(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF 



PHILADELPHIA 



1866. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

I" F. I NT ED FOR THE ACADEMY. 
1866. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS, 

With references to the several Articles contributed bij each. 



Allen, Dr. H. Notes on the Vespertilionidae of Tropical America 279 

Berthoud, E. L. Description of the Hot Springs of Soda Creek, their 
location, number, temperature and altitude, and the Geological 
features of the surrounding locality ; together with the remarkable 
discovery of a human skeleton and a fossil Pine Tree in the Boulder 
and Gravel Formation of Soda Bar, Oct. 13, 1860 342 

Cassin, John. A study of the Icteridae 10 

Fasti Ornithologist No 2 35 

A second study of the Icteridae 403 

Cope, E. D. Fourth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical America 123 
Remarks on the remains of a gigantic extinct Dinosaur, from the creta- 
ceous green sand of New Jersey 275 

Third Contribution to the History of the Balamidse and Delphinidse 293 

On the Reptilia and Batrachia of the Sonoran Province of the Nearctic 

Region 

Fifth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical America 317 

Coues, Dr. Elliott. A critical Review of the Family Procellariida?, Part 

III., embracing the Fulmarese 25 

List of the Birds of Fort Whipple, Arizona; with which are incor- 
porated all other species ascertained to inhabit the Territory ; with 
brief critical and field Notes, descriptions of new species, &c 39 

A critical Review of the Family Procellarhdae, Part IV., embracing the 

iEstrelateae and the Prionese 134 

Critical Review of the Family Procellariidse, Part V., embracing the 

Diornedeiuse and the Halodroininse, with a general Supplement 172 

Daniell, Dr. W. C. On the introduction of the American Shad into the 

Alabama River 236 

Horn, Dr. Geo. H. Descriptions of some new Cicindelidse, from the 

Pacific Coast of the United States 394 

Descriptions of some new genera and species of Central American 

Coleoptera 397 



/ S-3 J3 



IV. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

Lea, Isaac. Description of twelve new species of Unionidse, from 

South America 33 

Notes on some members of the Feldspar Family 110 

Description of five new species of the Genus Unio 133 

Description of two new species of the Genus Lithasia 133 

Le Conte, Dr. J. L. List of Coleoptera collected in the Mountains of 

Lycoming County, Pa 346 

List of Coleoptera collected near Fort Whipple, Arizona, by Dr. Elliot 

Coues, U. S. A., in 1864-65 348 

Revision of the Dasytini of the United States 349 

Additions to the Coleopterous Fauna of the United States. No. 1 361 

Lincecum, Dr. G. A History of the "small bl ick erratic Ant" 101 

On the Agricultural Ant, (Myrmica Molefaciens) 323 

Meehan, Thos. On the Period and Ratio of the Annual Increase in the 

Circumference of Trees 292 

On the Consumption of Force by Plants in overcoming Gravitation 401 

Meek, F. B., and A. H. Worthen. Contributions to the Palaeontology of 

Illinois and other Western States 251 

Meigs, J. Aitken. Observations on the Cranial Forms of the American 
Aborigines, based upon specimens contained in the Collection of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences 197 

Reakirt, Tryon. Descriptions of some new species of Diurnal Lepidop- 

tera 238, 331 

Rominger, Dr. Carl. Observations on Chsetetes and some related Genera, 
in regard to their Systematic Position ; with an appended descrip- 
tion of some New Species 113 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF 

PHILADELPHIA 

1866. 



January Id. 

The President. Dr. Isaac Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-two members present. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to the greater part of a human 
skull, and a shell medallion, presented this evening by Col. A. W. Putnam, of 
Nashville, Tenn. The specimens were obtained frcm one of the so-called pigmy 
graves of an ancient aboriginal cemetery near the mouth of Stone River, 
Davidson Co., Tenn. 

The part of the skull consists of nearly the entire cranial portion, and does 
Dot differ in general form, proportions and size, from that of the usual North 
American Indian skulls. The occipital region is high, somewhat compressed, 
and laterally deformed. The medallion is a circular piece of shell, about two 
inches in diameter, and is much eroded. It appears to have been covered with 
some pigment. One side is plain ; the other is marked with cross bars con- 
tained within a linear circle. The upper edge is perforated with two holes. 

Dr. L. read an extract fiom an article by Col. Putnam, in relation to the 
specimens and the so-called pigmy race of Tennessee, published in the Nash- 
ville Dispatch, Dec. 12, 1865. The substance of the extract is as follows : 

The ancient cemeteries in middle Tennessee are peculiar from the construc- 
tion and small size of the graves, which have given rise to the idea that they 
belonged to a people of small stature. The graves are near the surface, and 
so far as examined by Col. Putnam, or observed by the owners of lands on 
which they are situated, and where the plow has uncovered them, are of quite 
uniform structure. A few flat stones at the bottom, generally a single one at 
the bead and foot, and a variable number at the sides. The grave thus pre- 
pared, after receiving the human remains, was filled wi'h earth to the depth of 
one or two feet, and was then covered with one or more flat stones, though 
not in all instances. Col. Putnam supposes that recent dead bodies were not 
deposited in their graves, but were exposed, according to the custom of some 
of the later Indian tribes, on high scaffolds, or suspended to trees, in the open 
air, until the soft parts had decayed, after which the bones were collected and 
deposited in the stone graves. This would explain the reason of the small 
size of the latter in comparison with the length of the entire skeletons con- 
tained therein, and appears to receive confirmation from the fact that these 
graves, notwiihstanding their very superficial position, never appear to have 
been disturbed by wild animals, which they likely would have been had the 
bodies been buried in the fresh condition. 

1866.] 1 



Z PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

The following deaths were announced : Col. J. D. Graham, U. S. A., 
Dec. 29, 1865, and Hon. Henry Winter Davis, Dec. 30, 1865, Corres- 
pondents, and Adolphus L. Heermann, M. D., Member, Sept. 2, 1865. 



January 9th,. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-one members present. 

Dr. Slack directed the attention of the members to some interesting 
specimens of fossils, and chalk of the cretaceous period, from Smoky 
Hill River, Colorado Territory, presented this evening by Mr. D. C. 
Collier. 



January ~[Qth. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-one members present. 

January 23d. 
Mr. Yaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Seventeen members present. 

The following deaths were announced : Mr. Robt. Pearsall, Member, 
January 25, 1866 ; and Dr. John L. Riddell of New Orleans, and Dr. 
John L. Lindley, of London, Correspondents. 



January 30th. 

Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty members present. 

A letter to the President was read, as follows: 

Philadelphia, January I9lh, 1866. 

The President of the Academy of Natural 1 
Sciences of Philadelphia. / 

Sir, I am prepared to pay a legacy of ten thousand dollars, (less U. S. tax ) 
left to the above Institution by the will of my late brother, Thomas B. Wilson, 
deceased, and have enclosed herewith a release, to be signed and acknowledged, 
&c, before a Commissioner of the State of Delaware ; when executed, please 
advise me where and when we can meet to close the transaction. 

Yours, respectfully, 

Rathmell Wilson, Exc'r., 
of Thomas B.Wilson, Deed. 
Address 919 Clinton street. 

The death was announced of Mr. George Ord, Jan. 23, 18 .6, formerly 
President of the Academy. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Academy : 
Mr. Edwin L. Reakirt, Mr. Robert Frazer, Mr. Jas. H. B. Bland, 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Mr. George W. Childs, Mr. George M. Woodward, Mr. Thomas Guil- 
ford Smith, Mr. William Forster Jones, and the Rev. E. R. Beadle. 

Pursuant to the By-Laws, an election of members of the Standing 
Committees for the ensuing year was held, as follows : 

ETHNOLOGY. BOTANY. 

J. A. Meigs, Elias Durand, 

S. S. Haldeman, C. H. Parker, 

F. V. Hayden. C. E. Smith. 



CO MP. AN AT. AND GEN. ZOOLOGY. 
H. Allen, 

W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 
J. H. Slack. 

MAMMALOGY. 

J. H. Slack, 
E. D. Cope, 
H. Allen. 

ORNITHOLOGY. 
J. Cassin, 
S. F. Baird, 
Henry Bryant. 

IIERPETOLOGY AND ICHTHYOLOGY. 
E. D. Cope, 
Th. Norris, 
Robert Bridges. 

CONCH OLOGY. 
Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., 
Isaac Lea, 
T. A. Conrad. 

ENTOMOL OGY AND CR US TA CEA. 
Jno. L. Le Conte, 
J. H B. Bland, 
H. C. Wood, Jr. 



GEOLOGY. 
Isaac Lea, 
J. P. Lesley, 
F. V. Hayden. 

MINERALOGY. 

W. S. Vaux, 

J. C. Trautwine, 

J. A. Clay. 

PALAEONTOLOGY. 

T. A. Conrad, 
Joseph Leidy, 
F. V. Hayden. 

PHYSICS. 

Robert Bridges, 
R. E. Rogers, 
Jacob Ennis. 

LIBRARY. 
Joseph Jeanes, 
Joseph Leidy, 
John Cassin. 

PROCEEDINGS. 
Joseph Leidy, 
W. S. Vaux, 
John Cassin, 
Robert Bridges, 
Oeo. W. Tryon, Jr. 



February Qth. 

Mr. Vaux, Vice President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-eight members present. 

The following was presented for publication : " A Critical Review of 
of the Family Procellaridas," by Elliot Coues, M. 



D., U. S. A. 



Prof. E D. Cope presented to the Academy a specimen of Nautilus, obtained 
by him from the owner of " Heritages," Marl Pits, Glassboro, New Jersey, who 
stated to him that it had been found in those diggings. The identity of the 
matrix with that surrounding specimens of Teredo tibialis, and Terebratula 

1868.] 



* PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

fragilis and Harlani, taken from that bed by Prof. C. r seemed conclusive on 
this point. The species is an Aturia, and the first found in the cretaceous for- 
mation of New Jersey, though W. M. Gabb had discovered one perhaps the 
same in the cretaceous of California. It, has some resemblance to the zic-zac, 
but presents fewer and more diftant septa, longer chambers, and the parietal 
processes of the septa more divaricate and less dorsally situate. It differs 
from the A. Alabamensis (Morton) by the same features, and in the smaller 
siphuncle and much less parallel septa. The following are its characters : 

Uncovered chambers nine ; septary process elongate, acuminate, shallow, 
diverging outward from a spiral line joining their bases ; well separated from 
the succeeding septa; dorsal portions of the septa short, very excentric as 
regards each other; ventral portions opposite them, forming nearly a right 
angle with the ventral outline. Siphuncle smnll, more dorsal than the end of 
the dorsal fourth of the diameter. Ventral face broad rounded; septal 
processes scarcely visible on the ventral view. Diameter of the l*st chamber 
o in. 111.; of first visible (at siphuncle) 22 1. Median diameter (from penul- 
timate chamber) 8 inches. 

This species most resembles Nautilus Parkinsoni, which cannot be far re- 
moved from Aturia. In it the septary process approaches closely the succeed- 
ing septum ; while in the A. pancifex they fall far short of the latter, and are 
more divaricate; the siphuncle is less dorsally situate, measuring one-fourth 
the diameter in the former. In A. Agustata, Conrad, from the Eocene of 
Oregon, there is much resemblance, but that animal is much more like the zic- 
zac ; its septary processes are not divaricate and but little separated; the 
dorsal portion of the septary wall instead of being opposite its ventral portions 
is opposite that of the septum next anterior. The nearest ally i3 the A. 
Mathewsonii Gabb. It appears to differ in the small siphuncle, and obliquely 
truncate and divaricate septary processes, and the relatively much shorter 
median or central portion of the septary margins. My friend T. A. Conrad's 
opinion as to the peculiarities of this species is confirmatory of my own. 

Dr. Leidy read several extracts from a letter of Dr. Gideon Lin- 
cecura, addressed to Mr. Durand, dated Long Point, Texas, Dec. 24, 
1865. One of the extracts related an interesting account of an ant 
battle, witnessed by Dr. Lincecum, as follows : 

"The large, black tree ants have exceedingly destructive wars sometimes with 
their own species. Like the honey bee, they maintain separate and distinct 
governments, or hives, and between these, as far as my observation goes, there 
is no commerce or intercourse of any description. But they have territorial 
claims and quarrels ; and these quarrels are occasionally decided on the battle 
field. As they are equal in physical strength and the science of war, the 
amount of life that is destroyed in one of their national conflicts is sometimes 
very great. I have seen left on one of their battle fields at least a gallon of 
the slain. Th*-y were not dead, but they were in a far more lamentable con- 
dition. Their legs having been all trimmed off; they lay on the ground amongst 
the scattered fragments of their dissevered limbs, wallowing and writhing their 
legless bodies, in an agony of sullen, mad, hopeless despair. 

This disastrous engagement took place in the little front yard of my office, on 
the eveuing of the 10th of July, 1855. There were considerable numbers en- 
gaged in battle when I first observed them. They were madly fighting in a 
hand to hand conflict, and reinforcements were momentarily arriving to both 
armies. The battle had now become general, and was raging over an area of 
15 to 20 feet in diameter. It was 4 P. St., and placing a chair in a convenient 
situation for observation, I seated myself, for the purpose, if possible, of ascer- 
taining the cause of the difficulty, and to note their mode of warfare. I was 
not present at the commencing of the battle, and now, while it was wildly 
raging, could not find out the cause of it. It was not long, however, until I 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 5 

discovered that the belligerent parties were the subjects of two neighboring- 
kingdoms, or hives, each of which, as I could distinguish, by the arrival of 
their reinforcements, were coming from two different post-oak trees, which 
were standing about fifty yards apart, and the office-yard being very nearly the 
half-way ground, afforded me good opportunity to determine that the contend- 
ing parlies belonged to distinct communities, and not to the same hive. 

The battle continued unabated, until the darkness of the night prevented 
further observation. I left them to their fate, with my feelings so highly excited 
that I did not rest well that night. Before sunrise the next morning I visited 
the battle field, and found it thickly strewed with the legless, hapless warriors, as 
described above. There could not have been less than 40,000 left on the ground 
who were utterly incapacitated to help themselves. A few of them had a single 
leg left. "With this they made shift to pull themselves incessantly around in a 
very limited circle. The larger proportion of them lay prost'ate, writhing and 
doubling, and vainly straining their agonized, limbless bodies in a stateof mental 
abandonmentand furious desperation. Few were dead. All the dead on a 8 that I 
saw, did not exceed perhaps a hundred ; and these were found universally in 
pairs, mutually grappling each other by the throat. With a few of these pa'rs of 
unyielding warriors, life was not entirely extinct. My sympathies being painfnlly 
excited, 1 made an effort, where there were signs of vitality, to separate them. 
In this ! did not succeed. On closer scrutiny, I found that they had fixed their 
caliper-like mandibles in each others throat, and were gripped together with 
such inveterate malignity, that they could not be separated without tearing off 
their heads. 

I had swept them up in a heap, and as the most humane method of curtailing 
the wretched condition of the poor, ruined victims of the bloody strife I couid 
think of, was making a bole in the ground, with the intention of entombing 
the whole of them, Whig and Tory together, and by filling the grave with water, 
drown them. But before I had completed ray arrangements, there came a heavy 
shower of rain, which soon overwhelmed them with mud and water, thereby 
relieving me from the painful task. 

It is perhaps nothing amiss to state here, that among the slain the van- 
quished I saw no type of the species, except the neutrals, or working type. 
As on the ensanguined fields of the arrogant genus homo, the conjuring priests 
and better bloods of the self-created nobility, after raising the/*s, had found 
it convenient to have business in some safer quarter. 

This ant dwells in live trees, in large swarms, or more properly communities, 
and feeds principally on insects. On this account he is useful. It is a fortu- 
nate thing for any family to have a large tree netr their dwelling that contains 
a community of this civil but warlike species of ant. 

Near the western corner of my dwel.itig, for eight years, stood a post oik 
tree Quercus obtusiloba which contained a quite populous community of the 
black tree ant in question. During the eight years that the tree survived, it 
was the custom of these ants to visit every portion of the house, every night in 
warm weather; search out all hidden cracks and crevices, in walls, bedsteads, 
and furniture, in fact, travel over every thing about the house, except the 
clothing; upon any woven texture they do not travel. In all that eight years, 
we had no fleas, bed bugs, or any other insect annoyances. But when the tree 
died, \r which they had their home, they went away, and we have missed them 
much, as, since their departure, we have been forced to scald and wash out the 
house often, to clear it of annoying insects. We should be happy in the ac- 
knowledgment of our dependence on the services of another such community. 

This species of ant is the largest that is found in Texas. He is quite black, 
and disdaining the grovelling habits of the burrowing tribes of the genus, he 
constructs his habitation in the live trees. As far as my observation goes, 
however, he dwells only in the cedars and post oaks. Very seldom found 
in a tree that has been long dead. In the construction of the habitation for the 

1866.] 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY 0? 

accommodation of the community, be displays a degree of forethonght, skill 
and ingenuity, which is arrogantly claimed to belong only to the genus homo. 
In the first place, a single female winged ant selects a live tree, in a locality 
favorably situated for the peculiar habits of the species, and the growth of the 
insects upon which it feeds mainly. She now seeks out some small crevice, 
dead limb, or wind crack in the tree, and cutting off her wing3, which are no- 
longer useful, but in the way, she commences the work of boriog and chisel- 
ing out suitable apartments for the coming community. This she accomplishes- 
by cutting away the firm, sound wood of the growing tree, until she has com- 
pleted a sufficient number of apartments, or cells, in which to deposit her eggs r 
and this ends her labors. Very soon 12 days she has produced a swarm of 
neutrals, who go to work collecting food and extending the cells to suit the 
growing population, until, as I have often witnessed, the inner portion of the 
tree will be cut into singularly constructed cells to the extent of 6 or 7 feet,, 
without greatly diminishing its strength." 

Other extracts from the letter, in relation to certain speeies cf grapes 
of Texas, are as follows : 

" I am familiar with Buckley's V. monticola, and am pleased that it has 
at last been named, and placed in scientific classi6cation. I am not right sure- 
that all the Texas grapes have yet been noted. I think it quite probable that 
future industry and close scientific scrutiny will deveb pe other species and; 
varieties, particularly when the investigator penetrates the valleys and gulches 
of our exceeding rough mountain ranges." 

" la reference to the Post oak grapes, there are two species here that are- 
known among the people as the ' Post oak grape.' 1 They are found in the Post 
oak lands. The one I sent you flourishes best in the very sandy elevations, 
with the bitter- fruited Post oak. This species does not rise exceeding four 
or five feet ; it is more of a bush than a vine. The berry is large and sour, but 
its odor is very fine. The other species is sometimes found in the same soil, 
alongside of the first, but more frequently in better soil, always, however,, 
in Post oak lands, which as a general thing, are more or less sandy. This 
species is a climbing vine, running over the tops of the trees, bearing heavy 
crops of large grapes. These are also too sour for a table grape ; they pro- 
duce a very palatable wine, which, very probably, might be greatly improved 
by cultivation." 

"Mr. G. J. Durham, (my son in-law,) examined your description of the 
Vitis monticola to-day. He says Buckley is right about it being the best 
American grape, but has never seen such large clusters as you describe ; has 
eat of the fruit, which he describes as maturing in September ; that the berry 
when ripe, is of a medium siae, bright green, sprinkled with black dots, very 
sweet, and that the vine sometimes attains to the height of ten or eleven feet. 
It is almost universally found among, and clambering on the rocks, on dry 
limestone elevations. That it is not very abundant, &c, all of which I know 
to be correct. The other small mountain black grape is more abundant, and is 
also quite sweet. It occupies lower grounds than the V. montic(.la r being found 
mostly in the heads of the ravines, runniugon the dogwood trees in such quan- 
tit es, that he, Durham, has seen them, towards the latter part of September, 
when the leaves had all shed off, and in many places where the vines had mat- 
ted the tops of the dogwoods, impart a blue caste to the whole scenery, even 
at a mile's distance. Companies of soldiers have been known to subsist upon 
them alone, two or three days at a time, and no ill results arose from it. This 
last grape is called by the people of that country, ' sugar grape,' and is highly 
esteemed by all who have a knowledge of it. They will travel a great way at 
1he proper season to procure them. The soldiers who are stationed in or near 
the mountains will go 30 or 40 miles after them. And yet, I have never heard 
of an attempt to domesticate either of the mountain species. 

[Jan. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 

It is at least 150 miles from my place to where they are found in any degree 
plenty. The excursions I have made in that direction have always been during 
the summer months, consequently I have only seen them in about a half-grown 
state. All the mature fruit I have seen were brought by travellers from that 
country." 



February 13 th. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-four members present. 

The following deaths were announced : 

Mr. Charles A. Poulson, Feb. 8, Member. Dr. William P. Grier, 
U. S. A., Jan. 28, Member. Mr. Lovell Beeve, of London, Corres- 
pondent 



February 20th. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair, 
Twenty-five members present. 



February 27th. 
Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The Committee on Proceedings placed on the table the fifth number 
of the published Proceedings, for November and December, 1865. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Academy: 
Mr. William E. White, Mr. John E. Graeff, Mr. William Evans, Jr., 
Mr. Edward R. Wood, Mr. Philip C. Garrett and Mr. Charles Harts- 
home ; and Mr. Geo. W. Clinton, of Buffalo, N. Y., was elected a 
Correspondent. 



March Qlh. 
Dr. Bridges in the Chair. 
Sixteen members present. 



March loth. 
Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members present. 

Mr. Lea read an extract from a letter of Prof. Courtland, on the 
gradual extinction of the western Unionidse. 

A paper was presented for publication, entitled " A List of Birds of 
Arizona, &c," by Elliot Coues, M. D., U. S. A. 

Prof. E. D. Cope exhibited a cranium of a Black Fish (Globicephalus) found 
on the western shore of Delaware Bay by Cornelius Gregory. Comparison 

I866.3 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

with an example of the same genus from Cape Cod, revealed differences which 
must probably be regarded as distinctive of two species. The latter is 
apparently identical with the known species G. melas (or sivineval), 
and agrees with Harlan's description of G. intermedins, and in locality ; the 
Delaware specimen is of much broader and shorter proportions than any known 
species, exhibits a narrower supraorbital roof and shorter tooth line. The in- 
termaxillaries dilate and entirely cover the maxillaries at tbe basal two-fifths 
of the muzzle, which then rather abruptly contracts to the tip. 

G. ? sp. nov. G. melas. 

End of muzzle to end malar to length End of muzzle to end malar to length as 

cranium, 2 to 4.5. 2 to 4 5. 

Width at basal fourth equal from notch Width do. four fifths from notch to sup- 
to supraoccipital and 5-6ths length of raoccip. crest, 
muzzle. 

Outlines begin to contract at basal Outlines continuous, nearly parallel. 
2-5ths. 

Width at distal fourth equal length W T idih do. less than half length, 
muzzle. 

.Supraoccipital everted to foramen mag- Supraocsipital straight to foramen mag- 
num, num. 

Longitudinal width supraorbital roof, Longit. width supraorb. equal width., 

I width muzzle at basal third. muzzle at basal third. 

Length of alveolar series scarcely more Length do. equal width, muzzle at 7tb 

than half width of muzzle at seventh tooth. 
tooth. 

Teeth above, six. Teeth above r ten. 

Dr. Gray (Catal. Cetaceous Brit. Mus.,) describes a specimen from Guada- 
loupe in Mus. Paris, which has the maxilla; similarly concealed by the pre- 
maxillaries. The present individual is an adult male, with the ligamentous 
attachments on tbe muzzle, a^d muscular insertions largely developed. Total 
length 25 in. 6 lin. ; postorbital width (above.) 

The whale alluded to (Proceedings, 1865, p. 168) as having been seen in 
Mobjack Bay, Virginia, was stated to have been captured by Dr. P. A. Talia- 
ferro and Prof. E. Taliaferro, of William and Mary College, Williamsburg, and 
prepared and set up. It is a short- finned Megaptera, probably of the species 
M. o s p h y i a. Prof. T. has kindly furnished me with the following details as 
tj its structure, carefully drawn up by himself. 

Length from end of muzzle over convexity of back, forty-three feet nine 
inches ; girth about nineteen feet ; length from end of muzzle to axilla (ex- 
ternal measurement) fifteen feet; breadth of head across inferior margin of 
jaws, eight feet. Length of the pectoral extremity four feet; greatest breadtb 
fifteen inches ; they were situated close behind the angle ot the mouth. There 
were three hundred and sixty lamiuie of baleen, extending on either side of 
the mouth about six feet along the jaw, the longest about eighteen to twenty 
inches. The bead was acute. The folds of the throat many and capacious. 
The dorsal fin was represented by a conical mass covered by horny integu- 
ment, without any membranous appendage, situated well posteriorly. The 
body near the tail very slender. Tbe flukes suddenly expand to a breadth of 
ten foet. The cervical vertebrae were all distinct. Color: jet black above,, 
white on the belly; sides beautifully marbled by the combination of the two 
colors. 

The most striking feature in this specimen is tbe shortness of the pectoral 
limbs, being relatively nearly half less than in the specimen of the o s p h y i a 
at Niagara, one- half the length of the cranium, and only one-tenth the total. 
This is very different from any of the hitherto known species, and without 
doubt distinct. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 9 

March 20th. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President in the Chair. 

Twenty-seven members present. 
The following were offered for publication : 

" List of the Birds of Port Whipple, Arizona." By Elliot Coues, M.D. 
" Description of twelve Unionidae from South America." By Isaac 
Lea. 

" Fasti OrnithologijB, No. 2." By John Cassin. 

Dr. Leidy directed the attention of the members to the specimen of a large 
phalanx of an extinct reptile, presented this evening by Dr. W. Spillman, of 
Columbus, Mississippi. It was derived from the cretaceous formation in the 
vicinity of the latter place, and is remarkably well preserved. It is a first 
phalanx, and in general form resembles the corresponding phalanges of the 
Alligator, but is proportionately more robust. The proximal articular surface 
is moderately concave, somewhat uneven ; and in outline is transverse oval 
with the lower side flat. The distal extremity is provided with a trochlear 
articular surface, and deep pits laterally for ligamentous attachment. The 
animalto which the bone belonged is unknown ; it may be conjectured to 
have appertained to the fore foot of Hadosaurus. The measurements are as 
follows: Length in the axis 5 inches 8 lines ; length laterally ft inches ; trans- 
verse diameter of proximal end 2 inches 11 lines ; vertical diameter of do. 2 
inches 5 lines; transverse diameter of distal end inferiorly 2 inches 5J lines; 
vertical diameter at middle of trochlea 1 inch 6 lines. 

Dr. Leidy next directed the attention of the members to a specimen of the 
liver of a turkey suspended in alcohol, containing half a dozen cream-colored 
tumors, from the size of a pea to that of a nutmeg. The tumors examined 
microscopically appear to have the structure of soft cancer, as usually described, 
being composed of large nucleated cells in great variety of form. Dr. L. 
stated that, after having dined on part of the turkey, on making inquiry for 
the missing liver, the cook had given information, that in consequence of the 
" white lumps in it, it had not been cooked." On procuring it from the slops, 
it was found to be in the condition described. Dr. L. took the opportunity of 
expressing the opinion that an unnecessary degree of alarm had been created 
in the community in relation to what were considered to be diseased meats, 
especially such as are infested with parasites. While he most decidedly re- 
commended the avoidance of the flesh of diseased or unwholesome animals, 
he thought that all parasites would be destroyed by thorough cooking. 

In answer to a question from one of the members, whether he had noticed 
Trichina in pork, Dr. L. observed that he had been the first to discover this 
parasite in the hog ; the discovery having been made twenty years ago, as may 
be seen by referring to the Proceedings of this Academy for October, 1846, 
page 107 8. This notice had attracted the attention of the German helmin- 
thologists, as proved by reference to Diesing's Systema Helminthum, vol. ii. 
page 114, and Leuckart, Untersucbungen ii. Trichina spiralis, pages 6, 18. 

The circumstances under which the Trichina had been first detected in pork, 
was on an occasion when Dr. L. had dined on part of the infested meat. While 
eating a slice of pork, he noticed some minute specks, which recalled to mind 
the Trichina spots seen in the muscles of a human subject only a few days 
previously. Preserving the remainder of the slice, on examination of it mi- 
croscopically, he found it full of Trichina spiralis, but the parasites were all 
dead from the heat of cooking. In conclusion, Dr. L. observed that all meats 
were liable to be infested with parasites, but that there was no danger from 
infection if the meats were thoroughly cooked, for he had satisfied himself by 
experiment that entozoa are destroyed when submitted to the temperature of 
boiling water. 

1866.] 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

March 27th. 
Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected members : 

J. A. Heinrzelman, Amos It. Little, James C. Parrish, Clemmons 
Hunt, R. Shelton Mackenzie, Charles B. Durborrow, John Turner, 
Samuel E. Slayraaker, William E. Kehmle, Alfonso de Figaniere, 
Thomas C. Stellwagen, M. D., and Charles S. Westcott. 

The following were elected correspondents : 

Robert Gray and William Sinclair, of Glasgow, Scotland; D. C. 
Collier, of Central City, Colorado; and Rev. Joseph Blake. 

On report of the respective committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 

A STUDY OF THE ICTERIDAE. 
BY JOHN CASSIN. 

1. Sub-family Agelaiinae. 
1. Genus AGELAIUS, Vieillot. 
(Genus Agelaius, Vieill, Analyse, p. 33, 1816.) 
1. Agelaius. 

1. Agblaids phceniceus (Linnaeus.) 

Oriolus phceniceus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 161, (1766.) 

Sturnus praedatorius, Wils. Am. Orn. iv. p. 30, (1811. 
Wilson Am. Orn. pi. 30. Aud B. of Am. pi. 67, Oct. ed. iv. pi. 216. 
An abundant and well known species, diffused throughout the whole of 
temperate North America. It is nearly related to the two species immediately 
succeeding, from whicb it is, however, generally not difficult to distinguish, 
though all of them much resemble each other whea in young plumage. 
Numerous specimens are in the Acad. Museum, and in the Museum Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington. Specimens from Yucatan, in the Smithsonian Museum, 
have the bill more slender and present some other slight differences, and may 
be distinct or referable to A. assimilis, Gundlach. 

2. Agelaius tricolor, Audubon. 

Agelaius tricolor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. p. 1. (1839.) 

Aud. B. of Am. pi. 388, Oct. ed.. iv. pi. 214. 

Numerous specimens in the Academy Museum, and in that of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Resembles the preceding but is quite distinct specifically, and can 
be distinguished readily by the different red of the shoulders, less rounded tail 
and more slender bill, in the present bird. Abundant in the western countries 
of North America. 

3. Agelaius assimilis, Gundlach. 

Agelaius assimilis. " Gundl. MSS.," Lembeye, Aves Cuba, p. 64, (1850.) 
Agelaius assimilis, Gundl. Cabanis Jour. 1856, p. 12. 
Lembeye, Aves Cuba, pi. ix. fig. 3. 

Restricted apparently to the Island of Cuba, but in the adult male much re- 
sembling specimens from Yucatan. In this species the female is totally black 
in which respect it differs from the two preceding species, though the adult 
male is very similar to that of A. phceniceus. The young male resembles the 
female, bnt is usually recognizable by the presence of more or less of the scarlet 
of the shoulders. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 11 

Specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and in the collection 
of Mr. Lawrence of New York. The females and young males are uniform 
brownish black, not in the smallest degree mottled, as in the two preceding 
species and in A. Gubernator. > 

4. Agelaius Gdbernator, (Wagler.) 

Psarocolius gubernator, Wagl. Isis, 1832, p. 281. 

Aud. B. of Am. pi. 420, Oct. ed. iv. pi. 215. 

Easily distinguished when adult from either of the preceding by its shoulders 
being uniform rich crimson, without paler margin, though the young much 
resemble each other. Abundant in western North America. 

Numerous specimens in Academy Museum and Museum Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 

5. Agelaius humeralis, (Vigors.) 

Leistes humeralis, Vig. Zool. Jour. iii. p. 442, (1827.) 
La Sagra Cuba, Ois. pi. 5. 

Now well known as a bird of the Island of Cuba. This species is smaller 
than either of the preceding, and not quite strictly of the same subgroup, 
having the tail proportionally rather longer and general form apparently more 
slender. Common in Cuba. Numerous specimens in the Academy Museum, 
and Museum Smithsonian Institution, and in Mr. Lawrence's collection. 

In this species the females and young males are stated to be black, (as in A. 
assimilis, alsj of Cuba.) A specimen in Mr. Lawrence's collection, which I regard 
as a young male of this species, is clear uniform black, the rufous of the shoulder 
beginning to appear. 

2. Xanthocephalus. 
(Genus Xanthocephalus, Bonap. Consp. Av. 1. p. 431.) 

6. Agelaius xanthocephalus, (Bonaparte.) 

Icterus xanthocephalus, Bonap. Jour. Acad. Philad'a. v. p. 223, (1827.) 

Agelaius longipes, Swains. Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 436. 

Psarocolius perspicillatus, Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 753. 

Icterus icterocephalus, Bonap. Am. Orn. 1. p. 27, (supposed by Bonaparte, 

to be Oriolus icterocephalus, Linn.) 
Icterus frenatus, Licht., Isis, 1843, p. 69. 
Bonap. Am. Orn. 1. pi. 3. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 388, Oct. ed. iv. pi. 213. 
In my judgment this species is properly to be arranged as an Agelaius It 
is an abundant bird of the central and western countries of North America, 
and specimens are in all collections in this country, though formerly scarce and 
highly valued. Straggling specimens, generally of young birds, have occasionally 
been obtained in the States on the Atlantic, several having occurred, within 
my knowledge, in the vicinity of Philadelphia. 

This species does not resemble any other sufficiently intimately to render 
close comparison necessary, and can usually be recognized quite readily. It 
is handsomely figured by Audubon, and by Bonaparte as above. 

3. Apfrobus. 

(Genus Aphobus, Cabanis, Mus. Hein, i. p. 194.) 

7. Agelaius chopi, Vieillot. 

Agelaius cbopi, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 537, (1819.) 

Icterus unicolor, Licht. Verz. p. 19. (1823.) 

Icterus sulcirostris, Spix. Av. Bras. i. p. 67, (1824.) 
Spix Av. Bras. i. pi. 64. Hahn Voeg. pt. xvi. pi. 2. 

Specimens obtained by Mr. John G. Bell, at Mazatlan, Mexico, have the bill 
larger and in general stature are rather more robust than in specimens labelled 
as from various parts of South America, but otherwise are quite identical. 
Easily identified in this group by the sharply lanceolate and acuminate form 
of the feathers of the bead and the oblique grooves at the base of the lower 
1866.] 



12 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

mandible. My impression at present is, that this bird is properly to be 
arranged here as a subgenus of Agelaius. 

Numerous specimens in the Academy Museum. In general appearance and 
in the pointed feathers of the head this bird resembles Leistes curaeus (=Curneus 
a(errimus) with which it has been sometimes confounded, though much smaller 
and not, in my opinion, belonging to the same genus. 

4. Agelasticus. 

(Genus Agelasticus, Cabanis, Mus. Hein, i. p. 188.) 

8. Agelaius thilius, (Molina.) 

Turdus thilius, Mol. Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, (1782.) 
Xanthornus chrysocarpus, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 3. 
Thilius major, Bonap. Corapt. Rend. 1853, p. 833. 
Gilliss, U. S. Astr. Exp. Chili, Birds, pi. 16. 

Numerous specimens from Chili in the Academy and Smithsonian Institution . 
So far as I can see, this bird is an Agelaius, presenting only somewhat greater 
attenuation of form than in the more typical species, and in my judgment it is 
the type of a subgeneric group quite identical with Neopsar, Sclater. This 
species intimately resembles the next succeeding but is larger. 

9. Agelaius xanthocarpus, Bonaparte. 

Agelaius xanthocarpus, Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 430, (1850.) 
"Icterus chilensis, Kittlitz." Bonap. Compt. Rend. 1853, p. 834. 

This is a black species with yellow shoulders, much resembling the preceding 
(.4. thilius) and apparently to be distinguished mainly by its smaller size. It 
is scarcely to be recognized from the Prince Bonaparte's description in Consp. 
Av., as cited above, but is clearly indicated by the same distinguished Natural- 
ist in Comp. Rend. 1853, p. 833. This bird seems to be constantly smaller 
than the preceding, with the bill disproportionately more slender, the wing 
shorter and the proportionate lengths of the quills different. 

Specimens of this species in the Mus. Smiths. Inst., from Capt. Page's 
La Plata Expedition, were obtained at Buenos Ayres and Santa Fe, Argentine 
Republic. 

(Genus Neopsar, Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, p. 139 ) 

10. Agelaius nigerrimus, (Osburn.) 

Icterus nigerrimus, Osburn, Zoologist. 1859, p. 6662. 

Neopsar nigerrimus, (Osburn,) Sclat. Cat Am. B. p. 139. 
An entirely black species, apparently of frequent occurrence in the Island of 
Jamaica, from whence numerous specimens have been received at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Specimens in the Academy Museum, also from Jamaica. 
Structurally I cannot see that this bird is anything else than an Agelaius, and 
of the same subgroup as the preceding. It is more nearly related to the species 
immediately succeeding, which is also entirely black, from which, however, it 
can readily be distinguished on examination, by its being rather smaller, the 
bill more slender and the tarsi shorter, but the most reliable character is the 
different color of the plumage at the ba'se of the feathers. In the present bird 
the feathers are dark ashy or nearly black at their base, and in the next (.4. 
cyanopus,) they are light ashy, abruptly tipped with black. The female in this 
bird is stated to be black, in which respect it seems to differ from the suc- 
ceeding. 

11. Agelaius cyanopus, Vieillot. 

Agelaius cyanopus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 552, (1819.) 
This apparently little kaown species is in structura exceedingly like the 
species immediately preceding (A. nigerrimus=yeopsar nigerrimus) and the adult 
males, at least, of both being glossy black, the general resemblance also is very 
strong. In fact, I had always supposed the two to be identical until I had un- 
dertaken the present more extended examination, an impression which, though 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 13 

I have never printed, I may have expressed verbally and epistolatorially, and 
beg now to correct, both for myself and others contingently interested. 

The males only of the two species are alike in color, the female of the present 
species being strictly as described by M. D'Orbigny in Guerin's Magazine, 
Zool. 1838, p. 5, and previously by Azara and Vieillot; reddish chestnut, 
with longitudinal central stripes of black on the back and dullish yellow on 
the under parts of the body. In the Jamaica species {A. nigerrimus) both sexes 
are st.ted to be black. The present bird is slightly the larger, with the bill 
rather the thicker and the tarsus longer, but the most decisive and reliable 
character is that in this species the entire plumage of the body above and 
below is light ashy at the bases of the feathers, easily seen in raising them, es- 
pecially on the rump and lower part of the back. On those parts, in fact, the 
feathers are, almo t throughout their length, light ashy, being only rather 
narrowly and abruptly tipped with deep black. In A. nigerrimus this is not 
the case, the feathers being, throughout, much darker and in fact nearly black, 
widely tipped with deep black. Both birds are strictly of the subgroup 
Neopsar. 

This bird is accurately described by Azara, Apuntamientos, i. p. 313, 
(Walckenaer's French edition, iii. p. 190) whose description is copied by Vieillot, 
Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 552. It is also sufficiently described by D'Orbigny, 
Guerin's Magazine, Zool. 18C8, Syn. Av. p. 5. The sexes, as given somewhat 
provisionally by these authors, are so labelled in the fine collection made by 
Mr. Christopher J. Wood, while attached to Capt. Page's Expedition, which 
surveyed the Rio La Plata and Rio Parana, which collection is now in the 
Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. The female, and probably the young 
male, are entirely different from the male in colors, in which respect this species 
apparently differs in a singular manner from its near relative, Agelaius or 
Neopsar nigerrimus, numerous specimens of which, labelled as both males and 
females, are in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, and are entirely 
black. One of M. D'Orbigr.y's specimens in the Academy Museum is probably 
that of a young male, but differing only from the female in having the black 
stripes of the under parts more numerous and the throat less conspicuously 
mottled with black. 

This species seems to be of rather wide diffusion, though apparently but in- 
differently known to naturalists. Specimens in Academy Museum, labelled 
" Bolivia," from M. D'Orbigny's collection, and others received from Mr. John 
G. Bell of New York, in " Bogota" collections. Specimens in Capt. Page's 
La Plata collection are labelled, undoubtedly correctly, by Mr. Wood, " Para- 
guay." 

The points of distinction between the two closely allied species here men- 
tioned, and especially the infallible character, as I regard it, to be found in 
the difference of the colors at the bases of the feathers, I am happy to ac- 
knowledge were first pointed out to me by Miss Grace Anna Lewis, most favora- 
bly known, and deservedly so, as a lecturer and teacher of Ornithology and 
General Natural History. Miss Lewis is one of several accomplished ladies who 
have most diligently studied in the Library and Museum of this Academy during 
the present winter, and not only successfully, but have contributed also in 
the highest degree to the general agreeableness of the similar pursuits of 
their fellow students of the stronger sex. 

5. Macroagelaius. 

2. Agklaius subalaris, (Boissoneau.) 

Quiscalus subalaris, Boiss. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 70. 
Specimens in the Academy Museum labelled " Bogota." Though usually 
rated as a Quiscalus, this bird, in my opinion, is more properly to be regarded 
as an Agelaius, though differing from the typical subgroups in having a longer 
and more Quiscalus-like tail. It is not an uncommon bird in collections from 
the northern countries of South America. 

1866.] 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

II. Genus LEISTES, Swainson. 

(Genus Leistes, Swains. Zool., Jour, ii., p. 191.) 

1. Leistes. 

1. Leistis militaris, (Linnseus.) 

Emberiza militaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 178, (1758.) 
Oriolus guianensis, Linn. Syst Nat. i. p. 162, (1766.) 
Oriolus americanus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 386, (1788.) 
Xanthornus rubricollis, Hahn, Voegel, pt. v. (1819.) 
Buff. PI. Enl. 236, fig. 2. Edwards' Birds, pi. 82. Vieill. Gal. ii. pi. 88. 
Hahn, Voegel, pt. v., pi. 2. 

Numerous specimens of this well known species are in the Academy Museum, 
labelled as from Brazil and Guiana, and in the Museum Smithsonian Institution 
from Trinidad. 

2. Leistes superciliaris (Bonaparte.) 

Trupialis superciliaris, Bonap., Consp. Av., i. p. 430, (1850.) 
Resembles the preceding, but rather larger and easily distinguished by its 
conspicuous superciliary stripe of white. Specimens in the Academy Museum, 
labelled Cayenne, and in Smithsonian Museum from Buenos Ayres, and Ceara, 
Northern Brazil. 

2. Gymnomystax. 

(Genus Gymnomystax, Reichenbach.) 

3. Leistes melanicterus, (Vieillot.) 

Agelaius melanicterus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 544, (1819.) 
Icterus citrinus, Spix. Av. Bras. i. p. 69, (1824.) 
Psarocolius gymnops, Wagl., Syst. Av., p. (not paged, 1827.) 

Spix, Av. Bras., i. pi. 66. 

Specimens in Academy Museum from Cayenne and Brazil. 

3. Xanthosomus. 

(GeDUS Xanthosomus, Cabanis, Mus. Hein. i. p. 189.) 

4. Leistes icterocephalus, (Linnreus.) 

Oriolus icterocephalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 163, (1766.) 
Edward's Birds, pi. 323. Hahn, Voegel. pt. v., pi. 6. 
Numerous specimens in Academy Museum, from Guiana and Trinidad. 

5. Leistes flavus, (Gmelin.) 

Oriolus flavus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 389, (1788.) 
Psarocolius flaviceps, Wagler, Syst. Av., p. (not paged, 1827.) 
ChrysomuB xanthopygius, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 345, (1838.) 
Voy. Beagle, Birds pi. 45. 

Specimens in Academy Museum from Brazil and other countries of South 
America. This bird presents some variations in size, but nothing of specific 
value in the specimens under examination. 

4. Fseudoleistes. 

(Genus Pseudoleistes, Sclat. Cat. Am. Birds, p. 137.) 

6. Leistes viridis, (Gmelin.) 

Oriolus viridis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 395, (1788.) 
Agelaius Guirahuro, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv., p. 545, (1819.) 
Leistes Suchii, Vigors, Zool. Jour, ii., p. 192, (1825.) 
Xanthornus Gasquetii, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Uranie, Ois. p. 110, (1824.) 
Leistes Orioloides, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 303, (1838.) 
Leistes brevirostris, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 304. 
Zool. Jour. Supp. pi. 10. Voy. Uranie Ois. pi. 24. PI. Enl. 236, fig. 1. 
Specimens from Brazil in Museum Academy. This species is nearly allied to 
the next succeeding, but seems to be larger, and has the under parts clear 
yellow. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 15 

7. Leistes virescens, (Vieillot.) 

Agelaius virescens, Vieill. Nour. Diet, xxxiv., p. 513, (1819.) 

Icterus anticus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 19, (1823.) 

Leistes tenuirostris, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 304, (1838.) 

" Oriolus Draco." Label in Massena collection. 
Resembles the preceding, but is very probably quite distinct, being smaller, 
and has the bill more slender. In this species the yellow of the abdomen is 
restricted to a medial space, the sides being dark brownish olive, uniform with 
the upper parts of the body. Numerous specimens from Brazil in Academy 
Museum. 

5. Curaeus. 

(Genus Curaeus, Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, p. 139.) 

8. Leistes cdraeds, (Molina.) 

Turdus curaeus, Mol. Sagg. Hist. Nat. Chili, 1782. (2d ed. p. 211, 1810.) 
Sturnus aterrimus, Kittl. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 1834, p. 467. 
Leistes niger, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 304, (1838.) 
Agelaius pustulatus, Swains. Cab. Cy. p. 303 ? 
Gillis U. S. Exp. to Chili, Birds pi. 15. Kittl. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 
Voeg. pi. 2. 

Specimens from Chili in the Academy Museum, and two specimens in the 
Massena collection labelled " St. Dominique," which if intended for the Island 
of St. Domingo or Hayti, is very probably erroneous. A large black species, 
with the feathers of the head rigid and pointed, well known as a bird of Chili 
and other countries of western South America. Resembles, especially in the 
pointed feathers of the head, Agelaius chopi, but is much larger. Sturnus 
aterrimus, Kittlitz, seems to be the young of this species. 

III. Genus DOLICHONYX, Swainson. 
(Genus Dolichonyx, Swains. Zool. Jour, iii., p. 351.) 

1. Dolichonyx. 

1. Dolichonyx oryzivora, (Linnaeus.) 

Emberiza oryzivora, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 31 1. (1766.) 
Icterus agripennis, Bonap. Comp. List, p. 24, (1827.) 
Psarocolius caudacutus, Wagl. Syst. Av. p. (not paged, 1827.) 
Catesby Carolina, pi. 14. Edwards' Birds, pi. 291. Wils. Am. Orn. ii. pi. 
12. Aud. B. of Am., pi. 54, Oct, ed. iv. pi. 211. 

Numerous specimens in Academy Museum from various localities in Eastern 
North America, and two specimens labelled "Rio Negro." Specimens in 
Museum Smithsonian Institution from Cuba, Jamaica, and from Capt. Page's 
La Plata collection. The specimens from the " Rio Negro," in the Academy 
Museum seem to be rather large, but are not in adult plumage, and I find no 
reliable characters for distinction. Precisely similar specimens from the Rio 
Napo are in Mr. Lawrence's collection. This species is, assuredly, a great 
wanderer, but very probably the same in all localities on the continent of 
America. 

2. Agelaioides. 

2. Dolichonyx badius, (Vieillot.) 

Agelaius badius, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. p. 535, (1819.) 
Icterus fringillarius, Spix, Av. Bras, i. p. 68, (1824.) 
Spix, Av. Bras. i. pi. 65. 

Tail black, or brownish black. Quills red, tipped with brownish black. 
Lores black, which color extends slightly under and behind the eye ; entire plu- 
mage of the head and body dark cinereous, with an olivaceous tinge on the top of 
the head and on the back, much lighter and generally with a tinge of dull 
yellow on the under parts. Primaries and secondaries bright reddish, with 
their tips brownish black, (easily seen on the under surface of the wing.) ter- 

1866.] 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

tiaries and greater coverts of the wing brownish black, widely tipped and 
edged with ferrugineous red. Bill black, feet brown. Sexes very similar, 
though the female is less tinged with gray on the head and back. 

Total length about 8 inches, wing 3f, tail 3^ inches. Female smaller. 

Ilab. Brazil, Paraguay, Buenos Ayres, Southern Brazil, exclusively? 

Having before me two species which to some extent resemble each other, and 
both of which 1 suspect are known by the names cited above, I have given this 
short description of the bird, which is apparently that described by both 
Vieillot and Spix, and figured, rather unsuccessfully, by the latter. The present 
species seems to inhabit Southern and South-eastern Brazil, and adjacent 
countries, but the only authentic specimens to which I have access are in Capt. 
Page's collection, in Smithsonian Museum, and labelled " Buenos Ayres,"' 
which locality agrees sufficiently with those authors who have described this 
bird. 

In this species the tail is black, usually with a tinge of brown, and much 
darker than the back, while in the species next described it is much 
lighter and exactly of the color sometimes called " hair brown," but little 
darker than the upper parts of the body. The quills are red on both webs for 
about two- thirds to three-fourths of their length, with the terminal one-third 
or one-fourth brownish black. The entire plumage is darker than in the 
species immediately succeeding. The description and figures of Spix, cited 
above, seem to be clearly from birds of this species, though perhaps not fully 
adult. Vieillot describes this species also. I do not regard it as possible that 
either this bird or the next succeeding is the young or female of any black 
species, as sometimes suspected by authors. 

3. Dolichonyx fuscipennis, nobis. 

Tail light brown, quills light brown, primaries narrowly edged on their outer 
webs, secondaries and tertiaries widely edged on their outer webs, with bright 
ferrugineous red. Lores black, which color extends behind the eye, and be- 
comes paler. Entire plumage of the head and body light reddish cinereous, 
with a tinge of grayish olivaceous on the upper parts, much lighter on the 
under parts, and strongly tinged with dull pale ochre yellowish. Greater 
coverts of the wings ferrugineous red, with paler edges, which is the color of 
the external edges of the wings, (but not of the quills, as in the preceding 
species.) Bill and feet brownish black. 

Total length about 7 inches, wing 3J, tail 3 inches. Female rather smaller. 

Hub. Cearu, N. E. Brazil. Specimens in Museum Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. 

The bird now described is clearly distinct from that immediately preceding, 
and is easily distinguished by its lighter and different colors generally, and 
especially by its light brown tail, and by its quills being light biown also, 
edged only with red. In the preceding the tail is black or brownish black, 
and the quills are red on both webs for more than two-thirds of their length, 
and brownish black at their ends or terminal one-fourth to one-third. 

The only specimens that I have seen of this species are in the collection of 
the Smithsonian Institution, and are labelled as male and female, and are 
undoubtedly from Cearii, Northern Brazil. This bird and the immediately pre- 
ceding D. badius, present some structural characters, which entitle them to be 
arranged with nearly equal propriety in either Agelaius or in Dolichonyx, but I 
think not in Molothrus* 

* DOL1CHONTX MELANCHOLICUS, (LinnfCUS.) 

Oriolus melancholicus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 180, (1758.) 

Edwards' Birds, pi. 85. 

Judging from the figure and description of Edwards, I suspect that this is a third species of the 
same subgroup of Dolichonyx as D. badius and D. fuscipennis, (above described,) and at present 
unknown to naturalists. It is peculiar in having not only the sides of the head, but the throat 
dear black, which is not the case in either of the others just mentioned, but otherwise it resem- 
bles them. It is stated by Kdwaids to be from the " Spanish West Indies," which now properly 
means those islands that were Spanish in 1743. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 17 

3. Erythropsar. 

4. DOLICHONYX FRONTALIS, (Vieillot.) 

Agelaius frontalis, Viell., Nouv. Diet., xxxiv. p. 545, (1819.) 
Chrysotuus et Xanthosomus frontalis, Auct. 

Gray, Gen. Birds, i. pi. 86. 

This is a well known and apparently abundant species of the northern coun- 
tries of South America, briefly and by no means sufficiently described by Vie- 
illot as above, but very accurately and handsomely figured by G. R. Gray in 
his great woik, " The Genera of Birds." The locality given by Vieillot is Cay- 
enne, and on that account, in a greater degree than on any peculiar applica- 
bility of his description, I am induced to conclude that this is the species en- 
titled to the name as above given. The description is short, but, in my opin- 
ion, can safely be assumed as intended for this bird. 

Head above to near the occiput, and neck before, reddish chestnut or bay 
color, which extends and widens on the breast. All other parts of the plu- 
mage glossy black. Lores and sides of the head black, which color is restricted 
to a very narrow line over the eye. Bill and feet black. Total length about 7 
inches. 

Hab. Cayenne; Ceara, Northern Brazil. 

Numerous specimens of this species are in the Acad. Mus. and in Mus. Smiths. 
Inst. It differs from that immediately succeeding (D. ruficapillus,) in having 
the red or bay colors on the head, neck and breast in front much more ex- 
tended and ot a different color, reddish chestnut in the present bird, dark chest- 
nut in the next succeeding species. The two species are very nearly of the 
same size. Both are, in my opinion, most properly to be arranged as a sub- 
group of the genus Dolichonyx. 

5. Dolichonyx ruficapillus, (Vieillot.) 

Agelaius ruficapillus, Vieill., Nouv. Diet., xxxiv. p. 536, (1819.) 
Del Corona de canella, Azara, Apuntamientos, i. p. 315, (1802.) 

This species is described as from Paraguay, by Azara, whose description is 
copied by Vieillot as above, and is, in my opinion, distinct from that immedi- 
ately preceding (D. frontalis,) though usually regarded as the same. The only 
specimens that I have seen are in Capt. Page's La Plata collection now in the 
Mus. Smiths., and are from Paraguay. 

In this species the head above and neck before are dark chestnut, and on 
both parts that color is more restricted than in the preceding, but especially on 
the neck in the present bird, in which it is narrower and does not extend to 
the breast. All other parts glossy black, on the sides of the head the black 
space is wider over the eye than in the preceding. In a young bird, also in 
Page's collection and from the same locality, Paraguay, the chestnut color of 
the neck in front is only beginning to appear, but is the same dark chestnut as 
in the adult, and quite different in shade from that of the preceding bird. 

Although I regard the present and immediately preceding species as differ- 
ent, yet if they were the same, the name here given would be entitled to adop- 
tion, being the first given by Vieillot, though usually cited erroneously by 
authors. In nearly all late works, when the two names A. frontalis and A. ru- 
ficapillus are given, the pages cited in Nouv. Diet, are transposed. 

IV. Genus MOLOTHRUS, Swainson. 

(Genus Molothrus, Swains., Faun. Bor. Am., ii. p. 277.) 

1. Molothrus. 

7. Molothrus pecoris, (Gmelin.) 

Oriolus ater, Bodd., Tab. PI. Enl., p. 37, (1782.) 

Oriolus fuscus et minor, Gin., Syst. Nat., i. pp. 393, 394, (1788.) 

Fringilla pecoris, Gm., Syst. Nat., i. p. 910, (1788.) 

1866.] 2 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Icterus Emberizoides, Daud., Traite d'Orn., ii. p. 350, (1800.) 
Buff., PI. Enl. 606. Wilton, Am. Urn., ii. pi. 18. Aud., B. of Am., pi. 99. 
Oct. ed., iv. pi. 212. 

One of the most common birds of North America, migrating in the winter to 
Mexico, Central America and probably into the northern countries of South 
America. Specimens are in the Museum of the Philada. Acad, from Mexico, 
and others labelled Central America and South America. The first name for 
this species is that of Boddsert as cited, who applies it to the bird figured by 
Buffou, as above. 

Total length 7 to 7 inches, wing 4J to 4, tail 2| to 3 inches. 

2. Molothrcs OBScuRrs, (Gmelin.) 

Sturnus obscurus, Gm., Syst. Nat , i. p. 804, (1788.) 

Sturnus junceti, Lath., Ind. Orn., i. p 326, (1790.) 

Sturnus Novae Hispaniae, Briss. Orn., ii. p. 448. 
Numerous specimens in the Smithsonian Museum, to which I ascribe this 
name, are from Mr. Xantus' collections at Colima and Manzanillo, Western 
Mexico, and from Mira Flores, Lower California. This species is distinct from 
the preceding, but much resembles it in colors and form also, having the same 
long wings and proportionate lengths of quills, the first quill being usually 
longest. It is smaller and has the bill much more slender ; the wing is shorter 
and all other measurements less than those of the preceding well known spe- 
cies, except the tail, which is comparatively longer. In colors it is very nearly 
the same, but in form it is more slender and smaller, with the tail rather longer. 
One specimen from Lower California has the first quill shorter than the second, 
but otherwise is quite the same as those from Manzanillo. 

Total length about 6 to Of inches, wing 4, tail 2f to 3 inches. 

2. Callothrus. 

.3. Molothrus .sneus, (Wagler.) 

Psarocolius aeneus, Wagl., Isis, 1829, p. 728. 

Molothrus robustus, Cab., Mus. Hein, i. p. 193, (1851,) Jour. Ore, 1861, p. 
81. 
.Specimens in the Smithsonian Museum from Yucatan, Costa Rica, and vari- 
ous parts of Mexico, and it is evidently an abundant species. Those from Ma- 
zatlan and Manzanillo seem to have the bill larger than others, and in some 
specimens this is so much the case as to suggest a doubt of specific identity. 

This bird presents such very considerable changes in the shades and lustres 
of its plumage, that it might readily be mistaken for several species. The adult 
has the entire plumage of the head and body of the rich silky metallic yellow- 
ish-green, which characterizes the species, the upper and under tail coverts, 
wings and tail being lustrous green and blue. Singularly enough, in younger 
specimens the back and a large space on the abdomen are fine deep lustrous 
blue and violet, having so much the appearance of adult plumage, that series 
of specimens are necessary to determine their really intermediate character. 
Nearly all specimens brought in collections are of this intermediate description, 
and in a younger plumage there is a trace of blue, violet and purple lustre on 
nearly the entire plumage. The youngest in the large collection now under 
examination are dull brown, with a Taint trace of greenish lustre on the wings 
and tail only, and of blue on the back. Forty-two specimens are now before 
me, twenty-four of which are from the Smithsonian collections, others are from 
the fine collection of my friend Mr. Lawrence, of New York, and in the Acad- 
emy Museum. The Academy specimens are from Panama, (Mr. J. G. Bell's.) 
Nicaragua, Xalapa, Mazatlan, (Dr. Gambel's,) and various specimens received 
from Europe, labelled "Mexico." 

.4. Molothrus Armenti, Cabanis. 

Molothrus Armenti, Cab., Mus. Hein., i. p. 192, (1851,) Jour. Orn., 1861, 
,p. 82. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 19 

One specimen in adult plumage kindly lent to me for examination with other 
interesting birds of this group, by my friend Mr. Lawrence, of New York. 
Another specimen, which I suppose to be this species, is in quite young plumage, 
and was received at the Academy in a collection from Demarara. The latter 
appears to be younger than those described by Dr. Cabanis in Mus. Hein, as 
above. 

This species can only be identified from Dr. Cabanis' note in Jour. Orn., 1861, 
p. 82, the previous descriptions by him being only applicable to young plu- 
mages. It resembles and is allied to the preceding, but is smaller, and the 
lustre of the head and body is quite different, being silky yellowish broivn, not 
green as in M. seneus. This brown lustre is darker than in the head of M.peco- 
ris, but if restricted to the head might readily suggest a comparison with that 
species, as is done by Dr. Cabanis in Mus. Hein,, as above. It is a beautiful 
species. 

Adult. Smaller than M. seneus, bill more slender, wing with the third quill 
slightly longest, first shorter, tail rather short. Entire plumage black, the head 
and body with a rich silky yellowish- brown lustre 5 upper and under tail coverts, 
wings and tail with rich purplish blue and green lustre, the blue prevailing on 
the tail coverts and shorter quills. Bill black, feet brownish black. 

Total length about 7 inches, wing 4, tail 2f inches. 

Ilab. Savanilla, New Grenada. Collection of Mr. George N. Lawrence, New 
York. 

Young? Entire plumage dull brown, lighter on the under parts, and with a 
faint trace of green on the wings and tail, and blue on the back. First quill 
shorter than the third, and about equal to the fourth. Total length about 6 
inches. 

Hah. Demarara. Mus. Acad., Philada. 

Mr. Lawrence's specimen is the only adult of this species that I have seen, 
and, so far as I know, the only adult specimen known in any collection. It is 
a species with very fine rich lustre and perhaps the most handsome bird of this 
group. 

3. Cyanothrus'. 

5. Molothrcs BONARtENSi?, (Graelin.) 

Tanagra bonariensis, Gin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 898, (1788.) 

Buff., PI. Enl. 710. " Le Tangavio de Buenos Ayres," Buffon. 

Specimens, undoubtedly of the bird figured and named as above, are in the 
Smithsonian Museum, from the same locality as that given by Buffon, (Buenos 
Ayres,) and are peculiarly valuable in the recognition of this species. They 
were obtained by the expedition under Capt. T. J. Page, U. S. Navy, which 
surveyed the Rivers La Plata and Parana, and are quite reliable in point of local- 
ity. 

This bird is rather the smallest of four species nearly allied and resembling 
each other, which I am about to enumerate. My opinion is that there are at 
least this number of species of these nearly related birds, and I suspect that 
there are more of which I have only seen immature specimens. 

Bill in adult, moderate or rather slender, with the upper mandible narrower 
than the under viewed laterally, and slightly curved ; wing long, second quill 
longest ; tail moderate or rather short, composed of wide feathers, slightly 
rounded at the end. 

Plumage black, the entire upper and under parts of head and body having a 
uniform purple violet lustre, differing in shade in different specimens, but always 
uniform above and below. Shoulders also with purple lustre. Wings and 
tail with green lustre, not very brilliant, but easily distinguished ; under tail 
coverts also with green lustre. In fine adult specimens there is a tinge of pur- 
ple lustre on the wing coverts and on the shortest quills. Bill and feet black. 

Total length about 8 inches, wing 4 to 4J, tail 3\ inches. 

Hob. Southern and southeastern South America, Buenos Ayres, Rio Para- 

1866.] 



20 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

na, Paraguay, Brazil. Spec, in Smithsonian Museum, Washington, and Acad 
Mus., Philada. 

About the size of, but scarcely recognizable from Buffon's figure. The spe- 
cies is, however, entirely respectable, and entitled, by all the laws of ornitho- 
logical genealogy, to bear the name here given. A female or young male 
from Buenos Ayres, in Capt. Page's La Plata collection, is nearly uniform dark 
grayish fuscous, darker and nearly black on the back, and lighter on the under 
parts of the body. Quills and wing coverts edged very distinctly with pale 
gray, nearly white on the edges of the quills. Bill and feet black. 

6. Molothrus discolor, (Vieillot.) 

Passerina discolor, Vieill., Ency. Meth., iii. p. 939, (1823.) 
Molothrus atronitens, Cab., Sehotnbg. Guiana, iii. p. 682, (1848.) 

Specimens from the Island of Trinidad, and one from Cuba, in the Academy 
Museum, seem to be the bird described by both the authors cited above. These 
specimens are undoubtedly authentic, the former having been collected under 
the direction of Mr. J. G. Bell, of New York, in Trinidad, and most kindly fur- 
nished by him for examination, and the specimen from Cuba, collected by the 
late Mr. R. C. Taylor of this Academy, in the northern part of that Island, 
(Port Gibara, province of Holguin.) 

This bird is exceedingly like the preceding, though it is rather larger and 
has especially large legs and feet. The color and lustres are nearly the same, 
though the present bird seems always to have a large space on the lower abdo- 
men, green, uniform with the under tail coverts. My opinion is that it is a 
distinct species, though requiring further investigation. I have never seen an 
authentic female specimen. 

Resembling 31. bonariensis, but larger. Bill rather long, upper mandible 
slightly curved, wing long, second quill longest, tail moderate, rounded, feet 
strong. Entire plumage black, the head and body above and below with an 
uniform purple violet lustre, except on the lower abdomen or ventral region 
and the under tail coverts, which have green lustre. Shoulders with purple 
lustre. Wings and tail with green lustre not very strong, but very similar to 
that of same parts in 31. bonariensis. 

Total length 8 to 9 inches, wing 4j to 4J, tail 3i inches. 

Hub. Trinidad, Cuba, Northern South America? Spec, in Mus. Acad., 
Philada. 

Scarcely to be distinguished from 31. bonariensis, but is larger in all its 
measurements, and especially in total length and in the bill and feet. Possibly to 
be regarded as a variety of the same species. This bird has not previously 
been noticed under any name, to my knowledge, from the island of Cuba. 

7. Molothrus purpurascens (Hahn). 

Xanthornus purpurascens, Hahn, Voeg. As. Af., &c, pt. v. pi. 4, 1819. 

Hahn, Voeg. As. Afr., &c, pt. v. pi. 4. 

Specimens from Callao, Peru, collected by the late Dr. Gambel, others 
labelled as from Callao and Lima, and others labelled " Mexico " in Acad. 
Museum. This is a species about the size of the two preceding, but readily 
distinguished from them by its large strong bill, and the golden yellowish- 
purple lustre of the under parts of the body. It is a clearly distinct species, 
and appears to be the bird figured by Habn, as above cited, whose figure is 
rather too short, but in form generally, and especially the thick strong 
bill, and the color of the upper parts, is a fair representation. The immature 
plumage is entirely different from that of either of the preceding. 

Rather larger than 31. bonariensis, and about the size of 31. discolor, and 
easily distinguished by its stronger bill and the golden purple lustre of the 
plumage of the under parts of tbe body. Bill rather long, strong upper man- 
dible slightly curved, wing long, with the third quill longest, tail moderate, 
not so much rounded as in the preceding species. 

Entire plumage black, head above and upper parts of body with a violet 

[Mavch, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 21 

purple lustre, under parts with a rich golden purple lustre, most conspicuous 
on the breast and neck in front ; under tail coverts with green lustre. Shoulders 
purple, wings and tail with green lustre. 

Total length about 8 to 8} inches, wing 4\ to 4|, tail 3\ to 3 inches. 

Young. General colors "light yellowish and dull brown, much like young 
Plocei or Xanlhorni. Upper parts dull light brown, plumage edged with dull 
yellow, under parts pale dull yellow, with longitudinal stripes of pale brown. 
Bill very strong. 

Ilab. Western South America, Pern, Mexico? Spec, in Mus. Acad., 
Philadelphia. Probably peculiar to the countries of Western South America, 
and an entirely respectable species. 

8. Molothrus sericeus (Swainson). 

Scolecophagus sericeus, Swains. Cat. Cy., p. 301, (1838). 

Molothrus brevirostris, Swains. Cat. Cy., p. 305, (1838) ? 

Icterus sericeus, Licht. Verz. Doubl., p. 19, (1823)? 
Specimens from Bahia, from which locality this bird is commonly brought, 
and is apparently the common species of Eastern South America. Rather 
larger than, but difficult to distinguish from, the species immediately preced- 
ing, (M. purpurascens,) and has the same golden purple lustre on the plumage 
of the under parts of the body. The bill is straighter, and not so strong, and 
the second and third quills nearly equal. 

Though commonly brought from Bahia in collections, I have not a sufficient 
aumber of specimens in adult plumage for a satisfactory examination of th'S 
bird, though I am inclined to the opinion that it is not quite identical with 
either of the preceding. Specimens that I regard as M. brevirostris appear to 
me to be the same as others also from Bahia, which I regard as M. sericeus, 
probably differing only in age. This seems to be rather the largest species of 
this group, though, perhaps, little larger than M. seneus or M. purpurascens, and, 
though my opinion is favorable, I am under the necessity of regarding it as a 
species of but imperfect respectability. It is certainly, I think, the bird 
described by Swainson, as above, and probably also by Lichtenstein under the 
same name. 

4. Cyrtotes. 

(Genus Cyrtotes, Reiehenbach.) 

9. Molothrus maxillaris, (D'Orbigny et Lafresnaye). 

Icterus maxillaris, D'Oib. et Lafres. Mag. Zool., 1838, p. 6. 

D'Orb. Voy. Am. Mer. Ois., pi. 52, fig. 3. 

Two specimens from M. D'Orbigny's collection are in the Academy Museum. 
This curious bird, in color and general characters, intimately resembles the 
last four species above given, but also much resembles the birds of the group 
Lampropsar. Of the species here given as Molothri, it approaches most 
closely M. bonariensis and M. discolor, and has the lustres of the plumage very 
similar, but is larger than either, and, in fact, is rather larger and with longer 
wings than either of the preceding species in this memoir. It is, in my judg- 
ment, entirely a peculiar bird, and described, entirely judiciously, by the dis- 
tinguished authors above cited as a distinct species. 

The peculiar character of this bird is the singular lobe on the cutting edge 
of the upper mandible, as stated by M. D'Orbigny, near the point, and which, 
if met with in a single specimen, might readily be suspected of being a 
deformity, as intimated by the greatest of European Ornithologists now living: 
" rostro deformi?" This suspicion and general view of the case is, however, to 
me rendered less cogent by the fact that I have before me two of M. D'Orbigny's 
specimens, and they are like each other with much exactness ! In both the 
adult specimens, this curious lobe is more strongly developed than as repre- 
sented in M. D'Orbigny's figure above cited. 

This bird is accurately described by M. D'Orbigny, as above cited, and also 

1866."] 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

in Voy. Am. Mer. Ois., p. 36?. It is with doubt that I arrange this bird as 
representing a subgroup, and am not without a suspicion that it is more 
properly to be placed in the group Lampropsar. The only specimens that I 
have seen are those of M. D'Orbigny, above alluded to, and this species seems 
to be little known to naturalists. 

5. Lampropsar. 

(Genus Lampropsar, Cabanis, Schombg. Guiana, iii. p. 682.) 

10. MOLOTHRUS TANAGRINUS, (Spix). 

Icterus tanagrinus, Spix, Av. Bras., i. p. 67, (1824). 

Icterus violaceus, De Wied, Beitr. Naturg : Bras., iii. p. 1212, (1831). 

Spix, Av. Bras., i. pi. 64, fig. 1. 

Total length about 1h inches, wing 4, tail 3 to 3A inches. Entire plumage 
black, with a nearly uniform purplish blue lustre on the head and body, above 
and below, wings and tail with a green lustre. Bill and feet black. 

The smallest of several species of this genus, and brought abundantly io 
collections from Brazil. In the various specimens now before me, this bird 
presents a uniform purplish blue lustre, by which it can be easily distinguished 
from either of the two species immediately succeeding. It has not quite the 
fine purple and violet lustre of either of them. Numerous speeimens in the 
Academy Museum. 

11. Molothktjs gcianenbis, (Cabanis). 

Lampropsar guianensis, Cab. Schombg. Guiana, iii. p. 682, (1848). 

Total length about 8 inches, wing 3f to 4, tail 3i inches. Rather larger 
than the preceding, with the wing rather shorter, comparatively, and third 
quill slightly longest. In the specimens before me, this species is easily dis- 
tinguished from the preceding by the violet purple lustre of the head and of the 
upper and under parts of the body. Wings and tail with greenish lustre, 
darker than in the preceding. In colors, this species resembles the nest suc- 
ceeding, though scarcely more than half the size. It appears to be from 
Northern South America. 

Specimens of this species are in the Academy Museum, and in the collection 
of that distinguished and excellent Ornithologist, Mr. George N. Lawrence, of 
New York. 

12. Molothrus Cabanisii, nobis. 

Lampropsar dives, Cab. Mus. Hein., p. 194? (nee Bonap.) 
Total length about 10 inches, wing 5 to 5^, tail 4| inches, bill strong, 
though of the same general form as in both the preceding. Entire plumage 
black, head and body, above and below, with a fine violet purple lustre, and 
having a golden tinge on the under parts. Wings and tail with a dark green 
lustre, bill and feet black, claws ratber long and slender, but very sharp. 

Easily distinguished from the two preceding species by its much larger size, 
and, in the specimens now at my disposal, the plumage is the most lustrous, 
the golden violet purple in the present bird being especially a distinguishable 
feature. I am not confident that this is the bird alluded to by Dr. Cabanis as 
Lampropsar dives, as above cited, but regard it as probable. It is smaller than, 
and generically distinct from the bird which seems to be L. dives, Bonap. 
Comp. Av. i. p. 425, now well known as a bird of Mexico and Central 
America, (and which I regard as the same as Quiscalus sumichrasti, De 
Saussure). 

One specimen in the Acad. Mus. is from Guiana, and another in the col- 
lection of my friend Mr. Lawrence, is from Santa Martha, New Grenada; 
others in Acad. Mus. are without indication of locality, though the species is 
singularly uniform in characters in all the specimens now under examination. 
To this handsome species I have taken the liberty of applying the name of my 
excellent friend and correspondent, Dr. Cabanis, of Berlin, not so much 

[March 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 23 

because I suspect that this is the bird alluded to by him, as to avail myself of 
an opportunity to express my high appreciation of his great merits and 
acquirements as an Ornithologist. 

13. MoLOTHRUS RUFO-AXILLARIS, nobis. 

With a part of the axillary feathers clear reddish chestnut color. 

Entire plumage black, head and body, above and below, with a bluish purple 
lustre, wings and tail with an obscure greenish lustre or nearly plain black. 
Bill and feet black. 

Total length about 8| inches, wing 4|, tail 3h inches. 

Hab. Buenos Ayres. Spec, in Smithsonian Mus., Washington. . 

Uue specimen only of this curious bird is in the Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and seems clearly to belong to this group, though not presenting 
such highly lustrous plumage as either of the preceding. It is apparently 
quite adult, and easily recognized by the reddish che3tnut-colored axillary 
feathers, to be seen at once by raising the wing at the shoulder. 

Though having all the characters of an adult bird, the plumage in this 
specimen has but slight lustre, inclining to bluish purple on the head and 
body, and greenish on the wings and tail. The only specimen that 1 have 
se*n is in the fine collection made by Mr. Christopher J. Wood, while attached 
to Capt. T. J. Page's La Plata Expedition, which is now in the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution.* 

V. Genus STURNELLA, Vieillot. 
(Genus Sturnella, Vieill. Analyse p. 34.) 
1. Sturnella. 

1. Sturnella ludoviciana, (Linnaeus.) 

Sturnus ludovicianus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 290, (1766.) 
Alauda magna, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 167, (1758.) 
Cacicus alaudarius, Daud. Tr. D'Orn. ii. p. 325, (1800.) 
Sturnella collaris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, xxxii. p. 203, (1819.) 
Catesby, Carolina, pi. 33. Buff. pi. Enl. 256. Vieill. Gal. Ois. ii. pi. 90. 
Wilson Am. Orn. iii. pi. 191. Aud. B. of Am. pi. 136. Oct. ed iv. pi. 223. 

An abundant bird of Eastern North America, carefully described by the 
authors cited above, and by Prof. Baird in Birds of N. A. p. 535, and accu- 
rately figured as above given. The specific name " magna," has undoubted 
priority for this species, and I only object to it and do not use it at present on 
account of its singular inappropriateness to this bird as a species of the genu9 
Sturnella or Little Stare. Sturnella magna, or Great Little Stare, strikes me as 
approaching absurdity, if that is possible, or any fault in ornithological nomen- 
clature ! I will in no wise molest scientific persons whose tastes may be differ- 
ent in this matter, however, and so promise. 

This bird is nearly related to all of the next four species of this genus, 
equally in structure and in colors, and it would be difficult to describe by 
positive characters either spf-cies of this group, so as to insure recognition 
absolutely, or without comparative characters being given. All the species 
can be identified from the excellent descriptions in Ibis, 1861, p. 179, by Dr. 
Sclater of London, and the best descriptions of the two species of the United 
States are by Prof. Baird in Birds of N. A. p. 535. No other genus or sub- 
genus of this family presents so many spec : es of such uniformity of structure 
and similarity of colors, and there are, assuredly, few such in the entire king- 
dom of birds. 

2. Sturnella neglecta, Audubon. 

Sturnella neglecta, Aud. B. of Am. Oct. ed. vii. p. 339, (1844.) 
Aud. B. of Am. Oct. ed. vii. pi. 489. 
An abundant bird of Western and Central North America. Generally paler 

* Lampropsar Warczewiczi, Cab. Jour. Orn., 1861, p. 83, may be another species of this gruip. 

1866.] 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

colored than the preceding, and with the transverse markings of the upper 
parts narrower, and, as pointed out by Prof. Baird, (B. of N. A. p. 538), the 
yellow of the throat seems generally to extend around under the eye and at 
the base of the under mandible in this bird more than in S. ludovieiana. The 
two species are about the same size. 

Numerous specimens in the Academy Museum and in the Museum Smithso- 
nian Institution. In the central regions of North America it is possible that a 
hybrid race between the two species may be produced, to be referred with 
about equal propriety to either. Usually, and having some degree of experi- 
ence with these two species, it is not difficult to distinguish them at sight, 
though such consummation to be surely brought about, would require elabo- 
rate descriptions in words. 

:!. Stursella hippocrepis, Wagler. 

Sturnella hippocrepis, Wagl. Isis, 1832, p. '281. 

Smaller than either of the preceding, and having the pectoral black collar 
much more narrow. This species is very nearly related to the next succeed- 
ing (S. mexicana,) and can scarcely be distinguished from it by any characters 
which seem to be reliable. It is, howerer, in my opinion, clearly distinct from 
S. ludovieiana and S. neglec/a, and all the characters are present in the speci- 
mens before me, which are stated with his usual great clearness and accuracy 
by Mr. Lawrence, in an interesting memoir on the birds of Cuba, in Annate 
N. Y. Lyceum, vii. p. 266. In the present species the tertiaries are nearly or 
quite equal in length to the primaries, while in S. ludovieianus they are much 
shorter, which character is especially stated by Mr. Lawrence and seems to be 
quite correct. 

Numerous specimen? from Cuba are in the Museum Smithsonian Institution, 
and this bird seems to be peculiar to that island. The peculiarities pointed 
out by Mr. Lawrence stand good in all specimens of this bird now under 
examination. 

4. Sturnella mexicana Sclater. 

Sturnella mexicana, Sclat. Ibis, 1861, p. 79. 
Very nearly related to the preceding, (S. hippocrepis,} if distinct, and I give 
it, at present, as a species provisionally only. Smaller than 5. ludovieiana and 

5. neglccta, but perhaps rather more closely resembling the latter in colors. 
Pectoral black collar narrow. The colors of the upper parts seem to be less 
clearly defined, and of a slightly different style and pattern from the preceding, 
and it may bear about the same relation to that species (S. hippocrepis} that 
5. neglecta does to &. ludovieiana. Such relation I hold to be rather probable 
from the specimens now at hand. 

Specimens from Mexico in Academy Museum, and in Museum Smithsonian 
Institution from Mexico and Guatemala. 

5. Sturnella meridionals, Sclater. 

Sturnella meridionalis, Sclat. Ibis, 1861, p. 79. 
Quite distinct, in my opinion, from either of the preceding. Fu)ly as large, 
apparently, as S. ludovieiana, with the tarsus slightly longer, and larger toes and 
claws, bill longer and more pointed. Black pectoral collar narrow as in 

5. hippocrepis and S. mexicana, but with tertiaries short as in S. ludovieiana. 
One specimen from Brazil, in Museum Smithsonian, and others of doubtful 

locality, but South American, in Museum Academy. This species seems to be 
the peculiar South American form, and is apparently rather the largest bird of 
this closely allied group. Its characters are carefully and accurately stated by 
Dr. Sclater of London, as above cited, though the species seems to be little 
known to ornithologists. 

2. Trupialis. 

(Genus Trupialis, Bousp. Consp. Av. i. p. 429.) 

6. Sturnella militaris, (Linnaeus.) 

Sturnus militaris, Linn. Mant. p. 527, (1771.) 

[March , 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 25 

Well known as a bird of Chili and other countries of Western South America. 
In this species the under wing coverts are white, and the fine scarlet of the 
throat and breast extends over the abdomen. 

Numerous specimens in the Academy Museum, and in Museum Smithsonian 
Institution. 

7. Sturnella loyca, (Molina.) 

Sturnus loyca, Mol., Dizz. Stor. Nat. Chili, (1782,) 2d ed. p. 212, (1810.) 

Sturnella bellicosa, De Filippi. 

Pezites brevirostris, Cab., Mus. Hein., p. 191, (1850.) 

Leistes albipes, Philip, et Landb. Trosch. Archiv., 1863, p. 128? 
This is apparently a smaller bird than the preceding, with a shorter and 
thicker bill, and the scarlet of the under parts is restricted to the throat, neck 
and breast, not extending on the abdomen as in the preceding. One fine ap- 
parently adult specimen now before me has the tibise clear white on their inner 
surfaces, mottled with black on their outer, in which plumage it seems to be 
Leistes albipes, Philip, et Landb., as above cited. The under wing coverts are 
white, as in the preceding. 

The synonymy of this species I find to be difficult, but it is not improbable 
that it was first described by Dr. Cabanis as above cited, authors to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. Specimens in Mus. Acad. 

8. Sturnella De Filippii, (Bonaparte.) 

Trupialis defllippii, Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 429 (1850.) 
Easily distinguished from either of the two preceding by its black under wing 
coverts. Specimens from Brazil in Museum Academy. 

3. Amblyramphus. 
(Genus Amblyramphus, Leach, Zool. Misc. p. 81, 1815.) 

9. Sturnella holosericea, (Scopoli.) 

Xanthornus holosericeus, Scop. Flor. et Faun. Insub. p. 88, (1786.) 
Oriolus ruber, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 388, (1788.) 
Amblyramphus bicolor, Leach, Zool. Misc. i. p. 82, (1815.) 
Sturnus pyrrhocephalus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 18, (1823.) 
Sturnella rubra, Vieill. Ency. Meth. ii. p. 635, (1823.) 
Leistes erythrocephalus, Swains. Cab. Cy. Birds, ii. p. 275, (1837.) 
Leach. Zool. Misc., i. pi. 36. 

Numerous specimens of this apparently common species are in the Academy 
Museum from Brazil. Easily recognized when adult, by its brilliant scarlet 
head, and tibiae and black body. The young is nearly uniform dull black, the 
scarlet generally first appearing on the throat and forehead. 

This species ends the subfamily Agelaiinae, but I am not quite confident 
that the genera or subgenera Creadion, Vieillot, and Amblycercus, Cabanis, do 
not belong here. Such may be the case also with Hypopyrrhus, Bonaparte. 
At present, however, my impression is, that all of these have greater affinities 
in other groups of the family Icteridce. 



A Critical Review of the Family PROCELLARIID.E : Part III ; embracing 

the FULMARE.E. 

BY ELLIOTT COUES, A. M., M. D. 

[Continued directly from page 144 of these Proceedings for 1864.*] 

The Fulmarece, as I would define them, form a group of the Procellarina 
represented as far as is now known by only three genera. These are Fulma- 
rus, Thalassoica and Ossifraga ; all closely allied in general form and propor- 

* The writer's protracted residence in Arizona, where books and specimens were alike unat- 
tainable, has unavoidably delayed until now the continuation of the series of papers begun in 
1864. Efforts will now be made to finish the subject. 



1866.] 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

tiona, though presenting considerable diversity in coloration. The genus 
Adamas'or which has been placed among the Fulmars by Bonaparte, seems, 
as I have attempted to show in a previous paper,* to fall mo -t naturally among 
the Puffin fee ; being not widely separable from Majaqueus, which Bonaparte hini- 
se'f (Cms;). Av. ii. p. 200) places among the Shearwaters. The position of the 
somewhat anomalous genus Daption is a little uncertain ; possessing, as it 
does, some of the characteristics of the present group. I am of opinion, however, 
that it is most naturally to be included with the sEstrelatece, uuder which 
section I shall hereafter consider it. 

The section Fulmar e<e then, as thus constituted, is composed of large or 
moderate sized species, having a form very stout, compact, and robust, and 
being nearly always very light colored. It is apparently the section of Petrels 
most closely allied to the Laride, and forming the connecting link between 
the two families. Particularly in the genus Tkalassoica U the Laridine 
aspect very marked. 

The bill is always large and robust. The unguis of the upper mandible 
is strong, very convex in profile, and much hooked at the extremity. That of the 
lower mandible is never much attenuated nor decurved, with the outline of 
the gonys decidedly concave ; hut is short, stout, obtuse, with a straight as- 
cending gonys. The nasal tubes are prominent, wide, long, vertically truu- 
cated, usually emarginated at their end ; the nasal septum very thin and deli- 
cate. The wings are of mo lerate length, reaching when folded about to the end 
of the tail ; the primaries are very broad. The tail is short ; more or less 
rounded ; of 14 to 16 feathers, all of which are broad and subtruncated at their 
extremities. The feet are comparatively small and weak. The tarsus is 
slender, compressed, reticulated, shorter than the middle toe. The outer toe 
is as long or longer than the middle one. The tip of the inner claw about 
reaches to the base of the middle. 

Of the three genera which I regard as the components of this section, Ossi- 
fraga has 16 rectrices, while Fulmarus and Tkalassoica have but 14. Of Ful- 
marus we at present know three species ; of Tkalassoica, two ; while Ossifraga 
has but a single representative. The section is cosmopolitan. 

FULMARUS Leach. 

Procellaria sp., Auctorum ; nee Linn. 

Fulmarus, Leach, Stephen's Gen. Zool, 1825, xiii. p. 233. Type Proc. glacialis L. 

Rhantistes, Kaup, Sk. Ent. Eur. Thierw. 1829, p. 37. Same type. 

Gtn. Ckar. Bill about two-thirds as long as the head, three-fourths as long 
as the tarsus ; short, very stout, exceedingly robust at the base, where it is 
higher than broad ; the lateral laminae of the upper mandible especially large, 
and swollen ; the unguis short, very stout, convex in outline, commencing to 
rise almost from the nostrils; commissure greatly curved; the outline of 
inferior mandibular rami a little concave ; the gonys ascending ; the sulci of 
both mandibles deep and distinct ; the nasal tubes long, nearly half the cul- 
men, prominent, inflated, their dorsal outline about straight, their apex emar- 
ginate, vertically truncated ; the nasal septum very thin. Wings of moderate 
length ; reaching when folded about *o end of tail ; the primaries very broad 
at their bases, somewhat rapidly tapering to their rounded tips. Second pri- 
mary nearly as long as the first. Tail of 14 rectrices, all broad, subtruncated ; 
the lateral ones somewhat graduated. Feet rather small and weak ; the 
tibiae exposed for a short distance ; the tarsi slender, moderately compressed, 
about three fourths as long as the middle toe and claw. Outer toe and claw 
about equal to middle toe and claw ; the toe alone longer than the middle 
without its claw. Inner toe very short, the tip of its claw barely reaching to 
the base of the middle claw. Hallux short, only observable as a stout obtuse 
subcorneal claw. 

* Vide Pr A. N. S I'h. f -r April, 1864, p. 117. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 27 

Large in size, and very robust in form. Colors white and light pearl blue, 
with darker primaries. 

As above defined, the genus Fulmarus is restricted to its type glacialis, 
and tlie two other closely allied species pacificus and Itodgersii. 

As is the case with all the genera of the family, the name Procellaria has 
been applied to the present genus. As I have already indicated,* I consider P. 
pelagica and its congeners as typical of the genus Procellaria. Fulmarus appears 
to be the first distinctive appellation of the present group ; having priority 
over Rhantistes of Kaup. 

The type of this genus is subject to variations in size, etc., remarkable even 
in this variable family. In consequence, several races or varieties have been 
described aud named ; which I think are properly to be included under glaci- 
alis. 1 recognize as valid the three following species. 

Fdlmarus glacialis (Linn.) Steph. 

Procellaria glacialis, Linn., S. N. 176(3, p. 213 ; et auct. nee Pall., nee Forst. 
Fulmarus glacialis, Stephens, Gen. Zool. 1826, xiii. p. 234, pi. 27. Bona- 
parte, Consp. Av. ii. 1856, p. 187 ; et al. auct. recent. 
Fulmarus glacialis, var. Audubonii, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. 1856, ii. p. 187. 
Fulmarus glacialis var. minor, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. 1856, ii. p. 187. 
"Procellaria minor, Kjaerb," fide 13p. 
"Procellaria h!/emalis, , ' Brehm. 

Habitat. North Atlantic Ocean. 

This species has served as the basis of so many nominal species, caused by 
its great variations, that, although no description of it is needed, it may bo 
well to notice the differences to be found whenever large series are compared. 

Examination of numerous specimens convinces me that the differences in 
color are those of age and season chiefly if not wholly ; since the species passes 
very gradually from the uniform dull greyish brown of youth to the pure white 
and pearly blue of the adult condition. There do not seem to be any very 
well defined stages during this transition. Birds of the year, before the autum- 
nal moult, are entirely fuliginous gray, lighter beneath, with darker margins to 
the feathers of the back and wing coverts. The tail is about concolor with 
the rest of the plumage. There is an angular anteocular black spot. The bill 
and feet are of a dull yellowish or ashy brown. After the moult, the pearly 
blue of the back extends upon the nape and head ; (just as it does in Rissa 
tridactyla ;) and the upper tail coverts, and the rectrices are of the same color. 
The primaries are colored the same as in the mature bird. Spring and summer 
adults have the pearl blue restricted to the back and wing coverts ; other parts 
of the body being pure white. The distribution of colors is then just as in 
Larus canus, argentatus, etc. The dark anteocular spot however seems perma- 
nent. The bill is wholly yellow ; the feet yellow with a bluish tint. 

The variations in size are carefully to be noted ; since, taken in connection 
with a varying length and robustness of bill, they have given rise to nominal 
species. The average length appears to be about 16'5 inches; there is how- 
ever a margin of one or even two inches both above and below this standard 
to be allowed. The wing measures from the carpal joint to the tip of the 
longest primary, from rather less than 11 to 12-5 inches. The average length 
of the bill (chord of the culnien) is 1*5 ; but it may be l - 33 or 1-66, with a 
corresponding difference in robustness. Young birds are always weak-billed. 
The tail ranges from about 4 to about 5 inches. The average of the tarsus is 
about 2 inches : of the middle toe without its claw, 2*25 ; both varying to 
the extent of a fourth of an inch or rather more. The feet however as a general 
rule differ less in dimensions than other parts. 

The synonomy of this species is very brief and uninvolved ; the points re- 

Proc. A. N. S. Philad'a. March, 1864, p. 79. 

1866.] 

I 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

quiring considerations being hardly more than those relating to the varieties 
or supposed species which have been separated from it. 

I have before me a rather small and weak-billed specimenfrom Greenland, 
which appears to be an example of what was called P. minor by Kjserb, or P. 
glacialis var. viinor by Bonaparte. It has no claim that I can discover to be 
considered as even a variety ; as the difference in size from the ordinary 
standard is by no means uusual. In the var. Audubonii of Bonaparte based 
upon the bird used for the figures in Audubon's works there is exhibited a by 
no means unusual variation in size, or in strength of bill. 

While I would thus consider the Atlantic Fulmars as representing but a 
single species, nothing that I have found in an extensive series tends to invali- 
date the claims of F. pacijicus to specific distinction. 

Fdlmakus pacificus (Aud.) Lawr. 

Procellaria glaciulis, Pallas, Zoog. Rosso-As. ii., 1811, p 312.. Sed non Linn. 

nee auct. 
Procellaria pacijica, Audubon, Orn. Biog. v. p. 331. Id Bds. N. Amer. vii. 

1844, p. 208. 
Procellaria (Fuhnarus) pacifica, Lawrence in Baird s B. N. A. 1858, p. 826. 
Fidmarus glacialis var. pacijicus, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. ii. 1856, p. 187. 
? Procellaria glacialis (juniores), Kuhl, Beit. Zool., 1823, p. 141. 

This species, though very closely allied to glacialis, and requiring a rather 
careful comparison to distinguish it, yet appears to differ by constant char- 
acters. It is nearly or quite as large as that species ; but the feet are, per- 
haps, a little shorter and weaker. There seems to be a constant difference in 
the shape of the bill ; which, though not much shorter, is considerably 
weaker, more compressed, and more attenuated and decurved at the tip. The 
inferior mandibular rami divaricate at a more acute angle. But I have not 
been able, in examining quite a large series, among which is one of Audu- 
bon's types, to find any distinctive characters in the nasal tubes ; the dorsal 
outline of which does not appear to be straighter than that of the Atlantic 
bird. In fact, one example of pacificus has a more concave tube than one of 
glacialis, now before me ; nor can I discover that the carination of the tubes 
is more marked in one species than in the other. One example of pacificus 
shows no trace of any carination. 

Some features of coloration are, perhaps, most distinctive of this species. 
The upper parts are much darker in pacificus than in glacialis ; inclining to a 
bluish cinereous rather than a pearly blue. The rump and upper tail 
coverts, in lieu of being nearly pure white, are concolor with the middle of 
the back, or even darker than it. The bend of the wing, and the secondaries 
and tertials are somewhat deeper-colored than those of glacialis. The bill is 
bright yellow, lightest on the unguis ; the root of which latter is bluish 
horn-colored. The feet are bright yellow, only slightly obscured on the 
outer aspect of the tarsus, and on the outer toe. The anteocular spot is 
smaller and more indistinctly marked than in glacialis. 

Young birds have the yellow of the bill obscured by brownish or greenish, 
the unguis especially being quite dark, as are also the feet and toes. The 
entire plumage is fuliginous grayish brown ; deepest on the side of the head ; 
lighter on the under parts of the body, where there is considerable of a smoky 
cinereous tint. Most of the feathers of the upper parts have cinereous or 
pearly tips. Some of the tertials are more or less distinctly tipped with 
grayish white. The remiges and rectrices are brownish black ; the former 
lightest, inclining towards their tips to grayish. The primary shafts are 
light brown, deepening in color at their apices. The under surfaces of the 
primaries are cinereous gray. 

I thus detail the differences I have been able to find between the two sup- 
posed species, considering them as sufficient to establish a species ; though 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29 

with equal reason they might be held as indicative of the extreme of varia- 
tion of a single changeable type, and thus forming only a local race or geo- 
graphical variety. 

The Procellaria glacialis of Pallas in all probabilty refers to this species 
rather than to the'true glacialis of Linnaeus. I also think that the "Procel- 
laria glacialis, juniores ex America Septentrionali allatre, colore cineraseenti- 
fuliginoso tincta) " of Kuhl's "Beitrage," p. 141, belongs here rather than to 
the Thalassoica glacialoides to which Dr. Schlegel has referred it. 

Fulmarus Rodgersii Cassin. 

Fulmarus Rodgersii, Cassin, Cat. Birds North Pacif. U. S. Expl. Exped., in Pr. 
A. N. S. Ph. 1862, p. 290. 
Habitat. North Pacific Ocean. 

I have before me Mr. Cassin's original and type specimen. With exactly 
the size and very nearly the form of F. glacialis, it differs from the latter 
very decidedly in color, as will be seen by the following comparative de- 
scription : 

The bill is bright yellow, except the base of the unguis of the upper man- 
dible, which is bluish black. The middle of the back, the scapular feathers 
and some of the lesser wing coverts are a rather dark grayish ash, approach- 
ing the hue that is most distinctive of pacijicus. The rump and upper tail 
coverts are pure white. The rectrices are fuliginous grayish ash ; their inner 
webs and their extreme apices whitish, their shafts wholly yellowish. The 
whole of the tertials and the greater wing coverts are pure white ; the lesser 
wing coverts and edge of the wing of the same color, but marbled with the 
ashy hue of the back. The secondaries are white with yellow shafts; the 
terminal half of their outer webs grayish brown. The primaries are dull 
brownish black, their entire shafts yellow, their inner webs to within an 
inch of their tips white. These markings of the primaries are much like 
those of Thalassoica glacialoides. All the rest of the body is white. The 
legs and feet are bright yellow ; the outer aspect of the tarsus, aud the outer 
toe somewhat obscured by dusky. The nails are ochraceous brown. 

Bill along chord of culmen 1*50 inches and hundredths ; from feathers on side 
of lower mandible to its apex 140; nasal tubes *60 ; height of bill at base *80 ; 
width about the same ; wing from the carpus 1225 ; tail 5*50 ; exterior 
rectrices - 75 shorter; tarsus 2-00 ; middle toe and claw 2-60 ; inner do. 220. 
Some differences in the shape of the bill of this species are readily recog- 
nizable. It is even stouter than that of glacialis, being at the base fully aa 
wide as high ; and the lateral lamina? of the upper mandible is bulging and 
convex rather than straight. The nasal tubes are larger, broader, more 
depressed, with no traces of median longitudinal carination. Independently 
of these discrepancies, it is to be distinguished from glacialis by the restric- 
tion in extent and deep hue of the color of the back ; by the white tertials 
and coverts, dark rectrices, yellow primary shafts, amount of white on inner 
webs of primaries, etc. 

But a single specimen is known to exist in any collection. No. 21304 of 
the Smithsonian Register. From the North Pacific, the precise locality not 
known. 

THALASSOICA Reich. 

Procellaria sp. auctorum. 

Thalassoica, Reichentiach, Syst. Av. Type P. glacialoides, Smith. 

Priocella, Homb. et Jacq. Same type ; fide Gr. R. Gray. 

Gen. char. Bill slightly shorter than the head, or tarsus, about three- 
fifths the middle toe and claw ; higher than broad at the base, compressed, 
not very robust, its sides regularly tapering to the rather thin tip. Unguis 
attenuated and only moderately hooked ; commissure a little curved, outline 
of inferior mandibular rami, and of gonys, both slightly concave. Nasal 

1866.] 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

tubes two-fiftlis as long as the culmen, basally wide and depressed, termin- 
ally high and compressed. Feet rather small ; tarsus much compressed, as 
long as the inner toe without the claw ; about three-fifths the middle toe. 
Wings and tail as in Fulmariis. 

This genus differs from Fulmarus in little except the bill ; in which, how- 
ever, the distinction is well marked. The bill has, notwithstanding the 
presence of the nasal tube?, an aspect which is Laridine to a degree not 
found in any other genus of the family ; and the pattern of coloration in the 
type of the genus is almost precisely that of a Larus. 

Two species are known to compose the genus. Intimately allied in form, 
thair colors are more widely diverse than is usually found to be the case in 
congeners of this family. 

Thalassoica glacialoides (Smith) Reich. 

Procellaria glacialis, Forster, Descr. Anim. ed. Licht. 1844, p. 25, No. 21. 

Nee Linn., nee auct. al. 
Procellaria glacialis, Var. B., Gm. S. N. i. 1788, p. 563. Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. 

1760, p. 823. 
Procellaria glacialoides, Smith, Illust. S. Afric. Bds. t. 51. 
Thalassoica glacialoides, Reich. Syst. Av. Bonaparte Consp. Av. 1856, ii. 

p. 192. 
Thalassoica glacialoides var. polaris, Bp. Consp. Av. 1856, ii., p. 192. 
Thalassoica glacialoides var. tenuirostris. Bonaparte, Consp. Av. 1856, ii. 

p. 192. 
Procellaria tenuirostris, Audubon, Orn. Biog., 1839, v., p. 333. Id. Birds 

North Amer. vii. 1844, p. 210, (fig. nulla.) Lawrence, in Baird's 

B. N. A., 1858, p. 826. 
Procellaria Smithi, Schlegel, Monog. Proc. Mus. Pays Bas, 1863, p. 22. 
Priocella Garnoti, Homb. et Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, pi. 32, fig. 43 ; fide G. R. Gray. 
Habitat. Southern hemisphere generally, apparently replacing the F. 
glacialis. Columbia River and whole Pacific Coast of North and South Ame- 
rica. Cape Horn. Cape of Good Hope. Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Africa. 
Not in the North Atlantic? 

The sulci on the 6ides of the bill, uniting the lateral laminae with the un- 
guis, are remarkably narrow, shallow, and indistinct ; and the bill in other 
respects calls forcibly to mind that of a small Larus argentatus. The colors of 
the back, and of the primaries even to the white spaces on their inner webs, 
and the size and shape of the feet and tail are rather those of a Laridine than 
& Procellaridine bird. 

Nasal tubes a third the length of the culmen, basally broad and depressed : 
terminally narrower and elevated ; their dorsal outline concave, subcarinated, 
their tip deeply emarginated ; nasal septum very thin, and so short as not to 
reach the end of the nasal tube. Culmen flattened from tube to unguis ; latter 
much elevated and very convex. Shape of lower mandible that of Larus. 
Tarsus much compressed, shorter than middle toe without its claw ; hardly 
exceeding the inner toe alone. Outer toe without its claw longer than the 
middle. Folded wings reach to end o f tail. Primaries broad, tapering rather 
suddenly to their rounded apices. Tail contained 1\ times in the wing from 
the carpal joint. 

Bill yellow ; nasal tube, unguis and sometimes basal portion of superior 
lateral mandibular laminae, bluish horn. Feet yellow. Upper parts uniform 
clear pearl blue ; exactly the shade that obtains in some species of Larus. 
This color begins as a faint wash or shading on the nape, deepening as it pro- 
ceeds backwards until on the interscapular region it has gained its full inten- 
sity ; which continues undiminished over the whole back, rump, wing coverts, 
tertials and tail coverts, to the tips of the rectrices themselves. The feathers 
just along the edge of the wing, however, are grayish slate. Primaries black, 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 31 

their shafts yellowish white at the base, changing to black towards their apices ; 
their inner webs pearly white near their tips. This white on the first primary 
extends to within two inches of the tip ; on the rest successively extends nearer 
the tip of each, till on the innermost it occupies the whole web. Secondaries 
slaty black on their outer, white on their inner webs. Elsewhere the bird is 
pure white ; except a small anteocular dusky spot ; and a faint shade of pearl 
gray on the sides of the breast and body, and on the flanks. 

Dimensions. Length 18 to 19 inches, extent of wings about 36. Bill along 
culuien 2, from feathers on side of lower mandible l - 75 ; its height or width 
at base '70; nasal tubes *66. Wing from the carpus 13. Tail 5 - 25. Tarsus 2 ; 
middle toe and claw 2*60 ; outer 2-70 ; inner 2*25. 

There is no other species towards which the present bears an intimate re- 
semblance. Th. antarctica is exceedingly dissimilar in color, though so nearly 
the same in form. The generic peculiarities especiallyof the bill of Fuhna- 
rus glacialis er pacificus at once distinguish the latter. 

Synonymy. The Proc. glacialis of Forster's Descriptiones Animalium is un- 
doubtedly this species. The expressions regarding the nasal tube " coerules- 
cens in rostro incarnato,* apice uigro"; and regarding the primaries " fusco- 
nigrae, margine interiore albido, " are quite inconsistent with the true glacialis. 
This is the only instance I have met with of the application of the name " gla- 
cialis " to this species. 

The Procellaria tenuirostris Audubon is most certainly this species. I have 
compared Audubon's type specimen with specimens of undoubted ghcialoides 
from various localities. Mr. Cassin has shown (U. S. Expl. Exp. 1858, Birds, 
p. 409) that possibly Audubon's designation lias priority over that of timith. 

I do not suppose that the var. polaris of Bonaparte's Couspectus is in any 
way diverse fr- m the true glacialoides. 

I hardly know upon what grounds Dr. Schlegel has laid aside the prior names 
of this species to give it the appellation " JSmithi." 

Thalassoica Antarctica Reich. 

Procellaria antarctica, Gmelin, S. N. 1788, i. p. 565 ; et auct. 
Thalassoica antarctica, Reicheubach, Syst. Av. t. 22, fig. 790. Bonaparte, 
Consp. Av. 1856, ii. p. 192. 

In this species there is the same general character of the nasal tube as in 
T. glacialoides ; though it is comparatively a little broader and shorter, and 
somewhat less carinated on the median dorsal line. The sulci uniting the 
different laminae of the bill are ratber deeper and more distinct, taking away 
something of the Laridine aspect, so marked in the other species. The lateral 
rostral lamina is wider at its base, and tapers more rapidly to the acute apex 
by which it is united to the unguis. The tip of the lower mandible is more 
decurved, and the gonys is a little concave. 

The coloration of this species is so peculiar, and so widely dissimilar from 
any other Procellaridian, that it is needless to give any description here. The 
species has I believe no important synonyms. 

OSSIFRAGA Hombr. et Jacq. 

Procellaria sp. Gmelin, et auct. 
Ossifraga, Hombron et Jacquinot. 

Char. Tail of 16 recti ices, moderately long, rounded. Win2;s rather short, 
and not very pointed. Tarsi short, much less than the middle toe without ita 
claw ; compressed, stout, reticulated. Bill as long or rather exceeding the 
tarsus, very robust ; the nasal case very long, depressed, carinated, the aper- 
ture small. Of immense size and powerful organization. 

"Bill black and flesh-colored, the latter hue f>ding to whitish on drying," I find on the 
label of a specimen collected by the North Pac fie Exploring Expedition. I note this her* 
became the bill is generally described as ''yellowish" and to sh^w how pertinent is forater'e ex- 
pression ' incarnato, apice nigro." 

1866] 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEM1 OP 

But a single species of this genus is known ; which in size vastly exceeds 
all other Procellarince, and is only itself surpassed by the Diomedince. 

Ossifraga gigantea (6m.) Reich. 

Procellaria gigantea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. 1788, p. 563. Lawrence, Birds N. A. 

1858, p. 825, et al. auct. 
Ossifraga gigantea, Reichenbach, Syst. At. t. 20, fig. 332. Bonaparte, Consp. 

Av. 1855, ii. p. 186. 
? Procellaria brasiliana, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 821, No. 2. Gm. S. N. 

i. 178, p. 564. 
Procellaria ossifraga, Forster, Descr. Anim Ed. Licht., 1844, p. 343. 
" Quebranthuesos ; '' " Bonebreaker." Vdlgo. 
Habitat. Chiefly the Southern Seas. Has been taken off the Coast of Oregon. 
Bill exceedingly robust, compressed, higher than broad at the base ; longer 
than the head, rather longer than the tarsus (chord of the arc of the culmen 
about equal to the tarsus ;) sulci separating the rostral laminae very distinctly 
defined. Nasal case very long, more than half the length of the culmen* ; 
basally exceedingly broad, being nearly as wide as the bill ; narrowing ante- 
riorly to the small nearly circular apical orifice ; on the upper surface so flattened 
as to be a little concave ; the median carination strongly marked, though the 
ridge is rather broad than sharp, and more elevated anteriorly than at the 
base ; the apex of the case vertically truncated, not emargined. The frontal 
feathers extend in an obtuse angle a little way upon the root of the case. 
Uuguis large and strong, its dorsal outline very broad and not sharp ; regularly 
decurved, its tip rather obtuse. Commissure much sinuated for its whole 
length. Gape of mouth moderate, the angle of the commissure falling far 
short of the eye. Outline of lower mandibular runi about straight: angle of 
gonys obtuse, its dorsal outline straight, ascending. Feathers of the chin ex- 
tending quite to the symphysis. Feet very large and stout. Tibia? bare for 
a considerable portion of their extent. Tarsus short, stout, much compressed, 
reticulated : the plates minute posteriorly and superiorly ; larger and trans- 
versely very broad on the infero-anterior aspect. Toes very long ; the outer 
with its claw as long as the middle ; its claw alone shorter than that of the 
middle toe. Webs full. Hallux a very stout, nearly straight, subcorneal, 
obtuse claw. Wings short ; not very pointed : when folded falling considerably 
short of the end of the tail. Tail of moderate length, or rather short for this 
group ; much graduated ; of 16 instead of as usual 14 feathers. 

Dimensions. Averasing about 3 feet in length by 7 in extent. Bill 3^ 
to 4 inches. Tarsus 3 \. Middle toe and claw 5| : outer do. about the same ; 
inner do. 4^. Wing from the carpal joint about 20 inches. 

The species is found in quiie diverse states of plumage. The upper parts are 
of a varying shade of brown, and more or less mottled with dull white, the 
edges and tips of many of the feathers being thus colored. Often however there 
are no traces of this white mottling, and the dorsal plumage is of a uniform 
sombre fuliginous. The wings and tail seem to be nearly always plain dark 
brown. In adult birds the under parts, and a portion of the neck in front are 
white. The amount of this white varies with age ; and young or immature 
birds have the whole under parts similarly colored with the rest of the body ; 
though tiie hue is usually rather lighter and duller. The gradations in color 
between old and young are very gradual ; scarcely any two specimens, not 
perfectly mature, being found exactly alike. The feet of some specimens are 
yellowish, more or less obscured by dusky ; of others are uniform fuliginous 
brownish black. The bill is yellow in all the specimens I have seen. As a re- 
markable state of plumage which I do not recollect to have seen given, I may in- 
stance a specimen in the Philadelphia Academy, which is pure white, all over, 



But its length seems liable to Home c msiier.ible variation. I believe it always extends nearly 
or quite to the root of the ungu.s. 

[ March . 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 33 

even to the wings and tail ; the continuity of the white only interrupted by a 
few isolated brown feathers sparsely scattered at irregular intervals over the 
body. Other specimens in the Academy Museum are in very nearly the 
plumage described by Gmelin and Latham as P. Brasiliana ; so that there can 
be little doubt of the propriety of referring the latter to tbis species.* 

The species and genera treated of in this paper are so few and so well known 
that an analytical synopsis does not seem to be required. 

(To be continued.) 



Description of twelve new species of TJNIONIDJi: from South America. 

BY ISAAC LEA. 

The species described and figured in this paper were procured in South 
America by Don Patricio M. Paz, of Madrid, and very obligingly submitted to 
me. Some of them fortunately were in alcohol, thus preserving the soft pans, 
which are of great interest. These have been carefully examined and described, 
and it will be observed that the South American characteristics of the outer 
hard parts, as well as the included soft parts, which seem to pertain to the 
Uniones of that continent, are here exhibited. I allude more particularly to the 
round palpi, or mouth lips, and the divergent folds of the tips of the beaks, neither 
of which have I observed in our North American species. Very little atten- 
tion, heretofore, has been given to the soft parts of the Unionidce of South 
America, and none to the embryonic shell, except by myself. M. d'Orbigny, in his 
Voyage dans V Amerique 3Ieridional, has imperfectly described and figured the 
soft parts of some of the genera. Spix, in his Testacea Fluviatilia Braziliensia,. 
takes no notice of the soft parts of the species, which he describes and figures 
with much accuracy. 

Unio pecdliaris. Testa laevi, quadrata, compressiuscula, ina?quilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotunda : valvulis crassiusculis, antice aliquantc 
crassioribus ; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices divaricati uudulatis ; epi- 
detmide virido-fusca, eradiata; demibuscardinalibus parviusculis, compressis, 
obliquis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis curvis- 
que ; margarita crerul -o-alba et iridescente. 

Embryonic Shell subtriangular, light brown ; dorsal line rather long and 
straight ; side margins irregular and unequal one being a segment of a 
circle, the other an irregular curve line forming an obtuse angle at the base :: 
basal margin obtusely angular and furnished with hooks ; granulate over the 
whole surface. 

Bab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

This very peculiar and unique form is now for the first time observed. Its- 
unequal lateral margins give it an abnormal and lapsided appearance, totally 
differing in this from any other species known to me. 

Unio firmus. Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
et antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice aliqnanto crassioribus; 
natibus prominulis ; epidermide viiidi-fusca, eradiata; dentibus cardiualibus 
subcrassis, compressis ; in utroque valvulo duplicibus; lateralibus longis, 
lamellatis subcurvisque ; margarita argentea et valde iridescente. 

Ilab. South America, Don Patiicio M. Paz. 

Unio rtgososolcatus. Testa sulcata, triangulari, subinflata, subequila- 
terali, postice biangulata, antice oblique rotundata; valvulis percrassis, 
antice crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus ; epidermide olivacea, ruyoso sul- 
cata, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus crassis, rugosis, elevatis ; later- 



* Bonaparte (Cunsp. Av. ii. p. 172) makes tne ProceUaria brasiliana Gm. Lath, to be the bird 
now known as Graculus or Phulacrocorax brasilianus. 



1866.] 



34 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

alibus sublongis, subcrassis, lamellatis subcurvisque; margarita argentea 
et iridescente. 

Hab. Central America? Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Unio appkimus. Testa laevi, elliptica, inflata, inaequilaterali, postice emar- 
ginata, obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis percrassis, antice crassi- 
oribus ; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices divaricate undulatis ; epidermide 
castanea, micanti, substriata, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus grandi- 
bus et valde partitis ; lateralibus praelongis, lamellatis, curvatis et decore 
grannlatis; margarita argentea et iridescente. 

Hab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Unio locellus. Testa lsevi, elliptica, valde inflata, inaequilaterali, postice 
subrotundata, antice subtruncata; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus subprominenti- 
bus, tumidis, ad apices divaricate undulatis; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, 
obsolete radiata, antice striata; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, valde compressis, 
valde obliquis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus; lateralibus parviusculis, lamel- 
latis; margarita caeruleo-alba et iridescente. 

Ilab. Butnos Ajres, South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Unio parous. Testa laevi, late elliptica, subinflata, valde inae^uilaterali ; 
postice subrotundata, antice roiunda; valvulis subtenuibus, antice aliquanto 
crassioribus ; natibus prominulis, ad apices divaricate undulatis; epidermide 
polita, tenebroso-oliva, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, obliquis 
lamellatisque ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis subrectisque ; margarita caeruleo- 
alba et iridescente. 

Hab. South America, Don Pntricio M. Paz. 

Unio acotirostris. Testa laevi, oblonga, ad latere compressa, valde inae- 
quilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice truncata ; valvulis crassiusculis, 
antice crassioribus ; natibus prominulis; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, nigris- 
cente, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus, parviusculis, in utroque valvulo sul- 
cato divergente; lateralibus praelongis aliquanto curvatis granulatisque ; 
margarita alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Unio ampuli.aceus. Testa lsevi, suboblonga, valde inflata, inEequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice cras- 
sioribus; natibus subprominentibus, inflatis; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, 
rugoso- striata, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, obliquis, lamellatis 
corrugatisque; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Ilab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Unio Paraguayensis. Testa laevi, elliptica, inflata, sublenticular!, valde 
inasquilaterali, postice et antice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, antice crassi- 
oribus; natibus vix prominentibus ; epidermide viridi-fusca, obsolete radiata ; 
dentibus cardinalibus crassiusculis, obliquis, compressi3, in utroque valvulo 
duplicibus; lateralibus sublongis, lamellatis curvisque; margarita argentea 
et valde iridescente. 

Hab. -Paraguay, South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Monocondyloia LENTiFOKMis. Testa laevi, rotundata, lenticulari, valde inas- 
quilaterali, postice rotundata, antice curta rotundaque ; valvulis subcrassis, 
antice crassioribus; natibus prominentibus, ad apices acuminatis, retusis ; 
epidermide tenebroso-oliva, striata, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parvius- 
culis, tuberculatis ; margarita albida et valde iridescente. 

Hab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz. 

Monocondylosa Pazii. Testa laevi, obovata, inflata, valde inaequilateraM, 
postice rotundata, antice curta rotundaque ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice ali- 
quanto crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus, tumidis, retusis ; epidermide 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 35 

tenebroso-oliva, striata, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus subcrassis, com- 
presso-tuberculatis, subelevatis ; margarita alba et valde iridescente. 
Hab. South America, Don Patricio M. Pas. 

Anodonta Pazii. Testa laevi, subrotunda, valde inflata, ineequilaterali, 
postice et antice rotundata^ valvulis crassiusculis ; natibus subprominentibus, 
acuminatis; epideraaide tenebroso-rufo-fusca, eradiata, striata; margarita, 
punicea et formossissime iridescente. 

Hab. South America, Don Patricio M. Paz, 



FASH RNITHOLOGI.E. 

BY JOHN CASSIN. 

Woe be to the man who reads but one book 1 Rev. George Herbert. 
My starvling bull, 

Alack for me, 
In pasture full 
How lean is hel 

Rev. Thomas FuUer. 

No. 2. 

Bes Naturforschee. 

A Journal for Natural History^ edited by J. C. D, Schreber and J. E. J. Walck, 

" Der Naturforscher " was published at Halle from the year 1774 to 1804, 
that is to say, during a period of thirty years, one part or volume every year, 
though it is usually bound in fifteen volumes, octavo. Each of the thirty parts 
is, however, separately paged and has a title page and date of its own, and must 
be considered and treated as a volume for all practical purposes. The first thir- 
teen volumes are edited by Walch, the last seventeen by Schreber, both of whom 
are contributors of a large number of papers in various departments of the Zoo- 
logical and Botanical Sciences. In Zoology the papers of both are mainly on 
groups of the Invertebrata, but the latter occasionally has a valuable article on 
other subjects and higher orders of animals, and is the eminent and successful 
author of stadard and elaborate work3 on Mammalogy. 

The illustrations in this Journal are generally very superior, many of the 
colored plates, of Insects and Shells especially, being much above the average 
of those of a similar description to be found in books of the last century, and 
all of them seem to be quite sufficient for the easy recognition of species. 
There are about one hundred and fifty plates in the series, nearly all of which 
are carefully colored, those of Insects being the most numerous, but of Shells, 
also, there are a very considerable number. Special allusion will be made to 
the plates of Birds towards the end of this paper. Of the contents of the en- 
tire work as published, Indices and " Registers" are given at the end of every 
tenth volume, apparently very copious and accurate, and from which it appears 
that no less than sis hundred and four memoirs in all departments of Natural 
History are contained in these thirty volumes. In Ornithology the contribu- 
tions are not numerous, and contain but few descriptions of species, but of those 
few descriptions, nearly all the names proposed would stand good were it not 
for the recently exhumed names of Prof. P. L. S. Miiller. The authors of these 
contributions are, for the greater part, quite unknowa in modern times as or- 
nithological writers. 

" Der Naturforscher " seems to have been a very considerable journal in its 
day, and names amongst its contributors many naturalists of standard and de- 
servedly 'nigh reputation. The memoirs on Conchological and Entomological 
subjects are apparently the most valuable, and are certainly the most numerous 
and most carefully illustrated. For better or worse it happens that compara- 
tively few of its many papers are devoted to Ornithology, and a large majority 

1866.] 



