pi. ix. f. 2. 1835. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. mactroides, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 17. 1854. Is Cyrena m a c- 
t r ae f r m i s, Pr. 

96. C. m aj r, Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss. 200. 1854 

Cyelas major, Sowb. Trans. Geol. 2d ser. W. 176, 346, pi. xxi. f. 13. 1836. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

97. C. maj use ula, Roemer. Oolit. i. 117, pi. ix. f. 1-3. 1835. 

Cyelas majuscula, Glf. Petr. Germ. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 6, a-c. 1834-40. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

— C. M a n i 1 1 e n s i s, Phil. Zeit. Malak. 163. 1844. Is Corbicula M a n i 1- 
1 e n s i s, Pr. 

98. C. M a n t e 1 1 i, Dkr. Weald, 42, pi. 13, f. 2. 1846. 

Cyrena elongaia, Roemer. Oolit i. 117, pi. ix. f. 11. 1835. 

Cyelas angulata, Sowb. Trans. Geol. 2d ser. iv. 176, 346, pi. xxi. f. 12. 

1836. 
Cyelas carinata, Glf. Petr. Germ. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 9, a-c. 1834-'40. 
Cyrena angulata, Morris. Brit. Foss. 199. 1854. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

99. C. m ar i t i m a, C. B. Adams. Ann. N. Y. Lye. v. 499. 1852. 
Hab. Panama. 

— C. media, Fitton. Ann. Phy. n. ser. viii. 376. 1824. Is Corbicula m e- 
d i a, Pr. 

100. C. m e m b r a n a c e a, Fitton. Ann. Phy. n. ser. 8, 176. 1824. 

Cyelas membranaeea, Sowb. Min. Conch, vi. 52, pi. 527, f. 3. 1829. 
Cyrena membranaeea, Sowb. Morris. Brit. Foss. 200. 1854. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

101. C. M e n k e i i, Dkr. D. et M. Paleont. 1, 40, pi. vi. f. 23-25. 1846. 

Venus Menkeii, Dkr, In litt. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

I860.] 18 



2S2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

02. C. Mexicana, Sowb. Zool. II. (Sowb. et Brod.) 364. 1829. 
CyTena altilis, Gld. Bost. II. vi. 400, pi. xvi. f. 5. 1852. 
Hab. N. America. 

103. C. minuta, Desh. Invt. Par. 507, pi. 35, f. 10-12. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. mixta, Desh. Invt. Par. 1857. Is Corbicula mixta, Desh. 
— C. Moquinianus, Bgt. (err.) II. Conch, iv. 1853. IsAncylusMo- 
quinianus, Bgt. 

104. C. Moreauensis, Meek & Hayden. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. viii. 115. 

1856. 
Hab. N. America, (fossil.) 

105. C. multidentata, Auton. Conch. 13. 1839. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

— C. Murchisonii, Dkr. Weald. 30, pi. x. f. 2-5. 1846. Is Cyrena 
rotunda, Dkr. 

106. C. Nebrascensis, M. &H. 

Cyrena intermedia, Meek & Hayden, (preoc.) Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. viii. 

116. 1856. 
Hab. N. America, (fossil.) 
— C. nit ens, Phil. Zeit. Malak. 163. 1844. Is Corbicula nit ens, 

Adams. 

107. C. nit id a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 23. 1854. 
Hab.? 

108. C. nitidula, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 23. 1854. 
H.ib. ? 

109. C. n o b i 1 i s , Desh. Invt. Par. 490, pi. 36, f. 14, 15, 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

110. C. notabilis, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 21. 1854. 
Hab. Peru. 

HI. C. n u c u 1 aef o rm i s, Roemer. Oolit. 1, 118, pi. ix. f. 13. 1835. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. obesa, Hinds. Ann. Mag. n. h. n. ser. x. 81. 1842. Is Batissa 
b e s a , Adams. 

112. C. obliqna, Desh. Diet. Class, h. n. v. 290. 1824. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

113. C. oblonga, Quoy. Voy. Astrol. 3, 517, pi. 82, f. 6-8. 1834. 
Hab. Vanikoro. 

— C. obovata, Desh. Encycl. 2. 52. 1830. Is Corbicula o b o v a t a , 
Desh, 

114. C. obscura, Pr. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. S. America. 

115. C. b t u s a , Rcemer. Oolit. 1, 115, pi. ix. f. 76. 1835, 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— 0. obtusa, Forbes, Rec. Scie. 2, pi, 3, f. 4. Is Cyrena A nglicana, 
Pr. 

116. C. occidentalis. Meek & Hayden. Ac. N. S, Phil. Proc. viii. 118. 

1856. 
Hab. N. America, (fossil.) 

117. C. olivacea, Carp. In litt. 
Hab. N. America. 



[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 283 

118. C. orb i cularis, Roemer. Oolit. 1, 115, pi. ix. f. 8. 1835. 

Cyclas orbicularis, Glf. Petr. Germ. 2, 231, pi. 147. f. 5. 1834-40. 

Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

— C. orbicularis, Desh. Mellev. Terr. Tert. 35, pi. 2, f. 3, 4. 1843. 
is Corbicula orbicularis, Prime. 

— C. orientalis, Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Is Corbicula o r i e n t a - 
lis, Adams. 

— C. ovalina, Desh. lavt. Par. 505. pL 36, f. 16-18. 1867. Is Corbi- 
cula p a rv a. Prime. 

119. C. ovalis, Dkr. Wald. 158. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

120. C. oviform is, Desh. Proc Zool. xxii. 16. 1854. 
Hab. Philippines. 

121. C. pallida, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 17. 1854. 
Hab.? 

122. C. Panamensis, Pr. 

Ci/rena inflata, Desh. (preoc.) Proc. Zool. xxii. 23. 1854. 
Hab. Panama. 
— C. Panormitana, Bivon. Is Corbicula Panormitana, Adams. 

123. C. Papua, Lesson. Mag. Zool. pi. xi. 1832. 
Hab. Waigou. 

— C. Paranacensis, d'Orb. Mag, Zool. 44. 1835. Is Corbicula 
Paranacensis, Adams. 

124. C. parva, Morris. Brit. Foss. 200. 1854. 

Cyclas parva, Sowb. Geol. Trans. 2d ser. iv. 345, pi. 21, f. 7. 1836. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

125. C. Pa no rmi tan a, Roemer. Oolit. 1, 115, pi. ix. f. 9. 1835. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

126. C. p a r V u 1 a , Desh. Invt. Par. 509, pi. 37, f. 6-8. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. Peruviana, Desh. Is Cyrena a n o raal a , Desh. 
— C. Petitianus, Bgt. II. Conch, iv. 1853. Is Ancylus Petiti- 
anus, Bgt. 

127. C. Philippinarum, Hanley. Proc. Zool. xii. 159. 1844. Wood'.s 

Suppl. Cat. pi. xiv. f. 60. 
Hab. Philippines. 
— C. pisum, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 117, pi. 19, f. 10-13. 1824. Is 

Corbicula pisum, Desh. 

128. C. pi ace n s, Hanley. Proc. Zool. xii. 160, 1844. Wood's Suppl. Cat. 

pi. xiv. f. 52. 
Hab. N. America. 

129. C. placid a, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 19. 1854. 
Hab.? 

130. C. planulata, Desh. Invt. Par. 501, pi. 35, f. 16-18. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. polita, Glf. Petr. Germ. 2, 224, pi. 149, f. 2. 1834-40. Is Cyrena 
Fauj asi i, Desh. 

131. C. ponder osa, Pr. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. 1860. 
Hab. Philippines. 

132. C. prona, Dkr. Wiild. 166. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

I860.] 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

133. C. Proserpina, Pr. 

Vemis Proserpina, Brongt. Mem. Viceut. 81, pi. v. f. 7. 1823. 
Cyclas Proserpina, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

134. C. psmacola, Desh. Invt. Par. 505, pi. 35, f. 4-6. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. pule h el la, Mous. Moll. Java, 88, pi. xv. f. 4. 1849. Is Corbicula 
pulchella, Adams. 

135. C. p ulchra, Morris. Brit. Foss. 86. 1843. 

Cyclas pulcher, Sowb. Min. Conch, vi. 51, pi. 527. f. 1. 1829. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

— C. p ulchra, Wright. Ann. n. h. Is Cyrena Wr i g h t i i , Forbes. 
— C. pull at a, Phil. Abb. 2, 110. 1849. Is Corbicula pullata, 

Adams. 
— C. purpurea, Lea. Amer. II. xlii. 106, pi. 1, f. 1. 1842. Is Yenus 

gemma, Totten. 
— C. pusilla. Parr. Phil. Abb. 2, 78, pi. 1. f. 7. 1846. Is Corbicula p u- 

s i 1 1 a , Adams. 