36 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

of those are of a general or local character, relating mainly to European birds, 
though several of them are highly interesting. In the entire series of .thirty 
volumes, there are on'y seven descriptions of species presumed to have been 
previously unknown, and which we give in a succeeding page of this article ; 
and, also, we propose to give an inventory or general reckoning of the entire 
ornithological contents of this periodical, not premising in the least that it is 
either an extended or difficult enterprise. But as we have frequently seen this 
Journal cited by the older authors, and even occasionally in books of recent 
formation, (mostly conglomerate,) we have looked up these ornithological ar- 
tides to the end that hereafter they shall be seen truly, not only by ourselves, 
but also by such others who, like us, may have found out that there i3 a differ- 
ence between hearing and believing, and even between looking and seeing 1 . 
Any one can look, but comparatively few, see, and, at least, light shall no longer 
be wanting on " Der Naturforscher." 

The words of our choice text for this interesting occasion, beloved brethren, 
we shall not dwell upon nor enlarge upon, even not so much as might conduce 
to solid profit in a moral sense; both somewhat of time and inclination being 
wanting, and an homily, fortunately perhaps, not necessary. Who has suffered, 
beloved, not for his fault, but thine ? And in the vast affluence of the field of 
study and solid acquirement spread before thee, not only in the libraries and 
museums established by the governments of all civilized nations, but in our 
own times, in the countries of our native language and by our own contempo- 
raries, such high souled and ever memorable men as Thomas B. Wilson and 
Henry Bryant, John Henry Gurney and Osbert Salvin, art thou indeed but a 
siarvling? We wait not for answer, but proceed about our business with some 
soberness of thought, (and with recommendatory suggestion.) 

Here follows a list of all the memoirs relating to Ornithology in this Journal, 
and, at the end of that, a list of the species of Birds therein described, as cer- 
tainly intended and supposed by the authors (but generally erroneously,) for 
the first time. 

List of memoirs on Ornithology in "Der Naturforseher" alphabetically arranged, 
after a fashion, so far as relates to the writers of them. 

Bechstein, J. M. Bergrath. 

1. Bemerkungen uber die Motacillen, vol. xxvii. p. 38, (1793.) 

Beckmans, Johann, Professor zu Gcettingen. 

1. Linneische Synonjmie zu Kleins verbesserterHistorie der Voegel, vol. l. 
p. 65,(1774.) 
Bocks. Consistorialrath zu Kcenigsberg. 

1 Preussiche Oruithologie, vol. viii. p. 39, (1776) ; ix. p. 39, (1776) ; xii. 
p. 131, (1778); xiii. p. 201, (1779); xvii. p. 66, (1782.) 

Gotz Georg Friedrich. Candidatus in Hanau, Lehrer der Durchlauchtigsten 
Prinzessinnen zu Hessen-Cassel. 

1. Anmerkungen zu des Herrn Professor Sanders zweytem Beytrag znr 
Geschichte der Vogel im 13 ten Stuck desNaturforschers, S. 179, vol. xv. 
p. 157, (1781.) 

2. Forgesetzte Beytriige zur Ornithologie, vol. xix. p. 78, (1783.) 

3. Ueber die anomalisch weissen Vogel, vol. xvi. p. 37, (1781.) 

4. Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte des Mauerspechts, Certhia muraria, Linn, 
vol. xvii. p. 40. (1782.) 

5. Naturgeschichte des Silber und weifsen Phasans, vol. xvi. p. 122, (1781.) 

6. " des Goldphasans, vol. xiv. p. 204, (1780.) 

7. " des Kronvogels, Columba coronata, Linn., vol. xvii. 
p. 32, (1782.) 

Grillo, F. Professor. 

1. Ornithologtsche Bemerkungen auf Veranlassung des Naturforschers be- 
kannt gemacht, vol. xxii. p. 127, (1787); xxv. p. 13, (1791.) 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 37 

Giinthers, D. Friedrich Christian, Herzogl. Sachsen Coburgischen Hofraths und 
Leibarztes zu Cahla. 

1. Von der anomalisch-weissen Farbe der Voegel, vol. i. p. 54, (1774.) 

2. Von der anomalisch-schwarzen Farhe der Voege', vol. ii. p. 1, (1774.) 

3. Vom Creuzvoegel, dessen Nest und Eyern, vol. ii p. 66, (1774.) 
Kuhn. 

1. Von dem Gesange der Voegel, vol. xxi. p. 195, (1785.) 

2. Von dem Kriinitz oder Krumschnabel (Loxia curvirostra,) vol. xxi. p. 
197, (1785); xxii. p. 142, (1787.) 

3. Von dem Nachtschatten, Ziegen-Meloker (Caprimulgus,) vol xxi. p. 199, 
(1785.) 

Leske. 

1. Von den Jymphitischen Gefassen in den Vogeln, aus dem 58 Band der 
philosophischen Transaction, vol. v. p. 188, (1775.) 

Murr, Christian Gottleib, von. 

1. Best'hreibung des Patagonischen Pinguins, aus dem 58 Band der 
philosophischen Transactionen, vom Jahre 1769, vol. i. p. 258 (1774). 

2. Von der beaten Art, Vogel in Sarumlungen aufzubehalten aus dem 
Gentlemen's Magazine vom J. 1772. vol. i. p. 262. 

3. Beytriige zur Thiergeschichte von Gstiudien, aus Pennant's Indian 
Zoology, vol. i. p. 265. 

4. Von den Nestern und Eyern der Vogel. Ein Auszug aus Herrn Thorn. 
Pennant's Genera of Birds, vol. i. p. 284. 

5. Vom Flitg der Vogel, vol. i. p. 291. 

6. Von Ornithologischen Systemen, vol. i. p. 292. 

Nau, B. S. Professor der Cameralwissenschaften zu Mainz. 

1. Beitrage zu nahern Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte einheimscher 
Voegel, vol. xxv. p. 7 (1791). 

Otto, Doctor und Adjunct. 

1. Abhandlung von den Abartender Kreutzschnabel, vol. xii. p. 92 (1778). 

Pacius, Georg Friedrich. 

1. Zwo vortheilhafte Arten Voegel und kleine vierfussige Thiere auszus- 
topfen, vol. ii. p. 87 (1774). 

Sanders, Professor zu Carlsruh. 

1. Beytrage zur Geschichte der Voegel, vol. xi. p. 11 (1777), xiii. p. 179, 
(1779), xviii. p. 232 (1782). 

2. Beobachtes Gewicht einiger Vogel-Eyer, vol. xiv. p. 48 (1780). 

Schrank, Franz von Paula, Kurpsalzbaierschen geistlichen Rathe. 

1. Zoologische Beobachtungeu, vol. xviii. p. 66 (1782). 

2. Ueber die anomalisch weisse Farbe der Voegel, vol. xxiii. p. 138 

(1788). 

Schreber, J. C. D. 

1. Beytrage zur exotischen Ornithologie, vol. xvii. p. 12 (1782), xviii. p. 1. 
(1782.) 

Walch, J. E. J. Hofrath. 

1. Von der anomalish-weissen Farbe der Voegel, vol. iv. p. 128 (1774). 

2. Beytrage zur exotischen Ornithologie, vol. xi. p. 1 (1777), xiii. p. 11, 
(1779), xvii. p. 12 (1782). 

The following are the species described as previously unknown : 

1. Trogon fasciatus, Schreber, Naturforscher, xvii. p. 17 (1782). 

Pencant Ind. Zool. p. 15, pi. 5. 

Trogon fasciatus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 405 (1788). 

Harpactes fasciatus (Schreber) ! 1 
1866.] 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

This name happens to be the same as that of Gmelin, but Schreber is tbe 
first to apply it, and is, therefore, to be cited as authority. It is given by both 
authors to the bird figured by Pennant as cited, but what that is cannot be so 
easily settled. 

2. Todus cristatus, Schreber, Naturfors. xvii. p. 21 (1T82). 

Buff. PI. Enl. 289. Der Naturforscher, xvii. pi. 7. 
Up to Gmelin, the synonomy of this species stands: 

Muscicapa coronata, Muller, Syst. Nat. Supp. p. 168 (1776). 
Todus cristatus, Schreb., Der Naturfors. xvii. p. 21 (1782.) 
Todus regius, Gm., Syst. Nat. i. p. 445 (1788.) 
Muscivora coronata (Muller)! ! 

3. Xauthornus virens, Schreber, Naturfors. vol. xviii. p. 1 (1782.) 

Buff. PL Enl. 328, Der Naturf. xviii. pi. 1. 
The synonymy of this species is : 

Oriolus viridis, Miiller, Syst. Nat. Supp. p. 87 (1776.) 
Xanthomas virens, Schreb., Der Natuifors. xviii. p. 1 (1782.) 
Oriolus viridis, Boddaert, Tab. PI. Enl. p. 20 (1783.) 
Cassicus viridis, Vieill. Nour. Diet. v. p. 364 (1816.) 
Oassicus viridis (Muller) I ! 
Muller comes in again several lengths ahead of Schreber and Boddaert. 
and Vieillot is nowhere, though currently reported for about fifty years as 
having won, by error of the judges. Both of S-chreber r s plates above cited 
are recognizable and, in fact, much better than usual at the date of tbe per- 
formance. This is the same Schreber famous as a Mammalogist, but the 
papers here referred to are his only attempts at Ornithology, so far as I know P 
and so successful that bis three species here mentioned would have s-tood, but 
for Prof. Miiller's long-neglected names. 

4. Scolopax punctata, Nau, Naturfors. xxv. p. 1 (1791.) 

" Scolopax rostro arcuato, gula rufescente, dorso fusco, punctis albis^ 
pedibus nigris.'' Hab. Europe. 
Probably the young or a seasonal plumage of Totanus ochropm, and also 
probably the same plumage subsequently described as Tringa liltorea, Lath. 
Ind. Orn. ii. p. 731. A full description is given in German, which seems 
applicable, as we have stated. Professor Nau is or was well known as a. 
Botanist, but this is his first and only appearance as an Ornithologist. 

5. Motacilla longirostra, Bechstein, Naturfors. xxvii. p. 43 (1793.) 

Quite an extended description of this species is given by Bechstein, but I 
fail to recognize it, and do not find it again alluded to in the works of that 
author. It is given as an European bird. 

6. Motacilla Sibilatrix, Bechstein Naturfors. xxvii. p. 47 (1793.) 

Sylvia sylvicola, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp. p. 53 (1801.) 
Phjllopneuste sibillatrix (Becbst.) Brehm I 

7. Motacilla Fitis, Bechstein, Naturfors. xxvii. p. 50 (1793.) 

Motacilla Trochilus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 338 (1766)? 
Phyllopneuste fitis (Bechst.) Brehm 1 I 
The plates of birds are as follows : 

Pipra rupicola, Linnaeus, vol. xL pi. 1. 
Gracula carunculata, Gmelin, vol. xi. pi. 2. 
Picus miniatus, Gmelin, vol. xiii. pi. 4. 
Muscicapa coronata, Muller, vol. xvii. pi. 1. 
Oriolus viridis, Mtiller, vol. xviii. pi. 1. 

[Mai-el^ 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 39 



List of the BIRDS of Fort Whipple, Arizona : with which are incorporated 

all other species ascertained to inhahit the Territory ; with brief 

critical and field Notes, descriptions of new species, etc. 

BY ELLIOTT COUES, A. M., M. D. 
(Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army.) 

The Territory of Arizona comprises that portion of what was formerly the 
vast Territory of New Mexico lying west of the 109th meridian; together with 
an extensive tract obtained from Mexico, known as the " Gadsden purchase." 
As at present bounded, Utah and Nevada form its northern limit, while its 
southern border is contiguous in its whole extent to the Mexican State of 
Sonora. The Colorado River separates the greater portion of its western 
border from California ; the extreme southwestern corner of the Territory 
being at the junction of the Gila with the Colorado River. 

The extensive area thus bounded, constitutes, in connection with New Mex- 
ico, what is known, in relation to its Faunal characteristics, as the " South- 
ern Middle Province" of the United States.* It possesses marked features 
whereby it is distinguished from the western littoral Province, or Pacific 
region proper, as well as from the Eastern Province. Most of the character- 
istics of the Arizonian Avifauna are shared to a considerable degree by that 
of New Mexico; the main points of discrepancy being those few wherein the 
valley of the upper Rio Grande differs from that of the Colorado. It does 
not appear that the difference between the two slopes of the main chain of 
the Rocky Mountains is in this region very strongly marked. In general 
terms it may be affirmed that the Ornis inclines in character decidedly to- 
wards that of the Pacific region proper, as might be expected from the posi- 
tion of Arizona relative to the main chain of the mountains just named. But 
still notable differences from the truly littoral Fauna are apparent ; and there 
can be little doubt that the presence of so extensive a desert just west of the 
Colorado exerts much influence in producing this result. At certain points 
however in this desert, some species, respectively typical each of its own 
habitat, are known to meet.f The features, dependent upon latitude, which 
separate Arizona from adjacent regions, to the north or south, are by no 
means so marked as those which distinguish it from the countries lying east 
and west, and mainly consist in the introduction into the lower warmer parts 
of the Territory, from Sonora, of several Mexican and subtropical species. A 
"wedge," so to speak, of these types is pushed a little northward of Mexico, 
and they are readily recognizable as a somewhat prominent element among 
the birds of Southern Arizona, and of the Colorado valley for a considerable 
distance. Perhaps this is more deciedly the case here than at other points 
on our southern border. A considerable number of species properly belong- 
ing to the United States Fauna, and generally distributed throughout Ari- 
zona, retire in winter beyond the Sonoran border ; while at the same time it is 
interesting to note that some speciesj breed quite high up in Arizona, or even 
further north, which are at the same time summer residents of the table lands 
of Mexico. To the northward, neither the climate nor physical geography of 

* See the American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xli., Jan. and March, 18fi6 ; " On the Dis- 
tribution and Migration of North American Birds, by Spencer V. Baird," where the several pro- 
vinces into which North America is divisible are characterized, and the peculiarities of their Avi- 
faunae indicated. 

\ E. g. The Lnphortyx Gambeli and L. Californicus, and very probably also some species of 
Jays; along theMojave River, which rises in the San Beinadino Mountains, and flows eastwanlly 
towards the Colorado River, affording a degree of fertility which is an inducement to the species 
just named and to others. 

% E. g. Hesperiphona vespeitina, Carpodacus Cassinii, Curvirostra americana, Plectrophants 
melanomus,etc. 



1866.] 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Arizona are sufficiently diverse from those of adjacent Territories to produce 
any special differences in their Avifaunae; unless indeed the apparent absence 
of one family* can be substantiated as a marked peculiarity. 

Some facts of physical geography have a marked influence upon the birds. 
From the dearth of water throughout almost every portion of the Territory 
tbere results, as a natural consequence, a great paucity of Grallatorial and 
Natatorial forms ; so much so, that with a few prominent exceptions, a list of 
the Water Birds of the Territory is little more than an enumeration of those 
of the Colorado and Gila Rivers. There is also to be noted, as an interesting 
fact, the effect of the hot, arid, desert wastes of the region of the Gila, and 
Southern Arizona generally, upon the colors of the species found there. A 
light, dull, apparently faded condition of plumage, in which some shade of 
gray is a predominant tint, and all lines and streaks are more or less obsolete 
in character, is met with in numerous instances, forming true local races or 
varieties. In other casesj- the specific characters which distinguish birds of 
this middle southern province from other closely allied species, partake in a 
measure of this peculiarity. 

Our knowledge of the Ornis of Arizona has been hitherto chiefly obtained 
from the collections made by the naturalists attached to several of the United 
states Government Surveys of various regions of the West. The expeditions 
along the 35th and the 32d parallel passed through different portions of the 
Territory; the Mexican Boundary Survey along its southern border; that of 
the Colorado passed up the river to the head of navigation. The first men- 
tioned of these, under Capt. A. W. Whipple, with Dr. C. B R. Kennedy and Mr. 
H. B. Mollhausen as naturalists, passed very near the present site of Fort 
Whipple; and its collections agree most closely with my own. Collections 
of some private individuals have added materially to the results of these Ex- 
plorations ; especially those of Dr. J. G. Cooper, who spent several months at 
Fort Mojave, on the Colorado River, in latitude 35 N. To the observations and 
collections of this gentleman I shall have frequent occasion to allude ; and I 
am indebted to him for free access to his MSS. notes, which are of special in- 
terest and value, not only as adding some species to my list, but as affording 
an opportunity of comparing the birds of Fort Whipple with those of a point 
in the Colorado valley, at nearly the same latitude ; whereby the effect of the 
differences in physical geography is finely elucidated. My own observations, 
made during the sixteen months I resided in Arizona, extend over the Ter- 
ritory from east to west, chiefly near the line of the 35th parallel; and along 
the valley of the Colorado from Fort Mojave to Fort Yuma. It was chiefly 
at Fort Whipple, and the mountainous region of that vicinity, that my collec- 
tions were made. This particular locality possesses a rich and varied Avi- 
fauna ; numerous features of which are quite peculiar, as might be expected 
from the following facts regarding its situation and relations. 

Fort Whipple is very nearly in latitude 34 30 / N.. longitude 112 W. (from 
Greenwich.) It is difficult to give an estimate of the altitude of the vicinity 
with anything more than approximate accuracy, in consequence of the broken 
and varied nature of the surface. It may be stated, in round numbers, as be- 
tween 4000 and 5000 feet ; but in several directions, and more particularly 
to the southward, there are confused masses of short mountain ranges or ab- 
rupt isolated peaks, which rise far above the level indicated by the preceding 
figures. The altitude of the San Francisco mountains, about sixty miles a 
little east of north of Whipple, has been fixed at about 12,000 feet. The main 
point of interest which attaches to this particular locality Fort Whipple 

* The Telraoiiidie. I have never seen nor heard of a finale species of grouse in Arizona. But 
the northern portions of the Territory are so imperfectly explored that it is not safe to assert their 
entire absence. Dr. J. G. Cooper has seen the Centrocercus urophasianus ou the Mojave Kiver; 
the southernmost point, 1 believe, from which it has thus far been recorded. 

t Of which Ilarparhynchus Ltcontzior criisaiis, as distinguished from H. redivivus of the Pacific 
coast, is a go.id example. 

fMarch, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 41 

is that it is nearly upon the dividing line between two tracts of country quite 
diverse from each other in those points which chiefly affect the distribution 
and migration of species. A single day's journey to the southward gives us 
changes in the birds, so great, that I do not hesitate in comparing the differ- 
ence to that which exists between the Middle Atlantic and the Gulf States, in 
the eastern Province. Very numerous species,* not detected at any season at 
Fort Whipple, are yet found abundantly within fifty miles to the south and 
southwest. At the same time the locality is a true component of the eleva- 
ted and cold regions to the northward, and assimilates in this respect to Utah 
and Nevada. Intermediate in situation between the two great valleys of 
southwestern United States those of the Rio Grande and Colorado Rivers, it 
draws tribute in a measure upon each of them, though, as might be supposed, 
vastly more from the latter than the former. In this connection I may advert 
to an interesting point, which I consider as quite probable, though contrary 
to the usual laws of migration ; viz., that many of the birds of the Colorado 
vallej, which are there winter residents, instead of migrating far to the north 
in spring, by turning simply to the eastward, find in the region of which 
Fort Whipple is the southern limit the conditions necessary for breeding 
grounds. That such is a fact would seem to be indicated by comparing the 
forms common to both Mojave and Whipple; the summer residents or spring 
migrants of the latter place being usually winter residen's at the former 
locality ; but can only be incontrovertible* proven by showing that some 
species wintering at Mojave are not found directly north of that point in 
summer ; and that they do breed in the Whipple mountains. 

The seasons are well pronounced at Fort Whipple, and do not differ nota- 
bly from those of the Middle Atlantic States. This enables us trenchantly to 
divide those of its birds which are not permanent residents, into summer and 
winter residents, and migratory species passing through in the spring and 
autumn. And I have noticed in many instances that the times of arrival and 
departure of non-residents are strikingly similar to those of the migratory 
species passing through Washington, D. C. Quite the reverse is the case in 
southern Arizona ; where the protracted heat and drought of a long summer, 
which encroaches on intermediate seasons, disturbs the regularity of migra- 
tion ; or even entirely takes away from some species the migratory impulse. 

The immediate vicinity of Fort Whipple is admirably adapted to ornitho- 
logical pursuits in the very varied character of surface presented within the 
compass of a day's walk. Pines constitute the main feature of the Sylva, 
covering all the mountains down to what may be considered as the average 
altitude of the locality. .An extensive undulating plain stretches to the north- 
ward, partially grassy, partially covered with the characteristic shrubs of 
the country. Ranges of broken low hills, sparsely covered chiefly with sev- 
eral species of dwarf oak, or so nearly naked as to be little more than huge 
masses of metamorphic rocks, attract their share of species. The head of 
one of the forks of the San Francisco River flows past; at times a considera- 
ble stream, but usually dry. The vegetation along this, as well as all other 
water courses of the Territory, has as its most prominent element the ever 
present Populus moniliferus ; together with species of Salix, Primus, Castanea, 
etc., the bases of which trees are as usual tightly sewn together by a tangled 
matted network of rank undergrowth ; the whole forming a tract peculiarly 
yielding, as every ornithologist knows, of variety and value in specimens. A 
small rather open swamp near by affords several species, which, but for its 
presence, would not form a part of the birds of the locality. 

By adding to the species observed at Fort Whipple, and characteristic of 
that locality, such others as have been ascertained to inhabit any portion of 
the Territory, the subjoined list becomes an exposition of the present state of 



* For example: Chordeiles texensis, Pyrocepho.lus mexicanus, Catherpes mexicanus, Vireo pusillus 
(a. sp.,) Pipilo Abertii, P. mesoleueus, etc., etc. 

1866.] 



42 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

our knowledge of tbe Arizonian Ornis. I have included no species in the 
list which has not actually been detected in the Territory, or which must 
necessarily be found there, from the known range of its habitat ; but frequent 
reference is made to species, not yet recognized as components of the Arizo- 
nian Avifauna, which in all probability are hereafter to be detected. In view 
of the favorable circumstances attending the preparation of the list, I do not 
think that very many species remain to be added to it. Still, as my opera- 
tions were conducted at the most imminent personal hazard from the con- 
tinued presence of hostile Indians, the wily and vindictive Apaches which 
always cramped, and at times necessitated entire cessation of investigations, 
it maybe perhaps that some species have been overlooked ; and I have only 
the same excuse to offer, for some other shortcomings, of which no one can 
be more fully aware than myself. I have taken care to eliminate the Whip- 
ple birds, as contradistinguished from all others of the Territory, in order 
that attention may be drawn to their peculiarities ; considering the Fauna of 
any natural geographical region as more interesting and instructive than that 
comprised within arbitrary political boundaries, since the latter almost al- 
ways include fragments of two or more diverse Faunas ; of which fact the 
very region now under discussion affords an example. The Whipple species 
are preceded by an uninclosed number ; all others have their number in pa- 
renthesis. It has been my aim merely to add to the remarks elucidative of 
the distribution of the species, such purely technical observations, compari- 
sons of closely allied forms, descriptions of immature or little known states 
of plumage, as seemed quite pertinent to the subject. In a few cases syno- 
nymy is introduced for reasons which will be obvious. Except in a few in- 
stances of special interest I have nottouched upon the natural history proper of 
the species, reserving for future elaboration the mass of ornithobiographical 
notes which I have taken care to accumulate. All remarks are to be under- 
stood as referring to the species as observed at Fort Whipple, and by myself, 
except when the contrary is explicitly stated. 

VULTURID.E. 

1. Cathartes aura (L.) Illig. ^ 

Summer resident ; abundant. Arrives last week in March ; remains until 
latter part of October. Resident in the southern portions of the Territory. 

(2.) Cathartes Californianus (Shaw,) Cuv. 

Resident in Southern Arizona. Individuals observed at Fort Yuma, in 
September, 1865. 

FALCONWsE. 

3. Falco (Tinnunculus) sparverics L. 

Resident ; very abundant. In highly-plumaged spring birds, the cere, the 
feet and the edges of the eyelids are bright vermilion, not yellow: the claws 
and bill bluish black. 

4. Falco (Hypotriorchis) columbarius L. 

Common ; resident. " A specimen taken by me at Fort Mojave is remark- 
able for its light colors " (Cooper). A light, dull, faded condition of plumage 
has been already adverted to as characterizing, in many instances, birds from 
the Gila and Colorado Valleys. 

In the immense series of " Pigeon "-Hawks which I have examined from 
all parts of the West, I find a few specimens which constantly differ, to a 
marked degree, from any and all of the exceedingly diverse plumages under 
which the typical F. columbarius presents itself. These specimens are inva- 
riably much larger than any others in the series ; are much lighter colored, 
(yet not dull or faded,) and differ constantly in the increased number of 
light and dark bars on the tail. Compared with a European specimen of 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43 

Falco xialon, they agree in every particular. I think it most probable that 
future careful research will demonstrate satisfactorily the existence of a 
species hitherto usually confounded with some of the protean plumages of 
F. columbarius; but quite distinct from the latter, and doubtless referrible to 
the European type above mentioned. In fact, a Falco sesalon has been quoted 
by Townsend and Nuttall as from the northwestern portions of the United 
States ; though not usually recognized by later ornithologists. 

(5.) Falco (Hypotriorchis) femoralis Temm. 

South Arizona, near the Sonoran border. Specimens were obtained by 
Lieut. J. G. Parke's Expedition along the 32d parallel ; and by the Mexican 
Boundary Survey. 

It is quite possible that the F. aurantius Gm. extends northward through 
Sonora into the southern portion of Arizona. 

6. Falco polyagrus Cassin. 

? Falco mexicanus* "Licht. Mus. Berol.," Schlegel, Abhandl. Geb. Zool. 
u. Vergl. 1841, p. 15. Schlegel, Falcones, Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Pays- 
Bas, 1st, 1862, p. 18. 
Falco (Gennaia) polyagrus, Cassin, Birds N. A. 1858, p. 12. 
Sparingly distributed throughout the Territory. Not observed at Whipple, 
though doubtless to be found there. Colorado Chiquito River, Kennerly. 



o' 



(7.)Accipiter Cooperi Bon. 

This generally distributed species is found throughout the Territory. 

8. Accipiter Mexicands Swains. 

Common, resident. Iris, cere, legs, and feet light yellow. Bill bluish 
black. Claws black. 

I have seen young birds of this species, reared by hand from the nest, so 
thoroughly domesticated as to come to their master on being whistled for, 
and perch upon his shoulder, or follow him when shooting small birds for 
their food. They were allowed entire liberty. Their ordinary note was a 
shrill and harsh scream ; a low, plaintive, lisping whistle was indicative of 
hunger. 

The shape of the tail of this speeies is decidedly less rounded than that 
of Cooperi, and is a feature of considerable value in distinguishing the 
female Mexicanus from the male Cooperi. 

9. Accipiter fuscus (Gm.) Bon. 

Resident. Abundant throughout the Territory. 

10. BOTEO " MONTANUS" Nuttall. 

B. montanus, Nuttall, Manual, 1840, i. p. 112; and of later American 

writers generally : equals B. borealis from Western North America. 
B. borealis, (Gm.) Gray, Genera, i. 1849, p. 11. Bryant, Remarks on 

Variations of Plumage of Buteo borealis, etc., in Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. 

Hist, for 1861 : considers montanus Nutt., calurus Cass., and probably 

also Cooperi Cass., as referrible to borealis. 

*I think it very likely that polyagrus is not the first distinctive name this Hawk has received. 
The description of Falco mexicanus by Schlegel, as above cited, is substantially as follows: 
'Wing 11.50 to 13; tail 6.50 to 7 50; legs finely scaled, feet yellow; above brown, paler on the 
tail; head and nape edged with rusty brown; quills with rust-colored spots; stripe through the 
eye, spot on nape, and middle of auriculars whitish; beneath white, each feather with a Darrow 
blackish drop-shaped spot; large lateral feathers covering flanks brown, with some rust-colored 
transverse spots. The young bird has the edges of the feathers above light, the spots below 
larger, and the feet greenish yellow." A fuller description is in the first number of Dr. Schlegel's 
Catalogue of the Pays-Bas Museum, above cited. These descriptions are pertinent to F. polyagrus 
in most respects; but, in view of some discrepancies, {color of the legs, which, in polyagrus, are 
light dull blue, etc.,) I do not wish, at present, at least, to make the change of names, though 
such a procedure may hereafter he considered necessary. Mr. Cassin himself refers (B. N. A., 
1868, p. 12,) to this name of Dr. Schlegel's, as very probably the first designation of the species. 

1866.] 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

B. Swainsoni, Bonaparte, Conspectus, i. p. 19. Cassin, Birds Cal. and 

Tex. i. p. 98 (1853) ; but not of Cassin, B. N. A. (1858). 
Falco buleo, Audubon, Orn. Biog. ; Sw. & Rich. F. B. A., according to 
Cassin. 

The most abundant and characteristic species of the larger Hawks; resi- 
dent, but particularly abundant during the winter months. It may be 
readily recognized at any distance, when flying, by the very dark-colored 
area presented by the lesser under wing coverts, sharply contrasted against 
the very light colors of the rest of the under surface of the wings. The iris 
is clear light brown ; the bill bluish black ; the cere, legs and feet light 
yellow. 

In the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History for 1861, 
appeared a paper by Dr. Henry Bryant, on the variations of the plumage of 
Western North American Buleones ; in which facts are elicited tending to 
demonstrate that nearly all the species enumerated as valid by Mr. Cassin, in 
1858, may be reduced to two. One of these, of which borealis Gm may be 
taken as the type or parent stock, and for which the name must stand, is 
large and muscular, with a strong bill, long stout tarsi, and a rounded 
wing. Here Dr. Bryant would range montanus Nutt., calurus Cass., and pro- 
bably also Cooperi Cass. ; together with a specimen in the Philadelphia 
Museum, which has been labelled and usually called Ifarlani. The other 
species is distinguished by its smaller size, more slender form, longer and 
weaker tarsi, and more pointed wing. Harlani* Aud. is considered as the 
first name of this species ; and to it are referred Swainsonii,f Bairdii of Hoy % 
and of Cassin; insignatm,?^ Cassin, and oxypterus || Cassin. Dr. Bryant gives 
careful measurements of these supposed species, having access to the types 
of many of them, and fiuds that, if we are to take size and proportions 
alone as indicative of specific validity, we can admit but the two species he 
characterizes ; while, if we are to be guided by color, we cannot avoid still 
further increasing the number of species to be recognized to such an extent, 
that (together with the other undoubted species, such as linea/as, pennsyl- 
vanicus, etc.,) we should have a total of twenty- three inhabiting North 
America. 

It cannot be denied that our constantly increasing knowledge of the dis- 
tribution of North American Buteones, and of the "theory of variation" 
which is applicable to them, decidedly tends towards a confirmation of Dr. 
Bryant's views. Nevertheless, I am by no means prepared to accept with- 
out reservation the extreme conclusions arrived at. I prefer, at present, to 
enumerate the species or varieties, if they are only such as determined by 
Mr. Cassin ; considering the names given as at least indicative of strongly 
marked, and apparently geographical, though perhaps not permanent, 
varieties. 

11. Buteo "calurus" Cassin. 

B. calurus, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1855, p. 281 ; and B. N. A. 1858, p. 22. 

" B. borealis Gm." Bryant, 1. c. 
Resident at Fort Whipple, and by no means rare. Specimens taken in the 
winter of 18645, and in April following. Orig. No. 1246; $. Length 
23'75; extent 55'50. Iris light yellow. Bill dusky bluish horn. Cere dull 
yellowish green. Mouth livid flesh color. Legs and feet chrome yellow. 
Claws black. 

*"Harlani Aud.," of which the type is in the British Museum, is given by Cray (Cat. Brit. 
Mus. Accipitres) as borealis. If such be the truth, that Audubon's species was founded upon the 
fuliginous state of plumage of borealis, then Swainsoni Bp. is the first distinctive name of the 
smaller of the two species recognized by Dr. Bryant. 

+ 0f Bonaparte, Comp. List, 1838, p. 3, as defined by Cassin, B. N. A., 1858, p. 19. 

IB. Bairdii, Hoy, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vi. 1853, p. 451. Cassin, B. of Cal. and Tex. pi. 41. Idem, B. 
N. A., 1858, p. 21. 

$ B. insignatus, Cass., B. of Cal. and Tex., 1854, p. 102, pi. 31. B. N. A., 1858, p. 23. 

11 B. oxypterus, Cass., Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vii. p. 282 Id. B. N. A., 1858, p. 30. 

[Ma-ch, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 45 

My specimens have a large pectoral area dark chestnut brown, not very 
different in color from the superior aspect of the tail. I have seen other 
specimens from Fort Tejon, Cala., in which the breast is still brighter 
chestnut, in marked contrast to the fuliginous brownish black of the rest of 
the plumage. Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and California seem to constitute 
the special range of this species or variety. 

B. " Cooperi" has only been taken from Southern California, (Santa Clara 
County, Cooper,) and, as but a single specimen is known, it is impossible to 
decide with certainty upon its relations to borealis. 

(12.) Buteo "Harlani Audubon." 

Individuals identified with this supposed species of Audubon by Mr. Cassin 
and Mr. Lawrence are from New Mexico and California ; so that the bird 
necessarily ranges over the intermediate ground of Arizona. 

Dr. Bryant considers that the specimens thus identified present nothing 
incompatible with their being regarded as a variety of borealis. And it is 
quite probable that the specimen upon which Audubon himself based the 
name " Harlani 1 ' is really referrible to a state of plumage of borealis. This 
must be finally determined by examination of the type in the British Museum. 
But the name " Harlani Aud." is employed by Dr. Bryant in his paper to 
designate a species radically distinct from borealis in all its variety, and is 
the one to which the three following names are by him referred. 

13. Boteo " Swainsoni " Bonaparte. 

B. Swainsoni, Bp. Comp. List, 1838, page 3. Cassin, 1. c. 

B- vulgaris, Audubon ; Swainson & Richardson ; but not of European 

authors. 
B. Harlani, Bryant, 1. c. (Provisionally adopts the name, proposing to 
accept that of Swainsonii Bp. in event that Harlani Aud. proves to be 
a variety of borealis.) 
A species or variety of extensive distribution throughout the West. 
Colorado Chiquito River, Ariz., Dr. G. B. R. Kennerly. I never met with it at 
Fort Whipple, though, beyond a doubt, it is to be found there. 

Some of the states of plumage of this bird are so exceedingly similar to 
those of B. vulgaris of Europe, that it has been thus malidentified by certain 
American writers. See Cassin, B. N. A., pp. 19, 20, 21, for elucidation of 
changes of plumage, geographical distribution, and synonymy. 

(14.) Buteo " oxypterus " Cassin. 

B. oxypterus, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vii. 1855, p..282.- Idem, B.N. A. 1858, p. 30. 
B. Harlani Bryant, 1. c. 
Not actually detected within the limits of the Territory ; but the original 
locality whence the type of the species was described is so near the borders 
of Arizona as to render it most probable that the species will be here- 
after detected. (Fort Fillmore, N. M., Dr. T. C. Henry.) 

(15 ) Buteo "insinatus" Cassin. 

B. insignatus, Cassin, B. of Cal. and Tex., 1854, p. 102, pi. 31. Cassin, 

B. N. A., 1858, p. 23. 
B. Harlani, Bryant, 1. c. 
The known range of this species or variety includes Arizona. 
The bird first characterized by Hoy and subsequently by Cassin as B. 
Bairdii (by Dr. Bryant also referred to " Harlani Aud.,") has not, to my 
knowledge, been taken as far south as Arizona, though detected at various 
other points in the West. 

16. Buteo elrgtns Cassin. 

Rare ; and only known as an inhabitant of Arizona from a single specimen 
taken on the Colorado Chiquito by Dr. Kennerly. I am informed by Dr. 
Cooper that it is an abundant bird in Southern California. It will doubtless 
be hereafter found at Whipple. 

18rj6.] 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

This fine species is radically different from any of the foregoing Buteones, 
belonging to a group subgenerically distinct, partially characterized by a 
different amount of feathering of the tarsi. Among North American species 
it is only intimately related to lineatus, from which species the study of its 
neossology readily enables us to distinguish it. 

(17.) Bctko zonocercus Sclater. 

B. zonocercus, Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 263. 

A single specimen, procured on the Gila River, Sept. 24, 1864. The species 
is doubtless restricted in its northern range to the warm valleys of the Gila 
and Lower Colorado. 

This interesting Mexican species was first found within the limits of the 
United States by the indefatigable Cooper, who procured a specimen in Santa 
Clara County, California. Without being aware of this at the time, I redis- 
covered it myself in Arizona ; an additional example of what has occurred in 
several instances in our operations in the West, during the greater part of 
which each was ignorant of the other's exact whereabouts and labors. I 
must yield to my friend the priority of discovery, although I have the pleas- 
ure of first presenting the species in an American publication as an addition 
to the United States Fauna. 

18. Archibuteo PERR0GINED3 (Licht.) Cassin. 

Buteo ferrugineus, Lichtenstein, Trans. Acad. Berlin, 1838, p. 428. 
Archibuteo ferrugineus, Cassin, B. N. A. 1858, p. 34. 
Archibuteo regalia, Gray, Genera, i. pi. vi. (desc. nulla.) 
Buteo Calif or nicus, A. J. Grayson, Hutchins' Cal. Mag. 1857. 

This large, noble, and by far the handsomest of our Falconines, hitherto 
only known from California, is found quite abundantly about Fort Whipple, 
especially in winter. It is probably a permanent resident there. It chiefly fre- 
quented meadows, plains and more open woods. 1 observed it to be quite numer- 
ous on the dry, level, grassy plains of Southern California. I usually found the 
stomach filled with Geomys, Arvicola, or Hesperomys. In life it may always be 
readily recognized by its conspicuously white under parts, contrasted with its 
dark chestnut tibiae and reddish back. 

No. 1114, taken Dec. 2, 1864. Male. Length 22-50; extent 54-50; wing 
16-25; tail 9-50 ; tibia 4-80; tarsus 3-25; middle toe 125; its claw -75; outer 
toe -85; its claw -55 ; hallux 1-00; its claw 1-00; bill along culmen 1-50; 
along gape 2-00; its depth at base -90. No. 1115, taken Dec. 6, 1864. Fe- 
male. Length 23-25 ; extent 56-50 ; wing from carpus 46-75 ; tail 10-00 ; 
tarsus 3-40 ; the other measurements not differing notably from those of the 
male above given. 

When perfectly adult, the whole under parts, from chin to under tail cov- 
erts, inclusive, are pure white. In the majority of specimens, however, there 
will be found a few slender, sharp, shaft lines of black on the chin; which, 
as they pass down the breast, become broader, and tinged with chestnut. 
Usually, also, the feathers of the flanks have small, isolated, interrupted and 
incomplete bars of chestnutand black. Less mature specimens exhibit a con- 
tinuation of these bars quite across the lower part of the abdomen, and they 
are so broadened as to form somewhat hastate spots. Some of the feathers 
of the flanks are tipped with chestnut. The chief other variations in adult 
birds seem to be a greater or less intensity of the deep color of the tibiae, a 
lighter or darker shade of ferrugineous on the back, and a fainter or more de- 
cided wash of pearl grey on the superior surface of the tail. 

The bill is dark leaden bluish black. The mouth is light purplish flesh 
color, becoming livid bluish on the corneous portions. The cere, edges of 
the commissure, tarsi and toes are bright chrome yellow. The claws are 
black. The naked skin just over the eye is greenish, tinged with crimson 
posteriorly. The iris of adult birds is fine light yellow ; of young ones 
brown, more or less ochraceous with increasing age. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 47 

The following brief anatomical notes maybe of interest, as the species has 
not hitherto been dissected. They relate chiefly to the alimentary canal : 

Anatomical Notes. On the roof of the mouth a narrow but prominent me- 
dian ridge runs from the very apex of the upper mandible to the fissure of 
the posterior nares, widening, becoming less sharply defined, and more ob- 
tusely papillated towards its posterior extremity. At a point about a third of 
its length from its termination it is crossed at right angles by a very short, 
transverse ridge, which connects it on either side with a lateral ridge. These 
lateral ridges run parallel with each other as far back as the Eustachian ori- 
fice, and are papillated for their whole length, which papilla? are anteriorly 
sparsely distributed, short, stout and obtuse ; posteriorly gradually becoming 
thick-set, long, soft and acute. The ridges themselves terminate abruptly in 
the smooth, soft, mucous membrane of the posterior portions of the palate, 
measuring 1-60 inches in length. That portion of the palate between these 
ridges and the nasal fissure is roughened by numerous short, blunt tubercles. 
From the extremity of that portion of the nasal fissure which has soft, ele- 
vated, approximate ridges, there runs outwards on either side a fringe of 
delicate papilla;. Rather more than the posterior third of the nasal fissure 
stands broadly open, and has hard, immobile, bony edges, over which the 
mucous membrane is tightly and smoothly stretched. The nasal aperture 
measures in total length 1-25. Just posterior to it, on the median line of the 
palate, is the opening of the Eustachian tube, situated in the centre of a smooth, 
somewhat vaulted space. In shape it is oval, and its edges, though somewhat 
mobile, are not completely approximable. From its posterior extremity, on 
either side, a fringe of soft papilla? curves obliquely outwards and forwards. 
The rest of the palate is not noticeable. Posteriorly it is very soft, and nu- 
merous vessels may be seen ramifying beneath its mucous membrane. An- 
teriorly it becomes harder and more fibrous, and finally, towards the tip of 
the bill, quite corneous. 

The tongue is large and fleshy, its tip obtusely rounded, its lateral outline 
convex, its dorsum with a median furrow, its under surface with a corres- 
ponding ridge, its posterior extremity deeply bifid, the edges of the fork 
corneous, and armed with stiff, hard, papillae. The outermost of these pa- 
pillae is greatly developed, forming a large, strong, acutely pointed spine. 
The tongue is -75 long ; its laryngeal fissure '50. The elevated space 
just posterior to the rima glottidis is pure white, and thickly beset with 
stiff, acute papillae, some of which have black tips. 

On the floor of the mouth, on either side of the frenum linguae, at the apex 
of the angle formed by the divergence of the inferior maxillary rami, lies a 
thin, flattened, broadly oval gland, a third of an inch long, of a deep pur- 
plish red color. Its surface is studded with numerous depressed puucta,',the 
orifices of the emunctory ducts. 

The trachea is 5-50 inches long, and -45 wide at its superior extremity ; 
rings about 90 in number. It is broad and much flattened superiorly, but 
towards the lower larynx becomes more cylindrical. The lateral muscles are 
well developed. The lower larynx, as usual in this order, is quite simple. 
The bronchial half-rings are 15 in number, all small, soft and weak. 

The oesophagus is extremely capacious and dilatable. The distended crop 
is irregularly ovoid in shape ; 3-50 long by about 2-25 wide. 

The proventricular glands form a complete zone, with a uniform width of 
1-25. The proventricular parietes is about one-twelfth of an inch in 
thickness. The individual glands are large enough to be readily discernible 
to the naked eye ; closely aggregated in the parenchyma of the parietes. Their 
orifices are plainly visible, thickly studding the whole internal surface of the 
organ ; and during active digestion the mucous membrane is covered with 
their thick, glairy, viscid secretion. 

The fully distended gigerium occupies about three-fourths of the abdominal 
cavity. It reaches within an inch of the rectum, inclining towards the left 

1866.] 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

side of the abdomen, with the internal parietes of which it is in close ap- 
proximation. The intestines all seem crowded backwards, downwards and to 
the right. There is no apparent constriction between the proventriculus and 
gigeriuin ; but from the termination of the oesophagus proper the calibre of 
the canal regularly increases, so that the two stomachs together form a pyri- 
form mass, its large end directed backward. The walls of the gigerium are 
thin ; the mucous membrane quite smooth. The pylorus is nearly circular in 
shape ; i's aperture quite open and direct. It is guarded by elevated folds 
of mucous membrane, forming partial valves. The opening is situated about 
the middle of the right side of the gizzard. 

The duodenal fold is between three and four inches in length. It curves 
around the right side and fundus of the gizzard, separating the latter from 
the rectum, and thence returns upon itself to its point of departure. 

The intestine then curves around the dorsal aspect of the gizzard until near 
the median line of the body, whence it descends nearly in a straight line, in 
the right iliac fossa, almost as far as the rectum. After numerous short con- 
volutions in this region, it again ascends, on the right of the spine, till it re- 
gains the dorsal aspect of the gizzard near the origin of the duodenal fold. 
It then traverses the gizzard from right to left, and descends in the left iliac 
fossa, half way to the rectum, when abruptly returning on itself along the 
left side of the spine, it forms a loop about an inch long. Here, after again 
abruptly reversing its direction so as to point directly backwards, it termi- 
nates, at the coeca, in the colon. 

There are two cceca, each about one-eighth of an inch long, very small, 
perfectly straight, obtusely rounded at their extremities, and closely adherent 
by cellular tissue to the walls of the colon. 

The colon is very short, being less than two inches in length. It is a per- 
fectly straight tube, running directly backwards along the median line of the 
sacrum. Its diameter does not exceed the average of the "small" intestines, 
and is less, in fact, than that of the duodenum. Between the ischia it ex- 
pands into a large, nearly globular, though somewat pyriform rectum, about 
an inch in length. A spincter partially guards the recto-colal passage. 

The pancreas in the specimens examined was not, as usual, slender and 
elongated, and received in the fold of the duodenum ; but was short, thick 
and obtuse, and closely applied to the right side of the gizzard. 

The spleen measures a third of an inch in length, and is of a flattened, 
ovoid shape, and dull reddish purple color. It rests on the dorsum of the 
gizzard, a little to the right, and high up near the proventriculus. 

The liver is large, and its two lobes are of about equal size. They lie one 
on each side of the abdomen, their commissure being directly on the median 
line of the body. Their superior concave surfaces combined are in apposi- 
tion with the gizzard and intestines ; their convex inferior surfaces are accu- 
rately moulded to the thoracic parietes. Anteriorly they diverge to receive 
the apex of the heart between them ; posteriorly they are in close mutual 
apposition. 

The total length of the alimentary canal from pylorus to anus is about 40 
inches. 

19. Archibdteo lagopus (Briinn.) Gray. 

Rare. A single specimen taken in winter. None others met with. 

(20.) Elanus LEucuRtrs (Vieill.) Savigny. 

The known range of this Hawk includes Arizona : though I am not aware 
that any examples have actually been brought from the Territory. 

(21.) Nauclerus furcatus (L.) Vig. 

I have been on several occasions assured of the existence of this Kite in 
Arizona, by reliable if unscientific observers. I have myself never seen it. 

Numerous facts regarding the geographical distribution of this species in- 

[ March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 49 

dicate that it is one of several, which, as noted by Mr. Cassin, (B. N. A., p. 
37,) range much farther norih in the western than in the eastern portions of 
the continent. I have met with it as high up as Fort Leavenworth, on the 
Missouri River. 

{22.) Ictinia Mississippiensis (Wils. ) Gray. 

As a bird of New Mexico, this species is doubtless to be detected in south 
-eastern Arizona. 

It is probable that the Asturina nitida remains to be discovered near the 
Sonoran border. 

23. Circus hudsonicts {Linn.) Vieill. 

An abundant species throughout the Territory, chiefly in its more watered 
portions. 

24. Halijetus letjcocephalus (L.) Savigny. 

Bald Eagles were frequently observed at different seasons in the vicinity of 
Fort Whipple. 

25. Aquila canadensis (Linn.) Cassin. 

Rare ; but occasionally observed at different seasons : warranting the belief 
that it is a permanent resident of the mountains around Fort Whipple. 

(26.) Pandion Carolinensis (Sm.) Bonap. 
Observed on the Colorado River. 

{27.) Polvborus Audubonii Cass. 

P. Audubonii, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1865, p. 2, which see for syno- 
nymy and specific characters. 
Apparently not a rare bird of the southern and western portions of the Ter- 
ritory. " Rio Gila and Colorado, near Fort Yuma; abundant ; " Heermann* 

{28.) Craxirex unicinctus (Temm.) Cass. 

Taken by Kennedy and Mollhausen on the Colorado River. (See P. R. R. 
Survey, Vol. x. pt. iv. p. 20.) Probably a permanent resident of southern 
Arizona. 

[Note. The following extract from my Journal may be of interest : " Camp 
on San Francisco River, near mountains of same name, July 13, 1865. A 
pair of exceedingly large rapacious birds sailed over camp this evening. Their 
Slight was easy, graceful, firm, and sustained for a long time with no visible 
motion of the wings, which latter were exceedingly long, pointed and acutely 
angulated at the carpal joint. In size they about equalled Bald Eagles ; but 
the shape of the wings and mode of flight were very different and intimately 
resembled those of the Turkey Vultures. The entire under parts of these 
birds were pure white; their upper parts were not visible." I could not pro- 
cure a specimen, nor can I now refer the birds to any species known to me, 
unless, possibly, they were the Sarcorarnphus papa ; a species which may be 
included hereafter in our Fauna, though its presence within our limits has not 
yet been positively substantiated.] 

STRIGIDJSL 

29. Strix pratincola Bonap. 

Common. Resident. One of the most abundant Owls of the Territory. 1 
have frequently observed it at midday ; on one occasion it was preying upon 
Black-birds in the middle of a small open reed swamp. 

30. Bubo virginianus (Sm.) Bonap. 

Common ; resident. My specimens incline towards Mr. Cassin's variety 
pneificus; which was also taken on the Colorado Chiquito, by Dr. Kennerly. 

31. Scops McCalli Cassin. 

Taken at Fort Mojave by Dr. Cooper, who thinks it is scarcely distinct from 

1866.] 4 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

*>. asio. The latter species is doubtless distributed throughout the Territory. 
I have not personally met with it. Dr. Kennedy procured MeCalli on the 
Colorado Chiquito River. It is therefore to be enumerated among the Whipple 
birds. 

32. Otus Wilson-anus (Lesson.) 

Sparsely distributed throughout the Territory. Colorado Chiquito, Ren- 
tier I ' y. 

33. Brachyotps Cassini Brewer. 

Common throughout the Territory. I saw a surprising number on differ- 
ent occasions along the Colorado River, in the day time. 

:?4. Nyctale acadica (Gm.) Bonap. 

The known range of this little Owl includes Arizona ; though I have not 
seen specimens from within the limits of the Territory. 

In addition to the preceding Strigides a species of Athene occurs in Arizona : 
but whether h ypogea or cnnicularia I cannot now determine positively. The 
Syrnium occidentale Xantus, (Pr. A. N. S., Ph. 1S59, type from Fort Te.jon) 
will very probably be found in the Colorado Valley. Dr. Cooper has obtained 
Nyctale albifrons on the Sierra Nevada of California, which causes Arizona to 
fail within its now known range. 

35. Glaucidium gnoma Wagler. 

Glaucidium gnoma, Wagler, Isis v Oken, xxv. 1832, p. 275. (Mexico.) 

Cassin, in Baird, B. N. A., 1858, p. 62. (Oregon, Cal. etc.) 

" Strix passer inoides Temm." Audubon, Orn. Biog. v. p. 271, pi. 432, 

fig. 4, 5 ; (not the original species as descr. and fig. by Temm. 

Planches Color. No. 344, which is South American, and probably the 

same as S. infuscata Temm.) 

" Surnia passTinoides Temm." Audubon, B. N. A., 8vo. ed. i. p. 117, 

pi. 30. 
Glaucidium infuscatum, Cassin, Birds Cal. and Texas, 1853, i. p. 139. 
(Name from Strix infuscata Temm., Man. Orn. 1820, i. p. 97 ; which 
is S. Amer. species, probably the same as passerinoides Temm.) 
Glaucidium californicum, Sclater. P. Z. S., 1857, p. 4; in text ; pro- 
posing name if N. Am. species is not true gnoma Wagl. 
My numerous specimens present no material discrepancies from Wagler's 
original description in the Isis. I think it far best, with our present informa- 
tion on the subject, to refer the Oregonian, Californian and Arizonian bird to 
this species of Wagler, as Mr. Cassin has done. Should the Mexican bird 
ever be found to differ from the North American, the latter is to be called G. 
californicum after Sclater, as above quoted. 

My citations of Audubon's and Cassin's works, (ut supra) all refer to the 
North American bird, though these authors erred in applying to it either of 
the names infuscatum or passerinoides, both of which refer to South American 
species, in all probability identical with each other, and quite distinct from 
our bird. Mr. Cassin himself corrects his error in the " Birds of North 
America; " and with this gentleman's later views of the synonymy I entirely 
agree. 

The sexes of this little Owl differ much in size. A male before me measures 
only 5 "50 X 14*50, but the tail feathers are quite imperfect ; had they grown 
out fully the bird's lens;th would have been about 7.00. The female is larger, 
measuring 7*50 X 15-25. The male is rather darker colored than the female : 
t lie spots above more numerous and smaller; the imperfect nuchal collar of 
black and white much better defined than in the other sex, where it is almost 
obsolete. In both sexes ihe iris is bright yellow ; the mouth light purplish 
flesh ; the bill, cere and feet light greenish yellow ; the soles chrome yellow ; 
the claws black. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 51 

A diurnal and crepuscular rather than a nocturnal species. The stomachs 
of those individuals examined, contained the remains of orthopterous and 
coleopterous insects. A permanent resident at Fort Whipple, but not very 
abundant. 

MICRATHENE Coues, nov. gen. 

Generic Characters. Bill small and weak, compressed at the base, where it 
is densely covered with recurved feathers terminating in stiff bristles ; out- 
line of culmen and gonys moderately convex ; lower mandible obsoletely 
notched. Facial disk not conspicuously defined, imperfect behind the eye. 
Wings exceedingly long ; measuring from the carpal joint rather more than 
two-thirds the total length of the body ; much rounded, the exposed portion 
of the first primary only two-thirds that of the longest one ; third and fourth 
longest, fifth but little shorter, second about equal to the sixth. Tail of mod- 
erate length, not graduated : rectrices broad to their very tips. Tarsi of mod- 
erate length, feathered only for a short distance below the tibio-tarsal joint ; 
the rest of their extent, and the superior surface of the toes, clothed with 
bristly hairs. Claws unusually small and weak, moderately curved ; the 
outer one reaching a little beyond the base of the middle one ; the inner in- 
termediate between outer and middle ones. Middle toe and claw about as 
long as the tarsus. Hallux elongated. Of small size, being among the most 
diminutive of known Owls. 

Type. A'hene Whitneyi, Cooper. * 

With the size and general aspect of Glaucidinm, this genus differs greatly 
from it as follows: The bill is smaller, weaker, less strongly hooked and den- 
tulated. The wings are much longer, and the tail much shorter. The tarsus 
is unfeathered except for a short space superiorly. The claws are so small, 
and weak as to be hardly more than insessorial rather than raptorial in char- 
acter. The proportions of the tarsus and toes differ decidedly. Nor has it 
much in common with Athene, except the partially denuded tarsi ; the rela- 
tive prop irtions of the tarsus and toes to each other being quite different in, 
the two genera ; Athene having the middle toe and claw about two-thirds the- 
tarsus, instead of fully as long. The claws of Athene are very long, acute andi 
little curved. While both genera are very long winged, there is a decided 
difference in the shape of the wing; that of Athene being much the most 
pointed, in consequence of the greater elongation of the first and second pri- 
maries. I think it more than probable that Micrathene is a truly arboreal, 
genus, like GUiacidtKin, thus differing radically in its habits from the species - 
of Athene. 

In conversation with me Dr. Cooper intimated his belief that the bird was. 
not a true Athene ; and my critical examination of his type, made at his own. 
request, amply confirms the accuracy of his opinion. 

(36.) Micrathene Whitneyi (Cooper.) 

Athene Whitnet/i, Cooper, Pr. Cala. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1861, p 118. 
For the discovery ot this delicate raptorial gem we are indebted tothe in- 
defatigable Dr. J. G. Cooper, so long and well known as an excellent natural- 
ist, who procured the only known specimen at Fort Mojave, April 26, 1861. 
ft is unnecessary to add anything to the accurate description above cited. It 
is one of the most interesting of the recent additions to our westera Avi-. 
fauna. 

CUCUL1D.E. 

37. Geococcyx camfoknianus (Less.) Baird. 

Rare and seen on but few occasions at Fort Whipple, which is near its 
northern and eastern limits, though specimens have been taken as far north 
as the Colorado Chiquito River, by Dr. Kennerly. Very abundant in the 
more southern and western portions of the Territory. Known as the " Chap- 

1866.1 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

arral Cock," "Road runner" and "Snake killer," to the whites; by the 
Mexicans called " Paisano ;" marvellous stories of its powers of killing rat- 
tlesnakes and other Ophidians pass current. 

Dr. Cooper has found Coccygus Americanus in Southern California, and 
thinks it is yet to be detected in the valley of the Colorado. 

PICID^E. 

38. Picus Harrisii Audubon. 

One of tlie most common and characteristic birds in the vicinity of Fort 
Whipple. 

The iris is brown at all ages ; but varies from a clear light reddish brown to 
a dark blackish brown. The bill and feet are horn-bluish black. The speci- 
mens from the same locality hardly vary notably in size, though the male is 
usually larger than the female. None of my specimens approach in size the 
immense race found in Arctic America. 

No specimens out of a very large series, exhibit the slightest tendency 
towards the smoky brown tinge, or discoloration of the under parts, seen 
almost constantly in birds from California and Oregon and Washington Ter- 
ritories ; but have the under parts pure white, and usually, too, with no in- 
dications of the obsolete lateral and crissal black streaks seen in the race from 
the Pacific coast. Specimens not in high plumage frequently have the pri- 
maries and rectrices gray instead of black ; and this gray is sometimes so 
faded towards the apices of the feathers, as to be almost white. 

It is a little singular that in a locality where P. Harrisii is resident, and so 
very common, P. Gairdneri should be either not found at all, or so very 
rare that I <li I not identify it with certainty during my whole stay ; though I 
am under the impression that I once saw a single specimen. 

39. Picus scALARis Waaler. 

jPjcws scalaris, Wagler, Isis, 1829, v. 511. Bp. C. A. 1850, p. 138. Baird, 

B. N*. A., lh'58, p. 94; hut not of Gambel, which is P. nuttalli. 
Picus gracilis, Lesson. Revue Zoolog. 1839, p. 90. 
Picus parvus, Cabot, Bost. Jouru. N. H., 1845, p. 90. 
Fort Whipple appears to be about tb.3 northern limit of this species. It is 
not very common there, being only a summer visitant, breeding sparingly ; 
further south, through the Territory and in the Colorado Valley, it is abund- 
ant. It does not appear to cross the Colorado Desert into California, (whure 
the P. Nuttalli replaces it,) but extends far southward into Central America. 
A male shot June 5th has the feathers worn off the belly, as if incubating. 
Young birds just fledged were taken July 10th. The nest was in the top of a 
live-oak tree. The heads of the young at this season have rather more red 
on them than those of the adults. 

Iris deep reddish brown ; bill dark slaty black ; legs and feet horn bluish. 
The average length is 6*50 inches ; some specimens measure nearly 7 inches. 
P. Nuttalli seems to be exclusively a toast species, not crossing to the Colo- 
rado Valley- 

SPHYRAPICUS Baird, 1858. 

The genus Splii/rapicus instituted by Prof. Baird, in 1S58, to replace the 
preoccupied and therefore untenable Pilumnus of Bonaparte, (type P. t/n/roi- 
deus Cass.) is a most natural one, widely separated from other genera by sin- 
gular anatomical peculiarities as well as striking external features. Its North 
American components are all very closely allied, notwithstanding that Prof. 
Baird intimates his doubts as to the propriety of referring P. Williamsani 
here, and Prof. Reichenbach has been inclined to consider P. thyroideus as a 
Cnlajit s. I am familiar with the habits and anatomical peculiarities of all 
our North American Sphyrapiei except 5. ruber, and my study has revealed 
points so essentially at variance with other Picida-, that I am inclined to in- 
stitute for the reception of the genus a subfamily Spliyrapicince. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 53 

The genus in question is a xylophagous rather than an insectivorous one. 
I do not mean that the Sphyrapici never eat insects, for coleoptera and their 
larvae may often be found in their stomachs. But their main sustenauce is the 
cambrium, or soft, inner, live bark of trees, the succulent juices of which 
they appropriate to their ceconomy, rejecting the ligneous, uunutrious fibres 
in the ordinary method. They are, in fact, true "Sap-suckers," and it is 
their devastations upon fruit and ornamental trees which have brought the 
family of woodpeckers into such disrepute among agriculturalists ; a class 
not ordinarily observant enough to discriminate between these birds and the 
harmless or rather beneficial species of Picus Melanerpes, Centurus, etc In- 
stead of simply "tapping" trees, generally their decayed or dead portions 
too, to extract the injurious beetles and their larvae lurking within, the Sphy- 
rapicines denude live branches of their bark, often for an area of several 
square inches at a time. I have before me specimens of wood thus a tacked, 
from which the bark has been removed from large irregularly shaped spaces ; 
and the result, as might be expected, is exceedingly different from that pro- 
duced from the simple drilling of little holes by the insectivorous genera. Be- 
sides the cambrium, all the species, particularly in the fall, feed extensively 
upon ripe fruits and berries of all sorts. 

The anatomical peculiarities which produce this remarkable difference in 
habits are very striking, and involve to a greater or less extent the whole lin- 
gual, salivary and gastric apparatus. In the tongue itself, however, and its 
bones, the most remarkable differences are to be seen. The tongue cannot be 
protruded, as a dart, far beyond the tip of the bill ; the amount of extension 
it is capable of not exceeding a fourth or a third of an inch. This is caused 
by the great abbreviation of the apo-hyal and cerato-hyal elements of the hyoid 
bone, which do not reach backwards much beyond the tympano-maxillary 
articulation, instead, as in Picus, Colaptes, etc, of being produced so far as to 
extend over the occiput to the top of the cranium, or even to curve around the 
orbit of the eye in an osseous groove formed for their reception. The basi- 
hyals which support the tongue are also shorter and somewhat differently 
shaped. The tongue itself is short and flattened, with a superior longitudi- 
nal median groove, and a corresponding inferior ridge. Its tip is broad and 
flattened, and obtusely rounded, and provided with numerous long and soft 
bristly hairs. All these features are quite diverse from the long, protruda- 
ble, subulate, acutely pointed tongue of Picus, etc., armed near its tip with a 
few strong, sharp, short, recurved barbs. 

The muscular apparatus for the movements of the tongue differs, of course, 
in a degree corresponding to these modifications of the hyoid bone. I am in- 
clined to believe, though I have not prosecuted my dissections far enough to 
speak positively, that there exist differences in the salivary glands, and, 
perhaps, in the gastric mucous membrane, rendered necessary by the radical 
diversity of the ingesta. 

My attention was first called to these interesting points by a communication 
from Dr. P. R. Hoy, of Wisconsin, in one of the newspaper periodicals of 
that State ; which I believe was the first published notice of these facts, and 
that gentleman's observations I have amply confirmed by my own scalpel and 
field studies. 

It is unnecessary to detail the external characters of this genus, as they 
have already been given in ample detail by Prof. Baird. 

40. Sphyrapicus ncchalis Baird. 

S. nuchalis Baird, B. N. A. 1858, p. 103, in text under /?. varius. Op. 
cit. App. H. p. 921. (New Mexico.) 

Permanent resident. Abundant. 

In the adult spring male the whole chin, throat and jugulum are bright red ; 
this color extending on the sides of the lower mandible so as to interrupt the 
black lateral stripe of the jugulum, which in varius continuously borders the 

lSlifj.] 



54: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

red, and invading to a considerable distance the pectoral spot of pure, deep, 
glossy, greenish black. In the adult female the chin is white, bordered pos- 
teriorly by a somewhat semilunar patch of red, not so intense in tint as that 
of the male, nor so broad. The pectoral black spot, though rather smaller, 
is equally pure in color. Both sexes invariably have the red crescentic nuchal 
collar, separated from the red pileum by a distinct line of black. Autumnal 
birds have the white portions of the upper parts and the belly more or less 
strongly tinged with lemon yellow, especially noticeable on the abdomen. 
Birds of the year hardly differ from the adults, except that the pectoral spot 
is only indicated by a few isolated black feathers scattered through a dull grey 
area. Tlie nuchal collar is always observable, though its continuity may not 
he perfect. Independently of age, sex or season, there are great variations in 
the. size and shape of the bill to be observed in large series from different lo- 
calities. 

This is to be considered as a thoroughly established species. In an im- 
mense series of skins of both species before me from all parts of North 
America, there is not one which cannot unhesitatingly be referred to one or 
the other species. 

41. Sphyrapicus Williamsoni (Newb.) Baird. 

Picus Williamsoni, Newberry, 1857, (Oregon.) Melanerpes rubrigularis, 
Sclater, 1858, (California.) Sphyrapicus Williamsoni, Baird, 1858. 

Resident. Not uncommon. Exclusively pinicoline in the regions where I 
have observed it. Ranges from both slopes of the Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific, fiom as far north at least as Oregon. Fort Whipple is probably near 
its southern limit. 

(No. 844, Oct. 13, 18b'4. rj\) Length 9-5; extent 16-75. Iris dark brown. 
Mouth pinkish flesh color. Bill bluish black. Feet dull greenish black. 
Claws black. 

This species exhibits the anatomical peculiarities noticed under head of the 
genus Sphyrapicus, and its habits aie entirely correspondent. 

42. Spbyrapjcts thyroideus (Cass.) Baird. 
Resident. Very rate. Cliierly pinicoline. 

The range of this species is now known to include both slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains, from Oregon to the Rio Grande, and probably it extends through 
Arizona to the Sonoian border. 

Some male specin ens have the grey chin more or less suffused with reddish, 
forming a mental spot something like that of Williamsoni. Neither sex ap- 
pears to have any red about the crown or nape, a very unusual fact if such 
he invariably the case. 

This species is strictly congeneric with Sphyrapicus varivs in anatomical pe- 
culiarities and in habits, and has nothing in common with Colaptes beyond 
some similarity in the pattern of coloration. 

Sphyrapicus ruber, as a bird of the whole Pacific Slope of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, will most probahly be hereafter detected. It seems chiefly, however, a 
coast species. The Uylatomus pileatus is undoubtedly an inhabitant of Ari- 
zona. 

43. Centueus uropygialis Baird. 

1 Rare, and perhaps accidental in the immediate vicinity of Fort Whipple. 
A common bird of the Gila and Lower Colorado River valleys. " Abundant 
at Fort Mojave," (Cou]>er.) A species remarkable for inhabiting the Giant 
Cactuses, (Lepidocerws (jiganteus and/.. Thurberi, of Englemann,) whence 
is derived its provincial name of " Suwarrow '' or "Saguaro." Its plumage 
is often found stain' d with the juices of these plants. It feeds upon their 
fruit, but catches insects as well The female is similar to the male, except 
that she wants the quadrate patch of red on the crown. The absence of the 

[iMarch, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 55 

yellow nuchal crescent, and of the yellow at the base of the bill are some of 
the features that distinguish hoth sexes from the C. Jiaviventris. 

44. Melanekpes fokmicivorus (Sw.) Bp. 

Exceedingly abundant, being the commonest Woodpecker, not even except- 
ing P. Harrisii. Resident. Found in all situations. 

The tongue of this Woodpecker is rather brushed at the tip, like that of a 
Sphyrapicus, than barbed, as in Picas, etc. Si ill it is exceedingly protruda- 
ble, the hyoid bone being well developed. 

This species presents variations in the color of the iris rarely equalled. In 
a great many individuals the iris is pure white, and so it is usually described. 
But this is not the color in even a majority of instances, for this white is 
tinged with various colors, red, blue, yellow or brown. A greater or less 
admixture of red gives every shade from a clear rose pink to the most deli- 
cate creamy white, and these tints are usual in adult spring birds of both 
sexes. Varying degrees of yellowish or ochraceous are by no means rare. 
Young birds are rarely found with pure white irides, for the color is usually 
obscnred by a greater or less amount of blue or grey, producing a bluish grey 
or a " milk white " tint. Rarely an individual is found with dark brown 
irides. The latter seems to be purely accidental ; the admixture of blue to 
denote immaturity, and the reddish tinge to indicate high spring maturity, in 
each case quite independently of sex. 

The moult, which commences in July, continues for an unusually long pe- 
riod, until November, at least in some instances. 

Adult birds are very constant both in size and plumage, but, at the same 
time there is an immense variation in the length and stoutness of the bill in 
different individuals. The black of the breast, and the lemon yellow on the 
jugulum have often a few isolated red feathers among them. Some few spe- 
cimens have white tips and inner borders of the secondaries, but this is un- 
usual. The pileum of young birds has often a bronzy tint, not seen iu the 
adult. 

ASYNDESMUS Coues, nov. gen. 

Generic Characters. Bill as long as the head, rather longer than the tarsus, 
as high as broad at the base, terminally compressed, somewhat decurved ; 
almost colaptine in general aspect. Culmen much curved, tips of bill acute, 
gonys straight, lateral outline of bill decidedly concave, lateral bevelling 
scarcely appreciable, lateral ridge distinct, superior and inferior ridges but 
slightly developed. Wings very long, when folded reaching to near the end 
of the long tail ; fourth quill longest, third and fifth about equal to each other 
and shorter than the second. Inner anterior claw reaching but little beyond 
the base of the outer claw. Feathers of the under parts and of a nuchal col- 
lar with the fibres on their terminal portion disconnected, loosened, enlarged 
in calibre, stiffened, almost bristle-like, with a peculiar glistening silicious 
hardness, destitute of fibrilhe whereby to interlock. Dorsal plumage imbri- 
cated, with an intense metallic lustre. 

Type. Picas torquatus Wilson. 

The bill of this genus is quite peculiar, approaching that of Colaptes in its 
length, convexity of culmen, acute tip, and slightly bevelled sides ; and re- 
sembling that of Melanerpes in its sharply defined lateral ridge. The nasal* 
plumuli are long and bristly but not dense. The length of the wing is ex- 
cessive, and the proportions of the primaries peculiar. The most essential 
feature is found in the unusual texture of the feathers of the under parts 
and nuchal collar, which has thus been described : " The fibres of the feath- 
ers are longer than usual and remarkably stiff. Those on the terminal third 
of each feather are of the usual character at the base, or provided with fibril- 
lar, those of opposite sides interlocking as in feathers generally. The termi- 
nal portion, however, of the stem of the fibre is much enlarged and expanded 

1866] 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMI OP 

laterally to twice or more the diameter at the root, and converted into quite a 
stiff bristle, nearly smooth or with slight indications in place of fibrillse. It is- 
this portion of the feather that is colored," [Baird.] The feathers of the 
nuchal collar also posses these peculiarities. The dorsal plumage is intensely 
lustrous. The red about the face has a peculiar velvety aspect. 

I do not find any name already proposed for this genus, which seems emi- 
nently worthy of separation from Melanerpes. I had long been of this opinion 
from examination of skins alone ; and since studying the bird in the field, 
have become quite convinced. My name has reference to the disconnection 
of the fibres of the feather. 

45. AsYNDESMUS TORQUATUS (WilS.) 

Picas torquatus Wilson. Melanerpes (orquatas Bonap. et Auct. Asyndesmus 
torquatus Coues. Picas montanus Ord. P. Lewisii Drapiez. 

Common : resident. 

In young birds there is hardly a trace of a nuchal collar, and the upper 
parts, especially about the head, have very little lustre. The crimson fore- 
head and lores are very illy defined ; nor are they trenchantly divided from 
the hoary of the breast by a black area. The blood-red of the under parts 
only shows in isolated patches, except perhaps on the abdomen, where it is- 
more or less continuous ; the color being of various shades of gray on the 
breast and sides. The feathers hardly acquire their peculiar character until 
old enough to have their proper color. 

46. Colaptes mexicanus Swainson. 

Resident ; abundant: found in all situations, and in habits is quite a coun- 
terpart of the eastern species it represents in Western North America. 

(47.) Colaptes chrysoides Malh. 

Gtopicus (Colaptes) chrysoides, Malherbe, Rev. et Mag. N. H. iv. 1852, 

553. Monog. Pieidce, ii. p. 262. 
Colaptes chrysoides, Baird, B. N. A- 1858, p. 125. 

Colaptes Ayresii, Heermnnn, Parke's Exped. 32 parallel, in the P. R. 
R. Surv. vol. x. pt. ii. p. 50. Not of Audubon. 
This species has been shot at Fort Mojave by Dr. J. G. Cooper, in Feb. 1861, 
when it was feeding on the larvae of insects among the Pbpulus moniliferus. 
He found it very shy and wary as all the Colaptes seem to be. It doubtless 
winters in the Colorado valley, though I do not think it leaves the valley to 
the north and east, as I have never found it among the Whipple mountains. 

" Geopicus ehrysoides Malh." was given by Prof. Baird in 1858 as a syno- 
inyin, with a query, of his C hyridus. At that time there was not sufficient 
material available to decide the point ; but the impropriety of the reference 
has since become evident.* The bird is now well known as a common species- 
of Lower and Southern California, and of the Colorado valley, and has been 
brought from the Sonora line. Very numerous examples are in the Smith- 
sonian from Cape St. Lucas. 

" Colaptes Ayresii Aud." of Dr. Heermann's Report, as above cited, is un- 
doubtedly the present species. But the true Ayresii of Audubon is a mixture 
of auratus and mexicanus, more recently characterized by Prof. Baird as C. 
hybridus. 

TROCHILIDJE. 

(48.) TrochiI/US alexandri Bo ure. and Muls. 

This species has been taken in the Colorado Desert so near the western 
boundary of the Territory as to render it exceedingly probable it is a bird 
of the Colorado River valley, as well as of the coast of Southern and Lower 
California. But I am not aware that it has actually been taken in Arizona. 

* See <le.scriptions of ani remarks upau this species by S. F. Baird, in Pr. A. N. S. Ph. for Not- 
ember. 1S59. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 57 

Dr. Cooper tells me that the nests which he found on the Mojave River were 
composed entirely of the soft white downy cotton of Platanus and Salix. 

(49.) Atthis cost m (Bourc.) Reich. 

A species generally distributed throughout the Territory, particularly in its 
southern and southwestern portions. Not taken at Fort Whipple, though 
observed some fifty miles south. From Bill William's River, Dr Kennerly, in 
February ; from Fort Mojave, Dr. Cooper. Doubtless winters withiu the lim- 
its of the Territory. 

(50.) Selasphorcs platycercus (Sw.) Gould. 

Numerous specimens seen on the sumuiit of Whipple's Pass of the Rocky 
Mountains in July, feeding among clumps of wild roses. Not observed at 
Fort Whipple ; but the range northward of this species, as now known, in- 
cludes the whole of New Mexico and Arizona ; and further north, at least, 
as far as Fort Bridger, Utah. 

51. Selasphorus rpfus Swains. 

Very abundant at Fort Whipple, as it is elsewhere along the whole Pacific 
slope of the Rocky Mountains, and across their southern extensions into the 
Rio Grande valley. Summer resident, breeding abundantly ; arrives April 
10 ; remains until middle of September. Found in all situations, particularly 
meadows, open copses, ravines, etc., where flowers are most abundant. 

CYPSELTD^E. 

52. Panyptila melanolefjca Baird. 

Acanthylis saxatilis, Woodh. Sitgreave's Expl. Zuiiiand Col. Riv. Birds, 

18(33, p. 64. ("Inscription Rock," N. M.) 
Cypselus melanoleucu*, Baird, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vii. 1854, p. 118. (San 
Francisco Mts. Ariz.) Cassin, Illust. Bds. Cal. and Texas, i. 1855, p. 
248. 
Panyptila melanoleuca, Baird. B. N. A. 1S58, p. 141. Coues, Newton's 
Ibis., 1865, p. 
Rather sparingly distributed throughout the Territory ; chiefly in the 
neighborhood of cliffs and precipices, which, I believe, it almost exclusively 
inhabits. 

I think there can he no doubt that the bird described by Prof. Baird, as 
above, is the same as that briefly and somewhat incorrectly indicated by Dr. 
Woodhouse. While encamped at Inscription Rock, July 3, 1864, I saw great 
numbers of tbese Swifts ; but, as unfortunate as Dr. W., I was unable to pro- 
cure a single specimen, though many passed so near me that I could posi- 
tively identify them. The cbief point of discrepancy is the white rump 
mentioned by Dr. Woodhouse, which does not exist in Prof. Baird's speci- 
mens. But I am perfectly satisfied, in my own mind, that Dr. Woodhouse, 
from the imperfect observations he was only enabled to make, mistook the 
white patches on each side of the rump, which in life often reach nearly or 
quite across the uropygium till they coalesce on the median line. There is a 
corroboration of this view afforded by the Tachycincta thalassina. Observa- 
tions of the latter in life gives the impression of a white rump ; whereas this 
species has that part concolor with the back ; but the large white cottony 
patches on the flanks are long and loose enough to meet each other on the 
rump. Moreover the localities whence the two supposed species come are so 
near as to render it unlikely there should exist two such closely allied 
Swifts. 
From Inscription Rock* to the San Francisco Mountains, I continually met 

* Inscription Rock is a huge mass of sandstone protruding from the side of a hill, with a front of 
great height perpendicular to the plain below; situate a days march west of Whipple's Pass of 
the Rocky Mountains, and rather more than that distance east of the Pueblo of ZuEi. The San 
Francisco Mountains are a well known locality. 

I860.] 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

with great numbers of these birds ; except along the valley of the Colorado 
Chiquito River, where there were no suitable places for their habitation. It 
is preeminently a saxicoliue species, and always found congregated in con- 
siderable, sometimes in immense numbers, in the vicin ty of huge cliffs and 
piles of rocks ; usually associating intimately and peacefully with several spe- 
cies of Hirundmidce, especially Hirundo lunifrons. Its flight is very rapid and 
vigorous ; similar in character to that of the common Chmtura. Its note is an 
often and quickly repeated twitter, loud and shrill, quite different intone from 
that of Chce.lv.ra pelasgia. It builds upon the vertical faces of precipitous 
rocks. 

Notwithstanding the identity of Baird's with Woodhouse's species, I do not 
think that the former's name, accompanied by a definite description, should 
give way to the brief and incorrect indication of Acanthylis saxutilis. 

CAPRIMULGIDJE. 

53. Antrostomus Nuttalli (Aud.) Cassin. 

This widely distributed species, which extends from Missouri and Kansas to 
the Pacific and south into Mexico, is particularly abundant throughout Ari- 
zona. At Fort Whipple it is a summer resident, arriving late in April and 
remaining until October. So numerous is it in some localities that around 
the camp-fires of the traveller a perfect chorus of their plaintive two-s.\llabled 
notes is continued all through the night, and some of the performers are usually 
so near that the sharp click of their mandibles which follows each cry is distinct- 
ly audible. But from the difficulty of observing them, little of their personal 
habits, beyond their cries, are known to us. I never saw a single bird in Ari- 
zona, though I have listened to perhaps many hundred. Their dissyllabic note 
is a peculiarity which well distinguishes them from A. vociftrus. 

I have been informed that the trissyllabic notes of A. vociferus have been 
heard in Arizona; but I consider the statement as very improbable. 

(54.) Chordeiles Henryi Cass. 

Abundant throughout the Territory. At Fort Whipple a summer resident, 
arriving in April and remaining until October. It is particularly numerous in 
August and September. 

This species, if it be really one, is not larger than C. popetue, and it otherwise 
is so closely allied to the latter, as to render the separation of some specimens 
a matter based upon locality rather than upon differences to be found on com- 
parison of skins. The western bird presents variations quite parallel with 
those of popetue ; but nevertheless the average is much lighter colored and 
with more rufous about it, than usually exhibited by eastern specimens. 
These remarks are founded upon examination of very extensive series of both 
birds which have been at my disposal. 

(55.) Chordeiles Texensis Lawr. 

Common in the Colorado valley to even further north than the latitude of 
Fort Whipple ; but not observed elsewhere further north than some fifty 
miles south of the last mentioned locality ; and then only in summer. Ex- 
tends from the Rio Grande valley to the Pacific. Numerous specimens are 
in the Smithsonian from Cape St. Lucas. 

A female procured at Date Creek, June 5, 1865, differs from C. Henryi as 
follows : The wing from the carpus measures 7 inches instead of about 8 ; 
the tail 4^ instead of 5. The throat, though the specimen is a female, is pure 
white ; but there are no white bands on the tail, the lateral rectrices having 
very irregular, interrupted bands of rufous, except the middle pair, which are 
barred with black and mottled gray, the latter much the widest. The pri- 
maries are all basally spotted thickly on both inner and outer webs with bright 
rufous, which spots show a tendency to form incomplete bars. On the three 
first primaries is a large spot of very light rufous, placed within 2% inches of 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 59 

the point of the wing. The fork of the tail is less than a third of an inch. In 
neither sex of C. Henryi is there any rufous mottling on the primaries ; and 
thus one conpsicuous alar spot is white in hoth sexes ; and is moreover much 
nearer the bases of the primaries, being 3^ inches from the point of the wing : 
so that when the wing is folded the spot is anterior to the ends of the secon- 
daries. The reverse is the case in C. Texensis ; and these points will always 
separate the two species, even when small female C. Henryi is compared 
with large male texensis. I do not know if the female texensis always has a 
white throat. 

I am unable to discuss the relationship of the C. branliensi* 6m., and in 
adopting the name texensis I am following Mr. Lawrence's authority altogether. 

HALCYONlDsE. 

56. Ceryle alcyon (L. ) Boie. 

Common summer resident. Arrives April 10th ; remains until November. 
Generally distributed over the various streams of the Territory. 

(57.) Ceryle Americana (Gm.) Boie. 

Observed at several points on the Colorado River between Forts Mojave and 
Yuma, which I believe is the first recorded instance of its occurrence in the 
Uuited States elsewhere than in the valley of the Rio Grande. 

COLOPTERID.E. 
58. Tyrannus vociferans Swains. 

Abundant summer resident. Arrives third week in April ; remains until 
latter part of Sept. Found in every sort of locality. 

Adult individuals of the same sex hardly vary appreciably in size ; and the 
colors are exceedingly constant. Males average from 9* X 16 - 5 to 9"25 X 
16 - 75 ; females measure about 8-75 X 16. Iris brown. Bill and feet black. 
Mouth livid flesh color. 

The young of the year in July and August differ materially from the adults. 
The mouth and some part of the lower mandible are bright yellow. The feet 
are light colored instead of black. The primaries are not attenuated near 
their tips. There is no trace of the red in the crown. Tue outer web of 
the exterior tail feather is barely appreciably lighter than the rest. The wing 
coverts are strongly margined and tipped with pale rufous ; the quill feathers 
less conspicuously edged with yellowish white. The back is nearly pure dull 
brown, concolor with the head instead of being olive gray in contrast with the 
plumbeous head. Below the two ages are nearly alike ; but the yellow is 
sometimes so pale as to be dull sulphury white ; while the breast is rather 
brown than plumbeous. The chin is always conspicuously pure white. 

(59.) Tyrannus verticalis Say. 

A bird which in its extensive wanderings includes Arizona, though that 
country cannot be considered as properly a part of its habitat. Dr. Cooper 
has taken it at Fort Mojave, and throughout Southern California. I have 
never met with it at Fort Whipple, where vociferans is so very abundant. 

60. Myiarchus MExicANCS (Kaup.) Baird. 

Common summer resident. Arrives third week in April; remains until 
middle of September. Seldom found in the pines, preferring ravines, hill- 
sides, creek bottoms, etc. Some winter as high in the Colorado Valley as 
Fort Mojave. (January; Cooper.) Iris brown. Mouth livid flesh color. Bill 
and feet black. Moult through July and August. 

At Fort Whipple .young birds were first observed early in July. Though 
not mistakable for any other species, they differ notably from the adults. The 
head is clear brown, in tolerably strong contrast to the color of the back, which 
latter is lighter and duller than that of the adult. All the wing coverts are 
so widely edged and tipped with light rufous as to give the prevailiug color 

1866.] 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

to these parts. The reddish edging of the primaries is very broad, and takes 
in more of the primaries, but is duller than in the adult. The tail differs 
most ; instead of being dimidiated with clear brown and deep pure chestnut, 
(the outer webs and tips being of the former color,) the whole tail is light dull 
chestnut, more or less obscured by dusky towards the bases of the feathers ; 
the central pair having a narrow median shaft line of this color. The under 
parts are quite similar to those of the adults ; the yellow being fully as in- 
tense. The bill and feet are black, as in the adult ; the mouth, however, is 
bright yellow. 

The males average 8*50 X 13-25. The females are generaly fully 50 X 1*50 
shorter in these dimensions ; a somewhat unusual amount of difference in this 
family. 

61. Sayornis sayds (Bp. ) Baird. 

Common throughout the Territory ; a summer resident at Fort Whipple. Is 
the first of the migratory birds in spring, arriving in March ; and it also re- 
mains very late, until the middle of October. Winters in the whole Colorado 
Valley, and southern portions of the Territory generally. Almost exclusively 
frequents open plains in stunted chaparral, sage brush, etc. ; and in some 
other points of habit differs remarkably from our other Fly-catchers. 

The iris is dark brown ; the bill and feet blaik, the mouth chiefly flesh col- 
ored. The moult is not finished until late in September. 

There is an interesting parallelism in the migrations of the smaller Fly- 
catchers of the eastern and western coasts. Thus the present species arrives 
at Fort Whipple among the very first of the spring migrants, just as S.fuscus 
does in the middle districts of the Eastern States. Both likewise depart very 
late, some remaining through October. Next in order come various species of 
Empidonax : in the East, E. acadicus, traillii, jiaviventris and minimus; in 
the West, E. pusillus, difficilis, hammondii and obscurus ; which correspond 
very nearly in their times of arrival and departure. Latest of all the Contopi 
make their appearance : C. virens in the East ; C. Richardsonii in the West. 

This species does not habitually frequent canons, rocky gorges, secluded 
banks of streams, etc., like its congener, S.fuscus; nor yet does it inhabit 
forests with the Contopi and Empidonaces. 

(62.) Sayornis nigricans Bonap. 

A very abundant and permanent resident in the valleys of the Gila and 
Colorado, and more southern portions of the Territory generally. " Winters 
as high as Fort Mojave, " (Cooper.) Not found at Fort Whipple, though de- 
tected a very few miles southward of that locality. On the Pacific coast it has 
been found considerably north of the latitude of Whipple ; and will in all pro- 
bability be found as at least a summer visitant to the latter place. 

63. Contopus pertinax Cab. 

Conlopus " borealis exMex." of many authors. Not Tyrannus boreal is 
Sw. et Rich. 

Contopus pertinax, Cab. Mus. Hein. ii. 1859, p- 72. 
Very rare summer resident at Fort Whipple. A single specimen, taken 
Aug. 20, in good plumage, though most other Fly catchers were in moult. 
The bill above was black, the lower mandible and mouth rich orange yellow. 
This young specimen differs from adult examples from Mexico in having more 
brown rather than pure dark olive in the color of the upper parts, in having 
the rump and upper tail coverts margined with dull ferrugineous ; all the 
wing coverts and the secondaries broadly edged and tipped with the same, 
palest on the secondaries ; and a wash of rufous on the under parts gen- 
erally. The tail is less deeply forked. 

This is a species to which are to be referred the various citations of " bore- 
alts'" from Mexico; which latter species does not appear to include this 
country in its range. The differences between the two are more palpable than 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 61 

is generally the case in this group of birds. There is more of olive, and less 
of pure dark brown in the upper parts. The under parts are of a nearly uni- 
form soiled dull brownish olive, only a little lighter on the throat, and some- 
what tinged with yellowish on the middle of the abdomen, very different from 
the streaked brown breast and white throat and abdomen of horealis. The 
bill is much longer though not wider than that of horealis ; bright yellow be- 
low. The tuft of white crissal feathers is far less conspicuous. In pe.rtinax 
the second, third and fourth quills are about equal to each other, and longest ; 
the first half an inch shorter than the second ; intermediate in length between 
the fifth and sixth. In horealis the second quill is much the longest, the first 
and third about equal and -15 of an inch shorter than the second ; the fourth 
50, and the fifth -90 of an inch shorter than the longest. A very differently 
shaped wing is thus produced. The tail of pertinax is nearly half an inch 
longer than that of horealis. 

The present species is one of several Mexican and Peninsular birds which 
are found in upper Arizona; doubtless following the course of the Valley of 
the great Colorado. It is now for the first time introduced into the Fauna of 
the United States. 

64. Contoi'DS Richakdsonii (Swains.) Baird. 

Exceedingly abundant summer resident. Arrives in spring about May 1st, 
the latest of the Fly-catchers, as does C. virens in the Ea?t. Departs third 
week in September. Found in all situations, hut especially in open forests. 
Iris brown. Bill and feet black; the under mandihle tomewhat lighter col- 
ored. Mouth bright yellow. 

The plumage of the upper parts of the young of the year is plain dull 
brown, with no olive tint ; some of the feathers (chiefly those of the head 
and rump) tipped with dull rufous ; which sometimes, especially on the 
rump, gives the main color to the part. Below the olivaceous gray of the 
adult is every where mixed with considerable dull ferrugineous ; only the 
chin and middle of the belly being untinged with this color. All the wing 
coverts and the inner primaries are strongly edged and tipped with ferrugine- 
ous. The iris is brown ; the bill above and the feet black ; the lower mandi- 
ble yellow except at tip ; the mouth orange yellow. 

In examining the very lar._e series of skins I have collected on the Rio 
Grande in New Mexico, and in Arizona, together with specimens from Colorado 
Territory and other parts of the west, there has been made upon me an im- 
pression that there are two species. By far the majority of specimens are of 
the regulation Richardsonii type. A few others in the series and from very 
various and diverse localities, differ in being all over of a more decided and 
uniform grayish brown ; with less of olive above and with no trace below of 
any sulphury olive on the abdomen ; tnis part with the throat being more 
decidedly dull whit.sh than the rest of the series ; and the breast more purely 
gray, in contrast to the lighter colored throat and abdomen. The bird may be 
well described as a miniature of C. horealis. Prof. Baird has always, to me, 
verbis et Uteris, indicated his decided conviction that there are two species in 
the collection ; and we have been in the habit of designating these gray speci- 
mens as Cvnio/ms Veliei, after Dr. Velie, who sent the first example from the 
mountains of Colorado Territory. But the proportions of the birds appear the 
same in every specimen ; and I have noticed, too, that all these gray ones are 
late summer or early fall birds, and I must candidly confess my inability to 
satisfactorily discern in the series a second species. 

65. Empidonax pusillus (Swains.) Baird. 

Moderately abundant summer resident. None of the several Empidonaces 
found at Fort Whipple are very numerous ; and this is perhaps the most char- 
acteristic species. Arrives- middle of April ; remains through September. 
Several excellent and typteal examples of both old and young are in my col- 
lection, which I have no difficulty in identifying by Prof. Baird's superb mo- 
nograph. 

1866.] 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Iris blackish brown. Legs and feet and upper mandible black ; lower man- 
dible dusky flesh. No. 36945, measures 5-9 X 8-7 ; No. 36944, 6-1 X 9-2. 

A young bird in my Fort Yuma collection, (Sept. 17, 1865, > differs greatly 
from the adult in colors, though the proportions are accurately preserved. It 
is everywhere very strongly suffused with olive, becoming olivaceous yellow 
beneath, almost like flaviventris or difficilis. The middle of the abdomen, how- 
ever, is rhore decidedly whitish, and the sides of the breast somewhat rufous. 
The bands on the wings and the edges of the primaries are very strongly 
tinged with ferrugineous, especially the former. The tail is margined with a 
duller shade of the same color, as is also the under coverts of the wing near 
its edge The upper mandible is black ; the lower with the whole mouth 
bright yellow. The feet are brownish. But with this similarity of colors the 
shape of the bill, and the proportions of some other parts will always readily 
distinguish it from flaviventris or diffieilis. 

The Platyrltynchus pusillus of Swainson (Syn. Mex. Birds in Phil. Mag. 
May, 1827, 366,) is one of several Tyrannince which Dr. Sclater finds it difficult 
to determine satisfactorily, (P. Z. S. , 1859, p. 44.) The species is, I thiuk, 
most undoubtedly the same as that subsequently described and figured by 
Swainson and Richardson, (F. B. A. ii. 1831, p. 144,) which Prof. Baird has 
shown quite conclusively to be the species now under consideration. I have 
elsewhere (vide infra) shown where I think belongs Tyrannula affinis of 
Swainson's Mexican synopsis. 

66. Empidonax difficilis Baird. 

E. difficilis Baird. B. N. A., 1858, p. 198; name proposed in text of 
flaviventris for western specimens. 
Rather rare ; summer resident ; arrives middle of April ; remains until lat- 
ter part of September. 

Iris brown ; feet black ; upper mandible black, lower light yellow. 
It is somewhat diffiunlt to distinguish this supposed species from the eastern 
flaviventris. 

67. Empidonax Hammondii (Xantus) Baird. 

Rather rare summer resident. Arrives 1 >te in April ; remains until third 
week in October. 

A species readily discernible among the little North American Empidonaces 
by its diminutive bill, the deep forking of the tail, and the proportions of the 
primaries, independently of its peculiar shades of color. The grayish white 
tips of the lesser and median wing coverts are very conspicuous. The white 
margin of the inner primaries and secondaries are well defined ; but stop ab- 
ruptly before reaching the greater coverts, so that a well marked area is thus 
left entirely dark colored ; except on a single feather, (the innermost secon- 
dary), which is margined for its whole length. Specimens hardly vary in 
size ; not more than a fourth of an inch in length, and a little more in extent 
The bill is almost wholly dark colored ; the under mandible being only slightly 
lighter in color. The legs and feet are black. The mouth at all seasons is 
bright yellow. 

In the fall, as usual, the whole colors of young birds are tinged more or less 
strongly with yellowish olive ; and sometimes on certain parts with pale fer- 
rugineons. The back especially towards the rump is quite decidedly olivace- 
ous brown ; the head not so purely biown as iu spring. The bands on the 
wing, and the margins of the primaries are tinged with rufous olive. The under 
parts, especially on the abdomen and flanks, are strongly olive yellow, giving 
somewhat the aspect of flaviventris ; but the throat and breast remains much 
as in spring. 

iW. Empidonax ob^curus (Swains.) Baird. 

Tyrannula obscura, Swains. Syn. Mex. Phil. Mag. i. 1827, p. 3(37. 
Empidonax Wrightii, Baird, Birds N. A., 185>s, p. 200. (Provisional 
name, in text under E. obscuru.i.) 

[March 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; 63 

Summer resident ; rare. Arrives early in April : remains until October. 
Bill black above ; bright yellow below, except at its extreme tip. Mouth 
yellow at all seasons. Iris brown. Subject to only very slight variations in 
size. 

One of the most strongly marked of our Empidonaces. Its essential char- 
acters lie in the much elongated and very narrow bill ; the long tarsi ; the 
tail not forked, but rather the reverse ; and the conspicuously contrasted 
white outer web of the exterior rectrices. Its colors are almost precisely 
those of Hammondii, but the proportions of the two birds are quite different. 

There are several discrepancies between the present bird and the brief and 
unsatisfactory description of Swainson above cited, as shown by Prof. Baird, 
who proposes the name " Wrightii" in the event that the Mexican bird 
proves distinct from that of the United States. 

[Note. Dr. J. Gr. Cooper furnishes me with the following: " Empidonax 
Traillii. I have found this species west of the Mojave River and Cajou Pass, 
and at Santa Barbara, in California. It was abundant at Fort Mojave : a shy 
aud retiring species ; keeping in the willow and cotton wood copses of the 
river bottom." Though disliking to suppose an error of identification in so 
judicious a naturalist, I am of opinion that the note refers to pusillus, and not 
to Traillii. Still Traillii is found in Mexico, and may very possibly ascend 
the valley of the Colorado.] 

MITREPHORUS Scl. 

Mitrephorus, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 44; type M. phwocercus Scl. 

A genus founded by Dr. Sclater, as above, to receive certain small Tyran- 
nuline forms, closely allied to Empidonax, but differing from that genus in 
the elongation of the occipital feathers, and a general fulvous or buffy suffu- 
sion which tinges all the colors of the species. 

To the genus thus based upon M. plueocercus from Central Mexico, also 
belongs the Musccapa fulvifrons of Giraud. A third species is one recently 
described by Mr. Lawrence,* from Costa Rica, as M. aurantiiventris, differing 
from phaiocercus in being rather smaller, the rusty fulvous of the under parts 
much lighter, becoming bright orange yellow on the abdomen and sides, etc. 

I have the pleasure of introducing this neotropical genus into the United 
States Ornis, upon specimens taken at Fort Whipple, of a species I shall 
describe as new ; but which is so closely allied to M. fulvifrons that the two 
may hereafter prove to be identical. 

69. Mitrephorus pallescens Coues, nov. sp. 

??Tyr<mnula afftnis, Swainson, f Syu. Mex. Birds, Phil. Mag. i. 1827, 

p. 366. 
? Muscicapa fulvifrons, Giraud, B. Texas, pi. 2, fig. 2, == Empidonax 
fulvifons, Scl. P. Z. S., 1858, p. 301, = Mitrephorus fulvifrons, Scl. 
P. Z. S., 1859, p. 45, = Empidonax rubicundus, Cab. Mus. Hein, ii. 
p. 70. 
Empidonax pygmccus Coues, Newton's Ibis, 1865. (MS. name men- 
tioned in text.) 
Sp. Ch. Above plain dull grayish brown, tinged with olive, particularly 
on the middle of the back; the head and rump hardly appreciably thus 
tinged. Below very pale fulvous, most pronounced across the breast, the 
chin and throat being much lighter, and the abdomen almost white. No ful- 
vous suffusion about the forehead ; the dark feathers of the crown reaching to 
the bill ; the space between eye and bill, the auriculars and sides of the head 
generally light brownish olive, with no trace of fulvous. Wings and tail plain 

* Annals Lye. Nat. Sci. Hist. New Y >ik, viii. Nov., 1865, p. 174. 

t '/'. utfinis aw. I.e. "Olive, beneath pale fulvous; wing coverts and quills with pale margins; 
base of lesser quills with a blarkish spot; bill small; under mandible yellow; tail divaricate." 

I860.] 



61 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

dusky ; the outer web of the external rectrices, the margins of the inner pri- 
maries, except just at their base, and the tips of greater and median coverts, 
dull white, with no tint of olive or ferrugineous. Iris brown ; upper mandible 
and feet black, lower mandible and mouth bright yellow. Length 4 - 75 ; 
extent 7'30 ; wing from the carpus 2-15 ; tail 2 # 00 ; tarsus - 55 ; middle toe 
and claw -45 ; bill above -40. 

Habitat. Fort Whipple, Arizona. A summer resident, arriving early in 
May. Rare. Found in similar situations with Empidonaces. 

I have before me but a single specimen of Mitrephorus fuh'ifrons, which, 
judging from the rufous in the white of the wing margins, and general " feel" 
of the feathers is probably an autumnal or immature bird. It was received 
from Mexico through the Maison Verreaux, and labelled by those gentlemen. 
From this specimen, my two examples, taken in May, at Fort Whipple, differ 
conspicuously in color ; the upper parts being dull grayish brown, with hardly 
a tinge of olivaceous, instead of decided fulvous brownish olive ; the lower 
parts being pale fulvous, only well marked on the breast, other portions, par- 
ticularly the abdomen, being nearly white ; whereas, in the specimen of fulvi- 
frons, the whole under parts are very strongly fulvous, almost ferrugineous, 
only a little lighter on the chin and on the abdomen, which latter is rusty 
yellow instead of nearly white. The forehead and lores of my specimens 
exhibit no trace of the color which has given the other species its distinctive 
name. 

I can, however, detect no differences whatever in size or form between the 
two. I consider it as quite possible that the discrepancies above indicated 
may prove to be only those of age or season. Still, a decided difference in 
color does exist, sufficient to warrant me in describing the species as distinct, 
for the present, at least. The range of habitat of the two is quite diverse. 

No comparisons with M. phozocercus or aurantiiventris are needed. 

Dr. Sclater, in instituting his species plueocercus, inclines to the opinion 
that it may be the species indicated by Swainson as Tyrannula affinis. (See 
citation and copy of Swainson's description, antea.) It is quite likely that 
Swainson had in view some species of Mitrephorus ; but I think rather the 
present species than plueocercus, as the expression "beneath pale fulvous" 
hardly applies to the latter, in which the parts are very strongly colored 
indeed. However, Swainson's description is so vague and meagre, that it is 
hardly worth considering at all, in view of the impossibility of identifying it 
positively with any species. 

I use another name than that under which I first mentioned the species in 
Newton's Ibis, as above ; since the species being not smaller than fulvifrons, 
the name pygmceus would convey an erroneous impression regarding it. 

(70.) Pyrocephalus mexicanps Sclater. 

Pyrocephalus rubineus, Baird, B. N A., 1858, p. 201, (New Mexico and 

Arizona,) and of North American writers. Not Muscicapa rubineus 

Bodd., nor Muscicapa coronata Qua. Wagier, which refer to the South 

American species. 

Pyrocephalus nanus, Woodhouse, Sitgreave's Report, 1853, p. 75. Not 

the true nanus. 
Pyrocephalus mexicanus, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 45. 
Not found as far north as Whipple, among the mountains, though it 
extends up the valley of the Colorado to an equally high latitude. Common 
in the valley of the Gila and Southern Arizona generally. 

Without the material for forming an opinion of my own, I follow Dr. Sclater 
in separating the Mexican bird from that of South America. 

TVRDJDM. 

71. Tuedus (Planesticus) migratorius Linn. 

Abundant ; resident ; a few winter, and fewer still breed ; exceedingly 
numerous in spring and fall. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 65 

72. Tcrdus (Hylocichla *) nanus Andub. 

Rare ; spring and autumn migrant ; some breed ? A few probably winter ; 
as it certainly does at Fort Mojave, where Dr. Cooper has found it in January. 
A shy and retiring species, like T. pallusii. 

73. Turdus (Hesperocichla f) irfflvrirs Gmelin. 

Was obtained on the Colorado, between Forts Yuma and Mojave, by Lieut. 
Ives' Expedition in 1853 ; but this locality must be considered as exceptional. 

74. Mimds polyglottus (L.) Boie. 

Common summer resident. Arrives third week in April ; remains until 
latter part of September. I fouud it more numerous on the Colorado Chi- 
quito than among the Whipple .fountains. My specimens from the Rio 
Grande are quite like those from Arizona, of the variety cauilatus Baird. 

No. 1480, Adult. Iris yellowish green. Bill and feet blackish. No. 392, 
adult. Iris ochraceous yellow. No. 560, young. Iris gray, mouth yellow, 
feet leaden blue, soles dirty white ; bill above blackish, below chiefly dull 
flesh color. 

75. Oroscoptes montanus (Towns.) Baird. 

It is a little singular that I never saw this species about Fort Whipple, 
since it is so well known a bird of almost every portion of Arizona. 

(76.) Harporhynchus Lecontei (Lawr.) Bp. 

On the 30th of September, 186"), I had the pleasure of procuring the second 
known specimen of this excessively rare and little known species. I found it 
on a dry, barren plain, covered chiefly with mezquite and several genera of 
Cactaceie, about fifteen miles from the Colorado River, just above Fort 
Mojave. It was very shy and restless, fluttering hurriedly from one cactus 
bush to another, till at last I shot it as it fancied itself hidden among the 
thick fronds of a large Yucca. Its large strong feet admirably adapt it for 
a partially terrestrial life, and it spends much of its time on th ground, 
where it runs rapidly and easily. Its flight is swift but desultory, accom- 
panied by continual flirting of the tail. A few days afterward I saw several 
more in the same place. 

My specimen agrees exactly with Mr. Lawrence's type and description, and 
presents all those differences from crissalis detailed by Prof. Baird in his Birds 
of North America. Mr. Lawrence's type is from Fort Yuma. The species is 
undoubtedly an inhabitant of the whole of the valleys of the Colorado and 
Gila, probably not leaving these streams for mountainous regions. 

(77.) Harporhynchus crissalis Henry. 

Colorado and Gila valleys. Not observed at Whipple. " A few keep about 
Fort Mojave." (Cooper.) 

The second known specimen of H. crissalis is in the Smithsonian, from 
Fort Yuma, the original locality of U. Lecontei. The range of both species is 
doubtless quite identical ; and the fact that, though thus associating, they 
still preserve intact their distinctive fea ures, is a strong argument in favor 
of their separation. I have myself examined Dr. Henry's type specimen of 
//. crissalis, and find it sufficiently distinct from Lecontei, whatever may be its- 
relations to the coast species rcdivivus. 

The "? Harporhynchus curvirostris " mentioned by Dr. Heermann in his 
Report, as having been seen near Tucson, Southern Arizona, was undoubt- 
edly either this or the preceding species. 

Hylocichla, Bair.l, Rev. N. A. Birls, 1S64, \>. 12. Subgenus propped for N. Amor. Wood 
Th ushrw, as differing from Turdns proper with viscivonm as type, by their shorter, wider and 
more depressed bills, length and slenderness of th" booted tarfci, etc. 

t Hefjte.rocichhi, Baird, Rev. N. A. Birds, 18t'5, p. 12. Tj pe T. nieviusGw.lxonus of Tona- 
parte prove;, to belong to a different g oup. 

LS6ti.] 5 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY Of 

CINCLIDjE. 

(78.) ClNCLUS MEXICANDS SwainSOU. 

The known range of this species includes Arizona. 

SAXICOLID^E. 

79. Sialia mexicana Swainson. 

Permanent resident. Exceedingly abundant. In its familiarity and other 
habits exactly replaces S. sialis of the east. 

Specimens vary in every conceivable degree between the dullest colored 
young female and the high plumaged spring male. In immature plumage 
some examples much resemble S. artica ; but there is always discernible a 
dorsal patch somewhat differently colored from the rest of the upper parts. 
The shade of blue differs in equally mature males, being sometimes of a pur- 
plish tint, and rarely the blue so invades and interrupts the dorsal chestnut as 
to render the boundaries of the latter quite undefinable. 

80. Sialia arctica Swainson. 

Rather uncommon. Noticed only late in the autumn and in the winter ; 
not observed to breed at Fort Whipple, and I think it is there chiefly a winter 
visitant. Has been taken as far South as Fort Yuma. Audubon s figure of 
the female is quite incorrect. The species differs conspicuously from mexi- 
cana in its habits. 

SYLVUDJE. 

81. Regulds calendulas Licht. 

Exceedingly abundant ; migrant. In spring, from third week in March to 
second week in May. In autumn, from latter part of September to November. 
A few probably breed in the neighboring mountains. The species remains in 
abundance in the Colorado Valley during the winter, at least as high as Mo- 
jave. 

82. Regulds satrapds Licht. 

Has been taken in the Territory, though I have myself never met with it. 

83. Polioptila c^rdlea (Linn.) Scl. 

Culicivora mexicana Bonap. Polioptila mexicana Sclater. But not of 
Cassin, which is melanura. 
Rare; summer resident; first individuals noticed April 25. " Winters in 
the Colorado Valley." Cooper. 

84. Polioptila plumbea' Baird. 

P. plumbea, Baird, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1S54, p. 118. Id. Birds N. A. 
1858, p. 382, pi. 33, fig. i. Id. Rev. Amer. Birds, 1865, p. 74, (Ari- 
zona.) 
Esentially a bird of the Southern Middle fauna, and generally distributed 
throughout Arizona, though no where very abundantly. Bill William's River, 
Kennerly, (original tv pes of species ;) Fort Yuma, Ives ; Colorado Chiquito, 
Fort Mojave, Beale's Springs, Hassayampa Creek, near Fort Whipple, Coues. 
At the last mentioned locality it is a summer resident. " Winters in the Co- 
lorado Valley." Cooper. 

(85.) Polioptila melandra Lawr. 

Culicivora atricapilla, Lawrence, olim. Not of SwaiDSon, which is 

leucogastra, Maxim. 
Culicivora mexicana, Cassin, not of Bonaparte oi Sclater, which is true 

ccerulea. A 

Polioptila melanura, Lawrence, nuper. Baird, B. N. A., 1858, p. 382. 
Id. Rev. 1865, p. 68. Heermann, P. R. R. Survey, x, pt. iv. p. 39, 
(Arizona.) 
Chiefly a species of the Southern Middle Province ; but extending westward 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES*OF PHILADELPHIA. 67 

to the Pacific, in the latitude of San Diego, California. Fort Yuma, lues ; 
Pima Villages, Southern Arizona, Heermann. Probably not to be found as 
high up as Fort Whipple, being restricted to the Gila and Lower Colorado 
Valleys. 

MOTACILLIDM. 

6. Anthcs ludovicianus Licht. 

Abundant. Winter resident. Arrives late in the autumn, according to 
weather, and remains until May. None breed in the vicinity of Fort Whipple. 

DACNID^E. 

(87.) Certhiola flaveola (L.) Sund. 

This species, first introduced into the United States Fauna by specimens 
from Indian Key, Florida, has since been found abundantly at Matamoras and 
Brownsville, Texas, and also at Cape St. Lucas. It ranges over the interme- 
diate ground along the Southern border of the Territory. 

SYLVLICOWsE. 

88. Dendimeca Graci* Cones. 

Dendroica Graciie, Coues MSS., in Baird's Rev. Amer. Birds, Apr., 
1865, p. 210. 

Description. (Orig. No. 1293, rj\ Apr. 26, 1865, Fort Whipple.) Bill shorter 
than head or tarsus, about equal to the middle toe without its claw ; the cul- 
men convex, the gonys very slightly so, the commissure a little curved. 
Wings of ordinary length for this genus ; second and third primaries about 
equal and longest ; first and fourth about equal to each other, and but little 
less than the second or third. Sometimes the first four hardly differ appreci- 
ably in length. Fifth -20 of an inch shorter than fourth. Tail of ordinary 
length ; a little rounded, the outer lateral rectrices being a tenth of an inch 
less than the median pair. Tarsus a little longer than the middle toe and claw. 
Lateral toes short, equalling each other in length : the tips of their claws fall- 
ing short of the base of the middle claw. Hind claw much longer and mor 
curved than the others ; about as long as its digit. 

Adult spring plumage. Entire upper parts ashy gray, with a tinge of blui-h 
slate; the interscapular feathers conspicuously, and the upper tail coverts oh- 
soletely streaked with black. A broad stripe of bright yellow passes from the 
nostril over the eye, changing abruptly into pure white as it passes over the 
posterior eanthus. Edges of upper and lower eyelids yellow ; that of 
the latter more or less confluent with a small 'semilunar patch of yel- 
low just below the eye. Chin, throat and upper part of the breast broadly 
and uninterruptedly bright yellow, bordered on each side by streaks of black, 
which separate it from the slaty gray of the sides of the neck ; more anteriorly 
a black line cutting off the infra-ocular yellow crescent from the yellow of the 
throat. Lores between eye and bill black, and the feathers of the crown 
centrally black, most so on the forehead, less so on the occiput, producing an 
appearence much like that of Afyiodioctes canadensis. Lesser and median 
wing coverts colored like the back, greater coverts like the primaries ; both 
median and greater conspicuously tipped with white, the former much the 
most broadly. Primaries dusky ; the first three or four with an exceedingly 
narrow margin of white ; the rest and the secondaries with somewhat pale 
edges. Tail like the wings ; the outermost lateral rectrices white, except 
their shafts, and a very small area at the base of the inner web, and the outer 
web for half its length from the base ; next feather similar, but the dusky 
area twice as large ; the third has only a small, somewhat triangular spot of 
white near the end of the inner web. The under parts, from the termination 
of the trenchantly defined yellow of the breast, are white ; immaculate on the 
centre of the abdomen ; thickly streaked along the sides with large, partially 

1866.] 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF 7THE ACADEMY OF 

blended, black lines. The iris, bill and feet are black ; the soles of the latter 
dirty yellow. 

Young of the year. The slate gray of the upper parts is strongly tinged with 
olivaceous, least marked on the rump. The black streaks of the crown and 
interscapular region are so obsolete as to be scarcely discernible. The yellow 
of the head and throat has about the same extent as in the adult, but the 
tint is much paler, and it is not edged along the sides of the breast and neck 
by black streaks. The black lores are poorly defined. The white tips of the 
greater and median wing coverts are grayish rather than pure white. 
The strongly defined, black, lateral streaks of the adult are replaced by more 
or less obsolete and semiconfluent, brownish black ones, and the abdomen, 
crissum and circumanal region are rather ochraceous than pure white. The 
bill and feet are lighter colored. The white on the tail feathers does not dif- 
fer materially from that of the adults. Between the extremes of color, as 
thus characterized, are to be found every gradation in amount of slatiness and 
olivaceous, of distinctness of the black lateral streaks, and intensity of 
yellow. 

Variations. In a series of over twenty specimens of all ages and seasons, I 
find examples varying from 4'9 to 5-20 in length, and to a corresponding de- 
giee in extent of wings. The average dimension is 5*00 X 8-00 X 2*60. In- 
dividuals of the same age and season hardly vary appreciably in color ; some- 
times the black streaks of the crown show a tendency to become segregated on 
each side as a margin to the superciliary streak, leaving the centre of the 
crown immaculate, or the black may occupy the whole crown almost to the 
exclusion of the greyish slate. The yellow and white are alwnys trenchantly 
separated on the breast, and a black border always divides the yellow chin 
from the yellow on the side of the head. The interscapular region may vary 
in its amount of streaking. The greater coverts are sometimes edged, as well 
as tipped with dull white. 

Remarks. D. Gracice is exceedingly unlike any other North American 
warbler. Its upper parts bear a striking resemblance to those of Myiodioctes 
canadensis. It agrees with dominica (= superciliosa) in the yellow throat, 
but is otherwise quite different from that species. It is closely allied to Baird's 
new Porto Rican species, D. Adf-lu'da-, but this latter has the yellow extended 
over the whole under parts, and otherwise differs materially in some points of 
form as well as color. 

Habitat. First met with July 2, 1864, in the pine woods covering the sum- 
mit of Whipple's Pass of the Rocky Mountains. I saw no more on my journey 
into Central Arizona, till again among pines at Fori Whipple, where it is a 
very common bird, being in fact as abundant as virens or striata in our eastern 
forests. It will doubtless be found in the forests of the San Francisco Mount- 
ains. Its range seems to include all the pine tracts of New Mexico and Arizo- 
na, from near the Valley of the Rio Grande to that of the Great Colorado. It 
breeds about Whipple ; how far south it may go in winter into Mexico I am 
unable to say. 

Arrives at Fort Whipple Apr. 20, and remains until third week in September. 
Almost exclusive'y pinicoline. An active, industrious, noisy species, posses- 
sing marked muscicapine habits, Hying out from its perch to capture passing 
insects. Like many other diminutive birds, it ambitiously prefers to inhabit 
the tallest trees. It has several notes, one of which is the ordinary "tsip," 
emitted at all times by both old and young of most small insectivorous birds. 
Its song proper, only heard in spring, consists of two or three loud, sweet 
whistles, somewhat slurred, followed by several continuous notes resembling 
" chir-r-r " in a wiry but clear tone. T^liis note is of much power for the size 
of the bird. Another song, uttered when pairing, is much like that of Seto- 
l>ha(ja ruticilla. The birds mate as early as May 1st, and doubtless raise two 
broods, as I have found newly Hedged young as late as the middle of August. 

[.March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA- 69 

[Note. Just as these sheets are passing through the press, I find several 
eka'mpVs of this species in a collection made hy Mr. C. Wood, at Belize, Hon- 
duras, where it is said to be quite common. They are rather smaller than 
iny Arizona specimens, but otherwise quite identical. It is somewhat re- 
markable that the species has never been detected in the regions lying be- 
tween these two countries.] 

89. Dendrosca nigrescens (Towns. 1 ) Baird. 

Common ; chiefly spring and autumn migrant ; but a few breed. Arrives 
about Apr. 20, remains until late in September. Chiefiv pinicoline, and in 
-other habits as well as in voice is exceedingly similar to D. GrdcicB. 

This species is by no means so peculiarly a Pacific one as has generally 
been supposed. 

DO. Dexdrceca occidentalis (Towns. ) Baird. 

Very rare. Summer resident. A single specimen of this little known 
species, taken early in September in thick scrub oak bushes. It measured 
4-9 X 7*7. In this immature state the dusky olivaceous extends over the 
whole upper parts, deeply tinging the pure ash of the rump of the adults with 
a somewhat lighter" shade of the olivaceous of the back, and extending for- 
ward on the crown nearly to the front, where it gradually lightens by becom- 
ing more and more mixed with yellow. The sides of the head are clear yellow, 
only slightly soiled by olivaceous, and the chin and throat are the same, fad- 
ing insensibly on the breast into the dull greyish white of the under parts 
generally. The sides show indications of streaks, very obsolete, however, and 
have a slight wash of grayish olivaceous. There is no black whatever about 
the head or throat, and the back is only very obsoletely streaked with that 
color. The greater and median coverts are conspicuously tipped with white. 

A suite of specimens illustrating all the changes of plumage of this species, 
so closely allied to virens, chrysopareia, etc., is still a great desideratum. 

91. Dendececa Auddbonii (Towns.) Baird. 

Exceedingly abundant ; spring and autumn migrant. A few possibly breed. 
Some remain all winter. "Numerous at Fort Mojave in winter," (C>oper.) 
Very numerous from Apr. 20th to May 10th, and during the month of Octo- 
ber, in which seasons the cotton-woods and willows of the creek bottoms are 
filled with the birds, which are also found in every other situation more or 
less abundantly. 

Specimens in very high spring plumage have the black of the breast quite 
pure, and unmixed with slate in any portion of its extent, contrasting sharply 
with the whole width of the posterior edge of the yellow throat. The streaks 
on the sides and flanks are very narrow and distinctly defined. The intersca- 
pulare is very thickly streaked with black. The greater wing coverts are so 
broadly edged with white as to leave only a small space on their inner webs 
dusky. The yellow crown is intense in color, small and sharply defined, and 
there is much black on the front and lores. For so small a bird, the species 
varies much in size. Seasonal and sexual changes of plumage are quite ho- 
mologous with those of D. coronata. 

92. Dendrozca ^estiva (Gm.) Baird. 

Abundant. Summer resident, from April 25th to second week in September. 
Most numerous in the willow and cotton-wood copses. 

93. Geotiilypis trichas (L.) Cob. 

Trichas ddafieldiil Heerman, P. R. R. Surv. x. 1859, p. 40. 

Rare; summer resident. Arrives^early in April; remains until October. 
Less common than the succeeding species. 

Dr. Heerman is mistaken in supposing he saw Trichas delqfieldii Audubon, 
in Arizona. This is a syuomym of Geothlypis cequinoctialis, from South 
America. 

1866.] 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF TIIE ACADEMY OP 

94. Geothlypis macgillivrayi (Aud.) Baird. 

Not abundant. Summer resident. Arrives late in April : remains till late 
in September. Exceedingly shy and retiring, keeping in the closest thickets, 
and very difficult to procure. 

Specimens at all seasons and ages have the white eyelids distinguishing the 
species from Philadelphia. Autumnal examples, though possessing the grayish 
ash throat just as in spring individuals, have the nape and crown so much 
washed with olivaceous as to be nearly concolor with the back. Iris brown- 
ish black. Bill black above and at tip of lower mandible, the rest of lower 
mandible and feet delicate flesh color. Average dimensions 5.V X 7. 

95. Helminthophaga celata (Say.) Baird. 

Not detected at Fort Whipple, though doubtless to be found there in spring 
and fall, or possibly breeding. Fort Yuma, Sept. 17. Fort Mojave Oct. 1st. 
Headwaters Bill William's River, Oct. 3. Throughout the whole of the middle 
and western provinces of North America. 

The H. rvficapilla though properly belonging to the eastern Province, has 
been recorded from Fort Tejon, California, (Baird B. N. A. 185S, appendix, 
p. 923,) and may very probably be hereafter detected in Arizona. 

96. Helminthophaga Virginia Baird. 

H. Virginia, Baird, Explanation of Plates of B. N. A 1860, ix. pi. 79, 
fig. 1. Idem, Rev. Amer. Birds, 1865, p. 177. 
Very rare : summer resident. A single immature individual procured 
August 15, 1864, making the second known specimen of this excessively rare 
species. The type is from Fort Burgwyn, N. M., Dr. W. W. Anderson. 

97. Helminthophaga hvcjx Cooper. 

H. Lucia, Cooper, Pr. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc. July, 1861, p. 120, (Fort Mo- 
jave.) Baird, Rev. Amer. Birds, 1865, p. 178. Coues, Newton's Ibis, 
1866. (Fort Whipple.) 
This interesting little species, recently described, as above, does not seem 
to be very rare in northern and western Arizona ; though so far as I am aware, 
five specimens taken by Dr. Cooper, at Fort Mojave, and three by myself at 
Fort Whipple, are the only ones known to exist in any collections. At Fort 
Whipple it is a summer resident ; arriving the second or third week in April, 
and remaining till latter part of September. It mates from the 20th to the 
30th of April : the young appear early in May. In habits I think it inclines 
toward the Geotklypi rather than to the species of the genus to which it belongs ; 
showing a decided preference for thickets and copses rather than for high open 
woods ; and also like the Geothlt/pi, it is an exceedingly shy and retiring spe- 
cies. The difficulty of observing and procuring it thus caused is doubtless the 
reason why it has remained so long undetected. It is in all its motions ex- 
ceedingly active and restless ; as much so indeed as a Polioptila, to which its 
co'ors bear such an intimate resemblance. The only note I have heard is a 
quickly and often repeated " tsip, " as slender and wiry as that of a gnatcatcVer. 
But Dr. Cooper tells me he has heard a rich and pleasing song, in the spring, 
the little performer being mounted on the top of some mezquite or other bush. 
I have never met with the nest ; but I think it will be found, not on the 
ground, but in the crotch of a thick busb. Dr. Cooper thinks the bird does 
not breed in the Colorado Valley ; but retires to mountainous regions, which 
is most probable. I have found it breeding at Whipple. Specimens measure 
from 430 to 4-60 in length, and from 7 to 7 in extent. The iris is black : the 
mouth flesh color, the legs and feet duty leaden blue. The young bird, just 
fledged, wants the chestnut crown of the adult, and the throat and breast are 
pure milk white, being without the faint ochraceous tinge that is just barely ap- 
preciable in the adult ; the wing coverts are pale gray, and edged with ochra- 
ceous or pale rufous. The chestnut rump is present. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. "I 

98. Myiodioctes pusillus (Wils.) Bon. 

Common. Summer resident. Arrives early in May, and remains through 
part of September. 

99. Seidrus novjeboracensis (Gm.) Nutt. 

The known range of this bird includes the Territory of Arizona. I have 
not myself detected the species. 

100. ICTERIA LONGICAUDA Lawr. 

Common ; summer resident. Arrives April 25, leaves latter part of Sep- 
tember. Iris black. Bill horu blue ; most of lower mandible whitish. 
Feet leaden blue ; the soles dirty white. 

"I procured specimeus at Fort Mojave, with tails no longer than those of 
eastern birds ; but they were much grayer above than viridis, and tins latter 
feature may be the most important distinction between the two." ( Cooper.) 

TANAGRID^. 

101. Pyranga estiva (L.) Vieill. 

"Fort Mojave, Apr. 26," Cooper. I think I have seen this species at 
Whipple ; but the individuals may have been of the succeeding species. 

102. Pyranga hepatica Swains. 

P. hepatica, Swains. Phil. Mag. i. 1827, p. 43S. Baird, B. N. A., 1858, 

p. 302. 
P. azarce, Woodhouse, Sitgreave's Expl. Zurii and Col. Rivers, 1853, 

Birds, p. 82. Not of D'Orbig. 
11 P. dentata, Licht. Mus. Berol." (Sclater.). 
Summer resident ; not abundant. Arrives April 25. Found in very 
various situations. 

Several specimens collected by myself on the Rio Grande, just below 
Albuquerque, are quite identical. 

Dr. Woodhouse's type of P. azarce, now in the Smithsonian, was from the 
San Francisco mountains, a little north of Whipple. 

103. Pyranga ludoviciana (Wils.) Bonap. 

Summer resident ; rare. Arrives middle of April ; leaves late in Septem- 
ber. Iris brown, mouth yellow, legs and feet light blue. This species has an 
extensive breeding range, from at least as far north as Laramie Peak. 

In high spring plumage, the head and throat become intense scarlet, deep- 
est on the crown. The middle of the back is uninterruptedly pure black, and 
the rump is bright chrome, rather than gamboge yellow. The median and 
greater coverts, however, and the outer edges of some of the inner second- 
aries seem always tipped with dull yellow. The extent of red on the breast 
varies much. In the female, the head is merely a little more yellowish olive 
than the color of the back ; the greater coverts and inner secondaries are 
tipped with white instead of yellow. 

AMPELW^E. 

104. Ampelis garrulus (L.) 

A winter visitant from the north, to the more northern portions of the 
Territory. " Fort Mojave, Jan. 10, 1861." {Cooper.) I have never detected 
it at Fort Whipple, though it is undoubtedly to be found there in winter. 

PTILIOGONIDjE. 

105. Phjenopepla nitens (Sw.) Sclat. 

Summer resident ; rather uncommon in the immediate vicinity of Fort 
Whipple. A little further south, however, it is found very abundantly, and 
is doubtless a permanent resident in the southern portions of the Territory. 
Inhabits rather open country, in preference to densely wooded regions. It is 

1866] 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

a shy, wild and restless bird. The fact that it has a superb song, powerful 
and finely modulated, may give a hinr as to its proper place in the series. It 
seems to me to have little affinity with the forms with which it is usually 
grouped. 

106. Myiade'stes Towjtsendii (And.) Cab. 

Rare summer resident. This species has-, like the Phanopepla nit ens, 
eminent vocal powers, producing a rich, sweet, finely-modulated song. 

It is an interesting fact, taken in connection with its highly-developed lower 
larynx, that the young Myiadestes is spotted all over exactly like a young 
thrush. Numerous individuals which I studied several years ago differed from 
the adult precisely as a youug Tardus migratorius does. Another marked 
Turdine character is seen in the " booted '' tarsi very different from the 
scutellations which obtain in Phcenqpepla, with which Myiadestes is usually 
in'imatfly associated in classifications. Whether Phcenopepla is to be grouped 
with the Atnpelidee or not, I think there is little doubt that Myiadestes is 
typical of an aberrant subfamily Myiadestince, of Turdidee. 

HIRUNDINID.E. 

107. Progne i-tTBis (Linn.) Baird. 

Hirundo suhis, Linn. S. N., 1758. p. 192, (10th ed.) 
Pror/iie subis, Baird, Rev. Amer. Bds., 1865, p. 274. 
Hirundo purpurea, Linn., 12th ed. Progne purp. auct. Baird, B, N. A.. 
1858, p. 314. 

Exceedingly abundant ; summer resident. Arrives first week in April : 
remains till third week in September. Exclusively pinicoline ; eminently 
gregarious ; breeds in Woodpecker's holes in company with Tachycinet<t 
thalassina. 

108. Petrocheltdon lpxikrons (Say.) 

Abundant throughout tlie Territory, wherever suitable localities for its nest^ 
are to be found. Associates freely with Panyp'ila melanoleuca, near the San 
Francisco mountains. Especially abundant at several points along the 
Colorado, where the river makes it way through precipitous canons. Arrives 
at Whipple early in April ; remains until September. 

1 109.) HiRrNDo iiokreorfm Barton. 

" Numbers seen migrating through Fort Mojave, May 25, 1861." {Cooper.) 
I found it one day in great numbers along the Rio Grande, near Albuquerque, 
but never detected it at Fort Whipple. 

110. Tacuycixeta thalassina (Sw.) Cab. 

Very abundant, being the common and characteristic swallow of the pine- 
regions of Arizona, as Petrocht-lidon lunifrons is of the canons, precipices, etc 
Summer resident at Fort Whipple, arriving about March 20, and remaining 
until late in September. See remarks, antea, upon Progne and Panyptila^ 
Iris brown, bill black, mouth yellow, feet brownish black, 

111. Cotyle riparia (L.) Boie. 

Rare summer resident. A few observed at Fort Whipple late in April. 

112. STELGinoprEjJxx ?s^rrtpennis (And.) Baird, 

Summer resident, breeding abundantly. Arrives late in April, and remains 
through the greater part of September, 

Some young birds, taken early in September, differ from eastern examples 
in having the wing half an inch shorter ; the tail a fourth of an inch less. 
The bills of both are quite identical, while the feet are even larger and 
stouter. The upper parts are of a brighter, clear brown, instead of grayish 
brown. The wing and tail coverts, and the outer margins of the secondaries 
and inner primaries, are edged and tipped with dull ferru.gineous. The whole 

[March, 



, NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 73 

under parts as far as the abdomen have a rufescent hue. There is, as yet, no 
trace of the recurving and serration of the outer web of the first primary. 

It is quite possible Uat these specimens should be referred to Dr. Sclater's 
Colyle fuloipennis, from Mexico. 

LAmiDM. 

113. Collyrio bokealis (Vieill.) Baird. 

Rare winter resident. A single specimen, taken in February. Iris brown ; 
mouth yellowish white ; bill black, except at base of lower mandible ; feet 
black. 

This is about the southernmost locality whence the species has thus far 
been recorded. 

114. Collyrio excubitoroides (Sw.) Baird. 

Rare. Single and only specimen taken September 4th, 1864. The species 
is probably resident in this locality, though far from abundant. 

VIREONIDJE. 

115. Vireo Swainsoni Baird. 

V. Swainsoni, Baird, B. N. A., 1858, p. 336; in text under V. gilvus ; 
name suggested, if western species be distinct. Coues, Newton's 
Ibis, April, 1865, p. 164. 
V. gilvus, Cooper and Suckley, Nat. Hist, of Washington Territory, 1860, 
p. 188. 

Sp. Ch. Size and general aspect of V. gilvus. Upper parts olive ash, 
decidedly less olivaceous than in gilvus ; so that the back is nearly concolor 
with the head. Below whitish scarcely appreciably washed with yellowish, 
and only along the sides ; the median portions of the under parts pure white. 
Other markings less distinctly defined than in gilvus. Wing more rounded : 
fourth primary longest ; third and fifth equal to each other and nearly as 
long; second much shorter than the sixth; hardly exceeding the seventh. 
First (spurious) primary decidedly longer than in gilvus (-10 to -15 of an 
inch.) 

Habitat. Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. Common summer resident at 
Fort Whipple, arriving in April and remaining until October. 

Comparisons. All the very numerous specimens of Vireo " gilvus " from the 
Pacific slope of the Rocky Mountains constantly differ from the eastern type 
by the quite appreciable characters expressed in the preceding diagnosis. 
These differences, though slight indeed, are quite tangible, and, in a group 
so little liable to variation as the Vireones, are very probably indicative of 
specific distinction. 

The most notable distinction is found in the proportionate lengths of the 
primaries. All eastern gilvus that I have seen have the third quill longest, 
or the third, fourth and fifth about equal and longest, the second being equal 
to or longer than the sixth. In the present bird the fourth quill is decidedly 
longest; the third and fifth successively a little shorter, while the second is 
about equal to or but little longer than the seventh, never equalling the sixth. 
The spurious primary is from one to nearly two-tenths of an inch longer 
than in gilvus. In addition there is a decidedly ashy rather than olivaceous 
wash on the upper parts, rendering the crown and back nearly concolor; and 
there is less sulphury yellow on the under parts. 

Whether these differences be "specific" or not it is certainly well to define 
them, and give to the species or race a name by which it may be recognized. 
Prof. Baird first called attention to these discrepancies, suggesting the name 
I have adopted in thus characterizing the new species. 

In the discrepancies in the proportionate lengths of the quills of this 
Species and V. gilvus, there is discernible a striking analogy with the dis- 
tinctive characters of Carpodacus californicus as compared with C. purpureus. 

1866.] 



74 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



In both C. californicus and V. gilvus the longest primary is advanced by one 
over their eastern representatives, the third and fourth being respectively 
longest, instead of the second and third; and in both, the first quill is abbre- 
viated. 

116. Virzo plombecs Coues, nov. sp. 

Sp. Ch First quill spurious ; second equal to or little longer than sixth ; 
third longest: fourth and fifth successively but little shorter. Entire upper 
parts, including crown, sides of neck and line from below under eyelid to 
bill, uniform pure plumbeous or ashy gray, with no shade of olivaceous 
whatever, except a faint wa?h of 1 his color on the extreme uropygium. 
Superciliary streak passing from nostrils over and around eye, including 
under eyelid; two conspicuous bands on wings; outer margins of all 
secondaries and most primaries ; both margins of all rectrices except median 
pair ; and entire under parts, pure white. Sides under the wings and inferior 
wing coverts faintly washed with light sulphury olivaceous. Lores blackish 
ash. Bill and feet bluish black; farmer very robust. Length 5-75 to 6-10 
inches and hundredths : extent 9-75 to 10-25 ; wing from carpus 2-90 to 3-10 ; 
tail 2-50 ; bill -45 ; tarsus -65 ; middle toe and claw -65 ; exposed portion of 
spurious primary -75 ; a third the length of the second primary. 

Habitat. High central plains to the Pacific. Laramie Peak. Especially 
abundant in Northern Arizona. By far the commonest Vireo at Fort Whip- 
ple ; a summer resident ; arrives April 25 ; remains through September. 

Description. (Ho. 40,703, J\ May 17, 1865, Fort Whipple. Type). The 
bill is large and very robust, being especially deep at the base, where it is 
compressed and much higher than broad The ridge of the culmen is well 
defined; its outline very convex, the tip of the bill being much decurved, 
strongly hooked and notched. The commissure is a little curved ; the gonys 
slightly convex and ascending. The tarsus is about as long as the middle 
toe and claw. The tip of the outer claw a little surpasses the base of the 
middle one; which point the tip of ihe inner claw falls a little short of. 
The hallux is considerably longer than its claw ; and, with its claw, is about 
as long as the middle toe without its claw. The wings are long, reaching, 
when folded, a little beyond the middle of the tail. The third primary is 
usually longest; but the fourth and fifth are so near it that often there is no 
perceptible difference. The second is about as long as the sixth, or inter- 
mediate between it and the fifth. The spurious primary is a third as long as 
the second. The tail is moderately long ; the rectrices obliquely truncated 
and a little pointed at their tips. 

The bill is deep bluish black, the posterior half of of the lower mandible 
often light bluish horn, in marked contrast ; the feet and claws are dusky 
leaden blue. The mouth is livid bluish white; the eyes reddish brown. 
The back is plainly plumbeous, like the head ; and only for a brief space on 
the rump is there a faint tinge of olivaceous ; the upper tail coverts, again, 
being like the back. A pure white streak begins at the nostril, and runs over 
the eye as a superciliary line; not extending, however, beyond the eye, but 
turning down around it at the posterior canthus, where it is continuous with 
the very extensively white under eyel'd ; this white of the under eyelid being 
separated at the anterior canthus from the superciliary streak by the blackish 
ashy lores. The white lower eyelid is separated from the white of the chin 
by an extension forward of the plumbeous of the side of the neck to the 
base of the inferior maxilla, where it merges into the dark lores. The lesser 
wing coverts are like the back. The median and greater are more like the 
primaries in color ; very broadly tipped and more narrowly edged with 
pure white. The inner primaries and all the secondaries are edged with 
white, except towards the apices of the primaries, and towards their bases, 
where the edging is rather olivaceous than pure white. The inferior aspect 
of the folded wing shows a white central area, caused by the coalescence of 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. <D 

the, quite broad, dull white inner margins of the primaries. The rectrices 
are very broadly edged on both their interior and exterior margins with pure 
white; which decreases in width on successive feathers till reduced to a 
minimum, or almost obsolete on the median pair. The bird is pure white 
below, except a faint wash of very pale sulphury olivaceous on the sides and 
flanks. The white of the breast is a little encroached on by an extension of 
a light shade of the plumbeous of the sides of the neck. 

Variations. Specimens taken in July and August, in very worn and faded 
plumage, have the upper parts dull grayish brown instead of clear plumbeous, 
the olivaceous of the rump barely appreciable, and that of the sides very 
faint. The white margins of the wings and tail are either entirely wanting 
or reduced to a minimum. The markings of the sides of the head are more 
indistinct. In this state of plumage, however, it. cannot be malidentified ; 
for it is even more unlike any other North American Vireo than when in per- 
fect condition. Specimens vary to a moderate degree in dimensions, but the 
colors of equally mature specimens are remarkably constant. 

Remarks The relationships of this species are decidedly with V. solitarius ; 
sharing with that species and flavifrons, etc., the compact stout form, robust 
and short bill, etc. The coloration of the head is very similar to that of 
solitarius, but the other differences are too great to render necessary any com- 
parison between the two. Vireo plumbeus is the plainest-colored species 
except V. vicinior, infra, as well as one of the largest and stoutest species of 
the United States. The name is peculiarly expressive of its most striking 
feature. 

This is the species referred to by me in Newton's Ibis for April, 1865, page 
164, as " Vireo, most like solitarius." 

117. Vireo vicinior Coues, nov. sp. 

Sp. Ch. First primary spurious ; half as long as second ; second very 
short, about equal to eighth or ninth ; fourth, fifth and sixth longest; third 
but little shorter ; the wing thus being made short and much rounded. Tail 
very long ; as long as the wings ; decidedly rounded ; rectrices with rounded, 
not acute tips. Bill very short, but robust and deep at base. Tarsus much 
longer than middle toe and claw ; toes all short ; the outer about equalling 
the inner, much shorter than the middle toe without its claws. Entire upper 
parts with sides of head and neck dull plumbeous, gradually gaining a tinge 
of olivaceous towards rump. A narrow white ring around eye. No dis- 
tinctly defined stripes on side of head, nor dark lores. Wing coverts, quills 
and rectrices very slightly, if at all, bordered with white. Below entirely 
pure white ; a hardly appreciable tinge of the slightest possible shade of 
sulphury olivaceous on sides under wings. Bill and feet horn bluish black. 
Length 5-70; extent 8-60; wing from carpus 2-50; tail the same : exposed 
portion of first primary -75; of second 1-50; bill -36; tarsus -70; middle 
toe and claw -52 ; inner do. -35 ; outer do. *42. 

Habitat. Fort Whipple, Arizona. Type and only known specimen No. 
1507 of my collections, (40,697 Smithsonian Register,) adult male, May 24th, 
1865. Very rare ; probably a summer resident, wintering in the Gila and 
Lower Colorado valleys, or in Sonora. 

Description. The bill is short, but quite stout, very deep at the base, 
where it is compressed and higher than broad ; the culmen very regularly 
convex in outline from the base to the moderately decurved, hooked, notched 
tip. The wings are short and remarkably rounded, the spurious primary so 
long as to be half the length of the second quill; which latter equals the 
eighth ; there is but very little difference in length between the third, fourth, 
fifth and sixth ; the first and last named, especially the former, being a little 
less than the other two. The tail is very long, equalling the wing from the 
carpus, and somewhat graduated ; the lateral rectrices being -20 of an inch 
shorter than the median pair; and all are rounded at their extremities. The 

1866.] 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

tarsus is of moderate length ; decidedly surpassing the middle toe and claw. 
The toes are all rather short. The tip of the outer claw just reaches the base 
of the middle. The inner toe is remarkably abbreviated, the tip of its claw 
falling much short of the base of the middle one. 

Above, the bird is of a dull ashy or leaden gray, like plumbeus, but rather 
duller ; which color on the back, and, to a less extent on the wing coverts, 
acquires an appreciable tinge of olivaceous, most marked on the rump. 
There is a narrow white ring entirely surrounding the eye, formed by the 
edges of the eyelids alone. The lores are not dusky, but somewhat lighter 
colored than the surrounding parts ; and the sides of the head have no 
definite streaks of color. The gray of these parts fades so insensibly into 
the white of the chin and throat that it is impossible to appreciate a divid- 
ing line ; and the same is the case with the sides of the neck and breast. 
Under the wings, the wash of olivaceous on the sides of the body is appre- 
ciable, but it is very faint and pale. The greater coverts are narrowly tipped, 
and the outer margins of some of the primaries slightly edged with whitish. 
There is nothing of the definite white seen in plumbeus, though the whitish 
area on the inner aspect of the wing is much the same. The outer edge of 
the exterior tail feather is narrowly white, but the others are plain dusky. 
The iris is brown; the mouth livid white; the fauces pinkish ; the feet and 
bill dark bluish horn. 

This is a most peculiar Vireo, totally diverse from all others of North 
America. The shape of the wing, character of spurious primary, length of 
tail and abbreviation of the inner lateral toe, give it an unusual shape. It will 
be noticed that the colors of the species are almost exactly those of 
plumbeus; but that in form the two birds are widely diverse. It is a smaller 
species than plumbeus, but its greatly elongated tail make the total lengths 
of the two nearly the same. The following antithetical diagnoses will 
readily separate them : 

V. plumbeus. Wing (average) 300; tail 2-50. Spurious primary -75; a 
third the length of the second primary ; the latter intermediate between 
fifth and sixth. Tail about even ; rectrices with obliquely truncated tips. 
Tarsus as long as middle toe and claw ("65). Tip of inner claw almost 
reaching to base of middle one. Wing coverts, quills and tail feathers 
broadly edged with pure white. Sides of head parti-colored, with distinctly 
defined stripes. Lores dusky, interrupting the broad white circumocular 
ring at anterior canthus. 

V. vicinior. Wing 2-50 ; tail fully as long. Spurious primary -75 ; half 
the length of the second ptimary, which latter is intermediate between eighth 
and ninth. Tail decidedly graduated, the feathers with broadly rounded 
apices. Tarsus longer than middle toe and claw, (as -70 to *52). Tip of 
inner claw falling much short of base of middle one. Wing coverts, quills 
and tail feathers very narrowly, if at all, edged with dull white. Sides of 
head unicolor, unstreaked; the lores plain grayish white, not interrupting 
the continuity of the very narrow circumocular ring. 

It is unnecessary to compare vicinior with any other species, it is so very 
dissimilar from them all. With but a single specimen, I cannot now give its 
variations, though these are doubtless parallel with those of plumbeus. The 
species must, I think, be exceedingly rare, or I should have met with others. 

(118.) Vireo pusillus Coues, nov. sp. 

Sp. Ch. Amoug the smallest of the genus, in form and general aspect re- 
sembling V. Belli. Above grayish ash, becoming more or less ashy olivace- 
ous on tbe back ; not more so on the rump than elsewhere. Below pure 
white, including under wing coverts; on the breast sometimes a faint suffusion 
of the lightest possible shade of brownish gray; sides under the wings mod- 
erately tinged with sulphur yellow. A narrow short superciliary streak ; edges 
of eyelids, two bands on wings and narrow margins of outer border of wings 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 77 

and tail, dull white ; on the latter tinged with olivaceous. Bill as in V.' Belli. 
Exposed portion of spurious quill about half as long as second. Fourth pri- 
mary longest ; third and fifth about equal to each other, and but little shorter 
than fourth ; second about equal to eighth. Tail very long, equalling the 
wing; rectrices quite narrow, with acuminate tips. Tarsus long, much ex- 
ceeding the short toes ; outer claw surpassing, inner about equalling the mid- 
dle toe without its claw. Length (approximately correct only) 5-00; extent 
7-25. Wing 2-15 ; tail about the same. Bill -34 ; tarsus -65 ; middle toe and 
claw -50 ; outer do. - 42 ; inner do. '39. 

Habitat Lower and Southern California, and probably Sonora, at least as 
far north as near Fort Whipple. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. Fort Mojave, Cooper. 
Fifty miles south of Fort Whipple, Coues ; breeding abundantly in the last 
mentioned locality. Never observed at Fort Whipple. 

Description. (No. 16,954, Smiths. Register, $, Cape St. Lucas.) The bill 
is shaped exactly as in V. Belli, and is similarly colored; being light horn 
blue, the lower mandible nearly white ; the former color fading into reddish 
brown in drying. The iris is brown, the legs and feet dull leaden blue. The 
color of the upper parts is a plain dull ashy gray on the head ; tinged with 
grayish olivaceous on the rest of the upper parts ; but quite unlike the olive 
green of Belli. Below the pure white of the under parts is slightly obscured 
by a wash of barely definable grayish brown across the breast ; and a light 
shade of sulphury olive tinges the sides under the wings. There is no ap- 
proach to the bright sulphur yellow which so strongly tinges the whole under 
parts of Belli, especially the flanks and circumanal region ; and invades the 
under wing coverts, which in pusillus remain white. The markings on the 
sides of the head are quite identical ; and the edging of the wings and tail is 
similar in amount and in tint. The following are the differential points in 
the diagnoses of the two species, comparison being made with Audubon's 
type specimen. 

V. Belli. Spurious primary two-fifths the second primary; third longest; 
second a little longer than seventh. Wing much longer than tail. Color 
above olive green, whole under parts except the throat strongly tinged with 
sulphur yellow. 

V. pusillus. Spurious primary half as long as the second ; fourth longest ; 
second equal to eighth. Wings and tail equal in length. Color above grayish 
olive. No sulphur yellow below except a slight wash along the sides under 
the wings. 

TROGLOD YTID.E. 

(119.) Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (Lafr.) Gray. 

Valleys of the Gila and lower Colorado. Common in the southern and 
western portion of the Territory. Not observed at Whipple. "Exclusively 
a cactus Wren ; " {Cooper.) 

It is quite possible that Campylorhy nchus ajfinis Xantus, from Cape St. Lucas, 
may be found in the vicinity of Fort Yuma. 

120. Salpinctes obsoletus (Say) Cab. 

Common at Whipple, though less so there than in the more southern and 
western portions of the Territory. Almost exclusively confined to rocky hill- 
sides, canons and precipitous gorges or ravines. Restless, shy and noisy; 
the note being a very loud and strong whistle. Arrives in spring about 
April 25 ; remains until October. The moult is severe, lasting through part 
of September. 

(121.) Catherpes mexicanus (Sw ) Baird. 

Not observed at Whipple ; first noticed a few miles southward from that 
locality ; generally distributed over the southern and western portions of the 
Territory, as high up the Colorado at least as Fort Mojave ; nowhere very 

1866] 



78 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

abundant. Rocky precipitous localities, canons, etc. This species has a 
laughing whistle, unsurpassed tor oddity as well as for power. 

122. Thryothorus Bewickii (Aud.) Bonap. 

Troglodytes Bewickii, Audubon, Orn. Biog. i. 1831, pi. xviii. p. 96. 
Thryothorus Beicickii, Bonap. List. 1838. Baird, B. N. A. 1858, p. 363. 
Troglodytes leucogaster, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, 89. (Tamaulipas.) 
Thryothorus (Thryomanex) Bewickii, var. leucogaster, Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Birds, 1864, pp. 122, 126, 127. 
The most, abundant and characteristic Wren of Whipple, resident all the 
year, and found in all situation's. 

The numerous specimens collected are of the var. leucogaster, as defined by 
Baird, 1. c. supra. Variety spilurus, Vigors, appears to be a coast tj - pe. 

I have never seen the Thryothorus Berlandieri from Arizona ; but think it 
probably will be hereafter detected, particularly near the New Mexican boun- 
dary of the Territory, in the southern portions of its extent. The types of the 
species are described from New Leon, Mexico. 

123. Troglodytes Parkmanni Audubon. 

" Troglodytes americanus Aud. " ! Heer., P. R. R. Survey, x. pt. iv. p. 41. 
Troglodytes tedon, Idem, op et loc. cit. 

Very abundant ; summer resident. Arrives April 20 ; remains until Oc- 
tober. 

Dr. Cooper informs me that so far as he knows this species never recurves 
the tail over the back, a habit so characteristic of eedon. I have myself 
noticed hundreds of individuals, and do not now recall an instance where 
this peculiar attitude was assumed. Parkmanni has always seemed to me to 
be a shyer, less familiar, more retiring and wood-loving species than its east- 
ern representative; and though the measure of the song is the same, yet in 
tone and volume I have often thought it sounded a little different from the 
familiar trill of sedon. If some of these points of habit could be substantiated, 
they would go far towards eking out the lather slim diagnosis upon which 
the species now grounds its claim to recognition. 

Dr. Heermann very wrongly says that " T. americanus Aud." is " abundant 
in the wooded portions of the country. ,: We might suppose he had mistaken 
Parkmanni for this species, did he not also give T. fedon&s being abundant 
too. 

Troglodytes (Anorthura) hyemalis Vieill., a bird of the eastern province, has 
been recorded from Fort Tejon, Cala., (Baird B. N. A. p. 923,) and may pro- 
bably be found in Arizona. 

124. Cistothokus palustris (Wils.) Baird. 

Cistothorus (Telmatodytes) palustris var. paludicola, Baird, Rev. Amer. 
Birds, 1864, p. 148. 
Very abundant in a small swampy tract near Fort Whipple ; and elsewhere 
observed in similar situations. Summer resident. Arriving early in April, 
and remaining until November. " Winters in the Colorado Valley, as high 
as Fort Mojave." (Cooper.) My specimens are referrible to Baird's var. 
paludicola. 

CERTHIIDjE. 

125. Sitta aculeata Cassin. 

Very common, permanent resident. Chiefly pinicoline about Fort Whipple. 
I have never seen a specimen out of an immense series which was not readily 
distinguishable from carolinensis. 

126. Sitta pygm>*;a Vigors. 

The most abundant and typical Nuthatch of all the pine regions of Ari- 
zona and New Mexico. Resident. Young appear in June. Semi-gregarious 
at all seasons. Seems to be exclusively pinicoline. Iris black. Bill bluish 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 79 

black; hard parts of mouth livid blue, soft parts flesh colored. The color of 
the under parts varies greatly from a very pale fulvous, almost white, to a de- 
cided ferruginous, almost like canadensis. Sometimes the under parts are 
smoky brown, as in Picus Harrisii from California and Oregon. 

(129.) Sitta canadensis Linnaeus. 

Rare; perhaps only accidental. (Fort Yuma, Ives.) Not met with by me. 
Dr. Cooper never saw it at Fort Mojave. 

128. Certhia Americana Bonap. 

It is a little singular that I never saw a specimen of this species in Arizona, 
though it is generally distributed over the Territory. Dr. Kennerly procured 
it very near the present site of Fort Whipple. 

PARI DM. 

129. Lophophanes inornatus (Gamb.) Cass. 

Winter resident chiefly; but some doubtless remain through the year, 
breeding in the neighboring mountains. Not very abundant Emphatically 
an evergreen oak species, eschewing the pines, and frequenting open hill- 
sides. 

Iris black. Bill black ; horn blue along its commissural edges and at base. 
Feet deep leaden blue. 

130. Lophophanes Wollwebkri Bonap. 

Permanent resident; common, more so at least than the preceding. Usually 
semi-gregarious except when breeding. Found in all situations; but 
chiefly affect the oak thickets, and the chaparral of open hillsides. Generally 
distributed through the Territory, and extending southward into Sonora. 

131. Pcscile montands (Gamb.) 

Resident throughout the Territory, more particularly its pine tracts. No- 
where very numerous. The only species of black capped and throated Tit- 
mouse ascertained by me to inhabit the Territory. 

The American black-capped Titmice seem to me generically distinct from 
Linnseus' type of Parus ; while they are entirely congeneric with /'. palustri* 
of Eutope, Kaup's type of facile. 

P. seplentrionalis is recorded from the Southern Rocky Mountains, and may 
hereafter be added to the Whipple list. (Fort Massachusetts, Dr. Peters, 
U. S. A.) 
(132 ) Auriparus flaviceps (Sund ) Baird. 

" Abundant in the Colorado Valley, where it is a permanent resident," 
'Cooper.) I do not think it leaves the valley for the mountainous portions of 
the Territory. 

133. Psaltriparus pi.umbf.us Baird. 

Resident and very abundant at all seasons. Decidedly gregarious, and, ex- 
cept when mated, always found in '-flocks" of from five or six to as many 
as fifty or more; active, restless and noisy, familiar and unsuspicious. Es- 
chews pines, and keeps entirely in the thick shrubbery of the hillsides, or the 
denser brush of creek bottoms and ravines. 

No. 752 and others; iris bright yellow. No. 753 and others; iris dark 
brown This difference seems entirely accidental, and not dependent upon 
age, sex or season. 

The original types of the species described as Psaltria plumMa, by Prof. 
Baird, are trom the Colorado Chiquito River. 

ALA UDIDJE. 

134. Eremophila cornuta (Wils.) Boie. 

Common ; permanent resident in all situations adapted to its wants. 

1866.] 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

FRINGILLIDJE. 

135. Hesperphona vespertina (Cooper) Bonap. 

Chiefly a more northern and coast species ; but extending as far south as 
the table lands of Mexico. It is undoubtedly a component of the Whipple 
Fauoa, though I never succeeded in detecting it in that locality. 

136. Carpodacus Cassini Baird. 

Common ; resident. A species conspicuously different from purpureus in 
habits as well as in form and color. Its range of habitat is quite diverse ; 
and I have seen specimens taken during the breeding season, from the Table 
Lands of Mexico. "Extends west to the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada." 
{Cooper.) 

The difference in the tint of the red of the males, and its distribution on 
the under parts would alone readily distinguish it; independently of its 
larger size, large long bill, different proportions of primaries, etc., which lat- 
ter features will always serve to separate females and immature birds. 

My specimens range from 6-4 x 10*9 to 6 7 X H"4. Iris brown ; legs and 
feet brownish black ; bill above deep horn blue, below flesh color more or 
less obscured by dusky. Very young birds of either sex have an ochraceous 
or light rufous suffusion over the whole body, most noticeable below. The 
streaks are more numerous and less sharply defined. 

137. Carpodacus frontalis (Say) Gray. 

Fringilla frontalis, Say. Pyrrhula frontalis, Bon. Erythrospiza frontalis, 
Aud. Carpodacus frontalis, Gray. Baird, B. N. A. 1858, p. 415. 

Carpodacus famiiiaris, McCall, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1852, p. 61. 

Carpodacus obscurus, McCall, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1851, p. 220. 

Carpodacus '' calif or ni cus"! Coues, Newton's Ibis., Apr., 1865, p. 164, 
(errore pessimo.) 
Very abundant. Permanent resident, but most abundant in spring and fall. 
Eminently gregarious. Found in all situations. In spring keep mostly among 
thickets of Salix and Populus, on the young buds of which they chiefly feed. 

The shade of red in equally adult males differs most remarkably. Immature 
males, in the late fall and winter months, show every possible gradation, from 
a plumage indistinguishable from that of the female to that of high spring 
condition ; in which, also, the color of the throat, breast, crown and rump 
ranges from an intense crimson to a light rose red, almost pink ; sometimes a 
bronzy tint is quite apparent. Young birds just fiora the nest diffVr in being 
much more thickly streaked below, the streaks themselves narrow and quite 
sharply defined, contrary to the general rule among young Fringillidse. The 
wing coverts, secondaries and tail feathers are broadly edged with dull rufous. 
The crown and back are obsoletely streaked. The preceding relates to June 
and July birds. A common autumnal condition is to have the whole body, 
but particularly the under parts, washed wiih light rufous or ochraceous, in 
which the broad streaks are numerous and semiconfluent. 

I have shot ' Buriones " all the way from the Rio Grande, through New 
Mexico, Arizona aud California to the Pacific coast, and cannot discover the 
slightest indication of another species tending toward purpureus or californicus. 
The latter species seems to be exclusively a coast bird.* At the same time 
frontalis is exceedingly different from the C. Iwmorrhous of Mexico. 

138. Chrysomitris (Pseddomitris) psaltria (Say) Bonap. 

Fringilla psaltria, Say, Long's Exp. Rocky Mts. ii. 1828, p. 40. 
Fringilla (Car duelis) psaltria, Bonap. Am. Orn. i. 1825,54, pi. 6, fig. 3. 
Carduclis pxaltria, Audubon's works. 

Chrysomitris psaltria, Bonaparte, Corap. list, 1838. Baird, B. N. A. 1858, 
p. 422. 

* lSy an unfortunate oversight, I gave 'californicus" as the Arizona species iu Newton's Ibis, 
;ts above, instead of frontalis, an error it is quite important to correct. 

[March 5 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 81 

Chrysomitris (Pseudomitris*) psaltria, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S., Philadelphia, 
1865, p. 93. 

Abundant. Summer resident. Arrives last of April, remains until middle 
of September. Males are in dull plumage of females in August. Decidedly 
gregarious in autumn. Feed almost exclusively on buds and seeds. Probably 
less numerous in the southern portions of the Territory. 

In typical adult males the pileum is black, but this color does not extend below 
*he eyes; the lores and auriculars being olive like the back. Upper parts, ex- 
elusive of the wings, clear olivaceous, somewhat more yellowish, and with con- 
cealed white on the rump. The back may be somewhat marked wjth blackish 
sp >ts, though rarely to the extent represented in Audubon's plate. The wings 
are black, though some of the lesser and median coverts are tipped with olive. 
The greater coverts are so broadly tipped with white as to form a conspicuous 
transalar fascia, and the secondaries and inner primaries are still more broadly 
edged on their outer margins with white. The tail is black, the three outer rectri- 
ces white on their inner webs to within a short distance from '.heir tips, the 
shafts white along the white portions of the feather. A white spot at the base 
of the primaries (except on the first two or three,) is partially concealed by the 
bastard quills. Below, with the feathers on the side of the lower mandible, 
yellow. 

The female has no black pileum, the crown being concolor with the back. 
The yellow of the under parts is less pure and bright. The edgings of the 
wings and coverts are grayish and narrow. The white on the inner webs of the 
lateral rectrices is only indicated by a small, irregular, dull gray spot. The 
spot at the base of the primaries is small and inconspicuous. 

Young birds in August are above very dull and rather ochraceous olive, not 
conspicuously different from the under parts. The edgings of the wings are 
tinged with ochraceous. The basal primary spot is very small. There is uo 
Judication of white on the rectrices. 

Old males changing plumage during both the vernal and autumnal moult, 
.-have the olive of the back dull and obscured by dusky ; the pileum somewhat 
variegated with olive. The wings and coverts have scarcely a trace of white 
edging. The under parts are quite brightly yellow. 

Why I have thus gone into detail in characterizing this species will be evi- 
dent from the succeeding article. I wish it to be noted that the diagnostic 
points of psaltria, as compared with mexicana, lie in the black pileum definitely 
bounded on all sides with olive, not descending on the sides of the head below 
the eye ; and in the decided olive of the upper parts. The bill is conical and 
quite stout; the gonys straight; the culmen a little convex. The species ex- 
tends over the western portion of the continent to the Pacific, and nearly, or 
quite, to the Sonoran border. 

(139.) Chrysomitris Pseudomitris mexicanus (Swains.) Bonap. 

[A. Var. mexicanus Swains.] 

Carduelis mexicanus, Swainson, Syn. Mex. Birds, in Phil. Mag. i. 1827, p. 

435. (Table Lands of Mexico. Real del Monte. Temiscaltipec.) 

Wagler, Isis von Oken, 1831, p. 525. 
Chrysomitris mexicanus, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i. 1850, p. 516. Baird, 

Birds N. A., 1858, p. 423. 
Chrysomitris (Pseudomitris) mexicana, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1865, p. 93. 
Astragalinus mexicanus, Cab. Mus. Hein., 185J, p. 159. 
Fringilki melanoxantha, "Licht. Mus. Berol." (Quoted by Wagler, Isis, 

1831. p. 525, as a syn. of C. mexicana Sw.) 
Fringiila texensis, Giraud, Sixteen Sp. Tex. Bds. 1841, pi. v. fig. 1. G's 

type examined by me. Belly not white as stated. 

* Pseudnmitris, Cass., nov. subg. ut supra. Type Frin. psaltria, Say. Considered as probably 
belonging to subfamily tyanospizinx of Sclater. 

1866.J 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

VFringilla catotol, Gmelin. S. N. i. 1786, 914. 
fOhrysomitris nana, Bp. C. A. 1850, i. p. 516, fide Baird. 
?"Cocozton, Hernand. Thes. p. 52. Cap. 192." (Quoted by Wagler, 1. c.) 

[B. Var. columbianus Lafres.] 
Chrysomitris columbianus, Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 292. (Central 

America".) Baird, Birds N. Am. 1858, p. 423. 
Astragalinus columbianus, Cabanis, Mus. Hein. 1851, p. 159. 
Chrysomitris (Pseudoniitris) columbianus, Cass., Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1865, p. 93. 
Chrysomitris xanthogastra, Dubus, Bull. Acad. Belg. xxii. i. 1855, p. 150. 

[C. Var. arizoncc Coues.] 

Chrysomitris (Pseudomitris) mexicanus Var. arizonce, Coues, MSS. 

Synonymy. Swainson's description* is very brief, unsatisfactory, and inac- 
curate. Although the tail is not two inches long, (varying from 1-50 to 1"75,) 
nor has its three lateral tail feathers (wholly) white, yet the diagnosis may be 
accepted as indicative of the bird now well known from all portions of Mexico 
as Chrysomitris mexicanus. Wagler's fuller description is quite pertinent. Upon 
the latter author's authority, I quote Fringilla melanoxantha of Lichtenstein. 
It is probable that Bonaparte's Chrysomitris nana belongs here. I have exam- 
ined Mr. Giraud's type of Fringilla texensis. It has not a white belly as stated, 
but is absolutely identical with typical Mexican examples. 

The synonyms adduced under var. columbianus do not seem to require com- 
ment. 

Description. (Ad. tf, spring, S. I. No. 4078, Parras, Mex.) Bill a little 
elongated, subclinical, culmen slightly convex, gonys a little concave; bluish 
lead color. (Sometimes yellowish at base of upper mandible.) Black of up- 
per parts quite pure and unmixed with olive, except on the rump, where a 
little olive and more white may be seen on parting the leathers. The black 
extends on the lores, auriculars, sides of the neck, and to a less extent on sides 
of breast ; on the cheeks, between eve and lower mandible, somewhat mixed 
with yellow. The under eyelid is yellow, separated from the yellow of the throat 
by some black. The basal white spot on the primaries, (exclusive of the two 
first,) and the white margins of the outer edges of the secondaries are well de- 
fined, but the white tips of the median coverts, which form so conspicuous a 
bar in psaltria, are much narrower. The three exterior tail feathers are almost 
wholly white on their inner webs to within from a fourth to a third of an inch 
of their tips. Below the bird is wholly yellow. 

Numerous Mexican specimens hardly differ from the above, except in the 
amount of white edging of the wings and coverts. This is so extremely va- 
riable, that it cannot be a character of tbe slightest consequence. One (No. 
4077, New Leon, Mex.) has some little olive mixed with the black of the back. 

Another series of skins, five in number, from Panama, Co.-ta Rica, etc., with- 
out exception differ from the Mexican type as follows : The black on the side 
ot the head descends much lower, in fact to the angle of the mouth, com- 
pletely occupying the cheeks and auriculars, and the under eyelid shows no 
trace of yellow. The under parts are of a much brighter yellow, rathtr 
orange than lemon. Moreover, they average less white upon the wings and 
tail. In some the white spaces only occupy two rectrices instead of three, only 
extend to within half an inch of the tip, and are, in fact, rather small irregu- 
lar blotches, than well defined large spaces. 

A third series, also from Central America, presents precisely the features last 
detailed, but the white on the tail feathers is either entirely wanting, as in No. 
1818, or reduced to a minimum as in No. 39791. This form constitutes La- 
fresnaye's C. columbianus. 

"Glossy Mack, beneath yellow, base of quills and lateral tail feathers white. Total length 
4i; bill 3-10; wings 24; tail 2; tarsi |." 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 88 

Still a fourth series is recognizable in the collections before me, embracing 
examples from New Mexico and Arizona; collected by myself near Fort Win- 
gate, in New Mexico, and by J. H. Clarke on the Gila River. These exhibit a 
remarkable gradation towards the peculiar features of psaltria. The black of 
the back is mixed with about an equal amount of olive, the proportions of the 
two colors varying from e. g. No. 37088, where there is only a trace of olive, 
to e, g. Nos. 37091 2, where there is decidedly more olive than black, so 
much indeed that this color forms quite a contrast with the black pileum. The 
auriculars are black as in mexicanus, but, the yellow lower eyelid, like that of 
psaltria, is not disconnected with the yellow of the throat. All three of these 
birds i shot out of the same flock at the same time, (June 28, 1864.) The Gil* 
birds agree exactly with the most olivaceous of these just described. A spe- 
cimen No. 39094, tf, Aug. 18, Fort Whipple,) of supposed psaltria with a pure 
olive back, has the auriculars black. 

From the above detailed features of large series of skins, representing lo- 
calities all the way from Panama to Northern Arizona, it will be evident that 
the typical style of mcxicanus from the table lands merges, by insensible degrees, 
through Costa Rican examples into an extreme of form which has been desig- 
nated as C. columbianus. In like manner, just north of Mexico where the con-, 
fines of the species inosculate with those of psaltria, we have a race or form- 
showing decided gradations towards the characters of the Sa-t named species . . 
But still the typical psaltria is so very diverse from mexkanus proper, and the 
doubtful specimens incline po very decidedly towards the latter, that, in the 
impossibility of uniting psaltria with mexieanus, we must consider them as " va-- 
rieties" of the latter, unless, indeed, they be hybrids between the two.* 

Upon the whole, then, it may be best to refer all the black-backed examples. 
to one species, mexkanus, recognizing three " varieties;" columbianus, mex* 
icanus and arizonsc, as at least a convenient mode of indicating the differences, 
whatever be their value, which actually do exist. 

Regarding the females of the two species and of the varieties, \ confess my 
inability to distinguish them with tiny degree of certainty, except by the lo- 
calities whence they come, since all are quite similarly colored, and tut re are 
no very tangible differences of form. 

140. Chrysomitris Lawrencei (Cassin ) Bonap. 

Abundant.; probably resident. My numerous examples of this species, so 
widely dissimilar from any other, were all taken at Fort Whipple in winter. 
Although I never noticed it at any other season, I have little doubt that it is a 
permanent resident, breeding in the mountain* of Northern Arizona. I nave 
seen summer examples from Fort Tejou, Cal. The differences between winter 
and spring or summer specimens, consists in little else than the replacing of 
theyellow dorsal spot by olive~gray, either pure or a little mixed with yellowish. 
The yellow of the other parts is as bright as in spring, and the black frontlet 
remains intact. Females want entirely the black on the head, which is all 
around plain olive gray, while the pectoral spot and other yellow parts are dulli 
in tint, and restricted in extent, or even, as may be the case sometimes with 
the dorsal s<pot, entirely wanting. The iris of both sexes is dark brown. Iq 
summer the bill and legs are fledi colored, more or less obscured bv 
dusky; in winter the bill is hotn blue, and the legs, feet and claws blackish 
liruwn. 

The species has been hitherto considered as chiefly a California Coast bird. 

141. Chrysomitris pinds (Wils.) Bp. 

A generally distributed species, undoubtedly to be hereafter added to the 
Whipple list. ' Fort Thorn, N. M , Dr. T. C. Henry, U. S. A. 



*"How convenient it would be if we could, with dignified imperturbability, accept a broad theory 
of hybridization as the correct solution of these constantly recurring atd vexatious problems !" 



1866.] 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

142. CuRVIROSTRA AMERICANA WilsOtl. 

If, as is probably the case, the Loxia mexicana of Strickland is rightly to be 
referred to C. americana, then this species, being found breeding upon the Table 
Lands of Mexico, and so general'y distributed throughout North America, must 
be added to the Arizona list. It is doubtless to be found at times at Fort Whipple. 

Chrysomitris trislis, Aegiolhus linarius, and, perhaps, Curvirostra leucoptera and 
Pinicola canadensis, though not to my knowledge hitherto detected in Arizona, 
will most probably be discovered in winter towards the northern boundary of 
the Territory. 

143. Pi.ectrophanes MF.i,AxoMus Baird. 

Resident? Rare. A single specimen taken Oct. 17, 1864, on open, grassy 
plains, is rtferrible to this species. 

Some interesting peculiarities of the r >nge of habitat of this species assist 
the characters presented by the bird in separating it from P. ornatus. It is 
known to breed on the Table Lands of Mexico. 

(144.) Pi.ectrophanes Maccownii Lawrence. 

Extends from the vast arid plains of New Mexico into those of Southern 
Arizona. {Dr. Ileermann.) 

145. Calamospiza bicolor (Towns.) Bon. 

" Abundant near the Pima Villages, A. T.," Dr. A. L. ITeermann. This 
gentleman al-o s>iys that he found it in the Mesilla Valley near Fort Fillmore. 
In crossing the Great Plains I found it abundant as far as the Raton Moun- 
tains, westward of which I have never seen it. In the north its westward 
range seems limited, but it extends al^ng the Mexican border, and across the 
Southern Rocky Mountains and Valley of the Lower Colorado, and is found 
also at Cape St. Lucas. It is not recorded from the coast region of Upper 
California. 

146. Chondestes grammacus (Say.) Bon. 

Chiefly spring and autumn migrant, being very numerous at those seasons. 
Many breed, and a few remain all winter. Extends southward to Mexico. 
' Not detected in the Colorado Valley even in winter." (Cooper.) 

147. Passercdlcs alaudinus Bonap. 

Abundant. Summer resident. My numerous specimens are referrible to 
this supposed species, ditfering in some slight degree from the average of east- 
ern birds in the grayish rather than decidedly yellow superciliary streak, and 
the general paleness of the colors. The bill is perhaps a little slenderer and 
more elongated. The differences which separate it from savanna appear to me 
no greater than are to be found when large series of the latter are compared 
with each other. 

For some additional data upon the relationships of the North American Pas- 
xercitli, see the London Ibis for 1866. 

148. Pooecetes graminecs (Gm ) Baird. 

Very abundant. Summer resident. Winters in the Colorado Valley. Arrives 
last week in March. Remains till November. I can detect no differences be- 
tween eastern and western birds. 

149. Coturniculus PASSERiNUS (Wils.) Bon. 

Rare. Not observed at Whipple. Bill Williams' River, Kennerly. 

150. Zonotrichia Gambeli (Nutt.) Gambel. 

Abundant. Resident. First noticed Sept. 15, and at once becoming ex- 
c<edingly numerous, they continued so until January ; after which only a few 
stragglers were seen until the latter part of April, when they again became 
common. By far the greater part go further north to breed. In general hab- 
its this species seems to resemble albicollis rather than ;he more closely allied 
. leucophys. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 85 

Iris bright brown. Bill bright lemon yellow, dusky reddish at tip. Feet 
brown with a yellowish tinge ; soles pure yellow. 

Z. leucophrys is given by Dr. Kennerly as found on Bill Williams' River. It 
is well known that occasional specimens are taken in the range of habitat 
which belongs especially to Gambeli. 

151. Junco hyemalis (L.) Sclater. 

Rare and accidental. During the winter of 1864-65, I shot three typical ex- 
amples of this species; in each instance iu company with both the succeeding 
birds. 

152. Jpnco oregonds (Towns.) Sclater. 

Exceedingly abundant winter resident. Arrive at Fort Whipple about Oct. 
10 ; soon become very numerous and continue so until the second week in 
April ; stragglers seen till May * Keep quietly hidden in out of the way 
places till cold weather has fairly set in, when they become very familiar, and 
are to be seen everywhere. 

Both sexes, and at all ages and seasons after the first autumnal moult, are 
never without the reddish along the sides of the body ; and the head is never 
entirely concolor with back. 

Perfectly adult males have the head, neck all around, and breast pure black, 
nearly as trenchantly defined against the reddish of the back as against the 
white of the belly. The sides are strongly tinged with pinkish rufous. The 
dull chestnut or reddish brown of the back extends on the scapulars and outer 
edges of the secondaries and greater coverts. This color merges insensibly 
into olive gray on the rump. The two outer tail feathers on each side are 
pure white ; the third is white with an edging of dusky along its inner web to 
near the tip. The bill is flesh colored, or delicate pinkish white; its apex 
dusky. The tarsi are dusky flesh color, the feet more obscure. 

The young female, early in winter, has the back more dully colored, while 
the rufous tinge invades the nape and to some extent the crown ; and the edg- 
ings of the wings and coverts are very light, being gray rather than rufous. 
The black of the head and breast has a slaty tinge; and is sprinkled with light 
grayish or rufous, which interrupts the deeper color, though never to the ex- 
tent of making the parts concolor with the back. The wash along the sides is 
fainter and duller. There is usually less white in the sides of the tail. 

Between these two extremes is to be found every possible gradation. The 
great majority of all males have the continuity of the black on the nape inter- 
rupted by rufous tips to some of the feathers. A specimen (1138 of my collec- 
tion, Dec. 12, 1864,) has a large abruptly denned pure white spot, of an irregu- 
lar shape, on the chin. This is a curious example of partial albinism. 

153. Junco caniceps (Woodh.) Baird. 

Struthus caniceps, Woodhouse, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vi. Dec. 1852 p. 202. Id. 
Sitgreave's Rep. Expl. Zuiii and Col. Rivers, 1853, p. 83, pi. iii. 

Junco caniceps, Baird, B. N. A. 1858, p. 468. 

Junco dorsalis, Henry, Proc. Acad. Philada. ; Baird, B. N. A. 
Numerous examples in my collection, agreeing with Woodhouse's types 
from the San Francisco Mountains. A not very abundant winter resident at 
Fort Whipple; times of arrival and departure, and general habits those of 
oregonus, with which it associates freely. 

The red of the back is a subtriangnlar patch of a bright ferrugineous tint 
quite different from the chestnut of or eg onus ; its extent is smaller, and it is less 
distinctly defined against the gray both of the nape and rump ; and does not at 
any age or season invade the wing coverts. The outer edges of the secondaries 
are grayish brown, even in full plumaged birds ; but the wing coverts are 
purely cinereous gray like the rest of the body. The gray extends along the 

* In this there is aa absolute parallelism with J. hyemalis, as observed at Washington, D. C. 

1866.] 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OT 

sides of the breast and belly ; bat it is much lighter in tint than on the upper 
parts ; and lias no very distinct line of demarcation with tbe white of the ab- 
domen ; which latter varies greatly in parity and extent. There is never any 
trace of reddish or pinkish on the sides; these parts being eoncolor with the 
throat and breast, as in hyemalis. The space between the eye and bill, and to a 
less extent the immediate circumocular feathers are blackish. The third lateral 
tail featbtr has a greater amount of dusky than of white. Females are like 
tli e males, except that tbe cinereous gray below is paler, the white abdomi- 
nal region larger, and the union of these two colors more gradual. 

I have tbtts gone somewhat into detail regarding the characters of oregonus 
nnd eankeps, because in my collection are several examples which I regard as 
most undoubtedly hybrids between the two. Their general aspect is that of 
tanieeps ; ihe head, neck and throat being slate gray, not black ; the lores de- 
cidedly blackish, etc. There is a large dorsal area, colored as in orego- 
nus, and, most marked feature of all, the sides are strongly tinged with pink- 
ish fulvous, exactly as in oregonus, instead of being plain cinereous gray, con- 
color with the throat, as in caniceps. Other specimens preponderate still more 
towards oregonus. in having the head and neck rather slate black than slate 
gray. 

The specimens are such palpable hybrids, that they need not in the least in- 
validate the specific distinctions between the iwo species. In the case of Co- 
Naples auralvs and mexicanus, it has been proven ineontrovertibly tbat such a 
thing is entirely possible between closely allied though quite distinct species. 

I have examined the type of Dr. Henry's Jwaco dorsalis, from Fort Thorn, 
now in the Philadelphia Academy ; and I cannot discern wherein it differs 
from tanieeps Woodh. This tatter species however seems quite distinct from the 
Mexican cnterevs, in the restriction of the chestnut to a well defined dorsal 
area, instead of its extending over roost of the wing coverts and tertials; and 
in the wholly white outer tail feathers, whereas in einereus a portion of their 
bases, especially on the inner web, are dusky. The range of habitat cf the 
two species is also diverse. 

154. Poospiza bilineata (Cass.) Sclater. 

Rare at Whipple, where the nature of tbe locality is not suited to it. Very 
abundant in the southern and western portions of the Territory. Open plains, 
grassy or covered with sage brush. 

In adult birds the black of ihe upper border of the superciliary streak ex- 
tends across the forehead. Sometimes old birds have a decided ferrugineous 
tint in the gray of the tipper parts ; but are never streaked. The moult con- 
tinues until October. 

The young bird differs materially from the adult. There is no black about 
the head or throat, arid the white streaks are nearly obsolete. The superciliary 
sireak is short and indistinct; ana is not bordered above by black. Thelores 
are simply dusky and not pure black. The throat is pure white ; and has a 
row of small spots oa each side forming an imperfect maxillary streak, dividing 
the white of the throat from thai of the side of tbe lower jaw. The tipper parts 
a>e strongly tinged with dull ferrugineous; and are obsoletely streaked in tbe 
middle of the back with black. The wing coverts and tertials are strongly 
edged with ferrugineous. The breast is white streaked thickly with dusky. The 
tail is black as in the adult, and the outer feather is white on its external web ; 
but the n< xt three rectrices are not tipped with white. The lower mandible 
and the feet are dusky flesh color ; instead of both being, as in the ad alt, bluish 
black. 

355. Poospjza Belli (Cass.) Sclater. 

Rather uncommon about Fort Whipple, for the same reason as mentioned 
under head of P. bilineata. Abundant in the sage brush of the Gila Valley. 
Keeps much oa the ground, where its motions are very like those of a Pipilo. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 87 

(156.) Spizella monticola (Gm.) Baird. 

Rare and perhaps accidental. Colorado Chiquito River, Kennerly. 

S57. Spizella socialis (Wils ) Bonap. 

Very abundant summer resident. Arrives third week in March ; remains 
until fatter part of November; a few stragglers may possibly winter. For a 
month after its arrival it is in large flocks of fifty or more; and chiefly keeps 
on the ground in open places, like Passercuhis or Pooecetes. In the fall, again, 
collects in large flocks, associating with Chrysomilres and Pipilones, and with S. 
atrigularis. Mates in latter part of April. Remains in moult through greater 
part of October. 

Numerous specimens shot in the fall presented an aspect so different from 
the usual well-known immature style of socialis, that I received the impres- 
sion of a distinct species. The color of the crown was more the light ferru- 
gineous of monticola, than deep chestnut, as in socialis. A large suite of adult 
spring birds i cannot distinguish satisfactorily from the common eastern bird. 

858. Spizella Bueweri Cassin. 

Emberiza pallida of Audubon's works. Not of Swainson. 

Spizella pallida of Kennedy's and Heermann's Reports, and of Coues, 

Ibis., April 1865, p. 164, from Arizona. 
Spizella Breiceri, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. viii. 1856, p. 40. Baird, Birds 
N. A. 1858, p. 475. 

Rare summer resident. A shy and retiring species, keeping mostly in thick 
brush near the ground. 

This species constantly presents perfectly tangible differences from pallida, 
independent of the seasonal changes to which both are subject. In addition 
to the general paleness, or, so to speak, obsoleteness of all the markings of the 
body, the great differences in the colors and stripes of the head, as detailed 
by Cassin and Baird, readily separate them. Breweri has no ahy collar around 
the back and sides of the neck, and the breast; but the small streaks of the 
head and back are directly continuous. All the specimens before me measure 
rather more in length than those of pallida, due ehiefly to a greater elongation 
of the tail. Other measurements do not exceed those of pallida. 

Some July specimens, in moult, present a faded and dull gray appearance, 
with no signs of ochraceoin on any part; and all the streaks are so narrow 
as to be merely faintly pencilled lines. 

S. pallida is given by Dr. Kennerly from Bill Williams' River; and by Dr. 
Heermann from Tucson and Pima, in southern Arizona. These citations are 
doubtless to he referred to Breweri. Pallida is a species of the high central 
plains and the region of the Missouri. Breweri ranges through New Mexico, 
Arizona and California. 

159. Spizella atrigularis (Cab.) Baird. 

Spinites atrigularis, Cabanis, Mus. Hein, 1851, p. 133. 

Spizella atrigularis, Baird, B. N. A., 1858, p. 476. 

Struthus atrimentalis, Couch, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. vii. 1854, p. 67. 

Spizella evura, Coues, Newton's Ibis, January, 1865, p 118. Ibid, 
April, 1865, p. 104. (A young bird, without black face and throat.) 
Rare. Summer resident. Arrives early in April, and mates shortly after- 
wards ; remains till middle of October. In small flocks or rather companies, 
in the fall associating with Chrysomitris and Spizella. In the spring has a 
sweet and melodious song, far surpassing in power and melody that of all 
other Spizellce. Young birds want entirely the distinctive facial markings 
of the adults. Iris black. Bill dull red. Legs and feet brownish black. 
Length 6-GO; extent 7'60; tail 3-10. 

During my first autumn at Fort Whipple I shot numerous specimens of a Spi- 
zella generally resembling S. atrigularis, but wanting entirely the black face 
and chin. The interscapulars are of a quite different shade of chestnut. The 

1866.] 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

outer web of the external tail feather, and, to a less degree, the edge of the 
inner web of the same, are quite purely white. The bill is dusky brown 
above, dusky flesh color below, the feet black. The unusual length of the 
tail also attracted my attention. 

A fully adult male, procured April 20, has the black face and chin exactly 
as in atrigularis. The interscapulars are of a brighter chestnut than in the 
fall bird. The slate gray of the head and breast is deeper and purer, and 
more markedly contrasted with the also purer white of the middle abdominal: 
region. 

An adult female in deep moult, procured July 21, has also no trace of black 
about the head. 

Several specimens from Cape St. Lucas, in precisely the plumage of my 
autumnal Whipple examples, I find labelled by Baird with the MSS. name 
" S. cana, n. s." 

It is just possible that large series may hereafter establish a species from 
Arizona and California distinct from the Mexican, both possessing the' black 
on the face ; but at present I cannot satisfactorily distinguish two species. 
Should they prove identical, they will afford an instance of a degree of sea- 
sonal variation quite unusual in the species composing the genus Spizella. 

160. Melospiza fallax Baird. 

tFringilla melodia, Wilson, Am. Orn. ii. 1810, 125, pi. xvi. f. 4. 

Coue% Newton's Ibis, April, 1865, p. 165. 
Znnotrichia fallax, Baird, Pr. A. N. S., 1854, 119. 
Melospiza fallax, Baird, Birds N. A., 1858, p. 481, 
Common ; permanent resident. Habits, manners and voice precisely 
those of melodia. 

The locality* whence were described the original specimens of " Zonotrichia 
fallax" is so near Fort Whipple that, for all practical purposes, it may be- 
considered the same. Such differences as exist are detailed by Prof. Baird,. 
ut supra, with whose expressed opinion that the species is of doubtful 
validity I entirely coincide. 

M. fallax occurs throughout New Mexico, Arizona, and part of Southern. 
California, and is particularly abundant in the Valley of the Colorado. 
Westward of the Colorado Desert M. Heermanni chiefly replaces it. The lat- 
ter species is very probably to be found at Fort Mojave. 

(161.) Melospiza Lincolnii (Aud.) Baird. 

This extensively distributed species, which occurs throughout the United" 
States and Territories, and south into Central America, has been taken in the 
Territory by Dr. Kennerly. I have not myself met with it. 

The following Finches most probably remain to be hereafter added to the 
list : Peiic.ira Cassini Baird, and Embernagra rtijirirguta Lawrence, in the- 
valley of the Gila and Southern Arizona generally ; Passerculus sehistaceus 
Baird, on the upper Colorado. (Specimens of the latter species are recorded 
from Fort Tejon, Cala. ) 

162. Gcikaca cojrulea (Linn.) Swains. 

Generally distributed ; nowhere very common. A single specimen taken 
near Fort Whipple, Aug. 10, 1865. "Arrives at Fort Mojave May 1st."' 
( Cooper.) 

163. Guikaca melanocephala Swains. 

Abundant. Summer resident. Arrives May 1st ; remains until latter part 
of September. Frequents the thick brush of ravines, etc., and the cotton- 
wood and willow copses of the creek bottoms. Its ordinary note intimately 

*" Pueblo Creek, New Mexico," is now known as " Walnut" Creek, Arizona, anil is hardly a 
day's march from Furl Whipple, which lies but a short distance off the trail of Lieut. Whipple's 
party, in going from the San Francisco mountains to the Headwaters of Bill Williams' River. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 89 

resembles that of Lophortyx Garnbeli. Its song is superb ; a powerful but 
melodious succession of clear rich rolling notes, reminding one somewhat of 
the Icterus buLimore. " Net met with in the Colorado Valley." (Cooper). 

164. Cyanospiza amcena (Say,) Baird. 

Summer resident ; not abundant. More common somewhat further South. 

PIPILO Vieillot. 

The genus Pipilo of Vieillot, as now usually defined by ornithologists, 
seems to embrace species not strictly congeneric with its type, P. erythroph- 
thalmus. The differences lie chiefly in the shape of the wings and tail, and in 
the relative proportions of these parts to each otber, as well as in the pattern 
of coloration. 

In the bird now generally known as Pipilo chlorurus these variations from 
the type are most marked. The long wings almost equal the tail, which latter 
is scarcely at all graduated. The elongated first primary gives a more 
pointed shape to the wing. The pattern of coloration is unusual and quite 
peculiar. The genus Kieneria was established by Bonaparte,* with the 
Pyrgisoma Kieneri as type ; and under it this author ranges rvfipileus, fuscus, 
Abertii, etc. But the P. Kieneri seems quite congeneric with the type of 
Pyrgisoma; in which event Kieneria becomes a synonym, untenable for this 
or any other group. " Pipilo " chlorurus being generically dissimilar from the 
type of Embernagra (Saltator viridis Vieillot,) to which genus it has been 
referred, very probably is wanting in a tenable generic application, unless the 
name Chlorura f fills this vacancy. 

After thus eliminating P. chlorurus, there still remain, in North America, 
four species, crissalis X Vigors, mesoleucus Baird. albigula Baird, and Abertii 
Baird ; which agree with each other in differing from the black, white, and 
chestnut group of which P. erythrophthalmus is the type, in the proportions of 
wings and tail, amount of graduation of the latter, and pattern of coloration. 
They should, I am of opinion, constitute a separate generic group, of which 
P. Abertii may be considered the type. I believe that this genus has yet to 
receive a distinctive name. 

165. Pipilo megaloynx Baird. 

Very abundant permanent resident. Rather more numerous in spring and 
fall than at other times. Shy and retiring, inhabiting the thickest brush. Is 
in moult through part of July, whole of August, and half of September. 
Ordinary call-note almost exactly like that of Minus carolinensis : the song a 
rather harsh and monotonous repetition of four or six syllables, something 
like that of Euspiza americana. Females found with mature eggs in ovi- 
ducts as early as May -5th. 

The female of this species is not brown, conspicuously different from the 
male, but only dull brownish black. I think this is the case also with the 
other western Pipilos with spotted scapulars ; in which there is to be found 
no such sexual difference as is seen in P. erythrophthalmus. 

In carefully examining a very large series of Pipilo from Arizona, as well 
as from other localities, I find it difficult to discern constant and tangible dif- 
ferences between arcticus and megalonyx. My specimens are all referrible to 
the latter species, or variety, if it be only one. I prefer now to leave the sub- 

* Uomptes Rendus. xl., Jan., 1855, p. 356. 

fUsed by Sclater, Cat. Atner. Bds., p. 117, as designating a snbgeneric division. 

j Vig. Z iol. Toy. Beechey, v. p. 19, which equals fuscus of Cassin, Baird and other American 
writers, but not of Swainson. 

\ Which probably is the true fuscus Swains. Syn Mex. Bds. Phil. Mag. i. If 27, No. 46, and Two 
Cent., 1838, p. 347, No. 197. See Cabanis, Journ i". Ornith., Nov., 1852, p. 474, for critique upon 
synonymy of J ipilones. But Cabanis' statement that P. megalonyx Baird is a synonym of P. 
ma'culatus Swainson will require confirmation. 

1866.] 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

ject as Prof. Baird has determined it ; especially as iu his forthcoming 
"Review " the matter will be re-examined. 

(166.) " Pipilo " Abertii Baird. 

One of the most abundant and characteristic birds of the Valley of the 
Gila and Colorado. Ranges northward to within a few miles of Whipple, bnt 
is not found in the adjacent mountains. Common at Fort Mojave, and par- 
ticularly so at Fort Yuma. 

(167.) "Pipilo" ME=iOLEcrctJS Baird. 

Abundantly distributed throughout the warmer portions of New Mexico 
and Arizona, from the Valley of the Rio Grande to that of the Colorado. Not 
observed at Fort Whipple, though found breeding some twenty-five miles to 
the southward. Associates freely with the preceding, and inhabits the same 
regions ; and the two have very similar habits. 

This species is permanently and very distinct from crissalis, Vigors, of the 
California Coast, or from albigula of Cape St. Lucas ; which species it replaces 
in the southern Rocky Mountain region. 

168. " Pipilo " chlorura (Towns.) 

Spring and autumn migrant ; none breed or remain all winter. Pa=ses 
rapidly by Fort Whipple ; being found only during the latter part of April 
and beginning of May, and during the month of September. The most silent 
and retiring of the " Pipilos " being very difficult to observe or capture. 
"Winters sparingly at Fort Mojave," {Cooper). 

The species varies a good deal in the color of the iris ; e. g., No. 738, iris 
dark red ; No. 739, iris olive brown ; No. 740, iris reddish brown ; all of 
which birds were shot at the same time. 

(169.) Pyrrhdloxia sinuata Bonap. 

This Mexican species, introduced into the United States Fauna from the 
lower Rio Grande Valley, has been taken at Fort Yuma. It is now well 
known as a common bird of Cape St. Lucas. 

The Cardinalis igneus, Baird, (Pr. A. N. S. Ph., Nov., 1S59, p. 10,) very 
abundant at Cape St. Lucas, may also very probably be found in the south- 
western portions of the Territory. 

JCTERID.E. 

170. Molotitrits pecoris (Gm.) Swains. 

Very abundant summer resident ; arrives middle of April and remains 
until October. Vast numbers seen at Fort Yuma in September. Winters 
abundantly in the Colorado Valley. 

171. Agel^eus phceniceus (Linn.) Vieill. 

Common ; resident. Most numerous in October and November. Associates 
constantly and intimately with the succeeding spfcies. 

A. gubernator is given by Dr. Kennerly from Pueblo Creek, Ariz. He very 
probably made an erroneous identification. It is doubtful if either gubernator 
or tricolor, so abundant in California, ever cross the desert to the Colorado 
Valley, except in isolated and accidental instances. 

172. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.) Cab. 

Exceedingly abundant ; permanent resident. The typical Blackbird of 
Fort Whipple. Comparatively few breed in the immediate vicinity. Towards 
the end of September they become very numerous, and continue so until 
May, when few are to be observed until the following fall. Congregate in 
immense flocks about the clearings, stock corrals, etc., and are tame and 
familiar. By no means a uiarsk species, but rather a pini'oline one. Their 
note is a harsh rasping or grating squeak, varied at intervals by a rather 
melodious ringing whistle. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 91 

Male; average 10-00x16-50: iris light creamy yellow. Female; average 
9-00x15 '25 ; iris brown. Autumnal males are frequently seen in nearly 
complete plumage. 

173. Xanthocephalus icterocephalus (Bon.) Baird. 

Rather uncommon, being less numerous than at most other localities where 
found at all. Chiefly a summer resident. Rather a marsh and prairie spe- 
cies, than a bird of mountainous regions. 

The variations in the tint, and in the extent or restriction of the yellow, de- 
pendent upon age, sex or season, as well as purely accidental, are very great, and 
almost interminable. Some immature males have the head saffron or ochra- 
ceous, the nape clouded with black, and a distinct median longitudinal black 
stripe along the crown. Sometimes very young males show no yellow what- 
ever. The size is also liable to great variation ; a female before me being 
hardly half the size of an adult male. (Wing 4-25 instead of 550 ; tail 3-25 
instead of 4-10, etc.) 

174. Sturnella neglecta Audubon. 

Rare ; resident. The nature of most of the vicinity of Fort Whipple is not 
well adapted to the habits of this species. I never saw a half dozen individu- 
als during my whole stay. 

175. Icterus Bcllockii (Sw.) Bon. 

Common summer resident. Almost exclusively frequents the willows and 
cottonwoods of the creek bottoms, to the small twigs of which its pensile nest 
is attached. Arrives late in April, and remains through greater part of 
September. 

The female is plain grayish olive (pure gray on the rump,) brightening into 
olive yellow on the nape, upper tail coverts and tail. Forehead, superciliary 
streak, sides of head and neck, and a large space on the breast bright yellow. 
Space between eye and bill and the whole chin pure white. Rest of under 
parts grayish white, tinged with yellow on the under tail coverts. Median 
wing coverts broadly edged and tipped with white. Bill and feet similarly 
colored with those of the male. 

CORVlDsE. 

176. Corvds carnivorus Bartram. 

Corvus cacalotl, Wagler. Isis. 1831, 527. (Mexico.) Baird, B. N. A. 

1858, p. 563. (Colorado Valley.) 
Corvus carnivorus, Bartram ; Baird. B. N. A. 1858, p. 560. 
Resident. Very abundant, especially about the clearings, cattle enclosures, 
etc., where it congregates in immense numbers in the autumn and winter. 
During the severe winter of 1864-5 great numbers perished at Fort Whipple 
by cold and hunger. 

I cannot distinguish the Colorado Raven even as a well-marked variety of 
carnivorus. Specimens from all points between the Arkansaw river and the 
Colorado desert seem to me quite identical. 

177. Picicorvus Coldmbianus (Wils.) Bon. 

Abundant at irregular intervals during the winter months ; from the middle 
of October till March. High open forests. Restless, shy and noisy. 

Iris brown ; bill and feet black; hard parts of mouth livid, fauces pinkish. 
Specimens in moult have the plumbeous intercalated with a hoary, almost 
ochraceous whitish, produced by the fading of the original colors. Individu- 
als vary much in size. 

178. Gymnokitta cyanocephala Maxim. 

This singular and interesting species has the form of a crow ; but its colors 
and its habits are most decidedly garruline. It is a very abundant and 
characteristic bird at Fort Whipple, remaining all the year. It breeds in the 

1866.] 



92 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



retired portions of the neighboring mountains, the young leaving the nest 
early in July. During the winter months they collect in immense flocks ; 
sometimes, as I witnessed in at least one instance, to the extent of a thousand 
or more. These large companies scour the country about, flying restlessly 
and noisily from place to place, and generally scattering over a considerable 
area. They are shy and wary, so that, notwithstanding their numbers, they 
are difficult to shoot. Their food is chiefly seeds, berries and nuts, especially 
the nuts of the Pinus edulis, and the berries of Juniperus pachydermia. They 
alight much on the ground, where their gait is firm, erect and easy. Their 
flesh is quite palatable. 

Iris brown. Bill and feet black; soft parts of mouth rose red; corneous 
parts black. Males range from 11-50 to 12.00 in length, by from 16-50 to 
19-00 in extent ; the females from 11-00 to 11-50 in length, by 1625 to 18-00 
in extent. Differences in length are by no means always accompanied by 
corresponding discrepancies in extent of wings. The intensity of the blue is 
liable to great variation, as is also the distinctness of the white gular streaks. 
The blue of the head usually merges quite insensibly into the grayish blue of 
the back ; but there is often quite a distinct line of demarcation. Specimens 
in poor plumage have frequently light gray primaries. 

179. Cyanocitta Woodhousei (Baird.) 

Cyanocorax californica, Woodhouse, in Sitgreave's Rep. Expl. Col. 

and Zufii R. 1853, p. 77. (San Francisco Mts.) 
Cyanocitta Woodhousei, Baird. B. N. A., 1858, p. 5S5. 

Resident, and exceedingly abundant, being the most characteristic species. 
Found in all situations ; but rather shuns dense pine woods and keeps on the 
open hill-sides, among the scrub oaks. etc. In winter collects in rather large 
flocks, sometimes as many as fifty ; usually, however, seen in little companies 
of half a dozen individuals. A restless, vigilant, shy, and noisy species. 

Males average 12-00x16-50; females about 11-25x15-50. In moult, ex- 
amples are often seen with gray like that of the dorsal patch intercalated with 
the blue of the head. Iris brown ; bill and feet black. Mouth dull bluish 
white. 

I think there is no doubt of the propriety of separating the southern Rocky 
Mountain Cyanocitta from the true californica of the Pacific coast. The 
characters as detailed by Baird, ut supra, are very constant and quite 
appreciable. 

It is very probable that C. californica and C. Woodhousei will be found 
associated at certain portions of the Colorado desert, as for example along the 
Mojave river. 

(180.) Cyanocitta sordida (Sw.) Baird. 

Chiefly a Mexican species, but extending northward to the Gila Valley. 
Fort Buchanan, Dr. B. J. D. Irwin, U. S. A. Copper mines, J. H. Clark. 

181. Cyanura macrolopha Baird. 

Common ; resident. Almost exclusively pinicoline. Generally found in 
small companies : never congregating to the extent even which C. Woodhousei 
does. Very shy, vigilant, noisy and tyrannical. 

A very young bird taken July 22, on the San Francisco mountains, besides 
being smaller, and having a weaker bill and feet, differs considerably from the 
adult in colors. The upper parts are rather smoky brown than blue ; and 
this color also invades the rump. Below the colors are also fuliginous ; only 
a slight leaden or grayish cast indicating the future bright blue. At the same 
time the wings and tail are nearly as bright blue as in the adult ; but the 
black bars upon them are very obsolete, or wanting altogether. There is 
considerable of a crest, but its color is fuliginous black instead of deep glossy 
black ; and there are no traces of the white front and white about the eyes. 
The crest is about as long as that of an adult Stelleri. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 93 

The differences between this species and Stelleri of the Pacific coast, as de- 
tailed by Prof. Baird, seem to me quite sufficient to separate them. I may 
add, that in macrolopha the bluish white wash on the front occupies, 
when the feathers are undistorted, two straight lines, ascending perpendicu- 
larly from each nostril, and quite distinct from each other ; while in Stelleri 
the tendency is for the whole front to be indiscriminately washed with bluish. 
In both species, the colored tips of the frontal feathers have a somewhat dif- 
ferent texture and consistence from their dark basal portions. 

A large series of specimens, chiefly from the head waters of the Columbia* 
have the front washed with dull blue just as in Stelleri; and have also the 
white supra-ocular spot of macrolopha. It is quite possible that hybrids of the 
two species may occur ; but I am not prepared to say positively that such is 
the case in the present instance. Both species are found in the regions above 
referred to. 

(182.) Pica hudsonica (Forst.) Bon. 

Spariugly distributed throughout the Territory. Not personally met with 
at Whipple. 

Young birds shot in June in the Raton Mountains near Taos, N. M., have 
the bill tipped with yellowish. The tail is only about three inches long. But 
there is a most remarkable similarity in color to the adults ; almost the only 
perceptible differences being a restriction of the white on the primaries, and 
rather dull greenish black instead of violet black wings and tail. 

The yellow billed P. Nuttallii, so abundant in Southern California, does not 
appear to cross the Colorado desert to the river. 

COLUMBWsE. 

183. Columba fasciata Say. 

Summer resident ; very rare ; observed only on two occasions. 

184. Melopeleia leucoptera (Linn.) Bonap. 

Rare ; summer resident. Young birds, half fledged, taken Aug. 15, 1864. 

185. Zenaidura cakolinensis, (Linn.) Bonap. 

Abundant summer resident. Arrives last week in April, remains until 
middle of October. "Winters at Fort Mojave, and on the Pacific coast as 
high as San Fraucisco." (Cooper.) 

To the traveller on the dry sandy wastes of Arizona this bird is always a 
welcome sight, indicating with certainty the presence of water in the vicinity. 
I have never known the sign to fail in my own limited experience. The na- 
ture of the food ordinarily taken necessitates an abundant supply of water. 
This was satisfactorily demonstrated to me on one occasion, when the crops of 
several, shot just as they were coming to drink, were filled with small seeds, 
as dry and hard as when first ingested, and totally unassimilable until mace- 
rated with water. 

186. Cham^epeleia passerina (Linn.) Swains. 

A rare and probably accidental visitor to the Valley of the Colorado. (Fort 
Yuma, lees, La Paz, Hut.ton. ) Probably goes at least as high as Fort Mojave. 
Perhaps variety pallescens Baird, from Cape St. Lucas. 

PHASIANIDsE. 

187. Meleagris mexicana Gould. 

There can be no doubt of the propriety of separating the Western Turkey 
from the common species of the Eastern United States. The differences are 
very decided, and of such a character as to have an important bearing upon 
the question of the origin of the domesticated bird. The latter, as is well 
known, usually approaches mexicana rather than gallipavo, in its colors. 

*The locality whence came the Gamdus Stelleri of Swainson (F. B. A. 1831, ii. p. 294, pi. liv.) 
which is probably rather referrible to macrolopha than to the true SUMeri. 

1866.] 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

The wild Turkey is a permanent resident of the mountains of the immedi- 
ate vicinity of Whipple, but quite rare, so much so that I procured no speci- 
mens. In some portions of the Southern Rocky Mountain region it is exceed- 
ingly numerous. 

I have never detected any of the Tetraonidce in Arizona, though very pro- 
bably the Centrocercus urophasianus may be hereafter found towards the Utah 
border. Dr. Cooper has seen it on the Mojave River, about the southernmost 
point it has yet been observed. 

Among the Lagopidce, the Lagopus leucurus has been detected as far south 
as Cantonment Burgwyn, in New Mexico, (lat. 37,) and most probably will 
be found in the mountains near the northern border of the Territory. 

PERDICIDM. 

188. Lophoktyx Gambelii Nuttall. 

L. Ganbelii, " Nuttall." Gambel, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1843, p. 260. Baird, 
B. N. A. 1858, p. 645. Coues, Newton's Ibis. Jan., 1866, p. 46. (Bi- 
ographical.) 
" Lophortyx californicus," Coues, Newton's Ibis, 1865, p. 165. (Erro- 
neous identification.) 

The common and characteristic Quail of the Southern Rocky Mountain re- 
gion from the Rio Grande to the Colorado, and south into Mexico. Replaces 
the L. californica. The two species have been found associated at Soda Lake, 
the sink of the Mojave River. 

In my paper, as above, will be found some account of the habits of this 
Quail, which I had previously, in the same Journal, (Ibis, 1865, p. 165,) 
incidentally mentioned erroneously as L. " calif 'ornicus." From a large 
suite of specimens, lean describe the following stages from the callow state to 
the fully adult condition. 

Downy state, a few days old. Bill bright reddish above, nearly white be- 
neath ; feet dull flesh color. Head yellowish white tinged with grayish brown ; 
the occiput with a broad spot of pure brown ; on the centre of the crown 
I whence the plume will spring) a few black feathers, each longitudinally 
streaked with white. Entire upper parts brownish gray, (color of the lighter 
parts of the back of a Sturnella,) mottled with spots of black, and very con- 
spicuously streaked with long, sharply pencilled lines of white. Primaries 
dusky, their outer vanes marbled with brownish black and grayish white. 
Whole under parts from the white jugulum narrowly and semiconfluently 
barred with black and ochraceous white, and longitudinally streaked with 
short but distinct lines of pure white. This coloration is most marked and 
definite on the breast ; on the flanks and under tail coverts the markings are 
duller and moie blended. The newly sprouted tail feathers are colored like 
the primaries. Length about 3| ; wing 1| ; tail J. This stage may be seen 
up to the last of August. 

Quarter grown. (Aug., Sep.: length 6 or 7 inches.) The general hue is 
dull leaden gray, becoming ochraceous on the scapulars and wing coverts, 
which are still a little mottled, as described above. Below the gray is very 
light indeed, almost wliitish, especially on the chin and middle of the belly. 
Breast obsoletely waved with light and dark shades of gray, with s'ill some 
slight traces of the white longitudinal lines ; the crissal and anal regions the 
same, but somewhat tinged with brown. On the sides under the wings there 
is a slight fulvous or ferrugineous tinge, but nothing like definite strips. Pri- 
maries plain dusky ; tail more plumbeous ; very finely marbled with blackish 
and whitish. There is a broad superciliary white stripe extending to the ex- 
treme occiput. 

During first autumnal moult. (Sep., Oct., Nov.) The preceding two plu- 
mages are those of chicks, with few true feathers. When the autumnal moult 
has made some little progress, the features of the adults begin to appear, 
mixed in a varying degree with the preceding downy colors. Some of the 

[March 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 95 

wing coverts and secondaries are still mottled, and the tail is a littled marbled, 
but "most of the feathers are clear plumbeous. On the breast, feathers of this 
latter color are interspersed with the wavy gray ones. While the faint ferru- 
gineoas flush of the sides is retained, there are apparent the definite stripes 
of the adult. The crest is now an inch long, but still straight, not recurved, 
and rather brown than black. The bill is quite black, and the feet dark 
colored. At this season the peculiar head markings begin to appear, so that 
the sexual features are quite apparent. 

The early age at which the crest begins to be apparent is surprising. Two 
or three feathers longer than the rest very plainly indicate it in chicks only a 
week or two old. But it does not become black and expanded and recurved 
at the tip, till the bird is full grown and has completed the moult. 

Adult. Iris clear brown. Bill black. Legs and feet brown, sometimes 
with a livid bluish tinge. 

(189.) Callipepla squamata (Vig.) Gray. 

From the Valley of the Gila and Lower Colorado, as well as that of the Rio 
Grande. Not detected as far north as Whipple. 

190. Cyrtonyx massena (Less.) Gould. 

I had frequently been informed of the occurrence of this species at Fort 
Whipple, but I never met with it on but two occasions, when an adult male 
and female were procured. It is doubtless a resident, though rare species. 

No. 1586. $. Oct. 11, 1865. Length 9-00; extent 17 00; wing 4-80; 
tail 2-00; bill -60; tarsus 1-20. Upper mandible dull reddish horn; lower 
bluish white. Mouth whitish flesh color. Legs, feet and claws livid white, 
with a somewhat yellowish tinge posteriorly. Iris brownish olive. The cut- 
edges of the lower mandible are doubly dentated near their end. 

[Note. Many of the following Water Birds are really identified with the 
Whipple series, but only those actually seen by me in that locality are given 
with uninclosed number.] 

GRUID^E. 

(191.) Grus canadensis (L.) Temm. 

Abundant on the Colorado and Gila Rivers. 

ARDEID^E. 

(192.) Garzetta candidissima (Gm.) Bon. 

Very abundant throughout the Valley of the Colorado. 

(193.) Herodias egretta (Gm.) Gray. 

Abundant along the Colorado. Very probably tbe large variety californica 
(Baird B. N. A. p. 667,) may also be found within the limits of the Territory. 

(194.) Ardea herodias Linn. 

Exceedingly abundant along the Colorado River. The nests of this species 
are often seen on some ledge of rock projecting from the precipitous cliffs 
which are covered with innumerable nests of Petrochelidon lunifrons. 

(195.) Ardetta exilis (Gm.) Gray. 

Generally distributed on the streams and cienegas of the Territory. Common 
on the Colorado. 

(196.) Botaurds lentiginos0S (Mont.) Steph. 
Throughout the Territory. Common. 

(197.) Butorides virescens (L.) Steph. 

Very numerous along the Colorado and other streams of the Territory- 

(198.) Nyctiardea Gardeni (Gm.) Baird. 

Generally distributed ; nowhere very numerous. 

1866.] 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

TANTALIDjE. 

(199.) Tantalus loculator Linn. 

Very common on the Colorado, at least as high as Fort Mojave, but especi- 
ally abundant on the lower portions of this river and of the Gila. Great 
numbers seen at Fort Yuma. 

200. Falcinellcs Ordii Bonap. 

Sparsely distributed throughout New Mexico and Arizona. I have seen it 
at intervals from the Rio Grande to the Colorado. Fort Whipple, Oct. 18, 
1864, and at other times during the autumn. 

CHARADRIID^E. 

201. Aegialitis vociferus (L.) Cass. 

The only small wader found in any considerable numbers about Fort 
Whipple Summer resident, arriving early in April and remaining until 
November. 

(202.) Aegialitis semipalmatus, (Bp.) Cab. 

Colorado River, September and October, 1865. 

The Charadrius virginicus, and the Sguatarola helvetica are both doubt- 
less to be found in the Territory, though I have never seen specimens from 
within its limits. 

PODASOCYS* Coues, nov. gen. 

Gh. Gen. Bill two thirds as long as the skull; equal to the middle toe and 
claw; but little more than half the tarsus. Wing of moderate length, reach- 
ing when folded beyond the taiit ; second primary nearly as long as the fit st. 
Tail exceedingly short, contained twice in the length of the wing from the 
carpus; square; the rectrices broad to their obtusely rounded tips. Legs 
stout and very long; denuded portion of tibia two-thirds as long as the tarsus, 
the latter nearly twice as long as the middle toe and claw; tibia and tarsus 
entirely covered with small, polygonal, reticulated plates, largest on the ante- 
rior face of the tarsus. Tjes very short and stout ; lateral ones unequal in 
length : tip of inner claw nearly reaching base of outer lateral one ; tip of the 
latter falling short of the base of the middle one. Claws short, obtuse and 
little curved. Of moderate size, compact form and dull colors. 

Type. Charadrius montanus Towns. 

In general form this genus approaches somewhat JEjialitis, especially that 
section of which melodus is typical (yEgialeus). But it differs widely in the 
very short squire tail, long denuded tibia;, very long tarsi, much abbreviated 
toes, etc. It is possible that some genus already founded upon an exotic type 
may include montanus, but knowing of none such, I have no other alternative 
than to institute a new name, in separating a heterogeneous element from the 
genus with which it is usually associated. 

203. Podasocys montanus (Towns.) 

This species has an extensive range quite from the northern boundary of the 
United^States to the Mexican border, and perhaps much farther each way ; 
though at the same time it is strictly confined to the western portions of the 
continent. It is sparingly distributed throughout Arizona. I have constantly 
met with it from the Rio Grande to the Pacific, in all the regions suitable to 
its pecultar habits. I believe it is quite confined to dry plains either entirely 
bare or covered with straggly brush. In its habits it differs as much from 
most other Charadriinx as does its form ; calling irresistibly to mind the 
Eremophila cornuta. The stomachs of the specimens examined contained or- 
thopterous and coleopterous insects. 

* From the Homeric epithet flrcJac e*wc "swift-footed." 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 97 

REC UR VIR STRIDE. 

(204.) Recurvirostra Americana Gmeliu. 

Recurvirostra occidentalis Vigors. Young. 
Seen in large flocks on the sand-bars of the Colorado. 

(205.) Himantopus nigricolms Vieill. 

Common on the Colorado, in flocks, with the preceding. 

PRALAROPODIDM. 

(20fi.) Steganopus* Wilsonii (Sab.) 

A single specimen seen on the Colorado, Sept., 1865. The species is very 
generally distributed throughout the interior of North America. 

SCOLOPACIDJE. 

(207.) Gallinago Wilsoni, (Temm.) Bon. 

Sparingly distributed throughout the Territory. 

(208.) Macroramphus griseus (Gm.) Leach. 

Sparingly distributed througbout the Territory. Perhaps M. scolopacens 
may also be found. 

(209.) Actodromas Baikdii Coues. 

Tringa " Schinzii" Woodhouse, Sitgreave's Expl. Zuni and Col. River, 

1853, p. 100. Not of Brehm, nor of authors generally. 
Tringa Bonapartei, " Schlegel," Cassin, in Baird's B. N. A., 1858, p. 923. 
In part. Of the specimens there enumerated Nos. 4869, 5442, 8800 are> 
of this species ; No. 3451 is the true Bonaparlei. 
Actodromas Bairdii, Coues, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1861, p. 194. 
Very generally distributed throughout the whole interior of North America. 
No instances of its occurrence on either the Atlantic or Pacific coasts have 
come to my knowledge. Examination of several specimens taken near tha 
Pueblo of Zufii, in New Mexico, by Dr. S. W. Woodhouse, which were not ac- 
cessible at the time of the preparation of my monograph, as above, shows them 
to belong to this species, and not to the A. Bonapartei, with which Dr. Wood- 
house had identified them under the erroneous name of Tringa Sckinzii. These 
specimens are interesting, as extending the range of ihe species west of the- 
Rocky Mountains, and causing it to be included in the Whipple avifauna. 

This species has been recently referred to A. maculata, and considered as 
founded upon a smaller race or upon immature specimens of the latter species, 
by Dr. H. Schlegel ;f certainly an unfortunate error, and one well illustrating 
how unsafe it is to pass judgment upon a species with which we are autopi- 
cally unacquainted. If there be any specimens in the Museum of the Pays- 
Bas referrible to maculata in any of its variations of size or colors, they are 
by no means examples of the species I have named Bairdii. 

(210.) Actodromas minutilla (Vieill.) Coues. 

Seen in flocks on Little and Great Colorado Rivers, from July to October. 

(211.) Ereunetes pusillus (Linn.) Cass. 

Common on the Colorado. It is quite possible that Mr. Lawrence's new, 
E. occidentalis may also be found on the streams of the Territory. 

212. Symphemia semipalmata (Gm.) Hartl. 

Sparsely distributed throughout the Territory. Individuals seen Oct. 18th 
1864, in a marsh near Whipple. 



* The three North American species of Phalaropes are so dissimilar in form as to amply indicate 
as many generic types: Steyunopus Vieill. (Wilsonii) ; Lobipes Cuv {hyperboreus) ; and 1'halaro- 
pus Briss. (fulicarias.) 

t Article Tringx in Cat. Mus. d'llist. Pays-Bas. 

lS6t).] 7 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

(213.) Gambetta melanolecca (Gm.) Bon. 
Abundant on the Colorado. 

214. Rhyacophilus solitabius (Wils.) Bon. 

A single specimen taken at Fort Whipple, August, 1864 ; at a small pool in. 
high thick pine woods. 

(215.) Tringoides macularius (L.) Gray. 
Very numerous along the Colorado. 

216. Numenius longirostris Wilson. 

A single specimen, taken in August, 1864, at Fort Whipple. 

Other limicoline Grallas to be found, probably, are Tryngites rufescens and 
Limoaa fedoa. 

RALLIDJE. 

(217.) Rallus virginianus L. 

This specie3 has been detected in the Territory. 

(218.) Porzana Carolina (Linn.) 

Colorado River, A. Schott. I think it probable that one or two other Rails 
are to be added to the avifauna of the Territory. 

(219.) FULICA AMERICANA, Gm. 

Abundant along the Colorado. 

ANATIDJE. 

(220.) Cygnus americanus Sharpless. 
Colorado River. Fort Mojave, Cooper. 

221. Anser hyperboreds Pall. 
Common on the Colorado. Specimen taken near Fort Whipple, Oct. 17, 1864. 

(222.) Anser Gambeli, Hartl. 

Anser frontalis, Baird, B. N. A. 1858, p. 762. Young. (Fort Thorn, 

n. ii.) 

Colorado River. Abundant. 

1 am informed by Prof. Baird that he is now satisfied that hi3 A. frontalis is 
only an immature stage of plumage of A. Gambeli. An analogous plumage is 
known as one of the conditions of the European Anser albifrons. 

(223.) Bernicla canadensis (L.) Boie. 
Colorado River. 

(224.) Bernicla Hutchinsii (Rich.) Bon. 

One of the most abundant geese of the Colorado Valley. B. nigricans seems 
to be exclusively a maritime species. 

225. Dendbocygna fclva (Gm.) Burm. 

A pair, taken in November, about twenty miles from Fort Whipple. This is 
the only instance in which the species has come under my observation from 
Arizona. Dendrocygna autumnalis will also doubtless be found in the Terri- 
tory. 

22(3. Anas boschas L. 

227. Dafila acuta (Linn.) Jenyns. 

228. Nettion carolinensis (Gm.) Baird. 

These three species are abundant on all the waters of the Territory. 

229. Querquedula cyanoptera, (Vieill ) Cass. 

Numbers of this Teal were observed in October on the head of the San Fran- 
cisco River, near Whipple. At the same season during the following year I 
saw them in numbers on the Colorado River. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 99 

The three following Anatinx are also found on the Colorado River : 
(230.) Mareca Americana (Gin.) Steph. 
(231.) Spatula clypeata (L.) Boie. 
(232.) Chaulelasmus streperus (L.) Gray. 

(233.) Bocephala albeola (L.) Baird. 

This is the only one of the Fuligulime which, so far as I am aware, has been 
actually brought from Arizona; though undoubtedly species of Fulix and 
Ay thy a are found within its limits. 

The same remarks apply to several species of Merginx ; especially to Mcrgus 
serrator, and Lophodytes cucullalus. 

LARIDJS. 

(234.) Larcs delawarensis Ord. 

This species I saw on the Colorado in the autumn of 1865. It is very pro- 
bable also that the L. californicus may be detected in the same region. Mr. 
Xantus has sent it from Fort Tejon, California. 

(235.) Chrcecocephalus atricilla (L.) Lawr. 

Colorado River, particularly its lower portions. A specimen taken over a 
hundred miles from any body of water, near the eastern border of the Territory. 

(236.) Chroxcocephalus Philadelphia (Ord.) Lawr. 

Very abundant on the Colorado. I am under the impression that I also saw 
Ch. Franklinii about twenty miles from the river near Fort Mojave. The Colo- 
rado Valley is quite within its known range of migration. 

237. Sterna Forsteri (Nuttall) Lawrence.* 

S. hirundo, Sw. et Rich. F. B. A. 1831, ii. 412. (Nee. Linn.) 

S. Forsteri, Nuttall, Man. Orn. 1834, ii. p. 274. (Iu foot-note under S. 
hirundo; name proposed in eveot of " hirundo Sw. Rich." proving 
distinct. No full description.) 

Lawrence, Ornithological Notes, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, of New York, 
1852, page 3. Lawrence, B N. A. 1858, p. 862. (Definite characteri- 
zation of species, and full description.) Coues, Rev Terns N. A.. Pr. 
A. N. S. Ph. 1862, p. 544. (Gives the different ages and stages of 
plumage, and compaiisons with hirundo and macrura.) 

S. Havelli, Audubon, Orn. Biog., v. 1839, p. 122, and his other works. 

Lawrence, Birds N. A., 1858, p. 861. Coues, Rev. Terns N. A., Pr. 

A. N. S. Ph. 1862, p. 543. (Considers it as adult winter plumage of 

Forsteri.) 

This species occurs on the Colorado, as indeed on most other of the large 

rivers of the interior. 

(238.) Hydrochelidon fissipes (Linn.) Gray. 

Sterna fissipes, Linn., S. N., 12th ed., 1776, p. 228. 

Hydrochelidon fissipes, Gray, Genera, iii. 1849, p. 660. Coues, Pr. A. N. 

S. Ph., Dec, 1862, p. 554. 
Sterna nigra, Brisson, Boie, and other authors, but not of Linnaeus, 

which is leucoptera auct. 
Sterna plumb ea, Wilson; Hydrochelidon plumbe a, Lawrence, and other 
American writers. (American bird identical with European.) 
Has been taken on the Colorado. " Mojave River," Cooper. 



* To Mr. G. N. Lawrence of New York is entirely due the credit of first bringing this species 
prominently into notice, so long ago as the year 1852, and of carefully distinguishing it from 
hirundo. Nuttall's original notice is so brief and unsatisfactory, that it should hardly be accepted 
as the first characterization of the species ; which ought in all propriety to bear Mr. Lawrence's 
rather than Mr. Nuttall's name. For further elucidation of this Tern, see my Kev. Terns N. A., 
ut supra. 



1866.] 



100 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

I have seen Sterna antillarum mihi ex Lesson, (frenata Gamb. argentea Nutt. 
nee Maxim, minuta Wils. nee L.) from tbe coast of California, and have little 
doubt that it is found on the Colorado River as well. 

PELECANIDJE. 

(239.) Pelecanus erythrorhynchus Gm. 

Abundant on the Gila and Colorado Rivers. 

It is a question with me whether this species should retain the name above 
given by Gmelin ; to the exclusion of the very pertinent " trachyrhynchus " 
Lath. The bill is not red at all, but yellow ; and it is the P.fuscus whose bill 
really is red. The name thus conveys such an erroneous impression, as should 
justify its rejection. 

The P.fuscus is essentially a maritime bird, and if found upon the Colorado 
at all, is probably only a straggler. 

PEA LACRO CORA CIDJE. 

(240.) Graculus dilophus (3w.) Gray. 

Gulf of California and lower Colorado, Cooper. 

COLYMBID2E. 

(241.) Colymbus TORQDATtrs Briinn. 
Winter resident on the Colorado river. Common. 

(242.) Colymbus pacificus Lawr. 

C. pacificus, Lawrence, Birds N. A. 1858, p. 889. Coues, Syn. Colymbidx 
N. A. in Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1861, p. 223. Coues, Newton's Ibis, 1866. 
Much material additional to that possessed by Mr. Lawrence in 1858, or by 
myself in 1861, tends to confirm the validity of this species, first described from 
young specimens. I have since then seen large suites of adult birds, chiefly 
from tbe interior of Arctic America, and am quite confident that my remarks 
(1. c.) upon its relations to C. arcticus are pertinent. See also my notes in 
Newton's Ibis, as above cited. 

PODICIPIDjE. 

(243.) Podiceps (Dytes) cornutus Lath. 
Colorado River. 

(244.) Podiceps (Proctopus) californicus (Heerm.) Coues. 

Podiceps californicus, Heermann, Pr. A. N. S. Ph. 1854, p. 179. Young 

bird. Lawrence, B. N. A., 1858, p. 896. Young. 
Podiceps (Proctopus) californicus, Coues, Syn. Podicipidx, in Pr. A. N. S. 
Ph. 1862, p. 231. (Considers it as =P. auritus ex Americd.) 
PoDds near Fort Mojave, Colorado River, Cooper. 

The original P. californicus, as characterized by Dr. Heermann, is based upon 
an immature bird, and its relationships to P. auritus by no means indicated. 
It was shown in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy for 1862 that 
the bird is neither more or less than the young of the American auritus; full 
j'lumaged specimens of which I easily distinguished from tbe European auritus. 
The name californicus I adopted as obviating the necessity of a new one, al- 
though Dr. Heermann's diagnosis gives none of the special points which sepa- 
rate the bird from auritus ; but shall claim the species for my own, from the 
very different interpretation of it which I have elucidated. 

(245.) Podilymbus podiceps (L.) Lawrence. 
Colorado River. Abundant. 

[March, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 101 

April 3d. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The following was offered for publication: Observations on Cha> 
tetes, etc." By C. Ptominger, M. D. 



April 10 th. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-nine members present. 

A letter was read from Dr. Gr. Lincecnm, of Texas ; containing a 
history of the "small black erratic ant," as follows : 

The small black, crooked running ant, socommon in everybody's yard, and 
on almost every growing twig in spring time and summer, is called, in my 
catalogue of ant species, the erratic, or crazy ant. He is No. 5 in my notes 
on the various types of ants. In this species, the formic acid odor is very 
strong when the ant is crushed. He is quick in his movements, does not 
make paths, but travels in scattered files, in the same direction, sometimes 
several hundred yards; moves quickly on a general course, running very 
crooked the whole route, giving his path a broad range, travelling two or 
three times the distance to his place of destination. All along the range of 
their path, at unequal distances, are depots or station-houses, at which they 
often call as they pass along, giving the whole affair quite a business aspect. 
Or it may be that what I have denominated depots or station-houses, will turn 
out, on a more careful investigation, to be a line of regularly constituted and 
well organized confederate cities, among which there is carried on a rapid 
and extensive commerce. At any rate, there can be no doubt of the fact that 
they are engaged in an extensive and well-established, reciprocal intercourse 
throughout the entire line of their cities. Cripple one of them on the route 
of his travel, and you produce the wildest excitement, and the invalid will be 
visited and examined by perhaps 500 of the travelling throng in the course 
of two or three minutes. If the case is a curable one they work with him 
until he is on foot again, when he moves onward with the crowd as before. 
If he dies, they remove him from the range of the great thoroughfare, and 
business rolls on again. 

They sometimes wage war with the red-headed tree- ant, (he is the No. 4 
of my catalogue, and may be fully described in some future article), and the 
conflict is generally quite disastrous. Notwithstanding the fact that they are 
always able to bring to the field more than ten times the number of their red- 
headed foe, they often meet with defeat. 

I was spectator to a battle, or rather a field fight, between these two species 
of ant, that continued four or five hours. Small parties were engaged in the 
deathly conflict at sunrise, when I first observed them. They were fighting 
in the wagon road, and their numbers were rapidly increasing. At the time 
I was called to breakfast, they were in considerable force on both sides, and 
when I returned I found both armies greatly augmented. Reinforcements 
were constantly arriving, and the battle was raging over an area of eight to 
ten feet in diameter. The discipline and modes of battle of the two species 
are entirely different. The method of attack, by the little black ant, is aimed 
altogether at the feet and legs of the foe ; and as they greatly outnumber the 
red heads, by engaging them two or three to one, they succeed in maiming 
and rendering large numbers of them unfit for service. The red heads seem 

1866.] 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

to aim only at decapitation, and this they accomplish with dexterity and sur- 
prising facility. Reinforcements were momentarily arriving to both armies. 
Thousands were already engaged, and the bloody strife was raging over the 
entire area of the battle-field. 

Being controlled only by two forces, desperation and death the scene 
was terrific beyond my powers of description. In all directions, everywhere, 
were seen the dire effects of relentless war. The battle-field was already 
thickly strewn with the dead and dying, over whom, in regardless tramp, 
swept the furious antagonism. Here indeed was, for once, at least, full mani- 
festations of the unmistakable, genuine " tug of war." Violently struggling 
and gnashing their jaws ; clinging together and wallowing on the ground, in 
companies, in squads and single combat, the direful contest fiercely raged. 
Dispatches had been sent off by the black ants for their entire reserve to be 
forwarded immediately, and they were pouring out by the million from the 
gates of their great city, distant about 60 feet, and hurrying toward the 
battle-field. They were evidently making a forced march, and their numbers 
were so great, that by the time they had progressed 20 to 30 feet, their line 
of march suggested the idea of a broad black ribband trailing on the ground, 
mid there seemed to be no end to them, for they were still flowing out from 
the city in countless thousands. 

At this crisis their army on the battle-field gave way and was routed, and 
in a general panic commenced a retreat. Soon, in their disorderly flight, they 
met their reinforcements and communicating to the front ranks their total and 
disastrous discomfiture, the panic became universal, and reinforcements and 
all fled precipitately into the city. In five minutes there were no black ants 
to be seen above ground. The news of the great battle and its disastrous 
results seemed to have been spread around to those even who had not been 
engaged in the battle, but who were busied in their daily avocations. At all 
events, from some cause the black ants immediately disappeared entirely from 
the top of the earth in that vicinity. Not so on the battle-ground. The vic- 
tors occupied the ensanguined field, and were busily employed for several 
hours. Many of them were attending to the wounded, which were numerous, 
and whom they carried into the shade of a large clod of earth, that had been 
turned up by some heavy road wagon, to get them out of the scorching sun- 
shine, which was pouring down in great force, it being now nearly 11 o'clock. 
Much the larger portion of them were gathering up and packing off the de- 
capitated bodies of the black ants, and carrying them up a post oak tree, in 
which they had their city, and which also stood near by. Upon these head- 
less victims of the bloody strife they intended, as I supposed, to have a grand 
feast. 

There was a great running to and fro by those who were attending the 
wounded. They seemed to exert themselves greatly and to manifest much 
sympathy for them. In the course of an hour many of the wounded were so 
far recovered as to be able to travel, while those who remained invalid were 
carried up the tree by their friends. Although great numbers of the red-heads 
were wounded, and some of them seriously, there were but few dead ones, 
and these were carried up the tree with the headless trunks of the conquered 
foe. After the victorious red-heads had left the battle-field, the only signs 
that remained to mark the place of the destructive contest was the dissevered 
heads of the vanquished. Of these there were so many that they suggested 
the idea of gunpowder strewed along the ground. 

The food of this species of insect is various. He is quite fond of vege- 
table oils, sweet saps and honey. He collects his sweets from the tender 
buds and glands and blooms of plants, and in great quantities from the aphis 
vine fretter or plant louse. These plant lice have their inflected beak in- 
serted in the tender bark of the buds and twigs of the growing plants, vines 
and the like, where, in dense crowds they cling, sucking the sweet sap. 
Among these masses of plant lice is ever found great numbers of the erratic 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 103 

auts, carefully and gently walking through the ranks of the sap-sucking pests ; 
busily engaged in licking up the honey dew, which is nothing more than the 
transparent excrementitious fluid, that is momentarily dropping from the 
countless aphides. To facilitate the process of collecting these precious 
sweet drops, the ant caressingly applies its antennae to the bloated sides of 
tae plant louse, who obligingly turns up his tail and delivers the sweet little 
transparent drop, which is thankfully received and licked up by the polite 
little teaser. From observations on this peculiarity in the character of the 
erratic ant, have originated the occasional accounts we have seen published 
in the newspapers about the ant's milk cows. As far as my observation goes, 
the erratic ant is the only one of the genus that visits and collects the excre- 
mentitious droppings of the aphis. 

Besides the great quantities of food collected from the aphis, or plant lice, 
by these courageous and extremely industrious little creatures, the oakfamily 
of trees affords them large supplies. The post oak {Quercua obtusiloba) and 
the black-jack (Quercus nigra) particularly. They will travel a long distance 
from home to visit a thrifty-growing tree of either of these oaks. And. as 
these trees yield their supplies all the time of the green foliage, they generally 
establish a chain of depots along the line of travel, from their nearest city to 
the food-giving tree. Or it may be, that finding the selected tree capable of 
supplying food for great numbers, they have, instead of depots, extended 
their cities along the range of the great thoroughfare, and thus, by the addition 
of city after city, strengthen the confederacy, and increase the faciliities for 
procuring provisions for their great and extended realm. 

This is no fiction, or fancy sketch, in the history of the contrivances of these 
thoughtful little emmets. It is sometimes a hundred yards or more from the 
mother hive, or city, to the tree that their commissaries have selected ; and at 
various distances along the road, they do erect new establishments, at first, 
thinly scattered on the route, which are, however, seen to increase annually 
all the way to the tree, if it remains alive, and these are either depots, 
places of deposit for their surplus accumulations of their stores of provisions, 
or they are confederated communities. Be it either way, the fact that they 
are carrying on a well-regulated and thoroughly-understood system of 
friendly, reciprocal intercourse cannot be denied ; that is, as far as any one 
line of depots, or cities, as I prefer to call them, are concerned. 

Coming across any one of their great thoroughfares we find them streaming 
along in both directions. Take either end of this road, and you may trace 
it to its terminus. It may be some distance, but you will find it if you per- 
severe, either in a terminal city, or a live tree ; and that it is not connected 
with any other range of cities, (I prefer the term cities), which, as I think, 
further and more careful investigation will decide these peculiar ranges of 
ant nests to be. 

In large towns and cities constructed by the human species, where they 
have cut down and destroyed the forests, these sagacious little ants would have 
to evacuate such places, if they possessed no reasoning powers to enable 
them to adapt themselves to other conditions and circumstances. The ant 
finds that the march of civilization has crushed out and destroyed all his 
resources for subsistence ; and viewing arrogant man as the prime cause 
of this great loss, he quickly decides to hold him accountable, and force him 
to make good the damage. To effectuate this grand retaliative resolve, he forth- 
with transports his eggs and young ones, with their nurses and teachers into 
the intruder's kitchen, into the little crannies arid cracks, in the timbers about 
the dairy and dining apartment, and particularly beneath the hearths in the 
dwelling. In these newly-established homes they become more thrifty than 
they were while in a natural state. Finding provisions abundant and very 
convenient, they are encouraged to labor more, and they increase at a ratio 
unprecedented. Soon their numbers are so great that they are to be seen in 

1866.] 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

all portions of the house, sucking and carrying away every thing greasy or 
sweet that is not hermetically sealed. They cut and destroy window curtains 
and articles of clothing that are starched. 

One way to destroy the erratic ant, is to lay out a greasy rag or recently 
laid aside greasy bone. By either of these experiments multitudes of them 
will be attracted, and when sufficient numbers of them have collected on the 
bait, hold it in the flame of burning shavings or other quick combustible, 
repeating the experiment frequently. But if the bone or rag be left undis- 
turbed, it will not be long until they have extracted every particle of the oil 
from it ; and should there be any scraps of flesh remaining on the bone 
when it is cast aside, it will be found that in a short time, they have cut 
the flesh to pieces, and after extracting the oil it may have contained, dropped 
it down in the form of dry powder, showing conclusively that they do not 
subsist on flesh, or dry food. They treat the kernels of any of the oily nuts 
in the same way Hence I conclude that they subsist on a fluid diet, and 
that they, like the honey bee, are provided with an internal sack, or pouch, 
in which to transport their stores to the cities. 

This day, 22d August, I observed the erratic ant in great numbers, carrying 
something in their mouths, and, as it was a visible something they were 
packing home, I was curious to know what it. might be. So I robbed a couple 
of them of their freight, which, on being exposed under the microscope, 
turned out to be the carcass of the smallest almost microscopic black ant, 
the No. 7 of my catalogue. After making this discovery, I examined quite 
a number of them, and found the abdomen of all alike torn open and emptied 
disembowelled. They were bringing them from beneath the cook house, 
where the poor little fellows had been filling themselves with was'e syrup 
that had been spilled there. This circumstance had been discovered by some 
of the spies of the erratic ants, and now, as it had been licked np by the little 
ants, there was no way left for them to possess themselves of ihe rich treasure 
but to wage war upon the smaller ant, and tear it out of their full sack. And 
this ihey had already accomplished before I discovered them, and were now 
carrying home their lacerated carcasses, to have them sucked and dried of 
their blood and other contained fluids. 

This type of ants is very numerous, courageous, and exceedingly thrifty 
and belligerent. He will engage in battle with any of the other types. They 
occasionally succeed in capturing the large, red, agricultural ant. (Myrmka 
molefaciens, S. B. Buckley.) I did not know then how they had managed to 
take him ; but they had one of these big red fellows very secure when I first 
discovered them, and were making a great parade around him. They were 
clinging two or three to every leg of the large ant, and great numbers were 
parading and ranting on each side of the road, as they slowly and laboriously 
moved along with their giant captive, who seemed to be not only in great 
distress, but very loathe to be carried in the manner and the direction they 
were so unceremoniously dragging him along. The little black warriors had 
already deprived him of two or three of his feet, and they were sawing away 
at the remainder of his legs and feet, whilst he was clinging with his large 
jaws to a piece of oak leaf; and that the little black fellows were hauling 
him, leaf and all, to some terrific fate, was manifested by the prisoner in all 
his actions. I had not time then to wait and see how the affair terminated. 
Since that case, however, I have witnessed a good many similar ones. It 
occurs quite frequently. 

The agricultural ant, in his foraging excursions, travels over a wide range, 
and will not turn his course for anybody. So, when in his course, he falls 
into a range of confederate cities of the erratic ant, he walks on as carelessly 
among them as if there was no one at home; and, as a general thing, the 
sagacious little braves suffer him to pass unmolested, paying but little atten- 
tion to him. But sometimes he meddles too much, and, putting on airs, con- 
trary to their notions of propriety, they consider it a national insult, and 

[April. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 105 

instantly, all that portion of the confederacy are up in arms. Large com- 
panies attack him forthwith. It is, however, always a dangerous experiment, 
and very often resulis in failure. At the best, there is to the erratic ant, in 
these cases of daring, great loss of life. When they make the attack, the 
giant intruder, at first, seems to regard it as an affair of a trifling nature, and 
with but little concern, strikes about amongst his diminutive assailants 
without any apparent anxiety. He occasionally snatches up one of the most 
venturesome, and, as if to frighten the rapidly-increasing hordes, or to show 
off his great strength, he breaks the backs or heads of half a dozen or so, 
but does not kill near as many as he might. 