136. C. radiata, Hanley. Proc. Zool. xii. 159. 1844. 

Cyrena solida, Phil. Abb. 5, 78, pi. 1, f. 9. 1846. 
Hab. Central America. 
— C. radiata. Parr. Phil. Abb. 2, 78, pi. 1, f. 8. 1846. Is Corbicula 

radiata, Adams. 
— C. Raymondi, Bgt. (err.) II. Conch, iv. 1853. Is Ancylus R a y- 
m n d i , Bgt. 

137. C. Recluzi, Prime. 

Cyrena cordiformis, Recluz. II. Conch, iv. 251, pi. vii. f. 9. 1853. 
Hab. ? 

— C. recurvata, Val. Mag. Zool. pi. 117, f. 2. 1838. Is Velorita Cy- 
prinoides, Gray. 

138. C. regulata, Gassies. II. Conch, vii. 372. 1858. 
Hab. N. California. 

139. C. Rigaultii, Desh. Invt. Par. 494, pi. 36, f. 12, 13. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. rivalis, V. d. Busch. Phil. Abb. 3, 110, pi. 3, f. 5. 1849. Is Cor- 
bicula rival is, Adams. 

140. C. roborata, Desh. Invt. Par. 499, pi. 38, f. 15, 16. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. Roemerii, Dkr. Wald. 41. 1834. Is Cyrena t r igo n a , Roemer. 

141. C. rotunda, Dkr. Wald. 145. 1834. 

Cyrena Murchisoni, Dkr. Weald. 30, pi. x. f. 25. 1846. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 
— C. rotundata, Lea. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. pi. 17, f. 51,107. 

1832. Is Batissa r o t u n da t a , Adams. 
— C. Rouyana, Bgt. Sph. Fr. 51. 1854. Is Corbicula Rouyana, 

Prime. 

142. C. Saincenyensis, Desh. Invt. Par. 496. pi. 38, f. 7, 8. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil ) 

43. C. salmaci da, Morelet. Test. Cub. pt. 2d, 26. 1851. 
Hab. Central America. 
— C. semi striata, Desh. Encycl. 2,52. 1830. Is Corbicula semi- 

striata, Desh. 
—C. si mi lis, Gray. Grifif. Cuv. pi. 20, f. 2. 1834. Is Corbicula W o o d- 
i an a, Adams. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 285 

144. C. si mil is, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 16. 1854. 
Hab. Manilla. 

145. C. singularis, Desh. Invt. Par. 508, pi. 35, f. 13—15. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

146. C. sinuosa, Desh. Pi-oc. Zool. xxii. 18. 1854. 

Cyrena Zeilanica, Mouss. Java, 89, pi. xii. 1849. 
Hab. Java. 

147. C. Siren a, Pr. 

Mactra Sirena, Brongt. Mem. Vicent. 81, pi. v. f. 10. 1823. 

Cyrena Bronyniartii, Bast. Mem. S. N. Par. 2, 84. 1825. 

C. Sowerbyi, Bast. Loc. sub. cit. 2, 84, pi. vi. f. 6. 1825. 

Cyclas Sirena, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 320. 1850. 

C. Bronyniarlu, d'Orb. Loc. sub. cit. 3, 109. 1852. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— C. spissa, Desh. Coq. Foss. Par. 1, p. 9, pi. 18, f. 14, 15. 1824. Ls 
Corbicula crass a, Desh. 

148. C. solida, Dkr. Wiild. 145. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

—C. solida, Phil. Abb. 2, 78, pi. 1, f. 9. 1846. " Is Cjrena r a d i a t a 
Hanley. 

149. C. sordid a, Hanley. Proc. Zool. xii. 1844. Wood's Suppl. pi. xiv. 

f. 51. 
Hab. N. America. 

150. C. striata, Galleoti. Index Paleont. 1, 391. 1848 — 9. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

151. C. stria tula, Muaster. Glf. Petr. Germ. 2, 225, pi. 149, f. 3. 1834 

—40. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

152. C. subangulata, Les. Grat. Moll. Fr. 52. 1855. 
Hab. France, (fossil.J 

— C. subarata, Br. Leth. Gaog. 2, 958, pi. 38, f. 2. 1835-8. Is Corbi- 
cula semistriata, Desh. 

153. C. sub cord ata, Dkr. Wald. 154. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

154. C. s u b 1 ae V i s , Rosmer. Oolit. 1, 116, pi. xi. f. 5. 1835. 

Cyclas sublavis, Glf. Petr. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 7. 1834—40. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

155. C. sub lob ata, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 18. 1854. 
Hab. ? 

156. C. s ub o rb ic ul aris , V. d. Busch. Phil. Abb. 3, 77, pi. 2, f. 1. 184P. 
Hab. Manilla. 

— C. su b orbicularis, Desh. Invt. Par. 497, pi. 38, f. 11, 12. 1857. 
Is Corbicula orbicularis, Pr. 

157. C. subquadrata, Morris. Brit. Foss. 200. 1854. 

Cyclas subquadrata, Sowb. Geol. Trans. 2d ser. iv. 177, 345, pi. xxi. f. 8. 

1836. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 
— C. subquadrata, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 21. 1854. Is Cyrena 

C a 1 if o r n i e n s i s , Pr. 
— C. subradiata, Kurr. Is Corbicula subradiata, Pr. 

158. C. sulcata, Hoenighaus. Ihrb. 456. 1850. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

I860.] 19 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

159. C. Sumatraensis, Sowb. Gen. of Shells, 1. Phil. Abb. 3, 109, pi. 3, 

f. 4. 1849. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

— C. tellinella, Fer. Hist. Moll. f. 1. Is Corbicula tel 1 in ell a , Pr. 
— C. tell i n oi dea, Bouillet. Cat. Cut. 156. 1836. Is Corbicula 

tellinoidea, Pr. 

160. C. t ellinoi d es, Defr. Cuv. Foss. 2, 263. 1821—3. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

— C. tenebrosa. Hinds. Ann. n. h. n. ser. x. 21. 1842. Is Batissa 
tenebrosa, Adams. 

161. C. tenuis, Dkr. Wald. 158. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

162. C. tetragon a, Desh. Invt. Par. 502, pi. 34, f. 20— 22. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

163. C. transversa, Forbes. Rec. Scie. 2, pi. 3, f. 6. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

164. C. triangula, V. d. Busch. Phil. Abb. 3, 78, pi. 2. f. 3. 1849. 

Cyrena triangularis, Metcalf. Proc. Zool. 19, 74. 1851. 
Hab. Borneo. 
— C. triangularis, Metcalf. Proc. Zool. xix. 74. 1851. Is Cyrena 

triangula, v. d. Busch. 
—C. trig on a, Desh, Coq. Foss. Par. 1, 118. pi. 19, f. 16, 17. 1824. Is 

Corbicula triangula, Pr. 

165. C. trigona, Roemer. Oolit. 1, 116, pi. ix. f, 7. 1835. 

Cyclas trigona, Glf. Petr. 2, 233, pi. 147, f. 11. 1836—40. 
Cyrena Eoemeri, Dkr. Wald. 41. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 
— C. trigoneUa, Lam. Lam. v. 552. 1818. Is Corbicula t r i g o n - 

e 1 1 a , Pr. 
— C. trigonula, Wood. Ann. Mag. n. h. vii. 275, f. 45. 1841. Is 

Corbicula Duchastelli, Syst. 
^C. truncata, Lam. Lam. v. 553. . 1818. Is Corbicula truncata, 
Pr. 

166. C, t u m i da, Pr. 

Cyrena angulaia, Desh, Proc. Zool. xxii. 22. 1854. 
Hab.? 

167. C. t u r g i d a , Lea. Amer. Phil. Soc. v. 109. pi. 18, f. 53. 1832. 
Hab.? 

168. C. umbonata, Auton. Conch. 13. 1839. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 

169. C. u ni oni d e s, Dkr. Wald, 150. 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

170. C. unioniformis, Desh. Invt. Par. 503, pi. 38, f. 5, 6. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

171. C. Vanikorensis, Quoy. Voy, Astrol. 3, 515, pi. 82, f. 4, 5. 1834, 
Hab. Vanikoro. 

— C. Vapincana, Bgt. Sph. Pr. 51. 1854. Is Corbicula Vapin- 

c a n a , Prime. 
— C. variegata, d'Orb. Mag. Zool. 44. 1835. Is Corbicula v a r i - 

e g a t a , Adams. 
— C. vene ri for mis, Desh. Invt. Par. 499, pL 38, f. 1, 1. 1857. Is 

Corbicula veneriformis, Desh. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 287 

172. C. ventricosa, Desh. Proc. Zool, xxii. 16. 1854. 
Hab. Philippines. 

173. C. venulina, Dkr. W:ild. 155. 1834. 
Hab, Germany, (fossil.) 

— 0. violacea, Lam. Lam, v. 553, 1818. Is Batissa violacea, 

Adams, 
— C. Woodiana, Lea. Trans. Amer. Phil, Soc, v. 110, pi, 18, f. 55. 
1832, Is Corbicula Woodiana, Adams. 