The news of this giant invader of the confederacy soon spreads to every 
city, each of which sends out its quota of warriors ; and it is surprising to 
note how promptly and with what haste they stream along on the road to the 
troubled city. The field around the red monster begins to blacken with the 
accumulating regiments of the invaded nation ; and now, when it is too late, 
the great red monster begins in earnest to crush and slay every one that 
comes in range of his death-dealing jaws ; and, by means of his great 
strength and power to crush and destroy everyone upon whom he can clamp 
his ponderous jaws, he often succeeds, with the loss of one or more of his 
feet, perhaps, in extricating himself from the dangerous thraldom. But 
more frequently, the daring little blacks pitch into the strife in such multi- 
tudes, and seizing him by every foot, and leg, and horn, and weighing him 
down by their numbers, overturn him, clip off his feet, gnaw at his throat, 
saw at his waist, and, finally, in the course of half a day, succeed in render- 
ing the giant foe harmless. And now, with a grand display of their numbers, 
they drag the now helpless victim about in triumph for a time, and then as 
many as can get a hold of the dying red ant pierce him in the joints of his 
coat of mail, and suck from his trembling, agonizing, prostrate body all the 
vital fluids, leaving the perfectly-dry skeleton on the plain, as a warning to 
all such adventurous intruders. 

About the first of October, or as soon as the atmospheric temperature 
begins gradually to lower, the thoughtful little erratic ant, who is, indis- 
putably, a practical meteorologist, goes diligently to work, deepening his 
habitation. A knowledge of the meteorological indications obtains with all 
the species of the ant genus. Hence, we find that, during the summer sea- 
son, they throw out from their cells only black dirt soil; then they are ex- 
cavating apartments near the surface, both for convenience to the foraging 
laborers, whose duty it is to bring in the supplies, and to obtain a higher 
temperature for the purpose of hatching and nurturing the young. But, as 
soon as the signs of approaching winter supervene, we see them throwing up 
(day, and, among the larger types of the genus, borings of the limestone 
rock, even. Thus we learn that they are preparing cells or apartments at a 
greater depth. With a perfect knowledge of their physical powers of resist- 
ance to the atmospherical changes which are to take place during the winter, 
they construct their winter quarters. Accordingly, if we take pains to 
ascertain the truth by examining the facts for ourselves, we shall fiud them 
excavating their winter apartments at a depth below the line of change to 
where the temperature is uniform at about 48 Fahrenheit. Here, with the 
addition of the vital warmth of the swarm, the temperature of their winter 
quarters maintains an uniform heat of about 69. In this the community 
remains comfortable and active throughout the season of inclement weather. 

16th March, 18G2. This was quite a gala day with this species of ant. At 
all their holes everywhere in this vicinity, might be seen great numbers of 
their diminutive, white-winged queens frisking about, around the entrance to 
their cities, in a very antic style. All the drones, or male ants, were out, too, 
running very rapidly to and fro, chasing the queens, who suffered themselves 
to be overtaken, receiving the embrace of their lovers quite naturally and 
very often. Many of the neutrals were out also, who were engaged in trans- 

38(J6.] 



106 t PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

porting their eggs and young ones, in all stages of growth, from one hole to 
another, running rapidly with the tender, maggot-like looking things, to 
prevent them, as I thought, from being injured by the sun, which was hot 
for the season. Others, again, who were not carrying the young, would dash 
up behind the nearest queen, and, in a playful manner, seize her by the 
extreme tips of her folded white wings with his calliper-like mandibles, 
raise her from the ground, and rush headlong into the nearest hole with her. 
The queens did not seem to relish this piece of rudeness, but they submitted 
to it with good grace, and soon came frisking back to their lovers again. 
I saw hundreds of them carried forcibly into their holes, in the same 
playful style, by the workers, who, not unfrequently, snatched them rudely 
from the embrace of the males. The males or drones of the erratic ant, un- 
like most of the other species, have no wings; on which account it becomes 
necessary for the queens to receive their embraces previous to taking their 
flight, which they all do instantly, after they are satisfied with their lovers. 

The queens or mother ants of this species are not more than half the size 
of the workers and nurses of the cities to which she belongs. She is not so 
large as a small flea, and yet she takes her aerial voyage alone, and, if the 
wind is strong, she may continue her flight many miles. When she descends 
to earth again, she immediately cuts off her wings, which are no longer use- 
ful, and goes to work to establish a new city. 

Just think of the great powers possessed by this small, almost microscopic 
insect. Let us recount some of her known attributes. Poised on her tiny 
white wings, all alone, and charged as she is, in embryo, with myriad nations 
and kingdoms of her species, destined to flourish and perform their parts on 
the future life stage, in the grand conflict for subsistence, confidently com- 
mits herself to the swift winds, and, while in search of her new home, she 
continues her aerial flight, perhaps, for hundreds of miles. She lights at 
last, however, and, cutting away her wings, which are no longer necessary, 
commences the work of excavating and preparing cells and apartments for 
the coming generations. And now, supposing it to be true, that this is the 
only ant of that species on the face of the globe, such is her wonderful pro- 
lific powers, that it would require but very few short years for her to re- pro- 
duce, and fill our yards, and paths, and hearths, and sugar barrels, as thickly 
with the countless millions as we now find them. 

The deaths were announced of the following members : Mr. Augus- 
tus Fiot, of Bethlehem, April 5th, and Mr. Robert E. Griffith, and 
Col. Robert Carr, Correspondent. 



April 17th. 

Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members present. 

The deaths were announced of the following members : Mr. John 
P. Crozer, March 11th, and Mr. Roland E. Evans, April 14th. 



April 24:(h. 

Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-one members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members : Mr. John B. 
Parker, Joseph Thomas, M. D., Mr. Josiah Hoopes, Mr. Charles 

[April, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. + 107 

S. Lewis, Mr. Tryon Reakirt, Mr. Edward K. Tryon, Jr., Rev. George 
D. Boardman, Lemuel J. Deal, M. D. r 11. L. Webber, M. D., U. S.N., 
Mr. Samuel R. Shipley, Mr. William Sellers, and Mr. Joseph Walton. 
The following were elected Correspondents : Prof. Alfred DuBois, 
Colorado, Mr. Jacob Staufier, Lancaster, Pa., and Br. J. H. Baxter, 
U. S. A. 

May 1st. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-five members present. 

The following was presented for publication : 

" Notes on some members of the Feldspar Family." By Isaac Lea. 



May Sth. 
The President, Dr. Isaac Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-four members present. 

Dr. Ruschenberger stated, in relation to the fossil fish-scales presented this 
evening, that Col. James Greer, of Dayton, Ohio, had found them, March 19, 
1866, with the bones of the head, ribs, vertebrae, &c, of the fish, about two 
miles north of Vicksburg, Miss., on the river side of Fort Hill, about two hun- 
dred feet above high-water mark, in the escarpment of a narrow road-way, 
imbedded in the solid earth in a direction from north-west to south east, four 
feet beneath the top of the bank or surface. Dr. Leidy supposes these scales 
to be identical with those of an existing species of the Mississippi. 



May 15/A. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-one members present. 

The following were presented for publication : 

" On the Structure and Distribution of the Genera of the Arciferous 
Anura," and " Fourth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical 
America." By E. D. Cope. 

" Description of five new species of Unio," and " Description of two 
new species of Lithasia." By Isaac Lea. 

" Observations on the Cranial Forms of the North American Indians." 
By J. Aitken Meigs, M. D. 

Mr. Benjamin Smith Lyman observed : I have the honor of presenting to the 
Academy a fine Slickenside in the carboniferous conglomerate, found at Ply- 
mouth, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. The Slickenside covers a surface of 
irregular shape, eight inches and a balf long in the longest part and sixteen 
inches wide ; and is very smoothly and straightly grooved, evidently by the 
rubbing of one portion of the rock upon the other, ft bus struck me as inte- 
resting chiefly on account of its giving a perfectly satisfactory explanation of 
what have been sometimes taken for fossil calamites that had impressed them- 
selves upon the quartz pebbles of the conglomerate so as to flatten and groove 
them. Such impressions were mentioned by Professor Jehu Brainerd of Cleve- 

1866.] 



108 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

land, in a paper read before the Cleveland meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and published himself the next year, 
as a principal argument in favor of his theory of the formation of sandstones, 
and even conglomerates, solely by chemical deposition. He supposed the 
pebbles to have been deposited in a gelatinous state at first, so as to be capable 
of receiving the impressions of plants ; and he gives a figure of such an im- 
pression resembling a calamite or a coarse conglomerate with the surface of 
the pebbles quite flat. I was puzzled by a similar detached fragment of a 
slickenside in the conglomerate near Beaver Meadow, in 1859 ; but this speci- 
men, from its size and completeness, explains perfectly both that one and the 
one figured by Professor Brainerd. 

Aside from the striking extravagance of Professor Brainerd's theory, and 
from this specimen's refutation of one of his best arguments, another argument 
against him, furnished by his own figures, may perhaps properly be mentioned 
here. A gelatinous pebble flattened by pressure on one side would, manifestly, 
be distorted on other sides, and a number of such pebbles lying side by side, 
affected by the same pressure, would have analogous distorions. In Professor 
Brainerd's figure of the so-called fossil calamite, the pebbles flattened on one 
side show no such distortion, but retain on every other side their rounded, 
water-worn look ; so that the general appearance is, in effect, that of pebbles 
cut in two, instead of flattened down by pressure. The same can be said of 
the pebbles in his figure of the conglomerate resting with flat bottomed peb- 
bles on the soft red shales, which he says is a very common occurrence, and 
which forms his other best argument in support of his theory. 

The death was announced of Mr. J. Pemberton Hutchinson, Member, 
on May 9th. 



May 22d. 
Mr. Vatjx, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Thirty members present. 

The following were presented for publication : 

" Monograph of the Procellaridas." Parts IV. and V. By Elliot 
Coues, M. D. 

" On the Introduction of the Shad into the Alabama River." By 
Prof. W. C. Daniel. 

Dr. Le Conte made some remarks on the subfamily Clavigeridae, of Coleoptera. 

He described briefly the structure and habits of these insects, and pointed 
out the distinctive characters of the three described genera, Claviger, Adranes 
and Articerus, to which he added a fourth, F u s t i g e r. 

This new genus agrees with Articerus in having eyes, but differs in the 
structure of the antenna?. These organs in Articerus are broad, without 
distinct basal articulation, but in Fus tiger consist of a long subconkal 
mass, gradually broader externally, truncate, and covered with a sponge of 
hair at the tip, and marked with four or five indistinct transverse sutures, 
showing that it is composed of closely connate joints ; between this subcorneal 
mass and the head is a distinct short basal joint, projecting beyond the fovea 
in which the antenna is inserted. The eyes are oval, situated on the sides of 
the head, and composed of seven or eight moderately large lenses. 1'he tibiae 
are not dilated as in Articerus. 

The four genera thus form two series, of two genera each : 
A. Eyes wanting : 

A n ten me 6- join ted Claviger. 

Antennas wiili a long homogeneous club, and two short 

basal joints Adranes. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 109 

B. Eyes distinct, composed of a few aggregated lenses : 

Antenna? with one short basal joint, and a long club 

having traces of transverse sutures F u s t i g e r . 

Antennae (? without basal articulation), with a broad club 

of homogeneous structure Articerus. 

The distribution of these genera is peculiar: Claviger is found in Europe and 
Asia ; Adranes in North America ; Fustiger in Brazil, Syria and North America ; 
while Articerus, with the exception of a species found in Copal, is confined to 
New Holland. 

The species of Fustiger are : 1. F. braziliensis, (Articerus braz. West- 
wood, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 2d ser. iii. 277, pi. xvii. f. 5,) from Brazil; 
2. F. syriacu s, (Articerus syr. Saulcy, Ann. Ent. Soc. France, 1865, p. 15,) 
from Syria ; and 3. A new species from Tennessee, which will soon be described 
by Dr. Brendel, who is now occupied in studying the Pselaphidae of the United 
States. 

Westwood mentions, in the description of the Brazilian species, and exhib- 
its in the figure the short basal joint of the antennae, but does not allude to the 
obsolete transverse sutures of the mass of the antennas. 

Saulcy describes the structure of the antennae very accurately, and it is 
owing to his observation that I have detected a very short and indistinct joint 
between the visible basal Joint of the antennas of Adranes, and the bottom of 
the frontal foveas in which they are inserted. 

Dr. Leidy remarked that Mr. J. F. Clew, one of the proprietors of the salt 
mine of the Island of Petite Anse, Louisiana, had that day called upon him, 
announcing the donation to the Academy of a mass of 150 lbs. of pure rock 
salt. Mr. Clew further informed him of an interesting fact in connection with 
the history of primitive man. The salt mines of Petite Anse were discovered 
during the late rebellion. A salt spring had been previously known to exist. 
During the war, as this failed to produce the amount of salt required, a well 
was sunk in the hope of procuring a greater supply. At the bottom of the 
well the workmen met with a solid rock which turned out to be pure salt. 
This is covered with about fifteen or more feet of soil, mainly composed of sand 
and mud. A specimen of this soil having been submitted to Dr. Leidy, he was 
surprised to find mingled with it grains of precious garnet and olivine. Mr. 
Clew stated that a number of pits had been opened to reach the salt. In 
several of the pits at the depth often or fifteen feet they discovered in the soil 
bones of the Elephant, well preserved, and beneath these, within a few inches 
of the rock salt, abundance of matting. Portions of this m ttting, exhibited to 
Dr. Leidy, were composed of a tough, flexible, split cane, and were plaited 
diagonally. The pieces were well preserved, and evidently specimens of 
human art. On being asked the question, Mr. Clew said he was under the 
impression that some stone implements had also been found in a similar 
position, but he was not certain. He further added, that at the sides of one of 
the pits, bones of the Elephant, and beneath them pieces of matting, could yet 
be seen, as they had been allowed to remain undisturbed. The facts were so 
interesting in connection with these remains, and the geology of the Island of 
Petite Anse, that Dr. L. thought a competent person should be sent there to 
make an exploration. Mr. Clew has offered every facility to any one disposed 
to undertake the investigation. 



May 29th. 
The President, Dr. Isaac Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-six members present. 
1866.] 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

The following gentlemen were elected members: 

Mr. Joseph R. Rhoads, William K. Gilbert, M. D , Mr. Samuel 
Huston, Mr. T. Clarkson Taylor, Robert S. Kenderdine, M. D., Mr. 
Daniel Haddock, Jr., Mr. Henry A. Dreer, Mr. Christian C. Febeger, 
Henry Stille, M. D. 

The following were elected Correspondents : 

Rev. M. 13. Anderson, LL. D., President University of Rochester, 
N. Y.. and Mr. Lemuel R, Carter, of Paris Hill, Oxford Co., Maine. 

On report of the respective Committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 

Notes on Some Members of the FELDSPAR Family. 
BY ISAAC LEA. 

I have been much interested for several years past in observing and col- 
lecting the varieties of the Feldspar Family of Chester and Delaware Counties 
in this State. 

Finding in many places that, where the intrusive Serpentine appears, there 
were usually to be found the finest and more vitrious varieties of Feldspar, I 
visited all such localities, and thus have brought together, perhaps, more of 
them than any other mineralogist who has searched in these counties. My 
object in these researches has been solely as to their external characters, con- 
nected with the matter which gives to them color, so far as microscopical ex- 
amination could enable me to effect it. 

Among the numerous varieties which I have brought together, I think there 
are three which have not been before observed. One is of a compact struc- 
ture, almost without cleavage, and of a fine green color, approaching, as 
regards tint, to aqua-marine, and is semi-transparent. Another, which 
usually accompanies the first, and often passes into it, as Leelite does into 
Feldspar, has always a definite and well characterized cleavage, the surface 
of which presents an agreeable pearly appearance, sometimes satin-like. 
This is usually white or grayish, sometimes inclining to a pale purplish hue, 
particularly toward the edges of the specimens, and which seem to have been 
enveloped in Alhite. Along those edges where the purplish hue is stronger, I 
could, in all cases, detect small thin spangles or plates, such as constitute 
Sunstone, Aventurine Feldspar with reddish or wine-color internal re- 
flections. 

These reflections are minute, usually microscopic, and always, I believe, of 
a hexagonal form or the modification of that form. 

For the green mineral, I propose the provisional name of Lennilite, having 
found it only near the village of Lenni, in Delaware County. For the pearly 
variety, I propose that of Delaioareite, having first found it in Delaware 
County, among the Serpentine rocks, between Grlen Riddle and Lenni. Subse- 
quently, I found specimens in Chester County, near to West Chester. 

The third is a variety of Feldspar which is more laminate and glassy, of a 
dull bluish green color and semi-transparent, which has through the mass 
usually very minute internal bright crystalline hexagonal plates giving 
very bright reflections. This is found at Blue Hill, about two miles north of 
Media, and is an exceedingly interesting mineral. I found a specimen very 
similar to this, but rather more blue, some three miles southwest of West 
Chester, which had not, however, any plates with reflections, but, with a 
high power, numerous small, black, thin, prismatic crystals were observable. 
For this, I propose the name of Cassinite. 

It had been known for many years that Sunstone proper existed in the 
Homblend Rocks of Chester County, near to Kennett Square. This I found 
in sufficient quantity and perfection to institute a good examination into the 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. Ill 

forms of these reflections. Under a high power, I ohserved perfect equal- 
sided hexagons, with nearly all possible modifications of that form, by more 
or less unequal replacement of some of the prismatic sides ; thus, some assum- 
ing a triangular form, some that of rhombs and rhomboids ; some of the lat- 
ter being almost linear. These plates are sometimes imperfectly formed, the 
boundary lines being occasionally irregular and broken, exhibiting one, two, 
three or four sides, and sometimes no part of the sides present a right line. 
They usually lie parallel with the principal cleavage of the Feldspar, and, 
when the rays of light strike their bright surfaces, the reflections are exceed- 
ingly brilliant. Under the microscope, with a bright light, it will be observed 
that some reflections are blue, others green, purple, red and yellow. Some 
of the specimens of Sunstone show parallel lines on the edges of the cleavages 
parallel to the prismatic sides of the Feldspar, which are evidently occasioned 
by the regular deposit of the layers. These are quite different from the fine 
parallel minute striae which lie on the principal faces of the cleavage, and 
which can only be observed with a high power. Neither of these are con- 
stant. These spangles or plates are so thin, that I have been unable to 
detect any perceptible thickness on their prismatic sides. These very inter- 
esting plates in Sunstone have been known for a long time, but I have not 
been able to find any analysis of them.* Kenngott states that they are Go- 
thite, hydrated-per-oxid of Iron (Fe 0.,HO). Sheerer says that " the Aventu- 
vine character is owing to minute particles of Specular Iron.] I doubt this, 
as the resplendant crystals are usually semi-transparent, reflecting various 
colors, as mentioned above. There are in most varieties another set of de- 
posits, which are much rarer, and present opake, black masses, usually taking 
the same hexagonal form and its modifications, but often without any regular 
form. These may be of the same metallic substance iu a different state of 
oxidation, not transmitting the rays of light. 

Fine specimens of Moonstone are found in Albite, in Delaware County, west 
of Media, but this species of Feldspar does not give out its beautiful bine 
color by reflection from any foreign body, but by the absorption of all the rays 
of light but blue, and this owing to some arrangement of its atoms not yet 
understood. 

In the examination of various Feldspars with, high power of the microscope, 
I found in nearly every one which was not entirely white, that more or less 
foreign matter in a crystallized state, was included in their composition. In 
the green compact variety which I have described above, and proposed to call 
Lennilite, there was nothing detected, nor was there in the ordinary green 
Feldspar of Mineral Hill, near Media, except that in the latter locality there 
have been specimens found of a glassy structure, and with clear double 
cleavages, in which reddish spots were interspersed, which spots were always 
colored by the presence of these crystalline plates, having beautiful bright 
reflections, and of the usual hexagonal form. 

I ought to mention here, in connection with these beautiful brilliant plates 
in Sunstone, that Prof. Rood, of Columbia College, New York, some time 
since, made a " Micro-Stereograph " of a thin plate of Sunstone from Arendal, 
Norway. In this he succeeded admirably in displaying these numerous modi- 
fications of the crystals, which were enlarged and photographed on paper ; 
thus bringing those interesting forms with great perfection to the recognition 
of the unaided eye. 

I proceed now to the results of my microscopical examinations of various 
Feldspars, in which I found more or less of these minute crystalline forms. 

* Aventurine Quartz is also called Sunstone, and is considered of some value as a stone of luxury, 
liut it has not reflections as brilliant as those of Feldspar ; nor are they, so far as I have been able 
to observe, crystallized plates, but their irregular deposits are of the same brown and red color, 
and they may be Gothite. 

t Dana's Mineralogy. 

1866.] 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

In the dark, nearly black Labradorite of the Adiroudac Mountains, there 
were only to be found dark, irregular, uushaped spots. 

In the nearly black opalescent portions of Labradorite from Warwick, 
Orange Couuty, N. Y. , were very minute imperfect black crystals, while 
scattered throughout there are larger transparent, imperfect forms of irregular 
crystals, which have the appearance of being hollow points. 

A rolled fragment of pale purple Feldspar from Easton, Pa., contained 
hexagonal plates, but generally these plates were found to be irregular and 
broken. 

A Black Feldspar found near West-Chester a small fragment nearly an 
inch square was found to possess very thin prismatic black crystals, lying 
in various directions, but principally in one direction. There were also 
scattered throughout a few very black spots, some of which were disposed to 
take the hexagonal form. 

Labradorite from Scotland, with a fine colored surface, presented minute 
reflections. Under a high power, a few brown hexagonal plates were 
observed, with very numerous black, attenuated, prismatic crystals, and 
some short thick ones. 

A bluish lead-colored glassy Feldspar, from near West-Chester, presented 
acicular black lines all in the same direction. These were usually somewhat 
long, much more so than I have observed in any other specimens which I 
have examined. Occasionally an opake, black, rhombic crystal was 
observed. 

A dark variety from Lenni, passing into Leelite, possesses very minute 
black, attenuated prismatic crystals. 

Fetid Feldspar (Necronite ?) from the Vanarsdale Quarry in Bucks County, 
Pa., has microscopic black crystals, imperfectly formed, but with a tendency 
to hexagonal form. 

A Salmon- colored Feldspar, from near Lenni, was found to possess many 
elongate black rhomboids, and some few imperfect reddi&h hexagonal plates. 
One of the rhomboids is partly black and partly red, showing that the crystals 
of both colors are of the same substance. 

A specimen of a darker salmon color, found by Mr. John Cassin, many 
years since, attbe old Molybdena Mine, near Chester, Pa., has the appearance 
of Perthite, but there were no reflections to be observed in it, only presenting, 
occasionally, black masses. The deep color of this Feldspar arises from the 
close approximation of irregular opaque brownish masses. 

A very pearly specimen of Delawareite found near West-Chester, con- 
tained rather large reddish plates and many opake black crystals, some elon- 
gate, others triangular, hexagonal, &c. 

Among the pearly specimens of Delawareite from Lenni is a fine purplish 
one with blood-red crystals, which are much larger than usual, and one is 
much longer and narrower than usual. In one of the pieces I observed a 
black curved object which presented a serrated side, reminding one of the 
notches of a Graptolite. It is probably Tourmaline. 

The remarkable fine Sunstone obtained by Mr. Jetferis and myself in Chester 
County, Pa., present under a high power a great number and variety of bril- 
liant red crystals of a hexagonal form, and of every modification of this figure. 
The reflections of the surface of these crystals give beautiful colors. Occasion- 
ally in these specimens where the plates are numerous and close, an area 
may be observed without any color, being clear, but retaining the hexagonal 
form and its modifications, the area being surrounded by reflections of red, 
blue, &c. 

In the very peculiar greenish blue, lamellar Feldspar, from Blue Hill, two 
miles north-west of Media, Delaware Co., I found very numerous, small reflec- 
tions of the usual modifications of the hexagon. This is a very pure and glassy 
species, and is of rare occurrence. It is found in the Serpentine rocks, and 
presents an entirely different appearance from Sunstone proper, which is found 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 113 

in the Hornblend rocks of Chester County, the texture of the Feldspar and the 
reflecting plates being peculiar. I propose for it the provisional name of Cas- 
sinite, Mr. John Cassm having first called my attention to this glassy, bluish- 
green Feldspar. The possession of the reflecting plates had not been observed 
until I had discovered it by an examination with the microscope, but which 
when pointed out may be seen by the naked eye. 

A gray satin-like specimen of Delawareite exhibited no red reflections, but 
there were some small, black, microscopic crystals chiefly of very elongate 
hexagons ; some were irregular and not long. 

A green and red mottled Feldspar from Mineral Hill, near Media, presented 
reddish groups of reflections here and there throughout the mass. Under a 
high power these plates were observed to be of the usual modified forms of 
the hexagon, that of the rhomboid prevailing while the hexagonal form itself 
was found only in rarer instances. The color of these plates varied from a 
blood red to a pale wine red, and are very small and numerous. This is a 
remarkably beautiful mineral and is I believe very rarely now found. I have 
found a single specimen and the only other specimens I have seen, were 
found some thirty years since. 

In the beautiful Sunstone of Chester County, near Kennett Square, I found 
many reflecting plates of various shades of red. These plates are very numer- 
ous and usually elongate rhomboids, but the hexagonal form and all its modi- 
fications are found of various sizes when examined with a high power. There 
were observed also many black irregular spots, and some of these had irregu- 
lar hexagonal margins. Interspersed throughout could be seen very numer- 
ous short, black, attenuate, prismatic forms, much more numerous and ap- 
proximate to each other than was the case with the reflecting plates. 

The fine Sunstone of Arendal, Norway, presents very remarkable reflections 
of not very minute plates. The Feldspar is clear and pure, and these reflec- 
tions numerous and very brilliant. The hexagonal form and its modifications 
are very perfect, and the color pure and translucent, varying from dark red 
to light wine color. Many of the rhomboids are very elongate. Occasionally 
opake black plates were observed, and the same may be said of other Sun- 
stones generally. 

Chesterlite, from Chester County Poor House, quite to my surprise, presented 
here and there hexagonal plates. In one specimen I detected a remarkably 
fine hexagon of a deep red color. 

Perthite, from Perth, Canada West, is a very dark salmon-colored variety 
of Sunstone. and I found in it the same hexagonal form and its modifications, 
but the plates were darker in color. There were mixed with these some 
opake black ones, similar in density and form to those which are found in 
the Sunstone of Chester County. 

In Peristerite, from the same locality, I found very numerous minute black 
crystals, generally elongate rhomboids, very like, if not toe same with, com- 
mon Labradorite, to which it seems to be very nearly allied. 



Observations on CHAEIETES and some related Genera, in regard to their Sys- 
tematic Position ; with an appended description of some New Species. 

BY DR. CARL ROMINGER. 

Chaetetes has, by its tubular structure and the transverse diaphragms, di- 
viding the tubes, a strong resemblance to Favosites, and was for this reason 
generally considered to be a member of the Favositoid family. 

In the following pages I shall try to prove this to be an error, and to de- 
monstrate its immediate connection with forms which are considered to be 
Bryozoa. 

It has been asserted that transverse diaphragms have never been observed 1 

1866.] 8 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

in the tubules of any Bryozoon, (Milne Edwards et. H. Arch, du Museum, torn. 
v. p. 278,) but some Jurassic specimens of Heteropora in my possession ex- 
hibit with the utmost distinctness their tubules divided by horizontal dia- 
phragms. It would be difficult to distinguish a vertical section of them, 
from a similar section of a Chaetetes, if the tube-walls of the first were not 
perforated by densely crowded, very minute pores, while the walls of a Chae- 
tetes are imperforate. 

Fisher, the author of the genus, informs us that the tubes of Chaetetee 
multiply by division, while other observers, in specimens believed to be 
Chaetetes, could only see a multiplication of tubes by lateral gemmation, and 
therefore, to avoid the difficulty, created the genera Stenopora and Monticu- 
lipora, for these specimens. Milne Edwards is, to my knowledge, the only one 
to affirm Fisher's observation to be true, (British Fossil Corals, p. 264,) but he 
does not specially designate the species on which he made his observations, 
and subsequently places all the species he formerly named Chaetetes, under 
the genus Monticulipora. 

I know of only one fossil resembling Chaetetes, in which the tubes are 
multiplied by division ; this is the genus Tctradium, whose tubes regularly di- 
vide into four parts, but there is no reason to suppose this to have been the 
type for Fisher's genus Chaetetes, nor seems it probable that Milne Edwards 
had it under consideration. The structure of Chaetetes is considered to be 
exclusively tubular. 

If we observe the different forms of Chaetetes, we will find some with con- 
tiguous polygonal orifices, and thin intervening walls. Others we will see 
with the tube mouths rounded, only partially contiguous, and with a num- 
ber of smaller angular openings dispersed between them. In still others, 
the orifices are circular, not in contiguity, and surrounded on all sides by 
smaller angular openings. A vertical section through these different kinds 
will, at first sight, not exhibit a corresponding variety of appearance ; we 
find the whole corallum to be an aggregation of tubules, which are divided 
by transverse diaphragms ; a closer examination, however, will reveal to us, 
in the last mentioned forms, two sorts of tubules : larger ones, more or less 
circular in the cross-section, with straight diaphragms at variable, sometimes 
quite remote distances ; and smaller ones, which are angular, with more closely 
approximated diaphragms ; but the different tube segments, cut off by the di- 
iphragms, are not always so regular as the nature of a tube would require it ; 
some are projecting over the others, and joining with the adjacent segments 
in zigzag lines, which is a sure evidence that we have no real tubules before 
-us, but merely vertical rows of independent cells, which being crowded in 
between tubes, assumed themselves the shape of tubules. 

An interesting family-mark, common to Chaetetes, and to a number of 
other genera related to it, are the peculiar maculae noticeable on their sur- 
face. In specimens of prevalently tubular structure, these maculae are con- 
stituted by aggregations of larger tubes than the others ; at the same time we 
see the surface at these places frequently elevated into small monticules. In 
other specimens, where the intertubular cell-mass is well developed, these 
maculae are contrasting with the other surface by their entirely cellulose 
structure, and it is not uncommon to see these spots depressed, instead of 
being elevated. 

The orifices of Chaetetes are generally open, or exhibit some distance be- 
low the surface their diaphragms, which appear to be perfect. It is, however, 
not rare to find specimens in which the tubules are closed by opercula with a 
central opening. In specimens of Chaetetes rugosus and ramosus, from the 
blue limestone of Cincinnati, a part of the surface frequently has closed tub- 
ules ; their appearance assumes hereby an entirely different character, which 
reminds one greatly of the ramulets of Melicertites from the Oolite forma- 
.tiou. Also .of Chaetetes frondosus, I have some specimens exhibiting opercula. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 115 

In the first two species the opercula are slightly convex, in the latter, con- 
cave, and with an excentric opening. 

Several species are decorated with spinules, rising from the margins of the 
tube orifices, and from the interstitial spaces. One of these, which attracted 
the attention of Milne Edwards, induced him to create for it the genus De- 
kayia. This spinulosity is not a confluent character, and has, in my estima- 
tion, no more importance than the hairs of a plant have, in regard to its gene- 
ric position. 

The so called Dekayia aspera occurs in the blue limestone of Ohio and 
Indiana, in which several other spinulose forms are found. One of them 
grows in small ramulets, with somewhat oblique, very minute orifices ; some 
of its specimens are entirely smooth, without showing any signs of detrition ; 
in others the surface is raised in scarcely perceptible, obtuse nodules ; and 
finally, some are found with a perfectly hirsute surface. Also some speci- 
mens corresponding with McCoys Nebulipora lens, are decorated with quite 
prominent spinules ; likewise some larger hemispherical masses, considered to 
be Ch. petropolilanus, and a species similar to Chaetetes frondosus. 

From the shales of the Hamilton group of New York and Michigan, I know 
also several species of spinulose Chaetetes forms. 

The stellate form of orifices, which is least expected to be seen in Chaetetes 
or in a Bryozoon, nevertheless is represented in some species of the Chaete- 
tes family. 

A few specimens found at Cincinnati, which in all particulars agree with 
Chaetetes frondosus have from three to five longitudinal ridges projecting into 
their tube cavities, by which the orifices acquire a florifortn shape. In other 
specimens of the same species the orifices are round, without any traces of 
stellate character; even in the mentioned specimens, not all orifices are stel- 
late. The stellate orifices of Callopora Jlorida are made known by Hall ; sev- 
eral other species of it are of the same character, and also in the genus Fis- 
tulipora we will meet with floriform orifices. 

The question now is, have we to consider this stellate character as a seri- 
ous objection to the bryozoic nature of Chaetetes and the allied genera ? 

I think not, for two reasons : 1. This radiate structure cannot be the ex- 
ponent of a character which is essential to these organic beings, or it would 
be invariably developed. 2. These projecting lamellae are not the equivalent 
of the radial organs in corals. Their number is not constant enough for that, 
and their distribution indicates frequently an unsymmetric bilateral, and not 
a radial plan. In some species there are only two such projections on one 
side of the tubes, while the other side is smooth ; in others, with a larger 
number of lamellar projections, they generally form two opposite groups, 
and are rarely found disposed at equal distances around the circumference. 

The relations between Chaetetes and some acknowledged bryozoic forms of 
the paleozoic era are so great, that if radial structure should be considered 
incompatible with the polyparium of a Bryozoon, I would rather remove 
the whole assemblage from the bryozoa, than to separate Chaetetes and some 
others from them. 

In the blue limestone of Madison and Richmond, Ind., a well marked form 
of Chaetetes is found in abundance, which I do not see described. I propose 
for it the name Chaetetes quadratics. 

It grows in coarse ramifications, with an even or slightly monticulose sur- 
face. Tube orifices vary in size in different specimens from one-fourth to 
one-third of a millimeter ; those on the maculae are somewhat larger ; they 
are contiguous, polygonal or quadrate, separated by thin walls. Intertubular 
cells entirely wanting. 

The quadrate tube form is particularly obvious on the terminal surface of 
branches, or on transverse sections. On the sides of the branches the quad- 
rate tube form gives the surface a fanciful appearance, which I cannot bet- 

1866.] 



116 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

ter explain than by comparing it with certain decorations of watch cases, con- 
sisting of concentric circle lines crossing each other. Chaetetes pavonia, with 
the synonytne Ptylodictya pavonia D'Orbigny, is described by Milne Edwards 
amongst the Chaetetes forms of the Cincinnati limestone. 

This species has indeed a great resemblance to the group to which Ptylo- 
dictya belongs. It grows in double, thin laminae, separable in two folia, 
which have on the inner side a dermatic concentrically wrinkled and striated 
crust, exactly similar to the separated leaves of Ptylodictya. The tubes be- 
gin with prostrate, thin walled ends, and become rectangular to the surface, 
by abruptly bending upwards ; the erect part of them exhibits very thick 
walls. The orifices are contiguous, slightly dilated, and arranged in undu- 
lating rows, which, crossing each other under oblique angles, make their 
outlines more or less regularly rhomboidal. The outlines of the single tubes, 
however, are polygonal, and may be plainly distinguished in the centre of the 
massive interstitial spaces. Diameter of tubes one-sixth of a millimeter, 
somewhat larger on the monticules, which are little elevated and are dissemi- 
nated over the surface at a distance of three or four millimeters. No dia- 
phragms observed. Intertubular cells wanting. 

This species would be entirely in correspondence with the genus Phaeno- 
pora of Hall, but the entire absence of intertubular cell-mass, which is 
always, to some extent, developed in the species of Phacnopora, is a difference 
of some importance, which, however, will be diminished, after we have seen 
in Chaetetes species with abundant intertubular cell-mass, and other species 
composed of tubules alone, with all intermediate forms placed between 
them. It is also to be noticed, that all the specimens of Chaetetes pavonia 
which I have seen, appear to be the terminal explanate ends of the fronds, 
while at the basal ends the cellulose tissue may be devt-loped to some degree. 
This is decidedly the case in a small ensiform bryozoon of very similar 
structure, and occurring in the same association. The pointed basal ends of 
these specimens have a large proportion of cell-mass entering into their 
structure, while the upper portions are almost exclusively tubulose. 

Chaetetes decipiens, nov. spec. 

Occurs in association with Ch. pavonia, to which it is so surprisingly simi- 
lar that, even for an experienced eye, it becomes almost impossible to dis- 
tinguish the two species without the help of a lens. 

It grows in entirely similar thin double leaves ; the surface is covered with 
the same sort of monticules, composed of larger tubules : the orifices are simi- 
lar in size and distribution, but a closer examination will reveal sufficient 
constant differences between the two. 

The latter species has an abundant cell-mass interposed between the tu- 
bules ; its tube-walls are thin, with not dilated and not contiguous orifices ; 
the two leaves composing the lamina? are not so clearly defined, and not sep- 
arable, and on vertical sections the vesiculous cell-rows interposed between 
the tubules, which themselves are also sometimes septate, will distinguish it 
at once. 

The thick tube-walls in the one, and the intertubular cell-mass in the other, 
will produce on the naked eye a similar impression, which disappears under 
the magnifier. 

This species has likewise much similarity with Ch. frondosus, but it is more 
delicate in all respects, and in Ch. frondobus the intertubular tissue is consid- 
erably less developed, its tubules being usually in immediate contiguity. 

The genus Callopora of Hall, comes so near to Chaetetes that it may be well 
characterized at once, by saying it is a Chaetetes with abundantly developed 
intertubular cells. Chaetetes Flelcheri, (Milne Edw.) for instance, is in all par- 
ticulars a Callopora. 

The opercula, described by flail in Callopora eleyantula, are of the same 
general form as in Chaetetes, but a peculiarity of them is, some five or six 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 117 



elevated ridges, radiating on the surface of the opercula, from the margin of 
the central opening to the outer circumference. In a species of Fistulipora, 
subsequently to be described, I found opercules of exactly the same struc- 
ture. Also some species of Callopora, with a spinulose surface, are made known 
by Hall, which exhibit no essential difference from the spinulose species of 
Chaetetes. 

The floriform orifices of Callopora floi-ida, Hall, and laminata, Hall, have 
been occasionally mentioned before. The same stellate character of the ori- 
fices is developed in a species from the carboniferous limestone of La Grange, 
Missouri, (Keokuk Limestone.) 

Callopora missouriensis nov. spec. 

From an incrusting basal expansion branching nodose stems grow up. 
Diameter of stems four or five millim., orifices one- eighth of a millim. wide, 
distant from two to four of their own diameters. Form of the orifices some- 
times only slightly sinuose, but in some finely preserved specimens, having 
the form of a five-rayed star, with a spinula on each of the inward project- 
ing angles. 

The intermediate spaces are filled with open angular cells, much smaller 
than the tubules. In vertical sections the tubes do not exhibit any dia- 
phragms ; the intertubular cell mass forms very regular vertical rows, having 
the appearance of septate tubules. 

The genus Trematopora Hall, naturally succeeds Callopora. The principal 
differences from the latter genus are the elevated rims of its tube orifices, and 
the generally closed interstitial cells, which are less similar to tubules than 
in Chaetetes, and show decidedly their vesiculous nature. The tube dia- 
phragms are not often developed, but there is no difficulty to find specimens 
in which their existence can be demonstrated. 

Not all species united by Hall in the genus Trematopora properly belong 
there ; for instance, Trematopora sparsa, striata, and others. On the other 
side, I think several species ought to be united with it, which are placed in 
other genera; as Ceramopora foliacea, Diamesopora dichotoma, etc. 

McCoy's species of Fistulipora seems to have exactly the same structure with 
Trematopora, but McCoy had much less correct ideas of the affinities of his 
genus than Hall had; the latter expressly states the similarity of Callopora 
and Trematopora with the Bryozoa, and was only prevented from giving them 
their proper place by the existing prejudice, that the tubules of Bryozoa 
never have any diaphragms. 

1 take Trematopora and Fistulipora as being identical, and will use the 
name Fistulipora in a more extended sense, applying it to all the species 
which agree with it in anatomical structure and general surface characters, 
without to inquire specially at this place, how far a division into some sub- 
genera, would be practicable. 

Fistulipora is represented by a considerable number of species, during the 
whole paleozoic era. A striking feature of nearly all its species are super- 
ficial macule, analogous to those of Chaetetes ; they are of exclusively cellu- 
lose structure, and have frequently a subregular stellate form. 

A fair representation of these macula^ is given (Arch, du Mus. Tom. v. Tab. 
20, f. 5,) in the figure of Chaetetes Torubine, which itself is, to all appearances, 
a Fistulipora. 

The projecting tube margins of Fistulipora are in most of its species 
oblique to the surface, although the tubes themselves have generally a rec- 
tangular position to it, excepting the smaller ramose forms, and the earlier 
stadia of growth in laminar expansions, where the tubules are prostrate in 
the beginning, but soon elevate themselves under an abrupt angle and be- 
come rectangular. 

The tube orifices are generally circular, or oval, but sometimes sinuate, or 
even stellate, like those described in Chaetetes and Callopora. Also opercu- 

1866.] 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

la, of similar structure to those of the former genera, are sometimes noticed 
in specimens of Fistulipora. The central opening appears to have been closed 
in some of the opercula by a subsequent solid deposition; we find, at least in 
all the perfect opercula, the central portion forming an offset from the sur- 
rounding marginal part. 

Fistulipora is quite polymorphous ; we find its species incrusting, and in 
free expansions, with orifices on one side only, or in double leaves, with ori- 
fices on both sides ; they grow in hollow stems, or in strumose cystical form, 
or in solid ramifications, or in undefined large masses. 

One, or several, of these forms are generally significant for a certain species. 
but I think, in the systematic arrangement of the Bryozoa, too much weight 
has been given to their external form and to the manner in which they grow. 

For further elucidation of my general remarks, I will append the descrip- 
tion of a number of species of Fistulipora which are new, or whose anatomy 
was not fully recognized before. 

Hbllipora (Constellaria) antheloidea, 

Is the oldest and at the same time the most marked form of Fistulipora. 

Its circular tubules with projecting rims, the vesiculous interstitial cell- 
mass, the monticulose maculae with a star-like depressed cellulose centre, re- 
present, in ideal perfection, the principal characters of the genus. 

In this place I take occasion to mention a lower Silurian fossil, whose nature 
is only imperfectly known, and which resembles in its structure Fistuli- 
pora. 
Stromatocerium kugosdm Hall. 

By its external appearance, it has been generally confused with Stromato- 
pora, but this latter has a widely different structure and belongs to the Petro- 
spongiae. 

Slromntocerium rugosum grows in large subglobose masses with an undula- 
ted monticulose surface. Vertical sections show a series of superimposed 
laminae, on which the naked eye can scarcely recognise organized structure; 
under the magnifier we find it composed of small, subparallel, simple tubules, 
and of a comparatively coarse vesiculous cell- mass surrounding the tubules. 
These cell-vesicules are convex above, concave below, spread out in horizontal 
layers, and not in vertical rows ; the size of the vesicules is very unequal and 
varies from a half to one millimeter in the horizontal direction, about half as 
much in the vertical sense. 

Diameter of tubules one-sixth of a millimeter ; distance between each other 
about half a millimeter. 

The more delicate surface characters cannot be recognized, on account of 
the unfavorable state of preservation of the specimens. 

According to Hall, it is found in the Black River limestone. My specimens 
are from Madison, Ind., where it occurs in association with Favistella stellala, 
in the upper strata of the Hudson River group formation. Some of the best 
specimens, however, I found in the drift deposits of Michigan. 

The Clinton group, and, in particular, the Niagara group, contain a good 
many species of Fistulipora structure tue Trematoporas of Hall. 

In regard to a few of them, I have to make some remarks. 

Trematopora tubulosa of the Clinton group, and Diamesopora dichotoma of the 
Niagara group, combine exactly the same internal structure with their 
external similarity of form. 

The inner face of their hollow steins is covered by a delicately-wrinkled 
dermatic crust. Their tubules are arranged in oblique rows, becoming some- 
what irregular by the slightly-developed maculae. The basal portions of 
the tubules are prostrate, and in immediate contiguity; but, by abruptly 
bending up to the surface, leave a more or less considerable space between 
the erected tube ends, which is filled out by cellulose tissue. This cell-mass 
is generally found homogeneous, and allows no discrimination of cells. A 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 119 

few specimens, however, may always be found which exhibit with sufficient 
distinctness the outlines of the tissue vesicules. 

Trematopora tubulosa could, for this reason, with propriety, be placed under 
the genus Diamesopora ; but Diamesopora itself, again, so much resembles 
Trematopora ossiolata, that I would rather see the genus Diamesopora given 
up, by amalgamating its only representative with Trematopora. 

The species named by Hall, Ccramopora foliacea, is, in all respects, corres- 
pondent with the other Trematoporas. It grows in double leaves, which may 
be separated in two folia, with a dermatic crust on the interior face of the. 
two leases. Its tubules are, as in the former species, prostrate, and make an 
abrupt bend to the surface ; the inter-tubular cell-mass exhibits its structure 
with the greatest distinctness. 

Diameter of tubules one-sixth of a millimeter. From Ceramopora imbricata, 
the type of the genus, it differs essentially. More natural would have been 
its combination with Rhinopora verrucosa, which has the structure of Fistuli- 
pora, and the exterior form in common with it. 

In Rhinopora verrucosa, the maculae are represented by elevated, branching 
and anastomosing ridges, which are lined with tube orifices of somewhat 
larger size. 

FlSTULIPORA NEGLKCTA nOV. Spec. 

Convex, undulating, laminar expansions of a few millimeters thickness, 
with a wrinkled epitheca below. Tubules one-fourth to one-third of a milli- 
meter wide, with quite projecting, oblique, oval orifices, forming a sharp lip 
on the outer side, and gradually lost in the general surface on the inner side. 
They are arranged in closely-set subregular rows, which are interrupted by 
small, little conspicuous maculae. 

Locality. Waldron, Ind , and Rochester, N. Y., in the shales of the Niagara 
group. 

Fistulipora Halli nov. spec. 

Undulated, free or incrusting expansions, with a wrinkled epitheca below. 

Tubules one-sixth of a millimeter wide, orifices oval, with au abruptly- 
projecting lip on the outer side, and arranged in subregular rows, which 
keep a distance of about one tube diameter. Macula; quite conspicuous, 
sometimes slightly elevated, of irregular substellate form. 

This species has much resemblance to Ccramopora foliacca, but it does not 
grow in double leaves as the latter. 

Locality. Waldron, Ind., Rochester and Lockpcrt, in the shales of the 
Niagara group. 

In the upper strata of the Helderberg group, and in the Hamilton group, 
Fistulipora is represented by numerous species. The smaller ramose forms, 
which are so frequently met with in the Niagara group, are rarely seen in 
this horizon ; larger laminar expansions, or massive tuberoso-globose forms, 
prevail here. 

Fistulipora lunata nov. spec. 

It grows in tortuous thick laminap, with a wrinkled epithecal crust below, 
or more frequently in distorted, very irregular masses, consisting of several 
laminae, which are grown together with their epithecal sides. The tubules 
are not angular to the surface, with prostrate basal ends as usual. Size of 
tubules one-fourth of a millimeter. Orifices with moderately-elevated mar- 
gins, rotundato-semilunar, with two dent-like projections into the tube 
cavity at the concave or flattened side, which continue as longitudinal ridges 
down the cavity of the tubes. Distribution of orifices without any apparent 
order; distance a little over their own diameter. Tube diaphragms some- 
times developed, frequently wanting. 

Intertubular tissue coarse-celled; cells arranged in subregular vertical 
rows. 

1866.] 



120 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

Surface raised in small rounded monticules, with cellulose maculae on the 
vertex ; distance from the centre of one monticule to the other about four or 
five millimeters. 

Locality. It is quite common in the limestones of Sandusky, Columbus, 
and other places, (upper Helderberg group.) 

FrsTULiPORA helios nov. spec. 

A thin laminar expansion encrusting the stem of Eridophyllum colligatum. 
(Heliophyllum, Billings.") 

Orifices pustulose, one-sixth of a millimeter wide, distant from each other 
about two or three tube diameters. Maculae large, depressed in the centre, 
from which irradiate depressed cellulose spaces, giving the surface an orna- 
mental appearance, very similar to Hellipora antheloidea. 

Drift specimen belonging to the corniferous limestone. 

FlSTULIPORA STELLIFERA nOV. Spec. 

Double leaves separable in two folia ; surface raised in low monticules, 
distant about four millimeters from one centre to another. 

Orifices linguiform or irregularly oval, one fourth of a millimeter wide in 
the larger diameter, surrounded by an elevated rim. A few larger and more 
projecting orifices are generally noticed on the monticules, from the summits 
of which narrow, cellulose, bifurcating spaces irradiate. In places to which 
these cellulose radii do not extend, the orifices are closely approximated. 

Locality. Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, in the shales of the Hamilton group. 

FlSTULIPORA SULCATA nOV. Sp. 

Thin simple lamina?, with an epitheca below. Orifices one-fourth of a 
millimeter wide, irregularly linguiform, surrounded by an elevated margin, 
closely approximated and disposed without any apparent order. Maculae 
having the form of elongate narrow foveae, which send out some radiating 
furrows. 

Locality. Partridge Point, Thunder Bay, Michigan, in the shales of the 
Hamilton group. 

FlSTULIPORA MINUTA nOV. Sp. 

Undulated lamina?, only half a millimeter thick, with an epitheca on the 
lower side, and raised in low rounded monticules on the upper face. 

Tubules one-eighth of a millimeter wide, irregularly oval, distant from 
each other somewhat more than one tube diameter. Maculae little con- 
spicuous, on account of the minuteness of the fronds. 

Occurs with the former at Partridge Point. 

Fistulipora acervulosa nov. spec. 

Large undulated expansions, from a few millimeters to one centimetre 
thick, and with an epithecal crust on the lower side. 

Surface elevated in monticules of about five millimeters distance. Tubules 
one-fourth to one-third of a millimeter; of somewhat larger size on the 
monticules. 

Cellulose macula? only feebly developed. 

Orifices rotundate, forming a prominent lip on the exterior side, equally 
distributed over the surface, holding a distance of a little more than their 
own diameter. Tube diaphragms distant, frequently wanting. Opercula with 
a central opening, sometimes developed. Intertubular tissue formed as 
usual by vertical rows of vesicules. 

Locality. Partridge Point, with the former species 

FlSTULIPORA SPINULIFERA DOV. Spec. 

Grows in branches of two or three centimetres thickness, or also in thick 
undulated expansions. 

Surface monticulose, distance from one monticule to the other three or 
four millimeters, summits of monticules cellulose. Tubules one-fifth of a 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 12 L 

millimeter wide. Surface finely spinulose or granulose, exhibiting seemingly 
dilated polygonal orifices, but actually it is the luxuriant spinulose inter- 
tubular cell mass which forms the polygones, and obscures the tube mouths 
within its meshes. Occurs with the former species. 

FlSTULIPORA ElUENSIS HOT. Sp. 

Undulated and distorted laminar expansions one or several millimeters 
thick, with a wrinkled epitheca below. 

Surface spinuloso-granulose, raised in irregular low monticules, with a 
cellulose macula on the summit. 

Intertubular spaces more or less elevated above the small projecting lips 
of the tube orifices, making the surface appear as if covered by expanded 
polygonal openings, as in the former species. Tubules one-filth to one- 
fourth of a millimeter wide. 

This species has much resemblance to Fistulipora spinulifera, but it does not 
grow in massive ramifications ; its laminar expansions are more delicate, 
while, on the contrary, its surface has a coarser texture. 

Locality. Shore of Lake Erie, near Hamburg. Shales of the Hamilton 
group. 

Fistulipora utriculus nov. spec. 

Strumose branching utricules, or irregular cysts, with a dermatic crust 
covering the inner cavity. Large cellulose maculae dispersed over the sur- 
face. Tubules one-sixth of a millimeter wide. Intertubular spaces and 
maculae spinuloso-granulose. Orifices generally surrounded by a shallow 
depression, from which the tube margin projects under the form of a sharp 
lip. Distance of orifices about one tube diameter, excepting the cellulose 
maculae. The three last-mentioned species are very similar to each other, 
but, aside of the different manner of growth, each one has some constant 
smaller peculiarities, which convince me of their specific difference. 

Locality. Widder, C. W., in the upper strata of the Hamilton group. 

Fistulipora crassa nov. sp. 

Digitato-ramose, or undulated explanate masses, attached to other bodies or 
partially free, with a concentrically-wrinkled epitheca on the lower side. 
Surface raised in obtuse monticules, with more or less extended cellulose 
maculae on the summits. 

Tubules one-third to nearly one-half a millimeter wide, distant from each 
other one or a little more than one tube diameter, excepting the before-men- 
tioned maculas. 

Orifices rotundate, slightly sinuate, surrounded by an unequally-elevated 
margin, which exhibits sometimes two dent-like projections into the tube 
cavity. 

Tube diaphragms distant, or not developed. Intertubular tissue coarse. 
Opercula of usual form, sometimes noticeable. 

Locality. Widder, C. W., in the lower strata of the Hamilton group, and in 
the drift deposits of Michigan. 

Fistulipora elegans nov. spec. 

Thin laminae, with a concentrically-wrinkled epitheca below. 

Tubules one-third of a millimeter wide, prostrate at the base, rectangular 
to the surface at the upper end. Orifices perfectly circular, with an equally- 
projecting, crenulated rim distributed over the surface at a distance of about 
one tube diameter, excepting the cellulose macula, which, however, are not 
very conspicuous. Opercules very frequently preserved, flat, with a central 
opening, which in some is closed by a subsequently deposited globular solid 
stopper. In a few specimens, I see six elevated ridges radiate from the inner 
opening to the outer circumference, exactly as in the opercules of Callopora 
elegans. Intertubular cell-mass coarse, with angular cells as large as the 

1866.] 



122 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

tubules. In some specimens, which are splendidly preserved, I see the roof 
of every interstitial cell perforated by a minute opening. 

Locality. Shore of Lake Erie, Hamburg. Widder, C. W., in the Hamilton 
group. 

The carboniferous limestone encloses, likewise, a number of interesting 
representatives of the genus. 

Fistclipora Spergenensis nov. sp. 

Undulated convexo-concave laminae, or strumose utricules and cyst, with 
an epitheca on the inner or inferior side Tubules one-third of a millimeter 
wide, distant less than their own diameter. Orifices circular, surrounded by 
an elevated rim, which projects more on the outer side. Many specimens 
have no elevated tube margins, and exhibit interstitial spaces with open cells ; 
but this is only owing to an imperfect state of preservation, or the effect of 
detrition. Surface raised in obtuse unequal monticules, with cellulose 
maculae in the centre. 

Locality. Spergen Hill, Ind. Warsaw Limestone. 

Fistclipora flabellum. 

It is fixed to the ground by a prevalently-cellulose, thick basal expansion, 
consisting of concentrically superimposed layers. From this base, elevates 
itself a compressed, more or less elongated stem, which finally expands in a 
thin fan-like double leaf, fissible in two folia, with a dermatic crust on the 
inner face of each. This division in two laminae goes through the whole 
stem, to the bottom of the basal attachment. 

Tubules prostrate at first, and then bending rectangular to the surface. 
Width one- fifth to one-fourth of a millimeter. Distance of tubules more 
than one tube diameter, arranged in subregular rows, which are much inter- 
rupted by large, not elevated cellulose maculae. No diaphragms observed. 
Orifices rounded or obtusely triangular, with a projecting lip, but more fre- 
quently not elevated above the surface, and without a lip. Intertubular 
spaces, if in good preservation, decorated with fine flexuose anastomosing 
striae. Cell tissue usually appearing solid homogeneous, but in some better 
preserved specimens, of distinctly vesiculous structure, as in other Fistuli- 
poras. In some specimens, the orifices are closed by slightly depressed 
opercula with a small opening. 

Locality. Spergen Hill. Warsaw Limestone. 

This species shows, by its mode of growth, a strong affinity to the gronp, 
which includes Ptylodictya, Stictopora, Phaenopora, Clathropora, etc., which 
all do, in elementary structure, correspond with Fistulipora, being composed 
of tubules of the same configuration, and of an intertubular cellulose tissue. 
I find it strange, that no one describing these different-mentioned genera 
has stated the cellulose nature of this intertubular substance, although it 
forms an important and essential part of all these bryozoa. 



Fistclipora trifolia nov. spec. 

From an incrusting basal expansion of prevalently-cellulose nature, tri- 
angular stems about one centimeter wide, with sharp eVlges and concave 
sides, grow up. From the surface of these, new three-edged folds elevate 
themselves, and prolongate into stems, whereby a very peculiar sort of rami- 
fication is produced. Each triangular stem is composed of three leaves, 
grown together with their inner sides, forming a three-edged central suture 
line, from which the tubules begin in a prostrate position, but soon become 
rectangular to the surface of their respective leaves. 

Surface generally appearing worn, with not projecting round orifices one- 
fifth of a millimeter wide. In perfect specimens they are surrounded by an 
elevated rim. Distance of orifices about two tube diameters. Intertubular 
spaces where not worn, exhibiting the elevated angular outlines of the cells. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 123 

Quite conspicuous, not elevated maculae are distributed over the surface. 
Locality. La Grange, Missouri. (Keokuk Limestone.) 

FlSTDLIPORA COMPRESSA nOV. Spec. 

Occurs associated with the former. 

It grows in compressed ramose stems about one centimeter wide in the 
larger diameter, which are fixed to the ground or to foreign bodies by an 
irregular basal expansion. Surface raised in obtuse, unequal monticules, 
with a cellulose macula in the centre of each. Tubes one-sixth of a milli- 
meter wide, of irregular form, distant about a tube diameter or less, and, if 
the surface is not worn, surrounded by an elevated margin. Structure in 
conformity with all the other Fistuliporas. 

Fistclipora peculiaris nov. spec. 

Is a very interesting representative of stellate or floriform tube orifices in 
Fistulipora, with whose occurrence in the genera Chaetetes and Collopora we 
have already become acquainted. It grows in thin leaf- like expansious, with 
orifices on both sides, or in simple leaves with an epitheca below. Orifices 
circular, surrounded by an equally-projecting margin, distant more than their 
own diameter, and exhibiting from six to ten tooth like projections from their 
inner circumference. By grinding away the superficial portions, the tubules 
appear still provided with these radial dents, an evidence that they are not 
gpinulose projections confined to the tube margins, but the euds of vertical 
ridges, running through the whole length of the tubules. 

The surface is dotted with scarcely-elevated cellulose macuhc, which, like 
the narrower intertubular spaces, are finely granulose. Intertubular tissue 
vesiculose. Tubules rarely septate. 

Locality. La Grange, Mo. (Keokuk Limestone.) 



Fourth Contribution to the HERPETOLOGY o: Tropical America. 

BY PROF. E. D. COPE. 

I. The collection made by direction of the Governor of Yucatan, Jose Salazar 
Starrer/in, by Arthur Schott, Naturalist of the Commission, and sent to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Cinosternum shavianum. C. mexicanum Le Conte, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philada., 1854, p. 180. 

Chelopus areolatus? Cope, Proc. 1. c. 1865, 186. Emys areolatus Dume'ril, 
Arch. d. Mus., vi. 223. 
A large female specimen from Belize, from Dr. Parsons, confirms the characters 
of that from the expedition, and appears to be distinct from the C. punctu- 
1 a r iu s, 

Crocodilus moreletii A. Dumeril, Arch. d. Mus, vi. 255. 

Anolis nebulosus Wiegmann. 

One sp. No. 714. Very near the true A. sallaei Gthr. 

Anolis laeviventris Wiegm. 

This species is allied to Schiedii Wiegm. (serice.us Hallow.) and t r o p i- 
dogaster Hallow. Several specimens Nos. 503, 505, 452. 

Basiliscus vittatus. Corytkaeolus Kaup. 

Abundant. A second specimen of the allied B. nuchalis Cope, Proc. 
A. N. S. Philada., 1862, 181, has been sent to the Museum Smithsonian by 
Robt. Kennicott, from Panama. The B. galeritusA. Dum. is the species 
since described by Gray as B. (Ptenosaura) seemanni. 

18G6 ] 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Laemanctus alticoronatus Cope, Proc. A. N. S. Philada., 1865, 192. 

Two specimens. 
Ctenosaura pectinata Wiegmann, Herpetologia Mexicana. Cyclura, Durn. 
and Bibr. 

Numerous specimens of this large Iguana ; one taken with its mouth full 
of the flowers of a papilionaceous tree called Sabi. The Iguanae are known to 
be herbivorous, and CHinther has stated that the Basilisci are likewise. I can 
add the Cyclura baeolopha, and many A n ol e s , not only the large, but 
the small species. The latter take also ants, as described by G-osse and Wood. 
The separated plates of the muzzle, with the small scales between them, place 
the Metopocerus cornutus Wagl. of the West Indies between this genus and 
the true Cycluras. The latter species was taken by Weiuland in Hayti (Mus. 
Compar. Zoolog.) and by Fr. Klett in Navassa, southwest from Hayti. (Mus. 
Academy.) 

Ctenosaura acanthura Wiegmann. Herp. Mexicana. 
Apparently not so abundant as the last. 

Cachryx defensor, sp. et. gen. nov. 

Digits shortened. Body compressed. Nostril on canthus rostralis, lateral. 
Femoral pores, no preanals. Tail short, flat, covered with verticils of strong, 
erect, conic spinous seales. Head covered with small uniform scales ; no 
interparietal. A strong gular dermal fold. No dorsal crest. 

This genus is allied to Urocentrum and Hoplurus, but differs in the pos- 
session of femoral pores. It agrees in this with the depressed genus Hoplo- 
cercus Fitzinger, but in it the caudal scales, though partially spiny, are not 
whorled. Euphryne Bd. resembles it, but in it the scales of the whorls are 
not prolonged into spines, and the animal is depressed. 

Head at posterior margin of orbits equal length from end of muzzle to 
middle of frontal region. Scales on muzzle larger than others. Loreal region 
concave ; nostril in hinder part of a single scale. Ear large as eye, without 
marginal serrations. Scales of body small, slightly imbricate, homogeneous, 
smooth, in transverse series, and oblique longitudinal ; larger on the rump, 
smaller on the sides : a slightly larger vertebral series. Abdominals smooth, 
equal dorsals ; gulars a little smaller, equal on plica. A prebrachial and 
postauricular fold. Scales of fore limb moderate, some of those of femur and 
tibia much larger, spiniferous. Caudal whorls fifteen, the scales below nar- 
rowed, keeled, the carina prolonged into a flat spine. Spiniferous superior 
whorls seven, spines nearly erect, those of the median row smaller. With 
hind limb extended, the longest digit does not reach the axilla. Femoral 
pores six to nine. Bright olivaceous ; shoulder and two bands on humerus, 
and the anterior part of dorsum, with interscapular region, black, the latter 
with two cross series of green spots, more or less distinct on the whole body 
in younger specimens. In older specimens, median dorsal region bright 
rufous. 

Total length, 8 in. 6 lines. Muzzle to gular fold, 1 in. 7 - 5 1. ; to vent, 5 in. 
Fore limb, 2 in. 15 1. Exped. Coll., Nor585. 

This remarkable genus is decidedly iguaniform, but the digits are too short 
for an arboreal habit. Its tail is like that of the most spinous Ctenosaura, 
halved, and excessively abbreviated. 

Sceloporus serrifer, sp. nov. 

A stout species, near the S. spinosus, but differing in its fewer and 
larger scales, with more serrate margins, and in its coloration. It belongs 
therefore to the section with large lateral scales and only one row of large 
supraorbitals. In this species the latter are bounded by a complete series of 
inner and outer marginals. Scales from nape to rump, in twenty-three cross 
series, each with a long mucro, and two and three lesser ones on each side of 
it. Interparietal broader than long ; frontal narrow, only transversely divided, 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 125 

% 
posterior portion very small. Internasal longer than broad, elevated, some- 
times sharply keeled. Lores deeply grooved. Claws of extended hind limb 
nearly to ear ; femoral pores 9 10. Auricular marginal scales tbin, not so 
large as those just preceding. Median abdominal scales once, gulars twice 
or thrice emarginate. Tail rather short. Length from end of muzzle to vent, 
4 in. 1 1. 

Color above greyish or brighter green, with a complete pea-green bordered 
black collar, which is narrower on the gular region. Throat and sides of <^ 
blue, the latter broadly black-bordered behind and medially. A yellow bar 
across prefontals, one between orbits and one across occiput, all separated by 
brown or blackish, the posterior green-bordered behind. Younger specimens 
have the back brown cross banded. Nos. 734, 719. 

Sceloporus chrysostictus, sp. nov. 

Near the S. scalaris, but without auricular marginal scales larger 
than the temporal, with smaller dorsal scales and different coloration. 
Lateral and ventral scales nearly equal ; dorsals in forty-five rows from occi- 
put to rump, obtusely mucronate, not notched. No larger plates behind 
parietals. Cephalic plates rugose ; three pair supranasals ; internasal small, 
flat ; frontal nearly equally transversely divided, anterior half longitudinally 
divided. Interparietal narrowed anteriorly, long as broad ; parietals oblique, 
longer than broad. Supraorbitals surrounded by marginals, the external 
separated from them by a row of rhombic scales. Unguis of extended hind 
limb to near nostril. From end of muzzle to vent, 2 in. 2 lines. 

Brown, with two golden longitudinal lines from above ear to above groin, 
separated by nine rows of scales. A series of short, indistinct reddish brown 
cross-bars on each side the dorsum within these lines. Sides darker, with 
golden spangles ; axilla and scapular region black. Head dark brown ; below 
pale brown, chin darker. 

Nos. 507 and 201. 

Sphaerodactylus glaucus Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, 1865, 192. 

Several specimens. Dr. Berendt has also sent this species from Tabasco, 
with Rhinophrynus dorsalis. 

Thecadactylus rapicaudus Gray. Platydactylus Theconyx, Dum. & Bibr. 
One specimen, with several oblique, lateral, dorsal black spots. 

Coleonyx e 1 e g a n s Gray, Dumeril, Arch. d. Mus. viii. 438, Tab. 

No. 483. Prof. Sumichrast has sent this species from Orizaba, (6334,) and 
Morelet originally procured it in Peten. Another species of the same genus 
is Stenodactylus variegatus Wiegm., Baird, U. S. Mex. Boundary Survey. 
Bracliydactylus Peters, Monatsber. Preuss. Acad. 1863, 41, is identical. 

Cnemidophorus s a c k i i Wiegm. 

This species is a true Cnemidophorus, and not an Ameiva, as formerly 
supposed. 

Typhlops microstomus, sp. nov. 

This is a slender species, stouter posteriorly than anteriorly, with small 
flattened rounded head, and muzzle obtuse and very promim nt in profile. 
Labials four: first minute ; second subquadrate, below preocular ; third and 
fourth elongate vertically, and embracing between them a subocular; fourth 
highest, in contact with oral fissure by its anterior augle only. Ooular rather 
smaller than subocular; eye a small black speck on the oculo-prceocular su- 
ture ; praeocular very large, broader than both nasals, outline almost angulate 
iu front ; two equal supraoculars larger than ocular. Nasal much narrowed 
above, nostril at nearly half its elevation, connected with labial suture by a 
long suture which is convex posteriorly, leaving postnasal narrower than pre- 
nasal ; and with rostral suture by a short transverse fissure. Median cephalic 
series not smaller than lateral. Body scales in eighteen longitudinal rows. 

1866.] 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



e 



Vi j nt little visible, nearly terminal. Tail very short, straight, its acumination 
nearly continuous with inferior plane. Length 10 in. 7 lin. ; of tail, 0*9 lin. : 
diameter of posterior abdomen, 1 line. Color yellowish olive, becoming 
brighter yellow posteriorly. Coll. Commission, No. 716. 

This species is only allied to the T. disparilis Jan, Iconographie. Tab. 
vi. f. 6, but is more slender anteriorly, has broader preocular, more elevated 
nostril, much smaller ocular, higher labials, etc. etc. 

Boa eques Dum. & Bibron. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 243. 
Several specimens. 

Tantilla vermiformis Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 74. Lio- 
ninia vermiformis Hallow., 1. c, 1860, 484. 
One specimen. 

Tantilla moesta. Homalocranium moestum Giinther, Ann. Mag. N. H. 

1863, p. 

Rather slender ; tail five and one fourth times in total length ; muzzle 
rounded, scarcely projecting ; orbitals 1 2, the anterior higher than long, 
barely in contact with postnasal. Superior labials seven, last highest, eye 
over third and fourth. Temporals 1 2. Pregeinals longer, in contact with 
mental ; inferior labials six, fourth largest. Vertical plate longer than broad, 
posterior margins longer than lateral ; superciliaries short, broad. Scales of 
body in fifteen rows. Total length 13^ inches. 

Glossy black, chin and throat, and a collar involving postorbitals and bor- 
ders and ends of occipitals and three rows of nuchal scales, yellow. 

This genus now embraces the following species. 

T. planiceps m., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1861, 74. Coluber 
Blainville, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris, 1834, 62. Baird & Girard, Serpents, 154. 

T. gracilis, Baird & Girard, 1. c. 132. 

T. h a 1 1 o w e 1 1 i i Cope, 1. c. 1861, 74. 

T. vermiformis m. e. Hallowell, supra. 

T. reticulata Cope, 1. c. 1860, 77. 

T. m i n i a t a , Cope, 1. c. 1863, 100. 

T. coronata Baird & Girard, 1. c. 131. 

T. m e 1 a n oc e ph a 1 a m. e. Schlegel, Dum. & Bibr., 859. Var., with 
longitudinal bands. Guadalaxara, Mexico, Major; Trinidad, W. I., Gill. 

T. nigriceps Kennicott, Proc. A. N. S. Philad., I860, 328. 

T. moesta m., supna. 

T. laticeps Giinther, Proc. Zoolog. Soc. London, 1860, 240. 

T. semicincta, Dam. & Bibr. S62. 

Ficimia publia, sp. nov. 

This species is intermediate between the F. olivacea and F. variegat a,'* 
and the Gyalopium canuruf m., having the broad rostral of the former in 
contact with the frontal, and the two internasals of the latter. 

Nostril little longer than broad, concave, its apex more than a right angl^, 
recurved, the plate concave, contracted at its junction with the frontal. A 
suture from nostril to intei labial suture ; second labial largely in contact with 
prefrontal ; eye over third and fourth, fifth triangular, sixth largest, seventh 
and last smallest ; seven inferior labials, postgeueials rudimental. Orbitals 
1 2; temporals 1 2; occipitals rounded behind, broad as long; vertical 
broader than long ; superciliaries longer than broad. Scales broad, in seven- 
teen rows, the second nearly equal first. Gastrostega 138 ; anal divided ; 
urostega 37 pairs. 

Light yellowish-brown above, with twenty-nine or thirty subquadrate or 
narrow transverse brown spots ; a larger nuchal spot ; sides brown punctate ; 
head darker shaded above, a brown spot below eye. Below immaculate 
whitish. Total length 8 in. 9 1. Nos. 625, 726, Comission Collection. 



* Amblymetopim Guother, Catal. f Vid. !-il!im. Journ., 1863. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 127 

Stenorhina ventralis Dum. & Bibr. Cope, Proc. A. N. S. Philad., I860, 

242. 
Ninia collar is, Jan. Elenco, 35. Cope, Proc. A. N. S. Philad., 1883, 100. 

Masticophis bilineatus m. Herpetodryas bilincatus Schlegel, Jan. Elenco, 
Syst. 81. 
Two specimens. Masticophis is the first name published with description 
for this genus, which I characterized (Proc Acad. 1861, 560) under the name 
Drymobius Fitz. It embraces all the Herpetodryades of authors, (vide Jan's 
Elenco,) except the H. carinatus, H. sebastus m., and H. flaves- 
cens m. (Phyllosira m.) No. 777. 

Thrasops mexicanus Cope, Proc. A. N. S. Philad., 1861, 557. Leptophis 
D. & B. Ahaetulla Gthr. 
Two specimens. No. 771. 

Leptodira annulata var. 

Much like the South American variety in characters, but slender, with very 
narrow neck and broad head, like Himantodes. The head is broader, and the 
neck more constricted than in annulata; scales narrower, in twenty-one 
rows; prefrontals broader than long, loreal square; one preocular little 
apparent on upper surface of head, two postoculars ; eight upper labials ; eye 
over fourth and fifth ; third sometimes in contact. Grastrostega 184, anal 
divided; urostega 81. 

Grey, with twenty-two jet black half rings, extending to gastrosteges, the 
anterior broader, posterior pointed in front. Below immaculate. A black 
band from eye crosses angle of mouth and unites with first nuchal half ring. 
Total length 18 in. 2 1.; of tail, 4 in. 4 1., which is as broad as from end of 
muzzle to its border. 

Tropidodipsas brevifacies, p. nov. 

This species approximates nearly the form of Leptognathus in its prege- 
neials broad as long, and postgeneials broader than long, and in the 'lack of 
complete preocular. It differs from the two known species of its genus in 
having smooth scales. An upper preocular, on one side exceedingly minute, 
neither attaining the frontals ; a loreal extensively margining orbit, on one 
side divided by a horizontal suture. Postoculars three, inferior in contact 
with fifth and sixth labials, superior with occipital only. Superior labials 
nine, three posterior longer than high ; inferior eleven, fifth and sixtli minute 
and bordered by two hexagonal shields within ; (one side mutilated.) Inter- 
nasals and prefrontals broader than long, frontal broad as long, lateral longer 
than posterior suture ; temporals 2 3 4. Gastrostega 171, five single gulars, 
one entire anal, urostega 86 pairs. Tail 3| times in total length. 

Glossy black, with ten on the body and seven on the tail yellow annuli, 
which occupy four scales and five gastrostega. A broad yellow collar reaching 
to the occipitals and involving two posterior labials, and four gular shields. 

The teeth in this species are short and weak, and the maxillary bones 
slender and not alate. Coll. No. 753. One specimen. 

Elaps ornatissimus Jan, Elenco. 

Smilisca baudinii m. Hylavanvleitii Bd. Hyla baudinii Dum., Bibr. viii. 
Apparently abundant. 

Triprion petasatus Cope. Pharynyodon petasatus m. Proc. Acad. 1865, 
193. Generic name preoccupied in Helminthes. 

Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, Peters. B. nebulifer Girard. 

Bufo m a r i n u 8. B. agua Daudin. 

Rana h a 1 e c i n a Bosc. One sp. , No. 712. 

1866.1 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

II. A collection of Reptiles, from Belize from Dr. Parsons, contained 

Oinosternum leucostomum, Ptychemys o r n a t a, Dermatemys mavei 

and Chelopus areolatus. 
Of Ophidians, Leptodira a n n u 1 a t a. 
Coniophanes bipunctatus Cope, Proc. 1860,248. Coronella bipunctata 

Giintlier, Catal., 36. 
The other species of this genus known are 
C. fissidens Hallowell, Giintlier, Catalogue B. M. (Coronella.) 
C. proterops Cope, Pr. A. N. Sci. 1860, 249. 
C. p u n c t i g u 1 a r i s m. 1. c. 1860, 248. 
C. dromiciformis m. Tachymenis dromiciformis Peters.* Monatsber. 

Berlin, 1863, p. 273. 
C. 1 a t e r i t i u s ni. 1. c. 1861, 524. 
C. imperial is m. 1. c. 1861, p. 74. Tmniophis imperialism., Gird., U.S. 

Mex. Bound. Surv. Rept., 23, Tab. 19, fig, 1. 

Coluber t r i a s p i s sp. nov. 

Form compressed, as in C. 1 aetu s ; scales all small, smooth, faintly cari- 
nate on the caudal region, in thirty-three longitudinal rows ; head elongate, 
with three or two loreals, one preocular and two or three postoculars. Maxil- 
lary teeth weak, slightly longer in front. Vertex and front plane, muzzle 
narrow, rounded, rostral not prominent. Nasals elongate, internasals a little 
broader tlian long, prefrontals long as broad. Preocular not quite reaching 
frontal ; latter longer than broad, front and sides straight, forming rectangles, 
posterior angle very open. Temporals three, long, oblique upwards and back- 
wards from the sixth upper labial, separated from occipital by two small scales. 
Nine superior labials, all longer than high, fourth and fifth under orbit. Pre- 
geneials long, postgeneials rudimental. Tail a little less than one-fifth total 
length. Gastrostega 266 ; anal divided; urostega 118. 

Yellowish gray, with fifty jet black, white margined dorsal spots, which 
occupy thirteen scales transversely and three and four longitudinally. They 
are narrower and more approximated posteriorly, and are accompanied by a 
series of similar quadrate lateral spots alternating with them: light brown 
irregular spots on the ends of the gastrostega. Below immaculate. A narrow 
and broad black crossband on the muzzle, latter from orbits ; one on each 
side from the superciliary shield to the nape, and a median band from middle 
of frontal to beyond occipitals, enclosing a pale occipital spot. 

This species is said to be common in the Belize, " where it is called Clap and 
riawyer." It grows to eight or nine feet in length, and is very active in its 
movements. 

This is an anomalous species of the genus ; its elongate form, loreals, and 
general physiognomy approximate it to the Dipsadine genus Trimorphodon, 
of the same region. 

Masticophis margaritiferus. Drymobius m. 

Elaps ornatissimus Jan, Eleuco. 

Klaps diastema Dum., Bibr. 

Bufo sternosignatus Giintlier. Catal. 

The same correspondent sends from the neighboring region of Honduras 
Niuia collaris ra. Streptopliorus sebce collaris Jan, and 
Rhegnopst v i s o n i n u s gen. et sp. nov. 

* Professor Peters finds Coniophanes Ilallnwell probably identical with Tachymenis Wiegmann. 
The distinction-* are well mat keel, in the former one preocular and no scale pores, in the latter 
two preoculars ami one scale pore. The former genus has been since called (Haphrophis by .Ian, 
and the Tachymenis hypoconia m. 1. c. 1863 219, is Mesotes obtrmus Jan, Coronellinse, 1863. 

+ Pttyw/jt from the severance of the nasals. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 129 

The genus is near to Carphophis inmost respects, including the divided anal 
shield, but differs in its two distinct nasals, of which the anterior is pierced 
for the nostril. There are two postoculars, and fifteen series of scales. Teeth 
equal. Form rather slender. The postgeneials are quite small, and con- 
verted into scales similar to those at the extremities of the gular gastrosteges : 
they nevertheless occupy the true position of geneials. The pregeneials are 
very large, and so wide as to reduce the two sm ill inferior labials bordering 
them anteriorly, to a longitudinal linear form ; they crowd the first pair into 
a transverse linear series : the symphyseal is very small and transverse. 
Seven inferior labials, fourth and fifth much largest. Superior labials seven, 
of which the last and fifth are large, the lattter not quite reaching superior 
postocular, the sixth lower : temporals 1 1. Occipitals elongate, frontal 
broader than long, prefrontals several times as long as internasals, largely 
margining orbits. Rostral not projecting ; nasals two, nostril in anterior, 
which nearly reaches labial bonier ; loreal long, bounded by second, and 
chiefly third superior labial. Pupil round. Gastrosteges 135, anal divided, 
urosteges 36. Length of head and body, 10 in. ; of tail, 2 in. 2 1. 

Color above glossy dark brown, the centres of the scales paler, of the outer 
row especially, reducing the dark to mere margins. A darker brown line 
from nape to tail on the filth series on each side. A darker shade on hinder 
part of occipitals and end of muzzle. Straw colored below, extending on su- 
perior labials round margin of rostral : tail brown below, except middles of 
proximal ^cutella. 

In this species the pupil is round. 

Siphonops sy ntremus sp. nov. 

This species differs from the four hitherto known, in the close approxima- 
tion of the narial and tentacular openings : the latter lie a little behind the- 
former, and are slightly larger. The minute eves are just visible ; the inter- 
nal nares are some distance behind the palatine arch. Muzzle projecting, ob- 
tuse in profile; from above narrowed, rounded. Teeth large, five on each 
ramus mandibuli. A gular, and strong postgular fold ; 130 annular pli.se, 
which are complete, except slight ventral interruption anteriorly ; the poste- 
rior third of the length with intermediate annuli, which are first lateral only, 
then complete above, entirely complete on the terminal inch : the whole num- 
ber will then be about 170 annuli. 

Form of body rather slender; tail depressed at end. short, acuminate. 

Color dark plumbeous, annuli yellow lined ; head yellowish brown. 

This species resembles the ('oevilia ochrocephala, but is primarily dis- 
tinguished by the position of the foramen, and of the inner nares, also by the 
color and character of annuli. 

The species of the genus now are, S. i n d i s t i n c t u s, R. & L. , S. a n n u- 
latus Mikan, S. brasiliensis Liitk., S. mexicanus Dum., Bibr., 
and S. syntremus m. 

III. Notes on Neotropical Batrachians. 

Ranula chrysoprasina sp. nov. 

In examining a collection sent to the Smithsonian Institution from Arriba, 
CustaRica, from Chas. N. Itiotte, I was much surprised to notice what was appa- 
rently a Hylorana near H. erytbraa. Doubting the correctness of the 
locality, I laid it away. Having since seen other and allied species from 
Tropical America, I recognize the existence of a genus representing Hylorana, 
but differing in the important particular of the incompleteness of the ethmoid 
arch, its superior plate being represented byoartilage. In the present species 
the terminal phalanges are slender, and furnished with a transverse limb, 
though the dilatations are small ; the latter are distinct in the Rana coeru- 
leopunotata Steindachner ; in an undescribed species from Vera Paz the 
the transverse limb is very small, but present. 

1866.] 9 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

The generic characters will then he 

Ethmoid arch superiorly cartilaginous ; prefrontals narrow, longitudinal 
widely, separated. Distal phalanges slender, with transverse limb ; no meta- 
tarsal shovel ; tongue bifurcate. 

Ranula af f i n i s. Rana affinis and Ranula gcelmerii (young) Peters, Mon- 
atsber, Berlin. Venezuela. 
Though I employ the name given to this species for the genus, I am not 
positive as to the condition of the distal phalanges. 

Ranula sp. nov. 0. Salvin ; Vera Paz, Venezuela. 

Ranula coe rule o pun ct ata. Rana do. Steind., Verhandl. Bot. Zool. 
Gesselsch. Wien, 1864, 264. ? South America. 

Ranula chrysoprasina. 

The species is allied to the last, but has a relatively shorter muzzle and 
limbs. Nostril nearer end of muzzle than orbit (equidistant in coeruleo- 
punctata); muzzle 1 1-5 th orbit (1 2-5th Steind.) Under jaw anteriorly 
abruptly truncate. Canthus rostralis straight, strong, muzzle acuminate from 
its extremity, projecting ; loreal region vertical. Tympanum elliptic two- 
thirds orbit. Vomerine teeth weak, in convergent fasciculi behind opposite 
nares. Skin shagreened above, a glandular fold on each side. The longest 
linger cannot be extended to vent ; heel to middle loreal region. Toes fully 
not widely palmate, three distal phalanges of fourth free ; one minute meta- 
tarsal tubercle. 

Color brilliant leek green, the groin and belly approaching golden ; a golden 
band from lip to shoulder, and faint one on each side back. Limbs above, 
and tarsus and forearm below, black, the femur with a few golden spots on 
Mack ground behind. Head dark above, from eye to shoulder black ; below 
pale yellowish green immaculate, except some dark shades on sternal regions. 

Length of head and body 1 in. 9 1.; of fore limb 1 in. ; of hind limb 2 in. 
7 "5 1. Costa Rica. 

Steindaehner represents much less palmation than exists in our specimen. 

It is interesting to observe how that this Raniform type, while preserving 
its definitive features in this outlying region of its distribution, and within 
the limits of the lower fauna? of South America and Australia, offers the low- 
est condition of cranial structure consistent with this type, i. e., the imperfec- 
tion of its ethmoid and prefrontal bones. 

Golostethus latinasus gen. nov. 

By this name I propose to characterize a genus of Ranida?, the type of which 
.is the Phyllobates latinasus m., Pro<\ Acad. Nat. Sci. 1863, 48. 

The sternum is Raniform without manubrium, and with membranous 
xiphisternum, quite as in the Bufoniform genus Dendrobates, from which the 
presence of very well developed teeth only separates it. It will form a Group 
I. of Fam., Ranidas before that occupying that place in System Batrachia Sa- 
lientia, Nat. History Review, 1865, and tending towards Bufoniformia. The 
characters are 

Group I. No manubrium, xiphisternum membranous. External meta- 
tarsi bound ; distal phalanges with terminal transverse limb. 

Character of genus. Digits free with dilatations ; no vomtrine teeth ; pre- 
frontals widely separated by the largely produced bony superior ethmoid 
plate. 

Bufo c o c c i f e r 6p. nov. 

Parotoids round semiglobular. Muzzle narrowly rounded, nearly as long as 
orbit. Strong bony, canthal, pre-, sub-, and postorbital, supratympanic and 
supraorbital ridges ; the last regularly curved and sending parietal branch to- 
wards the median line ; the first rapidly converging, leaving only a gutter 
between. Tympanum .one-fifth orbit. Everywhere minutely tubercular, 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 131 

those of the sides and forearm conic : soles rough, weh short, metatarsal tu- 
bercles small, obtusely prominent; tarsal fold scarcely visible. Heel to 
axilla. Two obtuse metacarpal warts. 

Gray brown ; a yellow vertebral line, with numerous chestnut brown light 
bordered spots on each side. Sides with two longitudinal brown bands, one 
from parotoid and one from groin. Limbs irregularly light varied above. 
Under surfaces immaculate. 

Length of head and body 2 in. 6 1. ; breadth at angle of jaws below 1 in. 
Length of fore limb 1 in. 5 1. ; length of foot 1 in. 3 1. 

Arriba, Costa Rica, C. N. Riotte. Smithsonian, No. 6490. 

This handsome species resembles the B. ocellatus Gthr. in coloration. 

Phyllobates ridens sp. nov. 

The close areolation of the ablomen, throat, and lower face of femora, the 
recurved angle of the mouth, the minute (one-eighth orbit) tympanum above 
the ordinary position, and truncate tongue, are marked features in this species. 
The tongue is broad and extensively free, and each angle behind is thickened. 
Choans small, Eustachian ostia minute. Skin smooth, without folds or tu- 
bercles, except a few wartlets over orbit. The eyes are large and prominent, 
diameter of orbit nearly equal from same to end of muzzle. Latter projecting 
beyond jaw, nares behind the tip, each on an angle of cauthus approximated. 
Canthus strong, a little concave ; loreal region oblique. Greatest width of 
head (behind) equal to length of same, and entering 2 in total. Heel and 
palm to end muzzle. Fingers and toes long, free, dilatations well marked. 

Color above grayish brick red, with a gray cross bar between eves, two 
across tibia and three across femur. Sides with some gray shades, lip with 
five bars of the same, two from the orbit. A black spot on tympanum, and 
gray line on canthus. Below, and inner faces of limbs pale brownish. 

Habitat. St. Juan River, Nicaragua, Robt. Kennicott ; Mus. Smithsonian. 

Engystoma variolosum sp. nov. 

Two strong compressed metatarsal tubercles, a sublongitudinal cuneiform 
and subtransverse opposite it : toes slightly webbed. Width between tym- 
panic regions nearly double the length from muzzle to nuchal fold. Muzzle 
prominent, as long as orbit, nostrils nearly terminal. Mandible with two 
symphyseal notches, and median knob. Tongue flat, elongate ; slits of vocal 
vesicle large. Heel to front of scapula. 

Dark brown above ; under side limbs and belly darker, with numerous 
large yellowish spots. Sides anteriorly blackish brown, which has a serrate 
margin above. Femora, forearms and tarsi same behind, with coarse yellow 
vermiculations : some yellow spots behind the angle of the mouth. Length 
of head and body 1 in. 4-5 1. ; of posterior limbs 1 in. 7 1. 

This species resembles the East Indian species called Diplopelma by Giin- 
ther, on account of the palmate feet: if this is the only ground of distinction, 
the genus must be united with Engystoma. 

Arriba, Costa Rica ; Chas. N. Riotte. Mus. Smithsonian, No. 6486. 

Engystoma ustum. 

This animal agrees with the preceding in it s two metatarsal tubercles, but 
they are less acute, the exterior being only an acuminate wart. Toes entirely 
free. Muzzle more prominent than in the last or E. ca ro li n e n s e, little 
longer than orbit ; head larger relatively than in the last mentioned species, 
with which it agrees in size. Width of cranium at tympanic region less than 
1J times from muzzle to nuchal fold. 

Length of head and body 11 lin. ; posterior limb 12 lines. 

Deep brown above, yellowish brown below, with numerous approximated 
pale spots, which extend slightly on sides. Limbs unicolor. 

Habitat. Guadalaxara, West Mexico. I. I. Major. 

The E. carolinense never exhibits more than one metatarsal tubercle. 

1866.] 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

A species of Coecilia occurs in Panama, of which a specimen was sent to the 
Mns. Academy by Drs. Gallaer and John L. Leconte, viz. : 

Coecilia ochrocephala. 

Proportions near those of Siphonops m e x i c a n u s ; length fifty-one times 
the diameter at middle. Tail obtuse depressed. Head narrowed, muzzle de- 
curved, not truncate, projecting acutely (in profile) beyond mouth. Tentacu- 
lar foramen a little below, nostril more above the angle of the muzzle ; eyes 
riot visible. Posterior nares close behind palatine arch. Annuli, commencing 
at head, 200, equidistant, complete above and below. On the terminal inch there 
are intermediate plicae, on the dorsal surface only, except on the last three 
lines, where they are complete. Total length 12 in. 9 1. 

Yellowish plumbeous. The plh a? dark ; throat and head ochre yellow. 

Fine examples of the C. c o m p r e s s i c a u d a D. & B., and Siphonops i n * 
distinct us Liitk. are in the Mus. Essex Inst. , Salem, Mass., the last from 
the Rio Grande, Brazil. 

IV. On Reptiles from Orizaba, Vera Cruz. 

There remain to be added to the Catalogue of Reptiles sent by Professor 
Sumichrast from Orizaba, published in Proc. Academy 1865, 195, 

Spelerpes lineolus m. Proc. Acad. 1865, 197. 

Spelerpes orculus ib. maintains its character of stout body and head, and 
dark colors, but not the absence of angulation of the lip, as this is strongly 
marked : the dorsal region and tail above are dark red, offering a general 
resemblance to Plethodon erythronotus. (No. 14.) 

Bufo cristatus Wiegmann, Isis, 1863, 660. Peters, Monatsb. Berlin, 1863, 
82. Brought also from near Vera Cruz by Dr. Sartorius. 

Lithodytes (Craugastor) griseus m. Hijla ijrisea Hallow. 

Cystignathus melanonotus Hallow, var. 

Coleonyx e 1 e g a n s supra. 

Barissia antauges sp. nov. 

A species differing from those already known in the entire smoothness of 
the scales of the body, while those of the tail are arranged in obtuse and 
strong ridges. Nuchal rows eight, those of body | . A depression along the 
vertebral line ; six scales margin the vent. Labials 10, three last superior 
nearly equal, separated by four rows of nearly equal temporals from parietals. 
Latter broad as long, well separated, with the frontoparietals by the elongate 
interparietal. Five supraorbitals, embracing three superciliaries. Prefront- 
als longer than broad ; three pairs supranasals. Tail short for the genus. 
Limbs also short. Head short and elevated. End muzzle to axilla 1 in. 3 1. ; 
latter to vent 2 in. 1 1. ; from latter to end tail 4 in. 1 1. 

Above dark brown, with a subdivided iridescence as though greased, and 
with many small blackish brown spots, which are more distinct on the tail. 
Sides with about seventeen irregular vertical black bars from opposite nape to 
groin, each bordered with yellow specks behind. Front of ear and lips black, 
yellow varied ; body and tail below, blackish, with very many yellowish- 
white specks. 

No. 11, Sumichrast's Coll. Stated by Prof. S. to be very rare. 

Ficimia o 1 i v a c e a Gray. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 133 

Description of five New Species of the Genus UNIO. 
BY ISAAC LEA. 

Unio Siamessis. Testa laevi, transversa, subcylindracea,ad basim emarginata, 
valde inaequilaterali, subeompressa, ad latere planulata, postice truncata, antice 
rotundata ; valvulis tenuissimis, diapbinis ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide 
luteo-oliva; dentibus carditialibus acicularis, sublongis, obliquis ; lateralibus 
loneis, laraellatis suhrectisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Bab. Siam ; C. M. Wheatley. 

Unio asperulus. Testa plicata, elliptiea, inaequilaterali, postice subbiangu- 
lata, antice rotundata; valvulis subtenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus, ad 
apices undulatis ; epidermide viridi-oliva, obsolete ndiata ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus laraellatis, parum obliquis, in dextro duplicibus ; lateralibus sublongis, 
lamellatis subcurvisque ; margarita caerulea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. Siam ; Tbomas R. Ingalls, M. D. 

Unio pilatds. Testa laevi, elliptica, valde insequilaterali, postice obtuse 
angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassioribns ; natibus 
subprominentibus, ad apices minute undulatis; epidermide luteo viridi, 
micanti, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus duplicibus; lateralibus sub- 
longis, subrectis lamellatisqne ; margarita alba et valde iridesceute. 

Hab. Siam ; Thomas R. Ingalls, M. D. 

Unio evitatcs. Testa laevi, elliptica, valde insequilaterali, postice subbiangu- 
lata, antice rotundita; valvulis subtenuibus, antice parum crussioribus ; nati- 
bus prominulis, ad apices divaricate undulatis; epidermide olivacea, obsolete 
radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, compressis, in utroque valvulo 
duplicibus; lateralibus sublongis, subrectis lamellatisque ; margarita alba et 
iridescente. 

Hab. Bengal ; W. A. Haines. 

Unio Strebelii. Testa laevi, oblonga, ad latere compressa, inaequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata ; antice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis, antice aliquan'o 
crassioribns ; natibus prominulis; epidermide luteo-fusca, radiata ; dentibus 
cardinalibus subcrassis, elevatis, crenulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus; 
lateralibus sublongis, subcrassis, subcurvatus corrugatisque ; margarita vel 
purpurea vel salmonea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. Vera Cruz, Mexico ; G. Strebel. 



\ 



Description of two New Species of the Genus LITHASIA. 
BY ISAAC LEA. 

Lithasia cylindrica. Testa striata, cylindrace^, flavescente, vittata vel 
evitata ; spira subelevata ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus coa- 
strictis, ultimo grandi ; apertura subconstricta, rhotuboidea ; labro acuto, 
sinuoso; columella alba et valde sinuosa. 

Hab. Coosa river; E. R. Sbowalter, M. D. 

Lithasia Wheatleyi.* Testa laevi, subc.vlindracea, luteo-virente, vittata ; 
spira elevata ; suturis irregulariter impressis, anfractibus planulatis, ultimo 
subgrandi ; apertura subconstricta, rhomboidea, intus vittata ; labro acuto. 
sinuoso; columella alba et Vi.lde iride&cente. 

Hab. Cahaba river, Alabama, E. R Sbowalter, M. D. 



* Named after Mr. C. M. Wheatley, to whom I am indebted for the possession of a specimen 

1866.] 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



Critical Review of the Family PROCELLARIIDiE : Part IV ; Embracing the 
JESTRELATE-E and the PRIONEiE. 

BY DR. ELLIOTT COUES, U. S. A. 

In the present paper, the fourth of the series, are together considered the 
jEstrelatea and the Frionece, mainly for the purpose of showing how closely 
related these sections are through certain of their genera. 

For the first of these sections three names are at our disposal ; sc. sEstreJa- 
tece, Daptionece and Rhantistece. Of these I prefer to accept the first, both as 
having priority, and being taken from the name of the typical and largest 
genus of the group ; the second being based upon a subtypical genus with but 
a single species, and the third being derived from Bonaparte's erroneous 
identification of Kaup's Fulmaiine genus Rhantistes. 

The section JEstrelatecB, as here restricted, corresponds very nearly with Ihe 
group defined under this name in Bonaparte's Conspectus. There is here, 
however, included in it the genus Daption*, by Bonaparte placed among the 
Fulmarea ; and it is considered as probably connecting the ^-Estrelatei.e with 
the Prions. The genus Thalassoica is excluded as being essentially Fulma- 
riue. In generic arrangement I am compelled to differ widely from the dis- 
tinguished author just named. After attentive and critical examination of his 
genera Cokilaria, Pterodroma and Buhverla, I must confess my inability to 
distinguish either of them from ^-Estrelata by a degree of morphological dif- 
ference which, by any sublimation of characterization, can be considered of 
generic import. " Bulweria " has a rather more elongated and deciledly 
cuneiform tail than have the majority of the iEstrelatas ; but differs from 
some of them in this respect, no more than they do among themselves. 
" Pterodroma" comprises some fuliginous species morphologically identical 
with jEstrelata. " Cookilaria " has no characters whatever assigned to it by 
its author ; possibly because none are to be found in the species included 
under it. 

I do not hesitate to follow natural data afforded by specimens, even should 
they conflict with the opinions of so justly distinguished an author as that of 
the " Conspectus ; " especially since the more closely I scrutin'ze his work 
upon the Petrels, the more irresistibly the conviction is forced upon me, that 
it is, to speak in the mildest terms, unreliable. It cannot be denied by the 
most strenuous of his advocates, that there are to be found in this work in- 
stances of unnecesssary if not unwarrantable pseudo-generic subdivisions ; of 
some pure figments in the way of species ; of rash collocation of synonymy ; 
and of weak and intangible diagnoses. These are to the last degree discoura- 
ging, because perplexing, to the student. crede mihi experto. They would, 
however, be less repellant, and bear much more weight, could we feel satisfied 
that they represented the matured opinions of the author, based upon well- 
digested facts. Such unhappily is not the case ; for the views expressed on 
different occasions are found to fluctuate according to the particular theory 
which may have been in posse sion of his mind at the time of writing; and 
are often diametrically opposed to each other. That I may not seem to wan- 
tonly criticise one of the most brilliant lights that has ever shed its radiance 
upon Ornithology, to whom alas ! it was not permitted to finish his last great 
work, I may be allowed to sustain myself by a simple comparison of the 
"Conspectus" with the Table of the Longipennines published in the Comp- 
tes Rendus. The fasciculi of the former which treat of the Petrels bear date 
of Dec, 1855, and Jan., lS5(i ; the latter is of the seance of April 28, 1856. I 
only cite some of the more glaring discrepancies of generic arrangement and 
distribution of species ; for concerning synonyma it may be stated that as a 
general rule conflicting views are entertained on all debatable points. 

" The true relationship of this genus is still with me a matter of some uncertainty. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 135 

C. A. Genus Majaqueus placed among the Puffinerc ; Pterodroma and Pa- 
godroma among the jEstrelateas. 0. R. These three genera placed among the 
Fulmarem. 

C. A. Priocella Garnofii, H. and J. (= Thalassoica glacialoides according 
to Gray) not recognized. C. R. Given as a valid genus and species of Ful- 
marem. 

C. A. Proc. meridionalis Lawr. considered as a synonym of ^Estrelata dia- 
bolic i. C. R. Given as a valid species of genus Fulmarus. 

C. A. Genus Adamastor founded and considered as a component of the 
Fulmarem, with ti/pus Bp. (cinerea Gm.) sericeus Less, aud flavirostris Gould, 
as its species. C. R. Genus Adamastor abandoned, and its three species dis- 
tributed thus : tijpus (here called cinerea Gm.) is put under Prioflnus,* 
among the Puffins ; flavirostris and sericeus (the latter queried as to validity) 
are put under JEstrelata of the " Rhantisteo3. ,, 

C. A. Genus Cookilaria established with leucoptera Gould, velo.r Soland., 
solandri Gould, and mollis Gould, as its species. C. R. Cookilaria abandoned. 
Rhantistes ex Kaupf taken, with Coolcii Gray, velox Sol. mollis, "unicolor,'" 
" raolensis " Gould, and Lessoni Garnot as determined species ; rostrata, par- 
virostris Peale, gelida Gm. and sandaliata Sol. as doubtful species. 

C. A. Genus JEstrelata contains diabolica L'Herm. (syn. haesitata Temm. 
Kuhl,) desnlata Gm. inexpectata Forst. (=mollis Gould) and leucocephala 
Forst. (Lessoni Garnot.) C. R. The same genus is made to contain diabolica 
L'Herm. hcesitata Temm. (here considered distinct from diabolica,) sericea 
Less, flavirostris Gould, desolata Lath. ; with gularis and brevipes Peale, and 
inexpectata Forst. as doubtful species. 

C. A. Genus Nectris Bp. emend, ex Forst. contains brevicauda Brandt, car- 
neipes Gould, fuliginosus Strickl. gama Bp. and tenuirostris Temm. C. R. 
Nectris abandoned, and its species thus distributed : brevicaudu? and carneipes 
are put with cincrevs Gm. under Prioflnus H. & J. ; fuliginosa Strickl. is 
made a queried synonym of Puffinus major Faber ; gama Bp. does not appear: 
while tenuirostris is united with sphenurus, etc., under thegen'is Thiellus. 

However great the changes and innovations thus introduced, which are 
indeed " une foule des faits nouveaux relatifs a la classification, a la nomen- 
clature, a la synonymie. et aux divers rapports des espcces," resulting " de 
leur etude appiofondie "J between Dec. 1855 and April 1856, I am unwilling 
to believe that the " Table" is drawn up with reference to the size and shape 
of the Comptes Rendus page, rather than in accordance with truth. 

The numerous difficulties which beset us in the critical investigation cf any 
group of the Petrels, reach their maximum in the section now under considera- 
tion. This is in a measure due to the habitat of most of the species the 
genera being essentially South Pacific and Antarctic in their distribution which 
renders the acquisition of specimens difficult, at least in such numbers as to 
enable extended comparisons to be instituted, and the great changes of plu- 
mage which a majority of the species undergo with increasing age, to be fully 
and accurately elucidated. Some are to this day known only by type speci- 
mens ; while of many others we are no more familiar regarding variable 
features of coloration, than to enable us to speak in the most general terms of 
the changes undergone during progress towards maturity. But these are 
among the minor evils to be contended with ; for Nature herself is perhaps 
never so difficult of comprehension, as we often find our attempts to under- 
stand her to be. And so the confounding of distinct species under one name 
and description ; the making of nominal ones out of changes of plumage and 
variations in size ; together with the misinterpretation by writers of the labors 

*Tliis is an important correction. ' Prioflnus cinereus" is the proper name of the species called 
in the C. A. "Adamastor ti/pus." 
t This name of Kaup's is a synonym of Fulmarus Leach. 
t Bp. C. K. April 23, 1856, p. 707. 

1866.] 



136 PROCEEDINGS OE THE ACADEMY OF 

of their predecessors, have produced a bibliography so embrouilUe as to defy 
our most patient efforts to completely unravel the entangled skein, and to 
cause us to turn with weariness if not disgust from the hopeless task. The 
necessity which exists for the study I use the word advisedly of synonyma, 
is the opprobrium of ornithology ; and the kind of labor demanded for their 
elucidation is far removed from the real pursuit of science itself. At the same 
time, while an inevitab'e, it is too often a thankless labor, and one hardly ap- 
preciated ; the results of which are usually incommensurate with the time 
and trouble expended. Collocation of synonyma is by no means mere clerical 
compilation. It is a species of investigation which, to be productive of any 
value, demands a sound judgment and powers of discrimination perhaps of 
as high a grade as those required for the successful study of genera and spe- 
cies. But it does not often bring to its author such rewards as are willingly 
granted him who elucidates other classes of facts in Natural History. For as 
i's chief duty is to deal with disputed points, it enters an arena where more 
conspicuously figure not facts but rather opinions ; concerning which the 
right of arbitration is yielded by no man to another, The synonymist must 
ordinarily expect acquiescence with his views from those only whose ideas are 
not jostled by the opinions he advances. 

It is impossible to pursue a critical investigation of the Procellariidce with- 
out being impressed by these facts ; which must be my only weapon wherewith 
to turn the edge of criticism from my efforts towards the elucidation of the 
family. No one can be more painfully aware of the errors of omission and 
doubtless also of commission, which must be met within these papers; and 
none can be less tenacious of debatable views, or more ready to relinquish 
opinions when proof of their fallacy is made apparent. I only ask a thorough 
examination before a condemnatory fiat is passed upon any of the views enter- 
tained which may be at variance with current opinions. 

As a rule I have adopted for species no name to which any doubt as to 
identity attaches ; while those still open to discussion I have endeavored to 
treat of solely with reference to their intrinsic merits, no extraneous claims to 
our consideration being acknowledged. I regret the necessity of frequent 
citations of manuscript names and unpublished drawings, which we are by no 
means bound to recognize; but which have become so interwoven with the 
bibliography of the family, that it is impossible to avoid so doing. 

The present paper, like others of mine, is doubtless amenable to the charge 
of " discursivene s." This fault, if it be one, is certainly of that class which 
"lean to virtue's side ; " and one which at present I feel indisposed to cor- 
rect. Words are cheap enough ; and bad they not been so parsimoniously 
doled out in the earlier days of ornithology, there would now be less need of 
a nrofuse expenditure of them. 

The sEstrelatese, as I regard them, are composed of three genera, which may 
be briefly diagnosticated as follows : 

A. Tail much graduated, or cuneiform. 

I. Bill robust, compressed, the unguis large, and curved 
from the nostrils. Extension of feathers on forehead 

normal. Hallux small. Nostrils short JEstrelata. 

B. Tail slightly rounded. 

II. Bill stout, compressed, unguis large, nostrils short. 
Forehead low, flat, the feathers encroaching far on the 
b 11. Interramal space feathered. Hallux large and 

stout Pagodroma. 

III. Bill greatly dilated. Nostrils long. Feathers on 
forehead normal in extension. Unguis small and weak. 
Interramal space partially naked. Hallux ordinary... Daption. 

Color also affords us an excellent artificial index to these genera. Thus 
. Estrelata is bicolor or fuliginous ; Pagodroma is unicolor, white ; and Daption 
is spotted with light and dark colors. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 137 

The first of these genera, after the fusion with it of those of Bonaparte 
already adverted to, is quite an extensive one, comprising more species than 
any other of the family. In this paper I enumerate eighteen, which appear 
to have just claim to recognition. At the same time some of them, as I iuti- 
mate, may not be valid, while I am quite willing to believe that there may 
exist good species of which no cognizance is here taken. 

KESTREL ATA Coues, [emend. exBp.] 
Procellaria sp. Auctorum. 

Daption sp. Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825. 
Pujfinus sp. Webb and Berthelot, Av. Canar. 1836 44. 
Ossifraga sp. et Thalassoica sp. Reichenbach, Syst. Av. 
yEstrclata, Bonap. C. A. 1855. ii. p. 188. Type Proc. ha>sitata, Temm. 
Cookilaria, Bonap. C. A. 1855, ii. p. 190. Type Proc. Cookii, Gray. 
Ptcrodroma, Bonap. C. A. 1855, ii. p. 191. Type Proc. macropterf, Smith. 
Bulweria, " Bp. 1836." (Gray.) Bp. C. A. 1856, ii. p. 194. Type Puff, col- 

umbinus, Webb and Berthelot. 
Rhantistes, Bonap. Compt. Rend., April, 1856, xiii. p. 768. Type Proc. Cookii 

Gray. (Not of Kaup, 1829, the type of which latter is Proc. glacialis, 

Linn.) 
Chs. Bill about as long as the tarsus; very stout; compressed; higher 
than broad throughout; lateral outlines nearly straight, converging to the 
much compressed unguis. Unguis particularly large, strong, its upper out- 
line very convex, its tip greatly decurved ; arising almost immediately from 
the end of the nasal tubes, leaving but a very brief and quite concave culmen 
proper. Lateral element of the bill very strong ; rising high up at the root of 
the nasal case ; somewhat inflated throughout ; and with a strongly convex 
inferior border ; which with the great decurvature of the unguis produces an 
extremely sinuate commissure'; outline of lower mandible nearly straight ; of 
gonys a little concave ; eminentia symphysis well marked. Sulci on both 
upper and under mandibles distinct. Nasal tubes of moderate length, eleva- 
ted, conspicuous, not carinated, dorsal outline about straight, apex more or 
less vertically truncated, orifice subcircular, each naris oval, separated from 
its fellow by a thin vertical portion which comes well forward. Interramal 
space narrow, fully feathered. Wings comparatively longer than in most 
sections, surpassing the tail when folded ; pointed ; but the second primary 
nearly as long as the first. Tail long, and much graduated ; sometimes almost 
cuneate, usually much rounded ; the rectrices quite broad to their tips. Feet 
of moderate size ; tarsus moderately compressed, with the ordinary small 
subhexagonal reticulations; about as long as or a little less than the middle 
toe without its claw. Outer toe rather surpassing the middle ; with its claw 
about equalling the middle and claw. Tip of inner claw reachingbase of middle 
one. Hallux short, sessile, conical, acute, elevated. Of moderate and rather 
small size ; bicolor, or nearly so ; in youth nearly unicolor. 

The genus sEstrelata as thus defined is quite an extensive one, comprising 
a larger number of species than any other of the family. In its geographical 
distribution, it is essentially southern and antarctic ; only a very few of the 
eighteen or more known to compose it being found in north temperate lati- 
tudes. The numerous species all agree in certain points which separate them 
from others ; the principal of which is the large size and great convexity of 
the unguis of the bill : which begins to rise almost immediately from the 
nasal case. Other peculiarities will be noted in the above diagnosis ; which 
have caused the species to be put in intimate relation to each other when col- 
located even by those writers who recognize but one, or at most three or four 
genera of Procellariince. 

Taking the hxsitata as the type of the genus, we find that most of the 
species, Lessoni, rostrata, etc. agree entirely with it : while some others, 
e. g. Cookii, differ in being smaller and more slenderly built, with rather less 

1866.] 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

robust bills, somewhat longer and more pointed wings, etc. These latter 
characters have been made typical of a distinct genus by Bonaparte. The 
gradation, however, in these and all other features is so gradual, through 
several intermediate forms, that I do not see how we are to draw the dividing 
line. Bonaparte moreover includes in CooMlaria such a species as Solandri, 
which is particularly a robust bird. 

Throwing out of consideration the fuliginous " Pterodromine " group, we 
find that the other species of yE<trelata adhere quite closely to a particular pat- 
tern of coloration. When adult they are dark colored above, being of some 
shade of brown or black, with more or less of an admixture of cinereous, and 
generally have a white forehead. The color of the upper parts extends on the 
sides of the breast ; otherwise the under parts are wholly white. When 
young, the color of the under parts does not diifer very notably as a general 
rule from that of the upper: the white being obscured by a dusky, fuliginous 
or cinereous clouding of the tips of all the feathers, the basal portions of which 
remain white. In general the younger the bird the more uniform, or more 
tending towards fuliginous are its colors: while in adult life light and dark 
colors occupy distinct areas, and are quite trenchantly defined. 

When we consider, therefore, the great change which the plumage under- 
goes in the bird's progress towards maturity, together with the similarity 
that exists between corresponding ages, it will not appear surprising that not 
only very numerous nominal species should have arisen, but that names of 
species should have been frequently misapplied to others than those to which 
they rightly belong ; producing a confusion in the synonymy certainly not 
surpassed, if indeed equalled, in any other penus in ornithology. A number 
of the species were first brought into notice by voyagers ; and when named by 
professed naturalists it was at a time when the neces-ity of detailed descrip- 
tions was not appreciated, so that the nice points of size and proportion which 
really distinguish the species more than colorj were rarely presented. The 
consequence is that it is now impossible to identify many of the older names 
with any degree of certainty, except perhaps by incidental or collateral testi- 
mony ; and to this day a great many identifications remain matters of opinion 
rather than of fact. 

Nor is the confusion and uncertainty by any means less in the fuliginous 
group which goes to compose this genus. Its components, so far as we know, 
are in every age unicolor ; and are absolutely indistinguishable except by 
form and dimensions. This alone would have been amply sufficient for the 
production of synomyms and malideutifications innumerable ; but this inevi- 
table result is furthered by another fact. The " genus " Pterodruma is among 
the JEstrelatea exactly what Nectris is among the Pajfinetv ; i. e. composed of 
species differing in no wise in form from ^Ettrelata or Puffinus, and which are 
entirely fuliginous in color. Now the points of form separating the species of 
" Pterodroma " from " Nectris " are by no means patent on a casual examina- 
tion ; and hence, among the older writers we find many descriptions which 
it is impossible to refer with any degree of certainty to one or the other genus, 
of which, in short, we can say no more than that a fuliginous petrel formed 
the subject of the article. Consequently, some synonyms have ever been oscil- 
lating as to weight of authority between these two groups. 

I confess to a feeling of surprise, when, on examining critically species 
typical of Bonaparte's genus Pterodroma, I could find absolutely no points of 
form whereby it might be held separable from ^Estrela'a. I do not think that 
the skeleton will be found to present any tangible morphological characters, 
critically examined in its minutest details of intermaxillary bone or phalanges ; 
nor do the remiges or rectrices in their relative developments offer the 
slightest discrepancies. We mu*t have recourse therefore to color alone if we 
would separate them ; aud Bonaparte himself gives us no other character 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 139 

whereby we may recognize his genus. I am therefore constrained to unite 
the so-called genus with sEstrelata.* 

This fuliginous section, then, of jEstrelata, comprehends some four or five 
species, very widely distributed, as regards latitude ; though, so far as we now 
know, cliierly occurring in the tropical and temperate portions of the Atlantic. 
A new species from Jamaica is being published as I write. f 

With the exception perhaps of A. Bulweri, these are only distinguishable by 
size and some points of coloration of the feet. 

This latter species differs from the type of " Pterodroma " in the somewhat 
more elongated and decidedly cuneiform tail, which is hardly contained twice 
in the wing from the carpal joint ; and perhaps in having comparatively 
slightly smaller feet. The difference iu the tail is no greater than that existing 
among unquestioned species of ^Estrelata : and in all other points there is an 
absolute identity of form. This species is the type of Bonaparte's genus 
Bulweria, and by him it is placed among the Thalassidromines ; upon what 
grounds I am at a loss to conjecture.;); The "genus" seems to me to bear 
exactly the same relation to Fterodroma that Thiellus, Grloger, (as defined by 
Bonaparte to include sphenurus Gould, and chlororhynchus Lesson), does to 
Nectris. 

The genus Cookilaria, founded by Bonaparte upon the Pr. Coolcii, Gray, has 
not evm an apology for characters whereon to base claims to recognition. A 
diagnosis is not attempted by its author ; aud a few weeks subsequently the 
name is dropped ; and Rhantistes \\ substituted, although the species collo- 
cated under the latter designation are by no means the same as those pre- 
viously included in Cookilaria. 

The other partial synonyms quoted at the head of this article are merely 
instances of the reference to them of some of the species included in the genus 
as it is here defined and limited. Of the several names at our disposal, 
JEstrelata has, so far as I can ascertain, the priority. The species given in 
the following pages include all I have been able to learn of, through specimens 
or books, as having just claims to recognition. Very possibly some valid ones 
.are omitted ; and perhaps some now retained may hereafter help to swell the 
list of synonyms ; that wearisome and vexatious, but inevitable, mass of rub- 
bish, repelling inquiry, and retarding progress, under the burden of which 
ornithology now labors. 

JEsTRELATA HiESITATA (Ktlhl) CoueS. 

Procellaria hoesitata, Kuhl. Mon. Proc. Beit. Zool., 1820, p. 142, No. 11. [Excl. 

syuon.] Temminck, Planches Colorees, No. 416. Lesson, Traite Ornith. 

1831, p. 611, [Excl. synon.] Newton, Zoologist, x. 1852, p. 3691. 

Schlegel. Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 13. 
JEstrelata diabolica, Bonaparte, Consp. av. ii. 1S35, p. 189. ex "Procellaria 

diabolica, L'Herminier." 

* This procedure may stem inconsistent with the course followed in a previous paper of mine 
upon the Puffins:. It is there, however, explicitly stated that the difference between Nectris or 
Thiellus, and Puffirms, is scarcely aucht than that of color, and that these genera " are hardly 
worth retaining, except it be for convenience's sake." (Page 117 : and see also pp. 122, 12S. 142. 
143.) Tire recognition of genera founded upon fuliginous color in this family is perhaps peculiarly 
to be deprecated ; since some species are known to pass from a fuliginous unicolor to a bicolor 
state of plumage with increasing age; and moreover, it is by no means incontrovertibly proven 
that some supposed fuliginous species are not merely immature plumages of others. I most 
willingly relinquish the position above referred to ; and am now indisposed to degrade, eveu upon 
a plea of utility, so harmonious a group as every natural genus forms. 

f Pterodroma carribsei Carte, P. Z. S. of which I learn through the kindness of Dr. Sclater, but 
of whose characters I have no means of judging. 

J The species is also included in the genus Tkalassidroma by 6. R. Gray. Examine in this cou- 
nection my remarks p. 89, of the Proc. Phila. Acad, for 1864, where its affinities are i-hown to be 
with the /Kstrelatean genus Pterodroma. By a lapsus calami the word " i'ulmarese" there appears 
instead of "JEstrelatese." 

(J Comptes Kendus. Apr., 1856., xlii. p 7C8. 

|i This is merely a misuse of a name of Kaup's founded in 1829 upon the Pr.glaciaKs, Linn., and 
therefore a synonym of Fulmarus, Leach, of 1825. (Steph., Shaw's Gen. Zool. 1825, xiii. p. 233.) 

1866.] 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OE 

Procellaria meridionalis, Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., New York, iv. 1848, 
p. 475. Id. Ibid. v. 1852, p. 220, pi. xv. Id. B. Amer., 1858, p. 827. 
[Ex Proc. brevirostris Lawr. olim.] 
Fulmarus meridionalis, Bonaparte, Tabl. Gar. Compt. Rend., 1855. Puffinus 
& Herminieri, Lesson, fide Bp. " Cat. Mus. Av. Rocheforte, 1843, p. 97o, 
sp. 5958." 
Procellaria ruhritarsi, Gould, (nomen ined. supprimend.) 

Habitat. Atlantic ocean, coasts of America and Europe. The most boreal 
of the bicolor species of the genus, and the only one hitherto detected on our 
shores. 

Form.* The bill is about as long as the tarsus ; much shorter than the 
skull ; longer than the middle toe ; very stout ; but slightly higher than broad 
at the base ; moderately compressed in the rest of its extent. The lateral 
lamina is very strong and large, a little inflated, short, very deep at the base. 
The unguis is large and strong, and its convexity begins almost from the end 
of the nasal case, leaving but a very brief and very concave culmen proper. 
The commissure is extremely sinuate, having several different curves. The 
unguis of the lower mandible is also strong, its point a little decurved, the 
gonys convex, the angle at the symphysis acute but not very prominent. The 
sulcus on the sideof the inferior mandibular ramus is distinctly marked. The 
nasal case is in length about a fourth of the culmen ; broad, depressed, scarcely 
carinate ; the orifice large, subcircular ; apex a little obliquely truncated ; each 
naris oval, with a distinct septum which reaches to the end of the case. The 
frontal feathers overlap the base of the bill, and descend in a nearly straight 
line on the sides ; thence rapidly retreating backwards. The feathers on the 
side of the lower mandible extend much further than to a point perpendicu- 
larly beneath the furthest extension of those on the upper. The interramal 
space is fully feathered. 

The folded wings reach a little beyond the end of the tail ; the first primary 
is longest ; the second nearly equal ; the rest rapidly graduated. 

The tail is very long, being contained scarcely more than twice in the 
length of the wing from the carpal joint. It is very cuneate in shape ; the 
central feathers sometimes even projecting slightly beyond the rest. The 
difference between the median and outer pair of rectrices is fully one and 
a half inches. 

The tarsi are moderately stout, and very regularly reticulated with small 
sub-hexaeonal plates ; largest on its interior aspect. In length it about equals 
the middle toe without the claw. The outer toe is a little longer than the 
middle ; but the claw of the latter is so much longer than that of the former, 
as to make the tips of the two about equal to each other. The tip ot the inner 
claw just reaches the base of the middle one. The latter is a little dilated 
on its inner aspect. Hallux of the usual shape. 

Color. On the crown of fully adult birds there is a vertical central area or 
" calotte " of blackish brown. The more mature the bird, the smaller is this 
spot, and the more trenchantly are its edges defined against the white which 
surrounds it on all sides. But in young or immature birds, in fact, in the 
majority of all the specimens we examine, this perspicuous definition of the 
dark area is interfered with in this wise : on the front many of the feathers 
are brownish black, producing a spotted or variegated appearance ; and the 
same dark color, usually somewhat diluted in tint, extends from the crown on 
to the occiput, nape, and even adown the back of the neck, until it may 
coalesce with the color of the back. On the sides of the crown the dark color 
may be generally distributed, merging into the transocular fascia of dark color 
which always exists. This latter band of color which passes through the eye 
is in adult birds well defined, and quite distinct from the calotte. Iu all ages 
and plumages it is somewhat darker in tint than the crown itself. 

* The description if taken from a specimen in the Philadelphia Academy; with which is also 
compared Mr. Lawrence's type of Procellaria meridionalis. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 141 

These simple facts regarding the varying extension of the dark colors of 
the head and neck, in a species which otherwise is not known to differ 
materially in plumage, have given rise to descriptions so worded as to be ap- 
parently quite in conflict with each other. 

Back a nearly uniform clear bistre brown : but most of the feathers often 
have slightly lighter margins of an ashen hue. The shade of brown of the 
back deepens on the wings and wing coverts into blackish brown ; which 
is especially intense in color on the outer webs of the primaries ; their inner 
vanes being fuliginous brown. 

The distal half of the tail is like the wings in color : the basal half is white, 
except the outer web of the exterior feather, and to a less extent some portions 
of the outer webs of the two next ones. A few of the shortest, most anterior 
upper tail coverts are colored like the back ; the rest are white. On the sides 
of the flanks a few feathers are touched with brown. 

The upper tail coverts ; the forehead, lores, sides of head, neck,* under wing 
coverts, (except the row just along the edge of the wing), axillars and whole 
under parts are white. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; tarsus, first joint of toes, and contained portion of 
webs flesh-colored ;t rest of webs and toes, with claws and hallux, black. 

In the young bird, the colors generally are rather darker, and tending more 
strongly towards smoky brown ; but I have never seen a specimen entirely 
dark-colored below, though such a state of plumage may be found. The bead 
and neck all around, and upper part of the breast, may be concolor with the 
back, as described under the young Lessoni. 

Dimensions. Bill (chord of culmen) 1*45. Nasal tubes - 33, (a little more 
or less). Height of bill at base '68 ; width *60 ; depth at greatest convexity 
of unguis -60. Wing (average) 12*00 ; tail 5-50 to 5-75. Tarsus 1-45 : outer 
toe ami claw 2 , 12; middle do., the same; inner 1*75. Gradation of tail 
about 1-50. 

The subject of the present article bears an intimate resemblance to no other 
species of Petrel ; and, on this account, it is the more surprising that its 
synonymy should have become so involved as it will be evideut is the <ase 
from the succeeding remarks on its bibliography ; and, particularly, it has no 
sort of resemblance to the Adamastor cinereus, to which its name of hcesitata has 
been so often misapplied. Moreover, the species, so far as we know, is not 
subject to as great changes of plumage as many others of the genus ; its gene- 
ral aspect, as regards color, is not that of the other congeneric species, but 
rather of Pvffinus major ; and why, therefore, its synonymy is so involved is 
a difficult matter to conjecture. 

Bibliography. The first definite reference to this species which I have found 
is the Proc. hcesitata of Kuhl, as above cited. The description given by this 
author is entirely pertinent, both as to colors and dimensions ; in fact, some 
expressions quite exclude any other species. Dr. Kuhl also speaks of his 
specimen as being "in musaao Bullockiano, nunc in Temminckiano," so that, 
very probably though I can by no means speak with certainty his bird was 
the very individual which furnished the subject for PI. Col. 416 of Temminck ; 
an accurate figure now universally referred to as representing this species. 

At the outset we thus have a very definite starting-point iu discussing the 
synonyms of this species ; but, most unfortunately, Dr. Kuhl adduces as syn- 
onyms of his hcesitata two refen-ncesj to Forster's unpublished drawings, and 
cites Forster as authority for the species. Whereas, neither of these draw- 
ings refer to the bird now under discussion ; and the first published use of the 

* Neck all around (adults): on sides only (young;) white. 

f Dull yelluwish in the dried state. 

X ' Fo ster, tab. 97 ;" and 'tab. 98, sub nomine rrocellariae leucocephalae." Mr. A. Newton, 
(Zoologist, x. p. 3696,) tells us that Mo. 97 is the mollis of Gould, called hmsitata : No. 98, the 
Lessoni of Garnot, called leueocephala ; and without opportunity of examining these drawings, I 
rely upon Mr. Newton's authority. 

18(36.] 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

name hcesita'a by Forster was to indicate a very different bird ;* not an JRstre- 
lata at all, but one of the Piijfinew. These unfortunate citations have ever 
since been the cause of a sort of double employ of the name by ornitholo- 
gists. The synonyms at the head of this article, taken in connection with 
those given under Adamastor cinereus, (Pr. A. N. S., 1864, p. 119,) contain 
most of the references of consequence which bear on the question. 

One must not fail to consult in this connection Mr. A. Newton's very 
thorough and lucid exposition of the bibliography, as well as an accurate 
description, of this species, given in the "Zoologist,'' as above cited, on the 
occasion of the first introduction of the bird into the British Avifauna. Some 
very important corrections and verifications are there presented. 

The name hcesitata Forst. had been long in existence, in manuscript, for a 
species very different from the present; but being first published, (in 1820, 
when we first gained the right of recognizing it,) by Dr. Kuhl, for the 
species now under consideration, it must necessarily stand in this connection. 
I do not see, therefore, why Bonaparte supersedes it by di"bolica of L'Her- 
minier. This latter quotation, as well as the reference to a Puffinns VHer- 
minieri of Lesson, I present on the authority of Bonaparte, not having the 
opportunity of verifying them personally. The name " rubritarsi " of Mr. 
<*ould is to be suppressed as unpublished by him, and, moreover, as con- 
veying an erroneous impression regarding the color of the feet. 

The htesitata of L-sson's Traite, p. 611, is this species; but the author 
erroneously cites hcesitata Forst. and leucocephnla Forst. as synonyms. 

I have before me the type specimen of Procellaria meridional is, kindly 
transmitted to me for examination by Mr. Lawrence. It is an example of 
JEstrelata hcesitata. ; as, indeed, Mr. Lawrence himself suspects may be the 
case. (B. N. Amer., text of p. 827.) Any differences which may exist in 
the specimen in question, from the figure given by Mr. Newton in the Zoolo- 
gist, seem rather accidental than real. This same individual had been for- 
merly called " brevirostris " by Mr. Lawrence a name preoccupied by M. 
Lesson for a fuliginous species of " Pterodroma." Mr. Lawrence enumerates 
with entire accuracy the synonyms of this species under head of Proc. meri- 
dionalis, in the Birds of North America, p. 827. The name hcesitata, as em- 
ployed by Mr. Lawrence, and also by Mr. Gould, refers to the Adamastor 
cinereus, and not to the present species. 

I have not met with any names or descriptions published during the 
eighteenth century which are definitely reterrible to this species ; and, if 
there be any other synonyms than those above commented upon, they have 
not been brought sufficiently into notice to r quire recognition in this con- 
nection. The chief point is to be able to decide, without hesitation, to what 
hozsitata, as used by different authors, really refers. t 

.ZEstkelata Lessoni (Garnot) Cassin. 

Procellaria Lessoni, Garnot, Ann. Sc. Nat., 1826, vii. p. 54, fig. 4, (mala.) 
South Pacific, Cape Horn, lat. 52, long. 85w. Lesson, Traite Orn., 
1831, p. 611. Gould, B. Aust., pi. 49, (aceuratissima et pulcher- 
rima.) Reichenbach, Syst. a v. tab. 24, fig. 2605 ; et tab. 20, fig. 339, 
and of authors generally. 

/Estrelata Lessoni, Cassin, Cat. Bds. North Pac. U. S. Expl. Exped. in Pr. 
A. N. S. Ph., 1862, p. 327. South Indian Ocean. 

Rhantistes Lessoni, Bonaparte, Comptes Rend. xlii. 1856, p. 768. 

Procellaria leacocrphala, Forster, Ed. Licht. Descr. Anim., 1844, p. 206, sp. 

*T> wit, the Adamastor cinereus, ex Proc. cinerca (1m. Lath. Compare carefully, in this con- 
nection, my remarks, pp. 119, and 128, of the Philadelphia Academy Proceedings for 1864. 

f For convenience of reference: P. hfeaitata ot Kuhl, Temminck, Lesson, Newton, Schlegel, 
it >iiaparte, and of Rome other authors, is the ^-Estre'at'i hmsitata of this paper. P. htesitata of 
Forster, Guild, Reichenba h, Lawrence, ib tne Adamastor cinereus of Pr. A. N. S. Ph., 1862, 
p. 119. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 143 

177. New Holland to Cape Horn. Gould, Am. et Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. 
1844, p. 363. From Cape of Good Hope to Van Diemen's Land. 
sBstrelata leucocephala, Bonap. C. A., 1856, ii. p. 189. 
? Procellaria alba, Grnelin, S. N. i. pars ii. 1788, p. 565. Vieill. Nouv. Diet. 

1817, xxvii. p. 420. 
? Daption album, Shaw, Oen. Zool., 1825, xiii. p. 246. 
? Procellaria variegata, Bonnrerte, fide Bp. 
Procellaria vagabunda, Solander, Mss. fide Bp. 

Habitat. South Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

Form.* Bill much shorter than the skull, but slightly less than the tarsus, 
about two-thirds the middle toe and claw ; very robust, as broad as high at 
the base, compressed in the rest of its extent. Unguis of upper mandible 
very large, strong, deep, convex, much decurved, the tip acute ; the elevation 
of the unguis beginning so near the nasal tubes as to leave but a short and 
very concave extent of culmen proper. Lateral lamina? large, strong, wide, 
inflated, deep at the base ; superior margin nearly straight, running obliquely 
downwards and forwards from the frontal feathers to the commissural edge of 
the unguis ; its lower margin sharp, a little inflected, very convex in outline. 
The commissure is not very sinuate from the angle of the gape to the unguis. 
The under mandible has a very distinct and deep lateral sulcus, which is 
widened at both ends. The inferior unguis is large and strong, its tip much 
decurved and acute, its gonys very concave, its angle at the symphysis pro- 
minent but not acute. The outline of the inferior mandibular rami is a little 
concave ; the interramal space is feathered nearly to the symphysis. The 
nasal tubes are short, broad, somewhat depressed, their outline nearly 
straight and ascending a little from base to apex ; the latter obliquely trun- 
cated and emar^inated. The frontal feathers overlap the culmen, nearly in a 
straight line or with a slightly convex outline ; thence immediately retreating 
gradually backwards as they descend the sides of the bill. Those on the 
lower mandible do not extend further than a point perpendicularly below 
those on the culmen. 

The wing is of the ordinary length and shape. The tail is comparatively a 
little shorter and less graduated than in hasitata, and is contained a little 
more than twice in the wing from the carpal joint. 

The tibia? are feathered to within half an inch of the joint. The tarsi are 
short, about three-fifths the middle toe and claw, moderately stout, but little 
compres-ed, with the usual small subhexagonal reticulations. The tip of the 
inner claw just reaches the base of the middle one. Uuter toe longer than 
the middle ; but the tip of its claw does not quite reach to the tip of the 
middle one. Claws all long slender, little curved, acute, compressed, the 
middle one somewhat dilated on its inner edge. Hallux short, slender, 
straight, acute, conical, sessile. 

Color. Bill pure intense black. Tarsi, and basal half or more of the toes 
and webs flesh -colored ; yellowish when dried. Rest of toes and webs, in- 
cluding the whole aspect of the outer toe, blackish. 

The head all around and the whole under parts are pure white. But a well- 
defined bar of slaty or cinereous black passes through the eye. The upper 
tail coverts and superior surface of the tail are clouded with light grayish 
rinereous. On the nape the white of the head begins to be shaded with 
pearly gray which deepens as it descends adown the back of the neck on the 
interscapulars and dorsal parts generally into grayish slate ; which a^ain 
lightens on the rump. This color varies much as to intensity or dilution ; 
but is never as dark as the wings. Both surfaces of the wings are deep slaty 
black: the greater coverts inclining to dark slaty gray: the under surface 
rather duller in color than the upper ; the prevailing color changing gradually 

* These descriptions of old and young are from specimens in the Philadelphia Academy and 
Smithsonian Institution. 

1866.] 



144 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



into dull brownish gray on the edges of the inner webs of the primaries. 
Some of the under wing coverts are edged and tipped with grayish white. A 
few of the Ion? axillars are chiefly white with their terminal portions slaty. 

The preceding description is taken from a specimen from the South Indian 
Ocean, mentioned by Mr. Cassin in the Proceedings, as above cited. The fol- 
lowing is from one of the specimens taken by Mr. Peale, one of the natural- 
ists of the United States Exploring Expedition under Ci>m. Wilkes. The 
specimen in question is labelled in Mr. Cassin's hand-writing "P. Lesso?}ii 
Garnot:" and while absolutely identical in form with the species as usually 
known and recognized presents the following exceedingly different colors : 

Young. No. 15709, Smiths. Register. Terra del Fuego, T. R. Peale. 
Entire upper parts dusky fuliginous brown ; the dorsal feathers usually 
with somewhat light margins ; the color deepening on the wings and tail into 
brownish black. Some of the secondaries, tertials and upper coverts have a 
slight cinereous tinge. On the head and nape the brown is lighter than else- 
where ; and a somewhat diluted shade of this color extends adown the throat, 
thus completely enveloping the head : and occupies likewise the upper half 
of the breast, quite across, as well as all the sides under the win us. On the 
crissum, and especially on all the under tail coverts except immediately 
around the anus, the color again deepens into brownish black. The rest ot 
the under parts are white. The circumocular region is darker than the 
adjacent parts. 

The foregoing is the most immature plumage known to me, and it will be 
noticed that not only the colors themselves, but the pattern of coloration is 
radically distinct from those of the adults. In some specimens is recogniz- 
able a faint shade of a darker color on the tips of the feathers of the other- 
wise white under parts ; whence I infer that in very young birds the whole 
under parts may be brownish or grayish. 

Dimensions. Chord of culmen 1-50; width or height at base *60 ; nasal 
tubes -25 ; from feathers on side of lower mandible to its tip 115 ; along 
rictus 2 - 0~>. Tarsus 1'65 ; middle toe and claw 2 - 50 ; outer do. 2'40 ; inner 
do. 2-10. Wing 11-50 to 12 00. Tail 5"00 to 5'50. Graduation of lateral 
feathers rather more than an inch. 

Synonyma. Amoug the older authors, I only find one name alba, of 
Gmeliu and Latham which seems at all referrible to this sp"cies. P. alba is 
evidently an yEslrelata, of about the size of Lesioni, and the colors as 
described apply tolerably well to a somewhat immature example of this spe- 
cies. But there is nothing in the diagnoses of either of these authors which 
absolutely restricts the name to the P. Lessoni ; and, therefore, in the uncer- 
tainty, I would by no means supersede M. Garuot's appellation Lessoni, the 
description of which is quite pertinent. I believe Mr. Cassin, in the Proceed- 
ings of the Philadelphia Academy, as above, was the first to refer the bird to 
its proper genus. 

The Procellaria leucocephala of Forster is certainly this species. His 
description is in every respect pertinent to the adult bird. Although the 
name had been used, in manuscript, as applied to Drawing No. 98, for many 
years, it was not published until 1844, and, consequently is antedated by 
Lessoni of Garnot, (ls26). Forster's editor, Dr. Lichtenstein, says, probably 
correctly, that leucocephala Forst. is the alba Gin. ; but certainly incorrectly 
that "vix nisi setate differre videtur a Proc. hcesitata Forst. ;" whereas hcesi- 
tata Forst. is not even congeneric with leuc cephala. 

I am unable to discuss the synonyms variegata, Bonnserte, and vagahunda 
Solander, which I quote on the authority of Bonaparte. 

iEsTRELATA eostrata (Peale) Gray. 

Procellaria rostrata, Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1848, p. 296. Cassin, 

Ornith. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1858, p. 412. 
Rhantistes rostrata, Bp t Counpt. Rend. 1856, xlii. p. 768. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 145 

Procellaria (sEstrelata) rostrata, G. R. Gray, Cat. Bds. Pacif. Isl. 1859, p. 56. 

Habitat. Tahiti. (Peale.) 

The following detailed description of this little known and hardly recognized 
species is taken from Mr. Peale's type specimen, now before me. 

Form. The bill is much shorter than the head or tarsus, about two-thirds 
the middle toe without its claw ; exceedingly robust, especially at the base 
where it is as high as broad, and where its height is nearly equal to half the 
length of the culmeu. The lateral lamina? of the upper mandible are very 
wide and large ; especially basally, where their upper margins rise so high as 
to be nearly on a level with the dorsum of the nasal case, the tubes being 
thus almost buried between the lamiuse. In consequence of this shape of the 
lateral laminae the sulcus is extremely sinuate, extending from the top of the 
root of the nasal case to the commissural edge of the unguis, near its middle. 
The inferior edge of the laminae, forming in great part the cutting edge of the 
upper mandible, is decidedly convex in outline. The unguis is large and 
strong, and its elevation, which begins almost directly from the termination 
of the nasal case, as well as its convexity and decurvation, are very great. 
The under mandible is straight, its sulcus strongly pronounced, its tip de- 
curved and acute, its unguis large, its gonys quite concave, though there is 
but a slight protuberance at the symphysis. 

The nasal tube is short, wide, depres ed, turgid, not carinated, convex in- 
outline both antero-posteriorly and transversely ; its apex obliquely truncated, 
broad, depressed, not emarginated, the nares circular, separated from each 
other by a rather thick septum which comes forward to the very end of the 
nasal case. The frontal feathers encroach far upon the dorsum of the tubes, 
with a rounded termination, and then slope gradually backwards and down- 
wards.* The feathers on the sides of the lower mandible do not extend to a 
point perpendicularly below the apex of the frontal feathers. 

The wings are long, the first primary considerably surpassing the second ; 
and when folded they reach considerably beyond the end of the tail. The 
latter is of moderate length, contained rather more than twice in the length 
of the wing from the carpus ; and it is much graduated in shape. 

The feet are comparatively large for the size of the bird, absolutely about 
equalling those of Lessoni, which is a larger bird. The relative proportions 
of the tarsus and toes are much the same as in other species. The hallux is 
rather long, slender and acute. 

Dimensions. Length about 14 inches, "extent 39 - 50," (Peale.) Wing 11 ; 
tail 4-75 ; bill along chord of culmen l - 37 ; heighth or width at base '66 ; nasal 
tubes "25 ; from feathers on side of lower mandible to its tip 1-20. Tarsus 
1*75 ; middle toe and claw 2 - 25, outer do. 2 - 12 ; inner do. 1*80; hallux '25. 
From apex of longest secondary to tip of longest primary in the closed wing 
3-25. 

Color. Entire upper parts pure deep blackish brown, including the under 
surfaces of the wings and tail feathers ; everywhere of a nearly uniform tint ; 
but a little darkest on the outer webs and tips of the primaries, and somewhat 
lighter on their inner webs, especially towards their bases. This color of the 
upper parts extends around the sides of the head, neck and breast ; but be- 
comes on the chin, throat and breast a little paler; and includes the sides 
under the wings, and crissum. Kest of under parts, including the under tail 
coverts, pure white ; the latter however have a few isolated brownish streaks. 
The line of demarcation between the dark and light colors on the breast is not 
very trenchant. The bill is black. The tarsi are pale yellow ; probably flesh 
colored in life. A small space on the lower part of their external aspect, and 
the whole toes and webs (except a small yellow spot on the inner web near 
its base) are black. 

This color of the upper parts is a pure very dark brown, with no mixture 

*Xnis outline of the feathers on the bill shows an approach to that seen in Pagodroma, and is 
quite different fiom anything that obtains in the other species of the genus *Eslrelala. 

1866.] 10 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

vrhatever of ashen, gray or plumbeous. The distribution of colors is almost 
exactly that of the species of Cataractes. 

1 do not think that the plumage above given is that of the adult ; it so 
closely resembles that of the immature j*E. Lessoni, which is its nearest ally. 
It is the only one, however, of which we have at present any knowledge. 

I think it most probable that this is a valid species. There is none to which 
it bears any very intimate resemblance, except Al. incerta and ^E. Lessoni. 
The relationships of the former will be noticed elsewhere. Compared with a 
young yE. Lessoni, in which the size and pattern of coloration are not widely 
diverse, I find them to differ as follows : The upper parts of rostrata are of a 
deeper, purer brown. The under tail coverts are almost wholly white; those 
of Lessoni wholly dark colored except immediately about the anus. Rostrata 
is a smaller bird, the wing being an inch, the tail rather more than an inch 
shorter ; but the feet are absolutely of the same size, and therefore compara- 
tively larger. The bills of the two birds are nearly of the same length ; but 
the radical difference in the character of the nasal tubes, the degree of tur- 
gidity of the base, and the outline of the feathers, as will be evident on coin- 
paring the descriptions given, at once distinguish them. 

It is quite possible that some of the indications of older authors may have 
reference to this species ; but in the utter impossibility of establishing any 
such with certainty I think it best to assign no synonym whatever. 

iEsTRELATA pakvikostris (Peale) Coues. 

Procellaria parvirostris, Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Exp. 1848, p. 298 Cassin, 
Ornith. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1858, p. 411. G. R. Gray, Cat. Birds Pacif. 
Isl. 1859, p. 56. 
Rhantistes parvirostris, Bp. C. R. 1856, lxii. p. 768. 

Habitat. Honden Island. 

As in the case of ^E. rostrata I describe this supposed species from Mr. 
Peale's type specimen. 

Form. Bill much shorter than the head, but very little less than the tarsus, 
about two-thirds the middle toe ; slender, compressed, considerably higher 
than broad at the base ; its lateral outline about straight. Nasal tubes much 
as in mollis.* A considerable concavity of culmen between the nares and the 
. elevation of the unguis ; which latter does not rise very high, but is neverthe- 
less very convex ; much decurved, attenuated and hooked. Sulcus on side of 
the upper mandible curved, its convexity looking downwards, and greatest 
near the base of the bill, where the lateral laminae rise high up to embrace 
the roots of the nasal case. Commissural edge of upper mandible strongly 
>inuated. Lower mandible almost exactly as in mollis ; perhaps a trifle slen- 
derer. Outline of feathers on base of bill just as in mollis. 

The wings are exceedingly long, when folded much surpassing the tail. 
- First and second primaries about equal and longest. Tail of moderate length, 
contained about '2>\ times in the wing. It is greatly graduated, the difference 
between the external and median rectrices being 1*25 inches. 

The tibia? are denuded for nearly half an inch. The plates on both sides of 
the tarsus are small, irregular and very numerous. The tarsus is a little 
more than three-fourths as long as the middle toe and claw. The usual pro- 
portionate lengths of the toes prevail. The claws are all small, weak and 
little curved. The hallux is minute, straight, not very acute. 

Dimensions. "Fourteen inches long, by 36 in extent," (Peale.) Wing 11 ; 
tail 4*50 ; tarsus 1*25 ; bill 1*08 ; outer toe and claw 1-66. From tip of longest 
secondaries to end of primaries 4 - 25. Gradation of tail 1'25. 

Colors. Entire upper parts, including both surfaces of the wings and tail, 
deep fuliginous brown, (with no trace of ashy or plumbeous) becoming almost 
black on the outer webs of the primaries, and inclining to grayish fuliginous 

* The tubi'H of tie single specimen have been so injured by pressure or otherwise that they 
cannot now be accurately described. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 147 

on their inner webs and towards their bases. The head, neck and breast all 
round are like the back, but not quite so intense in color ; and the dark tint 
only occupies the extreme tips of the feathers ; while its continuity is also in- 
terrupted by some whitish spots that show at intervals. There is no distinct 
line of demarcation between the dark color of the breast, and the pure white 
which occupies every other portion of the under parts of the bird, with the 
exception of a few dark brown isolated feathers along the sides under the 
wings and the crissum, and some streaks on the outer margins of the external 
under tail coverts. The bill is black ; the tarsi, first digital phalanges, and 
included portions of iuterdigital membranes, are dull yellowish, but were 
probably flesh colored in life. The rest of the webs and toes are black. 

JEsTRELATA INCEKTA (Schl.) CoiieS. 

Procellaria incerta, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1S63, p. 9. 

" Wing 11 inches 5 lines ; point of the wing 3 inches 9 lines. Tail : middle 
feathers 4 inches 10 lines ; external feathers 3 inches and 3 to 5 lines. Bill : 
length 16 lines to 17 lines and a half; height 5 lines to 5 lines and a half. 
Width 6 lines to 6 lines and a half. Length of nasal tube 3 lines and a half. 
Tarsus 18 lines and a half. Middle toe 1 inch and 10 to 11 lines. Feet yel- 
lowish, becoming black upon the two last or the last joints of the toes, with 
the contained membrane. Head, neck and back brownish gray, clearer and 
inclining to whitish on the throat or whole under part of the neck. Back, 
wings and tail blackish brown. Below from the breast, white, mixed with 
brown on the flanks and becoming brown on the under tail coverts." 

Habitat. "Southern Oceans, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia." 
[Schlegel.] 

The above is a copy of Dr. Schlegel's description of this s apposed species, of 
which the author further says: " I have not been able to refer this species 
to any one hitherto described. It appears allied to the Proc rostrata, Peale, 
* * but has the under tail coverts dark colored instead of white, and its 
colors generally are less brownish." It is to be deplored, that in introducing 
a species into so difficult a family as the present one, a more detailed descrip- 
tion was not given. 

As well as I can judge by the description, the species is about the size of I'. 
rostrata, but distinguished from the latter by the different color of the under 
tail coverts, and a less decidedly brown tinge of the upper parts generally. 
It is probable also that if the bill possessed the turgidity which characterizes 
that of rostrata, together with the peculiar outline of the frontal feathers, 
these points would not have escaped the attention of Dr. Schlegel. The bird 
may pretty safely, then, be separated from rostrata. 

I think that it is to the immature plumage of yEstrelata Lessoni that the 
species is to be referred, if it be really not valid. There were no recognized 
specimens of this latter species in the Museum of the Pays-Bas when incerta 
was founded. It comes in all respects exceedingly near the plumage I des- 
cribe above as that of the young Lessoni ; so much so that I fail to detect ma- 
terial discrepancies. Still I should not like to reduce any species founded by 
a competent naturalist, except by autopsy ; and therefore leave it as described 
by its author; only desiring to call attention to the necessity of careful com- 
parison with the plumage of the young Lessoni. 

iEsTRELATA NEGLECTA (Schl.) CoUeS. 

Procellaria neglecta, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 10. 

" Colors of the plumage and of the feet as in P. incerta. But much smaller 
in size and with the shafts of the quill feathers whitish. Wing 10 inches and 
d to 11 lines ; point of the wing 4 inches and 1 to 10 lines. Tail 3 inches and 
8 to 11 lines. Bill : length 13 lines and a half; height 4 to 5 lines ; width 5 
lines and a half to 6 lines and a half. Length of nasal tubes a little over 2 
lines. Tarsus 17 lines to 17 and a half. Middle toe 19 lines to 19 and a half." 

186'.] 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Habitat. " Pacific Ocean. Kermadec Islands. Sunday Island." [Schlegel.] 

I can offer no opinion concerning this supposed species, except to state that 

it may possibly be, as Dr. Schlegel himself seems inclined to suspect, the 

^Estrelata parvirostris. But this latter species itself is so very near mollis 

Gould, that it may hereafter prove to be only a state of plumage of the latter. 

iE.STRELATA SoLANDEI (Gould) CoilOS. 

Procellaria Solandri, Gould, P. Z. S., March 26, 1844, p. 57. Gould, Ann. and 
Mag. N. H. xiii. 1844, p. 363. Gould, Introd. Birds Aust. 1848. p. 116. 
Cookilaria Solandri, Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 190. 
Procellaria melanopus, Natterer, fide Gould. (Not of Gmelin.) 

"Head, back of the neck, shoulders, primaries and tail dark brown ; back, 
wing coverts and upper tail coverts slate -gray, each feather margined with 
dark brown ; face and all the under surface brown, washed with gray on the 
abdomen ; bill, tarsi, and membranes black. 

"Total length 16 inches; bill 1^; wing 12; tail 5| ; tarsi ; middle 
toe and nail 2|." 

The preceding is a copy of Mr. Gould's description of this species. This 
author further says of it. "This is a remarkably robust and compact bird. 

1 shot a single individual in Bass' Straits, on the 13th of March 1839. M. 
Natterer thought that it might possibly be identical with the bird figured in 
Banks' drawings, and to which Dr. Solander has affixed the term melanopus, 
an opinion in which I cannot concur. I have accordingly named it in honor 
of that celebrated botanist. The specimen above described may possibly 
prove to be not fully adult, as the dark coloring of the under surface only 
occupies the extreme tips of the feathers the basal portions of which are 
snow-white." 

I have not enjoyed an opportunity of examining a specimen of this species, 
and none, so far as I am aware, are contained in any American collection. It 
appears to be exceed ; ngly distinct from any other species of sEttrelata, if not 
in colors at least in proportions of bill and feet, as compared with the abso- 
lute size of the bird. The dimensions of these parts as given by Mr. Gould, 
particularly the shortness of the tarsi, as compared with the lengths of the 
toes, are quite different from that of any other species of the genus ; so much 
so that the bird may not be a true sEstrelata ; upon which point however I 
cannot now give a definite opinion. The type of the species is doubtless, as 
Mr. Gould surm'ses, not fully adult ; and when mature the dark coloring of 
the under parts will in all probability disappear, leaving the whole inferior 
regions of the body white. The unicolor pattern of the feet is diverse from 
the ordinary style which prevails in nearly all the species of the genus. 

By Bonaparte the species is referred to his "genus " Cookilaria, though 
for what reason is not obvious, since Mr. Gould particularly notes that his 
species is a " remarkably robust and compact bird," while the type of 
"Cookilaria" is the leucoptcra Gould; almost the very smallest and most 
gracefully formed species of JEilrelata. Dr. Schlegel's identification of So- 
landri with grisea of Kuhl is elsewhere commented upon. 

iEsTRELATA GEISEA (Kuhl) CoueS. 

Procellaria grisea, Kuhl, Mon. Proc. Beit. Zool. 1820, p. 144, No. 15, fig. 9. 
But not of Latham.* Schlegel. Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas. 1S63, p. 
12 ; (excluding synonymy ) 

*Lath. Syn. 1785. iii. part ii. p. 399, No. 4. " Size of a jack-daw; length 14 or 15 inches. Bil 1 

2 inches long, and brown; the whole plumage black or sooty ; the under wing coverts white, with 
black shafts; the wings rather exceed the t;iil in length ; the forepart of the legs greenish blue. 
The specimen in the Leverian Museum has the chin and throat of a whitish color, inhabits the 
80uthe n hemisphere from35 to 0. Seems much allied to the Bin k Petrel," (sequinoctialis ) 

This is a species of Latham's which has not so far as I am aware been identithd by later 
writers; and 1 find it quite impossible, from the above mengre indication, to come to any definite 
conclusion regarding it. it is. however, in all probability some species of iV. rt.ris, of the l'ttffinetu : 
fo that we need not therefore be prevented trom using Kuhl's came of grisea for a bird of the 
g.-nus sEslrelala. 

[May,. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 149 

Procellaria lugens, Forster, icon. 21, according to Kuhl. Banks, tab. 21 and 

22, " ubi rostri forma optime est delineata " according to Kuhl. 
" jEstrelata inexpectata, Forster," of Bonaparte's Conspectus, ii. p. 189. But 
not the true inexpectata of Forster which is doubtless mollis, Gould. 
" Bill much compressed. Plumage uniform gray, darkest above, and be- 
coming blackish on the wings. Generally similar to mollis of Gould, but with 
a more compressed bill, different colors and proportions of some parts, and 
the feet, including the webs, brownish in the dried state. Wing 9 l-12th 
inches; central tail feathers 3 ll-12ths, external ones 2 ll-12ths. Bill 11 J 
lines long : 4 high, 4J wide. Length of nasal tube rather more than 2 lines. 
Tarsus 16 lines. Middle toe 19 linos." 

The preceding description is compiled from the diagnosis of a species given 
by Dr. Schlegel (as above cited) from the Australian seas. That writer iden- 
tifies it with the grisea of Kuhl, and gives Solandri of Gould as a synonym. 
I am unacquainted, autoptically, with any species differing from mollis Gould, 
by the characters as sjiven by Dr. Schlegel. That gentleman, however, has a 
specimen indicating such a species, and upon the competent authority of the 
accomplished Director of the Pays-Bas Museum, I recognize the species as dis- 
tinct from mollis. The color of the plumage I do not think can be regarded 
as a constant and valid character, since some ages of mollis present exactly 
the tints described as those of grisea. The species must therefore be separa- 
ted, if at all, by the more compressed bill, different colors of the feet, and dif- 
ferent proportions of some of the parts. Taking Dr. Schlegel's description and 
specimen as the only tangible basis on which the supposed species I am now 
treating of rests, there are presented for our consideration the following points 
of synonymy. 

Attentive study of Kuhl's description of the bird he calls " grisea L.," and 
examination of his figure (fig. 9) will show clearly that it is by no means the 
species described by Latham under the name of "Gray Petrel, P. grisea." 
Latham gives the bill as two inches long, while Kuhl's figure delineates a bill 
measuring just one inch along the chord of the culmen. Other discrepancies 
are palpable throughout. Latham's grisea appears to be a Nectris, while 
Kuhl's is an ^Estrelata very near mollis. Kuhl himself takes occasion to note 
some descrepancies between his bird and Latham's.* Kuhl's expressions 
" rostro valde compresso ; * * corpore et tectricibus alarum inferiori- 
bus ciuerascente fuliginosis, pedibus pallidis " together with his measure- 
ments, are entirely pertinent to the bird whose characters are given by Dr. 
Schlegel ; so that the only question is the distinctness of the species from 
molhs. 

While I thus entirely agree with Dr. Schlegel in this identification of Kuhl's 
name, I can by no means assent to the referring of Mr. Gould's P. Solandri to 
this species. P. Solandri is certainly radically distinct ; and so different in 
its proportions that I cannot understand how Dr. Schlegel could have recon- 
ciled it with P. grisea. 

Dr. Kuhl (1. c.) says of the P. lugens of Forster (ic. 21) that he considers it the 
same as grisea ; he also adduces P. lugens Banks, (tab. 21 and 22,) as a syno- 
nym of the latter. My quotation of these names is entirely upon Dr. Kuhl's 
authority. 

The jEstrelata inexpectata of Bonaparte's Conspectus evidently belongs here 
rather than to the true mollis. The author quotes Kuhl's grisea as a synonym ; 
and the diagnosis he gives presents nothing incompatible with the present 
species. The true inexpectata of Forster is, I think, mollis, as I attempt else- 
where to demonstrate. 

As a summary of the preceding remarks I may state that if there be a spe- 



* ' In exemplar! meo baud observnri quod Lath, de inferioribus alarum tectricibus dicit. 
Kuhl. p. 144. 

1866.] 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

ciea of sE-trdata, closely allied to mollis but permanently differing from it by 
those characters laid down by Dr. Schlegel, and of which the specimen in the 
Museum of the Pays-Bas is an example, then the synonyms adduced at the 
head of this article are most properly to be referred to this species ; but other- 
wise they must be considered as appertaining to mollis. 

yEstrelata mollis (Gould) Coues. 

> PrdceUaria melanopus,* Gin. S. N. i. p. 562. Lath. Syn. iii. p. 409, No. 12. 
Vieill. Nouv. Diet. xxvi. 1S17, p. 420. ? Puffinus melanopus Steph. 
Zool. xiii. p. 231. 
Procellaria inexpectata, Forster, Descr. Anim. ed Licht. 1844, p. 204, No. 177. 
Not JEstrelata inexpectata of Bp. Consp. which rather appertains to the 
" grisea Kuhl " of this paper. 
Procellaria mollis, Gould, Ann. et Mag. N. H. 1S44, xiii. p. 363. Id. Birds 
Aust. vii. pi. 50. Cassin U. S. Ex. Exped. Oruith. 1858, 410. Schle- 
gel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 11. And of later authors gene- 
rally. 
Cookilaria mollis. Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 190. 
Rhantistes mollis, Bonaparte, Com|/tes Rendus, xiii. 1856, p. 768. 
:' Procellaria gularis,] Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1848, p. 299. 
'.'Procellaria Phillipii, G. R. Gray, Ibis, 1862, iv. p. 246. 
? P. crepidata ; P sandaliata, Solander, according to 3p. 
Habitat. South Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. 

Form.% Bill as long or slightly less than the tarsus, nearly equal to the 
middle toe without its claw ; compressed, a little higher than broad at the 
base. In the details of its shape it does- not differ from the typical species of 
JEstrelata. The proportions of tarsus and toes are also as in other species of 
the genus. The tail is only moderately rounded, instead of being decidedly 
cuneate with some projection of the median rectrices, as in jE. haisitata ; its 
length is contained in that of the wing from the carpal joint slightly more 
than twice. The folded wings reach considerably beyond the tail. The spe- 
cies in size and general contour of the body approaches Daption capensis. 

I do not notice that the plumage is softer, fuller, or more mollipilose than 
iu some other species of the genus. 

Color. There is a transocular black fascia, the greater part of. which lies 
below the eye. The clear ashy gray of the upper parts extends over the ver- 
tex, becoming more or less mixed with white on the front and cheeks, accord- 
ing to age. Most of the feathers of the back have slightly paler margins. The 
primaries are nearly concolor in all their extent ; (compare description of No. 
15,706 Smithsonian Collection, infra ;) being only a little duller or more fuli- 
ginous on their inner webs. The under surface of the wing is chiefly dusky 
brownish ; but there is an illy-defined and interrupted area of whitish, par- 
ticularly towards the bases of the primaries. The upper tail coverts and tail 
are chiefly concolor with the back ; but some of the outer rectrices are marbled 
with white. 

In the majority of specimens the color of the back extends on the sides of 
the breast for a considerable distance; sometimes quite across the middle: 
hut in very adult birds most of the breast is pure white. The color is pro- 
duced by a clouding of the tips only of the feathers, their basal portions be- 



* The following is Gmeliri's diagnosis: "13 pollices longa. Vertex, cauda rotundata, et alae 
totse obscure 1 nigrse; dorsum ex atro paulisper caaesceos ; membranu digitos connectens parte sui 
ulterior*!, digitorumque articuli, nigri. 

\ I eale, as above. "Above cinereous brown; tail and breast plumbeous; throat, under wing 
c<>verts and under tail coverts white. Primaries and spurious quills nearly black with brown 
shafts; tail light beneath : two outer feathers mottled with white, * * whole under plumage 
white at the ro ts; bill blue-black. Length 13; extent 34; wing from carpal joint 10|; bill one 
inch; tarsi 1-20; outer toe 1-60 ; tail 3"40." 

J Description from typical examples, received from Mr. Gould, in the Philadelphia Academy. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 151 

iug white ; and often is not uniform in tint, but is minutely undulated or 
punctulated with lighter and darker shades. 

The front, lores, lower part of cheeks, and whole under parts, including the 
lower tail coverts, are white. The lateral rectrices are on their inferior aspect 
chiefly white, with some light cinereous marbling. 

In general terms it may be stated that the older the bird, the clearer and 
purer is the cinereous, and the more trenchantly defiued are the boundaries 
of the several differently colored areas ; the difference in this respect being 
especially notable in the forehead and sides of the breast. 

Young birds are all over of a pretty uniform deep brownish ash, or fuligin- 
ous cinereous ; inclining to smoky brown on the wings and tail. The whole 
under parts are not notably different from the back, though, however, the 
dark color only occupies the tips of the feathers ; their basal moiety remain- 
ing white. The transocular dark fascia is always present. But the chin and 
face are much mottled with whitish ; and in specimens otherwise wholly dark 
on the under parts, the chin aud throat may be chiefly white, striatulated 
with ashy brown. 

Moulting specimens, or those in poor plumage from the age and worn con- 
dition of the feathers, show scarcely a trace of cinereous on the wings and 
tail, these parts being of a dull brownish, more or less tending to gray. The 
same tendency to brownish or grayish instead of cinereous is observable on 
other parts. Sometimes a pure white chin and throat coexists with complete 
dusky clouding of the other under parts.* 

The bill and feet hardly differ in color with age. The bill is black; the 
tarsus, basal half of inner toe and contained web, flesh colored : (dull yellow- 
ish when dry ;) all the rest of the toes and webs, with all the claws, black. 

Dimensions. (No. 1678, Phila. Acad., J. Gould.) Bill (chord of culmen) 
1-10. Height at base -45 ; width slightly less. Tarsus 1-33. Outer toe and 
clawl'75; middle about the same, inner 1*50. Wing average 1O00 ; but 
may range from 9 - 50 to 10-50 ; tail4"50 ; the graduation of the rectrices about 
1'30. These are nearly the average dimensions of six examples. 

There is a specimen, No. 15,706, in the Smithsonian Museum from the 
Antarctic Ocean, by Mr. T. R. Peale, which, with the size and general appear- 
ance of mollis differs as follows : The under surfaces of the wings are, except just 
along the edges, purely and uninterruptedly white ; as much so as in C okii. 
The inner vanes of all the primaries, instead of being simply duller and grayer 
than the outer, have trenchantly defined pure white areas ; these white spaces 
occupy the whole of the webs at the base ; as they extend more towards the 
apex they become less wide, leaving a narrow space of dark color along the 
inside of the shafts ; apically they terminate with an acutely pointed outline, 
which stretches towards the tip of the feather, and is bounded internally and 
externally by dark colored portions of the feather. The general pattern is 
exactly that seen in the primaries of most Lari ; and the definition of the two 
colored areas is as strict. In other respects the bird is like a quite young 
mollis, being dark colored both above and below ; but the tint of the cloud- 
ing below is more intensely sooty than in any specimen of typical mollis I have 
9een ; and there is this peculiarity in addition, that the under tail coverts 
remain pure white. 

I do not wish to introduce a new name upon the above basis ; though pos- 
sibly in any other family than the very one of the Petrels I would do so. The 
points which would consiitute its specific characters are elucidated in the pre- 
ceding paragraph ; and should the differences above pointed out be substan- 
tiated as persistent in other specimens, it would, I think, then be proper for 
the ornithologist who makes the verification to forma ly introduce the species. 
The specimen in question before me is the only one contained in the United 



# In which condition is the type of "gularis," Teale, 



[May, 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

States Wilkes' Exploring Expedition collection ; and is, therefore, in all 
probability, the very individual upon which Mr. Peale based his description 
of gularis ; which name should, therefore, stand for the species, in the event 
of its proving valid ; even though Peale's description does not notice the 
peculiar markings of the primaries. 

Bibliography. It is possible that the P. melanopus of Gmelin and Latham 
was based upon this species. Their bird evidently was an JEstrela/a, and 
"thirteen inches long;'' and the description of the colors would apply pretty 
well to an immature mollis. But mollis has a bill by no means an inch and a 
half long ; and is not found, so far as we know, " circa Americani septen- 
trionalis." The only known North American species of ^Eslrelata is the 
hcesitata ; of which the bill is nearly of the length stated by Latham. Under 
the circumstances, I do not think this name is to be adopted for ei her species. 

I think there can be no doubt that the inexpectata of Forster is really this 
species. I find no points of the description, nor any of the measurements, at 
all incompatible with this supposition. Dr. Lichtenstein refers inexpectata to 
grisea of Gmelin ; certainly incorrectly, whatever may be its relations to 
grisea of Kuhl. 

The name mollis Gould bears the same date of publication as inexpectata, 
(1844) : so that it is difficult to say which actually has priority. I think, if 
any choice is allowed us, we should, by all means, use mollis, so definitely 
characterized and well known. Mr. Gould, in describing the species, says 
that it had been identified with lugens of Banks, and with grisea of Kuhl (nee 
Gm.) This may very possibly be the case ; although, for the present, I give 
grisea Kuhl, (of which lugens Banks is a synonym,) as a distinct species, 
for reasons stated elsewhere. 

In the Ibis, as above, Mr. G. R. Gray has a species P. Phillipii from Norfolk 
Island; based upon the "Norfolk Island Petrel," Phill. Hot. Bay, p. 161 ; 
with P. alba, var. Lath., and P. mollis Gould, as synonyms, the latter queried. 
No description is given, and I merely follow Gray himself, in placing the 
name as a queried synonym of mollis. Vieillot, (Nouv. Diet., xxvi. 1S17, p. 
420,) refers to this same "Norfolk Island Petrel." 

^E-trelata Cookii (Gray) Coues. 

Procellaria Cookii, G. R. Gray, Fn. N. Z. App. Dieff. Trav., 1843, ii. p. 199. 
Id. Voy. Ereb. and Terror, pt. iii. 1844, pi. 35. Id. Sclater's Ibis, 
1862, iv. p. 246. Cassin, U. S. Expl. Exped. Ornith., 1858, p. 414, and 
of authors. 

Rhantistes Cookii, Bonap. Compt. Rend. xlii. p. 768. 

Procellaria leucopterOj Gould, P. Z. S. xxii. 1844, p. 57. Id. Ann. Mag. N. 
H. xdi. 1844, p. 364. Id. Birds Aust. pi. 51. 

Cookilaria leucoptera, Bonap. C. A. 1855, ii. p. 190. 

Cookilaria velox, Bonap. C. A., 1855, ii. p. 190, ex Pr. velox of Solauder. Not 
velox of Banks, supposed to be one of the Prionem. 

Rhantistes velox, Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. xlii. 1S56, p. 768. 

Procellaria brevipes,* Peale, Zool. U. S. Ex. Ex. Bds., 1848, p. 294. 
Habitat. Southern Oceans, at large. 
Form.] Bill much compressed, except at the extreme base, where it is 

nearly as wide as high ; much shorter than the skull ; about equal to the 

tar- us ; one of the most slender in general shape of this genus. The lateral 

superior sulcus is nearly straight, being only a little sinuate ; the outline of 

the inferior mandibular rami and of the gonys both a little concave, the pro- 

* Peale, us above. "Head an J wings Booty black; tail and back gray; throat, breast, and 
belly white, tinged with salmon color when living; interrupted plumbeous bind across the 
beast; two outer tail feathers li^ht gray, white beneath; shafts white; all the others brown ; 
under wing coverts white; lesser ones nearly black. IJill black; feet )>;ile flesh; toes black at 
their ends. Length 1070: extent 2125; culinen nineteen-tweiitieths ; middle toe and claw 1.30." 

tFrom specs in Philada. Acad, and Mus. Smithson. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 153 

tuberance at the symphysis acute, if not very prominent. The commissure 
is, as usual, very sinuate. The nasal case is contained nearly four times in 
the length of the culmen ; broad, depressed, its dorsal outline straight, its 
apex very obliquely truncated, its orifice subcircular, each naris oval ; the 
septum of considerable thickness, and coming forward to the very end of the 
ease. The frontal feathers do not extend at all forward on the base of the 
culmen, but embrace the sides of the bill as extensively as they do its b.ise 
above ; and thence they slope very rapidly backwards, making a considerable 
angle just above the edge of the commissure. 

The wings are sufficiently elongated to extend, when folded, a little beyond 
the end of the tail, which is, itself, rather longer than in most species of this 
group. The second primary is nearly as long as the first ; the rtst are 
rapidly graduated. 

1 he tail is so long as to be only contained exactly twice in the length of 
the wing from the carpus, and the graduation of the lateral feathers is about 
as great as in hcesitata, (greater than in mollis,) though the median pair of 
rectrices are not specially produced. The upper tail covirts fall far short of 
the end of the tail : the under ones reach quite to it. 

The legs are short and slender ; the tibiae bare for but a very brief space. 
The tarsi are considerably shorter than the middle toe without its claw, and 
about equal to the inner ; quite slender, moderately compressed, with the 
ordinary rectifications. The tip of the inner lateral claw just reaches the 
base of the middle one. The middle and outer toes are of equal length, but 
the claw of the latter is much shorter than that of the former : which last is 
but very slightly dilated on its inner edge. All the claws are small, slender 
and weak, but still much curved and acute. The hallux is of the ordinary 
size and shape. 

Dimensions. Chord of culmen 1-00; height of bill at base -35 to *40. 
Length of nasal case "25. Wing 8-50 to 9-00 ; the distance from end of 
longest secondary to tip of first primary in the folded wing 2 - 75. Tail 3 - 75 
to 4-25; graduation 1-00 to 1-50. Tarsus 1-10; outer toe and claw 1-25; 
inner do. 1-12, middle do. 1-33. From upper tail coverts to end of 
tail 1-40. 

Color. Adult. Above blackish cinereous. On the crown of the head and 
its sides to a little below and before the eye, and on the nape the color tends 
more towards sooty brownish than to cinereous ; but on the neck behind 
this color merges insensibly into the quite pure deep cinereous, which occu- 
pies the middle dorsal region, the interscapulars, and some of the tertials. 
The rump is darker and more like the crown ; the upper tail coverts again 
being cinereous, if anything a little lighter than the back tending to pure 
grayish instead of dusky cinereous. The superior surface of the tail is 
plumbeous blackish, lightest and most cinereous basally. Inferiorly the tail 
is lighter colored than on its upper surface ; the lateral rectrices particularly 
being light plumbeous gray, almost whitish basally. The shafts of the 
feathers are above brown, below white, except at their extremities. The 
superior wing coverts and all the primaries and secondaries are brownish or 
fuliginous black ; deepest along the edges of the wings, and outer borders 
and tips of the quill feathers. The inner vanes of the primaries are light 
grayish fuliginous, becoming grayish white towards their bases ; but the 
transition is quite gradual. The shafts are black above, brownish beneath. 
All the under wing coverts are pure white, except one row, the smallest, just 
along the edge of the ulna and metacarpus ; producing a broad uninterrupted 
white area. On the radial edge of the antibrachium there is a narrow but 
well-defined white line:* visible from both upper and under aspects of the 



* This is very erroneously called a " liuea humeralis" by Mr. Gould in one place; nnd spoken 
of as "a line along the inner edg of the shoulder" in another. We very often find the carpal 
joint most carelessly and incorrectly spoken of as the " shoulder." 

1866.] 



151 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

wing. The front, the lores, the sides of the head nearly to the eyes; the 
side of the neck, and the whole under plumage, pure white. The color of the 
hack almost always, to some degree, clouds the sides of the hreast. 

The above is the plumage of a very mature bird. Usually the plumage is 
rather as follows. The upper parts generally are less decidedly cinereous 
having more of an admixture of brownish though the upper tail coverts are 
quite notably plumbeous. The forehead is speckled with black : sometimes 
the latter color being in excess over the white. The sides of the breast are 
very strongly clouded with dark cinereous gray, which may reach quite to 
the median line ; though this color is only a wash on the extremities of the 
feathers. Some of the feathers on the flanks, and a few of the under tail 
uoverts are also lightly touched with plumbeous gray. 

Young, The upper parts show scarcely a trace of cinereous anywhere, 
except, perhaps, on the upper tail coverts. The front is so much obscured 
by dusky that the white only appears in small sparse specks. The whole 
under parts are tinged with a plumbeous black hue from the breast back- 
wards ; this color being deepest on the breast where it is pure and uninter- 
rupted : on other parts appearing as a clouding r marbling. The chin and 
throat in all the specimens I have seen remain almost pure white, in marked 
contrast to the rest of the under parts. The under wing coverts are as de- 
scribed in the adult: and the white line along the edge of the fore arm also 
exists. 

It will be noted that the changes of plumage above described are quite 
homologous with those to which mollis is subject. 

The bill is black. S mewhat more than half the inner web. and rather less 
than half the outer web, together with the tarsus, are light flesh color. The 
vest of the toes and webs are black. The colors of the bill and feet seem 
subject to little variation with age. 

Syrionyma. The name Coolii of Gray has priority by about a year over 
leucoptera of Gould ; as, indeed, the latter author himself allows. That 
these two names were based upon the same species is not doubted, so far as I 
can learn, except by one author. Bonaparte would have it that the bird 
figured in plate 51 of the Birds of Australia, and called " Coolii Gray " by 
Mr. Gould, is not the species really so named by Mr. Gray ; but another ; 
differing slightly in size, though quite identical in color, and for which he 
adopts the name relox. In this conclusion, he is quite unsustained by orni- 
thologists. 

The specimen collected by Mr. T. R. Peale, now before me, which doubtless 
is the type of his brevipes of 1848, is an example of this species. 

This little species is liable to be confounded with no other, except, perhaps, 
the succeeding one ; uuder the head of which latter the apparent differences 
are noticed. I find no names of the older writers which seem referrible to 
this species ; and its synonymy is less confused than that of most other 
components of the genus. 

^ISTEELATA GAVIA (Forst.) 

Pr cellaria gavia, Forst. Descr. Anim. Ed. Licht., 1844, p. 148. ("P. supra 
ccerulescenti-nigra, subtus Candida, palato et liugua villis deflexis. 
pedibus pallide-fuscis. * * Habitat ad iEstuarium Regina? Char- 
lott?e. * * Corpus magnitudine circiter P. vittatce. * * Alae 
expanse 26 unc. rostrum in fronte 1-50; tibiae 1*75; cauda 2-50." 
Forst.) G. R. Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terr. Birds, pt. x. Oct., 184"). 
p. 18. Id. Ibis, 1862, iv. p. 246. From Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
This is a species which is not recognized, aud. in fact, does not appear to 

be noticed in later systematic works. In addition to the diagnostic points 

quoted above, Forster describes it as having the pileum, neck behind, back. 

rump, thighs, tail, and upper surface of the wings, bluish black ; the chin. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 155 

throat, breast, abdomen, crissum and under wing coverts white. Forster's 
editor, Dr. Lichtenstein, merely says of it, "inter P. dlbce Lath, varietates 
latens." Mr. G. R. Gray recognizes it in the works above cited as a valid 
species. An accurate definition of its characters, and an exact exposition of 
its relationships, together with its synonyms, if it have any, are greatly to be 
desired. 

The bird is apparently some small species of yEsfrdata. All the points of 
coloration given, especially those of the under wing coverts, are quite con- 
sistent wilh the characters of AS. Cookii. But the dimensions as stated are 
quite at variance with those presented by Cookii, those of the bill and feet 
being much too large, while that of the tail is too small ; these dimensions 
being rather those of a small Puffinus. In view of these discrepancies, I pre- 
fer to coincide with Mr. Gray's high authority in holding it, for the present 
at least, as distinct ; especially as its reference to any described species 
would be entirely upon supposition. 

-iEsTRELATA DESOLATA (Gni.) Bon. 

Procellaria desolata, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pars. ii. 1788, p. 562, No. 14. 
Latham, Syn. iii. part ii. 1785, p. 409, No. 14. Latham, Iud. Orn., 
1790, ii. p. 825, No. . Kuhl, Mon. Proc. Beit. Zool , 1820, p. 143, 
No. 13, lig. 7. Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 13: 
and of authors generally. 
Ji'tption desolatum, Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, p. 244. 
.Estrelata desolata, Bonaparte, Consp. Av. ii. p. 189. Excl. var. rostrata. Id.. 

Comptes Rend. xlii. 1856, p. 768. 
Procellaria fasciata, Bonnserte, (Gray, Cat. Bils. Pacif. Islands, 1859, p. 56). 
Habitat. Island of Desolation. New Hebrides ; Kamtschatka, (Schlegel). 
" Pr. ex virescente cinerea, subtus alba, remigibus caudaque rotnndata 
obscuris, hac apice fusca. * * Rostrum nigrum apice flavicans ; tempora 
ocularumque area alba. Summitas alarum fere nigra ; pedes fusci ; mem- 
braua digitos connectens flava ; ungues nigri ; alis expausis fascia obscura 
per omne corpus ab apice ad apicem." [ Gmelin.~\ 

"Teintes du plumage et des pieds absolument comme celles de la Procellaria 
leucoptera, mais d'une taille beaucoup moins forte, et les pennes caudales 
comme les plumes sous-caudales d'une teinte foncee jusqu'a leur base. 
Aile 7 polices 10 lignes ; pointe de l'aile 2 pouces 11 lignes. Queue: pennes 
mitoyennes 3 pouces 5 lines ; pennes externes 2 pouces 8 lignes. Bee : 
longeur 11 lignes; hauteur 3 ligues ; largeur 4 lignes. Longueur du tube 
nasal a, peu-pres de 2 lignes. Tarse 12 lignes. Doigt du mileau 12 lignes." 
(Scklrgel.) 

This is a species with which I am unacquainted through autopsy. It is 
the smallest known component of the genus, being less than the little Cookii. 
I have copied Umelin's original indication of the species ; and Dr. Schlegel's 
measurements of a typical example, from the Temminckian collection ; the 
individual upon which Dr. Kuhl, in ls20, based his description. Both 
Gmelin and Latham speak of some portion of the bill as being yellow ; which 
was probably an accidental feature in one specimen ; for, as is well known, 
all the j^Estrelatas have black bills. 

This species is so small, and otherwise so well characterized, that it stands 
in the enviable position of having hardly a synonym, although described in 
the eighteenth century. I have not met with, or seen anywhere cited, a 
single synonym, except that of Bonnserte, above given. 

iEsTRELATA MACRorTERA (Smith) Coues. 

Procellaria macroptera, Smith, 111. S. Af. Zool. Bds.,pl. 52. Gould, Ann. Mag. 
N. H., 1844, xiii. p. 362. Gould, Introd. Bds. Aust., p. 116, No. 591. 
O.tsifraga macroptera, Reichenbach, Syst. A v. t. 21, fig. 786. 

1S66.1 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Pterodroma macroptera, Bp. C. A., 1855, ii. p. 191. 
Procellaria breviroxtris, Lesson, Traite Orn., 1831, p. 611. 
" ? Procellaria lugubris, Tschudi, " according to Bonaparte. Not of Natterer, 
which is a Thalassidromine. 

Habitat. Antarctic Oceans. Coast of Africa. (Smith). Van Diemen's 
Land. (Gould). 

This is a species which I recognize with much doubt. Not having access 
to the original description by Smith, 1 cannot speak with certainty regarding 
it. It is admitted by Bonaparte, who says of it : " Ex toto fuliginoso-cinerea ; 
rostro nigro ; pedibus fiavidis." On the other hand, Dr. Schlegel refers it to 
the atlantica ; and the measurements of two specimens in the Pays-Bas 
Museum, (one an undoubted atlantica received from Mr. Gould, and the 
other a supposed macroptera,) by no means differ in size to a degree incom- 
patible with specific identity. If the expression " pedibus flavidis " is cor- 
rect, the species would be easily separable. As it is, the only data given by 
most authors are the larger size, longer wings, and grayer face, as compared 
with atlantica. 

It is quite possible that the specimen upon which Dr. Schlegel unites the 
two names is not a veritable example of macroptera. Bonaparte evidently 
separates macroptera from atlantica on the strength of the difference in the 
color of the feet. Mr. Gould says of this species : '' I think that a bird I 
killed in the seas off Van Diemen's Land, where it was tolerably abundant, 
and which differs from atlantica in being of a larger size, having inuch longer 
wings and a grayer face, may be identical with P. macroptera of Smith, and 
I therefore retain it under that appellation, in preference to assigning it a 
new name." Here is an instance in which an author who, in extensive and 
practical knowledge of the Petrels, is surpassed by no other naturalist, deems 
the species sufficiently distinct from atlantica. But it is quite possible that 
the bird here referred to is not the true macroptera of Smith ; and may likely 
enough be an undescribed species of Pterodroma, different from both macrop- 
tera and atlantica, as, indeed, Bonaparte hints, (page 191, Conspectus). 

On page 611 of Lesson's Traite, ' (1S31,) there is described a Procellaria 
brevirostrts, as follows: "Bee noir, court, tres recourbo ; tarses jaune ; 
plumage en eutier brun fuligineux ; ailes et queue noir intense. Mus. de 
Paris." This is evidently some species of Pterodroma ; and upon this de- 
scription, apparently, or, very possibly, upon the specimen itself in the Paris 
Museum, Bonaparte has drawn up his diagnosis of the species he calls 
"macroptera Smith." I cannot see why he does not employ Lesson's name, 
which has priority over mwroptera Smith, provided the two are synonymous. 

As a resume of the subject, I may state that I think it quite possible there 
are two species confounded in the synonyma at the head of this article. One 
is brevirostris Lesson, entirely fuliginous, and with yellow feet. The other is 
the species referred to by Mr. Gould, as above, as distinguished from the 
common atlantica by its larger size, longer wings, and gray face. Whether 
the latter is the true macroptera of Smith remains to be proven. Dr. Schlegel 
may be perfectly right in referring the mac r opt era Smith to atlantica Gould ; 
and yet the two species I am speaking of may also exist, distinct from each 
other and from atlantica. 

By Bonaparte the Procellaria lugubris Tschudi* is referred with a query to 
this species. As will be seen by the accompanying foot-note, the bird is 
evidently some species of Pterodroma ; though the description is so brief 
and wanting in measurements that it is impossible to say to which one it is to 
be referred, or whether it be really a valid new species. 

Tschudi, Cab. Journ. f. Ornith., iv. 1S56, p. 85. " The whole body is dark brown, Ihe back 
somewhat deeper-colorea than the belly; the tail wholly black; the iDner side of the win-; 
d.trker than the outer. B.ll and feet reddish; iris ashy gray. Surpasses in size the capensis ; 
also compressed in form. The description of P. antarctica is too inaccurate to say with certainty 
if it be the species here described. Between 4ti" and 36." 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 157 

JSSTRELATA FULIGINOSA (Kuhl) CoueS. 

Procellaria fuliginosa, Kuhl, Mon. Proc. Beit. Zool. 1820, p. 142, No. 12, pi. x. 
fig. 6. (Banks, tab. 19, fide Kubl ; Forst. tab. 93, B. fide Gould.) But 
not Proc. fuliginosa, Kah], 1. c. species 27, page 148, (Banks tab. 23,) 
which is a Ncctris. Also not fuliffinosa Gm. Lath, which is probably a 
Thalassidromine species. Also not Puffinus fuliginosus Strick. Forster, 
Descr. Anim. Ed. Licht. 18-iU, p. 23, sp. 18. Not the Neclr is fuliffinosa of 
Forster. Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas. 1863, p. 8. 
Procellaria atlantica, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1844, xiii. p. 362. Id. Introd. B. 

Aust. p. 116, sp. 590, and of authors. 
Pterodroma atlantica, Bonaparte, C. A. 1856, ii. p. 191. 
Habitat. Atlantic Ocean, particularly its southern portions. 
Descr* Bill black. Feet dark colored. Entire plumage including the 
under wing coverts, fuliginous, becoming almost black on the wings and 
tail. Bill 1-35. Tarsus 1-60 ; middle toe and claw 2-20 ; outer do. about the 
same, inner do. 2 20. Wing 10-75 to 11-50; possibly to 1200. Tail 4-50 to 
5-00. Total length 15 to 16 inches. 

Fine examples of this well known species are in the Philadelphia Academy, 
some of them typical specimens received from Mr. Gould, and labelled by him 
" atlantica." 

This species is certainly the fuliffinosa of KuhPs monograph (No. 12, pi. x. 
fig. 6.) Indeed it is seldom that the descriptions and measurements of the 
earlier writers are found so entirely pertinent and readily identifiable as in 
the present instance. The figure of the bill agrees exactly. This identifica- 
tion is made by both Bonaparte and Schlegel. Although the name fuliffinosa 
has been applied by several other authors to different species, none of them 
fall in this genus or indeed among the JEstrelalcse. (Examine my synonyma, 
mipra.) There would seem to be therefore no good reason why the 
name should not stand for this species, taking precedence over atlantica of 
Gould. To Dr. Schlegel is due, I believe, the credit of restoring Dr. Kuhl's 
name. 

It is quite at variance with the usual great accuracy of Mr. Gould's identifi- 
cations, that he should have saidf that this species " i3 the grisea of Kuhl " 
(No. 15, fig. 9.) I have endeavored to show, ante&, what I think the grisea of 
Kuhl really is; but whether my identification which is the same as that 
made by Dr. Schlegel be correct or not, Kuhl's grisea is certainly widely 
different from the present species. 

In ray Review of the Puffinece, page 124 of these Proceedings for 1864, I 
maintain the opinion that fuliginosa, Forster, sp. 18, p. 23, of Liehenstein's 
edition, is a species of Ncctris; which view 1 am now satisfied is erroneous. 
Procellaria fuliginosa Forster is the present species, as maintained by Prof. 
Lichtenstein and Prince Bonaparte. Impressed with Kuhl's remark that his 
fuliginosa is ''nmnino diversa a Nectri fuliginosa Forst.," I did not discriminate 
between this latter name and the Procellaria fuliginosa Forst. p. 23 of Lichen- 
stein's edition ; whence my mistake. 

I know nothing of the Nectris fuliginosa of Forster, nor do I attempt to iden- 
tify Proc. fuliginosa, sp. 27, ( ; < Banks tab. 23 ") of Dr. Kuhl's monograph. The 
latter has recently been identified by Mr. Gray with Proc. pacijica of Latham, 
which is some large species of Puffinus (Cat. Birds Pacif. Isl. p. 55.) 

In the "Ibis" for 1862, page 245, Mr. G. R. Gray institutes a Procellaria 
J'urkinsoni ; which is said to be the bird of Bank's icon. ined. No. 19, and (in 
part) the Puffinus icquinoctialis of Gray's list of Anseres of the British Museum, 
page 100 , and is compared with xquinoct ialis as follows : " being smaller in all 
its proportions; the bill is nearly one-third less than that of sequin octialis ; the 



*From specs, in Mus. Acad., Phila. 
f Ann. Mag. N. II. 1844, xiii. p. 362. 



1866.] 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

body is sooty black throughout, being without the white on the mentum ; the 
tips of the mandibles are inclined to black." This description does not show 
well whether the bird is a Majaqueus or a P terodroma ; the comparison with 
sequinoctialis would seem to indicate the former; while the citation of Banks' 
Drawings No. 19 (by Kuhl placed under his P. fuliginosa which is the Ptero- 
droma atlantica,) would make it a component of the latter group. The habitat 
of the supposed species is New Zealand. 

JSstrelata aterrima (Verreaux) Coues. 

Procellaria aterrima, Verreaux. Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 18G3, p. 9. 

Pterodroma aterrima, Bonap. C. A. 1855, ii. p. 191. 

Bulweria aterrima, Aliq." 

" ? Proc. carbonaria, Solander " fide Bp. 

Habitat. West coast of Africa. Bourbon Island. 

A very distinct species, distinguished among its congeners by its size, and 
the color of the feet. The plumage as in the otbers of the group is uniform 
blackish fuliginous ; the feet are yellowish, or light colored, passing into black 
upon the terminal moiety of the toes and the included portions of their mem- 
branes. Dr. Schlegel gives the following measurements of a typical example 
in the Leyden Museum, from Bourbon Island, received from Mr. Verreaux : 
" Wing 8 7-12 inches ; point of the wing 3 5-12 ; middle tail feathers 3 7-12 ; 
external 2 8-12; length of bill \1\ lines; height A\ lines; width 6 lines; tar- 
sus 1(>2 lines ; middle toe 17.1 lines." 

^Estrelata Bulweri (Jard. et Selb.) Coues. 

Procellaria Bulweri, Jardine and Selby, 111. Orn. Vol. ii. tab. 65. (No date 

given on title page and pages not numbered.) Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. 

Pay-Bas, 1863, p. 9, and of many authors. 
Thalassidroma Bulweri, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1849, iii. 
Procellaria anjinho, Heineken, Birds Mad. in Brewst. Journ. Oct. 1829, p. 231. 

(First designation ?) 
PujjUnus Columbians, Webb and Berthelot, Hist. Nat. Canar. ii. part ii. 1836 44, 

page 44, pi. 4, fig. 2. (Name Proc. columbina on plate.) 
Bulweria columbina, Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 194. 

Habitat. Atlantic Ocean. Coast of Africa and Europe. Dr. Schlegel has a 
specimen from Greenland. Very possibly to be included in the Fauna of North 
America. 

This interesting species is the smallest of the genus, and quite distinct from 
its congeners not only in size but in some of its proportions. It has compara- 
tively a longer tail than most species of the genus ; bearing a proportion to the 
wing from the carpal joint of 4 to about 8, or more than half. The tail is 
very cuneate, the difference between the median and outer feathers amounting 
to 1-75 inches; and the central pair themselves are considerably longer than 
the next. The under tail coverts, at least in the specimen before me, fall 
nearly two inches short of the end of the longest feathers, being in fact no 
longer than the upper ones. The folded wings hardly reach to the end of the 
tail. The bill is about as long as the tarsus, or the middle toe without its 
claw: of the ordinary J^strelatean type ; quite stout at the base, compressed 
throughout ; tbe unguis large and rising almost immediately from the nostrils, 
and exceedingly convex ; the sulcus on the lower mandible is deep and well 
marked; the outline of the rami is nearly straight, the gonys very concave ; 
and there is considerable of an emiuentta symphysis. The first primary is 
hardly if at all longer than the second. The feet present no special peculiari- 
ties in relative size or proportions; the inner toe is perhaps slightly shorter 
than ordinary. 

The fuliginous color is deepest, being almost black, on the wings and tail ; 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 150 

below is lighter and more brownisb ; on the head has a faint cinereous wash ; 
on the greater wing-coverts is rather paler and grayer.* 

dimensions. Chord of culmen 0-85. Tarsus slightly longer, -90 to 1-00 ; 
middle toe and claw 1*10; outer do. about the same; inner do. 0-85. Wing 
8-00; tail 4-50; graduation of lateral feathers 1-75. 

Tbis little species has been very variously arranged in the series by different 
authors, as will be seen by the synonyms which head this article. In my 
mind there is no doubt that Dr. Schlegel has correctly indicated its affinities 
in placing it in intimate relation with, and next after aterrima Verr., albeit he 
retains it in his somewhat extensive "genus" Procelluria. My own reasons 
for referring it to JEstrelata will be found in my remarks under the head of 
that genus. 

I am not enabled to state positively what was the first specific name applied 
to this species, of the three which head this article. Bonaparte gives prect- 
dence to columbina ; but MM. Webb and Berthelot, in giving this name quote 
anjinho, Heineken, (1829) as above, which must therefore have been published 
anterior to their own appellation columbina. The title page of the work where 
the latter name appears, bears the date " 1836 44." Dr. Schlegel and most 
other writers give prioriiy to Bulweri of Jardine and Selby's Illustrations, a 
work extending over a series of years. It is figured in volume ii. pi. 65 ; but 
the title page bears no date. If not published anterior to 1829 then the name 
anjinho Heineken has priority. 

JEstrelata Macgiluvrayi (Gray) Coues. 

Thalassidroma (Bulweria) Macgilliwayi, G. R. Gray, Cat. 'Birds IsL Pacif. 1859, 
p. 56. Spec, in Britsh Museum, from the Feejee Island*, (Ngau.) 

"Like T. Bulweri, but with the bill rather larger; and it is without the 
sooty brown on the wings." [Gray.] 

A species with which I am only acquainted through the above cited very 
brief indication. 

[Note. Just as these sheets are leaving my hands for the printer's I learn 
through the kindness of my friend Dr. P. L. Sclater, of London, of the identi- 
fication of the "Blue Mountain Duck " of Gosse's Birds of Jamaica. It appears 
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society as Pterodroma Carribmi, Carte. I 
was surprised at learning that it is a "Pterodroma" as I had confidently 
anticipated that it would prove to be one of the Prionese ; po-sibly however 
being prejudiced by the following note upon it by Richard Hill, Esq.-)- " From 
the dimensions of our bird, 13 inches long, by some 26 inches in the extent of 
wing, and from the proportions and character of the bill and nasal tubes, and 
the grooved mandible, I should say the Blue mountain petrel must be classed 
with the Prion of Lacepede, the genus Pachyptila of Illiger, the type being the 
Procellaria vittata, * * Our bird has a triple row of palatal teeth." etc.] 

PAGODROMA Bonap. 

Procellaria sp. Gmelin et Auctorum. 

Thalassoica, sp. Reichenbach. 

Pagodroma, Bonap. Cunsp. Av. 1855, ii. p. 192. Ty-pe Proc. nivea Gmel. 

The bill is very short, being less than half as long as the skull ; and ex- 
ceedingly small, weak, slender and compressed throughout, its base being 
much higher than broad. The lateral outlines are straight, rapidly converg- 
ing to a narrow, elongated, rather slender, very convex, moderately decurved 
and booked unguis, whose convexity begins immediately at the termination of 
the nasal cnse. The lateral sulcus is short, and very oblique. The outline of 
lower mandible is straight; of gonys a little concave, the angle of the sym- 



1866.] 



* Pescription from 6ppcs. in the Philada. Acad, and Mus. Sniithnoa. 
t A week at Poi t-Hoyal. By Richard Hill. Montego Day, 1855. 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

physis slight, the tip a little decurved. The interrarnal space is narrow, and 
densely feathered to the symphysis. The nasal tubes are exceedingly short, 
but broad, high, and turgid, the median line only obsoletely carinated. Their 
apex is very obliquely truncated, not at all emarginated. The orifice is large, 
and nearly circular ; the internasal septum very thin, and not extending to the 
termination of the nasal case. The frontal feathers extend far on the base of 
the bill, running forward on the nasal case with a narrowly rounded termina- 
tion, and sloping rapidly backwards and obliquely downwards. The outline 
of the base of ihe nasal tubes is thus rendered nearly as oblique as their 
apex. 

The wings are rather short, when folded not reaching to the end of the tail. 
The second primary is not much shorter than the first. All the primaries are 
rather narrow, regularly tapering to their somewhat acute tips. The tertials 
and inner primaries are much abbreviated, making the distance in the folded 
wing, from their tips to the end of the first primary unusually great. The tail 
is very long, broad, and but slightly rounded, ami is contained only about 
twice in the wing from the carpal joint. All the rectrices are broad to their 
very tips ; which latter are squarely truncated. 

The tarsus is as long as the middle toe; moderately stout and compressed ; 
covered with small somewhat elongated irregularly shaped plates, which are 
rough and elevated, especially posteriorly, and are not notably different in size 
or shape on the two aspects of the tarsus. Thetibire are feathered to very near 
the joint. The inner lateral toe with its claw barely reaches the base of the 
middle claw. The outer lateral toe is longer than the middle; its claw how- 
ever so short, as hardly to rf ach to the tip of the middle claw. Claws are 
rather large, little curved, moderately compressed and acute ; the inner edge 
of the middle one dilated. The hallux is unusually developed, and somewhat 
depressed in situation ; long, stout, acute, and a little curved. 

The size is moderate; the form compact and robust; the color entirely pure 
white. 

This is one of the most remarkable generic types of the Proccllariinx. It is 
doubtless most nearly related to Daptioh, with which genus its " build " cor- 
responds closely. But, as will be seen on comparing the diagnosis given, it 
differs in many details of structure, particularly those relating to the bill. From 
^Estrelata the pecularities of bill, of the hallux, comparative lengths of wings 
and tail, etc., readily distinguish it. The genus has a " physiognomy" or 
" facial aspect " that is peculiarly its own. The long depressed sloping fore- 
head is found in no other Procellaridian. This is produced mainly by the flat- 
tening and elongation of the bones composing the forehead ; but aided to a 
considerable degree by the great forward extension of the frontal feathers, 
which gives to the bill and nasal tubes their extreme brevity ; causes such a 
long rictus ; and places the eye, apparently, at so great a distance from the 
corneous base of the bill. 

Pagodroma nivea (Gm.) Bon. 

Procellaria nivea, Gm., S. N. 1788, i. part ii. p. 562, and of authors generally. 

D i pi ion niveum, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 243. 

Thalassoica nivea, Reichcnbach, tab. 22, fig. 791, 792. 

I'ugodroma nivea, Bonap trte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 192. 

Procellaria Candida, Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Esped. 1848, p. 295. 

Pagodroma, var. major, Bonaparte, 1. c. 

Pagodroma, var. minor, Bonaparte, 1. c. 

Procellaria nivea minor, Schiegel, .Won. Proc. Mus. Pays-Ba3, 1863, p. 16. 

Habitat. Antarctic Ocean and Continent. 

Independently of differences in absolute size of body, the species presents 
unending variations in size, and, to some degree, in shape, of the bill. Speci- 
mens differ in this respect by as much as a fourth of the whole length of the 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 161 

bill, which may be quite unaccompanied by corresponding differences as to 
depth or width. The length of the nasal tubes, and the amount of turgidity, 
and obliquity of truncation vary greatly. Differences in the depth and robust- 
ness of bill are surprisingly great. 

I have never seen, of many specimens, any which were separable specifi- 
cally from the typical form. But some individuals are so strikingly small, 
that were it not for intermediate sizes, they might readily*be supposed distinct. 
Upon this charncter a variety minor was founded by Bonaparte which has 
been adopted by so accurate and cautious an ornithologist- as Dr. Schlegel. 

The only synonym of note I have met with is candidus of Peale, (1848.) The 
original description of P. nivea by Gmelin speaks of black shafts of some of the 
feathers. As Mr. Cassin justly remarks (Orn. U. S. Ex. Exped. 1858, p. 416) 
should this ever.be found to characterize a species, the present must bear Mr. 
Peale's name of Candida. I think it probable that dark spots or streaks would 
be indicative of inmaturity ; but being unfamiliar with the plumage of very 
young birds, I cannot speak with certainty. 

DAPTION Stephens. 
Procellaria sp. Linnaeus, et Auct. 

Daption, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, p. 230. Type Procellaria ca- 
pensis, L. 

The bill is much shorter than the skull, about three-fourths the tarsus, 
rather more than two-thirds the middle toe, very stout, depressed, about as 
broad as high for its whole length as far as the unguis, where it is suddenly 
much compressed and higher than broad. Culmen is about straight or a little 
concave from the nostrils to the root of the unguis, which latter is moderately 
large, but not very convex nor much decurved. The lateral outline of the bill 
is decidedly convex from its base to the unguis where the convexity suddenly 
ceases; it is produced by the large, inflated and protuberant lateral lamina? 
Just inside the cutting edge of- the bill is a series of oblique rugae, extending 
the whole length of the bill. The lateral sulcus is well defined, running from 
the base of the nasal case to the unguis, obliquely downwards and forwards ; 
it is most distinct posteriorly, more shallow anteriorly, where it merges into 
the depressed portion of the culmen. The lower mandible is perpendicularly 
narrow, but horizontally is unusually broad, the rami widely diverging from 
each other immediately from the symphysis. The gonys is short, scarcely con- 
vex in outline, its angle small and inconspicuous. The interramal space is 
very broad, in consequence of the wide divergence of the inferior mandibular 
rami, and their mutual concavity. The rictus is exceedingly ample; and the 
capacity of the fauces increased still more by the looseness and dilatability of 
the enclosed skin. The feathers on the side of the lower mandible extend but 
a short distance ; those in the interramal space only as far as a point opposite 
the end of the nasal tubes; and by no means fill the space from side to side 
when the skin is at all distended. 

The nasal case is very long for a component of the group JEstrelatesr, being 
a third as long as the culmen. It is broad, depressed, a little more elevated 
towards the apex, its dorsal outline a little concave and moderately carinated. 
The orifice is subcircular, nearly vertically truncated, a little emarginated. 

The wings are of moderate length, about equal to the tail when they are 
folded. The second primary is nearly as long as the first; the rest rapidly 
graduated. The tail is rather short, contained about two and a half, times in 
the wing from the carpus ; is moderately and very evenly rounded ; the rec- 
trices being broad to their extreme tips. The upper tail coverts fall an inch 
short of the end of the tail ; the inferior ones quite reach its extremity. 

But a very brief portion of the tibia is naked of feathers. The tarsus is much 
shorter than the middle toe and claw, about equal to the inner toe ; very stout, 
though much compressed ; covered externally with very small, irregularly sub- 
circular plates ; which on the inner aspect are much larger and more regular 

1866.] 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

% 

I 

in shape; the median series of them so broad as to nearly stretch across the 
inner face of the tarsus. The inner toe is short, the tip of its small weak claw 
hardly reaching to the base of the middle claw. The outer toe without its 
claw is decidedly longer than the middle one ; but the much greater size of the 
claw of the latter makes up the difference. The hallux is large and stout; a 
straight, almost perfectly conical, moderately acute, claw. 

This genus is trenchantly separated from all others by the characters of the 
bill ; in the lateral dilatation of which, the widely divaricating rami of the un- 
der mandible, and the partially naked and distensible skin of the interramal 
space, there is seen an approach to Prion of the Procellariince, and also to Pele- 
canoides of the Halodrominse. The superior lateral mandibular laminae are so 
wide and large, and so inflated, that they give a bulging convex lateral outline 
to the bill. In the same manner the inferior mandibular rami rapidly diverge 
from each other, their concavities presenting to the interramal space. In all 
these points there is an interesting resemblarce to the genus Pelecanoides ; fur- 
ther heightened by the broad ample rictus, loose dilatable skin of the floor of 
the mouth, which is only partially feathered. These peculiarities are not shared 
by any other genus of Procellariinse except Prion ; and leaving out of considera- 
tion the widely diverse nostrils, the bills of Pelecanoides urinatrix and Daption 
capensis are very similar in shape. 

The genus is of moderate size, of robust and compact form, and variegated 
in the distribution of its colors. Its only known species is the type upon which 
it is based, the well known D. capensis. 

Daption capensis (L.) Steph. 

Procellaria capensis, Linn., S. N. 10th ed. 1758, p. 132. Linn. S. N. 12th ed. 1766, 
i. p. 213, No. 5. Linn. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 240, and of other authors. 

Daption capensis, Stephens, Shaw's Zool. 1825, xiii. p. 241 : and of later 
authors. 

Procellaria nwvea, Brisson, Ornith. 1760, vi. p. 146, No. 3. 

Procellaria punctata, Ellman, Zool. 1861, p. 7473. Cape Pigeon ; Black and 
White Petrel ; Petrel Tachete" ; Pintado; Damier ; Pardela, etc., Voya- 
ger's Vulgo. 
This is one of the three species of Procellaria given by Linnaeus in 1758. It 

has remarkably few synonyms, in consequence of its marked characteristics. 

lis features are so well known that no mention of them is necessary in this 

connection, as the peculiarities of its bill have been elucidated under the head 

of the genus. 

Section PRIONEJE. 

The presence of laminated serrations along the inner edge of the upper man- 
dible so trenchantly defines this group, that further characterization is unnec- 
essary. A great similarity of color is found to prevail throughout. 

After elimination of the genus Halobzena on the ground of its square tail 
and some other peculiarities, I find among the so-called Prions two very dis- 
similar types ; which I consider as of generic import, and am therefore com- 
pelled, however reluctantly, to separate under a new designation. 

The three genera here recognized may be thus distinguished : 

A. Bill compressed, its unguis large, its serrations moderate in extent, or con- 

fined to the base of the upper mandible. 

I. Tail truncated Halobsena. 

II. Tail graduated Pseudoprion. 

B. Bill excessively dilated, depressed, its unguis small and weak ; the serra- 

tions large and perfect to the extremity of the bill. 

III. Tail graduated Prion. 

HALOBSENA Is. Geoffr. 
Procellaria sp. Gmelin, et auct. 
Prion sp. Gray, Reichenbach, fide Bp. 

[May, 






NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 163 

Ilalobasna, " Is. Geoffr. 1836," Bon. C. A. 1855, ii. p. 193. (?Type P. casrulea, 
Gm.) 

Chs. Bill provided with a few laminated serrations at the sides of the base 
of the upper mandible, just within the commissural edge of the upper mandi- 
ble ; in length slightly less than the tarsus, equal to the inner toe without its 
claw; slender, compressed throughout, a little higher than wide at the base. 
Superior lateral sulcus well marked, nearly straight ; inferior shallow and in- 
distinct. Unguis of upper mandible small, short, only moderately convex. In- 
ferior unguis acute, much decurved, the gonys very concave, the ramal outline 
straight. Interramal space fully feathered. Nasal tubes only a fifth the length 
of the culmen, short, narrow, elevated, compressed, not carinated, terminally 
obliquely truncated; nares narrowly oval. Folded wings reach far beyond tail. 
Tail contained rather more than 2\ times in the wings from the carpal joint ; 
square, with no graduation of the lateral feathers: all the rectrices so broadly 
rounded as to be nearly truncated. Tarsus equal to middle toe without claw ; 
outer rather longer than the middle ; but its claw so short as to make its total 
length rather less than that of the middle. Tip of inner claw just reaching 
base of middle. 

The principal character which distinguishes this genus lies in the short, 
square tail; a feature which is quite unique in this family, being found in no 
other genus of the Procellariida. Its type and only known species is the old 
ccerulea of Gmelin, a small delicately formed species, whose colors tend chiefly 
to bluish and white. 

In general features of external form, proportions of tarsus and toes, and par- 
ticularly the shape of the bill, which is much compressed, this genus is quite 
similar to JEstrelata, especially to such of its smaller species as mollis and Cookii. 
Nevertheless, the presence towards the base of the bill of distinct serrated 
laminae, which constitute the essence of the Prionitic type,* indubitably fix its 
position among the latter group, to which also it so closely approximates in 
color. These laminaj only exist for a short distance on either side of the base of 
the bill ; but still they are quite palpable and decided in character; perhaps as 
much so as in Pseudoprion turtur or ariel. The small and rather weak unguis, 
which does not begin to curve almost directly from the unguis, is essentially 
Prionitic, as distinguished from typical JEstrelatines. The bill though higher 
than broad in its whole length, is hardly more compressed than in P. turtur. 
From these considerations, and esteeming, as I believe justly, that the lamina- 
tions are the essential character of the Prionece. and consequently more weighty 
than all others, I include the somewhat anomalous genus in this latter group. 
I regard it as the connecting link between the JEstrelatem, on the one band, 
through the genus Daption, and the Prionex on the other, towards the true 
type of which latter it approximates through the subtypical genus Pseudo- 
prion. 

I quote the reference to Isidore Geoffroy on the authority of Bonaparte, not 
having the means at hand of verifying the citation. I do not know what spe- 
cies is typical in the original founding of the genus. If it be the one named 
Halobsena typica in the Conspectus, then Halobsena is equivalent to, and has 
priority over my Pseudoprion ; and a generic name is wanting for the /'. cceru- 
lea of Gmelin. 

Halobsena cosrulea (Gm.) Bon. 

Procellaria ccerulea, Gmelin, S. N. i. ii. 1788, p. 560. Latham. Ind. Orn. 1790, 

ii. p. 827. Gould, Birds Aust. pi. 52, and of authors generally. 
Halobsena ccerulea, Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 193. 

: ... 

* In some genera not of the Prionere, e. g. Daption, Ossifraga, etc., there are to be found along 
the inner border of the cutting edge of the upper mandible, a series of ruga? or alternate depres- 
sions and ridges, obliquely placed. These, however, are part of the mandible itself, and by no means 
distinct elements, and therefore are radically different in morphological character from the lami- 
na? of the Prionex. 

1866.] 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Pachypiila cccrulea, Illiger, Prod. 1811, p. 275. Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. 1825, 

xiii. p. 252. 
Procellaria similis, " Forster's Drawings, No. 86." Forster, Descr. Anim. ed. 

Licht. 1844, p. 59. 
Procellaria Forateri, Smith, 111. S. Afric. Birds, pi. 54. But not of Latham, 

which is Prion vittalus. 

Ualilat. Antarctic Ocean. Australia. 

Color. There is a short and not very conspicuous infra-ocular white line, 
and a superciliary streak of the same color; but not, however, running far 
down on the auriculars behind the eye. Above the bird is of a clear cinere- 
ous or grayish blue ; extendirg as delicate clouding around the sides of the 
breast ; and deepening on the head, most of the wing-coverts, the outer edgc3 
and tips of the four outer primaries, into brownish ash. It is chiefly the lesser 
wing coverts that are thus darkened; most of the greater ones being nearly as 
clear as the back. The secondaries and tertials are clear cinereous, edged 
and tipped with white; their inner webs being almost wholly of this color. 
The iuner vanes of all the primaries, but particularly of the first four, are 
almost wholly pearly white except at their tips. The upper tail coverts ere 
concolor with the back. The exterior pair of rectrices are white, with dark 
brown shafts; the next two are colored like the back; the rest similar ex- 
cept that a fuscous hue deadens the cinereous towards the end of the feathers, 
and their tips are squarely, trenchantly, and purely white ; each for an in- 
creasing dit-tance from without inwards. Forehead, cheeks, lower auricular.- 1 , 
under surface of wings and whole under parts of the body pure white. 

Younger birds may be known by a less decidedly cinereous or bluish gray 
tinge of the upper parts ; which tend more or less strongly towards brownish. 
The forehead is not pure white but mixed with about an equal amount of 
brownish ash. I have never seen specimens entirely fuscous or brownish 
ci'<ereous below; but think it probable that such a state of plumage charac- 
terizes very young birds. 

JJimrnsions. Chord of culmen 1*12 ; height of bill at base -45 ; width slightly 
less. Tarsus 1-25; middle toe and claw 1-60; outer do. 1-50; inner do. 1 37. 
Tail 350; wing 8 to 9. 

There is no other known Fetrel with a square tail, conspicuously tipped 
with white. This peculiarity is mentioned in the various descriptions of the 
authors cited above in the list of synonyma, so that there is no difficulty in 
identifying their names. The similis of Forster* is said to have " rectrices 12 
omnes apice can dido-fa sciatae " which positively determines the species, al- 
though that author is in error in saying that it has the bill " non pectina- 
tum." 

PSEUDOPRION Cones. 

Chs Lateral lamellae of upper mandible normally developed, their surfaces 
vertical. Lateral outline of bill straight. Dorsal outline concave to the 
unguis. Unguis comparatively large, its chord forming more than a third of 
tbe total length of the culmen. Commissural edge of upper mandible not dila- 
ted. Inferior mandibular lami straight, divaricating at an acute angle; the 
lateral sulcus apparent. Nj groove for reception of fringe from upper mandi- 
ble, which is either quite obsolete or imperfectly developed towards the end of 
the bill. InterramrJ space narrow, triangular, well feathered. Extension of 
feathers on side of lower mandible not further than those on culmen. Tail 
moderately graduated. 

Type. Prion lurtur Gould. 

la amplification of the differences between the so-called Prion Banksii, tur- 



* Concerning which Prof. Liechtenstein says very erroneously, "Species obscura, ulteriori ex- 
aniinj relinquenda. A Pr. vittata {Pachyptila) uou esse divers-im nisi eetats suspicor." 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 



165 



(ur, ariel and ? brevirostris, and Prion proper, the following comparison is in- 
stituted. 

The fringe of laminae is smaller and weaker, and inflected inwards rather 
than descending vertically ; and it is either restricted to a short space near the 
base of the b\\Y (turlur, ariel, ? brevirostris) being quite obsolete more anterior- 
ly; or if as in Banksii it extends to the unguis, it is small, weak and incon- 
spicuous. The lateral lamellae of the bill have scarcely more of development 
and inflation than in other genera of Procellariinse, instead of being immensely 
hypertrophied ; and they have a lateral, vertical aspect, instead of a superior 
nearly horizontal one. The commissural edge of the upper mandible looks 
downwards, with little inflation or reflection outwards, and nearly (though not 
quite except apically) touches the under mandible. There is no groove for 
the reception of the fringe of the upper mandible; but in its place the ordinary 
lateral sulcus of the sides of the lower mandible is apparent, though not very 
strongly marked. The inferior mandibular rami divaricate at an acute angle, 
and are quite straight, instead of widely diverging with a mutual concavity. 
The submental space, narrow and triangular instead of broadly conoidal, is 
quite fully feathered, instead of nearly naked ; and doubtless has little of the 
distensibility which characterizes that of Prion. The extent of the feathers on 
the lower mandible is much more restricted. The unguis of the bill is larger, 
stronger, more convex, its tip more decurved, the chord of its convexity form- 
ing more instead of less than a third of the length of the culmen. The lateral 
outline of the bill is straight not convex. The tail is shorter than in Prion, 
being contained nearly twice in the wing ; and it is less cuneiform, The nos- 
trils and the proportions of the feet, are as in Prion ; while the entire simi- 
larity, almost identity, of the coloration has doubtless had much to do with 
the referring of the species of this genus to Prioo. 

In the following antithetical table the main diagnostic points of the two 
genera are contrasted. 



c. 



e. 
/ 



PSEUDOPRION. 

Poorly developed, or 
entirely obsolete to- 
wards end of bill. 

Normal ; vertical ; not 
vaulted ; nor with 
inflated free edge. 

Concave. 

Of ordinary size, its 
chord more than a 
third of culmen. 

Straight. 

Absent. 



g. Apparent. 

h. Nearly straight. 

i. Narrowly triangular, 
well feathered. 

k. Extend nofurtherthan 
those on culmen. 

I. Moderately graduated, 
central feathers not 
protruding; contain- 
ed nearly twice in 
the wing. 



Differential Elements. 

a. Fringe of serrations. 

b. Lateral lamellx of bill. 



c. Dorsal outline of cul- 

men. 

d. Unguis. 



Literal outline of bill. 
Groove for reception of 
fringe. 
Lateral groove en lower 
mandible. 
h. Cutting edges of lower 

mandible. 
i. Inter ramal or submental 

space. 
k. Feathers on lower man- 
dible. 

1. Tail. 



Phion. 

Extensively and com- 
pletely developed 
throughout. 

Hypertrophied ; hori- 
zontal ; arched ; with 
inflated free edge. 

Straight. 



d. 


Very small ; its chord 




less than a third of 




culmen. 


e. 


Convex. 


f 


Present. 


9- 


Wanting. 


h. 


Very sinuate. 



Broadly conoidal, near- 
ly naked. 

Extend much beyond 
those on culmen. 

Much graduated, cen- 
tral feathers elonga- 
ted, contained one 
and a half times ia 
the wing. 



1866.] 



165 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Pseudoprion Banksii (Smith) Coues. 

Pachyptila Banksii, A. Smith, 111. S. Afric. Bds. pi. 55. 

Prion Banksii, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1844, xiii. p. 366. Gray, Gen. Birds, 

iii. 1849, p. 649. Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, ii. p. 193. 
Procellaria Banksii, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 17. 

Habitat. Antarctic regions, coming northward into temperate latitudes of 
both Hemispheres. 

This species may be readily recognized by the continuation io the unguis of 
the fringe of laminas, whereas in the others of the genus it is confined to a 
short sp .ce near the base of the bill. The laminations are, however, very 
small anteriorly ; and are somewhat deflected inwards. 

In colors the species of both Pseudoprion and I'rion are so nearly identical 
that, compared with Prion vittatus, the present species seems to differ in hardly 
aught else than in the less amount of blackish towards the tail. On the mid- 
dle feathers it is about an inch in depth ; laterally decreasing so rapidly that 
there is hardly a trace of it on the three outermost. The bill and feet, how- 
ever, are differently colored. 

Dimensions. Bill (chord of culmen) a little more than one inch ; width at 
widest point 0-50, height at base 044, at unguis about the same. Nasal tube3 
18. Tarsus 1-25. Middle toe and claw 1-50, outer do. about the same ; inner 
do. 1 25. Wing 7 50 to 8-00. Tail 400 ; its graduation about -75. 

Pseudoprion turtur (Banks) Coues. 

Procellaria turtur, "Banks icon. 15," and Solander's MSS. fide Bp. ? Kuhl, Mon. 

Proc. Beit. Zool. 1820, p. 143, No. 14, pi. xi. fig. 8. A. Smith, 111. Zool. 

S. Afric. Bds. pi. 54. Gray, Genera Birds, 1849, iii. p. 648. Schlegel, 

Mon. Proc. Mas. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 17. 
Prion turtur, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiii. 1844, p. 366. Introd. B. Aust. p. 

117, No. 602. Id. B. Aust. vii. pi. 54. Bonaparte, C. A. 1856. ii. p. 

193. 
Habitat." Whole Pacific Ocean, between 30 and 50 of south latitude.'' 
(Gould.) 

A species absolutely identical with P. Banksii in colors of plumage ; but 
readily to be distinguished from that species by its somewhat smaller size, de- 
cidedly slenderer and more compressed bill, and especially by the restriction 
of the fringe of laminas to the base of the bill, and their very incomplete de- 
velopment. The bill and feet are described as similarly colored with those of 
Prion vittatus ; the webs flesh colored. The following measurements, particu- 
larly of the bill, taken from a specimen in the Philadelphia Academy, are to be 
compared with those of Banksii above given. 

Chord of culmen 1-00 ; width of bill at base 0-33 ; height at base 0-37; at 
unguis the same. Nasal tubes 0-18 ; tarsus 1-15; middle toe and claw 1-45; 
outer do. 1-50; inner do. 1-25. Wing 7-25; tail 3-50; its graduation 0-50. 
^Authors agree in identifying' the Pr. turtur of Banks' and Solander's ineditae 
with the species beautifully figured by Mr. Gould under this name, and dis- 
tinguished from Banksii by the characters given in the preceding pHragraphs. 
Following the P. turtur in Bonaparte's Cons-pectus is given a " Pr. Rossi, 
Gr. Mus. Britacn. ex Mar. antarcticis. Similis J'rioni turturi ;-sed minor, et 
proportionibus diversis ; rostro latiore." I do not know what this can be ; 
unless, as is quite probable, it indicates the Prion ariel, Gould. 

Pseudoprion ariel (Gould) Coues. 

? Procellaria turtur, Kuhl, Mon. Proc. Beit. Zool. 1820, p. 143, pi. xi. fig. 8. 

(Also of Lesson, according to Bonaparte.) 
? Procellaria velox, Banks, ic. ined. No. 16, fide Bp. 
Prion ariel, Gould, " Proc. Zool. Soc." Ann. Mag. N. H. 1844. xiii. p. 366. 

Iutrod. B. Aust. p. 117. sp. 605. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 1G7 

Procellaria arid, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 18. 
Balobsena typica, Bp. C. A. 1856, ii. p. 194. 

Habitat. Australian Seas. 

1 have not been able to find where thig species is originally described by 
Mr. Gould, if it has been at all more than named by him. From Dr. Sehlegel's 
description* of typical specimens received by him from Mr. Gould, it appears 
to have exactly the colors, and the development of the lamina: of the bill which 
obtain in P. turtnr ; and to be distinguished from that species by its smaller 
size; and a very slender bill, wider than high at the base. 

Synonymy. It is a little uncertain to which species the P. turlur of Kuhl' 3 
Monograph, No. 14, fig. 8, really refers. The figure of the bill agrees quite 
nearly with a specimen of the turtur Gould, of the preceding article of this 
paper; but the description given by Dr. Kuhl, and especially the measure- 
ments rather seem to indicate the present species, ariel, Gould. But Dr. Kuhl 
also gives the measurements " Avis aliquantum major," which rather are those 
of the true turtur. There are cited Bank's turtur, pi. 15, and also Pr. velox 
Banks, pi. 16, as synonyma ; the first of which (according to most authors) 
representing the turtur of Mr. Gould, and of this paper ; the second indicating 
the true ariel of Gould. Under the circumstances, it is evident that Kubl's 
turlur may be, without violence, referred to either of the two species; and 
authors are about equally divided in opinion regarding it. 

Bonaparte's Conspectus does not admit ariel as a valid species ; but has 
instead a certain Halobiena typica, Bp. based upon a specimen in the Paris 
Museum. He cites "turtur" Lesson, Kuhl, fig. 8, and "velox?" Banks, pi. 16, 
as synonyms; and his diagnosis presents no points forbidding the reference of 
this H. typica to the Prion ariel of Gould, with which Dr. Schlegel considers 
it as synonymous. 

? PSEUDOPRION BREVIROSTRIS (Gould). 

Prion brevirostris, Gould, P. Z. S., 1855, p. 88, pi. 93. 

" Upper surface delicate blue ; edge of the shoulder, the scapularies, outer 
margins of the external primaries, and tips of the middle tail feathers black : 
lores, sides of the head and all the under surface white, stained with blue ou 
the flanks and under tail coverts ; bill light blue, deepening into black on the 
sides of the mandible and at the tip, and with a black line along the side of 
the under mandible; feet light blue; interdigital membranes flesh color. 

Length 10J inches ; bill j| ; wing6f; tail 3^; tarsi 1]." 
I am only acquainted with this supposed species by the plate and descrip- 
tion of Mr. Gould, above cited, and can offer no opinion regarding it. Tliu 
description does not indicate any tangible points of difference from P. ariel. 
By Gray, and, I believe, also by the majority of writers, it is considered as a 
synonym of P. ariel. 

PRION Lacepede. 
Procellaria sp. Auct. 

Prion, Lacepede, Mem. de 1'Inst., 18001801, p. 514. (Gray). 
Pachyptila, Illiger, Prod., 1811, p. 274, No. 132. 
Priamphus, Rafinesque, 1815, fide Bp. 

The essential characters of this genus lie in the peculiar shape of the bill 
and the coriiplete development of the serrated laminae, which are the dis- 
tinguishing features of the group of which it is typical. The modifications to 
which the bill is subjected produce a result which, compared with other Pro- 
cellaridie, may be likened to that seen in the genus Cuncroma among the 

* Schlegel 1. c. "Semblable a la Procrtlarii turtur, egaleruent par rapport aux lamelles des 
mandibules; mais de taille mons forte, et a bee plus i'aible. Aile 6 pouces 2 lignes ; peinte dn 
l'aile 2 pouce 3 lignes. Queue : pennes mitoyennes 2 pnuces et 8 a 10 lignes: peunes externea 2 
ponces et5 a 7 lignes. Bee: longueur 9 a 10 lignes: hauteur 2 lignes et demie : largeur 3 lignes 
et demie a 4 lignes. Tube nasal, 2 lignes. Tarse 12 a 13 lignes. Doigt du niileau 12 a 13 lignes. 
Individus de Mers de l'Australie obtenus en 1S63 de Mr. Gould." 

1868.1 



168 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

Ardeidcc. I have not met with as detailed a description of its peculiarities 
as seems desirable. 

The culmen, from the extremity of the nasal case to the root of the unguis, 
is quite straight. Though rising up as a conspicuous ridge between the deep 
longitudinal sulci on either side, its outline is broad, flat, depressed, and not 
carinated. The unguis of tbe upper mandible is small and weak, and hardly 
rises above the level of the culmen proper; its convexity and decurvation are 
slight. 

On either side of the culmen, from the root of the nasal case to the junction 
of the lateral mandibular lamellae with the unguis, lies a well-marked, deep 
longitudinal sulcus ; the central line of which depression, from the end of the 
nostrils to the unguis, is occupied by a distinctly defined ridge. 

The immensely-developed lateral lamellae of the superior mandible have so 
great a lateral extension, as to make the width of the bill at its broadest part 
nearly two-thirds its length. These lamellae are arched and inflated through- 
out : and their surface is superior, not lateral. The free commissural edge is 
convex in outline; retreating slightly inwards and backwards from the 
broadest point of the bill, which is a little in advance of its extreme base ; 
converging more rapidly and nearly in a straight line thence to the unguis ; it 
is dilated and bulging posteriorly where it overhangs, but by no means meets 
or touches, the inferior mandibular rami ; more anteriorly, it is deflected 
downwards, and terminally rests against the unguis of the lower mandible. 

From the under surface of the lateral lamella near its free edge grow a 
series of serrated laminae, which extend from the very angle of the mouth to 
the unguis ; their ou'line corresponding nearly to that of the edge of the 
lamella whence they spring. They are directed downwards, with a little out- 
ward and forward inclination. They are longest, largest, and their " set " is 
most oblique at the broadest point of the bill ; whence, as they proceed either 
forwards or backwards, they diminish in size and become more vertical in 
direction. It is this fringe of serrations that is in apposition with the under 
jaw ; forming, therefore, the true commissural edge of the upper mandible. 
These laminae are, so to speak, a series of plates, antero-posteriorly thin, 
elastic and yielding; transversely wide and resisting; whence it results that 
ihey can readily be bent away from each other ; but the series cannot be 
laterally deflected, as a whole; exactly as is the case with the teeth of a 
comb. 

The nasal tubes are very short, measuring hardly more than a fifth the 
length of the culmen and unguis ; broad and depressed; placed conspicuously 
hieh upon the base of the culmen. They are somewhat more elevated api- 
cally than basally ; their apex is so deeply emarginate as to cause a partial 
segregation of the two tubes towards their termination. The orifice of each 
naris is circular; the internasal septum rather wide. 

Corresponding with the general shape of the upper, the lower mandible is 
very broad ; its rami widely divaricating, presenting much concavity towards 
each other. Its cutting edge is very sharp and strongly sinuate for its whole 
length, being curved in several planes oblique to each other. From the 
widest point, which is opposite the extremity of the feathers on its side, the 
rami rapidly converge to the unguis ; which latter is very small and weak, its 
gonys very concave in outline, its tip acute and much decurved. There is 
hardly an eminentia symphysis. 

The true lateral sulcus of the rami, seen in most Procellariinse, is wanting. 
In its place we have, ju3t external to the true cutting edge of the lower man- 
dible, a groove which extends the whole length of the ramus; deepest and 
most marked posteriorly; apically becoming obsolete. This groove, owing 
to the inflection of the edge of the mandibular ramus, looks upwards and 
outwards, and into it the fringe of laminae are received. More anteriorly 
where the groove is obsolete, the teeth simply abut against the side of the 
under mandible. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 169 

The broad space between the widely-separated, mutually concave inferior 
mandibular rami is occupied by soft, more or less distensible skin, naked of 
feathers, except a small triangular wedge which extends forwards from the 
base only to a point but a little in advance of the termination of the feathers 
on the side of the lower mandible. Even this patch does not fill the space 
from side to side. The feathers on the side of the lower mandible extend as 
far as the broadest point of the bill. The frontal feathers project a little on 
the nasal ^ase. Retreating somewhat, they then stretch transversely across 
the base of the lateral lamella 1 , with no obliquity backwards, to the very edge 
of the bill ; which is thence densely feathered to the angula oris. 

Bill about as long as the tarsus ; the latter equal to middle toe without its 
claw; covered with quite regular hexagonal plates, largest antero-interiorly. 
Outer toe and claw about equal to middle. Tip of inner reaching base of 
middle. Hallux strong, straight, conical, placed rather low down. Folded 
wings not surpassing tail. First and second primaries about equal ; last suc- 
cessively more rapidly graduated. Tail long; two-thirds the wing from the 
carpus, or contained one and a half times in it; cuneate ; central rectrices 
acuminately rounded and somewhat projecting; lateral ones more broadly- 
rounded and much graduated in length. 

Prion vittatus (Gm.) Lace'p. 

Procellaria vittata, Gmelin, S. N. i. pars ii. 1788, p. 560, and of authors. 

Prion vittatus, Lac6pede, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1849, iii. p. 649, and of later 

authors. 
Pachtjplila vittata, llliger, Prod., 1811, p. 275. 

Procellaria Forsteri, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 827. Not of Smith. 
Pachyptila Forsteri, Swainson, Class. Birds, ii. p. 374. Lesson, Trait6, 1831, p. 

613. Jard. and Selb. Illust. Orn. pi. 47. Steph. Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, 

p. 251. 
Procellaria latirostris, Bonnrerte, Ency. Metod. 

Habitat. Southern portions of both Atlantic and Pacific. 
Line over the eye white. A transocular dusky fascia. Entire upper parts 
light grayish or plumbeous blue; which color, somewhat diluted, clouds the 
sides of the breast and the flanks. Edge of wing, lesser coverts, outer vanes 
aud tips of four first primaries, and terminal area on tertials, blackish 
plumbeous. Inner vanes of quill feathers and tips of tertials fading into 
pearly or grayish white. Tail concolor with back; passing terminally into 
plumbeous black; which, from an extent of If inches on the central rectrices, 
decreases successively to a bare trace on the outer ones. Under tail coverts 
white, somewhat clouded with plumbeous. All other parts are pure white. 
11 Bill light blue, deepening into black on the sides of the nostrils and at the 
tip, and with a black line along the sides of the under mandible ; irides very 
dark brown ; feet beautiful light blue." [Gould.] 

Dr. Kuhl's fig. 13, and M. Temminck's PI. Col. 528, are by Dr. Schlegel sup- 
posed to refer to the P. Banksii rather than to this species, contrary to the 
opinion entertained by most ornithologists. The former figure measures 
eleven-sixteenths of an inch in width at the widest part of the bill; a 
dimension which the Banksii is hardly known to attain. 

In accordance with the views entertained in the preceding pages, the follow- 
ing synopsis of the genera and species of the two sections treated of is pre- 
pared. 

Family PROCELLARI1D.E. 

Subfamily Procellariinve. 
Section jfistrelatese (Bp. 1855). 
The cutting edge of the upper mandible is not dilated nor furnished with 
serrations. 

1866.] 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

Genus I. ^Estrelata Bp., 1855. Bill robust, compressed, its unguis large, 
hooked from the nostrils. Interramal space narrow, fully feathered. Extension 
of feathers on forehead moderate. Nasal case short. Tail more or less cunei- 
form, the lateral rectrices much graduated. Hallux of ordinary size. 

1. A. HyESiTATA Coues. ex Proc. hsesitata Kuhl. Not of Forst., Reich., Gld. 
nor Puff, hsesit. Lawr. Proc. breviroslris and meridionalis Lawr., or Fulmarus 
merid. Bp., hut not brevirostris Less. P affirms V Herminieri Less. yEslrelala 
diabolica Bp. Large; pileum and upper parts brown; upper tail coverts, basal 
half of tail, forehead and neck all around white. Bill or tarsus 145 ; wing 
12"00; tail 5-50 ; middle toe and claw 2-12. 

2. A. Lessoni Cassin, ex Proc. Lessoni Garnot. Rhantistes Lessoni Bp. Proc. 
leucocephala Forst. JEstrelata leuco. Bp. ?Pr. alba Gm. ?Daption album Steph. 
Pr. variegata Bonn. Pr. vagabunda Sol. secundum Bp. Large ; head all around 
white, except a transocular fascia. Back deep ash. Tail and coverts ashy 
gray. Bill 1-50 ; tarsus 165 ; middle toe and claw 2-50. 

3. A. rostrata Gray, ex Pr. rostrata Peale. Rhantistes rost. Bp. Large, bill 
exceedingly robust, along chord of culmen 1-37; height or width at base 066. 
Wing 11-00, tail 4-75. Tarsus 1-75. With the pattern of coloration and nearly 
the tints of young Lessoni. Frontal feathers running far forward on the nasal 
case. 

4. A. parvirostris Coues, ex Pr. parviroslris Peale Rhantistes parvir. Bp. 
Medium, bill slender and compressed, its length 1-08. Tarsus 1-25. Outer toe 
and claw 1-66. Young? Above deep fuliginous brown, (no trace of ashy,) 
this color extending all around the head and neck, on the tips of the feathers. 

5. A. incerta Coues, ex Pr. incerta Schlegel. Large. Wing 11-50 ; tail nearly 
5, much graduated. Bill 16 to 17 lines ; height 5 lines. Tarsus 1-50. Colors 
as described much those of young Lessoni; to which the species may be re- 
ferrible. 

G. A. neglecta Coues, ex Pr. neglecta Schlegel. Medium, with the colors of 
incerta. Bill; length 1-12; height 4 to 5 lines. Wing 10-00 inches. Per- 
haps to be referred to parviroslris. 

7. A. Solandri Coues, ex Proc. solandri Gould. Coohilaria solandri Bp. Pr. 
melanopus Natt. nee. Gm. Large; very robust. Length 16; bill 1-75; wing 
12; tarsus 75 ; tail 5-50; middle toe and claw 2-37. Bill and feet black. 
Above dark brown ; becoming slate gray on middle of back, and wing and tail 
coverts. Young? Washed with gray on the abdomen. 

8. A. grisea Coues, ex Pr. grisea Kuhl, according to Schlegel'a identi- 
fication. Pr. lugens Banks, Forst. ined. jEst. inexpectata Bp. nee. Forst. 
Medium, generally like mollis ; with a more compressed bill, and some discrep- 
ancies in dimensions. Wing 9-50 ; tail 3-88 ; bill 11J lines ; tarsus 16J lines ; 
middle toe 19 lines. 

9. A. mollis Coues, ex Pr. mollis Gould. Coohilaria and Rhantistes mollis 
Bp. Pr. inexpectata Forst. ? Pr. melanopus Gm. Vieill. Steph. ? Pr. gularis 
Peale. ? Pr. Philipph Gray. ? Pr. crepidata vel sandaliala Sol. according to 
Bp. Medium, bill (chord of culmen) 1-10 ; height at base -45 ; width slightly 
less ; tarsus 1 33 ; outer toe and claw 1-75 ; wing ranging from 9-50 to 10-50 ; 
tail 4-50. Under surfaces of the wings coiicolor with the upper. 

10. A. Cookii Coues, ex Pr. Cookii Gray. Rhantistes Cookii Bp. Pr. leucop- 
(era Gld. Coohilaria leucoptera and C. velox, Rhantistes velox Bp. Pr. brevipes 
Peale. Small. Bill 1-00, height at base -35. Wing 8-50 to 900 ; tail 375 to 
4-25, its lateral graduation TOO to 1-50. Tarsus 110. Under wing coverts 
and a line along edge of fore arm white. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 171 

11. A. gavia Coues, ex Pr. gavia Forst. (following G. R. Gray's authority.) 
Small ; with the colors generally those of Cookii, including under wing coverts. 
" Expanse 2G; bill 1-50; tibiae 1-75; tail 2-50," [Forst.] 

12. A. desolata Bp. ex Pr. desolata Goo. Daption desolatum Steph. Small- 
est. With the general colors of Cookii. Wing 7-80 ; tail 3 40, its graduation 
75. Bill less than one inch. Tarsus or middle toe about 1-00. 

13. A. macroptera Coues, ex Pr. mocroptera Smith. Ossifraga macroptera 
Reich. Pterodroma mac. Bp. Pr. brevirostris Less. nee. Lawr. ? Pr. lugubris 
T sen. Large ; wings long ; face gray ; tarsi yellow. 

14. A. fuliginosa Coues, ex Pr.fuliginosa Kuhl, sp. 12, (not fulig. Kuhl, sp. 
27; not of Gm. Lath.; not Puff, fulig. Strickl. not Neclris fulig. Forst.) Pr. 
atlantica Gld . Pterodroma all. Bp. Large. Everywhere fuliginous; feet dark 
colored. Bill 1-35. Tarsus 1-60; middle toe and claw 2-20; wing 10-75 to 
11-50 ; tail 4-50 to 5-00. 

15. A. aterrima Coues, ex Proc. alerrima Verr. Pterodroma aterr. Bp. Small. 
Tarsi light colored, passing into black upon the terminal portion of the toes. 
Wing 8-50 ; tail 3-50 ; bill slightly more than an inch. Tarsus 1-33. 

1G. A. Bulweri Coues, ex Pr. Buhveri Jard. and Selby. Thalassid. Bulweri 
Gray. Pr. anjinho Heineken. Puf/inus cohimbinus Webb and Berth. Bulweria 
columbina Bp. Smallfst. Proportionate length of tail to wing as 4-50 to 8 ; 
graduation of tail 1-75 to 2-00. Bill -85 ; tarsus a little longer. 

17. A. Macgillivrayi Coues, ex Thalassidroma (Buliveria) macgillivrayi G. R. 
Gray. Like Bulweri; bill larger; no sooty brown on wings. 

18. A. cap.rib.'ei Coues, ex Pterodroma carribsei Carte. " Blue Mountain 
Duck," Gosse. 

Genus II. Pagodroma Bp. 1855. Bill very short, moderately strong and 
compressed. Forehead flattened ; and lengthened by the extension forward of 
the feathers. Interramal space narrow, densely feathered. Nasal tubes short. 
Hallux unusually developed. Tail long, broad, but slightly rounded. 

19. P. nivea Bp. ex Pr. nivea Gm. Daption n. Steph. Thalassoica n. Reich. 
Proc. Candida Peale. Pagodroma var. major Bp. Entirely white. Subject to 
great variations in size ; forming var. minor Bp. 