174. C. W r i g h t i i , Forbes. Rec. Sci. 2, pi. iv. f. 4. 

Cyrena pulchra, Wright, Ann. n. h. 
Hab. England, (fossil.) 

175. C. Zeylanica, Lam. Lam. v. 1818, Delessert, pi. vii. 1841. 

Venus Ceylonica, Chemn, vi. 333, pi. 32, f, 336. 1769. 
V, coaxans, Gml. 3278, f. 336. 1788. 
Cyclas Zeylanica, Lam. Ann, Mus. vii, 420. 1806. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

176. C, Z immermannii, Dkr. Wald. 151, 1834. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

Sph^ridm, Scopoli. 

1. Sph. a c urn i n atu m, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. acuminata, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 155. 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 283. 

1852. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 466. 1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7. 1853. 
Cycl. albula, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 155. 1851. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 466. 1852. 

Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7. 1853. 
Cycl. inornata, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv, 159. 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 284. 

1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8, 1853. 
Cycl. simplex, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 159. 1851, Loc. sup. cit. iv. 284. 1852. 
Sph. albuhim, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Sph. inornatum, Pr. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 450. 1853. 
Sph. simplex, Pr. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. N. Amer. 
—Cycl. a c u t a, Pf. Moll. Germ. 230. 1821. Is Pisid. H e n s 1 o wian u m, 

Jen. 
— Cycl. (Physemoda) ae q u a 1 i s, Rafin. Bory St. Vt. An. gen. sci. phy. v. 319. 

1820. Is Pisid. V irgi n ic u m, Bgt. 
— Cycl. se q uata, Sheph. Mss. 1840. Is Sph. r i v i c ol a, Lam. 
— Cycl. alata. Leach. Moll. Gt. Brit. 291. 1852. Is Sph. corneum. Scop. 
— Sph. al bulum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. ac u m i n a- 

t u m, Pr. 
— Cycl. alpina, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. Is Cyrena a 1 p i n a, Bgt. 
— Cycl. al t i 1 i s, Aath. C. B. Adams, Cat. 29. 1847. Is Pisid. c o m p r e s- 
s u m, Pr. 

2. Sph. altum, Dumt. & Mort. 

Cyclas alta, D. & M. Moll. Sav. 18,52. 
Hab. Italy, (fossil.) 
— Cycl. an mica, Turt. Conch. 250, pi. 2, f. 15. 1822. Is Pisidium an- 

m i c u m, Jen. 
— Cycl. angulata, Sowb. Geol. Trans. 2d ser. iv. 176, 346, pi. xxi. f. 12. 

1836. Is Cyrena M a n t e 1 1 i, Dkr. 
— Cycl. angu st id e n s, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304, 1850. Is Cyrena a n g u s- 

t i d e n s, Desh. 
— Cycl. a ntiqua, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Cyrena a n t i q u a. Per. 
— Cycl. a p pen d icu lata, Turt. Man. 15, pi. 1, f. 6. 1831. Is Pisidium 

Hen slowianum, Jen. 

I860.] 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

3. Sph. Aquae S ext i ae, Sowb. Bgt. Sph. 45. 1854. 

Crjcl. aqucB-Sextice, Sowb. Edin. New Phil. II. vii, 296. 1829. 

Cycl. Garffasensis, Math. Cat. Meth. 147, pi. xiv. f. 6. 1842. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

—Cjcl. Aquensis, Math. Cat. Meth. 148, pi. xiv. f. 8-9. 1342. Is Sph. 
gibbosum, Sowb. 

4. Sph. arg e n t i nam, d'Orb. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Oycl. arffentina, d'Orb. Mag. Zool. 1835. d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 568, 
pi. S3, f. 5, 7. 1844. 
Hab. S. Amer. 

5. Sph. aureuin,Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cijcl. aurea, Pr. Best. Proc. iv. 159, 1851. Loc. sap. cit. iv. 288. 
1852. Jay. Cat. iv, ed. 465, 1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7. 1853. 
Hab, N, Amer, 

Cycl. Au s trails , Lam. Lam. v. 560. 1818. Is Corbicula Au s t r a - 
lis, Desh. 

6. Sph. B a h i e n s e , Spix, 

Ct/cl. Bahiensis, Spix. Test. Braz. 32, pi, xxv. f. 5, 6. 1827. Mori- 

cand mem. coq. terr. fluv. Br. 31, Bgt, Amen. 1, p, 7, 53. 1853. 
C. maculaia, Anton, Wiegm. Archiv, 284. 1837, Anton. Verz. 14, 

1839. 
Musciilium Bahiense, Spix, Ads, rec. gen. ii. 451, 1858. 
J/, maculatum, Anton. Loc, sup. cit. ii. 451, 1858. 
Pisiiin Bahiense, Spix. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 560. 1858. 
P. maculatum, Anton, Loc. sap. cit. ii, 560, 1858. 
Hab. S, Amer, 

7. Sph. Boissyii, Desh. Inv. Paris, 521, pi. 34, f. 37, 39. 1857. 
Hab, France, (fossil.) 

— Cycl. b o re al i s, Lam. Ann, Mus. vii. 421. 1806, Is a Venus. 

8, Sph. Bristovi, Forbes, 

Cycl. Bristovi, Forbes, Rec. Scie. 2, pi. 2, f. 3. Morris, Cat. Brit. Fos. 198. 
1854, 
Hab, England, (fossil.) 

9. Sph. Brochonianum, Bgt. Spn. 20, pi. 3, f. 1, 5. 1854. 

Cycl. Corsa, Charp. Mss. 
Hab. France. 

10. Sph. Brongniarti, Koch et Dkr. 

Cycl. Brongniarti, K. et D. Oolit. 59, pi. vii. f. 4, a, b. 1837. 
Hab. Europe, (fossil.) 
— Cycl. Brongniarti, d'Orb. Prod. 3,109. 1852. Is Cyrena Siren a, 

Pr. 
— Cycl, Brongniartina, Math. Cat. Meth. 145, pi. xiv. f. 2. 1842. H 
Pisid. cuneatum, Petit. 

11. Sph. Buchi, Dkr. 

Cycl. Buchi, Dkr. Wiild. 167. 1834. 
Hab. Germ, (fossil.) 

12. Sph. bulbosum, Anth. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. bulbosa, Anth. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 283. 1852. 

Hab. N. Amer. 

— Sph. coeruleum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii., 450. 1858. Is Sph. par tu- 
rn e i u m , Say. 

—Cycl. calyculata, Drap. Hist. Moll. 130, pi. x. f. 13, 14. 1805. Is 
Sph. 1 ac u str e , Fer. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 289 

13. Sph. cap ease, Krauss. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. capensis, Kr. Moll. S. Afr. 7, pi. 1, f. 6. 1848. 
Hab. Africa. 

14. Sph. cardissum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. cardissa, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 160. 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 277. 

1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7. 1853. Lewis, Bost. Proc v. 122. 1855. 
Uab. N. Amer. 
— Cjcl. carinata, Goldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 9, a, c. 1834- 

40. Is Cyrena Man t e Hi , Dkr. 
—Cycl. Caroliniana, Bosc. Hist. Coq. 3, 37, pi. 18, f. 4. 1802. I.^ 

Cyrena Caroliniensis, Lam . 
— Cycl. Caroliniensis, Bosc. Fer. Cat. Meth. 84. 1807. Is Cyrena 

Caroliniensis, Lam. 
— Sph. castaneum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. f a b a I i s , 

Pr. 

15. Sph. castrense, Noulet. Coq. fos. etc., 16. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

—Cycl. Chilensis, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Sept. 568, pi. 83, f. 11, 13. 1844. 

Is Corbicula Chilensis, Pr. 
— Cycl. Chinensis, Lam. Amer. Mus. vii. 421. 1806. Is Corbicula 

fluminea, Adams. 
— Cycl. cinerea, Hani. Rec. spec. 1,91. 1843. Is Pisid. caserta- 

n u m , Bgt. 
—Cycl. citrina, Brown. Conch. Gt. Brit. 132, pi. 39, f. 37. 1849. Is Sph. 

c or n eu m , Scop. 
— Sph. citrinum, Normd. Cycl. Dept. Nord. 1. 1854. IsSph. Scal- 

d i a n u m , Norm. 