Genus III. Daption Steph. 1825. Bill much dilated, unguis small and weak. 
Interramal space wide and partially naked, oblique sulci on inner face of cut- 
ting edge of mandible. Fasal tubes long. Hallux of ordinary size. Tail 
rather short, moderately rounded. 

20. D. capensis Steph. ex Pr. capensis Linn. Pr. nsevia Briss. Pr. punctata 
Ellin. Spotted with black and white on upper parts. 

Section PRIONEJE (Bp. 1855.) 

The upper mandible is furnished near its edge with laminated serrations. 

Genus I. Halob.exa Is. Geoff. External form of bill much that of JEslrelata ; 
serrations few and inconspicuous. Tail truncated. 

1. H. coerulea Bp. ex Pr. cocrulea Gm. Pachjptila coerulea 111. Steph. Pr. 
similis Forst. Pr. Forsteri Smith, nee. Lath. Tail tipped with white. 

Genus II. Pseudoprion Coues. Serrations poorly developed or quite obso- 
lete towards end of bill. Lateral lamellae of bill normal, their free edges un- 
inflated. Culmen concave ; lateral outline of bill straight. Interramal space 
narrow, well feathered. No sulcus for reception of fringe. Tail moderately 
long and rounded, contained nearly twice in the wing. 

1866.] 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

2. Ps. Banksii Coues, ex Pach/plila Banksii Smith. Prion B. Gld. Procellaria 
B. Schl. The fringe of serrations is apparent to the end of the bill. Chord of 
cultnen 1-05 ; width of bill at widest point -50 ; height at base -44. 

3. Ps. turtur Coues, ex Proc. turtur Banks " icon. ined. No. 15." Also of 
Kuhl ? Prion turtur Gld. The fringe of serrations is confined to the basal por- 
tion of the bill. Chord of culnieu 1-00 ; height of bill at base -37; width -33. 

4. Ps. ariel Coue?, ex Prion ariel Gould. ? Proc. turtur Kuhl. Proc. arid 
Schl. Halobcena typica Bp. ? Prion brevirostris Gld. Smaller than turtur. 
Bill 9 to 10 lines, height 1\ lines ; width 3 to 4 lines. 

Genus III. Prion Lace"p. 1800 1. Serrations developed to the maximum. 
Lateral lamellae hypertrophied, with inflated free edges. Culmen straight : 
lateral outline of bill convex to the unguis. A deep sulcus on either side of 
the culmen ; another on the lower mandible for reception of the fringe. Inter- 
ramal space broad, nearly naked. Tail elongated, much graduated, contained 
1 \ times in the wing. 

5. Pr. vittatus Lacep. ex Proc. vittata Gra. Pachi/ptila vitt. 111. Proc. Fors- 
teri Lath. nee. Smith. Pachypt. Forsteri Swains. Proc. latirostris Bonn. Greatest 
width of bill three-fourths of an inch or more. 

In a subsequent paper will be considered the Diomedeinx and Ilalodrominx. 



Critical Review of the Family PROCELLARIIDiE ; Part V ; embracing the 
DIOMEDEIN.E and the HALODEOMINiE. With a General Supplement. 

BY ELLIOTT COUES, M. D., U. S. A. 

The group composed of the Albatrosses is so trenchantly distinguished from 
all other Natatojes, that for its definite characterization it is only necessary to 
advert to the absence of the hallux, and to the position of the rhinothecas. In 
other morphological points the Albatrosses conform closely to the type of 
structure which obtains throughout the Procellariinx. 

The Halodromes, if really components of the family Procellariidce, are the 
most curiously aberrant of all the Gavix or Longipennine Natatores. They 
appear to hold a quite anomalous position, intermediate between several nata- 
torial suborders. The very short falcate wings, no less than the absence of the 
hallux ; the general configuration of the body, and especially the position of 
the posterior extremities relative to the axis of the body; as well as the com- 
pactly imbricated, glossy plumage ; indicate a close aflinity with the Urinatores, 
or Brachypterous Natatores. These structural resemblances are borne out by 
the attitudes, habits, and mode of life of the species, so far as we are acquain- 
ted with them ; which are rather those of Guillemots than of Petrels. The 
dilation of the bill, particularly of the under mandible, and the partially naked 
and distensible submental skin, which forms an imperfect pouch, point to a 
type of structure extensively prevailing among the Totipalmi. Most of the lat- 
ter have the rhynchotheca segmented ; so that almost the only character of the 
Halodromes which is strictly Procellaridian is the tubulation of the rhinothe- 
ca ; and even in this feature the details of shape and direction of axis are en- 
tirely unique. So far indeed as external characters are concerned, arguments 
are adducible for their reference to either of the three tribes above alluded to ; 
and especially to the Urinatores. It remains for the scalpel to finally deter- 
mine their true affinities. 

By Illiger* the tubulation of the rhinotheca has been made indicative of a 
tribe {although called a family) Tubinares, which is attaching to it a value 
coordinate with such a character as e. g. the membranous union of the hallux 



* Prodromus, 1811, p. 274. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 173 

with the inner anterior digit, which defines what we now recognize as the tribe 
or rather suborder Totipalmi, embracing numerous families. Proceeding upon 
this basis we should be obliged in like manner to form a tribe or suborder 
" Linear inares " of what is now known as the family Laridx, and erect its four 
recognized subfamilies into as many families. 

By Bonaparte* the order Gaviae is made to consist of two tribes, the Toti- 
palmi and the Longipennx ; the latter containing two families, Laridx and 
Proccllariidse the differences between which essentially rest in the linear or 
tubular form of the nostrils; for continuity or division of the corneous rostral 
envelope does not always point to one or the other family, as the Lestridinw of 
the Laridce have somewhat the features of the ProcellariidcB in this respect. In 
this arrangement an essentially brachypterous bird, one truly a "diver" 
rather than a "flyer " in the sense in which these words are technically ap- 
posed i s classed among the Longipennines. 

If a tubular rbinotheca be really the most essential feature, and at the same 
time of no more than family value, then its modifications may with propriety be 
held as indicative of three subfamilies Diomedeinse, Frocellariinen, and Ilalodro- 
minsa. But it is questionable whether such be indeed the case. An approach 
to this feature is seen in the Les(ridi?ite, (of a family otherwise exhibiting 
strictly linear basal nostrils, aud an undivided rhynehotheca ;) in which the 
so-called "cere" is really a segmentation of the corneous envelope and pro- 
bably also indicative of tubulation of the nares. It is by no means proven 
that the peculiar nostrils of the 1'rocellariidx as generally defined, should not 
be held as subsidiary in importance to, or at least of no more than coordinate 
value with, other points of structure. Upon such an hypothesis the birds now 
called Procellariidx would be divisible into ihree families, somewhat accord- 
ing to ihe following schedule : 

I. Tridactyle. 

A. Maciopterous ; "flyers;" the tubular nostrils disjoined, 

lateral, horizontal Diomedeidm. 

B. Brachypterous; "divers;" the tubular nostrils united. 

culminal, vertical Halodromidce. 

II. Tetradactyle. 

Macropterous; " flyers ; " the tubular nostrils united, cul- 
minal, horizontal Proccllariidse. 

But this arrangement is as faulty as the others, in the presence of an incon- 
gruous brachypterous element; and we should moreover be obliged to recog- 
Lize a tribe or suborder for the three families thus collocated. 

It will be evident, therefore, that so long as we regard a tubular rbinotheca 
as a primary fundamental character, not permitting of a wide separation of the 
forms in which it is present, we shall bring into juxtaposition certain types 
widely dissimilar from each other in most other respects ; and that we do not 
obviate this difficulty when we make this character indicative of a suborder, 
under which several families may be ranged, any more than in considering it 
as of family importance, aDd forming our subfamilies upon its modifications. 
In either case we are met by the same objection. It remains to be proven that 
tubulation of the external nares is not a feature of subordinate importance to 
others and as such, one whifh may coexist in types otherwise presenting a 
widely diverse assemblage of characters. In which event, at least one genus 
now held as Procellaridian will be found to constitute a family of quite a dif- 
ferent suborder ; and certain others will form at least a family distinct from 
that of the Petrels proper. The test of anatomical investigation must be ap- 
plied before the question can be definitely settled ; for in one sense external 
characters of every sort are but the indices, as it were, of fundamental struc- 



Schema Systematic Ornithologiee, Compt. Kend. xxxyii. 1853. 

1866.] 



174 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



tural modifications ; and as such unavailable for the truly scientific definition 
of groups of a higher grade than families. 

In calling attention to the foregoing considerations, I wish to be understood 
as offering no opinion upon the questions involved, and particularly as by no 
means asserting that the Halodromes are not true Procellaridians. It is rarely 
of use to exchange one doubtful opinion for another ; and for the present I 
shall follow the usually received classification. But it is safe to affirm that by 
the determination of the proper affinities of these birds the exact value of the 
character of tubulation of the rhinotheca is to be ascertained. 

Subfamily DIOMBDEINJE. 

In a careful study of the Albatrosses, the interesting fact becomes evident, 
that we have an easy and convenient means of accurate diagnosis of species in 
the characters afforded us by the bill alone. All the known species differ from 
each other by perfectly tangible and readily appreciable variations in the size, 
shape and color of the bill ; in the configuration of its several corneous ele- 
ments, and in the outline of the feathers around its base. This latter feature, 
conjointly with the shape of the corneous covering of the culmen in that por- 
tion of its extent which is posterior to the nares, gives us such reliable data 
that we need hardly enquire further. I shall, theiefore, in the following pages 
confine myself chiefly to detailed descriptions of the bill ; and it will be noticed, 
as supporting the foregoing assertions, that a synoptical table may be drawn 
up solely upon the characters mentioned above. 

As we shall study the bill somewhat in detail, I introduce, for convenience 
of description, several words expressive of the different corneous elements 
which cover it; the meaning of which will be obvious. I may remark that the 
piece interposed between the inferior mandibular rami at the lower border of 
their symphysis (here called the " interramicorn,") is a feature which also 
definitely characterizes this group, as it is present in no other. The presence 
of a well defined membranous fringe on the exterior toes is also highly charac- 
teristic. 

In the following pages I describe eleven species one of them supposed to be 
new and indicate the possible existence of a twelfth. Of these one differs so 
much from the rest that it may be properly made the type of a genus distinct 
from Diomedea. The remaining species have also been subdivided into several 
genera, chiefly by Prof. Reichenbach. Such a collocation of species is cer- 
tainly natural, regarded as simply expressive of the fact that certain of them 
are more intimately allied to each other, than they are to the species of another 
group ; but the differences presented seem hardly sufficient to warrant our at- 
taching generic import to them. The following will serve to explain the point 
alluded to. 

Group A. Comprising exidans, brachyura, nigripes, gibbosa. Of largest and 
medium size. The bill is very broad, stout and heavy ; and especially very 
wide at its base, and is uniform in color. The colors of the plumage are white, 
variegated with black, especially upon the wings; or uniform fuliginous. The 
tail is very short. The nostrils are large, and wide. Exulans may be consid- 
ered as typical of this group. The length of tail reaches its minimum in bra- 
chyura, upon which character Prof. Reichenbach founds his genus Phcebas- 
tria. 

Group B. Comprising melanophrys, Gilliana, n. sp. cauta, culminata, chloro- 
rhyneha, olivaceirostris. Of medium and rather small size. Bill shorter, weaker, 
and considerably compressed, usnally bright or parti-colored. White, with black 
back and wings. Tail long, slightly rounded. Melanophrys may be taken as the 
type of this group, which constitutes the genus 2 1 halassarche Reich. Both mela- 
nophrys and Gilliana differ from the other three species in the character of the 
culminicorn, as will be hereafter more particularly elucidated. 

So varying are the characters of shape of bill, outline of frontal feathers, 
length of tail, etc., that I think they can hardly be made typical of distinct 

[May. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 175 

genera. D. fuliginosa itself would be hardly separable were it not for the pre- 
sence of some features radically distinct from, and not merely a modification or 
varying combination of those presented by Diomedea proper. 

DIOMEDEA Linnasus. 

Diomedea, Linnaeus, S. N. 1758, and of authors. Type D. exulam. 
Phcebastria, Reichenbach, Syst. A v. Type D. brachyura Temru. 
Tkalassarche, Reichenbach, Syst. Av. Type D. melanophrys Boie. 

Under this head I shall consider all the species of Albatross except D. fuligi- 
nosa. Its general characters have already been sufficiently elucidated. The 
points of difference between it and Phozbetria will be found in the synoptical 
table at the end of this article. 

Diomedea exulans Linnaeus. 

Diomedea exulans, Linn. S. N. i. 1766, p. 214 ; and of authors. PI. Enlum. No. 

23Y. Vieill. Gal. pi. 295. Gould, B. Aust. pi. 38, etc. 
Diomedea spadicca, Gmel. S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 568. Lath. Syn. v. 1785, p. 

308, No. 2. Lath Iud. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 790. Lath. Gen. Hist. 1824, x. 

p. 52, No. 2 ; (excl. Var. B.) Banks ic. in?d. t. 25, fide Gray. Young. 
Diomedea albatr us, Pallas, Zoog. Rosso-As. ii. 1811, p. . Forster, Desc. 

Anim. ed. Licht. 1844, p. 27. 
? Diomedea adusta, Tschudi, Cab. Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, p. 157, sp. 7. 

Habitat. Southern Hemisphere at large ; ranging to a considerable distance 
north in the Pacific. 

The great size of this species renders it easy of recognition in any of its very 
diverse plumages. I will confine myself to a description of the bill, the gen- 
eral features of which may be taken as the standard of reference for all the 
species of the subfamily. 

The frontal feathers form a rather obtuse angle on the forehead, whence they 
run forward on the side of the upper mandible to a point a little posterior to the 
root of the nostrils ; whence, with a slight backward obliquity, they extend to 
the commissure. On the side of the lower mandible tbey come forward far 
beyond those on the upper, and have a very convex almost angular outline. 
This latter feature is constant, and of great value in distinguishing small exu- 
lans from large brachyura when both are in fuliginous plumage. (Compare 
outline as described under brachyura.) The point, of greatest extension is 
nearly opposite the middle of the nosirils. The frontal feathers form a more 
reentrant concavity on the forehead, and a more salient convexity on the side 
of the lower mandible, than in any other species except fuliginosa. 

By gentle maceration in warm water, into which a little potassa or soda has 
been thrown, the various corneous elements of the bill readily separate from 
it and from each other, so that we can advantageously study them. 

The " culminicorn" is transversely broad a >d rounded, but may be some- 
what compressed or even a little cannated ; a great difference in these 
respects being observable in a large series of bills. Its dorsal outline descends 
in a nearly straight line from the base to the middle of the bill; whence it 
more rapidly rises with much concavity to the base of the UDguis. Its inferior 
border is curved with a convex border from its distal extremity to the 
nostrils ; then a considerable concavity is formed by the cutting away of a 
space for the emergence of the nostrils. Behind these, it again dips down with 
a salient convexity to join the upper edge of the latericorn ; their union, how- 
ever, being rather a point than a line. The outline of the base corresponds 
with that of the frontal feathers above given; and there are usually found a 
few corrugations parallel with this outline. The distal extremity is more or 
less fused with the superior unguicorn or dertrotheca, especially on the median 
line of the culmen. 

The " latericorn " corresponds in its superficies with the shape of the mandi- 

3 866.] 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

bular ramus of the intermaxillary. Its superior border is nearly straight for its 
whole length ; no emargination existing opposite the nostrils, nor hardly any 
decurvation in its terminal portion. A corneous ridge, incompletely fused with 
it, separates its true superior border from the inferior border of the culraini- 
corn occupying the length of the sulcus from the nostrils to its termination. 
Its inferior border is sharp and regularly curved in outline for its whole length. 
Internal to the commissural edge, it extends as an exceedingly delicate, thin 
lamina to line the roof of the mouth, fusing, anterior to the palatal fissure, 
with its fellow of the other side; more posteriorly distinct, and descending to 
cover the large swollen palatal bones, which latter make a prominent ridge on 
either side of the roof of the mouth towards its posterior part. The basal 
outline of the latericorn is that of the lateral frontal feathers, as above 
described. It terminates in an acute angle anteriorly. 

The " unguicorn " or dertrotheca is large and strong, in size, shape and 
general appearance calling irresistibly to mind the claw of one of the large 
Felidx. It is much thicker, heavier and stouter than any other of the corneous 
elements. The convexity of its dorsal outline is great, being more than the 
quadrant of a circle. Its commissural edges are thin and sharp, very concave 
in outline: usually with an obsolete tooth, or, at least, a slight lobe. 

The " naricorn " or rhinotheca is an irregularly convoluted little scroll, very 
thin, and delicate in texture. Its general shape is that of a turgid cone, 
whose apex presents backwards, and whose obliquely-truncated, irregularly- 
shaped base is anterior. This is simply inserted in the emargination of the 
under edge of the culminicorn, above described. A corneous parietes is want- 
ing on the side which lies towards the median line of the bill; and, more 
auteriorly, there are numerous delicate convolutions, impossible to describe 
intelligibly. The general effect of these, however, is to produce a division into 
two parts of each nasal orifice, by a process which projects upwards and 
inwards. When the naricorns are in situ, the outer of these divisions, irre- 
gularly circular in shape, forms the most conspicuous part, and looks forward 
and a little upwards. The inner is much smaller, aud hidden under a project- 
ing ridge ; and its aspect is quite lateral. 

The "ramicorn" which covers the sides of the rami of the lower mandible is 
chiefly noticeable for the peculiar outline of its base, which, as already stated, 
formed the distinguishing feature of the under mandible of this species. It is 
deeply concave in outline ; the superior cornu of the semilune running as an 
acute process, far upwards and backwards to the commissural termination. 
Terminally, the fusion with the inferior unguicorn is very incomplete. Its supe- 
rior border runs downwards with a long concave sweep from base to tip ; 
having posteriorly an obsolete groove for the reception of a ridge from the 
upper mandible. Inside the mouth, more anteriorly, the inner face of the 
ramicorn presents an elongated extensive ridge, whose superior aspect is con- 
cave, both longitudinally and transversely. This ridge rises higher and 
higher as it proceeds forward, till at its termination it is on a level with the 
commissural edge. The ridge in the bone itself is slight in size, compared 
with that produced by the folding over it of the heavy corneous covering. 

The "inferior unguicorn" or myxotheca is subrectangular in its lateral 
aspect, the antero-superior angle being rounded off, and its posterior margin a 
little convex. Its tomial edges are sharp ; and rise considerably above the 
edges of the bone they cover. 

The " int^rramicorn" forms the gonal element of the bill. It is narrow, elon- 
gated and subcylindrical in shape; anteriorly completely fused with the myx- 
otheca; posteriorly extending on the median line a considerable distance into 
the interramal space, running to a fine point, and very gradually merging its 
corneous texture into that of ordinary dermal tissue. 

The general shape of the bill appears sufficiently elucidated in the preced- 
ing descriptions of its several elements. The features whereby it is differ- 
entiated from that of any other species are these : Its great size, (chord of 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 177 

eulmen 6-50 to 7-50;) its great breadth and strength ; width and concavity of 
the eulmen; huge, strong unguis; peculiar convolutions of the naricorn ;* 
the outline of the feathers, particularly on the side of the under mandible ; and 
the uniform, very light yellowish color. These points will always separate 
from brachyura specimens of every variety of size and color. 

The D. spadicea of Gmelin and Latham is now universally conceded to be 
based upon the young of this species. Latham's spadicea var. B., however, I 
consider to be the young brachyura, for reasons stated elsewhere. 

Moils. R. P. Lesson, holding that spadicea is distinct from exulans, commi's 
the curious error of citing in support of his views a note sent him by Dr. 
Garnot, which refers to Phocbetria futiginosa.f 

Diomedea adusta Tsch. seems hardly different from this species, to which it is 
unhesitatingly referred by Dr. Schlegel. 

Diomedea brachyura Temm. 

Diomedea spadicea, var. B., Lath. Gen. Hist. Birds , 1824, vol. x. p. 52, No. 2, 

var. B. ; (cites PI. Enl. 903). 
Diomedea brachyura, Temminck, PI. color. No. 554, adult, (cites PI. Enlum. 

963, as young.) Schlegel, Fn. Japon. pi. 66. (Young.) Gould B. 

Aust. vii. pi. 39, and of authors generally : excluding " brachyura juv." 

of Cassin and Lawrence, which is niyripes Audubon. 
Diomedea epomophora, Lesson, Man. Orn. ii. 1828, p. 351. Id. Traite d'Ornith., 

1831, p. 009. Tschudi, Cab. Jouru. f. Ornith., 1850, p. 156. Bp. C. A., 

1855, ii. p. 185, [baud dubic ] 
" Diomedea chinensis, IVmminck." 

Habitat. Pacific Ocean at large. Abundant in the China Seas, and on the 
west coast of North America to a quite Lrgh latitude. 

As is the case with other species, this one is readily diagnosticable by its 
bill alone. This is of the same fundamental characier as that of exulans ; but 
it is smaller, weaker, more compressed, with a vastly less concave eulmen, less 
elevated, robust, and more attenuated and decurved unguis; and there is a 
very marked difference in the outline of the feathers around its base. 

Tbe frontal feathers embrace the bill in a near'y straight Hue as far as the 
lateral sulcus; forming almost no concavity on the eulmen. Along the base 
of the latericorn, they run slightly obliquely backwards to the commissure. 
On the sides of the lower mandible they extend but slightly further than ou 
the upper, having a scarcely convex outline. 

The bill is stout, being especially wide at its base, which is large and heavy. 
Anterior to the nostrils, the culminicorn is compressed, and sometimes obso- 
letely carinated ; posterior to them, it very rapidly flattens and widens, and 
extends so far downwards on either side that there is allowed no projection of 
the post ro- superior corner of the latericorn. Ttte latter, with the exception 
of this feature, and of a straighter commissural edge, is much as in exulans. 

The dertrum is comparatively small : hardly rises above the level of tbe 
r/ulmen; and is by no means so convex and hooked at the tip as in exulans. 
The myxa is longer, narrower and more attenuated. 

The straigbtness of the commissure as compared with that of exulans; and 
the different ou line of the feathers on the side of the lower mandible, are the 
main points whercia the outline of the ramicorus of the two species differ. 
The nostrils are as in exulans, but smaller. The variations in plumage of 

Existing, but to a less extent, in some other species. 

t Lesson, Man., 1828. ii. p 3?0. 'Cette e*pece" spadicea " a ete regarrie> comme le jeune 
ftge du exulans ; mais nous ne partageons pas cette opinion. A ce sujet nous imprimeron. tex- 
tuellement une note, que nous a remise M. le Docteur Garnot * * il sVxprime ainsi * 
autour des yeux qui sont brun clair on voit un petite cercle de plumes blanches interrompu par 
une tache noir a, Tangle interne de l'ceil; le bee est noir; la mandibule inferieure presente sur sen 
faces deux ligues blanches membraneuses," etc., from which expressions it is palpable that a 
specimen of fuliginosa furnished the subject of the note. 

1866.] 12 



178 



PROCEEDINGS Of TIIE ACADEMY OF 



this species are quite parallel with those of exulans, and need not detain us, as 
they are well known. A shining rusty yellow suffusion of the feathers of the 
head and neck is met with in perhaps the majority of adult specimens. 

That this species is the spadicea var. B. of Latham, as above, when in the 
fuliginous state of plumage, is evidenced, if not by Latham's brief description, 
by his citation of PI. Enl., No. 963, which gives correctly the outline of the 
frontal feathers and other points, whereby it is distinguishable from the young 
exulans. The same plate is also cited by Temminck himself as representing 
the young brachyura. 

A specimen before me, unquestionably brachyura, is in precisely the state of 
plumage described under the name epomophora by Lesson in his works above 
cited, and recognized as a valid species by Tschudi and Bonaparte. The 
relative amount of black and white on the wings is very variable, tbe latter 
color sometimes pervading all the coverts; and at others being restricted to a 
small spot at the elbow, producing the appearance which suggested Lesson's 
name. 

The questions arising from the confounding of nigripes Audubon with this 
spfcies are discussed under head of the latter. 

Note. I find in the Smithsonian Institution a skull of an Albatross, want- 
ing tbe lower jaw, in general features mott like that of brachyura, (numerous 
examples of which are before me,) but differing as follows : 

It is considerably narrower and smaller in nearly all of its dimensions ; the 
bill especially being slenderer, weaker and more compressed, with a less ele- 
vated and smaller unguis. The frontal outline is decidedly more concave on 
the median line. The culminicorn was narrower and less flattened basally : 
did not descend so low to meet the latericorn behind the nostrils, and was 
more convex along its dorsal outline. The fronto-maxillary suture is nar- 
rower. The palatal bones are smaller and narrower, and sink to the level of 
the commissural edge murh sooner. 

A most marked difference is seen in the supra-orbital fossa for the lodgment 
of the gland, whose secretion is poured into the nasal cavity. It is very 
soi*U, and particularly narrow ; so that, the least width between it and its 
fellow is greater than in brachyura, although the skull is narrower. These 
fossae have no floors whatever on their anterior halves. 

Numerous other minor differences may be summed up as resulting from the 
smallness and narrowness of the skull, which is well illustrated by the follow- 
ing measurements. It will be noted that the bill is absolutely longer, and 
therefore still more comparatively elongated than in brachyura. 



Dimension. 




D. 


brachyura. 


D. 


leptorhyncha. 


Fronto-maxillary suture to tip of bill 




5-40 
2-75 
1-37 
2 62 
1-00 
1-30 




5-75 


" " " " occiput 





2-37 
1-08 


" " " skull (at post-orbital 


processes) 


2-37 
0-93 




1-07 



Upon these mesgre, though decided data, I do not like to formally introduce 
a species ; and must, therefore, for the present, content myself with pointing 
out tbe differences which exiit in the specimen to which I have affixed the 
above name of leptorhyncha. 

DlOMEDEA NIGRIPES Audubon. 

Diomedea nigripes, Audubon, Orn. Biog. v. 1839, p. 327. Audubnn, Birds 
Amer. vii. 1842, p. 198. [West coast Amer.] Cassin, Illust. B. Cal. & 
Texas, 1853, p. 210, pi. 35. [Cala.] Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays- 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 179 

Bas, 18G3, p. 33. [China.] Ssvinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 431. [China 
Seas.] 
Diomedea brachyurajuv. Cassin, Illust. B. Cal. & Tex., 1853, p. 291. Lawrence, 
Baird's B. N. Amer., 1858, p. 822. 

Habitat. North Pacific. Coasts of Asia and America. 

Description* Bill about a third longer than the head, slightly surpassing the 
tarsus, equal to the middle toe without its claw : comparatively stouter, and 
basally wider, than that of any other species (except gibbosa?). The culmen 
is perfectly straight to the middle of the bill; and has thence only a just 
appreciable concavity to the unguis ; which latter is weak and small, scarcely 
rises above the level of the culmen proper, and is only moderately decurved 
and acute. The culminicorn is moderately wide, and subcnrinated beyond the 
nostrils ; posterior to them it is flatter and wider, spreading down so far on 
either side as to overlap the upper edge of the latericorn. Its comparative 
width is greater than in any other species. Although the basal outline i3 
essentially rounded, as in brachyura, there is yet a slight angle formed on the 
median line, readily perceptible, which is not the case in brachyura. The 
great comparative width of the bill is produced chiefly by the turgid and pro- 
tuberant latericorns, which give it an air of great thickness and solidity. Tne 
lateral sulcus is nearly straight from nostrils to unguis, and thence is only 
slightly decurved. The commissure is almost straight to the unguis. The 
outline of the inferior mandibular rami is quite straight to the inferior unguis. 
the point of which is somewhat elongated and decurved. The interramicorn 
is small and short, though quite convex in outline. The feathers on the side of 
the lower mandible extend further than on the upper ; their outline has a gentle 
convexity. The nostrils are of moderate size ; very short ; rather obliquely 
placed, presenting upwards and forwards ; and the emargination of the cul- 
minicorn, to allow of their protrusion, is very deep. 

The tail is of moderate length, contained about three times in the wing from 
the carpal joint ; is nearly square, the feathers having but a slight graduation, 
and all being broad to their very tips. (The tail of brachyura is contained 
about 31 times in the wing.) 

The tarsus is less than the middle toe without its claw, about equal to the 
inner without its claw ; slender, moderatelv compressed. The outer toe is 
longer than the middle ; the tips of the claws fall together. The tip of the 
inner claw about reaches the base of the middle one. 

The plumage is dark chocolate brown ; lighter and rather tending to plum- 
beous gray on the under parts generally. Some of the dorsal feathers, and 
most of the wing-coverts, have light grayish brown edges, as if faded ; and a 
few feathers on the elbow are whitish except terminally. The region all around 
the bill is hoary white for a limited space ; and then shades rapidly into the 
prevailing color of the head. A streak over arid behind the eye and a spot 
just in front of it are nearly pure black. The primary quills are black, with a 
plumbeous cast on their inner vanes; their shafts bright yellow to near the 
tips. The tail is brownish black; paler below; the shafts dull whitish except 
apically. The long upper tail coverts which reach within one and a half 
inches of the end of the tail, are lighter brown than the rest of the upper parts, 
having sometimes a slight rufous tint. The feet and webs are black. The 
bill in the dry state is dark brown, almost black on the nail; its basal por- 
tions with a hoary glaucescence, its median portions tinged with reddish 
brown. 

Chord of culmen 4-00, its curve 4-60, from feathers on side of upper mandi- 
ble to its tip 3-50; ditto lower mandible 3-20; height of bill at base 1-50; 
greatest width 1-25. Tarsus 3-70 ; middle toe and claw 4-50, outer do. 4-50, 
inner do. 4-00. Wing 19 to 20. Tail about 6-50. 

The preceding paragraphs are descriptive of a most excellent species of Al- 



* Taken from several typical examples from the coast of California in Mus. Smiths. 



1866.] 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

batross, very abundant in the North Pacific. It is readily distinguishable from 
the young brachyura, to which it assimilates so closely in its plumage, by its 
bill, which Dr. Schlegel has happily described as " tres court, quoique gros." 
The shortness of the bill ; its great width, especially basally where the cul- 
minicorn is so broad and descends so low as to ovetlap the latericorn ; the 
general straightness of its several outlines, and its color ; the relative propor- 
tions of the wings and tail ; and the proportions and color of the feet, all fur- 
nish data ample for its separation from brachyura. So far as now known, tbe 
fuliginous plumage above described is its only one ; but should it ever assume 
a livery like that of brachyura, still the above points of form will readily char- 
acterize it. The only question then is as to the came to be employed for it. 
American writeis have without exception identified the " nigripes " of Audu 
bon with the young brachyura. 

Unfortunately I cannot find the type specimen of nigripes among the many 
types of other species of Mr. Audubon now in the Smithsonian Museum. I have 
before me the types of his " chlororhynchos " and " fusca ; " but " nigripes " 
has been mislaid. We have therefore only his description as a guide ; from 
which we must determine whether he had in view the present sp< cies or a 
young brachyura, also found on the Pacific, coast of North America. In the 
latter event nigripes would become a synonym, and a new name be required for 
the species now under consideration. 

Examining the dimensions given by Audubon we find several discrepancies. 
In general they may be stated as too large. The bill is by no means '' five" 
inches long, especially along the edge of the under mandible. The tail is six 
or more instead of " three " inches. The dimension given for the inner toe 
(ljfl) is doubtless a typographical error. By carefully measuring Audubon's 
specimen of "chlororhynchos," I find that he took the curve of the culmen, 
not its chord. Applying this test to the specimens before me tbey measure 
4-50 to 4-75 inches ; which is sufficiently near the dimensions he states. But 
five inches along the edge of the under msndible is too great, even for the 
majority of adult brachyura; while three inches as the length of tail, is wide of 
the mark for either species. Eliminating palpable errors however, there is 
nothing in his description or measurements absolutely incompatible with the 
present species, though much confirming a suspicion that he may really have 
had a young brachyura in view ; and I therefore think it best, at least until his 
tj pe can be found, to accept his name, now well established, for this species, 
especially as the necessity for a new one will thereby be obviated. 

DlOMEDEA GIBBOSA Gould. 

D. gibbosa, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1844, xiii. p. 361. Id. Introd. B. Anst. 
1848, p. 115. 

JJabi/at. " North Pacific." 

Of this species, which is autcptically unknown to me, Mr. Gould says: "It 
differs from every other that has come under my notice in the peculiar swollen 
and raised form of the upper mandible, whiflfa moreover rises high up on the 
forehead ; " and further describes it as having the " face, ear coverts, chin, 
abdomen, upper and under tail-coverts white; the remainder of the plumage 
very dark brown approaching on the occiput, back of the neck, and wings, to 
black bill yellowish horn color, becoming darker at the tip and at the base ; 
feet in the specimen dark brown, but doubtless of a bluish gray, inclining to 
flesh color, in the living bird. Total lengih 30 inches ; bill 4 ; wing 21 ; tail 7 ; 

iarsi 4." 

This supposed species is by Mr. G. R. Gray placed as a synonym of nigripes 
Audubon. The dimensions and description in general accord well ; ana cer- 
tain points of difference of coloration may be dependant upon age. It is not 
impossible that gibbosa is based upon the fully adult nigripes, in a plumage 
unknown until described by Mr. Gould. But comparisons of specimens are 

[May. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 181 

requisite to settle definitely, this point, upon which at present I have no opin- 
ion to offer. 

DlOMEDEA MELANOPHRYS Boie. 

Diomedea melanopkrys, Boie, Temm. PI. Ool. No. 456. Gould, B. Aust. pi. 43 ; 
and of authors generally. 

Habitat. Southern Oceaus generally. 

The bill is moderately compressed throughout, least so at the base where 
it is very high or deep. The culmen is transversely rounded, non-carinated ; 
its dorsal outliue moderately concave, descending from the forehead nearly 
in a straight line to near the middle of the bill, whence it gradually ascends 
to the unguis. The latter is very convex and much decurved, though not 
rising so high as in some other species. The culminicorn basally descends a 
little on either side to overlap the roots of the nostrils, and to coalesce witli 
the latericorn ; no space of soft skin being interposed. The lateral sulcus fol- 
lows very nearly the curve of the culmen, to near the unguis, where it rapidly 
decurves. The commissural edge of the upper mandible is lightly curved. 
The outline of the rami of the inferior mandible is nearly straight; the inter- 
ramicorn somewhat protuberant, and extending far into the submental space. 
The inferior unguicorn is much compressed, not very deep, its apex rather 
acute, but little attenuated. 

The nostrils are short and small; quite different in this feature from those 
of exulans or brachyura. They are subconical in general shape ; being consid- 
erably dilated anteriorly, and basally narrowirg to a point ; their orifices con- 
siderably dilated, with thin margins ; suboval in shape, looking upwards and 
forwards. This description of nostril is applicable to the other species of this 
subdivision of the genus. 

The frontal feathers embrace the base of the bill in a nearly straight line ; 
hiving a slight forward obliquity, however, as they descend on the sides of 
the upper mandible. On the culmen a very slightly reentrant curve (not angle) 
is formed. On the side of the lower mandible the feathers begin slightly pos- 
terior to their termination on the upper; extending somewhat forward, and 
with a slight convexity, as they go downwards. 

The bill is yellow, more or less pure and uniform in tint ; in immature birds 
clouded with brown. Some portion of the unguis is usually dark colored. 
The soft skin at the extreme base of the bill makes a narrow black line all 
around. 

White; back plumbeous black, more cinereous anteriorly, where it merges 
gradually into the white of the neck. Wings and tail black; the latter with 
a grayish or plumbeous tinge, especially basally. Shafts of quills yellowish, 
becoming black terminally. Shafts of tail featbers white throughout. A ci- 
nereous black transocular fascia. " Legs and toes yellowish white, the inter- 
digital membrane and the joints washed with blue." (Gould.) 

Chord of culmen 4-25 ; height at base 1-75: width 1-00; from feathers on 
side of lower mandible to its tip 375. Tarsus 3-25; middle toe 4-75; outer 
4'50 ; inner 4-00. Wing 20-00; tail 9-00 ; its graduation 200. 

Diomedea Gilliana Coues, nov. sp. 

Belonging to the group of white, black-backed Albatrosses of which melano- 
phrys is typical, and with the characters of the culminicorn generally as in that 
species. The shape of the bill, however, most nearly approaches that of cul- 
minata ; but the characters of the culminicorn posterior to the nostrils are 
quite diverse from those of the latter species, as follows : 

Instead of continuing, between the nostrils and the forehead, no broader 
than it is anterior to them, it there widens, descending on either side to over- 
lap their roots, and to coalesce by a simple sulcus with the upper edge of the 
latericorn. There is thus left no space to be filled by soft skin. Tee dorsal 

1866.1 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

outline of the culminicorn is not so concave as in culminate/; does not begin 
to curve downwards so immediately from the forehead ; does not dip so low 
down at the middle of the bill ; is less flattened and depressed on top, and has 
a more decidedly rounded transverse outline. The culminicorn has considera- 
bly more of lateral extension downwards before it reaches the lateral sulcus. 
The outline of the frontal feathers shows an approach to the character seen 
in fuliginosa ; the root of the culmen extending nearly as far up on the fore- 
head as in exulans. Still the outline is a simple concavity, not a sharp reent- 
rant angle. On the sides of the lower mandible the feathers start a little pos- 
terior to their termination on the upper and curve downwards and considera- 
bly forwards with a decidedly convex outline. 

The base of the culminicorn and latericorn are transversely rugose ; the cor- 
rugations being mainly parallel with the outline of the frontal feathers. 

The lateral sulcus is gently curved from base to unguis ; and on its ungual 
extent is less deflected than in any other species. The interramicorn is promi- 
nent ; and extremely elongated before it finally looses itself in the submental 
space. 

In the dried specimen the bill presents none of the bright parti-coloration of 
culminata, chlororhyncha, and cauta ; while its color as well as its shape are 
sufficiently diverse from those of melanophrys. It is a plain uniform olivaceous 
brownish throughout; the ungues darker, and inclining to black ; the extreme 
tip of the upper mandible yellowish. That this color is not an evidence of 
immaturity is evinced by the plumage which is palpably that of a fully adult 
bird. 

Cnord of the culmen 5 00 inches. Height of bill at base 1-75 ; a't middle 
slightly over one inch ; at unguis 1-12. Width at base 1-45. Tarsus 3-00; 
middle toe 4-V5, outer toe 4-60, inner toe 4-00. Wing about 20 00 ; tail about 
900. 

The coloration of the plumage is that of melanophrys and the rest of this 
group, with this exception : The whole under surface of the wings is concolor 
with the upper ; whereas in the other species a large area is white. 

In carefully examining the superb series of Albatrosses in the Philadelphia 
Academy, which contains examples of all known species except olivaceirostris 
and gibbosa, I find a specimen of which the preceding paragraphs are descrip- 
tive. It is unlabelled as to name, locality or donor; and Mr. Cassin has no 
recollection whence it was obtained. I find it impossible to refer it to any 
known species ; and am therefore constrained, somewhat reluctantly, to regard 
it as a previously undescribed one. I am autopically familiar with all the re- 
cognized species except olivaceirostris and gibbosa. The former of these is said 
to have a bill " 3 inches and tbree-eignths long from the gape to the tip, and of 
a uniform olive green, and in form more slender and elegant," etc. ; with which 
description the characters of our bird are totally discordant. There is no 
" peculiar swollen and raised form of the upper mandible " suggestive of the 
name gibbosa, or rendering its reference to that species admissable. 

From chlororhyncha, culminata, and cauta it is at once distinguished by the 
color of the bill and especially by the lateral extension downwards of the base 
of the culminicorn, and its coalescence with the latericorn, thus cutting off the 
naked space which exists behind the nostrils of these species. 

Agreeing in this latter respect with melanophrys, the shape no less than the 
coloration of the hill, as well as the peculiar color of the under surfaces of the 
wings forbid its reference to that species. Until these features are shown to 
be accidental, or not incompatible with the variations to which melanophrys is 
subject, the species must be regarded as a valid one ; since there are no others 
than those above compared, to which it bears any sort of resemblance. 

I trust that this species may prove valid, if for no other reason than that it 
may continue to bear the name I have fixed to it in pleasant remembrance of 
years of uninterrupted friendly intercourse ; although Professor Theodore Gill 
needs no such slight tribute from me, to enhance the enviable reputation to 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 183 

which his extensive researches in almost every department of Zoology so 
justly entitle him. 

DlOMEDEA CAUTA Gould. 

Dlomedea cauta, Gould, P. Z. S. viii. p. 177. Id. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. 
1844, p. 360. Id. B. Aust. pi. 40. Gray, Gen. Birds, (plate of bill), 
and of authors. 

Habitat. From the south coast of Van Diemen's Land. 

A beautiful species having the colors of plumage of the melanophrys group ; 
readily distinguishable from all other species by the following peculiarities in 
the shape and color of the bill, and outline of the frontal feathers. 

The frontal feathers lie in a straight or slightly convex outline across the 
base of the culmen, and then descend perprtidicularly to the commissure ; 
forming a slight reeentrant angle on each side of the base of the culminicorn. 
From exactly opposite their termination on the commissural edge of the upper 
mandible those on the lower start, and descend in a straight line with a 
slight forward obliquity, forming a very obtuse angle with those on the upper 
mandible. 

The dorsal outline of the culmen descends from the forehead with a gentle 
curve, to rise again on the unguis, but not so high as at the forehead. The 
point of greatest concavity is opposite the middle of the bill. Basally the 
culminicorn agrees with that of culminata and chlororhyncha, and differs from 
melanophrys, in not widening behind the notnls, nor descending to overlap 
their bases and meet the upper edge of the latericorn ; a uarro.v sub- 
rectangular space thus left being covered only with soft skin. 

The latericorn is very broad throughout as compared with the culminicorn ; 
i. e., the lateral sulcus is placed high up. The latericorn is exceedingly deep 
at its base, running high up towards the sides of the ba>e of the culminicorn, 
and, in consequence of the strong upward inflection of the commissure 
towards its base, the sides of the under mandible are also very deep basally, 
and run high up to form an acute angle with the feathers at the commissure. 

The nostrils present no discrepancies from other species of this group. 

"Bill light vinous gray or bluish horn color, except on the culmen where 
it is more yellow, particularly at the base ; the upper mandible is surrounded 
at the base by a narrow belt of black, which also extends on each side of the 
culmen to the nostrils; base of lower mandible surrounded by a belt of rich 
orange, which extends to the corners of the mouth." (Gould.) 

Chord of culmen 475 ; height at b-tse 1-90; width 1-25; height at unguis 
1*25; from feathers ou lower mandible to the tip of its unguis 3-75. Tarsus 
3-25 ; middle toe 5-00 ; outer toe 4-75 ; inner 4-25 ; wing 22-00 ; tail 10-00. 

The plumage is th it of melanophri/s even to the transocular dark fascia ; but 
this in the specimen before me extends quite to the bill, which is not the case 
in the numerous specimens of melanoplirys examined. 

A suffusion of the head and neck with pearly gray is doubtless indicative 
of immaturity, as is the case with other species. 

This bird is superbly figured in Mr. Gould's and Mr. Gray's plates cited 
above. The latter is an exceedingly accurate delineation of the bill. 

DlOMEDEA CULMINATA Gould. 

Diorncdea chlororhynchos, of Audubon's Works ; witness the type specimen it- 
self. Lawrence, Gen. Rep. Birds, N. A., 1858, p. 822. (Excl. syn.) 
Diomeiea culminala, Gould, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1844, xiii. p. 361. Id. B. Aust. 
vii. pi. 41. Gray, Gen. Bds., 1849, pi. 179. 
This species in color of plumage is quite identical with chlororhyncha, and 
the bill, in its general characteristics of shape, most resembles that of the 
latter species. But the bird is much larger, stouter and heavier, as will he 
seen by comparing the dimensions given. The bill in general terms may be 
stated to be heavier and stronger, though not longer than that chlororhyncha ; 

1866.1 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

much less compressed ; deeper at the middle, notwithstanding that the con- 
cavity of the cuhnen is much greater; and with other wall-marked peculiar- 
ities, as follows : 

The dorsal outline is exceedingly concave, dipping down rapidly from the 
forehead, and then again being much elevated on the ungual portion. The 
culminicoru is broad, flattened, depressed, with no trace of carination. Its 
colored base, instead of being acutely pointed, (as in chlororhyncha,) con- 
tinues of a uniform width past the nostrils to the feathers, where it is broadly 
rounded with a geitle convexity. Tnere exists posterior to the nostrils a 
naked space of soft skin ; but this is trapezoidal, not triangular in shape, in 
coosequ<-nee of the different shape of the base of the culminicorn, just 
described. 

The lateral sulcus is nearly straight to the unguis, where it is greatly 
deflected. It runs high up along the bill; or ra'her the dorsal outline of the 
cultnen dips, towards the middle of the bill, so far down, that it almost lies 
on a level with this sulcus. The culminicoru is thus allowed scarcely any- 
thing of a lateral aspect in the middle portion of its extent. The latericorn, 
as a consequence, is very deep throughout, and its commissural outline is 
de-idedly less curved. The two ungues are stout, deep and short; with con- 
siderable more convexity of outline, and less elongation and decurvation of 
their apices than is seen in chlororhyncha. 

The dorsal outline of the inferior mandibular rami is quite straight. The 
interraniicoru is prominent, but not so long as in chlororhyncha. 

The outline of the feathers is almost exactly as in melanophrys ; i. e., they 
lie over the base of the culmen iu nearly a straight line, or with a slight con- 
cavity ; and thence extend nearly straight down the sides of the bill. There 
is no trace of the reentrant angles at the sides of the base of the culminicoru 
seen in chlororhyncha. The feathers on the lower mandible have the same out- 
line as those of melanophrys or chlororhyncha. 

The colors of the bill are quite different from those of any other species, 
though coming nearest to chlororhyncha. The culminicorn is clear light yel- 
low ; (not bright orange ;) and the edges of the inferior mandibular rami for 
three fourths their extent are also yellow. There is no yellow line along the 
sides of the base of the lower mandible at its junction with the feathers. The 
rest of the bill is black. " In its youthful state the head and neck ar j dark 
^ray, and the bill is of an almost uniform brownish black, with only an indica- 
tion of the lighter color of the culmen." (Gould.) 

The plumage is quite the same as that of chlororhyncha. The color of the 
back is darkest posteriorly, being anteriorly more plumbeous, and shading 
into the grayish pearl which washes the neck and head of the majority of 
specimens. Usually the feathers about the eyes are more or less dark-colored. 

In young birds the whole head and neck is clouded with plumbeous gray ; 
and the transocular fascia is more conspicuous. 

Bill (chord of culmen) 4-50; height at base 1-75 ; at middle 1-10, at unguis 
1-25 ; width at bas- 1-20. Tarsus 325 ; middle toe 5-00, outer toe 475, inner 
toe 4 25. Wing 21-00. Tail 8 to 9. 

I have before me Audubon's type of the u chlororhynchos" of his works. It 
is an example of culminata Gould ; and was doubtless procured elsewhere 
than "not far from the Columbia River," as falsely stated. This specimen 
(No. 2726 of the Smithsonian Register) is also described by Mr. Lawrence, 
1. c, under the same name. 

I have a distinct impre-sion of hiving seen, in some old work, a plate of 
this species (as evidenced by the yellow along the ramus of the under man- 
dible inste-id of at its feathered base) under the name of " chlororhynchos ;" 
but I cannot now call to mind the reference. 

DlOMEDEA CHLORORHYNCHA Gmt-llU. 

Diomedca chlororhyncha, Gm. i. 1788, p. 568. Lath. Syn. v. p. 309, pi. 94. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 185 

Lath. Ind. Ora ii. 1790, p. 790. Tenia. PI. Col. 468. Gould, B. Aust. 
pi 42, and of authors generally ; but not of Audubon and Lawrence. 
Diomtdea (Tkalassarche) chlororhyncka, Bp. C. A ii. 1855, p. 
l; Diomedea chrysostoma, Fjrat. Ed. Lieut, 1344, p. 24. ' IJ. ic. iued. 100, 101,'' 

fide Gray. 
" Diomedea profuga, B inks, ic. ined. t. 27,'' fide Gray. 
Diomedea presag a , Brandt," fide Lawrence. 

Habitat Cape of Good Hope, and thence to Van Dicmen's Land. Aus- 
tralian and South Pacific Oceaus generally. 

T:ie bill is compresned in it? who'e extent more than in any other species 
except fuliginosa ; and although somewhat stouter at the ba;e, it is there very 
high as compared with its widih. Its dorsal outline is very concave, descend- 
ing rapidly from a point a little anterior to the extreme base of the bill, to 
about the middle; and not rising; again very high on the unguis. Although 
the culminicorn is narrow and with compressed sides, it is not carinated along 
ltr> dorsal lin*. It has a peculiar termination basally, quite uuique iti the genus, 
which single character separates it trenchantly from any other Albatross. The 
culminicora does not (as in exulams, melanopkrys, etc.,) spread downwards and 
outwards behind the nostrils to overlap their bases, but terminates by rapidly 
narrowing to an acute angle on the median line of the bill. Its hard, brightly 
colored, pointed base does no' quite reach to the feathers. There is thus left, 
between the base of the culmi'cicorn and the upper edge of ihe latericorn, a 
somewhat triangular space of sottish integument, not brightly colored ; and 
corrugated in the dry state. 

The lateral sulcus on the upper mandible does not extend further towards 
the base of the bill than the nostrils : the soft skin just spoken of taking its 
place thence to the feathers. Beginning then with the nostrils, it has a slight 
downward convexity as far as the unguis; thence it, is greatly deflected. As 
Qsual, a slight ridge lies in this sulcus for its whole length. The commissural 
edge of the upper mandible is strongly curved, its convexity looking down- 
wards. The dorsal outline of the inferior mandibular rami is straight or very 
slightly concave. The inter rami corn is thin, not very prominent, but pro- 
longed far nl >ng the chin before it merges into soft skin. 

The two ungues, taken t gether, are characterized by their slight compara- 
tive depth and degree of convexity, and their extreme compression and 
elongation ; and by the acuteness and rlecurvation of their apices. 

The nostrils are exactly as described under melanopkrys. 

The frontal fea : hers arp peculiar in outline. They lie straight across the 
bise of the culmen, or even have a slight convexity, as far as the upper corner 
of ihe base of the latericorn. Thence ibey descend the side of the bill, with a 
slightly convex outline, and some little obliquity forwards ; forming more de- 
cidedly reentrant angles at the superior basal cornets of the latericorns than is 
found in any other species. On the side of the lower mandible, beginning at a 
point slightly posterior to their termination on the upper mandible, they de- 
scend with an outline parallel to that of those on the upper mandible. 

Chord of culraen 4 50 : height of bill at base 1-50, at unguis 1-00 ; width 
atb.se 100. Tarsus 2-75; middle toe 4-25; outer toe 4-00; inner toe 375. 
Wing about 19-00. Tail 7-00. 

White : including rump, upper tail coverts and under surfaces of the wings ; 
buck and wings ashy brown, the latter darkest. Primary shafs light brown 
basally, black apically. Tail grayish or plumbeous black, lightest basally ; 
its shafts chiefly white. Some part of the head and neck in the majority of 
specimens is clouded with pearly gray. There is more or less of a grayish 
plumbeous transocular fascia, as in melanopkrys. The culminicorn is bright 
orange yellow ; and a narrow line of the same color lies along the sides of the 
bfise of the und- r mandible. The rest of the bill is blackish ; there being no 
bright color along the dorsal outline of the inferior mandibular rami, as seen 
in culminata. The feet are livid flesh, or bluUh white. 

I860.] 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Some malapplications of the name of this species to culminata Gould, are 
noticed under the head of the latter. I quote the names "profuga Banks" and 
i{ presaga Brandt " respectively on the authority of Mr. Gray and Mr. Lawrence, 
not having an opportunity of verifying these references. 

DlOMEDEA OLIVACEIROSTRIS Gould. 

Diomedea nlivaceorhyncha, Gould, Ann. Mag. N. II. 1844, xiii. p. 361. Id Introd. 

B. Aust., p. 115. 
Diomedea olivaceirostris. Bonaparte, C. A. 1855, p. 185, correcting a hybrid name. 

This species is based upon a bill only, which was in possession of Sir Win. 
Jardine, and supposed to come from the China seas. Mr. Gould states that it 
" is three iuches and three-eighths long from the gape to the tip, of a uniform 
olive green, and in form more slender and elegant tlun that of the other mem- 
bers of the genus," which comprises the sum total of our knowledge concern- 
ing the species. 

Phosbetria fcliginosa (Gm.) Reich. 
Diomedea fuliginosa, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. ii. p. 568. Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. 

1790, p. 791. Temminck. PI. Col. 469. And of anthors generally. 
Diomedea (Phcebetria) fuliginosa, Bonap. Consp. Av., ii. 1855, p. 
Diomedea spadicea, Lesson, Man. ii. 1828, p. 391 ; description. Not of Lath. 
Diomedea palpebrata, Forster, " ic. ined. No. 102." Id. Ed. Licht, 1844. p. 
Diomedea a.ntarctica, Banks, " ic. ined. No. 26." 
Diomedea fusca of Audubon's works. 

Habitat. Southern oceans at large. 

The bill of this species is remarkable in its extreme compression; its basal 
outline ; and the presence of a sulcus on the lower mandible. 

The feathers retreat rapidly, with a gentle curve, from their point of great- 
est development on the commissural edge of the upper mandible to form an ex- 
ceedingly acute reentrant angle on the forehead. Those on the side of the lower 
mandible extend in an exceedingly acute salient angle, to a point much beyond 
the termination of the nostrils ; their upper outline a trifle oblique to the com- 
missural edge of the lower mandible ; their under more decidedly oblique to 
the outline of the inferior mandibular rami. 

The culminicoru is much compressed, with but slightly convex sides, and 
a decidedly carinated ridge. The dorsal outline forms a gentle and continu- 
ous curve from the very feathers to the base of the unguis. The latter hardly 
rises above the level of the culmen proper: is rather the reverse of robust ; 
its top moderately decurved, and only slightly'overhanging the lower. The 
curve of the superior lateral sulcus is intermediate between exulans and 
brachyura. The commissure forms a gentle and continuous curve from the 
base of the unguis. 

The commissural edge of the under mandible corresponds to that of the 
upper. The dorsal outline of the rami is perfectly straight. The inferior 
unguicorn is convex and protuberant, but extends only a short distance into 
the mental space. 

The median longitudinal lateral sulcus of the lower mandible terminates 
abruptly at the unguis. Basally it divaricates to receive the salient feathers ; 
the upper cms being the best marked, and forming the real continuation of 
the sulcus. This groove is sometimes concolor with the bill ; more often it 
is brightly colored, being yellow or pinkish. 

The nostrils are peculiar in their very small calibre, perhaps less than that 
of any other species. They are almost buried between the culminal and late- 
ral elements of the bill, the two meeting posterior to the nares. The orifice 
is subcircular, presenting forwards and upwards with no lateral aspect. 

The graduation of the lateral rectrices is enhanced in producing a cuneate 
tail, by the elongation of the median pair which project beyond the next 
ones, and are narrowly accuminate. The tips of the lateral feathers are 
rounded. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 187 

The bill is black, except its sulcus. The feet are flesh colored or dull 
whitish, becoming yellowish in the dried state. The edges of the eyelids are 
pure white except just at the anterior canthus. 

The perfectly and uniformly fuliginous color (darkest about the face and on 
the wings and lail) which is the ordinary plumage, sometimes gives way to a 
much lighter, clearer and more cinereous color. Examples of this coloration, 
doubtless due to age, are in the Philadelphia Academy and Smithsonian In- 
stitution. The most extreme case I have met with is as follows : Neck all 
around, upper part of back and whole under parts nebulated with ashy or 
grayish white. Lower part of back, wing-coverts, scapulars, etc., light 
plumbeous gray. Wings and tail ashy or plumbeous blackish, lightest on their 
inner webs, their shafts chiefly whitish. On the face, crown and sides of 
the head the fuliginous holds, deepest in tint immediately around the bill. 
The nape and hind neck, and some of the wing coverts show traces of ferru- 
giueous. 

Chord of culmen 4 to 4-50, height of bill at base 1-50, at unguis 1-00, width 
at base - 75. From feathers on commissure to tip 3-50, from feathers on lower 
mandible 2.50. Tarsus about 3-00 ; middle toe and claw 4-75, outer 4-50, inner 
4-00. Wing 21-00, tail -10, its graduation 3-50 to 4 50. 

I have examined the type of Diomedea funca Aud. now in the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The following is a synopsis of the genera and species of the Diomedeinie. 

Family PROCELLARIIDJE. 

Sub-family DIOMEDEINJE. 

Chs. The tubular nostrils are separated, and placed on either side of the 
culmen. The hallux is absent. The exterior toes have a wide membranous 
fringe. 
Genus I. Diomedea. Bill stout, or moderately compressed. No sulcus on 

lower mandible. Tail short or moderate, more or less rounded. Nostrils 

large. 

A. Bill very broad. Tail short ; contained 
nearly, quite, or more than three times in 

the wing Diomedea et Phcebastria Reich. 

1. D. exulans L. (spadicea Gm. Lath, (juv.) albatrus Pall. Forst., adusta Tsch. 
Bill 7 inches. Frontal feathers forming a deep concavity on the culmen ; 
those on side of lower mandible extending to a point opposite middle of nos- 
trils, with an exceedingly convex outline. 

2. D. brachydra Temm. {spadicea var. B. Lath, (juv.) epomophora Less. 
Tsch. Bp.) Bill 5 to 6 inches. Frontal feathers embracing the bill nearly in 
a straight line : those on side of lower mandible extending hardly further than 
on upper, with a barely convex outline. 

[2a? D. leptorhyncha Coues. Doubtfully based upon a skull differing 
somewhat in proportions from that of brachyura. See anteii.] 

3. D. nigripes Aud. {brachyura juv. Cass. Lawr.) Bill 4 inches ; width at 
base 1-25 ; height 1-50 ; very robust for its length. Frontal outline nearly as 
in brachyura. 

? 4. D. gibbosa Gould. " With a peculiar swollen and raised form of the 
upper mandible, which moreover rises high up on the forehead. Bill 4.'' 
(Probably = nigripes Aud.) 

B. Bill compressed. Tail elongated, rounded, nearly 
half as long as the wing from the carpal joint. 
White, with black back and wings. A transocular 

fascia (Thalassarche Reich.) 

1866.] 



188 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

a. The culminicorn widens and descends on eitber side behind the nos- 
trils to coalesce with the latericorn. 

5. D. Melanophrys Boie. Temm. Frontal feathers with a slight reentrant 
curve on the culmen. Chord of culmen 4-25. Width of bill at base TOO ; 
height 1-75. Bill uniform light yellow. 

6. D. Gilliana Coues. Frontal feathers with a decided reentrant curve on 
the culmen (nearly as great as in exulans.) Chord of culmen 5 00 ; width of 
bill at base 1-45 ; height 1-75. Bill uniform dark brown. (Essential charac- 
teristics of culminicorn of melanophrys ; general shape of bill of culminata.) 

h. The culminicorn does not widen and descend to coalesce with the 
latericorn posterior to the nostrils, but continues narrow to the frontal 
feathers. 

7. D. cauta Gould. Chord of culmen 4-75. Frontal feathers with a slightly 
convex outline across the culmen : thence descending in a nearly straight 
line. Bill gray or bluish brown ; the culmen yellowish ; a narrow belt of black 
around base of upper mandible ; one of orange around base of lower, the lat- 
ter extending to the angle of the mouth. 

8. D. culminata Gould, {chlororhyncha Aud. Lawr. nee. Gm.) Base of 
culminicorn broad aud rounded. Frontal feathers with a slightly concave 
outline across culmen. Chord of culmen 4-50. Bill black; culmen and lower 
edges of inferior mandibular rami bright yellow. 

9. D. chlororhyncda Gm. (nee. Aud. Lawr. chrysostoma Forst. " profuga 
Banks ;" " presaga Brandt.'') Base of culminicorn tapering to an acute angle. 
Frontal feathers straight or with slight convexity across culmen : thence 
downwnrds with some forward obliquity, and slight convexity of outline, 
forming a sharp reentrant angle at upper corner of base of latericorn. Chord 
of culmen 4-50. Bill black. Culmen, and a narrow perpendicular line along 
the sides of the base of the under mandible, bright yellow. 

10. D. oliyaceirostris Gould. Bill slender, uniform olive green, three and 
three-eighths long from gape to tip. 

Genus II. Pho<:betria Reich. Bill excessively compressed. A sulcus on 
sides of lower mandible. Feathers forming a deep reentrant angle on cul- 
men ; an acute salient on one side of lower mandible. Nostrils very 
narrow. Tail elongated, cuneate. 

11. P. fuliginosa Reich, ex Diomedea faliginosa Gm. (antarctica Banks ; pal- 
pebrata Forst.; fusca Aud.) Height of bill at base 150, width -75. The cul- 
men is carinated for its basal half. 

Sub-family HALODROMINjE. 

Some general remarks upon the fundamental characters of this interesting 
group have already been given at the head of the present article. We may 
at once proceed to the consideration of the single genus by which it is repre- 
sented. 

Genus PELECANOIDES Lace"p. 

Procellaria sp. Gmelin et auct. aliq. 

Pelecanoides, Lacepede, Mem. de l'lnst. 1800-1, p. 517. Typus Proc. urinatrix Gm. 
Haladrotna, Illiger, Prodromus, 1811, p. 273. Typus idem. 
Onocralus, Rafinesque, 1815 ; fide Bon. 

Puflinuria, Lesson, Man. 1828, ii, p. 392 : Id. Traite Ornith. 1831, p. 614. Ty- 
pus P. Garnoti Less. 
Concerning these numerous names which have been proposed for this genus 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 189 

the preponderance of authority is in favor of the adoption of that of Illiger. 
I can, however, discern no cause why Lacepede's name should be superseded. 
The reasons given by Illiger, in proposing Haladroma, and by Lesson in 
founding Puffinuria, certainly seem invalid. To G. R. Gray is. I believe, due 
the credit of restoring the rightful appellation of Lac6pede. 

The type which represents the genus, although so curiously anomalous, is 
so well known, that a detailed description would be out of place here. Only 
a few of its more salient points need be noticed. 

The perfectly vertical nostrils are surrounded by an elevated wall, whose 
contour, in consequence of a slight emargination posteriorly, and a corres- 
ponding protuberance anteriorly, on the median line, is somewhat cordiform. 
The wall has considerable thickness basally ; but much bevelling superiorly 
gives it an extremely thin edge. The internasal septum is moderately thick ; 
and from either side a process projects transversely into the nasal orifice. In 
shape each nostril is suboval ; being somewhat elongated anteriorly, and a 
straightening of its inner border being produced by their mutual appo- 
sition. 

The dertrum or unguis is long, reaching quite to the nostrils ; and, for this 
family, is only moderately uncinated. Except at its extreme base it is dis- 
tinctly carinated, aud its sides are much compressed. 

The myxa is unusually small and narrow, with a very acute tip, and ex- 
tremely concave gonys. The sulci separating the myxotheca from the rest of 
the mandible, and the lateral one on the gnathidia are strongly marked. 

The unusual amount of divarication of the concavo-convex gnathidia, which 
causes so wide a submentum, is, in the upper mandible, accompanied by a 
corresponding dilation of the lateral elements ; which latter are also turgid 
and inflated. 

The tarsus is excessively compressed, and at the same time very deep 
antero-posteriorly ; giving to its transverse section a narrowly elliptical shape, 
like that which obtains in the Colymbidas. It is reticulated as in the Procel- 
laridse, and also the majority of the Alcidcc, though Mtrgulus has anteriorly 
transverse imbricated scales. The proportions of the anterior toes are as in 
the other Procellariidce. 

In the wings and tail the urinatorial aspect is most decidedly marked. 
The very short wings, with their stiff, falcate, subacuminate primaries hardly 
reach to the end of the exceedingly abbreviated tail. 

The plumage is essentially diverse from that of any other Prgcellaridian, in 
its compact imbrication, and oily glossiness, which comes nearest to that of 
the Loons; and is eminently adapted to resist the action of the water in 
which the habits of this species cause them so constantly to be submerged. 

Concerning the number of species *o be enumerated authors are greatly at 
variance. To a comparatively recent date but a single oue was supposed to ex- 
ist. M. Temmiuck, in figuring the type of MM. Quoy and Gaimard's P. 
Berardii, is of opinion that both urinatrix and Garnoti should be referred to it. 
M. Lesson, after describing Puffinuria Garnoti in 182G, doubtfully refers it to 
Proc. urinatrix Gm.* Prince Bonaparte unites Garnoti and urinatrix, and con- 
siders Berardii&s distinct. Mr. G. R. Gray, and more recently, Dr. H. Scble- 
gel agree in regarding all three of the supposed species as valid. A sufficient 
amount of material is not at my disposal to settle these doubtful points. In 
a considerable number of specimens from various localities I can see what 
has been called P. Berardi, differing in some respects from the ordinary type : 
but have failed to detect tangible differences indicating three species. Very 
possibly, however, none of the specimens before me indicate the true urinatrix, 
as distinguished from Garnoti. 

The three supposed species are based entirely upon size: a varying degree 
of length or robustness of bill : and coloration of the feet. Some specimens 



1866] 



Traite d'Oraith 1831, p. 720, No. 144. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

before me are larger than is indicated by Dr. Schlegel as characteristic of 
Garnoti : while the feet are colored as in the smallest species, Berardii. A 
considerable amount of variation is found in examples of undoubtedly the 
same species ; so that perhaps we might without great violence consider the 
different species as extremes of a single very variable type. 

I am mainly indebted to Dr. Schlegel's excellent article for characters 
whereby to tabulate the supposed species with their synonyms. This author 
has had before him examples which he has considered as indicative of three 
species : and for the present I rely upon his judgment. 

1. Pelecanoides Garnoti Gray ex Lesson. 

Puffinuria Garnoti, Lesson, Voy. de la Coq. i. part ii. 1826, pi. 46. (Bill and 
feet black. Length 8; extent 16; bill 12-12ths; wing 5 ; feet and 
tail each 1 J.) Id. Man. Orn. 1828, ii. p. 394. Id. Traite d'Orn. 1831, 
p. 730. (Queries urinatrix Gm. as syn.) 
Pelecanoides Garnoti, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii. 1849, p. 646. 
Haladroma Garnoti, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, p. 37. 
Haladroma urinatrix, Bonaparte, C. A. 1856, ii. p. 206. (Excl. syn. Nee Gm. 
fide Schlegel, who has examined Bonaparte's types.) 
Habitat. West Coast of South America. 

Ch. Largest ; 8 to 8J in length. Bill slender and elongated ; black ; along 
oulmen *75 ; height at end of nasal case -25. Width near the base *33. Tar- 
sus blackish, 13 to 14 lines long; middle toe about one inch. 

2. Pelecanoides urinatrix Lacep. ex Gm. 

Procellaria urinatrix, Gmelin, S. N. 1788, i. part ii. p. 560, and of authors ; not 

Hal. urin. of Bp. 
Pelecanoides urinatrix, Lacep. et Cuv. Gray, Gen. Birds, iii. 1849, p. 646. 
Haladroma urinatrix, Illiger, Prod. 1811, p. 274. Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. 

Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 37. 
Puffinuria urinatrix, Gould, B. Aust. pi. 60. 
Haladroma Berardii, Bonap. C. A. 1856, ii. p. 206 ; Excl. syn. (fide Schlegel ; 

from examination of Bp's types.) 
Procellaria tridactyla, Forst. Descr. Auim. Ed. Licht. 1844, p. 1849. 
Habitat. Australian Seas. 

Ghs. Of medium size ; feet bluish ; bill robust. Wing 4-50; tail 1-40. Bill 
66 ; its height or width '33; tarsus one inch. Middle toe eleven lines. 

3. Pelecanoides Berardii Q. and G. 

Pelecanoides Berardii, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Uranie, pi. 37. Temminck, PI. 

Col. No. 517. Gray, Gen. Birds, 1849, iii. p. 646. 
Haladroma Berardii, Schlegel, Mon. Proc. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1863, p. 38; not of 
Bonaparte. 

Habitat. Southern Oceans. 

Chs. Smallest; bill short, intermediate in robustness between that of the 
two foregoing ; feet light colored, their membranes black. Length 7 inches ; 
wing 4-40 ; tail 1-50. Bill -55, its height or width about -30. Tarsus -80 ; 
middle toe -90. 

It will be observed that the differences between the size of the smallest and 
largest of these supposed species is not great ; that an intermediate form oc- 
curs between the two extremes ; that each is liable to considerable variations 
in size; and that the colors of the plumage of all three are identical. 

Recapitulation. 
The following is a summary of the genera and species of Procellariidce 
treated of in the series of papers of which the present article is conclusive. 
The numbers in the third column are those of species which I have recog- 
nized, but which seem to require confirmation before their claims to validity 
can be considered as fully established. It will be seen that more or less of 
doubt attaches to 17 out of the 92 described. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



191 



Procellariinse 


Genera. 


Species. 


Doubtful Species. 


3 
3 
3 

7 

5* 

2 

1 


6 
23 

6 
21 

21 
12 

O 
-J 




^Estrelateae 


Gf 


Prionea? 


It 
B|| 

n 

n 

2** 




Puffinea? 


Diomedeinne 


Halodrominie 


Total 




24 


92 


17 



Note. The following supposed species are not given in the body of my 
papers ; and I only know of them by the descriptions. 

Puffinus Rollandii Quoy and Gairaard, in Freynete, Voy. Antour du Monde ; 
and Zool. Journ. iii. p. 271. 

Procellaria lugubris, Tschudi, Cab. Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, iv. p. 185, (not of 
Natterer.) " The whole body is dark brown ; the back somewhat deeper col- 
ored than the belly; the tail wholly black ; the inner side of the wing darker 
than the outer. Bill and feet reddish ; iris ashy gray. Surpasses in size ea- 
pensis ; also compressed in form. The description of P. antarctica is too in- 
accurate to say with certainty if it be the species here described. Between 
46 and 36." [Tschudi, ut supra.) It is impossible to say from the descrip- 
tion what species of Nectris or Pterodroma this is. 

Procellaria maculata, loc. cit. "Island of Juan Fernandez; 33 S. Head, 
breast and belly wholly white; the back bluish-white with darker spots, the 
wings gray with bluish spots, the tips of the four longest primaries wholly 
black. Tail fan-shaped, grayish blue. Bill and feet deep orange yellow. Iris 
dark brown. About the size of the preceding species." Evidently an JEstre- 
lata ; but the description applies to no species with which I am acquainted. 
It comes nearest to alba Lath, or Lessonii Garnot. 

Procellaria bicolor, op. cit. p. 187. "Bill and feet black; neck, back, and 
lesser wing coverts deep blackish gray, wing feathers and tail somewhat 
lighter. Head and throat wholly black; belly pure white." Doubtless a 
young .Eslrelata ; but of what species the description gives no hint. 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Some few additions to, and corrections of my previous papers, which sub- 
sequent investigation has brought to my knowledge, may with propriety be 
inserted here. 

Procellariese. 

P. 79, line 25, for "size" read "length." H. microsoma is rather smaller 
than P. pelayica in actual size of body, though the length of wings and tail is 
not less. This explains an apparent descrepancy in my statements on p. 79 
and p. 90. 



* I would now unite Thiellus and Nectris with Puffinus, leaving but three gonera to be recog- 
nized. 

t These six are Buhveria MacgilUvragi and Proeellaria ParJcinsoni, Gray ; P. neglecla and P. 
incerta Schl.; ySCstreiata grisea and M. gavia of my paper. 

X Prion brevirostris Gould. 

j Which are P. trthys Bp., P. lugubris Natterer, P. melitensis Schembri; Thalassidroma Segethi 
Ph. and Ldbk. ; Fiegctta Luivrencii Bp. 

JS P. seric.fus Less. 

[ D gibbosa Gould, which may be nigripcs Aud., and my D. leptnrhyncha. 

** As just stated, the three recognized species of Pelecanoides require additional evidence to 
prove conclusively that they are not merely the extremes of a single variable species. 

1866.] 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

Pp. 80, 81, 90. There can be no doubt of the propriety of referring P. lugu- 
bris Natterer, and P. melitensis Schembri, to pelagica L. Proc. tethys Bp., also 
seems hardly distinct. 

Pp. 81, 90. Thalassidroma fasciolata Tschudi has been recognized by other 
writers as valid. 

Pp. 84, 91. Oceanil.es segethi ex Ph. et Ldbk. is undoubtedly a synonym of 
0. gracilis ex Elliot, as intimated in my paper. 

Pp. 87, 91. Fregetta Lawrcncii Bp. is probably a synonym of grallaria Bp. 
ex Vieill. as Mr. Lawrence himself originally believed. The point cannot now, 
however, be positively determined, as the specimen is lost. 

Pp. 88. 91. Bonaparte's identification of Linnaeus' Proc. frrgata, which I fol- 
lowed, is by no means proven; and in view of the uncertainty attaching to 
Linnaeus' diagnosis (which may refer to some species of the genus Fregetta) it 
may be as well to take our specific name from Latham's unequivocal indica- 
tion of P. marina ; calling the species Pelagodroma marina after Reichenbach. 

Fujfinese. 

Pp. 122, 142, 143. Genera " Thiellus " and " Neetris." The points in which 
these groups differ from Puffinus proper, are exceedingly trivial, as I state in 
my paper. I am now indisposed to retain them, even on the plea of utility, 
and would accordingly unite all their species under Puffinus. 

Pp. 119, 141. Adamasfor Bp. According to Mr. G. R. Gray the type 
of the genus Priofinus of Hombron and Jacquinot is based upon the bird Bo- 
naparte calls Adam, lypus, and it has priority over Bonaparte's designation. 
If this be the case the three species should stand as Priof. cinereus, Priof. 
gelidus and Priof. sericeus. 

Pp. 118, 141. Majaqucus Reich. If Proc. Parkinsoni Gray, (Ibis 1864) is a valid 
species, it may belong to this genus rather than to the fuliginous group of 
yEstrelata under which I have considered it. Additional data concerning it are 
greatly to be desired. 

P. 121. Add Daplion geHdurn Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 245, to syno- 
nyms of Adamastor gelidus. 

P. 123. Puffinus fuliginosus. I have received specimens from the Pacific 
coast of North America which I cannot distinguish from the common Atlantic 
bird. It is quite different from the species I have named Puffinus amavriso- 
ma, p. 124. By a misapprehension of a remark of Dr. Kuhl, I erroneously 
state that fuliginosa Forst., Descr. sp. 18, is a species of Neciris ; whereas 1 am 
now satisfied it is the same as Kuhl's sp. 12, which is ihe Pterodroma atlantica 
of Bonaparte. Compare my remarks under JEstrelata fuliginosa in part iv. of 
these papers. Kuhl's fuliginosa sp. 27, after Banks' tab. 23, is identified by Mr. 
Gray with paeifica Lath. 

P. 126. N. carneipes. On the authority of Dr. Schlegel I placed cinereusjuv. 
Smith, and gama Bp. as synonyms of this species. Mr. Gray considers them 
as referring to a species of Ncctr is or rather Puffinus not recognized in my pa- 
per, viz.: P. tristis Forst. I am entirely unacquainted with this bird, if it be 
a valid species. Bonaparte and Schlegel make it the same as tenuiroslrit 
Temm. 

Pp. 131, 144. A second specimen of Puffinus ere a lopus has been received 
from the same locality. 

Pp. 141, 144. Procellaria nugax Sol. This unpublished specific name should 
not take precedence over assimilis of Gould. 

Fulmarese. 

Add Fulmarus antarcticus Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. 1825, xiii. p. 236, to the 
Eynomyms of Thalassoica glacialoides. 

' Add Daplion antarcticum op. cit. p. 242, to synonyms of Thalassoica antarc- 
tica. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 193 



Bibliographical Appendix. 

It may be well to give in this connection a synopsis of the works of some 
of the older authors, as far as they relate to the subject in hand. The earlier 
authorities to be particularly consulted in a study of the Procellariidse* are 
the following : 

Linn-eus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758.) 

In this edition, the first in which species are presented, there are named (p. 
131) three species ; sc. pelagica, (type of genus Procellaria ;) wquinoctialis and 
capensis. 

Linnjeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. (1766.) 

1. Proc. pelagica, p. 212. 

2. Proc. fregata,-p. 212. I followed Bonaparte's authority in referring this 
name to the species subsequently named marina by Latham ; but there seems 
to be nothing in the Linnajan diagnosis requiring this identification ; the name 
being very probably based upon some species of the genus Fregetta as now re- 
stricted. 

3. Proc. glacialis, p. 213, = Fulmar us glacialis Leach. 

4. Proc. lequinoctialis, p. 213, = Majaqueus lequinoctialis Reich. 

5. Proc. capensis, p. 213, = Daption capensis Steph. 

6. Proc. puffinus, p. 213,= probably P. anglorum (Ray.) Temm. Bas been 
identified also with P. Kuhlii Boie, and P. major Fab., and almost every other 
Atlantic Puffinus. 

Gmelin, id. Linn. Syst. Nat. vol. i. part. ii. (1788.) 

7. Proc. obscura, p. 559. Oue of the smaller Puffini, the habitat of which is 
given as " insula nativitatis Christi." Now universally applied to the common, 
bird of the Atlantic, called obscura by Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. p. 423, in 1817. 

8. Proc. pacifica, p. 560. Not identified with any other known species. A 
large Puffinus, from the island of Euopoa. 

9. Proc. cozrulea, p. 560, = Halobsena carulea Bp. 

10. Proc. vittatus, p. 560, = Prion vittata Lacp. 

11. Proc. urinatrix, p. 560, = Pelecanoides urinatriz Lace*p. 

1. Proc. pelagica, p. 561. Variety B. is probably fictitious. 

2. Proc. fregata, p. 561. Same as that of Linnams. 

12. Proc. furcata, p. 561, = Oceanodroma furcata Reich. 

13. Proc. fuliginosa, p. 562. Based upon Latham's species of this name,, 
and not yet identified. A small species, eleven inches long, with a forked 
tail ; from Otaheite. Generally supposed to be a species of Thalassidroma. 

14. Proc. desolata, p. 562. Now recognized as a valid species of JEstrelata. 

15. Proc. nivea, p. 562, = Pagodroma nivea Bp. 

1 6. Proc. melanopus, p. 562. Not identifiable, except opinionatively. Evidently 
some species of ^Estrelata. Said to come from North America, which would 
make it referrible to JE. hxsitata. Description applies in most respects to 
mollis Gould. 

3. Proc. glacialis, p. 562, = Fulmarus glacialis Leach. The var. B. is the 
Thalassoica glacialoides (Smith) Reich. 

*The indications of the Diomedeinx are generally so definite that the consideration of them 
may be here omitted. 

18G6.J 13 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

17. Proc. cinerea, p. 563. A stumbling block, concerning which authors are 
greatly at variance. Usually employed by European authors as the name of 
the species I describe as Puffinus Kuhlii Boie ; and applied by American writers 
to P. major Fab. By Bonaparte identified with his Adamastor typus ( = hsesi- 
tata Forst. Gould, Reich, nee Kuhl, Temm. = Adamastor cinereus of my paper,) 
in which opinion I entirely concur. According to Mr. Gray, the genus Prio- 
finus Homb. et Jacq. is based upon this same bird, and antedates Adamastor of 
Bonaparte. The proper name of the species in question would then be Prio- 
finus cinereus. 

18. Proc. gigantea, p. 563, = Ossifraga gigantea Reich. 

19. Proc. brasiliana p. 564. Very dubious. May be the same as the pre- 
ceding species ; or the Oracalus brasilianus, as identified by Bonaparte. 

4. Proc. sequinoctialis, p. 564, and var. B., = Majaqueus sequinoctialis Reich. 

20. Proc. grisea, p. 564. Unidentifiable. 

21. Proc. gelida, p. 564. I think that this name was based upon the species 
subsequently named flavirostris by Mr. Gould, the proper name of which ap- 
pears to be Priofinus gelidus. 

22. Proc. alba, p. 565. Evidently a species of JEstrelata, and probably some 
one of the plumages of JE. Lessoni. 

Latham, Index Ornithologicus, ii. (1790.) 

Of Dr. Latham's three principal works this is the one usually referred to, 
as being the only one in which Latin binomial names are used. Most of the 
species given in this work have exactly the same import as those of Gmelin, 
and need not therefore be noticed. The following are the chief points re- 
quiring attention : 

6. Proc. alba, var. B., p. 822. "Norfolk Island Petrel." A species subse- 
quently named Proc. Phillippi by Gray, with which P. mollis Gould is consid- 
ered as probably synonymous. 

18. Proc. marina, p. 826. First definite characterization of the type of the 
genus Pelagodroma {Pel. fregata Bp. Pel. marina, Reich.) 

21. Proc. Forsteri, p. 827, = Proc. vittata Gm. 

23. Proc. pacifica p. 827. Same as that of Gmelin. The name is unidenti- 
fiable, unless we regard it as expressive of a valid species. By Mr. Gray it is 
so considered (Cat. Birds Pac. Isl.) and the'following cited as synonymous : 
Nectris fuliginosus (Sol.) Banks, ic. 23. Proc.fuliginosa Kuhl, sp. 27 ; (hxxmot 
Kuhl's sp. 12 !) Puff, pacificus Gray, Gen. Birds, p. 647. It is a large Puffinus, 
22 inches long, with flesh-colored bill and feet; from Euopoa. 

24. Proc. obscura, p. 828, = that of Gmelin. By Mr. Gray this name is con- 
sidered the same as that of Vieillot, (Nouv. Diet. xxv. p. 423, and Gal. Ois. 
tab. 301 ;) and is made to include the Australian form (figured by Mr. Gould, 
pi. 59 of the B. Aust. and named by him assimilis,) which is considered dis- 
tinct by the majority of writers. 

Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. oVHist. Nat. xxv. (1817.) 

The article " Petrel " of this work is in general a close copy of Gmelin and 
Latham. Certain points, however, may be noticed. 
Proc. pelagica, p. 416. Mentions under this head the "Petrel 6chasse" of 

Temminck. 
Proc. grallaria, Vieill. p. 418. First name of the species subsequently named 
leucogaster by Gould ; unless as is possibly the case fregata of Linnaeus 
be this species rather than the Pelagodroma marina. 
Proc.fuliginosa, p. 418. Latham's Otaheite species, whatever that maybe. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 195 

Proc. grisea, p. 419. Unidentified. = that of Gm. and Lath. 

Proc. alba, j>. 419. Mentions under this head the "Norfolk Island Petrel," 
subsequently named P. Phillippii by G. R. Gray. 

Proc. puffinus, p. 421, = Puff, anglorum. Cites PI. Enl. 962. The " Proc. puf- 
finus var. Lath. PL Enl. No. 39 " may refer to Puffinus Kuhlii Boie. 

Proc. pacifica, p. 422. " Se trouve en Europe " by error for " Euopoa." 

Proc. sequinozialis, p. 422. Refers as a variety of this species to the " Kurile 
Petrel " of Latham and Pennant, from Kamtschatca ; a bird now general- 
ly supposed to be some species of Nectris ; which latter identification re- 
quires confirmation. 

Proc. leucorhoa, Vieill. p. 422. First designation of the Thalassidroma Leachii 
Temm. 

Proc. obscura, p. 423. Is this the same as Gmelin's species? This reference 
to Vieillot should rather be cited for the name of the common small At- 
lantic Puffinus. 

Heinrich Kuhl, Beit. Zool. u. Vergl. Anat. (1820.) 

In this work there is presented a " Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Procellari- 
den " which is a very important contribution to the bibliography of the 
family, marking perhaps the first decided advance over the writers of the 
eighteenth century. The following species are given in this monograph : 

1. Proc. /areata " L." p. 136. = Oceanodroma furcata Reich. 

2. Proc. oceanica " Banks," p. 136. == Thalassidroma Wilsoni (P. pelagica 
Wils.) of most ornithologists, now Oceanites oceanica mihi. 

3. Proc. marina " Lath." p. 137. = Pelagodroma fregata Bp. and of my 
paper ; Pelag. marina Reich. 

4. Proc. Leachii "Temm." p. 137. = P. leucorrhoa Vieill. = Cymochorea 
leucorrhoa Coues. 

5. Proc. /regatta " Banks," p. 138. = P. grallaria Vieill. nee Licht, (= leu- 
cogaster Gould.) 

6. Proc. pelagina, p. 139. = P. pelagica Linn. 

7. Proc. glacialis, p. 139. = Fulmarus glacialis Leach. 

8. Proc. capensis, p. 140. = Daption capensis Steph. 

9. Proc. gigantea, p. 140. = Ossifraga gigantea Reich. 

10. Proc.cequinoctialis, p. 141. = Maj'aqueus cequinoclialis Reich. 

11. Proc. hasitata " Porst." p. 142. But not of Forster. Kuhl's hasitata is 
the same as that of Temminck, PL Col. 416, which is an JEstrelata. 'jEst. 
diabolica Bp. = JEst. hasitata of my paper.) 

12. Proc. fuliginosa, p. 142. = fuliginosa Forst. nee auct.. = Proc. atlantica 
Gould. = Pteradroma atlantica Bp. = JEstrelata fuliginosa Mihi. 

13. Proc. desolata, p. 143. = JEstrelata desolata Bp. 

14. Proc. turlur, " Banks," p. 143. I prefer Mr. Gould's identification of 
this species to that of Dr. Schlegel. See remarks in my paper on Prionem. 

15. Proe. grisea "L." (Gm.) p. 144. Not of Gm. Lath. Examine Dr. Schle- 
gel's identification of this species ; which I follow. 

16. Proc. ccerulea " Forst." p. 145. The cazrulea of Gmelin, which Forster 
calls " similis." 

17. Proc. urinatrix "Forst." p. 145. The urinatrix of Gm. now Pelecanoides 
urinatrix, which Forster calls Proc. tridatyla. 

18. Proc. nivea, p. 145. = Pagodroma nivea Bp. 

19. Proc. antarctica p. 145. = Thalassoica antarctica. 

20. Proc. lugens "Forst." p. 145. Not positively identifiable. Dr. Kuhl 
1866.] 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

says that he " thinks it is P. grisea L." which, according to his use of this 
name, would make it the species described in my paper upon Dt. Schlegel's 
authority as JEstrelata grisea. 

21. Proc. " Forst. tab. 20," p. 145. An undetermined species. 

22. Proc. puffinus, p. 146. == Puffinus major Fab. 

23. Proc. anglorum, p. 146. = Puffinus anglorum Temm. 

24. Proc. obscurus, p. 147. = Vieillot'& species. 

25. Proc. cinerea, "L." p. 148. Not of Linnaeus or Gmelin ; but the Puffinus 
Kuhlii Boie. 

26. Proc. munda " Banks, tab. 24," p. 148. = Quid? 

27. Proc. fuliginosa " Banks tab. 23," p. 148. Quite a different bird from 
Kuhl's sp. 12. Unidentifiable by the description. By G. R. Gray identified 
with Proc. pacifica Lath., whatever that species may be ! 

28. Proc. vitiata p. 149. = Prion vittatus Lacep. 

Stephens, Continuation of Shaw's General Zoology, xiii. (1825.) 

This work closely adheres to Gmelin's and Latham's authority. A few 
points may profitably be examined. 

Proc. oceanica, p. 223. Not the Oceanites oceanica {Thalassidroma Wilsoni) but 
a species of Pregetta, probably F. grallaria. Author refers to Forster ; to PI. 
Enl. 993 ; to Temm. Man. p. 520 ; and to Bp. Journ. Acad. Phila. v. iii. p. 8. 
On the followiug page (p. 224) " Proc. Wilsoni" is presented. 

Puff, cinereus, p. 227. The synonyms adduced are chiefly those of Adamastor 
cinereus ; description applies either to this latter or to Puffinus Kuhlii Boie ; 
the description of the young would do for Puffinus major Fab. 

Puff, sequinoctialis, p. 229. Cites Proc. pacifica Lath, as a queried synonym. 

Puff, obscurus, p. 230, is Gmelin's species. 

Genus Fulmarus instituted, p. 233. 

Fulmarus antarcticus, Steph. p. 2313, is based upon Proc. glacialisY&r. B. Lath. 
Ind. Orn. ii. p. 823, ( = Var. A. sp. 9, p. 405, of Lath. Gen. Syn.) which is 
the Thalassoica glacialoides. This synonym of the species was accidently 
omitted in my paper on the Fulmarese, and the omission not discovered until 
too late. 

Genus Daption instituted, p. 239, with capensis as type. The author "ven- 
tures to attach the numerous Southern Petrels described by Latham thereto," 
producing a heterogeneous assemblage in which figure antarctica, nivea. deso- 
lata, gelida, grisea, (of Linn^nec Kuhl, Schl.) alba, and fuliginosa ( = Latham's 
Otaheite species.) 

Genus Pachyptila "111." adopted; under it are arranged,, besides its type 
vittata (here called " Forstcri") ccerulea Gm., marina Lath., fregata Linn, and 
furcata Gm., nearly all of which are typical of distinct genera. 

Joan. Rein. Forster, Descr. Anim. etc. curante Henr. Lichtenstein. (1841.) 

The numerous species described and named by Forster have an important 
bearing upon the bibliography of the Family. It is greatly to be regretted 
that they were only published at a comparatively recent date: and that his 
figures still remain inedited. Forster appears to have had very little regard 
for priority in the matter of names ; but his descriptions are in the main so 
excellent, that nearly all his species are identifiable. The following is a list 
of the species given by him : 

Proc. capensis, p. 20. 

Proc, vittata, p. 21. 

1'roc. fuliginosa, p. 23. = Proc. atlantica Gould. = Plerodroma atlantica Bp. 
= JEstrelata fuliginosa of my paper. Not of Gm. Lath. Vieill. Not of 
Strickland. Equals Kuhl's sp. 12 ; but not his sp. 27. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 197 

Proc. puffimis, p. 23, Not of Linn. Gm. Lath. Some large Southern Puffinus 
possibly the true P. major, Fab. 

Proc. glaicalis, p. 25. Not of L. Gm. Lath. ; but the Thalassoica glacialoides 
(Smith) Reich. 

rroc. nigra, p. 26, = vequinoctialis L. 

Proc. nivea, p. 58. 

Proc. similis, p. 59. = JTalobsena ccerulea, Bp. ex Gm. 

Proc. antarctiea, pp. 60 and 202. 

Proc. gavia, p. 148. Not subsequently identified with any known species. By 
Gray regarded as a valid species ; and so given in these papers. 

Proc. tridactyla, p. 149. == Pelecanoides urinatriz Lacep. ex Gm. 

Proc. fregata, p. 180. The grallaria of Lichtenstein ; not of Vieillot. Probably 
the species subsequently named me.lanogaster by Gould. 

Proc. inexpectata, p. 204. A somewhat doubtful species, coming nearest to 
mollis Gould, with which I have identified it. 

Proc. tristis, p. 205. (" Pr. fuliginosa, rostro fusco, pedibus antice' glaucis ; 
111 X 38; bill 2; its width i; its depth f.") A southern fuliginous 
Puffimis, not identified with any known species. Mr. G. R. Gray (Ibis, 
1862, p. 244) considers it as a valid species, and assigns the following 
synonymy : Proc. grisea Forst. ic. ined. 94 ; (nee Gm.) Puff, major, Gray, 
Ereb. and Terr, (nee Fab.) P. fuliainosus Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Pole. 
Sud. tab. 32, fig. 7. (nee Strickl.) Puf. cinereus A. Smith, 111. S. Afr. 
Bds. (nee Gm. nee Auct.) Nectris gama, Bonap. 

Proc. hucocephala, p. 206. = Proc. Lessonii Garn. (JEstrelata Lessoni Cass.) 

Proc. hasitata, p. 208. = P. cinereus, Gm. Lath. Vieill. Lawr. = Adamastor 
typus Bp. = Adam, ciner. or Priojinus ciner. Coues. = Proc. Adamastor 
Schlegel. etc. etc. The hpesitata of Gould and Reichenbach, but not of 
Kuhl and Temminck, which is an JEstrelata. 

Proc. ossifraga, p. 343. = gigantea Gm. 

In bringing to a close the present series of papers, the author is deeply 
sensible of their many defects ; and can only crave for them a lenient judg- 
ment in view of the very difficult nature of the task he attempted, and has 
throughout conducted, with the sole desire of elucidating truth. Should the 
undertaking prove a failure, and the meagre results incommensurate with 

the time and labor bestowed, at least it may be said of him, ' si non 

tenuit, magnis tamen excidit ausis." 



Observations upon the Cranial Forms of the American Aborigines, based npon 

Specimens contained in the Collection of the Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia. 

BY J. AITKEN MEIGS, M. D. 

The early record of every science abounds in crude facts, imperfect obser- 
vations, and, consequently, in generalizations so hastily formed as to partake 
more of the character of mere speculation than of strictly logical deduction. 
These erroneous statements and premature generalizations are at first gene- 
rally accepted as scientific truths. A few cautious observers, it is true, may 
withhold from them their assent, but their opinions find no support beyond 
themselves, until these facts and hypotheses come in conflict with others bet- 
ter known and better established, or, are employed in developing still higher 
and more comprehensive theories. Then, for the first time, they are subjected 
to a rigid investigation, and their true value, at length, ascertained. Nowhere 
can we find a more instructive example of this assertion than in the doctrine 
which ascribes to the American aborigines a homogeneous cranial type. 
For the philosophical ethnologist this doctrine is full of interest. If the 

1866.] 



198 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



physical, and more especially the cranial, characteristics of the native 
races of the New World are at once common and peculiar to them, it is strong-, 
presumptive evidence that they are isolated or distinct from the rest of man- 
kind in origin. If, on the contrary, it can be shown that the skulls of these 
people really belong to different, well-marked types or forms, which, if not 
identical with, are, at least, the homoiocephalic representatives of those of 
the Eastern Hemisphere, it becomes very probable that there is for the Ameri- 
can variety of man neither unity nor genetic isolation. The discussion of the 
origin and affiliations of this widely spread race has an important bearing 
upon the higher and more complex question of the unity of the entire human 
family. As this discussion involves, among other facts, the consideration of 
the osteological characters of the aboriginal American, it becomes very im- 
portant to determine with exactitude the typical, cranial form or forms of this 
race. 

The extraordinary doctrine of a uniform American type of skull originated, 
as is well known, with the late Dr. Samuel George Morton. He was also the 
most enthusiastic and persistent advocate of this scientific dogma. A variety 
of circumstances combined to give unusual acceptance to his views. He be- 
gan his craniographic researches two years after the completion of Blumen- 
bach's Decades Craniorum, by accumulating what was then, as far as I can 
learn, the largest and most diversified collection of human skulls in the world. 
These he long and attentively studied, until he acquired the right to speak 
authoritatively concerning them. No one was in possession of so many na- 
tive American crania as he, and so little interest was manifested in human 
craniography at that time, that but few if any persons ever examined his col- 
lection with the object of testing the validity of his conclusions. Moreover, 
prior to the publication of Crania Americana, Dr. Morton had already acquired 
the double reputation of a naturalist and a physician, and for several years 
before his death occupied the most prominent, official position in the Acade- 
my of Natural Sciences. In view of these facts, it is not at all surprising 
that his opinions, instead of being controverted, as they now are, found ready 
adherents ; and that one of the most eminent of living naturalists should have 
employed them, as well established facts, in his attempt "to show that the 
boundaries, within which the different natural combinations of animals are 
known to be circumscribed upon the surface of our earth, coincide with the 
natural range of distinct types of man."* 

In 1856, while preparing for publication an article on the cranial charac- 
teristics of the various races of menf I especially directed my attention to 
those groups of crania in the Academy's collection which had not been de- 
scribed by Dr. Morton. With regard to American and Egyptian skulls, which 
he had so long and so carefully studied, I contented myself with reproducing 
the conclusions which he had already published, my object being to exhibit 
in general panoramic review the skull-forms of the human family. In the 
concluding remarks of that article I observed that just as "the Kalmuck or 
true Mongolian, the Tartar, Chinese, Japanese and Turkish types of skull are 
all, to a certain extent, related, and yet are all readily distinguishable from 
each other, and as each of these groups again presents several cranial varie- 
ties ; so, among the barbarous aborigines of North America, notwithstanding 
the general osteologic assimilation of their crania, important tribal distinc- 
tions can be readily pointed out." I also remarked: " It is a general and 
very well known fact first noticed by Buffon that the fauna and flora of the 
Old World are not specifically identical with the fauna and flora of the New. 
Their relationship is manifested in an interesting system of representation, 
or as Schouw expresses it, of geographical repetition according to climate. 
To a certain extent, human cranial forms appear also to fall within the limits 

* Sketch of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World and their relation to the different Types 
of Man. By Louis Agassiz. See Types of Mankind, p. lviii. 
f Indigenous llaces of the Earth, p. 203. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 199 

of this system. As far as my own opportunities for examination have gone, 
I have not been able to find a single aboriginal American type of skull which, 
in all its essential details, could be regarded as strictly identical with any in 
Europe, Asia, Africa or Australia," " The massive, heavy skulls of northern 
temperate Asia and Europe are represented in America by those of the Bar- 
barous tribes decidedly different, but allied forms. So the comparatively 
small-headed Peruvians represent the equally small-headed Hindoos."* 

In 1859, while attempting to determine the ethnic type of a singularly de- 
formed skull from Jerusalem,! by comparing it with other crania, I noticed, 
for the first time, how much the form of the occiput differed in the various 
tribes of Indians. I also observed that "upon our side of the Atlantic the 
Swedish crania find their representatives in the Arickaree Indian skulls." 
Subsequently, in another paper, published in the Proceedings of the Academy ,\ I 
endeavored to show that the conformation of the occiput varied as much among 
the aboriginal American races as among the natives of the Old World. I pro- 
pose now to demonstrate that this diversity'is not confined to the occipital re- 
gion only, but is exhibited by the skull as a whole. Before, however, interroga- 
ting upon this point the magnificent collection which science owes to the untir- 
ing industry and sagacity of Dr. Morton, it becomes necessary to inquire for 
a moment how this eminent craniographer was led to adopt the singular con- 
clusions which he has given to the world in Crania Americana and subse- 
quent publications. 

It is well known that, with few but important exceptions, the earlier trav- 
ellers who visited the New World, and certain historians also, speak decided- 
ly of the general resemblance which pervades the aboriginal American tribes. 
Their uniformity of aspect, customs, &c, led Herrera to assign to them a com- 
mon origin. "Whoever," said Don Antonio Ulloa, "has seen an Indian of 
whatever region may say that he has seen them all."|| Bernard Romans was 
" firmly of the opinion that God created an original man and woman in Ame- 
rica of different species from any in other parts of the earth. "*[ Robertson 
declared that all the inhabitants of America, except the Esquimaux, " must 
be pronounced to be descended from one source."** Malte Brun thought 
"that the Americans, whatever their origin may be, constitute, in the present 
day, by their physical characters, not less than by their peculiar idiom, a race 
essentially different from the rest of mankind. "ff In conformity with this 
view he placed them alone in the last of the sixteen races into which he di- 
vided the -whole human family. Linna?us,JJ Grnelin.$$ Herder,|||| Kant,^[fl" 
Buffon,*** Hunter,fff Blumenbach,++J Lawrence,?^ Dumeril ||]||| and other 
writers, in their attempts at the classification of the races of men, have uni- 

* Ibid. pp. 351, 352. 

f Description of a Deformed Fragmentary Human Skull, found in an ancient Quarry-Cave at 
Jerusalem. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci., Sept , 1859, p. 262. 

J Observations upon the Form of the Occiput in the various Races of Men, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Sept . I860, p. 397. 

(J Ilistoria de las Indias. 

|| " Visto uu Iudio de qualquier region, se puede decir que se han visto todos en quanto al color 
y contextura." Noticias Americanas; entretenimientos fisieo-historicos sobre la America meridi- 
onal, y la septentrional oriental, etc. Su Auter el Exc. Sr. Don Antonio de Ulloa. Madrid, 1792 
p. 253. 

f A concise Natural History of East and West Florida. New fork, 1776, p. 38. 

** History of America. London, 1803, vol. 2, p. 46. 

tf Universal Geography Boston. 1826, vol. v. p. 12. 

XX Systema Natura, ed. 12 et 13, Homo. English translation by Robt. Karr, London 1792, p. 45 

\\ Ibid. p. 46. 

|l|! Zur Philosophic der Geschicbte der Menschheit, II. S. 4, 68. 

iflf Engel's Philnsophie fur die Welt, ii. 

*** (Euvres completes de Buffon. Paris, 1774, t. v. 

ftt Disputatio Inauguralis quaedam de Hominum varietatibus, etc. Edinburgi, 1775, p. 9. 

XXX D e Generis Humani Varietate Nativa. Goettinga?. 1795, p. 286 

Hf Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, Physiology, Zoology and the Natural History of Mau. 
London, 1848, Bohn's Edition, p. 247. 

1 III Zoologie Analytique. Paris, 1S06, p. 7. 

1866.] 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

formly assigned the American family to a separate group or class. Others 
again, like Zimmerman,* Yirey,f Humboldt, J Garnot.$ and various au- 
thorities of a still more recent date, associate the aboriginal Americans 
with the Mongols or other Asiatics. It is an interesting fact that Cuvier || 
recognized three distinct races of man, into neither of which, however, did he 
place the Americans, but left them unclassified. 

The statements of the earlier investigators those of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries concerning the -similarity of physical characters ex- 
hibited by the different sections of the American race, harmonize remarkably 
with the results of the laborious and protracted researches of different emi- 
nent philologists. As early as 1798, Dr. Barton endeavored to show " that in 
all the vast countries of America, there is but one language.''^ In 1810, the 
celebrated philologue, Yater, to whom had been committed the completion of 
Adelung's Mithridates, or Allgemeine Sprachenkunde showed that the general in- 
ternal or grammatical structure of the American languages was the same for 
all.** Humboldt, in his Personal Narrative, testified to the same remarkable 
phenomenon.! f Du Ponceau characterized the peculiar, complicated grammar 
of the American idioms from Greenland to Cape Horn by the term polysyn- 
thetic.JJ Still later. Gallatin affirmed that all the languages of the native in- 
habitants of America from the Arctic Ocean to Gape Horn, have, as far as they 
have been investigated, a distinct character common to all, and apparently 
differing from any of those of the other continent with which we are most 
familiar. \\ 

While these and other observers were thus surveying the American Races 
from a philological standpoint, the late Dr. Morton was industriously en- 
gaged in collecting the materials necessary to illustrate their osteology, and 
at the same time the distinguished French naturalist, M. Alcide D'Orbigny 
was travelling in South America and studying the natives, not with the un- 
practised and superficial eye of the curious traveller, but with that of the 
closely observant and discriminating anatomist. 

The remarkably discrepant ethnological results of the labors of these emi- 
nent naturalists were given to the world at the same time. The Crania Ame- 
ricana and LI Homme Americain both appeared in the year 1839. In the former 
work, Dr. Morton, speaking of the native Americans, declared that "it may 
be assumed as a fact that no other race of men maintains such a striking 
analogy through all its subdivisions, and amidst all its variety of physical 
circumstances."! In a later publication he asserted that " the peculiar phy- 
siognomy of the Indian is as undeviatingly characteristic as that of the Ne- 
gro ; for whether we see him in the athletic Charib or the stunted Chayma, in 
the dark Californian or the fair Borroa. he is an Indian still, and cannot be 
mistaken for a being of any other race. ,; f \ On the other hand, M. D'Orbigny 
affirmed, with equal emphasis, that " a Peruvian is more different from a Pa- 
tagonian, and a Patagonian from a Guarani than is a Greek from an Ethio- 

* Zoologie Geographique. Cassel, 1784. L'Homme. 

t llistoire naturelle du Genre Ilumain, Paris, 1824, t. i. p. 4S0. 

X Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America. London, 1S52, vol. i. 
p. 325. 

\ Dietionnaire d'uistoire naturelle. L'Homme. 

|| Le Regne Animal, p. 103. 

< \,w Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America. By Benjamin Smith Barton, 
M. D.. Phila.,1798, p. lxxv. 

** Untersut hung Uber Amerikas Bevolkerung aus dem alten Continente. Leipzig, 1810. Mith- 
ridates, 3 Th. 2 Abth. p. 340. See also Wiseman's Twelve Lectures on the Connection between 
Science and Revealed Religion, London, 1842, p. SO. 

tt Bonn's Edition, vol. i. p, 313. 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 1, New Series, 1818, p. xi.; vol. 3, 
PI>. Tij, 77. 

;>;! Archa;ologia Americana, vol. 2, pp. 5, 118. 

I!! P- 63. 

\ ' An Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of America. 2d edit. 
Philada., 1844, p. 5. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 201 

pian or a Mongolian."* This language sounds like the echo of the words of 
Molina and of Humboldt. " I laugh in my sleeve," said the former, " when 
I read in certain modern writers, supposed to be diligent observers, that all 
the Americans have the same appearance, and that when a man has seen 
one, he may say that he has seen them all." "A Chilian does not differ less 
in aspect from a Peruvian, than an Italian from a German. I have seen 
myself Paraguaynos, Cujanos and Magellanos, all of whom have their pecu- 
liar lineaments which are easily distinguished from those of the others. "f 
And Humboldt, too, an eye witness like Molina and D'Orbigny, tells us "that 
those Europeans who have sailed on the great rivers Orinoco and Amazon, 
and have had occasion to see a great number of tribes assembled under the 
monastical hierarchy in the missions, must have observed that the American 
race contains nations whose features differ as essentially from one another, 
as the numerous varieties of the race of Caucasus, the Circassians, Moors and 
Persians, differ from one another." " What a difference between the figure, 
physiognomy, and physical constitution of the tall Charibs, who ought to be 
accounted one of the most robust nations on the face of the earth, and the 
squat bodies of the Chayma Indians of the province of Cumana. What a 
difference of form between the Indians of Tlascala and the Lipans and the 
Chichimecs of the northern part of Mexico. "J 

Blumenbach recorded his conviction that "in the American variety of 
mankind, as in others, countenances of all sorts occur. "$ Both Lawrence|| 
and Prichard, also distinctly recognized the differences exhibited by the abo- 
riginal Americans. 

" Perhaps the degree of resemblance to a common type subsisting between 
the nations of America," says Prichard, " may admit of comparison with 
that which is to be traced between the different nations of Europe or among 
the races of Africa, or those of the northeastern parts of Asia. It is not 
universally prevalent in the same degree, but there appears to be in every in- 
stance some approximation to it; yet there can be no doubt tbat the resem- 
blance has been in general much exaggerated. It will be easy to prove that 
the American races, instead of displaying an uniformity of color in all cli- 
mates, show nearly as great a variety in this respect as the nations of the old 
continent; that there are among them white races with a florid complexion 
inhabiting temperate regions, and tribes black or of very dark hue in low and 
intertropical countries, that their stature, figure and countenances are almost 
equally diversified." " The nations of South America have in general flatter 
faces, and many of them a shorter and broader shape of body than the North 
Americans. In these respects the southern people are more like the Tura- 
nian nations than the northern tribes."^" 

In another work he remarks : "Anatomists have distinguished what they 
termed the American form of the human skull; they were led into this mis- 
take by regarding the strongly marked characteristics of some particular 
tribes as universal. The American nations are spread over a vast space, and 
live in different climates, and the shape of their heads is different in different 
parts."** 

According to Dr. Barton, a writer named Postel "is said to have been the 
first ' who made such a difference between the two Americas, by means of the 
Isthmus of Panama, that the inhabitants of those two continents have no- 

*L'Homme Amerkain (de l'Amerique Meridionale), considered sous ses rapports physiologique s 
et moraux. Paris, lS39.t. 1, p. 123. 

t Saggio Sulla Storia Naturale del Chili. Bologna, 1810. p. 336. 

% Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. New York, 1811, vol. i. p. 107. 

gDe Generis Ilumani Varietate Nativa, Edit. Tertia, Gottingse, 1795, p. 316. See also the Anthro- 
pological Treatises of Johann Friedrich ISlumenbaeh, translated by Thus. Bcndyshe, London, 
1865, p. 273. 

|| Op. cit, pp. 221, 223, 224, 247 and 248. 

\ Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, 4th Edit, London, 1841, vol. 1, p. 269. 

** The Natural History of Man, 4th Edition, London, 1855, vol. 2. p. 495. 

1866.] 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

thing common in their origin.' "* The Abbe Clavigero entertained a similar 
idea.f 

Such, in brief terms, were the conflicting statements promulgated by differ- 
ent writers prior to the publication of Crania Americana. With all these Dr. 
Morton was thoroughly conversant. Through Cardan he knew that the skulls 
of the inhabitants of the old Portus Provincire were square and deficient in 
the occiput, that Charlevoix described the heads of one of the Indian nations 
of Canada as globular, and those of another as flat ;J that De Pauw speaks 
of certain Indians on the borders of the Maragnon having square or cubical 
heads, | and that Malte Brun described the aboriginal Americans as having, 
among other characters, " heads of a square shape, with the occipital bone 
not so convey, and the facial line more inclined than among the Mongol 
race." | He knew that Humboldt had declared in his Researches "that the 
nations of America, except those which border on the polar circle, form a 
single race characterized by the formation of the skull," &c/[ He was fa- 
miliar also with the statements of Von Spix and Martius that the Brazilians 
resembled the Chinese in possessing, among other physical characters, " a 
small, not oblong, but roundish, angular, rather pointed head, with a 
broad crown, prominent sinus frontales, low forehead, and pointed and 
prominent cheek-bones."** He was also acquainted with the fact that both 
Desmoulins and Bory de St. Vincent ascribed to a number of the American 
races a spherical head as a prominent characteristic. Among the earlier 
specimens added to his subsequently famous cranial collection, were some 
brachycephalic skulls, with truncated or more or less vertically flattened oc- 
ciputs, ff These, together with the numerous short-headed Peruvian crania 
in his cabinet, presented such a striking contrast with the ordinary elongated 
head-forms of the human family in general, that he was hastily led to regard 
the short, round or angular skull with flat occiput and depressed forehead, as 
the typical cranial form of the aboriginal Americans. This form he proba- 
bly regarded as the osteological analogue to the holophrastic or polysynthetic 
character which the philologist had already declared to be at once common 
and peculiar to the American races. 

Dr. Morton divided the American race into two great families the Toltecau 
and the Barbarous Tribes. The latter he subdivided into the Appalachian, 
Brazilian, Patagonian and Fuegian branches. To the Appalachians he as- 
cribed a rounded head ; large, salient and aquiline nose ; dark brown eyes, 
with little or no obliquity of position; large and straight mouth ; nearly ver- 
tical teeth and triangular face. They included all the nations of North Ame- 
rica excepting the Mexicans, together with the tribes north of the river Ama- 
zon, and east of the Andes. The Brazilian brancji, located between the riv- 
ers Amazon and La Plata, and between the Andes and the Atlantic, embraced 
the whole of Brazil and Paraguay north of the 35th degree of south latitude. 
The Patagonian branch included the nations south of the La Plata to the Straits 
of Magellan and the mountain tribes of Chili. The Fuegian branch comprised 
the people who inhabit the island of Terra del Fuego, often called Patago- 
nians. The Esquimau or Polar Tribes, Dr. Morton separated entirely from 
the American race, and designated them " Mongol Americans." 

With regard to the aboriginal American crania, Dr. Morton tells us that 
" after examining a great number of skulls, he found that the nations east of 

Charlevoix's Voyage to North America ; Preliminary Discourse, p. 3. See Barton's New Views, 
p. xevi. 

f History of Mexico, vol. 2, p. 215. 

JThc Anthropological Treatises of Blnmenhach, London, 1865, p. 121. 

\ Recherehes philosophiq_ues sur les Americains, Berlin, 1777, 1. 1, p. 122. 

J Op. cit, pp. 12, 13. 

\ Researches concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of 
America. London, 1814. Vol. 1. p. 14. 

** Reise in Brasilien. Munchen, 1S23, lr Th. S. 184. 

ft Sec the 1st Edition of his Catalogue of Skulls. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA. 203 

the Alleghany Mountains, together with the cognate tribes, have the head 
more elongated than any other Americans. This remark applies especially 
to the great Lenape stock, the Iroquois and the Cherokees. To the west of 
the Mississippi, we again meet with the elongated head in the Mandans, Ri- 
caras, Assinaboins, and some other tribes. Yet even in these instances, the 
characteristic truncation of the occiput is more or less obvious, while many 
nations east of the Rocky Mountains have the rounded head so characteristic 
of the race, as the Osages, Ottoes, Missouris, Dacotas and numerous others. 
The same conformation is common in Florida ; but some of these nations are 
evidently of the Toltecan family, as both their characters and traditions tes- 
tify. The head of the Charibs, as well of the Antilles as of Terra Firma, are 
also naturally rounded ; and we trace this character, so far as we have had 
opportunity for examination, through the nations east of the Andes, the Pa- 
tagonians and the tribes of Chili. In fact, the flatness of the occipital portion 
of the cranium will probably be found to characterize a greater or less num- 
ber of individuals in every existing tribe, from Terra del Fuego to the Cana- 
das."* 

At a meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences held June 1st, 1841, Dr. 
Morton, in the course of some remarks upon the ancient Peruvians, again 
speaks of "the squared or spheroidal form as characteristic of the American 
race and especially of the Peruvians."! At another sitting of the Academy, 
which took place on the 6th of July in the same year, he made some obser- 
vations on eight Mexican skulls, and directed attention to the "high vertex, 
flat occiput, great lateral diameter and broad faces" of these crania as char- 
acteristic features of the aboriginal Americans. "Whoever will beat the 
pains," he said on that occasion, " to compare this series of skulls with those 
from the barbarous tribes, will, I think, agree that the facts thus derived from 
organic characters, corroborate the position I have long maintained, that all 
the American nations, excepting the polar tribes, are of one race and one spe- 
cies, but of two great families, which resemble each other in physical, but 
differ in intellectual characters. "J 

These opinions Dr. Morton continued to reiterate, from time to time, at va- 
rious meetings of the Academy. \ On the 27th of April, 1842, he read at the 
Annual Meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, An Inquiry into the 
Distinctive Charateristics of the Aboriginal Race of America. In this paper he 
contends still more emphatically for his favorite doctrine of the unity of the 
American nations. After alluding to the color and stature of these people, he 
says, " The same conformity of organization is not less obvious in their osteo- 
logical structure, as seen in the squared or rounded head, the flattened or 
vertical occiput, the high cheek bones, the ponderous maxillae, the large 
quadrangular orbits, and the low, receding forehead. I have had opportunity 
to compare nearly four hundred crania derived from tribes inhabiting almost 
every region of both Americas, and have been astonished to find how the 
preceding characters, in greater or less degree, pervade them all. This re- 
mark is equally applicable to the ancient and modern nations of our conti- 
nent ; for the oldest skulls from the Peruvian cemeteries, the tombs of Mexico 
and the mounds of our own country, are of the same type as the heads of the 
most savage existing tribes. Their physical organization proves the origin 
of one to have been equally the origin of all." 

In this paper Dr. Morton objects to the observations of Molina and Hum- 
boldt, above referred to, in disproof of this pervading uniformity of physical 
characters, by saying that the different people mentioned by these writers are 
really of one and the same race, and readily recognized as such, notwithstand- 

*Crania Americana, pp. 64, 65. 

\ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 1, p. 36. 

t Ibid 1, p. 52. 

\ See Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 1, pp. 126, 203; vol. 3, pp. 212, 213. 

1866.] 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

ing their differences of feature and complexion; and the American nations, 
he thinks, present a precisely parallel case. But this objection, which is far 
from being a valid one, can by no possibility be urged against the analogous 
remarks of M. D'Orbigny. 

Tn 184G, Dr. Morton contributed to the American Journal of Sciences,* Some 
Observations on the Ethnography and Archceology of the American Aborigines, in 
which he "avers that sixteen years of almost daily comparisons have only 
confirmed him in the conclusions announced in his Crania Americana, that 
all the American nations, excepting the Esquimaux, are of one race, and that 
this race is peculiar and distinct from all others. The first of these propo- 
sitions may be regarded as an axiom in Ethnography ; the second still gives 
rise to a diversity of opinions, of which the most prevalent is that which 
would merge the American race in the Mongolian." 

In the same year he published An account of his Craniological Collection ; with 
remarks on the Classification of some Families of the Human Race, in the form of a 
letter, addressed to Mr. JohnR. Bartlett, Secretary of the American Ethnologi- 
cal Society.f ^ n tu ' s letter he thus writes : 

" The anatomical facts, considered in conjunction with every other species 
of evidence to which I have had access, lead me to regard all the American 
nations, excepting the Esquimaux, as people of one great race or group. From 
Cape Horn to Canada, from ocean to ocean, they present a common type of 
physical organization, and a not less remarkable similarity of moral and men- 
tal endowments which appear to isolate them from the rest of mankind ; and 
we have yet to discover the unequivocal links that connect them with the 
people of the old world." 

Dr. Morton's last contribution to craniographical science, J which was 
published after his death, shows conclusively that his views respecting the 
homogeneity of the aboriginal American races had undergone no change 
whatever. In this paper he still maintains the doctrine of a uniform, cranial 
type for these races, with the same arguments and in language almost iden- 
tical with that which he employed in his Inquiry ten years before. 

I make these references to his published opinious to show that Dr. Morton 
perseveringly inculcated this doctrine from the inception to the very close of 
his ethnological studies, comprising a period of about twenty-one years ; 
that he was thoroughly convinced of its truthfulness, and regarded it as one 
of the best established and most readily demonstrable of all the conclusions 
at which he had arrived after a long and unwearied study of his cranial 
collection. 

It is a remarkable fact, however, that opinions diametrically opposed to 
these were maintained by two French ethnologists, with whose writings Dr. 
Morton was familiar, and whose classifications he criticises adversely in Crania 
Americana.^ I allude to Dr. Desmoulins and M. Bory de St. Vincent. 