16. Sph. clandestinum, da Costa ? 

Cycl. clandestina, da Costa. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 32. 1850. (Undescribed.) 
Hab. S. Amer. 

17. Sph. concentricum, Bronn. 

Cycl. concentrica, Br. Ital. lert. gebild. 96. 1831. 
Hab. Italy, (fossil.) 

18. Sph. concinnum, Sowb. Bgt. Sph. 43. 1854. 

Cycl. concinna, Sowb. Edin. N. Phil. II. vii. 297. 1829. 
C. Galloprovincialis, Math, Cat. Meth. 146, pi. xiv. f. 34. 1842. 
Hab. France, i fossil.) 
— Sph. consobrinum, Fer. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. 

ovale, Fer. 
— Cycl. consobrina. Call. Reeve, Conch. Nomencl. 29, 1845. Is Cor- 
bicula orientalis, Adams. 
— Sph. constrictum, Anth. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. 
transversum. Say. 

19. Spb. Coquandianum, Math. Bgt. Sph. 46. 1854. 

Cycl, Coqua?idiana, Math. Cat. Meth. 147, pi. xiv. f. 7. 1842. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

20. Sph. CO r n e u m , Scop. Intr. ad Hist. Nat. 397. 1777. 

Clama cinerea, d'Arg. Conch. 2d pt. 368, 374, pi. 31. 1742. 

Tellina cornea, Linn. Syst. Nat. (10th ed.) 1, 678. 1758. 

T. rivalis, Miill. Hist. Verm. 2, 202. 1774. 

Cycl. cornea, (pars.) Drap. tabl. Moll. 105, No. 1, var. b. 1801. 

Cardium corneum, Mont. Test. Biit. 86. 1803. 

C. amnicum, Pult. Cat. 31. 1803. 

Cycl. vivalis, Drap. Hist. Moll. 129, pi. x. f. 45. 1805. 

I860.] 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Tellina communis, lilegerle. Berl. Mag. 1811. 

Cycl. nucleus, Stud. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. 1, p. 25, pi. 2, f. 23. 
1837. 

C. lutea, Ziegler. Anton. Verg. 14. 1839. 

C. stagnicola, Leach. Mss. Brit. Mus. 1840. 

C. Leachii, Ziegler. Yilla. Cat. 44. 1841. 

C. fumida, Ziegler. Loc. Sup. Cit. 44. 1841. 

C. globosa, Megerle. Loc. Sup. Cit. 44. 1841. 

C. plumbeus, ?. Loc. Sup. Cit. 44. 1841. 

C.flavescens,UcGi\\v\. Moll. Scot. 208, 246. 1844. 

risidium cornea, Verany. Cat. Jur. 13. 1846. 

Ci/cladites corneiis, Kriig. Urwelt. 2, 469. Bronn. Paleont. 1, 372. 1848. 

Cycl. citrina, Brown. Coach. Grt. Brit. 132. pi. 39, f. 37. 1849. 

C. isocardioides. Norm. Dup. Moll. 668. 1852. 

C. aZaZa, Leach. Moll. Gt. Brit. 291. 1852. 

C.fossarura, Kryn. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8. 1853. 
Hab. Europe. 

— Cycl. C r s a , Charp. Mss. Is Sph. Brochonianum, Bgt. 
— Cycl. crassa, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 422. 1850. Is Cyrena crass a 
Desh. 

21. Sph. Cr eplini , Dukr. Norm. Cycl. 3. 1854. 

Cycl. Creplini, Dukr. Zeit. Malak. 20. 1845. Muscul, (do.) Dkr. Ads. 

Rec. Gen. ii. 451. 1858. Pisum, (do.) Dkr. Loc. Sup. Cit. ii. 560. 

1858. 
Hab. Europe. 

— Cycl. c r o c e a , Lewis, Bost. Proc. v. 25. 1854. Is Sph. s e c u r i s , Pr. 
— Cycl. cuneata, Sowb. Edin. n. Phil. IL yii. 297. 1829. Is Pisid. 

cuneatum, Petit. 
— CycL cuneiformis, Sowb. Min. Conch. 2, 140, pi. 162, f. 2, 3. 1818. 

Is Cyrena cuneiformis, Fer. 
— Cycl. cycladiformis, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. Is Cyrena cy- 

cladiformis, Desh. 
— Cycl. cyraenopsis, Val. Eacycl. pi. 301, f. 3. Is ?. 

22. Sph. Ddingoli, Bivona. Ann. N. Y. Lye. vii. 97. 1859. 

Cycl. DUngoli, Bivon. Coq. Palerm. 3. 1839. 
Pisid. Ddingoli, Bivon. Villa. Cat. 44. 1841. 
Hab. Sicily. 
— Cycl. Denainvilliersi, Boissy. Bull. Soc. Geol, Fr. 2d ser. ir. 

178. 1846. Is Pisid. Denainvilliersi, Desh. 
— Cycl. densata, d'Orb. Prod. 3,109. 1852. Is Cyrena densata, 
Conrad. 

23. Sph. dentatum, Hald. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. deniata, Hald. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. 1, 100. 1841. Pr. Bost 

Proc. iv. 250. 1852. 
Hab. N. Amer. 
— Cycl. deperdita. Lam. An. Mus. vii. 421. 1806. Is Corbicula de- 

p er d i t a , Desh. 
— Cycl. depressa, Nyst. Coq. fos. Anv. 36, pi. v. f. 5, 6. Is Erycina 

depressa, Nyst. 
—Sph. Deshayesianum, Bgt. Amen. i. p. 6. 1853. Is Spli. ovale, 

Fer. 
— Sph. detruncatum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. 

transversum, Say. 
— Cycl. diaphana, Pr. Bost. II. vi. 367. 1852. IsSph. macul a t um , 

Morlt. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 291 

— Sph. distortum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. so 1 idu - 
1 u m , Pr. 

— Sph. dubium, Say. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Pisid. V i r g ini- 
cum, Bgt. 

— Cycl. dubiosa, Say. Reeve's Conch. Nomen. 29. 1845. IsPisid. Vir- 
gin icum, Bgt. 

—Cycl. duplicata, Pf. Moll. Germ. 230. 1821. Is Pisid. duplica- 
tum, Pf. 

— Cycl. D upon tia, Per. Cat. 20. 1837. IsCyrenellaDupontia, Joan. 

24. Sph. eburneum, Anth. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

CycJ. eburnea, Anth. in Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 279. 1852. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

— Cycl. edentula, Say. New Harm. Dissem. 2, 356. 1829. Is Sph. 
striatinum, Lam. 

25. Sph. egregium, Gould, (non Say.) Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. egregia, Gl. Bost. Proc. 3, 292. 1850. 
Hab. Oceanica. 

—Sph. elegans, C. B., Ads. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1868. Is Sph. 
rhonoboideum, Say. 

26. Sph. elevatum, Hald. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1853. 

Cycl. elevata, Hald. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. i. 53. 1841. DeKay, 224. 

1842. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 280. 1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8. 1853. 
Cycl. pallida, Charp. Mss. 1851. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

— Cycl. elongata, Sowb. Gosl. trans, n. ser. iv. 345, pi. 21, f. 9. 1836. 
Is Cyrena elongata, Dkr. 

27. Sph. emarginatum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. emarginata, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 156. 1851. loc. sup. cit. iv. 283. 

1852. Jay. Cat. iv. ed. 466. 1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8. 1853. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

—Cycl. erebea, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 223. 1850. Is Cyrena erebe a , Pr. 
— Cycl. Euphratica, Lamk. An. Mus. vii. 420. 1806. Encycl. pi. 

302, f. 2, pi. 302, f. 2. Is Corbicula f 1 u m i n a 1 i s , Adams. 

28. Sph. fab a, Munster. 

Cycl. faba, Miinst. Goldf. Petr. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 8, a, c. 1834-40. 
Hab. Germ. (fossU.) 

29. Sph. fab alls, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. fabalis, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 159. 1851. Jay. Cat. iv. ed. 465. 

1852. Bost. Proc. iv. 273. 1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8. 1853. 
Cycl. castanea, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 160. 1851. loc. sup. cit. iv. 273. 

1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8. 1853. 
Cysl. salculosa, Charp. MSS. 1851. 
Sph. castaneum, Pr. Ads. rec. geu. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. N. Amer. 
—Cycl. fas ci at a, Gldf. Petr. 2, 232, pi. 147, f. 10, a, b. 1834-40. Is 

Cyrena fasciata, Rcemer. 
— Cycl. Faujasii, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 109. 1852. Is Cyrena Fauiasii, 
Desh. 

30. Sph. ferrugineum, Kr. 

Cycl. ferruginea, Kr. Moll. S. Afr. 7, pi. i. f. 7. 1848. 

Pisid parasiticum, Parr. MSS. 

MuscuUum parasiticum, Ads. rec. gen. ii. 452. 1858. 

" ferrugineum, Kr. loc. sup. cit. ii. 451. 1858. 
Pisum parasiticum, Parr. loc. sup. cit. ii. 500. 1858. 

I860.] 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

MascuUuvi ferrugineum, Kr. loc. sup. cit. ii. 560. 1858. 
Hab. Africa. 
— Cycl. Ferrusaci, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. Is Cyrena F errusaci, 

Math. 
—Cycl. flavescens, McGil. Moll. Scot. 208, 246. 1844. Is Sph. cor- 

n e u m , Scop. 

31. Sph. flavum, Pr. Ads. rec. gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cijcl. flava, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 155. 1851. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 465. 
'1852. Bost. Proc. iv. 284. 1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8. 1853. 

Hab. N. Amer. 

—Cycl. fluminea, Bosc. H. n. coq. 3, 38. 1802. Is Corbicula flu- 
minea, Adams. 

—Cycl. fluviatilis, Bosc. H. n. coq. 3, 38. 1802. Is Corbicula flu- 
minalis, Adams. 

—Cycl. Fontaineii, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 569, pi. 83, f. 14, 15. 1844. 
Is Cvrena Fontaineii, Phil. 

—Cycl. fontinalis, Drap. Hist. Moll. 130, pi. x. f. 11, 12. 1805. Is 
Pisid. pusillum, Jen. 

32. Sph. f r m o s u m, Meek & Hayden. 

Cycl. formosa, M. &. H. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc viii, 115. 1856. 
Hab. N. Amer. (fossil.) 
— Cycl. fossa rum, Kryn. Mss. (Bgt. Sph. 25. 1854.) Is Sph. corne- 

um, Scop. 
—Cycl. fossulata, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 60. 1850. Is Cyrena fossulata, 

Cornnel. 

33. Sph. fragile. Meek & Hayden. 

Cycl.fragiUs, M. & H. Ac. N. S. Phil, Proc. viii. 115. 1856. 
Hab. N. Amer. (fossil.) 

34. Sph. fuscatum, Rafin. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. fuscata, Rafin. Mss. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 281. 1852. Lewis, 

Bost. Proc. V. 122. 1855. 
Hab. N. Amer. 
— Cycl. Galloprovincialis, Math. Cat. Meth. 146, pi. xiv. f. 34. 

1842. Is Sph. c n c i n n n m, Sowb. 

35. Sph. G ar dan ense. Math. Bgt. Sph. 44. 1854. 

Cycl. Gardanensis, Math. Math. Cat. Meth. 145, pi. xiv. f. i. 1842. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 
—Cycl. Gar gas ens is. Math. Cat. Meth. 147. pi. xiv. f. 6. 1842. Is 

Aqnse S e x t i a e, Sowb. 
—Cycl. G e s 1 i n i, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 109. 1852. Is Cyrena G e s 1 i n i, Desh. 
— Cvcl. gibba, Aid. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumb. 1, pt. 1, p. 41, 

18^30. Is Psid. b t u s a 1 e, Pf. 

36. Sph. gibbosTim, Sowb. Bgt. Sph. 45. 1854. 

Cycl. gibbosa, Sowb. Edin. N. Phil. H. vii. 297. 1829. 
Cycl. Aquensis, Math. Cat. Meth. 148, pi. xiv. f. 8, 9. 1842. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— Sph. giganteum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 458. 1858. Is Sph. sulca- 
tum, Lam. 
— Cycl. globosa, Megerle. Ville, Cat. 44, 1841. Is Sph. corneum. 

Scop. 
— Cvcl. globosa, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19, 1852. Is Cyreua globos a. Math. 
—Cycl. globus, Dubois. Fos. Wohln. 59, pi. vi. f. 18, 19, 1831. Is 
Erycina globus , d'Orb. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 293 

37. Sph. gracile, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. gracilis, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 156. 1851. loc. sup. cit. iv. 274. 1852. 

Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8. 1853. 
Hab. N. America. 

—Cycl. Graves!, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. Is Cyrena Graves!, Desh. 
— Cycl. hammalis, Rafin. Borv. It. Vt. Amen. gen. scie. pliy. v. 319. 

1820. Is Corbicula hammalis , Per. 
—Cycl. hermaphrodita, Mart. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1, 402, i)l. 1, f. 1, 2. 

Is Galathea r a d i a t a . 
—Sph. H e r m i n i i , Wiild. In Collect. Cuming. 1859. Is Pisid. c a s e s t a - 

num , Bgt. 

38. Sph. inconspicuum, Pr. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 
Hab. Asia Minor. 

39. Sph. Indicum, Desh. Proc. Zool. xxii. 342. 1854. 
Hab. E. Indies. 

—Sph. inornatum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. acumi- 
natum, Pr. 

—Cycl. intermedia, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Cyrena in te rme - 
d i a , Desh. 

— Cycl. Islandica, Lam. An. Mus. vii. 420. 1806. Is Cyprina I s la n - 
d ica. 

—Cycl. isocardioides, Norm. Drap. Moll. Fr. 668. 1852. Is Sph. 
c r n e u m , Scop. 

40. Sph. Jayanum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. Jayensis, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 157. 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 279. 
1852. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 465. 1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8. 1853. 
Hab. N. America. 

41. Sph. Jeannoti, Norm. Cycl. 2. 1854. 
Hab. France. 

42. Sph. Jugleri, Dkr. 

Cycl. Jugleri, Dkr. Wiild. 168. 1834. 
Hab. Germ, (fossils.) 

—Cycl. lacustris, Drap. Hist. Moll. 130, pi. x. f. 6, 7. 1805. Is Sph. 
ovale , Per. 

43. Sph. lacustre. Per. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6. 1853. 

Tellina lacustris, MuUer. Verm. 2, 204. 1774. 
Cardium lacustre, Mont. Test. Brit. 89. 1803. 
Cycl. calyculata, Drap. Hist. Moll. 130, pi. x. f. 14, 15. 1805. 
Musculium lacustre, Link. Beschr. Coll. Univ. Rostock, 152. 1807. 
Cycl. lacustris, Per. Meth. Conch. 128. 1807. 
Tellina tuberculata, Alten. Syst. Abh. 4, pi. 1, f. 1. 1812. 
T. tenera, Schrot. An. Wett. x. 316. 1814. 
Cycl. tuberculata, Klees. Dissert, Tub. 45. 1818. 
Tellina stagnicola, Sheph. Trans. Linn. See. xiv. 150. 1823. 
Cycl. Perezeii, Villa. Mss. 1858. 
Hab. Europe. 
—Cycl. laevigata, Schum. 170, pi. xii. f. 1 . 1817. Is Corbicula fl u m i - 

nali s, Adams. 
—Cycl. laevigata, Desh. Diet, class. Hist. Nat. v. 220. 1824. Is Pisid, 

laevigatum, Bgt. 
—Cycl. lasmampsis, Rafin. Bory, St. Vt. An. gen. scie. phy. v. 319, 

pi. 82, f. 19, 21. 1820. Is Sph. sulcatum. Lam. 
—Cycl. Leachii, Ziegl. Villa. Cat. 44. 1841. Is Sph. corneum. Scop. 
—Cycl. lenticularis, Norm. Cycl. 8. 1844. Is Pisid. casertanum, 
Bgt. 
I860.] 



294 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

— Cycl. lenticn 1 a ris, Boissy. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2nd sen iv. 173. 
1846. Is. Sph. Verneuili, Boissy. 

— Cycl. limosa, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. (err.) pi. 82, f. 14, 16. 1S44. Is 
Corbicula variegata, Adams. 

— Cycl. littoralis, Fer. Fer. in collect. Micliaud. Is Sph. macula- 
turn, Morelet. 

— Cycl. lutea, Ziegl. Anton. Verz. 14. 1839. Is Sph. corneum, Scop. 

— Cycl. maculata, Anton. Wiegm. Archiv. 284. 1837. Is Sph. 
Bahiense, Spix. 

44. Sph. maculatum, Morelet. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. maculata, Mt. Test. nov. etc. pt. 2, 25. 1851. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 

8. 1853. 
Cycl. striatella, Fer. Cat. 20. 1837. Collect. Mus. Paris. 
Cycl. littoralis, Fer. Fer. in Collect. Michaud. — Beau. Cat. Moll. Guade- 
loupe, 24. 1858. 
Pisid diaphanum, Hald. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. 1, 53. 1841. 
Cycl. diaphana, Pr. Bost. II. vi. 267. 1852. 