As far back as 1826 Desmoulins divided the aboriginal Americans into two 
species, the Columbians and the Americans. To the first he assigned as 
their chief specific character an "elongated head," and to the second " a 
generally spherical head." The Columbians occupied the whole of North 
America, all the table lands and declivities of the Cordilleras, from Chili to 
Cumaua, and also the Caribbean archipelago. The Americans comprised the 
Omaguas, Gauranis, Coroados, Puris, Atures, Ottomacs, Botocudos. Guiacas, 
Mbayas, Charruas, Puelches, and Tehulletts or Patagonians. "There is no 
doubt," says Desmoulins, " that the Columbians, and still more the Ameri- 
cans, are each again divisible into several species, as different from each other 
as those of Africa. || 

* Vol. II. Second Series. 

f Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. 2. p. 217. 

J Physical Type of the American Indians, in Schoolcraft's Information respecting the Ilistory, 
Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Part 2, p. 315. 

g Pp 63, Si. 85. 

|| Tableau General, physique et geographique des Especes et des Races du Genre Humain, con- 
tained in Uiatoire Naturelle des Races Ilumaines du Nord-est de l'Europe, etc. Paris, 1826. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 



205 



Bory de St. Vincent divided the Americans into four species, the Nep- 
tunian, Columbian, American and Patagonian. Of the Columbians he says: 
"Leur tete est bien conformee, il en resulte une figure agreablement ovale, 
ou le front est cependant singuliereinent aplati ;" and of the Americans: 
" Les hommes ont, a peu d'exception pres, la tete ronde, d'un volume dispro- 
portionne, enfonc^e dans les epaules, lourde, aplatie sur le vertex," &c* 

In 1839, M. D'Orbigny, speaking of the native races of South America, de- 
clared that, after examining a large number of crania, he was convinced that 
they differed from each other not only according to race and nation, but also 
individually; and that it would be as difficult to prove that the form of the 
head is one among the Americans, as to demonstrate rigorously the perma- 
nent cranial characters, which would be sufficient to distinguish them from 
other nations. f 

The late Prof. Retzius communicated to the meeting of the Scandinavian 
Association of Naturalists, held at Stockholm, in 1842, a valuable paper on 
the Form of the Skulls of Northerns, in which he refers the Greenlanders and 
some of the American races to the prognathic Dolichocephali, and others of 
the American family to the prognathic Brachycephali.J Two years later he 
read before the same Association, at a meeting held in Christiania, in July, 
1844, another essay On the Form of the Skull in different Nations,^ in which he 
devotes a special section to the American races, and classifies tbem in the 
following manner, according to the length of the cranium : 

Greenlanders and Esquimaux, 

Kolusches, 

Cherokees, 

Chippeways, 

Iroquois, 

Hurons, 

Chickasaws, 

Cayugas, 

Ottigamies, 

Pottawotomies, 

Lenni Lenape", 

Blackfeet. 



G. dolichocephala; 
prognatbaj. 



Northern Americans. 



G. brachycephalas 
prognathse. 



("Botocudos, 

| Caribs, 

c, ., . I Guaranis, 

Southern Americans, j AymaraS) ' 

j Huanchas, 
[ Patagonians. 

f Natches, 
I Creeks, 

Seminoles, 
I Euches, 
[Klatskanai. 



C Northern Americans, 



[Southern Americans. 



"Charruas, 

Puelches, 

Araucanians, 
[Modern Peruvians. 



* L'Homme (Homo). Essai Zoologique sur le Genre Humain ; 2d edit., Paris, 1827, t. 2, pp. 6, 21. 

t L'Homme Americain. t. i. pp. 118, 119, 120. 

j Om Formen af Nordboernes Cranier, af A. Retzius. (Aftryckt ur Forhandl, vid Naturfors- 
karnes Mote i Stockholm, Sr 1S42.) Stockholm, 1S43, p. 4. See also'- Uber die Schadelformen der 
Nordbewohner," in J. Muller's Archiv. for 1845. 

{(Om formen af hufvudets benstomme hos olika folkslag. Ved Prof. A. A. Retzius, M. D. (Af- 
trykt fra ' Forhandlinger ved de Skandinariske Naturforskeres fjerde mode i Christiania fra 11 
18 Juli, 1844.") Christiania, 1847, pp. 17, 18. See also the German translation, Ueber die Form 
des Knochengerustes des Kopfes bei den verschiedenen Volkern, pp 280, 281. 



1866.] 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

G. brachycephal* ( Northern Americans. -[ Aztecs in Mexico ? 



orthognathy. 



Southern Americans. < Ckincas in Peru? 



The latest and best elaborated views of Prof. Retzius upon this subject are 
contained in a valuable essay, entitled A Glance at the present state of Ethnolo- 
gy, with reference to the Form of the Skull.* This paper was read at the seventh 
meeting of the Scandinavian Association of Naturalists, held at Christiania 
in 1856. In it, the author thus criticises the theory of American unity, so 
long and so persistently supported by Dr. Morton : 

"No European philosopher has," says Prof. Retzius, " since the time of 
Blumenbach, devoted such fertile labor to the subject of ethnological crani- 
ology as Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, in his ' Crania Americana;' the results 
of which are, nevertheless, but little satisfactory. Morton, himself, who has 
brought forward so many facts of high value, has, like the distinguished 
linguist who with such indefatigable labor studied the American tongues, 
come mainly to the conclusion that both the race and the language are one. 
I am rather perplexed as to this result, for I must confess that, from the facts 
brought forward by Morton, and the numerous skulls with which he has so 
kindly enricked tke collections in Stockholm, I have arrived at a wholly dif- 
ferent inference. I can explain this only by supposing that this distinguished 
man has allowed his extensive philology and great learning to affect his 
vision as a naturalist. If the form of the skull is to have any weight in the 
question of the races of man, there is scarcely any part of the world where 
such contrasts are to be found between dolichocephali and brachycephali as in 
America, and as such they present themselves to the eye of the naturalist in 
Morton's ' Crania Americana.' I may just refer, for proof of this, to plate 2, 
' Peruvian child from Atacama ;' plate 32, ' Lenni Lenape ;' plate 38, ' Pawnee ;' 
plate 40, ' Cotonay, Blackfoot ;' plate 64, ' Carib of Venezuela ;' plate 65, ' Ca- 
rib of St. Vincent ' all of the most marked dolichocephalic forms ; and, on the 
other hand, to plates 30 and 31, 'Natches,' with the great majority of the 
figures of skulls from Chili, Peru, Mexico and Oregon, with many others of 
equally well marked brachycephalic form. Much as these plates bear the 
same testimony, I should scarcely have ventured on such a remark, did not a 
very rick series in our own collections, as well as several valuable drawings 
by Blumenbach, Sandifort, Van der Hoeven, &c, support my opinion. 

"From what I can infer from the American skulls I have seen, whether in 
nature or in casts or plates, I have come to the conclusion that the dolicho- 
cephalic is the predominant form in the Carribbee Islands, and in the eastern 
region of the great American continent, from its most northern limit down 
to Paraguay and Uraguay; and the brachycephalic in the Kurile Islands and 
on the continent, from Behring's Strait, in Russian America, Oregon, Mexico, 
Ecuador in Peru, Bolivia, Chili, Argentina, Patagonia, and Terra del Fuego. 

"Morton has also drawings of four Esquimau skulls, from the most north- 
ern parts of America, and from the island of Disco, off the coast of Greenland ; 
all of the characteristic form. In the text he says that they are always 
characteristic, and that they are most decidedly distinguished from the skulls 
of tke American Indians ; but adds at the same time, singularly enough, that 
these Esquimaux are the only Americans presenting the Asiatic characters. 
It is evident that this distinguished man has been guided by his already es- 

* Blick auf den gegenwartigen Standpunkt der Ethnologie in Bezug auf die Gestalt des Knoch- 
ernon Schadelgerustes. Von Andreas Retzius, Berlin, 1857. See also J. Mailer's Archiv. fur 
Anatomie und Physiologie, 1858; and for an Euglish translation see British and Foreign Medico- 
Chirurgical Review for April and July, 1860. This translation was executed by Dr. W. D. Moore, 
who informs us that in the last letter which he received from Prof. Retzius, the latter says : "You give 
me also hope to see my ethnological views in English; I should be very thankful for that, as you 
see that it contains some views of, as I think, great importance ; as in the question of the unity of 
the American races, which I have clearly shown false." This letter appears to have been written 
not long before the death of this eminent Swedish craniographer. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 207 

tablished views, rather than by the strict investigation of facts. He saw in 
the formation of the face of the Esquimaux, something Mongolian, that is, 
Asiatic ; but he overlooked the prominent occiputs, as well as other charac- 
ters which are not Mongolian. In like manner he, as it were, forgot the 
beautiful figures given by himself, in his splendid work of dolichocephalic 
American Indians; of which some in particular, as Cotonay (Blackfoot), 
Cherokee, Chippeway, and, above all, Cayuga (PI. 35), approach the form of 
the Esquimau skull, with their large alveolar processes and projecting 
occiputs."* 

Prof. Retzius refers the aboriginal inhabitants of America to three distinct 
sources. As certain Chinese skulls in the museum of the Carolinean Insti- 
tute resemble Tungusian and Greenland crania, he traces the pedigree of the 
Esquimaux into Asia, among the Chinese population, the transitionary link 
being the Aleutians. The dolichocephalic Indians he assumes to be related 
to the Guanches of the Canary Islands, and the Atlantic tribes in Africa, as 
the Moors, Berbers, Tuaricks, Copts, &c, which are comprised under the 
Amazirgh and Egyptian Atlantidas of Latham. The American brachycepba- 
lic tribes, which belong chiefly to the side of America looking towards Asia, 
the Pacific Ocean, and the South Sea, are allied, he thinks, to the Mongolian 
nations, f 

D'Omalius d'Halloy, in 1845, divided the American Indians into a northern 
branch, characterized with " elongated heads," and a southern branch, 
having "the head ordinarily less elongated."! 

In 1846 Dr. Zeune, from a careful examination of the skulls in the anatomi- 
cal collection at Berlin, adopted three main cranial forms or types for the 
western hemisphere. He remarks that, although Blumenbach and Prichard 
grouped the races of the New "World together as one, he found greater and 
more marked differences among their skulls, than among those of the Old 
World. I 

In 1850 Dr. Latham endeavored to show, by means of a comparative table 
constructed from Dr. Morton's own measurements, that the general ascription 
of the brachycephalic form to the American Indians was an error ; and that, 
on the contrary, they were more frequently dolichocephalic. || 

In the same year Dr. Knox also expressed a doubt as to the "asserted 
identity of the Red Indian throughout the entire range of continental 
America."^" 

In 1848, Col. Chas. Hamilton Smith declared that "it is vain to assert that 
all American Races, excepting the Esquimaux, have originally sprung from 
one stock."** 

In the years 1855 and 1856, we find three other ethnologists, in widely sepa- 
rated localities, expressing their doubts, each from his own independent ob- 
servations, as to the validity of Dr. Morton's long cherished views. 

"The inspection of the Mexican skulls represented in Crania Americana," 
says Dr. Gosse, " seems to prove that in these the depression of the occiput 
was far from being as general and as marked as among the Incas and the 
crania examined by Meyen ; for in many of them the head is rather normally 
developed behind. "ff 

Dr. J. B. Davis also writes that though " this position of Morton's is no 

* Op. cit., pp. 23, 24, 29. 

t Op. cit., pp. 30 and 32. See also Ofvers. Afk. Wet. Akad., forh. 1855, No. 1, pp. 5 and 6. 

j Des Kaces Humaines. Paris, 1S45, pp. 159, 167, 

\ TJber Sch'adelbildung zur festern Begriindung dor Menschenrassen. Von Prof. Dr. August Zeune 
Berlin, 1S46, p. 13. 
|| The Natural History of the Varieties of Man, London, 1850, p. 453. 
\ The Kaces of Men, 2d edit., Lond., 1862, pp. 127, 255, 256, 275. 
** The Natural History of the Human Species, Loud., 1859, pp. 251, 253. 
ft Kssai sur le Deformations Artifioielles du Crane, Pans, 1855, pp. 72, 74. 

1866.] 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

doubt founded in truth, yet it must be allowed to be liable to numerous ex- 
ceptions."* 

In November, 1856, Prof. Wilson, of Canada, who, for some time before, 
had been especially directing his attention to the conformation of the Ameri- 
can Indian cranium, published an account of the discovery of some Indian 
remains in Canada West.f "No indications," he wrote on that occasion, 
"have yet been noticed of a race in Canada corresponding to the brachyce- 
phalic or square-headed mound-builders of the Mississippi, although such an 
approximation to that type undoubtedly prevails throughout this continent 
as, to a considerable extent, to bear out the conclusions of Dr. Morton, that a 
conformity of organization is obvious in the osteological structure of the 
whole American population, extending from the southern Fuegians, to the 
Indians skirting the Arctic Esquimaux. But such an approximation, and it 
is unquestionably no more, still leaves open many important questions rela- 
tive to the area and race of the ancient mound-builders. On our northern 
shores of the great chain of lakes, crania of the more recent brachycephalic 
type have unquestionably been repeatedly found in comparatively modern 
native graves. Such, however, are the exceptions, and not the rule. The 
prevailing type, so far as my present experience extends, presents a very 
marked predominance of the longitudinal over the parietal and vertical di- 
ameter ; while, even in the exceptional cases, the brachycephalic character- 
istics fall far short of those so markedly distinguishing the ancient crania, 
the distinctive features of which some observers have affirmed them to ex- 
hibit." 

In August, 1857, Dr. Wilson read before the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, a valuable and interesting paper on 
the Supposed prevalence of one Cranial Type throughout. the American Aborigi- 
nes. % In this article, the mere doubt expressed a year before now becomes a 
positive conviction, that native American crania do not belong to one type, but 
are referrible to dolichocephalic and brachycephalic forms; "and that a 
marked difference distinguishes the northern tribes, now, or formerly occupy- 
ing the Canadian area, in their cranial conformation, from that which pertains 
to the aborigines of Central America and the southern valley of the Missis- 
sippi ; and that in so far as the northern differ from the southern tribes, they 
approximate more or less, in the points of divergence, to the characteristics 
of the Esquimaux. " In the second edition of Prehistoric Man, published eight 
years later, he concludes that "the results of his attempts at a comparative 
analysis of the cranial characteristics of the American races show that the form 
of the human skull is just as little constant among different tribes or races of 
the New World as of the Old ; and that so far from any simple subdivision 
into two or three groups sufficing for American craniology, there are abundant 
traces of a tendency of development into the extremes of brachycephalic and 
dolichocephalic forms, and again of the intermediate gradation by which the 
one passes into the other. ' 

It will thus be seen that Desmoulins, Bory de St. Vincent, Alcide d'Orbigny, 
Retzius, D'Omalius d'Halloy, Latham, and, more recently, Wilson, have all 
expressed their conviction, in terms more or less emphatic, that the American 
races are divisible, according to the form of the skull, into dolichocephalic and 
brachycephalic groups. Retzius and Zeune have gone a step further, by re- 
ferring the crania of these races to three distinct forms or types. According 
to Zeune, these crania are divisible into long, broad, and high forms, corres- 

* Crania Britannica, Decade 3, p. 10. 

I Canadian Journal of Industry, Science and Art, Nov., 1856, p. 

\ The Canadian Journal, Nov., 1857. See also Kdin. Philosoph. Journal, N. S.. vol. vii. This 
paper, enlarged and somewhat altered, constitutes chap. 21 of the first edition, and chap. 20 of the 
sicond edition ot Dr. Wilson's Prehistoric Man; and Part I of Lectures on Physical Ethnology, 
contributed by the same author to the Smithsonian Report for 1862. 

$ Page 483. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 209 

ponding to three similar types in the Old World ; and according to Retzius, 
into Asiatic dolichocephalic, (Chinese,) Mongolian, and Semitic forms. Zeune, 
in his comparative table, has indiscriminately grouped together normal and 
artificially deformed skulls. His classification has, consequently, no ethno- 
logic value. To Prof. Retzius is due the credit, as far as I can learn, and as 
appears from the above chronological reference to the literature of this sub- 
ject, of being the first to perceive the true ethnological import of the data 
set forth in Crania Americana. From 1842 to 1S60, the year of his death, he 
as positively opposed the doctrine of aboriginal American unity as Dr. Morton 
zealously supported it. Dr. Wilson has indisputably confirmed the views of 
Retzius as to the division of the American tribes into long and short heads, 
and their consequent cranial non-unity, by means of a valuable series of com- 
parative tables of measurements, accompanied with important critical obser- 
vations, showing very considerable, judicious, and even enthusiastic research.* 
Like Humboldt and Pickering, he favors the Mongolian classification of the 
American Indian, and thinks that this classification is " borne out by many 
significant points of resemblance in form, color, texture of hair, and peculiar 
customs and traits of character."! 

From a careful examination of the Morton Collection, I am convinced that 
the division of aboriginal American crania into dolichocephalic and brachy- 
cephalic groups merely, is wholly inadequate to exhibit thoroughly the ethnic 
differences which dispart them, in some instances, quite widely. It is easy 
to point out crania which are comparatively shorter than most of the so-called 
long skulls ; and others again, which are longer than the so-called short-heads. 
Such deviations fall naturally into an intermediate or mesocephalic group, 
which differs from the two extreme classes not in length only, but in other 
characters also. Moreover, the ethnic value of dolichocephalism and brachy- 
cephalism, or of length as compared with heighth and breadth, is by no means 
fully determined. This character is not always of primary importance. On 
the contrary, it is frequently of secondary value in classification. Two or 
more skulls may be equally dolichocephalic, and yet belong to different types 
or forms. Compare, for example, the cranium of the typical wooly-haired 
negro represented on page 325 of Indigenous Races, with the skull of an 
ancient Roman, or of a Circassian, figured on pages 312 and 316, respectively, 
of the same work. These are all dolichocephalic ; but the slightest inspection 
shows that they belong to very different types, and that the typical or differ- 
ential characters are located in the facial bones chiefly. In like manner, if we 
compare together the Ottawa and Mound skulls Nos. 1007 and 1512, which 
are both brachycephalic, we readily perceive that the one belongs to the 
spherical or globular form, and the other to the square-headed or cubical type. 
In order to establish indisputably the cranial diversity of the American races, 
it is obviously necessary, in view of the above facts, not only to point out 

* In his paper, read before the American Association in 1857. a year after Retzius had publicly 
announced his matured views upon American crania to the Scandinavian Association, anil through 
it to the scientific world generally Dr. Wilson says: " Scarcely any point in relation to ethno- 
graphic types is more generally accepted as a recognized postulate than the approximative homo- 
genous cranial characteristics of the whole American race." "The stronghold of the argument 
for the essential oneness of the whole tribes and nations of the American continents, is the sup- 
posed uniformity of physiological, and especially of physiognomical and cranial characteristics: an 
ethnical postulat" which has not yet. so far as I am aware, been called into question." (Canadian 
Journal, Nov., 1857, pp. 409, 416.) When these lines were written, Dr. Wilson appeal not to 
have been acquainted with the labors of Retzius in this field; he certainly makes no allusion 
to them whatever. These statements are reproduced in 1862, in the first edition of his " Prehis- 
toric Wan," (pp. 205, 212.) and again in 1866, in the second edition of this deeply interesting work, 
(pp. 425, 430, 431.) In both these editions he alludes to Retzius simply as amongst those who 
have recorded conclusions similar to his own. He refers the reader, for the views of Retzius. to the 
" Archives rles Sciences Naturelles," published at Geneva in 1860, and, in his "Lectures on Physical 
Ethnology," in the Smithsonian Report for 1862, p. 244, accompanies this reference with the state- 
ment that his own views on this subject were first published by him at the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association in 1857. 

f Prehistoric Man, 2d edit., p. 47i5. 

1866.] 14 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

among these races the prevalence of both dolichocephalic and brachycephalie 
forms, but also to demonstrate the existence of different well-marked types 
into which they may he grouped, and which can be shown to be as different 
from each other as any of the distinct forms indigenous to the Old World. 
This I have attempted to do in the ensuing pages, carefully abstaining, how- 
ever, for the present, from the expression of any opinion concerning the allied 
but entirely distinct question of the origin and affiliations of these races. As 
this question, in its osteological aspects, is intimately connected with the con- 
sideration of the cranial characters of the Esquimau race, I propose, instead 
of discussing it at present, to return to it in a future monograph upon the 
skulls of the Polar people. 

The Human Cranial Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, contains at the present time 575 skulls of the Aborigines of Northern, 
Central and South America. 

The Esquimau Family is represented by thirteen specimens from Baffin's 
Bay, Storoe, Cape Alexander, Upernavick and Godhavn. Dr. I. I. Hays, on 
his return from the Arctic regions in 1861, brought with him 125 skulls of this 
race. This large and very important collection he kindly placed in my care 
for study and description, with the request that I should select therefrom and 
present to the Academy, as his donations, those specimens which appeared to 
constitute the most suitable additions to the Museum.* Through these addi- 
tions the Esquimau race, though occupying a region so remote and inacces- 
sible, will be more numerously represented in the collection, than any of the 
North American Indian tribes. 

Of the great Athapascan or Chippewyan Family, lying to the south of the 
Esquimau area, and extending from Hudson's Bay westwardly towards the 
Pacific Ocean, there is but one specimen in the Museum of the Academy. This 
skull, No. 577 of my Catalogue of Human Crania, belongs, moreover, to none 
of the tribes living in juxtaposition within the continuous area of the Athapas- 
cas, but to a small detached band, called Tlatskanai or Klatskauai,t living in 
the mountains south of the Columbia River, near the sea-coast. This tribe, 
now nearly, if not quite extinct, belongs to the " Tahkali-Umkwa Family " of 
Hale, | which is synonymous with the " Southern Athabaskans " of Latham. 
It is thus classified on account of its philological affinities, which are Atha- 
pascan. 

It is obviously impossible to determine the craniological relations of the 
Tlatskanai, and through these of the Athapascas generally, by means of the 
single cranium just referred to. This skull is artificially distorted or com- 
pressed like the Chinook crania. The longitudinal and bi-parietal diameters 
are nearly equal. Art has, therefore, rendered it brachycephalie. The upper 
alveolus is quadrangular in form. 

To enumerate the various tribes of Athapascas of which cranial specimens 
are wanting in the collection, would be to go over the entire list of these tribes 
as now known. In view of the geographical position of this group, this is 
much to be regretted. The Koluschians and Athapascans on the west of Hud- 
son's Bay and the Algonquins on the east are the only Indians coterminous 
with the Esquimaux. The Athapascan area borders upon the Esquimau re- 
gion over a much greater extent of surface than that of either the Koluschians 
or Algonquins. Among the Athapascas, the Coppermine, Dog-Rib and Hare 
or Slave Indians come in contact with the Esquimaux as far north as the Arctic 
circle. As they are thus exposed to the same climatic conditions it becomes 
very important to compare the crania of these tribes with those of their para- 
borean neighbors. The same remark applies to the northernmost of the Ko- 

* See Prr ceedings of the Acad. Nat. Sci., 1S62, p. 601. 

f Called Klatstoni by Morton, who figures and gives measurements of this skull in Crania Ame- 
ricana, plate 44, p. 210. 

J Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. 2, p. 9. 
(> The Natural History cf the Varieties of Man, p. 308. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 211 

lusehian and Algonquin tribes. Unfortunately for the purpose of such com- 
parison no specimens of the skulls of these tribes are in the possession of the 
Academy. In other words the collection is deficient in skulls of the Kenai of 
Cook's Inlet, the Atnahs of Copper River, the Ugalents or Ugalyakhmutzi, of 
King William's Sound, &c, among the Koluschians ; and in the Knistinaux or 
Crees, and the various other tribes of Algonquins who formerly occupied the 
country between Labrador and the New England States. 

The Indians of the north-west coast are represented in the collection by 22 
specimens, obtained from various localities in British Columbia, Washington 
Territory, and the State of Oregon. Three of the skulls of this series, a Tsitn- 
se-ann or Chimseyan and two Nas-kuhs or Naaskoks (Nos. 987, 213 and 214 
of tbe Catalogue), belong to the Naas family of Hale, and are from the Naas 
River and tbe region of country about Fort Simpson, in lat. 54 40' N. Con- 
sequently of all the Pacific coast crania in the collection they are the most 
northern. The Chimseyan skull is a long, low head with a moderately full 
and rounded occiput. The coronal region is flat and triangular, narrow at the 
forehead between the external angular processes, from which it widens out to 
a great interparietal diameter, the parietal protuberances being very promi- 
nent. Both the Naas crania are long, oval heads with full and prominent oc- 
ciputs. In No. 213 the occipital protuberance is prolonged into a sharp mam- 
millated process. The next six in geographical order, (Nos. 208, 944, 946, 
1013, 1014 and 1015), are from Puget's Sound. No. 208 is the skull of a Skwale 
or Nisqually "Medicine Man." It is artificially flattened. The other five 
are flattened heads, obtained by my friend Dr. Thos. J. Turner, of the U. S. 
Navy. They probably belong, with one exception, to the Suquimmish tribe. 
These six crania together with a Kowalitsk skull, (No. 573) from Washington 
Territory, and a Tilamook, Killemook or Killamuck cranium (No. 576) from 
the State of Oregon, belong to the Tsihaili-Selish Family of Hales, the Tsihaili 
of Latham. The next two crania of this group are Klikatats (Nos. 207* and 
461) from Washington Territory. They belong to the Sahaptin Family of 
Hale and Gallatin. Of the Calapooya or Kalapuya tribe of the Willamette 
Valley, Oregon, there is one cranial specimen, No. 574. There are nine Chi- 
nook crania in the collection. Of these Nos. 462, 641, 721, 1349 and 1350 are 
Chinooks proper. Nos. 203 and 575 are Clatsops or Klaatsops, a band of the 
lower division of Chinooks, occupying the sandy plain at Point Adams, to the 
south of the mouth of Columbia River. Nos. 457 and 578 should, in all pro- 
bability, be rejected from this series. As they are not flattened nor distorted 
in any manner, but retain the natural form, they are very likely slaves, and 
as such belong to some other tribes. All the free Chinooks flatten their heads, 
and so highly do they value this deformity as a mark of distinction that they 
do not allow their slaves to practise it. 

Upon this point most of the travellers who have visited the tribes of Colum- 
bia River agree. In other respects, however, their testimony is very discrep- 
ant. Mr. Townsend, in a letter to Dr. Morton, affirms that he " has occasionally 
seen both Chinooks and Chickitats with round or ordinary shaped heads, sick- 
ness having prevented the usual distortion while young."f This statement 
has evidently led Dr. Morton to regard No. 578 as a true Chinook skull which 
has not been subjected to the flattening process. " This head," says Dr. M., 
" differs in nothing from that of the Indians in general, from one end of the con- 
tinent to the other ; but it is gratifying to be able to present a perfectly natu- 
ral skull of people among whom a round or naturally formed head is consid- 
ered a degradation."! Dr. Pickering assures us that as the children, whose 
heads have been compressed, "grow up, the cranium tends to resume its 

* Nos. 203. 207, 208. 213 and 214 were obtained by Mr. Geo. Gibbs, who informs me that No. 207 
is a hybrid being half Klikatat, half Nisqually. 
t Crania Americana, p. i!07. 
j Ibid, p. 208. 

1866.] 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

natural shape, so that the majority of grown persons hardly manifest the ex- 
istence of the practice. One effect, however, seemed to be permanently dis- 
tinguishable, in the unusual breadth of face."* Mr. Hale also says: "In 
after years the skull, as it increases, returns in some degree to its natural 
shape, and the deformity, though always sufficiently remarkable, is less shock- 
ing than at first. "f Dr. Pickering declares "that slaves may in general be 
distinguished by the head not being flattened, though they are careful to per- 
form this process on their children. "J Mr. Hale, on the contrary, states that 
" the children of slaves are not considered of sufficient importance to undergo 
this operation, and their heads, therefore, retain their natural form." Mr. 
George Gibbs, who dwelt for several years among the coast tribes iu the capa- 
city of Indian agent, likewise declares that " the children of slaves are not 
allowed to flatten the skull. " In another place he says, "among some of 
the Pacific tribes, compression of the head is confined to females, or is, at any 
rate, only carried to any considerable extent among them. Slaves are some- 
times of the same tribe with their owners, but they are more frequently pur- 
chased from others ; and it should be noted that on the Pacific the course of 
the trade has been from south to north. "|| This gentleman, in an interesting 
letter to the writer, dated July 8th, 1850, suggests that " as slaves very rarely 
if ever spring from the tribes in which they are held, and as the course of the 
slave trade is almost always from the south to the north," the two skulls 
above referred to, Nos. 457 and 578 most probably come from southern Oregon 
or California. The Klamath and Shaste tribes of California, he thinks, fur- 
nish many slaves to the region about Fort Vancouver, while captives from 
this region are taken still further northward from Puget's Sound as far north 
even as the Russian possessions. In opposition to these statements of 
Mr. Gibbs, we are informed by Mr. Townsend that among the Chinooks 
those individuals whose skulls were not flattened during infancy, on ac- 
count of sickness, "never attain to any influence, nor rise to any digni- 
ty in their tribe, and are not unfrequently sold as slaves." Mr. Jas. G. 
Swan, in his account of the coast tribes between the Straits of Fuca and the 
Columbia River, says, "their slaves are purchased from the northern Indians, 
and are either stolen or captives of war, and were regularly brought down and 
sold to the southern tribes. "H" My friend Dr. Thos. J. Turner, U. S. N., who 
spent some time at Puget's Sound, in 1856, and whom I therefore interrogated 
upon this subject, informs me that there is a marked distinction between the 
Indian tribes on Vancouver's Island and to the north of the Straits of Fuca, 
and those on the southern side. The northern tribes known as Stikanes, or 
Cowitchins, are taller, more war-like, and of a lighter color than the southern 
Indians, and what is very remarkable, have been seen by him to blush.** In- 
stead of compressing their heads into a disc-like shape, as the Chinooks do, 
they give to them, by means of bandages, a conical or sugar-loaf form. Fur- 
ther north this custom is discontinued by the men, and is confined altogether 
to females. Dr. Turner also informs me that unaltered heads, found among 
tribes addicted to this practice to a great degree, may safely be assumed to be 
those of slaves, and are probably of foreign origin, either directly or ancestrally. 
The direction of the slave trade is northward. On this account the southern 
tribes are always in fear of their more aggressive northern neighbors. As the 

The Races of Man; and their Geographical Distribution. By Charles Pickering, M. D., Lon- 
don. 1851, p. 19. 

t Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. 2, p. 16. 

X Op. cit. p. 20. 

| Indigenous Kaces of the Earth, p. 336. 

|| Instructions for research relative to the Ethnology and Philology of America. Prepared for 
the Smithsonian Institution, by George Gibbs, Washington, 1863. p. 3. 

<f The North West Coast ; or Three Years residence in Washington Territory. By Jas. G. Swan, 
New York, 1857. p. 166. 

**Accoiding to Von Spix and Mariius, "the Indians, properly speaking, cannot blush, and the 
' Erub^scit, salva res est,' cannot be applied to this unpolished race." See Prichard's Researches, 
vol. 1, p. 271. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 

flattened head in all its varieties is considered a mark of distinction among 
these people, tliey are very loth to abandon it. In several instances, where 
the "papooses" came under medical treatment, efforts were made to induce 
the mothers to discontinue the practice, but without avail. 

These conflicting statements show how difficult it is to determine satisfac- 
torily whether Nos. 457 and 578 are Chinooks or not. The latter somewhat 
resembles the Naas skull, No. 214, but is comparatively shorter and broader. 
The former is more like the Chimseyan. If they are really Chinooks, it shows 
that these people are naturally dolichocephalic. Judging from the deformed 
specimens, I should suppose the heads of the Chinooks were naturally short 
or brachycephalic. The unflattened Chinook, No. 578, is a rather short, broad 
oval, having the vertex regularly and more highly arehed, and the occipital 
region less promiuent, rather flatter in fact, than is the case in the Arickaree 
and Assinaboin crania. No. 457 approaches the peculiar form exhibited in a 
Pocasset skull, presently to be referred to. 

Upon a careful examination of all the cranial specimens of these fiat-head 
tribes of the Columbia River, I find that the distortion is not alike in all. In 
Nos. 203, 207, 208, 461, 577, 641, 721, 946, 1013, 1014 and 1349 the compres- 
sion has been so applied as to cause the right half of the occipital region to 
be more flattened than the left, and, consequently, the antero-posterior diam- 
eter of the right side to be shorter than the left. In Nos. 574 and 575 the 
distortion is just reversed. Nos. 462, 573, 576 and 944 are almost symmetri- 
cally flattened, and in such a manner that the coronal region forms a horizon- 
tal plane parallel with the basis cranii. In the Kawichen skull, No. 1015, the 
pressure has been so applied as to give to it the form of a cone or sugar-loaf, 
causing it thereby to resemble very strongly the strangely deformed Natchez 
crania, and the Mound Skull, No. 1212, from the ancient town of Chiuchiu, 
near the Desert of Atacama. 

Three crania recorded in the third edition of Dr. Morton's Catalogue of 
Skulls, as belonging to " Cotonay or Blackfoot Indians,"* differ from each 
other sufficiently to justify the reference of them to two separate groups. 
While Nos. 744, a male skull, and 745, a female, are decidedly dolichocephalic, 
No. 1227, the head of a chief named the Bloody-Hand, from the upper Mis- 
souri, occupies an intermediate place between the long and short heads. It 
is a shorter, broader and more elevated or arched cranium. In Nos. 744 and 
745 the occipital region exhibits the superiorly inclined or shelving parieto- 
occipital flatness so characteristic of Swedish and Norwegian crania. The 
occipital flatness of No. 1227 is less inclined and more vertical. In the length 
of skull, prominence of occiput, and general shape of the coronal region, No. 

744 resembles the cast of a Norwegian skull, No. 1260, which I have in an- 
other place already briefly described. The receding forehead, strongly marked 
supraorbital ridges, and everted upper alveolus of the Kootenay cranium, 
however, serve to distinguish it from the Norwegian. In general form No. 

745 resembles the Arikaree type, as that type or form is displayed in No. 619. 
No. 1227, in the general outline of the coronal region and flatness of the occi- 
put, resembles the short-headed Germanic and Anglo-Saxon forms. On the 
other hand, the strongly-marked face, the deep, massive jaw and prominent 
maxillary alveoli of this skull are striking points of difference. In Crania 
Americana, plate 40, Dr. Morton figures a Kootenay skull loaned to him by 
Geo. Combe, the celebrated phrenologist. It is decidedly dolichocephalic. 
Dr. M. has cuven us no description of this head, but merely alludes to its 
great interparietal breadth. I am inclined to think that No. 741 is really the 
cranium from which this plate was drawn. There is not only a close resem- 
blance in the outlines of the two, but in the skull there is a hole in the 



*The Kitnnaha or Skalsa; Kootenays, Coutanies, Arcs-en-Flat, or Flat-bows, inhabit the western 
side of the Rocky Mountains, on the Flat-bow branch of the Columbia Iliver. They are not Black- 
feet, and though they hunt on the Missouri, they do not live there. 

18G6.] 



214 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

middle of the right parietal bone, just above the tuberosity, exactly as repre- 
sented in the plate. A comparison of this plate with the wood-cut of No. 1227, 
in the Catalogue of Human Crania, and also in Indigenous Races, is sufficient 
to show that in this group of three skulls two distinct forms exist. No. 744 
may be assigned to the kumbecephalic, and No. 745 to the narrow oval sub- 
divisions of the oval form or type. Both have flat and receding foreheads run- 
ning up to a higher point at the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures 
or just behind this point. No. 1227 falls into the arched type. 

To the isolated or unplaced family of the Kitunaha, Coutanies or Kootenays, 
therefore I provisionally refer Nos. 744 and 745 ; and to the Satsika or Black- 
foot branch of the Algonquins, No. 1227. 

To the east of the Blackfoot country, and extending from the Saskachawan 
River on the north southwardly to the Arkansas River, and from the Missis- 
sippi to the Rocky Mountains, lies an important ethnological region occupied 
by the Dacota and Pawnee Families of Indians. The latter live in two sepa- 
rate localities, surrounded in great part by the more numerous tribes of the 
former. 

Of the Pawnee group the collection of the Academy contains three Arikara, 
and two Pawnee skulls. The Sioux or Dacota Family is represented by speci- 
mens from eight different tribes, viz., Assinaboins, Minetaris, Mandans, Dako- 
tas or Sioux's proper, Upsarookas or Crows, Osages, Ottoes, and the isolated 
tribe of Winnebagos living on the western shore of Lake Michigan. 

Three female Arickaree skulls from the upper Missouri, (Nos. 649, 949, 748) 
belong to the dolichocephalic class. The coronal region in No. 64. is oval 
and rather flat, the vertical diameter, therefore, rather small ; the occipital 
protuberance quite prominent, as in the Cimbric and Swedish crania in the 
collection, and the upper half of the occipital region flat and shelving like 
that of the Swedes ; the forehead low, superciliary ridges very small, malar 
bones not very prominent ; ossa nas,i quite incurvated. The basis cranii of 
No. 649 exhibits some approach to the kumbecephalic form of Prof. Wilson. 
No. 949 exhibits the same general characters, but is fuller in the frontal re- 
gion, and has a less prominent occipital protuberance. The same remarks 
apply to No. 748. In the homoiocephalic comparison of the old and new 
worlds, these Arickaree skulls may be fairly regarded as the American repre- 
sentatives of the Swedish crania. 

The two skulls in the collection marked Pawnee are remarkably discrepant 
in form. One of them, No. 1043, is most probably an Arickaree cranium. 
The other, No. 540, is a female head from the Platte River. It is figured in 
Crania Americana, plate 38. In this skull the forehead is sufficiently de- 
pressed, to cause the posterior part of the head to be higher than the anterior. 
From the coronal suture, the median longitudinal line, coinciding with the 
sagittal suture, curves regularly and evenly round to the upper edge of the 
os occipitis. Hence the posterior region cannot be called flat, although at the 
first glance it appears so, in consequence of the prominence of the occipital 
boss. If the line of the crown is continued evenly to the base of the skull, so 
as to cut off the occipital protuberance, it will then be seen that the posterior 
region is full and round. This is not the case in No. 1043, also female, which 
is^ longer head with a much more prominent occipital boss. The basis oc- 
cipitis of this skull is flat, somewhat like that of the Minetaris, while the basis 
cranii exhibits a long cimbriform outline instead of the round one presented 
in No. 540. In fact No. 1043 resembles the Arickaree forms in many respects ; 
and should, I think, be classified with this group. It differs from them, how- 
ever, in such minor particulars as the form of the alveolar arch, breadth of 
upper maxilla, &c. 

To the dolichocephalic group must also be assigned the Minetaris or Gros- 
ventres of Missouri. The oblong coronal region of the four cranial specimens 
of this tribe in the collection resembles that of the Arickarees and Assina- 
boins. The most elevated point of the crown is in the middle of the sagittal 

fMay, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 2l5 

suture, a little anterior to a line drawn through the parietalia from one emi- 
nence to the other. The posterior region of the parietalia slopes downwards 
and backwards to the irregular and lozenge-shaped occipital protuberance. 
The basal portion of the occipital bone is remarkably flat. nearly horizontal, 
in fact, and the cerebellar fossa? quite shallow. This peculiarity is well-marked 
in all the specimens composing this group- This feature and the prominent 
occiput give to the Minetari skull the appearance of being pinched or drawn 
out behind. This is particularly the case in No. 746. The low crown, flat 
sides and base of these skulls give them an angular, oblong or box-like ap- 
pearance. The specimens of this group, three of which are females, and the 
fourth a male, are remarkably alike. 

Three Assinaboin skulls, also from the upper Missouri, (Nos. 659, 1230, 1231) 
are larger than the Arickarees, as shown by their greater internal capacity. 
They are more massive and roughly marked, and in general present more of 
the rude Indian character. They are broader between the parietal bosses 
than the Arickaree heads ; and, consequently, have a less narrow, and some- 
what differently shaped coronal region. The contour of the latter slightly ap- 
proximates the Germanic form. The occiput in No. 659, a male skull, is equally 
protuberant, more massive and flat in the upper part, and the nasal bones less 
incurvated than in the Arickarees. These features are not so well marked in 
Nos. 1230 and 1231. It will thus be seen that No. 659 differs more from the 
Arickarees than Nos. 1230 and 1231, but the two latter, like the Arickaree 
specimens, belong to the female sex. Upon the whole, the base is not so long 
and narrow. 

The Mandans of the upper Missouri are a long-headed people. The general 
form of their skulls resembles very closely that of the Arickarees and Assina- 
boins. This is very well shown in Nos. 643, 644, 738 and 742 ; of which the 
first three are females, and the last a male. In No. 739, a female skull, the 
occipital protuberance is not so fully developed, but the posterior interparie- 
tal diameter is greater. The coronal contour, consequently, undergoes some 
change. In a male skull, No. 740, the broader coronal region is more oblong 
than oval. In No. 741, also a male skull, the greater elevation of the breg- 
matic region gives to that skull the arched or upsicephalic form presently to 
be described. No. 738 closely resembles the Kootenay skull, No. 745. 

No. 204, the skull of a Dacota or Sioux Indian, belongs to the Creek type, 
as exhibited in No. 1454, though the occiput is a little more prominent, and 
the head slightly longer and narrower. Its form is transitionary from the 
broad oval of the Assinaboin skull. No. 112. the head of a Dacota child, is 
markedly dolichocephalic, with an occipital region like a shelving roof. No. 
605, the skull of a Dacota or Sioux Indian from Wisconsin, somewhat resem- 
bles the Chetimache type, as the reader will perceive at a glance, by compar- 
ing plates 19 and 39 of Crania Americana. The truncation of the occiput is 
confined entirely to the upper part of the os occipitis and is but slightly marked. 
Indeed the posterior region taken as a whole is full and rounded or globular 
like that of the Pawnee skull, No. 540. These two heads, in fact, resemble 
each other closely, so that it is difficult to say whether both be Pawnees or 
both Dacotas. They certainly appear to belong to the same tribe. Dr. Mor- 
ton speaks of having once seen in Philadelphia, in 1837, twenty-six chiefs 
and braves of the Sioux nation. " Every man of them," says he, " bad a 
broad face, high cheek bones, the large Roman nose expanded at the nostrils, 
a wide but low forehead and flat occiput/' 

The Osages are brachycephalic, as is particularly shown in No. 54, in which 
the coronal region is almost round like that of the true Germanic head, and 
the occiput perpendicularly flattened. This skull, which is that of a young 
warrior named the Buffalo Toil, from Arkansas, is figured by Morton in Cra- 
nia Americana, plate 41. The face is large and rude, the malar bones mas- 
sive, and the alveoli prominent ; but the forehead is less recedent than in 
many of the Indian crania. The skull belongs to the angularly round or 

1866.] 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

square-headed Gothic type. No. 650, from the upper Missouri, is an older 
and longer head, inclining rather to the Swedish form. It is not a Brachyce- 
phalus, but occupies a position intermediate between the long and short heads. 
The Ottoes of the upper Missouri belong partly to that intermediate form 
which I have designated in the preceding pages as the arched type, and partly to 
the short-headed groups. The oblong crown in No. 755 is considerably elevated 
at the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures. The occipital region is 
full, broad and round, and not flattened. These skulls all incline to the brachy- 
cephalic type. Indeed No. 756, which may be said to represent the Calmuck 
form, and No. 758, should be classed among the short heads. No. 758, the 
head of a young child, though longer, has a vertically flat occiput. 

The Upsarookas or Crow Indians of the upper Missouri are long-heads. The 
two skulls of this tribe in the collection are males, and resemble each other 
very closely. They are long, oval crania ; the upper part of the occiput pro- 
tuberant and lozenge-shaped ; the face long, the ossanasi high, and the depth 
of the upper alveolus so considerable as to give a peculiar osteological expres- 
sion to the face not easily described. 

Of the Winnebagos, one, No. 559, is a short, angularly round head ; the 
other, No. 560, is of an oblong form. In No. 559 the slight posterior flatness 
is confined entirely to the upper part of the os occipitis. In No. 560 the oc- 
ciput is more protuberant, and the base and crown longer than in No. 559. 

Of the great and widely extended Algonquin Family, the Museum of the 
Academy contains 79 skulls of 21 different tribes. These tribes are the Mas- 
sasangas or Missiosigees, and the Chippewas of Upper Canada, the Penobscots 
of Maine, the Mohegans of Connecticut, the Narragansetts and Pocassets of 
Rhode Island, the Naumkeags of Massachusetts, the Naticks of Nantucket, 
the Lenni-Lenapes or Delawares of New Jersey. Pennsylvania, &c. ; the Nan- 
ticokes of the Wyoming Valley ; the Ottawas, Menominees and Pottawotomies 
of Michigan ; the Sauks, Ottigamies and Illinois of Illinois and Wisconsin ; the 
Miamis of Indiana ; the Skawnees and Mingos of Ohio ; the Shyennes of Mis- 
souri, and the Blackfeet. 

The Iroquois family is represented in the collection by 13 crania of Mo- 
hawks, Oneidas, Senecas, Cayugas and Hurons. The former habitat of these 
tribes was the country around and between Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, 
in the heart of the Algonquin area. Of the southern Iroquois the collection 
contains not a single specimen. 

The Massasauga cranium, (No. 27,) of upper Canada, is a decidedly dolicho- 
cephalic head with a protuberant occiput, a moderately elevated coronal re- 
gion, and an oval base. In its general form it resembles the Arickaree 
skulls. 

The Penobscot skulls may also be classed with the Dolichocephali. They 
are narrow and rather long, with a regularly oval crown. The occipital region 
is rather narrow, but not flat, being smoothly rounded ; the elevation of the 
crown about the middle of the sagittal suture, by increasing the vertical diam- 
eter, slightly approximates this skull to the arched type. These remarks par- 
ticularly apply to No. 89, an Indian of the Gepepscot tribe of Maine. No. 105 
is very similar to it, but being fragmentary, and of uncertain locality, it need 
not further occupy our attention. 

A Mohegan or Mohican skull of the Quinnipiack tribe, (No. 26), is broad and 
globular with a rounded occipital region. It occupies a position intermediate 
between the long and short heads and approaches the Mongol form, as that 
form is exhibited in the Calmuck, Cossack and Burat crania. 

A Pocasset cranium (No. 1036) is comparatively short with a flattened oc- 
ciput and triangular coronal region. It strongly resembles the Narragansett 
head, No. 693, and should probably be grouped with this specimen. 

The Narragansetts of Rhode Island are dolichocephalic. The ten skulls 
representing this tribe in the collection are not equally elongated. On 
the contrary, Nos. 693, (male,) 953, (female,) and 956, (male,) are much 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 217 

shorter, and may be said almost to belong to the Brachycephali. No. 693, the 
fnc simile of the Pocasset skull just referred to, is a peculiar head. The coro- 
nal region is irregularly oblong ; the head widens out backwards from the os 
frontis, attaining its greatest width between the parietal centres of ossification. 
Moreover, the low receding forehead slants upwards to the same interparietal 
diameter. The broad posterior region slopes downwards to the foramen mag- 
num, as if pressed under the overhanging parietalia. Nos. 050, (female,) 951, 
(male, ) 954, (female, ) 957 (male) and 1040, (female, ) are oblong heads, having 
for the most part the superior occipital flattening seen in Swedish crania, and 
also the protuberant occipital process, which is of the usual size and appear- 
ance in Nos. 950 and 954, and forms a very large triangular knob in No. 951, 
projecting in a straight line beyond the inferior and posterior edges of the 
parietalia, as in the Swedish skull, No. 1249. In No. 957 the protuberance 
disappears, or is very much softened down, in consequence of the cone-like 
manner in which the whole posterior region converges to a blunt point. The 
basal surface of the occiput is non-symmetrically flattened, the right half be- 
ing pressed up towards the parietals more than the left. This flattening is 
probably posthumous. In No. 955 we have another instance of this appa- 
rently posthumous deformity. The highest point of the vertex in No. 957 is 
at the anterior fontanelle. In No. 1040 the protuberance of the occiput over- 
hangs the basal portion like a ridge. In this skull is also exhibited the basi 
occipital flatness which, as we have just seen, characterizes the Minetari 
skulls. No. 952 is asymmetrical, the right half being a little shorter than 
the left. No. 953 belongs to the arched type. A slight flatness is observable 
in the posterior, inferior part of the parietalia, but the occipital bone curves 
regularly round to the foramen magnum without any flatness whatever. The 
same remarks apply to No. 956. Nos. 953 and 957 are remarkably prognathic. 
In No. 953 the prominence of the maxilla? gives to this skull a negrodike ap- 
pearance. 

A Naumkeag skull (No. 567) from Salem, Massachusetts, is a long, narrow 
oval head with a projecting occiput, and a high coronal region which is dis- 
tinctly carinated. 

Five Natick skulls from Nantucket, upon the whole, appertain rather to a 
form intermediate between the Dolicho- aud Brachycephali, than to either 
one of these classes. The elevated vertex and but moderately prominent oc- 
ciput give to No. 103 the arched form. No. 104 is a longer head, with a 
flatter crown and a more protuberant occiput. No. 107 is an oblong, dolicho- 
cephalic head. In No. 110 the upper part of the hind head is flat, and the 
protuberance of the occiput lozenge- shaped. 

The Natick and Narragansett skulls may be said to represent the woolly- 
haired African form. 

The Lenape or Delaware Indian skulls in the Academy's collection, also 
fall, for the most part, into the dolichocephalic class. With the exception of 
Nos. 205, 206 and 1263, they are long, though not strikingly narrow heads. 
The general outline of the coronal region resembles that of the Arickarees, 
Assinaboins, Cherokees and Iroquois, occupying a place in fact between the 
latter two. The occipital boss, though protuberant, is less so than in the 
Arickaree, Assinaboin and Cherokee heads. The occipital region is superiorly 
flattened. The upper jaws are more salient than in the heads already de- 
scribed, amounting in the female skull, No. 40, as shown in Crania Americana, 
plate 32, to negro-like prognathism. No. 1263 may be regarded as a Brachy- 
cephalus. In consequence of the posterior, interparietal diameter being 
greater than the frontal, the contour of the coronal region differs from that of 
the others of this group, and resembles that shown in some of the German 
skulls, especially No. 706. The posterior region is broad and perpendicularly 
flattened. The coronal outline of No. 1265 resembles in some respects that of 
No. 1263. Nos. 205 and 206 dug up from a street in Philadelphia, and sent 
to the Academy as Delaware Indians, are very similar in form to Nos. 1263 

1866.] 



218 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 



and 1265. They appear to be very old. The ten specimens composing this 
whole group appear to belong to a form or type of skull differing in many re- 
spects from those to which most of the heads already alluded to belong. 
Nos. 40 and 115 are narrow ovals ; Nos. 118 and 418 maybe classed in the 
same group, but they approach the arched type by being higher. They are, 
indeed, transitionary in form to Nos. 1264 and 1265, which are still more 
elevated in the coronal region. The form again changes in No. 1263, which is 
shorter, has a triangular crown and a natter and broader occiput, and is 
arranged therefore among the short heads with vertical occiputs. 

The Nanticoke head (No. 1219) is a broad, low skull, with a full rounded 
occiput. It resembles somewhat, No. 26, the Quinnipiack or Mohegan cranium. 

The form of the Mingo skull (No. 455) is a long oval, with a broadly oval 
crown and base, and a prominent occiput. 

The Ottawas of Michigan may be partly referred to the arched type. No. 
1007 is brachycephalic. It is a broad, low and round head. A greater pro- 
minence of the occipital boss in Nos. 1006, 1008 and 1009, causes these three 
skulls to depart somewhat from this type and approach the Swedish form. I 
have consequently placed them in the dolichocephalic division. 

The cranial specimens of the Menominees of Michigan, in the collection, differ 
from each other in their general configuration not a little. No. 35, the cra- 
nium of a female, resembles the Pocasset skull above referred to, a skull 
the principal characters of which are a recedent forehead, a relatively broad 
posterior, interparietal diameter, and a flatly-rounded occiput. No. 563, 
also a female head, resembles No. 35, but is rather less recedent in the 
forehead, has a broader base, and a fuller and broader occipital region. No. 
78, a male skull, is a long head, with protuberant occiput, the protuber- 
ance flattened vertically, and the lower and posterior parts of the parietalia 
flattened like an inclined plane. The median longitudinal line of the crown, 
in consequence of the more expanded forehead, approaches an oval figure. A 
fuller forehead, less prominent occiput and higher bregmatic region gives to 
No. 44, (a female head,) the arched form. The contour of the coronal region 
of No. 1220 is a broad, rounded oval. The posterior region is full and rounded. 
In No. 1222, a Menominee chief, the crown is a longer oval, the line of the 
sagittal suture more arched, and the occipital protuberance well pronounced. 
No. 4."p4, figured by Morton in Crania Americana, is a short, round and asym- 
metrical head, with a fuller frontal region and a less flat occiput than we find 
in the others. It has a Germanic crown. 

Two male Chippewa or Ojibway skulls in the collection (Nos. 683, 684,) 
belong to the Dolichocephali. In the general form of the calvaria they re- 
semble Swedish crania. They differ from the latter, however, in other re- 
spects, particularly in the face, which, singularly enough, in its osteological 
expression is very like the face of the Chinese skull. In this respect No. 684 
(Chippewa) resembles No. 94 (Chinese) not a little. 

Among the Miamis of Indiana we again encounter the dolichocephalic type. 
No. 542, the skull of a chief, (plate 30 of Crania Americana) is in many re- 
spects like the German heads in the collection, especially those from Tubin- 
gen, Frankfort, Berlin, &c. It is less full in the forehead, and more promi- 
nent about the middle of the sagittal suture. It has the Swedish occiput. In 
the whole series, except Nos. 541, 1055, 1058 and 1233, the outline of the 
crown forms a more or less rounded oval. In No. 1055, a female skull, this 
outline approaches the angular Gothic form, which is still better displayed in 
Nos. 1058, a young child, and 1233 also a female head, and is characterized 
by a disproportionate breadth between the parietal protuberances. No. 541 
is a narrow, oblong head. No. 106 approaches the arched type. In all the 
specimens the forehead is quite well developed ; and in most of them the 
upper part of the occiput is slightly flattened. In Nos. 1058 and 1233 the flat- 
ness is nearly vertical. 

In the two Illinois skulls the occipital region is wanting. No. 1010 evidently 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 219 

belongs to the mesocephalic form. No. 1051* is a Mound skull. It was found 
in 1848, iu a tumulus on the Blue River, Illinois. Enough of the parietals 
has been preserved to show that the posterior region was flattened and that 
the head should be placed among the Mesocephali. 

The Ottigamies or Fox Indians, of Illinois and Wisconsin, belong to the short- 
heads. Nos. 639 and 694, both male skulls, strongly resemble the angularly 
round or square form. The outline of the coronal region is nearly a rounded 
square. The occiput is almost vertically flat. No. 209 differs from these 
two in having a, less wide sinciput. No. 415, a half-breed, is a long head with 
a retreating forehead, a broad crown and the Swedish form of occiput. 

The Pcttawotomies of Michigan are Dolichocephali. No. 657 (plate 34 of 
Crania Americana) is a rude, massive, male skull, "remarkable," as Dr. 
Morton has observed, "for its capacity behind the ears, and for the great 
length and flatness of the coronal region." The apparent flatness of the crown 
is in part due to the angular prominence of the parietal bones at the anterior 
third of the sagittal suture. The forehead is low ; the posterior region large, 
broad and angular, with no very decided or marked flatness. In No. 737, a 
male skull, the crown is broader in proportion to its length than in No. 657, 
and less flat ; the posterior region round and full. The parietal bones at the 
anterior portion of the sagittal suture are less prominent than in No. 657. No. 
1322, a young Potawatomie warrior, varies from the others in being narrower 
and having a somewhat more prominent os occipitis. The face reminds me 
of the Chinese physiognomy. 

No. 736, the cranium of a young cbild, is brachycephalic, with a flat occiput 
and bulging parietalia. 

The Sac or Sauk Indians may be called long-heads. In No. 561 the crown 
is oblong ; the highest point at the junction of the coronal and sagittal su- 
tures. The upper part of the occiput is irregularly lozenge-shaped and pro- 
minent, the basal poition rather flat. No. 1246 is a rudely carved and mas- 
sive head, almost vertically flattened behind. The lower part has somewhat 
the appearance of being pressed underneath towards the foramen magnum. 

Two of the three skulls in the collection, marked Shawnee, are dolichoce- 
phalic, the other is brachycephalic. They are of uncertain history and locality, 
however, and cannot be relied upon as genuine representatives of this tribe. 
No. 606 is a long, narrow, oval head, resembling the Pawnee and Arickaree 
forms. No. 691, a remarkably inequilateral skull, belongs to a very different 
form. The whole head is broader, and the posterior region flattened almost 
entirely to the right of the median line. No. 1210, like No. 606, is a long, 
narrow head ; the median, longitudinal line of the crown slightly carinated 
after the fashion of the Eskimau skulls. The posterior region is broader and 
more protuberant than in No. 606, while the elevation of the vertex causes 
the skull to approximate the arched form. 

A Shyenne skull, (No. 1041), from Fort Williams, Arkansas river, belongs 
to the arched form. The superior alveolus is prominent, while the back of 
the head shelves downwards and backwards like an inclined plane. This 
cranium resembles the Chippeway (No. 684) and Blackfoot (No. 1227) heads. 
No. 939, also a Shyenne, from the neighborhood of Fort Kearney, differs some- 
what from the preceding. It is less highly arched, the occipital region is less 
prominent, and the crown more triangular and broader between the parietal 
protuberances. 

The Iroquois skulls in the collection are Dolichocephali. They may be 
classed very appropriately with the Cherokees. No. 16, exhumed near Lake 
Erie, closely resembles No. 632. The occipital region is flattened superioiily. 
No. 989 is probably not an Iroquois skull, though so marked. Its form differs 
very much from the others. These three crania, though grouped with the 
oval forms, occupy in reality an intermediate place between the oval and 
arched types. 



1865.] 



* Erroneously numbered 1042 in the Catalogue. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

Of three Mohawk skulls exhumed near Manheim, in New York, two are long- 
heads, (Nos. 895, 896), and one (No. 897) is intermediate in form between 
the long and short-headed groups. They may be said to belong to the arched 
form. They are shorter, broader and rounder in the base than the Cherokees, 
Arickarees, Assinaboins, Minetaris, Iroquois, &c, but less round than the 
Creeks, Chetimaches, &c. The posterior region is full, and the occipital pro- 
tuberance though well developed, is not so prominent a feature as in some 
of the long heads. 

The Oneida skull (No. 33) exhibits the arched form. It is a long, narrow 
head with a long, narrow face and small cheek bones. 

The Seneca cranium (No. 1516) belongs to a peculiar variety of the same 
general form, but is broader, and has fuller frontal and occipital regions, and 
a broader base. Both it and the Oneida are long heads. Occipital region 
rather flat. 

The skull of Wan-yun-ta, a Cayuga Chief, (No. 417), is a very long, narrow, 
oval head, somewhat kumbecephalic, with a prominent occipital protuberance. 

The Huron crania belong partly to the Brachyephali, and partly to the 
Mesocephali. No. 15, the head of a Huron Chief, killed near Detroit, is a 
massive, strongly marked and brutish skull. The forehead is flat and re- 
ceding ; the superciliary ridges very prominent ; superior maxilla everted ; 
lower jaw ponderous and flared out at the angles after the manner of the typical 
Eskimau skull ; malar bones projecting ; ossa nasi much incurvated ; junction 
of parietal bones ridged or keel-like ; skull rather narrow ; occipital pro- 
tuberance pretty well marked ; anterior bregmatic region elevated, giving an 
arched outline to the whole head ; occipital flatness in the upper part of the 
posterior region. In its general configuration, as viewed laterally, it resem- 
bles the Creek and Chetimache skulls, but differs from them in greater eleva- 
tion of crown. This coronal elevation is shown also in the other three skulls 
in this group, (Nos. 607, a female, from Cleveland, Ohio, 1217 and 1218, also 
female, from Detroit), which all exhibit this arched form, except No. 1217, 
which is nearly round. They are all short-heads. Nos. 607 and 1218 have 
the Swedish form of occiput ; the shelving, however, is not well marked, and 
the occipital protuberance not very prominent. In No. 1217 the occiput 
is flattened both above and below the protuberance. The whole posterior region 
is here broad and flat. 

Thirty-five crania from eight different tribes have been contributed to the 
collection from the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida 
and the Southern part of Tennessee ; or, in other words, from that section of 
the United States comprised between the Cumberland River and the Gulf of 
Mexico, and the Savannah and Sabine rivers. These tribes are the Cherokees, 
Muscogees or Creeks, Yamassees, Seminoles, Uches, Choctaws, Natchez and 
Chetimaches. 

There are six Cherokee skulls in the collection. Of these two, (Nos. 632, 634) 
belonged to women, and two (Nos. 633, 635) to young girls, while two ancient 
crania from the mounds in South Carolina (Nos. 1285, 1297) are males. 

No. 632, found "in a cave at Springtown, Polk Co., Tennessee, north of the 
river Hiwassee, and near an ancient battle-ground," is a beautifully formed 
female head, setat 20 years. It is regularly and symmetrically oval. The 
forehead, though low, rises evenly and gradually from the nasal suture p 
towards the coronal region, which region slopes away as gradually and is lost 
in the flattened and shelving upper half of the occiput, below which appears 
the regularly and smoothly protuberant occipital prominence. The head is a 
long, narrow oval, and belongs to the Dolichocephali. The base is long and 
narrow, the face small, and the nasal bones moderately prominent, with a 
rather sharp line of junction. It is a better formed head than the Assinaboin 
and Arickaree skulls. The Arickaree approaches it more nearly than the 
Assinaboin. No. 633, a Cherokee girl, astat 14 years, which was found with 
the preceding, has the same general characters, but is not so regularly oval 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 221 

in contour. The nasal bones are natter, and the superior maxillary more 
prominent. The latter bone, singularly enough, somewhat resembles that of 
a Japanese skull in the collection. The rest of the head is, however, very 
different. In No. 634, a woman, setat 20, the receding forehead rises much less 
regularly and more abruptly towards the vertex. The posterior region as a 
whole i? fuller and rounder, in consequence of the protuberance of the occipital 
bone being less prominent, and the shelving and flattening of the upper part 
not so great. The base is fuller posteriorly and less narrow than that of No. 
632, approaching in this and some other respects the two Mound heads, 
presently to be noticed. No. 633 may, in fact, be regarded as intermediate in 
form and characters between these Mound heads and No. 632. In the characters 
just mentioned, the two Mound heads (Nos. 12S5, 1297) exhibit some differ- 
ence. The whole head is larger, has a higher internal capacity, and is very 
roughly marked, the prominences and depressions being particularly well 
developed. The coronal region is oblong instead of being oval, the forehead 
flatter, the superciliary ridges strongly displayed, the nasal bones small and 
iucurvated, the alveolar margin of the superior maxillary prominent even to 
prognathism, malar bones heavy, protuberant and rough ; occipital region 
flatly protuberant, the flatness not being confined to the upper part, but 
ascribable to the whole occipital region, a feature mainly due to the greater 
prominence of the superior and anterior portion of the ossa parietalia, the 
diminished inclination of the posterior part of these bones, and the flat surface 
presented by the occipital protuberance. The base behind the meati is very 
broad, the mastoid processes large and heavy, and the lower jaw massive and 
deep at the symphysis. Still these heads are Dolichocephali. 

The crania of the Creek nation exhibit the same peculiar type to which the 
Chetimache skull belongs, and of which it may be regarded as the standard. 
No. 441 (Creek warrior from Alabama) is brachycephalic. No. 579, the skull 
of Athlaha-Ficksa, a full-blood Creek Chief, is somewhat looger, flatter on the 
top, and less round. Concerning this head, Dr. Morton thus writes : "The 
broad but low forehead, and the width between the parietal bones, are highly 
characteristic in this head: a front view is given of it, in order to convey an 
accurate idea of the osteology of the Indian face.* Thus we see the large and 
projecting cheek-bones, an arched and prominent bridge of the nose, powerfully 
developed jaws and remarkably perfect teeth. The distance between the eyes 
is even greater than is usual, yet the orbits themselves are not large in propor- 
tion." No. 751, a Creek woman of Georgia, is a long, oval head with a pro- 
tuberant occipital boss, and a superiority flattened occipital region, approxi- 
mating in some respects the Kimbric skulls in the collection. In No. 1454, a 
Creek Indian skull of Western Arkansas, the type again Varies. The occipital 
region as a whole is greatly protuberant, yet this prominence is gradually lest 
in the median line of the crown. In an equally gradual manner the forehead 
and the sides blend with the coroaal region, the most elevated point of which 
is in the anterior part of the sagittal suture. 

The specimens in the collection constituting the Seminole group vary not a 
little from each other. Some are long, and others short. No. 45G (plate 24 of 
Crania Americana) is around, high, almost globular head, peaked at the junc- 
tion of the coronal and sagittal sutures. No. 604 (plate 22 of Crania Ameri- 
eana) is a longer head, whose full length I find, upon examination, is not fairly 
shown in the first wood-cut on page 166 of Crania Americana. For the head 
is more symmetrical, the flatness of the posterior region being more decided 
on the left than on the right side. It is from the shortened side that the wood- 
cut is taken. The increased length of the head appears to be mainly due to 
the very protuberant os occipitis. The crown is les3 elevated than in the pre- 
ceding skull. No. 698 is a moderately long and oval head and is more highly 



* See Crania Americana, plate 26, for a facial view, and the figures on p. 170, for lateral, coronal 
and posterior views of this skull. 

1866.] 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

arcbed. A slight prominence of the sagittal suture is observed about one inch 
posterior to the coronal. No. 707 is a shorter skull, and has a full, high fore- 
head, a regularly arched crown, and an occiput full and rounded. No. 708 
resembles 698, as do also Nos. 727, 729, 730, 732, 733, 753,- 1105 and 1286. 
All these are long, oval-shaped heads, with a more or less narrow and promi- 
nent occiput, and the coronal region regularly arched antero-posteriorly ex- 
cept in No. 730, in which it is flatter. Nos. 726, 728 and 754 are not quite 
so long ; the occipital region is also broader aud less prominent. All the above 
specimens are from different parts of Florida. It, will thus be seen that in this 
group there are at least two if not three distinct types: a short, high form, to 
which Nos. 456 and 604 belong, and a long and more or less oval form, which 
includes all the others. 

The three ancient Yamassee skulls, from a mound near Tampa, in Florida, 
in which they appear to have lain upwards of a century, are all long, narrow 
and high skulls, belonging to what I call the arched type. They may, in fact, 
be taken as the standard of this type. In Nos. 1214 and 1215 the outline of the 
crown is oval ; in No. 1216 the oval outline is interrupted by the greater breadth 
between the parietal tubers. 

Two Cbetimache skulls, (Nos. 43, 70), one male and the other female, belong 
to the brachycephalic class. They were exhumed from a cemetery in the 
Parish of St. Mary, in Louisiana, and were considered by Morton as genuine 
skulls of the Chetimache tribe. They are angularly round heads, with a 
recedent forehead, elevated vertex, perpendicularly flattened occiput, and 
striking breadth between the parietal bosses or ossific centres. The form of 
these crania is, in many respects, peculiar. It belongs, as far as the general 
contour goes, to the great short-headed class, in which are arranged the Ger- 
mans, Finns, Laplanders, Kalmucks, Sclavonians and Turks. But from each 
and all of these it differs in several respects. The outline of the coronal region 
resembles a truncated spherical triangle, the base of which coincides with 
the posterior biparietal diameter. In this respect these heads resemble some 
of the German crania in the collection. But the latter differ from the former, 
in the relation which the longitudinal diameter bear3 to the vertical. In the 
general globnlarity of the posterior region, and the proximity of the foramen 
magnum to the back of the head, the Chetimache cranium resembles the 
Finnic, Sclavonic and Turkish types, but differs from them in the more 
recedent and proportionately less broad forehead, which latter feature makes 
the vertex appear more prominent. Of No. 70, the larger of the two heads 
under consideration, the reader will find in Crania Americana, an excellent 
lithograph, (plate 19,) together with the following observation from the pen 
of Dr. Morton : " Th^ nearly vertical occiput, the great height of the skull, 
and the size and strength of the bones of the face, are not surpassed by those 
of any Indian cranium I have seen," (p. 163.) 

The young female Choctaw skull (No. 22) is a large, oval, high head with a 
prominent occiput. 

The Euchee cranium (No. 39) is a comparatively short head, with a full, 
rounded occipital region. In its general form it resembles the Slavic skull. 

The collection embraces 26 miscellaneous crania obtained from the mounds 
in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Tennessee and Florida. 

No. 416 is an Indian skull taken from a mound seated on the high bluff 
which overlooks the Mississippi river, one hundred and fifty miles above the 
mouth of the Missouri. Morton describes it as " a large cranium, very full in 
its vertical diameter, and broad between the parietal bones. "f It is a good 
example of what I am disposed to call the arched type. It is dolichocephalic. 
In its general arched form it resr /'.bles the Creek skull, No. 1454. The coronal 
region closely resembles that exhibited by the Cherokee skull, (No. 634), 

* Erroneously numbered 1556 in the printed Catalogue. 
t See Crania Americana, p. 221. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 223 

already described. There is a difference, however, in the basis eranii. No. 
416 having a much greater intermastoid diameter. 

No. 1237 is the skull of an Indian woman exhumed near Fort Chartres, 
Illinois. It is bracbycephalic and closely resembles the Chetimache skull, No. 
43. The two skulls undoubtedly belong to the same great type. Their calvarial 
outlines are very much alike ; though No. 1237 has a somewhat fuller and less 
r.ecedent forehead. They have the same shaped orhits and anterior nares, 
the same small and incurvated ossa nasi, and the same prominence of the 
superior alveolus. In No. 1237 the bony palate is narrower, and the super- 
ciliary ridges are more strongly marked. The bases craniorum are alike. 

No. 1315, the skull of an aboriginal American female, found in a saltpetre 
cave at Golconda, Illinois, belongs to the arched type. It may be ranked with 
the Dolichocephali. It has a decidedly prognathous, superior alveolus. 

No. 1510, male Indian skull taken from an ancient mound in Illinois, belongs 
to the same type as the Pocasset cranium already referred to. It is a longer 
and much older head than No 1315 is more rudely formed, and has the face 
projecting further forward, in consequence of the prognathic upper jaw. 

No. 1511, an Indian cranium found with the preceding, belongs to the same 
type, but is not so long, and has a flatter and more recedent forehead, and a 
broader and somewhat shorter face. 

On p. 235 of Crania Americana, Dr. Morton informs us, that " in the month of 
May, 1835, a cavern cemetery was discovered on the bank of the Ohio river, 
opposite to Steubenville. * * * The bones contained therein appear to have 
been deposited at different periods of time, those on tne top being alone in good 
preservation. They were of all ages, and thrown in indiscriminately after the 
removal of the flesh ; for it is well known that some tribes were accustomed 
to gather, at times, all the bones of their deceased relatives, and place them in a 
common receptacle. Of the great number of skulls found in this place but few 
were perfect ; of which last I have received eight. These heads are thoroughly 
characteristic of the race to which they pertain. They bear no evidence of 
great age, and no doubt belonged to individuals of the barbarous tribes. Some 
have thought them Mingoes, who were affiliated to the Iroquois; but the form 
of the head does not support this surmise. * * * * All these skulls are 
surprisingly alike the vertex elevated, the occiput flat, the parietal diameter 
very great, and the lower jaw massive. They are also of singularly large 
capacity, and in this respect approach nearer to the Sauks and Foxes, and the 
Muskogees, than to any other tribes that have come under my notice. The 
mean internal capacity gives upwards of 85 cubic inches, and the facial angle 
rises 78 degrees. The anterior chamber gives 38-3 cubic inches, the posterior 
49-2; but notwithstanding the proportion of the former, there can be lit le 
doubt that these skulls belong to the savage tribes, and not to the Toltecm 
stock." 

Of the above skulls, Nos. 420, 436, 437, 438, 658 and 723 resemble each other 
very closely. They are all, with the exception of No. 438, asymmetrical. This 
want of symmetry is due to a remarkable flattening of the occipital region, on the 
left side in Nos. 436 and 437, and on the right in Nos. 420, 658 and 723. There 
is, consequently, a striking want of correspondence between the antero- 
posterior or longitudinal diameters of the two sides in each skull. Nos. 438 
and 724 are natter in the crown, and have, therefore, a shorter vertical 
diameter. All the specimens of this group may be assigned to the same 
cranial type as exhibited iu the Chetimache skull, No. 43. In the Mound skulls, 
however, the calvarial region is flatter, and has therefore less of the arched 
form than the Chetimache crania. The occipital region iu the former is also 
broader and flatter. There are facial differences likewise. Nos. 439 and 210 
are longer, narrower, more oval and without the occipital flatness. They pre- 
sent nothing of the arched form. In No. 723 the narrowness of the os frontis, 
the wall-like flatness of the occipital region, and the lowness of the crown 
combine to produce a singularly triangular form. 

1866.] 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

No. 53, from a mound at Circleville, Ohio, is a long-head. In general form 
it is like the Blackfoot cranium No. 1227, but has a more prominent occiput. 

No. 1287, from a mound at Chilicothe, Ohio, very closely resembles the 
Pocasset skull, from which, it differs by being somewhat broader. It occupies 
a position intermediate between the long and short heads. No. 1288, found 
in the same mound, is a long boat-shaped head with a very protuberant occipital 
boss. 

No. 1512, from a mound in the Scioto Valley, Ohio, is a brachycephalic skull. 
Of this cranium Dr. Morton thus wrote : " This is, perhaps, the most admirably- 
formed head of the American race hitherto discovered. It possesses the 
national characteristics in perfection, as seen in the elevated vertex, flattened 
occiput, great interparietal diameter, ponderous bony structure, salient nose, 
large jaws and broad face. It is the perfect type of Indian conformation, to 
which the skulls of all the tribes from Cape Horn to Canada more or less ap- 
proximate. Similar forms are common in the Peruvian tomb3, and have the 
occiput, as in this instance, so flattened and vertical as to give the idea of 
artificial compression ; yet this is only an exaggeration of the natural form, 
caused by the pressure of the cradleboard in common use among the American 
nations." 

No. 992, from a mound in Tennessee, resembles No. 1512. It is asymmetrically 
flattened. It is a short head, with a flat wall-like occiput and a triangular crown. 
The forehead and whole crown, indeed, are narrower than in Xo. 1512. It is just 
such a form as we might suppose the Pocasset type would take if pressed 
behind. 

No. 1271, from a mound near Huron river, Ohio, is a short head with an al- 
most vertically flat occiput. No. 1272, found with the preceding, is a longer and 
more oval head, with a more rounded occipital region. 

No. 1270, from Detroit, is a long, narrow, oval head, resembling, in general 
form, the Arikaree skulls. 

No. 1455, from a mound in Florida, is artificially flattened in such a manner 
as to resemble somewhat the Chinook or Charib skulls. 

No. 212, the cast of a Kenhawha skull, is a short head with a vertical 
occiput. 

No. 1557, from the banks of the Susquehanna river, is a long, oval head 
with prominent parietal and occipital protuberances. 

No. 215, from South Carolina, is brachycephalic. It belongs to the globular, 
Mongolia form. No. 216 is a long head, as are also Nos. 218 and 219. 

No. 134 is a long, narrow, oval and high head, with a prominent occiput. 
Nos. 136 and 146, from Warren county, Pennsylvania, are both dolichocephalic. 

No. 135, found on the brow of a bill about two miles below Trenton, New 
Jersey, is a long, asymmetrical head. It is probably the skull of a Delaware 
Indian. The supraorbital ridges are more prominent, however, than in the 
specimens of the Delaware group. This feature is also exhibited in the frag- 
ment, No 249, found in the same locality. 

The collection contains four Californian skulls. No. 1514 is the cranium of 
a California Indian, from a mound near Sacramento City. It is a dolicho- 
cephalic bead ; long and flat; the forehead narrow and low. The calvaria 
widens out posteriorly to the parietal tubers; the most elevated part of the 
vertex is on a line coinciding with the greatest interparietal diameter. The 
posterior part of the parietal bones shelves down to the prominent upper 
part of the os occipitis. The base is long and oval. The face of this skull is 
wanting. 

No. 1565 is a fragmentary Indian skull, thickly encrusted with carbonate of 
lime. It was found in a cave in Vallecita, Calaveras Co., California, along 
with 300 other human crania, all embedded in limestone. It has the same 
general appearance and conformation as the preceding skull. The occiput is, 
however, more prominent, and the contour of the more angular crown ap- 
proaches a lozenge-shaped oval. The calcareous incrustation extends, in some 
places, to the depth of an eighth of an inch. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 225 

In the south-western part of the North American continent lies an extensive 
tract of country designated by Prichard, Latham and other systematic 
ethnologists as the Paduca area. This ethnological region extends, according 
to Latham, from the Pacific ocean, in a south-eastwardly direction, to the 
Gulf of Mexico; from the water-system of the river Columbia to that of 
the Sabine river, and from north of 45 N. L., to south of 25 S. L. It is 
occupied by numerous, imperfectly known and unclassified tribes to whom the 
term Paduca has been applied provisionally. The tribes of this group repre- 
sented in the collection are the Shoshonis or Diggers, Utahs, Moquis, Apaches, 
Navajos, Lipans, Camanches, and that race of people which, though seem- 
ingly now extinct, once formed the numerous population of the large towns, 
long since in ruins, such as Quivira, Abo, Guarra, Pecos. &c. 

The Shoshoni, or Root-Digger skulls, three in number, vary in form. No. 1446, 
obtained on the Trucky river, in the California mountains, belongs to a peculiar 
form or type of which examples have already been pointed out in thePocasset, 
Narragansett and other tribes. It is, however, a broader skull. The crown ap- 
proaches the triangular form ; the forehead is rather broad and flat. The whole 
crown rises up to a sort of eminence situated between the parietal bosses. The 
occipital region is broad and rather flat, the basis cranii broad and rounded. Nos. 
1447 and 1449 are long heads. They differ in the form of the crown, which in 
No. 1449 is a long, regular oval, but in No. 1447 is flat and broad posteriorly 
between the parietal tubers. No. 1449 resembles somewhat the Arickaree form 
in both the occipital region and the basis cranii. No. 1447, in consequence of a 
greater projection of the occiput, exhibits the supero-occipital flatness of the 
Swedish form. 

Of this group Dr. Morton thus wrote: "Two of these skulls are so small, 
so receding in the forehead, and so depressed over the whole coronal region, 
that they could not, by intrinsic evidence alone, # have been identified with any 
branch of the aboriginal American race. They want the vertical occiput and 
general rounded form of the Indiau head, and have a narrowness of the face 
unusual wiih these people."* 

No. 1448, from the Eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, and recorded in the 
catalogue as pertaining to none of the Shosboni tribes, is a large, massive, 
heavy head, rudely developed. In the median line the crown runs back to an 
elevation similar to that seen in the Potawatomie skull (No. 657) figured by 
Morton; from this prominence descends a broad and almost perpendicularly 
flat occipital region. Hence, when viewed in profile, the skull has a quad- 
rangular appearance. This ponderous head, which Dr. Morton termed " the 
very type of Indian conformation," differs decidedly from Nos. 1447 and 1449, 
and resembles No. 1446. 

In November, 1855, Dr. Thomas J. Turner, while at Mare Island, California, 
dug up two skulls which he supposed to be those of Digger Indians. They 
were buried under a mass of calcined shells, some seven feet below the sur- 
face. One of these crania, No. 1027, is that of a female in all probability, 
and is the facsimile of the Shoshoni skull No. 1449. It is a long, narrow head 
with an oval occiput. The other skull, No. 943, is a long, high head, differ- 
ing considerably from No. 1027 and all the specimens grouped in the catalogue 
as Shoshonees. Nos. 1446 and 1448 should evidently be classed together as 
belonging to one tribe, while Nos. 1447, 1449 and 1027 clearly belong to an- 
other group. 

The skull of a young Utah girl (No. 140) is dolichocephalic, with prominent 
occipital and parietal protuberances, and a rhomboidal crown. 

Two Moqui crania, Nos. 138 and 139, are small, non-symmetrical heads. 
Both have the posterior region flattened ; the one slightly, the other decidedly. 
No. 138 exhibits the shelving, parieto-occipital flatness; the other, No. 139, 
has the back of the head almost vertically flattened. No. 139 is brachycepbalic; 

* Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. iv. p. 75. 

1866.] 15 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

the other may be said to be mesocephalic. In No. 138 the occipital protuber- 
ance is well marked , in No. 139 this protuberance is nearly obliterated. 

Three crania from Quivira and Quarra, New Mexico, (Nos. 1032, 1033 and 
1034), are brachycephalic. The occiput in all is more or less flattened, but 
most decidedly in No. 1032. 

A Pueblo craDium (No. 930) is dolichocephalic with shelving occipital flat- 
ness. Another Pueblo skull (No. 937) is short, high, and non-symmetrical. 

A skull from Santa Fe (No. 931) is a short, asymmetrical and occipitally 
flattened head. 

No. 1346, the skull probably of an ancient tribe of Lipan Indians, from the 
celebrated, sepulchral cavern of Bolson de Massimi, between San Sebastian 
and San Lorezo, in the State of Durango, New Mexico, is a long, oval head, 
with a very prominent occiput. No. 1345, the cranium of a modern Lipan, is 
shorter and has a somewhat more rounded occiput. 

The skull of a very young Apache child (No. 141) is dolichocephalic, and in 
its general form very much like the Utah cranium, No. 140. No. 145, the skull 
of a Mescalero Apache Indian, from the Desert of Black Hills, Texas, recently 
added to the collection, is a long oval and very symmetrically formed head, with 
protuberant occipital and parietal protuberances. It also resembles No. 140. 
No. 1035, the skull of a Mescalero Chief, is an oblong, barrel-shaped head with 
a rounded occiput and broad base. No. 935, a Mogoyon Apache, is a long, 
high head, very broad between the mastoid processes. No. 936, the cranium 
of a Navajo Indian, is a long, ponderous, broadly oval head with a broad base, 
a broad, high and almost vertical forehead, and a flattened posterior region. 
In its general form it resembles somewhat Nos. 1446 and 1448 of the Shoshoni 
group. 

No. 247 is the skull of a Camanche Indian, supposed to be that of " Yellow 
Wolf," head chief of his nation. It was found in a very conspicuous tomb, in 
a large Indian burial ground, on the head-waters of the Colorado River, near 
the deserted Fort Phantom Hill, Texas. It is a dolichocephalic cranium, of the 
arched type. 

No. 34, a Mexican Indian from Acapancingo, eighteen leagues south of 
Mexico, and referred by Morton to the Tlahuica tribe, is a dolichocephalic, 
prognathic female skull. 

No. 734, a male skull exhumed near the Indian village of Guahapan, on the 
mountain Popocatapetl, is mesocephalic and broadly oval. No. 735, a female 
skull found with the preceding, is a long head of the arched type. These two 
crania were regarded by Dr. Morton as probable examples of the ancient Aztec 
nation. 

Three skulls from an ancient cemetery at Otumba differ in form; Nos. 714, 
a male, and 716, a female, are dolichocephalic. The first, however, forms a 
broad oval, while the second belongs to the arched type. No. 715 is brachy- 
cephalic and globular. 

Nos. 717, 718 and 720 are ancient Mexican crania from Tacuba. The first 
belongs to the arched, the second to the cubical, and the third to the broadly 
oval type. The first two have pyramidal faces. No. 718 is brachycephalic and 
carinated also. Nos. 717 and 720 are dolichocephalic. 

The Otomie skulls are, for the most part, dolichocephalic. No. 1323, the 
cranium of Vicente Rivaz, an Ottomie Cazique of the pure Mexican race, is a. 
narrow oval in form. No. 1001 is arched. No. 1002 is phoxocephalic, with a 
very protuberant occiput. 

No. J 004, the skull of an ancient Mexican of the Tlascalan nation, is bra- 
chycephalic and globular. 

No. 1005, a woman of the Chechemecan nation is mesocephalic and arched. 

No. 681, a Mexican woman of the Pames tribe, is intermediate between the 
long and short heads, and is phoxocephalic. Another female skull of the same 
tribe, No. 1313, is a broadly oval dolichocephalus. 

No. 1314, exhumed from an ancient cemetery at Cerro de Quesilas, near the 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 227 

city of Mexico, and regarded by Dr. Morton as a relic of the genuine Toltecan 
stock, is a mesocephalic, male skull, with a broad and flat vertex. It resem- 
bles somewhat the Maya cranium referred to below. 

Nos. 682, 234, 1353 and 1566 are brachycephalic and cubical. No. 1515, a 
modern Mexican Indian cranium, is intermediate in length and phoxocephulic. 

Nos. 1347, 555, 557, 558 and 689 are dolichocephalic and broadly oval. No. 
556 is also dolichocephalic, but belongs to the arched type. It has a mam- 
millated occipital protuberance. 

The skull of a Maya Indian of Yucatan, No. 990, is dolichocephalic, and 
broadly oval, with a very flat crown and prognathic jaws. 

The Araucanian female crania, Nos. 651 and 652, are long, broadly oval 
heads. The sides and occipital region being slightly flattened and not. rounded, 
give a certain angularity or squareness to these he ids, a feature which is 
more marked in another female skull of this group, No. 654, ou account of the 
very flat vertex. No. 655, a male cranium, is a longer oval, with a somewhat 
more prominent occipital region. No. 656, a female skull, resembles some- 
what the form exhibited by the Pocasset head. No. 995, also a female, has a 
higher vertex, and is more protuberant in the upper half of the occipital 
bone. No. 997, a male skull, exhibits the arched type. Nos. 221 and 222 are 
arched like the Yamassee skulls. 

The only unflattened Charib skull in the collection, No. 692, is a long, 
moderately high and broadly oval skull. No. 638 and a cast, No. 225, though 
compressed or flattened heads, evidently belong to the Dolichocephali. 

The Brazilian crania are all dolichocephalic. The Tapuyo skull, No. 1254, is 
a large, long and broadly oval cranium. Three other Brazilians, Nos. 1513, 
1528 and 1529 are long, oval heads more or less prominent behind. The 
Guaycuru skull No. 1530 is also long and oval in form, with a prominent 
occiput. Nos. 1555 and 1556, two Gentoo skulls from the Purus River, a tribu- 
tary of the Amazon, are small, oval dolichocephalic crania. 

The collection contains a cast of the skull of a Patagonian, and 
another of the head of a Puelche girl. The former, No. 1357, (of which No. 
226 is a duplicate), is large, long and cylindrical or barrel-shaped in form. 
The latter, No. 1359, is a high, short and broad head with a flat, occipital 
region. 

Of the 245 Peruvian crania belonging to the Academy's collection, 50 are 
dolichocephalic and 168 brachycephalic; while the remaining 27 fall into the 
mesocephalic or intermediate class rather than into either of these two ex- 
tremes. To the elongated or dolichocephalic form belong all the specimens 
from Arica enumerated on pages 76, 77 and 78 of my Catalogue of Human Crania, 
together with nine others from the same locality, added to the collection since 
the publication of the catalogue. These skulls are artificially distorted, and 
are referrible to one or another of the grotesque forms exhibited in plates 2, 3, 
4 and 5 of the Crania Americana. The Arica skull, No. 932, is brachycephalic. 
To the long-headed class belong also the following, viz: Nos. 415, 1048, 1417" 
and 1445, from Pisco; No. 231, from Lima; No. 11, an ancient Chimuyan, from 
Truxillo ; No. 637, a Quichua of upper Peru; No. 1517, a child from Payta ; 
No. 232, from Atacames ; the casts (Nos. 700, 701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 710 'and 
711) of ancient Peruvian crania from Titicaca, Coracolla, Pomete and Chim- 
gauge; and Nos. 940, 941 and 942 from the ruins of old Callao. In Nos. 1048, 
1417 and 231, we again meet with examples of the narrow, oval form or type ; 
in Nos. 1445, 1 1, 232, 940 and 942, of the broad oval ; and in Nos. 637, 1517 and 
941, of the upsicephalic or arched form. 

Ninety-three skulls from Pachacamac are Brachycephali ; eleven others, 
Nos. 402, 409, 571, 631, 696, 1453, 1457, 1462, 1467, 1489 and 1499, are meso- 
cephalic. Of these latter, Nos. 571, 631, 696, and 1499, may be referred to the 
arched form. Had the process of growth and development not been inter- 
fered with in No. 76 by artificial means, this skull would have been a broadly 
oval Dolichocephalus. In the brachycephalic group must also be arranged all 

1866.] 



228 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

the crania from Pisco, except three Nos. 445, 1048 and 1445 which are 
dolichocephali ; and four Nos. 1061, 1326, 1369 and 1423 which are meso- 
cephali and all referrible to the arched form. Another series of Peruvian crania, 
collected. at Paracas Bay by Dr. Turner, (Nos. 1298, 1273,1274, 1275, 1303, 
1304, 1305, 1025 and 1026, none of which are recorded in my printed Cata- 
logue), belong likewise to the Mesocephali and to the phoxocephalic group of 
the arched form or type. All the skulls from Santa are brachycephalic, as are 
also all from Lima, except No. 231, which is a long-head, and No. 68, which is 
a broadly oval mesocephalus. No. 451 is alsomesocephalic and arched. Nos. 
1518, from Payta, 1046 from Guamay, 447, 448 and 233 from Callao are 
brachycephalic. 

From the above statements it will be seen that among the Peruvian crania in 
the Academy's collection the Brachycephali are greatly in numerical excess 
over the long and middling long-heads. As regards their type or ethnic form 
they may all be placed in the kubicephalic or square-headed group. 

As a summary of the more prominent facts recorded in the preceding pages, 
and in order to exhibit as distinctly as possible the leading differential charac- 
ters of the American Indian crania contained in the museum of the Academy, 
I have constructed the following tables, and attempted therein to classify these 
crania according to their length as compared with their heighth and breadth, 
and according to their general ethnic forms or types. Grouping them in this 
manner is essentially preliminary to comparing them with corref ponding groups 
of skulls of the old world. Such a comparison I purpose to institute in a future 
monograph to be devoted to the consideration of the large collection of 
Esquimau skulls referred to above. 

In the first fable the American races represented in the collection are 
grouped in accordance, for the most part, with the philological arrangement 
or classification of Latham, while their crania are arranged in dolichocephalic 
mesocephalic and brachycephalic classes. In the second table these skulls are 
classified with especial reference to the more prominent of the ethnic or typical 
forms exhibited by the entire series. This classification must not be regarded, 
however, as rigidly accurate. It is provisional only, as all such classifications 
must necessarily be, and subject, therefore, to future revision. Large a3 is the 
collection of American skulls now under consideration, it is, nevertheless, ex- 
ceedingly defective. With the exception of the Peruvians and, next to these, the 
Seminoles and Esquimaux, the specimens representing the different tribes are 
but few in number, and of the identity of some of these I am not yet perfectly satis- 
fied ; moreover there are many well-known tribes and races of which the collec- 
tion contains not a single cranial specimen. Though the collection is not 
sufficiently diversified to exhibit all the probable cranial forms of the aborigi- 
nal Americans, it is ample enough to show that among these people there are 
long, short and intermediate heads divisible into pyramidal, oval, cylindrical, 
arched, wedge-shaped, flat, globular, cubical, prognathic and other forms, all 
as different from each other as are the distinct types of the old world. In as- 
signing the skulls to these typical groups or classes I have experienced the 
usual difficulty in locating the transitionary or aberrant forms, which are 
always, in large collections, more or less numerous, and which often effectually 
obliterate all sharply-draw lines of demarcation. Future examinations and 
comparison may cause these transitionary specimens to be transferred from, 
groups in which I have at present placed them to others ; but this transposition 
though it may ultimately lead to the establishment of other types, can in no case 
diminish the stability of those which I have just indicated. These groups, by 
means of the intermediate forms, graduate into or blend with each other, and 
we are thus admonished here, as in other departments of natural history, of 
nature's eternal enigma of a certain undefinable, serial unity pervading and 
co ordinating an endless diversity of forms. 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



229 



Table I. Classification of Aboriginal American Crania according to length. 



I. DoLICHOCEPHALI. 

Long skulls more or less 
oval ; with more or less 
protuberant occiputs. 



II. Mesocephali. 

Skulls intermediate in 
length, with broadly 
oval, triangular or 
quadrangular crowns : 
the occiput generally 
rounded or raiher flat. 



III. Brachycephali. 

Short skulls with round- 
ed base, and globular, 
or more or less verti- 
cally flattened occi- 
puts. 



Esquimaux, Nos 1558, 
1559, 1560, 1561, 1562, 
1563,674,675,676,677, 
678, 679, 200. 



A. Esquimaux Group. 



B. Athapascan Group. 



Chimseyan, No. 987. 
Naas, Nos. 213, 214. 
Chinuoks (?), Nos. 457, 
578. 



I 

C. North-west Coast Group. 



Kootenays, Nos. 744, 745. 



Pawnee, No. 1043. 
Arikaras, Nos. 649, 748, 
949. 



Minetaris, Nos. 650, 746, 

747, 749. 
Assinaboins, Nos. 659, 

1230, 1231. 
Mandans, Nos. 643, 644, 

738, 739, 740, 741, 742. 
Dacotas or Sioux, Nos. 

204, 112. 

Aubsarokes, Nos. 1228, 

1229. 
Winnebago, No. 560. 

Massasauga, No. 27. 
Penobscots, Nos. 89, 105. 



Narragansetts, Nos. 950, 
951, 952, 954, 955, 957, 
1040. 



D. Kootenay Group. 

E. Pawnee Group. 
Pawnee, No. 540. 

F. Dacota Group. 



Tlatskanai, No. 577. 

Nisqually, No. 203. 
Suquimmiah, Nos. 944, 

946, 1013, 1014. 
Kawichin, No. 1015. 
Kowalitsk, No. 573. 
Killeraook, No. 576. 
Klikatats, Nos. 207, 461. 
Kalapuya, No. 574. 
Chinooks, No^. 462, 641, 

721, 1349, 1350. 
Klatsops, Nos. 203, 575. 



Dacota, No. 605. 
Osage, No. 660. 
Ottoes, Nos. 755, 757. 



G. Algonkin Group. 

Quinnipiak Mohegan, No. 

26. 
Pocasset, No. 1036. 
Narragansetts, Nos. 693, 
. 953, 656. 



Osage, No. 54. 
Ottoes, Nos. 756, 755 



Winnebago, No. 559. 



1866.] 



230 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



Naumkeag, No. 567. 

Naticks, Nos. 104, 107, 
110. 

Lenni-Lenapes or Dela- 
ware?, Nos. 40, 115,118, 
418, 12G4, 1265, 135, 
136, 146. 

Nanticoke, No. 1219. 

Mingo, No. 455. 

Ottawa?, Nos. 1008, 1009 

Menominees, Nos. 44, 78, 
1220, 1222. 

Chippewas, Nos. 683, 684. 

Miamis, Nos. 106, 407, 
541, 542, 1052, 1053, 
1054, 1055, 1056,1057. 

Ottigamie, (half-breed,) 

No. 415. 
Pottawotomies, Nos. 657, 

737, 1322. 
Sauks, Nos. 561, 1246. 
Shawnees, Nos. 606, 1210. 
Shyennes, Nos. 939, 1041. 



Iroquois, Nos. 16, 119, 

989. 
Mohawks, Nos. 895, 896. 
Oneida, No. 33. 
Seneca, No. 1516. 
Cayuga, No. 417. 
Huron, No. 607. 

Cherokees, Nos. G32, 633, 
634, 635, 1285, 1297. 

Choctaw, No. 22. 

Creeks, Nos. 751, 1454. 

Seminoles Nos. 698, 707, 
708, 727, 729, 730, 732, 
733, 753, 754, 1105, 
1286. 



Naticks, Nos. 103, 401. 
Lenni-Lenape, No. 998. 



Ottawa, No. 1006. 
Menominees, Nos. 35, 454. 

Miamis, Nos. 1058, 1233. 



Illinois, No. 1010. 



Lenni-Lenapes, Nos. 205, 
206, 1263. 



Ottawa, No. 1007. 
Menominee, No. 563. 



Shoshonees, Nos. 1447, 

1449, 943, 1027. 
Utah, No. 140. 

Pueblo, No. 930. 



Blackfoot, No. 1227. 
H. Iroquois Group. 

Mohawk, No. 897. 

Hurons, Nos. 15, 1218. 
I. Cherokee Group. 

J. Choctaw Group. 

Creek, No. 579. 
Seminoles, Nos. 604, 726, 
728. 



K. Unclassified Group. 

Yamassees, Nos. 1214, 

1215, 1216. 
Euchee, No. 39. 



L. Paduca Group. 

Shoshonees, Nos. 1446, 
1448. 

Moqui, No. 138. 



Ottig:amies,Nos. 209, 639, 

694. 
Pottawotomie, No. 736. 



Shawnee, No. 691. 



Huron, No. 1217. 



Creek, No. 441. 
Seminole, No. 456. 



Chetimaches, Nos. 43, 70. 
Natchez, Nos. 102, 1106. 



Moqui, No. 139. 
Pueblo, No. 937. 



[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



231 



Lipans, Nos. 1345, 1346. 
Apaches, Nos. 141, 145, 

935, 1035. 
Navajo, No. 936. 
Camanche, No. 247. 
TIahuica Mexican, No. 34. 
Aztec ? No. 735. 
Mexicans (Otumba,) Nos. 

714, 716. 
Mexicans (Tacuba,) Nos. 

717, 720. 
Mexicans (Otomie,) Nos. 

1323, 1001, 1002. 

Pames Mexican, No. 1313. 



Modern Mexicans, 
1347 

722. 



Nos. 
555,556,559,558, 



Aztec ? No. 734. 



Santa Fe, No. 931. 

Ancient Tribes of New- 
Mexico, Noa. 1032, 1033. 
1034. 



Mexican 

715. 
Mexican 



(Otumba,) No. 
. No. 718. 



Chechemecan, No. 1005. 
Pames Mexican, No. 681. 
Ancient Mexicans, Nos. 
1226, 1314. 



Modern 
1515, 



Mexican. No. 



Tlascalan, No. 1004. 



Mexicans, Nos\ 
1353, 1566. 



682, 234, 



Nos. 53, 134, 



218, 219, 416, 
1272, 1288, 131* 



210, 216, 
1270, 



1510, 



1511, 1514, 1557, 1565. 



M. Mound Group. 
Nos. 439, 1051,1271,1287. 



Nos. 211, 212, 215, 420, 
436, 437, 438, 658, 723, 
992, 1237, 1512, 1455 



Maya, No. 990. 
Charibs, Nos. 

692. 
Brazilians, Nos. 1513, 

' 1528, 1529. 
Tapuro, No. 1254. 
Guaycuru, No. 1530. 
Gentoos, Nos. 1555, 1556. 
Araucanians, Nos. 221, 
222. 

Patagonian, No. 1357. 
Peruvians 

From Arica, 29 crania. 
" Pisco, Nos. 415, 
1048, 1417, 1445. 
From Lima, No. 231. 
" Payta, No. 1517. 

" Atacames, No. 
232. 
From Callao, Nos. 940. 

941, 942. 
From Titicaca, Cora- 
colla, &c, 8 casts. 
Chimuyan, No. 11. 
Quichua, No. 637. 

1866.] 



A^. Central and South American Group . 
225, 638 



Araucanians, Nos. 651, 
652, 654, 655, 656,995, 

997. 



Peruvians 

From Arica, No. 



932. 



" Pisco, 4 crania. 

From Lima, No. 68. 

" Paraceas Bay, 9 

crania. 
From Pachacamae, 11 

crania. 
Of unknown origin, No. 

451. 



Araucanian, No. 120. 



Puelche, No. 1359. 
Peruvians 

From Pisco, 55 crania. 
" Pachacamae, 93 



crania. 
From Santa, 
" Lima, 



8 crania. 
5 crania. 



From Payta, No. 1518. 

From Guamay, No. 

1046. 
From CalUo, Nos. 447, 

448, 233, 132. 
Of unknown origin. 



232 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



Table II. Classification of Aboriginal American Crania according to their Ethnic 

Forms. 

A. Pyramidal or Pyramidocephalic* Form. 

General Characters: Dolichocephalic; calvaria carinated and pyramidal; 
face lozenge-shaped and broadest below the orbits. 

Esquimaux, Nos. 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, 1562, 1563, 674, 675, 676, 677, 678, 
679, 200. 

B. Oval or Ooidocephalic| Form. 

General Characters. Chiefly dolichocephalic ; vertex and base of the skull 
more or less oval in outline. This oval generally regular, sometimes rhom- 
boidal or angular ; sometimes loDg and narrow, sometimes rather short and 
broad. Occipital region more or less full and prominent ; occasionally very 
much elongated. Occipital protuberance sometimes knob-like, sometimes 
acuminated. Posterior portion of the ossa parietalia shelving downwards and 
backwards like an inclined plane ; a portion of this plane sometimes formed by 
the upper half of the occipital bone. Forehead moderately well developed in 
breadth and beighth. 

Subdivisions. 1. Cymbecephalic or boat-shaped form, in which the occiput is 
exceedingly protuberant. 2. Narrow oval form. 3. Broad oval form. 4. 
Barrel-shaped or cylindrical form. 5. Angularly oblong form. 6. Artificially 
elongated form. 

I. Cymbecephalic Form. 

Minetaris, Nos. 650, 746. 
Creek, No. 751. 
Dacota, No. 112. 



Arickaree, No. 649. 
Cherokee, No. 632. 
Miamis, Nos. 1052, 

541. 
Kootenay, No. 744. 
Lenni-Lenape, No. 40 
Mandan, No. 738. 
Seminole, No. 733. 



1053, 1054, 1055, 



Pawnee, No. 1043. 
Cayuga, No. 417. 
Narragansett, No. 951. 
Mound skull, No. 1288. 



II. Narroiv Oval Form. (Stenocephalic.)J 

Arickarees, Nos. 748, 949. 
Mandans, Nos. 643, 644. 
Cherokees, Nos. 633, 634, 635. 
Kootenay, No. 745. 
Naas, No. 214. 

Lenni-Lenapes,Nos. 115, 118, 418, 1264 
1265. 



f Miamis, Nos. 1056, 1057. 

\ Iroquois, Nos. 16, 119, 989. 
Minetaris, Nos. 747, 749. 
Narragansetts, Nos. 950, 952, 954, 955. 
Chocta, No. 22. 
Lipan, No. 1346. 
Peruvians from Pisco, Nos. 1048,1417. 



Peruvian from Lima, No. 231. 

Gentoos, No. 1555, 1556. 

Penobscot, No. 105. 

Seminoles, Nos. 727,729, 730. 

Shawnee, No. 606. 

Massasauga, No. 27. 

Upsarookas, Nos. 1228, 1229. 

Illinois, No. 1010. 

Mowhawks. Nos. 895, 896. 

Natick, No. 107. 

Shoshones, Nos. 943, 1027, 1449. 

From the Mounds, No. 1270. 

Miscellaneous, Nos. 134, 218, 219, 1557. 



f n&v, E/J&c, Ksq>aA. 

J Itivo;, Ktqxxhit. 

j; These five crania form the transition to the arched form. 



[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 



233 



III. Broad Oval Form 

Assinaboins, Nos. 659, 1230, 1231. 

Naas, No. 213. 

Mandans, No*. 739, 740, 742. 

Menominees, Nos. 78, 1220, 1222. 

Miami, No. 407. 

Pottawotomie, No. 737. 

Winnebago, No. 5(50. 

Chinook, (normal form,) No. 578. 

Chimseyan, No. 987. 

Creek, No. 579. Shorter and more 
broadly ovhI than the Assinaboins, 
between which and the brachyce- 
phalic Creek skull, No. 441, it forms 
the transition. 

Ottoe, No. 757. 

Ottawa, No. 1008. 

Seminoles, Nos. 754, 708. 

Utah, No. 140. 

Pueblo, No 930. 

Apaches, Nos. 141, 145. 

Lipan, No. 1345. 

Peruvian from Pisco, No. 1445. 



(Eurycephalic.)* 

Chimuyan, No. 11. 

Peruvian from Atacames, No. 232. 

Peruvians from Callao, Nos. 940, 942. 

Peruvian from Lima, No. 68. 

Naticks, Nos. 104, 401. 

Sauks, Nos. 561, 1246. 

Mingo, No. 455. 

Dacota, No. 204. Departure from As- 
sinaboins. Stands between it and 
the Cret-k skull, No. 1454. 

Ottigamie, (half breed,) No. 415. 

Shyenne, No. 939. 

Euchee, No. 39. 

Californians, Nos. 1514, 1565. 

Miscellaneous, No. 216. 

Maya, No. 990. 

Tapuro, No. 1254. 

Guaycuru, No. 1530. 

Charibs, Nos. 638, 692. 

Araucanians, Nos. 651, 652, 654, 655. 

Brazilians, Nos. 1513, 1528, 1529. 



IV. Barrel-shaped or Cylindrical Form. (Cylindricephalic.)f 



Patagonian, No. 1357. 
Narragansett, No. 1040. 



Apache, No. 1035. 



Shoshone, No. 1447. 



V. Angularly Oblong Form. 

iNatick, No. 107. 

VI. Artificially Elongated Form. 
Peruvians from Arica, 29 crania. I Peruvians from Titicaca, Corocolla, 

' &c, 8 casts. 

C. Arched or HypsicephalicJ Form. 
General Characters. Generally dolichocephalic ; high or vertically elevated 
skulls. Forehead high ; vertex or coronal region sometimes curving from the 
glabella to the occipital protuberance, so as to form a more or less regular 
arch, as in the Archencephali ; sometimes running up to an elevated point at 
the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures as in the Fhoxocephali. 

I. Ar diencephalic 



Seminoles, Nos. 707, 726, 1286. 
Shoshone, No. 1448. 
Seneca, No. 1516. 
Pottawototnies, Nos. 657, 1322. 
Oneida, No. 33. 
Cherokees, Nos. 1285, 1297. 
Chippewas, Nos. 683, 684. 
Blackfoot, No. 1227. 
Shawnee, No. 1210. 
Huron, No. 607. 
Ottawa, No. 1009. 
Naumkeag, No. 567. 
Moqui, No. 138. 
New Mexico, No. 1033. 



Menominee, No. 44. 

Osage, No. 660. 

Penobscot, No. 89. 

Mounds, Nos. 416, 1315,210,439, 1272, 

53. 
Minsi (Lenape,) No. 998. 
Narragansett, No. 953. 
Araucanians, Nos. 221, 222, 995, 997. 
Yamassees, Nos. 1214, 1215. 
Quichua, No. 637. 
Peruvian of Payta, No. 1517. 
Peruvian of Callao, No. 941. 
Peruvians from Pisco, Nos. 1061, 1326, 

1369, 1423. 



* Eupu$. Kscp.iX>). 

1866.] 



\T7ret, Kscf)x>). 



234 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE ACADEMY OF 



II. Phozocephali.* 



Seminoles, Nos. 604, 698, 732, 753, 

1105. 
Hurons, Nos. 15, 1218. 
Shyenne, No. 1041. 
Mandan, No. 741. 
Ottoe, No. 755. 
Ottawa, No. 1006. 
Creek, No. 1454. 



Narragansetts, Nos. 956, 957. 

Naticks, Nos. 103, 110. 

Carnanche, No. 247. 

Peruvians from Pachacamac, Nos. 571, 

631, 696, 1499. 
Peruvians from Paraccns Bay, Nos. 

1298, 1273, 1274, 1275, 1303, 1304, 

1305, 1025 and 1026. 



D. Wedge-shaped or Sphenocephalicj Form. 
General Characters. Chiefly mesocephalic or intermediate in length between 
the dolichocephali aDd brachycephali. Forehead more or less recedent ; 
crown triangular in shape, narrow at the forehead and wide between the 
parietal protuberances. Back of the head more or less flat, and pressed in 
towards the foramen magnum. Constitutes the transition to the square-headed 
brachycephali. 



Pocasset, No. 1036. 
Menominee, No. 35. 
Narragansett, No. 693. 
Shoshone, No. 1446. 
Yamassee, No. 1216. 



Araucanian, No. 656. 
Mound crania, Nos. 1510, 1511, 1287. 
Chinook (normal form,) No. 457, ap- 
proaches this type. 



E. Flat or Platycephalic Form. (Subglobular.) 
General Characters. Chiefly mesocephalic like*the preceding group, with flat 
vertex, and rounded occiput. Transitionary to the round-headed or globular 
brachycephali. 



Seminole, No. 728. 
Miamis, Nos. 1058, 1233. 



Pawnee, No. 540. 
Dacota, No. 605. 
Mohawk, No. 897. 

F. Globular or SphaericephalicJ Form. 
General Characters. Brachycepbalic ; vertex, occipital region and base 
rounded or globular. Occiput sometimes rather flat. 



Ottawa, No. 1007. 
Ottigamie, Nos. 039, 694, 209. 
Pottawotomie, No. 736. 
"Winnebago, No 559. 
Missouri, No. 211 . 
Menominee, No. 563. 
Mound, No. 420. 
Miscellaneous, No. 215. 



Ottoe, No. 756. 
Mohegan, No. 26. 
Nanticoke, No. 1219. 
Seminole, Nq. 456. 

arched form. 
Huron, No. 1217. 
Moqui, No. 139. 
New Mexico, No. 1034. 



"(Transition from 
j broad ovals. 
Transition from 



G. Square, Cuboidal or Cubicephalic Form. 



General Characters. Brachycepbalic 

Chetimaches, Nos. 43, 70. 
Creek, No. 441. 

Lenni-Lenapgs, Nos. 205, 206, 1263. 
Osage, No. 54. 
Ottoe, No. 758. 
Shawnee, No. 691. 
Kenhawhi, No. 212. 
Puelche, No. 1359. 

Mounds, Nos. 436, 437, 438, 658, 723 
992, L237, 1271, 1512. 



Occiput vertically flattened, or nearly so. 

New Mexico, No. 1032. 
Pueblo, No. 937. 
Santa Fe, No. 931. 

Peruvians from Pachacamac, 93 crania. 
Peruvians from Pisco, 55 crania. 
Peruvians from Santa, 8 crania. 
Peruvians from Lima, 5 crania. 
Peruvians from Payta, Guamay and 

Callao, Nos. 1518, 1046, 447, 448 and 

233. 



*,$o|oc, Kj? ah. 



Ki/.J/xsf, Ks.paA.ii. 



[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 235 

H. Prognathic or Negroid Form. 

Lenni-Lenape, No. 40. I Maya, No. 990. 

Narragansett, No. 953. 

From the foregoing statements and from a careful examination of the pre- 
ceding tables we may conclude : 

1st. That the crania of the Aboriginal Americans are divisible into Dolicho- 
cephalic, Mesocephalic and Brachycephalic groups. 

2d. That the Dolichocephali greatly preponderate in numbers over the Meso- 
cephali and Bracbycephali. 

3d. That in the case of the Peruvian skulls in the Academy's collection, 
however, the short, square heads are more numerous than the elongated forms. 
4th. That in North America neither the Dolichocephalic nor Brachycephalic 
tribe9, when first known to Europeans, were restricted in their geographical 
distribution to any particular locality. While the former were scattered over 
the continent, through all degrees of latitude and longitude; the latter appear 
to have been, if we may judge from the specimens in the Museum, more numer- 
ous about the Great Lakes, at various places in the interior, in the south near 
the Gulf of Mexico, in the so-called Paduca area, and especially along the 
north-west coast. In general terms we may say that on the eastern or A an- 
tic side of the continent the Dolichocephali appear to have prevailed ; and on the 
western or Pacific side the Brachycephali. This in a great measure seems 
to have been, and still is the case in South America. 

5th. That long and short-headed tribes or races are very commonly found 
throughout the two Americas side by side. In the extreme north, for example, 
dolichocephalic and brachycephalic forms are contrasted in the Esquimaux 
and their geographical neighbors, the Konaegi or Kadiakan Aleutians; and 
again in the far south these diverse forms are exhibited in the Patagoni-ins 
and Puelches. 

6th. That this contrast in cranial forms existed among the extinct races of 
America, as it now does among extant tribes. 

7th. That in comparing the old and new worlds by their cranial forms, we 
find that while in Europe and Asia the hrachycephalic is the prevalent form, 
in North America the dolichocephalic is the predominant type. 

8th. That while in Africa all the people are dolichocephalic, in South Ame- 
rica they are nearly equally divided between the long and short forms. 

9th. That while in Europe and Asia the Polar or Arctic people are chiefly 
brachycephalic, in America they are wholly dolichocephalic. 

10th. That various European, Asiatic and African crania, such as those of 
Norwegians, Swedes, Anglo-Saxons, the Germanic or long-headed G rmans, 
the Gothic or short- headed Germans, the Finns, Lapps, Turks, Sclavonians, Kal- 
mucks, Burats, Prognathic Negroes, &c, find representatives among the native 
cranial forms of America. 

11th. That this homoiocephalic representation is not confined to normal 
skull-forms, but is shown in abnormal or artificially distorted skulls also. 

12th. That the Dolichocephali are divisible into at least six well-marked 
forms or types, viz. : the pyramidal, boat-shaped, oval, cylindrical oblong and 
arched. 

13th. That the Brachycephali maybe divided into round or globular, and 
square or cuboidal classes. 

14th. That the Mesocephali also consist of two sub-groups, one of which is 
transitionary to the square or cubical, and the other to the round or globular 
Brachycephali. , 

15th Tnat these ethnical or typical "groups are founded upon osteological 
differences as great, and apparently as constant, as those which, in Europe, 
suffice to separate the Germanic and Celtic stocks on the one hand, from the 
TJgrian, Turkish and Sclavonian, on the other. 

1866.] 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADExMY OP 

On the Introduction of the American SHAD into the Alabama Eiver. 

BY W. C. DANIELL, M. D., OF SAVANNAH, GEO. 

(Communicated through the Smithsonian Institution.) 

My success in establishing the White Shad in the Alabama River being now 
complete, I propose to give jou a detailed statement of the matter. 

Having long doubted the generally received theory of the annual migration 
south from the uorthern seas, of the White Shad, and of the consequent annual 
migration thither of the young fry hatched from the eggs deposited by their 
parents in our fresh water streams, I made inquiry of our fishermen, and learned 
that minute but distinctive differences were readily detected between the 
White Shad taken in the Savannah River and those taken in the Ogeechee 
River, eighteen miles south of the Savannah River. Fully satisfied of this fact, 
I readily concluded that the young shad that descend to the sea never go so 
far from the mouth of the river descended, as to lose their connection with it, 
and that they ascend iu the spring the same river which they had descended as 
young fish the previous summer. Then the feeding ground, so to speak, of the 
shad is iu or near the mouth of the river. If the. young shad does attain its 
growth at the mouth of the Savannah and of the Ogeechee Rivers, may there 
not be equally good feeding-grounds at the mouihs of the Alabama and other 
rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico? To solve this question, I, wiih the aid 
of my friend Mark A. Cooper, Esq , whose residence on the Etowah River in 
Barton County supplied an eligible locality for the experiment, in the early 
summer of 1848 had placed in a small tributary of the Etowah River the fe- 
cundated eggs of the White Shad, which I had myself carefully prepared at 
my plantation on the Savannah River, ten miles above this city, from living 
parents. These eggs, so deposited by Major Cooper, were daily visited by him 
until they had all hatched. I sent another supply of fecundated eggs to Dan'l. 
Pratt, Esq., at Prattsville, near Montgomery, Ala., in 1853 or '54, as he writes 
me, which he deposited in a small creek. Inasmuch as he left home soon after, 
and was absent " some weeks," he can only report that during that absence 
heavy rains raised the waters in the creek, and washed away the " pen " in 
which he had placed the White Shad eggs supplied by me. Nothing can 
therefore be safely affirmed of the success of this second deposit, nor is it im- 
portant, as in 1851 or '52 the White Shad had already been taken in the fish- 
traps at the foot of the Falls of the Alabama, at Wiiumka, and of the Black 
Warrior, near Tuscaloosa, though unknown to me at the time of supplying 
Mr. Pratt with the fecundated eggs. 

Through the kindness of a friend at Montgomery, Ala., a shad taken from 
the Alabama River was sect to Prof. Holbrook, of Charleston, S. C, and he 
wrote me that he " felt certain " that the fish received and examined by bim 
was identical with the White Shad of our Atlantic rivers. I have a letter from 
Chas. T. Pollard, Esq., of Montgomery, Ala., of 6th inst., in which, speaking of 
the White Shad in the Alabama River, he says: "They have gradually in- 
creased in quantity since they first appeared, and have year by year increased 
in size, until, to use the words of a native of South Carolina, who lived many 
years near Sistera Ferry, on the Savannah River, they are now equal to the 
best Savannah River Shad." 

The White Shad have chiefly been taken in the fish-traps at the foot of the 
Falls atWetumpka and near Tuscaloosa. One, I am informed, has been taken 
from a trap at the head of the Coosa River, near Rome, in tbis State, and only 
some sixty miles below the locality in which the eggs were deposited by Major 
Cooper, in a tributary of the Etowah River. I also learn that some few have 
been taken with a dip net, near Selma. 

I think that we may safely conclude that the White Shad may be as success- 
fully established in the Mississippi River as it has been in the Alabama. Since 

[May, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 237 

feeding-grounds for that delicious fish exist at the mouth of one river flowing 
into the Gulf of Mexico, may they not exist at the mouths of other or all the 
rivers discharging into that sea ? Time must answer that question. 

When the presence of the White Shad in the Alabama River became known, 
some enterprising citizens of Montgomery came to Savannah and procured a 
number of the young shad from the river, placed them in a hogshead of water, 
which was kept cool by occasional supplies of ice, and took them by railroad 
to Montgomery and placed them in the Alabama River. The purpose of this 
measure was to multiply more rapidly the shad already established in that 
river. My agency in placing the White Shad there was not then, I believe, 
known to those gentlemen, one of whom was Colonel Pickett, the Historian of 
Alabama. 