Pisid. Moquinianum, Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 61, pi. 3, f. 13, 17. 1855. 
Cycl. Moquiniana, Gas. Pisid. q. 1855. 
Cycl. Veneziielensis, Pr. Pr. in Collect. Mus. Leiden. 1857. 
—Cycl. major, Sowb. Geol. Trans, n. ser. iv. 176, 346. pi. 21. f. 13. 

1836. Is. Cyrena major, Morris. 
—Cycl, ma j u s c u 1 a, Gldf. Pr. Gerea. 2, 232. pi. 147, f. 6, a, c. 1S34-40. 
Is Cyrena majuscula, Eoemer. 

45. Sph. M a n s i a n u m, Noulet. Coq. fos. 16. 1857. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

—Cycl. maritima, d'Orb. Cuba, 2, p. 350, pi. 21, f. 47, 50. 1853. Is 

Cyrena Cubensis, Prime. 
— Cycl. Mat hero ni, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Pisid cuneatum, 

Petit. 
—Cycl. m e d i u s, Sowb. Min. Conch, vi. 51, pi. 527, f. 2, 1829. Is Cyrena 

media, Fitton. 
— Cycl. memlDranaceus, Sowb. Min. Conch, vi. 51, pi. 527, f«3. 

1829. Is Cyrena membranacea, Fitton. 
—Cycl. minima, Stud. Verz. 93. 1820. Is Pisid. obtusale, Pf. 
— Cycl.minor, C. B. Ads. Bost. Proc. 1, 48. 1841. Is Pisid. a bdit urn, 

Hald. 
— Sph. mirabile, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. p a r t u- 

meium, Say. 
— Sph. m odes tum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. stria- 
tin u m. Lam. 

46. Sph. modioliforme, Anton. 

Cycl. modioliformis, Ajiton. Wiegm. Archiv. 284. 1837. Auton. Verz. 

14. 1839. 
Musculium modioliformis, Anton. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 451. 1858. 
Pisum 7nodioliforme, Anton. Ads. loc. sup. cit. ii. 560. 1858. 
Hab. S. America. 
— Cycl. Moquiniana, Gas. Pisid. g, 1855. Is Sph. maculatum, 

Morelet. 
—Cycl. Nepeansi s, Les. Voy. Coq. ii. 4, 28. pi. 13, f. 14, 1830. Ads. 

Is Corbicula Nepeansis, Adams. 
—Sph. nitidum, C. B. Ads. & Mighl. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is 

Pisid. A d a m s i, Pr. 
— Cycl. nit ida, Hanley. Rec. spec. etc. 1. go. pi. 14. f. 46. 1843. Is 
Pisid nitidum, Jen. 

[June. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 295 

47. Sph. nobile, Gld. 

Cycl. nohilis, Gld. Bost. Proc. v. 229. 1855- 
Hab. Oceanica. 

48. Sph. Normandi. Michaud. 

Cycl. Normandi, Mich. Coq. fos. Hauterive, 27 pi. v. f. 22, 24. 1854. 
(extra. Bull. Linn. Soc. Lyons.) 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

49. Sph. N o V a-Z e 1 a n d i a e, Desh. Proc. Zool. 22, p. 342. 1854. 
Hab. N. Zealand & N. Holland. 

—Cycl. nucleus, Stud. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci, Nat. 1, p. 25, pi. 2. f. 23. 

1837. Is Sph. c r n 6 u m. Scop. 
—Cycl. n u c 1 e a, Boissy. BuU. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2nd ser. iv. 175, 1846. Is 

Pisid. n u c 1 e u m, Bgt. 

50. Sph. n u m i s m a 1 e, Math. Bgt. Sph. 46. 1854. 

Cycl. numismalis, Math. Cat. Meth. 146, pi. 14, f. 5. 1842. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— Cycl. o b 1 i q u a, Lam. Lam. v.559. 1818. Is Pisid. a m n i c u m, Jen.- 
— CycL o bo vat a, Sowb. Min. Conch. 2, 140, pi. 165, f. 4, 6. 1818. 

Is Cyrena o b o v a t a, Desh. 
— Cycl. obtusalis. Lam. Lam. v. 559. 1818. Is Pisid. obtusale,Pf. 

51. Sph. occidental e, Pr. 

Cycl. ovalis, Pr. (non Fer.) Bost. Proc. iv. 276. 1852. 

Cycl. occidentalis, Pr. Lewis, in loc. sup. cit. v. 122. 1855. Lewis, 

loc. sup. cit. vi. 2. 1856. 
Sph. ovale, Stimps. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. N. America. 

52. Sph. oepfingense, Kl. 

Cycl. oepfingensis, Kl. Wurt. Jhrb. 2, p. 95, pi. 2, f. 19. 1846. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 
—Sph. orbicular ium, Barrat. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1853. Is Sph. 

partumeium. Say. 
— ^ycl. orbicularis, Gldf. Petr. Germr. 5, 231, pi. 147, f. 5, a. b. 
1 834-40. Is Cyrena orbicularis, Roemer. 

53. Sph. ovale, Fer. Bgt. Sph. 31, pi. iv. f. 10. 1854. 

Cycl. laciistris,* Dep. Hist. Moll. 130. pi. x. p. 6, 7. 1805. 

Cycl. ovalis, Fer. Meth. Conch. 2d ed. 128, 136. 1807. 

Cycl. consohrina, Fer. Diet. Scie. Nat. xii. 279. 1818. 

Sph. Deshayesianum, Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6. 1853. 

Sph. consobrinum, Fer. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. Europe. 
—Cycl. ovalis, Nels. H. Conch. 2, p. 408. 1851. Is Pisid. obtusale, 

Pf. 
Sph. ovale, Pr. (non Stimps.) Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450, 1858. Is Sph. oc- 
cidentale, Pr. 

54. Sph. o V a t u m, Lewis. 

Cycl. ovata, Lewis. Bost. Proc. vi. 2. 1856. 
Hab. N. America. 

— Cycl. pallida, Charp. Mss. 1851. Is Sph. elevatum, Hald. 
—Sph. pallidum, Gray. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. c o r n e u m, 

Scop. 
— Cycl. palustris, Drap. TabL MolL 106. 1801. Is Pisid. a m n icum, 

Jen. 

*Non Telliua 1 a c u s t r i s, MuUer, which is Sph, 1 a c u s t r e . 

I860.] 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

— Cycl. Paranensis, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Sept. 567. pi. 83. f. 23, 25. 
1844. Is Corbicula Paranacensis, Pr. 

55. Sph. Parisiense, Pr. 

Cycs. transversa, Lev. Grateloup. Moll. Fr. Cont. 49 1855. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

56. Sph. par turn e in m, Say. Bgt. Sph. 12. 1854. 

CycL partimeia, Say. Ac. N. S. Phil. II. 2, 380. 1822. Fer. Mag. Zool. 

1835. Jay, Cat. 3d ed. 16. 1839. Gould, Rept. 73, f. 54. 1841. 

Dekay, 223. pi. 25, f. 262. 1842. C. B. Ads. Vt. 18. 1842. Mighles. 

Bost. 11. iv. 318. 1843. Linsl. Amer. II. 48, 276. 1845. C. B. Ads. 

Cat. 30. 1847. Jay. Cat. iv. ed. 32. 1850. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 165. 

1851. Stimps. N. E. Moll. 16. 1851. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 278. 1852. 

Hartm. Cat. 1853. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. g. 1853. Lew. Bost. Proc. v. 

122. 1855. Lew. loc. sup. cit. vi. 2. 1856. 
C. cornea, Lam. (Var. 2.) Lam. vi. 558, 1818. Lam. (Desh ed. vi.) 

268. 1835. 
C. orbicularia, Barrat. Linsl. Amer. 11. 48, p. 276. 1845. Bgt. Amen. 

1, p. g. 1853. 
C. mirahilis, Pr. Bost Proc. iv. 167. 1851. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8. 1853. 
C. carulea, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 161. 1851. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 465. 1852. 

Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7. 1855. 
Sph. orbicularium, Barrat. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Sph. mirabile, Pr. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 450. 1858. 
Sph. caruleum, Pr. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. N. America. 
— Cycl. par V a, Sowb. Trans. Geol. Soc. 2d ser. iv. 345. pi. xxi. f. 7. 

1836. Is Cyrena p a r V a, Morris. 

57. Sph. patella, Gould. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cyclas patella, Gld. Bost. Proc. iii. 292. 1850. Pr. loc. sup. cit. iv. 

285. 1852. 
Hab. N. America. 
— Sph. p e 1 1 u c i du m, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. t r u n- 

ca t u m, Linsl. 
— Cycl. Perezeii, Villa, Mss. 1858. Is Sph. lacustre, Fer. 

58. Sph. perpusillum, Gartn. 

Cyclas perpusilla, Gartn. Ann. der Wetter. 316. 
Hab. Europe. 

—CycL Pfeifferi, ZiegL Porro. Malac. 121. 1838. Is Pisid. am ni- 
cum, Jen. 

59. Sph. pis i dio ides, Gray? Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. England. (Not described.) 

60. Sph. pi sum, Math. Bgt. sph. 4.3. 1854. 

Cyclas pisum, Math. Cat. Mtth. 148, pL xiv. f. 10, 11. 1842. 

C. subpisum, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

—Cycl. pisum, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 322. 1850. Is Cyrena pisum, Desh. 
— Cycl. plumbeus. Villa. Cat. 44. 1841. Is Sph. c o r n e u m, Scop. 
— Sph. ponderosum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. sul- 
catum, Lam. 
— Cycl. p r i s c a, Eichw. Nat. Hist. Skizze. 207. Is Pisid. p r i s c u m, Eichw. 

61. Sph. prom inn Hum, Reuss. Bgt. Sph. 47. 1854. 

Cyclas prominula, Reuss. Dkr. et Meyer Paleont. 2, 242, pi. iv. f. 14. 
1852. 
Hab. Germany, (fossil.) 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 297 

— Cycl. p r oserpina, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. Is Cyrena pro s e r- 
p i n a, Pr. 

62. Sph, proximnm, Alder ? Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab ? (Not described.) 

— Cycl. pulchella, Hani. Proc. Spec. 1, 91. 1843. Is Pisid. caser- 
t a u n m, Bgt. 

63. Sph. pulchellum, d'Orb. 

Cijclas pulchella, d'Orb. Guer. Mag. Zool. 1835. Voy. Amer. Sept. 

568, pi. 83, f. 8-10. 1844. 
MuscuUum pulchellum, d'Orb. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 452. 1858. 
Pisum piilcheUum, d'Orb. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 560.. 1858. 
Hab. South America. 
—Cycl. pule her, Sowb. Min. Conch, vi. 51, pi. 527, f. 1. 1829. Is Cyrena 

p u 1 c h r a, Morris. 
—Cycl. pus ilia, Turton. Man. 16, pi. 1, f. 7. 1831. Is Pisid. pusil- 
lum, Jen. 

64. Sph. pygmenm, C. B. Adams. 

Cyclas pi/gmea, C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch. 44, 1849. Jay, Cat. ir. ed. 
465, 1862. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9, 53, 1853. 

MuscuUum pygmeum, C. B. Ads. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 452, 1858. 

Pisum pygmeum, C. B. Ads. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 660, 18-38. 
Hab. W. Indies. 
— Cycl. r a d i a t a, Blainv. 2232. 1828. Is Galatea r a d i a t a, Lam. 

65. Sph. rhomboi deum. Say. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cyclas rhomboidea, Say. Ac. N. S. Phil. II. ii. 380, 1822. Per. Mag. 

Zool. 1835. Dekay, 224, pi. 25, f. 263, 1842. C. B. Ads. Vt. 18, 

1842. Linsl. Amer. II. 48, 276, 1845. C. B. Ads. Cat. 30, 1847. 

Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 32, 1850. Stimps. N. C. Moll. 16, 1851. Pr. Bost. 

Proc. iv. 272, 1852. Pr. An. N. Y. Lye. vi. 66, pi. 1, f. 4— a, b, 1853. 

Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9. 1853. 
Cyclas cornea, Lam. var. 3. Lam. v. 558, 1818. Lam. (Desh. ed.) vi. 

268, 1835. 
Cyclas elegans, Ads. Bost. II. 3, 330, pi. 3, f. 11, 1840. Gould. Rept. 

74, f. 55, 1841. Dekay, 224, 1842. C. B. Ads. Vt. 18, 1842. Linsl. 

Amer. 11. 48, 276, 1845. C. B. Ads. Cat. 30, 1847. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 

32, 1850. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 165, 1851. Stimps. N. E. Moll. 16, 

1851. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8. 1853. Lewis Bost. Proc. v. 122, 1855. 
Sph. elegans, C. B. Adams. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450, 1858. 
Hab. N. America. 
—Cycl. rival is, Drap. Hist. MolL 129, pi. x. f. 4, 5. 1805. Is. Sph. 

c r n e n m, Scop. 

66. Sph. rivicola, Lam. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6, 1853. 

Chama albida, d'Arg. Conch. 2d pt. pi. 31, p. 368, 374, 1742. 
Tellina cornea, (pars.) Schrot. 189, pi. iv. f. 4, 1779. 
Cyclas cornea, (pars.) Draps. Tabl. Moll. 105, var. a, 1801. 
C. rivicola, Lam. Lam. v. 558, 1818. 
C. cequata, Sheph. Mss. 1840. 

Sph. riviculum, Leach. Morch. Cat. Conch, etc. fase. 2, p. 30, 1853. 
Cycl. sabulicola, Kryn. Mss. (Bgt. Sph. 13, 1854.) 
Hab. Europe. 

67. Sph. r osac eum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cyclas rosacea, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 155, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 277. 
1852. 
Hab. N. America. 
—Cycl. R u y a n a, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. Is Cyrena R o u y a n a, Bgt. 

I860.] 



298 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMF OF 

68. Sph. rugosum, Dkr. 

Cycles rugosa, Dkr. Dkr. & Meyer, Paleont. 1, 38, pi. 6, f. 15, 16, a-b, 
1846. 
Hab. Grermany, (fossil, j 

39. Sph. Ryckboltii, Normd. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6. 1853. Normd. Cycl. 
3. 1854. 
Ci/clas Ryckholtii, Normd. Cycl. 7, f. 5, 6, 1844. 
Sph. strictum, Normd. Cycl. 3, 1854. 
Hab. France. 

70. Sph. Rylliense, Boissy. 

Cyclas Ri/lliensis, Boissy. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2d ser. iv. 178, 1846. 

Mem. Soc. Geol. Fr. 2d ser. 3, 270, pi. v. f. 5, a-c, 1848. 
Pisid. Rylliense, Bgt. Sph. 52, 1854. 
Hab. France, (fossil.) 

— Cycl. sabulicola, Kryn. Mss. (Bgt. Lph, 13. 1854. Is Sph. rivi- 
c o 1 a, Lam. 
— Cycl. Sa rrat gea, Lam. Lam. v. 560. 1818. Is Sph. sul c a turn, 
Lam. 

71. Sph. Scaldianum, Normd. Cycl. 1. 1854. 

Cyclus Scaldiana, Normd. Cycl. 5, f. 1, 2, 1844. 

Sph. corneum, Scop. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6, 1854. 

S. citrinum, Normd. Cycl. 1, 1854. 
Hab. France. 

—Cycl. Sebetia, DaCosta. Cat. Syst. Tert. Sicil. pi. 2, f. 6. 1829. Is 
Bornia corbuloides, Phil. 

72. Sph. securis, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450, 1858. 

Cyclas securis, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 160, 1851. Stimp. N. E. Moll, 16, 
1851. An. N. Y. Lye. v. 218, pi. vi., 1852. Bost. Proc. iv. 276, 1852. 
Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 466, 1852. Hartman, Cat. 1853. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9, 
1853. Lewis, Bost. Proc. v. 122, 1855. 
C. crocea, Lewis. Loc. sup. cit. v. 25, 1854 ; vi. 2, 1856. 
Hab. N. America. 

73. Sph. semi nullum, Renas. Bgt. Sph. 47. 1854. 

Cycl. seminulla, Reuss. Dkr. & Meyer Paleont. 2, 42, pi. iv. f. 15, 1852. 

Hab. Europe (fossil.) 

— Cycl. semistriata, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. Is Cyrena semistri- 
a t a, Desh. 

—Sph. simile, Say. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1818. Is Sph. sulcatum, 
Lam. 

—Sph. simplex, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. Is Sph. acumi- 
natum, Pr. 

—Cycl. s i r e n a, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 323. 1850. Is Cyrena s i r e n a, Pr. 

—Cycl. s 1 i d a, DeKay. 220, pi. 25, f. 265. 1842. Is Sph. sulcatum, 
Lam. 

74. Sph. solidum, Normd. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 6, 1853. Normd. Cycl. 2, 1854. 

Cycl. solida, Normd. Cycl. 6, f. 3-4. 1844. 
Hab. France. 

75. Sph. s 1 i d u 1 u m, Pr. 

Cycl. solidula, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 158, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 282, 
1852. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 466, 1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9, 1853. Lewis, 
Bost. Proc. V. 122, 1855. 
C. distorta, Pr. loc. sup. cit. iv. 158, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 285, 

1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 7, 1853. Lewis, Bost. Proc. v. 122, 1855. 
Sph. distortum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Hab. N. America. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 299 

76. Sph. sphsericum, Anthony. Ads. Rec. gen. ii. 450, 1858. 

Cud. sphcerica, Anth. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 275. 1852. 
Hab. N. America. 