(Savannah, April 19, 1866.) 



June bth. 
Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-two members present. 

The following paper was offered for publication : " Description of new 
species of Diurnal Lopidoptera." By Tryon Reakirt. 

Dr. Leidy observed that the small collection of fossils presented this evening 
by Dr. A. C. Hamlin is of interest, from the fact of one of them being a bird 
bone. Two accompanying shells are Balanus Hameri and Sasicava rugosa, 
post-tertiary species. The specimen^ were obtained from a railroa"d cutting on 
the banks of the Penobscot River, Bangor, Maine, 47 feet below the surface. 
The bird bone is a right humerus, resembling in its construction that of a 
Curlew. 

, Except the so-called bird tracks of the triassic sandstones, almost no fossil 
remains of birds have been found in the United States. The Museum of the 
Academy contains a few specimens, which have not been identified, as 
follows : 

A left humerus, almost identical with the one above mentioned, both in form 
and size, from Tarboro', Edgecombe Co., N. C, presented by Dr. Booth. 

The lower extremity of a left humerus and a right radius, from a miocene 
formation of Maryland, presented by T. A. Conrad. The specimens resemble 
in construction the corresponding parts in a Snipe, but are as large as in the 
Curlew. 

The lower end of a left tibia, from Burlington Co., N. J., described by Dr. Har- 
lan as the remains of a Snipe, Scolopax (Med. and Phys. Res. p. 280.) 

The lower end of a left tibia, from the Niobrara River, of Nebraska, discov- 
ered by Dr. Playden, in association with a multitude of mammalian remains. 
It resembles the corresponding part in a Crane. It is the only ornithic fossil 
among all the vertebrate remains from Nebraska, amounting to several tons in 
weight, which Dr. L. had detected. 



June 12th. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-two members present. 

June \th,. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-six members present. 

The deaths were announced of Hon. Lewis Cass, Correspondent, and 
Prof. Henry D. Rogers, member of the Academy. 

1866.] 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

June 2Qth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Academy : 
Dr. Henry B. Butcher, Dr. Geo. Guier, Mr. Henry C. Carpenter, Mr. 
S. Raymond Roberts and Mr. Jason L. Fenimore. 

The following were elected Correspondents : George A. Otis, M. D. 
Mr. William H. French, and M. de Caligny of France. 

On favorable report of the Committee, the following was ordered to 
be published : 

Descriptions of some new species of Diurnal IEPIDOPTEKA. 
BY TRYON REAKIRT. 

1. PlERIS YREKA, DOV. Sp. 

Size and form of Pieris rapx L. 

Male, upper side white, base sprinkled with black atoms, extending along 
the costa of the primaries as far as the end of the cell ; a narrow black termi- 
nal line at the apex, and below this a few scattered black specks ; a rounded 
black spot on the medio-superior interspace, midway between the cell and the 
margin. Secondaries with a small black spot on the costa, at two-thirds its 
length from the base ; fringes white, expanse 1-88 inches. Underneath, the 
apex of the primaries is pale ochrey yellowish ; an additional small black spot 
is in the medio-inferior interspace, otherwise as on the upper surface. Second- 
aries pale ochrey yellowish, thickly strewn with grayish or greenish-brown 
atoms, especially condensed towards the base ; costa yellowish orange. 

Body above black, with scattered whitish hairs ; below white. Antennae 
black, ringed with white; club tipped with white. 

Female differs in having a large triangular apical patch, brownish-black, of 
which the lower portion is densest, upon the primaries, and in the enlargement 
of their central black spot, and also in that of the costal one upon the second 
aries. 

Below, the primaries as in the male, the hind wings much more yellowish. 

Hab. California. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

2. Pieris castoria, nov. sp. 

Size and form of Pieris oleracea, Harris. 

Male, upper side pure white, inner half of costa of primaries, and base of both 
wings, strewn with a few dark atoms ; a rounded black spot in the medio- 
superior interspace of the fore wings, situate as in the preceding species ; no 
other markings; fringes white, expanse 2 2-12 inches. 

Underneath immaculate white ; a faint yellowish tinge on the apex of the 
primaries, and along the costa of the secondaries. 

Body black, with whitish hairs below; antennas black, with incomplete 
white annulations interrupted above. Club yellowish, or yellowish brown at 
tip. 

Hab. California. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

3. Pieris occidentals, Reakirt. 

Reakirt, Proc. Entom. Soc. Philada., 1866 (ined). 

Hab. California, Rocky Mountains. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

I have an example of Pieris Sisymbrii, Boisd, from Northern California, of 
which the ground color is a very clear lemon yellow ; it differs, however, in no 
other respects from types of the same. 

4. Callidryas thaur'cma, nov. sp. 

Male, very similar on the upper side to C. Uilaria; the irregular outline of 

[June, 







NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 239' 

the sulphureous basal portion remaining the same; there is, however, an ob- 
long black discal spot upon the primaries, and the black terminal line of Hila- 
ria is either entirely wanting, or represented only by a few faint atom's ; the 
nervular extremities of the secondaries are marked by minute dark points. 

Under side greenish white, crossed with innumerable waved darker lines 
upon the upper half of the primaries and their apex, and over the secondaries. 
Costa of primaries continuous reddish brown for a short distance from the 
base, followed by scattered points thence to the apex, and along the outer 
margin, all of the same color ; also an indistinct line running in from the 
apex : a large rounded ferruginous discal ocellus, pupilled with violaceous- 
silvery ; base suffused with yellow ; an orange streak within the cell. 

Secondaries darker than the primaries, lightened with pale greenish white 
above the subcostal and median veins; a small silvery spot, encircled with 
ferruginous, on the lower disco-cellular, and six minute rosy, or rose-brown 
spots, one in each interspace, midway between the cell and outer margin. 

Fringe greenish white ; expanse three inches. 

Thorax black, covered with long greenish-yellow hairs ; abdomen and lower 
portions greenish-white; antennae rosy or ferruginous, darker on the club. 

Female, base of both wings pale yellowish-white; the mesial portions be- 
come more yellowish, and the depth of color is gradually increased to yellow- 
ish-orange on the outer margins; a large rounded black discal spot on the 
primaries ; a bright ferruginous border at the apex, and on the outer margin, 
extending below half its length, at first continuous, afterwards maculate; in- 
terior to this, a maculate series, similarly colored, bent nearly at a right angle, 
just below the apex, and terminating at the costa on the one side, and on the 
other just above the end of the marginal border. 

Below, bright ochreous-yellow ; the markings of the male remain constant, 
with the difference in color, with the reappearance of the interior bent band of 
the fore wings, and the addition of a rounded, ferruginous spot within the cell 
of the secondaries, obliquely above the discal ocellus; the six submarginal 
spots of the same wing are considerably enlarged. 

Fringe yellowish orange; expanse 2-65 inches. 

Body above, abdomen and antenna? as in the male; thorax below, bright 
ochre-yellow. 

Hab. Madagascar. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

5. Terias jamapa, nov. sp. 

Female? Above pale sulphur yellow ; fore wing costa strongly arched ; apex 
rectangular ; outer margin from the middle curved outwards, and deeply 
crenulated ; a large apical black patch extending from the outer third of the 
costa, nearly to the inner angle ; its anterior outline presents two short termi- 
nal, nearly straight lines, and three prominent curves, of which the upper is 
double the langth of either the others, but shallow, while the lower two ap- 
proximate to a semicircle in form, and are of considerable depth. 

Hind wing with the outer margin between first and second median wein- 
lets produced into a longish pointed lobe, nearest the second branch, and 
partially entered by it ; the ends of the nervules marked by minute dark points, 
otherwise the secondaries are immaculate. 

Underneath, the apex of the primaries and the secondaries are suffused with 
ochreous, and reticulated with fine ferruginous lines ; white atoms are sprinkled 
over the surface, and in some places, form condensed spots; three of these are 
situated below the cell and first veinlet, another at the upper end of the first 
disco-cellular, and several on the costa? of both wings ; a small black discal 
spot on the primaries, and a number of minute black points on the lower outer 
margin of the secondaries. 

Expanse 1-55 inches. 

Hab. Mexico (near Vera Cruz). Coll. Wm. H. Edwards. 

Mr. Wm. H. Edwards, of Newburgh, N. Y., has kindly placed in my hands, 

1866.] 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 

for examination, a series of Mexican Rhopalocera, descriptions of a number of 
which will be found scattered throughout this memoir. 

6. Terias solana, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface : primaries yellow, becoming whitish on the inner mar- 
gin ; costa thickly strewn with greenish-black atoms ; a large black apical 
patch running from the middle of the costa to the first median vein, along 
which it is continued to the outer margin ; the interior outline of this patch is 
somewhat crenulate. 

Secondaries white, yellowish only at the apex, on which there are two large 
black conical spots ; short black lines run up the upper nervules from the 
outer margin. 

Below the base and central portion of the primaries are yellow, becoming 
whitish on the inner margin ; the apex of the same and the secondaries are 
ochreous, strewn with multitudes of dusky atoms, of which there are three 
principal condensed rows on the latter; all short, and none extending entirely 
across the wing; there are two small discal spots upon each wing, the upper 
upon the hind wings forming the terminus of the first atomic line. 

Fringe yellowish, becoming pale ferruginous at the apex of the primaries, 
and towards the anal angle of the secondaries ; expanse 1-5 inches. 

Thorax above black, with whitish hairs, and three short dark stripes ; abdo- 
men whitish, with a narrow dark dorsal line. Thorax underneath ochreous, 
abdomen pure white ; antennae black, with white annulations. 

Hab. Mexico (near Vera Cruz). Coll. Wm. H. Edwards. 

7. EOPLffiA PAPUANA, nOV. Sp. 

Male. Upper surface dark velvety brownish-black, paler on the outer mar- 
gin of the fore, and upon the hind wings ; two long, rather narrow dull brown 
vittae in the medio-posteiior interspace ; a submarginal row of seven chalk- 
white spots, fringed with bluish ; of these the first two are respectively above 
and below the filth subcostal veinlet, both being larger than any of the follow- 
i n g ) the second mostly so, and in each of the ensuing interspaces there is 
one, the fourth being the least, and the seventh tripartite, composed of two 
small lunes and a dot ; there are three minute dots nearer the margin, ob- 
liquely below the fourth, fifth and sixth spots respectfully. 

Secondaries with a submarginal row of ten spots, of which seven are oval ; 
the main axis of the first three is placed transversely to that of the others ; the 
eighth and ninth are rounded, and the tenth a narrow streak ; following these 
is a marginal series of small dots, obsolescent towards the outer angle. 

Under surface, the submarginal row of above is reproduced, having added a 
small spot nearer the costa. There is also a marginal series of eleven .small 
rounded spots; a small bluish spot above the upper radial, near the cell, 
another within the cell, and a third, considerably larger, in the medio-superior 
interspace ; a small oblong patch of appressed hairs in the medio- central 
interspace. 

Secondaries have two white spots at the base of the wings ; the submarginal 
series of above, and a marginal row of twelve, the last coalescing with the ter- 
minal one of the preceding row ; a minute spot in the medio-superior interspace. 

Color of under side shiny brown, darkened at the base of the primaries. 

Fringe brown and white alternately; expanse 3-5 inches. 

Hab. New Guinea. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

I am not quite sure of the specific distinctness of this beautiful Danaid; 
many of the published descriptions of the members of this genus are extremely 
imperfect, and the insects themselves so subject to variation that it is very 
difficult to determine them correctly, without comparison with the original 
specimens. 

AMAURIS, Hiibn. 

Amauris. p. , Hiibner. 

Banais, (Sect. I.) E. Doubleday. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 241 

"The males have a patch of peculiarly formed, and closely placed scales, 
situated on the sub-median nervule of the posterior wings, not far from tbe- 
ou'er angle. 

" The males of the first group have the anterior tibiae and tarsi covered with 
closely appressed scales." E. Doubleday, 

There exists no sufficient reason why Hubner's genus should not be recog- 
nized as valid, and the few species composing it be separated from the great 
mass of the Danaides. 

Geographically, structurally, and in coloration, they differ as much from 
their former congeners, as is possible within the range of a closely connected 
family ; and it seems to me, that only from a total misapprehension of the rules 
of genetic formation, could such a naturally well defined group have been 
merged into another of opposed forms. 

The four species of which it has been hitherto composed are all essentially 
African, as will be seen from the following summary : 

1. Amauris phaedon, Fab. Mauritius. 

2. " echeria, Stoll. S Africa. 

3. " egialea, Cram. W. Africa. 

4. " niavius, Linne". W. Africa. 

To these well known species I now add a fifth, to which Dr. Boisduval has 
given the MS. name of Danais ochlea ; its description follows. 

8. Amauris ochlea, Boisd. sp. 

Danais ochlea, Boisd. MSS. 

Male. Upper surface : primaries rich velvety black ; a transverse sub apical 
white band, cut in three parts by black veinlets ; another much larger trans- 
verse band occupies the lower central portion of the wing, exieuding from the 
subcostal to the submedian vein, and is divided by the black median nervule 
and first branch into three large white patches ; a srnall rounded spot near the 
-apex ; two others on the costa, between th? transverse band, above the upper of 
which there is also a miuute narrow dash, and three more near the outer 
margin, placed bttween the lower pot lion of the first band and the inner angle : 
of these the first is the largest ; between the first two of these spots and the 
margin there are three very minute dots. All of these markings white, or pale 
glaucous white. 

Secondaries dark brownish-black; a large semi-transparent white space 
occupies the basal and mesial areas, extending from the costal nervure to the 
abdominal margin, divided into ten spots by the black veins and veinlets ; 
three submarginal white spots on the upper half of the outer margin. 

Fringe black, alternated with white on the hind wings ; the primaries are 
cut with white only near the middle of the outer margin ; expanse three inches. 

Underneath chit- fly as above ; the apex of the primaries and the terminal 
border of the secondaries become brownish. Upon the first there is an addi- 
tional small apical spot, and in place of three marginal spots there is a row of 
seven, the two lower coalescing with the third subinarginal spot. The second- 
aries have a white spot at their base, and two submarginal rows, composed 
respectively of eleven and thirteen white spots. 

llab Zambesi. Coll. Tryon Reakitt. 

9, MECHANITrS UTEMAIA, nOV. Sp. 

Female. Upper surface : primaries, basal two-thirds orange tawny, occupy- 
ing all the area within ft line drawn from upper third of the costa to the middle 
of the outer mnrgin. In addition to the usual costal stripe, a narrow terminal 
line along the lower part of the outer margin, and a streak along the sub- 
median vein, but not touching the inner margin, there are four other spots, all 
black, placed thus: one, traptziform, within the cell, and one, rounded and 
smaller, between the first and second median branches; abroad bar ncr ss 
the end of the cell, and a narrow, curved, widening at-the-tip line runs up the> 

1866.] 16 



242 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

medio-central interspace, from the outer margin; a bent opaque yellow belt, 
fringed with orange tawny, marks the extremity of the latter area, and another, 
abbreviated, rises from the costa between the discal bar and spot. The apical 
portion of the wing is black, traversed by a broad opaque yellow bar, also 
shading into orange tawny. 

Secondaries with a transverse maculate stripe, and a border, terminal, black ; 
on this last some indistinct white spots ; remainder of wing orange tawny. 

Under surface of both wings chiefly the same, with the addition of seventeen 
white marginal spots ; the abbreviated yellow bar of the primaries ex'erds 
here from the costa to the median vein ; on the secondaries theie is a black 
costal stripe, in addition to the markings of the upper surface, the space be- 
tween which and the discal one is tinged with yellowish ; the base is also 
marked with a yellow spot; expanse 3-25 inches. 

Thorax and abdomen above, blackish-brown, the first with a. central yellow 
stripe; wing tippets orange tawny ; below yellowish. Antennae yellow, ringed 
with orar ge tawny, black towards base. 

Hub. Honduras. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

Very similar to M. lysidice and doryssa, Doubldy., and Bates, and in common 
with both, is a local race of M. polymnia. Specimens of the first are in my 
collection, from the same locality, and for a fine example of the second, from 
Guatemala, I am indebted to Mr. H. W. Bates. 

10. Melinjea paraiya, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface; apical half of fore wings dark brownish-black, with a 
very irregular interior outline, closely resembling that of M. Egina&B far as the 
first median veinlet, thence it is curved inwardly, and terminates in an attenua- 
ted line on the basal third of the hind margin ; across this there are two equi- 
distant, semi-opaque yellow bands, of which the apical is continuous, and the 
other is divided into three spots, the central one being much the least: there 
is also a sub-marginal row of smajl whits spots, varying from six to ten in 
number; the basal third of the surface, excepting the costa, throughout its 
entire length, which is black, is rich orange tawny, and the space between this 
and the outer black portion is occupied by a broad semi-opaque yellow belt ; 
within the cell there are two large rounded black spots, which mark the 
chromatic line of separation. 

Secondaries orange tawny, with a broad black outer margin, on which appear 
seme indistinct spots, and a discal set ies of six oblong black spots, unconnected 
with the terminal border, and of which the second is very large, whence they 
gradually diminish to the abdominal margin. 

Underneath the primaries remain chiefly as above. The secondaries have 
the base marked with yellow; a short black bar runs along the costal veins 
from the base, and there are one or two additional spots on the apical end of 
the discal row ; the black outer margin also contains eleven or twelve small 
white spots. Expanse 3 3-75 inches. 

Antennae black, becoming tawny ash-colored on their outer third. Thorax 
bla^k, with a jellow dorsal stripe ; wing-covers and collar orange tawny, 
dusky yellow beneath ; abdomen brown above, marked with orange tawny on 
the upper part of the fi.st two segments, a broad yellow ventral stripe, and two 
narrow lateral yellow line's, reaching only to the end of the second ring. 

Hub. Rio Janeiro; St. Catherines Island, Brazil. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

Taken in company with Ilel. Eucrate, Mech. Lysimnia, Napeoy. Sulpkurina, and 
1th. Euritea. 

It is a local race of Mel Egina, but mimics neither the Heliconoid nor Danaid 
form with which it is associated. 

11. Hkliconius Wallacei, Bates, in litt. 

Ilel. clytia, var. Bates, Trans. Linn. Soc, p. 556, n. 6 (1862). 
"The first yellow belt of the fore wing is narrow, and similar in shape to 
the first white belt of 11. Antiocha." 

Hub. Amazons. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 243 

12. EuEIDES ZORCAON, tlOV. Sp. 

Male. Upper surface : fore wings black ; four transverse bands, of which the 
apical is composed of four oblong spots ; the second crosses the cell near its 
extremity, and consists of two dashes above the cell, an irregular nairow one 
within it, and a long, gradually tapered stripe below it. Both these bands are 
entirely dull ochraceous ; the third rises from the base, follows the first median 
veinlet to its middle, up to which point it is orange tawny, is then suddenly 
turned above this nervule, and runs nearly to the outer margin ; this latter 
portion is ochraceous, and is much compressed near its lower extremity ; the 
fourth is orange tawny, and occupies the length of the inner margin below the 
subniedian vein. 

The hind wings are black, with a broad central orange tawny belt, through 
the middle of which passes a black band, sometimes united with the outer 
border towards the apex, and usually narrowed towards the abdominal mar- 
gin ; there is a row of indistinct spots on the outer margin, especially promi- 
nent near the anal angle. 

Under surface; disposition of fore wings' markings remains the same, but 
they are much reduced, with a consequent increase of the black and blackish- 
brown areas ; the costa has a short basal stripe of orange tawny, and there 
are three or four small white apical spots. 

Secondaries chiefly as on the upper side ; there is an additional transverse 
stripe, ochraceous, running from the base nearly to the outer angle, and marked 
on its under side at its origin with a white point; two rows of well-defined 
white points on the outer margin, of which the interior, numbering fourteen, 
are the largest; the outer row contains fifteen. Expanse 3 3J inches. 

Ilab. Mexico (near Vera Cruz); Coll. W. H. Edwards. Honduras, Guate- 
mala; Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

As' may be seen from the foregoing description, this pretty species bears 
considerable resemblance to Eueides Cleobxa, Huba. 1 find, however, from the- 
examination of a large number of specimens of both, that their differences are 
always constant, and such as warrant tbe creation of a separate name for the 
designation of this form, which, although doubtless a local race of the Cleobsea, 
has become perfectly segregated from the older type ; I have seen no interme- 
diate varieties. 

13. ACR/EA ORIZAVA, HOV. Sp. 

Upper surface glossy bluish-black; primaries with a large transverse yellow 
spot, divided by the median vein and its branches into five parts. 

Beneath pale ochreous, with the nerves, and streaks between them black ; a 
very large central yellow patch on the fore wings, crossed only by black veins ; 
base of the fore wing black, that of the secondaries more yellowish. Expanse 
2-25 2-50 inches. Body and antennae black. 

Hab. Mexico. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

Closely allied to the A. leucomelas, Bates, of Guatemala, of which it may be 
regarded as a more northern modification. It differs chiefly, but constantly, 
in size and number of the yellowish spots of the primaries. 

14. Agratjlis huascdma, nov. sp. 

Upper surface bright orange-brown; markings of primaries as in .4. Juno, 
but much narrower, more clearly defined, and always deep black. Second- 
aries with a broad terminal border, containing a series of orange-brown lunules. 

Underneath, the markings present no perceptible difference from those of 
Juno, but the shades are darker, the silver spots more clearly defined, and the 
base of the fore wings much more reddish than in that species. Expanse 2:50 
to 2-*75 inches. 

The outer margin of the primaries is not so deeply sinuate, nor are the in T 
dentations of the secondaries so prominent as in Juno. 

Ilab. Mexico. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

1866.] 



214 PROCEEDINGS OP JSE ACADEMY OF 

A local race of Juno, differing but sligbtlj from the Equadorea'n form Audi- 
cola; these are constant, however, in regard to the coloration and shape of the 
wings ; in the latter respect, it approaches more nearly to Lucina, Felder. 

15. Euterpe arechiza, nov. sp. 

Male. Fore wings narrawer and more sinuate than in Bithys; the brad wings 
dentnte. Upper surface brownish- black, traversed by two maculate, white 
bands ; the first extends from the outer third of the costa of the fore wings, to 
the middle of the abdominal margin of the hind wings, consisting on the first 
of eight widely separated spots, on the last the band is broken only by the 
dark veins ; the second band is formed of small rounded white spots, running 
obliquely from the costa of the primaries to their inner angle, and sub-margin- 
ally all equidistant from the border, on the disc of the secondaries ; there 
are also some minute white terminal streaks at the apex of the fore wings, 
and some marginal ones in the middle of the hind wings' interspaces. 

Underneath pale brown, with darker shades between the veins of the hind 
wings ; the terminal streaks on the outer margin of the primaries are yellow- 
ish. The inner band, of the secondaries is striped narrowly with yellow lines, 
beside which there are some small spots and dashes near the base, and the 
submarginal and marginal rows, all yellow ; there are also two red basal 
patches. Expanse 1-75 2 inches. 

Body and antenna? as in Bithys. 

Hab. Mexico. Coll. Tryon Reakirt. 

A local race of Exit. Bithys. In addition to the differences in ornamentation 
, and the shape of the wings, I have found that in Arechiza the disco-cellulars 
of the fore wings form but a very slight angle with each other, and the second 
subcostal veinlet of the secondaries is invariably thrown off much nearer the 
base than in Bithys; the difference in distance being fully eqnal to one-half 
the distance between the first and second subcostal veinlets of the latter 
species. 

;16. Lyona catalina, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface brown, glossed with violet blue, except a broad terminal 
border on both wings. Fringes white, cut with brown. 

Under surface ash-brown, darkest at the base of the secondaries, more di- 
luted on the outer margin of the primaries. 

The fore wings have two spots within the cell, one at its extremity, the other 
nearer to the base; a submesial sinuated row of six rounded and oblong 
spots ; and a submarginal row of six lunes ; all brown, or blackish-brown en- 
circled with white ; the outer row is usually incomplete, and sometimes almost 
obsolete. 

The secondaries have the main portion of the cell occupied by a large 
whitish spot, running up to 'he base, and having a rounded black spot in its 
centre. Between this and the outer margin there is a broad and similarly 
colored belt, formed of confluent sagittae, each of which is preceded by a 
rounded black dot, encircled with white, and followed by a narrow black 
crescent. Below the third of these from the inner margin, there sometimes 
appears an ochreous lune, upon which is impinged posteriorly a brown bar, 
tapering gradually to the hind margin. There is another white-ringed black 
spot on the costa, above the similar one within the cell. "Expanse 1-13 1-20 
inches. 

Body blackish-brewn above, with some blue hairs on the thorax, under- 
neath cinereous. Antennae black, ringed with white ; club tipped with the 
same. 

Female, appears to differ only in the greater size ; expanse 1-25 1-30 
inches. 

Hab. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

17. Lycena monica, nov. sp. 
Male. Upper surface rosy violet, covered with an ashy hue, darker towards 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 245 

the base ; a narrow terminal black line runs along the outer margin of both 
wings ; near the anal angle of the hind wings, this is preceded by a narrow 
white line, above which there are two rounded black spots, the interior being 
the largest. Hind wings with a single tail, black, tipped with white. Fringe 
brownish ; expanse 1-05 1-12 inches. 

Underneath whitish ash colored ; a long discoidal streak, and three trans- 
verse rows of dark ash-colored dashes, of which the two outer are close to- 
gether, running parallel with each other, and also with the outer margin, to 
which they are very near; the inner one is midway between the margin and 
the discal bar ; it is slightly sinuated ; each of these rows is composed of six 
oblong dashes, all being surrounded by whitish lines from the ground color. 

On tke secondaries there are also three transverse maculated bands, con- 
taining the same number of spots, but differing in shape; those of the inner 
row only are oblong, 'hose of the central being lunulate, and of the outer 
rounded ; the two interior spots of the marginal row are jet black, glossed with 
some greenish metallic atoms, and are surmounted by two large oraoge yellow 
lunes ; a discoidal bar as on the primaries, and three rounded black spots en- 
circled with whitish, situated transversely near the base, one on the costa, 
another within the cell, and the third on the inner margin ; a similar spot, 
sometimes only ash-colored, on the middle of the costa; a narrow terminal 
line along the outer margin of both wings; tail as above; fringe brownish- 
griseous. 

Body above black, with some reddish-violet hairs, underneath whitish ; an- 
tennae brown with white annulations, club reddish-ochreous. v 

The female is larger, expanse 1-20 inches, and has the two black spots on 
the upper side of the secondaries, surmounted by orange lunules, sometimes 
indistinct. 

Hub. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

Belongs to the group of which Comyntas is the type ; it is more nearly re- 
lated to the following new form, than to either that species, or its Californian 
prototype Amyntula. 

18. Lyc.ena tejua, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface very similar to that of Monica, but with more of a bluish 
tinge ; a narrow terminal line as in that species, but edged anteriorly with 
white, over the whole length of the secondaries, upon which there is only one 
black spot; tail double the length of that in Monica; fringe whitish, on the 
secondaries cut with black at the ends of the veins. 

Underneath there are three transverse bands on each wing as in Monica, but 
arranged differently ; the spots of the two exterior on the primaries are almost 
confluent, and the inner one is broken into two divisions the spots in each 
running together; the upper consisting of four, and the lower, which is nearer 
to the base, of two ; a discoidal bar, and a small spot on the costa between this 
and the inner transverse band. 

On the secondaries the two outer rows remain the same, having, however, 
but one lar;>e black spot, surmounted by a very large pale orange- yellow 
lunule ; rarely there are traces of another yellow spot interior to this; the 
iuuer band is formed very irregularly, and presents very much the appearance 
of a W ; discoidal bars, and basal spots as in Moirica. 

Hab. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

19. Lyc.en'a makicopa, nov. sp. 

Male'. Upper side brown, glossed with violet blue; a narrow terminal dark 
line along the outer margins ; a black discal bar on the primaries, sometimes 
wanting, and some obsolete rounded spots on the hind margin of the seconda- 
ries. Fringe ash-colored. 

Underneath ash- brown, darkest towards the base. Primaries: a large black 
discal bar ; a subcentral, transverse, sinuated row of seven large rounded black 
spots all narrowly ringed with white ; following these, audparallel with the 

3866.] 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMT OP 

margin, another series of seven indistinct spots. Secondaries : a di-cal bar 
and two spots, one wiihin the cell, the other above it ; three transverse macu- 
late bands ; the first composed of eight large rounded black spots, and bent 
twice at right angles, the second of smaller, and sagittiform, and in common 
with the third, which is almost marginal, and very indistinct, runs parallel 
wiih the border; all these markings are encircled with white, and the seventh 
spot of the first and second rows are sometimes confluent. Expanse 1-25 1-35 
inches. 

Body black above, with some bluish hairs ; beneath grayish ; antennae black 
with white annulations, lower part of club whitish. 

Hab. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

20. Lyc^ena tehama, nov. sp. 

Hale. Upper surface, brownish diluted with white, glossed with shining 
greenish blue, especially on the basal portions, and traversed by darker lined 
veins. 

A black discal bar on the primaries; secondaries have a marginal series of 
rounded brown spots. Fringe white; brownish at the tip of the fore wings, 
and cut with black at the ends of hind wings' veins. 

Underneath : primaries pale brownish griseous ; a discal arc, a small double 
spot within the cell at one- third the distince from the arc to t^ie base, a sinu- 
ate transverse median row, and an indistinct marginal row of spots, followed 
by a series of plainer lunules, all edged with white. 

Basal half of secondaries dark brownish-gray, with a blue tinge at the base ; 
within this are three small black spots, all largely encircled with white, and 
placed transversely to the base, and a large white patch at the end of the 
cell 

Posterior portion clear grayish white, edged terminally with a narrow line, 
and contains three transverse rows of dark spots ; of these the interior are 
rounded and much curved ; the central are lunulated, and the marginal 
rounded ; the third from the anal margin of the two outer rows respectively 
are much enlarged, and sometimes embrace an intermediate, yellowish-brown 
lunule Expanse 1-05 1-13 inches. 

Body clothed with grayish hue hairs above, ash-colored below; antennae 
black, anuulated with white; club black above, ferruginous below. 

Hah. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

Var. (/, male ; the secondaries present a submarginal row of connected brown 
lunules above the marginal spots ; and the lustrous tinge is restricted to the 
basal area ; expanse 1-20 inches. 

Hab. Los Angeles, Cal. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

This is i he Pacific representative of L. Rustica Edwards, of the Rocky Moun- 
tains ; the two are very closely related.* 

21. Brenthis Moiirisii, nov. sp. 

Upper surface uniform orange-brown ; hind margin of both wings edged by 
a fine black line, always dilated at the ends of the veins, and which is preceded 
by a submarginal row of very angular black limes; in the female the spices 
enclosed between the two lines is pale tawny ; primaries haye a nearly straight 
black discal bar, and within the cell are three transverse spots, of which the 
central is the shortest ; below the cell a broad black stripe runs from the 
origin of the first median veinlet, downward half the width of the interspace, 
and is then bent abruptly to the base, in the shades of which it becomes 
merged and lost. Beyond the cell, there is a mesial zigzag band, and a trans- 
verse row of rounded black spots, usually confluent, with the marginal lunes 
on the apex ; a short black bar rises from the costa behind these. 

* There will shortly be published by the Entomological Society, in a series of notes to my me- 
moir, upon "Coloradian Butterflies," descriptions of the following new California!! species: 

1. Cssnonympha P<mm>hiloides. Reakirt. 

2. Lycxna CUjona, Keakirt. 

3. Polyommaius Mariposa, Reakirt. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 247 

On tbe secondaries, in addition to the transverse row of large rounded black 
spots above the marginal lunes, there are four connected oblique black dashes 
helow the cell; a black mark very much like a K within and above it, and a 
central rounded black spot within it; basal portions of both wings obscured 
by darker shades; fringe pale yellowish cut with black; expanse,^ 1-70 
1-75 inches 9 1*87 inches. 

Under surface : primaries pale tawny, tinged with brownish red at the base, 
especially in the female; apical portion pale ochreous, or even yellowish 
crossed obliquely by a brick-red shade; the markings of above repeated, but 
faintly colored, and in the male the discal arc and central spot within the cell, 
each contain a narrow tawny line. 

Secondaries with a broad central band of nine large connected spots, of 
which the first, fourth and seventh are the largest, all edged on either side 
with narrow black lines, and all with the exception of the fourth, which is 
silvered, pale buff-yellow. The space anterior to this is brick-red, with three 
pale yellow and one silvered spot near the base, and a yellow dot pnpilled 
with black in the middle of the cell. The posterior half of the wing is pale 
buff; a series of seven marginal silvery patches, surmounted by elongated 
brownish sagittae, shading into brick-red towards the outer angle; above 
these, a transverse row of rounded brick-red and brownish spots, the middle 
ones usually ocellated, and there are two flexuous brick-red lines between 
these and the central band ; a narrow black terminal line, edges the outer 
margin of the wing3. 

Body black, covered with brownish red hairs, underneath tawny. 

Bab. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

It affords me much pleasure to dedicate this beautiful species to my esteemed, 
friend, Mr. Henry B. Morris, of Burlington, N. J. 

Dr. Behr seems to have seen neither this nor the following form when he 
prepared bis very valuable list of the " Argynnides of California." 

22. Brenthis nenoquis, nov. sp. 

Male. Fore wings slightly, hind wings much dentated. Upper surface 
tawny; a terminal line ; a series of confluent marginal lunules also connected 
with the bordering line ; a transverse row of large rounded black spots ; a 
zigzag mesial band of large irregular spots and dashes, and the usual mark- 
ings within the cell and towards tbe base of all the wings; all these, and very 
considerable basal area, deep black ; fringe yellow, cut with black. 

Underneath the primaries are tawny, becoming pale buff-yellow on the api- 
cal area, across which there is a violet brown shade atid on the outer margin : 
the markings of above repeated but much diminished in size, and lightened in 
color. 

Hind wings buff-yellow, mostly saturated with a rich violet-brown shade ; 
a large silver spot at the base, cut by the costal vein ; two rounded yellow, or 
silvery-yellow spots in the upper part of the cell, edged with a narrow black 
line ; below these, two oblong velvety brown bars, one in the cell, and the 
other in the first median area, two small rounded silvery spots on the abdomU 
nal margin near the base, each ringed narrowly with black ; an incomplete 
transverse maculate band of seven connected spots, of which the first, fourth 
and seventh, are much the largest, and are always silvered, the others, very 
rarely so ; those mentioned are always bordered anteriorly with a narrow 
black line; and all of them posteriorly with dark violet, brown ; a submarginal 
row of six rounded dark brown spots, the third and fourth always pupilled 
with ochreous, the others rarely so ; seven marginal lunules, of which the six 
superior are silvery, that on the anal angle bright yellow ; a narrow terminal 
line edges all the wings; expanse 1-5 inches. 

Hab. California. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

Closely related to no species hitherto described ; probably is nearest to 
Monticola, Behr, but is very much less in size, besides possessing a radically 
different ornamentation. 

1866.] 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

23. Emesis toltec. nov. sp. 

Upper surface dull reddish-ochreou9 brown ; a broad transverse paler band 
occupies the middle of both wings, the space between it and the base tra- 
versed by numerous transverse waved lines, made up of many connected 
dishes and lunules; beyond the broad ceatral belt there is a confluent row of 
darker lunules, widest on the costa, aad gradually tapering to the abdominal 
margin ; after these there is a submarginal row of rounded dark-brown spots, 
of the same range as the preceding; fringe brown ; expanse 1*5 inches. 

Primaries have the apex produced, and outer margin sinuated ; secondaries 
rounded. 

Umieiiieath ochreous-yellow, with the spots of above repeated in ferrugi- 
eous, a large patch of that color at the apex of the primaries, and another 
acmss their middle; a faint ferruginous tinge at apex of secondaries. 

Hab. Mexico. (Coll. Wm. H. Edwards.) 

Very distinct from any of our described species. 

24. Synchloe qcehtala, nov. sp. 

Upper surface black ; an abbreviated band of four ovoidal white spots runs 
from the costa across the end of the cell of the primaries ; a transverse curved 
low of seven minute white spots beyond the short band, and a larger white 
spot near the middle of the outer margin ; secondaries with a small red spot 
near the anal angle, sometimes indistinct; fringe black cut with white; ex- 
panse 1-38 inches. 

Under surface brownish black; primaries spotted as above, but with the 
markings enlarged and with two additional white spots on the outer margin ; 
costa red at the base. Secondaries with a broad yellow mesial belt, extend- 
ing from the costa neatly \o the first median veinlet ; a submesial transverse 
row of minute white spots, a large red spot at the anal angle, and three white 
lunes on the outer margin, of which two are close together at the apex, and 
the third on its lower half. 

j? 0( i,. .,, .,-t B ritpni np black ; legs reddish. 

Hal. Mexico. (Coll. W. H. Edwards.) 

This is the lea?t species of the interesting genus Synchloe ; it approximates 
most nearly to Hippodrome, although still very distinct, and less than half its 
Bize. 

25. Papilio Eridamas, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface black, faintly glossed with bluish-green ; a long streak 
followed by an oval spctf, both yellow, or yellowish-green, below the upper 
third of the costa of the primaries ; a submarginal row of similarly colored 
spots near the outer border, becoming obsolete towards the apex; primaries 
sinuate; secondaries dentate, with a short elongated tooth, emarginatious of 
both yellowish. 

Secondaries with a submarginal row of seven large crimson spots, widely 
distant from each otlnr, of which the first three are oval; the fourth seuu- 
ovoid and larger ; the fifth, and largest of all, is almost rectangular, with an 
indentation upon the lower extremity; the sixth intermediate in size betvyeea 
the tourtb and fifth ; the seventh is nearly square, about the size of the third, 
and wi h indentations on both sides; these are immediately followed by, and 
connected with yellowish spots, largely so after the first and gradually reducing 
to obsolescence under the last ; expanse 3 5 inches. 

Under surface lustrous brown, paler at the tips of the primaries, upon which, 
also, the subcostal ovoid of the upper side is indistinctly reproduced. 

Secondaries with three crimson spots at the base, and a submarginal row 
of small, brilliant spots of the same color, the three nearest the anal angle be- 
ing chevron-shaped, and the other four semi-lunate. 

Body black ; four spots upon each side of the thorax below, one at the in- 
sertion of the abdomen, and a continuous series on its lower part, not, how- 
ever, extending upon the anal valves, all crimson. 

[June, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 249 

Ilab. Mexico. (Coll. Entom. Society.) 

A very beautiful species, closely allied to the Xenarchus of Hewitson, but 
from which its differences, as indicated in the diagnosis, are invariably per- 
sistent. 



July 3d. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-nine members present. 

The Chairman made some remarks on Trichina spiralis, and exhibited 
a portion of human flesh infected with the parasite taken from one of 
five persons who recently died of Trichiniasis in Iowa. 



July 10th. 
^Mr. Cassin, Vice President, in the Chair. 
Thirteen members present. 



July Villi. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Nine members present. 



July lith. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Fifteen members present. 

Prof. Cope remarked that he had made a few observations on some of the 
extinct vertebrates of the Mesozoic Red Sandstone, during: an examination 
of the specimens preserved in the collection of Charles M. Wheatley, A. M., 
at Phcenixville, Pa. 

Rtiytidodon carolinensis (Emmons, usually misspelled Rutiodoii) appears 
to be, so far as extant remains are conclusive, a species of Belodon, Von Meyer, 
allied to B. plieningeri. One confirmation, the identity of dentition of 
the Wiirtembergian and Pennsylvanian species, had been pointed out to him by 
C. M. Wheatley. The posterior teeth are lenticular in section, nearly broad as 
high, crenate on both eiges ; the anterior cylindrical, slender and coarsely 
fluted ; the first represent Eurydorus serridens, Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., Pnila., 1859, 
110, and the latter Rhytidodon Emmons.* 

Clep>isauru3 pennnsylvanicus Lea, whose affinities have never been 
indicated, apparently belongs to the same great type as the preceding : while 
its teeth are without pulp-cavity, as pointed out by Leidy, those of the fangs of 
Belodon are very small. 

He was also enabled to announce the discovery of the first undoubted Laby- 
rinthod;m of these beds. The species, which is of considerable size, is repre- 
sented by portions of two crania and numerous teeth. It is apparently nearest 
Mastodonsaurus (Labyrinthodon) diagnosticus Von Meyer, in the propor- 
tions of the cranial segments and sculpture. 

The larges # t fragment is eight inches long and eight and one-half wide, and is 

* Prof. Owen (Palaeontology) states that Cladyodon Ow. was apflied to the same genus as, and 
is older than the name Belodon. 

1866.] 



250 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE ACADEMY OP 



a portion of the table of the cranium exhibiting the usual medial depression, 
and embracing portions of the postorbital and parbt il bones ; one of the 
former is four in. sixl. long ; both are pitted medially (about 3 pits in an inch) 
and marked with short coarse sulci posteriorly. The parietal* are 2 in. 9 I. 
wide behind, and four inches wide between the anterior parts of the postorbi- 
tttls. On what is probably the posterior part of the interorbital region (a small 
part of the posterior margin of the left orbit is preserved) commence two 
smooth shallow sulci 1 in. 21. apart, which are probably the posterior extremi- 
ties of the superficial channels of the face of the Labyrintuodonts. Between them 
the surface is pitted, (4 or 5 to the inch.) The parietal bones are throughout 
longitudinally sulcate, (four and one-half to the inch), with obtuse ridges be- 
tween. The parietal fontanelle was not discoverable, nor could the form of 
the orbits be certainly determined, though they were probably not large. 

The teeth are of various Bizes, sometimes two inches long, and more slender 
in proportion to the length than those of the Mastodonsaurus j a ege r i and 
salamandroides; they are cylindrical, gently curved and acuminate, 
without external sulci; of the minuter sculpture noihing could be said, as Prof. 
C. had only examined the casts of the surface. In a few weathered sections 
the involuted folds of the enamel are well displayed. They areTiot convolute 
as in typical Labyrinthodonts, but perfectly straight and convergent to a mi- 
nute central vacuity. In a tooth four lines in diameter there appear to be five 
principal radii which attain the centre, about twenty which nearly approach it, 
and thirty two shorter, none of which measure less than a half radius. These 
radii, though exceedingly delicate, may sometimes be seen in longitudinally frac- 
tured specimens. The roots exhibit a short conic pulp cavity. 

Having observed traces of similar radii in a small fluted tooth having an 
oval seciion, much resembling some of those of Belodon (Rhytidodon), but 
perhaps Compsosaurus Leidy, it had occurred to the speaker whether these 
radii had any connection with the mineral constitution of the teeth. These 
were all of black dolomite, the weathered portions, between the radii, white. 
Radii and straight veins of other material were pointed out in some specimens 
in his collection by Wheatley, as iron and copper pyrites aud silica, but these 
were either eccentric or irregular. Inquiry is therefore suggested respecting 
the existence of the labyrinthic structure in any of the above genera before 
described. The form and sculpture assigned to Centemodon Lea render com- 
parison with the new species unnecessary. 

The latter may be named Mastodonsaurus durus. The cranial bones on 
which it is founded occurred in bed No. 15, a hard black shale, of Wheatley 's 
section in Silliman's Journal Sci. Arts, 1861, 45, about 89 feet from the 
bottom of the series, while the tooth last described is from near 40 feet 
lower down, in Nos. 21 or 22. The Belodon comes from about 35 feet below 
the last. . 

Geologists have inclined to indentify these beds with the upper Trias or 
lower Jurassic. The identification of the Belodon and Mastodonsaurus points 
most strongly to the age being that of the Keuper or upper division of Trias. 



July olst. 
Dr. Bridges in the Chair. 

Fourteen members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Academy : 
Prof. A. Stille, Dr. Geo. H. Horn, Mr. J. G. Moore, Dr. A. Neb- 
inger, Mr. C. G. Ogden, and Mr. Samuel L. Shober; and Mr F. Cowan, 
of Washington, was elected a Correspondent. 

On Report of the Committee the following was ordered to be published : 

[July, 



NATUKAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 251 

Contributions to the PALAEONTOLOGY of Illinois and other Western States. 
BY F. B. MEEK & A. H. WORTHEN, 

(Of the Illinois State Geological Survey.) 

RAD I AT A. 

ECHINODERMATA. 

CRINOIDEA. 

Belemnocrinus Whitii, M. & W. 

Body below the summit of the subradials ovoid subcylindrical, and above 
this rather rapidly expanding ; rounded below. Basal pieces very small, 
forming a flat subpentagonal disc, as seen from below; anc.ylosed so as to 
obliterate the sutures in the specimen examined. Subradial pieces unequal, 
three of them narrow, oblong or two and a-half to three times a.s long as 
wide, one scarcely more than twice as long as wide, and tlie other narrow be- 
low, but nearly two-thirds as wide above as the entire length. First radials 
(or at least the only one remaining in the typical specimen) quadrangular, 
nearly half as long as the subradials, and wider at the top than the smallest 
subradial, narrow below, and widening upwards ; rather deeply sinuous 
above across its entire breadth, for the reception of the second radial. Cavity 
of the subcylindrical part of the body formed by the subradials, infun- 
dibuliform, the wide part above extending down about one fourth of the 
way. Anal piece resting upon the slightly concave upper extremity of the 
largest subradial piece between two of the first radials ; its form unknown. 
Surface nearly smooth or merely granulose. A slightly impressed, distinctly 
defined, obovate flattened area, occupies the whole surface of the anal plate, a 
small portion of the upper margin of the subradial upon which it rests, and 
a larger part of the first radial on one or both sides of the anal piece. Column 
and arms unknown. 

Length of body to the summit of first radial pieces, 0-57 inch ; breadth of 
same at the top, about 35 inch ; do. of same at the summit of subradials, 
0-25 inch. 

This species differs from B. typvs, of White, the only other known species 
of the genus, in its proportionally shorter and more oval form below the summit 
of the first radial pieces, and the greater expansion above ; also in the greater 
inequality in ihe size and form of the subradial pieces ; and in the peculiar 
flattened or impressed area in the region of the anal piece. It likewise differs 
in having the depression in the upper side of the only remaining first radial, 
for the reception of the second radial, proportionally broader ; while the visceral 
cavity'occupies near one-fourth the length of that portion of the body formed 
by the subradials, instead of only about one-tenth. 

The specific name is given in honor of Prof. C. A. White, the accomplished 
State Geologist of Iowa. 

Locality and position, Lower bed of Burlington limestone, of the Subcarbo- 
niferous series at Burlington, Iowa. Mr. Charles Wachsmuth's collection. 

Subgenus NEMATOCRINUS. M. & W. 

StNBATHOCRINUS WACnSMUTHI, M. & W. 

General form, when the arms are folded together, elongate cylindrical ; body 
below the arms small and basin-shaped, being truncate below for the re- 
ception of apparently a rather large column, thence spreading rapidly to the 
summit of the first radials, which are horizontally truncated on the same plane 
all around their entire breadth above. Arms simple, very slender, equal and 
elongated, rising abruptly from the first radials, seven to each, or thirty-five 
in the entire series, and composed each of a single series of pieces, twice to 
three times as long as wide, and very like the joints of the tentacula of other 
crinoids. (Form and arrangement of the plates of the body unknown.) 

1866.] 



252 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

Height of body, 0-12 inch ; hreadth ahout 030 inch ; hreadth of truncation 
of thebase, 0-14 inch; length of arms, known to be at least l - 35 inch, but 
probable more ; uniform breadth of do., 003. 

We very strongly suspect that this little crinoid will be found to be the type 
of a new genus hearing somewhat similar relations to Synbathocrinus that 
Pterotocrinus bears to Dichocrinus. The fact, however, tliat we have been 
unable, after repeated trials, to make out the form and arrangement of the 
plates composing the body, has caused us to place it provisionally, for the 
present, as a subgenus under Synbathocrinus, with which it agrees exactly in 
form and general habit, as well as in having the base composed of three 
anchlyosed pieces. Even if it should, however, be found to possess precisely 
the structure of Synbathocrinus so far as regards the body below the arm- 
bases, we think its very peculiar character of having seven arms (instead of 
only a single one) rising directly from the summit of each broa lly truncated, 
first radial piece, a sufficient difference to entitle it to rank as the type of a 
distinct subgenus, if not indeed of a distinct genus. The fact that all the 
species of Synbathocrinus have, so far as known, but a single arm rising from 
each ray, renders it improbable that there will be found intermediate grada- 
tions in this character when a greater number of species are known. 

On one side of the specimen there is some appearance of a small cuneiform 
anal piece resting upon the first radials, between two of the arm bases, as in 
Synbathocrinus, though we are rather inclined to think this merely the base of 
one of the arms folded in between the others so as to be hiddeu, excepting at 
its base, by the closing together of the arms on each side. We have counted 
this as an arm, and consequently, if it should prove to be an anal piece, there 
would be but thirty-four arms, which would leave but six instead of seven 
arms in one of the rays perhaps the anterior one. 

We have named this curious species after Mr. Charles Wachsmuth, of Bur- 
lington, Iowa, its discoverer, and one of the most successful collectors at that 
inter- sting locality. 

Locality and position. Burlington, Iowa, from the upper part of the Bur- 
lington group, of the Subcarboniferous series. 

Cyathoceinus Farleyi, M. & W. 

Body, below the summit of the first radial pieces, rather deep cup shaped 
or subglobose (oblique in the typical specimen), and composed of thick strong 
pieces ; under side rounded. Base subdiscodial or depressed basin-shaped, 
with a pentagonal outline, composed of unequal pentagonal pieces, very nar- 
row at their connection with the column, and widening rapidly to their lateral 
angles : all curved upwards at their superior outer extremities, Subradial 
plates three or four times as large as the basal pieces, about as wide as long, 
convex, and each provided with several irregular wart-like protuberances in 
the middle ; four of them hexagonal, and one on the anal side heptagonal. 
First radial pieces a little larger than the subradials, wider than high, and 
each having a general pentagonal outline, but the superior lateral angles, 
which usually curve inwards somewhat between the second radials, are more 
or less truncated ; facet for the reception of the second radials large, or occupy- 
ing about three- fourths the breadth of the upper side of each piece, and 
on the outer side excavated downwards near half the length of the plate, 
with a distinct outward slope. First anal piece about the size of the largest 
basal pieces, quadrangular in general outline, but having two other inconspicu- 
ous angles above, in consequence of small facets for the reception of three 
small pieces in the next range, probably belonging to the vault ; resting 
squarely upon the upper truncated side of the heptagonal subradial piece, 
and connecting on each side with the adjacent first radials, above the horizon 
of the summits of which it does not project. Surface smooth or finely 
granular, with the exception of the irregular pustulose protuberances on the 
middle of each subradial plate. (Arms aud column unknown.) 

Height to summit of first radial pieces, 0-bS inch ; breadth, 0-80 inch. 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 253 

This species will be readily distinguished from all others known to us, by 
the peculiar little wart-like protuberances on the middle of each smbradial 
piece. These are not incipient radial costae, nor properly nodes, but little 
irregular pustular prominences like drops of melted wax. Some of them are con- 
fluent, while others are distinct and irregularly grouped. They rarely extend 
to the margins of the plates, and are almost entirely confined to the subradials, 
though there are some faint indications of one or two on the lower half of one 
of the first radials. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. R. D. Farley, of Jerseyville, Illinois, 
to whom the Illinois Geological Survey is indebted for some interesting speci- 
mens. 

Locality and position. Keokuk division of the Subcarboniferous series, 
near Warsaw, 111. 

ACTINOCRINUS CALYCUUTS Var. HARDINENSIS. 

Although this little crinoid agrees so nearly with Actinocrinus calyculus, 
Hall, that we are in doubt in regard to the propriety of considering it a distinct 
species, the fact that it comes from the upper part of the St. Louis limestone, 
while the A. calyculus holds a position in the Spergen Hill beds, 200 feet be- 
low, taken in connection with the usually restricted range of the Crinoidea, 
and some slight differences of structure mentioned below, cau-e us to place 
it for the present, at least, as a distinct variety from the typical A. calyculus. 

In size, form, arm formula, surface markings, and most of its characters, it 
agrees well with A. calyculus, from which it differs in the following details, 
viz. : Instead of having but one or two interradial pieces to each space, the 
first one much larger than the others, and ten or eleven sided, it has four or 
five of these pieces to each interradial area, the first of which is not greatly 
larger than the others and only six to eight sided. Again it differs in having 
six anal pieces instead of but four, while its vault pieces are merely tumid 
instead of " acutely spiniferous," excepting a few of those in the depressions 
between the arm bases, which support little short spines. 

If Batocrinus should be separated from the genus Actinocrinus, this species 
should doubtless be placed in it, as it has the general habit of the species of 
that group, though its arm bases do not form a quite continuous series, the 
intermediate spaces between those belonging to each two adjacent rays being 
more deepling sinuous than those between each two of those belonging to the 
same ray. 

Locality and position. Hardin County, Illinois, from the upper part of the 
St. Louis division of the Subuarboniferous series, the highest position in 
which the genus has yet been recognized in this country. 

Genus STROTGCRINUS, M. & W. 

Calathccrinus, Hall, (subgen. Actinocr.), 1861. Descript. Crinoidea, Prelim. 
Notice, p. 12; (not Von Meyer, 1848, Leonhard and Bronn's Jahrb. p. 467.) 

The name Calathocrinus was proposed by Prof. Hall in the paper above 
cited, for. a group including those curious species of so-called Actinocrinus, 
with an obconic body and the summit more or less flattened and greatly spread 
out in the form of a ten-rayed star, such as Actinocrinus perumbrosus, A. regalis, 
Hall, &c. As the name Calathocrinus had, however, been previously used for 
another type by von Meyer, in 1848, it becomes necessary to find another 
name for our American group, and we have consequently proposed to call it 
Strotocrinns, in the Report of the Illinois Geological Survey (p. 188), now in 
press. It includes Strotocrinns perumbrosus, S. regalis, S.glyptus, S. erodus and 
iS. lyratus, all of which had been described by Prof. Hall under Actinocrinus. 

Genus STEGANOCRINUS, M. & W. 
We have proposed the above name in the Illinois Report (p. 195 ) now in press, 
for a genus allied to Actinocrinus, with which it agrees in the structure of the 
body, but differs in having the rays from the second or third primary radial pieces 

1866.] 



254 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP 

greatly extended out horizontally in the form of remarkably elongated, slender, 
rigid, arm-like appendages, which are covered in above, all the way out, with 
small pieces like these of the vault, and bear the true arms along their sides. 
In some species, these long free rays are known to bifurcate once, while in 
others they are simple all the way out, so that in the latter the radial pieces 
may be said to continue indefinitely in a direct Hue. 

Type. SteganScrinus pentagonus, = (Actiriocrinus pe'ntagonus, Hall.) It 
also includes Steganocrinus araneolus, = (Actinocrinus araneolus, M. & W.), 
and S. sculptus=Aetinocrinus sculptus, Hall. 

Rhodocrinus nanus, M. & W. 

Body small, subglobose, with nearly vertical sides which round under below 
to the basal concavity. Base very small, and entirely concealed in the concavity 
of the under side, by the end of the column. Subradial pieces comparatively 
large, forming the under side of the body, and curved up so as to show nearly 
half the surface of each in a side view, hexagonal in general outline, but 
probably each with a seventh nearly obsolete angle at the middle of the side 
connecting with the base. First radials nearly as large as the subradials, and 
regularly heptagonal in form ; second radials rather more than half as large as_ 
the first, normally hexagonal, but sometimes pentagonal and rarely quad- 
rangular ; third radials larger than the second, generally wider than long, 
pentagonal, hexagonal or heptagonal, and' supporting upon their superior 
sloping sides, apparenly the first brachial pieces, which are not free, but 
supported by the first free pieces in the next range ; if there were no farther 
divisions of the free rays, there must therefore have been two arms to 
each ray, or ten in the entire series. First interradials smaller than the 
first radials, and resting upon the truncated upper sides of the subradials, 
regularly hexagonal in form, or rarely with the superior angle slightly trun- 
cated by tlie middle piece of the next range, so as to form a seventh angle ; 
second range consisting of two, or rarely three, rather smaller generally hex- 
agonal pieces, above which there are five or six other still smaller pieces 
connecting with i lie vault between the arm bases, thus making some eight or 
nine interradials to each area ; anal pieces about the same number as 1 in each 
interradial space, but a little larger in size and differently arranged, there 
being three pieces in each of the ranges above the first one, the middle ones 
of which continue on up in a right line to connect with the base of the 
proboscis above. Vault depressed to the level of the upper side of the arm- 
bases, and provided with deep broad furrows or depressions radiating from 
near the middle to the interradial spaces, composed of small, irregular, rather 
tumid pieces. Opening in the summit of a short, rather narrow lateral pro- 
boscis, which rises vertically, with its outer side nearly on a line with the verti- 
cal side of the anal area. 

All the body plates are convex in the middle, from which point rather ob- 
scure ridges radiate to each of their sides. The greater convexity and larger 
size of the radial pieces impart a somewhat pentagonal outline to the body, as 
seen from above or below. The surface is somewhat granular, and the col- 
umn, which is composed near the base of alternately thicker and thinner 
pieces, is round arfd pierced by a minute rounded cavity. 

Height of body, 033 inch ; breadth of do., 0-35 inch. 

Tliis neat little species is evidently closely allied to R. Barrisi, of Hall, from 
which it differs in having its body plates merely convex and provided witli 
radiating ridges, instead of being "ornamented by sharp, angular nodes and 
spines :" also in having eight or nine interradial pieces to each area, instead 
of only four to six. Another difference is to be obsei ved in the size of the third 
radial pieces, which in R. Barrisi are "minute," while in our species they 
are as large as the second radials. We only know the R. Barrisi from the 
published description, but we have been assured by M. Wachsmuth, who com- 
pared the form under consideration with authentic examples of that species, 
that they are easily distinguished. 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 255 

Locality and position.:- Burlington, Iowa. Lower beds Burlington group of 
the Subcarboniferous series. Mr. Wachsinuth's collection. 

Genus ONYCHOCRINUS, Lyon and Casseday, 1859. 
Although for some time past inclined, like others, to regard the type for 
which the name Onychocrinus was proposed, as probably in no respect distin- 
guishable from Forbesiocrinus, recent comparisons of some fine examples of 
these forms lead us to think that they may be even generically distinct. At 
any rate, they are certainly distinguishable upon more constant characters 
than those separating Forbesiocrinus from Taxocrinus, which groups we have 
elsewhere shown* blend together to such an extent that we do not think they 
can be separated more than subgenerically, upon any characters yet pointed 
out. 

At present we are inclined to regard Onychocrinus as being generically dis- 
tinct from Forbesiocrinus and Taxocrinus, but it may possibly form a second 
subgenus under Taxocrinus. I* the nature of the column, the number and 
arrangement of the basal, subradial and primary radial pieces, Onychocrinus 
agrees exactly with Forbesiocrinus : while in other points of structure these 
types differ to an extent that could scarcely fail to attract the attention of the 
most careless observer, on comparing good specimens of each. In the first 
place, Onychocrinus differs from Forbesiocrinus in having the rays from their 
origin more divergent, or even income instances extending out horizontally 
on the same plane with the base ; while in these extreme cases the long rays, 
which are free in to the second radial pieces, and bear the small arms in 
clusters at their extremities, have their under sides rounded, and their lateral 
margins curved up on each side to meet apparently a series of pieces covering 
them over above. According to Lyon and Casseday these forms also have 
the vault covered over with solid calcareous pieces a character not known to 
occur in Forbesiocrinus. Another difference is always observable in the anal 
side of these types, which in Onychocrinus, instead of being occupied by as 
many pieces a| the interradial spaces, or a larger number, as in Forbesio- 
crinus, is often so deeply excavated as to destroy the symmetry of the body, 
and only occupied by a single row of very small pieces, mounted one upon 
another," and resting in a sinus in the upper side of the largest subradial, so 
as to look much like a little dwarfed simple arm. On each side of this little 
arm-like range of anal pieces, there is a free open space between it and the 
adjacent rays, whatever may be the number of pieces filling the interradial 
spaces between the other rays. How this range of little anal pieces (of which 
there never seems to be more than six or eight) connects with the vault, we 
have been unable to determine, as they are always, so far as we have had an 
opportunity to see, entirely disconnected from all parts of the body, excepting 
the single subradial upon which they rest. We suspect, however, that they 
may have formed tne outside of a small lateral proboscis, the inner side of 
which was merely covered by a soft dermal integument. 

This peculiar character of the anal side, in Onychocrinus, seems to have 
been entirely overlooked or misunderstood in the species of this group referred 
to Forbesiocrinus the impression being that the anal plates had been, by 
some accident, removed from their place. It is true, we had observed that 
the anal area in our F. monroensis and F. Noriooodi is only occupied .by a 
slender little finger-like appendage, resting upon the upper side of the large odd 
subradial, but, as stated in our remarks in relation to the former species, we 
supposed the anal plates had been removed, and that the little rounded finger- 
like appendage occupying their place, was only one of the smaller subdivisions 
of One of the arms that had been accidentally placed in that position. We 
have seen this character, however, in the following species, which we have 
in the Illinois Report referred to Onychocrinus, viz., Forbesiocrinus aster iwfor- 
mis, F. Wldtjieldi and F. Meeki, Hall ; also in our F. monroensis and F. 
Norwsodi, as well as in the new species described in this paper. In the typi- 

* Proceed. Acad. Nat. aci. Philad., Aug., 1865, p. 138. 

1868.] 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

eal specimen of F. Meeki now before us, the anal space, as may be seen by the 
figure in the Iovra Report, is entirely vacant, and also without the little row 
of anal pieces. In five other good examples of this species before us, how- 
ever, this character is more or less clearly seen. 

From the typical forms of Taxocrinus, Onychdcrinus differs in nearly all the 
characters distinguishing it from Furbesiocrinus, as well as in having usually 
as many interradial pieces as the latter. 

As thus separated from b ' orbesiocrinus and Taxocrinus, Onychocrinus still 
seems to include two types that may yet be found separable, since Forbesio- 
crinus asfericeformis, Hall, and our species diversus described in this paper, 
differ from the other species mentioned in having the rays more spreading 
and free in as far as to the second radial pieces, with arms clustered in little 
bunches at the extremities of the rays far out from the body ; and the free 
rays apparently covered above, at least a part of the way out. It is in this 
type, if we have correctly understood Messrs. Lyon and Casseday, that they 
found the vault composed of solid calcareous fieces, while in the other species 
we have mentioned the vault is unknown. 

Such species as our 0. diversus, described in this paper, with their long, 
spreading, bifurcating rays, and numerous little curled-up arms at their ex- 
tremities, must, when perfect, have presented much the appearance of dried 
specimens of the existing genus Astrophytwi ; but we cannot agree with the 
authors of the genus or subgenus Onychocnmm in the opinion that this type 
forms a connecting link between the Crinoidea and the Asteroidea,oi that it 
is more nearly allied to the Star-fishes than other crinoids. 

Onychocrinus diversus, M. & W. 
Body and rays forming together an irregular five-rayed star, the body being 
comparatively small, depressed, and distorted by the deeper excavation of the 
anal side ; while the rays are large, stout, rigid and free, from the second 
radial pieces outward, and extend out horizontally on the same plane with 
the base. Basal pieces hidden by the column, or merely shewing as a thiu 
ring scarcely distinguishable from the last segment of the column, when the 
latter is attached. Subradial pieces comparatively large ; four of them equal, 
wider than long, and all pentagonal, with the upper sloping sides longer than 
the lateral margins ; the fifth one larger (particularly longer) than the others 
and apparently hexagonal. Radial pieces five to each ray, thick and strong, 
and after becoming free on the second pieces, curving strongly up on each 
side of the ray, so as to make the underside of the free rays distinctly rounded ; 
first radial pieces considerably larger than the subradials, of rather unequal 
size, wider than long, and heptagonal in form, with probably the exception 
of one or two of those on the anal side, which appear to be truncated on one 
side, so as to be hexagonal in outline. Succeeding radials diminishing gra- 
dually in size, the second and third being wider than long, hexagonal and 
pentagonal in form, and the fourth transversely oblong, as seen from below ; 
while the fifth is pentagonal, as seen from beneath, having an obtuse middle 
angle on the outer side. Beyond this the rays are each composed of a double 
series of strong pieces, which are slightly disposed to assume an alternating 
arrangement, the two series continuing in close contact laterally to the fourth 
pieces beyond the commencement of the double series on the fifth radials, and 
then diverging abruptly at an angle of 90 to 100, to form distinct rounded 
branches. At the outer bases of these branches an arm is given off on each 
side on the third piece from the commencement of the double series, and bi- 
furcate so as to form a bunch of small armlets ; beyond this the two main 
divisions of the rays continue on, each composed of a single range of pieces, 
until the third piece beyond the lateral arms just mentioned, after which 
they are each composed again of a double series of pieces, on the third of 
which another arm is thrown off on each side, and bifurcates as before. After 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 257 

this each main branch bifurcates without much divergence of the subdivisions, 
which are short and divided, so as to form together a bunch of small bifur- 
cating arms, thus making altogether apparently not less than several hun- 
dred small armlets, or ultimate division of the rays, to the entire series. 

The small armlets are all short, and form clusters at the extremities of 
the divisions of the horizontally extended strong rays, where they curve up- 
wards, and fold together in bunches like tlie fingers of a clenched fist. They 
are each composed of a single series of small pieces, which are wider than 
long, with a minute patelliform piece at the underside of each, as in Forbesio- 
cri?ius. 

Interradials three or four to each space, with others above belonging appa- 
rently more properly to the vault ; first interradial series hexagonal and rest- 
ing in a notch between the upper sloping lateral margins of the subradials. 
Anal series consisting of a single free row of very small pieces resting upon the 
upper side of the largest subradial, so as to present much the appearance of 
an abortive armlet. Surface merely finely granular, with the exception of a 
small linear ridge along the middle of each armlet. (Vault unknown.) 

Height of body, exclusive of vault, O'SO inch ; antero-postericr diameter, 
0*90 inch ; transverse diameter, 1*40 inch; greatest transverse diameter be- 
tween the extremities of opposite rays, 4 inches ; length of each of the two 
main divisions of each ray, - t>5 inch. Column at its connection with base, 0'2S 
inch in diameter, and composed of pieces only O'Ol inch in thickness, or ten, 
to the tenth of an inch. 

This species is related to Onychocrinus asteriformis = (Forbesiocrinus as- 
tericeformis, Hall,) but differs in attaining a much larger size, as well as in. 
having the two main divisions of each ray widely divergent and proportionally 
longer, instead of nearly parallel. Again it differs in having thesubdivisions 
and armlets much more numerous ; also in having always five primary radial, 
pieces to each ray. 

If reliable characters should hereafter be found for separating generically. 
Taxocrinus from Forbesiocrinus, it is possible the name of this species would 
become Forbesiocrinus (Onychocrinus) diversus, unless equally good characters 
may be discovered for separating the three groups generically. It is quite as 
probable, however, that Forbesiocrinus and Onychocrinus may be both included 
as subgenera under Taxocrinus, in which case the name of our species would, 
become Taxocr,nus (Onychocrinus) diversus. 

Locality and Position. Burlington group, upper bed ; Burlington, Iowa. 

Granatocrinus Shdmardi, M. & W. 

Body elliptic-oval, the length and breadth being as about 07 to 44. Base 
having the form of a nearly flat pentagonal disc, with modeyately prominent 
angles ; columnar facet round, and a little more than half as wide as the base. 
Radial pieces lanceolate oblong, or nearly three times as long as wide, most 
projecting and slightly narrower at the lower extremity, nearly flat between 
the pseudo-ambulacral areas, along the margins of which they project ab- 
ruptly in the form of a prominent knife-like keel ; forming five-sixths the en- 
tire length of the body, and each obliquely truncated on each side above, for 
the reception of the interradials. Pseudo-ambulacral fields very narrow,*fex- 
tending the entire length of the body, with almost exactly parallel sides ; 
rather convex, and each with a moderately distinct, longitudinal mesial linear 
furrow, on each side of which about 65 pore pieces may be counted ; lanceo- 
late and supplementary pore pieces unknown. Interradiali p.ioces about one- 
fourth the entire length of the body, rhombic in outline, on widest in the 
middle, and tapering nearly equally to the upper and lower extremities ; all 
rather distinctly sloping inwards from the lateral angles to the middle, so as 
to present a notched appearance on the outer surfaces. (Openings of the 
summit unknown.) Surface showing, by the aid of a good magnifier, in a, 
cross light, microscopic longitudinal lines near the lower end of the radial 

1866.] 17 



25$ PROCEEDINGS OF TtlE ACADEMY Of 

pieces, and on the interradials much stronger lines parrallel to their inferior 
sloping sides. 

Length, 0*G7 inch ; breadth, - 44 inch. 

At a first glance, this species might be mistaken for fhe common Pentremites 
melo, of Owen and Shumard, from which it may be readily distinguished by 
several well marked characters. In the first place it is narrower in proportion 
to length, and differs in having its pseudo-amhulacral areas prominent instead 
of sunken, and bounded on either side by a sharply elevated thin carina ; 
while its interambulacral areas are flat, or even a little concave, towards the 
lower part of the body, instead of being convex. It likewise differs in having 
scarcely a visible line, instead of a deep furrow along the sutures between the 
radial pieces ; while its b3se is much larger, and not sunken, but on a level 
with the lower ends of the radial pieces, which are likewise more protuberant 
at the lower ends of the pseudo-auibulaeral fields. 

In its larger and more prominent base, our species agrees more nearly with 
a form described by us as a variety of P. melo, under the name P. melo, var. 
projeclus, from which, however, it differs in all the other peculiarities men- 
tioned. We now regard that form as a distinct species from P. melo. 

Compared with P. elongatus, of Sliumard, which it resembles in general 
form, it will be at once distinguished by its greatly narrower and more promi- 
nent pseudo-amhulacral areas,. larger radial pieces, and proportionally larger 
interradials, which extend up to near the centre of the summit. These two 
forms may be regarded as the connecting links between the true Pentremites 
(P. Godoni group) and the /-'. melo, or Granatocrinus group. P. elongatus, 
however, falls clearly into the former, while the form under consideration 
belongs to the melo group. 

Named int honor of Dr. B. F. Shumard, of St. Louis, Missouri, who has 
given more attention to the Blastoidea than any other person in this country. 

Locality and position. Burlington, Iowa, lower part of Burlington group 
dI Suhcarboniferous series. Mr. Wachsinuth's collection. 

Gbanatockinus Norwoodi, 0. & S. ? 

Amongst some interesting Crinoids, loaned us for investigation by Mr. 
Wachsmuth*, from the Burlington group at Burlington, Iowa, there is a 
beautiful specimen, "resembling G. Norwoodi more than any other spe- 
cies known to us, with all the numerous little jointed, thread like arms, 
and a portion of the column attached. So far as we know, this is the only 
specimen of this group ever found with the arms attached. As might have 
been inferred from analogy, the arms in this type are apparently, in all re- 
spects, exactly as in the true Pentremites. About thirty of them can be 
counted arising from each pseudo-ambulacral area, though this is probably not 
the entire number, as they are folded together so that many of them may be 
hidden. They are very slender, simple, of uniform size, without any percep- 
tible, taper, and composed each of a single row of pieces as long as wide, of 
which about seven may be counted in the space of O10 inch. We are not 
sure they are entire, though it is evident that those attached near the lower 
pari of the areas must be at least twice as long as the body. The column 
neaT the base is round and composed of thin pieces of equal size, but farther 
down there are wider ones, with smaller between at regular intervals. 

The body of this specimen is partly hidden by the arms, but as far as can 
be determined it is as stated above, much like G. Norwoodi, with the following 
differences : In the first place, the parts of its radial pieces forming the inter- 
ambulacral spaces are not more than halt as wide as in specimens of G. Norwoodi 
of the same size. These surfaces also slope inwards laterally, so as to form 
a rather deep groove along the suture between each two radial pieces, instead of 
forming a flat area across between the pseudo-ambulacra, as in G. Norwoodi. 
Again its pseudo-ambulacral areas are proportionally nearly twice as wide as in 
G. Norwoodi, while the portions of the surface exposed are more coarsely granu- 
lated than in that species, and the granules differently arranged. As it seems 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 259 

to be' also less like G. melo, or any of the other species known to us from this 
horizon, we suspect it will be found to belong to an un described species, but 
as we have not seen the summit, nor base, we are left in doubt on this point. 
Should it prove to be new, however, we would propose for it the name G. 
Jinibriatus. 

Locality and position. Upper beds of Burlington group, of Subcarbonif- 
erous series, Burlington, Iowa. Mr. Wachsmuth's collection. 

ASTEROIDEA. 

ScecENASTEK Wachsmpthi, M. & W. 
Body flattened, with a regular, distinctly pentagonal outline, the angles being 
produced into five rather attenuated rays or arms, which are a little convex 
above, and apparently as much as two-thirds as long as the diameter of the 
disc, if not more. Disc concave in outline on the outer margin brtween the 
rays, and imparting a slightly alate character to the latter, by extending a 
little along their inner lateral margins ; like the dorsal side of the rays, com- 
posed above of numerous small, slightly convex plates. Dorsal pores mode- 
rately distinct between the plates. Plates of the under side of the disk about as 
large as the dorsal plates, but flattened, scale-like, crowded, and having the in- 
ward imbricating character of the genus very strongly marked. Ambulacra (as 
seen in a compressed specimen) very narrow, their adambulacral plates mode- 
rately large, oval-oblong, comparatively thin, and very strongly imbricating 
outwards or towards the extremity of the rays. Between these two rows of 
short, flattened spine-like scales are seen arising from the amlmlacral furrow, 
and all inclining outwards toward the outer extremities of the rays. (Other 
characters unknown.) 

Diameter of disc, 1-22 inch; rays apparently extending as much as 0'90 
inch or more beyond the margins of the disc. 

This species will be readily distinguished from our S. fimbriatus, from the 
St. Louis limestone, the only other known species of the genus, by its smaller 
and less convex plates on the dorsal side, as well as by its much thinner, less 
oblique and more strongly imbricating row of plates' along each side of the 
ambulacra, and particularly by its much narrower ambulacral furrows. We 
have not seen any traces of the row of short flattened marginal spines seen 
around the disc of S. fimbriatus, nor have the similar little appendages seen 
arising in a double row from the ambulacra of the species under consideration 
been seen in S. fimbriatus, but it is probable these are generic characters that 
exist in good specimens of both species. There may have also been similar 
little flattened spines on other parts of the fossil, as" there are some appear- 
ances of such little appendages projecting from the transverse sutures between 
some of the rows of imbricating adambulacral plates. 

We take pleasure in naming this interesting species after Mr. Charles 
Wachsmnth, of Burlington, Iowa, its discoverer, to whom science is indebted 
for the discovery of many interesting new types of fossils. 

Locality and position. Burlington, Iowa; upper part of Burlington lime- 
stone of Subcarboniferous series. Mr. Waclismuth's collection. 

MOLLUSC A. 
LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

PTERIA (PtERINEA ?) JIORGANENSIS, M. & W. 

Shell (left valve) exclusive of the posterior wing, obliquely subovate, mode- 
rately convex, very thin ; anterior and basal margins forming an obliquely 
descending, semi-oval, or semi-circular curve, from the anterior ear to the 
posterior margin, which is prominently and rather narrowly rounded ; hinge 
line somewhat less than the length of the shell, and ranging at an angle of 
about 45 above a line drawn from the beak to the most prominent part of the 
I860.] 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

posterior basal margin ; Leak oblique, ratber convex, and placed very near 
the anterior extremity of the hinge; anterior ear very srual), a little convex, 
but separated from the swell of the umbo by an oblique, shallow, rounded 
impression, rounded at the extremity, and defined in outline by a very shal- 
low marginal sinuosity ; posterior wing large, flattened, triangular, and defined 
by a broad, moderately deep rounded sinus, not equalling in length the most 
prominent part of the posterior margin below the sinus in young shells ra- 
ther acutely angular, but more obtuse in adult specimens. Surface ornamented 
with numerous linear, radiating costse, smaller than the flattened spaces be- 
tween, and crossed by concentric raised lines, so as to form a neat cancellated 
style of marking, quite as distinct on the ears (particularly the posterior one) 
as on the body of the valve ; radiating costre increasing by intercalation, the 
intermediate ones dying out at various distances between the free margin and 
the beak, all more or less interrupted at various intervals by irregular, shallow, 
concentric furrows of growth. (Right valve unknown.) 

Length of the largest specimen, measuring obliquely from the most promi- 
nent part of the posterior basal margin to the extremity of the small anterior 
ear, 1-55 inch ; do. parallel to the hinge line, 1*41 inch ; height at right angles 
to the hinge, 2 inches ; length of hinge and anterior ear, 1*17 inch ; length of 
posterior ear, from the beak to its extremity, 0'91 inch. 

This rather handsome species has more the aspect of certain Upper Silurian 
forms, such as Avicula communis, Hall, than of any carboniferous species with 
which we are acquainted, though of course presenting well marked specific- 
differences. 

It is a little remarkable, that all of the twenty- five or twenty-six specimens now 
before us, are left valves, from which fact we may infer that the right valve, 
being more fragile, was generally broken to pieces by the waves, before being 
imbedded in the sediment. It is also probable that the right valve was less 
convex, and more faintly marked than the other, as is usual in shells of this 
kind. As we know nothing of the binge and muscular impressions of this 
shell, we cannot determine whether it is a Pterinea or a Pteria. If a true 
Pterin, and Kleins old pre-Linnaean names are to be retained, the name of our 
shell will become Avicula morganensis. 

Locality and position. Coal Measures (below the middle), Morgan County, 
Illinois. 

DoLABRA STEKLINGEXSIS, M. & W. 

Shell rhombic-cordate, being cordate in outline, as seen in an anterior and 
posterior view, and obliquely rhomboidal as seen from either side. Posterior 
margin obliquely truncated, with a long slope, which is slightly convex above 
and faintly sinueus near the middle ; posterior basal extremity produced 
obliquely backwards and downwards, with a more narrowly rounded or sub- 
angular outline ; basal margin ascending forward, with a moderately convex 
curve, and rounding up more or less gradually into the very short or almost 
obsolete anterior side : hinge line short ; cardinal area moderately developed. 
Beaks prominent, placed nearly over the anterior margin, strongly incurved, 
and compressed antero-posteriorly ; umbonal ridges very prominent, sub- 
angular, and extending from the beaks obliquely to the posterior basal ex- 
tremity at an angle of about (38 below the horizon of the hinge, thus dividing 
each valve into two subequal areas, of which the one behind is flattened or 
slightly concave between the ridge and the moderately prominent postero- 
dorsal edge, and that in front and below it convex. Surface marked with 
concentric striae of growth. (Hinge and interior unknown.) 

Greatest length, measuring obliquely from the beaks to the posterior basal 
extremity, 2*20 inches ; diameter at right angles to the same, 1*50 inch ; con- 
vexity of the two valves when closed, 150 inch. 

This species is evidently related to Gjrtodonta Hindi, of Billings (see 
Palaeonzoic Foosils of Canada, vol. 1, p. 151, fig. 131, a, b), from the same 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 2(51 

geological horizon. It differs, however, in several important specific charac- 
acters, being proportionally much more gibbous, shorter, and, in consequence 
of its hinge line forming a wider angle with its umbonal axis, distinctly less 
oblique. It also differs in having its anterior side much less prominent and 
more broadly rounded below the beaks, which consequently have the appear- 
ance of being almost terminal. Its beaks are likewise more compressed 
antero-posteriorly, and its hinge line shorter. Our specimen does not show 
the cardinal area very satisfactorily, though it is evidently moderately well 
developed and shorter than in Mr. Hillings' si'eeies. 

Until the hinge and interior of this shell can be examined, it is scarcely 
possible to determine very clearly its generic character, but on comparison 
with Cucullcea angustata, Sowerby, the type of McCoy's genus Dolabra,* and 
other more obliquely truncated species, such as C. unilateraUs, Sowerby, C. 
amydalina, Phillips, as figured in Phillips' Palaeozoic Fossils, we can scarcely 
doubt the propriety of referring it to the genus Dolabra. Some of these 
species have much the form and general external appearance of the genus 
Cucull<ea ; while Sowerby's figure of an internal cast of the so called C. angus- 
tata (Geol. Trans. (2), vol. v. pi. 53, fig. 25), seem to indicate a very similar 
hinge. They appear to want the prominent posterior muscular support and 
the radiating costas or striae of the more modern species of true Cuculltea, of 
which, however, they are evidently palaeozoic representatives. 

Locality and position. Cincinnati group, of Lower Silurian Series, at Ster- 
ling, Illinois. 

Mackodon micron em a, M. & W. 

Shell rather small, very inequilateral, elongate-oblong, nearly twice and a- 
half as long as high, rather distinctly convex in the anterior and central 
regions, as well as along tbe oblique posterior umbonal slopes. Posterior 
dorsal region compressed above tbe umbonal ridge. Cardinal margin straight, 
nearly parallel to the base, and but little shorter than the valves. Ventral 
margin long and straight, or but slightly sinuous in the middle, and rounding 
up rather abruptly and nearly equally at the ends. Posterior extremity trun- 
cated, with a slight forward inclination, sometimes faintly sinuous in outline. 
Anterior side very short and rounded. Beaks rather depressed, but rising 
moderately above the hinge and somewhat flattened on the outer side ; in- 
curved, approximate, and placed near the anterior end. Surface ornamented 
with radiating striae, which are oblique, coarse, and rather irregular on the 
compressed posterior region, but become gradually less oblique, finer and 
more regular anteriorly, so that on the middle and anterior portions of the 
valves they are exceedingly minute, very regular, and only visible by the aid 
of a go >d magnifier in a cross light. A few moderately distinct marks of 
growth are also seen near the basal and posterior margins. (Hinge, area and 
interior unknown.) 

Length, 0-05 inch ; height (at beaks), 28 inch ; convexity, 24 inch. 

This little shell has much the form and general appearance of Macrodon 
carbonaria,=( Area carbonaria, Cox, Kentucky Geol. Report, pi. viii. fig. 8), 
but may be readily distinguished, not only by its smaller size and less nearly 
terminal beaks, but by the extremely minute size of its radiating striae on 
the convex portions of its valves. 

Locality and position. St. Genevieve County, Missouri, in the Chester divi- 
sion of the Subcarboniferous series, also in the same position, Randolph Co., 
Illinois. 

* The g^nus Dolabra, as first pr >poed by Prof. McCoy, included along with the typical species, 
such as Cucuttsea angustata and C. uniUderalis, Sowerby, C. amydalina, Phillips, &c, other forms 
belonging to the subsequently established, genus Schizodus, King. After the separation of the lat- 
ter group, however, the name Dolabra was of course left, tor the other genus. 

I860.] 



-62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

GASTEEOPODA. 

Genus PLATYCERAS, Conrad, 1S40. 

(Acroculia, Phillips, 1841.) 

The germs PI at tic eras was proposed hy Mr. Conrad for a group of palreozoic 
shells, Tery generally referred by European authors to the Montfort's genus 
Ca'pulu*, published in l&10,=(Pileopsis, Lamarck, 1812.) Mr. Conrad's de- 
scription of this g^nus reads as follows : " I propose to group in this genus 
the PileOpsi.s tubifer, (Sowerby), P. rehtsa, (Sowerby), Nerita haliotis, 
(Sowerby), and perhaps Bellerophon eornuarietes. These shells are suboval or 
subglobose, with a small spire, the whorls of which are sometimes free and 
soniet mes contiguous ; the mouth is generally campanulate or expanded."* 
During the following year, Prof. Phillips proposed in his "Palreozoic Fossils," 
p. 93, the name Acroculia for the same fossils. 

In this country Mr. Conrad's name has been generally adopted for these shells, 
which is certainly proper, unh-ss they shall be found to agree with the older ge- 
nus Capulus, since his name has priority over that proposed by Prof. Phillips. 
Although agreeing with those who regard these fossils as being probably dis 
tinct from the existing genus Capulus, we believe they are more nearly allied 
to that group than is generally supposed to be the case by American palaeon- 
tologists. The only reason assigned by Professor Hall for separating them 
from the modern genus is, that he had never observed in them any traces of 
the peculiar horse- shoe shaped muscular scar so conspicuous in the genus 
Capulus.^ We have recently, however, found very similar muscular impres- 
sions in two distinct species of this genus, one of which seems to be a variety 
of P. subrectum, Hall, from the Keokuk group, while the other is a new 
species describ <1 in this paper from the Waverly Sandstone, of Ohio. J In 
both of these, internal casts show an elongate oval muscular impression on 
each side, connected by a linear band passing around behind. It is also 
worthy of ii"te that both of these species belong to the nearly or quite straight 
section of the genus, for which Prof. Hall at one time proposed the name 
of Orth onychia, and hence are less nearly like the modern typical forms of 
the genus Caputus than the great majority of the Pala?ozoic species. 

A careful examination of extensive collections of these shells from our west- 
ern pala?ozoic rocks, has also satisfied us that the animal must have been simi- 
lar in habit- to Capulus and other types of the family Capulidce, to which they 
evidently belong||, in being sedentary shells. This is shown by specimens 
found attached to crinoids and other objects in such a manner that the 
sinuosities of the lip exactly correspond to the irregularities of the surface to 
which they are attached. For instance, we have now before us one of these 
shells attached to the side of a Peulreinitrs Godoni, so as to entirely cover one 
of the pseudo ambulaeral fields and two of the intermediate areas, and yet the 
sinuosities of its lip conform so exactly to the irregularities of the side of the 

* Palaeontolugical Keport, New York, 1840, p. 205. 

f 12th Ann. Keport Kegents Uiiiversi y New York, p. 16. 1S59. 

\ Similar muscular impressions are km>wn to occur in the Neritidx and other univalves. 

\ It-port 4th I)ist. N. Y., 1843. 

1 1 In a sheet entitled " Iowa Geological Survey, supplement to vol. 1. part ii, 1S5SV" issued in 
1860 Prof. Hall described a patelliform Platyceras, lr> in Nauvoo, Illinois, under the name /'.//.- 
sureUa, which In- says lias a perforation just anterior to the apex. Although this is merely men- 
tioned as a specific character, distinguishing n from an otherwise similar species described in the 
same paper, conchologists will readily understand that such an opening:, near the apex of the 
shell, if oat oral must have been, judging from all analogy, for an excurrent or anal siph >n , as 
in the FissureUidee, and hence would not only remove the species from tbegenus Plalyctras. hut 
from the family Captdidie, and place it in the Fissurellidse, regarded hy the best systtmatists as 
belonging t i a distinct order fri m that including the Capulida . A careful examination, however, 
nfthe typical specimens ol P. fissurella, and other examples of the same species from the original 
locality, now in ihe p sses-ion of one of ihe writers, leads us t" think the perforation alluded to 
(whii h only exists in nne of the specimens), almost hejond doubt an accidental break in the shell, 
not a natural perforation 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



2G3 



Pentremi'te that the fit looks as if it might have been air tight. The corres- 
ponding undulations of the lines of growth likewise show clearly that this nice 
adaptation of the margins of the lip to the irregularities of the surface of the 
Penfremite could not have resulted from accidental pressure when the edge of 
the lip was somewhat yielding, since these curves in the marks of growth are 
seen to extend up the sides of the shell some distance from the margin, where 
there could have been no flexibility. 

This habit of attaching themselves to Crinoids, has led some to think the cri- 
noids were in the act of devouring these mollusks at the moment when they per- 
ished, and that these mollusks constituted the chief food of the crinoids. So far as 
our observations go, however, we do not think the evidence sufficient to es- 
tablish this fact, since these shells are as often attached to the side of'the crinoid 
below the horizon of the arms as to the summit, and hence out of reach of the 
mouth, while the conformity of the margins of the shell to the inequalities of the 
surface to which they are found attached, rather indicates that they grew there. 
The probability seems to be, that like various other sedentary marine animals, 
these mollusks, in their very young state, floated freely about until they found 
a suitable place to attach themselves. We were at one time inclined to think 
there might also be some reason for believing that the a lult shell at least some- 
times changed its station, from the fact that iu some instances we observe the 
lines of growth indicating strong sinuosities iu the lip during apart of the growth 
of the shell, which afterwards became suddenly obliterated, to give place to a 
different set of irregularities, as if the animal had changed its stat on and 
adapted the sinuosities of its lip to a new surface. This, however, may have 
been produced by the lateral expansion of the lip, by which it was brought into 
contact with different inequalities as the shell increased in size. We have no 
evidence that they possessed the power of excavating a depression in the sur- 
face of attachment, as in Amalthea, or of secreting a shelly layer or support 
under the foot, as in Hipponyx. 

Prof. Hall has' proposed to establish two subordinate groups under this 
genus, more or less distinct from the typical forms of Platyceras. These may 
be distinguished thus : 

1. Platijciras, Conrad. (Typical.) Shell with apex incurved or spiral ; sur- 
face concentrically striated, sometimes radiately plicate, rarely spiuiterous. 
Pileopsis iubifer, Sow. 

2. Orthonychia, Hall. Shell arched or straight, with concentric striae. 
P.'aiycerns subrectum, Hall. 

3. Igoceras, Hall. Differing from the last in having the surface cancellated. 
Ex. P. plicatum, Conr. 

It is, however, often very difficult to separate the species into these groups, 
owing to the numerous gradations by which they bleud into each other. 

PLATYCEKAS LJEVIGATUM, M. & W. 

Shell small, dextral, subglobose, composed of two to two and a-half very 
rapidly expanding contiguous whorls, the first of which is minute ; last whorl 
forming much the larger part of the shell, evenly convex, and although in- 
creasing rapidly in size, not properly campanulate ; aperture nearly circular, 
being somewhat straightened on the inner side ; lip not sinuous in any 
of the specimens examined ; surface nearly smooth, but showing fine lines of 
growth under a lense, where not worn. 

Length, 0-55 inch; breadth, 38 inch. 

This little shell is not very nearly related to any of the other carboniferous 
species of this country with which we are acquainted. It will be readily 
identified by its small size, rapidly expanding whorls, smooth surface, without 
folds or plications, and the non-sinuous, regular outline of its lip. From the 
latter character, it would seem to have attached itself only to even surfaces. 
In size and the regular smoothness of its surface it is quite similar to 

18 i6.] - 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

P. bivalve, of White k Whitfield, from the Kinderhook group ; but it may be 
readily distinguished by its much more rapidly expanding whorls and conse- 
quently larger aperture. It also differs in having the apex of its spire distinctly 
sunken below the upper side of the body whorl, instead of nearly even 
with it. 

Amongst foreign species, ours is perhaps most nearly allied to Pileopsis 
angustata, of Phillips (Geol. Yorks. 11, pi. xiv, fig. 20), from which it also 
differs in having its whorls much more rapidly expanding, and its aperture 
proportionally much larger and more rounded. 

Locality and position, St. Genevieve county, Missouri, and Randolph 
County, Illinois ; from the Chester division of the Subcarboniferous series. 

Platyceras haliotoides, M. & W. 

Shell rather small, ovate, very oblique and depressed ; composed of two very 
rapidly expanding, nearly or quite contiguous volutions, the last one of which 
is depressed above, narrowly rounded around the dorsal side, and forms nearly 
the entire bulk of the shell ; apex of spire on a plane with upper side of the 
bdy whorl ; aperture large, transversely oval, being wider than high ; lip 
sometimes sinuous on the outer or dorsal side ; surface with moderately dis- 
tinct lines of growth. Exfoliated surfaces sometimes showing apparently 
traces of revolving stria?. 

Length, - 73 inch ; breadth, 0-54 inch ; height, 41 inch. 

This species will be recognized by its very oblique depressed form, and the 
narrowly round character of the outer side of its holy whorl, which peculiari- 
ties give it much the form of a Huliotis. Its first turn, which is quite small, 
seems to have been sometimes free or slightly detatched from the body of the 
shefl, and in other examples in contact with it. The marks of growth generally 
indicate a rather broad, moderately deep sinuosity of the lip on the dorsal or 
outer side. 

Locality and position. Waverly sandstone, fifty feet below the Millstone 
grit, Richfield, Summit county, Ohio. 

Platyceras pncum, M. & W. 

Shell rather under medium size, in adult examples elongate conical and 
oblique ; body portion nearly straight, especially on the posterior side ; apex 
attenuate, pointed, laterally compressed and curved backwards (without any 
lateral obliquity), so as to form a free hook of ab mt half a turn. Aperture 
generally a little wider transversely than the antero-posterior diameter, and 
usually shoeing a faintly subtrigonal outline, produced by the prominence of 
the front, and the flattening of the posterior side of the body. Lip irregularly 
undulated, prominent on each side, broadly sinuous behind and provided 
with a very deep narrow sinus in front. Surface with the usual undulating 
concentric striae crossed on the lower half of the body by small, rather obscure 
longitudinal plications, and in front by a larger, but narrow prominent ridge, 
upon which the lines of growth make a strong upward curve, so as to indicate 
the presence of the anterior sinus during most of the growth of the shell. 

Length, 1 inch; breadth (transverse diameter of the aperture), - 70 inch; 
antero-posterior diameter of the aperture, 0"55 inch. 

This species is intermediate in size and some other respects between 
Plat/jceras acutirostris= ( Capulus acutirostris, Hall) , and Platyct ras equilatera, 
Hall. In size and general appearance it is most like the former, though it is 
larger and differs in having its apex merely hooked instead of subspiral, as 
well as in its prominent anterior ridge and deeper and narrower anterior sinus. 
From P. equilatera it is distinguished by its smaller size, narrower and straighter 
form (particularly at maturity), less incurved beak, prominent anterior ridge, 
deep anterior sinus and portionady smaller aperture. It also wants the 
antero-lateral sinuses of the lip seen in the typical forms of that shell. 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 265 

It is quite evident that the nature and position of the sinuosities of the lip, 
as already suggested, in all the species of this genus, were modified to a con- 
siderable extent by the nature of the surface to which the animal was attached 
during life. A careful examination, however, of large collections of most of 
the known American palaeozoic species, shows that there was generally a ten- 
dency towards a uniformity in the sinus and the corresponding longitudinal 
ridges, when present, iu each species, particularly in those of Carboniferous 
age. 

Locality and position. Keokuk limestone, of the Subcarboniferous series, at 
Nauvoo, 111. 

Platyceras (Orthonychia) chestere.vse, M. & W. 

Shell small, obliquely conical, more or less arched ; apex sometimes 
rather attenuate, curved or directed backwards so as to stand nearly over the 
posterior margin ; anterior and lateral sides expanding rather rapidly from 
near the apex; aperture irregularly subcircnlar ; lip margin more or less 
undulated. Surface marked by fine undulating concentric stria? of growth, 
and usually with about five rather broad radiating furrows that extend from 
the lip to the middle or above, so as to leave between them five broad obtuse 
ridges, which are themselves sometimes faintly divided into smaller irregular 
costae near the margin of the lip. 

Height, or length, measuring from the anterior basal margin obliquely to the 
apex, O-b'b' inch ; transverse breadth of aperture, 0-55 inch; longitudinal do. 
of same, 0.53 inch. 

The most marked feature about this little shell is the rather general pres- 
ence of about five radiating furrows extending sometimes from near the apex 
to the margin, so as to divide the surface into about five broad ridges, some- 
times themselves faintly subdivided. This character is not in all cases dis- 
tinctly defined, though the specimens generally show indications of it, while 
in some instances it is a very conspicuous feature. In this character it is much 
like the Burlington group species, P. quincyense, of McChesney, from which, 
however, it is distinguished by its much smaller size, more rapid expansion 
and more arcuate oblique form. 

It is a specimen apparently of this species to which we have already alluded 
as being attached to the side of a Pentremites Godoni. The individual so at- 
tached is less attenuate, and has the five furrows less defined than the typical 
specimens of the species, but it nevertheless seems to belong to this species. 

Locality and position. Chester division of the Subcarboniferous series, 
Chester, Illinois ; also in same position Pope county, 111. 

PLATYCERAS (OrTHONYCHIA) SUBPLICATUM, M. & W. 

Shell small, depressed conical, somewhat oblique, rapidly expanding from 
a subcentral apex; anterior slope slightly convex; posterior and lateral 
slopes straight or a little concave ; aperture subcircular ; adductor muscular 
scars finely striated and placed a little above the middle on each side ; elongate- 
subovate or sublunate, being a little arched, with the larger end forward and 
raised slightly higher than the other, and the posterior ends connected by a 
linear depression running around behind ; surface (of casts) with a few large, 
irregular radiating folds or plications extending from the margins of the aper- 
ture more than half way up towards the apex. 

Height, 0'36 inch ; anteroposterior diameter, 063 inch ; transverse, do., 
05b' inch. 

We have only seen internal casts of this species, which probably do not give 
a very correct idea of the nature of the apex, which in the casts is rather ob- 
tuse and merely directed somewhat obliquely backwards and upwards. In 
perfect shells it is doubtless pointed and more or less incurved. The plications 
of the surface are obtuse and rather obscure in the internal casts. The sur- 

1866.] 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

face of the shell is prohahly also marked with more or less distinct lines of 
growth. The internal casts show very satisfactorily the muscular scars. 

This species has somewhat the general form of P. Jissurella, of Hall, hut 
is smaller, less oblique, and differs in the possession of large radiating 
plications. 

Locality and position same as last. 

Platyceras (Oethoxychia) ixfcndibcluji, M. & W. 

Platyceras subrectum, Hall, 1S60. Supplement to Iowa Report, page 1, of 

additional sheet; (not P. subrectum, Hall, 1859. Twelfth Report Regents 

Univ., N. Y., p. 18.) 

Shell straight, more or less elongate-conical, very slightly oblique, attenuate 
near the straight subcentral apex, thence expanding, at first gradually, then 
more rapidly to the irregularly subcircular or suboval aperture ; lip thin and 
irregularly undulated, as if to correspond to an uneven surface of attachment. 
Surface with more or less distinct, undulating, concentric striae, and near the 
lip stronger marks or lamina? of growth; also generally with a few large, 
irregular, undefined, radiating plications. 

Length. 1*40 inch ; breadth about l - 30 inch. 

As remarked hy Prof. Hall, this species varies considerably in the degree of 
expansion, some specimens being much more attenuated than others. It is 
probable that in very young individuals the immediate apex may have been 
curved or subspiral, but in all those we have seen it is straight, sometimes a 
little compressed, and only removed from a central position by the slight 
general obliquity of the whole shell without any curve. In some respects it 
is similar to P. quincyense, of McChesney, from the Burlington division of the 
Subcarboniferous series. It differs, however, even when, as is sometimes the 
case, it is nearly as strongly plicated as that shell, in its more irregular, less 
attenuate form and rougher surface, as well as in not having its folds or pli- 
cations forming five regular, broad ridges, more or less flattened and concave 
along their middle. 

From P. fisnurella, Hall, the shell here described differs in being less de- 
pressed or more attenuate, particularly near the apex, which is never oblique 
as in that species. 

Prof. Hall hail described the species under consideration, in the supplemen- 
tary skeet quoted above, but as he by an oversight gave it the same specific 
name {subrectum) he had previously applied to another species froui the upper 
Heidelberg rocks of New York, it becomes necessary, in order to prevent con- 
fusion, that our Illinois species should receive another name, and hence we 
propose to call it P. infundibulum. 

From the same locality and position with the above, we have a single speci- 
men differing from the others in bein<_ v greatly more slender and elongated. It 
is perfectly straight, somewhat compressed laterally and about twice as long 
as wide, being very attenuate above the middle and but slightly expanded be- 
low. It is an internal cast, showing no surface markings, but preserving the 
transversely elongate-oval muscular scar on each side, apparently connected 
by a slender band behind. It is not possible to determine beyond doubt 
whether this is a distinct species or only a variety of that described above, 
without having more specimens for comparison. Should it prove distinct, 
however, we would propose to call it Platyceras (Orthonyckia) extinctor, in 
allusion to its resemblance in form* to a candle extinguisher. 

Locality a n<l jiusition. Keokuk division of the Subcarboniferous series, 
Warsaw, Illinois. 

Genus METOPTOMA, Phillips, 183G. 

From Phillips's figures, and very brief diagnosis of the genu? Metoptoma,* it 

* " Patcllifurrn, face under the apex truncate." Qeol. Yoiks, 11, p. 223. 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 267 

is evident he intended it to include only those patelliform palaeozoic shells 
with the posterior side more or less truncated. Mr. Billings, however, and 
some others extend it so as to include circular or oval species, showing no 
traces of the posterior truncation, such as were referred by Phillips and others 
to Patella. Although it is probable the typical truncated and the oval or cir- 
cular species without the posterior truncation represent two distinct genera, 
it is perhaps impracticable in our present state of knowledge to separate these 
groups, owing to the fact that there are so many intermediate forms ; while 
it is very rarely indeed that we can know anything in regard to the interior 
of these fossil shells. 

Phillips says nothing respecting the muscular impressions of his typical 
species, but his figure of M. obloriga, which seems to represent an internal cast, 
shows apparently a horse-shoe shaped scar, like that seen in Capulus, Hip- 
ponyx, and the all'ed genera. Prof, de Koninck has also shown ( Sup. An. Fos., 
pi. lviii, fig. 1 and 2) this scar very clearly in M. pileus of Phillips, and M. 
Solaris, = (Patella Solaris, de Kon.) From these figures it is evident, as ob- 
served by Prof, de Koninck, that the open end of the horse-shoe shaped scar is 
directed away from the truncated side of the shell, showing that the truncated 
side is the posterior instead of the anterior, as supposed by Phillips. 

Metoptoma. (Platycekas?,) ujibella, M. & W. 

Shell much depressed or patelliform, circular in outline ; apex central or 
very nearly so ; sides sloping about equally, with generally a slight concavity, 
in all directions ; surface marked by fine lines and obscure wrinkles of growth. 
Muscular scar on each side, elongate-oval and somewhat arched downwards, 
with a narrower band connecting them behind. 

Length and breadth each about 1*70 iych ; height about 0-70 inch. 

Although not an uncommon shell, we have never seen a specimen of this 
species with the apex entire, though insome of the casts it looks as if it may have 
been suddenly projecting and possibly curved. Hence, we are in doubt 
whether it may not fall more properly within the genus Platyceras, though it 
is much more depressed and expanded than any species of that genus known 
to us. As a general thing, the specimens are regularly circular or slightly 
oval, and without traces of the peculiar truncation of the typical forms of 
Metoptoma, though some of them seem to show obscure indications of it iu the 
slightly less prominent outline of the margin on one side. 

On one single partly-worn specimen, apparently agreeing in other respects 
with the others, there are indications of small, irregular radiating costaa on 
the lower half of apparently the anterior side. This may possibly be a dis- 
tinct species, but we cannot be sure of this without more specimens for com- 
parison, since the typical specimens are mostly internal casts. 

Prof. Winched has described, from the Kinderhook beds at Burlington, 
Iowa (Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., July, 1865), a somewhat similar 
species, but judging from its measurements, it must be distinctly less depressed 
than our shell, and differs in being " contracted at the aperture." 

Locality ami position. Burlington division of the Subcarboniferous series, 
Quincy, Illinois ; also in same position on Honey Creek, Henderson county, 
Illinois. 

Po*LYPHEMOPSIS CHEYSALLIS, M. & W. 

Shell subfusiform ; spire conical, moderately elevated, pointed at the apex ; 
volutions nine, a little convex and increasing gradually in size, last one form- 
ing about two-thirds the entire length and moderately produced below ; suture 
distinct ; aperture narrow suboval, acutely angular above and narrowly 
effuse below ; inner lip apparently wanting ; columella a little arched and 
twisted ; surface showing only very faint traces of lines of growth. 

Length, 0-55 inch; breadth, 0*23 inch; apical angle convex on the slopes, 
divergence about 40 Q . 

>6] 



268 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



This species has nearly the form of Loxonema Newberry!., of Stevens (an 
elongated Macrocfie : lus), but is much smaller, and wants the characteristic 
thickening and fold of the columella seen in that species. In size it agrees 
more nearly with our Polyphemopsis inornata, frnm a higher position in the 
coal-measures at Springfield, Illinois. It has its body volution more produced 
below, and less disposed to become subangular around the middle ; while the 
slopes of its spire are more convex in outline, owing to the proportionally 
larger size of the middle whorls. This latter character gives it the chrysalis-like 
form that suggested the specific name. 

Locality an'dposltion.=H.o&ge's Creek, Macoupen County, 111. Lower Coal- 
Measures. 

Naticopsis Littonana, var. genevievensis. 

Natica Littonana, Hall, 1856. Trans. Abany Inst., vol. iv. (p. 30, of 
extract.) 

The shell we here place provisionally as a variety of Natica Littonana, 
Hall (a true Naticopsis), agrees almost exactly with authentic examples of 
that species from the original locality, excepting that it attains some six or 
eight times the size of the largest of the Indiana specimens, and yet has the 
same number (four) of whorls. Some of the specimens have the oblique 
lines rather more distinctly defined around the upper side of the body whorl 
than we have seen on any of the typical examples of Naticopsis Lit- 
tonana, but tli is might be expected from their much larger size. These lines, 
however, are quite distinct on some of the unworn specimens of N. Littonana, 
from Spergen Hill. 

Our specimens of the shell under consideration show the inner lip to be 
little thickened and very smooth, while the columella is moderately flattened. 
The surface is quite smooth up to the area below the suture, marked by the 
oblique, very regular stria?, which terminate very regularly and abruptly at 
their outer extremities. In worn specimens these lines, however, are entirely 
obsolete. It is not impossible that this may prove to be a distinct species 
from the N. Liltununa, though we here place it provisionally as a variety 
of that species. 

Length, 0-73 inch ; breadth, 0'67 inch ; apical angle about 115. 

Locality and position. St. Genevieve County, Missouri, and Randolph 
County, Illinois, Chester division of the Subcarboniferous series. 

Genus ANOMPHALUS, M. & W. 

Shell depressed, sublenticular, imperforate, smooth and without a spiral band ; 
volutions somewhat embracing above, and each hiding all the preceding ones 
below ; aperture wider thau high ; peristome not continuous ; labium simple 
and without a notch or sinus, projecting forward above ; labium a little sinu- 
ous and slightly spreading in the more or less impressed umbilical region. 

The type for which this genus is proposed is a little shell having somewhat 
the aspect of a Rotella, but wanting the callus seen filling the umbilical im- 
pression in that genus. At a first glance it might be mistaken for a small 
Straparollus, but on examining the underside it is seen to be entirely without 
an umbilicus, though slightly impressed in the middle ; while its lip continues 
in below nearly to the centre, where it is abruptly deflected upwards, becomes 
a little thickened, somewhat spreading and more or less sinuous, much as we 
see on each side of some species of Bellerophon. 

We have little doubt but this genus belongs to the Rotellidoe, which was 
certainly represented during the deposition of the palaeozoic rocks, apparently 
even by the typical genus Rote/la, the well known Devoniau Ilelicites helicuii- 
J'ormis of Schlotheim being apparently a true Rotella. 

Anomphalus kotulus, M. & W. 
Shell small, depressed, sublenticular, narrowly rounded ou the periphery ; 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 269 

spire scarcely visible above the body whorl in a side view ; volutions three 
and a half to four, increasing moderately in breadth, last one sloping with a 
moderate convexity between the suture and the periphery, and slightly ex- 
cavated in the umbilical region ; suture not impressed ; aperture transversely 
suboval, being rounded on the outer side and straightened on the lower half of 
the inner side, but modified by the return of the body whorl above. Surface 
showing scarcely any traces of lines of growth, even under a good magnifier. 
(Type of the genus.) 

Breadth of a large specimen 019 inch ; height f>07 inch. 

Locality and position. Hodge's creek, Macoupen County, Illinois ; Lower 
Coal Measures. 

Genus Mickodoma, M. & W. 

Shell small, rather thick, conical, imperforate, composed of flattened whorls, 
the last one of which is more or less angular around the midille and little pro- 
duced below ; aperture about as high as wide ; outer lip simple, straight, and 
oblique in outline ; columella without folds or plications ; inner lip thin and 
slightly reflexed at the base of the columella. Surface with revolving nodu- 
lar ridges. 

We have for several years past had under consideration a number of good 
specimens of the little shell, for the reception of which this genus is proposed, 
but delayed publishing a description of it because we were iu doubt respect- 
ing its generic relations. At afiist glance it presents much the appearance of 
a Murchisonia, or a rather elongated Pleurotom tria ; but even where the outer 
lip is broken away, so that the sinus characteristic of these genera could not 
be seen if it had existed, an examination under a good lense shows 
that it has no revolving band, and that its lines of growth are without the 
peculiar curve in passing across the whorls, so invariably accompanying the 
sinus in the lip of Murchisonia and other shells of that type. It also resembles 
some of the small, short species of Turritella, but in addition to its shorter, 
trochiform outline, its outer lip presents an obliquity and straightness of out- 
line that imparts a peculiar appearance to the aperture, not seen in that genus. 
From our genus Orthonema, with which it is associated in the rocks, it differs, 
not only in its shorter trochiform outline and nodular revolving ridges, but 
also in its very oblique lines of growth and the consequent obliquity of its 
outer lip. 

It is not easy to determine the family affinities of this type, but it may pos- 
sibly belong to the Littorinidce. It is probable that Pleuratomaria serrilimba 
and P. biseriata, of Phillips, referred by Prof, de Koninck to the genus Troc/ius, 
may belong to this genus. We doubt the existence of the genus Trockus, 
as properly restricted to such types as the recent T. niloticus, Linnaeus, during 
the Carboniferous epoch. 

MlCRODOMA CONICA, M. & W. 

Shell rather elongate conical or subtrochiform ; volutions seven, flattened 
on a line with the slope of the spire, increasing rather gradually in size last 
one not much produced below the mesial angle, where it is only marked by 
minute striae of growth ; suture rather deep ; aperture quadrato-suborbicular. 
Surface ornamented by three distinct, revolving, nodular ridges, the largest 
and lowest of which occupies the mesial angle of the body whorl, and passes 
around immediately above the suture of the whorls of the spire, while the 
upper one occupies the tipper margin of all the whorls just below the suture, 
and the third one passes around midway between the others. Lines of growth 
small and crossing the flattened slopiug sides of each whorl obliquely, so as 
to indicate a distinct forward extension of the outer lip at its connection with the 
body whorl above. Nodes of the revolving angles small, closely and regularly 
arranged on the different ridges, so as to form oblique rows parallel to the 
lines of growth. 

Length, 0-21 inch ; breadth, 0-12 inch ; apical angle, 36. 

1866.] 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

This species seems to be much like Pleuratomaria serrilimba, of Phillips, 
judging from his figure, (Geol. Yorks. 11, pi. xv. fig. 30) ; but it is utterly im- 
possible to make satisfactory comparisons with species so briefly described aud 
poorly figured, without having access to authentic specimens. 

Locality and position. Macoupen County, 111. Lower Coal Measures. 

Orthonema conica, II. & W. 

Shell elongate conical, thin. Volutions (in adult shells) about nine, flattened 
nearly on a line with the slope of the spire, or but slightly convex ; lower 
ones sometimes a little projecting at their lower margins immediately above 
the suture ; last one distinctly angular around the middle, and but modera'ely 
produced below the angle, where it is a little convex. Umbilical region not 
indented. Suture generally well defined between the lower whorls, aud merely 
linear above. Aperture rhombic subquadrate. Surface showing, under a 
magnifier, small, very slightly oblique lines of growth, which are sometimes 
crossed on the middle of the flattened outer slope of the body whorl, by very 
faint traces of two revolving ridges, and below the angle, on the under side. 
by traces of another revolving ridge. 

Length, 0-70 inch ; breadth, 0-30 inch ; apical angle a little convex on its 
slopes, divergence about 30. 

This species will be readily distinguished from our O. Salteri, from the 
same locality and position, by its larger size, smaller number of whorls, 
greater apical angle, and particularly by never having the two linear revolv- 
ing ridges just below the suture, so characteristic of that species. As men- 
tioned in the description, it sometimes, though rarely, shows traces of two 
very obscure revolving ridges on the flattened part of the body whorl, but 
these are midway between its principal angle and the suture, while those on 
O. Salteri are always very distinct, and placed just below the suture. The 
principal angle on the body whorl of O. Salteri is also much more distinct, 
being a true carina. 

From the several species of Pohjphemopsis of our coal-measures, such as our 
P. inornata, P. peraci/ta, &c, which it somewhat resembles, this species will 
be distinguished by its angular body whorl ; and particularly by not having 
this whorl produced below, and its columella curved outwards and trunca- 
ted, so as to produce the peculiar effuse character of the base of the aperture 
seen in that genus. 

Locality and position. Hodge's Creek, Macoupen County. 111. Lower Coal 
Measures. 

TROCHITA ? CARBONARIA, M. &. "W. 

Shell small, depressed trochiform, or broadly conical, about twice as wide 
as high, circular in outline as seen from above ; periphery alate and very 
sharp, not serrate or crenate ; apex central, mammillated ; volutions about 
five, flattened or a little concave in the middle ; suture merely represented by 
a nearly obsolete line scarcely visible without the aid of a magnifier ; aper- 
ture unknown ; umbilicus small, infundibuliform. Surface smooth on the 
upper whorls, but showing moderately distinct, extremely oblique lines of 
growth on the last turn. 

Breadth, 035 inch ; height, 0-17 inch ; apical angle about 105. 

This little shell resembles quite nearly Trochella prisca, of McCoy, from the 
Carboniferous limestone of Ireland ; from which it differs in its much smaller 
size, and moderately distinct lines of growth. So far as we know, it is the 
first shell of this type ever found in our American Palaeozoic rocks. Its alate 
margin seems to project as a sharp rim around the periphery, and the general 
aspect of the shell is very like that of the genus J'horus, though we have been 
unable to see any indications of foreign bodies being attached to the margin. 
We are not sure, however, but we would be nearer right in calling it Phorus 
carbonarius, or Onustus carbonarius. 

[July, 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 271 

Locality and position. St. Genevieve Co., Missouri; Chester division of the 
Siibcarboniferojis series. 

Platyschisma hemcoides, Sowerby? (sp.) 

The specimens before us agree so exactly with the figures and descriptions 
of Sowerby's Ampullaria (Globulus) helicoides, from the English Mountain lime- 
stone, that we are completely at a loss to find any characters by which it can 
be distinguished. The largest of them are somewhat smaller than the aver- 
age size of English specimens, and none of them are so depressed as the form 
for which Phillips proposed the name Natica elongata ; their outline being 
more nearly like Sowerby's fig. 2, pi. 522, Min. Con. On comparison with 
specimens of the Belgian form from Tournay (usually referred to Sowerby's 
species), which they never equal in size, and which seem to us probably dis- 
tinct from the English species, they are found to differ in having the whorls 
less rounded above, and the revolving strife within the small umbilicus coarser. 
The surface is quite smooth, the apex rather obtuse, and some of the speci- 
mens show indications of the faint sinus in the outer lip, which has caused the 
European specimens to be sometimes referred to the genus Pleurotomaria. 
There are no traces of a spiral band, however, and some individuals seem to 
have had no notch or sinus in the lip. 

Locality and position. Chester limestone, of the Subcarboniferous series, St. 
Genevieve Co , Missouri ; where it is quite abundant, aud occurs with a Nau- 
tilus (Trematodiscus) we cannot distinguish from iV". sulcatus, Sowerby. 

Pleurotomaria conoides, M. & W. 

Shell small, regularly conoid-trochiform. longer than wide, the breadth be- 
ing to the length about as five to six. Volutions five or six, increasing regu- 
larly and rather gradually in size, all obliquely flattened nearly parallel 
to the slope of the spire, though the lower margin of each projects at i lie 
suture slightly beyond the upper edge of the succeeding one below ; last one 
angular around the periphery at the base, and flattened on the under side at 
less than a right angle to the oblique slope above, but rounding abruptly into 
the minute umbilical perforation within. Aperture rhombic quadrangular, 
with nearly equal length and breadth ; inner lip straight and parallel to the 
axis of the shell below, but curving out abruptly at its base. Surface orna- 
mented with small, regular, oblique, arching s f ria3 on the upper sloping sides 
of the whorls, and minute sigmoid lines, crossed near the periphery by faint 
traces of a few revolving stria?, on the under side of the body whorl. Spiral 
band narrow, located at, or slightly above the periphery of the body volution, 
and passing around its own breadth above the suture on the whorls of tbe 
spire ; margined above and below by a raised line. 

Length, 0-27 inch ; breadth, 0'23 inch ; apical angle regular, divergence 
about 50. 

This species belongs to the trochiform section of the genus, including Pleu- 
rotomaria obtusispira, and P. Riddellii, Shumard ; P. turbiniformw, M. & W., 
and P. Missouriensis, Swallow, (sp.) It differs from all these shells, however, 
in being much smaller, although composed of about the same number of 
whorls ; while it also differs from them all excepting the P. obtusispira in hav- 
ing no revolving striae on the upper side of its whorls, and from that species 
in having a more elevated spire, and rather coarse, instead of " extremely fine, 
stria? of growth " on the upper slope of its whorls. In form and general ap- 
pearance it resembles quite nearly Trochus coniformis, de Koninck (An. Foss. 
pi. xxxvii. fig. 4, a, b,)* but differs in wanting the spiral striae, and of course 
in the possession of a distinct, but narrow spiral band. 



*This snell resembles so closely in form, surface markings and general outliue, several of our 
American Carboniferous species of Pleurotomaria, that in case it had been described by a lees ex- 
perienced palaeontologist than I'rof. de Koninck, we should have suspected it to belong to that 
genusinstead of being a true Trochus. In one Pleurotomaria turbiniformis, for instance, and tbe 
beautiful species described by Prof. Swallow under the name Trochus Missouriensis, the spiral 
band is so very narrow and inconspicuous as to be easily overlooked, when the margin of the lip 
is broken away. 

1866.] 



272 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 

Locality and position. Hodge's Creek, Macoupen County, 111. Lower Coal 
Measures. 

Pleurotomaria Coxana, M. & W. 

Shell attaining a large size, obliquely conoid-subtrochiform, longer than 
wide; spire turreted, forming rather more than half the entire length. Vo- 
lutions six to seven, convex, very prominent or obtusely subangu