— Cjcl. s t agnicol a, Leach. Mss. Brit. Mus. 1840. Is Sph. corneumj 
Scop. 

77. Sph. stamineum, Conrad. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. staminea, Conrad. Amer. II. xxT. 342, pi. 1, f. 5, 1834. Fer. 

Mag. Zool. 1833. Dekay, 224, 1842. Jay, Cat. ir. ed. 32, 1850. Pr. 

Bost. Proc. iv. 281, 1852. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9, 1853. 
Hab. N. America. 
— Sph. Steenbuchii, Moller. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii, 450, 1858. Is Pisid. 

Steenbuchii, Morch. 

78. Sph. St e en ii, Schmidt. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. Steenii, Schmidt. Zeit. Malac. 118. 1850. 
Hab. Germany. 

— Cycl. s t r i a t e 1 1 a, Fer. Cat. 20. 1837. Collect, Mus, Paris, Is Sph. 
maculatum, Morelet. 

79. Sph. striatinnm, Lam. 

Cycl. striatina, Lam. Lam. v. 560, 1818. Lam. (Desh. edit.) vi. 271, 
1835. Delessert pl. vii. f. 4, 1841. Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 9, 1853. Pr. 
notes on Cvcl. 1857. 

C. edentida, "Say N. Harm, Dissem. 2, 1829. Fer. Mag. Zool. 1835. 
N. Harm. Dissem. (reprint) 10, 1840. DeKay 225, 1842. Bgt. Amen. 
1, p. 8, 1853. 

C. modesia, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 159, 1851. Loc. snp. cit. iv. 284, 1852. 
Bgt. Amen. 1, p. 8, 1853. Lewis, Bost. Proc. vi. 2, 1856. 

Sph. modestum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Muscidium edentulum, Say. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 451. 1858. 

Pisum edentulum, Say. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 560. 1858. 
— Sph. s t r i 1 u m, Normd. Cycl. 3. 1854. IsSph. Ry ckh olti i, Normd. 
— Cycl. subdeperdita, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 305. 1850. Is Cyrena d e p e r- 

d 1 1 a, Desh. 
— Cycl. subdepressa, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 381. 1850. Is Cyrena com- 
press a, Desh. 

80. Sph. subellipticum. Meek & Hayden. 

Ci/cl. subelliptica, M. & H. Ac. N. S. Phil. Proc. viii. 115. 1856, 
Hab. N. Amer. (fossil.) 
—Cycl. subla?vigata, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Pisid. 1 ae v i g a- 

tum, Bgt. 
—Cycl. s u b 1 ffi V i 9, Gldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 232, pl, 147, f. 7, a-b. 1834-40, 

Is Cyrena sublsevis, Eoemer. 
—Cycl. suborbicularis, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Corbicula 

orbicularis, Pr. 
— Cycl. subpisum, d'Orb. Prod. 3, 19. 1852. Is Sph. p i g u m, Math. 
— Cycl. subquadrata, Sowb. Geol. Trans. 2d ser. iv. 177, 345, pL 
xxi. f, 8. 1836. Is Cyrena subquadrata, Morris. 
31. Sph. subtransversnm, Pr. Proc. Zool. xxviii. 1860. 

Hab. Mexico. 
S2. Sph. subtrigonum, Dkr. 

Cycl. subtrigona, Dkr. Wald. 168, 1834. 
Hab. Germ, (fossil.) 

83. Sph. sulcatum, Lam. 

Cycl. sulcata, Lam. Lam. v. 560, 1818. Lam. (Desh. ed.) vi. 271 , 1835. 
Fer. Mag. Zool. 1835. Fer. Cat. 20, 1837. Delessert, pl. vii, f. 3, 
1841. Jay, Cat. iv. ed. 32, 1850. Stimp. N. E. Moll. 16, 1851. 
Bgt. Amen. i. p. 9, 1853. Pr. Notes Cycl. 1857, 

I860.] 



300 PROCEEDINGS or THE ACADEMY OP 

Cycl. Saratogea, Lam. Lam. v. 560, 1818. Lam. (Desh. ed.) vi. 

271, 1835. Fer. Mag. ZooL 1835. Delessert, pi. 7, f. 9, 1841. Bgt. 

Amen. i. p. 9, 1853. 
Cycl. similis, Say. Rafin. in Bory. St. Vt. An. Gen. Sci. Phy. v. 319, 

1820. Fer. Mag. Zool. 1835. Fer. Cat. 20, 1837. Jay. Cat. 3, ed. 

IG, 1839. Gould. Rapt. 72, f. 53, 1841. DeKay, 222, pi. 25, f. 264, 

1842. Ads. Vt. 18, 1842. Linsl. Amer. 11. 48, 276, 1845. Ads. 

Cat. 30, 1847. Jay. Cat. iv. ed. 32, 1850. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 165, 

1851. Hartman, Cat. 1853. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 9, 1853. Lewis, Bost. 
Proc. V. 122, 1855. Lewis, loc. sup. cit. vi. 2, 1856. 

Cycl. lasmampsis, Rafin. Bory, St. Vt. An. Gen. Sci. Phy, v. 319, pi. 

82,119,20,1820. Fer. Mag. Zool. 1835. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8, 1853. 

Cycl. gigantea, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 157, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 282, 

1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 8, 1853. 

Cycl. ponderosa, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 157, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 282, 

1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 9, 1853. 
Cycl. striatina, Lam. Fr. Mag. Zool. 1835. 
Sph. giganteum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450, 1858. 
SpJi. ponderosum, Pr. Loc. sup. cit. ii. 450, 1858. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

— Cycl. sulc ulosa, Charp. Mss. 1851. Is Sph. fab ale, Pr. 
—Cycl. t e 1 1 i n e 1 1 a, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Cyrena t e 1 1 i n e I - 
la, Fer. 

84. Sph. tenue, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. tenuis, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 161, 1861. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 825, 
1852. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

85. Sph. tenui striatum, Pr. Bgt. Sph. 12. 1854. 

Cycl. tenuistriata, Pr. Bost. Proc. iv. 156, 1851. Loc. sup. cit. iv. 272, 

1852. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 9, 1853. 
Cycl. cornea, Drap. C. B. Adams, Cat. 29. 1847. 
Hab. N. Amer. 

86. Sph. Terverianum, Dup. Bgt. Amen. i. p. 6, 1853. Bgt. Sph. 19, 

pi. 2, f. 11, 15, 1854. 
Cycl. Terveriana, Dup. Cat. Extram. Gall. Tert. Vt. 87, 1849. 
Hab. France. 

87. Sph. transversum. Say. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 

Cycl. transversa, Say. New Harm. Diss, ii. 356, 1829. Fer. Mag. Zool. 

1835. New Harm. Diss. Rept. 10, 1840. DeKay, 224, 1842. Jay. 

Cat. iv, ed. 466, 1852. Pr. Bost. Proc. iv, 274, 1852. Bgt. Amen. 

i, p. 9, 1853. Lewis, Bost, Proc. v. 122, 1855. Lewis, loc. snp. cit. 

vi. 2, 1856, 
Cycl. detriincata, Pr. Loc. sup, cit. iv. 155, 1851, iv. 273, 1852, Bgt. 

Amen, i, p. 8, 1858. 
Cycl. constricta, Anthony. Pr, Bost, Proc, iv, 274. 1852. 
Sph. detruncatum, Pr. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 450. 1858. 
Sph. constrictum, Anth. Loc, sup. cit, ii, 450. 1858, 
Hab. N. America. 
— Cycl. transversa. Lev. Grateloup, Moll. Fr. Cont. 49. 1855. Is Sph. 

Parisiense, Pr. 

88. Sph. tri ang u lare. Say. 

Cyclas triangularis, Say. New Harm. Dissem. 2. 356, 1829. Fer. Mag. 
Zool. 1835, New Harm, Dissem. (rept.) 10, 1860, Bgt. Amen. i. p. 
9, 1853. 
Hab. N. America. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 301 

— Cycl. triangularis, Dub. Fos. Woliln. 59, pi. vi. f. 20, 21, 1831. 

Is Ericina triangularis, d'Orb. 
—Cycl. trigona, Gldf. Petr. Germ. 2, 233, pi. 147, f. 11, a-b. 1834-40 

Is Cyrena R oe m e r i, Dkr. 
—Cycl. trigona, d'Orb. Prod. 2, 304. 1850. Is Cyrena trigona, Desh. 

89. Sph truncatum, Linsley. Ads. Rec. Gen. ii. 451. 1858. 

Oyclas caJyculata, Drap. C. B. Ads. Amer. II.